WorldWideScience

Sample records for unintended social consequences

  1. Social Movements And Social Media: Surveillance And Unintended Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    developed under Section 215 of the PATRIOT Act “disrupted more than 50 terrorist plots in the United States and abroad, including a plan to bomb the New...Enforcement Taps Social Media Monitoring Software,” Emergency Management, December 23, 2016, accessed 12 June, 2017, http://www.govtech.com/ em /safety...Management, December 23, 2016. Accessed 12 June, 2017. http://www.govtech.com/ em /safety/Local-Law-Enforcement-Taps-Social-Media- Monitoring

  2. The Unintended Consequences of Social Media in Healthcare: New Problems and New Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hors-Fraile, S; Atique, S; Mayer, M A; Denecke, K; Merolli, M; Househ, M

    2016-11-10

    Social media is increasingly being used in conjunction with health information technology (health IT). The objective of this paper is to identify some of the undesirable outcomes that arise from this integration and to suggest solutions to these problems. After a discussion with experts to elicit the topics that should be included in the survey, we performed a narrative review based on recent literature and interviewed multidisciplinary experts from different areas. In each case, we identified and analyzed the unintended effects of social media in health IT. Each analyzed topic provided a different set of unintended consequences. Most relevant consequences include lack of privacy with ethical and legal issues, patient confusion in disease management, poor information accuracy in crowdsourcing, unclear responsibilities, misleading and biased information in the prevention and detection of epidemics, and demotivation in gamified health solutions with social components. Using social media in healthcare offers several benefits, but it is not exempt of potential problems, and not all of these problems have clear solutions. We recommend careful design of digital systems in order to minimize patient's feelings of demotivation and frustration and we recommend following specific guidelines that should be created by all stakeholders in the healthcare ecosystem.

  3. Decisions and their unintended consequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mavrodiev, P.

    2014-07-01

    All individuals who live in groups, whether they be humans or animals, rely on collective decision-making to establish and sustain viable social organisations. While the benefits of effective collective decisions are widely recognised (e.g. functioning democracies), it is the unexpected collective effects of many individual decisions that deserve attention, as they bear far-reaching consequences for our social lives. Drawing from diverse contexts, this thesis presents examples of such unintended effects and, in the spirit of complex systems, offers a way by which we can understand these effects and, sometimes, use them to our advantage. In the first part, we focus on contemporary decision-making scenarios in human societies. How does social influence affect collective decisions and can we control its effects? How can we use social herding as a mechanism to promote cooperation without explicit enforcement? Under what conditions can user actions, innocuous at first sight, cause the collapse of an online community? Using formal tools and agent-based models, we study the interaction mechanisms underlying the complexity inherent in these questions. In the second part, we shift our focus to the mitigation of unintended negative consequences. We study two colonies of Bechtein bats, whose survival is predicated on solving a coordination problem under limited information. We follow up on existing field work and apply concepts from network theory to reveal the individual contribution in maintaining the needed group cohesion. Finally, we combine agent-based modelling and network analysis to infer simple interaction rules that reproduce the observed collective coordination. We emphasise that these mechanistic rules can serve as a guide for the design of future experimental studies on collective-decision making in Bechstein bats. (author)

  4. Decisions and their unintended consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mavrodiev, P.

    2014-01-01

    All individuals who live in groups, whether they be humans or animals, rely on collective decision-making to establish and sustain viable social organisations. While the benefits of effective collective decisions are widely recognised (e.g. functioning democracies), it is the unexpected collective effects of many individual decisions that deserve attention, as they bear far-reaching consequences for our social lives. Drawing from diverse contexts, this thesis presents examples of such unintended effects and, in the spirit of complex systems, offers a way by which we can understand these effects and, sometimes, use them to our advantage. In the first part, we focus on contemporary decision-making scenarios in human societies. How does social influence affect collective decisions and can we control its effects? How can we use social herding as a mechanism to promote cooperation without explicit enforcement? Under what conditions can user actions, innocuous at first sight, cause the collapse of an online community? Using formal tools and agent-based models, we study the interaction mechanisms underlying the complexity inherent in these questions. In the second part, we shift our focus to the mitigation of unintended negative consequences. We study two colonies of Bechtein bats, whose survival is predicated on solving a coordination problem under limited information. We follow up on existing field work and apply concepts from network theory to reveal the individual contribution in maintaining the needed group cohesion. Finally, we combine agent-based modelling and network analysis to infer simple interaction rules that reproduce the observed collective coordination. We emphasise that these mechanistic rules can serve as a guide for the design of future experimental studies on collective-decision making in Bechstein bats. (author)

  5. Robots and people with dementia: Unintended consequences and moral hazard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brolcháin, Fiachra

    2017-01-01

    The use of social robots in elder care is entering the mainstream as robots become more sophisticated and populations age. While there are many potential benefits to the use of social robots in care for the older people, there are ethical challenges as well. This article focuses on the societal consequences of the adoption of social robots in care for people with dementia. Making extensive use of Alasdair MacIntyre's Dependent Rational Animals to discuss issues of unintended consequences and moral hazard, we contend that in choosing to avoid the vulnerability and dependency of human existence, a society blinds itself from the animal reality of humankind. The consequence of this is that a flourishing society, in which each individual is helped to develop the virtues essential to her flourishing, becomes harder to achieve.

  6. Anticipating the unintended consequences of security dynamics.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backus, George A.; Overfelt, James Robert; Malczynski, Leonard A.; Saltiel, David H.; Simon Paul Moulton

    2010-01-01

    In a globalized world, dramatic changes within any one nation causes ripple or even tsunamic effects within neighbor nations and nations geographically far removed. Multinational interventions to prevent or mitigate detrimental changes can easily cause secondary unintended consequences more detrimental and enduring than the feared change instigating the intervention. This LDRD research developed the foundations for a flexible geopolitical and socioeconomic simulation capability that focuses on the dynamic national security implications of natural and man-made trauma for a nation-state and the states linked to it through trade or treaty. The model developed contains a database for simulating all 229 recognized nation-states and sovereignties with the detail of 30 economic sectors including consumers and natural resources. The model explicitly simulates the interactions among the countries and their governments. Decisions among governments and populations is based on expectation formation. In the simulation model, failed expectations are used as a key metric for tension across states, among ethnic groups, and between population factions. This document provides the foundational documentation for the model.

  7. Intended and unintended consequences of mandatory IFRS adoption

    OpenAIRE

    Brüggemann, Ulf; Hitz, Jörg-Markus; Sellhorn, Thorsten

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses empirical evidence on the economic consequences of mandatory adoption of International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) in the European Union (EU) and provides suggestions on how future research can add to our understanding of these effects. Based on the explicitly stated objectives of the EU‟s so-called „IAS Regulation‟, we distinguish between intended and unintended consequences of mandatory IFRS adoption. Empirical research on the intended consequences generally fa...

  8. People, planet and profit: Unintended consequences of legacy building materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer, Anthony T; Ha, HakSoo

    2017-12-15

    Although an explosion of new building materials are being introduced into today's market, adequate up-front research into their chemical and physical properties as well as their potential health and environmental consequences is lacking. History has provided us with several examples where building materials were broadly deployed into society only to find that health and environmental problems resulted in unintended sustainability consequences. In the following paper, we use lead and asbestos as legacy building materials to show their similar historical trends and sustainability consequences. Our research findings show unintended consequences such as: increased remediation and litigation costs; adverse health effects; offshoring of related industries; and impediments to urban revitalization. As numerous new building materials enter today's market, another building material may have already been deployed, representing the next "asbestos." This paper also proposes an alternative methodology that can be applied in a cost-effective way into existing and upcoming building materials, to minimize and prevent potential unintended consequences and create a pathway for sustainable communities. For instance, our findings show that this proposed methodology could have prevented the unintended incurred sustainability costs of approximately $272-$359 billion by investing roughly $24 million in constant 2014 U.S. dollars on up-front research into lead and asbestos. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. AACSB Accreditation and Possible Unintended Consequences: A Deming View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanovich, Paul; Mueller, James; Benson, Dan

    2014-01-01

    The AACSB accreditation process reflects basic quality principles, providing standards and a process for feedback for continuous improvement. However, implementation can lead to unintended negative consequences. The literature shows that while institutionalism and critical theory have been used as a theoretical base for evaluating accreditation,…

  10. Unintended Consequences of Wearable Sensor Use in Healthcare

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaldin, D.; Wang, K.; Schreier, G.; Lovell, N. H.; Marschollek, M.; Redmond, S. J.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Objectives As wearable sensors take the consumer market by storm, and medical device manufacturers move to make their devices wireless and appropriate for ambulatory use, this revolution brings with it some unintended consequences, which we aim to discuss in this paper. Methods We discuss some important unintended consequences, both beneficial and unwanted, which relate to: modifications of behavior; creation and use of big data sets; new security vulnerabilities; and unforeseen challenges faced by regulatory authorities, struggling to keep pace with recent innovations. Where possible, we proposed potential solutions to unwanted consequences. Results Intelligent and inclusive design processes may mitigate unintended modifications in behavior. For big data, legislating access to and use of these data will be a legal and political challenge in the years ahead, as we trade the health benefits of wearable sensors against the risk to our privacy. The wireless and personal nature of wearable sensors also exposes them to a number of unique security vulnerabilities. Regulation plays an important role in managing these security risks, but also has the dual responsibility of ensuring that wearable devices are fit for purpose. However, the burden of validating the function and security of medical devices is becoming infeasible for regulators, given the many software apps and wearable sensors entering the market each year, which are only a subset of an even larger ‘internet of things’. Conclusion Wearable sensors may serve to improve wellbeing, but we must be vigilant against the occurrence of unintended consequences. With collaboration between device manufacturers, regulators, and end-users, we balance the risk of unintended consequences occurring against the incredible benefit that wearable sensors promise to bring to the world. PMID:27830234

  11. Unintended consequences of machine learning in medicine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Laura; Ramagopalan, Sreeram V; Cox, Andrew P; Oguz, Mustafa

    2017-01-01

    Machine learning (ML) has the potential to significantly aid medical practice. However, a recent article highlighted some negative consequences that may arise from using ML decision support in medicine. We argue here that whilst the concerns raised by the authors may be appropriate, they are not specific to ML, and thus the article may lead to an adverse perception about this technique in particular. Whilst ML is not without its limitations like any methodology, a balanced view is needed in order to not hamper its use in potentially enabling better patient care.

  12. Malaysia's Education Policies and the Law of Unintended Consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kee-Cheok Cheong

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Since gaining independence in 1957, the Federation of Malaya and now Malaysia has implemented education policies to broaden access, to unify an ethnically diverse population through a common curriculum and language, to enable the disadvantaged to catch up through affirmative action, and to build human capital as the country seeks to become an advanced country in the face of globalization. While some policies, such as enhancing access have achieved their objectives, others, such as unification and development of a national identity, have not. No less important are the unintended consequences of these policies. While some, like the expansion of private higher education and transnational higher education, have been a boon to Malaysian education, others, such as ethnic polarization in education, have been damaging. Some of these consequences, while unintended, have not been unexpected.

  13. Unintended Consequences of Products Liability: Evidence from the Pharmaceutical Market

    OpenAIRE

    Eric Helland; Darius N. Lakdawalla; Anup Malani; Seth A. Seabury

    2014-01-01

    In a complex economy, production is vertical and crosses jurisdictional lines. Goods are often produced by an upstream national or global firm and improved or distributed by local firms downstream. In this context, heightened products liability may have unintended consequences on product sales and consumer safety. Conventional wisdom holds that an increase in tort liability on the upstream firm will cause that firm to (weakly) increase investment in safety or disclosure. However, this may fai...

  14. Menu labeling: the unintended consequences to the consumer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Ellen A

    2014-01-01

    The Affordable Care Act requires certain restaurants to provide nutritional information on their menus and menu boards, which is referred to as menu labeling. Menu labeling presupposes that providing consumers with the nutritional information about their food will cause them to reconsider their food choices by picking healthier food options over less healthy options, thereby reducing the nation's high obesity rate. However, several studies have shown that consumers do not make healthier food choices even when armed with menu labeling. The issue then becomes whether menu labeling provides a correlative benefit to consumers or whether there are unintended consequences that ultimately harm consumers.

  15. Unintended outcomes evaluation approach: A plausible way to evaluate unintended outcomes of social development programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabeen, Sumera

    2018-06-01

    Social development programmes are deliberate attempts to bring about change and unintended outcomes can be considered as inherent to any such intervention. There is now a solid consensus among the international evaluation community regarding the need to consider unintended outcomes as a key aspect in any evaluative study. However, this concern often equates to nothing more than false piety. Exiting evaluation theory suffers from overlap of terminology, inadequate categorisation of unintended outcomes and lack of guidance on how to study them. To advance the knowledge of evaluation theory, methods and practice, the author has developed an evaluation approach to study unintended effects using a theory building, testing and refinement process. A comprehensive classification of unintended outcomes on the basis of knowability, value, distribution and temporality helped specify various type of unintended outcomes for programme evaluation. Corresponding to this classification, a three-step evaluation process was proposed including a) outlining programme intentions b) forecasting likely unintended effects c) mapping the anticipated and understanding unanticipated unintended outcomes. This unintended outcomes evaluation approach (UOEA) was then trialled by undertaking a multi-site and multi-method case study of a poverty alleviation programme in Pakistan and refinements were made to the approach.The case study revealed that this programme was producing a number of unintended effects, mostly negative, affecting those already disadvantaged such as the poorest, women and children. The trialling process demonstrated the effectiveness of the UOEA and suggests that this can serve as a useful guide for future evaluation practice. It also provides the discipline of evaluation with an empirically-based reference point for further theoretical developments in the study of unintended outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Intended and unintended consequences of China's zero markup drug policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Hongmei; Miller, Grant; Zhang, Linxiu; Li, Shaoping; Rozelle, Scott

    2015-08-01

    Since economic liberalization in the late 1970s, China's health care providers have grown heavily reliant on revenue from drugs, which they both prescribe and sell. To curb abuse and to promote the availability, safety, and appropriate use of essential drugs, China introduced its national essential drug list in 2009 and implemented a zero markup policy designed to decouple provider compensation from drug prescription and sales. We collected and analyzed representative data from China's township health centers and their catchment-area populations both before and after the reform. We found large reductions in drug revenue, as intended by policy makers. However, we also found a doubling of inpatient care that appeared to be driven by supply, instead of demand. Thus, the reform had an important unintended consequence: China's health care providers have sought new, potentially inappropriate, forms of revenue. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  17. Unintended consequences of atmospheric injection of sulphate aerosols.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brady, Patrick Vane; Kobos, Peter Holmes; Goldstein, Barry

    2010-10-01

    Most climate scientists believe that climate geoengineering is best considered as a potential complement to the mitigation of CO{sub 2} emissions, rather than as an alternative to it. Strong mitigation could achieve the equivalent of up to -4Wm{sup -2} radiative forcing on the century timescale, relative to a worst case scenario for rising CO{sub 2}. However, to tackle the remaining 3Wm{sup -2}, which are likely even in a best case scenario of strongly mitigated CO{sub 2} releases, a number of geoengineering options show promise. Injecting stratospheric aerosols is one of the least expensive and, potentially, most effective approaches and for that reason an examination of the possible unintended consequences of the implementation of atmospheric injections of sulphate aerosols was made. Chief among these are: reductions in rainfall, slowing of atmospheric ozone rebound, and differential changes in weather patterns. At the same time, there will be an increase in plant productivity. Lastly, because atmospheric sulphate injection would not mitigate ocean acidification, another side effect of fossil fuel burning, it would provide only a partial solution. Future research should aim at ameliorating the possible negative unintended consequences of atmospheric injections of sulphate injection. This might include modeling the optimum rate and particle type and size of aerosol injection, as well as the latitudinal, longitudinal and altitude of injection sites, to balance radiative forcing to decrease negative regional impacts. Similarly, future research might include modeling the optimum rate of decrease and location of injection sites to be closed to reduce or slow rapid warming upon aerosol injection cessation. A fruitful area for future research might be system modeling to enhance the possible positive increases in agricultural productivity. All such modeling must be supported by data collection and laboratory and field testing to enable iterative modeling to increase the

  18. Digital Disturbances, Disorders, and Pathologies: A Discussion of Some Unintended Consequences of Technology in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haughton, Noela A.; Yeh, Kuo-Chuan; Nworie, John; Romero, Liz

    2013-01-01

    As with any innovation, the adoption and diffusion of digital technologies in higher education have also brought unintended consequences. This article discusses the unintended misuse of these technologies in the higher education setting. Depending upon severity, these consequences discussed--distraction, addiction, academic dishonesty, and…

  19. Unintended consequences of incentive provision for behaviour change and maintenance around childbirth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Gill; Morgan, Heather; Crossland, Nicola; Bauld, Linda; Dykes, Fiona; Hoddinott, Pat; Dombrowski, Stephan; MacLennan, Graeme; Rothnie, Kieran; Stewart, Fiona; Farrar, Shelley; Yi, Deokhee; Hislop, Jenni; Ludbrook, Anne; Campbell, Marion; Moran, Victoria Hall; Sniehotta, Falko; Tappin, David

    2014-01-01

    Financial (positive or negative) and non-financial incentives or rewards are increasingly used in attempts to influence health behaviours. While unintended consequences of incentive provision are discussed in the literature, evidence syntheses did not identify any primary research with the aim of investigating unintended consequences of incentive interventions for lifestyle behaviour change. Our objective was to investigate perceived positive and negative unintended consequences of incentive provision for a shortlist of seven promising incentive strategies for smoking cessation in pregnancy and breastfeeding. A multi-disciplinary, mixed-methods approach included involving two service-user mother and baby groups from disadvantaged areas with experience of the target behaviours as study co-investigators. Systematic reviews informed the shortlist of incentive strategies. Qualitative semi-structured interviews and a web-based survey of health professionals asked open questions on positive and negative consequences of incentives. The participants from three UK regions were a diverse sample with and without direct experience of incentive interventions: 88 pregnant women/recent mothers/partners/family members; 53 service providers; 24 experts/decision makers and interactive discussions with 63 conference attendees. Maternity and early years health professionals (n = 497) including doctors, midwives, health visitors, public health and related staff participated in the survey. Qualitative analysis identified ethical, political, cultural, social and psychological implications of incentive delivery at population and individual levels. Four key themes emerged: how incentives can address or create inequalities; enhance or diminish intrinsic motivation and wellbeing; have a positive or negative effect on relationships with others within personal networks or health providers; and can impact on health systems and resources by raising awareness and directing service delivery

  20. Unintended consequences of incentive provision for behaviour change and maintenance around childbirth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gill Thomson

    Full Text Available Financial (positive or negative and non-financial incentives or rewards are increasingly used in attempts to influence health behaviours. While unintended consequences of incentive provision are discussed in the literature, evidence syntheses did not identify any primary research with the aim of investigating unintended consequences of incentive interventions for lifestyle behaviour change. Our objective was to investigate perceived positive and negative unintended consequences of incentive provision for a shortlist of seven promising incentive strategies for smoking cessation in pregnancy and breastfeeding. A multi-disciplinary, mixed-methods approach included involving two service-user mother and baby groups from disadvantaged areas with experience of the target behaviours as study co-investigators. Systematic reviews informed the shortlist of incentive strategies. Qualitative semi-structured interviews and a web-based survey of health professionals asked open questions on positive and negative consequences of incentives. The participants from three UK regions were a diverse sample with and without direct experience of incentive interventions: 88 pregnant women/recent mothers/partners/family members; 53 service providers; 24 experts/decision makers and interactive discussions with 63 conference attendees. Maternity and early years health professionals (n = 497 including doctors, midwives, health visitors, public health and related staff participated in the survey. Qualitative analysis identified ethical, political, cultural, social and psychological implications of incentive delivery at population and individual levels. Four key themes emerged: how incentives can address or create inequalities; enhance or diminish intrinsic motivation and wellbeing; have a positive or negative effect on relationships with others within personal networks or health providers; and can impact on health systems and resources by raising awareness and directing

  1. Reports of unintended consequences of financial incentives to improve management of hypertension.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia J Hysong

    Full Text Available Given the increase in financial-incentive programs nationwide, many physicians and physician groups are concerned about potential unintended consequences of providing financial incentives to improve quality of care. However, few studies examine whether actual unintended consequences result from providing financial incentives to physicians. We sought to document the extent to which the unintended consequences discussed in the literature were observable in a randomized clinical trial (RCT of financial incentives.We conducted a qualitative observational study nested within a larger RCT of financial incentives to improve hypertension care. We conducted 30-minute telephone interviews with primary care personnel at facilities participating in the RCT housed at12 geographically dispersed Veterans Affairs Medical Centers nationwide. Participants answered questions about unintended effects, clinic team dynamics, organizational impact on care delivery, study participation. We employed a blend of inductive and deductive qualitative techniques for analysis.Sixty-five participants were recruited from RCT enrollees and personnel not enrolled in the larger RCT, plus one primary care leader per site.Emergent themes included possible patient harm, emphasis on documentation over improving care, reduced professional morale, and positive spillover. All discussions of unintended consequences involving patient harm were only concerns, not actual events. Several unintended consequences concerned ancillary initiatives for quality improvement (e.g., practice guidelines and performance measurement systems rather than financial incentives.Many unintended consequences of financial incentives noted were either only concerns or attributable to ancillary quality-improvement initiatives. Actual unintended consequences included improved documentation of care without necessarily improving actual care, and positive unintended consequences.Clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT

  2. Unintended consequences of changing accounting standards: the case of fair value accounting and mandatory dividends

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goncharov, I.; van Triest, S.

    2014-01-01

    A growing body of literature investigates the interaction of changes in accounting standards with institutions such as investor protection laws and corporate governance mechanisms. We examine the unintended consequences of fair value accounting in determining mandated preferred dividends. We study

  3. Neonatal Nurses Experience Unintended Consequences and Risks to Patient Safety With Electronic Health Records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudding, Katherine M; Gephart, Sheila M; Carrington, Jane M

    2018-04-01

    In this article, we examine the unintended consequences of nurses' use of electronic health records. We define these as unforeseen events, change in workflow, or an unanticipated result of implementation and use of electronic health records. Unintended consequences experienced by nurses while using electronic health records have been well researched. However, few studies have focused on neonatal nurses, and it is unclear to what extent unintended consequences threaten patient safety. A new instrument called the Carrington-Gephart Unintended Consequences of Electronic Health Record Questionnaire has been validated, and secondary analysis using the tool explored the phenomena among neonatal nurses (N = 40). The purposes of this study were to describe unintended consequences of use of electronic health records for neonatal nurses and to explore relationships between the phenomena and characteristics of the nurse and the electronic health record. The most frequent unintended consequences of electronic health record use were due to interruptions, followed by a heavier workload due to the electronic health record, changes to the workflow, and altered communication patterns. Neonatal nurses used workarounds most often with motivation to better assist patients. Teamwork was moderately related to higher unintended consequences including patient safety risks (r = 0.427, P = .007), system design (r = 0.419, P = .009), and technology barriers (r = 0.431, P = .007). Communication about patients was reduced when patient safety risks were high (r = -0.437, P = .003). By determining the frequency with which neonatal nurses experience unintended consequences of electronic health record use, future research can be targeted to improve electronic health record design through customization, integration, and refinement to support patient safety and better outcomes.

  4. A Survey of the Literature on Unintended Consequences Associated with Health Information Technology: 2014–2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, J.; Novak, L. L.; Reynolds, T. L.; Gettinger, A.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Objective To summarize recent research on unintended consequences associated with implementation and use of health information technology (health IT). Included in the review are original empirical investigations published in English between 2014 and 2015 that reported unintended effects introduced by adoption of digital interventions. Our analysis focuses on the trends of this steam of research, areas in which unintended consequences have continued to be reported, and common themes that emerge from the findings of these studies. Method Most of the papers reviewed were retrieved by searching three literature databases: MEDLINE, Embase, and CINAHL. Two rounds of searches were performed: the first round used more restrictive search terms specific to unintended consequences; the second round lifted the restrictions to include more generic health IT evaluation studies. Each paper was independently screened by at least two authors; differences were resolved through consensus development. Results The literature search identified 1,538 papers that were potentially relevant; 34 were deemed meeting our inclusion criteria after screening. Studies described in these 34 papers took place in a wide variety of care areas from emergency departments to ophthalmology clinics. Some papers reflected several previously unreported unintended consequences, such as staff attrition and patients’ withholding of information due to privacy and security concerns. A majority of these studies (71%) were quantitative investigations based on analysis of objectively recorded data. Several of them employed longitudinal or time series designs to distinguish between unintended consequences that had only transient impact, versus those that had persisting impact. Most of these unintended consequences resulted in adverse outcomes, even though instances of beneficial impact were also noted. While care areas covered were heterogeneous, over half of the studies were conducted at academic medical

  5. Unintended consequences of human research ethics committees: au revoir workplace studies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamber, Greg J; Sappey, Jennifer

    2007-07-01

    To protect the welfare and rights of participants in research and to facilitate research that will be of benefit, as well as protect them against litigation, universities and research-funding agencies in Australia adopted the National Statement on Ethical Conduct in Research Involving Humans (NHMRC 1999). In many other countries there are similar statements. However, the ways in which such statements are often implemented by Human Research Ethics Committees (HRECs) are in conflict with an important stream of industrial sociological research. This stream seeks to deconstruct workplaces and de-layer management rhetoric to understand the realities and complexities of the social relations of production. There is a pluralist basis for much industrial sociology that challenges the unitarist view of the workplace as essentially harmonious. While views of workplaces as being conflictual and exploitative have to be tempered with an understanding of the accommodative and cooperative nature of workplace relations, there is nevertheless a general recognition of acts of resistance, as well as those of cooperation. The way in which the National Statement is typically implemented in Australia means that many HRECs require written, informed consent, which in the first instance will usually be that of management. An unintended consequence is a research focus on consensus, which is at best one-sided and at worst seriously misleading. It is unlikely that managerial consent will be granted unless there is a 'good news story' guaranteed. This article explores the ways in which HRECs may influence workplace research. The publication of the revised National Statement provides a valuable opportunity not to be missed by HRECs to implement more effective and efficient practices which would not have the unintended consequences of the earlier version. This would deserve the support of researchers in industrial sociology and other branches of the social sciences.

  6. Improving Evaluation to Address the Unintended Consequences of Health Information Technology:

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammenwerth, E.; Hyppönen, H.; de Keizer, N.; Nykänen, P.; Rigby, M.; Scott, P.; Talmon, J.; Georgiou, A.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background and objectives With growing use of IT by healthcare professionals and patients, the opportunity for any unintended effects of technology to disrupt care health processes and outcomes is intensified. The objectives of this position paper by the IMIA Working Group (WG) on Technology Assessment and Quality Development are to highlight how our ongoing initiatives to enhance evaluation are also addressing the unintended consequences of health IT. Methods Review of WG initiatives Results We argue that an evidence-based approach underpinned by rigorous evaluation is fundamental to the safe and effective use of IT, and for detecting and addressing its unintended consequences in a timely manner. We provide an overview of our ongoing initiatives to strengthen study design, execution and reporting by using evaluation frameworks and guidelines which can enable better characterization and monitoring of unintended consequences, including the Good Evaluation Practice Guideline in Health Informatics (GEP-HI) and the Statement on Reporting of Evaluation Studies in Health Informatics (STARE-HI). Indicators to benchmark the adoption and impact of IT can similarly be used to monitor unintended effects on healthcare structures, processes and outcome. We have also developed EvalDB, a web-based database of evaluation studies to promulgate evidence about unintended effects and are developing the content for courses to improve training in health IT evaluation. Conclusion Evaluation is an essential ingredient for the effective use of IT to improve healthcare quality and patient safety. WG resources and skills development initiatives can facilitate a proactive and evidence-based approach to detecting and addressing the unintended effects of health IT. PMID:27830232

  7. People, Planet and Profit: Unintended Consequences of Legacy Building Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although an explosion of new building materials are being introduced into today's market, adequate up-front research into their chemical and physical properties as well as their potential health and environmental consequences is lacking. History has provided us with several exam...

  8. Unintended Cognitive, Affective, and Behavioral Consequences of Group Assignments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neu, Wayne A.

    2012-01-01

    Pedagogical strategies can be thought of as a set of stimuli placed in students' environment to influence their cognition, affect, and behavior. The design of strategies such as group assignments and a comprehensive understanding of their consequences for students should then include an analysis of all three of these elements and the…

  9. Economics: An Analysis of Unintended Consequences. Volume 1: Introduction to Microeconomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Robert E.

    This curriculum guide introduces high school students to the basic principles of microeconomics. Chapter 1 provides a basic definition of economics, while chapter 2 introduces a number of important economic concepts and ideas and examines reasons for unintended or unexpected consequences of decision-making. Chapter 3 considers how individual…

  10. The Policy Delphi: A Method for Identifying Intended and Unintended Consequences of Educational Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manley, R. Adam

    2013-01-01

    This article highlights a rarely utilized but effective technique for identifying intended and unintended consequences of past or current policy or policy change. The author guides the reader through the process of identifying potential participants, contacting participants, developing the policy Delphi instrument, and analyzing the findings by…

  11. The Unintended Consequences of Property Tax Relief: New York's STAR Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, Tae Ho; Duncombe, William; Nguyen-Hoang, Phuong; Yinger, John

    2014-01-01

    New York's School Tax Relief Program, STAR, provides state-funded property tax relief for homeowners. Like a matching grant, STAR changes the price of education, thereby altering the incentives of voters and school officials and leading to unintended consequences. Using data for New York State school districts before and after STAR was…

  12. Collateral benefits: Unintended consequences of the Roots of Empathy program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randy Fransoo

    2017-04-01

    These findings provide intriguing evidence suggesting beneficial impacts in several longer-term health and social outcomes that could feasibly be related to participation in the Roots of Empathy program. The multi-variable propensity scores and hard-matching algorithms used on this large group provide considerable confidence in attributing group differences to program participation. Results from the full sample will provide more conclusive results, and allow sub-group analyses. The linkage of databases from health, education, social service and justice systems provides a unique opportunity to examine the truly multi-dimensional long-term impacts of a program already proven to provide dramatic improvements in short and medium-term outcomes.

  13. The Role of the Military in Counterterrorism: Unintended Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    threatened with a political aim; it can involve a variety of acts, of targets, and of actors; it possesses an important psychological dimension...military and led to military rule in countries like Argentina, Brazil and Chile between the 1960s and the mid-1980s.25 Stanislaw Andreski also supports that...estates, gained money through providing transportation with the fleet of black taxis, and even provided sports and social centers. They established

  14. Unintended consequences of conservation actions: managing disease in complex ecosystems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliénor L M Chauvenet

    Full Text Available Infectious diseases are increasingly recognised to be a major threat to biodiversity. Disease management tools such as control of animal movements and vaccination can be used to mitigate the impact and spread of diseases in targeted species. They can reduce the risk of epidemics and in turn the risks of population decline and extinction. However, all species are embedded in communities and interactions between species can be complex, hence increasing the chance of survival of one species can have repercussions on the whole community structure. In this study, we use an example from the Serengeti ecosystem in Tanzania to explore how a vaccination campaign against Canine Distemper Virus (CDV targeted at conserving the African lion (Panthera leo, could affect the viability of a coexisting threatened species, the cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus. Assuming that CDV plays a role in lion regulation, our results suggest that a vaccination programme, if successful, risks destabilising the simple two-species system considered, as simulations show that vaccination interventions could almost double the probability of extinction of an isolated cheetah population over the next 60 years. This work uses a simple example to illustrate how predictive modelling can be a useful tool in examining the consequence of vaccination interventions on non-target species. It also highlights the importance of carefully considering linkages between human-intervention, species viability and community structure when planning species-based conservation actions.

  15. Unintended adverse consequences of introducing electronic health records in residential aged care homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ping; Zhang, Yiting; Gong, Yang; Zhang, Jiajie

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the unintended adverse consequences of introducing electronic health records (EHR) in residential aged care homes (RACHs) and to examine the causes of these unintended adverse consequences. A qualitative interview study was conducted in nine RACHs belonging to three organisations in the Australian Capital Territory (ACT), New South Wales (NSW) and Queensland, Australia. A longitudinal investigation after the implementation of the aged care EHR systems was conducted at two data points: January 2009 to December 2009 and December 2010 to February 2011. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 110 care staff members identified through convenience sampling, representing all levels of care staff who worked in these facilities. Data analysis was guided by DeLone and McLean Information Systems Success Model, in reference with the previous studies of unintended consequences for the introduction of computerised provider order entry systems in hospitals. Eight categories of unintended adverse consequences emerged from 266 data items mentioned by the interviewees. In descending order of the number and percentage of staff mentioning them, they are: inability/difficulty in data entry and information retrieval, end user resistance to using the system, increased complexity of information management, end user concerns about access, increased documentation burden, the reduction of communication, lack of space to place enough computers in the work place and increasing difficulties in delivering care services. The unintended consequences were caused by the initial conditions, the nature of the EHR system and the way the system was implemented and used by nursing staff members. Although the benefits of the EHR systems were obvious, as found by our previous study, introducing EHR systems in RACH can also cause adverse consequences of EHR avoidance, difficulty in access, increased complexity in information management, increased documentation

  16. Is population flow an unintended consequence of alcohol management plans?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usher, Kim; Woods, Cindy; Lynch, Paul; Pointing, Shane Boris; Budden, Lea; Barker, Ruth; Catchpoole, Jesani; Clough, Alan

    2017-03-01

    alcohol use and related consequences in Indigenous communities, there needs to be a greater consideration of the impact of these policies in nearby towns in the future. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Atoms for peace and the nonproliferation treaty: unintended consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streeper, Charles Blamires

    2009-01-01

    In April 2009, President Obama revived nonproliferation and arms control efforts with a speech calling for the worldwide abolition of nuclear weapons. His speech correctly acknowledged the threat of nuclear terrorism and the vulnerabilities of the related unsecure nuclear materials. Unfortunately, the president did not mention and has not mentioned in any speech the threat posed by at-risk radiological materials. Nonproliferation efforts have a well documented history of focus on special nuclear materials (fissionable weapons usable materials or SNM), and other key materials (chemical and biological) and technologies for a Weapon of Mass Destruction (WMD). Such intense focus on WMD related materials/technologies is essential for international safety and security and merit continued attention and funding. However, the perception that radioactive sealed sources (sources) are of less concern than WMD is unfortunate. These perceptions are based solely on the potentially enormous and tragic consequences associated with their deliberate or accidental misuse and proliferation concerns. However, there is a documented history of overemphasis on the nuclear threat at the expense of ignoring the far more likely and also devastating chemical and biological threats. The radiological threat should not be minimized or excluded from policy discussions and decisions on these far ranging scopes of threat to the international community. Sources have a long history of use; and a wider distribution worldwide than fissile materials. Pair this with their broad ranges in isotopes/activities along with scant national and international attention and mechanisms for their safe and secure management and it is not difficult to envision a deadly threat. Arguments that minimize or divert attention away from sources may have the effect of distracting necessary policy attention on preventing/mitigating a radiological dispersal event. The terrorist attacks on 9/11 should be a clear reminder of the

  18. What to consider when regulating electronic cigarettes: Pros, cons and unintended consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caponnetto, Pasquale; Saitta, Daniela; Sweanor, David; Polosa, Riccardo

    2015-06-01

    Many public health experts, medical research societies, large health organizations and policy makers have expressed concerns about the increased popularity of electronic cigarettes and have pushed for more restrictive measures ranging from complete bans to tight regulations of these products either as medicines or as tobacco products. But these concerns have never been adequately qualified nor quantified. Without judicious assessment and thorough evaluation, regulations may have unintended consequences that can do more damage than good in public health terms. In this article, we will appraise the existing prominent regulatory frameworks for e-cigarettes, namely, general consumer product, medicinal product and tobacco product regulation, to highlight their pros and cons. Moreover, we provide concrete examples of the unintended consequences which may arise from inappropriate regulatory action. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Reducing the unintended consequence of overfishing due to open access: Learning from the Zamboanga experience

    OpenAIRE

    Israel, Danilo C.; Lunod-Carinan, Milva; Paqueo, Vicente B.

    2016-01-01

    The Philippines is blessed with rich marine fishing grounds that are valuable sources of food and livelihood for the population. Unfortunately, over the years, these fishing grounds have become increasingly less productive, and many are in danger of depletion. At the heart of the problem is the generally open-access nature of Philippine fisheries, which leads to the unintended consequence of overfishing. This paper reviews the basic theory of overfishing; institutions, laws, and policies rela...

  20. U.S. Agricultural Export Credits after the WTO Cotton Ruling: The Law of Unintended Consequences

    OpenAIRE

    Benitah, Marc

    2005-01-01

    The recent WTO cotton ruling has led to a paradoxical result for the United States, a result that seems a textbook illustration of the "law of unintended consequences". Indeed, during the Uruguay Round negotiations of the present WTO agreements, the United States refused to put agricultural export credits in the category of agricultural export subsidies, where they would then have been subject only to reduction commitments. Paradoxically, the United States finds itself now in a position where...

  1. Transformations, transport, and potential unintended consequences of high sulfur inputs to Napa Valley vineyards

    OpenAIRE

    Hinckley, Eve-Lyn S.; Matson, Pamela A.

    2011-01-01

    Unintended anthropogenic deposition of sulfur (S) to forest ecosystems has a range of negative consequences, identified through decades of research. There has been far less study of purposeful S use in agricultural systems around the world, including the application of elemental sulfur (S0) as a quick-reacting fungicide to prevent damage to crops. Here we report results from a three-year study of the transformations and flows of applied S0 in soils, vegetation, and hydrologic export pathways ...

  2. Potential unintended consequences of smoke-free policies in public places on pregnant women in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Tingting; Lee, Anita H; Mao, Zhengzhong

    2009-08-01

    Smoke-free policies in public places have become more common in China. Little is known, however, about the potential unintended consequences of such policies on pregnant women. The study was conducted in 2006 in Chengdu, China. Nonsmoking pregnant women (N=55) whose husband were smokers participated in a study of their knowledge about secondhand smoke and smoke-free policies, their exposure to secondhand smoke, and their husbands' smoking status at home. This study presents descriptive statistics, analyses based on family income and pregnant women's education level, and the findings of focus group discussions that examined the potential unintended consequences of the smoke-free policies on pregnant women. Exposure to secondhand smoke at home was reported by 69.1% of the pregnant women. Both family income and the education level of the pregnant women had a significant (ppolicies were: (1) increased exposure of pregnant women to secondhand smoke at home; (2) reduced work efficiency; (3) adverse effect on family harmony; and (4) poor air quality at home. Education is needed to increase knowledge of secondhand smoke among smokers and nonsmokers alike. When the smoking location is shifted from public places and workplaces to home, women, and in particular pregnant women, become the victims. Policymakers should recognize such potential unintended consequences and take necessary measures to increase awareness about the harms of secondhand smoke.

  3. "A Baby Was an Added Burden": Predictors and Consequences of Unintended Pregnancies for Female Sex Workers in Mombasa, Kenya: A Mixed-Methods Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanley Luchters

    Full Text Available Female sex workers (FSW have high rates of unintended pregnancy, sexually transmitted infections including HIV, and other adverse sexual and reproductive health outcomes. Few services for FSWs include contraception. This mixed-methods study aimed to determine the rate, predictors and consequences of unintended pregnancy among FSWs in Mombasa, Kenya.A prospective cohort study of non-pregnant FSWs was conducted. Quantitative data were collected quarterly, including a structured questionnaire and testing for pregnancy and HIV. Predictors of unintended pregnancy were investigated using multivariate logistic regression. Qualitative data were gathered through focus group discussions and in-depth interviews with FSWs who became pregnant during the study, and interviews with five key informants. These data were transcribed, translated and analysed thematically.Four hundred women were enrolled, with 92% remaining in the cohort after one year. Fifty-seven percent reported using a modern contraceptive method (including condoms when used consistently. Over one-third (36% of women were using condoms inconsistently without another method. Twenty-four percent had an unintended pregnancy during the study. Younger age, having an emotional partner and using traditional or no contraception, or condoms only, were independent predictors of unintended pregnancy. Women attributed pregnancy to forgetting to use contraception and being pressured not to by clients and emotional partners, as well as "bad luck". They described numerous negative consequences of unintended pregnancy.Modern contraceptive uptake is surprisingly low in this at-risk population, which in turn has a high rate of unintended pregnancy. The latter may result in financial hardship, social stigma, risk of abandonment, or dangerous abortion practices. FSWs face considerable barriers to the adoption of dual method contraceptive use, including low levels of control in their emotional and commercial

  4. Wait time management strategies for total joint replacement surgery: sustainability and unintended consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomey, Marie-Pascale; Clavel, Nathalie; Amar, Claudia; Sabogale-Olarte, Juan Carlos; Sanmartin, Claudia; De Coster, Carolyn; Noseworthy, Tom

    2017-09-07

    In Canada, long waiting times for core specialized services have consistently been identified as a key barrier to access. Governments and organizations have responded with strategies for better access management, notably for total joint replacement (TJR) of the hip and knee. While wait time management strategies (WTMS) are promising, the factors which influence their sustainable implementation at the organizational level are understudied. Consequently, this study examined organizational and systemic factors that made it possible to sustain waiting times for TJR within federally established limits and for at least 18 months or more. The research design is a multiple case study of WTMS implementation. Five cases were selected across five Canadian provinces. Three success levels were pre-defined: 1) the WTMS maintained compliance with requirements for more than 18 months; 2) the WTMS met requirements for 18 months but could not sustain the level thereafter; 3) the WTMS never met requirements. For each case, we collected documents and interviewed key informants. We analyzed systemic and organizational factors, with particular attention to governance and leadership, culture, resources, methods, and tools. We found that successful organizations had specific characteristics: 1) management of the whole care continuum, 2) strong clinical leadership; 3) dedicated committees to coordinate and sustain strategy; 4) a culture based on trust and innovation. All strategies led to relatively similar unintended consequences. The main negative consequence was an initial increase in waiting times for TJR and the main positive consequence was operational enhancement of other areas of specialization based on the TJR model. This study highlights important differences in factors which help to achieve and sustain waiting times. To be sustainable, a WTMS needs to generate greater synergies between contextual-level strategy (provincial or regional) and organizational objectives and

  5. Pediatric Concerns Due to Expanded Cannabis Use: Unintended Consequences of Legalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, George Sam

    2017-03-01

    An "unintended consequence" of marijuana legalization is the impact on the pediatric population. From prenatal exposure to unintentional childhood exposures, through concerns of adolescence abuse and marijuana use for medicinal indications in children, marijuana exposure can affect pediatric patients at every stage in childhood. Regardless of the stage or reason of exposure, concerns exist about short-term and long-term consequences in a child's physical and mental health. The use of cannabidiol (CBD) may have some benefit for the treatment of epilepsy, but emphasis needs to be on rigorous clinical trials to evaluate efficacy and safety. As more states allow both medical and recreational marijuana, availability and prevalence of use will likely increase and more surveillance and research is needed to evaluate the consequences on the pediatric population.

  6. The ineffectiveness and unintended consequences of the public health war on obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos Salas, Ximena

    2015-02-03

    The public health war on obesity has had little impact on obesity prevalence and has resulted in unintended consequences. Its ineffectiveness has been attributed to: 1) heavy focus on individual-based approaches and lack of scaled-up socio-environmental policies and programs, 2) modest effects of interventions in reducing and preventing obesity at the population level, and 3) inappropriate focus on weight rather than health. An unintended consequence of these policies and programs is excessive weight preoccupation among the population, which can lead to stigma, body dissatisfaction, dieting, disordered eating, and even death from effects of extreme dieting, anorexia, and obesity surgery complications, or from suicide that results from weight-based bullying. Future public health approaches should: a) avoid simplistic obesity messages that focus solely on individuals' responsibility for weight and health, b) focus on health outcomes rather than weight control, and c) address the complexity of obesity and target both individual-level and system-level determinants of health.

  7. ["Unintended consequences of scientific discoveries" or: "Heterogeny of purposes" as phenomena of the history of science].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittkau-Horgby, A

    2001-01-01

    This paper deals with an old observation in respect to man's action--the problem of unintended consequences of human action. It presents the scientific approaches to this phenomenon in the 18th century and focusses then on the problem of unintended consequences of scientific discoveries. Using the prominent examples of Copernicus and Darwin the author shows that the actual outcomes and final effects of scientific discoveries must not necessarily be the originally intended ones. On the contrary, especially those results of scientific discoveries which have affected the sphere of world view (Weltanschauung) like the research works of Copernicus and Darwin were originally meant to be only scientific studies. The final results in respect to the world view were on Copernicus' side not even realized and on Darwin's side neither intended nor welcomed. The conclusion of this analysis is that due to the fact that both scientists did not have the intention to change the world view they can only partly be regarded to be responsible for the fundamental changes they finally caused.

  8. Pension fund regulation: Unintended consequences of foreign investment restrictions in an emerging market economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coert Frederik Erasmus

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Retirement savings allow investors to earn income after retirement by saving while being part of the workforce. Retirement savings comprise the largest portion of retirement savings and should be safeguarded by effective regulation. To safeguard retirement savings, exposure to foreign asset investments is limited. However, in an emerging economy, limiting foreign asset investments, especially investment in developed markets, could hamper the potential investment returns due to the translation risk. To assess the effect of translation risk, a preservation provident fund was used in the present study to determine whether the returns of this preservation provident fund would be adversely affected by investment allocation regulation. The findings indicated how the translation effect affected the preservation provident fund, illustrating the adverse unintended consequences of investment regulation in emerging market economies. Consequently, regulators should reconsider the maximum allowed foreign asset investment in pension fund regulations to enhance investment returns from foreign asset investments

  9. Unintended consequences of increasing block tariffs pricing policy in urban water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahan, Momi; Nisan, Udi

    2007-03-01

    We exploit a unique data set to estimate the degree of economies of scale in water consumption, controlling for the standard demand factors. We found a linear Engel curve in water consumption: each additional household member consumes the same water quantity regardless of household size, except for a single-person household. Our evidence suggests that the increasing block tariffs (IBT) structure, which is indifferent to household size, has unintended consequences. Large households, which are also likely to be poor given the negative correlation between income and household size, are charged a higher price for water. The degree of economies of scale found here erodes the effectiveness of IBT price structure as a way to introduce an equity consideration. This implication is important in view of the global trend toward the use of IBT.

  10. A Curse of Coal? Exploring Unintended Regional Consequences of Coal Energy in The Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frantál Bohumil

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Focusing on coal energy from a geographical perspective, the unintended regional consequences of coal mining and combustion in the Czech Republic are discussed and analysed in terms of the environmental injustice and resource curse theories. The explorative case study attempts to identify significant associations between the spatially uneven distribution of coal power plants and the environmental and socioeconomic characteristics and development trends of affected areas. The findings indicate that the coal industries have contributed to slightly above average incomes and pensions, and have provided households with some technical services such as district heating. However, these positive effects have come at high environmental and health costs paid by the local populations. Above average rates of unemployment, homelessness and crime indicate that the benefits have been unevenly distributed economically. A higher proportion of uneducated people and ethnic minorities in affected districts suggest that coal energy is environmentally unjust.

  11. Lessons learned from unintended consequences about erasing the stigma of mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrigan, Patrick W

    2016-02-01

    Advocates and scientists have partnered to develop and evaluate programs meant to erase the egregious effects of the different forms of stigma. Enough evidence has been collected to yield lessons about approaches to stigma change. Some of the most insightful of these lessons emerge from unintended consequences of good intentioned approaches, and are the focus of this paper. They include the limited benefits of education especially when compared to contact, beating stigma is more than changing words, beware pity as a message, understand the competing agendas of stigma change, replace ideas of normalcy with solidarity, and avoid framing self-stigma as the problem of people with mental illness and not of society. The paper ends with consideration of the back seat role that psychiatrists and other mental health providers should have in stigma change. © 2015 World Psychiatric Association.

  12. Union women, the tobacco industry, and excise taxes: a lesson in unintended consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balbach, Edith D; Campbell, Richard B

    2009-08-01

    Between 1987 and 1997, the tobacco industry used the issue of cigarette excise tax increases to create a political partnership with the Coalition of Labor Union Women (CLUW), a group representing female trade unionists in the U.S. This paper documents how the industry created this relationship and the lessons tobacco-control advocates can learn from the industry's example, in order to mitigate possible unintended consequences of advocating excise tax increases. In 1998, under the terms of the Master Settlement Agreement, the tobacco industry began making documents produced in litigation available publicly. Currently, approximately 50 million pages are available online, including substantial documentation of the industry-CLUW relationship. For this study, a comprehensive search of these documents was conducted. The tobacco industry encouraged CLUW's opposition to excise tax increases by emphasizing the economic regressivity of these taxes, discussing excise taxes generically to deflect attention from cigarettes, and encouraging opposition to earmarking cigarette taxes to pay for specific programs. In addition, CLUW received at least $221,500 in financial support between 1987 and 1997 and in-kind support for its conferences, membership materials, and other services. Excise tax increases, if pursued without considering the impacts they may have on low-SES populations, may have unintended consequences. In this case, such proposals may have helped to create a relationship between CLUW and the tobacco industry. Because excise taxes are endorsed in the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, tobacco-control advocates must understand how to build relationships with low-SES populations and mitigate potential alliances with the tobacco industry.

  13. Transformations, transport, and potential unintended consequences of high sulfur inputs to Napa Valley vineyards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinckley, Eve-Lyn S; Matson, Pamela A

    2011-08-23

    Unintended anthropogenic deposition of sulfur (S) to forest ecosystems has a range of negative consequences, identified through decades of research. There has been far less study of purposeful S use in agricultural systems around the world, including the application of elemental sulfur (S(0)) as a quick-reacting fungicide to prevent damage to crops. Here we report results from a three-year study of the transformations and flows of applied S(0) in soils, vegetation, and hydrologic export pathways of Napa Valley, CA vineyards, documenting that all applied S is lost from the vineyard ecosystem on an annual basis. We found that S(0) oxidizes rapidly to sulfate ( ) on the soil surface where it then accumulates over the course of the growing season. Leaf and grape tissues accounted for only 7-13% of applied S whereas dormant season cover crops accounted for 4-10% of applications. Soil S inventories were largely and ester-bonded sulfates; they decreased from 1,623 ± 354 kg ha(-1) during the dry growing season to 981 ± 526 kg ha(-1) (0-0.5 m) during the dormant wet season. Nearly all S applied to the vineyard soils is transported offsite in dissolved oxidized forms during dormant season rainstorms. Thus, the residence time of reactive S is brief in these systems, and largely driven by hydrology. Our results provide new insight into how S use in vineyards constitutes a substantial perturbation of the S cycle in Northern California winegrowing regions and points to the unintended consequences that agricultural S use may have at larger scales.

  14. Intended and unintended consequences of mandatory IFRS adoption: A review of extant evidence and suggestions for future research

    OpenAIRE

    Ulf Brüggemann; Jörg-Markus Hitz; Thorsten Sellhorn

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses empirical evidence on the economic consequences of mandatory adoption of International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) in the European Union (EU) and provides suggestions on how future research can add to our understanding of these effects. Based on the explicitly stated objectives of the EU‟s so-called „IAS Regulation‟, we distinguish between intended and unintended consequences of mandatory IFRS adoption. Empirical research on the intended consequences genera...

  15. Exploring shifts in the characteristics of US government-funded science curriculum materials and their (unintended) consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pareja Roblin, Natalie; Schunn, Christian; Bernstein, Debra; McKenney, Susan

    2018-01-01

    Grant-funded curriculum development efforts can substantially impact practice and research in science education. Therefore, understanding the sometimes-unintended consequences of changes in grant priorities is crucial. Using the case of two large funding agencies in the United States, the current

  16. Forest fire management to avoid unintended consequences: a case study of Portugal using system dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Ross D; de Neufville, Richard; Claro, João; Oliveira, Tiago; Pacheco, Abílio P

    2013-11-30

    Forest fires are a serious management challenge in many regions, complicating the appropriate allocation to suppression and prevention efforts. Using a System Dynamics (SD) model, this paper explores how interactions between physical and political systems in forest fire management impact the effectiveness of different allocations. A core issue is that apparently sound management can have unintended consequences. An instinctive management response to periods of worsening fire severity is to increase fire suppression capacity, an approach with immediate appeal as it directly treats the symptom of devastating fires and appeases the public. However, the SD analysis indicates that a policy emphasizing suppression can degrade the long-run effectiveness of forest fire management. By crowding out efforts to preventative fuel removal, it exacerbates fuel loads and leads to greater fires, which further balloon suppression budgets. The business management literature refers to this problem as the firefighting trap, wherein focus on fixing problems diverts attention from preventing them, and thus leads to inferior outcomes. The paper illustrates these phenomena through a case study of Portugal, showing that a balanced approach to suppression and prevention efforts can mitigate the self-reinforcing consequences of this trap, and better manage long-term fire damages. These insights can help policymakers and fire managers better appreciate the interconnected systems in which their authorities reside and the dynamics that may undermine seemingly rational management decisions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Unintended Consequences of Wearable Sensor Use in Healthcare. Contribution of the IMIA Wearable Sensors in Healthcare WG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schukat, M; McCaldin, D; Wang, K; Schreier, G; Lovell, N H; Marschollek, M; Redmond, S J

    2016-11-10

    As wearable sensors take the consumer market by storm, and medical device manufacturers move to make their devices wireless and appropriate for ambulatory use, this revolution brings with it some unintended consequences, which we aim to discuss in this paper. We discuss some important unintended consequences, both beneficial and unwanted, which relate to: modifications of behavior; creation and use of big data sets; new security vulnerabilities; and unforeseen challenges faced by regulatory authorities, struggling to keep pace with recent innovations. Where possible, we proposed potential solutions to unwanted consequences. Intelligent and inclusive design processes may mitigate unintended modifications in behavior. For big data, legislating access to and use of these data will be a legal and political challenge in the years ahead, as we trade the health benefits of wearable sensors against the risk to our privacy. The wireless and personal nature of wearable sensors also exposes them to a number of unique security vulnerabilities. Regulation plays an important role in managing these security risks, but also has the dual responsibility of ensuring that wearable devices are fit for purpose. However, the burden of validating the function and security of medical devices is becoming infeasible for regulators, given the many software apps and wearable sensors entering the market each year, which are only a subset of an even larger 'internet of things'. Wearable sensors may serve to improve wellbeing, but we must be vigilant against the occurrence of unintended consequences. With collaboration between device manufacturers, regulators, and end-users, we balance the risk of unintended consequences occurring against the incredible benefit that wearable sensors promise to bring to the world.

  18. Developmental interventions to address the STEM gender gap: exploring intended and unintended consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liben, Lynn S; Coyle, Emily F

    2014-01-01

    Women and girls in the United States continue to be underrepresented in STEM, particularly in engineering and technology fields. This gap has been attracting recent attention from those motivated to ensure that girls and women have access to a full range of personally satisfying careers as well as from those concerned with developing a rich talent pool to meet national workforce needs. This chapter is focused on interventions that have been designed to address this STEM gender gap. We begin by documenting the STEM gender gap and then review change mechanisms emerging from theories of gender development that may be harnessed in intervention efforts. In addition, we pro vide a taxonomy of intervention goals which we then use to organize an illustrative review of sample interventions. After commenting on some of the findings and limitations of past work, we offer suggestions for enhancing the systematic evaluation of intervention programs that include careful selection of comparison groups, a broad array of STEM outcome measures, assessment of potentially unintended consequences, and meta-analyses.

  19. Mediation of adoption and use: a key strategy for mitigating unintended consequences of health IT implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Laurie L; Anders, Shilo; Gadd, Cynthia S; Lorenzi, Nancy M

    2012-01-01

    Without careful attention to the work of users, implementation of health IT can produce new risks and inefficiencies in care. This paper uses the technology use mediation framework to examine the work of a group of nurses who serve as mediators of the adoption and use of a barcode medication administration (BCMA) system in an inpatient setting. The study uses ethnographic methods to explore the mediators' work. Data included field notes from observations, documents, and email communications. This variety of sources enabled triangulation of findings between activities observed, discussed in meetings, and reported in emails. Mediation work integrated the BCMA tool with nursing practice, anticipating and solving implementation problems. Three themes of mediation work include: resolving challenges related to coordination, integrating the physical aspects of BCMA into everyday practice, and advocacy work. Previous work suggests the following factors impact mediation effectiveness: proximity to the context of use, understanding of users' practices and norms, credibility with users, and knowledge of the technology and users' technical abilities. We describe three additional factors observed in this case: 'influence on system developers,' 'influence on institutional authorities,' and 'understanding the network of organizational relationships that shape the users' work.' Institutionally supported clinicians who facilitate adoption and use of health IT systems can improve the safety and effectiveness of implementation through the management of unintended consequences. Additional research on technology use mediation can advance the science of implementation by providing decision-makers with theoretically durable, empirically grounded evidence for designing implementations.

  20. The Medicare Hospital Readmissions Reduction Program: potential unintended consequences for hospitals serving vulnerable populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Qian; Koenig, Lane; Faerberg, Jennifer; Steinberg, Caroline Rossi; Vaz, Christopher; Wheatley, Mary P

    2014-06-01

    To explore the impact of the Hospital Readmissions Reduction Program (HRRP) on hospitals serving vulnerable populations. Medicare inpatient claims to calculate condition-specific readmission rates. Medicare cost reports and other sources to determine a hospital's share of duals, profit margin, and characteristics. Regression analyses and projections were used to estimate risk-adjusted readmission rates and financial penalties under the HRRP. Findings were compared across groups of hospitals, determined based on their share of duals, to assess differential impacts of the HRRP. Both patient dual-eligible status and a hospital's dual-eligible share of Medicare discharges have a positive impact on risk-adjusted hospital readmission rates. Under current Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Service methodology, which does not adjust for socioeconomic status, high-dual hospitals are more likely to have excess readmissions than low-dual hospitals. As a result, HRRP penalties will disproportionately fall on high-dual hospitals, which are more likely to have negative all-payer margins, raising concerns of unintended consequences of the program for vulnerable populations. Policies to reduce hospital readmissions must balance the need to ensure continued access to quality care for vulnerable populations. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  1. Anticipating and addressing the unintended consequences of health IT and policy: a report from the AMIA 2009 Health Policy Meeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomrosen, Meryl; Starren, Justin; Lorenzi, Nancy M; Ash, Joan S; Patel, Vimla L; Shortliffe, Edward H

    2011-01-01

    Federal legislation (Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health (HITECH) Act) has provided funds to support an unprecedented increase in health information technology (HIT) adoption for healthcare provider organizations and professionals throughout the U.S. While recognizing the promise that widespread HIT adoption and meaningful use can bring to efforts to improve the quality, safety, and efficiency of healthcare, the American Medical Informatics Association devoted its 2009 Annual Health Policy Meeting to consideration of unanticipated consequences that could result with the increased implementation of HIT. Conference participants focused on possible unintended and unanticipated, as well as undesirable, consequences of HIT implementation. They employed an input-output model to guide discussion on occurrence of these consequences in four domains: technical, human/cognitive, organizational, and fiscal/policy and regulation. The authors outline the conference's recommendations: (1) an enhanced research agenda to guide study into the causes, manifestations, and mitigation of unintended consequences resulting from HIT implementations; (2) creation of a framework to promote sharing of HIT implementation experiences and the development of best practices that minimize unintended consequences; and (3) recognition of the key role of the Federal Government in providing leadership and oversight in analyzing the effects of HIT-related implementations and policies.

  2. Doing More for More: Unintended Consequences of Financial Incentives for Oncology Specialty Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neil, Brock; Graves, Amy J; Barocas, Daniel A; Chang, Sam S; Penson, David F; Resnick, Matthew J

    2016-02-01

    Specialty care remains a significant contributor to health care spending but largely unaddressed in novel payment models aimed at promoting value-based delivery. Bladder cancer, chiefly managed by subspecialists, is among the most costly. In 2005, Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) dramatically increased physician payment for office-based interventions for bladder cancer to shift care from higher cost facilities, but the impact is unknown. This study evaluated the effect of financial incentives on patterns of fee-for-service (FFS) bladder cancer care. Data from a 5% sample of Medicare beneficiaries from 2001-2013 were evaluated using interrupted time-series analysis with segmented regression. Primary outcomes were the effects of CMS fee modifications on utilization and site of service for procedures associated with the diagnosis and treatment of bladder cancer. Rates of related bladder cancer procedures that were not affected by the fee change were concurrent controls. Finally, the effect of payment changes on both diagnostic yield and need for redundant procedures were studied. All statistical tests were two-sided. Utilization of clinic-based procedures increased by 644% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 584% to 704%) after the fee change, but without reciprocal decline in facility-based procedures. Procedures unaffected by the fee incentive remained unchanged throughout the study period. Diagnostic yield decreased by 17.0% (95% CI = 12.7% to 21.3%), and use of redundant office-based procedures increased by 76.0% (95% CI = 59% to 93%). Financial incentives in bladder cancer care have unintended and costly consequences in the current FFS environment. The observed price sensitivity is likely to remain a major issue in novel payment models failing to incorporate procedure-based specialty physicians. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Non-Culture Diagnostics for Invasive Candidiasis: Promise and Unintended Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancy, Cornelius J.; Nguyen, M. Hong

    2018-01-01

    Blood cultures are positive for Candida species in candidiasis, respectively. Non-culture tests such as mannan, anti-mannan antibody, Candida albicans germ tube antibody (CAGTA), 1,3-β-d-glucan (BDG), the T2Candida nanodiagnostic panel, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) are available for clinical use, but their roles in patient care are uncertain. Sensitivity/specificity of combined mannan/anti-mannan, BDG, T2Candida and PCR for candidemia are ~80%/80%, ~80%/80%, ~90%/98%, and ~90%/90%, respectively. Limited data for intra-abdominal candidiasis suggest CAGTA, BDG sensitivity/specificity of ~65%/75% and PCR sensitivity of ~85–90%. PCR specificity has varied widely for intra-abdominal candidiasis (33–97%), and T2Candida data are lacking. Tests will be useful if restricted to cases in which positive and negative predictive values (PPVs, NPVs) differ in a clinically meaningful way from the pre-test likelihood of invasive candidiasis. In some patients, PPVs are sufficient to justify antifungal treatment, even if blood cultures are negative. In most patients, NPVs of each test are excellent, which may support decisions to withhold antifungal therapy. If test results are not interpreted judiciously, non-culture diagnostics may have unintended consequences for stewardship and infection prevention programs. In particular, discrepant non-culture test-positive/culture-negative results may promote inappropriate antifungal treatment of patients who are unlikely to have candidiasis, and lead to spurious reporting of hospital-acquired infections. In conclusion, non-culture Candida diagnostics have potential to advance patient care, but this promise will be realized only if users understand tests’ strengths and limitations, and plan proactively for how best to employ them at their hospitals. PMID:29463043

  4. Intended and unintended consequences of abortion law reform: perspectives of abortion experts in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keogh, L A; Newton, D; Bayly, C; McNamee, K; Hardiman, A; Webster, A; Bismark, M

    2017-01-01

    In Victoria, Australia, abortion was decriminalised in October 2008, bringing the law in line with clinical practice and community attitudes. We describe how experts in abortion service provision perceived the intent and subsequent impact of the 2008 Victorian abortion law reform. Experts in abortion provision in Victoria were recruited for a qualitative semi-structured interview about the 2008 law reform and its perceived impact, until saturation was reached. Nineteen experts from a range of health care settings and geographic locations were interviewed in 2014/2015. Thematic analysis was conducted to summarise participants' views. Abortion law reform, while a positive event, was perceived to have changed little about the provision of abortion. The views of participants can be categorised into: (1) goals that law reform was intended to address and that have been achieved; (2) intent or hopes of law reform that have not been achieved; (3) unintended consequences; (4) coincidences; and (5) unfinished business. All agreed that law reform had repositioned abortion as a health rather than legal issue, had shifted the power in decision making from doctors to women, and had increased clarity and safety for doctors. However, all described outstanding concerns; limited public provision of surgical abortion; reduced access to abortion after 20 weeks; ongoing stigma; lack of a state-wide strategy for equitable abortion provision; and an unsustainable workforce. Law reform, while positive, has failed to address a number of significant issues in abortion service provision, and may have even resulted in a 'lull' in action. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  5. Non-Culture Diagnostics for Invasive Candidiasis: Promise and Unintended Consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelius J. Clancy

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Blood cultures are positive for Candida species in < 50% and < 20% of hematogenously disseminated and intra-abdominal candidiasis, respectively. Non-culture tests such as mannan, anti-mannan antibody, Candida albicans germ tube antibody (CAGTA, 1,3-β-d-glucan (BDG, the T2Candida nanodiagnostic panel, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR are available for clinical use, but their roles in patient care are uncertain. Sensitivity/specificity of combined mannan/anti-mannan, BDG, T2Candida and PCR for candidemia are ~80%/80%, ~80%/80%, ~90%/98%, and ~90%/90%, respectively. Limited data for intra-abdominal candidiasis suggest CAGTA, BDG sensitivity/specificity of ~65%/75% and PCR sensitivity of ~85–90%. PCR specificity has varied widely for intra-abdominal candidiasis (33–97%, and T2Candida data are lacking. Tests will be useful if restricted to cases in which positive and negative predictive values (PPVs, NPVs differ in a clinically meaningful way from the pre-test likelihood of invasive candidiasis. In some patients, PPVs are sufficient to justify antifungal treatment, even if blood cultures are negative. In most patients, NPVs of each test are excellent, which may support decisions to withhold antifungal therapy. If test results are not interpreted judiciously, non-culture diagnostics may have unintended consequences for stewardship and infection prevention programs. In particular, discrepant non-culture test-positive/culture-negative results may promote inappropriate antifungal treatment of patients who are unlikely to have candidiasis, and lead to spurious reporting of hospital-acquired infections. In conclusion, non-culture Candida diagnostics have potential to advance patient care, but this promise will be realized only if users understand tests’ strengths and limitations, and plan proactively for how best to employ them at their hospitals.

  6. Reflections on the Unintended Consequences of the Promotion of Institutional Pregnancy and Birth Care in Burkina Faso.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Melberg

    Full Text Available The policy of institutional delivery has been the cornerstone of actions aimed at monitoring and achieving MDG 5. Efforts to increase institutional births have been implemented worldwide within different cultural and health systems settings. This paper explores how communities in rural Burkina Faso perceive the promotion and delivery of facility pregnancy and birth care, and how this promotion influences health-seeking behaviour. A qualitative study was conducted in South-Western Burkina Faso between September 2011 and January 2012. A total of 21 in-depth interviews and 8 focus group discussions with women who had given birth recently and community members were conducted. The data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis and interpreted through Merton's concept of unintended consequences of purposive social action. The study found that community members experienced a strong pressure to give birth in a health facility and perceived health workers to define institutional birth as the only acceptable option. Women and their families experienced verbal, economic and administrative sanctions if they did not attend services and adhered to health worker recommendations, and reported that they felt incapable of questioning health workers' knowledge and practices. Women who for social and economic reasons had limited access to health facilities found that the sanctions came with increased cost for health services, led to social stigma and acted as additional barriers to seek skilled care at birth. The study demonstrates how the global and national policy of skilled pregnancy and birth care can occur in unintentional ways in local settings. The promotion of institutional care during pregnancy and at birth in the study area compromised health system trust and equal access to care. The pressure to use facility care and the sanctions experienced by women not complying may further marginalize women with poor access to facility care and contribute to

  7. The Unintended Consequences of Intended Pregnancies: Youth, Condom Use, and HIV Transmission in Mozambique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speizer, Ilene S.; White, Justin S.

    2008-01-01

    Although unwanted pregnancies can cause social and economic problems for Sub-Saharan African youth, the consequences of "intended" adolescent pregnancies have gone unnoticed. Rarely do studies recognize that youth who desire a pregnancy are less likely to practice safe sex and, therefore, are at greater risk of contracting sexually…

  8. Why so many "rigorous" evaluations fail to identify unintended consequences of development programs: How mixed methods can contribute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamberger, Michael; Tarsilla, Michele; Hesse-Biber, Sharlene

    2016-04-01

    Many widely-used impact evaluation designs, including randomized control trials (RCTs) and quasi-experimental designs (QEDs), frequently fail to detect what are often quite serious unintended consequences of development programs. This seems surprising as experienced planners and evaluators are well aware that unintended consequences frequently occur. Most evaluation designs are intended to determine whether there is credible evidence (statistical, theory-based or narrative) that programs have achieved their intended objectives and the logic of many evaluation designs, even those that are considered the most "rigorous," does not permit the identification of outcomes that were not specified in the program design. We take the example of RCTs as they are considered by many to be the most rigorous evaluation designs. We present a numbers of cases to illustrate how infusing RCTs with a mixed-methods approach (sometimes called an "RCT+" design) can strengthen the credibility of these designs and can also capture important unintended consequences. We provide a Mixed Methods Evaluation Framework that identifies 9 ways in which UCs can occur, and we apply this framework to two of the case studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Intended and Unintended Consequences of Educational Technology on Social Inequality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawfik, Andrew A.; Reeves, Todd D.; Stich, Amy

    2016-01-01

    While much has been written in the field of educational technology regarding educational excellence and efficiency, less attention has been paid to issues of equity. Along these lines, the field of educational technology often does not address key equity problems such as academic achievement and attainment gaps, and inequality of educational…

  10. Peacekeepers against ethnic and criminal violence : Unintended consequences of UN peacekeeping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Di Salvatore, J.

    2017-01-01

    This dissertation examines the unintended and collateral effects of third-party interventions in war-torn countries. Building on the most recent findings in peacekeeping literature that suggests an overall conflict-reducing effect of military interventions, this thesis explores ways in which this

  11. System dynamics to model the unintended consequences of denying payment for venous thromboembolism after total knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worni, Mathias; Pietrobon, Ricardo; Zammar, Guilherme Roberto; Shah, Jatin; Yoo, Bryan; Maldonato, Mauro; Takemoto, Steven; Vail, Thomas P

    2012-01-01

    The Hospital Acquired Condition Strategy (HACS) denies payment for venous thromboembolism (VTE) after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The intention is to reduce complications and associated costs, while improving the quality of care by mandating VTE prophylaxis. We applied a system dynamics model to estimate the impact of HACS on VTE rates, and potential unintended consequences such as increased rates of bleeding and infection and decreased access for patients who might benefit from TKA. The system dynamics model uses a series of patient stocks including the number needing TKA, deemed ineligible, receiving TKA, and harmed due to surgical complication. The flow of patients between stocks is determined by a series of causal elements such as rates of exclusion, surgery and complications. The number of patients harmed due to VTE, bleeding or exclusion were modeled by year by comparing patient stocks that results in scenarios with and without HACS. The percentage of TKA patients experiencing VTE decreased approximately 3-fold with HACS. This decrease in VTE was offset by an increased rate of bleeding and infection. Moreover, results from the model suggest HACS could exclude 1.5% or half a million patients who might benefit from knee replacement through 2020. System dynamics modeling indicates HACS will have the intended consequence of reducing VTE rates. However, an unintended consequence of the policy might be increased potential harm resulting from over administration of prophylaxis, as well as exclusion of a large population of patients who might benefit from TKA.

  12. System Dynamics to Model the Unintended Consequences of Denying Payment for Venous Thromboembolism after Total Knee Arthroplasty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worni, Mathias; Pietrobon, Ricardo; Zammar, Guilherme Roberto; Shah, Jatin; Yoo, Bryan; Maldonato, Mauro; Takemoto, Steven; Vail, Thomas P.

    2012-01-01

    Background The Hospital Acquired Condition Strategy (HACS) denies payment for venous thromboembolism (VTE) after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The intention is to reduce complications and associated costs, while improving the quality of care by mandating VTE prophylaxis. We applied a system dynamics model to estimate the impact of HACS on VTE rates, and potential unintended consequences such as increased rates of bleeding and infection and decreased access for patients who might benefit from TKA. Methods and Findings The system dynamics model uses a series of patient stocks including the number needing TKA, deemed ineligible, receiving TKA, and harmed due to surgical complication. The flow of patients between stocks is determined by a series of causal elements such as rates of exclusion, surgery and complications. The number of patients harmed due to VTE, bleeding or exclusion were modeled by year by comparing patient stocks that results in scenarios with and without HACS. The percentage of TKA patients experiencing VTE decreased approximately 3-fold with HACS. This decrease in VTE was offset by an increased rate of bleeding and infection. Moreover, results from the model suggest HACS could exclude 1.5% or half a million patients who might benefit from knee replacement through 2020. Conclusion System dynamics modeling indicates HACS will have the intended consequence of reducing VTE rates. However, an unintended consequence of the policy might be increased potential harm resulting from over administration of prophylaxis, as well as exclusion of a large population of patients who might benefit from TKA. PMID:22536313

  13. When Spiders Bite: The Use, Misuse, and Unintended Consequences of ``Silent Information''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, Thomas P.

    Spiders are the workhorses of the Internet, silently (and almost invisibly) traversing the online world, 24 hours a day, looking for information that may be of interest to someone. It is being archived, organized, and sold, usually without the knowledge or consent of the subject of the information. Serious consequences are starting to appear, such as the withdrawal of three candidates from the October 2008 Canadian Federal election because of previous online indiscretions. While these were intentional if mis-guided postings, information made available without our consent can have equally devastating effects. Advances in artificial intelligence, as well as the increasing tendency to post more and more information, such as videos, will make the gathering, aggregation, and republishing of this “silent information” an increasingly important issue that must be addressed from the technical, social, ethical and legal perspectives, and sooner rather than later.

  14. Unintended consequences of regulating drinking water in rural Canadian communities: examples from Atlantic Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kot, Megan; Castleden, Heather; Gagnon, Graham A

    2011-09-01

    Studies that explore social capital and political will [corrected] in the context of safe drinking water provision in [corrected] Canada are limited. This paper presents findings from a study that examines the capacity of rural Canadian communities to attain regulatory compliance for drinking water. Interviews were conducted with water operators and managers in ten rural communities across Atlantic Canada to identify the burden of compliance arising from the implementation of, and adherence to, drinking water regulations. This research identifies the operator as being particularly burdened by regulatory compliance, often resulting in negative consequences including job stress and a strained relationship with the community they serve. Findings indicate that while regulations are vital to ensuring safe drinking water, not all communities have the resources in place to rise to the challenge of compliance. As a result, some communities are being negatively impacted by these regulations, rather than benefit from their intended positive effect. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Sexual Harassment in the Workplace. Unanticipated Consequences of Modern Social Control in Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Charles W.; De Coster, Stacy; Estes, Sarah Beth

    2001-01-01

    Modern organizational changes purportedly intended to increase job satisfaction and reduce turnover are actually forms of social control. Analysis of data from 6,000 employees found that an unintended yet beneficial consequence of these changes is reduced sexual harassment. (Contains 60 references.) (SK)

  16. Social Norms and Stigma Regarding Unintended Pregnancy and Pregnancy Decisions: A Qualitative Study of Young Women in Alabama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Whitney; Turan, Janet M; White, Kari; Stringer, Kristi L; Helova, Anna; Simpson, Tina; Cockrill, Kate

    2016-06-01

    Social norms and stigma may play important roles in reproductive health behavior and decision making among young women in the U.S. South, who disproportionately experience unintended pregnancies. No research has described the presence and manifestations of social norms and stigmas associated with unintended pregnancy and related decision making from the perspective of this population. Six focus groups and 12 cognitive interviews were conducted between December 2013 and July 2014 with 46 low-income women aged 19-24 living in Birmingham, Alabama; respondents were recruited from two public health department centers and a community college. Semistructured interview guides were used to facilitate discussion about social perceptions of unintended pregnancy and related pregnancy decisions. Sessions were audio-recorded, and transcripts were analyzed using a theme-based approach. Participants described community expectations that pregnancy occur in the context of monogamous relationships, in which both partners are mature, educated and financially stable. However, respondents reported that unintended pregnancy outside of these circumstances was common, and that the community expected young women faced with unintended pregnancies to bear and raise their children. Women who chose to do so were viewed more positively than were women who chose abortion or adoption. The community generally considered these alternatives to parenting unacceptable, and participants discussed them in terms of negative labels, social judgment and nondisclosure. Findings suggest a need to reduce stigma and create a social environment in which young women are empowered to make the best reproductive decisions for themselves. Copyright © 2016 by the Guttmacher Institute.

  17. Re-envisioning the renewable fuel standard to minimize unintended consequences: A comparison of microalgal diesel with other biodiesels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soratana, Kullapa; Khanna, Vikas; Landis, Amy E.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Conducted a life cycle assessment (LCA) of microalgal diesel from PBR to combustion. • Compared the results with other existing LCA results of petroleum and other biodiesels. • Assessed the current Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS2). • Proposed an approach to set emission thresholds for eutrophication (EP) and smog formation potentials (PSP). • Future RFS should include a life-cycle emissions threshold for EP and PSP. - Abstract: The Renewable Fuel Standard 2 (RFS2) program under the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 set a life-cycle emission reduction threshold to only greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions; this type of single-dimensional threshold could lead to the unintended trading of one environmental problem for another. Many of the environmental impacts resulting over the life cycle of oil-crop biodiesel fuels manifest in the agricultural phase of production in the form of water quality degradation. This study investigated the extent to which different biofuels meet the RFS GHG requirement, and presents alternative strategies for minimizing unintended consequences. In addition to life-cycle global warming potential (GWP), the eutrophication potential (EP) and photochemical smog formation potential (PSP) from microalgal diesel were compared to the impacts resulting from petroleum-based diesel, soybean diesel and canola diesel. The results showed tradeoffs between GWP and eutrophication potential when microalgal diesel was compared to soybean diesel. Future RFS criteria should include EP and PSP metrics, however establishing thresholds like the GHG management approach may not be appropriate for these other impacts. Two possible strategies to setting life-cycle eutrophication standards are to establish a threshold based on first generation biofuels, as opposed to petro-fuels or to set maximum levels of EP loads for major watersheds or coastal areas. To decrease PSP, together with existing standards for tailpipe emissions, future RFSs

  18. Tracking implementation and (un)intended consequences: a process evaluation of an innovative peripheral health facility financing mechanism in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waweru, Evelyn; Goodman, Catherine; Kedenge, Sarah; Tsofa, Benjamin; Molyneux, Sassy

    2016-03-01

    contexts of enormous need. Process evaluations tracking (un)intended consequences of interventions can contribute to regional financing and decentralization debates. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine.

  19. Mobile devices in the operating rooms: intended and unintended consequences for nurses’ work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sergeeva, A.; Aij, K.H.; van den Hooff, B.J.; Huysman, M.H.

    2016-01-01

    This article reports the results of a case study of the consequences of mobile device use for the work practices of operating room nurses. The study identifies different patterns of mobile technology use by operating room nurses, including both work-related and non-work-related use. These patterns

  20. Curriculum Reform and the Displacement of Knowledge in Peruvian Rural Secondary Schools: Exploring the Unintended Local Consequences of Global Education Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balarin, Maria; Benavides, Martin

    2010-01-01

    This paper draws attention to processes of policy implementation in developing contexts, and to the unintended consequences of education policies that follow international policy scripts without enough consideration of local histories and cultures. Drawing on a study of teaching practices in Peruvian rural secondary schools after a period of…

  1. ["Handle with care": about the potential unintended consequences of oracular artificial intelligence systems in medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabitza, Federico; Alderighi, Camilla; Rasoini, Raffaele; Gensini, Gian Franco

    2017-10-01

    Decisional support systems based on machine learning (ML) in medicine are gaining a growing interest as some recent articles have highlighted the high diagnostic accuracy exhibited by these systems in specific medical contexts. However, it is implausible that any potential advantage can be obtained without some potential drawbacks. In light of the current gaps in medical research about the side effects of the application of these new AI systems in medical practice, in this article we summarize the main unexpected consequences that may result from the widespread application of "oracular" systems, that is highly accurate systems that cannot give reasonable explanations of their advice as those endowed with predictive models developed with ML techniques usually are. These consequences range from the intrinsic uncertainty in the data that are used to train and feed these systems, to the inadequate explainability of their output; through the risk of overreliance, deskilling and context desensitization of their end-users. Although some of these issues may be currently hard to evaluate due to the still scarce adoption of these decisional systems in medical practice, we advocate the study of these potential consequences also for a more informed policy of approval beyond hype and disenchantment.

  2. The demand for private tutoring in Turkey: unintended consequences of curriculum reform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altinyelken, H.K.; Bray, M.; Mazawi, A.E.; Sultana, R.G.

    2013-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the private tutoring phenomenon in Turkey. It seeks to analyse the impact of the revision of primary school curriculum on the demand for private tutoring. It also outlines various academic, economic and social implications of private tutoring. Based on interviews with school

  3. The causes and unintended consequences of a paradigm shift in corn production practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fausti, Scott W.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Biotechnology adoption and the U.S. corn production system are causally linked. • U.S. agriculture and energy policy choices merged to incentivize U.S. corn production. • U.S. biofuel energy policy contributed to the adoption of Bt corn seed technology. • Policy alternatives to modify the corn-based ethanol production system are provided. - Abstract: Independent but simultaneously occurring changes in U.S. agricultural and energy policies in conjunction with advances in biotechnology converged to create an economic and regulatory environment that incentivized corn acreage expansion. Advancements in Bt seed and ethanol production technologies contributed to scale efficiency gains in corn and biofuel production. These advancements were accompanied by changes in market forces that altered the balance between corn and other agricultural crop production. The causal linkages among Bt adoption, ethanol production, and corn production are explored along with a discussion of how this shift toward corn production generated unexpected economic and environmental consequences. Alternative policy solutions to mitigate the negative consequences and enhance the resiliency of U.S. agriculture are discussed

  4. The law of unintended (financial) consequences: the expansion of HIPAA business associate liability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomes, Jonathan P

    2013-01-01

    The recent Omnibus Rule published by the Department of Health and Human Services greatly expanded liability for breaches of health information privacy and security under the HIPAA statute and regulations. This expansion could have dire financial consequences for the health care industry. The Rule expanded the definition of business associates to include subcontractors of business associates and made covered entities and business associates liable for breaches of the entities who perform a service for them involving the use of individually identifiable health information under the federal common law of agency. Thus, if a covered entity or its "do wnstream" business associate breaches security or privacy, the covered entity or "upstream" business associate may face HIPAA's civil money penalties or a lawsuit. Financial managers need to be aware of these changes both to protect against the greater liability and to plan for the compliance costs inherent in effectively, if not legally, making business associates into covered entities.

  5. Social discrimination, stress, and risk of unintended pregnancy among young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Kelli Stidham; Kusunoki, Yasamin; Gatny, Heather; Barber, Jennifer

    2015-03-01

    Prior research linking young women's mental health to family planning outcomes has often failed to consider their social circumstances and the intersecting biosocial mechanisms that shape stress and depression as well as reproductive outcomes during adolescence and young adulthood. We extend our previous work to investigate relationships between social discrimination, stress and depression symptoms, and unintended pregnancy among adolescent and young adult women. Data were drawn from 794 women aged 18-20 years in a longitudinal cohort study. Baseline and weekly surveys assessed psychosocial information including discrimination (Everyday Discrimination Scale), stress (Perceived Stress Scale), depression (Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale), and reproductive outcomes. Multilevel, mixed-effects logistic regression and discrete-time hazard models estimated associations between discrimination, mental health, and pregnancy. Baron and Kenny's method was used to test mediation effects of stress and depression on discrimination and pregnancy. The mean discrimination score was 19/45 points; 20% reported moderate/high discrimination. Discrimination scores were higher among women with stress and depression symptoms versus those without symptoms (21 vs. 18 points for both, p women with moderate/high (23%) versus low (11%) discrimination (p Discrimination was associated with stress (adjusted relative risk ratio, [aRR], 2.2; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.4-3.4), depression (aRR, 2.4; CI, 1.5-3.7), and subsequent pregnancy (aRR, 1.8; CI, 1.1-3.0). Stress and depression symptoms did not mediate discrimination's effect on pregnancy. Discrimination was associated with an increased risk of mental health symptoms and unintended pregnancy among these young women. The interactive social and biological influences on reproductive outcomes during adolescence and young adulthood warrant further study. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published

  6. Residual Inequity: Assessing the Unintended Consequences of New York City’s Clean Heat Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrión, Daniel; Lee, W. Victoria; Hernández, Diana

    2018-01-01

    Energy policies and public health are intimately intertwined. In New York City, a series of policies, known as the Clean Heat Program (CHP), were designed to reduce air pollution by banning residual diesel fuel oils, #6 in 2015 and #4 by 2030. This measure is expected to yield environmental and public health benefits over time. While there is near-universal compliance with the #6 ban, a substantial number of buildings still use #4. In this paper, geographic analysis and qualitative interviews with stakeholders were used to interrogate the CHP’s policy implementation in Northern Manhattan and the Bronx. A total of 1724 (53%) of all residential residual fuel burning buildings are located in this region. Stakeholders reflected mostly on the need for the program, and overall reactions to its execution. Major findings include that government partnerships with non-governmental organizations were effectively employed. However, weaknesses with the policy were also identified, including missed opportunities for more rapid transitions away from residual fuels, unsuccessful outreach efforts, cost-prohibitive conversion opportunities, and (the perception of) a volatile energy market for clean fuels. Ultimately, this analysis serves as a case study of a unique and innovative urban policy initiative to improve air quality and, consequently, public health. PMID:29324717

  7. Residual Inequity: Assessing the Unintended Consequences of New York City's Clean Heat Transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrión, Daniel; Lee, W Victoria; Hernández, Diana

    2018-01-11

    Energy policies and public health are intimately intertwined. In New York City, a series of policies, known as the Clean Heat Program (CHP), were designed to reduce air pollution by banning residual diesel fuel oils, #6 in 2015 and #4 by 2030. This measure is expected to yield environmental and public health benefits over time. While there is near-universal compliance with the #6 ban, a substantial number of buildings still use #4. In this paper, geographic analysis and qualitative interviews with stakeholders were used to interrogate the CHP's policy implementation in Northern Manhattan and the Bronx. A total of 1724 (53%) of all residential residual fuel burning buildings are located in this region. Stakeholders reflected mostly on the need for the program, and overall reactions to its execution. Major findings include that government partnerships with non-governmental organizations were effectively employed. However, weaknesses with the policy were also identified, including missed opportunities for more rapid transitions away from residual fuels, unsuccessful outreach efforts, cost-prohibitive conversion opportunities, and (the perception of) a volatile energy market for clean fuels. Ultimately, this analysis serves as a case study of a unique and innovative urban policy initiative to improve air quality and, consequently, public health.

  8. Residual Inequity: Assessing the Unintended Consequences of New York City’s Clean Heat Transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Carrión

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy policies and public health are intimately intertwined. In New York City, a series of policies, known as the Clean Heat Program (CHP, were designed to reduce air pollution by banning residual diesel fuel oils, #6 in 2015 and #4 by 2030. This measure is expected to yield environmental and public health benefits over time. While there is near-universal compliance with the #6 ban, a substantial number of buildings still use #4. In this paper, geographic analysis and qualitative interviews with stakeholders were used to interrogate the CHP’s policy implementation in Northern Manhattan and the Bronx. A total of 1724 (53% of all residential residual fuel burning buildings are located in this region. Stakeholders reflected mostly on the need for the program, and overall reactions to its execution. Major findings include that government partnerships with non-governmental organizations were effectively employed. However, weaknesses with the policy were also identified, including missed opportunities for more rapid transitions away from residual fuels, unsuccessful outreach efforts, cost-prohibitive conversion opportunities, and (the perception of a volatile energy market for clean fuels. Ultimately, this analysis serves as a case study of a unique and innovative urban policy initiative to improve air quality and, consequently, public health.

  9. The unintended consequences of sex education: an ethnography of a development intervention in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Erica; Edmonds, Alexander; Ballesteros, Marco; Encalada Soto, Diana; Rodriguez, Octavio

    2014-01-01

    This paper is an ethnography of a four-year, multi-disciplinary adolescent sexual and reproductive health intervention in Bolivia, Nicaragua and Ecuador. An important goal of the intervention--and of the larger global field of adolescent sexual and reproductive health--is to create more open parent-to-teen communication. This paper analyzes the project's efforts to foster such communication and how social actors variously interpreted, responded to, and repurposed the intervention's language and practices. While the intervention emphasized the goal of 'open communication,' its participants more often used the term 'confianza' (trust). This norm was defined in ways that might--or might not--include revealing information about sexual activity. Questioning public health assumptions about parent-teen communication on sex, in and of itself, is key to healthy sexual behavior, the paper explores a pragmatics of communication on sex that includes silence, implied expectations, gendered conflicts, and temporally delayed knowledge.

  10. The Dangers of Posthumous Diagnoses and the Unintended Consequences of Facile Associations: Jeffrey Dahmer and Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palermo, Mark T; Bogaerts, Stefan

    2015-12-01

    Posthumous diagnoses are not uncommonly given to notorious public and historical figures by applying retrospectively, and typically in the absence of the individual being diagnosed, contemporary diagnostic criteria. Although this may be relatively easy and free of consequences when it concerns clear-cut medical conditions, it may have unintended repercussions in the case of psychiatric disorders by creating myths and perpetuating stigma. The case of serial killer Jeffrey Dahmer is a typical example where a somewhat facile and almost syllogistic application of perhaps over-inclusive criteria may have contributed to the legend of solitary murderers as possibly suffering from an autism spectrum condition. Although there may be an understandable human need to explain abominable and heinous behaviors, the lack of the possibility to verify a diagnostic theory and the ill-advised attempt to make a diagnosis fit may de facto be the basis of prejudice and profiling that do not correspond to clinical reality. Although there is no doubt that the brain is the organ of behavior, the authors caution against a budding neo-Lombrosian approach to crime and criminality and against the all too common use of widely differing terms in the study of deviance, such as crime, delinquency, and aggression, the operational use of which, often used interchangeably even in association studies, often erroneously leads to further confusion. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. Unintended consequences of restoration: loss of riffles and gravel substrates following weir installation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salant, Nira L; Schmidt, John C; Budy, Phaedra; Wilcock, Peter R

    2012-10-30

    We used pre- and post-restoration channel surveys of the Donner und Blitzen River, Oregon, to evaluate the effects of grade-control structures on channel morphology and baseflow habitat conditions for native redband trout and other aquatic biota. Six years after installation, we found that the channel had a smaller proportion of riffles and pools and less gravel substrate, combined with an increase in the proportion of flat waters and consolidated clay on the bed surface. Both local scour downstream from weirs and backwater effects upstream from weirs appear to have caused the general flattening and fining of the channel. A direct-step backwater calculation indicates that backwaters extended to the upstream weir at both low and high flows, creating long sections of flat water separated by short, steep drops. Despite backwater effects, a comparison of longitudinal profiles before and six years after weir installation showed bed erosion downstream of nearly all weirs, likely a consequence of the cohesive clay material that dominates the channel bed and banks. A deep inner channel reflects the cohesive nature of the clay and the mechanisms of abrasion, and indicates that sediment load is low relative to the transport capacity of the flow. Unfortunately, weirs were problematic in this system because of the cohesive clay substrate, limited sediment supply, and low channel gradient. Although deeper flows due to backwaters might be more favorable for resident trout, less gravel and fewer riffles are likely to negatively impact trout spawning habitat, macroinvertebrate communities, and biofilm productivity. Our results demonstrate the potential limitations of a single-feature approach to restoration that may be ineffective for a given geomorphic context and may overlook other aspects of the ecosystem. We highlight the need to incorporate geomorphic characteristics of a system into project design and predictions of system response. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  12. Unintended consequences of management actions in salt pond restoration: cascading effects in trophic interactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Y Takekawa

    Full Text Available Salt evaporation ponds have played an important role as habitat for migratory waterbirds across the world, however, efforts to restore and manage these habitats to maximize their conservation value has proven to be challenging. For example, salinity reduction has been a goal for restoring and managing former salt evaporation ponds to support waterbirds in the South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project in San Francisco Bay, California, USA. Here, we describe a case study of unexpected consequences of a low-dissolved oxygen (DO event on trophic interactions in a salt pond system following management actions to reduce salinity concentrations. We document the ramifications of an anoxic event in water quality including salinity, DO, and temperature, and in the response of the biota including prey fish biomass, numerical response by California Gulls (Larus californicus, and chick survival of Forster's Tern (Sterna forsteri. Management actions intended to protect receiving waters resulted in decreased DO concentrations that collapsed to zero for ≥ 4 consecutive days, resulting in an extensive fish kill. DO depletion likely resulted from an algal bloom that arose following transition of the pond system from high to low salinity as respiration and decomposition outpaced photosynthetic production. We measured a ≥ 6-fold increase in biomass of fish dropped on the levee by foraging avian predators compared with weeks prior to and following the low-DO event. California Gulls rapidly responded to the availability of aerobically-stressed and vulnerable fish and increased in abundance by two orders of magnitude. Mark-recapture analysis of 254 Forster's Tern chicks indicated that their survival declined substantially following the increase in gull abundance. Thus, management actions to reduce salinity concentrations resulted in cascading effects in trophic interactions that serves as a cautionary tale illustrating the importance of understanding the interaction

  13. Unintended consequences of management actions in salt pond restoration: cascading effects in trophic interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takekawa, John Y.; Ackerman, Joshua T.; Brand, Arriana; Graham, Tanya R.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Herzog, Mark; Topping, Brent R.; Shellenbarger, Gregory; Kuwabara, James S.; Mruz, Eric; Piotter, Sara L.; Athearn, Nicole D.

    2015-01-01

    Salt evaporation ponds have played an important role as habitat for migratory waterbirds across the world, however, efforts to restore and manage these habitats to maximize their conservation value has proven to be challenging. For example, salinity reduction has been a goal for restoring and managing former salt evaporation ponds to support waterbirds in the South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project in San Francisco Bay, California, USA. Here, we describe a case study of unexpected consequences of a low-dissolved oxygen (DO) event on trophic interactions in a salt pond system following management actions to reduce salinity concentrations. We document the ramifications of an anoxic event in water quality including salinity, DO, and temperature, and in the response of the biota including prey fish biomass, numerical response by California Gulls (Larus californicus), and chick survival of Forster's Tern (Sterna forsteri). Management actions intended to protect receiving waters resulted in decreased DO concentrations that collapsed to zero for ≥ 4 consecutive days, resulting in an extensive fish kill. DO depletion likely resulted from an algal bloom that arose following transition of the pond system from high to low salinity as respiration and decomposition outpaced photosynthetic production. We measured a ≥ 6-fold increase in biomass of fish dropped on the levee by foraging avian predators compared with weeks prior to and following the low-DO event. California Gulls rapidly responded to the availability of aerobically-stressed and vulnerable fish and increased in abundance by two orders of magnitude. Mark-recapture analysis of 254 Forster's Tern chicks indicated that their survival declined substantially following the increase in gull abundance. Thus, management actions to reduce salinity concentrations resulted in cascading effects in trophic interactions that serves as a cautionary tale illustrating the importance of understanding the interaction of water quality

  14. Unintended consequences of management actions in salt pond restoration: cascading effects in trophic interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takekawa, John Y; Ackerman, Joshua T; Brand, L Arriana; Graham, Tanya R; Eagles-Smith, Collin A; Herzog, Mark P; Topping, Brent R; Shellenbarger, Gregory G; Kuwabara, James S; Mruz, Eric; Piotter, Sara L; Athearn, Nicole D

    2015-01-01

    Salt evaporation ponds have played an important role as habitat for migratory waterbirds across the world, however, efforts to restore and manage these habitats to maximize their conservation value has proven to be challenging. For example, salinity reduction has been a goal for restoring and managing former salt evaporation ponds to support waterbirds in the South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project in San Francisco Bay, California, USA. Here, we describe a case study of unexpected consequences of a low-dissolved oxygen (DO) event on trophic interactions in a salt pond system following management actions to reduce salinity concentrations. We document the ramifications of an anoxic event in water quality including salinity, DO, and temperature, and in the response of the biota including prey fish biomass, numerical response by California Gulls (Larus californicus), and chick survival of Forster's Tern (Sterna forsteri). Management actions intended to protect receiving waters resulted in decreased DO concentrations that collapsed to zero for ≥ 4 consecutive days, resulting in an extensive fish kill. DO depletion likely resulted from an algal bloom that arose following transition of the pond system from high to low salinity as respiration and decomposition outpaced photosynthetic production. We measured a ≥ 6-fold increase in biomass of fish dropped on the levee by foraging avian predators compared with weeks prior to and following the low-DO event. California Gulls rapidly responded to the availability of aerobically-stressed and vulnerable fish and increased in abundance by two orders of magnitude. Mark-recapture analysis of 254 Forster's Tern chicks indicated that their survival declined substantially following the increase in gull abundance. Thus, management actions to reduce salinity concentrations resulted in cascading effects in trophic interactions that serves as a cautionary tale illustrating the importance of understanding the interaction of water quality

  15. An Example of a Gentrification: Unintended Consequences of an in Situ Rehabilitation Project in Ankara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reyhan Varlı Görk

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article is about an early example of gentrification processes in Ankara, the capital of Turkey. A unique form of the gentrification process is examined using a case study of a small inner-city neighborhood on Koza Street through the monitoring of the area between 1998 and 2016, and giving voice to both the gentrifiers and gentrified. Almost ninety percent of the population in the area was displaced despite the inclusionary principles of an in situ Rehabilitation Project which has led to a large scale transformation of the physical space of the street. The study includes four field studies conducted at different time intervals (1998, 2001, 2004, 2009 and a follow-up visit (2016 to the neighborhood, to critically assess the progression of gentrification in Turkey through its phases. Even though gentrification usually refers to the middle class invasion of urban land originally inhabited by the less privileged, our case reveals the effects of successive modes of a gentrification process which starts as an in situ rehabilitation project of a squatter prevention area initiated by a social democratic municipality with the “participation of local groups”, and turns into “gentrification by choice” in the successive years in the shadow of “Third Way” values. What is currently happening could be regarded as “gentrification by force” following urban renewal. In our case, however, the line between the two major components of gentrification, i.e., the “gentrifier” and the “gentrified”, seems to have become ambiguous, which calls for a further analysis of Turkey’s unique political and spatial dynamics.

  16. The burden of unintended pregnancies in Brazil: a social and public health system cost analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le HH

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Hoa H Le,1 Mark P Connolly,1,2 Luis Bahamondes,3 Jose G Cecatti,3 Jingbo Yu,4 Henry X Hu4 1Department of Pharmacoeconomics and Pharmacoepidemiology, University of Groningen, Groningen, the Netherlands; 2Global Market Access Solutions, Saint-Prex, Switzerland; 3Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, School of Medical Sciences, University of Campinas, Campinas, Brazil; 4Merck & Co, Whitehouse Station, NJ, USA Background: Unintended pregnancy (UP is an unmet medical need with consequences worldwide. We evaluate the costs of UP based on pregnancies in Brazil from for the year 2010. Methods: The consequences of UP were evaluated using decision analysis based on pregnancy rates and outcomes as miscarriage, induced abortion, and live birth, which were factored into the analysis. The model discriminated between maternal and child outcomes and accounted for costs (in Brazilian currency [Real$, R$] within the Brazilian public health service attributed to preterm birth, neonatal admission, cerebral palsy, and neonatal and maternal mortality. Event probabilities were obtained from local resources. Results: We estimate that 1.8 million UPs resulted in 159,151 miscarriages, 48,769 induced abortions, 1.58 million live births, and 312 maternal deaths, including ten (3% attributed to unsafe abortions. The total estimated costs attributed to UP are R$4.1 billion annually, including R$32 million (0.8% and R$4.07 billion (99.2% attributed to miscarriages and births and complications, respectively. Direct birth costs accounted for approximately R$1.22 billion (30.0%, with labor and delivery responsible for most costs (R$988 million; 24.3% for the year 2010. The remainder of costs were for infant complications (R$2.84 billion; 72.3% with hospital readmission during the first year accounting for approximately R$2.15 billion (52.9%. Based on the national cost, we estimate the cost per UP to be R$2,293. Conclusion: Despite weaknesses in precise estimates in annual

  17. The Central Intelligence Agency’s Armed Remotely Piloted Vehicle-Supported Counter-Insurgency Campaign In Pakistan – A Mission Undermined By Unintended Consequences?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Bennett

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper views America's 'drones-first' counter-insurgency effort in Pakistan through the lens of Merton's theory of the unintended consequences of purposive action. It also references Beck’s Risk Society thesis, America’s Revolution in Military Affairs doctrine, Toft’s theory of isomorphic learning, Langer’s theory of mindfulness, Highly Reliable Organisations theory and the social construction of technology (SCOT argument. With reference to Merton’s theory, the CIA-directed armed Remotely Piloted Vehicle (RPV campaign has manifest functions, latent functions and latent dysfunctions. Measured against numbers of suspected insurgents killed, the campaign can be judged a success. Measured against the level of collateral damage or the state of US-Pakistan relations, the campaign can be judged a failure. Values determine the choice of metrics. Because RPV operations eliminate risk to American service personnel, and because this is popular with both US citizens and politicians, collateral damage (the killing of civilians is not considered a policy-changing dysfunction. However, the latent dysfunctions of America's drones-first policy may be so great as to undermine that policy's intended manifest function – to make a net contribution to the War on Terror. In Vietnam the latent dysfunctions of Westmoreland’s attritional war undermined America’s policy of containment. Vietnam holds a lesson for the Obama administration.

  18. The intended and unintended consequences of communication systems on general internal medicine inpatient care delivery: a prospective observational case study of five teaching hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Robert C; Lo, Vivian; Morra, Dante; Wong, Brian M; Sargeant, Robert; Locke, Ken; Cavalcanti, Rodrigo; Quan, Sherman D; Rossos, Peter; Tran, Kim; Cheung, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Effective clinical communication is critical to providing high-quality patient care. Hospitals have used different types of interventions to improve communication between care teams, but there have been few studies of their effectiveness. To describe the effects of different communication interventions and their problems. Prospective observational case study using a mixed methods approach of quantitative and qualitative methods. General internal medicine (GIM) inpatient wards at five tertiary care academic teaching hospitals. Clinicians consisting of residents, attending physicians, nurses, and allied health (AH) staff working on the GIM wards. Ethnographic methods and interviews with clinical staff (doctors, nurses, medical students, and AH professionals) were conducted over a 16-month period from 2009 to 2010. We identified four categories that described the intended and unintended consequences of communication interventions: impacts on senders, receivers, interprofessional collaboration, and the use of informal communication processes. The use of alphanumeric pagers, smartphones, and web-based communication systems had positive effects for senders and receivers, but unintended consequences were seen with all interventions in all four categories. Interventions that aimed to improve clinical communications solved some but not all problems, and unintended effects were seen with all systems.

  19. Social Causes and Consequences of Rejection Sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    London, Bonita; Downey, Geraldine; Bonica, Cheryl; Paltin, Iris

    2007-01-01

    Predictions from the Rejection Sensitivity (RS) model concerning the social causes and consequences of RS were examined in a longitudinal study of 150 middle school students. Peer nominations of rejection, self-report measures of anxious and angry rejection expectations, and social anxiety, social withdrawal, and loneliness were assessed at two…

  20. Social consequences of multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pfleger, C C H; Flachs, E M; Koch-Henriksen, N

    2010-01-01

    and symptom at onset. METHOD: A total of 2240 Danes with onset of definite/probable MS 1980-1989, identified from the Danish MS-Registry, were included. Information on social endpoints was retrieved from Statistics Denmark. Cox regression analyses were used with onset as starting point. RESULTS: Afferent...

  1. Social consequences of closing the Ignalina NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baubinas, R.; Burneika, D.

    2001-01-01

    The possible social consequences of closing the Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant are studied. The social and economical situation in Visaginas and in the Utena region as a precondition for possible social consequences is shown. Also, two main groups of factors that can possibly influence the situation in the labour market are analysed. The problems of the enterprises that create working places and of the inhabitants of Visaginas whose possible behaviour can affect the situation in the labour market are discussed. Also, some proposals to neutralize the social costs of closing the Ignalina NPP are made. (author)

  2. Unintended costs and consequences of school closures implemented in preparation for Hurricane Isaac in Harrison County School District, Mississippi, August-September 2012.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yenlik Zheteyeva

    Full Text Available School closures, while an effective measure against the spread of disease during a pandemic, may carry unintended social and economic consequences for students and families. We evaluated these costs and consequences following a 4-day school closure in Mississippi's Harrison County School District (HCSD.In a survey of all households with students enrolled in HCSD, we collected information on difficulties related to the school closure, including interruption of employment and pay, loss of access to subsidized school meals, and arrangement of alternative childcare. We analyzed this information in the context of certain demographic characteristics of the survey respondents and households, such as race, level of education, and income. We also estimated the average number of lost work days and documented the childcare alternatives chosen by households affected by the school closure.We received 2,229 (28.4% completed surveys from an estimated 7,851 households eligible to participate. About half (1,082 [48.5%] of the households experienced at least some difficulty during the closure, primarily in three areas: uncertainty about duration of the closure, lost income, and the effort of arranging alternate childcare. Adults working outside the home, particularly the major wage earner in the household, were more likely to suffer lost income while schools were closed, an effect mitigated by paid leave benefits. Difficulty arranging childcare was reported most frequently by respondents with lower levels of education and households with younger children. Beyond the top three concerns expressed by households in HCSD, the survey also shed light on the issue of food insecurity when subsidized school meals are not available. Reported by 17.9% of households participating in the subsidized school lunch program, difficulty providing meals during the closure was associated with higher numbers of dependent children, selection of "other" as the race of the household

  3. Evaluating the unintended health consequences of poverty alleviation strategies: or what is the relevance of Mohammed Yunus to public health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohindra, K S; Haddad, Slim

    2008-01-01

    Public health researchers are increasingly shifting their attention away from merely documenting those factors that determine health--a solid evidence base on health determinants now exists--to improving our understanding of how various interventions influence population health. This paper argues for greater investigations of the potential unintended health benefits associated with participation in a poverty alleviation strategy (PAS) in low-income countries. We focus on microcredit, a PAS that has been spreading across the developing world. Microcredit aims to address the "credit gap" between the poor and the better off by offering an alternative for the poor to acquire loans: small groups are formed and loans are allocated to members based on group solidarity instead of formal collateral. We argue that microcredit corresponds with activities that will help build up health capital (e.g., greater access to resources) and describe the main pathways from microcredit participation to health. We advocate that microcredit and other potential pro-health PAS be included among the range of interventions considered by public health researchers in improving the health of the poor.

  4. The unintended consequences of maternity leaves: How agency interventions mitigate the negative effects of longer legislated maternity leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hideg, Ivona; Krstic, Anja; Trau, Raymond N C; Zarina, Tanya

    2018-06-07

    To support women in the workplace, longer legislated maternity leaves have been encouraged in Scandinavian countries and recently in Canada. Yet, past research shows that longer legislated maternity leaves (i.e., 1 year and longer) may unintentionally harm women's career progress. To address this issue, we first sought to identify one potential mechanism underlying negative effects of longer legislated maternity leaves: others' lower perceptions of women's agency. Second, we utilize this knowledge to test interventions that boost others' perceptions of women's agency and thus mitigate negative effects of longer legislated maternity leaves. We test our hypotheses in three studies in the context of Canadian maternity leave policies. Specifically, in Study 1, we found that others' lower perceptions of women's agency mediated the negative effects of a longer legislated maternity leave, that is, 1 year (vs. shorter, i.e., 1 month maternity leave) on job commitment. In Study 2, we found that providing information about a woman's agency mitigates the unintended negative effects of a longer legislated maternity leave on job commitment and hireability. In Study 3, we showed that use of a corporate program that enables women to stay in touch with the workplace while on maternity leave (compared to conditions in which no such program was offered; a program was offered but not used by the applicant; and the program was offered, but there was no information about its usage by the applicant) enhances agency perceptions and perceptions of job commitment and hireability. Implications for theory and practice are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. The dangers of posthumous diagnoses and the unintended consequences of facile associations : Jeffrey Dahmer and autism spectrum disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palermo, M.T.; Bogaerts, S.

    2015-01-01

    Posthumous diagnoses are not uncommonly given to notorious public and historical figures by applying retrospectively, and typically in the absence of the individual being diagnosed, contemporary diagnostic criteria. Although this may be relatively easy and free of consequences when it concerns

  6. Health, social and economic consequences of hypersomnia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jennum, Poul; Ibsen, Rikke; Avlund, Kirsten

    2014-01-01

    with hypersomnia had significantly higher rates of health-related contact, medication use and socioeconomic cost. Furthermore, they had slightly lower employment rates, and those in employment had a lower income level than control subjects. The annual mean excess health-related cost including social transfers...... was 3,498 for patients with hypersomnia and 3,851 for their partners. The social and health-related consequences could be identified up to 11 years before the first diagnosis among both the patients and their partners and became more pronounced as the disease advanced. The health effects were......, including frequencies of primary and sector contacts and procedures, medication, labour supply and social transfer payments were extracted from the national databases. A total of 2,855 national patients was compared to 11,382 controls. About 70 % of patients and controls were married or cohabiting. Patients...

  7. The Unintended Consequences of School Inspection: The Prevalence of Inspection Side-Effects in Austria, The Czech Republic, England, Ireland, The Netherlands, Sweden, and Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Karen L.; Tymms, Peter; Kemethofer, David; O'Hara, Joe; McNamara, Gerry; Huber, Stephan; Myrberg, Eva; Skedsmo, Guri; Greger, David

    2017-01-01

    It has been widely documented that accountability systems, including school inspections, bring with them unintended side effects. These unintended effects are often negative and have the potential to undo the intended positive effects. However the empirical evidence is limited. Through a European comparative study we have had the rare opportunity…

  8. The golden goose in the crosshairs: the transition to defined contribution pension plans in the public sector: unintended consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Brian R

    2013-01-01

    State, county, and local governments are currently facing a myriad of economic issues, based on shrinking tax revenues combined with increased expenditures. Of these, the costs related to defined benefit pension plans are one of the most serious issues facing many public employers. Through a comprehensive review of the existing literature, this article examines how the shift from the defined benefit (DB) to defined contribution (DC) pension plan has the potential to enhance levels of labor unrest due to changes in union militancy, bargaining skills deficits, intra-organizational conflict, and issues related to economic trade-offs. Besides the capacity for immediate and deleterious ramifications in the collective bargaining process, the transition to the DC pension also presents some potentially negative consequences related to human resource management, including changes in the psychological contract, recruitment strategies, employee turnover, and changes in retirement patterns. Recommendations to improve labor relations and human resource management practices in the DC pension environment are also explored.

  9. Social consequences of the energy situation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1975-01-01

    Seven members of either the Council of the British Association for the Advancement of Science or the Institute of Fuel Contributed to the thinking upon which reasonable national policies must be based, and summarized in this report. The report first examines some largely economic questions--the likely future of the price of OPEC oil, its consequences for the price of other forms of energy, and the way in which economic and technical considerations are likely to change the pattern of energy consumption in countries such as Britain. Second, concentrating chiefly on Britain, the panel sets out to define the areas of public policy and social habit in which consequential changes are likely to come about; sometimes, it is possible to foretell the future. Third, they set out to understand to what extent Britain is a special case, distinguished from similar developed countries by disadvantages such as its current economic weakness or by advantages such as North Sea oil. Finally, they take up less parochial questions; the international politics of energy supply are no part of the paper, but there is great interest in such questions as the extent to which the mutual impoverishment of developed and developing countries will sour the relationship between them, not to mention the social consequences of the now probable long-term decline in the buoyancy of air travel.

  10. Unintended possible consequences of fuel input taxes for individual investments in greenhouse gas mitigation technologies and the resulting emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinz E. Klingelhöfer

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: South Africa is planning to introduce a carbon tax as a Pigouvian measure for the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, one of the tax bases designed as a fuel input tax. In this form, it is supposed to incentivise users to reduce and/or substitute fossil fuels, leading to a reduction of CO2 emissions. Aim: This article examines how such a carbon tax regime may affect the individual willingness to invest in greenhouse gas mitigation technologies. Setting: Mathematical derivation, using methods of linear programming, duality theory and sensitivity analysis. Methods: By employing a two-step evaluation approach, it allows to identify the factors determining the maximum price an individual investor would pay for such an investment, given the conditions of imperfect markets. Results: This price ceiling depends on the (corrected net present values of the payments and on the interdependencies arising from changes in the optimal investment and production programmes. Although the well-established results of environmental economics usually can be confirmed for a single investment, increasing carbon taxes may entail sometimes contradictory and unexpected consequences for individual investments in greenhouse gas mitigation technologies and the resulting emissions. Under certain circumstances, they may discourage such investments and, when still undertaken, even lead to higher emissions. However, these results can be interpreted in an economically comprehensible manner. Conclusion: Under the usually given conditions of imperfect markets, the impact of a carbon tax regime on individual investment decisions to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions is not as straight forward as under the usually assumed, but unrealistically simplifying perfect market conditions. To avoid undesired and discouraging effects, policy makers cannot make solitary decisions, but have to take interdependencies on the addressee´s side into account. The individual investor

  11. Anticipating the Social Consequences of AIDS: A Position Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berk, Richard A.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Focuses on the social consequences of the AIDS epidemic, arguing that sociologists have an important contribution to make in planning for the long-range social consequences of AIDS. Concludes with three different commentaries on Berk's article. (Author/BSR)

  12. Imperfect Annuity Markets, Unintended Bequests, and the Optimal Age Structure of Social Security Benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Feldstein

    1989-01-01

    The social security program now provides a constant real benefit throughout each retirees lifetime. This paper examines whether total welfare would rise if benefits were lower in early retirement years (when most individuals have some saving with which to finance consumption) and higher in later years (when the uncertainty of survival and the absence of actuarially fair private annuities makes the availability of social security benefits more important.) The analysis shows that there is a pot...

  13. Psychological Aspects of Contraception, Unintended Pregnancy, and Abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Julia R; Rubin, Lisa R

    2014-10-01

    The knowledge of important biopsychosocial factors linking women's reproductive health and mental health is increasing. This review focuses on psychological aspects of contraception, unintended pregnancy, and abortion because these are common reproductive health experiences in U.S. women's lives. This review addresses the mental-health antecedents and consequences of these experiences, mostly focusing on depression and depressive symptoms before and after unintended pregnancy and contraception. As mental-health antecedents, depressive symptoms predict contraceptive behaviors that lead to unintended pregnancy, and mental-health disorders have been associated with having subsequent abortions. In examining the mental-health consequences, most sound research does not find abortion or contraceptive use to cause mental-health problems. Consequently, evidence does not support policies based on the notion that abortion harms women's mental health. Nevertheless, the abortion-care setting may be a place to integrate mental-health services. In contrast, women who have births resulting from unintended pregnancies may be at higher risk of postpartum depression. Social policies (e.g., paid maternity leave, subsidized child care) may protect women from mental-health problems and stress of unplanned children interrupting employment, education, and pre-existing family care responsibilities.

  14. Exploring Unintended Social Side Effects of Tent Distribution Practices in Post-Earthquake Haiti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Helen Logie

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The January 2010 earthquake devastated Haiti’s social, economic and health infrastructure, leaving 2 million persons—one-fifth of Haiti’s population—homeless. Internally displaced persons relocated to camps, where human rights remain compromised due to increased poverty, reduced security, and limited access to sanitation and clean water. This article draws on findings from 3 focus groups conducted with internally displaced young women and 3 focus groups with internally displaced young men (aged 18–24 in Leogane, Haiti to explore post-earthquake tent distribution practices. Focus group findings highlighted that community members were not engaged in developing tent distribution strategies. Practices that distributed tents to both children and parents, and linked food and tent distribution, inadvertently contributed to “chaos”, vulnerability to violence and family network breakdown. Moving forward we recommend tent distribution strategies in disaster contexts engage with community members, separate food and tent distribution, and support agency and strategies of self-protection among displaced persons.

  15. Improving Evaluation to Address the Unintended Consequences of Health Information Technology:. a Position Paper from the Working Group on Technology Assessment & Quality Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Magrabi, F.; Ammenwerth, E.; Hyppönen, H.; de Keizer, N.; Nykänen, P.; Rigby, M.; Scott, P.; Talmon, J.; Georgiou, A.

    2016-01-01

    With growing use of IT by healthcare professionals and patients, the opportunity for any unintended effects of technology to disrupt care health processes and outcomes is intensified. The objectives of this position paper by the IMIA Working Group (WG) on Technology Assessment and Quality

  16. Direitos humanos internacionais: conseqüências não intencionais da guerra contra o terrorismo International human rights: unintended consequences of the war on terrorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack Donnelly

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available O artigo trata da política externa norte-americana para direitos humanos no pós-11 de setembro. O argumento central é o de que as preocupações humanitárias foram obscurecidas pelo recrudescimento das questões de segurança na agenda política norte-americana desde os ataques terroristas em 2001. Ademais, o próprio conceito de segurança foi alterado. A ideologização provocada pela guerra antiterrorismo fez com que interesses em segurança passassem a ser concorrentes dos interesses em direitos humanos, revertendo o processo de mudança da política externa norte-americana iniciado no pós-Guerra Fria. A demonização do inimigo e a adoção de postura política cada vez mais unilateral por parte de Washington favorecem uma visão de "segurança nacional" que deixa pouco (ou nenhum espaço para os direitos humanos internacionais. Contudo, as conseqüências resultantes da mudança na política externa americana podem ser consideradas, em larga medida, não intencionais, o que abriria espaço para uma possível ampliação da dimensão humana nas questões de segurança, desde que alterada também a conjuntura internacional.The article aims at discussing US foreign policy regarding international human rights after September, 11th. The main argument is that humanitarian concerns have been eclipsed by the re-inflation of security concerns in US foreign policy agenda since the terrorist attacks in 2001. Besides, there have been changes in the understanding of security. The definition of security in more ideological terms caused by the war on terror has created a competitive relation between human rights and security interests, retreating the process of change in US foreign policy that had begun after the end of the Cold War. The demonization of enemies and Washington's tendency towards unilateralism favor a vision of "national security" that leaves little (or no space for international human rights. However, the consequences of the recent

  17. Class differences in the social consequences of illness?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindholm, C; Burström, B; Diderichsen, F

    2002-01-01

    with eight years interval 1979-89 and 1986-97. Sociodemographic characteristics, self reported longstanding illness, employment situation and financial conditions were measured at baseline. Social consequences (economic inactivity, unemployment, financial difficulties) of limiting longstanding illness were......STUDY OBJECTIVE: To investigate adverse social consequences of limiting longstanding illness and the modifying effect of socioeconomic position on these consequences. DESIGN: Cohort study on the panel within the annual Swedish Survey of Living Conditions where participants were interviewed twice...

  18. Social power and social class: conceptualization, consequences, and current challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rucker, Derek D; Galinsky, Adam D

    2017-12-01

    This article offers a primer on social power and social class with respect to their theoretical importance, conceptual distinction, and empirical relationship. We introduce and define the constructs of social power, social class, and one's psychological sense of power. We next explore the complex relationship between social power and social class. Because social class can produce a sense of power within an individual, studies on social power can inform theory and research on social class. We conclude with a discussion of the current challenges and future opportunities for the study of social power and social class. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Social structural consequences of population growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, R E

    1981-01-01

    Estimates from archaeological data of the numbers in the elite classes, nonelite occupational specialists, density of population, city size, and size of political units in the ancient Maya civilization suggest that there was a quantum shift in rate of development in the Early Classic period, associated with intensification of agriculture, and that the social structure approximated to a generalized feudal pattern.

  20. Social emotional consequences of accelerating gifted students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogeveen, A.J.M.

    2008-01-01

    This dissertations reports four studies on the social-emotional effects of accelerating gifted students. The research concentrated on how and to what extent educational programs, in interaction with environmental and personal factors, influence the functioning of gifted students, in the short and

  1. Health, social and economic consequences of dementias

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frahm-Falkenberg, S.; Ibsen, Rikke; Kjellberg, J.

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose: Dementia causes morbidity, disability and mortality, and as the population ages the societal burden will grow. The direct health costs and indirect costs of lost productivity and social welfare of dementia were estimated compared with matched controls in a national register......, gender, geographical area and civil status. Direct health costs included primary and secondary sector contacts, medical procedures and medication. Indirect costs included the effect on labor supply. All cost data were extracted from national databases. The entire cohort was followed for the entire period...... – before and after diagnosis. Results: In all, 78 715 patients were identified and compared with 312 813 matched controls. Patients' partners were also identified and matched with a control group. Patients had lower income and higher mortality and morbidity rates and greater use of medication. Social...

  2. Epilepsy genetics: clinical beginnings and social consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, J A; Rees, M I; Smith, P E M

    2009-07-01

    The approach to epilepsy care has transformed in the last 30 years, with more and better anti-epileptic medications, improved cerebral imaging and increased surgical options. Alongside this, developments in neuroscience and molecular genetics have furthered the understanding of epileptogenesis. Future developments in pharmacogenomics hold the promise of antiepileptic drugs matched to specific genotypes. Despite this rapid progress, one-third of epilepsy patients remain refractory to medication, with their seizures impacting upon day-to-day activity, social well-being, independence, economic output and quality of life. International genome collaborations, such as HapMap and the Welcome Trust Case-Control Consortium single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) mapping project have identified common genetic variations in diseases of major public health importance. Such genetic signposts should help to identify at-risk populations with a view to producing more effective pharmaceutical treatments. Neurological disorders, despite comprising one-fifth of UK acute medical hospital admissions, are surprisingly under-represented in these projects. Epilepsy is the commonest serious neurological disorder worldwide. Although physically, psychologically, socially and financially disabling, it rarely receives deserved attention from physicians, scientists and governmental bodies. As outlined in this article, research into epilepsy genetics presents unique challenges. These help to explain why the identification of its complex genetic traits has lagged well behind other disciplines, particularly the efforts made in neuropsychiatric disorders. Clinical beginnings must underpin any genetic understanding in epilepsy. Success in identifying genetic traits in other disorders does not make the automatic case for genome-wide screening in epilepsy, but such is a desired goal. The essential clinical approach of accurately phenotyping, diagnosing and interpreting the dynamic nature of epilepsy

  3. "This baby came up and then he said, "I give up!": The interplay between unintended pregnancy, sexual partnership dynamics and social support and the impact on women's well-being in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewinsohn, Rebecca; Crankshaw, Tamaryn; Tomlinson, Mark; Gibbs, Andrew; Butler, Lisa; Smit, Jenni

    2018-07-01

    Unintended pregnancy is associated with poor maternal and child health outcomes. To improve the health and wellbeing of women during the antenatal period, additional research in settings where unintended pregnancies are common is required to better understand the impact of the pregnancy on women's emotional health, relationships, and support structures. To examine the personal, social and economic factors shaping the antenatal experiences of women in a resource-constrained setting with high rates of unintended pregnancy and HIV. Qualitative, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 30 women from an urban informal settlement in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, who had given birth within the last six weeks. Most participants (n = 27, 90%) reported that their pregnancy had not been planned. Unintended pregnancy marked a period of heightened stress and vulnerability for many participants due to increased financial strain, HIV status, and trauma associated with past or current violence. Family members and sexual partners could mitigate financial stress and be sources of emotional and material support during the antenatal period. However, participants frequently experienced increased instability and conflict in sexual partner and family relationships due to the unintended pregnancy, exacerbating women's stress. A nuanced understanding of the factors shaping women's emotional responses to an unintended pregnancy may aid in identification of women who are most likely to experience high levels of antenatal stress and to prioritize these women for intervention in order to prevent associated poor maternal and child health outcomes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Rethinking the health consequences of social class and social mobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simandan, Dragos

    2018-03-01

    The task of studying the impact of social class on physical and mental health involves, among other things, the use of a conceptual toolbox that defines what social class is, establishes how to measure it, and sets criteria that help distinguish it from closely related concepts. One field that has recently witnessed a wealth of theoretical and conceptual research on social class is psychology, but geographers' and sociologists' attitude of diffidence toward this "positivistic" discipline has prevented them from taking advantage of this body of scholarship. This paper aims to highlight some of the most important developments in the psychological study of social class and social mobility that speak to the long-standing concerns of health geographers and sociologists with how social position, perceptions, social comparisons, and class-based identities impact health and well-being. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Information on economic and social consequences of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-07-01

    This ''Information on economic and social consequences of the Chernobyl accident'' was presented to the July 1990 session of the Economic and Social Council of the United Nations by the delegations of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic and the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic. It presents the radiation situation, the medical aspects of the accident, the evacuation of the inhabitants from areas affected by radioactive contamination and their social welfare, the agro-industrial production and forestry in these areas, the decontamination operations, the scientific back-up for the work dealing with the consequences of the accident and the expenditure and losses resulting from the Chernobyl disaster

  6. Mortality, health, social and economic consequences of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jennum, Poul; Ibsen, Rikke Falkner; Pedersen, Stephen Wørlich

    2013-01-01

    included labour supply and social transfer payments, and were based on income data derived from Coherent Social Statistics. Patients with a diagnosis of ALS had poor survival. The average (95 % CI) 5-year survival rate was 0.278 (0.358-0.298) compared with 0.865 (0.858-0.872) among controls. Patients...... to compensate for the social consequences to patients by increasing their net income after ALS diagnosis....

  7. Mental Retardation; Its Social Context and Social Consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farber, Bernard

    Concerned with mental retardation as a social product, the following topics are discussed: mental retardation as a social phenomenon, the concept of the retarded as surplus population, labeling and incompetence in relation to life chances, mental retardation as deviance and as incompetence, and findings on the prevalence of retardation in the…

  8. (Un)Intended Consequences? The Impact of the Brown v. Board of Education Decision on the Employment Status of Black Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillman, Linda C.

    2004-01-01

    The displacement of Black educators after the "Brown v. Board of Education" decision was an extraordinary social injustice. The wholesale firing of Black educators threatened the economic, social, and cultural structure of the Black community, and ultimately the social, emotional, and academic success of Black children. The author presents a…

  9. Social and Political Consequences of Reza Shah’s Acquisition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Mirdar

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this research, the effects and social and political consequences of the acquisition of land and property by Reza Khan have been addressed. The importance of the issue was due to the small amount of ownership of property and land, and consequently the change in the social and political relations of previous landowners and the replacement of Reza Khan's trusted individuals. The main issue of this research is the explanation of some social and political events in the field of land and property acquisition. In this regard, the role of taking possession of property in advancing Reza Khan's autocratic thoughts on the diminution of religion in social life, as well as the weakening of the power of the constitutional and opposition leaders of Reza Khan has been explained. The result of this study was the wide-ranging consequences of the acquisition of land and property in the social form of people's lives and the transformation of the social classes on the basis of Reza Khan's ambitious policies. This form of appropriation has changed the course of government and parliament besides it came to the end of a decade that led to the power and influence of the politician in favor of Reza Khan.

  10. Consequences of early malnutrition for subsequent social and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The consequences of mild-to-moderate malnutrition during early childhood for social and emotional status at ages eight to 16 were investigated in this study. Fifty-four Ghanaian children who were malnourished during the first three years of life were compared with 54 of their classmates who were not malnourished.

  11. Social carry-over effects on non-social behavioral variation: mechanisms and consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petri Toivo Niemelä

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The field of animal personality is interested in decomposing behaviors into different levels of variation, with its present focus on the ecological and evolutionary causes and consequences of expressed variation. Recently the role of the social environment, i.e. social partners, has been suggested to affect behavioral variation and induce selection on animal personality. Social partner effects exist because characters of social partners (e.g. size, behavior, affect the behavioral expression of a focal individual. Here, we 1 first review the proximate mechanisms underlying the social partner effects on behavioral expression and the timescales at which such effects might take place. We then 2 discuss how within- and among-individual variation in single behaviors and covariation between multiple behaviors, caused by social partners, can carry-over to non-social behaviors expressed outside the social context. Finally, we 3 highlight evolutionary consequences of social carry-over effects to non-social behaviors and 4 suggest study designs and statistical approaches which can be applied to study the nature and evolutionary consequences of social carry-over effects on non-social behaviors. Understanding the proximate mechanisms underpinning the social partner effects is important since it opens a door for deeper understanding of how social environments can affect behavioral variation and covariation at multiple levels, and the evolution of non-social behaviors (i.e. exploration, activity, boldness that are affected by social interactions.

  12. Mammonist Capitalism – Ubiquity, Immanence, Acceleration. And the Social Consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Isenberg

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This essay attempts at a general understanding of contemporary capitalism and some of its social and mental consequences. It works through combinations and variations of concepts from classical and contemporary social theory. Some key concepts are Mammonism, acceleration, ubiquity, self-dynamics, precariat, inertia, conformity, flexibility, specter of uselessness. The text refers to classical modern thinkers like Marx, Simmel, Musil, Benjamin, and to contemporary ideas in the works of Deleuze, Rosa, Crouch, Illouz, Standing, Hochschild. It is summoned up by asking some important, complex questions that regard democracy, community and autonomy.

  13. Medical social consequences of the safety problems of oncological radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilipenko, M.Yi.; Stadnik, L.L.; Shal'opa, O.Yu.; Rigan, M.M.; Skalets'kij, Yu.M.

    2015-01-01

    Actuality of the problem of patient safety in oncoradiology in Ukraine is grounded. The results of international audit TLD (IAEA/WHO) quality during dosimetry procedures cobalt-telegamma vehicles in Ukraine are investigated, as well as legal and regulatory framework providing for the safety of radiotherapy care, scientific publications on patient safety. Methods: statistical, analytical, bibliographical, systematic approach. On the example of radiation therapy using the results of the international program of the IAEA/WHO TLD audit quality dosimetry calibration devices for remote gamma therapy in Ukraine from 1998 to 2014 the attempt to assess the extent of medical and social consequences of underestimating of medical errors in oncoradiology is made. The problems of regulatory nature of medical errors in oncoradiology are preliminary identified. The problem of medical errors in the treatment of cancer radiation methods in Ukraine is extremely important. Usually the problems of errors in oncoradiology are considered in organizational, technical, personnel and technical aspects, while medical and social consequences of problem are not covered. About 10 thousand of cancer patients in year may suffer from errors related only to dose calculation according to the optimistic variant, while the number of patients for the same period on the pessimistic case can reach 15 thousand. There are a number of legal character problems in oncoradiology related to patient safety that require clarification. The first priority for improving the safety of patients in oncoradiology is the recording and analysis of radiation therapy defects and their consequences

  14. Stress coping style does not determine social status, but influences the consequences of social subordination stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boersma, Gretha; Schmeltzer, Michael; Scott, Karen; Scheurink, Antonius; Tamashiro, Kelli; Sakai, Randall

    2017-01-01

    Chronic stress exposure may have negative consequences for health. One of the most common sources of chronic stress is stress associated with social interaction. In rodents, the effects of social stress can be studied in a naturalistic way using the visual burrow system (VBS). The way an individual

  15. Dynamics of social-psychological consequences 10 years after Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rumyantseva, G.M.; Levina, T.M.; Archangelskaya, H.V.; Zykova, I.A.

    1996-01-01

    The study has been carried out according to the long-term JSP2 in comparison with the results of data acquired by the authors in previous years in other programs in 1988-95 for more then 5 thousand people. In working out the strategy of post-catastrophe situation it is necessary to have a joint effort of the population and authority. The studies have showed that cooperation has not been achieved in this case. Hence, the effect of protective measures have been seriously decreased. Countermeasures taken after the catastrophe have had not only a positive, but in some cases a negative impact. The results of many previous studies as will as JSP2 program have shown serious social and psychological consequences of Chernobyl Accident. There is a constant year-to-year comprehension among population anxiety concerning their health. The main result of the study is that social and psychological consequences of the Chernobyl Accident include nonradiological risks as seriously as the radiation risk.23

  16. High rates of Unintended Pregnancies among Young Women Sex Workers in Conflict-affected Northern Uganda: The Social Contexts of Brothels/Lodges and Substance Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duff, Putu; Muzaaya, Godfrey; Muldoon, Katherine; Dobrer, Sabina; Akello, Monika; Birungi, Josephine; Shannon, Kate

    2017-06-01

    This study aimed to examine the correlates of unintended pregnancies among young women sex workers in conflict-affected northern Uganda. Data were drawn from the Gulu Sexual Health Study, a cross-sectional study of young women engaged in sex work. Bivariable and multivariable logistic regression was used to examine the correlates of ever having an unintended pregnancy. Among 400 sex workers (median age=20 years; IQR 19-25), 175 (43.8%) reported at least one unintended pregnancy. In multivariable analysis, primarily servicing clients in lodges/brothels [Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR= 2.24; 95% Confidence Interval: 1.03-4.84)], hormonal contraceptive usage [AOR=1.68; 95%CI 1.11-2.59] and drug/alcohol use while working [AOR= 1.64; 95%CI 1.04-2.60] were positively correlated with previous unintended pregnancy. Given that unintended pregnancy is an indicator of unmet reproductive health need, these findings highlight a need for improved access to integrated reproductive health and HIV services, catered to sex workers' needs. Sex work-led strategies (e.g., peer outreach) should be considered, alongside structural strategies and education targeting brothel/lodge owners and managers.

  17. Stress coping style does not determine social status, but influences the consequences of social subordination stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boersma, Gretha J; Smeltzer, Michael D; Scott, Karen A; Scheurink, Anton J; Tamashiro, Kellie L; Sakai, Randall R

    2017-09-01

    Chronic stress exposure may have negative consequences for health. One of the most common sources of chronic stress is stress associated with social interaction. In rodents, the effects of social stress can be studied in a naturalistic way using the visual burrow system (VBS). The way an individual copes with stress, their "stress coping style", may influence the consequences of social stress. In the current study we tested the hypothesis that stress coping style may modulate social status and influence the consequences of having a lower social status. We formed 7 VBS colonies, with 1 proactive coping male, 1 passive coping male, and 4 female rats per colony to assess whether a rat's coping style prior to colony formation could predict whether that individual is more likely to become socially dominant. The rats remained in their respective colonies for 14days and the physiological and behavioral consequences of social stress were assessed. Our study shows that stress coping style does not predict social status. However, stress coping style may influence the consequences of having a lower social status. Subordinate passive and proactive rats had distinctly different wound patterns; proactive rats had more wounds on the front of their bodies. Behavioral analysis confirmed that proactive subordinate rats engaged in more offensive interactions. Furthermore, subordinate rats with a proactive stress coping style had larger adrenals, and increased stress responsivity to a novel acute stressor (restraint stress) compared to passive subordinate rats or dominant rats, suggesting that the allostatic load may have been larger in this group. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Fracking: Unintended Consequences for Local Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    the CHDS program and has become a great friend. He made every course run worry- free so that all students had to do was focus on the academics. I am...glycol, water, and fracturing sand .16 The pressurized steam or fluid expands into any natural fractures in the formation and creates new fractures...research at the time of this writing. This research, however, has stalled for the following reasons. Some of the chemical processes are proprietary, the

  19. Unintended Consequences: How Qualification Constrains Innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brice, Craig A.

    2011-01-01

    The development and implementation of new materials and manufacturing processes for aerospace application is often hindered by the high cost and long time span associated with current qualification procedures. The data requirements necessary for material and process qualification are extensive and often require millions of dollars and multiple years to complete. Furthermore, these qualification data can become obsolete for even minor changes to the processing route. This burden is a serious impediment to the pursuit of revolutionary new materials and more affordable processing methods for air vehicle structures. The application of integrated computational materials engineering methods to this problem can help to reduce the barriers to rapid insertion of new materials and processes. By establishing predictive capability for the development of microstructural features in relation to processing and relating this to critical property characteristics, a streamlined approach to qualification is possible. This paper critically examines the advantages and challenges to a modeling-assisted qualification approach for aerospace structural materials. An example of how this approach might apply towards the emerging field of additive manufacturing is discussed in detail.

  20. The Unintended Consequences of Killing Civilians

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-17

    and masturbation , and other forms of sexual humiliation, were not unique to Abu Ghraib. Similar abuses also occurred...enhanced] “interrogation techniques” practiced at Guantanamo Bay and Abu Ghraib, and similar facilities not on American soil, did not fall under...people,’ and the best way to do that is by sharing best practices and improving overall COIN awareness.”62 The International Security Assistance Force

  1. Thinking about the 'Law of Unintended Consequences'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi Singh

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The United State’s now-not-so-covert drone based program targeting Al Qaeda (AQ and Taliban commanders based in Pakistan’s inhospitable and hostile Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FETA has been operational since 2004. However, US air strikes in Pakistan’s tribal belt have steadily escalated over the past three years. The US has claimed that these attacks have successfully decimated core Al Qaeda and Taliban leadership. This past September alone the US military conducted 26 drone strikes in Pakistan, racking up a figure that the BBC is calling the "highest monthly total for the past six years". Not only do these steadily escalating drone strikes raise some pertinent questions about US/NATO successes claimed under the rubric of the Global War on Terror (or if you prefer, the Overseas Contingency Operations but they also shed some light on the deteriorating political situation in Pakistan.

  2. Social phenotype extended to communities: expanded multilevel social selection analysis reveals fitness consequences of interspecific interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campobello, Daniela; Hare, James F; Sarà, Maurizio

    2015-04-01

    In social species, fitness consequences are associated with both individual and social phenotypes. Social selection analysis has quantified the contribution of conspecific social traits to individual fitness. There has been no attempt, however, to apply a social selection approach to quantify the fitness implications of heterospecific social phenotypes. Here, we propose a novel social selection based approach integrating the role of all social interactions at the community level. We extended multilevel selection analysis by including a term accounting for the group phenotype of heterospecifics. We analyzed nest activity as a model social trait common to two species, the lesser kestrel (Falco naumanni) and jackdaw (Corvus monedula), nesting in either single- or mixed-species colonies. By recording reproductive outcome as a measure of relative fitness, our results reveal an asymmetric system wherein only jackdaw breeding performance was affected by the activity phenotypes of both conspecific and heterospecific neighbors. Our model incorporating heterospecific social phenotypes is applicable to animal communities where interacting species share a common social trait, thus allowing an assessment of the selection pressure imposed by interspecific interactions in nature. Finally, we discuss the potential role of ecological limitations accounting for random or preferential assortments among interspecific social phenotypes, and the implications of such processes to community evolution. © 2015 The Author(s).

  3. Psychological Aspects of Contraception, Unintended Pregnancy, and Abortion

    OpenAIRE

    Steinberg, Julia R.; Rubin, Lisa R.

    2014-01-01

    The knowledge of important biopsychosocial factors linking women's reproductive health and mental health is increasing. This review focuses on psychological aspects of contraception, unintended pregnancy, and abortion because these are common reproductive health experiences in U.S. women's lives. This review addresses the mental-health antecedents and consequences of these experiences, mostly focusing on depression and depressive symptoms before and after unintended pregnancy and contraceptio...

  4. Social and Economic Consequences of the 1987 Earthquakes in Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Albornoz

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available El 5 de marzo de 1987, dos terremotos de 6,1 y 6,9 grados en la escala Richter sacudieron en noreste del Ecuador. Si bien el país había vivido terremotos más fuertes, el de 1987 representa uno de los que más golpearon su economía. Para entender la gravedad de las consecuencias económicas y sociales que este fenómeno natural tuvo, es necesario revisar la realidad ecuatoriana previa al desastre. En particular tres factores habrían hecho más vulnerable al país frente a los terremotos de ese año: condiciones climáticas desfavorables, infraestructura vulnerable y malas políticas económicas. El resultado de esta vulnerabilidad fue que un terremoto causó una crisis económica que duró alrededor de cinco años. Abstract On March 5, 1987, northeastern Ecuador was shaken by two earthquakes, which registered 6.1 and 6.9 degrees, respectively, on the Richter scale. Even though the country had experienced stronger earthquakes, the ones that occurred in 1987 hit the economy harder than most. In order to understand how serious the economic and social consequences of this natural disaster were, it is necessary to examine Ecuador’s reality prior to these events. Three factors in particular made the country more susceptible to repercussions from the 1987 earthquakes: unfavorable climatic conditions, vulnerable infrastructure and ill-conceived economic policies. This meant that the earthquakes gave rise to an economic crisis that lasted approximately five years.

  5. Early evidence about the predicted unintended consequences of standardised packaging of tobacco products in Australia: a cross-sectional study of the place of purchase, regular brands and use of illicit tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scollo, Michelle; Zacher, Meghan; Durkin, Sarah; Wakefield, Melanie

    2014-07-18

    To test for early evidence whether, following the standardisation of tobacco packaging, smokers in Australia were--as predicted by the tobacco industry--less likely to purchase from small mixed business retailers, more likely to purchase cheap brands imported from Asia and more likely to use illicit tobacco. Serial cross-sectional population telephone surveys in November 2011 (a year prior to implementation), 2012 (during roll-out) and 2013 (a year after implementation). Smokers aged 18 years and over identified in an annual population survey in the Australian state of Victoria (2011: n=754; 2012: n=590; 2013: n=601). Changes between 2011 and 2013 in: proportions of current smokers who purchased their last cigarette from discount outlets such as supermarkets compared with small mixed business retail outlets; prevalence of regular use of low-cost brands imported from Asia and use of unbranded tobacco. The proportion of smokers purchasing from supermarkets did not increase between 2011 (65.4%) and 2013 (65.7%; p=0.98), and the percentage purchasing from small mixed business outlets did not decline (2011: 9.2%; 2012: 11.2%; p=0.32). The prevalence of low-cost Asian brands was low and did not increase between 2011 (1.1%) and 2013 (0.9%; p=0.98). The proportion reporting current use of unbranded illicit tobacco was 2.3% in 2011 and 1.9% in 2013 (p=0.46). In 2013, 2.6% of cigarette smokers reported having purchased one or more packets of cigarettes in non-compliant packaging in the past 3 months; 1.7% had purchased one or more packets from an informal seller in the past year. One year after implementation, this study found no evidence of the major unintended consequences concerning loss of smoker patrons from small retail outlets, flooding of the market by cheap Asian brands and use of illicit tobacco predicted by opponents of plain packaging in Australia. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence

  6. Managing social impact in design: tools and methods for anticipating consequences of technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouma, Jantine

    2013-01-01

    The use of email communication, mobile phones and cars has had wide-ranging social consequences. What is more, designers are plainly not always aware of all social consequences of technology, despite practicing user-centred design. Modern technology creates possibilities to influence social

  7. Social consequences of subclinical negative symptoms: An EMG study of facial expressions within a social interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riehle, Marcel; Lincoln, Tania M

    2017-06-01

    The negative symptoms of schizophrenia are related to lower social functioning even in non-clinical samples, but little is known about the distinct social consequences of motivational and expressive negative symptoms. In this study we focused on expressive negative symptoms and examined how these symptoms and varying degrees of pro-social facial expressiveness (smiling and mimicry of smiling) relate to the social evaluations by face-to-face interaction partners and to social support. We examined 30 dyadic interactions within a sample of non-clinical participants (N = 60) who were rated on motivational and expressive negative symptoms with the Clinical Assessment Interview for Negative Symptoms (CAINS). We collected data on both interaction partners' smiling-muscle (zygomaticus major) activation simultaneously with electromyography and assessed the general amount of smiling and the synchrony of smiling muscle activations between interaction partners (mimicry of smiling). Interaction partners rated their willingness for future interactions with each other after the interactions. Interaction partners of participants scoring higher on expressive negative symptoms expressed less willingness for future interactions with these participants (r = -0.37; p = 0.01). Smiling behavior was negatively related to expressive negative symptoms but also explained by motivational negative symptoms. Mimicry of smiling and both negative symptom domains were also associated with participants' satisfaction with their social support network. Non-clinical sample with (relatively) low levels of symptoms. Expressive negative symptoms have tangible negative interpersonal consequences and directly relate to diminished pro-social behavior and social support, even in non-clinical samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Gender matters: the relationship between social anxiety and alcohol-related consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schry, Amie R; Norberg, Melissa M; Maddox, Brenna B; White, Susan W

    2014-01-01

    Identification of risk factors for alcohol-related consequences is an important public health concern. Both gender and social anxiety have been associated with alcohol-related consequences broadly, but it is unknown whether these variables are differentially related to specific types of alcohol-related consequences for American college students. In the present study, 573 undergraduate students (M(age) = 19.86 years, SD = 1.40; range 18 to 25; 68.9% female) completed an on-line assessment of social anxiety, alcohol use, and four types of alcohol-related consequences (personal, social, physical, and role). Poisson regressions were run to examine social anxiety, gender, and the interaction between social anxiety and gender as predictors of each type of alcohol-related consequences. After controlling for alcohol use, social anxiety was positively associated with all four types of consequences, and females endorsed higher rates of physical, personal, and role consequences. The interaction between social anxiety and gender was statistically significant only for physical consequences, with social anxiety having a stronger effect for males. These findings, which diverge somewhat from those of a prior study with Australian college students, are discussed in the context of a biopsychosocial model of social anxiety and substance use problems. This study highlights the importance of further investigating cultural differences in the relationships among social anxiety, gender, and alcohol-related consequences.

  9. Adverse consequences of student drinking: the role of sex, social anxiety, drinking motives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norberg, Melissa M; Olivier, Jake; Alperstein, Dion M; Zvolensky, Michael J; Norton, Alice R

    2011-08-01

    This study examined whether biological sex, social anxiety, and drinking motives relate differently to distinct types of alcohol-related consequences using Poisson regression. One hundred eighteen college students completed self-report measures assessing drinking motives and social anxiety and an interview assessing alcohol consumption and consequences. Highly socially anxious women were particularly apt to experience adverse role functioning consequences, while men were particularly apt to experience physical consequences. Although highly socially anxious women reported more personal consequences than did women with low to moderate social anxiety, men with low to moderate social anxiety reported experiencing more social and personal consequences than did women with low to moderate social anxiety. When taking into consideration the above associations, coping motives were statistically associated with social consequences and marginally related to personal consequences, while enhancement motives were significantly associated with physical consequences. Targeting these factors may lead to effective interventions for individuals with co-occurring social anxiety and drinking problems. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Gender matters: the relationship between social anxiety and alcohol-related consequences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amie R Schry

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Identification of risk factors for alcohol-related consequences is an important public health concern. Both gender and social anxiety have been associated with alcohol-related consequences broadly, but it is unknown whether these variables are differentially related to specific types of alcohol-related consequences for American college students. METHODS: In the present study, 573 undergraduate students (M(age = 19.86 years, SD = 1.40; range 18 to 25; 68.9% female completed an on-line assessment of social anxiety, alcohol use, and four types of alcohol-related consequences (personal, social, physical, and role. Poisson regressions were run to examine social anxiety, gender, and the interaction between social anxiety and gender as predictors of each type of alcohol-related consequences. RESULTS: After controlling for alcohol use, social anxiety was positively associated with all four types of consequences, and females endorsed higher rates of physical, personal, and role consequences. The interaction between social anxiety and gender was statistically significant only for physical consequences, with social anxiety having a stronger effect for males. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: These findings, which diverge somewhat from those of a prior study with Australian college students, are discussed in the context of a biopsychosocial model of social anxiety and substance use problems. SCIENTIFIC SIGNIFICANCE: This study highlights the importance of further investigating cultural differences in the relationships among social anxiety, gender, and alcohol-related consequences.

  11. Gender Matters: The Relationship between Social Anxiety and Alcohol-Related Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schry, Amie R.; Norberg, Melissa M.; Maddox, Brenna B.; White, Susan W.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives Identification of risk factors for alcohol-related consequences is an important public health concern. Both gender and social anxiety have been associated with alcohol-related consequences broadly, but it is unknown whether these variables are differentially related to specific types of alcohol-related consequences for American college students. Methods In the present study, 573 undergraduate students (M age = 19.86 years, SD = 1.40; range 18 to 25; 68.9% female) completed an on-line assessment of social anxiety, alcohol use, and four types of alcohol-related consequences (personal, social, physical, and role). Poisson regressions were run to examine social anxiety, gender, and the interaction between social anxiety and gender as predictors of each type of alcohol-related consequences. Results After controlling for alcohol use, social anxiety was positively associated with all four types of consequences, and females endorsed higher rates of physical, personal, and role consequences. The interaction between social anxiety and gender was statistically significant only for physical consequences, with social anxiety having a stronger effect for males. Discussion and Conclusions These findings, which diverge somewhat from those of a prior study with Australian college students, are discussed in the context of a biopsychosocial model of social anxiety and substance use problems. Scientific Significance This study highlights the importance of further investigating cultural differences in the relationships among social anxiety, gender, and alcohol-related consequences. PMID:25541722

  12. The Economic Causes and Consequences of Social Instability in China

    OpenAIRE

    John Knight

    2012-01-01

    Social instability is a concept that economists rarely analyse, and yet it can lurk behind much economic policy-making. China’s leadership has often publicly expressed its concerns to avoid ‘social instability’. It is viewed as a threat both to the political order and to the continued rapid growth of the economy. This threat to growth in turn endangers the maintenance of social stability. This paper examines the likely economic determinants of social instability, using both surveys and ...

  13. Managing social impact in design : Tools and methods for anticipating consequences of technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouma, Jantine

    2013-01-01

    We need look no further than the use of email communication, mobile phones and cars to understand that technology has wide-ranging social consequences. What is more, designers are plainly not always aware of the social consequences of technology, despite practicing user-centred design. Email, for

  14. Study protocol for the optimisation, feasibility testing and pilot cluster randomised trial of Positive Choices: a school-based social marketing intervention to promote sexual health, prevent unintended teenage pregnancies and address health inequalities in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponsford, Ruth; Allen, Elizabeth; Campbell, Rona; Elbourne, Diana; Hadley, Alison; Lohan, Maria; Melendez-Torres, G J; Mercer, Catherine H; Morris, Steve; Young, Honor; Bonell, Chris

    2018-01-01

    Since the introduction of the Teenage Pregnancy Strategy (TPS), England's under-18 conception rate has fallen by 55%, but a continued focus on prevention is needed to maintain and accelerate progress. The teenage birth rate remains higher in the UK than comparable Western European countries. Previous trials indicate that school-based social marketing interventions are a promising approach to addressing teenage pregnancy and improving sexual health. Such interventions are yet to be trialled in the UK. This study aims to optimise and establish the feasibility and acceptability of one such intervention: Positive Choices. Design: Optimisation, feasibility testing and pilot cluster randomised trial.Interventions: The Positive Choices intervention comprises a student needs survey, a student/staff led School Health Promotion Council (SHPC), a classroom curriculum for year nine students covering social and emotional skills and sex education, student-led social marketing activities, parent information and a review of school sexual health services.Systematic optimisation of Positive Choices will be carried out with the National Children's Bureau Sex Education Forum (NCB SEF), one state secondary school in England and other youth and policy stakeholders.Feasibility testing will involve the same state secondary school and will assess progression criteria to advance to the pilot cluster RCT.Pilot cluster RCT with integral process evaluation will involve six different state secondary schools (four interventions and two controls) and will assess the feasibility and utility of progressing to a full effectiveness trial.The following outcome measures will be trialled as part of the pilot:Self-reported pregnancy and unintended pregnancy (initiation of pregnancy for boys) and sexually transmitted infections,Age of sexual debut, number of sexual partners, use of contraception at first and last sex and non-volitional sexEducational attainmentThe feasibility of linking administrative

  15. Personality Traits, Motivations, and Emotional Consequences of Social Media Usage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jhih-Syuan; Lee, Yen-I; Jin, Yan; Gilbreath, Bob

    2017-10-01

    This study explores social media users' personality traits and motivations for the usage of two different social media platforms, Facebook and Pinterest, as well as how the varied uses impact users' negative emotional experiences. The findings suggest that the intensity of social media usage is positively related to negative emotions. For Facebook users, socialization, entertainment, and information seeking motivations significantly influence their platform use intensity and, subsequently, lead to negative emotions. Self-status seeking also has a direct effect on Facebook users' negative emotions. For Pinterest users, socialization is not a significant motivation for usage of that platform. However, entertainment, information seeking, and self-status seeking significantly predict their platform use intensity, which subsequently lead to negative emotions. Similarly, all four motivations for Facebook and Pinterest uses are influenced by users' personality traits: extraversion and openness. Yet, openness has a greater impact on using Pinterest than Facebook in terms of fulfilling socialization needs. Neuroticism has a positive impact on socialization and information seeking motives for use of both platforms, while conscientiousness and agreeableness have a negative influence on fulfilling self-status seeking needs. In addition, agreeable social networking site users are less likely to use Facebook than Pinterest for fulfilling self-status related gratifications, while they are likely to use Pinterest instead of Facebook for entertainment and information needs. Implications of the findings and suggestions for future research are discussed.

  16. Science Fiction in Social Education: Exploring Consequences of Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Lance E.

    2013-01-01

    An NCSS Technology Position Statement and Guidelines, published in 2006 (an updated version is published in this issue of "Social Education"), affirms that social studies students should critically examine relations between technology and society. This article describes how teachers can use science fiction to introduce critical questions…

  17. Understanding social media use for work : Content, causes, and consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zoonen, W.

    2017-01-01

    The multivalent involvement of public social media platforms (e.g., Facebook, Twitter, etc.) in both social and organizational life has raised a number of questions about how, and to what extent and effects organizational members use these technologies for work-related purposes. Yet research has

  18. The Evolution of Social Learning and its Economic Consequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bossan, Benjamin; Jann, Ole; Hammerstein, Peter

    2015-01-01

    to changing environments within one generation by using their respective learning strategy. The frequency of the agent types adapts between generations according to the agents' acquired wealth. During the course of evolution, social learning becomes dominant, resulting in three major effects: First......, for better or worse, the decisions of social learners are more exaggerated than those of individual learners. Second, social learners react with a delay to changes in the environment. Third, the behavior of social learners becomes more and more detached from reality. We argue that our model gives insights......We use an evolutionary model to simulate agents who choose between two options with stochastically varying payoffs. Two types of agents are considered: individual learners, who rely on trial-and-error methods, and social learners, who imitate the wealthiest sampled individual. Agents adapt...

  19. Social Bullying: Correlates, Consequences, and Prevention. In Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart-Cassel, Victoria; Terzian, Mary; Bradshaw, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    Bullying is considered one of the most prevalent and potentially damaging forms of school violence. Each year, more than a quarter of middle and high school students are subjected to some form of bullying in their school environments. Research has identified potentially harmful immediate and long-term consequences for bullying-involved youth and…

  20. Behavioural consequences of regret and disappointment in social bargaining games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Luis M F; Zeelenberg, Marcel; Rijsman, John B

    2011-02-01

    Previous research on the role of negative emotions in social bargaining games has focused primarily on social emotions such as anger and guilt. In this article, we provide a test for behavioural differences between two prototypical decision-related negative emotions-regret and disappointment-in one-shot social dilemma games. Three experiments with two different emotion-induction procedures (autobiographical recall and imagined scenarios) and two different games (the ultimatum game and the 10-coin give-some game) revealed that regret increased prosocial behaviour, whereas disappointment decreased prosocial behaviour. These results extend previous findings concerning differences between regret and disappointment to interdependent (social) situations. © 2010 Psychology Press, an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group, an Informa business

  1. Teenage pregnancies: Consequences of poverty, ethnic background, and social conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Mogens; Azhar, Hussain

    The study investigates the economic, ethnic and social background of teenagers before becoming teenage mothers or before having an induced abortion for the first time in order to study if results will be consistent with the hypotheses that poverty, social deprivation or ethnicity are causes of teen...... were at the same level for ethnic minorities as for ethnic Danes, this was not the case for teen motherhood, when controlling for social disadvantage and poverty....... childbearing. A discrete-time proportional hazard model is applied to analyse the longitudinal observations of population-based registers covering 1981-2003 for girls born in 1981, and their parents. Results show a significant economic and social gradient for first-time teenage pregnancies. Teenagers who had...

  2. The functional consequences of social distraction: Attention and memory for complex scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, Brianna Ruth; Patai, Eva Zita; Duta, Mihaela; Nobre, Anna Christina; Scerif, Gaia

    2017-01-01

    Cognitive scientists have long proposed that social stimuli attract visual attention even when task irrelevant, but the consequences of this privileged status for memory are unknown. To address this, we combined computational approaches, eye-tracking methodology, and individual-differences measures. Participants searched for targets in scenes containing social or non-social distractors equated for low-level visual salience. Subsequent memory precision for target locations was tested. Individual differences in autistic traits and social anxiety were also measured. Eye-tracking revealed significantly more attentional capture to social compared to non-social distractors. Critically, memory precision for target locations was poorer for social scenes. This effect was moderated by social anxiety, with anxious individuals remembering target locations better under conditions of social distraction. These findings shed further light onto the privileged attentional status of social stimuli and its functional consequences on memory across individuals. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Corporate social responsibility (CSR) in sports: antecedents and consequences

    OpenAIRE

    P. Athanasopoulou; J. Douvis; V. Kyriakis

    2011-01-01

    (a) Purpose: The purpose of this research is to identify the types of CSR initiatives employed by sports organisations; their antecedents, and their consequences for the company and society. (b) Design/methodology/approach: This study is exploratory in nature. Two detailed case studies were conducted involving the football team and the basketball team of one professional, premier league club in Greece and their CSR initiatives. Both teams have the same name...

  4. Iranian Azeri women's perceptions of unintended pregnancy: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Easa; Nourizadeh, Roghaiyeh; Simbar, Masoumeh

    2015-01-01

    Many women, throughout their life cycle, experience unintended pregnancy and its subsequent induced abortion. Nonetheless, women's perceptions of this phenomenon - particularly in countries prohibiting elective abortion - are poorly known. The aim of this study was to explore Iranian Azeri women's perceptions of unintended pregnancy. This was a conventional content analysis study conducted in Tabriz, Iran. The data were collected through 31 semi-structured interviews with 23 women who had recently experienced an unintended pregnancy. The study participants were recruited using the purposive sampling method. Sampling started in March 2013 and continued until reaching data saturation, i.e. till August 2013. Data analysis was carried out concurrently with data collection. MAXQDA 10.0 software was employed for managing the study data. The study data analysis process yielded the formation of three main themes including negative effects of unintended pregnancy on daily life, fear of being stigmatized with violating social norms, and abortion panic, which in turn constituted the broader overarching theme of "threat supposition." In other words, following an unintended pregnancy, the study participants had experienced different levels of fear and threat depending on their personal, family, and socio-cultural backgrounds. Women perceive unintended pregnancy as a challenging and threatening situation. An unintended pregnancy can threaten women's lives through social deprivations, growing instability, and putting both mother and baby at risk for physical and psychosocial problems. On the other hand, an unsafe illegal abortion could have potentially life-threatening complications. To cope with such a situation, women need strong social support. Healthcare providers can fulfill such women's need for support by developing pre-abortion counseling services and providing them with professional counseling. Also, strengthening women's support system by policy-makers is recommended.

  5. Cesium-137: psychological and social consequences of the Goiania's accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helou, Suzana; Costa Neto, Sebastiao Benicio da

    1995-01-01

    The book care for radioactive accident occurred in 1987 in Goiania - brazilian city. The accident had origin by the hospitable equipment incorrect handling which contained a stainless steel capsule, in which interior there was cesium-137 chloride. The main boarded aspects are: psychological and social aspects verified after the accident; psychological and social analysis of population of Goiania three years after the accident; essay on the pertinence of Luscher's abbreviate test in psychological evaluation of the radioactive accident victims of Goiania; and psychological and mobile evaluation of intra-uterus children exposed to the radiation with cesium-137

  6. Social context and consequences of mental illness in changing scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Kumar

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Mental illness has very close and intimate relationship with societal factors and components. There have been many theoretical postulations that come from time to time to explain this relationship. Mental disorder has definite aetiological association with various socio-cultural and economic factors, and ideal interventions of mental disorders should include equal appraisal to biological, psychological, and social aspects.

  7. The emotional consequences of pro-social behavior in markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgaard, Toke Reinholt

    that emotional responses are important explanations of this finding. It is first argued that the emotional response to a pro-social decision combined with private good purchase is different from the response to a similar decision in a non-market situation. Through evidence from a laboratory experiment...

  8. Social Stress Induced Pressure Breathing and Consequent Blood Pressure Oscillation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fokkema, Dirk S.; Koolhaas, Jaap M.; Meulen, Jan van der; Schoemaker, Regien

    1986-01-01

    A large amplitude blood pressure oscillation occurs during social defeat in a territorial fight between male rats, and during the application of a psychosocial stimulus associated with this defeat. Synchronous recording of blood pressure, intrathoracic pressure and diaphragm activity shows that the

  9. Automatic behavior - its social embedding and individual consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonas, K.J.

    2013-01-01

    Automatic behavior, that is, the non-conscious activation of perceiver behavior by social category priming, has undergone considerable development in the recent years. While initial effects pointed to often rather surprising effects that could be characterized as imitation of the behavior of the

  10. Social Attributions from Faces : Determinants, Consequences, Accuracy, and Functional Significance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Todorov, Alexander; Olivola, Christopher Y; Dotsch, Ron|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/328554197; Mende-Siedlecki, Peter

    Since the early twentieth century, psychologists have known that there is consensus in attributing social and personality characteristics from facial appearance. Recent studies have shown that surprisingly little time and effort are needed to arrive at this consensus. Here we review recent research

  11. Problem drinking among Flemish students: beverage type, early drinking onset and negative personal & social consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bruyn, Sara; Wouters, Edwin; Ponnet, Koen; Van Damme, Joris; Maes, Lea; Van Hal, Guido

    2018-02-12

    Although alcohol is socially accepted in most Western societies, studies are clear about its associated negative consequences, especially among university and college students. Studies on the relationship between alcohol-related consequences and both beverage type and drinking onset, however, are scarce, especially in a European context. The aim of this research was, therefore, twofold: (1) What is the relationship between beverage type and the negative consequences experienced by students? and (2) Are these consequences determined by early drinking onset? We will examine these questions within the context of a wide range of alcohol-related consequences. The analyses are based on data collected by the inter-university project 'Head in the clouds?', measuring alcohol use among students in Flanders (Belgium). In total, a large dataset consisting of information from 19,253 anonymously participating students was available. Negative consequences were measured using a shortened version of the Core Alcohol and Drug Survey (CADS_D). Data were analysed using negative binomial regression. Results vary depending on the type of alcohol-related consequences: Personal negative consequences occur frequently among daily beer drinkers. However, a high rate of social negative consequences was recorded for both daily beer drinkers and daily spirits drinkers. Finally, early drinking onset was significantly associated with both personal and social negative consequences, and this association was especially strong between beer and spirits drinking onset and social negative consequences. Numerous negative consequences, both personal and social, are related to frequent beer and spirits drinking. Our findings indicate a close association between drinking beer and personal negative consequences as well as between drinking beer and/or spirits and social negative consequences. Similarly, early drinking onset has a major influence on the rates of both personal and social negative consequences

  12. Social Consequences of Ebola Containment Measures in Liberia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellecchia, Umberto; Crestani, Rosa; Decroo, Tom; Van den Bergh, Rafael; Al-Kourdi, Yasmine

    2015-01-01

    In the Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) outbreak in Liberia, two major emergency disease-control measures were cremation of bodies and enforcement of quarantine for asymptomatic individuals suspected of being in contact with a positive case. Enforced by State-related actors, these were promoted as the only method to curtail transmissions as soon as possible. However, as with other harsh measures witnessed by Liberian citizens, in many cases those measures elicited uncontrolled negative reactions within the communities (stigma; fear) that produced, in some cases, the opposite effect of that intended. The research has been conducted in two phases, for a total of 8 weeks. Ethnography of local practices was carried out in 7 neighbourhoods in Monrovia and 5 villages in Grand Cape Mount County in Liberia. 45 Focus Group Discussions (432 participants) and 30 semi-structured interviews sustained the observing participation. Randomly selected people from different social layers were targeted. The principal investigator worked with the help of two local assistants. Perceptions and practices were both analysed. Participants stressed how cremation perpetuated the social breakdown that started with the isolation for the sickness. Socio-economical divides were created by inequitable management of the dead: those who could bribe the burial teams obtained a burial in a private cemetery or the use of Funeral Homes. Conversely, those in economic disadvantage were forced to send their dead for cremation. State-enforced quarantine, with a mandatory prohibition of movement, raised condemnation, strengthened stigmatization and created serious socio-economic distress. Food was distributed intermittently and some houses shared latrines with non-quarantined neighbours. Escapes were also recorded. Study participants narrated how they adopted local measures of containment, through local task forces and socially-rooted control of outsiders. They also stressed how information that was not spread

  13. Social Consequences of Ebola Containment Measures in Liberia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umberto Pellecchia

    Full Text Available In the Ebola Virus Disease (EVD outbreak in Liberia, two major emergency disease-control measures were cremation of bodies and enforcement of quarantine for asymptomatic individuals suspected of being in contact with a positive case. Enforced by State-related actors, these were promoted as the only method to curtail transmissions as soon as possible. However, as with other harsh measures witnessed by Liberian citizens, in many cases those measures elicited uncontrolled negative reactions within the communities (stigma; fear that produced, in some cases, the opposite effect of that intended.The research has been conducted in two phases, for a total of 8 weeks. Ethnography of local practices was carried out in 7 neighbourhoods in Monrovia and 5 villages in Grand Cape Mount County in Liberia. 45 Focus Group Discussions (432 participants and 30 semi-structured interviews sustained the observing participation. Randomly selected people from different social layers were targeted. The principal investigator worked with the help of two local assistants. Perceptions and practices were both analysed.Participants stressed how cremation perpetuated the social breakdown that started with the isolation for the sickness. Socio-economical divides were created by inequitable management of the dead: those who could bribe the burial teams obtained a burial in a private cemetery or the use of Funeral Homes. Conversely, those in economic disadvantage were forced to send their dead for cremation. State-enforced quarantine, with a mandatory prohibition of movement, raised condemnation, strengthened stigmatization and created serious socio-economic distress. Food was distributed intermittently and some houses shared latrines with non-quarantined neighbours. Escapes were also recorded. Study participants narrated how they adopted local measures of containment, through local task forces and socially-rooted control of outsiders. They also stressed how information that was

  14. Social and psychological consequences of the Chernobyl accident in Yugoslavia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milanovic, S; Pavlovic, S [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Vinca, Belgrade (Yugoslavia)

    1997-09-01

    A day before the accident in Chernobyl, Yugoslavia was the country with nuclear energy programme, one nuclear power plant and strong affiliation towards nuclear fuel cycle. Public relation programs did not existed. The majority of information were classified and public trust was almost undisturbed. It was almost possible to say that the public attitude was indifferent. A month later everything was quite different. The public has been awaken from sleepy unconscious. The public reaction moved from surprise, interest and hunger for information to chronic suspicion. In years later phobic and radiophonic reaction become common place. The final consequence today is huge magnifying lens of public eye, watching carefully everything connected with radiation, even trivial matters, and thus forming strong pressure to decision makers. 2 refs.

  15. Social and psychological consequences of the Chernobyl accident in Yugoslavia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milanovic, S.; Pavlovic, S.

    1997-01-01

    A day before the accident in Chernobyl, Yugoslavia was the country with nuclear energy programme, one nuclear power plant and strong affiliation towards nuclear fuel cycle. Public relation programs did not existed. The majority of information were classified and public trust was almost undisturbed. It was almost possible to say that the public attitude was indifferent. A month later everything was quite different. The public has been awaken from sleepy unconscious. The public reaction moved from surprise, interest and hunger for information to chronic suspicion. In years later phobic and radiophonic reaction become common place. The final consequence today is huge magnifying lens of public eye, watching carefully everything connected with radiation, even trivial matters, and thus forming strong pressure to decision makers

  16. A focus on educational choice has social justice consequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovhus, Randi Boelskifte

    2016-01-01

    This presentation demonstrates that in Denmark there is considerable focus on educational and career choices during the last year of lower-secondary school, and investigates the possibility of using Amartya Sen?s capability approach as a lens to analyse this focus. It is argued that attention...... to the processes occurring before choices are made is of central importance, as these help to give students a genuine opportunity to choose from a broader range of options. This consideration is important from a social-justice perspective even if students end up choosing what they would have chosen without broader...

  17. The effects of social and health consequence framing on heavy drinking intentions among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingsbury, John H; Gibbons, Frederick X; Gerrard, Meg

    2015-02-01

    Many interventions targeting college student drinking have focused on negative health effects of drinking heavily; however, some research suggests that social factors may have a stronger influence on the drinking behaviour of young people. Moreover, few studies have examined message framing effects in the context of alcohol consumption. This study investigated the effects of social and health consequence framing on college students' intentions to engage in heavy drinking. This study used a 2 × 2 experimental design with an appended control condition. One hundred and twenty-four college students (74 women; M(age) = 18.9) participated in this study for course credit. Participants read vignettes that were ostensibly written by a recent graduate from the university, who described an episode of drinking in which he or she experienced either social or health consequences. These consequences were framed as either a gain (i.e., positive consequences of not drinking heavily) or a loss (i.e., negative consequences of drinking heavily). After reading the vignette, participants completed a measure of heavy drinking intentions. Regression analyses revealed that social consequences were associated with lower heavy drinking intentions when framed as a loss and that health consequences were associated with lower heavy drinking intentions when framed as a gain. These effects were stronger among those who reported higher (vs. lower) levels of previous drinking. Results suggest that interventions that focus on the negative health effects of heavy drinking may be improved by instead emphasizing the negative social consequences of drinking heavily and the positive health consequences of avoiding this behaviour. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Previous studies have shown that gain frames are more effective than loss frames when highlighting the health consequences of health risk behaviours, such as heavy drinking. The heavy drinking behaviour of young

  18. Adolescent Gaming and Gambling in Relation to Negative Social Consequences and Health

    OpenAIRE

    Hellström, Charlotta

    2015-01-01

    The aims of the thesis were to study relationships between the effects of online gaming and gambling and negative social consequences and ill health among adolescents and to determine whether gaming and gambling activities occur together. The papers in this thesis used epidemiological methods to obtain self-report information from Swedish adolescents aged 13–18 years. Time spent in online gaming was associated with negative social consequences, and this relationship was explained by online ga...

  19. Antecedents and Consequences of Social Media Adoption in Travel and Tourism: Evidence from Customers and Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed A. Abou-Shouk; Mahamoud M. Hewedi

    2016-01-01

    This study extends technology acceptance model (TAM) to investigate the antecedents and consequences of social media adoption by tourists and travel agents. It compares their perceptions on social media adoption and its consequences. Online survey was addressed to tourists and travel agents for data collection purposes. Structural equation modelling was employed for analysis purposes. The findings revealed that the majority of tourists and travel agents involved in the study believe in the us...

  20. A focus on educational choice has social justice consequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovhus, Randi Boelskifte

    2016-01-01

    This article demonstrates that in Denmark there is considerable focus on educational and career choices during the last year of lower-secondary school, and investigates the possibility of using Amartya Sen’s capability approach as a lens to analyse this focus. It is argued that attention to the p......This article demonstrates that in Denmark there is considerable focus on educational and career choices during the last year of lower-secondary school, and investigates the possibility of using Amartya Sen’s capability approach as a lens to analyse this focus. It is argued that attention...... to the processes occurring before choices are made is of central importance, as these help to give students a genuine opportunity to choose from a broader range of options. This consideration is important from a social-justice perspective even if students end up choosing what they would have chosen without broader...

  1. Gender Matters: The Relationship between Social Anxiety and Alcohol-Related Consequences

    OpenAIRE

    Schry, Amie R.; Norberg, Melissa M.; Maddox, Brenna B.; White, Susan W.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Identification of risk factors for alcohol-related consequences is an important public health concern. Both gender and social anxiety have been associated with alcohol-related consequences broadly, but it is unknown whether these variables are differentially related to specific types of alcohol-related consequences for American college students. METHODS: In the present study, 573 undergraduate students (M(age) = 19.86 years, SD = 1.40; range 18 to 25; 68.9% female) ...

  2. A working model to increase awareness of social impact

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouma, Jantine

    2014-01-01

    Designers are not always aware of all social consequences of technology, despite practicing usercentred research. With the introduction of disruptive technologies intended and unintended social impacts can be expected, therefore they need to be anticipated. But in general design practices social

  3. Energy, emissions, and social consequences of telecommuting. Technical Report One

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    By reducing transportation use, telecommuting can help reduce some of the social costs of travel (traffic congestion, time lost, emissions, dependence on imported fuels, accident deaths and property damage). These positive direct effects will be both offset and supplemented by indirect effects of telecommuting: improved traffic flow, latent demand (people will start driving more), and increased urban sprawl. The study indicates that the energy and emissions benefits of telecommuting are not likely to be entirely offset by latent travel demand or by the geographical expansion of cities; perhaps half the potential reduction in vehicle-miles traveled will be replaced by new traffic. From a fuel-use perspective, the indirect benefit of lower average emissions and fuel consumption rates appears sufficient to offset impacts from the third indirect effect, additional travel brought about by increased suburbanization. Substantial levels of telecommuting will also reduce the need for highway capacity expansion, saving capital, maintenance, and urban land. Telecommuting and its benefits will be concentrated in the largest, most congested, and most polluted urban areas (20--25% in the NYC and LA areas; 50% in the 10 largest cities; 90% in the 75 largest).Telecommuting may also have a synergistic beneficial effect on other transportation strategies, e.g., congestion pricing, parking fees, taxes discouraging travel during peak periods, etc. Other beneficial effects may include greater presence of adults at home and on residential communities. Effects of improved telecommunications technology on transportation, freight, economy, industrial operations are discussed, including implications of an ``information superhighway.``

  4. The Social Consequences of Infertility among Iranian Women: A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syedeh Batool Hasanpoor-Azghdy

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Infertility may prevent couples to achieve the desired social roles and lead to some social and psychological problems. This study aimed to explain the social consequences of infertility in Iranian women seeking treatment. Materials and Methods: A qualitative content analysis was conducted based on 32 semi-structured interviews with 25 women affected by primary and secondary infertility with no surviving children. The participants were purposefully selected with maximum variability from a fertility health research center in Tehran, Iran, from January to October 2012. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews and analyzed using the conventional content analysis method. Results: Our findings indicate that the consequences of infertility are divided into five main categories: 1. violence including psychological violence and domestic physical violence, 2. marital instability or uncertainty, 3. social isolation including avoiding certain people or certain social events and self-imposed isolation from family and friends, 4. social exclusion and partial deprivation including being disregarded by family members and relatives and reducing social interactions with the infertile woman and 5. social alienation. Conclusion: This study reveals that Iranian women with fertility issues seeking treatment face several social problems that could have devastating effects on the quality of their lives. It is, therefore, recommended that, in Iran, infertility is only considered as a biomedical issue of a couple and pay further attention to its sociocultural dimensions and consequences.

  5. Exploring unintended environmental and social-equity consequences of transit oriented development : a research report from the National Center for Sustainable Transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Communities throughout the U.S. are pursuing land use and transportation plans that locate : high density, mixed-use development near high quality rail and bus transit service. The : objective of these plans is to meet important community goals, such...

  6. G. E. Moore and theory of moral/right action in ethics of social consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gluchman Vasil

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available G. E. Moore’s critical analysis of right action in utilitarian ethics and his consequentialist concept of right action is a starting point for a theory of moral/right action in ethics of social consequences. The terms right and wrong have different meanings in these theories. The author explores different aspects of right and wrong actions in ethics of social consequences and compares them with Moore’s ideas. He positively evaluates Moore’s contributions to the development his theory of moral/right action.

  7. G. E. Moore and theory of moral/right action in ethics of social consequences

    OpenAIRE

    Gluchman Vasil

    2017-01-01

    G. E. Moore’s critical analysis of right action in utilitarian ethics and his consequentialist concept of right action is a starting point for a theory of moral/right action in ethics of social consequences. The terms right and wrong have different meanings in these theories. The author explores different aspects of right and wrong actions in ethics of social consequences and compares them with Moore’s ideas. He positively evaluates Moore’s contributions to the development his theory of moral...

  8. Adolescent vulnerability to cardiovascular consequences of chronic social stress: Immediate and long-term effects of social isolation during adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Fábio C; Duarte, Josiane O; Leão, Rodrigo M; Hummel, Luiz F V; Planeta, Cleopatra S; Crestani, Carlos C

    2016-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that disruption of social bonds and perceived isolation (loneliness) are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Adolescence is proposed as a period of vulnerability to stress. Nevertheless, the impact of chronic social stress during this ontogenic period in cardiovascular function is poorly understood. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare the impact in cardiovascular function of social isolation for 3 weeks in adolescent and adult male rats. Also, the long-term effects of social isolation during adolescence were investigated longitudinally. Social isolation reduced body weight in adolescent, but not in adult animals. Disruption of social bonds during adolescence increased arterial pressure without affecting heart rate and pulse pressure (PP). Nevertheless, social isolation in adulthood reduced systolic arterial pressure and increased diastolic arterial pressure, which in turn decreased PP without affecting mean arterial pressure. Cardiovascular changes in adolescents, but not adults, were followed by facilitation of both baroreflex sensitivity and vascular reactivity to the vasodilator agent acetylcholine. Vascular responsiveness to either the vasodilator agent sodium nitroprusside or the vasoconstrictor agent phenylephrine was not affected by social isolation. Except for the changes in body weight and baroreflex sensitivity, all alterations evoked by social isolation during adolescence were reversed in adulthood after moving animals from isolated to collective housing. These findings suggest a vulnerability of adolescents to the effects of chronic social isolation in cardiovascular function. However, results indicate minimal cardiovascular consequences in adulthood of disruption of social bonds during adolescence. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Statistical challenges in modelling the health consequences of social mobility: the need for diagonal reference models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Waal, Jeroen; Daenekindt, Stijn; de Koster, Willem

    2017-12-01

    Various studies on the health consequences of socio-economic position address social mobility. They aim to uncover whether health outcomes are affected by: (1) social mobility, besides, (2) social origin, and (3) social destination. Conventional methods do not, however, estimate these three effects separately, which may produce invalid conclusions. We highlight that diagonal reference models (DRMs) overcome this problem, which we illustrate by focusing on overweight/obesity (OWOB). Using conventional methods (logistic-regression analyses with dummy variables) and DRMs, we examine the effects of intergenerational educational mobility on OWOB (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m 2 ) using survey data representative of the Dutch population aged 18-45 (1569 males, 1771 females). Conventional methods suggest that mobility effects on OWOB are present. Analyses with DRMs, however, indicate that no such effects exist. Conventional analyses of the health consequences of social mobility may produce invalid results. We, therefore, recommend the use of DRMs. DRMs also validly estimate the health consequences of other types of social mobility (e.g. intra- and intergenerational occupational and income mobility) and status inconsistency (e.g. in educational or occupational attainment between partners).

  10. Newcomers to Social Categories: Longitudinal Predictors and Consequences of Ingroup Identification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Veelen, R.; Eisenbeiss, Kerstin; Otten, Sabine

    In the present article, we propose a dynamic model of the longitudinal predictors and consequences of ingroup identification among newcomers to a social category. We hypothesize a shift in the relative importance of intragroup affiliation as compared with intergroup differentiation for ingroup

  11. Newcomers to social categories : Longitudinal predictors and consequences of ingroup identification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Veelen, Ruth; Eisenbeiss, Kerstin Karen; Otten, Sabine

    In the present article, we propose a dynamic model of the longitudinal predictors and consequences of ingroup identification among newcomers to a social category. We hypothesize a shift in the relative importance of intragroup affiliation as compared with intergroup differentiation for ingroup

  12. Consequences of Arizona's Immigration Policy on Social Capital among Mexican Mothers with Unauthorized Immigration Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, Carmen R.; Padilla, Brian; Valentine, Jessa Lewis

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the consequences of increasingly restrictive immigration policies on social capital among Mexican mothers with unauthorized immigrant status in Arizona. Three focus groups conducted in Arizona explore how mothers' experiences with immigration policies have affected their neighborhood, community, and family ties. Focus group…

  13. Moral dilemmas in professions of public trust and the assumptions of ethics of social consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubiel-Zielińska Paulina

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to show the possibility of applying assumptions from ethics of social consequences when making decisions about actions, as well as in situations of moral dilemmas, by persons performing occupations of public trust on a daily basis. Reasoning in the article is analytical and synthetic. Article begins with an explanation of the basic concepts of “profession” and “the profession of public trust” and a manifestation of the difference between these terms. This is followed by a general description of professions of public trust. The area and definition of moral dilemmas is emphasized. Furthermore, representatives of professions belonging to them are listed. After a brief characterization of axiological foundations and the main assumptions of ethics of social consequences, actions according to Vasil Gluchman and Włodzimierz Galewicz are discussed and actions in line with ethics of social consequences are transferred to the practical domain. The article points out that actions in professional life are obligatory, impermissible, permissible, supererogatory and unmarked in the moral dimension. In the final part of the article an afterthought is included on how to solve moral dilemmas when in the position of a representative of the profession of public trust. The article concludes with a summary report containing the conclusions that stem from ethics of social consequences for professions of public trust, followed by short examples.

  14. Interventions for preventing unintended pregnancies among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oringanje, Chioma; Meremikwu, Martin M; Eko, Hokehe; Esu, Ekpereonne; Meremikwu, Anne; Ehiri, John E

    2016-02-03

    Unintended pregnancy among adolescents represents an important public health challenge in high-income countries, as well as middle- and low-income countries. Numerous prevention strategies such as health education, skills-building and improving accessibility to contraceptives have been employed by countries across the world, in an effort to address this problem. However, there is uncertainty regarding the effects of these interventions, hence the need to review the evidence-base. To assess the effects of primary prevention interventions (school-based, community/home-based, clinic-based, and faith-based) on unintended pregnancies among adolescents. We searched all relevant studies regardless of language or publication status up to November 2015. We searched the Cochrane Fertility Regulation Group Specialised trial register, The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2015 Issue 11), MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS, Social Science Citation Index and Science Citation Index, Dissertations Abstracts Online, The Gray Literature Network, HealthStar, PsycINFO, CINAHL and POPLINE and the reference lists of articles. We included both individual and cluster randomised controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating any interventions that aimed to increase knowledge and attitudes relating to risk of unintended pregnancies, promote delay in the initiation of sexual intercourse and encourage consistent use of birth control methods to reduce unintended pregnancies in adolescents aged 10 years to 19 years. Two authors independently assessed trial eligibility and risk of bias, and extracted data. Where appropriate, binary outcomes were pooled using a random-effects model with a 95% confidence interval (Cl). Where appropriate, we combined data in meta-analyses and assessed the quality of the evidence using the GRADE approach. We included 53 RCTs that enrolled 105,368 adolescents. Participants were ethnically diverse. Eighteen studies randomised individuals, 32

  15. Online Work Force Analyzes Social Media to Identify Consequences of an Unplanned School Closure – Using Technology to Prepare for the Next Pandemic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainey, Jeanette J.; Kenney, Jasmine; Wilburn, Ben; Putman, Ami; Zheteyeva, Yenlik; O’Sullivan, Megan

    2016-01-01

    Background During an influenza pandemic, the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) may recommend school closures. These closures could have unintended consequences for students and their families. Publicly available social media could be analyzed to identify the consequences of an unplanned school closure. Methods As a proxy for an unplanned, pandemic-related school closure, we used the district-wide school closure due to the September 10–18, 2012 teachers’ strike in Chicago, Illinois. We captured social media posts about the school closure using the Radian6 social media-monitoring platform. An online workforce from Amazon Mechanical Turk categorized each post into one of two groups. The first group included relevant posts that described the impact of the closure on students and their families. The second group included irrelevant posts that described the political aspects of the strike or topics unrelated to the school closure. All relevant posts were further categorized as expressing a positive, negative, or neutral sentiment. We analyzed patterns of relevant posts and sentiment over time and compared our findings to household surveys conducted after other unplanned school closures. Results We captured 4,546 social media posts about the district-wide school closure using our search criteria. Of these, 930 (20%) were categorized as relevant by the online workforce. Of the relevant posts, 619 (67%) expressed a negative sentiment, 51 (5%) expressed a positive sentiment, and 260 (28%) were neutral. The number of relevant posts, and especially those with a negative sentiment, peaked on day 1 of the strike. Negative sentiment expressed concerns about childcare, missed school lunches, and the lack of class time for students. This was consistent with findings from previously conducted household surveys. Conclusion Social media are publicly available and can readily provide information on the impact of an unplanned school closure on students

  16. Online Work Force Analyzes Social Media to Identify Consequences of an Unplanned School Closure - Using Technology to Prepare for the Next Pandemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainey, Jeanette J; Kenney, Jasmine; Wilburn, Ben; Putman, Ami; Zheteyeva, Yenlik; O'Sullivan, Megan

    During an influenza pandemic, the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) may recommend school closures. These closures could have unintended consequences for students and their families. Publicly available social media could be analyzed to identify the consequences of an unplanned school closure. As a proxy for an unplanned, pandemic-related school closure, we used the district-wide school closure due to the September 10-18, 2012 teachers' strike in Chicago, Illinois. We captured social media posts about the school closure using the Radian6 social media-monitoring platform. An online workforce from Amazon Mechanical Turk categorized each post into one of two groups. The first group included relevant posts that described the impact of the closure on students and their families. The second group included irrelevant posts that described the political aspects of the strike or topics unrelated to the school closure. All relevant posts were further categorized as expressing a positive, negative, or neutral sentiment. We analyzed patterns of relevant posts and sentiment over time and compared our findings to household surveys conducted after other unplanned school closures. We captured 4,546 social media posts about the district-wide school closure using our search criteria. Of these, 930 (20%) were categorized as relevant by the online workforce. Of the relevant posts, 619 (67%) expressed a negative sentiment, 51 (5%) expressed a positive sentiment, and 260 (28%) were neutral. The number of relevant posts, and especially those with a negative sentiment, peaked on day 1 of the strike. Negative sentiment expressed concerns about childcare, missed school lunches, and the lack of class time for students. This was consistent with findings from previously conducted household surveys. Social media are publicly available and can readily provide information on the impact of an unplanned school closure on students and their families. Using social media to

  17. The Social Consequences of Poverty: An Empirical Test on Longitudinal Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mood, Carina; Jonsson, Jan O

    Poverty is commonly defined as a lack of economic resources that has negative social consequences, but surprisingly little is known about the importance of economic hardship for social outcomes. This article offers an empirical investigation into this issue. We apply panel data methods on longitudinal data from the Swedish Level-of-Living Survey 2000 and 2010 (n = 3089) to study whether poverty affects four social outcomes-close social relations (social support), other social relations (friends and relatives), political participation, and activity in organizations. We also compare these effects across five different poverty indicators. Our main conclusion is that poverty in general has negative effects on social life. It has more harmful effects for relations with friends and relatives than for social support; and more for political participation than organizational activity. The poverty indicator that shows the greatest impact is material deprivation (lack of cash margin), while the most prevalent poverty indicators-absolute income poverty, and especially relative income poverty-appear to have the least effect on social outcomes.

  18. Psychological and social consequences among mothers suffering from perinatal loss: perspective from a low income country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mohammed

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In developed countries, perinatal death is known to cause major emotional and social effects on mothers. However, little is known about these effects in low income countries which bear the brunt of perinatal mortality burden. This paper reports the impact of perinatal death on psychological status and social consequences among mothers in a rural area of Bangladesh. Methods A total of 476 women including 122 women with perinatal deaths were assessed with the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS-B at 6 weeks and 6 months postpartum, and followed up for negative social consequences at 6 months postpartum. Trained female interviewers carried out structured interviews at women's home. Results Overall 43% (95% CI: 33.7-51.8% of women with a perinatal loss at 6 weeks postpartum were depressed compared to 17% (95% CI: 13.7-21.9% with healthy babies (p = Conclusions This study highlights the greatly increased vulnerability of women with perinatal death to experience negative psychological and social consequences. There is an urgent need to develop appropriate mental health care services for mothers with perinatal deaths in Bangladesh, including interventions to develop positive family support.

  19. Psychological and social consequences among mothers suffering from perinatal loss: perspective from a low income country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gausia, Kaniz; Moran, Allisyn C; Ali, Mohammed; Ryder, David; Fisher, Colleen; Koblinsky, Marge

    2011-06-09

    In developed countries, perinatal death is known to cause major emotional and social effects on mothers. However, little is known about these effects in low income countries which bear the brunt of perinatal mortality burden. This paper reports the impact of perinatal death on psychological status and social consequences among mothers in a rural area of Bangladesh. A total of 476 women including 122 women with perinatal deaths were assessed with the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS-B) at 6 weeks and 6 months postpartum, and followed up for negative social consequences at 6 months postpartum. Trained female interviewers carried out structured interviews at women's home. Overall 43% (95% CI: 33.7-51.8%) of women with a perinatal loss at 6 weeks postpartum were depressed compared to 17% (95% CI: 13.7-21.9%) with healthy babies (p = death to experience negative psychological and social consequences. There is an urgent need to develop appropriate mental health care services for mothers with perinatal deaths in Bangladesh, including interventions to develop positive family support.

  20. Power and dignity: the social consequences of hydro-electric development for the James Bay Cree

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niezen, R [Harvard Univ., Boston, MA (United States)

    1993-11-01

    The social impact that large-scale hydro-electric development has on the Cree of James Bay following the construction of the La Grande Complex was discussed. Many environmental changes were brought about by dam construction. The project, which also involved the first settlement (the James Bay and Northern Quebec Agreement) directed at extinguishing aboriginal title to land and natural resources in Canada, resulted in several relocations of Cree communities. In addition to compensation, the Agreement included a formal procedure for environmental and social impact assessment for development projects. However, there was little commitment, as a matter of corporate or government policy, to monitoring any of the social impacts. This paper is a preliminary response to an appeal for attention to be focused on the social consequences of hydro-electric development for the Cree in James Bay. Data from social service files indicate that the rapid centralization of the James Bay Cree into structured communities led to social instability in the villages, reflected by high frequencies in suicide, neglect of children, vandalism and drug and alcohol abuse. The material presented here is expected to serve as a warning that in further developing the far North of Quebec the pace of social change in Cree society will have to be slowed down to avoid social destruction of the native communities. 15 refs., 2 tabs.

  1. Power and dignity: the social consequences of hydro-electric development for the James Bay Cree

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niezen, R.

    1993-01-01

    The social impact that large-scale hydro-electric development has on the Cree of James Bay following the construction of the La Grande Complex was discussed. Many environmental changes were brought about by dam construction. The project, which also involved the first settlement (the James Bay and Northern Quebec Agreement) directed at extinguishing aboriginal title to land and natural resources in Canada, resulted in several relocations of Cree communities. In addition to compensation, the Agreement included a formal procedure for environmental and social impact assessment for development projects. However, there was little commitment, as a matter of corporate or government policy, to monitoring any of the social impacts. This paper is a preliminary response to an appeal for attention to be focused on the social consequences of hydro-electric development for the Cree in James Bay. Data from social service files indicate that the rapid centralization of the James Bay Cree into structured communities led to social instability in the villages, reflected by high frequencies in suicide, neglect of children, vandalism and drug and alcohol abuse. The material presented here is expected to serve as a warning that in further developing the far North of Quebec the pace of social change in Cree society will have to be slowed down to avoid social destruction of the native communities. 15 refs., 2 tabs

  2. Attending unintended transformations of health care infrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helle Wentzer

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Western health care is under pressure from growing demands on quality and efficiency. The development and implementation of information technology, IT is a key mean of health care authorities to improve on health care infrastructure. Theory and methods: Against a background of theories on human-computer interaction and IT-mediated communication, different empirical studies of IT implementation in health care are analyzed. The outcome is an analytical discernment between different relations of communication and levels of interaction with IT in health care infrastructure. These relations and levels are synthesized into a framework for identifying tensions and potential problems in the mediation of health care with the IT system. These problems are also known as unexpected adverse consequences, UACs, from IT implementation into clinical health care practices. Results: This paper develops a conceptual framework for addressing transformations of communication and workflow in health care as a result of implementing IT. Conclusion and discussion: The purpose of the conceptual framework is to support the attention to and continuous screening for errors and unintended consequences of IT implementation into health care practices and outcomes.

  3. Physical versus psychological social stress in male rats reveals distinct cardiovascular, inflammatory and behavioral consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padi, Akhila R.; Moffitt, Casey M.; Wilson, L. Britt; Wood, Christopher S.; Wood, Susan K.

    2017-01-01

    Repeated exposure to social stress can precipitate the development of psychosocial disorders including depression and comorbid cardiovascular disease. While a major component of social stress often encompasses physical interactions, purely psychological stressors (i.e. witnessing a traumatic event) also fall under the scope of social stress. The current study determined whether the acute stress response and susceptibility to stress-related consequences differed based on whether the stressor consisted of physical versus purely psychological social stress. Using a modified resident-intruder paradigm, male rats were either directly exposed to repeated social defeat stress (intruder) or witnessed a male rat being defeated. Cardiovascular parameters, behavioral anhedonia, and inflammatory cytokines in plasma and the stress-sensitive locus coeruleus were compared between intruder, witness, and control rats. Surprisingly intruders and witnesses exhibited nearly identical increases in mean arterial pressure and heart rate during acute and repeated stress exposures, yet only intruders exhibited stress-induced arrhythmias. Furthermore, re-exposure to the stress environment in the absence of the resident produced robust pressor and tachycardic responses in both stress conditions indicating the robust and enduring nature of social stress. In contrast, the long-term consequences of these stressors were distinct. Intruders were characterized by enhanced inflammatory sensitivity in plasma, while witnesses were characterized by the emergence of depressive-like anhedonia, transient increases in systolic blood pressure and plasma levels of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase. The current study highlights that while the acute cardiovascular responses to stress were identical between intruders and witnesses, these stressors produced distinct differences in the enduring consequences to stress, suggesting that witness stress may be more likely to produce long-term cardiovascular

  4. Unraveling the disease consequences and mechanisms of modular structure in animal social networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sah, Pratha; Leu, Stephan T.; Cross, Paul C.; Hudson, Peter J.; Bansal, Shweta

    2017-01-01

    Disease risk is a potential cost of group living. Although modular organization is thought to reduce this cost in animal societies, empirical evidence toward this hypothesis has been conflicting. We analyzed empirical social networks from 43 animal species to motivate our study of the epidemiological consequences of modular structure in animal societies. From these empirical studies, we identified the features of interaction patterns associated with network modularity and developed a theoretical network model to investigate when and how subdivisions in social networks influence disease dynamics. Contrary to prior work, we found that disease risk is largely unaffected by modular structure, although social networks beyond a modular threshold experience smaller disease burden and longer disease duration. Our results illustrate that the lowering of disease burden in highly modular social networks is driven by two mechanisms of modular organization: network fragmentation and subgroup cohesion. Highly fragmented social networks with cohesive subgroups are able to structurally trap infections within a few subgroups and also cause a structural delay to the spread of disease outbreaks. Finally, we show that network models incorporating modular structure are necessary only when prior knowledge suggests that interactions within the population are highly subdivided. Otherwise, null networks based on basic knowledge about group size and local contact heterogeneity may be sufficient when data-limited estimates of epidemic consequences are necessary. Overall, our work does not support the hypothesis that modular structure universally mitigates the disease impact of group living.

  5. Emotion regulation and culture: are the social consequences of emotion suppression culture-specific?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Emily A; Lee, Tiane L; Gross, James J

    2007-02-01

    Emotional suppression has been associated with generally negative social consequences (Butler et al., 2003; Gross & John, 2003). A cultural perspective suggests, however, that these consequences may be moderated by cultural values. We tested this hypothesis in a two-part study, and found that, for Americans holding Western-European values, habitual suppression was associated with self-protective goals and negative emotion. In addition, experimentally elicited suppression resulted in reduced interpersonal responsiveness during face-to-face interaction, along with negative partner-perceptions and hostile behavior. These deleterious effects were reduced when individuals with more Asian values suppressed, and these reductions were mediated by cultural differences in the responsiveness of the suppressors. These findings suggest that many of suppression's negative social impacts may be moderated by cultural values. (c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved.

  6. The loss of personal privacy and its consequences for social research

    OpenAIRE

    Robbin, Alice

    2001-01-01

    This article chronicles more than 30 years of public opinion, politics, and law and policy on privacy and confidentiality that have had far-reaching consequences for access by the social research community to administrative and statistical records produced by government. A hostile political environment, public controversy over the decennial census long form, media coverage, and public fears about the vast accumulations of personal information by the private sector were catalysts for a recent ...

  7. Negative consequences from heavy social networking in adolescents: The mediating role of fear of missing out.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberst, Ursula; Wegmann, Elisa; Stodt, Benjamin; Brand, Matthias; Chamarro, Andrés

    2017-02-01

    Social networking sites (SNS) are especially attractive for adolescents, but it has also been shown that these users can suffer from negative psychological consequences when using these sites excessively. We analyze the role of fear of missing out (FOMO) and intensity of SNS use for explaining the link between psychopathological symptoms and negative consequences of SNS use via mobile devices. In an online survey, 1468 Spanish-speaking Latin-American social media users between 16 and 18 years old completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), the Social Networking Intensity scale (SNI), the FOMO scale (FOMOs), and a questionnaire on negative consequences of using SNS via mobile device (CERM). Using structural equation modeling, it was found that both FOMO and SNI mediate the link between psychopathology and CERM, but by different mechanisms. Additionally, for girls, feeling depressed seems to trigger higher SNS involvement. For boys, anxiety triggers higher SNS involvement. Copyright © 2016 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Social and Economic Consequences of Informal Labor and Ways to Reduce It

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inna V. Donova

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to analyse the consequences of informal employment for the Russian labor market. The author approaches informal employment from the legalism perspective. While distinguishing between formal and informal employment, the author relies on the contract criterion, i.e. presence or absence of formally established labor relations. The reasons for the existence and reproduction of informal employment relations in the Russian labor market are imperfect institutions of regulation and a complex of economic and social factors. The consequences of informal hiring for participants of the employment relationship are different. In the article are considered the positive and negative consequences of informal hiring for employees, employers and the state. It is shown that the problem of informal hiring is multilayered, not reducible only to imperfect labor market regulation institutions and requires adequate complexity of approaches. The ways to reduce the level of informality on the Russian labor market: the stimulation of an increase in the number of formal jobs and the legalization of business, especially in the smallest and micro-business; refusal of attempts of violent and excessive formalization of employment; improvement of the quality of regulation of the social and labor conditions and business climate. Special attention should be paid to estimation the balance of benefits and losses associated with informality for all participants of social and labor relations.

  9. An overview of systematic reviews on the public health consequences of social isolation and loneliness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leigh-Hunt, N; Bagguley, D; Bash, K; Turner, V; Turnbull, S; Valtorta, N; Caan, W

    2017-11-01

    Social isolation and loneliness have been associated with ill health and are common in the developed world. A clear understanding of their implications for morbidity and mortality is needed to gauge the extent of the associated public health challenge and the potential benefit of intervention. A systematic review of systematic reviews (systematic overview) was undertaken to determine the wider consequences of social isolation and loneliness, identify any differences between the two, determine differences from findings of non-systematic reviews and to clarify the direction of causality. Eight databases were searched from 1950 to 2016 for English language reviews covering social isolation and loneliness but not solely social support. Suitability for inclusion was determined by two or more reviewers, the methodological quality of included systematic reviews assessed using the a measurement tool to assess systematic reviews (AMSTAR) checklist and the quality of evidence within these reviews using the grading of recommendations, assessment, development and evaluations (GRADE) approach. Non-systematic reviews were sought for a comparison of findings but not included in the primary narrative synthesis. Forty systematic reviews of mainly observational studies were identified, largely from the developed world. Meta-analyses have identified a significant association between social isolation and loneliness with increased all-cause mortality and social isolation with cardiovascular disease. Narrative systematic reviews suggest associations with poorer mental health outcomes, with less strong evidence for behavioural and other physical health outcomes. No reviews were identified for wider socio-economic or developmental outcomes. This systematic overview highlights that there is consistent evidence linking social isolation and loneliness to worse cardiovascular and mental health outcomes. The role of social isolation and loneliness in other conditions and their socio

  10. Parents' experience of unintended childbearing: A qualitative study of factors that mitigate or exacerbate effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanaugh, Megan L; Kost, Kathryn; Frohwirth, Lori; Maddow-Zimet, Isaac; Gor, Vivian

    2017-02-01

    Births resulting from an unintended pregnancy affect individuals differentially, and some may experience more negative consequences than others. In this study, we sought to describe the mechanisms through which the severity of effects may be mitigated or exacerbated. We conducted in-depth interviews with 35 women and 30 men, all with a youngest child born resulting from an unintended pregnancy, in two urban sites in the United States. Respondents described both negative and positive effects of the child's birth in the areas of school; work and finances; partner relationships; personal health and outlook on life trajectories. Mechanisms through which unintended pregnancies mitigated or exacerbated certain effects fell at the individual (e.g. lifestyle modification), interpersonal (e.g. partner support) and structural (e.g. workplace flexibility) levels. These qualitative findings deepen understanding of the impact of unintended childbearing on the lives of women, men and families. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Correlates of unintended pregnancy among currently pregnant married women in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soonthorndhada Kusol

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Women living in every country, irrespective of its development status, have been facing the problem of unintended pregnancy. Unintended pregnancy is an important public health issue in both developing and developed countries because of its negative association with the social and health outcomes for both mothers and children. This study aims to determine the prevalence and the factors influencing unintended pregnancy among currently pregnant married women in Nepal. Methods This paper reports on data drawn from Nepal Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS which is a nationally representative survey. The analysis is restricted to currently pregnant married women at the time of survey. Association between unintended pregnancy and the explanatory variables was assessed in bivariate analysis using Chi-square tests. Logistic regression was used to assess the net effect of several independent variables on unintended pregnancy. Results More than two-fifth of the currently pregnant women (41% reported that their current pregnancy was unintended. The results indicate that age of women, age at first marriage, ideal number of children, religion, exposure to radio and knowledge of family planning methods were key predictors of unintended pregnancy. Experience of unintended pregnancy augments with women's age (odds ratio, 1.11. Similarly, increase in the women's age at first marriage reduces the likelihood of unintended pregnancy (odds ratio, 0.93. Those who were exposed to the radio were less likely (odds ratio, 0.63 to have unintended pregnancy compared to those who were not. Furthermore, those women who had higher level of knowledge about family planning methods were less likely to experience unintended pregnancy (odds ratio, 0.60 compared to those having lower level of knowledge. Conclusion One of the important factors contributing to high level of maternal and infant mortality is unintended pregnancy. Programs should aim to reduce

  12. Understanding the Consequences of Newcomer Integration Processes: The Sport Team Socialization Tactics Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Alex J; Eys, Mark

    2017-02-01

    The ways in which newcomers are integrated into sport teams may have broad consequences for the athletes entering the group, as well as for the existing team members. Drawing from organizational socialization theory, the current research developed a questionnaire to assess athletes' perceptions of how newcomers are socialized into their group. Across four studies, think-aloud interviews (N = 8), an expert panel review (N = 6), cross-sectional tests of the factor structure (N Study 2  = 197; N Study 3  = 460), and a two-wave correlational design (N Study 4  = 194) were used to evaluate the construct validity and the internal consistency of the Sport Team Socialization Tactics Questionnaire (STSTQ). Collectively, these efforts identified a three-factor structure underlying the STSTQ and provided preliminary evidence for its validity. The STSTQ enables researchers to systematically examine the individual- and group-level consequences associated with the socialization tactics implemented in sport teams.

  13. Fitness consequences of social network position in a wild population of forked fungus beetles (Bolitotherus cornutus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formica, Vincent A; Wood, C W; Larsen, W B; Butterfield, R E; Augat, M E; Hougen, H Y; Brodie, E D

    2012-01-01

    Social networks describe the pattern of intraspecific interactions within a population. An individual's position in a social network often is expected to influence its fitness, but only a few studies have examined this relationship in natural populations. We investigated the fitness consequences of network position in a wild beetle population. Copulation success of male beetles positively covaried with strength (a measure of network centrality) and negatively covaried with clustering coefficient (CC) (a measure of cliquishness). Further analysis using mediation path models suggested that the activity level of individuals drove the relationships between strength and fitness almost entirely. In contrast, selection on CC was not explained by individual behaviours. Although our data suggest that social network position can experience strong sexual selection, it is also clear that the relationships between fitness and some network metrics merely reflect variation in individual-level behaviours. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2011 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  14. Mechanisms and microevolutionary consequences of social homogamy in a 19th-century Italian community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfredini, Matteo

    2009-02-01

    Abstract Choosing a spouse has always been an event subjected to strong social control. Consideration of socioprofessional elements is therefore necessary for an in-depth understanding of the microevolutionary consequences of marriage. Thus in this paper I explore the extent and causes of reproduction isolation between different socioprofessional groups of a 19th-century Italian community, Casalguidi. Various features of mate choice pattern were investigated by means of individual-level data. The results show that Casalguidi was a community with strong socioeconomic internal boundaries, in which social belonging mattered much more than geographic provenience. The bourgeoisie showed such a high degree of social homogamy that it was almost reproductively isolated. Much more openness and less isolation was found between the two categories of farm laborers and sharecroppers, and day laborers.

  15. Scale Mismatches in Social-Ecological Systems: Causes, Consequences, and Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graeme S. Cumming

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Scale is a concept that transcends disciplinary boundaries. In ecology and geography, scale is usually defined in terms of spatial and temporal dimensions. Sociological scale also incorporates space and time, but adds ideas about representation and organization. Although spatial and temporal location determine the context for social and ecological dynamics, social-ecological interactions can create dynamic feedback loops in which humans both influence and are influenced by ecosystem processes. We hypothesize that many of the problems encountered by societies in managing natural resources arise because of a mismatch between the scale of management and the scale(s of the ecological processes being managed. We use examples from southern Africa and the southern United States to address four main questions: (1 What is a "scale mismatch?" (2 How are scale mismatches generated? (3 What are the consequences of scale mismatches? (4 How can scale mismatches be resolved? Scale mismatches occur when the scale of environmental variation and the scale of social organization in which the responsibility for management resides are aligned in such a way that one or more functions of the social-ecological system are disrupted, inefficiencies occur, and/or important components of the system are lost. They are generated by a wide range of social, ecological, and linked social-ecological processes. Mismatches between the scales of ecological processes and the institutions that are responsible for managing them can contribute to a decrease in social-ecological resilience, including the mismanagement of natural resources and a decrease in human well-being. Solutions to scale mismatches usually require institutional changes at more than one hierarchical level. Long-term solutions to scale mismatch problems will depend on social learning and the development of flexible institutions that can adjust and reorganize in response to changes in ecosystems. Further research is

  16. Economic consequences of legal and illegal drugs: The case of social costs in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lievens, Delfine; Vander Laenen, Freya; Verhaeghe, Nick; Putman, Koen; Pauwels, Lieven; Hardyns, Wim; Annemans, Lieven

    2017-06-01

    Legal and illegal drugs impose a considerable burden to the individual and to society. The misuse of addictive substances results in healthcare and law enforcement costs, loss of productivity and reduced quality of life. A social cost study was conducted to estimate the substance-attributable costs of alcohol, tobacco, illegal drugs and psychoactive medication to Belgian society in 2012. The cost-of-illness framework with prevalence-based and human capital approach was applied. Three cost components were considered: direct, indirect and intangible costs related to substance misuse. The direct and indirect cost of addictive substances was estimated at 4.6 billion euros in Belgium (419 euros per capita or 1.19% of the GDP) and more than 515,000 healthy years are lost due to substance misuse. The Belgian social cost study reaffirms that alcohol and tobacco impose the highest cost to society compared to illegal drugs. Health problems are the main driver of the social cost of legal drugs. Law enforcement expenditure exceed the healthcare costs but only in the case of illegal drugs. Estimating social costs of addictive substances is complex because it is difficult to determine to what extent the societal harm is caused by substances. It can be argued that social cost studies take only a 'snapshot' of the monetary consequences of substance misuse. Nevertheless, the current study offers the most comprehensive analysis thus far of the social costs of substance misuse in Belgium. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Foreign experience of the social consequences of scientific and technological development: a place of education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. E. Khristolyubova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The social aspect (the restructuring of thinking, way of life and activity, quality of life, education is determined by the deficiency of fundamental scientific information on trends, issues, necessary conditions and possibilities of using foreign experience in managing the social consequences of scientific and technological development (progress at the present stage of Russian modernization.In this context, the changes, introduced by the scientific and technical progress (STP, which invade all aspects of human life, changing labor incentives, education and representation of human happiness, become an important object of study.Purpose of the study. The study of foreign experience of social consequences of scientific and technological development (progress at the present stage to assess the possibility of fragmented or integrated use of the new knowledge in the formation of long-term strategies for the development of science and technology, taking into account the social needs of society.R & D tasks. To effectively address the problems of modernization and restructuring of Russia it is necessary to explore and identify patterns and trends in the development of scientific and technological progress and social aspects of thinking changes, lifestyle and human activities for their subsequent use in the measurement and control of the social aspects of human life. To this should be investigated:1. Peculiarities of scientific and technological development in the next stage of the «long wave» of progress, which leads to the need for programming the development of the social aspect of the measure and the regulation of the quality of human life.2. Positive and negative social consequences of the development of scientific and technical progress.3. The impact of new challenges, factors and conditions, caused by the development of science and technology.4. Proposals for the analysis of the linkages and the risks of introduction of science and technology in

  18. Unintended pregnancy and intimate partner violence around pregnancy in a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-de-las-Heras, Stella; Velasco, Casilda; Luna, Juan de Dios; Martin, Aurelia

    2015-06-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) and unintended pregnancy are public health issues that can affect the health and well-being of women and their children. However, the relationship between IPV and women's ability to control their fertility has not been adequately explored. To investigate the association between unintended pregnancy and emotional or physical violence perpetrated by partners around pregnancy. A population-based study was undertaken, recruiting women (n=779) at the hospital obstetric departments and gathering social and family data. IPV was diagnosed by using the Index of Spouse Abuse (ISA). Data were gathered by trained midwives in 15 public hospitals in southern Spain and multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed. The pregnancy was reported to be unintended by 118 (15.1%) of the study population. Unintended pregnancy was significantly associated with: physical and/or emotional IPV around pregnancy, age, marital status, cohabitation, educational level, and employment status. After adjusting for socio-demographic characteristics, emotional IPV around pregnancy was significantly associated with an unintended pregnancy (AOR=2.5; 95% CI=1.5-4.3). Being in a non-committed relationship was a risk factor (AOR=3.5; 95% CI=1.8-6.1) and being in employment a protective factor (AOR=0.4; 95% CI=0.2-0.8) for an unintended pregnancy. Women who report an unintended pregnancy may be experiencing emotional IPV. The risk of emotional IPV is higher if women reporting an unintended pregnancy are in a committed relationship, married, or in employment. A better understanding of the relationship between unintended pregnancy and violence can aid midwives about potential reproductive health risk factors associated with abuse. Copyright © 2015 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Consequences of cyberbullying behaviour in working life: The mediating roles of social support and social organisational climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhonen, Tuija; Jönsson, Sandra; Bäckström, Martin

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore health- and work-related outcomes of cyberbullying behaviour and the potential mediating role of social organisational climate, social support from colleagues and social support from superiors. Altogether 3,371 respondents participated in a questionnaire study. The results of this study indicate that social organisational climate can have a mediating role in the relationship between cyberbullying behaviour and health, well-being, work engagement and intention to quit. Contrary to earlier face-to-face bullying research, the current study showed that cyberbullying behaviour had stronger indirect than direct relationships to health, well-being, work engagement and intention to quit. Communication through digital devices in work life is becoming more prevalent, which in turn increases the risk for cyberbullying behaviour. Organisations need therefore to develop occupational health and safety policies concerning the use of digital communication and social media in order to prevent cyberbullying behaviour and its negative consequences. Cyberbullying behaviour among working adults is a relatively unexplored phenomenon and therefore this study makes valuable contribution to the research field.

  20. Utopian Left-Wing Expectations and the Social Consequences of the 3rd Memorandum in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotroyannos, Dimitrios

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In January 2015 the radical left SYRIZA has won the Greek national elections and formed a coalition government with Independent Greeks (ANEL, a right-wing populist party. After a seven-month negotiation with Greece’s creditors and the agreement for the implementation of a third memorandum of fiscal adjustment, SYRIZA announced the conduction of a second round of national elections in September 2015. After a second electoral victory, SYRIZA formed again a coalition government with ANEL. The main characteristic of SYRIZA’s pre-electoral campaign was that it has primarily focused on the commitment for austerity measures termination and on the implementation of tax alleviation. Even during the second electoral campaign in September 2015, after the agreement for the implementation of the third memorandum of fiscal adjustment, SYRIZA was promising that its implementation will be socially endued in order to reduce negative social consequences, such as those created by the previous memoranda. Practically though, after the first months of the new memorandum implementation, it is obvious that the government has introduced an unprecedented tax policy. Interestingly, this policy is not different from a traditional left logic of tax enforcement but actually leads to the implementation of horizontal austerity policies which firstly affect the socially vulnerable groups. From this point of view, while SYRIZA emphatically declare that it aims at resolving the crisis, its policies seem to deepen the depression. For instance, its inability to find alternative options to finance the social security system, leads to the implementation of restrictive policies which dismantle the welfare state. This paper aims at analyzing the policies of the first left government in Greece by focusing on the tentative social consequences of the third memorandum and at the same time, studying some of the basic factors for its electoral victory, such as populism.

  1. The Social Pathologies of Self-Realization: A Diagnosis of the Consequences of the Shift in Individualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammershoj, Lars Geer

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this article is to inquire into today's social pathologies, i.e. the negative consequences of the developmental processes of society. In a dialogue with Axel Honneth, the article asserts that a shift has occurred in individualization, a shift that implies a fundamental change in social pathologies: Social pathologies no longer derive…

  2. Consequences of temporary inhibition of the medial amygdala on social recognition memory performance in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia eNoack

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Different lines of investigation suggest that the medial amygdala is causally involved in the processing of information linked to social behaviour in rodents. Here we investigated the consequences of temporary inhibition of the medial amygdala by bilateral injections of lidocaine on long-term social recognition memory as tested in the social discrimination task. Lidocaine or control NaCl solution was infused immediately before learning or before retrieval. Our data show that lidocaine infusion immediately before learning did not affect long-term memory retrieval. However, intra-amygdalar lidocaine infusions immediately before choice interfered with correct memory retrieval. Analysis of the aggressive behaviour measured simultaneously during all sessions in the social recognition memory task support the impression that the lidocaine dosage used here was effective as it – at least partially – reduced the aggressive behaviour shown by the experimental subjects towards the juveniles. Surprisingly, also infusions of NaCl solution blocked recognition memory at both injection time points. The results are interpreted in the context of the importance of the medial amygdala for the processing of non-volatile odours as a major contributor to the olfactory signature for social recognition memory.

  3. Unintended and unwanted pregnancy in St. Lucia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denton, A B; Chase, W M; Scott, K

    1994-09-01

    Among 200 mothers interviewed in St. Lucia, 82.5% described their pregnancy as unintended and 44% as unwanted; 80% of women having an intended pregnancy and 94.6% having an unintended pregnancy were unmarried and 18.5% were teenagers. Mothers of unintended pregnancies were significantly younger, were of significantly higher parity and had begun sexual relations at a significantly earlier age than mothers of intended pregnancies; and, unlike mothers of planned pregnancies, their desired interpregnancy interval was significantly longer than the actual interval. These results and the sporadic and ineffective use of contraception in St. Lucia emphasize the need for improvements in fertility regulation in that country.

  4. The health-related, social, and economic consequences of parkinsonism: a controlled national study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zoetmulder, Marielle

    2011-01-01

    on income data derived from the Coherent Social Statistics. Patients with PD and AP had significantly higher rates of health-related contact and medication use and a higher socioeconomic cost. Furthermore, they had very low employment rates, and those in employment had a lower income level than employed...... sample. Using records from the Danish National Patient Registry (1997-2007), 13,400 PD and 647 AP patients were identified and compared with, respectively, 53,600 and 2,588 control cases randomly selected with respect to age, gender, civil status, and geographic location. Direct costs including....../$1,165), respectively. The employment- and health-related consequences could be identified up to 8 years before the first diagnosis and increased with disease advancement. PD and AP have major socioeconomic consequences for patients and society. The health effects are present for up to more than 8 years before...

  5. Prevalence and determinants of unintended pregnancy among women in Nairobi, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikamari, Lawrence; Izugbara, Chimaraoke; Ochako, Rhoune

    2013-03-19

    The prevalence of unintended pregnancy in Kenya continues to be high. The 2003 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey (KDHS) showed that nearly 50% of unmarried women aged 15-19 and 45% of the married women reported their current pregnancies as mistimed or unwanted. The 2008-09 KDHS showed that 43% of married women in Kenya reported their current pregnancies were unintended. Unintended pregnancy is one of the most critical factors contributing to schoolgirl drop out in Kenya. Up to 13,000 Kenyan girls drop out of school every year as a result of unintended pregnancy. Unsafe pregnancy termination contributes immensely to maternal mortality which currently estimated at 488 deaths per 100 000 live births. In Kenya, the determinants of prevalence and determinants of unintended pregnancy among women in diverse social and economic situations, particularly in urban areas, are poorly understood due to lack of data. This paper addresses the prevalence and the determinants of unintended pregnancy among women in slum and non-slum settlements of Nairobi. This study used the data that was collected among a random sample of 1262 slum and non-slum women aged 15-49 years in Nairobi. The data was analyzed using simple percentages and logistic regression. The study found that 24 percent of all the women had unintended pregnancy. The prevalence of unintended pregnancy was 21 per cent among women in slum settlements compared to 27 per cent among those in non-slum settlements. Marital status, employment status, ethnicity and type of settlement were significantly associated with unintended pregnancy. Logistic analysis results indicate that age, marital status and type of settlement had statistically significantly effects on unintended pregnancy. Young women aged 15-19 were significantly more likely than older women to experience unintended pregnancy. Similarly, unmarried women showed elevated risk for unintended pregnancy than ever-married women. Women in non-slum settlements were

  6. Investigating social consequences of unwanted pregnancy and unsafe abortion in Malawi: the role of stigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levandowski, Brooke A; Kalilani-Phiri, Linda; Kachale, Fannie; Awah, Paschal; Kangaude, Godfrey; Mhango, Chisale

    2012-09-01

    Malawian women in all sectors of society are suffering from social implications of unwanted pregnancy and unsafe abortion. Unwanted pregnancies occur among women who have limited access to family planning and safe abortion. A legally restrictive setting for safe abortion services leads many women to unsafe abortion, which has consequences for them and their families. In-depth interviews were conducted with 485 Malawian stakeholders belonging to different political and social structures. Interviewees identified the impact of unwanted pregnancy and unsafe abortion to be the greatest on young women. Premarital and extramarital pregnancies were highly stigmatized; stigma directly related to abortion was also found. Community-level discussions need to focus on reduction of stigma. Copyright © 2012 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Unintended Positional Drift and Its Potential Solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Niels Christian; Serafin, Stefania; Nordahl, Rolf

    2013-01-01

    many users unintentionally move forward while walking in place. We refer to this phenomenon accidental movement as Unintended Positional Drift. The poster presents evidence of the phenomenon's existence and subsequently discusses different design solutions which potentially could circumvent the problem....

  8. Unintended Consequences: An Uncertain Future for Distance Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halfond, Jay A.

    2011-01-01

    While most in the academic community know about the attempt to rein in the for-profits, few are aware of its collateral damage. In October, the Department of Education (DOE) issued its Program Integrity Rules, intended to protect federal funds especially from those for-profit institutions with high student loan default rates. Well-intentioned…

  9. Unintended consequences of existential quantifications in biomedical ontologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boeker Martin

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Open Biomedical Ontologies (OBO Foundry is a collection of freely available ontologically structured controlled vocabularies in the biomedical domain. Most of them are disseminated via both the OBO Flatfile Format and the semantic web format Web Ontology Language (OWL, which draws upon formal logic. Based on the interpretations underlying OWL description logics (OWL-DL semantics, we scrutinize the OWL-DL releases of OBO ontologies to assess whether their logical axioms correspond to the meaning intended by their authors. Results We analyzed ontologies and ontology cross products available via the OBO Foundry site http://www.obofoundry.org for existential restrictions (someValuesFrom, from which we examined a random sample of 2,836 clauses. According to a rating done by four experts, 23% of all existential restrictions in OBO Foundry candidate ontologies are suspicious (Cohens' κ = 0.78. We found a smaller proportion of existential restrictions in OBO Foundry cross products are suspicious, but in this case an accurate quantitative judgment is not possible due to a low inter-rater agreement (κ = 0.07. We identified several typical modeling problems, for which satisfactory ontology design patterns based on OWL-DL were proposed. We further describe several usability issues with OBO ontologies, including the lack of ontological commitment for several common terms, and the proliferation of domain-specific relations. Conclusions The current OWL releases of OBO Foundry (and Foundry candidate ontologies contain numerous assertions which do not properly describe the underlying biological reality, or are ambiguous and difficult to interpret. The solution is a better anchoring in upper ontologies and a restriction to relatively few, well defined relation types with given domain and range constraints.

  10. Firms' Response and Unintended Health Consequences of Industrial Regulations

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher Hansman; Jonas Hjort; Gianmarco León

    2015-01-01

    Regulations that constrain firms' externalities in one dimension can distort incentives and worsen externalities in other dimensions. In Peru's industrial fishing sector, the world's largest, fishing boats catch anchovy that plants along the coast convert into fishmeal. Matching administrative daily data on plant production, ground-level air quality data, hospital admissions records, and survey data on individual health outcomes, we first show that fishmeal production worsens adult and child ...

  11. Firm's response and unintended health consequences of industrial regulations

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher Hansman; Jonas Hjort; Gianmarco León

    2015-01-01

    Regulations that constrain firms' externalities in one dimension can distort incentives and worsen externalities in other dimensions. In Peru's industrial fishing sector, the world's largest, fishing boats catch anchovy that plants along the coast convert into fishmeal. Matching administrative, daily data on plant production, ground-level air quality data, hospital admissions records, and survey data on individual health outcomes, we first show that fishmeal production negatively affects adul...

  12. Torque-onset determination: Unintended consequences of the threshold method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotan, Raffy; Jenkins, Glenn; O'Brien, Thomas D; Hansen, Steve; Falk, Bareket

    2016-12-01

    Compared with visual torque-onset-detection (TOD), threshold-based TOD produces onset bias, which increases with lower torques or rates of torque development (RTD). To compare the effects of differential TOD-bias on common contractile parameters in two torque-disparate groups. Fifteen boys and 12 men performed maximal, explosive, isometric knee-extensions. Torque and EMG were recorded for each contraction. Best contractions were selected by peak torque (MVC) and peak RTD. Visual-TOD-based torque-time traces, electromechanical delays (EMD), and times to peak RTD (tRTD) were compared with corresponding data derived from fixed 4-Nm- and relative 5%MVC-thresholds. The 5%MVC TOD-biases were similar for boys and men, but the corresponding 4-Nm-based biases were markedly different (40.3±14.1 vs. 18.4±7.1ms, respectively; ptorque kinetics tended to be faster than the boys' (NS), but the 4-Nm-based kinetics erroneously depicted the boys as being much faster to any given %MVC (p<0.001). When comparing contractile properties of dissimilar groups, e.g., children vs. adults, threshold-based TOD methods can misrepresent reality and lead to erroneous conclusions. Relative-thresholds (e.g., 5% MVC) still introduce error, but group-comparisons are not confounded. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Some Unintended Consequences of "Top Down" Organization Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Bernard J.; Ramsey, V. Jean

    1978-01-01

    An organizational development consultant is expected to perform a thorough and unbiased diagnosis of the organization's functioning. This is an account of a case study of the effect of top management influence on the consultant's awareness and definition of problems. (Author/MLF)

  14. The role of the military in counterterrorism: unintended consequences

    OpenAIRE

    Erbay, Tayfun

    2012-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. In the last decade, terrorism has been one of the top threats for many countries. During this period, military organizations in many of these countries have been utilized as a counterterrorist instrument. Leading countries in the current war on terror, namely the U.S. and the UK, have used their armies, with all of their high-tech weapon systems, against nonstate threats armed with AK-47s and RPGs. Yet in spite of these efforts, a mil...

  15. Video surveillance in public libraries : A case of unintended consequences?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Newell, Bryce; Randall, David P.

    This paper presents the findings of an exploratory qualitative research study in which we examine why two public libraries have implemented video security systems and why one of these libraries has reversed course and recently removed a previously installed surveillance system.

  16. CSR Cuts Bring Unintended Consequences, Prompt State Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkner, Richard Mark

    2017-12-01

    Eliminating the cost-sharing payments (CSRs) to insurers to hold down out-of-pocket costs for low-income people who purchase individual health plans may wind up actually increasing overall federal spending by driving up premium subsidies to cover higher price plans.

  17. Making Schools Safer? The Unintended Consequences of Good Intentions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Julian

    2009-01-01

    It is now over 10 years since the shootings at Columbine High School in April 1999. While Columbine was not the first school shooting in the United States, or the last, it remains the most important. For many people, but especially for parents, the name "Columbine" has become a one-word summation of fears and concerns about the condition…

  18. Mexico’s Drug War and Its Unintended Regional Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Guatemalan President Proposes Drug.” 26 Johnson, Forman, and Bliss , Police Reform in Latin America, 32, 28, 30. 27 Tim Johnson, “Society Has Lost...Nations Office on Drugs, Transnational Organized Crime, 76. 22 Stephen Johnson, Johanna Mendelson Forman and Katherine Bliss , Police Reform in...america (accessed October 29, 2012). 33 Johnson, Forman, and Bliss , Police Reform in Latin America, 22. 34 Hooper, "The Mexican Drug Cartel Threat

  19. The cost of being a man: social and health consequences of Igbo masculinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odimegwu, Clifford; Pallikadavath, Saseendran; Adedini, Sunday

    2013-01-01

    In the bid to explain reproductive health outcomes in most developing countries, men have often been seen as the cause of the problem. However, no systematic attempt has been made to examine men's perception of their own social and health needs, including how ideologies of masculinity impact men's social and physical health. This study examines the Igbo context and shows how men understand and interpret masculinity and the consequences of this for social and health behaviours. Data from adolescent and adult Igbo men aged 15-75 were collected using both quantitative survey interviews (n = 1372) and qualitative techniques such as focus-group discussion (n = 20), in-depth interviews (n = 10) and key informant interviews (n = 10) in selected areas of south-eastern Nigeria. We collected data on gender role ideologies and sexuality issues and practices. Our analysis shows that there are social and health costs associated with adherence to masculine ideologies and a strong association between masculine ideologies and men's health, risk-taking and health-seeking behaviours in the study population. We conclude that all sexual and reproductive health programmes should include services that address the specific needs of men and those negative aspects of masculinity that tend to expose men to adverse health outcomes.

  20. The nature and causes of unintended events reported at ten emergency departments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van der Wal Gerrit

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies on patient safety have shown that a substantial number of patients suffer from unintended harm caused by healthcare management in hospitals. Emergency departments (EDs are challenging hospital settings with regard to patient safety. There is an increased sense of urgency to take effective countermeasures in order to improve patient safety. This can only be achieved if interventions tackle the dominant underlying causes. The objectives of our study are to examine the nature and causes of unintended events in EDs and the relationship between type of event and causal factor structure. Methods Study at EDs of 10 hospitals in the Netherlands. The study period per ED was 8 to 14 weeks, in which staff were asked to report unintended events. Unintended events were broadly defined as all events, no matter how seemingly trivial or commonplace, that were unintended and could have harmed or did harm a patient. Reports were analysed with a Root Cause Analysis tool (PRISMA by an experienced researcher. Results 522 unintended events were reported. Of the events 25% was related to cooperation with other departments and 20% to problems with materials/equipment. More than half of the events had consequences for the patient, most often resulting in inconvenience or suboptimal care. Most root causes were human (60%, followed by organisational (25% and technical causes (11%. Nearly half of the root causes was external, i.e. attributable to other departments in or outside the hospital. Conclusion Event reporting gives insight into diverse unintended events. The information on unintended events may help target research and interventions to increase patient safety. It seems worthwhile to direct interventions on the collaboration between the ED and other hospital departments.

  1. Health systems as defences against the consequences of poverty: equity in health as social justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mburu, F M

    1983-01-01

    The main development problems in the Third World are known to be gross socioeconomic inequality, widespread poor health status accompanied by high fertility and infant mortality rates, low life expectancy, mass illiteracy and mass poverty. In most of these countries governments invest a great deal of scarce resources toward the consequences of poverty rather than it causes. The paucity of resources for such social services is exacerbated by continuously increasing demands and needs which have to be satisfied. Unmet needs tend to cause apathy in the population. For purposes of controlling poverty and its consequences, these must be clearly formulated and relevant policies, a commitment to implement such policies, adequate administrative capacity and reasonably adequate resources. In the case of the health services system, the same requirements apply. Above all, the health system has to be directed toward the greatest needs of the population. This must involve policy makers, implementors and the consumer community. This paper argues that health systems cannot be an effective weapon against the consequences of poverty unless the above kinds of policy exist and are implemented.

  2. The Trump Administration's assault on health and social programs: potential consequences for older Hispanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angel, Jacqueline L; Berlinger, Nancy

    2018-04-10

    Health and social welfare policy proposals put forth by the Trump administration and Republican-controlled Congress could have huge impacts on low-income groups. This paper focuses on older Hispanics, with an emphasis on the Mexican-origin population who form the largest Hispanic subgroup. A demographic portrait is presented that indicates that Mexican-origin individuals have less wealth and lower incomes than do non-Hispanic Whites. Given rising health care costs, lower use of nursing homes, and greater propensity to live with grown children, prevailing economic disadvantage has serious consequences for this population. More restrictive immigration policies aimed at limiting family reunification could have intergenerational caregiving consequences. In addition, because of labor-force disadvantages, low-income Mexican-origin adults are less likely to have private insurance compared to non-Hispanic Whites as they approach retirement. Consequently, Mexican-origin older adults tend to rely on Medicaid when eligible; in contrast, late-life migrants-who do not qualify for federally funded benefits for at least five years-and unauthorized migrants-who are excluded from federally funded benefits-have extremely limited access to safety net provisions. The potential effects of proposed cutbacks in health care financing on older Hispanics are discussed.

  3. Social anxiety and alcohol-related negative consequences among college drinkers: do protective behavioral strategies mediate the association?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarosa, Margo C; Moorer, Kayla D; Madson, Michael B; Zeigler-Hill, Virgil; Noble, Jeremy J

    2014-09-01

    The link between social anxiety and alcohol-related negative consequences among college students has been well documented. Protective behavioral strategies are cognitive-behavioral strategies that college students use in an effort to reduce harm while they are drinking. In the current study we examined the mediating role of the 2 categories of protective behavioral strategies (i.e., controlled consumption and serious harm reduction) in the relationship that social anxiety symptoms have with alcohol-related negative consequences. Participants were 572 undergraduates who completed measures of social anxiety, alcohol use, negative consequences of alcohol use, and protective behavioral strategy use. Only serious harm reduction strategies emerged as a mediator of the association that social anxiety symptoms had with alcohol-related negative consequences. Clinical and research implications are discussed.

  4. Assessing Middle School Students' Knowledge of Conduct and Consequences and Their Behaviors regarding the Use of Social Networking Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kite, Stacey L.; Gable, Robert; Filippelli, Lawrence

    2010-01-01

    Cyberbullying and threats of Internet predators, not to mention the enduring consequences of postings, may lead to dangerous, unspeakable consequences. Cyberbullying and threats of Internet predators through social networking sites and instant messaging programs are initiating numerous problems for parents, school administrators, and law…

  5. Subjectivity and Reflexivity in the Social Sciences: Epistemic Windows and Methodical Consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franz Breuer

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available We sketch four basic epistemological assumptions that imply a constructionist orientation to knowledge including (a perspectivity, positionality; (b horizonality, dynamic observer position; (c the structuring of knowledge through instruments of knowledge production; and (d interactivity and interventionist nature of research. Although social scientists often adopt a constructionist epistemology to frame their research object, the methodological consequences of such an epistemology for the production of social scientific knowledge are not normally drawn. Instead of dealing with the four assumptions as a productive epistemic window, many researchers exhibit a defensive tendency and continue the quest for objectivity in their own writing. We propose a different methodological position conceptualized in the dialectic of the always embodied, individual, and social researcher-in-interaction. Beginning with the concept of a decentered (self- observation we develop the idea of the reflexive nature that relates the epistemic subject and object. We propose a way systematizing methodological considerations and procedures that follows the research process, beginning with the identification of a research topic to the final presentation of the results. The contributions to the two present FQS volumes on "Subjectivity and Reflexivity in Qualitative Research" provide answers and possible solutions to the questions and problems raised in this introduction. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0302258

  6. No place called home: the causes and social consequences of the UK housing 'bubble'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bone, John; O'Reilly, Karen

    2010-06-01

    This paper examines the key causes and social consequences of the much debated UK 'housing bubble' and its aftermath from a multidimensional sociological approach, as opposed to the economic perspective of many popular discussions. This is a phenomenon that has affected numerous economies in the first decade of the new millennium. The discussion is based on a comprehensive study that includes exhaustive analysis of secondary data, content and debate in the mass media and academia, primary data gathered from the monitoring of weblogs and forums debating housing issues, and case histories of individuals experiencing housing difficulties during this period. This paper is intended to provide a broad overview of the key findings and preliminary analysis of this ongoing study, and is informed by a perspective which considers secure and affordable housing to be an essential foundation of stable and cohesive societies, with its absence contributing to a range of social ills that negatively impact on both individual and collective well being. Overall, it is argued that we must return to viewing decent, affordable housing as an essential social resource, that provides the bedrock of stable individual, family and community life, while recognizing that its increasing treatment as a purely economic asset is a key contributor to our so-called 'broken society'.

  7. Social anxiety and drinking refusal self-efficacy moderate the relationship between drinking game participation and alcohol-related consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, Shannon R; Napper, Lucy E; LaBrie, Joseph W

    2014-09-01

    Participation in drinking games is associated with excessive drinking and alcohol risks. Despite the growing literature documenting the ubiquity and consequences of drinking games, limited research has examined the influence of psychosocial factors on the experience of negative consequences as the result of drinking game participation. The current event-level study examined the relationships among drinking game participation, social anxiety, drinking refusal self-efficacy (DRSE) and alcohol-related consequences in a sample of college students. Participants (n = 976) reported on their most recent drinking occasion in the past month in which they did not preparty. After controlling for sex, age, and typical drinking, higher levels of social anxiety, lower levels of DRSE, and playing drinking games predicted greater alcohol-related consequences. Moreover, two-way interactions (Social Anxiety × Drinking Games, DRSE × Drinking Games) demonstrated that social anxiety and DRSE each moderated the relationship between drinking game participation and alcohol-related consequences. Participation in drinking games resulted in more alcohol problems for students with high social anxiety, but not low social anxiety. Students with low DRSE experienced high levels of consequences regardless of whether they participated in drinking games; however, drinking game participation was associated with more consequences for students confident in their ability to resist drinking. Findings highlight the important role that social anxiety and DRSE play in drinking game-related risk, and hence provide valuable implications for screening at-risk students and designing targeted harm reduction interventions that address social anxiety and drink refusal in the context of drinking games.

  8. [Environmental medicine in public health service--a social responsibility and its consequences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thriene, B

    2001-02-01

    The special committee for "Environmental Medicine" established by the Federal Association of Doctors in the German Public Health Service presents its paper entitled "Environmental Medicine in the Public Health Service--A Social Responsibility and its Consequences: Propositions with regard to the situation, aims, strategies, and opportunities for action". The paper includes core ideas and responsibilities in the public health service. It aims at providing a number of guidelines for implementing "Environment and Health" ("Umwelt und Gesundheit"), an action programme by the Federal Ministry of Environmental Protection and the Ministry of Health, as well as "Health 21" ("Gesundheit 21"), the framework concept "Health for all" for the WHO's European Region. The paper also aims at initiating and facilitating steps for joint action by the Public Health Service. These theses were passed on to Mrs. Andrea Fischer, the Federal Minister of Health, during a meeting with the Board of the Association. In Germany, environment-related public health protection is well established in the Public Health Departments and state institutes/departments within the scope of public health provision and disease prevention. Typical responsibilities include environmental hygiene and environment-related medical services which have increased in importance. The range of responsibilities and its current political importance are a result of environment-related public health risks, the social situation of the population, also with regard to health issues, and the scope of responsibilities and competencies by doctors and staff in the public health departments. With the people's demands for health, quality of life and life expectancy, this need for action increases. In this paper, judicial, professional, and personal consequence are presented which arise as public health authorities assume these responsibilities.

  9. Social aspects in evaluation of health status of subjects who participated in liquidation of radiation accident consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tukov, A.R.; Kleev, N.A.; Shafranskij, I.L.

    2000-01-01

    The morbidity rate of the Russian atomic industry workers, the liquidators of ChNPP accident consequences and their future life span shorting with an account of their social status are evaluated. Tentative and standard morbidity values were calculated with an account of various social groups of the liquidators. Intensive values of the man-year losses were used in the methodology for evaluating the vital potential losses. The study results indicated considerable morbidity difference in certain diseases by the persons of various social groups, who took part in liquidation of the ChNPP accident consequences [ru

  10. How great is Latvia's success story? The economic, social and political consequences of the recent financial crisis in Latvia

    OpenAIRE

    Austers, Aldis

    2014-01-01

    The current state of Latvia can be best described in medical terms: the patient is pale, but alive. The financial woes have been successfully resolved, but economic, social and political challenges remain. The crisis is continuing to affect the fabric of social and political life in Latvia. This paper looks at the economic, social and political consequences of the recent financial crisis and the ensuing economic collapse in Latvia and suggests some remedial actions.

  11. The frequency of unintended pregnancies at working and unworking women: why don’t they want to become pregnant?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilek Karaman

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Unintended pregnancies and reasons of occurance should be analysed for socially and economically. The most important reason of unintended pregnancies is defects or failure at using contraception methods. Unintended pregnancies usually ended by dilatation and curratage for termination of pregnancies. The women use this method for limiting the child count and as one of the contraseption methods. Our study’s aims to investigate the frequency of unintended pregnancies at working and unworking women and the reasons of them.\tMaterials-METHODS: 507 healthy women who applied to Afyon Kocatepe University Ahmet Necdet Sezer Research and Training Hospital, Clinic of Obstetrics between July-Agust/2006 at reproductive age were enrolled. Frequency of their unintended pregnancies and the reason of them were asked. A questionnaire form which include 40 questions were used to collect data. The following outcomes were recorded using SPSS for Windows 11,0 programme. P\tRESULTS: This study shows that 44% women were had unintended pregnancy at least once. In our study group 84% women used one of the contraseption methods and 15.9% women didn’t use any methods. Unintended pregnancy frequency of unworking women 53.2 % and working women is 34.7%. The rates of unintended pregnancies in women who had no education were 66.7% and 28.9% in educated women. First unintended pregnancy often ended with 44% alive birth, second and third pregnancies usually ended with curettage.\tCONCLUSION: Contraception methods must be used effectively and correctly to prevent the unintended pregnancies. To make the all pregnancies intended more information about contraseption methods and their usage must be given.

  12. Questionnaire of social probability and potential consequences: Examination of reliability and validity on Serbian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranđelović Kristina M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Prejudice in judgment has an important role in cognitive models of psychopathology. Every selective processing of emotionally relevant stimuli is called cognitive prejudice. One of the cognitive prejudices that is considered a key factor of socially - anxious disorder is prejudice in judgment. It is defined as a disposition to overestimate the probability of occurrence of negative social events in the near future, as well as potential consequences (agitation that might follow them. The perception of danger is essentially determined by a joined effect of subjective assessment of probability and agitation created by certain events. The researches have shown that socially-anxious individuals have a more expressive prejudice in judgment and that it can be reduced by applying certain psychotherapeutic and pharmacological treatments, which proves its relevance for the socially-anxious disorder. Considering the significance of the prejudice in judgment construct for the research and clinical practice and the lack of instruments that is operational in our country, the basic purpose of this paper is to check metric characteristics of the Serbian version of one of the most often mentioned and used questionnaires aimed at the assessment of this construct. It is the Questionnaire of social probability and potential consequences, which has two subscales: 1 to examine the reliability of the questionnaire on the sample of examinees from Serbia; 2 to examine the latent structure of the questionnaire and 3 to examine the construct of validity of the questionnaire by checking the correlations with other relevant constructs (personality traits, anxiety as a trait and fear of negative evaluation.The was adapted for Serbian language from English. The sample consists of 166 examinees, aged from 19 to 29 (AS = 21,73; SD = 1,43. The questionnaire for sensitivity to confirmation assessment was used to estimate personality traits, Anxiety as a trait was estimated by the

  13. Unintended pregnancies after Essure sterilization in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veersema, S.; Vleugels, M.P.; Moolenaar, L.M.; Janssen, C.A.; Brölmann, H.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the data of cases of unintended pregnancies after Essure sterilization. Design: Retrospective case series analysis. Setting: National multicenter. Patient(s): Ten cases of unintended pregnancies after Essure sterilization in the Netherlands were reported from August 2002

  14. Abortion Incidence and Unintended Pregnancy in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puri, Mahesh; Singh, Susheela; Sundaram, Aparna; Hussain, Rubina; Tamang, Anand; Crowell, Marjorie

    2016-12-01

    Although abortion has been legal under broad criteria in Nepal since 2002, a significant proportion of women continue to obtain illegal, unsafe abortions, and no national estimates exist of the incidence of safe and unsafe abortions. Data were collected in 2014 from a nationally representative sample of 386 facilities that provide legal abortions or postabortion care and a survey of 134 health professionals knowledgeable about abortion service provision. Facility caseloads and indirect estimation techniques were used to calculate the national and regional incidence of legal and illegal abortion. National and regional levels of abortion complications and unintended pregnancy were also estimated. In 2014, women in Nepal had 323,100 abortions, of which 137,000 were legal, and 63,200 women were treated for abortion complications. The abortion rate was 42 per 1,000 women aged 15-49, and the abortion ratio was 56 per 100 live births. The abortion rate in the Central region (59 per 1,000) was substantially higher than the national average. Overall, 50% of pregnancies were unintended, and the unintended pregnancy rate was 68 per 1,000 women of reproductive age. Despite legalization of abortion and expansion of services in Nepal, unsafe abortion is still common and exacts a heavy toll on women. Programs and policies to reduce rates of unintended pregnancy and unsafe abortion, increase access to high-quality contraceptive care and expand safe abortion services are warranted.

  15. Education Differences in Intended and Unintended Fertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musick, Kelly; England, Paula; Edgington, Sarah; Kangas, Nicole

    2009-01-01

    Using a hazards framework and panel data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (1979-2004), we analyze the fertility patterns of a recent cohort of white and black women in the United States. We examine how completed fertility varies by women's education, differentiating between intended and unintended births. We find that the education…

  16. International Expansion and Transition to the Network Structure of the Multinational Companies and Their Social Consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Ettaleb

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Economic globalization is associated with growing interconnectedness, interdependence and the integration of businesses into a single economic system, improving the competitiveness of businesses, and places new demands and requirements on firms. Companies that wanted to survive in a new, dynamic and competitive environment had to apply new development strategies, whose main motto was to reduce costs and to create greater flexibility on the global market. Many large companies managed huge cost reductions in the globalized economy through international expansion to the industrial periphery and semi-periphery countries (developing countries and Central and Eastern Europe and through the transition from a pyramidal organizational structure to a network structure. The control centre of companies in a network organization deprives hierarchical and pyramidal corporate structures, rather temporarily joins a network of small suppliers, subcontractors and service providers. In the business environment networks are more flexible and adaptable than firms with a hierarchical structure. They are highly effective because they allow significant reductions in the operating costs of the company. On the other hand, the network structure of relations has a number of social consequences, such as the reduction in the number of employees, the rise in non-standard employment contracts and the abolition of responsibility.

  17. An analysis of social consequences of rapid fertility decline in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Z; Liu, L

    1988-12-01

    Rapid fertility decline in China has brought about 2 direct effects: 1) the natural increase of the population has slowed down, and 2) the age structure has changed from the young to the adult type. These 2 effects have caused a series of economic and social consequences. Rapid fertility decline increases the gross national product per capita and accelerates the improvement of people's lives. Rapid fertility decline slows population growth and speeds up the accumulation of capital and the development of the economy. Since 1981, accumulation growth has exceeded consumption growth. Fertility decline alleviates the enrollment pressure on primary and secondary schools, raises the efficiency of education funds, and promotes the popularization of education. The family planning program strengthens the maternal and child health care and the medical care systems. As the result of economic development, the people's nutritional levels are improving. The physical quality of teenagers has improved steadily. The change in the age structure will alleviate the tension of rapid population growth and benefit population control in the next century. Fertility decline forces the traditional attitude toward childbearing from "more children, more happiness" to improved quality of children. The rapid fertility decline has caused a great deal of concern both inside and outside China about the aging of the population. The labor force, however, will continue to grow for the next 60 years. At present, China's population problems are still those of population growth.

  18. The Consequences of Parental Separation and Divorce for the Economic, Social and Emotional Circumstances of Children in Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maundeni, Tapologo

    2000-01-01

    Analyzes children's and mothers' accounts of the economic consequences of divorce for children in Botswana. Notes that most mothers and children reported economic hardship following divorce, although a few reported improvement or no change in economic circumstances. Traces the implications for the social and psychological well-being of children.…

  19. Energy and social and environmental consequences in Rondonia State, Brazil; Energia e reflexos socio-ambientais em Rondonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lascio, Vania L. di [Brasilia Univ., DF (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Agronomica; Paz, Luciana R.L. da [Brasilia Univ., DF (Brazil). Dept. de Sociologia

    1996-12-31

    The social and environmental consequences of the recent occupation of the State of Rondonia, Brazil, are presented.The lack of basic structure for settlement of the migrants brought many problems and in this context, the use of renewable energy could be the basis for developing the region 10 refs., 2 figs.

  20. Destalking the Wily Tomato: A Case Study in Social Consequences in California Agricultural Research. Research Monograph No. 15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedland, William H.; Barton, Amy

    The end of the bracero program after 1965 brought about a major change in the growing, harvesting, and processing of California tomatoes which dramatically influenced the structure of the harvesting labor force. In order to determine the social consequences of the transition from man to mechanized harvesting procedures, the following areas of…

  1. The consequences of mimicry for prosocials and proselfs: effects of social value orientation on the mimicry-liking link

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stel, M.; Rispens, S.; Lokhorst, A.M.; Leliveld, M.

    2011-01-01

    People often mimic each other's behaviors. As a consequence, they share each other's emotional and cognitive states, which facilitates liking. Mimicry, however, does not always affect liking. In two studies, we investigate whether the mimicry–liking link is influenced by people's social value

  2. Using Social Media to Explore the Consequences of Domestic Violence on Mental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mingming; Xue, Jia; Zhao, Nan; Wang, Xuefei; Jiao, Dongdong; Zhu, Tingshao

    2018-02-01

    A great deal of research has focused on the negative consequences of domestic violence (DV) on mental health. However, current studies cannot provide direct and reliable evidence on the impacts of DV on mental health in a short term as it is not feasible to measure mental health shortly before and after an unpredictable event like DV. This study aims to explore the short-term outcomes of DV on individuals' mental health. We collected a sample of 232 victims (77% female) and 232 nonvictims (gender and location matched with 232 victims) on Sina Weibo. In both the victim and nonvictim groups, we measured their mental health status during the 4 weeks before the first DV incident and during the 4 weeks after the DV incident. We used our proposed Online Ecological Recognition (OER) system, which is based on several predictive models to identify individuals' mental health statuses. Mental health statuses were measured based on individuals' Weibo profiles and messages, which included "Depression," "Suicide Probability," and "Satisfaction With Life." The results showed that mental health in the victim group was impacted by DV while individuals in the nonvictim group were not. Furthermore, the victim group demonstrated an increase in depression symptoms, higher suicide risks, and decreased life satisfaction after their DV experience. In addition, the effect of DV on individuals' mental health could appear in the conditions of child abuse, intimate partner violence, and exposure to DV. These findings inform that DV significantly impacts individuals' mental health over the short term, as in 4 weeks. Our proposed new data collection and analyses approach, OER, has implications for employing "big data" from social networks to identify individuals' mental health.

  3. Social knowledge in children with language impairments: examination of strategies, predicted consequences, and goals in peer conflict situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timler, Geralyn R

    2008-09-01

    This study investigated social knowledge in school-age children, aged 8-12 years, with and without language impairment (LI and TD groups). A hypothetical peer conflict task was administered to examine the relationship among prosocial responses and parent/teacher ratings of children's social behaviours. Stimuli included 12 hypothetical peer conflict vignettes presented in an open-ended and forced choice condition. The LI group generated (open-ended) and selected (forced choice) fewer prosocial strategies. When asked to predict a friend's reaction to a selected conflict resolution strategy, the LI group predicted fewer positive consequences; however, the proportion of prosocial strategies followed by prediction of a positive peer consequence was similar across groups. Both groups identified more self-interest than relationship goals as the rationale for selected strategies. In the LI group, teacher ratings of children's social skills and problems in peer provocation situations were associated with selection of prosocial strategies. Implications for clinical service providers are discussed.

  4. Social and emotional consequences of refraining from sexual activity among sexually experienced and inexperienced youths in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Sonya S; Halpern-Felsher, Bonnie L

    2008-01-01

    We examined the social and emotional consequences among adolescents of refraining from sexual activity (oral or vaginal sex) and whether these consequences differed over time and by gender and sexual experience. Adolescents (N=612; 58% female) recruited from 2 schools were assessed at 4 time points separated by 6-month intervals, beginning in fall of ninth grade. The percentage of adolescents who reported only positive consequences (e.g., they felt responsible, friends were proud) dramatically decreased over time, whereas the percentage that reported negative consequences (e.g., they felt left out, partners became angry) steadily increased. Adolescent girls and sexually experienced adolescents were more likely to report both positive and negative consequences than were adolescent boys and sexually inexperienced adolescents. Adolescents who began the study with sexual experience were more likely to report positive consequences of refraining from sexual activity by the end of the study than those who initiated sexual activity later. Sexual education programs should address how adolescents can cope with or prevent negative consequences of refraining from sexual activity, so that decisions to abstain are rewarding and decisions to engage in sexual activity are motivated by maturity and readiness.

  5. Social consequences of Chernobyl NPP shut-down and programme of social assurance for its employees and population of Slavutich

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Udovichenko, V.P.

    2001-01-01

    Project of the State programme of social protection of persons whose activity is connected with Chernobyl NPP is described. It includes the problems of Slavutich infrastructure maintaining, creation of compensating working places, providing social assurance for NPP personnel and population

  6. Access to specific social resources across different social media : divergent consequences of the time spent with new contacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matzat, U.; Sadowski, B.M.

    2015-01-01

    Despite a large number of studies on the social impact of the Internet, little is known about the specific social resources to which social media provide access. Most studies have either examined issues surrounding the question whether or not new online contacts have been established or they have

  7. A blessing I can't afford: factors underlying the paradox of happiness about unintended pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiken, Abigail R A; Dillaway, Chloe; Mevs-Korff, Natasha

    2015-05-01

    An unresolved paradox in the measurement and interpretation of unintended pregnancy is that women frequently report feeling happy about pregnancies they also classify as unintended (i.e. they have incongruent intentions and feelings). This study explores the underlying reasons why women profess such happiness and how these relate to their motivations to avoid pregnancy. Between September 2013 and February 2014, semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with 27 women (8 white, 19 Latina) selected from a longitudinal study measuring prospective pregnancy intentions and feelings among 403 women in Austin, Texas. Women were selected for interview on the basis of wanting no more children and consistently professing either happiness (n = 17) or unhappiness (n = 10) at the prospect of pregnancy. Interviews were coded and analyzed following the principles of grounded theory. We found that it is possible for women to express happiness at the idea of pregnancy while simultaneously earnestly trying to prevent conception. Happiness at the idea of an unintended pregnancy was explained as the result of deep and heartfelt feelings about children taking precedence over practical considerations, the perception that the psychosocial stress resulting from another child would be low, and the ability to rationalize an unintended pregnancy as the result of fate or God's plan. The major exception to the sincerity of professed happiness was that conveyed as a result of social pressure despite truly negative feelings, predominantly expressed by foreign-born Latina women. Overall, equating incongruence with ambivalence about avoiding conception may undermine the sincerity of women's intentions and their desires for highly-effective contraception. At the same time, unintended pregnancies that are greeted with happiness may have different implications for maternal and child health outcomes compared to pregnancies that are greeted with unhappiness. Identifying which unintended

  8. Consequences of early postnatal benzodiazepines exposure in rats. II. Social behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna eMikulecka

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Social behavior represents an integral part of behavioral repertoire of rats particularly sensitive to pharmacological and environmental influences. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether early postnatal clonazepam (CZP exposure can induce age-dependent changes related to expression of social behavior. The drug was administered from postnatal day (P 7 until P11 at daily doses of 0.1, 0.5 and 1.0 mg/kg i.p. We designed three experiments to assess whether exposure to CZP affects social behavior in respect to the age of rats and the test circumstances, specifically their familiarity with test conditions during adolescence (P32, social behavior in juveniles and adolescents (P18-P42 and social behavior in a resident-intruder paradigm. The frequency and duration of a various patterns of social behavior related to play and social investigation not related to play were evaluated. The results showed that CZP postnatal exposure decreased social play behavior regardless of age and familiarity or unfamiliarity of experimental environment but did not affect the social investigation per se. When rats were confronted with an intruder in their home cages intense wrestling and inhibition of genital investigation were found. In conclusion, these findings show that short-term CZP postnatal exposure inhibits social play behavior and alters specific patterns of social behavior in an age and environment related manner

  9. The evolutionary and ecological consequences of animal social networks: emerging issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurvers, Ralf H J M; Krause, Jens; Croft, Darren P; Wilson, Alexander D M; Wolf, Max

    2014-06-01

    The first generation of research on animal social networks was primarily aimed at introducing the concept of social networks to the fields of animal behaviour and behavioural ecology. More recently, a diverse body of evidence has shown that social fine structure matters on a broader scale than initially expected, affecting many key ecological and evolutionary processes. Here, we review this development. We discuss the effects of social network structure on evolutionary dynamics (genetic drift, fixation probabilities, and frequency-dependent selection) and social evolution (cooperation and between-individual behavioural differences). We discuss how social network structure can affect important coevolutionary processes (host-pathogen interactions and mutualisms) and population stability. We also discuss the potentially important, but poorly studied, role of social network structure on dispersal and invasion. Throughout, we highlight important areas for future research. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Unintended outcomes of farmers' adaptation to climate variability: deforestation and conservation in Calakmul and Maya biosphere reserves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Rodriguez-Solorzano

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Minimizing the impact of climate change on farmer livelihoods is crucial, but adaptation efforts may have unintended consequences for ecosystems, with potential impacts on farmers' welfare. Unintended outcomes of climate adaptation strategies have been widely discussed, however, empirical exploration has been neglected. Grounded in scholarship on climate adaptation, environmental governance, social-ecological systems, and land-use change, this paper studies whether farmers' climate adaptation contributes to deforestation or forest conservation. The paper draws on interviews with 353 farmers from 46 communities in Calakmul Biosphere Reserve in Mexico and Maya Biosphere Reserve in Guatemala. Farmers in the area of study have implemented adaptation strategies that people around the world have used for centuries, including migration, diversification, savings, and pooling. The findings show that climate adaptation can increase deforestation or support forest conservation depending on the type of adaptation strategy farmers implement. Saving, based on cattle ranching, is a deforestation-driving strategy. The choice of this strategy is influenced by distance to the commercial and administrative center and cash benefits from the forest. Deforestation can have a negative impact on farmers' welfare, as well as harm biodiversity and contribute to increased climate change. Thus, deforestation-driving adaptation strategies may be ineffective. However, diversification, based on off-farm jobs and operating provision shops, is a conservation-driving strategy influenced by distance as well as by family size. Farmers who choose diversification to adapt may contribute to a virtuous circle in which livelihood improvement in the short term leads to enhanced social-ecological resilience in the longer term. The need for farmers to implement adaptation strategies thus represents great risk but also opportunities.

  11. Prevalence and distribution of unintended pregnancy: the Understanding Fertility Management in Australia National Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Heather; Holton, Sara; Kirkman, Maggie; Bayly, Christine; Jordan, Lynne; McNamee, Kathleen; McBain, John; Sinnott, Vikki; Fisher, Jane

    2016-04-01

    Mistimed, unexpected or unwanted pregnancies occur in Australia, despite widespread contraception use. The objective was to estimate prevalence and ascertain modifiable social factors for prevention of unintended pregnancy. National population-based survey of women and men aged 18-51 years recruited from a random sample of electors on the Australian Electoral Roll in 2013. Data were weighted to reduce non-response bias. Factors associated with unintended pregnancy were identified in multivariable analyses. Data from 2,235 completed questionnaires were analysed (Women: 69%; Men: 31%). Of those ever pregnant or partner in pregnancy (59%), 40% had experienced an unintended pregnancy. Adjusting for other risks, ever having experienced sexual coercion (AOR, 95%CI=Women 1.948; 1.458-2.601; Men 1.657, 1.014-2.708); socioeconomic disadvantage (AOR, 95%CI=Women 1.808, 1.373, 2.381; Men 1.360, 1.004-1.841), living in a rural area (AOR, 95%CI=Women 1.403, 1.056-1.864; Men 1.583, 1.161-2.159), and for men being born overseas (AOR, 95%CI 1.989, 1.317-3.002) were significantly associated with unintended pregnancy. Experiences of sexual coercion, social disadvantage, rural residence and overseas birth are independently associated with unintended pregnancy in Australia. Public health policy and health service initiatives should prioritise prevention of sexual coercion, reduction of social inequality and reduction of geographic inequality for those in rural areas. © 2015 Public Health Association of Australia.

  12. Proceedings of workshop on the social consequences of waste heat discharge alternatives, Argonne, Illinois, June 9--10, 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butz, B.P.; Lewis, B.A.G.; Friesema, H.P.; Halter, A.N.

    1975-08-01

    The workshop was attended by individuals representing federal regulatory and research agencies, universities, private industry, and citizen interest groups. The staff presented papers on quantification of social consequences, environmental considerations, social considerations, and economic considerations. Participant recommendations were made with regard to the impact matrix technique, technology assessment, and the program philosophy. The principal recommendations were that site specific cases be analyzed, careful extrapolation of results be made region by region, generic impact matrices be handled very carefully or avoided, and methodology development be initiated

  13. Socio-economic consequences of Chernobyl catastrophe. Social protection of the citizens, affected owing to Chernobyl catastrophe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kholosha, V.; Kovalchuk, V.

    2003-01-01

    The accident on Chernobyl NPP has affected the destiny of 35 million people in Ukraine. The social protection of the population affected during Chernobyl catastrophe is founded on the Law of Ukraine 'About the status and social protection of citizens affected owing to Chernobyl catastrophe' (see further - 'Law'), and is the principal direction of activity and the subject of the special state attention to total complex of problems bound to Chernobyl catastrophe consequences elimination. The current legislation stipulates partial compensation of material losses connected with resettlement of the affected population. According to the current legislation in Ukraine about 50 kinds of aid, privileges and compensations are submitted to the affected citizens

  14. Authentic leadership, social support and their role in workplace bullying and its mental health consequences

    OpenAIRE

    Warszewska-Makuch, Magdalena; Bedyńska, Sylwia; Żołnierczyk-Zreda, Dorota

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to show how authentic leadership is related to social support and exposure to workplace bullying and how these variables are related to mental health. For our sample of 820 office workers employed in different Polish organizations and sectors, social support from supervisors moderated the relationship between authentic leadership and workplace bullying. Social support from co-workers moderated the relationship between workplace bullying and mental health and authenti...

  15. Why people gossip: An empirical analysis of social motives, antecedents, and consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beersma, B.; Van Kleef, G.A.

    2012-01-01

    In 3 studies with student samples, we advance a social-motivational approach to gossip. We developed the Motives to Gossip Questionnaire to distinguish negative influence, information gathering and validation, social enjoyment, and group protection as motives underlying gossip. Study 1 demonstrated

  16. The Experimental Social Scientific Model in Speech Communication Research: Influences and Consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferris, Sharmila Pixy

    A substantial number of published articles in speech communication research today is experimental/social scientific in nature. It is only in the past decade that scholars have begun to put the history of communication under the lens. Early advocates of the adoption of the method of social scientific inquiry were J. A. Winans, J. M. O'Neill, and C.…

  17. The Social and Academic Consequences of Birth Order: Real, Artifactual, or Both?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steelman, Lala Carr; Powell, Brian

    1985-01-01

    Examined impact of birth order on social skills and academic performance of children and adolescents (N=3,568). Results revealed no significant relationship between birth order and academic performance but did reveal a significant positive relationship between birth order and social skills. Leadership skills were related to birth order for males.…

  18. Is Self-Esteem a Cause or Consequence of Social Support? A 4-Year Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Sarah L.; Parker, Phillip D.; Ciarrochi, Joseph; Heaven, Patrick C. L.

    2014-01-01

    Considerable research has been devoted to examining the relations between self-esteem and social support. However, the exact nature and direction of these relations are not well understood. Measures of self-esteem, and social support quantity and quality were administered to 961 adolescents across five yearly time points (M[subscript…

  19. The Consequences of Internet Café Use on Turkish College Students' Social Capital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koç, Mustafa; Ferneding, Karen Ann

    2007-01-01

    This paper draws on a part of the doctoral research study that investigates the potential impacts of Internet café use on Turkish college students' social capital. In this study, Internet café usage was portrayed by the amount of time spent and the frequency of online activities engaged at the cafés. Social capital, on the other hand, was…

  20. The making of a population: Challenges, implications, and consequences of the quantification of social difference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Taylor M

    2017-02-01

    How do we make a difference? This paper traces the connections made between quantified knowledge, population health, and social justice by examining the efforts of population scientists to assess sexuality as a point of difference within population-based data systems, including on national health and social surveys, electronic medical records, and the Census. Population scientists emphasize the importance of measuring social difference in order to identify and remedy structural disadvantage. This evaluation requires the assessment of difference and the comparison of distinct groups across standardized outcome measures. In quantifying social difference, however, population scientists obscure or minimize several difficulties in creating comparable populations. I explore some of these challenges by highlighting three central tensions: the separation of difference from other aspects and categories of social experience, the reduction of difference through the use of one over several possible measures, and the enactment of difference as quantified knowledge loops back into society. As a theoretical inquiry into the form of social difference as it is conceptualized, operationalized, and materialized across the science-society nexus, this paper identifies the various commitments made during processes of scientific evaluation. By attending to the values and priorities that exist within and through practices of quantification, I aim to address the problem of measuring social difference as it pertains to the issues of social justice and health equity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The Consequences of Internet Cafe use on Turkish College Students' Social Capital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koc, Mustafa; Ferneding, Karen Ann

    2007-01-01

    This paper draws on a part of the doctoral research study that investigates the potential impacts of Internet cafe use on Turkish college students' social capital. In this study, Internet cafe usage was portrayed by the amount of time spent and the frequency of online activities engaged at the cafes. Social capital, on the other hand, was…

  2. Parents and the media: causes and consequences of parental media socialization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Notten, N.J.W.R.

    2011-01-01

    Media literacy is an important part of socialization and with media use becoming ever more essential in modern society, research on parental media socialization is vital. This study proposes the intergenerational transmission of parent’s media competencies, as a specific kind of cultural

  3. Unintended pregnancy and sex education in Chile: a behavioural model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herold, J M; Thompson, N J; Valenzuela, M S; Morris, L

    1994-10-01

    This study analysed factors associated with unintended pregnancy among adolescent and young adult women in Santiago, Chile. Three variations of a behavioural model were developed. Logistic regression showed that the effect of sex education on unintended pregnancy works through the use of contraception. Other significant effects were found for variables reflecting socioeconomic status and a woman's acceptance of her sexuality. The results also suggested that labelling affects measurement of 'unintended' pregnancy.

  4. The correlates and consequences of early appearing social anxiety in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, Murray; Coplan, Robert J; Kingsbury, Adam

    2009-10-01

    Social anxiety is the fear of social situations and being negatively evaluated by others. Most previous studies of childhood social anxiety have employed clinical samples of children aged 10 years and older. The current study explored the correlates of social anxiety in an unselected sample of young children. Participants were n=178 elementary school children in grade 2 (aged 7-8 years). Children were individually administered the Social Anxiety Scale for Children-Revised (SASC-R), as well as measures of socio-emotional adjustment. Teachers completed measures of children's socio-emotional problems and school adjustment. Results indicated that social anxiety was positively associated with self-reported loneliness, school avoidance, and internalizing coping, and negatively related to school liking. However, social anxiety was mostly unrelated to teacher-rated outcomes. Findings are discussed in terms of use of the SASC-R for this type of population and reasons for the disparity between child and teacher reports of adjustment outcomes.

  5. Communicating and Sharing in the Semantic Web: An Examination of Social Media Risks, Consequences, and Attitudinal Awareness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole A. Buzzetto-More

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Empowered by and tethered to ubiquitous technologies, the current generation of youth yearns for opportunities to engage in self-expression and information sharing online with personal disclosure no longer governed by concepts of propriety and privacy. This raises issues about the unsafe online activities of teens and young adults. The following paper presents the findings of a study examining the social networking activities of undergraduate students and also highlights a program to increase awareness of the dangers and safe practices when using and communicating, via social media. According to the survey results, young adults practice risky social networking site (SNS behaviors with most having experienced at least one negative consequence. Further, females were more likely than males to engage in oversharing as well as to have experienced negative consequences. Finally, results of a post-treatment survey found that a targeted program that includes flyers, posters, YouTube videos, handouts, and in-class information sessions conducted at a Mid-Atlantic Historically Black College or University (HBCU increased student awareness of the dangers of social media as well as positively influenced students to practice more prudent online behaviors.

  6. Authentic leadership, social support and their role in workplace bullying and its mental health consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warszewska-Makuch, Magdalena; Bedyńska, Sylwia; Żołnierczyk-Zreda, Dorota

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to show how authentic leadership is related to social support and exposure to workplace bullying and how these variables are related to mental health. For our sample of 820 office workers employed in different Polish organizations and sectors, social support from supervisors moderated the relationship between authentic leadership and workplace bullying. Social support from co-workers moderated the relationship between workplace bullying and mental health and authentic leadership moderated the relationship between workplace bullying and mental health. PMID:26323771

  7. Authentic leadership, social support and their role in workplace bullying and its mental health consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warszewska-Makuch, Magdalena; Bedyńska, Sylwia; Żołnierczyk-Zreda, Dorota

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to show how authentic leadership is related to social support and exposure to workplace bullying and how these variables are related to mental health. For our sample of 820 office workers employed in different Polish organizations and sectors, social support from supervisors moderated the relationship between authentic leadership and workplace bullying. Social support from co-workers moderated the relationship between workplace bullying and mental health and authentic leadership moderated the relationship between workplace bullying and mental health.

  8. Medical and social consequences of low doses of radiation for the population of Latvia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsoi, V.

    1997-01-01

    About 6000 people involved in the elimination of the consequences of the Chernobyl accident and family members evacuated from Pripyat settled in Latvia. Although exposed to doses not exceeding 25cGy, an increasing number of diseases leading to invalidity and mortality of liquidators is noted. The symptoms of the various medical disorders being observed are described. (author)

  9. Alcohol Use and Perceived Social and Emotional Consequences among Perpetrators of General and Sexual Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stappenbeck, Cynthia A.; Fromme, Kim

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the relation among alcohol use, alcohol-related aggression expectancies, and the perceived negative consequences of perpetrating general and sexual aggression. Participants (N = 2,941; 59% female) were incoming college freshmen who reported on the last 3 months of their senior year of high school. Hierarchical multiple…

  10. Risky Sexual Behavior: A Race-Specific Social Consequence of Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leech, Tamara G. J.; Dias, Janice Johnson

    2012-01-01

    Scant attention has been given to the consequence of actual weight status for adolescents' sexual wellbeing. In this article, we investigate the race-specific connection between obesity and risky sexual behavior among adolescent girls. Propensity scores and radius matching are used to analyze a sample of 340 adolescents aged 16-17 who participated…

  11. Children's Scripts for Social Emotions: Causes and Consequences Are More Central than Are Facial Expressions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widen, Sherri C.; Russell, James A.

    2010-01-01

    Understanding and recognition of emotions relies on emotion concepts, which are narrative structures (scripts) specifying facial expressions, causes, consequences, label, etc. organized in a temporal and causal order. Scripts and their development are revealed by examining which components better tap which concepts at which ages. This study…

  12. Genetic consequences of war and social strife in sub-Saharan Africa : the case of Uganda's large mammals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muwanika, Vincent B.; Nyakaana, Silvester; Siegismund, Hans Redlef

    2005-01-01

    data that are relevant to understanding of the genetic effects of war and social strife on Africa's wildlife. Uganda was probably one of the worst affected countries. Before 1972, Uganda had large herds and a variety of mammals. However, following the breakdown of law and order, some large mammals were......The spectacular diversity of sub-Saharan Africa's large mammals was hit by constant social strife and civil war over three decades (1970s-1990s) leading to localized extinctions and drastic reductions in population sizes for many species. These localized extinctions and reduction in population...... sizes undermine the ability of species to evolve and adapt to changing environments as a result of genetic erosion. The genetic consequences of the widespread reduction of population sizes as a result of social strife in sub-Saharan Africa are not well documented. Here we review past molecular genetic...

  13. Social connectedness as a source and consequence of meaning in life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stavrova, O.; Luhmann, Maike

    2016-01-01

    Multiple studies have shown that the sense of belonging and connectedness contribute to meaning in life, but does meaning also influence social connectedness? The present research examines the reciprocal relationships between meaning and different types of connectedness: intimate, relational, and

  14. Gateway Political Behaviors: The Frequency and Consequences of Low-Cost Political Engagement on Social Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia Bode

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to determine to what extent engagement in easy political behaviors on social media occurs across the range of political interest, what predicts such engagement, and what effect such engagement may have on other political behaviors. It pits the idea that social media may activate the politically uninterested against the idea that social media is just another outlet for the politically interested to demonstrate their engagement. Analyzing survey data collected by the Pew Research Center, it concludes that many people, including the politically uninterested, do engage in easy political behaviors like liking and commenting on political content on social media. When they do, it can lead to greater political activity offline. However, those most likely to engage in easy political behaviors are also those who engage in harder political behaviors, offering support for both the interest and activation hypotheses.

  15. Social decision-making for high consequence, low probability occurrences. Final report 1975-77

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-10-01

    Part I reviews the two main classes of criteria proposed for social decisions: (1) market mechanisms and cost-benefit analysis and (2) the approaches of Rawls and Buchanan to arrive at a social consensus. The authors propose an eight element criteria for evaluating a social decision process capable of application in judicial, legislative, academic, and managerial situations. Parts II and III are case studies of different decision procedures. The former inspects the administrative law procedure using the U.S. EPA chlordane/heptachlor suspension hearings for example. The legal procedure is concluded to be a forward-looking decision process in an effort to increase social acceptability of the outcome. The latter examines the disjointed decision procedure concerning the disposal of nuclear waste. In both cases the eight criteria proposed in Part I nevertheless provide a useful tool for evaluating the process

  16. The Economic and Social Consequences of Gambling on the Tourism Industry in Macau

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, Weng U

    2007-01-01

    Macau is known as the Eastern Monte Carlo, her main industry of gambling makes Macau a rapid economic expansion and brings Macau a lot of job opportunities. However, in recent years, crime and negative social impacts have increased as a result of this industry. Gambling making Macau's economic structure lopsided and fragile as well as bring a series of social problems to Macau. This dissertation illustrates both the positive and negative impacts that Macau's gambling industry is having on int...

  17. The Unintended Hegemonic Effects of a Limited Concession: Institutional Incorporation of Chinese Schools in Post-War Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Ting-Hong

    2012-01-01

    Using the case of Chinese schools in post-Second World War Hong Kong, this paper explores the unintended consequences of an incomplete hegemonic project. After World War II, anti-imperialist pressures and rising educational demands in the local setting propelled the colonial authorities to be more active in providing and funding Chinese schools.…

  18. DECREASE IN SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC CONSEQUENCES TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT BASE INDUSTRIES BY FORMATION OF EFFECTIVE REGIONAL POLICY OF SUPPORT SMALL BUSINESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.G. Shelomentsev

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Clause is devoted to an actual problem of decrease in negative consequences of technological development of key economic branches of the industry at a regional level. During social and economic transformations to Russia to the beginning of 90th years XX of a century there has been begun complex process of re-structuring of key economic branches of the industry, including technological, social and economic transformations. During re-structuring by one of key directions of the decision of existing social problems there is a formation of effective policy of support of small business at a regional and local level. Creation of favorable conditions for development of small business allows for short time and at rather low expenses to smooth disproportions of social and economic development of territories arising at re-structuring. Flexibility inherent in small business, mobility and adaptibility to changeable market conditions can promote the decision of problems of social stability, maintenance of employment and saturation of the consumer market. Creation of the enterprises of small business on the basis of local natural-economic resources raises social and economic potential of industrial territories.

  19. Unintended pregnancy and subsequent use of modern contraceptive among slum and non-slum women in Nairobi, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotso, Jean Christophe; Izugbara, Chimaraoke; Saliku, Teresa; Ochako, Rhoune

    2014-07-10

    In spite of major gains in contraceptive prevalence over the last few decades, many women in most parts of the developing world who would like to delay or avoid pregnancy do not use any method of contraception. This paper seeks to: a) examine whether experiencing an unintended pregnancy is associated with future use of contraception controlling for a number factors including poverty at the household and community levels; and b) investigate the mechanisms through which experiencing an unintended pregnancy leads to uptake of contraception. Quantitative and qualitative data from a cross-sectional research project conducted in 2009/10 in two slum settlements and two non-slum settings of Nairobi, Kenya are used. The quantitative component of the project was based on a random sample of 1,259 women aged 15-49 years. Logistic regression models were used to assess the effect of unintended pregnancy on future contraceptive use. The qualitative component of the project successfully interviewed a total of 80 women randomly selected from survey participants who had reported having at least one unintended pregnancy. Women whose last pregnancy was unintended were more likely to be using a modern method of contraception, compared to their peers whose last pregnancy was intended, especially among the wealthier group as shown in the interaction model. Among poor women, unintended pregnancy was not associated with subsequent use of contraception. The qualitative investigation with women who had an unplanned pregnancy reveals that experiencing an unintended pregnancy seems to have served as a "wake-up call", resulting in greater attention to personal risks, including increased interest in pregnancy prevention. For some women, unintended pregnancy was a consequence of strong opposition by their partners to family planning, while others reported they started using contraceptives following their unintended pregnancy, but discontinued after experiencing side effects. This study provides

  20. Facing HIV infection and unintended pregnancy: Rakai, Uganda, 2001-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grilo, Stephanie Ann; Song, Xiaoyu; Lutalo, Tom; Mullinax, Margo; Mathur, Sanyukta; Santelli, John

    2018-02-27

    Unintended pregnancy is a persistent and global issue with consequences for the health and well-being of mothers and babies. The aim of this paper is to examine unintended pregnancy over time in the context of substantial human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevalence and increasing access to anti-retro viral therapy (ART). Data are from the Rakai Community Cohort Study (RCCS) - a cohort of communities with 10,000-12,000 adults, ages 15-49, in Rakai District, Uganda. We examined prevalence of current pregnancies over time, intended pregnancy, and unintended pregnancies (unwanted, mistimed, ambivalent). We then examined risk factors for the different categories of unintended pregnancy among women who were currently pregnant. The full sample included 32,205 observations over 13 years. The prevalence of mistimed pregnancy and unwanted pregnancy both decreased significantly over time (p < .001). The prevalence of current pregnancies and intended pregnancy showed no significant changes over the thirteen year period. The same overall pattern was found when only examining HIV positive women in the sample; however, the trends were not significant. Out of the 2820 current pregnancies reported, 54.4% were intended, 29.8% were mistimed, 13.2% were unwanted, and 2.5% were ambivalent. After controlling for other predictors, HIV status had no independent effect on mistimed pregnancy but had a significant effect on unwanted pregnancy (RRR = 2.44, 95% CI = 1.65-3.61, p < .001] and ambivalent pregnancy [RRR = 2.07; CI: 1.03 to 4.18, p = 0.041]. In 2004, after the introduction of ART, there was a decreased risk in unintended pregnancy [RR = 0.75; CI: 0.66 to 0.84, p < .001]. Women with a secondary education or higher also had a decreased risk in unintended pregnancy [RR = 0.70; CI: 0.70 to 0.92, p = 0.002]. HIV was an important predictor of unwanted pregnancy. Unintended pregnancy decreased in the sample over time which may be due to an

  1. Towards a balanced social psychology: causes, consequences, and cures for the problem-seeking approach to social behavior and cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Joachim I; Funder, David C

    2004-06-01

    Mainstream social psychology focuses on how people characteristically violate norms of action through social misbehaviors such as conformity with false majority judgments, destructive obedience, and failures to help those in need. Likewise, they are seen to violate norms of reasoning through cognitive errors such as misuse of social information, self-enhancement, and an over-readiness to attribute dispositional characteristics. The causes of this negative research emphasis include the apparent informativeness of norm violation, the status of good behavior and judgment as unconfirmable null hypotheses, and the allure of counter-intuitive findings. The shortcomings of this orientation include frequently erroneous imputations of error, findings of mutually contradictory errors, incoherent interpretations of error, an inability to explain the sources of behavioral or cognitive achievement, and the inhibition of generalized theory. Possible remedies include increased attention to the complete range of behavior and judgmental accomplishment, analytic reforms emphasizing effect sizes and Bayesian inference, and a theoretical paradigm able to account for both the sources of accomplishment and of error. A more balanced social psychology would yield not only a more positive view of human nature, but also an improved understanding of the bases of good behavior and accurate judgment, coherent explanations of occasional lapses, and theoretically grounded suggestions for improvement.

  2. Correlatos e consequências do retraimento social na infância

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Adriana Neves Nunes

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Social withdrawal in childhood is a challenge for child development research and clinic due to its implications for child psychological well-being and psychosocial development. The goal of this article is to present a synthesis of the scientific literature on the subject based on a systematic review of national and international databases.It is expected that this work will add one step forward in the theoretical support for empirical research on the understanding of the complex interwoven factors that lead the first signs of inhibited behavior to evolve into shy and social withdrawal during childhood and, eventually, culminate in internalizing problems during adolescence.

  3. Does chronic illness cause adverse social and economic consequences among Swedes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindholm, C; Burström, B; Diderichsen, F

    2001-01-01

    had acquired LLSI at interview II varied between 1.4 and 4.0 for the outcomes. The elevated OR decreased after testing for the mediating effect of social context and the labour market position for financial difficulties but remained significantly elevated. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that LLSI...

  4. Adolescents’ identity experiments on the internet: consequences for social competence and self-concept unity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valkenburg, P.M.; Peter, J.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of adolescents' online identity experiments on their social competence and self-concept unity. An online survey was conducted among 1,158 Dutch adolescents between 10 and 17 years of age. Using structural equation modeling, the authors

  5. The Social Patterning of Work-Related Insecurity and Its Health Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott-Marshall, Heather

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the association between work-related insecurity and health, with a focus on how this relationship is moderated by social location (gender, age and race). Drawing on longitudinal data from a Canadian labour market survey (1999-2004) the findings show that certain groups have a higher prevalence of exposure to certain types of…

  6. Nostalgia fosters self-continuity : Uncovering the mechanism (social connectedness) and consequence (eudaimonic well-being)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sedikides, Constantine; Wildschut, Tim; Cheung, Wing-Yee; Routledge, Clay; Hepper, Erica G; Arndt, Jamie; Vail, Kenneth; Zhou, Xinyue; Brackstone, Kenny; Vingerhoets, A.J.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Nostalgia, a sentimental longing for one's past, is an emotion that arises from self-relevant and social memories. Nostalgia functions, in part, to foster self-continuity, that is, a sense of connection between one's past and one's present. This article examined, in 6 experiments, how nostalgia

  7. The glass ceiling of corporate social responsibility : Consequences of a business case approach towards CSR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijhof, A.H.J.; Jeurissen, R.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose – This paper aims to clarify that corporate social responsibility (CSR) has come a long way by the prevailing business case approach, but increasingly hits a glass ceiling. The glass ceiling metaphor refers to the inherent limitations created by a business case approach towards CSR.

  8. Social and psychological consequences of not crying : Possible associations with psychopathology and therapeutic relevance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesdorffer, D.C.; Vingerhoets, A.J.J.M.; Trimble, M.R.

    2017-01-01

    Emotional crying is hypothesized to serve intra- and interpersonal functions. Intrapersonal functions are assumed to facilitate the capacity to recover from emotional distress, thus promoting well-being. Interpersonal functions are postulated to have a major impact on social functioning. We

  9. Consequences of early postnatal benzodiazepines exposure in rats. II. Social behavior

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mikulecká, Anna; Šubrt, Martin; Pařízková, Martina; Mareš, Pavel; Kubová, Hana

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 8, May 8 (2014), s. 169 ISSN 1662-5153 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP304/12/G069; GA ČR(CZ) GA305/09/0846 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : benzodiazepines * clonazepam * social behavior * development * rats Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 3.270, year: 2014

  10. "Frayed All Over:" the Causes and Consequences of Activist Burnout among Social Justice Education Activists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorski, Paul C.; Chen, Cher

    2015-01-01

    Despite the growing body of scholarship on burnout among social justice activists who are working on a variety of issues, from labor rights to queer justice, little attention has been paid to burnout among those whose activism focuses on issues of educational justice. To begin to address this omission and understand what supports might help social…

  11. The Social Consequences of Postcommunist Structural Change: An Analysis of Suicide Trends in Eastern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minagawa, Yuka

    2013-01-01

    Guided by Durkheim's classic theory of suicide, this article examines suicide trends and determinants in Eastern European countries for the period of 1989-2006, with particular attention given to the association between postcommunist social change and suicide mortality. I find that countries characterized by more drastic structural change…

  12. Long-term physical, psychological and social consequences of a fracture of the ankle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Sluis, C.K.; Eisma, W.H.; Groothoff, J.W.; Ten Duis, H.J.

    The long-term physical, psychological and social outcomes of 68 patients with an ankle fracture were investigated by using a postal questionnaire 6 years after injury. Patients were treated at a level I Trauma Centre between January 1989 and December 1989. Where applicable the outcomes were compared

  13. Consequences of rheumatoid arthritis for performance of social roles--a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geuskens, Goedele A; Burdorf, Alex; Hazes, Johanna M W

    2007-06-01

    To obtain quantitative estimates of restrictions in participation, i.e., the performance of social roles, in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Participation categories were selected from the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) (preliminary) Comprehensive Core Set for RA. A literature search was performed utilizing PubMed and PsychInfo. Articles were included if: (1) performance in at least one of the participation categories was described; (2) patients with RA were compared to a healthy reference population or their performance over time was described; (3) published between 1995 and 2005; and (4) written in English. Seven participation categories were selected from the Comprehensive Core Set for RA, resulting in 50 articles included in the review. Almost all studies focused on remunerative employment (n = 30), recreation and leisure (n = 17), or both (n = 3). RA patients had an increased risk of being without a paid job compared to well adjusted reference groups (absolute difference 4% to 28%, odds ratios 1.2 to 3.4). Restrictions in employment occurred already within the early phase of RA and varied greatly among studies. Two years after diagnosis, disability benefits increased up to roughly 30% in some European cohorts. In the category of recreation and leisure most studies focused on socializing (n = 16). Patients with longstanding RA experienced a decrease in socializing (range, Cohen's d, -0.46 to -1.0), but changes over time were minor. RA patients experience restrictions in the performance of remunerative employment and in recreation and leisure (socializing). Due to the lack of studies, no conclusions on other ICF categories describing social roles could be made.

  14. Cars, corporations, and commodities: Consequences for the social determinants of health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldred Rachel

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Social epidemiologists have drawn attention to health inequalities as avoidable and inequitable, encouraging thinking beyond proximal risk factors to the causes of the causes. However, key debates remain unresolved including the contribution of material and psychosocial pathways to health inequalities. Tools to operationalise social factors have not developed in tandem with conceptual frameworks, and research has often remained focused on the disadvantaged rather than on forces shaping population health across the distribution. Using the example of transport, we argue that closer attention to social processes (capital accumulation and motorisation and social forms (commodity, corporation, and car offers a way forward. Corporations tied to the car, primarily oil and vehicle manufacturers, are central to the world economy. Key drivers in establishing this hegemony are the threat of violence from motor vehicles and the creation of distance through the restructuring of place. Transport matters for epidemiology because the growth of mass car ownership is environmentally unsustainable and affects population health through a myriad of pathways. Starting from social forms and processes, rather than their embodiment as individual health outcomes and inequalities, makes visible connections between road traffic injuries, obesity, climate change, underdevelopment of oil producing countries, and the huge opportunity cost of the car economy. Methodological implications include a movement-based understanding of how place affects health and a process-orientated integration of material and psychosocial explanations that, while materially based, contests assumptions of automatic benefits from economic growth. Finally, we identify car and oil corporations as anti-health forces and suggest collaboration with them creates conflicts of interest.

  15. Sex 'n' drugs 'n' rock 'n' roll: the meaning and social consequences of pubertal timing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waylen, Andrea; Wolke, Dieter

    2004-11-01

    This is a brief review of the normal changes in adolescent behaviour and the interplay between biology and social factors that occur at and around puberty, in an attempt to explain when this transition may become problematic The onset of puberty is a biological marker for an individual's transition from a non-reproductive to a reproductive state. Adolescence is a normal developmental transition associated with clearly visible physical changes, reorganization and pruning of neuronal circuits in the brain and the occurrence of new behaviours and interests. It is a time when new life tasks (orientation towards peers of the other sex, romantic and sexual involvement and mastering an educational career) need to be mastered. Parent-child conflict increases and becomes more intense as the adolescent struggles for more independence while still requiring support. These normal changes can become problematic if biological and social expectations diverge e.g. entering puberty very early or very late. While early pubertal onset in boys is likely to have beneficial effects, in girls precocious pubertal timing may have a negative impact on body-image, affect (or emotional well-being) and sex-role expectations. Other individual biological predispositions and genetic endowment may interact with social factors (e.g. peers, parenting style, neighbourhood) making adolescence either an adaptive or a challenging transition. There is a lack of sufficiently large longitudinal studies that have been able to study this interaction between genetics, biology and social environment on adolescent development. The Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) cohort provides a unique opportunity to investigate the impact of pubertal timing on social behaviour. Planned assessments and concepts are outlined.

  16. Under the influence of Facebook? Excess use of social networking sites and drinking motives, consequences, and attitudes in college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hormes, Julia M

    2016-03-01

    Background and aims Excessive use of social networking sites (SNS) has recently been conceptualized as a behavioral addiction (i.e., "disordered SNS use") using key criteria for the diagnosis of substance dependence and shown to be associated with a variety of impairments in psychosocial functioning, including an increased risk of problem drinking. This study sought to characterize associations between "disordered SNS use" and attitudes towards alcohol, drinking motives, and adverse consequences resulting from alcohol use in young adults. Methods Undergraduate students (n = 537, 64.0% female, mean age = 19.63 years, SD = 4.24) reported on their use of SNSs and completed the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test, Temptation and Restraint Inventory, Approach and Avoidance of Alcohol and Drinking Motives Questionnaires, and Drinker Inventory of Consequences. Results Respondents meeting previously established criteria for "disordered SNS use" were significantly more likely to use alcohol to cope with negative affect and to conform to perceived social norms, reported significantly more conflicting (i.e., simultaneous positive and negative) attitudes towards alcohol, and had experienced significantly more, and more frequent adverse consequences from drinking in their inter- and intrapersonal, physical, and social functioning, compared to individuals without problems related to SNS use. Discussion and conclusions Findings add to an emerging body of literature suggesting a link between excess or maladaptive SNS use and problems related to alcohol in young adults and point to emotion dysregulation and coping motives as potential shared risk factors for substance and behavioral addictions in this demographic.

  17. Intergenerational Consequences: Women's Experiences of Discrimination in Pregnancy Predict Infant Social-Emotional Development at 6 Months and 1 Year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Lisa; Earnshaw, Valerie A; Moore, Joan M; Ferguson, Darrah N; Lewis, Tené T; Reid, Allecia E; Lewis, Jessica B; Stasko, Emily C; Tobin, Jonathan N; Ickovics, Jeannette R

    2018-04-01

    Racial/ethnic and socioeconomic disparities in infant development in the United States have lifelong consequences. Discrimination predicts poorer health and academic outcomes. This study explored for the first time intergenerational consequences of women's experiences of discrimination reported during pregnancy for their infants' social-emotional development in the first year of life. Data come from a longitudinal study with predominantly Black and Latina, socioeconomically disadvantaged, urban young women (N = 704, Mage = 18.53) across pregnancy through 1 year postpartum. Women were recruited from community hospitals and health centers in a Northeastern US city. Linear regression analyses examined whether women's experiences of everyday discrimination reported during pregnancy predicted social-emotional development outcomes among their infants at 6 months and 1 year of age, controlling for potentially confounding medical and sociodemographic factors. Path analyses tested if pregnancy distress, anxiety, or depressive symptoms mediated significant associations. Everyday discrimination reported during pregnancy prospectively predicted greater inhibition/separation problems and greater negative emotionality, but did not predict attention skills or positive emotionality, at 6 months and 1 year. Depressive symptoms mediated the association of discrimination with negative emotionality at 6 months, and pregnancy distress, anxiety, and depressive symptoms mediated the association of discrimination with negative emotionality at 1 year. Findings support that there are intergenerational consequences of discrimination, extending past findings to infant social-emotional development outcomes in the first year of life. It may be important to address discrimination before and during pregnancy and enhance support to mothers and infants exposed to discrimination to promote health equity across the life span.

  18. Under the influence of Facebook? Excess use of social networking sites and drinking motives, consequences, and attitudes in college students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hormes, Julia M.

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims Excessive use of social networking sites (SNS) has recently been conceptualized as a behavioral addiction (i.e., “disordered SNS use”) using key criteria for the diagnosis of substance dependence and shown to be associated with a variety of impairments in psychosocial functioning, including an increased risk of problem drinking. This study sought to characterize associations between “disordered SNS use” and attitudes towards alcohol, drinking motives, and adverse consequences resulting from alcohol use in young adults. Methods Undergraduate students (n = 537, 64.0% female, mean age = 19.63 years, SD = 4.24) reported on their use of SNSs and completed the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test, Temptation and Restraint Inventory, Approach and Avoidance of Alcohol and Drinking Motives Questionnaires, and Drinker Inventory of Consequences. Results Respondents meeting previously established criteria for “disordered SNS use” were significantly more likely to use alcohol to cope with negative affect and to conform to perceived social norms, reported significantly more conflicting (i.e., simultaneous positive and negative) attitudes towards alcohol, and had experienced significantly more, and more frequent adverse consequences from drinking in their inter- and intrapersonal, physical, and social functioning, compared to individuals without problems related to SNS use. Discussion and conclusions Findings add to an emerging body of literature suggesting a link between excess or maladaptive SNS use and problems related to alcohol in young adults and point to emotion dysregulation and coping motives as potential shared risk factors for substance and behavioral addictions in this demographic. PMID:28092186

  19. O discurso capitalista de Marx a Lacan: algumas consequências para o laço social The capitalist speech from Marx to Lacan: some consequences for the social bond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosane Zétola Lustoza

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Investigam-se algumas consequências geradas pelo discurso capitalista no laço social. Tomando como ponto de partida a obra de Karl Marx e o ensino de Jacques Lacan, buscou-se caracterizar o capitalismo, enfatizando a acumulação da mais-valia como um movimento sem ponto de basta, deixando o sujeito num estado de insatisfação constante, e este estado, em contrapartida, vem sempre acompanhado pelo gozo de algum gadget. O caráter ilimitado desse processo acarreta uma modificação na relação do sujeito com a natureza, com os outros homens e com ele mesmo, em que tudo se transforma em mercadoria. O sujeito passa a habitar um mundo previamente condenado a tornar-se dejeto.The article investigates the consequences of the capitalist discourse for the social bond. Taking the works of Karl Marx and Jacques Lacan as point of departure, one aimed to characterize capitalism emphasizing the accumulation of surplus-value as a movement without point of enough that causes in the subject a state of constant insatisfaction that on the other hand is always followed by the enjoyment of some gadget. The limitless character of this process causes an modification on the relationship of the subjetc with the nature, with the other men and with himself, where everything becomes commodities. The subject starts to inhabit a world previoulsy condamned to become a deject.

  20. Nostalgia fosters self-continuity: Uncovering the mechanism (social connectedness) and consequence (eudaimonic well-being).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedikides, Constantine; Wildschut, Tim; Cheung, Wing-Yee; Routledge, Clay; Hepper, Erica G; Arndt, Jamie; Vail, Kenneth; Zhou, Xinyue; Brackstone, Kenny; Vingerhoets, Ad J J M

    2016-06-01

    Nostalgia, a sentimental longing for one's past, is an emotion that arises from self-relevant and social memories. Nostalgia functions, in part, to foster self-continuity, that is, a sense of connection between one's past and one's present. This article examined, in 6 experiments, how nostalgia fosters self-continuity and the implications of that process for well-being. Nostalgia fosters self-continuity by augmenting social connectedness, that is, a sense of belongingness and acceptance (Experiments 1-4). Nostalgia-induced self-continuity, in turn, confers eudaimonic well-being, operationalized as subjective vitality (i.e., a feeling of aliveness and energy; Experiments 5-6). The findings clarify and expand the benefits of nostalgia for both the self-system and psychological adjustment. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. The effect of political generation on identity and social change: Age cohort consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Robyn Lewis; Rohlinger, Deana A

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we explore how political generation affects the ways in which diverse individuals come together and change their social and personal identities. Drawing on 52 in-depth interviews with members of the Red Hat Society, we show that women draw on their political generation, and the gains of the women's movement specifically, to oppose cultural constructions of aging. The Red Hat Society provides a "free space" for women to foster a collective identity that both visibly challenges aging norms and provides its members new standards for self-approval. We conclude by highlighting the importance of focusing on political generation to understand collective action over the life course and call for more scholarship on the function of political generation in social change.

  2. Correlatos e consequências do retraimento social na infância

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Adriana Neves Nunes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El aislamiento social en la infancia es un desafío para la clínica y la investigación del desarrollo infantil, por sus implicaciones para el bienestar psicológico y el ajuste psicosocial de los niños. El objetivo de este trabajo es presentar una síntesis de la literatura científica sobre el tema a partir de una revisión sistemática de la literatura sobre las bases de datos nacionales e internacionales. Se espera, con este trabajo, contribuir a la investigación que busca entender la compleja red de influencias que conducen a las primeras inhibiciones conductuales para evolucionar hacia el aislamiento social en la infancia, y, finalmente, culminar en problemas de internalización en la adolescencia.

  3. Stressors, locus of control, and social support as consequences of affective psychological well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, K; Guppy, A

    1997-04-01

    Tests of the influence of affective psychological well-being on stressors, locus of control, and social support in a 1-month follow-up study of 210 male and 34 female British accountants is reported. There was a marginally significant association between the level of psychological symptoms and subsequent reports of intensity of quantitative workload stressors. A significant interaction between psychological symptoms and a measure of depression-enthusiasm was found to predict subsequent locus of control. The results indicate a differential pattern of associations between aspects of affective well-being and subsequent reports of social support. The results also indicate that initially more frequent stressors are associated with subsequently less intense stressors of the same type. The findings highlight the dynamic and reciprocal nature of the occupational stress process.

  4. Food safety evaluation of crops produced through genetic engineering--how to reduce unintended effects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelenić, Srećko

    2005-06-01

    Scientists started applying genetic engineering techniques to improve crops two decades ago; about 70 varieties obtained via genetic engineering have been approved to date. Although genetic engineering offers the most precise and controllable genetic modification of crops in entire history of plant improvement, the site of insertion of a desirable gene cannot be predicted during the application of this technology. As a consequence, unintended effects might occur due to activation or silencing of genes, giving rise to allergic reactions or toxicity. Therefore, extensive chemical, biochemical and nutritional analyses are performed on each new genetically engineered variety. Since the unintended effects may be predictable on the basis of what is known about the insertion place of the transgenic DNA, an important aim of plant biotechnology is to define techniques for the insertion of transgene into the predetermined chromosomal position (gene targeting). Although gene targeting cannot be applied routinely in crop plants, given the recent advances, that goal may be reached in the near future.

  5. Social Consequences of Nomadic Working: A Case Study in an Organization

    OpenAIRE

    Singh , Ramanjit; Wood-Harper , Trevor

    2010-01-01

    International audience; This research study identified social challenges that knowledge workers in the Swedish organization TeliaSonera (Telia) face when utilizing wireless technologies to conduct work on the move. Upon collecting the relevant research data, five problem areas were identified: work and life balance, addiction, organizational involvement, nomadic work and control, and individual productivity. Each problem area was examined with the philosophical underpinning of socio-technical...

  6. Ekonomiczne i spoleczne nastepstwa globalizacji/Economic and Social Consequences of Globalisation

    OpenAIRE

    Bartlomiej Kaczmarek

    2014-01-01

    The subject of this article in an analysis of the globalisation process in economic and social areas. The author describes the main spheres of globalisation such as economic and political integration, the declining role of nation states, cultural homogenisation and the increasing significance of transnational corporations. The advantages and disadvantages of globalisation are discussed. The author also indicates differences between regions that benefit from globalisation. The article tries to...

  7. Anti-urbanism in Flanders: the political and social consequences of a spatial class struggle strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Kesteloot, Christian; De Maesschalck, Filip

    2016-01-01

    Class struggle resulted in a anti-urban feeling in Flanders. The industrial revolution first developed in Wallonia and industrialisation came much later in Flanders. The bourgeoisie and the Church could anticipate rising secularisation and socialism in Flanders by keeping the workers away from the cities through specific housing and mobility policies. This explains the traditional Christian political hegemony in Flanders, with socialist and liberal cracks mainly in the cities. In the second p...

  8. Managing consequences of climate-driven species redistribution requires integration of ecology, conservation and social science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonebrake, Timothy C; Brown, Christopher J; Bell, Johann D; Blanchard, Julia L; Chauvenet, Alienor; Champion, Curtis; Chen, I-Ching; Clark, Timothy D; Colwell, Robert K; Danielsen, Finn; Dell, Anthony I; Donelson, Jennifer M; Evengård, Birgitta; Ferrier, Simon; Frusher, Stewart; Garcia, Raquel A; Griffis, Roger B; Hobday, Alistair J; Jarzyna, Marta A; Lee, Emma; Lenoir, Jonathan; Linnetved, Hlif; Martin, Victoria Y; McCormack, Phillipa C; McDonald, Jan; McDonald-Madden, Eve; Mitchell, Nicola; Mustonen, Tero; Pandolfi, John M; Pettorelli, Nathalie; Possingham, Hugh; Pulsifer, Peter; Reynolds, Mark; Scheffers, Brett R; Sorte, Cascade J B; Strugnell, Jan M; Tuanmu, Mao-Ning; Twiname, Samantha; Vergés, Adriana; Villanueva, Cecilia; Wapstra, Erik; Wernberg, Thomas; Pecl, Gretta T

    2018-02-01

    Climate change is driving a pervasive global redistribution of the planet's species. Species redistribution poses new questions for the study of ecosystems, conservation science and human societies that require a coordinated and integrated approach. Here we review recent progress, key gaps and strategic directions in this nascent research area, emphasising emerging themes in species redistribution biology, the importance of understanding underlying drivers and the need to anticipate novel outcomes of changes in species ranges. We highlight that species redistribution has manifest implications across multiple temporal and spatial scales and from genes to ecosystems. Understanding range shifts from ecological, physiological, genetic and biogeographical perspectives is essential for informing changing paradigms in conservation science and for designing conservation strategies that incorporate changing population connectivity and advance adaptation to climate change. Species redistributions present challenges for human well-being, environmental management and sustainable development. By synthesising recent approaches, theories and tools, our review establishes an interdisciplinary foundation for the development of future research on species redistribution. Specifically, we demonstrate how ecological, conservation and social research on species redistribution can best be achieved by working across disciplinary boundaries to develop and implement solutions to climate change challenges. Future studies should therefore integrate existing and complementary scientific frameworks while incorporating social science and human-centred approaches. Finally, we emphasise that the best science will not be useful unless more scientists engage with managers, policy makers and the public to develop responsible and socially acceptable options for the global challenges arising from species redistributions. © 2017 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  9. Unintended and in situ amorphisation of pharmaceuticals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Priemel, P A; Grohganz, H; Rades, T

    2016-01-01

    Amorphisation of poorly water-soluble drugs is one approach that can be applied to improve their solubility and thus their bioavailability. Amorphisation is a process that usually requires deliberate external energy input. However, amorphisation can happen both unintentionally, as in process......-induced amorphisation during manufacturing, or in situ during dissolution, vaporisation, or lipolysis. The systems in which unintended and in situ amorphisation has been observed normally contain a drug and a carrier. Common carriers include polymers and mesoporous silica particles. However, the precise mechanisms...... of in situ amorphisation can thus confer the advantages of the amorphous form, such as higher apparent solubility and faster dissolution rate, without the disadvantage of its physical instability....

  10. Unintended Pregnancy, Induced Abortion, and Mental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Sarah; Schreiber, Courtney A

    2017-09-14

    The early medical literature on mental health outcomes following abortion is fraught with methodological flaws that can improperly influence clinical practice. Our goal is to review the current medical literature on depression and other mental health outcomes for women obtaining abortions. The Turnaway Study prospectively enrolled 956 women seeking abortion in the USA and followed their mental health outcomes for 5 years. The control group was comprised of women denied abortions based on gestational age limits, thereby circumventing the major methodological flaw that had plagued earlier studies on the topic. Rates of depression are not significantly different between women obtaining abortion and those denied abortion. Rates of anxiety are initially higher in women denied abortion care. Counseling on decision-making for women with unintended pregnancies should reflect these findings.

  11. The health-related, social, and economic consequences of parkinsonism: a controlled national study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jennum, Poul Jørgen; Assenholt, Maria Elizabeth Anna; Korbo, Lise

    2011-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) and atypical parkinsonism (AP) cause a significant socioeconomic burden, but there is insufficient information about the total disease burden at a national level. Thus, the goal of this study was to estimate the excess direct and indirect costs of PD and AP in a national...... on income data derived from the Coherent Social Statistics. Patients with PD and AP had significantly higher rates of health-related contact and medication use and a higher socioeconomic cost. Furthermore, they had very low employment rates, and those in employment had a lower income level than employed...

  12. Relationship Analysis of Corporate Governance, Corporate Social Responsibility Disclosure and Economic Consequences: Empirical Study of Indonesia Capital Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dody Hapsoro

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to investigate the relationship between corporate governance (CG, corporate social responsibility (CSR disclosure, and economic consequences. Broadly speaking, the CG variables consist of ownership structure and management/control structure. The CSR disclosure variables consist of economic, environmental, social, human rights, societal, and product responsibility dimensions. The economic consequences variables consist of bid-ask spreads, trading volume, and share price volatility. The hypotheses are tested using a structural equation modeling analysis with 210 samples of listed firms on the Indonesian Stock Exchange in 2014. The result of this study is as follows: (1 the effect of the proportion of board of directors from the board of commissioners and the audit committee on the CSR disclosure is positive and significant; (2 the effect of the proportion of independent commissioners and the audit committee from the board of commissioners, the audit committee, and the board of directors on CSR disclosure is positive and significant; and (3 the effect of CSR disclosure on trading volume is positive and significant. The main implication of this study is that CSR disclosure activities have a very important role in meeting stakeholders' interests and ensuring the sustainability of the company long-term. In addition, CSR disclosure is considered to be an assertion of a company’s brand differentiation, which means obtaining operating licenses both from the government and society, and the company’s risk management strategy.

  13. Fitness consequences of outcrossing in a social spider with an inbreeding mating system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger-Tal, Reut; Tuni, Cristina; Lubin, Yael; Smith, Deborah; Bilde, Trine

    2014-02-01

    Inbreeding mating systems are uncommon because of inbreeding depression. Mating among close relatives can evolve, however, when outcrossing is constrained. Social spiders show obligatory mating among siblings. In combination with a female-biased sex ratio, sib-mating results in small effective populations. In such a system, high genetic homozygosity is expected, and drift may cause population divergence. We tested the effect of outcrossing in the social spider Stegodyphus dumicola. Females were mated to sib-males, to a non-nestmate within the population, or to a male from a distant population, and fitness traits of F1s were compared. We found reduced hatching success of broods from between-population crosses, suggesting the presence of population divergence at a large geographical scale that may result in population incompatibility. However, a lack of a difference in offspring performance between inbred and outbred crosses indicates little genetic variation between populations, and could suggest recent colonization by a common ancestor. This is consistent with population dynamics of frequent colonizations by single sib-mated females of common origin, and extinctions of populations after few generations. Although drift or single mutations can lead to population divergence at a relatively short time scale, it is possible that dynamic population processes homogenize these effects at longer time scales. © 2013 The Author(s). Evolution © 2013 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  14. Parental social consequences of having a child with cerebral palsy in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Susan I; Flachs, Esben M; Madsen, Mette

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To analyse the social situation of parents who have a child with cerebral palsy (CP). METHOD: This was a population-based longitudinal study with linkage to public registries. Parents of children with CP (n=3671) identified in the Danish CP Registry were compared with 17 983 parents of child......AIM: To analyse the social situation of parents who have a child with cerebral palsy (CP). METHOD: This was a population-based longitudinal study with linkage to public registries. Parents of children with CP (n=3671) identified in the Danish CP Registry were compared with 17 983 parents...... of children without CP. Employment, income, cohabitation status, and presence of additional children were factors analysed during a follow-up period of 28 years. We followed parents from before their child was born and up to the age of 43 years of the child. RESULTS: Mothers of children with CP under the age...... parents in the labour market and living together with their child. Special attention needs to be paid to the financial situation of families with children with CP under 10 years of age....

  15. Geographic Disparities in Liver Availability: Accidents of Geography, or Consequences of Poor Social Policy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladin, K; Zhang, G; Hanto, D W

    2017-09-01

    Recently, a redistricting proposal intended to equalize Model for End-stage Liver Disease score at transplant recommended expanding liver sharing to mitigate geographic variation in liver transplantation. Yet, it is unclear whether variation in liver availability is arbitrary and a disparity requiring rectification or reflects differences in access to care. We evaluate the proposal's claim that organ supply is an "accident of geography" by examining the relationship between local organ supply and the uneven landscape of social determinants and policies that contribute to differential death rates across the United States. We show that higher mortality leading to greater availability of organs may in part result from disproportionate risks incurred at the local level. Disparities in public safety laws, health care infrastructure, and public funding may influence the risk of death and subsequent availability of deceased donors. These risk factors are disproportionately prevalent in regions with high organ supply. Policies calling for organ redistribution from high-supply to low-supply regions may exacerbate existing social and health inequalities by redistributing the single benefit (greater organ availability) of greater exposure to environmental and contextual risks (e.g. violent death, healthcare scarcity). Variation in liver availability may not be an "accident of geography" but rather a byproduct of disadvantage. © 2017 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  16. Unintended Side Effects of Digital Transition: Perspectives of Japanese Experts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Sugiyama

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The core of the digital transition is the representation of all kinds of real-world entities and processes and an increasing number of cognitive processes by digital information and algorithms on computers. These allow for seemingly unlimited storage, operation, retrieval, and transmission capacities that make digital tools economically available for all domains of society and empower human action, particularly combined with real-world interfaces such as displays, robots, sensors, 3D printers, etc. Digital technologies are general-purpose technologies providing unprecedented potential benefits for sustainability. However, they will bring about a multitude of potential unintended side effects, and this demands a transdisciplinary discussion on unwanted societal changes as well as a shift in science from analog to digital modeling and structure. Although social discourse has begun, the topical scope and regional coverage have been limited. Here, we report on an expert roundtable on digital transition held in February 2017 in Tokyo, Japan. Drawing on a variety of disciplinary backgrounds, our discussions highlight the importance of cultural contexts and the need to bridge local and global conversations. Although Japanese experts did mention side effects, their focus was on how to ensure that AI and robots could coexist with humans. Such a perspective is not well appreciated everywhere outside Japan. Stakeholder dialogues have already begun in Japan, but greater efforts are needed to engage a broader collection of experts in addition to stakeholders to broaden the social debate.

  17. Social consequences of sleep disordered breathing on patients and their partners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jennum, Poul; Ibsen, Rikke Falkner; Kjellberg, Jakob

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate the total costs to patients and their partners of sleep apnoea and obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS) and their treatment, as this is poorly described in families. Using data from the Danish National Patient Registry and other public databases, all patients and their part......, and increased as the disease advanced. Sleep-disordered breathing has major socioeconomic consequences for patients and their spouses years before and after diagnosis.......We aimed to evaluate the total costs to patients and their partners of sleep apnoea and obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS) and their treatment, as this is poorly described in families. Using data from the Danish National Patient Registry and other public databases, all patients...... and their partners with a diagnosis of sleep apnoea (n=30,278) or OHS (n=1562) were included. They were compared with age-, sex- and community location-matched citizens at a ratio 1:4 (120,506 and 6241 control subjects, respectively). Direct and indirect costs were evaluated for patients and their partners. Sleep...

  18. Beliefs and social norms about sildenafil citrate (Viagra) misuse and perceived consequences among Houstonian teenage males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Ronald J; Johnson, Regina J; Kelder, Steve; Meshack, Angela F; Jefferson, Troy

    2007-09-01

    In the current study, a qualitative approach was used to investigate relevant beliefs and norms associated with sildenafil citrate (Viagra) consumption, initiation, and perceived consequences. Focus groups were conducted with 43 young men aged 18 and 19 years who identified themselves as lifetime sildenafil citrate users. The majority of focus group participants believed that "curiosity" and "peer pressure" contributed to their initial use. Most revealed that they first heard about sildenafil citrate from television advertisements, family members, friends, or sporting events, and they were able to obtain the drug from their friends and family members or they stole it from their father or grandfather. These findings may highlight the relative importance of exposure to prescription drug messages among those to whom the message is not specifically targeted, that is, young men. It is possible that the sildenafil citrate television messages are recalled by not only older male audiences but also by teenagers and younger men, producing similar cognitive processing and curiosity in both age cohorts.

  19. Iceland’s Financial Crisis In 2008. Political, Economic and Social Consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Legutko Agnieszka Joanna

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The author analyzes the successful strategy of overcoming financial breakdown in the case study of Iceland. The aim of the article is to verify a hypothesis that the Icelandic model could become a panacea for future crises? A document analysis method is applied to present essential indicators such as GDP and trade balance. With the use of a source analysis method, the collapse of the financial sector is determined as the main cause of the slump. The systematization of crisis events is introduced and deepened by the social and political situation. Changes in the state’s condition after the crash are provided and future forecasts about economic development are discussed. As a summing up, the author disapproves of the hypothesis that the Icelandic model of overcoming the financial breakdown as a panacea for future crises, pointing out that it is only applicable for specific cases and cannot be seen as a magical remedy for every kind of crisis.

  20. Social Consequences of Nomadic Working: A Case Study in an Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ramanjit; Wood-Harper, Trevor

    This research study identified social challenges that knowledge workers in the Swedish organization TeliaSonera (Telia) face when utilizing wireless technologies to conduct work on the move. Upon collecting the relevant research data, five problem areas were identified: work and life balance, addiction, organizational involvement, nomadic work and control, and individual productivity. Each problem area was examined with the philosophical underpinning of socio-technical design principles. The results confirm that better role boundary management, self-discipline, work negotiation, and e-mail communication skills may be required for the knowledge workers to manage the demands of nomadic working. Similarly, rewarding nomadic work performance, building employee supervisor trust relations, and designing jobs that enhance work and life balance can be imperative.

  1. Private Acts, Social Consequences by Ronald Bayer (New York: Free Press; 1989).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illingworth, Patricia

    1990-10-01

    Bayer's approach is most effective when he uses it to describe the politicized nature of AIDS policy in the United States. He succeeds in showing the reader that public health authorities dealing with the spread of HIV/AIDS had a wide variety of competing interests to take into account in formulating AIDS social policy and that political interest groups, most notably gay community organizations, played a large role in fashioning AIDS policy. Those who might have doubted the significance of contextual factors such as these for health policy, and especially for AIDS policy, will be convinced of it after reading Bayer's book. But Bayer is not content to make only descriptive claims about AIDS health policy. He is also interested in advancing normative and prescriptive claims, the nature of which, I have argued, requires an approach other than the one that he has adopted.

  2. Bringing human, social, and natural capital to life: practical consequences and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, William P

    2011-01-01

    Capital is defined mathematically as the abstract meaning brought to life in the two phases of the development of "transferable representations," which are the legal, financial, and scientific instruments we take for granted in almost every aspect of our daily routines. The first, conceptual and gestational, and the second, parturitional and maturational, phases in the creation and development of capital are contrasted. Human, social, and natural forms of capital should be brought to life with at least the same amounts of energy and efficiency as have been invested in manufactured and liquid capital, and property. A mathematical law of living capital is stated. Two examples of well-measured human capital are offered. The paper concludes with suggestions for the ways that future research might best capitalize on the mathematical definition of capital.

  3. A FUTURE APPROACHES, SOCIAL ORGANIZATION AND THEIR ECONOMIC CONSEQUENCES OF THE INFORMATIONAL SOCIETY – KNOWLEDGE SOCIETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NICULAE DAVIDESCU

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper is the result of scientific study under doctoral thesis “Information Society and its Economic Effects” and contains seven sections: -section 1: “Globalization, Development and Information Society”; -section 2: “The Impact of the “Digital Divide” and “Digital Inequality” Phenomena” ; -section 3: “Information Society –Knowledge Society, Definition, Objectives and Strategies” ; -section 4: “Social Structures and New Life Patterns in Information Society” ; -section 5: “Virtual Organizations, Activities and Businesses” ; -section 6: “Strategies, Programmes and Courses of the Information Society Approach” ; -section 7: “The Economic Effects Foreseeable through the Implementation of Information Society–Knowledge Society”.

  4. An experimental investigation of the consequences and social functions of fat talk in friendship groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruwys, Tegan; Leverington, Carly T; Sheldon, Anne M

    2016-01-01

    Fat talk is a form of self-degrading, thin-ideal endorsing communication that occurs within female friendship groups. Previous studies have suggested negative associations with wellbeing, but have been predominantly correlational and based on self-report. This study aimed to assess the causal relationship between fat talk and the correlates of disordered eating (thin-ideal internalization, body dissatisfaction, negative affect, and dieting intentions) by experimentally manipulating fat talk in existing friendship groups and measuring naturalistic expression of fat talk and its effects. Participants were 85 women aged 17-25 who completed the experiment in friendship pairs. They were randomly assigned to a condition in which their friend expressed fat talk, positive body talk, or neutral talk. This study found evidence of a causal link between listening to friends fat talk and increased correlates of disordered eating. The negative effects of listening to fat talk were fully mediated by fat talk expression. This study also revealed a social function of fat talk, whereby participants rated their friends more positively when they were perceived to behave consistently with group norms, either pro- or anti-fat talk. Positive body talk showed none of the negative effects of fat talk, and was considered socially acceptable regardless of existing friendship group norms. These findings indicate that fat talk is a mechanism through which the thin ideal is transmitted between individuals. Interventions at the level of the friendship group to challenge norms and communication styles may break the link between societal risk factors and individual risk of eating disorders. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Unintended pregnancies among women serving in the Israeli military.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rottenstreich, Misgav; Loitner, Limor; Dar, Shir; Kedem, Ron; Smorgick, Noam; Vaknin, Zvi

    2017-07-01

    The objective was to identify the prevalence of and variables associated with unintended pregnancy among young, unmarried women serving in the Israeli military. We performed a retrospective cohort study of unmarried women drafted by the Israeli military between 2013 and 2015 at the age of 18 years. We used multivariable logistic regression to examine associations between unintended pregnancy and women's education, IQ, immigration status, country of origin, neighborhood socioeconomic status and history of psychiatric illness. Most women (n=127,262) did not become pregnant while serving in the Israeli military. Unintended pregnancy was reported by 2365, with an additional 6 women reporting pregnancy resulting from sexual assault and 5 an intended pregnancy. Annual rates of unintended pregnancy among young women serving in the Israeli military declined from 1.69% in 2013 to 1.56% in 2014 and 1.33% in 2015. In multivariable models, unintended pregnancy was more common among women soldiers who had not graduated from high school (adjusted relative risk [RR], 5.3; 95% confidence interval [CI], 4.69-6.04) and those who were first-generation immigrants (adjusted RR, 2.1; 95% CI, 1.90-2.35). Unintended pregnancy is rare among women serving into the Israeli military. Increasing contraceptive use among women who have not graduated from high school may further reduce rates of unintended pregnancy among women serving in the Israeli military. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Pregnant adolescent victims of intrafamilial violence in Brazil: Psychological and social consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Orchiucci Miura

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Adolescence pregnancy is a complex issue that must be studied, considering the social, economic, family and the psychological aspects of each adolescent. There is more complexity when these adolescents have suffered domestic violence. Domestic violence is a serious public health problem because affects the physical and psychological integrity of the victims. Many women who become pregnant have been victims of some form of domestic violence by their partners along the married life. This paper paper presents data of research as is part of a larger project entitled ´Domestic Violence Study against Adolescents Pregnant Attended at the University Hospital of São Paulo: Basis for Intervention´. The objectives are to identify the accumulated incidence and the experience of pregnant adolescents in face of domestic violence, in special he psychosocial vulnerability, understanding and comparing the lived experience on the pregnant adolescents victims and not victims of domestic violence. Forty pregnant adolescents have participated in this study, being 20 victims of domestic violence (Group 1 and 20 non-victims (Group 2 attending the University Hospital of São Paulo and another institutions partner of Psychology Institute of USP. This is an exploratory and descriptive research, quantitative and qualitative. The instruments used were: a form to characterize the profile of production and social reproduction, semi-structured interview. The qualitative data analysis was performed according to Bardin proposal (2013. How results were found: In the group 1 drug use during pregnancy, and lack of trust in health professionals. The showed lack of confidence and support of family, partner abandonment and violence, insecurity, low self esteem and hopelessness. In the group 2 were found: high self-esteem; confidence and family support; security in the relationship with the partner; good prospects for the future; some unfavorable aspects were found in group 2 that

  7. Stress and reproductive hormones in grizzly bears reflect nutritional benefits and social consequences of a salmon foraging niche.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Heather M; Darimont, Chris T; Paquet, Paul C; Wynne-Edwards, Katherine E; Smits, Judit E G

    2013-01-01

    Physiological indicators of social and nutritional stress can provide insight into the responses of species to changes in food availability. In coastal British Columbia, Canada, grizzly bears evolved with spawning salmon as an abundant but spatially and temporally constrained food source. Recent and dramatic declines in salmon might have negative consequences on bear health and ultimately fitness. To examine broadly the chronic endocrine effects of a salmon niche, we compared cortisol, progesterone, and testosterone levels in hair from salmon-eating bears from coastal BC (n = 75) with the levels in a reference population from interior BC lacking access to salmon (n = 42). As predicted, testosterone was higher in coastal bears of both sexes relative to interior bears, possibly reflecting higher social density on the coast mediated by salmon availability. We also investigated associations between the amount of salmon individual bears consumed (as measured by stable isotope analysis) and cortisol and testosterone in hair. Also as predicted, cortisol decreased with increasing dietary salmon and was higher after a year of low dietary salmon than after a year of high dietary salmon. These findings at two spatial scales suggest that coastal bears might experience nutritional or social stress in response to on-going salmon declines, providing novel insights into the effects of resource availability on fitness-related physiology.

  8. A grim contradiction: the practice and consequences of corporate social responsibility by British American Tobacco in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barraclough, Simon; Morrow, Martha

    2008-04-01

    In the wake of the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, corporate social responsibility (CSR) is among the few remaining mechanisms for tobacco corporations publicly to promote their interests. Health advocates may be unaware of the scale, nature and implications of tobacco industry CSR. This investigation aimed to construct a typology of tobacco industry CSR through a case study of the evolution and impact of CSR activities of a particular tobacco corporation in one country - British American Tobacco, Malaysia (BATM), the Malaysian market leader. Methods included searching, compiling and critically appraising publicly available materials from British American Tobacco, BATM, published literature and other sources. The study examined BATM's CSR strategy, the issues which it raises, consequences for tobacco control and potential responses by health advocates. The investigation found that BATM's CSR activities included assistance to tobacco growers, charitable donations, scholarships, involvement in anti-smuggling measures, 'youth smoking prevention' programs and annual Social Reports. BATM has stated that its model is predominantly motivated by social and stakeholder obligations. Its CSR activities have, however, had the additional benefits of contributing to a favourable image, deflecting criticism and establishing a modus vivendi with regulators that assists BATM's continued operations and profitability. It is imperative that health advocates highlight the potential conflicts inherent in such arrangements and develop strategies to address the concerns raised.

  9. Stress and reproductive hormones in grizzly bears reflect nutritional benefits and social consequences of a salmon foraging niche.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather M Bryan

    Full Text Available Physiological indicators of social and nutritional stress can provide insight into the responses of species to changes in food availability. In coastal British Columbia, Canada, grizzly bears evolved with spawning salmon as an abundant but spatially and temporally constrained food source. Recent and dramatic declines in salmon might have negative consequences on bear health and ultimately fitness. To examine broadly the chronic endocrine effects of a salmon niche, we compared cortisol, progesterone, and testosterone levels in hair from salmon-eating bears from coastal BC (n = 75 with the levels in a reference population from interior BC lacking access to salmon (n = 42. As predicted, testosterone was higher in coastal bears of both sexes relative to interior bears, possibly reflecting higher social density on the coast mediated by salmon availability. We also investigated associations between the amount of salmon individual bears consumed (as measured by stable isotope analysis and cortisol and testosterone in hair. Also as predicted, cortisol decreased with increasing dietary salmon and was higher after a year of low dietary salmon than after a year of high dietary salmon. These findings at two spatial scales suggest that coastal bears might experience nutritional or social stress in response to on-going salmon declines, providing novel insights into the effects of resource availability on fitness-related physiology.

  10. Costly hide and seek pays: unexpected consequences of deceit in a social dilemma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szolnoki, Attila; Perc, Matjaž

    2014-01-01

    Deliberate deceptiveness intended to gain an advantage is commonplace in human and animal societies. In a social dilemma, an individual may only pretend to be a cooperator to elicit cooperation from others, while in reality he is a defector. With this as motivation, we study a simple variant of the evolutionary prisoner's dilemma game entailing deceitful defectors and conditional cooperators that lifts the veil on the impact of such two-faced behavior. Defectors are able to hide their true intentions at a personal cost, while conditional cooperators are probabilistically successful at identifying defectors and act accordingly. By focusing on the evolutionary outcomes in structured populations, we observe a number of unexpected and counterintuitive phenomena. We show that deceitful behavior may fare better if it is costly, and that a higher success rate of identifying defectors does not necessarily favor cooperative behavior. These results are rooted in the spontaneous emergence of cycling dominance and spatial patterns that give rise to fascinating phase transitions, which in turn reveal the hidden complexity behind the evolution of deception. (paper)

  11. Secondary materials: Engineering properties, environmental consequences, and social and economic impacts. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breslin, V.; Reaven, S.; Schwartz, M.; Swanson, L.; Zweig, M.; Bortman, M.; Schubel, J.

    1993-08-01

    This report investigates two secondary materials, plastic lumber made from mixed plastic waste, and cement blocks and structures made with incinerator ash. Engineering properties, environmental impacts, and energy costs and savings of these secondary materials are compared to standard lumber products and cement blocks. Market capacity and social acceptance of plastic lumber and stabilized ash products are analyzed. These secondary materials apparently have potential markets; however, their economic value is primarily that they will not take up landfill space. For plastic lumber and stabilized incinerator ash products, marine and highway construction seem ideal public works applications. Incinerator ash may be suitable to use in seawalls, jetties, fishing reefs, highway barriers, and roadbed applications. Docks, piers, highway sound barriers, parking stops, and park furniture may all be made from plastic lumber. To encourage public acceptance and improve the market potential of secondary materials, these activities could be beneficial: industry should emphasize developing useful, long-lived products; industry and governments should create product performance criteria; government should provide rigorous testing and demonstration programs; and government and industry should cooperate to improve public outreach and educational programs.

  12. Predictors and Social Consequences of Online Interactive Self-Disclosure: A Literature Review from 2002 to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desjarlais, Malinda; Gilmour, Jillian; Sinclair, Jasmine; Howell, Kaitlyn B; West, Alyssa

    2015-12-01

    Computer-mediated communication has become ubiquitous in the lives of today's youth. The current review synthesizes recent findings regarding adolescents' and young adults' online interactive self-disclosure, with a particular emphasis on the direct antecedents and effects. Three broad categories of predictors are discussed, including demographic information and internal states, dispositional factors, as well as contextual factors. In addition, the synthesis of studies exploring consequences of online interactive self-disclosure indicates positive outcomes for social-related constructs. The article concludes with recommendations for future research, including the analysis of actual computer-mediated exchanges and longitudinal research that takes into account the dynamic process of self-disclosure over time and across media.

  13. Unintended and in situ amorphisation of pharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priemel, P A; Grohganz, H; Rades, T

    2016-05-01

    Amorphisation of poorly water-soluble drugs is one approach that can be applied to improve their solubility and thus their bioavailability. Amorphisation is a process that usually requires deliberate external energy input. However, amorphisation can happen both unintentionally, as in process-induced amorphisation during manufacturing, or in situ during dissolution, vaporisation, or lipolysis. The systems in which unintended and in situ amorphisation has been observed normally contain a drug and a carrier. Common carriers include polymers and mesoporous silica particles. However, the precise mechanisms by which in situ amorphisation occurs are often not fully understood. In situ amorphisation can be exploited and performed before administration of the drug or possibly even within the gastrointestinal tract, as can be inferred from in situ amorphisation observed during in vitro lipolysis. The use of in situ amorphisation can thus confer the advantages of the amorphous form, such as higher apparent solubility and faster dissolution rate, without the disadvantage of its physical instability. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Attribution and social cognitive neuroscience: a new approach for the "online-assessment" of causality ascriptions and their emotional consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terbeck, Sylvia; Chesterman, Paul; Fischmeister, Florian Ph S; Leodolter, Ulrich; Bauer, Herbert

    2008-08-15

    Attribution theory plays a central role in understanding cognitive processes that have emotional consequences; however, there has been very limited attention to its neural basis. After reviewing classical studies in social psychology in which attribution has been experimentally manipulated we developed a new approach that allows the investigation of state attributions and emotional consequences using neuroscience methodologies. Participants responded to the Erikson Flanker Task, but, in order to maintain the participant's beliefs about the nature of the task and to produce a significant number of error responses, an adaptive algorithm tuned the available time to respond such that, dependent on the subject's current performance, the negative feedback rate was held at chance level. In order to initiate variation in attribution participants were informed that one and the same task was either easy or difficult. As a result of these two different instructions the two groups differed significantly in error attribution only on the locus of causality dimension. Additionally, attributions were found to be stable over a large number of trials, while accuracy and reaction time remained the same. Thus, the new paradigm is particularly suitable for cognitive neuroscience research that evaluates brain behaviour relationships of higher order processes in 'simulated achievement settings'.

  15. Research activity about the radiological consequences of the Chernobyl NPS accident and social activity to assist its sufferers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imanaka, Tetsuji; Koide, Hiroaki; Kobayashi, Keiji

    1998-01-01

    Due to the Chernobyl Accident in April 1986, a series of serious radiological consequences were brought in Ukraine, Belarus and Russia. The former Soviet Union and the authorities in the world such as IAEA, however, have been denying serious health consequences among the people around Chernobyl since the beginning of the accident. On the other hand, a lot of works indicating serious health effects of the accident have been reported by scientists in these affected countries although they are not well known in the western countries. Since 1993, under the research grant of the Toyota foundation, we have continued a cooperative program to investigate research activities in these countries about the Chernobyl accident and to look into data and information that were not known so far. The information concerning the social system and activity to assist the sufferers from the accident has been also overviewed, including legal aspects of the Chernobyl problem. Here we are presenting an outline of our cooperation activity and our work concerning dose estimation for the inhabitants around the Chernobyl NPS at the first stage after the accident. The results of our estimation suggest that at least several hundreds of inhabitants received radiation dose exceeding 1 Sv before their evacuation. The whole reports of our cooperation program will be published in English and in Japanese in the next year. (author)

  16. sexuality, contraception and unintended pregnancy among female

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. E. P. Gharoro

    knowledge of family planning. Condom ... relationship between respondents with multiple ... cause of healthy life lost. ... power imbalance between women ... working on female reproductive health ..... consequences among student nurses.

  17. Factors associated with unintended pregnancy in Yamagata, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Aya; Yasumura, Seiji; Reich, Michael R; Fukao, Akira

    2002-04-01

    Data on unintended pregnancy are scarce in Japan. The purpose of this study is to examine the association of sociodemographic, reproductive, and other health behavioral factors with unintended pregnancy. A survey was conducted from May through November 1999 in Yamagata, Japan. We distributed anonymous self-administered questionnaires to cervical and breast cancer screening participants aged 35-49 years. There were 564 eligible women, and the number of respondents was 421 (74.6%). The proportion of women who had experienced unintended pregnancy was 46.2%, and 40.1% of them had repeated experiences. Among 312 pre-menopausal married women who did not want to become pregnant, 15.4% were not using any contraception. Factors that were significantly associated with the experience of unintended pregnancy were age of husband being 4 or more years older [Odds ratio (OR) = 1.83], and age at initiation of sexual intercourse (OR = 1.86) and marriage during teens (OR = 11.14). Analysis of 1255 pregnancies that the subjects had experienced showed that 51.2% and 25.9% of mistimed and unwanted pregnancies occurred as a result of no contraceptive use, and 39.5% and 71.1% of these ended in abortions. The number of past unintended pregnancies was significantly (p counseling for the prevention of repeated unintended pregnancies.

  18. Young women's education and behavioural risk trajectories: clarifying their association with unintended-pregnancy resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Scott, Jessica; Cooney, Teresa M

    2014-06-01

    In the USA, most pregnancies occurring to teenage women are unplanned, making both the decisions regarding their resolution and the consequences of those decisions important topics of inquiry. Substantial debate surrounds the potential consequences for young women of either carrying an unintended pregnancy to term or voluntarily terminating it. The present study utilises data from The US National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health prospectively to examine the predictors of pregnancy resolution decisions in terms of young women's educational goals and their engagement in risk behaviours. Additionally, the long-term consequences of these decisions for education and risk-taking behaviours are identified. Results indicate that young women with strong educational goals have a greater likelihood of terminating an unintended pregnancy than those with low aspirations, and that pregnancy termination predicts higher educational attainment compared to motherhood. Risk behaviours did not predict pregnancy-resolution decisions, but young women who became mothers reported lower rates of subsequent substance use and fewer sexual partners post-pregnancy than those who terminated the pregnancy or who had never been pregnant. Motherhood appears to be a catalyst for lifestyle change among young women, limiting substance use and sexual partnering, in contrast to abortion, which appears to allow adolescents to continue risk-taking trajectories.

  19. Mobile Phone Apps for the Prevention of Unintended Pregnancy: A Systematic Review and Content Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangone, Emily Rose; Lebrun, Victoria; Muessig, Kathryn E

    2016-01-19

    Over 50% of pregnancies in the United States are unintended, meaning that the pregnancy is mistimed, unplanned, or unwanted. Unintended pregnancy increases health risks for mother and child, leads to high economic costs for society, and increases social disparities. Mobile phone ownership is rapidly increasing, providing opportunities to reach at-risk populations with reproductive health information and tailored unintended pregnancy prevention interventions through mobile phone apps. However, apps that offer support for unintended pregnancy prevention remain unevaluated. To identify, describe, and evaluate mobile phone apps that purport to help users prevent unintended pregnancy. We conducted an extensive search of the Apple iTunes and Android Google Play stores for apps that explicitly included or advertised pregnancy prevention or decision-making support in the context of fertility information/tracking, birth control reminders, contraceptive information, pregnancy decision-making, abortion information or counseling, sexual communication/negotiation, and pregnancy tests. We excluded apps that targeted medical professionals or that cost more than US $1.99. Eligible apps were downloaded and categorized by primary purpose. Data extraction was performed on a minimum of 143 attributes in 3 domains: (1) pregnancy prevention best practices, (2) contraceptive methods and clinical services, and (3) user interface. Apps were assigned points for their inclusion of features overall and for pregnancy prevention best practices and contraceptive information. Our search identified 6805 app descriptions in iTunes and Google Play. Of these, 218 unique apps met inclusion criteria and were included in the review. Apps were grouped into 9 categories: fertility trackers (n=72), centers and resources (n=38), birth control reminders (n=35), general sexual and reproductive health (SRH) information (n=17), SRH information targeted specifically to young adults (YA) (n=16), contraceptive

  20. Empowering the poor: A field study of the social psychological consequences of receiving autonomy or dependency aid in Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Katherina; van Leeuwen, Esther; Montenegro-Montenegro, Esteban; van Vugt, Mark

    2018-04-01

    This field study investigated the consequences of receiving poverty aid through conditional transfer programmes in the form of autonomy-oriented help (i.e., cash) or dependency-oriented help (i.e., vouchers) in impoverished rural communities in Panama. The empowering effects of autonomy- (vs. dependency-) help have so far only been studied in laboratory settings, or in settings where help could easily be refused. Little is known about the reactions of people who rely on help for extended periods of time. This study provides insights into how aid recipients are influenced by the type of aid they receive. Results showed that, as expected, recipients of cash reported more autonomy, empowerment, and life improvements than recipients of vouchers. Training, another type of autonomy-oriented help, was positively related to empowerment, personal, and family change beliefs. These findings illustrate the benefits of autonomy-oriented help programmes in empowering people from extremely poor communities around the world, who rely on aid for extended periods of time. © 2018 The Authors. British Journal of Social Psychology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Psychological Society.

  1. Consequence-based communication about adolescent romantic experience between parents and adolescents: A qualitative study underpinned by social constructionism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ting; Fuller, Jeffrey; Hutton, Alison; Grant, Julian

    2017-06-01

    Chinese adolescents are increasingly engaging in romantic experiences and high-risk sexual behaviors within a rapidly-changing cultural and socio-economic context. Parental communication about sexuality has been recognized as protective for adolescents to make informed decisions about sexual practice. In this study, we explored what was discussed about adolescent romantic experience between parents and adolescents in China. Twenty-seven parents and 38 adolescents from a northern-eastern city of China were interviewed. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and thematically analyzed using a social constructionism framework. Four themes were identified: (i) detriments of romantic experience to education and future prospect; (ii) health and sociocultural risks of romantic and sexual engagement; (iii) ways of handling romantic experience; and (iv) marriage and family building. The messages were mainly prohibitive and consequence oriented in nature, and lacked specific romantic and sexual information. These messages reflected sociocultural beliefs in education, sexuality, marriage, and family in China, but did not meet the needs of current adolescents. External support from health professionals, such as nurses, is important for parents and adolescents to improve their sexual knowledge and communication skills. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  2. The symbiotic lifestyle and its evolutionary consequences: social monogamy and sex allocation in the hermaphroditic shrimp Lysmata pederseni

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeza, J. Antonio

    2010-08-01

    Sex allocation theory predicts female-biased sex allocation for simultaneous hermaphrodites with a monogamous mating system. Mating systems theory predicts that monogamy is advantageous in environments where refuges are discrete, scarce, relatively small, and when predation risk is high outside of these refuges. These predictions were tested with the Caribbean shrimp Lysmata pederseni, a simultaneous hermaphrodite which has an early male phase and lives inside tubes of the sponge Callyspongia vaginalis. This host sponge is a scarce resource that, together with the high predation risk typical of tropical environments, should favor monogamy in the shrimp. Field observations demonstrated that shrimps were frequently encountered as pairs within these tube sponges. Pairs were equally likely to comprise two hermaphrodites or one hermaphrodite and one male. Several of these pairs were observed for long periods of time in the field. Experiments demonstrated that hermaphrodites tolerated other hermaphrodites but not males in their host sponge. These results suggest that pairs of hermaphroditic L. pederseni are socially monogamous; they share the same host individual and might reproduce exclusively with their host partners for long periods of time. Nevertheless, males appeared less likely to establish long-term associations with hermaphrodites as indicated by the rate of their disappearance from their hosts (greater than that of hermaphrodites). Sex allocation was female biased in monogamous hermaphrodites. On average, hermaphrodites invested 34 times more to female than to male reproductive structures. Monogamy and female-biased sex allocation seem to be evolutionary consequences of adopting a symbiotic lifestyle in simultaneous hermaphrodites.

  3. Everyday Physical Education: Functional and Dysfunctional Consequences in Hungarian Public Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vamos Ảgnes

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In Participation in physical education is considered to be a fundamental right of pupils all over the world. In Hungary, where the rich elite sports traditions of the country are paralleled by the population’s moderate physical activity, the challenge posed by non-communicable diseases and growing obesity figures among youth was addressed by the introduction of daily P.E. in public education starting in the 2012/13 academic year. The objective of the present paper is to discuss, based on empirical research, the intended and unintended consequences of this measure in an educational and social context using the qualitative analysis of the views of key stakeholders and the quantitative analysis of statistical data on the infrastructural and personal conditions of P.E. The results indicate that neither before nor after the enforcement of the Act on Public Education were the infrastructural and personal conditions of daily P.E. created and, in addition to the intended consequences, a number of unintended consequences have also been encountered by various stakeholders. The study can also be regarded as an attempt to reveal these dysfunctions in order to contribute to positive changes in the area.

  4. Unintended exposure in radiotherapy: Identification of prominent causes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boadu, Mary; Rehani, Madan Mohan

    2009-01-01

    Background and purpose: Unintended exposures in radiotherapy are likely to occur when certain conditions that favour such exposures exist. Based on the frequency of occurrence of various causes of 100 events of unintended exposures in radiotherapy as derived from the analysis of published reports, a checklist for assessing the vulnerability of radiotherapy facilities for potential accidents has been prepared. The list presents items to be considered for safety critical assessments of a radiotherapy department for the improvement of patient safety and the entire radiotherapy processes. Materials and methods: The resources used for this paper consist of 100 unintended radiotherapy exposures and were derived from existing published reports. The analysis was performed by forming two templates: one consisting of 10 initiating events and another of 35 contributing factors. Results: Four most prominent initiating events were identified and together accounted for about 70% of all the unintended exposure events. Ten most prominent contributing factors were also identified and together accounted for about 70% of all the radiotherapy unintended exposure events covered under this study. Conclusion: With this knowledge of high frequency of occurrences, the identified four prominent initiating events and the 10 most prominent contributing factors must be checked and dealt with as a matter of priority when assessing the safety of a radiotherapy facility. A simple checklist for checking the quality assurance programmes of a radiotherapy department for every aspect of the design and delivery of radiation have been provided.

  5. Unintended pregnancy as a predictor of child maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guterman, Kai

    2015-10-01

    Whereas child maltreatment research has developed considerable evidence on post-natal risk-factors, pre-natal circumstances have been largely overlooked. The circumstances surrounding a pregnancy may considerably impact the environment in which later parenting behaviors occur. This study examines one of the earliest potentially identifiable risk-factors for child maltreatment: the intentions of a pregnancy. Utilizing both mother and father reports, this study focuses on maltreatment risk, as it relates with both parents' perspectives of the pregnancy's intention. Drawing upon data from the Fragile Families and Child Well Being study, a longitudinal, birth cohort study, survey questions were used that asked parents, at the time of the birth, whether they considered abortion for the child. Unintended pregnancy demonstrates predictive value as one of the earliest identifiable risk-factors for child maltreatment. Regardless of whether the mother or father reported the unintended pregnancy, the relationship with maltreating behavior is largely the same, although for different maltreatment types. Mothers' reports of unintended pregnancy are associated with psychological aggression, and neglect. Fathers' reports of unintended pregnancy are associated with physical aggression. Fathers' perspectives regarding pregnancy intentions matter just as much as mothers,' and accounting for their perspectives could be important in understanding the maltreating behaviors of both parents. Identifiable in the earliest stages of caregiving, unintended pregnancy may be an important risk-factor in predicting and understanding child maltreatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Learning Design, Social Ontology and Unintended Functionalism in Education Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Mark William

    2016-01-01

    For many years there have been well-funded project opportunities for developing educational innovations, both pedagogical and technological, to fulfil the educational ambitions of national governments and European agencies. Projects have been funded on the basis of competitive bidding against themes identified by funders. Calls for funding…

  7. [Patterns of alcohol consumption in France and their medical and social consequences as seen through the family circle and friends and general practitioners].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoertel, N; Crochard, A; Rouillon, F; Limosin, F

    2014-04-01

    Data on the frequency of high-risk alcohol consumption and its medical and social consequences in the French general population remain fragmented. Therefore, our aim was two-fold: (i) to assess the prevalence of different patterns of alcohol consumption using the AUDIT-C scale, according to two different perspectives, i.e., that of family circle members or friends, and that of the general practitioners (GPs), and (ii) to examine the prevalence of medical and social consequences associated with alcohol consumption profiles. Data were drawn from two national surveys conducted in 2013. Investigators were respectively GPs and family circle members or friends. These surveys were respectively representative of GPs (n=1308) and of the general adult population (n=1018). The 12-month prevalence rates of harmful or at risk alcohol consumption rose respectively to 11.1% in the GPs adult patients and to 11.9% in the general adult population. The majority of participants with "at risk" alcohol consumption presented with significant social and medical consequences. Thus, more than seven out of ten participants with chronic at risk consumption endorsed significant negative social event potentially associated with alcohol like withdrawal of driving licence, getting divorced or separated, and losing friends. Over 10% of these participants had liver disease and diabetes mellitus, more than 30% increased blood pressure and nearly 50% anxiety disorder or major depression. Following adjustments for sociodemographic characteristics and alcohol treatment, prevalences of numerous social and medical consequences significantly differed between alcohol-dependent participants, chronic at risk consumers and episodic at risk consumers. Our results suggest that more than one adult out of ten in France showed during the past year harmful or "at risk" alcohol consumption, which appears insufficiently detected and treated. In addition, the majority of at risk alcohol consumers already presents with

  8. Conflicts, Competition and Social Support in Female-Dominated Vocational Education – Breaking or Reaffirming Stereotypical Femininity?

    OpenAIRE

    Hegna, Kristinn

    2017-01-01

    One in four upper secondary school students in Norway experience nearly single-sex classrooms, an unintended consequence of choosing certain vocational study programmes, such as Health care, childhood and youth development or Building and construction. This raises a question about how female students describe their experiences of social relationships and classroom culture within the context of a gender-segregated vocational education setting. Analyses of educational biography interviews revea...

  9. Introduction to the special issue 'unintended effects of international cooperation'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Dirk-Jan; Schulpen, Lau

    2018-06-01

    The 'Evaluation and Program Planning' journal has contributed to the launch of an academic discussion of unintended effects of international cooperation, notably by publishing in 2016 articles by Bamberger, Tarsilla, & Hesse-Biber and by Jabeen. This special issue aims to take up the academic challenges as laid down by those authors, by providing among others a clear typology and applying it, by outlining various methodological options and testing them, and elaborating on suggestions on how to deal with the barriers that prevent unintended effects being taken into account. This special issue makes clear that it is possible to reduce the share of unforeseen effects of international cooperation. Turning the spotlight on unintended effects that can be anticipated, and aiming to make progress on uncovering those that are particularly difficult to detect and debunking those that are exaggerated is the task that lies ahead of us. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Biotechnology, environmental forcing, and unintended trophic cascades

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, C.; Lotz, L.A.P.

    2009-01-01

    A long ongoing discussion between scientists and policy decision-makers seems to have entered recently into a new phase. The consequences of release of transgenic crops into the environment are being discussed not only by scientists but also by farmers, environmental groups and politicians, while an

  11. The potential of social learning in relation to leadership training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moesby-Jensen, Cecilie K.

    in the healthcare sector in Denmark. The findings presented in the paper are based on participant observations, interviews, surveys and documentary material collected from 12 managers and the 160 staff members they supervise. Analyses of the data lead to recommendations for further integration of social learning......This paper discusses the potential of social learning in relation to leadership training courses, by presenting an empirical case study of the intended and unintended consequences of learning that occurred as a result of a specific leadership training course for public middle managers...

  12. Counseling in the clinical setting to prevent unintended pregnancy: an evidence-based research agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moos, Merry K; Bartholomew, Neva E; Lohr, Kathleen N

    2003-02-01

    Unintended pregnancies account for about half of all pregnancies in the United States and, in 1995, numbered nearly 3 million pregnancies. They pose appreciable medical, emotional, social and financial costs on women, their families and society. The US is not attaining national goals to decrease unintended pregnancies, and little is known about effective means for reducing unintended pregnancy rates in adults or adolescents.To examine the evidence about the effectiveness, benefits and harms of counseling in a clinical setting to prevent unintended pregnancy in adults and adolescents and to use the evidence to propose a research agenda.We identified English-language articles from comprehensive searches of the MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsychLit and other databases from 1985 through May 2000; the main clinical search terms included pregnancy (mistimed, unintended, unplanned, unwanted), family planning, contraceptive behavior, counseling, sex counseling, and knowledge, attitudes and behavior. We also used published systematic reviews, hand searching of relevant articles, the second Guide to Clinical Preventive Services and extensive peer review to identify important articles not otherwise found and to assure completeness. Of 673 abstracts examined, we retained 354 for full article review; of these, we used 74 for the systematic evidence review and abstracted data from 13 articles for evidence tables. Four studies addressed the effectiveness of counseling in a clinical setting in changing knowledge, skills and attitudes about contraception and pregnancy; all had poor internal validity and generalizability and collectively did not provide definitive guidance about effective counseling strategies. Nine studies (three in teenage populations) addressed the relationship of knowledge on contraceptive use and adherence. Knowledge of correct contraceptive methods may be positively associated with appropriate use, but reservations about the method itself, partner support of the method

  13. Unintended Sunburn: A Potential Target for Sun Protection Messages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldine F. H. McLeod

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available New Zealand (NZ has the highest melanoma incidence rate in the world. Primary prevention efforts focus on reducing sunburn incidence and increasing sun protective practices in the population. However, sunburn from excessive ultraviolet radiation (UVR remains common. To reduce sunburn incidence, it is important to examine those individuals who experience unintended sunburn. This study aims to use data from the NZ Triennial Sun Protection Survey to describe respondents who were not intending to tan but were sunburnt after outdoor UVR exposure. Information on sociodemographics, concurrent weather conditions, sun protection attitudes and knowledge, and outdoor behaviour was also collected. The results showed 13.5% of respondents’ experienced unintended sunburn during the survey weekend but had not attempted to obtain a tan that summer. Respondents who reported unintended sunburn were more likely than others to have been near water and in unshaded areas, used sunscreen, had higher SunSmart knowledge scores, had lower positive attitudes towards tanning, and were outdoors for a longer duration with less body coverage. As sunburn was unintended these respondents’ outdoor sun protective behaviours may be amenable to change. Future public health initiatives should focus on increasing sun protection (clothing and shade and reducing potential barriers to sun protection.

  14. Unintended effects were investigated in antioxidant activity between ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Other than the targeted approach on compositional analysis, non-targeted approaches on genomics, proteomics and metabolomics are developing to search for unintended effects with respect to genetically modified (GM) food safety assessments. Antioxidant activity system was closely related with plant growth and ...

  15. Unintended Sunburn: A Potential Target for Sun Protection Messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Geraldine F H; Reeder, Anthony I; Gray, Andrew R; McGee, Rob

    2017-01-01

    New Zealand (NZ) has the highest melanoma incidence rate in the world. Primary prevention efforts focus on reducing sunburn incidence and increasing sun protective practices in the population. However, sunburn from excessive ultraviolet radiation (UVR) remains common. To reduce sunburn incidence, it is important to examine those individuals who experience unintended sunburn. This study aims to use data from the NZ Triennial Sun Protection Survey to describe respondents who were not intending to tan but were sunburnt after outdoor UVR exposure. Information on sociodemographics, concurrent weather conditions, sun protection attitudes and knowledge, and outdoor behaviour was also collected. The results showed 13.5% of respondents' experienced unintended sunburn during the survey weekend but had not attempted to obtain a tan that summer. Respondents who reported unintended sunburn were more likely than others to have been near water and in unshaded areas, used sunscreen, had higher SunSmart knowledge scores, had lower positive attitudes towards tanning, and were outdoors for a longer duration with less body coverage. As sunburn was unintended these respondents' outdoor sun protective behaviours may be amenable to change. Future public health initiatives should focus on increasing sun protection (clothing and shade) and reducing potential barriers to sun protection.

  16. A systematic review of unintended pregnancy in cross-cultural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: Published and grey evidence available adverse effects of unintended pregnancy on children were extracted electronically using search engines: PubMed, EMBASE and Google Scholar for the period January 1981 through January 2017. The PRISMA checklist was used and qualities of eligible studies were ...

  17. The Nature of Unintended Benefits in Health Information Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuziemsky, Craig E.; Borycki, Elizabeth; Nøhr, Christian

    2012-01-01

    of healthcare delivery. This paper uses several case studies of HIS implementation to develop a model of unintended benefits of HIS usage with three categories of benefits: patient, service delivery and administrative. We also discuss the implications of these benefits on the design and evaluation of HISs....

  18. Intimate partner violence and unintended pregnancy: prevalence and associated factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina da C. Azevêdo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the association between unintended pregnancy and intimate partner violence before pregnancy. A cross-sectional study was carried out with 1,054 women, aged 18 to 49, in Recife, Northeastern Brazil, from July 2005 to March 2006. Non-conditional logistic regression analysis was performed with a hierarchical strategy for entering variables into the model, according to the conceptual framework defined. Unintended pregnancy was reported by 60.3% (636 women. Intimate partner violence prior to the pregnancy was associated with unintended pregnancy (ORadj = 1.57; 95%CI: 1.17-2.11, even when adjusted for the women's sociodemographic characteristics, the partner's behaviour, and the relationship dynamic. When the association was adjusted for the use of contraception and the partner's refusal to use contraception, the association was no longer significant, suggesting that the effect of partner violence on unintended pregnancy may be mediated by these variables. The findings point to the need of screening for intimate partner violence in reproductive health services.

  19. The intended and unintended effects of advertising on children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijzen, M.; Valkenburg, P.M.; Valdivia, A.N.; Scharrer, E.

    2013-01-01

    The effects of advertising on children have often been divided into two general types: intended effects (e.g., children's brand awareness, preferences, and purchase requests) and unintended effects (e.g., materialistic orientations, parent-child conflicts, and unhealthy eating habits). The first

  20. Unintended cultivation, shifting baselines, and conflict between objectives for fisheries and conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Christopher J; Trebilco, Rowan

    2014-06-01

    The effects of fisheries on marine ecosystems, and their capacity to drive shifts in ecosystem states, have been widely documented. Less well appreciated is that some commercially valuable species respond positively to fishing-induced ecosystem change and can become important fisheries resources in modified ecosystems. Thus, the ecological effects of one fishery can unintentionally increase the abundance and productivity of other fished species (i.e., cultivate). We reviewed examples of this effect in the peer-reviewed literature. We found 2 underlying ecosystem drivers of the effect: trophic release of prey species when predators are overfished and habitat change. Key ecological, social, and economic conditions required for one fishery to unintentionally cultivate another include strong top-down control of prey by predators, the value of the new fishery, and the capacity of fishers to adapt to a new fishery. These unintended cultivation effects imply strong trade-offs between short-term fishery success and conservation efforts to restore ecosystems toward baseline conditions because goals for fisheries and conservation may be incompatible. Conflicts are likely to be exacerbated if fisheries baselines shift relative to conservation baselines and there is investment in the new fishery. However, in the long-term, restoration toward ecosystem baselines may often benefit both fishery and conservation goals. Unintended cultivation can be identified and predicted using a combination of time-series data, dietary studies, models of food webs, and socioeconomic data. Identifying unintended cultivation is necessary for management to set compatible goals for fisheries and conservation. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  1. Compatriots in Ukraine as a reference group of modern Ukrainian migrants in the USA: consequences for social mobility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Vashrova

    2017-07-01

    In some cases, the former social-ethnic identification was weakened or completely lost, while in others it was reinforced or even arose for the first time. A relationship has been found between the type of identification with the reference groups, as well as the way of their use, on the one hand, and the degree of social adaptation of migrants, on the other. As a result, several trends have been identified. First, the situation of dynamic social progress due to the reliance on identification associated with the reference groups in Ukraine at the stage of initial adaptation. Second, the tendency towards disintegration with American society and narrowing the chances of social mobility, due to the closure of the social-cultural patterns of Ukrainian society in the later stages of social adaptation. Third, the situation of simultaneous social advancement and maintaining close ties with reference groups in Ukraine due to acquiring a social status, confirmed by active participation in civil initiatives in Ukraine or Ukrainian-American projects. Fourth, the expansion of social opportunities for migrants, due to the integration of Ukrainian reference groups into a system of new ones, connected with American society.

  2. Staying young today: Vito Mancuso’s Hegelian theology through the lens of Vasil Gluchman’s ethics of social consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simuț Corneliu C.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an attempt to present the Hegelian theology of Vito Mancuso, a radical lay Catholic theologian, from the perspective of the ethics of social consequences, as primarily promoted by Vasil Gluchman. Mancuso is a keen observer of today’s society and he identifies a serious flaw among contemporary people in what he calls the idol of our time. This so-called idol is a human desire which seems to have been promoted more aggressively within contemporary society through various publicity channels, so it has developed into a mass phenomenon in today’s world. According to Mancuso, this desire is man’s longing to stay young despite the natural process of aging, a fact which has individual, spiritual, as well as social implications. He also introduces the necessity for the cultivation of one’s soul for the personal benefit of individuals but also for the prosperity of society in general. In other words, Mancuso borrows, from Hegel, the necessity that the human spirit should develop to the point of positively accepting the materiality of its natural constitution for the wellbeing of all individuals living in the same society which very much resembles Gluchman’s focus on human reasoning and moral action aimed at the promotion of positive consequences and moral duty as means to educate the human spirit towards tolerance and responsibility, all key concepts in Gluchman’s ethics of social consequences.

  3. Space and social capital : The degree of locality in entrepreneurs' contacts and its consequences for firm success

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schutjens, V.A.J.M.; Völker, B.G.M.

    2010-01-01

    Social capital is valuable for entrepreneurs starting a business. Although many small businesses are located at the entrepreneurs’ dwelling, little is known about entrepreneurs’ local ties and their relevance for firm success. Distinguishing between local and non-local social capital, this

  4. Social Knowledge in Children with Language Impairments: Examination of Strategies, Predicted Consequences, and Goals in Peer Conflict Situations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timler, Geralyn R.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated social knowledge in school-age children, aged 8-12 years, with and without language impairment (LI and TD groups). A hypothetical peer conflict task was administered to examine the relationship among prosocial responses and parent/teacher ratings of children's social behaviours. Stimuli included 12 hypothetical peer…

  5. The Costly Consequences of not Being Socially and Behaviorally Ready to Learn by Kindergarten in Baltimore City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettencourt, Amie F; Gross, Deborah; Ho, Grace; Perrin, Nancy

    2018-02-01

    Social, emotional, and behavioral skills are foundational to learning and long-term success. However, poverty and exposure to adverse childhood experiences reduce the chances of children entering kindergarten socially-behaviorally ready to learn. This study examined the unique impact of 5-year-old children (N = 11,412) entering kindergarten not socially-behaviorally ready on three costly school outcomes by fourth grade in Baltimore City Public Schools: being retained in grade, receiving services and supports through an IEP or 504 plan, and being suspended/expelled. Controlling for all other types of school readiness, students not identified as socially-behaviorally ready for kindergarten were more likely to experience all three school outcomes. Findings underscore the importance of early prevention and intervention strategies targeting parents and social-behavioral readiness skills during the first 5 years of life.

  6. Missed pills: frequency, reasons, consequences and solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabbert-Buffet, Nathalie; Jamin, Christian; Lete, Iñaki; Lobo, Paloma; Nappi, Rossella E; Pintiaux, Axelle; Häusler, Günther; Fiala, Christian

    2017-06-01

    Oral hormonal contraception is an effective contraceptive method as long as regular daily intake is maintained. However, a daily routine is a constraint for many women and can lead to missed pills, pill discontinuation and/or unintended pregnancy. This article describes the frequency of inconsistent use, the consequences, the risk factors and the possible solutions. The article comprises a narrative review of the literature. Forgetting one to three pills per cycle is a frequent problem among 15-51% of users, generally adolescents. The reasons for this are age, inability to establish a routine, pill unavailability, side effects, loss of motivation and lack of involvement in the initial decision to use oral contraceptives. The consequences are 'escape ovulations' and, possibly, unintended pregnancy. Solutions are either to use a long-acting method or, for women who prefer to take oral contraceptives, use a continuous or long-cycle regimen to reduce the risks of follicular development and thus the likelihood of ovulation and unintended pregnancy. A progestogen with a long half-life can increase ovarian suppression. For women deciding to use oral contraceptives, a shortened or eliminated hormone-free interval and a progestogen with a long half-life may be an option to reduce the negative consequences of missed oral contraceptive pills.

  7. Face it, don't Facebook it: Impacts of Social Media Addiction on Mindfulness, Coping Strategies and the Consequence on Emotional Exhaustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriwilai, Kanokporn; Charoensukmongkol, Peerayuth

    2016-10-01

    Addiction to social media has now become a problem that societies are concerned with. The aim of the present study is to investigate the impacts that social media addiction has on mindfulness and choice of coping strategy, as well as to explore the consequences on emotional exhaustion. The survey data were collected from 211 employees in 13 enterprises in Thailand. Results from partial least square structural equation modelling revealed that people who are highly addicted to social media tended to have lower mindfulness and tended to use emotion-focused coping to deal with stress. Lack of mindfulness and the decision to use emotion-coping strategy are also subsequently associated with higher emotional exhaustion. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Causes of unintended pregnancy among adolescents in Addis Abeba, Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Nalenga, Georges Z.

    2012-01-01

    Unintended pregnancy among adolescents represents an important public health challenge in many countries, especially in developing countries. Numerous prevention strategies have been employed by countries across the world, in an effort to address this problem. However, the adolescent unwanted pregnancy still increasing in Africa, particularly in Ethiopia. It is why the researcher would like to assess the risk factors influencing the raise of this issue. The aim of the study was to identify...

  9. Logic Model Checking of Unintended Acceleration Claims in Toyota Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, Ed

    2012-01-01

    Part of the US Department of Transportation investigation of Toyota sudden unintended acceleration (SUA) involved analysis of the throttle control software, JPL Laboratory for Reliable Software applied several techniques including static analysis and logic model checking, to the software; A handful of logic models were build, Some weaknesses were identified; however, no cause for SUA was found; The full NASA report includes numerous other analyses

  10. Tobacco and Obesity : The Consequences of the Principle of Equality in the Achievement of Social Rights of Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Corradi Carneiro Dantas

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Considering the premise of valuing human life in the 1988 Constitution , this study addresses the principle of equality and its effects on labor social relations , and the need to curb discriminatory acts in relation to tobacco presence and obesity in contracts work. In addition , it aims to search the current legislation is smoking and obesity may be considered occupational diseases in attaining the social rights of workers discussing about the causal relationship between these factors and the working environment.

  11. Contraceptive use and risk of unintended pregnancy in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Diana G; Bley, Julia; Mikanda, John; Induni, Marta; Arons, Abigail; Baumrind, Nikki; Darney, Philip D; Stewart, Felicia

    2004-07-01

    California is home to more than one out of eight American women of reproductive age. Because California has a large, diverse and growing population, national statistics do not necessarily describe the reproductive health of California women. This article presents risk for pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections among women in California based on the California Women's Health Survey. Over 8900 women of reproductive age who participated in this survey between 1998 and 2001 provide estimates of access to care and use of family-planning methods in the state. We find that 49% of the female population aged 18-44 in California is at risk of unintended pregnancy. Nine percent (9%) of women at risk of an unintended pregnancy are not using any method of contraception, primarily for method-related reasons, such as a concern about side effects or a dislike of available contraceptive methods. Among women at risk for unintended pregnancy, we find disparities by race/ethnicity and education in use of contraceptive methods.

  12. The unintended consequences of sex education: an ethnography of a development intervention in Latin America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nelson, E.; Edmonds, A.; Ballesteros, M.; Encalada Soto, D.; Rodriguez, O.

    2014-01-01

    This paper is an ethnography of a four-year, multi-disciplinary adolescent sexual and reproductive health intervention in Bolivia, Nicaragua and Ecuador. An important goal of the intervention--and of the larger global field of adolescent sexual and reproductive health--is to create more open

  13. Deviant Globalization and the Unintended Consequences of Coca Eradication in Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    Colombian Constitutional Court assumed a central role and had a significant impact on government policy and its response to the needs and...be said that the evidence today suggests that newly constituted forces are slowly emerging whereby legitimate state actors are increasing their...Solutions to Trans-Border Problems?: The Governance of Security and Risk in a post- NAFTA North America (Surrey, England: Ashgate Publishing, 2011), 149

  14. Unintended Consequences: Effects of Paternal Incarceration on Child School Readiness and Later Special Education Placement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna R Haskins

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Though sociologists have examined how mass incarceration affects stratification, remarkably little is known about how it shapes educational disparities. Analyzing the Fragile Families Study and its rich paternal incarceration data, I ask whether black and white children with fathers who have been incarcerated are less prepared for school both cognitively and non-cognitively as a result, and whether racial and gendered disparities in incarceration help explain the persistence of similar gaps in educational outcomes and trajectories. Using a variety of estimation strategies, I show that experiencing paternal incarceration by age five is associated with lower non-cognitive school readiness. While the main effect of incarceration does not vary by race, boys with incarcerated fathers have substantially worse non-cognitive skills at school entry, impacting the likelihood of special education placement at age nine. Mass incarceration facilitates the intergenerational transmission of male behavioral disadvantage, and because of the higher exposure of black children to incarceration, it also plays a role in explaining the persistently low achievement of black boys.

  15. Drug Resistance and Pseudoresistance: An Unintended Consequence of Enteric Coating Aspirin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosser, Tilo; Fries, Susanne; Lawson, John A.; Kapoor, Shiv C.; Grant, Gregory R.; FitzGerald, Garret A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Low dose aspirin reduces the secondary incidence of myocardial infarction and stroke. Drug resistance to aspirin might result in treatment failure. Despite this concern, no clear definition of “aspirin resistance” has emerged and estimates of its incidence have varied remarkably. We aimed to determine the commonality of a mechanistically consistent, stable and specific phenotype of true pharmacological resistance to aspirin – such as might be explained by genetic causes. Methods and Results Healthy volunteers (n=400) were screened for their response to a single oral dose of 325 mg immediate release or enteric coated aspirin. Response parameters reflected the activity of aspirin's molecular target, cyclooxygenase-1. Individuals who appeared “aspirin resistant” on one occasion underwent repeat testing and if still “resistant” were exposed to low dose enteric coated aspirin (81 mg) and clopidogrel (75 mg) for one week each. Variable absorption caused a high frequency of apparent resistance to a single dose of 325 mg enteric coated aspirin (up to 49%) but not to immediate release aspirin (0%). All individuals responded to aspirin upon repeated exposure, extension of the post dosing interval or addition of aspirin to their platelets ex vivo. Conclusions Pharmacological resistance to aspirin is rare; this study failed to identify a single case of true drug resistance. Pseudoresistance, reflecting delayed and reduced drug absorption, complicates enteric coated but not immediate release aspirin administration. Clinical Trial Registration Information clinicaltrials.gov. Identifier: NCT00948987. PMID:23212718

  16. CHDS Thesis Series Fall 2016 - Unintended Consequences of Fracking for Local Communities [video

    OpenAIRE

    Center for Homeland Defense and Security Naval Postgraduate School

    2017-01-01

    The advent of hydraulic fracturing and the ability to bore horizontal wells have changed the energy industry for better and worse since 2005. Advancements have dramatically increased the extraction of oil from shale, but the controversial process, commonly known as fracking, has transformed North Dakota’s Bakken into a major producer of oil that has affected global oil markets. The questions asked in this thesis were as follows: What are the effects of unconventional shale oil exploration on ...

  17. The Unintended Consequences of World War II and the Victory Corps on Austin High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blankenship, Whitney

    2016-01-01

    Within two weeks of the bombing of Pearl Harbor, the U.S. Office of Education Wartime Commission was formed to provide guidance to institutions of higher learning and public schools for the duration of the war. The goals set for the commission included: (1) facilitating the adjustment of education agencies to war needs; (2) informing government…

  18. Pilot trial of IOM duty hour recommendations in neurology residency programs: unintended consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuh, L A; Khan, M A; Harle, H; Southerland, A M; Hicks, W J; Falchook, A; Schultz, L; Finney, G R

    2011-08-30

    To study the potential effect of the 2008 Institute of Medicine (IOM) work duty hour (WDH) recommendations on neurology residency programs. This study evaluated resident sleepiness, personal study hours, quality of life, and satisfaction and faculty satisfaction during a control month using the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education WDH requirements and during an intervention month using the IOM WDH recommendations. Resident participation in both schedules was mandatory, but both resident and faculty participation in the outcome measures was voluntary. Thirty-four residents (11 postgraduate year [PGY]-4, 9 PGY-3, and 14 PGY-2) participated. End-of-work shift sleepiness, mean weekly sleep hours, personal study hours, and hours spent in lectures did not differ between the control and intervention months. Resident quality of life measured by the Maslach Burnout Inventory declined for 1 subscore in the intervention month (p = 0.03). Resident education satisfaction declined during the intervention month for issues related to continuity of care, patient hand-offs, and knowledge of their patients. Faculty satisfaction declined during the intervention month, without a decline in quality of life. The results from 3 residency programs suggest that the IOM WDH recommendations may negatively affect neurology resident education. This study was limited by the short duration of implementation, negative bias against the IOM recommendations, and inability to blind faculty. Additional study of the IOM WDH recommendations is warranted before widespread implementation.

  19. Unintended greenhouse gas consequences of lowering level of service in urban transit systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griswold, Julia B; Cheng, Han; Madanat, Samer; Horvath, Arpad

    2014-01-01

    Public transit is often touted as a ‘green’ transportation option and a way for users to reduce their environmental footprint by avoiding automobile emissions, but that may not be the case when systems run well below passenger capacity. In previous work, we explored an approach to optimizing the design and operations of transit systems for both costs and emissions, using continuum approximation models and assuming fixed demand. In this letter, we expand upon our previous work to explore how the level of service for users impacts emissions. We incorporate travel time elasticities into the optimization to account for demand shifts from transit to cars, resulting from increases in transit travel time. We find that emissions reductions are moderated, but not eliminated, for relatively inelastic users. We consider two scenarios: the first is where only the agency faces an emissions budget; the second is where the entire city faces an emissions budget. In the latter scenario, the emissions reductions resulting from reductions in transit level of service are mitigated as users switch to automobile. (letter)

  20. Unintended consequences of reducing QT-alert overload in a computerized physician order entry system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.H. van der Sijs (Heleen); R. Kowlesar (Ravi); J.E.C.M. Aarts (Jos); M. Berg (Marc); A.G. Vulto (Arnold); T. van Gelder (Teun)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractPurpose: After complaints of too many low-specificity drug-drug interaction (DDI) alerts on QT prolongation, the rules for QT alerting in the Dutch national drug database were restricted in 2007 to obviously QT-prolonging drugs. The aim of this virtual study was to investigate whether

  1. Seeking Clarity in New Jersey for Leadership Preparation Program Design: Confusion, Fragility, and Unintended Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doolittle, Gini

    2013-01-01

    In 2004, the New Jersey Department of Education issued a mandate to the 17 leadership preparation program providers to revise their leadership preparation programs after completing a critical friends review. This case study explores the challenges, programmatic, and political experiences of one preparation program as state support dwindled.…

  2. Intended and Unintended Consequences of Student Use of an Online Questioning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng'ambi, Dick; Brown, Irwin

    2009-01-01

    While supplementation of face-to-face (F2F) teaching with online engagement is increasingly common, the educators' challenge of teaching F2F personalities and facilitating online personalities has not been widely explored. In this paper, we report on a project in which 1st-year students attended F2F sessions and engaged with an anonymous online…

  3. Unintended Consequences: Effects of Paternal Incarceration on Child School Readiness and Later Special Education Placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskins, Anna R

    2014-04-01

    Though sociologists have examined how mass incarceration affects stratification, remarkably little is known about how it shapes educational disparities. Analyzing the Fragile Families Study and its rich paternal incarceration data, I ask whether black and white children with fathers who have been incarcerated are less prepared for school both cognitively and non-cognitively as a result, and whether racial and gendered disparities in incarceration help explain the persistence of similar gaps in educational outcomes and trajectories. Using a variety of estimation strategies, I show that experiencing paternal incarceration by age five is associated with lower non-cognitive school readiness. While the main effect of incarceration does not vary by race, boys with incarcerated fathers have substantially worse non-cognitive skills at school entry, impacting the likelihood of special education placement at age nine. Mass incarceration facilitates the intergenerational transmission of male behavioral disadvantage, and because of the higher exposure of black children to incarceration, it also plays a role in explaining the persistently low achievement of black boys.

  4. An empirical review of major legislation affecting drug development: past experiences, effects, and unintended consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesselheim, Aaron S

    2011-09-01

    With the development of transformative drugs at a low point, numerous commentators have recommended new legislation that uses supplementary market exclusivity as an incentive to promote innovation in the pharmaceutical market. This report provides an historical perspective on proposals for encouraging drug research. Four legislative programs have been primarily designed to offer market exclusivity to promote public health goals in the pharmaceutical or biomedical sciences: the Bayh-Dole Act of 1980, the Orphan Drug Act of 1983, the Hatch-Waxman Act of 1984, and the pediatric exclusivity provisions of the FDA Modernization Act of 1997. I reviewed quantitative and qualitative studies that reported on the outcomes from these programs and evaluated the quality of evidence generated. All four legislative programs generally have been regarded as successful, although such conclusions are largely based on straightforward descriptive reports rather than on more rigorous comparative data or analyses that sufficiently account for confounding. Overall, solid data demonstrate that market exclusivity incentives can attract interest from parties involved in drug development. However, using market exclusivity to promote innovation in the pharmaceutical market can be prone to misuse, leading to improper gains. In addition, important collateral effects have emerged with substantial negative public health implications. Using market exclusivity to promote pharmaceutical innovation can lead to positive outcomes, but the practice is also characterized by waste and collateral effects. Certain practices, such as mechanisms for reevaluation and closer ties of incentives programs to public health outcomes, can help address these problems. © 2011 Milbank Memorial Fund. Published by Wiley Periodicals Inc.

  5. Intended and unintended consequences of a publish-or-perish culture: a worldwide survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dalen, H.P.; Henkens, C.J.I.M.

    2012-01-01

    How does publication pressure in modern-day universities affect the intrinsic and extrinsic rewards in science? By using a worldwide survey among demographers in developed and developing countries, the authors show that the large majority perceive the publication pressure as high, but more so in

  6. Intended and Unintended Consequences of a Publish-or-Perish Culture : A Worldwide Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dalen, H.P.; Henkens, C.J.I.M.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: How does publication pressure in modern-day universities affect the intrinsic and extrinsic rewards in science? By using a worldwide survey among demographers in developed and developing countries, we show that the large majority perceive the publication pressure as high, but more so in

  7. Intended and unintended consequences of a publish-or-perish culture : A world-wide survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dalen, H.P.; Henkens, C.J.I.M.

    2012-01-01

    How does publication pressure in modern-day universities affect the intrinsic and extrinsic rewards in science? By using a worldwide survey among demographers in developed and developing countries, the authors show that the large majority perceive the publication pressure as high, but more so in

  8. Democratic Decentralization Reforms and Their Unintended Consequences in Postslavery Northern Benin,

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hahonou, Eric Komlavi

    2017-01-01

    The paper retraces the recent political emancipation of the Gando, a group of people from Northern Benin whose servile status had been an argument for placing them at the margins of their society and excluding them from political participation. Since the recent democratization process that took p...

  9. Carbon Emissions Trading and Combined Heat and Power Strategies: Unintended Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tysseling, John C.; Vosevich, Mary; Boersma, Benjamin R.; Zumwalt, Jefferey A.

    2009-01-01

    Facility professionals continuously search for projects that reduce energy consumption and operating costs so as to directly benefit their bottom line. Many institutions nationwide have contemplated or made investments in combined heat and power (CHP) projects as a life-cycle strategy to minimize operating costs. However, recent sustainability and…

  10. A curse of coal? Exploring unintended regional consequences of coal energy in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Frantál, Bohumil; Nováková, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 2 (2014), s. 55-65 ISSN 1210-8812 R&D Projects: GA MŠk EE2.3.20.0025 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : coal energy * environmental injustice * resource curse * spatial analysis * Czech Republic Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography Impact factor: 0.872, year: 2014 http://www.geonika.cz/EN/research/ENMgr/MGR_2014_02.pdf

  11. Crip for a day: The unintended negative consequences of disability simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nario-Redmond, Michelle R; Gospodinov, Dobromir; Cobb, Angela

    2017-08-01

    To investigate the impact of disability simulations on mood, self-ascribed disability stereotypes, attitudes about interacting with disabled individuals, and behavioral intentions for improving campus accessibility. Experiment 1 evaluated disability-awareness simulations by randomly assigning undergraduates (N = 60) with and without disabilities to stations simulating either dyslexia, hearing or mobility impairments. Experiment 2 extended the field study into the lab where undergraduates (N = 50) with and without disabilities each completed low vision, hearing impairment, and dyslexia simulations. Both studies incorporated pretest-posttest measures of mood, self-ascribed disability stereotypes, and attitudinal measures. In both experiments, disability simulations made participants feel more confused, embarrassed, helpless, and more vulnerable to becoming disabled themselves compared to baseline. Following the simulations, empathetic concern (warmth) toward disabled people increased in both studies, but attitudes about interacting did not improve. In Experiment 1, postsimulation anxiety, embarrassment, and helplessness were highest for those who used wheelchairs or simulated dyslexia. In Experiment 2, participants judged themselves less competent, expressed more pity, expressed more interaction discomfort, and were not more willing to interview disabled students for an accessibility project following the simulations compared to baseline. In addition, Experiment 2 found frustration, guilt, anxiety, and depression were most pronounced among those who interacted with disabled people less than once per month. Simulating disabilities promotes distress and fails to improve attitudes toward disabled people, undermining efforts to improve integration even while participants report more empathetic concern and "understanding of what the disability experience is like." (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Unintended consequences of invasive predator control in an Australian forest: overabundant wallabies and vegetation change.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick Dexter

    Full Text Available Over-abundance of native herbivores is a problem in many forests worldwide. The abundance of native macropod wallabies is extremely high at Booderee National Park (BNP in south-eastern Australia. This has occurred because of the reduction of exotic predators through an intensive baiting program, coupled with the absence of other predators. The high density of wallabies at BNP may be inhibiting the recruitment of many plant species following fire-induced recruitment events. We experimentally examined the post-fire response of a range of plant species to browsing by wallabies in a forest heavily infested with the invasive species, bitou bush Chrysanthemoides monilifera. We recorded the abundance and size of a range of plant species in 18 unfenced (browsed and 16 fenced (unbrowsed plots. We found the abundance and size of bitou bush was suppressed in browsed plots compared to unbrowsed plots. Regenerating seedlings of the canopy or middle storey tree species Eucalyptus pilularis, Acacia implexa, Allocasuarina littoralis, Breynia oblongifolia and Banksia integrifolia were either smaller or fewer in number in grazed plots than treatment plots as were the vines Kennedia rubicunda, Glycine tabacina and Glycine clandestina. In contrast, the understorey fern, Pteridium esculentum increased in abundance in the browsed plots relative to unbrowsed plots probably because of reduced competition with more palatable angiosperms. Twelve months after plots were installed the community structure of the browsed and unbrowsed plots was significantly different (P = 0.023, Global R = 0.091. The relative abundance of C. monilifera and P. esculentum contributed most to the differences. We discuss the possible development of a low diversity bracken fern parkland in Booderee National Park through a trophic cascade, similar to that caused by overabundant deer in the northern hemisphere. We also discuss its implications for broad scale fox control in southern Australian forests.

  13. Richer but fatter: the unintended consequences of microcredit financing on household health and expenditure in Jamaica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon-Strachan, Georgiana; Cunningham-Myrie, Colette; Fox, Kristin; Kirton, Claremont; Fraser, Raphael; McLeod, Georgia; Forrester, Terrence

    2015-01-01

    To determine whether there was a difference in wealth and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk between microcredit loan beneficiaries and community-matched non-beneficiaries (controls). Seven hundred and twenty-six households of microcredit loan beneficiaries were matched with 726 controls by age, sex and community. A standardised interviewer administered questionnaire was used to collect data on health and household expenditure. Weights, heights, waist circumference and blood pressure measurements were taken for an adult and one child (6-16 years) from each household. Amongst adults, there was no difference in the prevalence of pre-hypertension and hypertension. More male (68.1% vs. 47.8%) and female beneficiaries (84.5% vs. 77.9%) were overweight/obese. More male (17.2% vs. 7.1%; P Microcredit financing is positively associated with wealth acquisition but worsened cardiovascular risk status. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Unintended Consequences of Gender Equality Promotion in Swedish Multicultural Contraceptive Counseling: A Discourse Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arousell, Jonna; Carlbom, Aje; Johnsdotter, Sara; Larsson, Elin C; Essén, Birgitta

    2017-08-01

    In this article, we explore how reproductive health care providers in Sweden, a country often described as one of the most gender-equal countries in the world, incorporate gender equality ideals in multicultural contraceptive counseling. In the tension between gender equality promotion on one hand and respect for cultural diversity and individualized care on the other, we will demonstrate that values of gender equality were often given priority. This is not necessarily undesirable. Nevertheless, our proposal is that the gender equality ideology may inhibit providers' ability to think differently about issues at stake in contraceptive counseling, which may negatively influence women's possibilities to obtain adequate support. At the end of the article, we suggest how health care providers' reflexivity might be used as a working tool for increased awareness about the taken-for-granted cultural norms that exist in their clinical milieu.

  15. Accounting for Lean Implementation in Government Enterprise: Intended and Unintended Consequences

    OpenAIRE

    Chester S. Labedz; John R. Gray

    2013-01-01

    This research explores the effects of implementing a lean production system in a government facility. The organization’s formal accounting practices delay recognition of production savings, but informally the facility promotes its lean efforts through attention-getting, off-the-books, “innovative†accounting. The authors state three propositions relating to customer effects of the lean improvements and the financial approaches. They then state four hypotheses relating to the measures’ ...

  16. When Unintended Consequences Become the Main Effect: Evaluating the Development of a Foster Parent Training Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loesch-Griffin, Deborah A.; Ringstaff, Cathy

    A program of education, training, and support provided to foster parents in a California county through a nonprofit agency is evaluated. The evaluators' experience indicates that: (1) evaluations are gaining in popularity; (2) role shifts by evaluators are sometimes difficult to perceive; (3) program staff are unlikely to use evaluative feedback…

  17. The kidney allocation score: methodological problems, moral concerns and unintended consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hippen, B

    2009-07-01

    The growing disparity between the demand for and supply of kidneys for transplantation has generated interest in alternative systems of allocating kidneys from deceased donors. This personal viewpoint focuses attention on the Kidney Allocation Score (KAS) proposal promulgated by the UNOS/OPTN Kidney Committee. I identify several methodological and moral flaws in the proposed system, concluding that any iteration of the KAS proposal should be met with more skepticism than sanguinity.

  18. SPECIAL PURPOSE IT DERAILED: UNINTENDED CONSEQUENCES OF UNIVERSAL IT LAWS AND POLICIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-26

    Technocrat: How to Win in the Information Age. Wiley I-EEE Press, April 2006. United States Government Accountability Office Report to... Information Services Division ........................ 3 Figure 2: iNET Instrumentation Telemetry Ground Station...consolidate local Information Technology (IT) networks into an enterprise architecture to reduce costs and to increase security. Leadership coined this

  19. Dollars to Discriminate: The (Un)Intended Consequences of School Vouchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckes, Suzanne E.; Mead, Julie; Ulm, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    Some private, religious schools that accept vouchers have been accused of discriminating against certain populations of students through their admissions processes. Discriminating against disfavored groups (e.g., racial minorities, LGBT students, students with disabilities, religious minorities) in voucher programs raises both legal and policy…

  20. Shifts in funding for science curriculum design and their (unintended) consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pareja Roblin, Natalie; Schunn, Christian; Bernstein, Debra; McKenney, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Federal agencies in the Unites States invest heavily in the development of science curriculum materials, which can significantly facilitate science education reform. The current study describes the characteristics of K-12 science curriculum materials produced by federally funded projects between

  1. "A world crazier than us": Vanishing social contexts and the consequences for psychiatric practice in contemporary Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Jack R

    2016-04-01

    Since the end of Communism, mental health care in Romania has increasingly sought to align its practices with idealized models of Western psychiatric practice. Much of this realignment has been made possible by accessing and integrating new pharmaceuticals into psychiatric hospital settings. Less straightforward have been the painful attempts to create a system modeled on international standards for training and certifying psychotherapists. Unfortunately, the political, economic, infrastructural, and epistemological environment of the Romanian mental health care system has prevented many other reforms. This paper examines the ironic trajectory that Romanian psychiatry has taken since the end of state socialism. Specifically, this paper shows how psychiatric practice in most places (outside of university-training hospitals) is increasingly disconnected from a concern with the social conditions that surround mental illness during a period when social upheaval is profoundly impacting the lives of many people who receive mental health care. Thus, as the contribution of social problems to the suffering of those with mental illnesses has increased, some Romanian mental health practitioners have moved away from a concern with these social problems under the guise of aligning their psychiatric practices with (imagined) Western standards of biomedical care. The paper provides a brief history of Romanian psychiatry and explores contemporary challenges and contradictions in many Romanian psychiatric treatment settings through the case study of a 31-year-old Romanian female diagnosed with paranoid schizophrenia. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. The social implications of using drones for biodiversity conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandbrook, Chris

    2015-11-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicles, or 'drones', appear to offer a flexible, accurate and affordable solution to some of the technical challenges of nature conservation monitoring and law enforcement. However, little attention has been given to their possible social impacts. In this paper, I review the possible social impacts of using drones for conservation, including on safety, privacy, psychological wellbeing, data security and the wider understanding of conservation problems. I argue that negative social impacts are probable under some circumstances and should be of concern for conservation for two reasons: (1) because conservation should follow good ethical practice; and (2) because negative social impacts could undermine conservation effectiveness in the long term. The paper concludes with a call for empirical research to establish whether the identified social risks of drones occur in reality and how they could be mitigated, and for self-regulation of drone use by the conservation sector to ensure good ethical practice and minimise the risk of unintended consequences.

  3. The results of the program to change the cognitive component of social representations about the consequences of drug use in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.P. Ryabov

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available We argue the need of development and implementation of informational programs to focus drug prevention in adolescents due to the fact that the researchers neglected the distortion of knowledge and ideas about the consequences of drug use. The results of the program aimed at change the cognitive component of social representations of teenagers about taking drugs are presented. The program implemented in general education school is based on informational approach: a video is shown about the consequences of drug use on human health and life. The study involved 158 adolescents aged 15 to 18 years, students of 9th and 11th grades. As a result of the program, we recorded a significant reduction in the desire of teens to try drugs, their increased knowledge about the consequences of drug use, change in the hierarchy of consequences of initiation to drugs important for adolescents, and their life orientations. We identified and described age-and gender-specific impact of the program on the study parameters.

  4. The social consequences of conspiracism: Exposure to conspiracy theories decreases intentions to engage in politics and to reduce one's carbon footprint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolley, Daniel; Douglas, Karen M

    2014-02-01

    The current studies explored the social consequences of exposure to conspiracy theories. In Study 1, participants were exposed to a range of conspiracy theories concerning government involvement in significant events such as the death of Diana, Princess of Wales. Results revealed that exposure to information supporting conspiracy theories reduced participants' intentions to engage in politics, relative to participants who were given information refuting conspiracy theories. This effect was mediated by feelings of political powerlessness. In Study 2, participants were exposed to conspiracy theories concerning the issue of climate change. Results revealed that exposure to information supporting the conspiracy theories reduced participants' intentions to reduce their carbon footprint, relative to participants who were given refuting information, or those in a control condition. This effect was mediated by powerlessness with respect to climate change, uncertainty, and disillusionment. Exposure to climate change conspiracy theories also influenced political intentions, an effect mediated by political powerlessness. The current findings suggest that conspiracy theories may have potentially significant social consequences, and highlight the need for further research on the social psychology of conspiracism. © 2012 The British Psychological Society.

  5. Mental and Social Health Impacts the Use of Protective Behavioral Strategies in Reducing Risky Drinking and Alcohol Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBrie, Joseph W.; Kenney, Shannon R.; Lac, Andrew; Garcia, Jonathan A.; Ferraiolo, Paul

    2009-01-01

    The present study is the first to examine the moderating effects of mental and social health status in the relationship between protective behavioral strategies utilized to reduce high-risk drinking (e.g., alternating alcoholic and nonalcoholic drinks or avoiding drinking games) and alcohol outcomes (drinking variables and alcohol-related negative…

  6. My Friends Right Next to Me: A Laboratory Investigation on Predictors and Consequences of Experiencing Social Closeness on Social Networking Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neubaum, German; Krämer, Nicole C

    2015-08-01

    In the last decade, research has provided a series of insights into how and why the use of social networking sites (SNSs) can be socially and psychologically beneficial for individuals. The present research extends this evidence by focusing on the concept of social closeness as a feeling experienced when using SNSs. In a laboratory setting, participants (N=60) spent 10 minutes on Facebook, and then reported their experiences during this session. Analyses of participants' usage behavior and their experiences revealed that the more time users spent interacting with other users (e.g., commenting on updates), the closer they felt to other people. Interacting with others also predicted users' positive emotional states after Facebook use; this effect may be explained by the perception of social closeness. This study is one of the first to employ momentary measures, offering a further theoretical link between active SNS use and well-being.

  7. Social Media on the Job: An exploration of the potential legal consequences of employees’ social media activities during the course of employment.

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Sarosh; Moore, Roksana; Weal, Mark

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the current interplay between the actions of harassment and defamation and the nature and characteristics of social media specifically towards addressing the issues surrounding the growing usage of social media by employees during employment. It argues that with the legislation and provisions we currently have in place in the U.K. many problems are likely to arise for employers and employees alike as usage continues to rise.

  8. While you were locked up : an empirical study on the characteristics, social surroundings and wellbeing of partners of prisoners in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Goede, M.S.

    2018-01-01

    While it has been established that imprisonment can have unintended consequences for prisoners, the unintended consequences of imprisonment for others, e.g. their romantic partners, have been severely neglected in the academic discourse. Consequently, there is a lack of knowledge on prisoners’

  9. Forests, food, and fuel in the tropics: the uneven social and ecological consequences of the emerging political economy of biofuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauvergne, Peter; Neville, Kate J

    2010-01-01

    The global political economy of biofuels emerging since 2007 appears set to intensify inequalities among the countries and rural peoples of the global South. Looking through a global political economy lens, this paper analyses the consequences of proliferating biofuel alliances among multinational corporations, governments, and domestic producers. Since many major biofuel feedstocks - such as sugar, oil palm, and soy - are already entrenched in industrial agricultural and forestry production systems, the authors extrapolate from patterns of production for these crops to bolster their argument that state capacities, the timing of market entry, existing institutions, and historical state-society land tenure relations will particularly affect the potential consequences of further biofuel development. Although the impacts of biofuels vary by region and feedstock, and although some agrarian communities in some countries of the global South are poised to benefit, the analysis suggests that already-vulnerable people and communities will bear a disproportionate share of the costs of biofuel development, particularly for biofuels from crops already embedded in industrial production systems. A core reason, this paper argues, is that the emerging biofuel alliances are reinforcing processes and structures that increase pressures on the ecological integrity of tropical forests and further wrest control of resources from subsistence farmers, indigenous peoples, and people with insecure land rights. Even the development of so-called 'sustainable' biofuels looks set to displace livelihoods and reinforce and extend previous waves of hardship for such marginalised peoples.

  10. Social Consequences of Academic Teaming in Middle School: The Influence of Shared Course-Taking on Peer Victimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echols, Leslie

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the influence of academic teaming (i.e., sharing academic classes with the same classmates) on the relationship between social preference and peer victimization among 6th grade students in middle school. Approximately 1,000 participants were drawn from 5 middle schools that varied in their practice of academic teaming. A novel methodology for measuring academic teaming at the individual level was employed, in which students received their own teaming score based on the unique set of classmates with whom they shared academic courses in their class schedule. Using both peer- and self-reports of victimization, the results of two path models indicated that students with low social preference in highly teamed classroom environments were more victimized than low preference students who experienced less teaming throughout the school day. This effect was exaggerated in higher performing classrooms. Implications for the practice of academic teaming were discussed. PMID:25937668

  11. Social environment during egg laying: Changes in plasma hormones with no consequences for yolk hormones or fecundity in female Japanese quail, Coturnix japonica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther M A Langen

    Full Text Available The social environment can have profound effects on an individual's physiology and behaviour and on the transfer of resources to the next generation, with potential consequences for fecundity and reproduction. However, few studies investigate all of these aspects at once. The present study housed female Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica in pairs or groups to examine the effects on hormone concentrations in plasma and yolk and on reproductive performance. Circulating levels of androgens (testosterone and 5-α-dihydrotestosterone and corticosterone were measured in baseline samples and after standardised challenges to assess the responsiveness of the females' endocrine axes. Effects of the social environment on female fecundity were analysed by measuring egg production, egg mass, fertilization rates, and number of hatched offspring. Counter to expectation, females housed in pairs had higher plasma androgen concentrations and slightly higher corticosterone concentrations than females housed in groups, although the latter was not statistically significant. Pair vs. group housing did not affect the females' hormonal response to standardised challenges or yolk testosterone levels. In contrast to previous studies, the females' androgen response to a gonadotropin-releasing hormone challenge was not related to yolk testosterone levels. Non-significant trends emerged for pair-housed females to have higher egg-laying rates and higher fertility, but no differences arose in egg weight or in the number, weight or size of hatchlings. We propose that our unexpected findings are due to differences in the adult sex ratio in our social treatments. In pairs, the male may stimulate female circulating hormone levels more strongly than in groups where effects are diluted due to the presence of several females. Future studies should vary both group size and sex composition to disentangle the significance of sexual, competitive and affiliative social interactions for

  12. Unintended effects and their detection in genetically modified crops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cellini, F; Chesson, A; Colquhoun, I

    2004-01-01

    The commercialisation of GM crops in Europe is practically non-existent at the present time. The European Commission has instigated changes to the regulatory process to address the concerns of consumers and member states and to pave the way for removing the current moratorium. With regard...... to the safety of GM crops and products, the current risk assessment process pays particular attention to potential adverse effects on human and animal health and the environment. This document deals with the concept of unintended effects in GM crops and products, i.e. effects that go beyond that of the original...

  13. Social-psychological consequences of the Chernobyl accident and ways of minimization their effect on the population health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arkhangel'skaya, G.V.; Liberman, A.N.; Ivanov, E.V.; Komarov, E.I.; Anishchenko, E.V.; Randarenko, I.G.; Rumyantsev, G.M.; Ramzaev, V.P.

    1993-01-01

    The paper presents the results of the social-and-sanitary and of the clinic-and-physiological investigations of the stress level, its reasons and effects for the health of the Bryansk region contaminated area population. The abrupt growth of the population concern linked with the radiation situation in 1992 in contrast to 1988 is determined. The extremely low level of the radiation-and-sanitary knowledge characteristic for all groups of the population is stressed. The psychological investigations revealed a complex of reactions called as a victim complex. It is shown that the long-term psychological stress of the population may affect essentially the health aspects

  14. Socioeconomic inequality of unintended pregnancy in the Iranian population: a decomposition approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omani-Samani, Reza; Amini Rarani, Mostafa; Sepidarkish, Mahdi; Khedmati Morasae, Esmaeil; Maroufizadeh, Saman; Almasi-Hashiani, Amir

    2018-05-09

    There are several studies regarding the predictors or risk factors of unintended pregnancy, but only a small number of studies have been carried out concerning the socio-economic factors influencing the unintended pregnancy rate. This study aimed to determine the socioeconomic inequality of unintended pregnancy in Tehran, Iran, as a developing country. In this hospital based cross-sectional study, 5152 deliveries from 103 hospitals in Tehran (the capital of Iran) were included in the analysis in July 2015. Socioeconomic status (SES) was measured through an asset-based method and principal component analysis was carried out to calculate the household SES. The concentration index and curve was used to measure SES inequality in unintended pregnancy, and then decomposed into its determinants. The data was analyzed by statistical Stata software. The Wagstaff normalized concentration index of unintended pregnancy (- 0.108 (95% Confidence Interval (CI) = - 0.119 ~ - 0.054)) endorses that unintended pregnancy is more concentrated among poorer mothers. The results showed that SES accounted for 27% of unintended pregnancy inequality, followed by the mother's nationality (19%), father's age (16%), mother's age (10%), father's education level (7%) and Body Mass Index (BMI) groups (5%). Unintended pregnancy is unequally distributed among Iranian women and is more concentrated among poor women. Economic status had the most positive contribution, explaining 27% of inequality in unintended pregnancy.

  15. Safety of genetically engineered foods: approaches to assessing unintended health effects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Committee on Identifying and Assessing Unintended Effects of Genetically Engineered Foods on Human Health, National Research Council

    2004-01-01

    Assists policymakers in evaluating the appropriate scientific methods for detecting unintended changes in food and assessing the potential for adverse health effects from genetically modified products...

  16. Adolescent social stress does not necessarily lead to a compromised adaptive capacity during adulthood : A study on the consequences of social stress in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buwalda, B.; Stubbendorff, C.; Zickert, N.; Koolhaas, J. M.

    2013-01-01

    Childhood bullying or social stress in adolescent humans is generally considered to increase the risk of developing behavioral disorders like depression in adulthood. Juveniles are hypothesized to be particularly sensitive to stressors in their environment due to the relatively late maturation of

  17. Recent Visual Decline—A Health Hazard with Consequences for Social Life: A Study of Home Care Clients in 12 Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Else Vengnes Grue

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Information about recent visual decline (RVD and its consequences is limited. The aim was to investigate this in an observational, prospective study. Participants were recipients of community home services, ≥65 years, from Ontario (Canada, n=101618, Finland (the-RAI-database, STAKES, n=1103, and 10 other European countries (the-Aged-in-HOmeCarestudy (AdHOC, n=3793. The instrument RAI-HC version 2.0 was used in all sites. RVD was assessed by the item “Worsening of vision compared to status 90 days ago” and was present in 6–49% in various sites, more common among persons living alone, and in females. In the AdHOC sample, RVD was independently associated with declining social activity and limited outdoors activities due to fear of falling. The combination of stable vision impairment (SVI and RVD was independently associated with IADL loss. RVD is common and has greater impact than SVI on social life and function. Caregivers should be particularly aware of RVD, its consequences, and help patients to seek assessments, treatment, and rehabilitation.

  18. A longitudinal study of the social and emotional predictors and consequences of cyber and traditional bullying victimisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Donna; Lester, Leanne; Barnes, Amy

    2015-02-01

    Few longitudinal studies have investigated how cyberbullying interacts with traditional bullying among young people, who are increasingly using online environments to seek information, entertainment and to socialise. This study aimed to identify the associations between the relative contribution of cyberbullying victimisation and traditional bullying victimisation on social and emotional antecedents and outcomes among adolescents. Participants were a cohort of 1,504 adolescents from 16 Australian schools followed from age 13 to 15 years. Adolescents experiencing social and emotional difficulties were more likely to be cyberbullied and traditionally bullied, than traditionally bullied only. Those targeted in both ways experienced more harm and stayed away from school more often than those traditionally bullied only. These findings suggest a high coexistence of cyber and traditional bullying behaviours and their antecedents, and higher levels of harm from a combination of these behaviours for adolescents over time. Future research should engage students as co-researchers to enhance school and parent strategies to support adolescents experiencing difficulties, and to reduce the likelihood of both cyber and traditional bullying.

  19. and consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Athanasopoulou

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available (a Purpose: The purpose of this research is to identify the types of CSR initiatives employed by sports organisations; their antecedents, and their consequences for the company and society. (b Design/methodology/approach: This study is exploratory in nature. Two detailed case studies were conducted involving the football team and the basketball team of one professional, premier league club in Greece and their CSR initiatives. Both teams have the same name, they belong to one of the most popular teams in Greece with a large fan population; have both competed in International Competitions (UEFA’s Champion League; Final Four of the European Tournament and have realised many CSR initiatives in the past. The case studies involved in depth, personal interviews of managers responsible for CSR in each team. Case study data was triangulated with documentation and search of published material concerning CSR actions. Data was analysed with content analysis. (c Findings: Both teams investigated have undertaken various CSR activities the last 5 years, the football team significantly more than the basketball team. Major factors that affect CSR activity include pressure from leagues; sponsors; local community, and global organisations; orientation towards fulfilling their duty to society, and team CSR strategy. Major benefits from CSR include relief of vulnerable groups and philanthropy as well as a better reputation for the firm; increase in fan base; and finding sponsors more easily due to the social profile of the team. However, those benefits are not measured in any way although both teams observe increase in tickets sold; web site traffic and TV viewing statistics after CSR activities. Finally, promotion of CSR is mainly done through web sites; press releases; newspapers, and word-of-mouth communications. (d Research limitations/implications: This study involves only two case studies and has limited generalisability. Future research can extend the

  20. Exploring the roots of unintended safety threats associated with the introduction of hospital ePrescribing systems and candidate avoidance and/or mitigation strategies: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozaffar, Hajar; Cresswell, Kathrin M; Williams, Robin; Bates, David W; Sheikh, Aziz

    2017-09-01

    Hospital electronic prescribing (ePrescribing) systems offer a wide range of patient safety benefits. Like other hospital health information technology interventions, however, they may also introduce new areas of risk. Despite recent advances in identifying these risks, the development and use of ePrescribing systems is still leading to numerous unintended consequences, which may undermine improvement and threaten patient safety. These negative consequences need to be analysed in the design, implementation and use of these systems. We therefore aimed to understand the roots of these reported threats and identify candidate avoidance/mitigation strategies. We analysed a longitudinal, qualitative study of the implementation and adoption of ePrescribing systems in six English hospitals, each being conceptualised as a case study. Data included semistructured interviews, observations of implementation meetings and system use, and a collection of relevant documents. We analysed data first within and then across the case studies. Our dataset included 214 interviews, 24 observations and 18 documents. We developed a taxonomy of factors underlying unintended safety threats in: (1) suboptimal system design, including lack of support for complex medication administration regimens, lack of effective integration between different systems, and lack of effective automated decision support tools; (2) inappropriate use of systems-in particular, too much reliance on the system and introduction of workarounds; and (3) suboptimal implementation strategies resulting from partial roll-outs/dual systems and lack of appropriate training. We have identified a number of system and organisational strategies that could potentially avoid or reduce these risks. Imperfections in the design, implementation and use of ePrescribing systems can give rise to unintended consequences, including safety threats. Hospitals and suppliers need to implement short- and long-term strategies in terms of the

  1. Health, social and economic consequences of hypersomnia: a controlled national study from a national registry evaluating the societal effect on patients and their partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennum, Poul; Ibsen, Rikke; Avlund, Kirsten; Kjellberg, Jakob

    2014-04-01

    Hypersomnia causes significant socioeconomic burden, but there is insufficient information about the time course and the effect on the partner. The aim of this study was to estimate the factual direct and productivity costs of hypersomnia in a controlled study including all national patients and their partners. Using records from the Danish National Patient Registry (1997-2009), we identified all patients with a diagnosis of hypersomnia and compared these patients and their partners with randomly chosen controls matched for age, gender, geographic area and marital status. Direct and productivity costs, including frequencies of primary and sector contacts and procedures, medication, labour supply and social transfer payments were extracted from the national databases. A total of 2,855 national patients was compared to 11,382 controls. About 70 % of patients and controls were married or cohabiting. Patients with hypersomnia had significantly higher rates of health-related contact, medication use and socioeconomic cost. Furthermore, they had slightly lower employment rates, and those in employment had a lower income level than control subjects. The annual mean excess health-related cost including social transfers was 3,498 for patients with hypersomnia and 3,851 for their partners. The social and health-related consequences could be identified up to 11 years before the first diagnosis among both the patients and their partners and became more pronounced as the disease advanced. The health effects were present in all age groups and in both genders. On the basis of this retrospective controlled study in the Danish population, symptoms and findings of hypersomnia are associated with major socioeconomic consequences for patients, their partners and society.

  2. Aid and good governance: Examining aggregate unintended effects of aid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkstra, Geske

    2018-06-01

    Although donors generally aim to improve governance in recipient countries by various means, critics claim that the aggregate effect of large aid flows is the deterioration of governance. Aid is said to weaken domestic accountability, sustain authoritarian regimes, increase political instability, weaken government capacities, and increase corruption. Conducting a systematic search in Web of Science, this paper reviews the empirical evidence for these unintended aggregate effects of aid on the political, administrative, and judicial dimensions of good governance. It finds that the negative effects of aid on governance are much exaggerated. The aggregate effect of aid on democracy has become more positive after the Cold War, and the effect of aid on government capacity and on reducing corruption has also improved over time. Furthermore, most studies show a positive effect of aid on political stability. These findings imply that donor intentions matter: donors that are serious about their intended effects on governance are able to mitigate the possible negative unintended effects of their aid. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Rationale and consequences of reclassifying obesity as an addictive disorder: neurobiology, food environment and social policy perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Patricia J; Batra, Payal; Geiger, Brenda M; Wommack, Tara; Gilhooly, Cheryl; Pothos, Emmanuel N

    2012-08-20

    The rapid increase in the prevalence of obesity is a priority for investigators from across numerous disciplines, including biology, nutritional science, and public health and policy. In this paper, we systematically examine the premise that common dietary obesity is an addictive disorder, based on the criteria for addiction described in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM) of Mental Disorders of the American Psychiatric Association, version IV, and consider the consequences of such a reclassification of obesity for public policy. Specifically, we discuss evidence from both human and animal studies investigating the effects of various types and amounts of food and the food environment in obese individuals. Neurobiological studies have shown that the hedonic brain pathways activated by palatable food overlap considerably with those activated by drugs of abuse and suffer significant deficits after chronic exposure to high-energy diets. Furthermore, food as a stimulus can induce the sensitization, compulsion and relapse patterns observed in individuals who are addicted to illicit drugs. The current food environment encourages these addictive-like behaviors where increased exposure through advertisements, proximity and increased portion sizes are routine. Taking lessons from the tobacco experience, it is clear that reclassifying common dietary obesity as an addictive disorder would necessitate policy changes (e.g., regulatory efforts, economic strategies, and educational approaches). These policies could be instrumental in addressing the obesity epidemic, by encouraging the food industry and the political leadership to collaborate with the scientific and medical community in establishing new and more effective therapeutic approaches. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Consequences of elevating plasma testosterone in females of a socially monogamous songbird: evidence of constraints on male evolution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clotfelter, Ethan D; O'Neal, Dawn M; Gaudioso, Jacqueline M; Casto, Joseph M; Parker-Renga, Ian M; Snajdr, Eric A; Duffy, Deborah L; Nolan, Val; Ketterson, Ellen D

    2004-08-01

    To explore whether selection for testosterone-mediated traits in males might be constrained by costs of higher testosterone to females, we examined the effects of experimental elevation of plasma testosterone on physiological, reproductive, and behavioral parameters in a female songbird, the dark-eyed junco (Junco hyemalis). We used subcutaneous implants to elevate testosterone (T) in captive and free-living female juncos. In captive birds, we measured the effects of high T on body mass, feather molt, and brood patch formation. In the field, we monitored its effects on the timing of egg laying, clutch size, egg size, egg steroid levels, incubation, and nest-defense behavior. Females implanted with testosterone (T-females) had significantly higher circulating levels of testosterone than did control females (C-females). Captive T-females had lower body mass, were less likely to develop brood patches, and delayed feather molt relative to C-females. Among free-living females, the interval between nest completion and appearance of the first egg was longer for T-females than for C-females and egg yolk concentrations of testosterone were higher, but there were no significant differences in estradiol levels, clutch size, or egg size. Incubation and nest defense behavior were also similar between T- and C-females. Our results suggest that selection on males for higher testosterone might initially lead to a correlated response in females producing changes in body mass and feather molt, both of which could be detrimental. Other possible female responses would be delayed onset of reproduction, which might reduce reproductive success, and higher yolk testosterone, which might have either positive or negative effects on offspring development. We found no reason to expect reduced parental behavior by females as a negative fitness consequence of selection for higher testosterone in males.

  5. Did send-down experience benefit youth? A reevaluation of the social consequences of forced urban-rural migration during China's Cultural Revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yu; Jiang, Yang; Greenman, Emily

    2008-06-01

    During China's Cultural Revolution, a large proportion of urban youth were forced to go to the countryside as a result of the state's "send-down" policy. Past research has been ambivalent about the long-term social consequences for the Chinese youth who experienced send-down. Some scholars have suggested that the send-down experience may have yielded beneficial effects. To test this claim, we analyze data from the Survey of Family Life in Urban China, which we conducted in three large cities in 1999. Questions available in this data set allow us to ascertain the send-down experience of both the respondent and a sibling and educational attainment at the times of send-down and return. Our analyses of the new data show that the send-down experience does not seem to have benefited the affected Chinese youth. Differences in social outcomes between those who experienced send-down and those who did not are either non-existent or spurious due to other social processes.

  6. Racial and Social Class Differences in How Parents Respond to Inadequate Achievement: Consequences for Children's Future Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Keith; Harris, Angel L

    2013-12-01

    Despite numerous studies on parental involvement in children's academic schooling, there is a dearth of knowledge on how parents respond specifically to inadequate academic performance. This study examines whether 1) racial differences exist in parenting philosophy for addressing inadequate achievement, 2) social class has implications for parenting philosophy, and 3) parents' philosophies are consequential for children's academic achievement. Using data from the Child Development Supplement (N=1041) to the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, we sort parents into two categories-those whose parenting repertoires for addressing poor achievement include punitive responses and those whose repertoires do not. We then determine whether racial differences exist between these categories and how various responses within the aforementioned categories are related to students' academic achievement. The findings show that white and black parents have markedly different philosophies on how to respond to inadequate performance, and these differences appear to impact children's achievement in dramatically different ways. Educators and policy makers should pay particular attention to how parents respond to inadequate achievement as imploring parents of inadequately performing students to be more involved without providing them with some guidance might exacerbate the problem.

  7. Integration of social dimension in an index oriented methodology for consequence analysis of natural hazards: application to the Upper Guil Catchment (Southern French Alps)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlier, Benoit; Puissant, Anne; Dujarric, Constance

    2017-04-01

    Vulnerability assessment together with hazard exposure is generally accepted as the two main steps of risk analysis. If quantitative methods to estimate hazard exposure are now well-defined, it is not the case regarding vulnerability assessment. Vulnerability is a complex concept involving a variety of disciplines from physical and socio-economic sciences (i.e. engineering, economics, social and health sciences etc.). Currently, two opposite trends exist: the 'physical' approach in which vulnerability is analysed as potential impacts (i.e. structural and functional) on the elements at risk (building, network, land cover); and the 'social' approach in which vulnerability is a combination of socio-economic variables determining people's ability to anticipate before a catastrophic event, to react during it, and to recover after it. For a complete analysis of vulnerability it is essential to combine these two approaches but in reality few works exists. The objective of this research is to improve the Potential Damage Index (PDI), detailed in Puissant el al. (2013), originally developed to assess physical injury, structural and functional consequences of landslide hazard, by including socio-economic characteristics of population information. Data from the French Census data (INSEE, 2012) and a survey on risk perception (100 questionnaires obtained between 2014 and 2015/16) were used to propose an overall index taking into account the three main phases of risk management: preparedness, crisis management and recovery. This new index called Global Potential Damage Index (GPDI) is applied on the Upper Guil Catchment to assess potential torrential floods hazard in the context of the French funded project SAMCO (Society Adaptation for coping with Mountain risks in a global change Context). Results of the PDI are compared with the GPDI and show significant differences. GPDI scores mapping are lower than PDI scores indicating that resilient population may qualify results

  8. Estimating the economic and social consequences for patients diagnosed with human African trypanosomiasis in Muchinga, Lusaka and Eastern Provinces of Zambia (2004-2014).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwiinde, Allan Mayaba; Simuunza, Martin; Namangala, Boniface; Chama-Chiliba, Chitalu Miriam; Machila, Noreen; Anderson, Neil; Shaw, Alexandra; Welburn, Susan C

    2017-10-10

    Acute human African trypanosomiasis (rHAT) caused by Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense is associated with high mortality and is fatal if left untreated. Only a few studies have examined the psychological, social and economic impacts of rHAT. In this study, mixed qualitative and quantitative research methods were used to evaluate the socio-economic impacts of rHAT in Mambwe, Rufunsa, Mpika and Chama Districts of Zambia. Individuals diagnosed with rHAT from 2004 to 2014 were traced using hospital records and discussions with communities. Either they, or their families, were interviewed using a structured questionnaire and focus group discussions were conducted with affected communities. The burden of the disease was investigated using disability adjusted life years (DALYs), with and without discounting and age-weighting. The impact of long-term disabilities on the rHAT burden was also investigated. Sixty four cases were identified in the study. The majority were identified in second stage, and the mortality rate was high (12.5%). The total number of DALYs was 285 without discounting or age-weighting. When long-term disabilities were included this estimate increased by 50% to 462. The proportion of years lived with disability (YLD) increased from 6.4% to 37% of the undiscounted and un-age-weighted DALY total. When a more active surveillance method was applied in 2013-2014 the cases identified increased dramatically, suggesting a high level of under-reporting. Similarly, the proportion of females increased substantially, indicating that passive surveillance may be especially failing this group. An average of 4.9 months of productive time was lost per patient as a consequence of infection. The health consequences included pain, amnesia and physical disability. The social consequences included stigma, dropping out of education, loss of friends and self-esteem. Results obtained from focus group discussions revealed misconceptions among community members which could be

  9. Unintended Learning in Primary School Practical Science Lessons from Polanyi's Perspective of Intellectual Passion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jisun; Song, Jinwoong; Abrahams, Ian

    2016-01-01

    This study explored, from the perspective of intellectual passion developed by Michael Polanyi, the unintended learning that occurred in primary practical science lessons. We use the term "unintended" learning to distinguish it from "intended" learning that appears in teachers' learning objectives. Data were collected using…

  10. Twelve-year retrospective review of unintended pregnancies after Essure sterilization in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hitzerd, Emilie; Schreuder, Henk W R; Vleugels, Michel P H; Veersema, Sebastiaan

    2016-01-01

    Objective To identify factors contributing to the occurrence of unintended pregnancies after Essure sterilization in the Netherlands. Even though Essure is a permanent method of contraception, unintended pregnancies have been reported.  Design  Retrospective case series analysis. Setting Not

  11. Effects of emergence time and early social rearing environment on behaviour of Atlantic salmon: consequences for juvenile fitness and smolt migration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin H Larsen

    Full Text Available Consistent individual differences in behaviour have been well documented in a variety of animal taxa, but surprisingly little is known about the fitness and life-history consequences of such individual variation. In wild salmonids, the timing of fry emergence from gravel spawning nests has been suggested to be coupled with individual behavioural traits. Here, we further investigate the link between timing of spawning nest emergence and behaviour of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar, test effects of social rearing environment on behavioural traits in fish with different emergence times, and assess whether behavioural traits measured in the laboratory predict growth, survival, and migration status in the wild. Atlantic salmon fry were sorted with respect to emergence time from artificial spawning nest into three groups: early, intermediate, and late. These emergence groups were hatchery-reared separately or in co-culture for four months to test effects of social rearing environment on behavioural traits. Twenty fish from each of the six treatment groups were then subjected to three individual-based behavioural tests: basal locomotor activity, boldness, and escape response. Following behavioural characterization, the fish were released into a near-natural experimental stream. Results showed differences in escape behaviour between emergence groups in a net restraining test, but the social rearing environment did not affect individual behavioural expression. Emergence time and social environment had no significant effects on survival, growth, and migration status in the stream, although migration propensity was 1.4 to 1.9 times higher for early emerging individuals that were reared separately. In addition, despite individuals showing considerable variation in behaviour across treatment groups, this was not translated into differences in growth, survival, and migration status. Hence, our study adds to the view that fitness (i.e., growth and survival and

  12. Effects of emergence time and early social rearing environment on behaviour of Atlantic salmon: consequences for juvenile fitness and smolt migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Martin H; Johnsson, Jörgen I; Winberg, Svante; Wilson, Alexander D M; Hammenstig, David; Thörnqvist, Per-Ove; Midwood, Jonathan D; Aarestrup, Kim; Höglund, Erik

    2015-01-01

    Consistent individual differences in behaviour have been well documented in a variety of animal taxa, but surprisingly little is known about the fitness and life-history consequences of such individual variation. In wild salmonids, the timing of fry emergence from gravel spawning nests has been suggested to be coupled with individual behavioural traits. Here, we further investigate the link between timing of spawning nest emergence and behaviour of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), test effects of social rearing environment on behavioural traits in fish with different emergence times, and assess whether behavioural traits measured in the laboratory predict growth, survival, and migration status in the wild. Atlantic salmon fry were sorted with respect to emergence time from artificial spawning nest into three groups: early, intermediate, and late. These emergence groups were hatchery-reared separately or in co-culture for four months to test effects of social rearing environment on behavioural traits. Twenty fish from each of the six treatment groups were then subjected to three individual-based behavioural tests: basal locomotor activity, boldness, and escape response. Following behavioural characterization, the fish were released into a near-natural experimental stream. Results showed differences in escape behaviour between emergence groups in a net restraining test, but the social rearing environment did not affect individual behavioural expression. Emergence time and social environment had no significant effects on survival, growth, and migration status in the stream, although migration propensity was 1.4 to 1.9 times higher for early emerging individuals that were reared separately. In addition, despite individuals showing considerable variation in behaviour across treatment groups, this was not translated into differences in growth, survival, and migration status. Hence, our study adds to the view that fitness (i.e., growth and survival) and life

  13. ASSESSMENT OF SOCIAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL CONSEQUENCES OF RADIATION DANGER EXPERIENCE AMONG DIFFERENT AGE GROUPS OF THE POPULATION FROM CONTAMINATED AREAS OF RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Marchenko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of evaluation of social-psychological consequences of radiation danger experience among different age groups of the population from contaminated areas of Russia (Oryol, Kaluga, Bryansk, Tula areas among whom the unfavorable emotional and personal changes were registered due to subjective features of perception of radiation threat have been represented (“risk” group. Experimental sample of the research consisted of 1 544 people from Russia. One of the main results of this research is establishment of the fact that adverse emotional and personal changes in connection with subjective features of perception of radiation threat were revealed for 53,9% of respondents of advanced age and more than 20% of respondents of middle and young age from contaminated areas of Russia. Among the respondents from contaminated areas of Belarus, about a third surveyed from each age group get to “risk” group.

  14. Research activities about the radiological consequences of the Chernobyl NPS accident and social activities to assist the sufferers by the accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imanaka, T.

    1998-03-01

    The 12th anniversary is coming soon of the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power station in the former USSR on April 26, 1986. Many issues are, however, still unresolved about the radiological impacts on the environment and people due to the Chernobyl accident. This report contains the results of an international collaborative project about the radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident, carried out from November 1995 to October 1997 under the research grant of the Toyota foundation. Collaborative works were promoted along with the following 5 sub-themes: 1) General description of research activities in Russia, Belarus and Ukraine concerning the radiological consequences of the accident. 2) Investigation of the current situation of epidemiological studies about Chernobyl in each affected country. 3) Investigation of acute radiation syndrome among inhabitants evacuated soon after the accident from the 30 km zone around the Chernobyl NPS. 4) Overview of social activities to assist the sufferers by the accident in each affected country. 5) Preparation of special reports of interesting studies being carried out in each affected country. The 27 papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  15. Respecting Intent and Dispelling Stereotypes by Reducing Unintended Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnsen, Dawn

    2015-01-01

    In "Expectant Fathers, Abortion, and Embryos," Dara Purvis evaluates the concepts of intent and gender stereotypes in connection with "expectational fathers" in the related contexts of abortion and assisted reproductive technologies. This comment seeks to build upon Purvis's own analysis to obviate her concern that abortion discourse promotes harmful stereotypes of men as disinterested fathers. To the contrary, for men — no less than for women — a desire to avoid or terminate pregnancy is fully consistent with loving and shared parenthood of existing or future children. The same individuals who choose to become parents at other times in their long reproductive lives will use contraception and have abortions. In fact, most women who have abortions already have children. Policies that empower men and women to avoid unintended pregnancy are the sensible, win-win, front-line approach to avoid disputes over abortion. © 2015 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  16. The incidence of abortion and unintended pregnancy in India, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Susheela; Shekhar, Chander; Acharya, Rajib; Moore, Ann M; Stillman, Melissa; Pradhan, Manas R; Frost, Jennifer J; Sahoo, Harihar; Alagarajan, Manoj; Hussain, Rubina; Sundaram, Aparna; Vlassoff, Michael; Kalyanwala, Shveta; Browne, Alyssa

    2018-01-01

    Summary Background Reliable information on the incidence of induced abortion in India is lacking. Official statistics and national surveys provide incomplete coverage. Since the early 2000s, medication abortion has become increasingly available, improving the way women obtain abortions. The aim of this study was to estimate the national incidence of abortion and unintended pregnancy for 2015. Methods National abortion incidence was estimated through three separate components: abortions (medication and surgical) in facilities (including private sector, public sector, and non-governmental organisations [NGOs]); medication abortions outside facilities; and abortions outside of facilities and with methods other than medication abortion. Facility-based abortions were estimated from the 2015 Health Facilities Survey of 4001 public and private health facilities in six Indian states (Assam, Bihar, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, and Uttar Pradesh) and from NGO clinic data. National medication abortion drug sales and distribution data were obtained from IMS Health and six principal NGOs (DKT International, Marie Stopes International, Population Services International, World Health Partners, Parivar Seva Santha, and Janani). We estimated the total number of abortions that are not medication abortions and are not obtained in a health facility setting through an indirect technique based on findings from community-based study findings in two states in 2009, with adjustments to account for the rapid increase in use of medication abortion since 2009. The total number of women of reproductive age and livebirth data were obtained from UN population data, and the proportion of births from unplanned pregnancies and data on contraceptive use and need were obtained from the 2015–16 National Family Health Survey-4. Findings We estimate that 15·6 million abortions (14·1 million–17·3 million) occurred in India in 2015. The abortion rate was 47·0 abortions (42·2–52·1) per

  17. An examination of the consequences in high consequence operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spray, S.D.; Cooper, J.A.

    1996-06-01

    Traditional definitions of risk partition concern into the probability of occurrence and the consequence of the event. Most safety analyses focus on probabilistic assessment of an occurrence and the amount of some measurable result of the event, but the real meaning of the ``consequence`` partition is usually afforded less attention. In particular, acceptable social consequence (consequence accepted by the public) frequently differs significantly from the metrics commonly proposed by risk analysts. This paper addresses some of the important system development issues associated with consequences, focusing on ``high consequence operations safety.``

  18. Socioeconomic Status As a Risk Factor for Unintended Pregnancy in the Contraceptive CHOICE Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iseyemi, Abigail; Zhao, Qiuhong; McNicholas, Colleen; Peipert, Jeffrey F

    2017-09-01

    To evaluate the association of low socioeconomic status as an independent risk factor for unintended pregnancy. We performed a secondary analysis of data from the Contraceptive CHOICE project. Between 2007 and 2011, 9,256 participants were recruited and followed for up to 3 years. The primary outcome of interest was unintended pregnancy; the primary exposure variable was low socioeconomic status, defined as self-report of either receiving public assistance or having difficulty paying for basic necessities. Four contraceptive groups were evaluated: 1) long-acting reversible contraceptive method (hormonal or copper intrauterine device or subdermal implant); 2) depot medroxyprogesterone acetate injection; 3) oral contraceptive pills, a transdermal patch, or a vaginal ring; or 4) other or no method. Confounders were adjusted for in the multivariable Cox proportional hazard model to estimate the effect of socioeconomic status on risk of unintended pregnancy. Participants with low socioeconomic status experienced 515 unintended pregnancies during 14,001 women-years of follow-up (3.68/100 women-years; 95% CI 3.37-4.01) compared with 200 unintended pregnancies during 10,296 women-years (1.94/100 women-years; 95% CI 1.68-2.23) among participants without low socioeconomic status. Women with low socioeconomic status were more likely to have an unintended pregnancy (unadjusted hazard ratio [HR] 1.8, 95% CI 1.5-2.2). After adjusting for age, education level, insurance status, and history of unintended pregnancy, low socioeconomic status was associated with an increased risk of unintended pregnancy (adjusted HR 1.4, 95% CI 1.1-1.7). Despite the removal of cost barriers, low socioeconomic status is associated with a higher incidence of unintended pregnancy.

  19. [The end of discrimination in social security for the elderly? Some remarks on the consequences of the paradigm shift in a life course perspective on gender].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fachinger, Uwe

    2008-10-01

    woman's life are important factors to combat the disadvantages of private funded pension systems of which mainly women are affected in building up rights to future benefits. The analysis shows that the paradigm shift primarily brings disadvantages to women. They disproportionally depend on statutory pension system benefits, and therefore also on compensating benefits of the negative consequences of private and occupational pension systems. For the future an increase in poverty of older people - and especially women - can be seen to emerge because of pension privatisation and the reduction of the pension level in the German social security system.

  20. Consequence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodard, K.

    1985-01-01

    The objectives of this paper are to: Provide a realistic assessment of consequences; Account for plant and site-specific characteristics; Adjust accident release characteristics to account for results of plant-containment analysis; Produce conditional risk curves for each of five health effects; and Estimate uncertainties

  1. Couple perspectives on unintended pregnancy in an area with high HIV prevalence: A qualitative analysis in Rakai, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grilo, Stephanie A; Catallozzi, Marina; Heck, Craig J; Mathur, Sanyukta; Nakyanjo, Neema; Santelli, John S

    2018-03-14

    Understanding how couples perceive a recent unintended pregnancy in the context of HIV infection and high levels of gender inequality may provide insights for prevention of undesired pregnancy. We used data from 24 in-depth interviews with 8 HIV-serodiscordant and 4 seroconcordant couples living in rural Uganda and interviewed separately; between 15 and 49 years and one or both identified the pregnancy as unintended. A dyadic analysis was performed to understand each partner's perspectives on experiences of a specific pregnancy. We used the social-ecological model to guide the analysis. Issues of agency were commonly invoked in describing pregnancy. Women often cited factors that demonstrated a lack of control when making decisions about continuing the pregnancy. Men often expressed a lack of agency or control over preventing their female partner from becoming pregnant. There was much disagreement between partners about intentions regarding the specific pregnancy. Likewise, lack of communication about child spacing and pregnancy intentions was common among couples. HIV serostatus played a role in some discussions of pregnancy intention among serodiscordant couples. This qualitative analysis supports prior quantitative research on the complexity of pregnancy intentions. A lack of agency at the individual level was compounded by a lack of communication between partners.

  2. Intended and Unintended Effects of State-Mandated High School Science and Mathematics Course Graduation Requirements on Educational Attainment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plunk, Andrew D; Tate, William F; Bierut, Laura J; Grucza, Richard A

    2014-06-01

    Mathematics and science course graduation requirement (CGR) increases in the 1980s and 1990s might have had both intended and unintended consequences. Using logistic regression with Census and American Community Survey (ACS) data ( n = 2,892,444), we modeled CGR exposure on (a) high school dropout, (b) beginning college, and (c) obtaining any college degree. Possible between-groups differences were also assessed. We found that higher CGRs were associated with higher odds to drop out of high school, but results for the college-level outcomes varied by group. Some were less likely to enroll, whereas others who began college were more likely to obtain a degree. Increased high school dropout was consistent across the population, but some potential benefit was also observed, primarily for those reporting Hispanic ethnicity.

  3. Emotional Appeals in HIV Prevention Campaigns: Unintended Stigma Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thainiyom, Prawit; Elder, Katherine

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether HIV/AIDS public service announcements (PSAs) that use emotional appeals have unintended effects of creating stigmatizing attitudes in their viewers. We analyzed data for 240 respondents located in the United States who were recruited online. Respondents were randomly assigned to one of 3 conditions, where they viewed a PSA with hope appeals, fear appeals, or non-emotional appeals. Respondents then answered a series of questions about their attitudes about HIV/AIDS; testing behavior; engagement with HIV/AIDS-related people, organizations, and issues; and HIV/AIDS knowledge. We then performed MANOVA analyses and Pearson correlations. There were no significant differences in stigmatizing attitudes and behavior across the 3 conditions. However, once the data were split by sex, men exposed to the hope condition had significantly higher stigmatizing attitudes towards people living with HIV/AIDS than men in the other 2 conditions. This result was unexpected and suggests that further research needs to be conducted with a more robust sample size to account for any moderating influences that might explain why a hopeful message that communicates togetherness would have a negative attitudinal impact on male viewers.

  4. How physicians professional socialisation and social technologies may affect colleagues in substance use disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Johanne Korsdal

    2018-01-01

    . The article draws attention to the role of physician work culture in the development and management of physicians own substance use and SUD. It reports results from my Danish study analysing how professional socialisation and social technologies affect physicians disclosure of their own SUD and their help...... seeking at work. The work-related aspects that in some cases affect the development of substance use and SUD include hierarchical pressure, emotional strain from critical patient cases and work-related competition. In the analysis a disciplinary paradox concerning the social technologies intended...... to normalise and standardise physicians’ conduct and ensure the quality of treatment. Ironically, the social technologies seemed to have an unintended consequence: to conserve and maintain SUD rather than facilitating treatment and recovery. For instance, I show how the fear of social sanctions in the form...

  5. A CFD-Model for prediction of unintended porosities in metal matrix composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Shizhao; Spangenberg, Jon; Hattel, Jesper Henri

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a numerical method that simulates the flow through the porous corridors of the preform, which in theory enables the prediction of unintended porosities at the end of the process....

  6. Safety of genetically engineered foods: approaches to assessing unintended health effects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Committee on Identifying and Assessing Unintended Effects of Genetically Engineered Foods on Human Health, National Research Council

    2004-01-01

    .... It identifies and recommends several pre- and post-market approaches to guide the assessment of unintended compositional changes that could result from genetically modified foods and research avenues...

  7. Determinants of accepting unintended pregnancies by Ukrainian women: Results of a 2007 survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barska, Julia

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND. In Ukraine, much public attention is given to adolescent girls and young women as a main ‘risk group’ for terminating an unplanned pregnancy in case it occurs. The objective of the study was to clarify whether this concern is substantiated.METHODS. Data from a nationally representative Demographic and Health Survey on women of reproductive age were used to examine the relationship of pregnancy order number, age when a woman became pregnant and her marital status to accepting unintended pregnancy. A subsample of 517 women having been pregnant within five years preceding the interview were divided into non-acceptors (unintended pregnancy was terminated and acceptors (pregnancy ended with live birth though was unintended at the time of conception. Independent variables included pregnancy- and childbearing-related, socio-demographic, and behavioral characteristics. Odds ratios were calculated using bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis. RESULTS. Controlling for all other factors, being 23 years and younger compared to 24-37 years old was positively associated with accepting an unintended pregnancy. With every next pregnancy, odds of accepting an unintended pregnancy decreased by 0.6. Being married compared to being unmarried was negatively associated with accepting an unintended pregnancy in bivariate analysis, which was attenuated in multivariate analysis because of predominance of the first pregnancies among never married women. Furthermore, women from all other regions of Ukraine compared to women from Western regions were less likely to accept an unintended pregnancy, and so did women of Christian Orthodox and no religion compared to women of other religions. CONCLUSIONS. Attention of public health programs and policies should be paid to the women with children, whose needs in reliable contraceptive methods are not met. Post-delivery contraceptive consultations may be a great tool in overcoming this gap. In

  8. Unintended Effects in Genetically Modified Food/Feed Safety: A Way Forward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Antonio; Paoletti, Claudia

    2018-04-20

    Identifying and assessing unintended effects in genetically modified food and feed are considered paramount by the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO), World Health Organization (WHO), and Codex Alimentarius, despite heated debate. This paper addresses outstanding needs: building consensus on the history-of-safe-use concept, harmonizing criteria to select appropriate conventional counterparts, and improving endpoint selection to identify unintended effects. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Human consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kropper, U.; Kharuehll, M.

    1988-01-01

    READY FOOD RESERVES IN A NUMBER OF COUNTRIES ARE CONSIDERED AND VULNERABILITY OF FOOD SUPPLY SYSTEM UNDER DECREASED AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTIVITY AND STOPPED FOOD-STUFF IMPORT IN CASE OF NUCLEAR WAR IS DISCUSSED. IT IS SHOWN THAT AFTER NUCLEAR WAR MOST OF PEOPLE WILL DIE DUE TO FOOD SHORTAGE CAUSED BY GLOBAL DISTURBANCES OF SOCIAL AND AGRICULTURAL SYSTEMS

  10. Constrained consequence

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Britz, K

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available their basic properties and relationship. In Section 3 we present a modal instance of these constructions which also illustrates with an example how to reason abductively with constrained entailment in a causal or action oriented context. In Section 4 we... of models with the former approach, whereas in Section 3.3 we give an example illustrating ways in which C can be de ned with both. Here we employ the following versions of local consequence: De nition 3.4. Given a model M = hW;R;Vi and formulas...

  11. Physical, mental and social consequences in civilians who have experienced war-related sexual violence: a systematic review (1981-2014).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ba, I; Bhopal, R S

    2017-01-01

    To identify the health outcomes of sexual violence on civilians in conflict zones between 1981 and 2014. Systematic review. For the purpose of this study, we defined sexual violence as sexual torture including, individual rape, gang rape, and sexual slavery. All types of conflicts were included (intrastate, interstate, and internationalized intrastate). Quantitative and mixed-method studies, reporting any physical, mental, and social consequences, were retrieved from Medline, Embase, Global Health, Global Health Library, WHOLIS, Popline, and Web of Sciences (n = 3075) and from checking reference lists and personal communications (n = 359). Data were analyzed using Microsoft Excel and MetaXL. Given inherent variation, the means derived from combining studies were misleading; thus, we focused on the range of values. The 20 studies were from six countries, five in Africa (18 studies), and especially in Democratic Republic of Congo (12 studies). The number of subjects varied from 63 to 20,517, with 17 studies including more than 100 subjects. Eight studies included males. Gang rape, rape, and abduction were the most commonly reported types of sexual violence. Sixteen studies provided data on physical outcomes of which the most common were pregnancy (range 3.4-46.3%), traumatic genital injuries/tears (range 2.1-28.7%), rectal and vaginal fistulae (range 9.0-40.7%), sexual problems/dysfunction (range 20.1-56.7%), and sexually transmitted diseases (range 4.6-83.6%). Mental health outcomes were reported in 14 studies, the most frequent being post-traumatic stress disorder (range 3.1-75.9%), anxiety (range 6.9-75%), and depression (range 8.8-76.5%). Eleven studies provided social outcomes, the most common being rejection by family and/or community (range of 3.5-28.5%) and spousal abandonment (range 6.1-64.7%). Wartime sexual violence is highly traumatic, causing multiple, long-term negative outcomes. The number and quality of studies published does not match the

  12. Direct costs of unintended pregnancy in the Russian federation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowin, Julia; Jarrett, James; Dimova, Maria; Ignateva, Victoria; Omelyanovsky, Vitaly; Filonenko, Anna

    2015-02-01

    In 2010, almost every third pregnancy in Russia was terminated, indicating that unintended pregnancy (UP) is a public health problem. The aim of this study was to estimate the direct cost of UP to the healthcare system in Russia and the proportion attributable to using unreliable contraception. A cost model was built, adopting a generic payer perspective with a 1-year time horizon. The analysis cohort was defined as women of childbearing age between 18 and 44 years actively seeking to avoid pregnancy. Model inputs were derived from published sources or government statistics with a 2012 cost base. To estimate the number of UPs attributable to unreliable methods, the model combined annual typical use failure rates and age-adjusted utilization for each contraceptive method. Published survey data was used to adjust the total cost of UP by the number of UPs that were mistimed rather than unwanted. Scenario analysis considered alternate allocation of methods to the reliable and unreliable categories and estimate of the burden of UP in the target sub-group of women aged 18-29 years. The model estimated 1,646,799 UPs in the analysis cohort (women aged 18-44 years) with an associated annual cost of US$783 million. The model estimated 1,019,371 UPs in the target group of 18-29 years, of which 88 % were attributable to unreliable contraception. The total cost of UPs in the target group was estimated at approximately US$498 million, of which US$441 million could be considered attributable to the use of unreliable methods. The cost of UP attributable to use of unreliable contraception in Russia is substantial. Policies encouraging use of reliable contraceptive methods could reduce the burden of UP.

  13. A Conceptual Framework for Understanding Unintended Prolonged Opioid Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooten, W Michael; Brummett, Chad M; Sullivan, Mark D; Goesling, Jenna; Tilburt, Jon C; Merlin, Jessica S; St Sauver, Jennifer L; Wasan, Ajay D; Clauw, Daniel J; Warner, David O

    2017-12-01

    An urgent need exists to better understand the transition from short-term opioid use to unintended prolonged opioid use (UPOU). The purpose of this work is to propose a conceptual framework for understanding UPOU that posits the influence of 3 principal domains that include the characteristics of (1) individual patients, (2) the practice environment, and (3) opioid prescribers. Although no standardized method exists for developing a conceptual framework, the process often involves identifying corroborative evidence, leveraging expert opinion to identify factors for inclusion in the framework, and developing a graphic depiction of the relationships between the various factors and the clinical problem of interest. Key patient characteristics potentially associated with UPOU include (1) medical and mental health conditions; (2) pain etiology; (3) individual affective, behavioral, and neurophysiologic reactions to pain and opioids; and (4) sociodemographic factors. Also, UPOU could be influenced by structural and health care policy factors: (1) the practice environment, including the roles of prescribing clinicians, adoption of relevant practice guidelines, and clinician incentives or disincentives, and (2) the regulatory environment. Finally, characteristics inherent to clinicians that could influence prescribing practices include (1) training in pain management and opioid use; (2) personal attitudes, knowledge, and beliefs regarding the risks and benefits of opioids; and (3) professionalism. As the gatekeeper to opioid access, the behavior of prescribing clinicians directly mediates UPOU, with the 3 domains interacting to determine this behavior. This proposed conceptual framework could guide future research on the topic and allow plausible hypothesis-based interventions to reduce UPOU. Copyright © 2017 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. La privatización de YPF en Comodoro Rivadavia: Algunas características y consecuencias sociales y laborales The YPF privatization in Comodoro Rivadavia: Some social and laboral characteristics and consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Torres

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo se plantea como objetivo el análisis del proceso de privatización de la empresa YPF en la cuenca del golfo San Jorge, específicamente en el área de Comodoro Rivadavia, provincia de Chubut. Es de mi interés este tema en función de comprender las consecuencias que en materia social trajo la transformación del rol articulador de la empresa estatal en la zona, en términos del mercado laboral, pero también atendiendo a los aspectos culturales, sociales y políticos que también se vieron alterados. En una primera parte presentaré una breve descripción y análisis de las características que asumió la privatización de la empresa petrolera y de las peculiares condiciones de producción que poseía en la región patagónica. Luego, me detendré en las diferentes estrategias abiertas a partir de la venta de la empresa referidas a las propuestas de reinserción o reconfiguración de la estructura del mercado de trabajo en la zona y sus resultados. Por último, me interesa introducir el tema de las consecuencias "indirectas" que supuso la reconfiguración de la principal empresa económica del lugar que supone una redefinición de las variables principales sobre las que se asentaba la vida social, política, cultural y económica del área estudiada. Especialmente, es mi interés analizar si puede observarse una alteración respecto al concepto de trabajo que sigue informando la vida comunitaria de la zona y los desplazamientos que en términos territoriales pueden observarse en la ciudad de Comodoro y su área de influencia, a través del estudio de un movimiento de desocupados que tiene desarrollo en la zona, la Coordinadora de Trabajadores Desocupados Aníbal Verón.The objective of this article is to analyze the process of privatization of the company YPF in the San Jorge Gulf, more specifically in the Comodoro Rivadavia area, Province of Chubut. I am interested in studying the social consequences of this privatization

  15. Unintended Learning in Primary School Practical Science Lessons from Polanyi's Perspective of Intellectual Passion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jisun; Song, Jinwoong; Abrahams, Ian

    2016-03-01

    This study explored, from the perspective of intellectual passion developed by Michael Polanyi, the unintended learning that occurred in primary practical science lessons. We use the term `unintended' learning to distinguish it from `intended' learning that appears in teachers' learning objectives. Data were collected using video and audio recordings of a sample of twenty-four whole class practical science lessons, taught by five teachers, in Korean primary schools with 10- to 12-year-old students. In addition, video and audio recordings were made for each small group of students working together in order to capture their activities and intra-group discourse. Pre-lesson interviews with the teachers were undertaken and audio-recorded to ascertain their intended learning objectives. Selected key vignettes, including unintended learning, were analysed from the perspective of intellectual passion developed by Polanyi. What we found in this study is that unintended learning could occur when students got interested in something in the first place and could maintain their interest. In addition, students could get conceptual knowledge when they tried to connect their experience to their related prior knowledge. It was also found that the processes of intended learning and of unintended learning were different. Intended learning was characterized by having been planned by the teacher who then sought to generate students' interest in it. In contrast, unintended learning originated from students' spontaneous interest and curiosity as a result of unplanned opportunities. Whilst teachers' persuasive passion comes first in the process of intended learning, students' heuristic passion comes first in the process of unintended learning. Based on these findings, we argue that teachers need to be more aware that unintended learning, on the part of individual students, can occur during their lesson and to be able to better use this opportunity so that this unintended learning can be

  16. Choice & Consequence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Azam

    to support hypothesis generation, hypothesis testing, and decision making. In addition to sensors in buildings, infrastructure, or the environment, we also propose the instrumentation of user interfaces to help measure performance in decision making applications. We show the benefits of applying principles...... between cause and effect in complex systems complicates decision making. To address this issue, we examine the central role that data-driven decision making could play in critical domains such as sustainability or medical treatment. We developed systems for exploratory data analysis and data visualization...... of data analysis and instructional interface design, to both simulation systems and decision support interfaces. We hope that projects such as these will help people to understand the link between their choices and the consequences of their decisions....

  17. Disintegration of the city as a consequence of social degradation: Possibilities of revitalization and consolidation: Example of the town of Zemun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalicki Uroš

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this work is to identify, classify and research the problems which determine the existence of Zemun from the urbanistic point of view, by analyzing the facts in historic context of its development which were relevant for producing the present situation. The method which could provide the most useful results was the analysis of potentials and limitations of the Zemun’s urban area, considering the wide range of parameters – from geophysical to social and cultural ones. Another fact constantly kept in mind, was the pathological frame surrounding all aspects of the social life in Serbia of the 1990s, so it was possible to clearly distinguish the parameters typical for Zemun as the urban area from the ones which result from the recent social circumstances, extremely unfavourable for sustaining urbanity at all. In potentials analysis, the main nodal points of possible future development of Zemun were identified. They are based on the historical integrity of the town of Zemun, as well as on the quality of the geophysical conditions. Stress was laid on the fact that the structure of all of these parameters can rarely be seen in such a suitable and balanced composition as in the case of Zemun. The limitations analysis showed that, in terms of consequences of disintegration processes in Serbian society, the extent of devastation of the urban tissue of Zemun, which can be noticed in many aspects, is exceeding the simple sum of particular problems. It is also obvious that their basic common feature is association to violation and abuse, as well as to arbitrary, incomplete and/or tendentious interpretation of the legal regulations concerning building and managing urban space. Apart from pointing out the evident lack of understanding of the architectural economical and legal background, which are all essential for the functioning of a city, a more detailed view of the mentioned limitations gives the idea about deeper and long-term reasons

  18. Analysis of jet flames and unignited jets from unintended releases of hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houf, W.G.; Evans, G.H.; Schefer, R.W. [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA 94551-0969 (United States)

    2009-07-15

    A combined experimental and modeling program is being carried out at Sandia National Laboratories to characterize and predict the behavior of unintended hydrogen releases. In the case where the hydrogen leak remains unignited, knowledge of the concentration field and flammability envelope is an issue of importance in determining consequence distances for the safe use of hydrogen. In the case where a high-pressure leak of hydrogen is ignited, a classic turbulent jet flame forms. Knowledge of the flame length and thermal radiation heat flux distribution is important to safety. Depending on the effective diameter of the leak and the tank source pressure, free jet flames can be extensive in length and pose significant radiation and impingement hazard, resulting in consequence distances that are unacceptably large. One possible mitigation strategy to potentially reduce the exposure to jet flames is to incorporate barriers around hydrogen storage equipment. The reasoning is that walls will reduce the extent of unacceptable consequences due to jet releases resulting from accidents involving high-pressure equipment. While reducing the jet extent, the walls may introduce other hazards if not configured properly. The goal of this work is to provide guidance on configuration and placement of these walls to minimize overall hazards using a quantitative risk assessment approach. The program includes detailed CFD calculations of jet flames and unignited jets to predict how hydrogen leaks and jet flames interact with barriers, complemented by an experimental validation program that considers the interaction of jet flames and unignited jets with barriers. As a first step in this work on barrier release interaction the Sandia CFD model has been validated by computing the concentration decay of unignited turbulent free jets and comparing the results with the classic concentration decay laws for turbulent free jets taken from experimental data. Computations for turbulent hydrogen

  19. Unintended pregnancy in the amazon basin of Ecuador: a multilevel analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    San Sebastian Miguel

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been estimated that each year 80 million women in the world experience an unintended pregnancy. In Ecuador, recent research has revealed that 36.3% of total births are unintended; the research also details significant geographical, ethnic and socioeconomic variations. These studies focused on individual risk factors and were based on large national surveys where local samples, particularly from rural remote areas, were small. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of contextual and individual factors on unintended pregnancies in the Amazon Basin of Ecuador. Methods Women aged 15-44 were selected through an ongoing community-based cross-sectional survey conducted in the Orellana province between May and December 2006. Data were fitted using multilevel logistic regression, adjusting for both individual-level and community-level factors as fixed effects and allowing for heterogeneity between communities. Results The overall prevalence of unintended pregnancy was 62.7%. Two-thirds (73.7% of indigenous women reported having had at least one unintended pregnancy. Being young, single, and indigenous were significant risk factors for unintended pregnancy, alongside having low access to education and having more than two children. No relationship was found between socioeconomic status and the use of contraceptives. All the variation between communities was explained by individual-level factors. Conclusions This study showed the significance of individual factors in increasing the risk of unintended pregnancy, while the role of community factors was found to be negligible. In order for all women to be able to realize their right to reproductive autonomy, there needs to be a diverse range of solutions, with particular attention paid to cultural issues.

  20. Contraception and Unintended Pregnancy among Unmarried Female University Students: A Cross-sectional Study from China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongjing; Long, Lu; Cai, Hui; Wu, Yue; Xu, Jing; Shu, Chang; Wang, Peng; Li, Bo; Wei, Qinyu; Shang, Xuejun; Wang, Xueyi; Zhang, Meimei; Xiong, Chengliang; Yin, Ping

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to understand the level of contraceptive knowledge and attitudes towards contraception, and then to explore the association between the contraceptive behavior and unintended pregnancy in unmarried female university students in China. A cross-sectional study was conducted of university students in 49 universities across 7 cities in China from September 2007 to January 2008. We distributed 74,800 questionnaires, of which 69,842 were returned. In this paper, the data from 35,383 unmarried female university students were analyzed. The prevalence of sexual intercourse in unmarried female university students was 10.2%. The prevalence of unintended pregnancy in those sexually active female university students, was 31.8%. Among students with pregnancy, 53.5% experienced two or more pregnancies. 28.3% of the students with sexual intercourse reported that they always adopted contraceptive methods, and of those 82.9% chose to use male condoms. The majority (83.9%) of students with unintended pregnancy chose to terminate the latest pregnancy by surgical abortion or medical abortion. The contraceptive knowledge level of students who experienced unintended pregnancy was lower than those who did not. In China, about one third of unmarried female students with sexual intercourse experience unintended pregnancy. A variety of contraceptive methods are adopted, but the frequency of contraceptive use is low. Most of unmarried female students who experienced unintended pregnancy would choose to terminate the pregnancy with surgical or medical abortion. University students, especially the ones who have experienced unintended pregnancy, lack contraceptive and reproductive health knowledge. PMID:26091505

  1. Unmet need for contraception and its association with unintended pregnancy in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishwajit, Ghose; Tang, Shangfeng; Yaya, Sanni; Feng, Zhanchun

    2017-06-12

    Unmet need for contraception and unintended pregnancy are important public health concerns both in developing and developed countries. Previous researches have attempted to study the factors that influence unintended pregnancy. However, the association between unmet need for contraception and unwanted pregnancy is not studied adequately. The aim of the present study was to measure the prevalence of unmet need for contraception and unwanted pregnancy, and to explore the association between these two in a nationally representative sample in Bangladesh. Data for the present study were collected from Bangladesh demographic and health survey conducted in 2011. Participants were 7338 mothers ageing between 13 and 49 years selected from both rural and urban residencies. Planning status of last pregnancy was the main outcome variable and unmet need for contraception was the explanatory variable of primary interest. Cross tabulation, chi-square tests and logistic regression (Generalised estimating equations) methods were used for data analysis. Mean age of the sample population was 25.6 years (SD 6.4). Prevalence of unmet need for contraception was 13.5%, and about 30% of the women described their last pregnancy as unintended. In the adjusted model, the odds of unintended pregnancy were about 16 fold among women who reported facing unmet need for contraception compared to those who did not (95% CI = 11.63-23.79). National rates of unintended pregnancy and of unmet need for contraception remain considerably high and warrant increased policy attention. Findings suggests that programs targeting to reduce unmet need for contraception could contribute to a lower rate of unintended pregnancy in Bangladesh. More in-depth and qualitative studies on the underlying sociocultural causes of unmet need can help develop context specific solutions to unintended pregnancies.

  2. Intended and unintended effects of restrictions on the sale of cigarillos to youth: evidence from Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hai V; Grootendorst, Paul

    2015-07-01

    Youth consumption of cigarillos (ie, little cigars) has increased markedly in recent years. In July 2010, the Canadian government banned the sale of flavoured cigarillos and required unflavoured cigarillos to be sold in packs of at least 20 units. This paper assesses changes in young persons' use of cigarillos and regular cigars, which are potential substitutes, following the policy. To investigate of the change in cigar smoking following the policy, we constructed a segmented regression model that allowed the policy to change the height and the slope of the trend in the outcome variables. The model was estimated using data from the 2007-2011 Canadian Tobacco Use Monitoring Surveys. We obtained visual and regression-based evidence that use of cigarillos among youth declined following the policy. We also found a small, gradual increase in their use of regular cigars, possibly due to their compensatory switching from cigarillos to regular cigars. Overall, there was a net reduction in cigar use among youth after the intervention. The policy achieved its goal of reducing youth's consumption of cigarillos, but may have an unintended consequence of increasing their use of regular cigars. Policymakers should address the possibility that youth switch to regular cigars in response to restricted access to cigarillos. Possible ways of discouraging this substituting behaviour include extending the ban to cover all flavoured cigars and mandating a minimum pack size for all cigars, or raising taxes on flavoured cigars. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  3. Studying the Amount, Motivations and Perception of Consequences of Using the Social Networks Based on Quality of the Relationship between Attachment Styles with Perception of Parental Rejection and Control in Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    پریسا سادات سیدموسوی

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Due to the importance of user behavior in social networks especially in adolescents, the purpose of this study was investigating the amount, motivations and perception of consequences of using the social networks based on the quality of the relationship between attachment styles with perception of parental rejection and control in adole-scents. The population of the research included all of the 15-18 years old adolescents of Tehran from which 146 students (77 girls and 69 boys were chosen by cluster sampling and completed the Inventory of Parent & Peer Attachment, Parental Acceptance-Rejection and Control, and Social Network Using Checklist. The results showed that the quality of the relationship with parents has a key role in prediction of the amount and the way of using the social networks and in addition could affect the consequences of using these networks. In addition, increasing of the parental control unexpectedly could not decrease the using of social networks. According to the results, it seems that although most of the adolescents are using the social networks, the relationship with parents can be critical in predicting the motives of using these networks.

  4. "They are looking just the same": Antiretroviral treatment as social danger in rural Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaler, Amy; Angotti, Nicole; Ramaiya, Astha

    2016-10-01

    Research on the social impact of ART pivots on questions of individual adherence and community acceptability of treatment programmes. In this paper we examine unexpected and unintended consequences of the scale-up of treatment in rural Malawi, using a unique dataset of more than 150 observational journals from three sites, spanning 2010 to 2013, focusing on men's everyday conversations. Through thematic content analysis, we explore the emerging perception that the widespread availability of ART constitutes a form of social danger, as treatment makes it difficult to tell who does or does not have AIDS. This ambiguity introduced through ART is interpreted as putting individuals at risk, because it is no longer possible to tell who might be infected - indeed, the sick now look healthier and "plumper" than the well. This ambivalence over the social impact of ART co-exists with individual demand for and appreciation of the benefits of treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The consequences of "Culture's consequences"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Fabienne; Froholdt, Lisa Loloma

    2009-01-01

      In this article, it is claimed that research on cross-cultural crews is dominated by one specific understanding of the concept of culture, which is static, evenly distributed and context-independent. Such a conception of culture may bring some basic order while facing an unknown culture...... review of the theory of Geert Hofstede, the most renowned representative of this theoretical approach. The practical consequences of using such a concept of culture is then analysed by means of a critical review of an article applying Hofstede to cross-cultural crews in seafaring. Finally, alternative...... views on culture are presented. The aim of the article is, rather than to promote any specific theory, to reflect about diverse perspectives of cultural sense-making in cross-cultural encounters. Udgivelsesdato: Oktober...

  6. Unintended pregnancy among HIV-positive pregnant women in Enugu, southeast Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezugwu, Euzebus C; Iyoke, Chukwuemeka A; Nkwo, Peter O; Ezegwui, Hygenius U; Akabueze, Jude C; Agu, Polycap U

    2016-01-01

    To determine the prevalence and factors associated with unintended pregnancy among HIV-positive pregnant women in Enugu, southeast Nigeria. A questionnaire-based cross-sectional study was performed of HIV-positive pregnant women receiving prenatal care at two tertiary health institutions in Enugu between March 1 and August 31, 2012. The women were interviewed with a pretested questionnaire. Overall, 180 HIV-positive pregnant women were recruited, 67 (37.2%) of whom declared that their pregnancy was unintended. Overall, 174 (96.7%) patients were receiving antiretroviral therapy and 99 (55.0%) had future fertility intensions. Participants with regular partners (married or cohabiting) had a significantly higher rate of unintended pregnancy than those with unstable partners (40.3%, n=64/159 vs 14.3%, n=3/21 P=0.029). Age, parity, educational level, and current treatment with antiretroviral therapy did not significantly affect the prevalence of unintended pregnancy. A substantial number of HIV-positive pregnant women declared their pregnancies to be unintended. Modern contraceptives should be made readily available and accessible to HIV-positive women to help eliminate mother-to-child transmission of HIV and subsequent new pediatric HIV infections. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. [Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) as a consequence of the interaction between an individual genetic susceptibility, a traumatogenic event and a social context].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auxéméry, Y

    2012-10-01

    pharmacological and a psychotherapeutic treatment even if recommendations are rare. A posttraumatic stress disorder is never just a coincidence. The different stages of the evolution and the establishment of a PTSD are the expression of an interaction between the outside and the inner self. Despite a known progression of the posttraumatic stress disorder, this deleterious evolution is far from being a foregone conclusion. On the contrary, several levels of prevention are possible at each stage of its structuration to propose treatments to subjects who are vulnerable and/or present symptoms. No neurobiological study has yet found a biological marker, which would apparently and inevitably destine a subject to structure, a posttraumatic stress disorder in reaction to a stress. Conversely, the psychopathological study finds afterwards that a particular subject has necessarily built a traumatic repetition syndrome according to the concordance of significant data relative to his/her history. The event strikes a repression or an anterior biographical deadlock and of which the thematic questions the fundamentals of human culture in its emancipation with nature, like the question of death and its consequences: bereavement, parentality, transgenerational transmission and organicity often linked to the illness. A therapeutic proposal constitutes an environmental factor par excellence which can be either protective or deleterious. If the traumatic repetition syndrome has been known since Antiquity, the birth of PTSD has followed the chronology of the DSM according to the sociopolitical contexts encountered. A PTSD does not occur by chance: the conditions of possibility of the trauma are established by genetic and psychological determinants interactively integrated at the heart of a social context. After the increase in a psychotraumatic interest in international publications since the 1980s, a fight against over-victimisation seems to be setting in. The advances in genetic and neuroimaging

  8. Reconceptualing social defence theory for the purpose of organisational-level change: causes, consequences and the contribution of grid-group cultural theory

    OpenAIRE

    Papadopoulos, Nikolaos

    2015-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and awarded by Brunel University London. Despite repeated demonstrations of the dysfunctional effects of social defences in organisations, social defence theory's (SDT) problem of organisational change (Long, 2006) remains. Why? Can this be avoided? The research centres on a four-year coaching and consulting project within a multinational manufacturing company. Social defences appeared but a careful Tavistock action-resear...

  9. A systematic review of unintended pregnancy in cross- cultural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    4School of Social Sciences, The University of Queensland, Australia. 5Queensland Alcohol and .... document what is known about the child health impacts of UIP. The current .... mental health, as well as higher rates of childhood morbidity and ...

  10. Big Data in Healthcare - Defining the Digital Persona through User Contexts from the Micro to the Macro. Contribution of the IMIA Organizational and Social Issues WG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuziemsky, C E; Monkman, H; Petersen, C; Weber, J; Borycki, E M; Adams, S; Collins, S

    2014-08-15

    While big data offers enormous potential for improving healthcare delivery, many of the existing claims concerning big data in healthcare are based on anecdotal reports and theoretical vision papers, rather than scientific evidence based on empirical research. Historically, the implementation of health information technology has resulted in unintended consequences at the individual, organizational and social levels, but these unintended consequences of collecting data have remained unaddressed in the literature on big data. The objective of this paper is to provide insights into big data from the perspective of people, social and organizational considerations. We draw upon the concept of persona to define the digital persona as the intersection of data, tasks and context for different user groups. We then describe how the digital persona can serve as a framework to understanding sociotechnical considerations of big data implementation. We then discuss the digital persona in the context of micro, meso and macro user groups across the 3 Vs of big data. We provide insights into the potential benefits and challenges of applying big data approaches to healthcare as well as how to position these approaches to achieve health system objectives such as patient safety or patient-engaged care delivery. We also provide a framework for defining the digital persona at a micro, meso and macro level to help understand the user contexts of big data solutions. While big data provides great potential for improving healthcare delivery, it is essential that we consider the individual, social and organizational contexts of data use when implementing big data solutions.

  11. Prevalence and Determinants of Unintended Pregnancy in Mchinji District, Malawi; Using a Conceptual Hierarchy to Inform Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Jennifer Anne; Barrett, Geraldine; Phiri, Tambosi; Copas, Andrew; Malata, Address; Stephenson, Judith

    2016-01-01

    In 2012 there were around 85 million unintended pregnancies globally. Unintended pregnancies unnecessarily expose women to the risks associated with pregnancy, unsafe abortion and childbirth, thereby contributing to maternal mortality and morbidity. Studies have identified a range of potential determinants of unplanned pregnancy but have used varying methodologies, measures of pregnancy intention and analysis techniques. Consequently there are many contradictions in their findings. Identifying women at risk of unplanned pregnancy is important as this information can be used to help with designing and targeting interventions and developing preventative policies. 4,244 pregnant women from Mchinji District, Malawi were interviewed at home between March and December 2013. They were asked about their pregnancy intention using the validated Chichewa version of the London Measure of Unplanned Pregnancy, as well as their socio-demographics and obstetric and psychiatric history. A conceptual hierarchical model of the determinants of pregnancy intention was developed and used to inform the analysis. Multiple random effects linear regression was used to explore the ways in which factors determine pregnancy intention leading to the identification of women at risk of unplanned pregnancies. 44.4% of pregnancies were planned. On univariate analyses pregnancy intention was associated with mother and father's age and education, marital status, number of live children, birth interval, socio-economic status, intimate partner violence and previous depression all at peffect is mediated through other factors in the model. Socio-demographic factors of importance were marital status, which was the factor in the model that had the largest effect on pregnancy intention, partner's age and mother's education level. The effect of mother's education level was mediated by maternal reproductive characteristics. Previous depression, abuse in the last year or sexual abuse, younger age, increasing

  12. Renal denervation and hypertension - The need to investigate unintended effects and neural control of the human kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grisk, Olaf

    2017-05-01

    Increased renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) is present in human and experimental forms of arterial hypertension. Experimental denervation studies showed that renal nerves contribute to the development of hypertension. Clinical trials provided equivocal results on the antihypertensive efficacy of renal denervation in patients spurring discussions on technical aspects of renal denervation and further research on the role of renal nerves for the regulation of kidney function as well as the pathophysiology of hypertension. This review summarizes recent findings on adrenoceptor expression and function in the human kidney, adrenoceptor-dependent regulation of sodium chloride transport in the distal nephron, experimental data on chronic RSNA and the development of high arterial pressure and consequences of renal denervation that may limit its antihypertensive efficacy. Future research needs to reduce the gap between our knowledge on neural control of renal function in animals vs. humans to facilitate translation of experimental animal data to humans. More experimental studies on the temporal relationship between RSNA and arterial pressure in the chronic setting are needed to better define the pathogenetic role of heightened RSNA in different forms of arterial hypertension in order to improve the rational basis for renal denervation in antihypertensive therapy. Finally, research on unintended consequences of renal denervation including but not limited to reinnervation and denervation supersensitivity needs to be intensified to further assess the potential of renal denervation to slow the progression of renal disease and hypertension. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The cost of unintended pregnancies for employer-sponsored health insurance plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieguez, Gabriela; Pyenson, Bruce S; Law, Amy W; Lynen, Richard; Trussell, James

    2015-04-01

    Pregnancy is associated with a significant cost for employers providing health insurance benefits to their employees. The latest study on the topic was published in 2002, estimating the unintended pregnancy rate for women covered by employer-sponsored insurance benefits to be approximately 29%. The primary objective of this study was to update the cost of unintended pregnancy to employer-sponsored health insurance plans with current data. The secondary objective was to develop a regression model to identify the factors and associated magnitude that contribute to unintended pregnancies in the employee benefits population. We developed stepwise multinomial logistic regression models using data from a national survey on maternal attitudes about pregnancy before and shortly after giving birth. The survey was conducted by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention through mail and via telephone interviews between 2009 and 2011 of women who had had a live birth. The regression models were then applied to a large commercial health claims database from the Truven Health MarketScan to retrospectively assign the probability of pregnancy intention to each delivery. Based on the MarketScan database, we estimate that among employer-sponsored health insurance plans, 28.8% of pregnancies are unintended, which is consistent with national findings of 29% in a survey by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. These unintended pregnancies account for 27.4% of the annual delivery costs to employers in the United States, or approximately 1% of the typical employer's health benefits spending for 1 year. Using these findings, we present a regression model that employers could apply to their claims data to identify the risk for unintended pregnancies in their health insurance population. The availability of coverage for contraception without employee cost-sharing, as was required by the Affordable Care Act in 2012, combined with the ability to identify women who are at high

  14. Development of model for analysing respective collections of intended hematopoietic stem cells and harvests of unintended mature cells in apheresis for autologous hematopoietic stem cell collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hequet, O; Le, Q H; Rodriguez, J; Dubost, P; Revesz, D; Clerc, A; Rigal, D; Salles, G; Coiffier, B

    2014-04-01

    Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) required to perform peripheral hematopoietic autologous stem cell transplantation (APBSCT) can be collected by processing several blood volumes (BVs) in leukapheresis sessions. However, this may cause granulocyte harvest in graft and decrease in patient's platelet blood level. Both consequences may induce disturbances in patient. One apheresis team's current purpose is to improve HSC collection by increasing HSC collection and prevent increase in granulocyte and platelet harvests. Before improving HSC collection it seemed important to know more about the way to harvest these types of cells. The purpose of our study was to develop a simple model for analysing respective collections of intended CD34+ cells among HSC (designated here as HSC) and harvests of unintended platelets or granulocytes among mature cells (designated here as mature cells) considering the number of BVs processed and factors likely to influence cell collection or harvest. For this, we processed 1, 2 and 3 BVs in 59 leukapheresis sessions and analysed corresponding collections and harvests with a referent device (COBE Spectra). First we analysed the amounts of HSC collected and mature cells harvested and second the evolution of the respective shares of HSC and mature cells collected or harvested throughout the BV processes. HSC collections and mature cell harvests increased globally (pcollections and harvests, which showed that only pre-leukapheresis blood levels (CD34+cells and platelets) influenced both cell collections and harvests (CD34+cells and platelets) (pcollections and mature unintended cells harvests (pcollections or unintended mature cell harvests were pre-leukapheresis blood cell levels. Our model was meant to assist apheresis teams in analysing shares of HSC collected and mature cells harvested with new devices or with new types of HSC mobilization. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Unintended consequences of biofuels production?The effects of large-scale crop conversion on water quality and quantity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Heather L.; Green, Christopher T.; Rebich, Richard A.; Barlow, Jeannie R.B.; Hicks, Matthew B.

    2010-01-01

    In the search for renewable fuel alternatives, biofuels have gained strong political momentum. In the last decade, extensive mandates, policies, and subsidies have been adopted to foster the development of a biofuels industry in the United States. The Biofuels Initiative in the Mississippi Delta resulted in a 47-percent decrease in cotton acreage with a concurrent 288-percent increase in corn acreage in 2007. Because corn uses 80 percent more water for irrigation than cotton, and more nitrogen fertilizer is recommended for corn cultivation than for cotton, this widespread shift in crop type has implications for water quantity and water quality in the Delta. Increased water use for corn is accelerating water-level declines in the Mississippi River Valley alluvial aquifer at a time when conservation is being encouraged because of concerns about sustainability of the groundwater resource. Results from a mathematical model calibrated to existing conditions in the Delta indicate that increased fertilizer application on corn also likely will increase the extent of nitrate-nitrogen movement into the alluvial aquifer. Preliminary estimates based on surface-water modeling results indicate that higher application rates of nitrogen increase the nitrogen exported from the Yazoo River Basin to the Mississippi River by about 7 percent. Thus, the shift from cotton to corn may further contribute to hypoxic (low dissolved oxygen) conditions in the Gulf of Mexico.

  16. Federalism and Decentralization of Education in Argentina. Unintended Consequences of Decentralization of Expenditures in a Federal Country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falleti, Tulia G.

    By analyzing the process of decentralization of education in Argentina, this paper complements the existing literature on decentralization and federalism in two ways: (1) it studies the impact of federal institutions on the origins and evolution of decentralization; and (2) it analyzes a case of decentralization of education that, in a way not…

  17. Unintended Consequences of State and Federal Antidiscrimination and Family Medical Leave Legislation on the Employment Rates of Persons with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Ilana; Crimando, William

    2008-01-01

    Although some writers have suggested that the Americans With Disabilities Act (ADA), contrary to its intent, was responsible for a decline in employment for persons with disabilities, there is little strong empirical support for such an assertion. This study is an attempt to demonstrate that, in fact, the dismal labor market experience following…

  18. Unintended Consequences of Evidence-Based Treatment Policy Reform: Is Implementation the Goal or the Strategy for Higher Quality Care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Alayna L; Tsai, Katherine H; Guan, Karen; Chorpita, Bruce F

    2018-02-14

    This study examined patterns of evidence-based treatment (EBT) delivery following a county-wide EBT reform initiative. Data were gathered from 60 youth and their 21 providers, who were instructed to deliver therapy as they normally would under the EBT initiative. Results showed limited applicability of county-supported EBTs to this service sample, and that most youth did not receive traditional delivery of EBTs. Findings suggest that it may be unrealistic to expect providers to deliver EBTs with fidelity with all clients, and that EBT implementation may be best thought of as a strategy for improving mental health services rather than a goal.

  19. Does It Pay to Penalize Hospitals for Excess Readmissions? Intended and Unintended Consequences of Medicare's Hospital Readmissions Reductions Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellor, Jennifer; Daly, Michael; Smith, Molly

    2017-08-01

    To incentivize hospitals to provide better quality care at a lower cost, the Affordable Care Act of 2010 included the Hospital Readmissions Reduction Program (HRRP), which reduces payments to hospitals with excess 30-day readmissions for Medicare patients treated for certain conditions. We use triple difference estimation to identify the HRRP's effects in Virginia hospitals; this method estimates the difference in changes in readmission over time between patients targeted by the policy and a comparison group of patients and then compares those difference-in-differences estimates in patients treated at hospitals with readmission rates above the national average (i.e., those at risk for penalties) and patients treated at hospitals with readmission rates below or equal to the national average (those not at risk). We find that the HRRP significantly reduced readmission for Medicare patients treated for acute myocardial infarction (AMI). We find no evidence that hospitals delay readmissions, treat patients with greater intensity, or alter discharge status in response to the HRRP, nor do we find changes in the age, race/ethnicity, health status, and socioeconomic status of patients admitted for AMI. Future research on the specific mechanisms behind reduced AMI readmissions should focus on actions by healthcare providers once the patient has left the hospital. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Why American Students Do Not Learn To Read Very Well: The Unintended Consequences of Tittle II and Teacher Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Stotsky

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available The 1998 reauthorization of the Higher Education Act requires states to report annually to the U.S. Department of Education the number of prospective teachers at each of their teacher training institutions who pass the state’s tests for licensure. However, the law left decisions on what licensure tests to require, what to assess on them, and their passing scores up to each state.This paper provides an analysis of the descriptions of the subject tests assessing reading instructional knowledge that prospective elementary teachers in this country take for licensure: those offered by Educational Testing Service, a variety of those provided by National Evaluation Systems, and the one offered by American Board for Certification of Teacher Excellence. I examined these descriptions to determine whether the tests appear to address three major components of a research-based approach to reading pedagogy (instruction in phonemic awareness, phonics, and vocabulary knowledge, the weights attached to knowledge of these three components, and the quality of the sample questions they provide. In order to estimate the percentage of test items addressing these three components on each test, I drew on information on the websites of the three major organizations that develop teacher tests as well as of the states that have contracts with NES. To judge by the topics mentioned in the profile for the tests that states require for elementary licensure and the weights attached to the sections of the test containing these topics, most of ETS’s tests devote a tiny proportion of their content to these three components. These tests are used by over 35 states for licensure. The profiles of the tests developed by NES for its client states for elementary licensure range from some that are similar to the ETS tests to some that substantially address these three components.I also analyzed the profiles of the tests required for licensure as a reading teacher, reading specialist, early childhood teacher, or special education teacher. This extended analysis was undertaken to determine the extent to which professional preparation programs may be accountable for teaching these four other groups of educators what they need to know to support or supplement the reading pedagogy provided by elementary classroom teachers. To judge by the online information provided by the testing companies, tests for licensing reading teachers and reading specialists range from a few NES tests that seem to assess these components fully to other NES and ETS tests that seem to address them quite meagerly. Alarmingly, the tests most states require for licensing special education and early childhood teachers do not address these components at all. In addition, ETS offers a set of pedagogical tests of “principles of teaching and learning,” required by many states for the initial license of all teachers in addition to a subject test, that, to judge from its sample questions, seems to denigrate non-constructivist approaches to pedagogy.The findings of this study suggest that even a drastic revision of currently deficient licensure tests for prospective elementary teachers to ensure they are taught a research-based approach to reading pedagogy will not be sufficient to guarantee the use of such an approach. What is needed is systematic revision of all licensure tests for those who teach children or who supervise or supplement the work of those who do to make sure that they all promote a research-based approach to reading pedagogy.