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Sample records for uniform core sampling

  1. An analysis of the uniform core experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waterson, R H

    1973-10-15

    This report describes an analysis of the Uniform Core of HITREX using the WIMS E codes, and presents the results of theory/experiment comparisons. The overall picture is one of good agreement for core reaction rate distributions, but theory umderestimating k{sub eff} by about 1.5% {delta}k/k.

  2. Downsampling Non-Uniformly Sampled Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredrik Gustafsson

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Decimating a uniformly sampled signal a factor D involves low-pass antialias filtering with normalized cutoff frequency 1/D followed by picking out every Dth sample. Alternatively, decimation can be done in the frequency domain using the fast Fourier transform (FFT algorithm, after zero-padding the signal and truncating the FFT. We outline three approaches to decimate non-uniformly sampled signals, which are all based on interpolation. The interpolation is done in different domains, and the inter-sample behavior does not need to be known. The first one interpolates the signal to a uniformly sampling, after which standard decimation can be applied. The second one interpolates a continuous-time convolution integral, that implements the antialias filter, after which every Dth sample can be picked out. The third frequency domain approach computes an approximate Fourier transform, after which truncation and IFFT give the desired result. Simulations indicate that the second approach is particularly useful. A thorough analysis is therefore performed for this case, using the assumption that the non-uniformly distributed sampling instants are generated by a stochastic process.

  3. UMAPRM: Uniformly sampling the medial axis

    KAUST Repository

    Yeh, Hsin-Yi Cindy

    2014-05-01

    © 2014 IEEE. Maintaining clearance, or distance from obstacles, is a vital component of successful motion planning algorithms. Maintaining high clearance often creates safer paths for robots. Contemporary sampling-based planning algorithms That utilize The medial axis, or The set of all points equidistant To Two or more obstacles, produce higher clearance paths. However, They are biased heavily Toward certain portions of The medial axis, sometimes ignoring parts critical To planning, e.g., specific Types of narrow passages. We introduce Uniform Medial Axis Probabilistic RoadMap (UMAPRM), a novel planning variant That generates samples uniformly on The medial axis of The free portion of Cspace. We Theoretically analyze The distribution generated by UMAPRM and show its uniformity. Our results show That UMAPRM\\'s distribution of samples along The medial axis is not only uniform but also preferable To other medial axis samplers in certain planning problems. We demonstrate That UMAPRM has negligible computational overhead over other sampling Techniques and can solve problems The others could not, e.g., a bug Trap. Finally, we demonstrate UMAPRM successfully generates higher clearance paths in The examples.

  4. Uniform Sampling Table Method and its Applications II--Evaluating the Uniform Sampling by Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yibin; Chen, Jiaxi; Chen, Xuan; Wang, Min; Wang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    A new method of uniform sampling is evaluated in this paper. The items and indexes were adopted to evaluate the rationality of the uniform sampling. The evaluation items included convenience of operation, uniformity of sampling site distribution, and accuracy and precision of measured results. The evaluation indexes included operational complexity, occupation rate of sampling site in a row and column, relative accuracy of pill weight, and relative deviation of pill weight. They were obtained from three kinds of drugs with different shape and size by four kinds of sampling methods. Gray correlation analysis was adopted to make the comprehensive evaluation by comparing it with the standard method. The experimental results showed that the convenience of uniform sampling method was 1 (100%), odds ratio of occupation rate in a row and column was infinity, relative accuracy was 99.50-99.89%, reproducibility RSD was 0.45-0.89%, and weighted incidence degree exceeded the standard method. Hence, the uniform sampling method was easy to operate, and the selected samples were distributed uniformly. The experimental results demonstrated that the uniform sampling method has good accuracy and reproducibility, which can be put into use in drugs analysis.

  5. Core-to-core uniformity improvement in multi-core fiber Bragg gratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindley, Emma; Min, Seong-Sik; Leon-Saval, Sergio; Cvetojevic, Nick; Jovanovic, Nemanja; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss; Lawrence, Jon; Gris-Sanchez, Itandehui; Birks, Tim; Haynes, Roger; Haynes, Dionne

    2014-07-01

    Multi-core fiber Bragg gratings (MCFBGs) will be a valuable tool not only in communications but also various astronomical, sensing and industry applications. In this paper we address some of the technical challenges of fabricating effective multi-core gratings by simulating improvements to the writing method. These methods allow a system designed for inscribing single-core fibers to cope with MCFBG fabrication with only minor, passive changes to the writing process. Using a capillary tube that was polished on one side, the field entering the fiber was flattened which improved the coverage and uniformity of all cores.

  6. IDEAL STRUCTURE OF UNIFORM ROE ALGEBRAS OVER SIMPLE CORES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN XIAOMAN; WANG QIN

    2004-01-01

    This paper characterizes ideal structure of the uniform Roe algebra B* (X) over sinple cores X. A necessary and sufficient condition for a principal ideal of B*(X) to be spatial is given and an example of non-spatial ideal of B* (X) is constructed. By establishing an one-one correspondence between the ideals of B* (X) and the ω-filters on X, the maximal ideals of B* (X) are completely described by the corona of the Stone-Cech compactification of X.

  7. UMAPRM: Uniformly sampling the medial axis

    KAUST Repository

    Yeh, Hsin-Yi Cindy; Denny, Jory; Lindsey, Aaron; Thomas, Shawna; Amato, Nancy M.

    2014-01-01

    © 2014 IEEE. Maintaining clearance, or distance from obstacles, is a vital component of successful motion planning algorithms. Maintaining high clearance often creates safer paths for robots. Contemporary sampling-based planning algorithms

  8. Non-uniform sampling of NMR relaxation data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwarz-Linnet, Troels; Teilum, Kaare

    2016-01-01

    The use of non-uniform sampling of NMR spectra may give significant reductions in the data acquisition time. For quantitative experiments such as the measurement of spin relaxation rates, non-uniform sampling is however not widely used as inaccuracies in peak intensities may lead to errors...... in the extracted dynamic parameters. By systematic reducing the coverage of the Nyquist grid of (15)N Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) relaxation dispersion datasets for four different proteins and performing a full data analysis of the resulting non-uniform sampled datasets, we have compared the performance...... of the multi-dimensional decomposition and iterative re-weighted least-squares algorithms in reconstructing spectra with accurate peak intensities. As long as a single fully sampled spectrum is included in a series of otherwise non-uniform sampled two-dimensional spectra, multi-dimensional decomposition...

  9. Core sampling system spare parts assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walter, E.J.

    1995-01-01

    Soon, there will be 4 independent core sampling systems obtaining samples from the underground tanks. It is desirable that these systems be available for sampling during the next 2 years. This assessment was prepared to evaluate the adequacy of the spare parts identified for the core sampling system and to provide recommendations that may remediate overages or inadequacies of spare parts

  10. Acceptance test procedure for core sample trucks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smalley, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this Acceptance Test Procedure is to provide instruction and documentation for acceptance testing of the rotary mode core sample trucks, HO-68K-4600 and HO-68K-4647. The rotary mode core sample trucks were based upon the design of the second core sample truck (HO-68K-4345) which was constructed to implement rotary mode sampling of the waste tanks at Hanford. Acceptance testing of the rotary mode core sample trucks will verify that the design requirements have been met. All testing will be non-radioactive and stand-in materials shall be used to simulate waste tank conditions. Compressed air will be substituted for nitrogen during the majority of testing, with nitrogen being used only for flow characterization

  11. Self-powered in-core neutron detector assembly with uniform perturbation characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    An in-core neutron detector assembly consisting of a number of longitudinally extending self-powered detectors is described. The uniform mechanical structures and materials are placed symmetrically at each active detector portion thus ensuring that local perturbation factors are uniform. (U.K.)

  12. Non-uniform sampling and wide range angular spectrum method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yong-Hae; Byun, Chun-Won; Oh, Himchan; Lee, JaeWon; Pi, Jae-Eun; Heon Kim, Gi; Lee, Myung-Lae; Ryu, Hojun; Chu, Hye-Yong; Hwang, Chi-Sun

    2014-01-01

    A novel method is proposed for simulating free space field propagation from a source plane to a destination plane that is applicable for both small and large propagation distances. The angular spectrum method (ASM) was widely used for simulating near field propagation, but it caused a numerical error when the propagation distance was large because of aliasing due to under sampling. Band limited ASM satisfied the Nyquist condition on sampling by limiting a bandwidth of a propagation field to avoid an aliasing error so that it could extend the applicable propagation distance of the ASM. However, the band limited ASM also made an error due to the decrease of an effective sampling number in a Fourier space when the propagation distance was large. In the proposed wide range ASM, we use a non-uniform sampling in a Fourier space to keep a constant effective sampling number even though the propagation distance is large. As a result, the wide range ASM can produce simulation results with high accuracy for both far and near field propagation. For non-paraxial wave propagation, we applied the wide range ASM to a shifted destination plane as well. (paper)

  13. Rotary Mode Core Sample System availability improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkins, W.W.; Bennett, K.L.; Potter, J.D.; Cross, B.T.; Burkes, J.M.; Rogers, A.C.

    1995-01-01

    The Rotary Mode Core Sample System (RMCSS) is used to obtain stratified samples of the waste deposits in single-shell and double-shell waste tanks at the Hanford Site. The samples are used to characterize the waste in support of ongoing and future waste remediation efforts. Four sampling trucks have been developed to obtain these samples. Truck I was the first in operation and is currently being used to obtain samples where the push mode is appropriate (i.e., no rotation of drill). Truck 2 is similar to truck 1, except for added safety features, and is in operation to obtain samples using either a push mode or rotary drill mode. Trucks 3 and 4 are now being fabricated to be essentially identical to truck 2

  14. Sampling of sediment cores; Muestreo de cores sedimentarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz-Fernandez, Ana Carolina [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Instituto de Ciencias del Mar y Limnologia (Mexico); Diaz Asencio, Misael [Centro de Estudios Ambientales de Cienfuegos (Cuba)

    2012-07-01

    In this chapter we describe techniques for collecting sediment cores for obtaining geochronologies by {sup 210}Pb (100 years) to allow historical reconstruction of environmental changes in the coastal zone. We examine relevant aspects for the sampling design, mainly related to the basic information about the area of interest necessary to choose the perfect place sampling, thereby we can improve the chances of success in meeting the objectives of the study. We also include description of the sampling methods aimed at maximizing the collecting capabilities of undisturbed sedimentary material, emphasizing the recovery of unaltered sediment-water interface. In addition, we describe subsampling procedures and sample handling intended to minimize post-sampling disruption to improve the possibilities of a reconstruction of reliable geochronologies. [Spanish] En este capitulo describimos tecnicas de recogida de cores sedimentarios para la obtencion de geocronologias por {sup 210}Pb (100 anos) que permitan la reconstruccion historica de cambios ambientales en la zona costera. Examinamos los aspectos relevantes para el diseno del muestreo, principalmente relacionados con la informacion basica sobre el area de interes necesaria para escoger el lugar idoneo de muestreo. De ese modo podemos mejorar las posibilidades de exito en el cumplimiento de los objetivos del estudio. Incluimos ademas la descripcion de los metodos de muestreo orientados a maximizar las posibilidades de recogida de material sedimentario no perturbado, poniendo enfasis en la recuperacion inalterada de la interfase agua-sedimento. Asimismo, describimos procedimientos de submuestreo y manipulacion de muestras, con los cuales se pretende minimizar la perturbacion post-muestreo para mejorar las posibilidades de una reconstruccion de geocronologias confiables.

  15. Uniform silver/polypyrrole core-shell nanoparticles synthesized by hydrothermal reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Shibin [Department of Chemistry, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Shi Gaoquan [Department of Chemistry, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)]. E-mail: gshi@tsinghua.edu.cn

    2007-04-15

    Uniformly sized silver/polypyrrole (Ag/PPy) core-shell nanoparticles were synthesized by one-step hydrothermal reaction of pyrrole and silver nitrate in the presence of polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) as protection agent. The morphology and structures of the nanoparticles have been studied by scanning and transmission electronic microscopes, X-ray diffractometer and Raman spectroscopy. The experimental results indicated that the particles had 120 nm silver cores with 20 nm polypyrrole (PPy) coatings. The reaction conditions have strong effects on the morphology of the nanoparticles.

  16. Uniform silver/polypyrrole core-shell nanoparticles synthesized by hydrothermal reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Shibin; Shi Gaoquan

    2007-01-01

    Uniformly sized silver/polypyrrole (Ag/PPy) core-shell nanoparticles were synthesized by one-step hydrothermal reaction of pyrrole and silver nitrate in the presence of polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) as protection agent. The morphology and structures of the nanoparticles have been studied by scanning and transmission electronic microscopes, X-ray diffractometer and Raman spectroscopy. The experimental results indicated that the particles had 120 nm silver cores with 20 nm polypyrrole (PPy) coatings. The reaction conditions have strong effects on the morphology of the nanoparticles

  17. Quantitative NMR measurements on core samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, Dan

    1997-01-01

    Within the frame of an EFP-95 project NMR methods for porosity determination in 2D, and for fluid saturation determination in 1D and 2D have been developed. The three methods have been developed and tested on cleaned core samples of chalk from the Danish North Sea. The main restriction for the use of the methods is the inherently short T2 relaxation constants of rock samples. Referring to measurements conducted at 200 MHz, the 2D porosity determination method is applicable to sample material with T2 relaxation constants down to 5 ms. The 1D fluid saturation determination method is applicable to sample material with T2 relaxation constants down to 3 ms, while the 2D fluid saturation determination method is applicable to material with T2 relaxation constants down to 8 ms. In the case of the 2D methods these constraints as a minimum enables work on the majority of chalk samples of Maastrichtian age. The 1D fluid saturation determination method in addition is applicable to at least some chalk samples of Danian and pre-Maastrichtian age. The spatial resolution of the 2D porosity determination method, the 1D fluid saturation methods, and the 2D fluid saturation method is respectively 0.8 mm, 0.8 mm and 2 mm. Reproducibility of pixel values is for all three methods 2%- points. (au)

  18. Bridge density functional approximation for non-uniform hard core repulsive Yukawa fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Shiqi

    2008-01-01

    In this work, a bridge density functional approximation (BDFA) (J. Chem. Phys. 112, 8079 (2000)) for a non-uniform hard-sphere fluid is extended to a non-uniform hard-core repulsive Yukawa (HCRY) fluid. It is found that the choice of a bulk bridge functional approximation is crucial for both a uniform HCRY fluid and a non-uniform HCRY fluid. A new bridge functional approximation is proposed, which can accurately predict the radial distribution function of the bulk HCRY fluid. With the new bridge functional approximation and its associated bulk second order direct correlation function as input, the BDFA can be used to well calculate the density profile of the HCRY fluid subjected to the influence of varying external fields, and the theoretical predictions are in good agreement with the corresponding simulation data. The calculated results indicate that the present BDFA captures quantitatively the phenomena such as the coexistence of solid-like high density phase and low density gas phase, and the adsorption properties of the HCRY fluid, which qualitatively differ from those of the fluids combining both hard-core repulsion and an attractive tail. (condensed matter: structure, thermal and mechanical properties)

  19. Characteristics of core sampling from crumbing Paleozoic rock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barabashkin, I I; Edelman, Y A; Filippov, V N; Lychev, V N

    1981-01-01

    The results of analysis of core sampling using standard core sampling tools with small and medium inside diameter are cited. It is demonstrated that when using these tools loss of core in Paleozoic deposits promising with regard to oil and gas content does not exceed 25 - 30%. The use of a new core sampling tool with a large inside diameter which includes drill bits of different types and a core lifter ''Krembriy'' SKU-172/100 made it possible to increase core removal approximately 52%. A representative core from a highly crumbling and vesicular rock belinging to groups III - IV in terms of difficulty of core sampling was obtained first. A description of a new core sampling tool is given. The characteristics of the technology of its use which promote preservation of the core are cited. Means of continued improvement of this tool are noted.

  20. Study of the mechanism of clamping and detachment of a core sample by core lever lifters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barabashkin, I I; Mizyakin, V M; Nikitin, S V

    1981-01-01

    Geometric dimensions of the basic elements of a core lifter should be determined depending on the clamping conditions. The changes should be determined depending on the conditions of the core sample diameter, critical angle between the lever and the core samples in the necessary depth of submersion of the contact edge of the lever into its surface. The core lifter KTsRZ-80 with eccentric core reception makes it possible to arrange more efficiently the core removing elements on the edge of the band. The use of the core lifters with eccentric plan of arrangement of the levers and their optimal length increases the removal of the core sample.

  1. Self-powered in-core neutron detector assembly with uniform perturbation characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todt, W.H.; Playfoot, K.C.

    1979-01-01

    Disclosed is a self-powered in-core neutron detector assembly in which a plurality of longitudinally extending self-powered detectors have neutron responsive active portions spaced along a longitudinal path. A low neutron absorptive extension extends from the active portions of the spaced active portions of the detectors in symmetrical longitudinal relationship with the spaced active detector portions of each succeeding detector. The detector extension terminates with the detector assembly to provide a uniform perturbation characteristic over the entire assembly length

  2. Tank 241-BY-105 rotary core sampling and analysis plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, L.M.

    1995-01-01

    This Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) identifies characterization objectives pertaining to sample collection, laboratory analytical evaluation, and reporting requirements for two rotary-mode core samples from tank 241-BY-105 (BY-105)

  3. Characterization Of Core Sample Collected From The Saltstone Disposal Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cozzi, A.; Duncan, A.

    2010-01-01

    During the month of September 2008, grout core samples were collected from the Saltstone Disposal Facility, Vault 4, cell E. This grout was placed during processing campaigns in December 2007 from Deliquification, Dissolution and Adjustment Batch 2 salt solution. The 4QCY07 Waste Acceptance Criteria sample collected on 11/16/07 represents the salt solution in the core samples. Core samples were retrieved to initiate the historical database of properties of emplaced Saltstone and to demonstrate the correlation between field collected and laboratory prepared samples. Three samples were collected from three different locations. Samples were collected using a two-inch diameter concrete coring bit. In April 2009, the core samples were removed from the evacuated sample container, inspected, transferred to PVC containers, and backfilled with nitrogen. Samples furthest from the wall were the most intact cylindrically shaped cored samples. The shade of the core samples darkened as the depth of coring increased. Based on the visual inspection, sample 3-3 was selected for all subsequent analysis. The density and porosity of the Vault 4 core sample, 1.90 g/cm 3 and 59.90% respectively, were comparable to values achieved for laboratory prepared samples. X-ray diffraction analysis identified phases consistent with the expectations for hydrated Saltstone. Microscopic analysis revealed morphology features characteristic of cementitious materials with fly ash and calcium silicate hydrate gel. When taken together, the results of the density, porosity, x-ray diffraction analysis and microscopic analysis support the conclusion that the Vault 4, Cell E core sample is representative of the expected waste form.

  4. Pollutant plume delineation from tree core sampling using standardized ranks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahyudi, Agung; Bogaert, Patrick; Trapp, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    There are currently contradicting results in the literature about the way chloroethene (CE) concentrations from tree core sampling correlate with those from groundwater measurements. This paper addresses this issue by focusing on groundwater and tree core datasets in CE contaminated site, Czech...... Republic. Preliminary analyses revealed strongly and positively skewed distributions for the tree core dataset, with an intra-tree variability accounting for more than 80% of the total variability, while the spatial analyses based on variograms indicated no obvious spatial pattern for CE concentration...... groundwater and tree core measurements. Nonetheless, tree core sampling and analysis proved to be a quick and inexpensive semi-quantitative method and a useful tool....

  5. Number of core samples: Mean concentrations and confidence intervals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, L.; Cromar, R.D.; Wilmarth, S.R.; Heasler, P.G.

    1995-01-01

    This document provides estimates of how well the mean concentration of analytes are known as a function of the number of core samples, composite samples, and replicate analyses. The estimates are based upon core composite data from nine recently sampled single-shell tanks. The results can be used when determining the number of core samples needed to ''characterize'' the waste from similar single-shell tanks. A standard way of expressing uncertainty in the estimate of a mean is with a 95% confidence interval (CI). The authors investigate how the width of a 95% CI on the mean concentration decreases as the number of observations increase. Specifically, the tables and figures show how the relative half-width (RHW) of a 95% CI decreases as the number of core samples increases. The RHW of a CI is a unit-less measure of uncertainty. The general conclusions are as follows: (1) the RHW decreases dramatically as the number of core samples is increased, the decrease is much smaller when the number of composited samples or the number of replicate analyses are increase; (2) if the mean concentration of an analyte needs to be estimated with a small RHW, then a large number of core samples is required. The estimated number of core samples given in the tables and figures were determined by specifying different sizes of the RHW. Four nominal sizes were examined: 10%, 25%, 50%, and 100% of the observed mean concentration. For a majority of analytes the number of core samples required to achieve an accuracy within 10% of the mean concentration is extremely large. In many cases, however, two or three core samples is sufficient to achieve a RHW of approximately 50 to 100%. Because many of the analytes in the data have small concentrations, this level of accuracy may be satisfactory for some applications

  6. Tank 10H Saltcake Core Sample Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MARTINO, CHRISTOPHERJ

    2004-01-01

    In support of Low-Curie Salt (LCS) process validation at the Savannah River Site (SRS), Liquid Waste Disposition (LWD) has undertaken a program of tank characterization, including salt sampling. As part of this initiative, they sampled the surface and subsurface of Tank 10H saltcake using a series of three 12-inch long sample tubes. These tubes each contain 1-foot long segments of the saltcake from one location, representing the top three feet of saltcake. The primary objective of the characterization that will be useful to the selection and processing of the next waste tanks. Most important is the determination of the Cs-137 concentration and liquid retention properties of Tank 10H saltcake to confirm acceptability of processing. Additional chemical analyses are performed to provide information on salt elemental, ionic, and radiological composition to aid in assessment of the suitability of processing drained and dissolved material and in refining the information in the waste characterization system (WCS)

  7. Rotary mode core sampling approved checklist: 241-TX-113

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, K.D.

    1998-01-01

    The safety assessment for rotary mode core sampling was developed using certain bounding assumptions, however, those assumptions were not verified for each of the existing or potential flammable gas tanks. Therefore, a Flammable Gas/Rotary Mode Core Sampling Approved Checklist has been completed for tank 241-TX-113 prior to sampling operations. This transmittal documents the dispositions of the checklist items from the safety assessment

  8. Rotary mode core sampling approved checklist: 241-TX-116

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FOWLER, K.D.

    1999-01-01

    The safety assessment for rotary mode core sampling was developed using certain bounding assumptions, however, those assumptions were not verified for each of the existing or potential flammable gas tanks. Therefore, a Flammable Gas/Rotary Mode Core Sampling Approved Checklist has been completed for tank 241-TX-116 prior to sampling operations. This transmittal documents the dispositions of the checklist items from the safety assessment

  9. Frequency-Selective Signal Sensing with Sub-Nyquist Uniform Sampling Scheme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pierzchlewski, Jacek; Arildsen, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    In this paper the authors discuss a problem of acquisition and reconstruction of a signal polluted by adjacent- channel interference. The authors propose a method to find a sub-Nyquist uniform sampling pattern which allows for correct reconstruction of selected frequencies. The method is inspired...... by the Restricted Isometry Property, which is known from the field of compressed sensing. Then, compressed sensing is used to successfully reconstruct a wanted signal even if some of the uniform samples were randomly lost, e. g. due to ADC saturation. An experiment which tests the proposed method in practice...

  10. Non-uniformly sampled grids in double pole coordinate system for freeform reflector construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Donglin; Pacheco, Shaun; Feng, Zexin; Liang, Rongguang

    2015-08-01

    We propose a new method to design freeform reflectors by nonuniformly sampling the source intensity distribution in double pole coordinate system. In double pole coordinate system, there is no pole for the whole hemisphere because both poles of the spherical coordinate system are moved to southernmost point of the sphere and overlapped together. With symmetric definition of both angular coordinates in the modified double pole coordinate system, a better match between the source intensity distribution and target irradiance distribution can be achieved for reflectors with large acceptance solid angle, leading to higher light efficiency and better uniformity on the target surface. With non-uniform sampling of the source intensity, we can design circular freeform reflector to obtain uniform rectangular illumination pattern. Aided by the feedback optimization, the freeform reflector can achieve the collection efficiency for ideal point source over 0.7 and relative standard deviation (RSD) less than 0.1.

  11. Analytical results of Tank 38H core samples -- Fall 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swingle, R.F.

    2000-01-01

    Two samples were pulled from Tank 38H in the Fall of 1999: a variable depth sample (VDS) of the supernate was pulled in October and a core sample from the salt layer was pulled in December. Analysis of the rinse from the outside of the core sample indicated no sign of volatile or semivolatile organics. Both supernate and solids from the VDS and the dried core sample solids were analyzed for isotopes which could pose a criticality concern and also for elements which could serve as neutron poisons, as well as other elements. Results of the elemental analyses of these samples show significant elements present to mitigate the potential for nuclear criticality. However, it should be noted the results given for the VDS solids elemental analyses may be higher than the actual concentration in the solids, since the filter paper was dissolved along with the sample solids

  12. Tank 101-SY Window E core sample: Interpretation of results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynolds, D.A.

    1993-02-01

    A full depth core sample was taken for tank 241-SY-101 in December 1991 during a time period called ''Window E.'' This was the second full depth core sample from this tank during the year. The core had two major portions that are known as the convective zone and the nonconvective zone. A crust was on the top of tank but as poorly sampled. The analysis of the Window E core sample stressed segment composite chemical analysis instead of segment by segment as in Window C. Adiabatic calorimetry on samples from both cores showed a slow self heating reaction above 150 degrees C on dried samples. The exothermic events were milder than similar synthetic samples. The chemical and physical properties complemented the information from Window C. The Window E material from the convective zone was more viscous than the Window C convective zone material. The nonconvective zone viscosities were similar for both cores. Heating and dilution tests were made to test mitigation concepts

  13. Tank 101-SY Window E core sample: Interpretation of results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, D.A.

    1993-02-01

    A full depth core sample was taken for tank 241-SY-101 in December 1991 during a time period called ``Window E.`` This was the second full depth core sample from this tank during the year. The core had two major portions that are known as the convective zone and the nonconvective zone. A crust was on the top of tank but as poorly sampled. The analysis of the Window E core sample stressed segment composite chemical analysis instead of segment by segment as in Window C. Adiabatic calorimetry on samples from both cores showed a slow self heating reaction above 150{degrees}C on dried samples. The exothermic events were milder than similar synthetic samples. The chemical and physical properties complemented the information from Window C. The Window E material from the convective zone was more viscous than the Window C convective zone material. The nonconvective zone viscosities were similar for both cores. Heating and dilution tests were made to test mitigation concepts.

  14. A core handling device for the Mars Sample Return Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwynne, Owen

    1989-01-01

    A core handling device for use on Mars is being designed. To provide a context for the design study, it was assumed that a Mars Rover/Sample Return (MRSR) Mission would have the following characteristics: a year or more in length; visits by the rover to 50 or more sites; 100 or more meter-long cores being drilled by the rover; and the capability of returning about 5 kg of Mars regolith to Earth. These characteristics lead to the belief that in order to bring back a variegated set of samples that can address the range of scientific objetives for a MRSR mission to Mars there needs to be considerable analysis done on board the rover. Furthermore, the discrepancy between the amount of sample gathered and the amount to be returned suggests that there needs to be some method of choosing the optimal set of samples. This type of analysis will require pristine material-unaltered by the drilling process. Since the core drill thermally and mechanically alters the outer diameter (about 10 pct) of the core sample, this outer area cannot be used. The primary function of the core handling device is to extract subsamples from the core and to position these subsamples, and the core itself if needed, with respect to the various analytical instruments that can be used to perform these analyses.

  15. Dose Rate Calculations for Rotary Mode Core Sampling Exhauster

    CERN Document Server

    Foust, D J

    2000-01-01

    This document provides the calculated estimated dose rates for three external locations on the Rotary Mode Core Sampling (RMCS) exhauster HEPA filter housing, per the request of Characterization Field Engineering.

  16. Year 2000 compliance status report for core sampling equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BOGER, R.M.

    1999-01-01

    Several pieces of equipment that support core sampling activities are ''date aware'' and could be affected by the roll over to the year 2000. This report documents the testing and remedial efforts for this equipment

  17. Dose Rate Calculations for Rotary Mode Core Sampling Exhauster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FOUST, D.J.

    2000-01-01

    This document provides the calculated estimated dose rates for three external locations on the Rotary Mode Core Sampling (RMCS) exhauster HEPA filter housing, per the request of Characterization Field Engineering

  18. Environmental gamma-ray measurements using in situ and core sampling techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickson, H.W.; Kerr, G.D.; Perdue, P.T.; Abdullah, S.A.

    1976-01-01

    Dose rates from natural radionuclides and 137 Cs in soils of the Oak Ridge area have been determined from in situ and core sample measurements. In situ γ-ray measurements were made with a transportable spectrometer. A tape of spectral data and a soil core sample from each site were returned to ORNL for further analysis. Information on soil composition, density and moisture content and on the distribution of cesium in the soil was obtained from the core samples. In situ spectra were analyzed by a computer program which identified and assigned energies to peaks, integrated the areas under the peaks, and calculated radionuclide concentrations based on a uniform distribution in the soil. The assumption of a uniform distribution was adequate only for natural radionuclides, but simple corrections can be made to the computer calculations for man-made radionuclides distributed on the surface or exponentially in the soil. For 137 Cs a correction was used based on an exponential function fitted to the distribution measured in core samples. At typical sites in Oak Ridge, the dose rate determined from these measurements was about 5 μrad/hr. (author)

  19. Additive non-uniform random sampling in superimposed fiber Bragg grating strain gauge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Y C; Liu, H Y; Yan, S B; Li, J M; Tang, J; Yang, Y H; Yang, M W

    2013-01-01

    This paper demonstrates an additive non-uniform random sampling and interrogation method for dynamic and/or static strain gauge using a reflection spectrum from two superimposed fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs). The superimposed FBGs are designed to generate non-equidistant space of a sensing pulse train in the time domain during dynamic strain gauge. By combining centroid finding with smooth filtering methods, both the interrogation speed and accuracy are improved. A 1.9 kHz dynamic strain is measured by generating an additive non-uniform randomly distributed 2 kHz optical sensing pulse train from a mean 500 Hz triangular periodically changing scanning frequency. (paper)

  20. Additive non-uniform random sampling in superimposed fiber Bragg grating strain gauge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Y. C.; Liu, H. Y.; Yan, S. B.; Yang, Y. H.; Yang, M. W.; Li, J. M.; Tang, J.

    2013-05-01

    This paper demonstrates an additive non-uniform random sampling and interrogation method for dynamic and/or static strain gauge using a reflection spectrum from two superimposed fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs). The superimposed FBGs are designed to generate non-equidistant space of a sensing pulse train in the time domain during dynamic strain gauge. By combining centroid finding with smooth filtering methods, both the interrogation speed and accuracy are improved. A 1.9 kHz dynamic strain is measured by generating an additive non-uniform randomly distributed 2 kHz optical sensing pulse train from a mean 500 Hz triangular periodically changing scanning frequency.

  1. Test plan for core sampling drill bit temperature monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francis, P.M.

    1994-01-01

    At WHC, one of the functions of the Tank Waste Remediation System division is sampling waste tanks to characterize their contents. The push-mode core sampling truck is currently used to take samples of liquid and sludge. Sampling of tanks containing hard salt cake is to be performed with the rotary-mode core sampling system, consisting of the core sample truck, mobile exhauster unit, and ancillary subsystems. When drilling through the salt cake material, friction and heat can be generated in the drill bit. Based upon tank safety reviews, it has been determined that the drill bit temperature must not exceed 180 C, due to the potential reactivity of tank contents at this temperature. Consequently, a drill bit temperature limit of 150 C was established for operation of the core sample truck to have an adequate margin of safety. Unpredictable factors, such as localized heating, cause this buffer to be so great. The most desirable safeguard against exceeding this threshold is bit temperature monitoring . This document describes the recommended plan for testing the prototype of a drill bit temperature monitor developed for core sampling by Sandia National Labs. The device will be tested at their facilities. This test plan documents the tests that Westinghouse Hanford Company considers necessary for effective testing of the system

  2. Development of core sampling technique for ITER Type B radwaste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, S. G.; Hong, K. P.; Oh, W. H.; Park, M. C.; Jung, S. H.; Ahn, S. B. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Type B radwaste (intermediate level and long lived radioactive waste) imported from ITER vacuum vessel are to be treated and stored in basement of hot cell building. The Type B radwaste treatment process is composed of buffer storage, cutting, sampling/tritium measurement, tritium removal, characterization, pre-packaging, inspection/decontamination, and storage etc. The cut slices of Type B radwaste components generated from cutting process undergo sampling process before and after tritium removal process. The purpose of sampling is to obtain small pieces of samples in order to investigate the tritium content and concentration of Type B radwaste. Core sampling, which is the candidates of sampling technique to be applied to ITER hot cell, is available for not thick (less than 50 mm) metal without use of coolant. Experimented materials were SS316L and CuCrZr in order to simulate ITER Type B radwaste. In core sampling, substantial secondary wastes from cutting chips will be produced unavoidably. Thus, core sampling machine will have to be equipped with disposal system such as suction equipment. Core sampling is considered an unfavorable method for tool wear compared to conventional drilling.

  3. Non-Uniform Sampling and J-UNIO Automation for Efficient Protein NMR Structure Determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didenko, Tatiana; Proudfoot, Andrew; Dutta, Samit Kumar; Serrano, Pedro; Wüthrich, Kurt

    2015-08-24

    High-resolution structure determination of small proteins in solution is one of the big assets of NMR spectroscopy in structural biology. Improvements in the efficiency of NMR structure determination by advances in NMR experiments and automation of data handling therefore attracts continued interest. Here, non-uniform sampling (NUS) of 3D heteronuclear-resolved [(1)H,(1)H]-NOESY data yielded two- to three-fold savings of instrument time for structure determinations of soluble proteins. With the 152-residue protein NP_372339.1 from Staphylococcus aureus and the 71-residue protein NP_346341.1 from Streptococcus pneumonia we show that high-quality structures can be obtained with NUS NMR data, which are equally well amenable to robust automated analysis as the corresponding uniformly sampled data. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Distribution Coeficients (Kd) Generated From A Core Sample Collected From The Saltstone Disposal Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almond, P.; Kaplan, D.

    2011-01-01

    Core samples originating from Vault 4, Cell E of the Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF) were collected in September of 2008 (Hansen and Crawford 2009, Smith 2008) and sent to SRNL to measure chemical and physical properties of the material including visual uniformity, mineralogy, microstructure, density, porosity, distribution coefficients (K d ), and chemical composition. Some data from these experiments have been reported (Cozzi and Duncan 2010). In this study, leaching experiments were conducted with a single core sample under conditions that are representative of saltstone performance. In separate experiments, reducing and oxidizing environments were targeted to obtain solubility and Kd values from the measurable species identified in the solid and aqueous leachate. This study was designed to provide insight into how readily species immobilized in saltstone will leach from the saltstone under oxidizing conditions simulating the edge of a saltstone monolith and under reducing conditions, targeting conditions within the saltstone monolith. Core samples were taken from saltstone poured in December of 2007 giving a cure time of nine months in the cell and a total of thirty months before leaching experiments began in June 2010. The saltstone from Vault 4, Cell E is comprised of blast furnace slag, class F fly ash, portland cement, and Deliquification, Dissolution, and Adjustment (DDA) Batch 2 salt solution. The salt solution was previously analyzed from a sample of Tank 50 salt solution and characterized in the 4QCY07 Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) report (Zeigler and Bibler 2009). Subsequent to Tank 50 analysis, additional solution was added to the tank solution from the Effluent Treatment Project as well as from inleakage from Tank 50 pump bearings (Cozzi and Duncan 2010). Core samples were taken from three locations and at three depths at each location using a two-inch diameter concrete coring bit (1-1, 1-2, 1-3; 2-1, 2-2, 2-3; 3-1, 3-2, 3-3) (Hansen and Crawford

  5. DISTRIBUTION COEFICIENTS (KD) GENERATED FROM A CORE SAMPLE COLLECTED FROM THE SALTSTONE DISPOSAL FACILITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almond, P.; Kaplan, D.

    2011-04-25

    Core samples originating from Vault 4, Cell E of the Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF) were collected in September of 2008 (Hansen and Crawford 2009, Smith 2008) and sent to SRNL to measure chemical and physical properties of the material including visual uniformity, mineralogy, microstructure, density, porosity, distribution coefficients (K{sub d}), and chemical composition. Some data from these experiments have been reported (Cozzi and Duncan 2010). In this study, leaching experiments were conducted with a single core sample under conditions that are representative of saltstone performance. In separate experiments, reducing and oxidizing environments were targeted to obtain solubility and Kd values from the measurable species identified in the solid and aqueous leachate. This study was designed to provide insight into how readily species immobilized in saltstone will leach from the saltstone under oxidizing conditions simulating the edge of a saltstone monolith and under reducing conditions, targeting conditions within the saltstone monolith. Core samples were taken from saltstone poured in December of 2007 giving a cure time of nine months in the cell and a total of thirty months before leaching experiments began in June 2010. The saltstone from Vault 4, Cell E is comprised of blast furnace slag, class F fly ash, portland cement, and Deliquification, Dissolution, and Adjustment (DDA) Batch 2 salt solution. The salt solution was previously analyzed from a sample of Tank 50 salt solution and characterized in the 4QCY07 Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) report (Zeigler and Bibler 2009). Subsequent to Tank 50 analysis, additional solution was added to the tank solution from the Effluent Treatment Project as well as from inleakage from Tank 50 pump bearings (Cozzi and Duncan 2010). Core samples were taken from three locations and at three depths at each location using a two-inch diameter concrete coring bit (1-1, 1-2, 1-3; 2-1, 2-2, 2-3; 3-1, 3-2, 3-3) (Hansen and

  6. Effects of non-uniform core flow on peak cladding temperature: MOXY/SCORE sensitivity calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, S.C.

    1979-08-15

    The MOXY/SCORE computer program is used to evaluate the potential effect on peak cladding temperature of selective cooling that may result from a nonuniform mass flux at the core boundaries during the blowdown phase of the LOFT L2-4 test. The results of this study indicate that the effect of the flow nonuniformity at the core boundaries will be neutralized by a strong radial flow redistribution in the neighborhood of core boundaries. The implication is that the flow nonuniformity at the core boundaries has no significant effect on the thermal-hydraulic behavior and cladding temperature at the hot plane.

  7. Effects of non-uniform core flow on peak cladding temperature: MOXY/SCORE sensitivity calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, S.C.

    1979-01-01

    The MOXY/SCORE computer program is used to evaluate the potential effect on peak cladding temperature of selective cooling that may result from a nonuniform mass flux at the core boundaries during the blowdown phase of the LOFT L2-4 test. The results of this study indicate that the effect of the flow nonuniformity at the core boundaries will be neutralized by a strong radial flow redistribution in the neighborhood of core boundaries. The implication is that the flow nonuniformity at the core boundaries has no significant effect on the thermal-hydraulic behavior and cladding temperature at the hot plane

  8. COLLAPSE AND FRAGMENTATION OF MAGNETIC MOLECULAR CLOUD CORES WITH THE ENZO AMR MHD CODE. I. UNIFORM DENSITY SPHERES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boss, Alan P.; Keiser, Sandra A.

    2013-01-01

    Magnetic fields are important contributors to the dynamics of collapsing molecular cloud cores, and can have a major effect on whether collapse results in a single protostar or fragmentation into a binary or multiple protostar system. New models are presented of the collapse of magnetic cloud cores using the adaptive mesh refinement code Enzo2.0. The code was used to calculate the ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) of initially spherical, uniform density, and rotation clouds with density perturbations, i.e., the Boss and Bodenheimer standard isothermal test case for three-dimensional (3D) hydrodynamics codes. After first verifying that Enzo reproduces the binary fragmentation expected for the non-magnetic test case, a large set of models was computed with varied initial magnetic field strengths and directions with respect to the cloud core axis of rotation (parallel or perpendicular), density perturbation amplitudes, and equations of state. Three significantly different outcomes resulted: (1) contraction without sustained collapse, forming a denser cloud core; (2) collapse to form a single protostar with significant spiral arms; and (3) collapse and fragmentation into binary or multiple protostar systems, with multiple spiral arms. Comparisons are also made with previous MHD calculations of similar clouds with a barotropic equations of state. These results for the collapse of initially uniform density spheres illustrate the central importance of both magnetic field direction and field strength for determining the outcome of dynamic protostellar collapse.

  9. Energy Efficient Real-Time Scheduling Using DPM on Mobile Sensors with a Uniform Multi-Cores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngmin Kim

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In wireless sensor networks (WSNs, sensor nodes are deployed for collecting and analyzing data. These nodes use limited energy batteries for easy deployment and low cost. The use of limited energy batteries is closely related to the lifetime of the sensor nodes when using wireless sensor networks. Efficient-energy management is important to extending the lifetime of the sensor nodes. Most effort for improving power efficiency in tiny sensor nodes has focused mainly on reducing the power consumed during data transmission. However, recent emergence of sensor nodes equipped with multi-cores strongly requires attention to be given to the problem of reducing power consumption in multi-cores. In this paper, we propose an energy efficient scheduling method for sensor nodes supporting a uniform multi-cores. We extend the proposed T-Ler plane based scheduling for global optimal scheduling of a uniform multi-cores and multi-processors to enable power management using dynamic power management. In the proposed approach, processor selection for a scheduling and mapping method between the tasks and processors is proposed to efficiently utilize dynamic power management. Experiments show the effectiveness of the proposed approach compared to other existing methods.

  10. A neural algorithm for the non-uniform and adaptive sampling of biomedical data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesin, Luca

    2016-04-01

    Body sensors are finding increasing applications in the self-monitoring for health-care and in the remote surveillance of sensitive people. The physiological data to be sampled can be non-stationary, with bursts of high amplitude and frequency content providing most information. Such data could be sampled efficiently with a non-uniform schedule that increases the sampling rate only during activity bursts. A real time and adaptive algorithm is proposed to select the sampling rate, in order to reduce the number of measured samples, but still recording the main information. The algorithm is based on a neural network which predicts the subsequent samples and their uncertainties, requiring a measurement only when the risk of the prediction is larger than a selectable threshold. Four examples of application to biomedical data are discussed: electromyogram, electrocardiogram, electroencephalogram, and body acceleration. Sampling rates are reduced under the Nyquist limit, still preserving an accurate representation of the data and of their power spectral densities (PSD). For example, sampling at 60% of the Nyquist frequency, the percentage average rectified errors in estimating the signals are on the order of 10% and the PSD is fairly represented, until the highest frequencies. The method outperforms both uniform sampling and compressive sensing applied to the same data. The discussed method allows to go beyond Nyquist limit, still preserving the information content of non-stationary biomedical signals. It could find applications in body sensor networks to lower the number of wireless communications (saving sensor power) and to reduce the occupation of memory. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Preliminaries on core image analysis using fault drilling samples; Core image kaiseki kotohajime (danso kussaku core kaisekirei)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyazaki, T; Ito, H [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1996-05-01

    This paper introduces examples of image data analysis on fault drilling samples. The paper describes the following matters: core samples used in the analysis are those obtained from wells drilled piercing the Nojima fault which has moved in the Hygoken-Nanbu Earthquake; the CORESCAN system made by DMT Corporation, Germany, used in acquiring the image data consists of a CCD camera, a light source and core rotation mechanism, and a personal computer, its resolution being about 5 pixels/mm in both axial and circumferential directions, and 24-bit full color; with respect to the opening fractures in core samples collected by using a constant azimuth coring, it was possible to derive values of the opening width, inclination angle, and travel from the image data by using a commercially available software for the personal computer; and comparison of this core image with the BHTV record and the hydrophone VSP record (travel and inclination obtained from the BHTV record agree well with those obtained from the core image). 4 refs., 4 figs.

  12. Statistical evaluations of current sampling procedures and incomplete core recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heasler, P.G.; Jensen, L.

    1994-03-01

    This document develops two formulas that describe the effects of incomplete recovery on core sampling results for the Hanford waste tanks. The formulas evaluate incomplete core recovery from a worst-case (i.e.,biased) and best-case (i.e., unbiased) perspective. A core sampler is unbiased if the sample material recovered is a random sample of the material in the tank, while any sampler that preferentially recovers a particular type of waste over others is a biased sampler. There is strong evidence to indicate that the push-mode sampler presently used at the Hanford site is a biased one. The formulas presented here show the effects of incomplete core recovery on the accuracy of composition measurements, as functions of the vertical variability in the waste. These equations are evaluated using vertical variability estimates from previously sampled tanks (B110, U110, C109). Assuming that the values of vertical variability used in this study adequately describes the Hanford tank farm, one can use the formulas to compute the effect of incomplete recovery on the accuracy of an average constituent estimate. To determine acceptable recovery limits, we have assumed that the relative error of such an estimate should be no more than 20%

  13. New PAT tools for assessing content uniformity, sampling error, and degree of crystallinity in pharmaceutical tablets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warnecke, Solveig

    of the pharmaceutical drug, both during development and throughout the production. The usage of PAT tools is encouraged by the regulatory authorities, and therefore the interest in new and improved PAT tools is increasing. The main purpose of introducing Quality by Design (QbD) and PAT in pharmaceutical production...... practice in traditional pharmaceutical industry. In this thesis, three spectroscopic PAT tools are investigated, near-infrared-, terahertz-, and fluorescence-spectroscopy. These techniques have been evaluated with chemometrics and theory of sampling. The first study focused on the critical but rather...... overlooked sampling uncertainty that exist in all analytical measurements. The sampling error was studied using an example involving near infrared transmission (NIT) spectroscopy to study content of uniformity of five batches of escitalopram tablets, produced at different active pharmaceutical ingredients...

  14. Computational methods and modeling. 1. Sampling a Position Uniformly in a Trilinear Hexahedral Volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urbatsch, Todd J.; Evans, Thomas M.; Hughes, H. Grady

    2001-01-01

    Monte Carlo particle transport plays an important role in some multi-physics simulations. These simulations, which may additionally involve deterministic calculations, typically use a hexahedral or tetrahedral mesh. Trilinear hexahedrons are attractive for physics calculations because faces between cells are uniquely defined, distance-to-boundary calculations are deterministic, and hexahedral meshes tend to require fewer cells than tetrahedral meshes. We discuss one aspect of Monte Carlo transport: sampling a position in a tri-linear hexahedron, which is made up of eight control points, or nodes, and six bilinear faces, where each face is defined by four non-coplanar nodes in three-dimensional Cartesian space. We derive, code, and verify the exact sampling method and propose an approximation to it. Our proposed approximate method uses about one-third the memory and can be twice as fast as the exact sampling method, but we find that its inaccuracy limits its use to well-behaved hexahedrons. Daunted by the expense of the exact method, we propose an alternate approximate sampling method. First, calculate beforehand an approximate volume for each corner of the hexahedron by taking one-eighth of the volume of an imaginary parallelepiped defined by the corner node and the three nodes to which it is directly connected. For the sampling, assume separability in the parameters, and sample each parameter, in turn, from a linear pdf defined by the sum of the four corner volumes at each limit (-1 and 1) of the parameter. This method ignores the quadratic portion of the pdf, but it requires less storage, has simpler sampling, and needs no extra, on-the-fly calculations. We simplify verification by designing tests that consist of one or more cells that entirely fill a unit cube. Uniformly sampling complicated cells that fill a unit cube will result in uniformly sampling the unit cube. Unit cubes are easily analyzed. The first problem has four wedges (or tents, or A frames) whose

  15. Acceptance test report for core sample trucks 3 and 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corbett, J.E.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this Acceptance Test Report is to provide documentation for the acceptance testing of the rotary mode core sample trucks 3 and 4, designated as HO-68K-4600 and HO-68K-4647, respectively. This report conforms to the guidelines established in WHC-IP-1026, ''Engineering Practice Guidelines,'' Appendix M, ''Acceptance Test Procedures and Reports.'' Rotary mode core sample trucks 3 and 4 were based upon the design of the second core sample truck (HO-68K-4345) which was constructed to implement rotary mode sampling of the waste tanks at Hanford. Successful completion of acceptance testing on June 30, 1995 verified that all design requirements were met. This report is divided into four sections, beginning with general information. Acceptance testing was performed on trucks 3 and 4 during the months of March through June, 1995. All testing was performed at the ''Rock Slinger'' test site in the 200 West area. The sequence of testing was determined by equipment availability, and the initial revision of the Acceptance Test Procedure (ATP) was used for both trucks. Testing was directed by ICF-KH, with the support of WHC Characterization Equipment Engineering and Characterization Project Operations. Testing was completed per the ATP without discrepancies or deviations, except as noted

  16. A Non-Uniformly Under-Sampled Blade Tip-Timing Signal Reconstruction Method for Blade Vibration Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Hu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available High-speed blades are often prone to fatigue due to severe blade vibrations. In particular, synchronous vibrations can cause irreversible damages to the blade. Blade tip-timing methods (BTT have become a promising way to monitor blade vibrations. However, synchronous vibrations are unsuitably monitored by uniform BTT sampling. Therefore, non-equally mounted probes have been used, which will result in the non-uniformity of the sampling signal. Since under-sampling is an intrinsic drawback of BTT methods, how to analyze non-uniformly under-sampled BTT signals is a big challenge. In this paper, a novel reconstruction method for non-uniformly under-sampled BTT data is presented. The method is based on the periodically non-uniform sampling theorem. Firstly, a mathematical model of a non-uniform BTT sampling process is built. It can be treated as the sum of certain uniform sample streams. For each stream, an interpolating function is required to prevent aliasing in the reconstructed signal. Secondly, simultaneous equations of all interpolating functions in each sub-band are built and corresponding solutions are ultimately derived to remove unwanted replicas of the original signal caused by the sampling, which may overlay the original signal. In the end, numerical simulations and experiments are carried out to validate the feasibility of the proposed method. The results demonstrate the accuracy of the reconstructed signal depends on the sampling frequency, the blade vibration frequency, the blade vibration bandwidth, the probe static offset and the number of samples. In practice, both types of blade vibration signals can be particularly reconstructed by non-uniform BTT data acquired from only two probes.

  17. Accurate determination of rates from non-uniformly sampled relaxation data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stetz, Matthew A.; Wand, A. Joshua, E-mail: wand@upenn.edu [University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Johnson Research Foundation and Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics (United States)

    2016-08-15

    The application of non-uniform sampling (NUS) to relaxation experiments traditionally used to characterize the fast internal motion of proteins is quantitatively examined. Experimentally acquired Poisson-gap sampled data reconstructed with iterative soft thresholding are compared to regular sequentially sampled (RSS) data. Using ubiquitin as a model system, it is shown that 25 % sampling is sufficient for the determination of quantitatively accurate relaxation rates. When the sampling density is fixed at 25 %, the accuracy of rates is shown to increase sharply with the total number of sampled points until eventually converging near the inherent reproducibility of the experiment. Perhaps contrary to some expectations, it is found that accurate peak height reconstruction is not required for the determination of accurate rates. Instead, inaccuracies in rates arise from inconsistencies in reconstruction across the relaxation series that primarily manifest as a non-linearity in the recovered peak height. This indicates that the performance of an NUS relaxation experiment cannot be predicted from comparison of peak heights using a single RSS reference spectrum. The generality of these findings was assessed using three alternative reconstruction algorithms, eight different relaxation measurements, and three additional proteins that exhibit varying degrees of spectral complexity. From these data, it is revealed that non-linearity in peak height reconstruction across the relaxation series is strongly correlated with errors in NUS-derived relaxation rates. Importantly, it is shown that this correlation can be exploited to reliably predict the performance of an NUS-relaxation experiment by using three or more RSS reference planes from the relaxation series. The RSS reference time points can also serve to provide estimates of the uncertainty of the sampled intensity, which for a typical relaxation times series incurs no penalty in total acquisition time.

  18. Portable tester for determining gas content within a core sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, F. Jr.; Schatzel, S.J.

    1998-04-21

    A portable tester is provided for reading and displaying the pressure of a gas released from a rock core sample stored within a sealed container and for taking a sample of the released pressurized gas for chemical analysis thereof for subsequent use in a modified direct method test which determines the volume of gas and specific type of gas contained within the core sample. The portable tester includes a pair of low and high range electrical pressure transducers for detecting a gas pressure; a pair of low and high range display units for displaying the pressure of the detected gas; a selector valve connected to the low and high range pressure transducers and a selector knob for selecting gas flow to one of the flow paths; control valve having an inlet connection to the sealed container; and outlets connected to: a sample gas canister, a second outlet port connected to the selector valve means for reading the pressure of the gas from the sealed container to either the low range or high range pressure transducers, and a connection for venting gas contained within the sealed container to the atmosphere. A battery is electrically connected to and supplies the power for operating the unit. The pressure transducers, display units, selector and control valve means and the battery is mounted to and housed within a protective casing for portable transport and use. 5 figs.

  19. Uniform field loop-gap resonator and rectangular TEU02 for aqueous sample EPR at 94 GHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidabras, Jason W.; Sarna, Tadeusz; Mett, Richard R.; Hyde, James S.

    2017-09-01

    In this work we present the design and implementation of two uniform-field resonators: a seven-loop-six-gap loop-gap resonator (LGR) and a rectangular TEU02 cavity resonator. Each resonator has uniform-field-producing end-sections. These resonators have been designed for electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) of aqueous samples at 94 GHz. The LGR geometry employs low-loss Rexolite end-sections to improve the field homogeneity over a 3 mm sample region-of-interest from near-cosine distribution to 90% uniform. The LGR was designed to accommodate large degassable Polytetrafluorethylen (PTFE) tubes (0.81 mm O.D.; 0.25 mm I.D.) for aqueous samples. Additionally, field modulation slots are designed for uniform 100 kHz field modulation incident at the sample. Experiments using a point sample of lithium phthalocyanine (LiPC) were performed to measure both the uniformity of the microwave magnetic field and 100 kHz field modulation, and confirm simulations. The rectangular TEU02 cavity resonator employs over-sized end-sections with sample shielding to provide an 87% uniform field for a 0.1 × 2 × 6 mm3 sample geometry. An evanescent slotted window was designed for light access to irradiate 90% of the sample volume. A novel dual-slot iris was used to minimize microwave magnetic field perturbations and maintain cross-sectional uniformity. Practical EPR experiments using the application of light irradiated rose bengal (4,5,6,7-tetrachloro-2‧,4‧,5‧,7‧-tetraiodofluorescein) were performed in the TEU02 cavity. The implementation of these geometries providing a practical designs for uniform field resonators that continue resonator advancements towards quantitative EPR spectroscopy.

  20. Uniform formation of Au coated polystyrene core-shell structure using metallization process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyoungseob; Koo, Jonghyun; Roh, Yonghan, E-mail: yhroh@skku.edu

    2011-08-01

    There are several methods for the fabrication of core-shell particles, including chemical reduction and self-assembly. In this study, the chemical reduction method was used to fabricate 100 nm, Au-coated polystyrene nanoparticles. The formation of the gold layer was based on the increase of gold coverage by the reaction with aniline and HAuCl{sub 4}. This method allowed for efficient control of the gold coverage and led to relatively stable products. The formation of Au clusters on the surface of the 100 nm polystyrene beads was characterized by scanning electron microscope and high resolution tunneling electron microscope. As a result, the Au-coated nanoparticles can be used in various applications such as surface plasmon resonators, drug delivery systems and electronic optical devices.

  1. δ13C-CH4 in ice core samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sperlich, Peter

    Ice core records of δ13C-CH4 reflect the variability of CH4 biogeochemistry in response to climate change and show this system is far more complex than expected. The first part of this work is concerned with the development of analytical techniques that allow 1) precise referencing and 2) measure......Ice core records of δ13C-CH4 reflect the variability of CH4 biogeochemistry in response to climate change and show this system is far more complex than expected. The first part of this work is concerned with the development of analytical techniques that allow 1) precise referencing and 2......) measurements of δ13C-CH4 in ice core samples as is required when δ13C-CH4 records that are measured in several laboratories are merged for analysis. Both the referencing and measurement techniques have been compared to further laboratories which proofed the accuracy of the analytical systems. The second part...

  2. Analysis of core samples from jet grouted soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allan, M.L.; Kukacka, L.E.

    1995-10-01

    Superplasticized cementitious grouts were tested for constructing subsurface containment barriers using jet grouting in July, 1994. The grouts were developed in the Department of Applied Science at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The test site was located close to the Chemical Waste Landfill at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM. Sandia was responsible for the placement contract. The jet grouted soil was exposed to the service environment for one year and core samples were extracted to evaluate selected properties. The cores were tested for strength, density, permeability (hydraulic conductivity) and cementitious content. The tests provided an opportunity to determine the performance of the grouts and grout-treated soil. Several recommendations arise from the results of the core tests. These are: (1) grout of the same mix proportions as the final grout should be used as a drilling fluid in order to preserve the original mix design and utilize the benefits of superplasticizers; (2) a high shear mixer should be used for preparation of the grout; (3) the permeability under unsaturated conditions requires consideration when subsurface barriers are used in the vadose zone; and (4) suitable methods for characterizing the permeability of barriers in-situ should be applied

  3. Acquisition and Retaining Granular Samples via a Rotating Coring Bit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Badescu, Mircea; Sherrit, Stewart

    2013-01-01

    This device takes advantage of the centrifugal forces that are generated when a coring bit is rotated, and a granular sample is entered into the bit while it is spinning, making it adhere to the internal wall of the bit, where it compacts itself into the wall of the bit. The bit can be specially designed to increase the effectiveness of regolith capturing while turning and penetrating the subsurface. The bit teeth can be oriented such that they direct the regolith toward the bit axis during the rotation of the bit. The bit can be designed with an internal flute that directs the regolith upward inside the bit. The use of both the teeth and flute can be implemented in the same bit. The bit can also be designed with an internal spiral into which the various particles wedge. In another implementation, the bit can be designed to collect regolith primarily from a specific depth. For that implementation, the bit can be designed such that when turning one way, the teeth guide the regolith outward of the bit and when turning in the opposite direction, the teeth will guide the regolith inward into the bit internal section. This mechanism can be implemented with or without an internal flute. The device is based on the use of a spinning coring bit (hollow interior) as a means of retaining granular sample, and the acquisition is done by inserting the bit into the subsurface of a regolith, soil, or powder. To demonstrate the concept, a commercial drill and a coring bit were used. The bit was turned and inserted into the soil that was contained in a bucket. While spinning the bit (at speeds of 600 to 700 RPM), the drill was lifted and the soil was retained inside the bit. To prove this point, the drill was turned horizontally, and the acquired soil was still inside the bit. The basic theory behind the process of retaining unconsolidated mass that can be acquired by the centrifugal forces of the bit is determined by noting that in order to stay inside the interior of the bit, the

  4. Superficial cooling does not decrease core body temperature before, during, or after exercise in an American football uniform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Rebecca M; Eberman, Lindsey E; Cleary, Michelle A

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the effects of superficial cooling on thermoregulatory responses while exercising in a hot humid environment while wearing an American football uniform. Nine male and female subjects wore a superficial cooling garment while in a cooling (CS) experimental condition or a no cooling (NCS) control condition during an exercise task consisting of warm-up (WU), exercise (EX), and recovery (R). The exercise task simulated an American football conditioning session with subjects wearing a full American football uniform and performing anaerobic and aerobic exercises in a hot humid environment. Subjects were allowed to drink water ad libitum during rest breaks. During the WU, EX, and R periods, core body temperature (T(c)) was measured to assess the effect of the cooling garment. Neither baseline resting before warm-up T(c) nor after warm-up T(c) was significantly different between trials. No significant differences in exercise T(c) between conditions were found. Time to return to baseline T(c) revealed no significant differences between the experimental and control conditions. The authors found that the volume of fluid consumed was 34% less in the experimental condition (711.1 ± 188.0 ml) compared with the control condition (1,077.8 ± 204.8 ml). The findings indicate that the cooling garment was not effective in blunting the rise in T(c) during warm-up, attenuating a rise in T(c) during intermittent exercise, or in increasing a return to baseline T(c) during a resting recovery period in a hot humid environment while wearing an American football uniform.

  5. Uniform Luminous Perovskite Nanofibers with Color-Tunability and Improved Stability Prepared by One-Step Core/Shell Electrospinning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Ping-Chun; Chen, Jung-Yao; Ercan, Ender; Chueh, Chu-Chen; Tung, Shih-Huang; Chen, Wen-Chang

    2018-04-30

    A one-step core/shell electrospinning technique is exploited to fabricate uniform luminous perovskite-based nanofibers, wherein the perovskite and the polymer are respectively employed in the core and the outer shell. Such a coaxial electrospinning technique enables the in situ formation of perovskite nanocrystals, exempting the needs of presynthesis of perovskite quantum dots or post-treatments. It is demonstrated that not only the luminous electrospun nanofibers can possess color-tunability by simply tuning the perovskite composition, but also the grain size of the formed perovskite nanocrystals is largely affected by the perovskite precursor stoichiometry and the polymer solution concentration. Consequently, the optimized perovskite electrospun nanofiber yields a high photoluminescence quantum yield of 30.9%, significantly surpassing the value of its thin-film counterpart. Moreover, owing to the hydrophobic characteristic of shell polymer, the prepared perovskite nanofiber is endowed with a high resistance to air and water. Its photoluminescence intensity remains constant while stored under ambient environment with a relative humidity of 85% over a month and retains intensity higher than 50% of its initial intensity while immersed in water for 48 h. More intriguingly, a white light-emitting perovskite-based nanofiber is successfully fabricated by pairing the orange light-emitting compositional perovskite with a blue light-emitting conjugated polymer. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Laser beam uniformity and stability using homogenizer-based fiber optic launch method: square core fiber delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizotte, Todd E.

    2011-03-01

    Over the years, technological achievements within the laser medical diagnostic, treatment, and therapy markets have led to ever increasing requirements for greater control of critical laser beam parameters. Increased laser power/energy stabilization, temporal and spatial beam shaping and flexible laser beam delivery systems with ergonomic focusing or imaging lens systems are sought by leading medical laser system producers. With medical procedures that utilize laser energy, there is a constant emphasis on reducing adverse effects that come about by the laser itself or its optical system, but even when these variables are well controlled the medical professional will still need to deal with the multivariate nature of the human body. Focusing on the variables that can be controlled, such as accurate placement of the laser beam where it will expose a surface being treated as well as laser beam shape and uniformity is critical to minimizing adverse conditions. This paper covers the use of fiber optic beam delivery as a means of defining the beam shape (intensity/power distribution uniformity) at the target plane as well as the use of fiber delivery as a means to allow more flexible articulation of the laser beam over the surface being treated. The paper will present a new concept of using a square core fiber beam delivery design utilizing a unique micro lens array (MLA) launch method that improves the overall stability of the system, by minimizing the impact of the laser instability. The resulting performance of the prototype is presented to demonstrate its stability in comparison to simple lens launch techniques, with an emphasis on homogenization and articulated fiber delivery.

  7. Sampling of reactor pressure vessel and core internals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oberhaeuser, Ralf

    2012-01-01

    Decommissioning and dismantling of nuclear power plants is a growing business as a huge number of plants built in the 1970's have now reached their lifetime. It is well known that dismantling a nuclear power plant means an extraordinary expense for the owner respectively operator. Beside the dismantling works for itself, the disposal of activated components and other nuclear waste is very expensive. What comes next is the fact that final disposal facilities are not available yet in most countries meaning a need for interim storage on-site in specially built facilities. It can be concluded that a special attention is paid on producing a minimal radioactive waste volume. For this, optimized dismantling and packaging concepts have to be developed. AREVA is proud of versatile experience in successfully dismantling nuclear components like core internals and reactor pressure vessel (RPV). The basis of a well-founded and optimized dismantling and packaging concept must always be the detailed knowledge of the radiological condition of the component to be and in the best case a 3D activation- model. For keeping the necessary sampling effort as small as possible, but simultaneously as efficient as possible, representative sampling positions are defined in advance by theoretical radiological examinations. For this, a detailed 3D-CAD-model of the components to be dismantled has proven very helpful and effective. Under these aspects a sampling of RPV and its components is necessary to verify the theoretically calculated radiological data. The obtained results of activation and contamination are taken into account for the optimized dismantling and packaging strategy. The precise 3D-activation-model will reduce the necessary number and type of final disposal containers as security factors are minimized leading to a lower shielding effort, too. Besides, components or even parts of components may be subject of release measurement. In the end, costs can be reduced. In this context

  8. Computationally efficient real-time interpolation algorithm for non-uniform sampled biosignals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guven, Onur; Eftekhar, Amir; Kindt, Wilko; Constandinou, Timothy G

    2016-06-01

    This Letter presents a novel, computationally efficient interpolation method that has been optimised for use in electrocardiogram baseline drift removal. In the authors' previous Letter three isoelectric baseline points per heartbeat are detected, and here utilised as interpolation points. As an extension from linear interpolation, their algorithm segments the interpolation interval and utilises different piecewise linear equations. Thus, the algorithm produces a linear curvature that is computationally efficient while interpolating non-uniform samples. The proposed algorithm is tested using sinusoids with different fundamental frequencies from 0.05 to 0.7 Hz and also validated with real baseline wander data acquired from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology University and Boston's Beth Israel Hospital (MIT-BIH) Noise Stress Database. The synthetic data results show an root mean square (RMS) error of 0.9 μV (mean), 0.63 μV (median) and 0.6 μV (standard deviation) per heartbeat on a 1 mVp-p 0.1 Hz sinusoid. On real data, they obtain an RMS error of 10.9 μV (mean), 8.5 μV (median) and 9.0 μV (standard deviation) per heartbeat. Cubic spline interpolation and linear interpolation on the other hand shows 10.7 μV, 11.6 μV (mean), 7.8 μV, 8.9 μV (median) and 9.8 μV, 9.3 μV (standard deviation) per heartbeat.

  9. Thermal modeling of core sampling in flammable gas waste tanks. Part 1: Push-mode sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unal, C.; Stroh, K.; Pasamehmetoglu, K.O.

    1997-01-01

    The radioactive waste stored in underground storage tanks at Hanford site is routinely being sampled for waste characterization purposes. The push- and rotary-mode core sampling is one of the sampling methods employed. The waste includes mixtures of sodium nitrate and sodium nitrite with organic compounds that can produce violent exothermic reactions if heated above 160 C during core sampling. A self-propagating waste reaction would produce very high temperatures that eventually result in failure of the tank and radioactive material releases to environment. A two-dimensional thermal model based on a lumped finite volume analysis method is developed. The enthalpy of each node is calculated from the first law of thermodynamics. A flash temperature and effective contact area concept were introduced to account the interface temperature rise. No maximum temperature rise exceeding the critical value of 60 C was found in the cases studied for normal operating conditions. Several accident conditions are also examined. In these cases it was found that the maximum drill bit temperature remained below the critical reaction temperature as long as a 30 scfm purge flow is provided the push-mode drill bit during sampling in rotary mode. The failure to provide purge flow resulted in exceeding the limiting temperatures in a relatively short time

  10. A New Method of Stress Measurement Based upon Elastic Deformation of Core Sample with Stress Relief by Drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, T.; Funato, A.; Tamagawa, T.; Tezuka, K.; Yabe, Y.; Abe, S.; Ishida, A.; Ogasawara, H.

    2017-12-01

    When rock is cored at depth by drilling, anisotropic expansion occurs with the relief of anisotropic rock stresses, resulting in a sinusoidal variation of core diameter with a period of 180 deg. in the core roll angle. The circumferential variation of core diameter is given theoretically as a function of rock stresses. These new findings can lead various ideas to estimate the rock stress from circumferential variation of core diameter measured after the core retrieving. In the simplest case when a single core sample is only available, the difference between the maximum and minimum components of rock stress in a plane perpendicular to the drilled hole can be estimated from the maximum and minimum core diameters (see the detail in, Funato and Ito, IJRMMS, 2017). The advantages of this method include, (i) much easier measurement operation than those in other in-situ or in-lab estimation methods, and (ii) applicability in high stress environment where stress measurements need pressure for packers or pumping system for the hydro-fracturing methods higher than their tolerance levels. We have successfully tested the method at deep seismogenic zones in South African gold mines, and we are going to apply it to boreholes collared at 3 km depth and intersecting a M5.5 rupture plane several hundred meters below the mine workings in the ICDP project of "Drilling into Seismogenic zones of M2.0 - M5.5 earthquakes in deep South African gold mines" (DSeis) (e.g., http://www.icdp-online.org/projects/world/africa/orkney-s-africa/details/). If several core samples with different orientation are available, all of three principal components of 3D rock stress can be estimated. To realize this, we should have several boreholes drilled in different directions in a rock mass where the stress field is considered to be uniform. It is commonly carried out to dill boreholes in different directions from a mine gallery. Even in a deep borehole drilled vertically from the ground surface, the

  11. Tank 241-U-105 push mode core sampling and analysis plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, K.E.

    1995-01-01

    This Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) will identify characterization objectives pertaining to sample collection, laboratory analytical evaluation, and reporting requirements for vapor samples and two push mode core samples from tank 241-U-105 (U-105)

  12. Observer-based output feedback control of networked control systems with non-uniform sampling and time-varying delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Su; Chen, Jie; Sun, Jian

    2017-10-01

    This paper investigates the problem of observer-based output feedback control for networked control systems with non-uniform sampling and time-varying transmission delay. The sampling intervals are assumed to vary within a given interval. The transmission delay belongs to a known interval. A discrete-time model is first established, which contains time-varying delay and norm-bounded uncertainties coming from non-uniform sampling intervals. It is then converted to an interconnection of two subsystems in which the forward channel is delay-free. The scaled small gain theorem is used to derive the stability condition for the closed-loop system. Moreover, the observer-based output feedback controller design method is proposed by utilising a modified cone complementary linearisation algorithm. Finally, numerical examples illustrate the validity and superiority of the proposed method.

  13. Improved Rock Core Sample Break-off, Retention and Ejection System, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed effort advances the design of an innovative core sampling and acquisition system with improved core break-off, retention and ejection features. The...

  14. Improved Rock Core Sample Break-off, Retention and Ejection System, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed effort advances the design of an innovative core sampling and acquisition system with improved core break-off, retention and ejection features. Phase 1...

  15. Test Plan for Rotary Mode Core Sample Truck Grapple Hoist Level Wind System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BOGER, R.M.

    1999-12-09

    A Grapple Hoist Assembly is currently used on the Rotary Mode Core Sampling Trucks (RMCSTs) to actuate the sampler and retrieve the pintle rod during sampling operations. The hoist assembly includes a driven drum approximately two inches wide and six inches in diameter that rotates to pay out or reel in the 5/32-in. cable The current Grapple Hoist Assembly, detailed on drawing H-2-690057, is prone to ''bird nesting'' the cable on the drum. ''Bird nesting'' is a condition in which the cable does not wind onto the drum in a uniformly layered manner, but winds in a random fashion where the cable essentially ''piles up'' inappropriately on the drum and, on some occasions, winds on the drum drive shaft. A system to help control this ''bird nesting'' problem has been designed as an addition to the existing components of the Grapple Hoist Assembly. The new design consists of a mechanism that is timed with, and driven by, the shaft that drives the drum. This mechanism traverses back and forth across the width of the drum to lay the cable on the drum in a uniformly layered manner. This test plan establishes the acceptance criteria, test procedure and test conditions It also describes the test apparatus necessary to verify the adequacy of the level wind system design. The test is defined as qualification testing (LMHC 1999b) and as such will be performed at conditions beyond the parameters that the Grapple Hoist Assembly is allowed to operate by the Safety Equipment List (SEL)(LMHC 1998).

  16. Test Plan for Rotary Mode Core Sample Truck Grapple Hoist Level Wind System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BOGER, R.M.

    1999-01-01

    A Grapple Hoist Assembly is currently used on the Rotary Mode Core Sampling Trucks (RMCSTs) to actuate the sampler and retrieve the pintle rod during sampling operations. The hoist assembly includes a driven drum approximately two inches wide and six inches in diameter that rotates to pay out or reel in the 5/32-in. cable. The current Grapple Hoist Assembly, detailed on drawing H-2-690057, is prone to ''bird nesting'' the cable on the drum. ''Bird nesting'' is a condition in which the cable does not wind onto the drum in a uniformly layered manner, but winds in a random fashion where the cable essentially ''piles up'' inappropriately on the drum and, on some occasions, winds on the drum drive shaft. A system to help control this ''bird nesting'' problem has been designed as an addition to the existing components of the Grapple Hoist Assembly. The new design consists of a mechanism that is timed with, and driven by, the shaft that drives the drum. This mechanism traverses back and forth across the width of the drum to lay the cable on the drum in a uniformly layered manner. This test plan establishes the acceptance criteria, test procedure and test conditions. It also describes the test apparatus necessary to verify the adequacy of the level wind system design. The test is defined as qualification testing (LMHC 1999b) and as such will be performed at conditions beyond the parameters that the Grapple Hoist Assembly is allowed to operate by the Safety Equipment List

  17. Test Plan for Rotary Mode Core Sample Truck Grapple Hoist Level Wind System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BOGER, R.M.

    1999-01-01

    A Grapple Hoist Assembly is currently used on the Rotary Mode Core Sampling Trucks (RMCSTs) to actuate the sampler and retrieve the pintle rod during sampling operations. The hoist assembly includes a driven drum approximately two inches wide and six inches in diameter that rotates to pay out or reel in the 5/32-in. cable The current Grapple Hoist Assembly, detailed on drawing H-2-690057, is prone to ''bird nesting'' the cable on the drum. ''Bird nesting'' is a condition in which the cable does not wind onto the drum in a uniformly layered manner, but winds in a random fashion where the cable essentially ''piles up'' inappropriately on the drum and, on some occasions, winds on the drum drive shaft. A system to help control this ''bird nesting'' problem has been designed as an addition to the existing components of the Grapple Hoist Assembly. The new design consists of a mechanism that is timed with, and driven by, the shaft that drives the drum. This mechanism traverses back and forth across the width of the drum to lay the cable on the drum in a uniformly layered manner. This test plan establishes the acceptance criteria, test procedure and test conditions It also describes the test apparatus necessary to verify the adequacy of the level wind system design. The test is defined as qualification testing (LMHC 1999b) and as such will be performed at conditions beyond the parameters that the Grapple Hoist Assembly is allowed to operate by the Safety Equipment List (SEL)(LMHC 1998)

  18. Tank 241-B-203 push mode core sampling and analysis plan. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jo, J.

    1995-01-01

    This Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) identifies characterization objectives pertaining to sample collection, laboratory analytical evaluation, and reporting requirements for two push-mode core samples from tank 241-B-203 (B-203)

  19. Tank 241-B-204 push mode core sampling and analysis plan. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, L.M.

    1995-01-01

    This Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) identifies characterization objectives pertaining to sample collection, laboratory analytical evaluation, and reporting requirements for two push-mode core samples from tank 241-B-204 (B-204)

  20. Characterization of Vadose Zone Sediment: Uncontaminated RCRA Borehole Core Samples and Composite Samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serne, R. Jeffrey; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Schaef, Herbert T.; Williams, Bruce A.; Lanigan, David C.; Horton, Duane G.; Clayton, Ray E.; Mitroshkov, Alexandre V.; Legore, Virginia L.; O'Hara, Matthew J.; Brown, Christopher F.; Parker, Kent E.; Kutnyakov, Igor V.; Serne, Jennifer N.; Last, George V.; Smith, Steven C.; Lindenmeier, Clark W.; Zachara, John M.; Burke, Deborah Sd.

    2001-01-01

    The overall goal of the of the Tank Farm Vadose Zone Project, led by CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc., is to define risks from past and future single-shell tank farm activities. To meet this goal, CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. asked scientists from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to perform detailed analyses on vadose zone sediment from within the S-SX Waste Management Area. This report is the first in a series of four reports to present the results of these analyses. Specifically, this report contains all the geologic, geochemical, and selected physical characterization data collected on vadose zone sediment recovered from RCRA borehole bore samples and composite samples. Intact cores from two RCRA boreholes (299-W22-48 and 299-W22-50) near the SX Tank Farm and four, large-quantity grab samples from outcrop sediment on and off the Hanford Site were sampled to better understand the fate of contaminants in the vadose zone beneath underground storage tanks at the Hanford Site. Borehole and outcrop samples analyzed for this report are located outside the tank farms, and therefore may be considered standard or background samples from which to compare contaminated sediments within the tank farms themselves. This report presents our interpretation of the physical, chemical, and mineralogical properties of the uncontaminated vadose zone sediments, and variations in the vertical distribution of these properties. The information presented in this report is intended to support preparation of the S-SX Field Investigation Report to be prepared by CH2M Hill Hanford Group, Inc. as well as future remediation actions at the S-SX Tank Farm

  1. The fabrication of highly uniform ZnO/CdS core/shell structures using a spin-coating-based successive ion layer adsorption and reaction method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joo, Jinmyoung; Kim, Darae; Yun, Dong-Jin; Jun, Hwichan; Rhee, Shi-Woo; Lee, Jae Sung; Yong, Kijung; Jeon, Sangmin; Kim, Sungjee

    2010-01-01

    We developed a successive ion layer adsorption and reaction method based on spin-coating (spin-SILAR) and applied the method to the fabrication of highly uniform ZnO/CdS core/shell nanowire arrays. Because the adsorption, reaction, and rinsing steps occur simultaneously during spin-coating, the spin-SILAR method does not require rinsing steps between the alternating ion adsorption steps, making the growth process simpler and faster than conventional SILAR methods based on dip-coating (dip-SILAR). The ZnO/CdS core/shell nanowire arrays prepared by spin-SILAR had a denser and more uniform structure than those prepared by dip-SILAR, resulting in the higher power efficiency for use in photoelectrochemical cells.

  2. The fabrication of highly uniform ZnO/CdS core/shell structures using a spin-coating-based successive ion layer adsorption and reaction method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joo, Jinmyoung; Kim, Darae; Yun, Dong-Jin; Jun, Hwichan; Rhee, Shi-Woo; Lee, Jae Sung; Yong, Kijung; Jeon, Sangmin [System on Chip Chemical Process Research, Department of Chemical Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH), Pohang (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sungjee, E-mail: jeons@postech.ac.kr [Department of Chemistry, Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH), Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-08-13

    We developed a successive ion layer adsorption and reaction method based on spin-coating (spin-SILAR) and applied the method to the fabrication of highly uniform ZnO/CdS core/shell nanowire arrays. Because the adsorption, reaction, and rinsing steps occur simultaneously during spin-coating, the spin-SILAR method does not require rinsing steps between the alternating ion adsorption steps, making the growth process simpler and faster than conventional SILAR methods based on dip-coating (dip-SILAR). The ZnO/CdS core/shell nanowire arrays prepared by spin-SILAR had a denser and more uniform structure than those prepared by dip-SILAR, resulting in the higher power efficiency for use in photoelectrochemical cells.

  3. On hydromagnetic instabilities and the mean electromotive force in a non-uniformly stratified Earth’s core affected by viscosity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šimkanin, Ján; Brestenský, J.; Ševčík, S.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 4 (2006), s. 645-661 ISSN 0039-3169 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP205/04/P182 Grant - others:VEGA(SK) 1/0212/03 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30120515 Keywords : non-uniform stratification of the Earth's core * linear magnetoconvection * diffusive hydromagnetic instabilities Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography Impact factor: 0.603, year: 2006

  4. Sampling and treatment of rock cores and groundwater under reducing environments of deep underground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebashi, Katsuhiro; Yamaguchi, Tetsuji; Tanaka, Tadao

    2005-01-01

    A method of sampling and treatment of undisturbed rock cores and groundwater under maintained reducing environments of deep underground was developed and demonstrated in a Neogene's sandy mudstone layer at depth of GL-100 to -200 m. Undisturbed rock cores and groundwater were sampled and transferred into an Ar gas atmospheric glove box with minimized exposure to the atmosphere. The reducing conditions of the sampled groundwater and rock cores were examined in the Ar atmospheric glove box by measuring pH and Eh of the sampled groundwater and sampled groundwater contacting with disk type rock samples, respectively. (author)

  5. System Identification of a Non-Uniformly Sampled Multi-Rate System in Aluminium Electrolysis Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Håkon Viumdal

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Standard system identification algorithms are usually designed to generate mathematical models with equidistant sampling instants, that are equal for both input variables and output variables. Unfortunately, real industrial data sets are often disrupted by missing samples, variations of sampling rates in the different variables (also known as multi-rate systems, and intermittent measurements. In industries with varying events based maintenance or manual operational measures, intermittent measurements are performed leading to uneven sampling rates. Such is the case with aluminium smelters, where in addition the materials fed into the cell create even more irregularity in sampling. Both measurements and feeding are mostly manually controlled. A simplified simulation of the metal level in an aluminium electrolysis cell is performed based on mass balance considerations. System identification methods based on Prediction Error Methods (PEM such as Ordinary Least Squares (OLS, and the sub-space method combined Deterministic and Stochastic system identification and Realization (DSR, and its variants are applied to the model of a single electrolysis cell as found in the aluminium smelters. Aliasing phenomena due to large sampling intervals can be crucial in avoiding unsuitable models, but with knowledge about the system dynamics, it is easier to optimize the sampling performance, and hence achieve successful models. The results based on the simulation studies of molten aluminium height in the cells using the various algorithms give results which tally well with the synthetic data sets used. System identification on a smaller data set from a real plant is also implemented in this work. Finally, some concrete suggestions are made for using these models in the smelters.

  6. Transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate rebiopsy: How many core sampling should be applied to which patient?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akın Soner Amasyali

    2018-01-01

    Conclusions: At least 20 cores should be sampled in rebiopsy, especially in the patients diagnosed with benign and HGPIN. However, we believe that standard systematic sampling will be sufficient for the patients diagnosed with ASAP.

  7. Relating the structural strength of concrete sewer pipes and material properties retrieved from core samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stanic, N.; Langeveld, J.G.; Salet, Theo; Clemens, F.H.L.R.

    2016-01-01

    Drill core samples are taken in practice for an analysis of the material characteristics of concrete pipes in order to improve the quality of the decision-making on rehabilitation actions. Earlier research has demonstrated that core sampling is associated with a significant uncertainty. In this

  8. A geostatistical estimation of zinc grade in bore-core samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starzec, A.

    1987-01-01

    Possibilities and preliminary results of geostatistical interpretation of the XRF determination of zinc in bore-core samples are considered. For the spherical model of the variogram the estimation variance of grade in a disk-shape sample (estimated from the grade on the circumference sample) is calculated. Variograms of zinc grade in core samples are presented and examples of the grade estimation are discussed. 4 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab. (author)

  9. A Uniformly Selected Sample of Low-mass Black Holes in Seyfert 1 Galaxies. II. The SDSS DR7 Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, He-Yang; Yuan, Weimin; Dong, Xiao-Bo; Zhou, Hongyan; Liu, Wen-Juan

    2018-04-01

    A new sample of 204 low-mass black holes (LMBHs) in active galactic nuclei (AGNs) is presented with black hole masses in the range of (1–20) × 105 M ⊙. The AGNs are selected through a systematic search among galaxies in the Seventh Data Release (DR7) of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), and careful analyses of their optical spectra and precise measurement of spectral parameters. Combining them with our previous sample selected from SDSS DR4 makes it the largest LMBH sample so far, totaling over 500 objects. Some of the statistical properties of the combined LMBH AGN sample are briefly discussed in the context of exploring the low-mass end of the AGN population. Their X-ray luminosities follow the extension of the previously known correlation with the [O III] luminosity. The effective optical-to-X-ray spectral indices α OX, albeit with a large scatter, are broadly consistent with the extension of the relation with the near-UV luminosity L 2500 Å. Interestingly, a correlation of α OX with black hole mass is also found, with α OX being statistically flatter (stronger X-ray relative to optical) for lower black hole masses. Only 26 objects, mostly radio loud, were detected in radio at 20 cm in the FIRST survey, giving a radio-loud fraction of 4%. The host galaxies of LMBHs have stellar masses in the range of 108.8–1012.4 M ⊙ and optical colors typical of Sbc spirals. They are dominated by young stellar populations that seem to have undergone continuous star formation history.

  10. PM10 sampler deposited air particulates: Ascertaining uniformity of sample on filter through rotated exposure to radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owoade, Oyediran K.; Olise, Felix S.; Obioh, Imoh B.; Olaniyi, Hezekiah B.; Bolzacchini, Ezio; Ferrero, Luca; Perrone, Grazia

    2006-01-01

    For reproducibility of analytical results of samples deposited on filters using PM 10 sampler, homogeneity of the sample on the filter is very important especially when the size of the X-ray beam for the analysis is less than the size of filter. It is against this background that the air particulate samples collected on using PM 10 samplers are analysed to determine the elemental concentrations. Each sample was divided into four quadrants and each was analysed under same conditions to determine if the particles were deposited uniformly over the filter. Each analysis was done using EDXRF technique. The spectrometer consists of four secondary targets, which are automatically switched to in sequence in analysing each sample. The concentration of various elements detected was determined using TURBOQUANT (a brand name for a SPECTRO method which is used for screening analysis). Sixteen elements were detected in every sample. Results show that there was less than 10% deviation in the concentrations in different quadrants. There were a few elements like Ba, Cs, etc., which have deviation greater than 20%. The concentrations of these latter elements were close to detection limits of the spectrometer. We conclude that the analytical result of particulate samples deposited on filters by the PM 10 sampler can be reliable in terms of the homogeneity of the deposition. For such analytes with low concentrations, it would be important that the sampling time be increased to allow for higher mass deposition on the filter

  11. PM{sub 10} sampler deposited air particulates: Ascertaining uniformity of sample on filter through rotated exposure to radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owoade, Oyediran K. [Environmental Research Laboratory (ERL), Physics Department, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife (Nigeria)]. E-mail: oowoade2001@yahoo.com; Olise, Felix S. [Environmental Research Laboratory (ERL), Physics Department, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife (Nigeria); Obioh, Imoh B. [Centre for Energy Research, Development (Cerd), Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife (Nigeria); Olaniyi, Hezekiah B. [Environmental Research Laboratory (ERL), Physics Department, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife (Nigeria); Bolzacchini, Ezio [Universita Milano-Bicocca, Dipartimento di Scienze-Ambientali, Pizza della Scienza, Milan (Italy); Ferrero, Luca [Universita Milano-Bicocca, Dipartimento di Scienze-Ambientali, Pizza della Scienza, Milan (Italy); Perrone, Grazia [Universita Milano-Bicocca, Dipartimento di Scienze-Ambientali, Pizza della Scienza, Milan (Italy)

    2006-08-01

    For reproducibility of analytical results of samples deposited on filters using PM{sub 10} sampler, homogeneity of the sample on the filter is very important especially when the size of the X-ray beam for the analysis is less than the size of filter. It is against this background that the air particulate samples collected on using PM{sub 10} samplers are analysed to determine the elemental concentrations. Each sample was divided into four quadrants and each was analysed under same conditions to determine if the particles were deposited uniformly over the filter. Each analysis was done using EDXRF technique. The spectrometer consists of four secondary targets, which are automatically switched to in sequence in analysing each sample. The concentration of various elements detected was determined using TURBOQUANT (a brand name for a SPECTRO method which is used for screening analysis). Sixteen elements were detected in every sample. Results show that there was less than 10% deviation in the concentrations in different quadrants. There were a few elements like Ba, Cs, etc., which have deviation greater than 20%. The concentrations of these latter elements were close to detection limits of the spectrometer. We conclude that the analytical result of particulate samples deposited on filters by the PM{sub 10} sampler can be reliable in terms of the homogeneity of the deposition. For such analytes with low concentrations, it would be important that the sampling time be increased to allow for higher mass deposition on the filter.

  12. Sampling strategy to develop a primary core collection of apple ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2010-01-11

    Jan 11, 2010 ... Physiology and Molecular Biology for Fruit, Tree, Beijing 100193, China. ... analyzed on genetic diversity to ensure their represen- .... strategy, cluster and random sampling. .... on isozyme data―A simulation study, Theor.

  13. Experimental Study and Mathematical Modeling of Asphaltene Deposition Mechanism in Core Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafari Behbahani T.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work, experimental studies were conducted to determine the effect of asphaltene deposition on the permeability reduction and porosity reduction of carbonate, sandstone and dolomite rock samples using an Iranian bottom hole live oil sample which is close to reservoir conditions, whereas in the majority of previous work, a mixture of recombined oil (a mixture of dead oil and associated gas was injected into a core sample which is far from reservoir conditions. The effect of the oil injection rate on asphaltene deposition and permeability reduction was studied. The experimental results showed that an increase in the oil injection flow rate can result in an increase in asphaltene deposition and permeability reduction. Also, it can be observed that at lower injection flow rates, a monotonic decrease in permeability of the rock samples can be attained upon increasing the injection flow rate, while at higher injection rates, after a decrease in rock permeability, an increasing trend is observed before a steady-state condition can be reached. The experimental results also showed that the rock type can affect the amount of asphaltene deposition, and the asphaltene deposition has different mechanisms in sandstone and carbonate core samples. It can be seen that the adsorption and plugging mechanisms have a more important role in asphaltene deposition in carbonate core samples than sandstone core samples. From the results, it can be observed that the pore volumes of the injected crude oil are higher for sandstone cores compared with the carbonate cores. Also, it can be inferred that three depositional types may take place during the crude oil injection, i.e., continuous deposition for low-permeability cores, slow, steady plugging for high-permeability cores and steady deposition for medium-permeability cores. It can be seen from the experimental results that damage to the core samples was found to increase when the production pressures were

  14. Compact multipurpose sub-sampling and processing of in-situ cores with press (pressurized core sub-sampling and extrusion system)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anders, E.; Muller, W.H. [Technical Univ. of Berlin, Berlin (Germany). Chair of Continuum Mechanics and Material Theory

    2008-07-01

    Climate change, declining resources and over-consumption result in a need for sustainable resource allocation, habitat conservation and claim for new technologies and prospects for damage-containment. In order to increase knowledge of the environment and to define potential hazards, it is necessary to get an understanding of the deep biosphere. In addition, the benthic conditions of sediment structure and gas hydrates, temperature, pressure and bio-geochemistry must be maintained during the sequences of sampling, retrieval, transfer, storage and downstream analysis. In order to investigate highly instable gas hydrates, which decomposes under pressure and temperature change, a suite of research technologies have been developed by the Technische Universitat Berlin (TUB), Germany. This includes the pressurized core sub-sampling and extrusion system (PRESS) that was developed in the European Union project called HYACE/HYACINTH. The project enabled well-defined sectioning and transfer of drilled pressure-cores obtained by a rotary corer and fugro pressure corer into transportation and investigation chambers. This paper described HYACINTH pressure coring and the HYACINTH core transfer. Autoclave coring tools and HYACINTH core logging, coring tools, and sub-sampling were also discussed. It was concluded that possible future applications include, but were not limited to, research in shales and other tight formations, carbon dioxide sequestration, oil and gas exploration, coalbed methane, and microbiology of the deep biosphere. To meet the corresponding requirements and to incorporate the experiences from previous expeditions, the pressure coring system would need to be redesigned to adapt it to the new applications. 3 refs., 5 figs.

  15. Opportunities and Challenges of Linking Scientific Core Samples to the Geoscience Data Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noren, A. J.

    2016-12-01

    Core samples generated in scientific drilling and coring are critical for the advancement of the Earth Sciences. The scientific themes enabled by analysis of these samples are diverse, and include plate tectonics, ocean circulation, Earth-life system interactions (paleoclimate, paleobiology, paleoanthropology), Critical Zone processes, geothermal systems, deep biosphere, and many others, and substantial resources are invested in their collection and analysis. Linking core samples to researchers, datasets, publications, and funding agencies through registration of globally unique identifiers such as International Geo Sample Numbers (IGSNs) offers great potential for advancing several frontiers. These include maximizing sample discoverability, access, reuse, and return on investment; a means for credit to researchers; and documentation of project outputs to funding agencies. Thousands of kilometers of core samples and billions of derivative subsamples have been generated through thousands of investigators' projects, yet the vast majority of these samples are curated at only a small number of facilities. These numbers, combined with the substantial similarity in sample types, make core samples a compelling target for IGSN implementation. However, differences between core sample communities and other geoscience disciplines continue to create barriers to implementation. Core samples involve parent-child relationships spanning 8 or more generations, an exponential increase in sample numbers between levels in the hierarchy, concepts related to depth/position in the sample, requirements for associating data derived from core scanning and lithologic description with data derived from subsample analysis, and publications based on tens of thousands of co-registered scan data points and thousands of analyses of subsamples. These characteristics require specialized resources for accurate and consistent assignment of IGSNs, and a community of practice to establish norms

  16. Restoration of Bi-Contrast MRI Data for Intensity Uniformity with Bayesian Coring of Co-Occurrence Statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stathis Hadjidemetriou

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The reconstruction of MRI data assumes a uniform radio-frequency field. However, in practice, the radio-frequency field is inhomogeneous and leads to anatomically inconsequential intensity non-uniformities across an image. An anatomic region can be imaged with multiple contrasts reconstructed independently and be suffering from different non-uniformities. These artifacts can complicate the further automated analysis of the images. A method is presented for the joint intensity uniformity restoration of two such images. The effect of the intensity distortion on the auto-co-occurrence statistics of each image as well as on the joint-co-occurrence statistics of the two images is modeled and used for their non-stationary restoration followed by their back-projection to the images. Several constraints that ensure a stable restoration are also imposed. Moreover, the method considers the inevitable differences between the signal regions of the two images. The method has been evaluated extensively with BrainWeb phantom brain data as well as with brain anatomic data from the Human Connectome Project (HCP and with data of Parkinson’s disease patients. The performance of the proposed method has been compared with that of the N4ITK tool. The proposed method increases tissues contrast at least 4 . 62 times more than the N4ITK tool for the BrainWeb images. The dynamic range with the N4ITK method for the same images is increased by up to +29.77%, whereas, for the proposed method, it has a corresponding limited decrease of - 1 . 15 % , as expected. The validation has demonstrated the accuracy and stability of the proposed method and hence its ability to reduce the requirements for additional calibration scans.

  17. Determination of the neutron activation profile of core drill samples by gamma-ray spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurau, D; Boden, S; Sima, O; Stanga, D

    2018-04-01

    This paper provides guidance for determining the neutron activation profile of core drill samples taken from the biological shield of nuclear reactors using gamma spectrometry measurements. Thus, it provides guidance for selecting a model of the right form to fit data and using least squares methods for model fitting. The activity profiles of two core samples taken from the biological shield of a nuclear reactor were determined. The effective activation depth and the total activity of core samples along with their uncertainties were computed by Monte Carlo simulation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. TMI-2 core debris grab samples: Examination and analysis: Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akers, D.W.; Carlson, E.R.; Cook, B.A.; Ploger, S.A.; Carlson, J.O.

    1986-09-01

    Six samples of particulate debris were removed from the TMI-2 core rubble bed during September and October 1983, and five more samples were obtained in March 1984. The samples (up to 174 g each) were obtained at two locations in the core: H8 (center) and E9 (mid-radius). Ten of the eleven samples were examined at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to obtain data on the physical and chemical nature of the debris and the postaccident condition of the core. Portions of the samples also were subjected to differential thermal analysis at Rockwell Hanford Operations and metallurgical and chemical examinations at Argonne National Laboratories. This report presents results of the examination of the core debris grab samples, including physical, metallurgical, chemical, and radiochemical analyses. The results indicate that temperatures in the core reached at least 3100 K during the TMI-2 accident, fuel melting and significant mixing of core structural material occurred, and large fractions of some radionuclides (e.g., 90 Sr and 144 Ce) were retained in the core

  19. Electrocardiographic gating of list mode data with a positron emission tomography system that utilizes wobbling motion to achieve uniform sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaeta, J.M.; Yerian, K.A.; Mullani, N.A.

    1986-01-01

    An interactive software package has been developed for gating of list mode data acquired with PET. The package supports: histogram displays (ie. for determining an acceptable beat interval length window), automatic rejection of beats outside the window, forward or backward gating capabilities, capability of specifying the position of the gating interval, and of the time interval within the list mode study to be reformatted. The interaction of PET wobble motion frequency and heart beat frequency may result in image non-uniformities (ringing artifacts), due to incomplete wobble sampling. Therefore, the reconstruction software incorporates a very simple scheme for correcting for the amount of time spent at each wobble position and allowing for the decay of short lived isotopes such as Rubidium-82 (Rb-82). Rb-82 myocardial uptake images free of non-uniformity artifacts and quantitatively accurate have been reconstructed for 10 different dog studies, and 8 patient studies. Multi-slice frames at discrete portions of the heart cycle (i.e. End Diastole) and multi-gated sequences for cine display have been produced

  20. Addressing Challenges and Scalability in the Synthesis of Thin Uniform Metal Shells on Large Metal Nanoparticle Cores: Case Study of Ag-Pt Core-Shell Nanocubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslam, Umar; Linic, Suljo

    2017-12-13

    Bimetallic nanoparticles in which a metal is coated with an ultrathin (∼1 nm) layer of a second metal are often desired for their unique chemical and physical properties. Current synthesis methods for producing such core-shell nanostructures often require incremental addition of a shell metal precursor which is rapidly reduced onto metal cores. A major shortcoming of this approach is that it necessitates precise concentrations of chemical reagents, making it difficult to perform at large scales. To address this issue, we considered an approach whereby the reduction of the shell metal precursor was controlled through in situ chemical modification of the precursor. We used this approach to develop a highly scalable synthesis for coating atomic layers of Pt onto Ag nanocubes. We show that Ag-Pt core-shell nanostructures are synthesized in high yields and that these structures effectively combine the optical properties of the plasmonic Ag nanocube core with the surface properties of the thin Pt shell. Additionally, we demonstrate the scalability of the synthesis by performing a 10 times scale-up.

  1. Rational Construction of Uniform CoNi-Based Core-Shell Microspheres with Tunable Electromagnetic Wave Absorption Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Na; Jiang, Jian-Tang; Xu, Cheng-Yan; Yan, Shao-Jiu; Zhen, Liang

    2018-02-16

    Core-shell particles with integration of ferromagnetic core and dielectric shell are attracting extensive attention for promising microwave absorption applications. In this work, CoNi microspheres with conical bulges were synthesized by a simple and scalable liquid-phase reduction method. Subsequent coating of dielectric materials was conducted to acquire core-shell structured CoNi@TiO 2 composite particles, in which the thickness of TiO 2 is about 40 nm. The coating of TiO 2 enables the absorption band of CoNi to effectively shift from K u to S band, and endows CoNi@TiO 2 microspheres with outstanding electromagnetic wave absorption performance along with a maximum reflection loss of 76.6 dB at 3.3 GHz, much better than that of bare CoNi microspheres (54.4 dB at 17.8 GHz). The enhanced EMA performance is attributed to the unique core-shell structures, which can induce dipole polarization and interfacial polarization, and tune the dielectric properties to achieve good impedance matching. Impressively, TiO 2 coating endows the composites with better microwave absorption capability than CoNi@SiO 2 microspheres. Compared with SiO 2 , TiO 2 dielectric shells could protect CoNi microspheres from merger and agglomeration during annealed. These results indicate that CoNi@TiO 2 core-shell microspheres can serve as high-performance absorbers for electromagnetic wave absorbing application.

  2. Operability test procedure for the Rotary Mode Core Sampling System Exhausters 3 and 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WSaldo, E.J.

    1995-01-01

    This document provides a procedure for performing operability testing of the Rotary Mode Core Sampling System Exhausters 3 ampersand 4. Upon completion of testing activities an operability testing report will be issued

  3. Experience with Aerosol Generation During Rotary Mode Core Sampling in the Hanford Single Shell Waste Tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SCHOFIELD, J.S.

    1999-01-01

    This document provides data on aerosol concentrations in tank head spaces, total mass of aerosols in the tank head space and mass of aerosols sent to the exhauster during Rotary Mode Core Sampling from November 1994 through April 1999

  4. Engineering Task Plan to Expand the Environmental Operational Envelope of Core Sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BOGER, R.M.

    1999-01-01

    This Engineering Task Plan authorizes the development of an Alternative Generation and Analysis (AGA). The AGA will determine how to expand the environmental operating envelope during core sampling operations

  5. Measurement and analysis of reactivity worth of 237Np sample in cores of TCA and FCA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakurai, Takeshi; Mori, Takamasa; Okajima, Shigeaki; Tani, Kazuhiro; Suzaki, Takenori; Saito, Masaki

    2009-01-01

    The reactivity worth of 22.87 grams of 237 Np oxide sample was measured and analyzed in seven uranium cores in the Tank-Type Critical Assembly (TCA) and two uranium cores in the Fast Critical Assembly (FCA) at the Japan Atomic Energy Agency. The TCA cores provided a systematic variation in the neutron spectrum between the thermal and resonance energy regions. The FCA cores, XXI and XXV, provided a hard neutron spectrum of the fast reactor and a soft one of the resonance energy region, respectively. Analyses were carried out using the JENDL-3.3 nuclear data library with a Monte Carlo method for the TCA cores and a deterministic method for the FCA cores. The ratios of calculated to experimental (C/E) reactivity worth were between 0.97 and 0.91, and showed no apparent dependence on the neutron spectrum. (author)

  6. SAFOD Phase III Core Sampling and Data Management at the Gulf Coast Repository

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Lockner

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth (SAFODproject is yielding new insight into the San Andreas Fault (Zoback et al., 2010; Zoback et al., this issue. SAFOD drilling started in 2002 with a pilot hole, and proceeded with three phrases of drilling and coring during the summers of 2004, 2005, and 2007 (Fig. 1. One key component of theproject is curation, sampling, and documentation of SAFOD core usage at the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program’s (IODP Gulf Coast Repository (GCR at Texas A&M University. We present here the milestones accomplished over the past two years of sampling Phase III core at the GCR.

  7. Random noise attenuation of non-uniformly sampled 3D seismic data along two spatial coordinates using non-equispaced curvelet transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hua; Yang, Hui; Li, Hongxing; Huang, Guangnan; Ding, Zheyi

    2018-04-01

    The attenuation of random noise is important for improving the signal to noise ratio (SNR). However, the precondition for most conventional denoising methods is that the noisy data must be sampled on a uniform grid, making the conventional methods unsuitable for non-uniformly sampled data. In this paper, a denoising method capable of regularizing the noisy data from a non-uniform grid to a specified uniform grid is proposed. Firstly, the denoising method is performed for every time slice extracted from the 3D noisy data along the source and receiver directions, then the 2D non-equispaced fast Fourier transform (NFFT) is introduced in the conventional fast discrete curvelet transform (FDCT). The non-equispaced fast discrete curvelet transform (NFDCT) can be achieved based on the regularized inversion of an operator that links the uniformly sampled curvelet coefficients to the non-uniformly sampled noisy data. The uniform curvelet coefficients can be calculated by using the inversion algorithm of the spectral projected-gradient for ℓ1-norm problems. Then local threshold factors are chosen for the uniform curvelet coefficients for each decomposition scale, and effective curvelet coefficients are obtained respectively for each scale. Finally, the conventional inverse FDCT is applied to the effective curvelet coefficients. This completes the proposed 3D denoising method using the non-equispaced curvelet transform in the source-receiver domain. The examples for synthetic data and real data reveal the effectiveness of the proposed approach in applications to noise attenuation for non-uniformly sampled data compared with the conventional FDCT method and wavelet transformation.

  8. Tank 241-TX-113 rotary mode core sampling and analysis plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCain, D.J.

    1998-01-01

    This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) identities characterization objectives pertaining to sample collection, laboratory analytical evaluation, and reporting requirements for push mode core samples from tank 241-TX-113 (TX-113). The Tank Characterization Technical Sampling Basis document identities Retrieval, Pretreatment and Immobilization as an issue that applies to tank TX-113. As a result, a 150 gram composite of solids shall be made and archived for that program. This tank is not on a Watch List

  9. Full evaporation dynamic headspace and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for uniform enrichment of odor compounds in aqueous samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochiai, Nobuo; Sasamoto, Kikuo; Hoffmann, Andreas; Okanoya, Kazunori

    2012-06-01

    A method for analysis of a wide range of odor compounds in aqueous samples at sub-ng mL⁻¹ to μg mL⁻¹ levels was developed by full evaporation dynamic headspace (FEDHS) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Compared to conventional DHS and headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME), FEDHS provides more uniform enrichment over the entire polarity range for odor compounds in aqueous samples. FEDHS at 80°C using 3 L of purge gas allows complete vaporization of 100 μL of an aqueous sample, and trapping and drying it in an adsorbent packed tube, while providing high recoveries (85-103%) of the 18 model odor compounds (water solubility at 25°C: log0.54-5.65 mg L⁻¹, vapor pressure at 25°C: 0.011-3.2 mm Hg) and leaving most of the low volatile matrix behind. The FEDHS-GC-MS method showed good linearity (r²>0.9909) and high sensitivity (limit of detection: 0.21-5.2 ng mL⁻¹) for the model compounds even with the scan mode in the conventional MS. The feasibility and benefit of the method was demonstrated with analyses of key odor compounds including hydrophilic and less volatile characteristics in beverages (whiskey and green tea). In a single malt whiskey sample, phenolic compounds including vanillin could be determined in the range of 0.92-5.1 μg mL⁻¹ (RSDfuraneol, indole, maltol, and pyrazine congeners) were determined in the range of 0.21-110 ng mL⁻¹ (RSD<10%, n=6). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. High-level core sample x-ray imaging at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, J.R.; Keve, J.K.

    1995-10-01

    Waste tank sampling of radioactive high-level waste is required for continued operations, waste characterization, and site safety. Hanford Site tank farms consist of 28 double-shell and 149 single-shell underground storage tanks. The single shell tanks are out-of-service an no longer receive liquid waste. Core samples of salt cake and sludge waste are remotely obtained using truck-mounted, core drill platforms. Samples are recovered from tanks through a 2.25 inch (in.) drill pipe in 26-in. steel tubes, 1.5 in. diameter. Drilling parameters vary with different waste types. Because sample recovery has been marginal an inadequate at times, a system was needed to provide drill truck operators with ''real-time feedback'' about the physical condition of the sample and the percent recovery, prior to making nuclear assay measurements and characterizations at the analytical laboratory. The Westinghouse Hanford Company conducted proof-of-principal radiographic testing to verify the feasibility of a proposed imaging system. Tests were conducted using an iridium 192 radiography source to determine the effects of high radiation on image quality. The tests concluded that samplers with a dose rate in excess of 5000 R/hr could be imaged with only a slight loss of image quality and samples less than 1000 R/hr have virtually no effect on image quality. The Mobile Core Sample X-Ray Examination System, a portable vendor-engineered assembly, has components uniquely configured to produce a real-time radiographic system suitable for safely examining radioactive tank core segments collected at the Hanford Site. The radiographic region of interest extends from the bottom (valve) of the sampler upward 19 to 20 in. The purpose of the Mobile Core Sample X-Ray Examination System is to examine the physical contents of core samples after removal from the tank and prior to placement in an onsite transfer cask

  11. Simple and efficient synthesis of copper(II)-modified uniform magnetic Fe3O4@SiO2 core/shell microspheres for immobilization of cellulase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shi-Kuo; Hou, Xiao-Cheng; Huang, Fang-Zhi; Li, Chuan-Hao; Kang, Wen-Juan; Xie, An-Jian; Shen, Yu-Hua

    2013-11-01

    In this paper, we reported a simple and efficient protocol for preparation of Cu2+-modified magnetic Fe3O4@SiO2 core/shell microspheres for immobilization of cellulase. The uniform magnetic Fe3O4@SiO2 core/shell microspheres with a thin shell of 20 nm were synthesized through a solvothermal method followed by a sol-gel process. An amino-terminated silane coupling agent of (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (APTS) was then grafted on them for capturing Cu2+ ions. The reaction process is very simple, efficient, and economical. Noticeably, the content of Cu2+ ions on the magnetic core/shell microspheres can reach 4.6 Wt%, endowing them possess as high immobilization capacity as 225.5 mg/g for cellulase. And the immobilized cellulase can be retained over 90 % on the magnetic microspheres after six cycles. Meanwhile, the magnetic microspheres decorated with Cu2+ ions show a superparamagnetic character with a high magnetic saturation of 58.5 emu/g at room temperature, suggesting conveniently and rapidly recycle the enzyme from solution. This facile, recyclable, high immobilization capacity and activity strategy may find potential applications in enzyme catalytic reactions with low cost.

  12. Simple and efficient synthesis of copper(II)-modified uniform magnetic Fe3O4@SiO2 core/shell microspheres for immobilization of cellulase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Shi-Kuo; Hou, Xiao-Cheng; Huang, Fang-Zhi; Li, Chuan-Hao; Kang, Wen-Juan; Xie, An-Jian; Shen, Yu-Hua

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we reported a simple and efficient protocol for preparation of Cu 2+ -modified magnetic Fe 3 O 4 @SiO 2 core/shell microspheres for immobilization of cellulase. The uniform magnetic Fe 3 O 4 @SiO 2 core/shell microspheres with a thin shell of 20 nm were synthesized through a solvothermal method followed by a sol–gel process. An amino-terminated silane coupling agent of (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (APTS) was then grafted on them for capturing Cu 2+ ions. The reaction process is very simple, efficient, and economical. Noticeably, the content of Cu 2+ ions on the magnetic core/shell microspheres can reach 4.6 Wt%, endowing them possess as high immobilization capacity as 225.5 mg/g for cellulase. And the immobilized cellulase can be retained over 90 % on the magnetic microspheres after six cycles. Meanwhile, the magnetic microspheres decorated with Cu 2+ ions show a superparamagnetic character with a high magnetic saturation of 58.5 emu/g at room temperature, suggesting conveniently and rapidly recycle the enzyme from solution. This facile, recyclable, high immobilization capacity and activity strategy may find potential applications in enzyme catalytic reactions with low cost

  13. Test of Tree Core Sampling for Screening of Toxic Elements in Soils from a Norwegian Site

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mette Algreen; Rein, Arno; Legind, Charlotte Nielsen

    2011-01-01

    Tree core samples have been used to delineate organic subsurface plumes. In 2009 and 2010, samples were taken at trees growing on a former dump site in Norway and analyzed for arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), and zinc (Zn). Concentrations in wood were in averag...

  14. Tank 241-AZ-102 Privatization Push Mode Core Sampling and Analysis Plan; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TEMPLETON, A.M.

    1999-01-01

    This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) identifies characterization objectives pertaining to sample collection, laboratory analytical evaluation, and reporting requirements for samples obtained from tank 241-AZ-102. The purpose of this sampling event is to obtain information about the characteristics of the contents of 241-AZ-102. Push mode core samples will be obtained from risers 15C and 24A to provide sufficient material for the chemical analyses and tests required to satisfy these data quality objectives. The 222-S Laboratory will extrude core samples, composite the liquids and solids, perform chemical analyses, and provide subsamples to the Process Chemistry Laboratory. The Process Chemistry Laboratory will prepare test plans and perform process tests to evaluate the behavior of the 241-AZ-102 waste undergoing the retrieval and treatment scenarios defined in the applicable DQOs. Requirements for analyses of samples originating in the process tests will be documented in the corresponding test plan

  15. Core belief content examined in a large sample of patients using online cognitive behaviour therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millings, Abigail; Carnelley, Katherine B

    2015-11-01

    Computerised cognitive behavioural therapy provides a unique opportunity to collect and analyse data regarding the idiosyncratic content of people's core beliefs about the self, others and the world. 'Beating the Blues' users recorded a core belief derived through the downward arrow technique. Core beliefs from 1813 mental health patients were coded into 10 categories. The most common were global self-evaluation, attachment, and competence. Women were more likely, and men were less likely (than chance), to provide an attachment-related core belief; and men were more likely, and women less likely, to provide a self-competence-related core belief. This may be linked to gender differences in sources of self-esteem. Those who were suffering from anxiety were more likely to provide power- and control-themed core beliefs and less likely to provide attachment core beliefs than chance. Finally, those who had thoughts of suicide in the preceding week reported less competence themed core beliefs and more global self-evaluation (e.g., 'I am useless') core beliefs than chance. Concurrent symptom level was not available. The sample was not nationally representative, and featured programme completers only. Men and women may focus on different core beliefs in the context of CBT. Those suffering anxiety may need a therapeutic focus on power and control. A complete rejection of the self (not just within one domain, such as competence) may be linked to thoughts of suicide. Future research should examine how individual differences and symptom severity influence core beliefs. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Core sample descriptions and summary logs of six wells within the Hanford Reservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Summers, W.K.; Hanson, R.T.

    1977-01-01

    From February through May, 1976, selected sites on the Hanford Reservation were core drilled. These six holes provide a loose network of observation holes traversing the reservation in an east--west direction between the Columbia River and State Highway 240. This program represents the first attempt to recover cores from the glaciofluviatile material and Ringold Formation beneath the Hanford Reservation. This contains three parts: an introductory text describing the method of inspection and format for written description; summary logs that illustrate in condensed form the rocks penetrated by the wells drilled; and the detailed written descriptions of core samples. 3 figures, 7 tables

  17. Characterization of the first core sample of neutralized current acid waste from double-shell tank 101-AZ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, M.E.; Scheele, R.D.; Tingey, J.M.

    1989-09-01

    In FY 1989, Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) successfully obtained four core samples (totaling seven segments) of neutralized current acid waste (NCAW) from double-shell tanks (DSTs) 101-AZ and 102-AZ. A segment was a 19-in.-long and 1-in.-diameter cylindrical sample of waste. A core sample consisted of enough 19-in.-long segments to obtain the waste of interest. Three core samples were obtained from DST 101-AZ and one core sample from DST 102-AZ. Two DST 101-AZ core samples consisted of two segments per core, and the third core sample consisted of only one segment. The third core consisted of the solids from the bottom of the tank and was used to determine the relative abrasiveness of this NCAW. The DST 102-AZ core sample consisted of two segments. The core samples were transported to the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), where the waste was extruded from its sampler and extensively characterized. A characterization plan was followed that simulated the processing of the NCAW samples through retrieval, pretreatment and vitrification process steps. Physical, rheological, chemical and radiochemical properties were measured throughout the process steps. The characterization of the first core sample from DST 101-AZ was completed, and the results are provided in this report. The results for the other core characterizations will be reported in future reports. 3 refs., 13 figs., 10 tabs

  18. One-pot synthesis of biocompatible Te-phenol formaldehyde resin core-shell nanowires with uniform size and unique fluorescent properties by a synergized soft-hard template process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian Haisheng; Zhu Enbo; Zheng Shunji; Yang Xingyun; Li Liangchao; Tong Guoxiu; Li Zhengquan; Hu Yong; Guo Changfa; Guo Huichen

    2010-01-01

    One-pot hydrothermal process has been developed to synthesize uniform Te-phenol formaldehyde resin core-shell nanowires with unique fluorescent properties. A synergistic soft-hard template mechanism has been proposed to explain the formation of the core-shell nanowires. The Te-phenol formaldehyde resin core-shell nanowires display unique fluorescent properties, which give strong luminescent emission in the blue-violet and green regions with excitation wavelengths of 270 nm and 402 nm, respectively.

  19. One-pot synthesis of biocompatible Te@phenol formaldehyde resin core-shell nanowires with uniform size and unique fluorescent properties by a synergized soft-hard template process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Haisheng; Zhu, Enbo; Zheng, Shunji; Li, Zhengquan; Hu, Yong; Guo, Changfa; Yang, Xingyun; Li, Liangchao; Tong, Guoxiu; Guo, Huichen

    2010-12-10

    One-pot hydrothermal process has been developed to synthesize uniform Te@phenol formaldehyde resin core-shell nanowires with unique fluorescent properties. A synergistic soft-hard template mechanism has been proposed to explain the formation of the core-shell nanowires. The Te@phenol formaldehyde resin core-shell nanowires display unique fluorescent properties, which give strong luminescent emission in the blue-violet and green regions with excitation wavelengths of 270 nm and 402 nm, respectively.

  20. One-pot synthesis of biocompatible Te-phenol formaldehyde resin core-shell nanowires with uniform size and unique fluorescent properties by a synergized soft-hard template process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qian Haisheng; Zhu Enbo; Zheng Shunji; Yang Xingyun; Li Liangchao; Tong Guoxiu [Department of Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Life Science, Zhejiang Normal University, Jinhua 321004 (China); Li Zhengquan; Hu Yong; Guo Changfa [Institute of Physical Chemistry, Zhejiang Normal University, Jinhua 321004 (China); Guo Huichen, E-mail: shqian@zjnu.cn, E-mail: ghch-2004@hotmail.com [State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Etiological Biology and Key Laboratory of Animal Virology of Ministry of Agriculture, Lanzhou Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Xujiaping 11, Lanzhou, Gansu 730046 (China)

    2010-12-10

    One-pot hydrothermal process has been developed to synthesize uniform Te-phenol formaldehyde resin core-shell nanowires with unique fluorescent properties. A synergistic soft-hard template mechanism has been proposed to explain the formation of the core-shell nanowires. The Te-phenol formaldehyde resin core-shell nanowires display unique fluorescent properties, which give strong luminescent emission in the blue-violet and green regions with excitation wavelengths of 270 nm and 402 nm, respectively.

  1. The Consequence of Self-field and Non-uniform Current Distribution on Short Sample Tests of Superconducting Cables

    CERN Document Server

    Verweij, A P

    1998-01-01

    Electrical measurements on samples of superconducting cables are usually performed in order to determine the critical current $I_c$ and the n-value, assuming that the voltage U at the transition from the superconducting to the normal state follows the power law, U\\sim($I/I_c$)$^n$. An accurate measurement of $I_c$ and n demands, first of all, good control of temperature and field, and precise measurement of current and voltage. The critical current and n-value of a cable are influenced by the self-field of the cable, an effect that has to be known in order to compare the electrical characteristics of the cable with those of the strands from which it is made. The effect of the self-field is dealt with taking into account the orientation and magnitude of the applied field and the n-value of the strands. An important source of inaccuracy is related to the distribution of the currents among the strands. Non-uniform distributions, mainly caused by non-equal resistances of the connections between the strands of the...

  2. Ultrasonic assisted rapid synthesis of high uniform super-paramagnetic microspheres with core-shell structure and robust magneto-chromatic ability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Wenyan, E-mail: wiseyanyan@jit.edu.cn [College of Material Engineering, Jinling Institute of technology, Nanjing (China); Chen, Jiahua [College of Material Engineering, Jinling Institute of technology, Nanjing (China); Wang, Wei [Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center for Advanced Inorganic Function Composites, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing (China); School of Physics and Optoelectronic Engineering, Nanjing University of Information Science & Technology, Nanjing (China); Lu, GongXuan [State Key Laboratory for Oxo Synthesis and Selective Oxidation, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Hao, Lingyun [College of Material Engineering, Jinling Institute of technology, Nanjing (China); Ni, Yaru; Lu, Chunhua; Xu, Zhongzi [Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center for Advanced Inorganic Function Composites, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing (China); State Key Laboratory of Materials-Oriented Chemical Engineering, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing (China)

    2017-03-15

    Super-paramagnetic core-shell microspheres were synthesized by ultrasonic assisted routine under low ultrasonic irradiation powers. Compared with conventional routine, ultrasonic effect could not only improve the uniformity of the core-shell structure of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@SiO{sub 2}, but shorten the synthesis time in large scale. Owing to their hydrophilicity and high surface charge, the Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@SiO{sub 2} microspheres could be dispersed well in distilled water to form homogeneous colloidal suspension. The suspensions have favorable magneto-chromatic ability that they sensitively exhibit brilliant colorful ribbons by magnetic attraction. The colorful ribbons, which distributed along the magnetic lines, make morphology of the magnetic fields become “visible” to naked eyed. Those colorful ribbons originate from strong magnetic interaction between the microspheres and magnetic fields. Furthermore, the magneto-chromatic performance is reversible as the colorful ribbons vanished rapidly with the removing of magnetic fields. The silica layer effectively enhanced the acid resistance and surface-oxidation resistance of theFe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@SiO{sub 2} microspheres, so they could exhibit stable magnetic nature and robust magneto-chromatic property in acid environment. - Graphical abstract: The Graphical abstract shows the sensitive magneto-chromatic ability, the acid resistance ability as well as the magneto-chromatic mechanism of the Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} and Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@SiO{sub 2} suspension. - Highlights: • Sensitive and reversible robust magneto-chromatic property under magnetic attraction. • Morphology of magnetic field “visible” to naked eyes. • Enhance acid resistance and surface-oxidation resistance. • Ultrasonic effect largely shorten the synthesis time of high uniform microspheres.

  3. Ultrasonic assisted rapid synthesis of high uniform super-paramagnetic microspheres with core-shell structure and robust magneto-chromatic ability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Wenyan; Chen, Jiahua; Wang, Wei; Lu, GongXuan; Hao, Lingyun; Ni, Yaru; Lu, Chunhua; Xu, Zhongzi

    2017-01-01

    Super-paramagnetic core-shell microspheres were synthesized by ultrasonic assisted routine under low ultrasonic irradiation powers. Compared with conventional routine, ultrasonic effect could not only improve the uniformity of the core-shell structure of Fe_3O_4@SiO_2, but shorten the synthesis time in large scale. Owing to their hydrophilicity and high surface charge, the Fe_3O_4@SiO_2 microspheres could be dispersed well in distilled water to form homogeneous colloidal suspension. The suspensions have favorable magneto-chromatic ability that they sensitively exhibit brilliant colorful ribbons by magnetic attraction. The colorful ribbons, which distributed along the magnetic lines, make morphology of the magnetic fields become “visible” to naked eyed. Those colorful ribbons originate from strong magnetic interaction between the microspheres and magnetic fields. Furthermore, the magneto-chromatic performance is reversible as the colorful ribbons vanished rapidly with the removing of magnetic fields. The silica layer effectively enhanced the acid resistance and surface-oxidation resistance of theFe_3O_4@SiO_2 microspheres, so they could exhibit stable magnetic nature and robust magneto-chromatic property in acid environment. - Graphical abstract: The Graphical abstract shows the sensitive magneto-chromatic ability, the acid resistance ability as well as the magneto-chromatic mechanism of the Fe_3O_4 and Fe_3O_4@SiO_2 suspension. - Highlights: • Sensitive and reversible robust magneto-chromatic property under magnetic attraction. • Morphology of magnetic field “visible” to naked eyes. • Enhance acid resistance and surface-oxidation resistance. • Ultrasonic effect largely shorten the synthesis time of high uniform microspheres.

  4. Uniform Au@Pt core-shell nanodendrites supported on molybdenum disulfide nanosheets for the methanol oxidation reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Shao; Zhang, Chi; Yuwen, Lihui; Liu, Xingfen; Wang, Lihua; Fan, Chunhai; Wang, Lianhui

    2015-12-01

    Herein, we presented a facile seeded growth method to prepare high-quality three-dimensional (3D) Au@Pt bimetallic nanodendrite-decorated molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) nanosheets (Au@Pt/MoS2). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high-resolution TEM exhibited that Au@Pt core-shell nanostructures were dispersed onto the surface of MoS2 nanosheets. More importantly, the thickness of the Pt shell of the Au@Pt bimetallic nanodendrites on the surface of the MoS2 nanosheets could be easily tuned via simply changing the synthesis parameters, such as the concentration of H2PtCl6, reaction time and temperature, which greatly influence the catalytic ability of Au@Pt/MoS2 nanohybrids. Both cyclic voltammetry (CV) and chronoamperometry (CA) demonstrated that the as-prepared Au@Pt/MoS2 nanohybrids possessed much higher electrocatalytic activity and stability than Pt/MoS2 or commercial Pt/C catalyst. The peak current mass density of the selected Au@Pt/MoS2 was 6.24 A mg-1, which was 3389 and 20.3 times those of Pt/C (0.00184 A mg-1) and Pt/MoS2 (0.307 A mg-1), respectively. The presented method may be a facile approach for the synthesis of MoS2-supported bimetallic nanocomposites, which is significant for the development of high performance MoS2-based sensors and catalysts.Herein, we presented a facile seeded growth method to prepare high-quality three-dimensional (3D) Au@Pt bimetallic nanodendrite-decorated molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) nanosheets (Au@Pt/MoS2). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high-resolution TEM exhibited that Au@Pt core-shell nanostructures were dispersed onto the surface of MoS2 nanosheets. More importantly, the thickness of the Pt shell of the Au@Pt bimetallic nanodendrites on the surface of the MoS2 nanosheets could be easily tuned via simply changing the synthesis parameters, such as the concentration of H2PtCl6, reaction time and temperature, which greatly influence the catalytic ability of Au@Pt/MoS2 nanohybrids. Both cyclic voltammetry (CV

  5. Detecting oscillatory patterns and time lags from proxy records with non-uniform sampling: Some pitfalls and possible solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donner, Reik

    2013-04-01

    Time series analysis offers a rich toolbox for deciphering information from high-resolution geological and geomorphological archives and linking the thus obtained results to distinct climate and environmental processes. Specifically, on various time-scales from inter-annual to multi-millenial, underlying driving forces exhibit more or less periodic oscillations, the detection of which in proxy records often allows linking them to specific mechanisms by which the corresponding drivers may have affected the archive under study. A persistent problem in geomorphology is that available records do not present a clear signal of the variability of environmental conditions, but exhibit considerable uncertainties of both the measured proxy variables and the associated age model. Particularly, time-scale uncertainty as well as the heterogeneity of sampling in the time domain are source of severe conceptual problems that may lead to false conclusions about the presence or absence of oscillatory patterns and their mutual phasing in different archives. In my presentation, I will discuss how one can cope with non-uniformly sampled proxy records to detect and quantify oscillatory patterns in one or more data sets. For this purpose, correlation analysis is reformulated using kernel estimates which are found superior to classical estimators based on interpolation or Fourier transform techniques. In order to characterize non-stationary or noisy periodicities and their relative phasing between different records, an extension of continuous wavelet transform is utilized. The performance of both methods is illustrated for different case studies. An extension to explicitly considering time-scale uncertainties by means of Bayesian techniques is briefly outlined.

  6. Using tree core samples to monitor natural attenuation and plume distribution after a PCE spill

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Morten; Burken, J.; Machackova, J.

    2008-01-01

    The potential of using tree core samples to detect and monitor natural attenuation of perchloroethene (PCE) in groundwater was investigated at a PCE-contaminated site. In the area of the known plume with PCE concentrations between 0.004 and >40 mg/L, cores were collected from tree trunks at a hei...... at a height of about 1 m above ground surface. Tree sampling of the site was completed in under six hours. Chlorinated ethenes were analyzed by headspace GC/MS. PCE (0.001 to 7 mg/kg) and natural attenuation products, TCE (...

  7. Benthic foraminiferal census data from Mobile Bay, Alabama--counts of surface samples and box cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richwine, Kathryn A.; Osterman, Lisa E.

    2012-01-01

    A study was undertaken in order to understand recent environmental change in Mobile Bay, Alabama. For this study a series of surface sediment and box core samples was collected. The surface benthic foraminiferal data provide the modern baseline conditions of the bay and can be used as a reference for changing paleoenvironmental parameters recorded in the box cores. The 14 sampling locations were chosen in the bay to cover the wide diversity of fluvial and marine-influenced environments on both sides of the shipping channel.

  8. Drilling induced damage of core samples. Evidences from laboratory testing and numerical modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanaro, Flavio

    2008-01-01

    Extensive sample testing in uniaxial and Brazilian test conditions were carried out for the Shobasama and MIU Research Laboratory Site (Gifu Pref., Japan). The compressive and tensile strength of the samples was observed to be negatively correlated to the in-situ stress components. Such correlation was interpreted as stress-release induced sample damage. Similar stress conditions were then numerically simulated by means of the BEM-DDM code FRACOD 2D in plane strain conditions. This method allows for explicitly consider the influence of newly initiated or propagating fractures on the stress field and deformation of the core during drilling process. The models show that already at moderate stress levels some fracturing of the core during drilling might occur leading to reduced laboratory strength of the samples. Sample damage maps were produced independently from the laboratory test results and from the numerical models and show good agreement with each other. (author)

  9. Baseline Design Compliance Matrix for the Rotary Mode Core Sampling System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LECHELT, J.A.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of the design compliance matrix (DCM) is to provide a single-source document of all design requirements associated with the fifteen subsystems that make up the rotary mode core sampling (RMCS) system. It is intended to be the baseline requirement document for the RMCS system and to be used in governing all future design and design verification activities associated with it. This document is the DCM for the RMCS system used on Hanford single-shell radioactive waste storage tanks. This includes the Exhauster System, Rotary Mode Core Sample Trucks, Universal Sampling System, Diesel Generator System, Distribution Trailer, X-Ray Cart System, Breathing Air Compressor, Nitrogen Supply Trailer, Casks and Cask Truck, Service Trailer, Core Sampling Riser Equipment, Core Sampling Support Trucks, Foot Clamp, Ramps and Platforms and Purged Camera System. Excluded items are tools such as light plants and light stands. Other items such as the breather inlet filter are covered by a different design baseline. In this case, the inlet breather filter is covered by the Tank Farms Design Compliance Matrix

  10. Comparison of tree coring and soil gas sampling for screening of contaminated sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mette Algreen; Stalder, Marcel; Riis, Charlotte

    and then identify high risk areas. The uptake of BTEX into trees varies to a greater extent with the tree species and the site conditions than chlorinated solvents, which lead to greater uncertainty. Both methods have their advantages and disadvantages. Hence, the methods supplement each other. Based on results......Site characterization is often time consuming and a financial burden for the site owners, which raises a demand for rapid and inexpensive (pre)screening methods. Phytoscreening by tree coring has shown to be a useful tool to detect subsurface contamination, especially of chlorinated solvents...... suitable as initial screening methods for site characterization. The aim of this study is to compare tree coring and soil gas sampling to evaluate to which extent tree coring may supplement or substitute soil gas sampling as a site contaminant screening tool. And where both methods are feasible, evaluate...

  11. Freeze core sampling to validate time-lapse resistivity monitoring of the hyporheic zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toran, Laura; Hughes, Brian; Nyquist, Jonathan; Ryan, Robert

    2013-01-01

    A freeze core sampler was used to characterize hyporheic zone storage during a stream tracer test. The pore water from the frozen core showed tracer lingered in the hyporheic zone after the tracer had returned to background concentration in collocated well samples. These results confirmed evidence of lingering subsurface tracer seen in time-lapse electrical resistivity tomographs. The pore water exhibited brine exclusion (ion concentrations in ice lower than source water) in a sediment matrix, despite the fast freezing time. Although freeze core sampling provided qualitative evidence of lingering tracer, it proved difficult to quantify tracer concentration because the amount of brine exclusion during freezing could not be accurately determined. Nonetheless, the additional evidence for lingering tracer supports using time-lapse resistivity to detect regions of low fluid mobility within the hyporheic zone that can act as chemically reactive zones of importance in stream health. © 2012, The Author(s). GroundWater © 2012, National Ground Water Association.

  12. A radial sampling strategy for uniform k-space coverage with retrospective respiratory gating in 3D ultrashort-echo-time lung imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jinil; Shin, Taehoon; Yoon, Soon Ho; Goo, Jin Mo; Park, Jang-Yeon

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this work was to develop a 3D radial-sampling strategy which maintains uniform k-space sample density after retrospective respiratory gating, and demonstrate its feasibility in free-breathing ultrashort-echo-time lung MRI. A multi-shot, interleaved 3D radial sampling function was designed by segmenting a single-shot trajectory of projection views such that each interleaf samples k-space in an incoherent fashion. An optimal segmentation factor for the interleaved acquisition was derived based on an approximate model of respiratory patterns such that radial interleaves are evenly accepted during the retrospective gating. The optimality of the proposed sampling scheme was tested by numerical simulations and phantom experiments using human respiratory waveforms. Retrospectively, respiratory-gated, free-breathing lung MRI with the proposed sampling strategy was performed in healthy subjects. The simulation yielded the most uniform k-space sample density with the optimal segmentation factor, as evidenced by the smallest standard deviation of the number of neighboring samples as well as minimal side-lobe energy in the point spread function. The optimality of the proposed scheme was also confirmed by minimal image artifacts in phantom images. Human lung images showed that the proposed sampling scheme significantly reduced streak and ring artifacts compared with the conventional retrospective respiratory gating while suppressing motion-related blurring compared with full sampling without respiratory gating. In conclusion, the proposed 3D radial-sampling scheme can effectively suppress the image artifacts due to non-uniform k-space sample density in retrospectively respiratory-gated lung MRI by uniformly distributing gated radial views across the k-space. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Decontamination and concrete core sampling by teleoperated robot at Fukushima Daiichi reactor buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Masaru; Onitsuka, Hironori; Shimonabe, Noriaki; Fujita, Jun; Matsumura, Takumi; Okumura, Atsushi

    2015-01-01

    For decommissioning of Fukushima daiichi nuclear power station, reduction of the dose equivalent rates inside the reactor buildings is an important issue. Concrete core sampling from the buildings to investigate the contamination is necessary for study about effective decontamination. However, dose rate inside the reactor buildings is very high. For example, dose rate of 1st floor on the Unit 1 is 1.2 - 1820 [mSv / h], the Unit 2 is 2.5 - 220 [mSv / h] and Unit 3 is 2.2 - 4780 [mSv / h]. So it is difficult for workers to work long hours. Therefore, a teleoperated robot, named 'MHI-MEISTeR (Mitsubishi Heavy Industries - Maintenance Equipment Integrated System of Telecontrol Robot)', has been developed to conduct operations like concrete core samples from the reactor buildings. Actually, some concrete core samples from Fukushima daiichi were taken by MHI-MEISTeR. In addition, MHI-MEISTeR is designed as a versatile robot, and so it can conduct suction / blast decontamination works as well as concrete core sampling. The above operations were performed by MHI-MEISTeR in Fukushima daiichi nuclear power station. (author)

  14. Experience with Aerosol Generation During Rotary Mode Core Sampling in the Hanford Single Shell Waste Tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SCHOFIELD, J.S.

    2000-01-01

    This document provides data on aerosol concentrations in tank head spaces, total mass of aerosols in the tank head space and mass of aerosols sent to the exhauster during Rotary Mode Core Sampling from November 1994 through June 1999. A decontamination factor for the RMCS exhauster filter housing is calculated based on operation data

  15. Operability test report for rotary mode core sampling system number 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corbett, J.E.

    1996-01-01

    This report documents the successful completion of operability testing for the Rotary Mode Core Sampling (RMCS) system number-sign 3. The Report includes the test procedure (WHC-SD-WM-OTP-174), exception resolutions, data sheets, and a test report summary

  16. Design/Operations review of core sampling trucks and associated equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrivastava, H.P.

    1996-01-01

    A systematic review of the design and operations of the core sampling trucks was commissioned by Characterization Equipment Engineering of the Westinghouse Hanford Company in October 1995. The review team reviewed the design documents, specifications, operating procedure, training manuals and safety analysis reports. The review process, findings and corrective actions are summarized in this supporting document

  17. Structural evaluation for the core sampling trucks, RMCS operations, 200 Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Islam, M.A.

    1996-01-01

    This report evaluates the structural adequacy and the integrity of the existing core sampling trucks to withstand impact should the trucks drop off the ramp, either onto the soft ground or onto a non-yielding surface due to operational error, wind, or earthquake. The report also addresses if the allowable tank dome load will be exceeded by the addition of the impact load

  18. A contact method of determination of thermophysical properties of rocks from core samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavril'ev, R.I.

    1995-01-01

    The zone of the action of thermal disturbances around a circular heat source on the surface of a semi-infinite body is estimated with the aim of using contact methods of determination of thermophysical properties of materials from core samples

  19. Characterization of Vadose Zone Sediment: Uncontaminated RCRA Borehole Core Samples and Composite Samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serne, R. Jeffrey; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Schaef, Herbert T.; Williams, Bruce A.; Lanigan, David C.; Horton, Duane G.; Clayton, Ray E.; Mitroshkov, Alexandre V.; Legore, Virginia L.; O'Hara, Matthew J.; Brown, Christopher F.; Parker, Kent E.; Kutnyakov, Igor V.; Serne, Jennifer N.; Last, George V.; Smith, Steven C.; Lindenmeier, Clark W.; Zachara, John M.; Burke, Deborah S.

    2008-01-01

    This report was revised in September 2008 to remove acid-extractable sodium data from Tables 4.14, 4.16, 5.20, 5.22, 5.43, and 5.45. The sodium data was removed due to potential contamination introduced during the acid extraction process. The rest of the text remains unchanged from the original report issued in February 2002. The overall goal of the of the Tank Farm Vadose Zone Project, led by CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc., is to define risks from past and future single-shell tank farm activities. To meet this goal, CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. asked scientists from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to perform detailed analyses on vadose zone sediment from within the S-SX Waste Management Area. This report is one in a series of four reports to present the results of these analyses. Specifically, this report contains all the geologic, geochemical, and selected physical characterization data collected on vadose zone sediment recovered from Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) borehole bore samples and composite samples

  20. Characterization of Vadose Zone Sediment: Uncontaminated RCRA Borehole Core Samples and Composite Samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serne, R. Jeffrey; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Schaef, Herbert T.; Williams, Bruce A.; Lanigan, David C.; Horton, Duane G.; Clayton, Ray E.; Mitroshkov, Alexandre V.; Legore, Virginia L.; O' Hara, Matthew J.; Brown, Christopher F.; Parker, Kent E.; Kutnyakov, Igor V.; Serne, Jennifer N.; Last, George V.; Smith, Steven C.; Lindenmeier, Clark W.; Zachara, John M.; Burke, Deborah S.

    2008-09-11

    This report was revised in September 2008 to remove acid-extractable sodium data from Tables 4.14, 4.16, 5.20, 5.22, 5.43, and 5.45. The sodium data was removed due to potential contamination introduced during the acid extraction process. The rest of the text remains unchanged from the original report issued in February 2002. The overall goal of the of the Tank Farm Vadose Zone Project, led by CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc., is to define risks from past and future single-shell tank farm activities. To meet this goal, CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. asked scientists from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to perform detailed analyses on vadose zone sediment from within the S-SX Waste Management Area. This report is one in a series of four reports to present the results of these analyses. Specifically, this report contains all the geologic, geochemical, and selected physical characterization data collected on vadose zone sediment recovered from Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) borehole bore samples and composite samples.

  1. Tank 241-SX-105 rotary mode core sampling and analysis plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, B.C.

    1998-01-01

    This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) identifies characterization objectives pertaining to sample collection, laboratory analytical evaluation, and reporting requirements for rotary mode core samples from tank 241-SX-105 (SX-105). It is written in accordance with Tank Safety Screening Data Quality Objective (Dukelow et al. 1995) and Memorandum of Understanding for the Organic Complexant Safety Issue Data Requirements (Schreiber 1997a). Vapor screening issues apply as well, but are outside the scope of this SAP. A physical profile prediction based on waste fill history and previous sampling information is provided in Appendix A. Prior to core sampling, the dome space (below the riser) shall be measured for the presence of flammable gases. The measurement shall be taken from within the dome space and the data reported as a percentage of the lower flammability limit (LFL). The results shall be transmitted to the tank coordinator within ten working days of the sampling event (Schreiber 1997b). If the results are above 25 percent of the LFL when analyzing by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry or gas-specific monitoring gauges or above 10% of the LFL when analyzing with a combustible gas meter, the necessity for recurring sampling for flammable gas concentration and the frequency of such sampling will be determined by the Flammable Gas Safety Project. Any additional vapor sampling is not within the scope of this SAP

  2. Self-seeding in one dimension: a route to uniform fiber-like nanostructures from block copolymers with a crystallizable core-forming block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Jieshu; Lu, Yijie; Chia, Anselina; Zhang, Meng; Rupar, Paul A; Gunari, Nikhil; Walker, Gilbert C; Cambridge, Graeme; He, Feng; Guerin, Gerald; Manners, Ian; Winnik, Mitchell A

    2013-05-28

    One-dimensional micelles formed by the self-assembly of crystalline-coil poly(ferrocenyldimethylsilane) (PFS) block copolymers exhibit self-seeding behavior when solutions of short micelle fragments are heated above a certain temperature and then cooled back to room temperature. In this process, a fraction of the fragments (the least crystalline fragments) dissolves at elevated temperature, but the dissolved polymer crystallizes onto the ends of the remaining seed fragments upon cooling. This process yields longer nanostructures (up to 1 μm) with uniform width (ca. 15 nm) and a narrow length distribution. In this paper, we describe a systematic investigation of factors that affect the self-seeding behavior of PFS block copolymer micelle fragments. For PI(1000)-PFS(50) (the subscripts refer to the number average degree of polymerization) in decane, these factors include the presence of a good solvent (THF) for PFS and the effect of annealing the fragments prior to the self-seeding experiments. THF promoted the dissolution of the micelle fragments, while preannealing improved their stability. We also extended our experiments to other PFS block copolymers with different corona-forming blocks. These included PI(637)-PFS(53) in decane, PFS(60)-PDMS(660) in decane (PDMS = polydimethylsiloxane), and PFS(30)-P2VP(300) in 2-propanol (P2VP = poly(2-vinylpyridine)). The most remarkable result of these experiments is our finding that the corona-forming chain plays an important role in affecting how the PFS chains crystallize in the core of the micelles and, subsequently, the range of temperatures over which the micelle fragments dissolve. Our results also show that self-seeding is a versatile approach to generate uniform PFS fiber-like nanostructures, and in principle, the method should be extendable to a wide variety of crystalline-coil block copolymers.

  3. Thermal modeling of core sampling in flammable gas waste tanks. Part 2: Rotary-mode sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unal, C.; Poston, D.; Pasamehmetoglu, K.O.; Witwer, K.S.

    1997-01-01

    The radioactive waste stored in underground storage tanks at Hanford site includes mixtures of sodium nitrate and sodium nitrite with organic compounds. The waste can produce undesired violent exothermic reactions when heated locally during the rotary-mode sampling. Experiments are performed varying the downward force at a maximum rotational speed of 55 rpm and minimum nitrogen purge flow of 30 scfm. The rotary drill bit teeth-face temperatures are measured. The waste is simulated with a low thermal conductivity hard material, pumice blocks. A torque meter is used to determine the energy provided to the drill string. The exhaust air-chip temperature as well as drill string and drill bit temperatures and other key operating parameters were recorded. A two-dimensional thermal model is developed. The safe operating conditions were determined for normal operating conditions. A downward force of 750 at 55 rpm and 30 scfm nitrogen purge flow was found to yield acceptable substrate temperatures. The model predicted experimental results reasonably well. Therefore, it could be used to simulate abnormal conditions to develop procedures for safe operations

  4. Safety analysis for push-mode and rotary-mode core sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milliken, N.J.; Geschke, G.R.

    1995-01-01

    This safety analysis analyzes using the push-mode core sampling truck in the push-mode and the rotary-mode core sampling trucks in both the push- and rotary-modes to retrieve core samples that, once taken and analyzed, will yield waste characterization data for the hazardous waste tanks at the Hanford Site. Operation of the core sampling trucks in both the push- and rotary-modes was reviewed to determine whether the release of radioactive materials could occur during operation. It was concluded that there are three credible scenarios: a sample spill outside of the tank, a steam release event, and an unfiltered release to the environment during continuous exhauster operation. The probability of a sample spill was found to be 10 -4 /event, the probability of a steam release event was determined to fall in the unlikely range (10 -2 /event to 10 -4 /event), and the probability of an unfiltered release was calculated to be 5 x 10 -3 /year. Typically, events with probabilities of 10 -6 /event or less are not considered to be risk significant, and the consequences usually are not analyzed. The three accident scenarios were analyzed to calculate the dose consequences. It was determined that the steam release event is the bounding accident. The onsite and offsite dose consequences for this event are calculated to be 0.24 Sv (24 rem) and 3.2 x 10 -4 Sv (32 mrem), respectively. These consequences are below the risk acceptance guidelines for an unlikely event, as established in WHC-CM-4-46, Nonreactor Facility Safety Analysis Manual. With the design features and the use of the controls presented in Section 8.0, this operation represents a minimal risk

  5. Tank 241-SY-101 push mode core sampling and analysis plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CONNER, J.M.

    1998-01-01

    This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) identifies characterization objectives pertaining to sample collection, laboratory analytical evaluation, and reporting requirements for push mode core samples from tank 241-SY-101 (SY-101). It is written in accordance with Data Quality Objective to Support Resolution of the Flammable Gas Safety Issue (Bauer 1998), Low Activity Waste Feed Data Quality Objectives (Wiemers and Miller 1997 and DOE 1998), Data Quality Objectives for TWRS Privatization Phase I: Confirm Tank T is an Appropriate Feed Source for Low-Activity Waste Feed Batch X (Certa 1998), and the Tank Safety Screening Data Quality Objective (Dukelow et al. 1995). The Tank Characterization Technical Sampling Basis document (Brown et al. 1998) indicates that these issues apply to tank SY-101 for this sampling event. Brown et al. also identifies high-level waste, regulatory, pretreatment and disposal issues as applicable issues for this tank. However, these issues will not be addressed via this sampling event

  6. Crosshole investigations - physical properties of core samples from boreholes F1 and F2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnusson, K.A.; Carlsten, S.; Olsson, O.

    1987-06-01

    The geology and physical properties have been studied of roughly 100 core samples from the boreholes F1 and F2 drilled at the Crosshole site, located at the 360 m level in the Stripa mine. The granitic rock has been divided into two classes: Fracture zones (also called major units) and a rock mass which is relatively undeformed. Samples from the major units have lower resistivity, higher porosity and dielectric constant than the samples from the less deformed rock mass. The electrical properties of the core samples have been measured over a frequency interval ranging from 1 Hz to 70 MHz. The conductivity of the samples increases with frequency, approximately with the frequency raised to the power 0.38. The dielectric constant decreases with frequency but is essentially constant above 3 MHz. These results show that the Hanai-Bruggeman equation can be used to describe the electrical bulk properties of the Stripa granite. The electrical conductivity of the samples is well correlated to the water content of the samples. The granite has a small contents of electrically conductive minerals which could influence the electrical bulk properties. (orig.)

  7. Engineering task plan for the development, fabrication and installation of rotary mode core sample truck bellows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BOGER, R.M.

    1999-01-01

    The Rotary Mode Core Sampling Trucks (RMSCTs) currently use a multi-sectioned bellows between the grapple box and the quill rod to compensate for drill head motion and to provide a path for purge gas. The current bellows, which is detailed on drawing H-2-690059, is expensive to procure, has a lengthy procurement cycle, and is prone to failure. Therefore, a task has been identified to design, fabricate, and install a replacement bellows. This Engineering Task Plan (ETP) is the management plan document for accomplishing the identified tasks. Any changes in scope of the ETP shall require formal direction by the Characterization Engineering manager. This document shall also be considered the work planning document for developmental control per Development Control Requirements (HNF 1999a). This Engineering Task Plan (ETP) is the management plan document for accomplishing the design, fabrication, and installation of a replacement bellows assembly for the Rotary Mode Core Sampling Trucks 3 and 4 (RMCST)

  8. HYACE - a novel autoclave coring equipment for systematic offshore gashydrate sampling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amann, H.; Hohnberg, H.J.; Reinelt, R. [Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Schiffs- und Meerestechnik, Fachgebiet Maritime Technik

    1997-12-31

    HYACE, the acronym for hydrate autoclave coring equipment system, is a research and development project sponsored by the European Union`s Marine Science and Technology Programme MAST. The project was to have started in the fourth quarter of 1997 and is to last 30 months. The main activities of the project will be in the development and prototype testing of an innovative down-hole controlled autoclave coring system. This system will be designed to sample marine sediments at extended down-hole conditions maintaining as many parameters constant as possible. In general terms, the main aim of the project is to contribute to systematic ground truthing of a necessarily ephemeral phenomenon of growing global significance: sampling and analysis of gas hydrates in their natural environment. (MSK)

  9. Tank 241-AY-101 Privatization Push Mode Core Sampling and Analysis Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TEMPLETON, A.M.

    2000-01-01

    This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) identifies characterization objectives pertaining to sample collection, laboratory analytical evaluation, and reporting requirements for samples obtained from tank 241-AY-101. The purpose of this sampling event is to obtain information about the characteristics of the contents of 241-AY-101 required to satisfy ''Data Quality Objectives For RPP Privatization Phase I: Confirm Tank T Is An Appropriate Feed Source For High-Level Waste Feed Batch X(HLW DQO)' (Nguyen 1999a), ''Data Quality Objectives For TWRS Privatization Phase I: Confirm Tank T Is An Appropriate Feed Source For Low-Activity Waste Feed Butch X (LAW DQO) (Nguyen 1999b)'', ''Low Activity Waste and High-Level Waste Feed Data Quality Objectives (L and H DQO)'' (Patello et al. 1999), and ''Characterization Data Needs for Development, Design, and Operation of Retrieval Equipment Developed through the Data Quality Objective Process (Equipment DQO)'' (Bloom 1996). Special instructions regarding support to the LAW and HLW DQOs are provided by Baldwin (1999). Push mode core samples will be obtained from risers 15G and 150 to provide sufficient material for the chemical analyses and tests required to satisfy these data quality objectives. The 222-S Laboratory will extrude core samples; composite the liquids and solids; perform chemical analyses on composite and segment samples; archive half-segment samples; and provide sub-samples to the Process Chemistry Laboratory. The Process Chemistry Laboratory will prepare test plans and perform process tests to evaluate the behavior of the 241-AY-101 waste undergoing the retrieval and treatment scenarios defined in the applicable DQOs. Requirements for analyses of samples originating in the process tests will be documented in the corresponding test plans and are not within the scope of this SAP

  10. Operability test report for core sample truck number one flammable gas modifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akers, J.C.

    1997-01-01

    This report primarily consists of the original test procedure used for the Operability Testing of the flammable gas modifications to Core Sample Truck No. One. Included are exceptions, resolutions, comments, and test results. This report consists of the original, completed, test procedure used for the Operability Testing of the flammable gas modifications to the Push Mode Core Sample Truck No. 1. Prior to the Acceptance/Operability test the truck No. 1 operations procedure (TO-080-503) was revised to be more consistent with the other core sample truck procedures and to include operational steps/instructions for the SR weather cover pressurization system. A draft copy of the operations procedure was used to perform the Operability Test Procedure (OTP). A Document Acceptance Review Form is included with this report (last page) indicating the draft status of the operations procedure during the OTP. During the OTP 11 test exceptions were encountered. Of these exceptions four were determined to affect Acceptance Criteria as listed in the OTP, Section 4.7 ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA

  11. Tank 241-AY-101 Privatization Push Mode Core Sampling and Analysis Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TEMPLETON, A.M.

    2000-01-01

    This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) identifies characterization objectives pertaining to sample collection, laboratory analytical evaluation, and reporting requirements for samples obtained from tank 241-AY-101. The purpose of this sampling event is to obtain information about the characteristics of the contents of 241-AY-101 required to satisfy Data Quality Objectives For RPP Privatization Phase I: Confirm Tank T Is An Appropriate Feed Source For High-Level Waste Feed Batch X(HLW DQO) (Nguyen 1999a), Data Quality Objectives For TWRS Privatization Phase I : Confirm Tank T Is An Appropriate Feed Source For Low-Activity Waste Feed Batch X (LAW DQO) (Nguyen 1999b), Low Activity Waste and High-Level Waste Feed Data Quality Objectives (L and H DQO) (Patello et al. 1999), and Characterization Data Needs for Development, Design, and Operation of Retrieval Equipment Developed through the Data Quality Objective Process (Equipment DQO) (Bloom 1996). Special instructions regarding support to the LAW and HLW DQOs are provided by Baldwin (1999). Push mode core samples will be obtained from risers 15G and 150 to provide sufficient material for the chemical analyses and tests required to satisfy these data quality objectives. The 222-S Laboratory will extrude core samples; composite the liquids and solids; perform chemical analyses on composite and segment samples; archive half-segment samples; and provide subsamples to the Process Chemistry Laboratory. The Process Chemistry Laboratory will prepare test plans and perform process tests to evaluate the behavior of the 241-AY-101 waste undergoing the retrieval and treatment scenarios defined in the applicable DQOs. Requirements for analyses of samples originating in the process tests will be documented in the corresponding test plans and are not within the scope of this SAP

  12. High-level core sample x-ray imaging at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, J.R.; Keye, J.K.

    1995-01-01

    Waste tank sampling of radioactive high-level waste is required for continued operations, waste characterization, and site safety. Hanford Site Tank farms consist of 28 double-shell and 149 single-shell underground storage tanks. The single shell tanks are out-of-service and no longer receive liquid waste. Core samples of salt cake and sludge waste are remotely obtained using truck-mounted, core drill platforms. Samples are recovered from tanks through a 2.25 inch (in.) drill pipe in 26-in. steel tubes, 1.5 in. diameter. Drilling parameters vary with different waste types. Because sample recovery has been marginal and inadequate at times, a system was needed to provide drill truck operators with real-time feedback about the physical conditions of the sample and the percent recovery, prior to making nuclear assay measurements and characterizations at the analytical laboratory. Westinghouse hanford Company conducted proof-of -principal radiographic testing to verify the feasibility of a proposed imaging system

  13. Ferrocyanide Safety Program: Data interpretation report for tank 241-T-107 core samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, L.M.; Valenzuela, B.D.

    1994-08-01

    Between November 1992 and March 1993, three core samples were obtained from tank 241-T-107. Analyses were performed on these core samples to support the Ferrocyanide Safety Program and the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Ecology et al. 1994) Milestone M-10-00. This document summarizes and evaluates those analytical results that are pertinent to the Ferrocyanide Safety Issue. This document compares the analytical results with the data requirements for ferrocyanide tanks as documented in Data Requirements of the Ferrocyanide Safety Issue Developed Through the Data Quality Objectives Process (Meacham et al. 1994) and provides an assessment of the safety condition of the tank. Analytes not listed in the Data Quality Objectives (DQO) document (Meacham et al. 1994) or not pertinent to the Ferrocyanide Safety Issue are not discussed in this report. Complete documentation of the analytical results can be found in the data package for the tank 241-T-107 cores (Svancara and Pool 1993). A more complete evaluation of the analytical results and an estimate of the tank inventory will be provided in a forthcoming tank characterization report for tank 241-T-107

  14. Tank 241-AZ-102 Privatization Push Mode Core Sampling and Analysis Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RASMUSSEN, J.H.

    1999-01-01

    This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) identifies characterization objectives pertaining to sample collection, laboratory analytical evaluation, and reporting requirements for samples obtained from tank 241-AZ-102. The purpose of this sampling event is to obtain information about the characteristics of the contents of 241-AZ-102 required to satisfy the Data Quality Objectives For TWRS Privatization Phase I : Confirm Tank TIS An Appropriate Feed Source For High-Level Waste Feed Batch X(HLW DQO) (Nguyen 1999a), Data Quality Objectives For TWRS Privatization Phase 1: Confirm Tank TIS An Appropriate Feed Source For Low-Activity Waste Feed Batch X (LAW DQO) (Nguyen 1999b), Low Activity Waste and High Level Waste Feed Data Quality Objectives (L and H DQO) (Patello et al. 1999) and Characterization Data Needs for Development, Design, and Operation of Retrieval Equipment Developed through the Data Quality Objective Process (Equipment DQO) (Bloom 1996). The Tank Characterization Technical Sampling Basis document (Brown et al. 1998) indicates that these issues, except the Equipment DQO apply to tank 241-AZ-102 for this sampling event. The Equipment DQO is applied for shear strength measurements of the solids segments only. Poppiti (1999) requires additional americium-241 analyses of the sludge segments. Brown et al. (1998) also identify safety screening, regulatory issues and provision of samples to the Privatization Contractor(s) as applicable issues for this tank. However, these issues will not be addressed via this sampling event. Reynolds et al. (1999) concluded that information from previous sampling events was sufficient to satisfy the safety screening requirements for tank 241-AZ-102. Push mode core samples will be obtained from risers 15C and 24A to provide sufficient material for the chemical analyses and tests required to satisfy these data quality objectives. The 222-S Laboratory will extrude core samples, composite the liquids and solids, perform chemical analyses

  15. Probabilistic uniformities of uniform spaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez Lopez, J.; Romaguera, S.; Sanchis, M.

    2017-07-01

    The theory of metric spaces in the fuzzy context has shown to be an interesting area of study not only from a theoretical point of view but also for its applications. Nevertheless, it is usual to consider these spaces as classical topological or uniform spaces and there are not too many results about constructing fuzzy topological structures starting from a fuzzy metric. Maybe, H/{sup o}hle was the first to show how to construct a probabilistic uniformity and a Lowen uniformity from a probabilistic pseudometric /cite{Hohle78,Hohle82a}. His method can be directly translated to the context of fuzzy metrics and allows to characterize the categories of probabilistic uniform spaces or Lowen uniform spaces by means of certain families of fuzzy pseudometrics /cite{RL}. On the other hand, other different fuzzy uniformities can be constructed in a fuzzy metric space: a Hutton $[0,1]$-quasi-uniformity /cite{GGPV06}; a fuzzifiying uniformity /cite{YueShi10}, etc. The paper /cite{GGRLRo} gives a study of several methods of endowing a fuzzy pseudometric space with a probabilistic uniformity and a Hutton $[0,1]$-quasi-uniformity. In 2010, J. Guti/'errez Garc/'{/i}a, S. Romaguera and M. Sanchis /cite{GGRoSanchis10} proved that the category of uniform spaces is isomorphic to a category formed by sets endowed with a fuzzy uniform structure, i. e. a family of fuzzy pseudometrics satisfying certain conditions. We will show here that, by means of this isomorphism, we can obtain several methods to endow a uniform space with a probabilistic uniformity. Furthermore, these constructions allow to obtain a factorization of some functors introduced in /cite{GGRoSanchis10}. (Author)

  16. The use of gamma ray computed tomography to investigate soil compaction due to core sampling devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pires, Luiz F.; Arthur, Robson C.J.; Correchel, Vladia; Bacchi, Osny O.S.; Reichardt, Klaus; Brasil, Rene P. Camponez do

    2004-01-01

    Compaction processes can influence soil physical properties such as soil density, porosity, pore size distribution, and processes like soil water and nutrient movements, root system distribution, and others. Soil porosity modification has important consequences like alterations in results of soil water retention curves. These alterations may cause differences in soil water storage calculations and matrix potential values, which are utilized in irrigation management systems. Because of this, soil-sampling techniques should avoid alterations of sample structure. In this work soil sample compaction caused by core sampling devices was investigated using the gamma ray computed tomography technique. A first generation tomograph with fixed source-detector arrangement and translation/rotational movements of the sample was utilized to obtain the images. The radioactive source is 241 Am, with an activity of 3.7 GBq, and the detector consists of a 3 in. x 3 in. NaI(Tl) scintillation crystal coupled to a photomultiplier tube. Soil samples were taken from an experimental field utilizing cylinders 4.0 cm high and 2.6 cm in diameter. Based on image analyses it was possible to detect compacted regions in all samples next to the cylinder wall due to the sampling system. Tomographic unit profiles of the sample permitted to identify higher values of soil density for deeper regions of the sample, and it was possible to determine the average densities and thickness of these layers. Tomographic analyses showed to be a very useful tool for soil compaction characterization and presented many advantages in relation to traditional methods. (author)

  17. Colloid and phosphorus leaching from undisturbed soil cores sampled along a natural clay gradient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vendelboe, Anders Lindblad; Møldrup, Per; Heckrath, Goswin Johann

    2011-01-01

    correlated to the accumulated outflow and was described as a diffusion controlled process, using ¾(accumulated outflow). The mass of leached particles was positively correlated to the clay content as well as to water-dispersible colloids. Particulate phosphorus (P) was linearly correlated to concentration......The presence of strongly sorbing compounds in groundwater and tile drains can be a result of colloid-facilitated transport. Colloid and phosphorus leaching from macropores in undisturbed soil cores sampled across a natural clay gradient at Aarup, Denmark, were studied. The aim of the study...... was to correlate easily measurable soil properties, such as clay content and water-dispersible colloids, to colloid and phosphorus leaching. The clay contents across the gradient ranged from 0.11 to 0.23 kg kgj1. Irrigating with artificial rainwater, all samples showed a high first flush of colloids and phosphorus...

  18. Ecological risk evaluation of sediment core samples, Lake Tortum (Erzurum, NE Turkey using environmental indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Kaya

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the vertical distribution of heavy metals in a 72 cm-long core sample from Lake Tortum in order to shed light on the implications of potential ecological risks. Analysis was based on the use of environmental indices such as the Integrated Pollution Load Index (PLI and Potential Ecological Risk Index (PER. Results reveal that, except for Pb, Mn and Hg, the lowest concentrations of heavy metals occur at a core depth of between 2 cm and 20 cm for Cu, Zn, Ni, Fe, As, Cd, Cr and Al. The highest concentration was found at sampling intervals of 36 cm and 50 cm, with the exception of Pb, Mn, Hg and Ni. The PLI values from bottom to top are less than 1 while the level with the nearest value to the background value lies at a depth between 24 cm and 26 cm. The PER index results suggest a low ecological risk level for Cu, Pb, Zn, Ni, Mn, Fe, As, Cr, and Al; however, Cd and Hg constitute an ecological threat to the lake ecosystem.

  19. Engineering task plan for rotary mode core sampling exhausters CAM high radiation interlock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BOGER, R.M.

    1999-01-01

    The Rotary Mode Core Sampling (RMCS) system is primarily made up of the Rotary Mode Core Sample Trucks (RMCST) and the RMCS Exhausters. During RMCS operations an Exhauster is connected to a tank riser and withdraws gases from the tank dome vapor space at approximately 200 Standard Cubic Feet per Minute (SCFM). The gases are passed through two High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filters before passing out the exhaust stack to the atmosphere. A Continuous Air Monitor (CAM) monitors the exhaust gases in the exhaust stack for beta particle and gamma radiation. The CAM has a high radiation alarm output and a detector fail alarm output. The CAM alarms are currently connected to the data logger only. The CAM alarms require operator response per procedure LMHC 1998 but no automatic functions are initiated by the CAM alarms. Currently, there are three events that can cause an automatic shut down of the Exhauster. These are, Low Tank Pressure, Highnow Stack Flow and High HEPA Filter Differential Pressure (DP)

  20. Compensation Methods for Non-uniform and Incomplete Data Sampling in High Resolution PET with Multiple Scintillation Crystal Layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jae Sung; Kim, Soo Mee; Lee, Dong Soo; Hong, Jong Hong; Sim, Kwang Souk; Rhee, June Tak

    2008-01-01

    To establish the methods for sinogram formation and correction in order to appropriately apply the filtered backprojection (FBP) reconstruction algorithm to the data acquired using PET scanner with multiple scintillation crystal layers. Formation for raw PET data storage and conversion methods from listmode data to histogram and sinogram were optimized. To solve the various problems occurred while the raw histogram was converted into sinogram, optimal sampling strategy and sampling efficiency correction method were investigated. Gap compensation methods that is unique in this system were also investigated. All the sinogram data were reconstructed using 2D filtered backprojection algorithm and compared to estimate the improvements by the correction algorithms. Optimal radial sampling interval and number of angular samples in terms of the sampling theorem and sampling efficiency correction algorithm were pitch/2 and 120, respectively. By applying the sampling efficiency correction and gap compensation, artifacts and background noise on the reconstructed image could be reduced. Conversion method from the histogram to sinogram was investigated for the FBP reconstruction of data acquired using multiple scintillation crystal layers. This method will be useful for the fast 2D reconstruction of multiple crystal layer PET data

  1. Characterization of tuyere-level core-drill coke samples from blast furnace operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Dong; N. Paterson; S.G. Kazarian; D.R. Dugwell; R. Kandiyoti [Imperial College London, London (United Kingdom). Department of Chemical Engineering

    2007-12-15

    A suite of tuyere-level coke samples have been withdrawn from a working blast furnace during coal injection, using the core-drilling technique. The samples have been characterized by size exclusion chromatography (SEC), Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy (FT-RS), and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) spectroscopy. The 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (NMP) extracts of the cokes sampled from the 'bosh', the rear of the 'bird's nest', and the 'dead man' zones were found by SEC to contain heavy soot-like materials (ca. 10{sup 7}-10{sup 8} apparent mass units). In contrast, NMP extracts of cokes taken from the raceway and the front of the 'bird's nest' only contained a small amount of material of relatively lower apparent molecular mass (up to ca. 10{sup 5} u). Since the feed coke contained no materials extractable by the present method, the soot-like materials are thought to have formed during the reactions of volatile matter released from the injectant coal, probably via dehydrogenation and repolymerization of the tars. The Raman spectra of the NMP-extracted core-drilled coke samples showed variations reflecting their temperature histories. Area ratios of D-band to G-band decreased as the exposure temperature increased, while intensity ratios of D to G band and those of 2D to G bands increased with temperature. The graphitic (G), defect (D), and random (R) fractions of the carbon structure of the cokes were also derived from the Raman spectra. The R fractions decreased with increasing temperature, whereas G fractions increased, while the D fractions showed a more complex variation with temperature. These data appear to give clues regarding the graphitization mechanism of tuyere-level cokes in the blast furnace. 41 refs., 9 figs., 6 tabs.

  2. XPS and EPXMA investigation and chemical speciation of aerosol samples formed in LWR core melting experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moers, H.; Jenett, H.; Kaufmann, R.; Klewe-Nebenius, H.; Pfennig, G.; Ache, H.J.

    1985-09-01

    Aerosol samples consisting of fission products and elements of light water reactor structural materials were collected during simulating in a laboratory scale the heat-up phase of a core melt accident. The aerosol particles were formed in a steam atmosphere at temperatures between 1200 and 1900 0 C of the melting charge. The investigation of the samples by use of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) permitted the chemical speciation of the detected aerosol constituents silver, cadmium, indium, tellurium, iodine, and cesium. A comparison of the elemental analysis results obtained from XPS with those achieved from electron probe X-ray micro analysis (EPXMA) revealed that aerosol particle surface and aerosol particle bulk are principally composed of the same elements and that these compositions vary with release temperature. In addition, quantitative differences between the composition of surface and bulk have only been observed for those aerosol samples which were collected at higher melting charge temperatures. In order to obtain direct information on chemical species below the surface selected samples were argon ion bombarded. Changes in composition and chemistry were monitored by XPS, and the results were interpreted in light of the effects, which were observed when appropriate standard samples were sputtered. (orig.) [de

  3. THE CORES OF THE Fe Kα LINES IN ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI: AN EXTENDED CHANDRA HIGH ENERGY GRATING SAMPLE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shu, X. W.; Wang, J. X.; Yaqoob, T.

    2010-01-01

    We extend the study of the core of the Fe Kα emission line at ∼6.4 keV in Seyfert galaxies reported by Yaqoob and Padmanabhan using a larger sample observed by the Chandra high-energy grating (HEG). The sample consists of 82 observations of 36 unique sources with z H 23 cm -2 ) Seyfert galaxies to date. From an empirical and uniform analysis, we present measurements of the Fe Kα line centroid energy, flux, equivalent width (EW), and intrinsic width (FWHM). The Fe Kα line is detected in 33 sources, and its centroid energy is constrained in 32 sources. In 27 sources, the statistical quality of the data is good enough to yield measurements of the FWHM. We find that the distribution in the line centroid energy is strongly peaked around the value for neutral Fe, with over 80% of the observations giving values in the range 6.38-6.43 keV. Including statistical errors, 30 out of 32 sources (∼94%) have a line centroid energy in the range 6.35-6.47 keV. The mean EW, among the observations in which a non-zero lower limit could be measured, was 53 ± 3 eV. The mean FWHM from the subsample of 27 sources was 2060 ± 230 km s -1 . The mean EW and FWHM are somewhat higher when multiple observations for a given source are averaged. From a comparison with the Hβ optical emission-line widths (or, for one source, Brα), we find that there is no universal location of the Fe Kα line-emitting region relative to the optical broad-line region (BLR). In general, a given source may have contributions to the Fe Kα line flux from parsec-scale distances from the putative black hole, down to matter a factor ∼2 closer to the black hole than the BLR. We confirm the presence of the X-ray Baldwin effect, an anti-correlation between the Fe Kα line EW and X-ray continuum luminosity. The HEG data have enabled isolation of this effect to the narrow core of the Fe Kα line.

  4. Quantitation of yeast total proteins in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis sample buffer for uniform loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheen, Hyukho

    2016-04-01

    Proteins in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) sample buffer are difficult to quantitate due to SDS and reducing agents being in the buffer. Although acetone precipitation has long been used to clean up proteins from detergents and salts, previous studies showed that protein recovery from acetone precipitation varies from 50 to 100% depending on the samples tested. Here, this article shows that acetone precipitates proteins highly efficiently from SDS-PAGE sample buffer and that quantitative recovery is achieved in 5 min at room temperature. Moreover, precipitated proteins are resolubilized with urea/guanidine, rather than with SDS. Thus, the resolubilized samples are readily quantifiable with Bradford reagent without using SDS-compatible assays. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Fault rocks from the SAFOD core samples : implications for weakening at shallow depths along the San Andreas Fault, California

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holdsworth, R.E.; van Diggelen, E.W.E.; Spiers, C.J.; Bresser, J.H.P. de; Walker, R.J.; Bown, L.

    2011-01-01

    The drilling of a deep borehole across the actively creeping Parkfield segment of the San Andreas Fault Zone (SAFZ), California, and collection of core materials permit direct geological study of fault zone processes at 2–3 km depth. The three drill cores sample both host and fault rocks and pass

  6. Geochemical porosity values obtained in core samples from different clay-rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, A.M.

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. Argillaceous formations of low permeability are considered in many countries as potential host rocks for the disposal of high level radioactive wastes (HLRW). In order to determine their suitability for waste disposal, evaluations of the hydro-geochemistry and transport mechanisms from such geologic formations to the biosphere must be undertaken. One of the key questions about radionuclide diffusion and retention is to know the chemistry and chemical reactions and sorption processes that will occur in the rock and their effects on radionuclide mobility. In this context, the knowledge of the pore water chemistry is essential for performance assessment purposes. This information allows to establish a reliable model for the main water-rock interactions, which control the physico-chemical parameters and the chemistry of the major elements of the system. An important issue in order to model the pore water chemistry in clayey media is to determine the respective volume accessible to cations and anions, i.e, the amount of water actually available for chemical reactions/solute transport. This amount is usually referred as accessible porosity or geochemical porosity. By using the anion inventories, i.e. the anion content obtained from aqueous leaching, and assuming that all Cl - , Br - and SO4 2- leached in the aqueous extracts originates from pore water, the concentration of a conservative ion can be converted into the real pore water concentration if the accessible porosity is known. In this work, the accessible porosity or geochemical porosity has been determined in core samples belonging to four different formations: Boom Clay from Hades URL (Belgium, BE), Opalinus Clay from Mont Terri (Switzerland, CH), and Callovo-Oxfordian argillite from Bure URL (France, FR). The geochemical or chloride porosity was defined as the ratio between the pore water volume containing Cl-bearing pore water and the total volume of a sample

  7. Neutron activation analysis of core and drill cutting samples from geothermal well drilling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, G.E.

    1986-01-01

    Samples of sandstones and shales were analysed by instrumental neutron activation analysis for a total of 30 elements. Three irradiation and five counting periods were employed. Solutions and National Bureau of Standards Reference Materials were used for comparison. The samples were obtained from drill cuttings (with a few core samples) from drillings in the Salton Sea geothermal field of California. These determinations form part of a major study to establish elemental variation as a function of mineral variation as depth and temperature in the well vary. The overall goal is to examine mineral alteration and/or element migration under typical geothermal conditions. The techniques involve typical compromises between maximizing precision for individual element determinations and the amount of time and effort that can be expended, as it is desired to examine large numbers of samples. With the limitations imposed by the reactor flux available at the U.C.Irvine TRIGA reactor, the detectors available, and time factors, most precisions are acceptable for geological comparison purposes. Some additional measurements were made by delayed-neutron counting methods to compare with uranium determinations made by conventional instrumental neutron activation analysis methods. (author)

  8. Chemical and X-ray diffraction analysis on selected samples from the TMI-2 reactor core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleykamp, H.; Pejsa, R.

    1991-05-01

    Selected samples from different positions of the damaged TMI-2 reactor core were investigated by X-ray microanalysis and X-ray diffraction. The measurements yield the following resolidified phases after cooling: Cd and In depleted Ag absorber material, intermetallic Zr-steel compounds, fully oxidized Zircaloy, UO 2 -ZrO 2 solid solutions and their decomposed phases, and Fe-Al-Cr-Zr spinels. The composition of the phases and their lattice parameters as well as the eutectic and monotectic character can serve as indicators of local temperatures of the core. The reaction sequences are estimated from the heterogeneous equilibria of these phases. The main conclusions are: (1) Liquefaction onset is locally possible by Inconel-Zircaloy and steel-Zircaloy reactions of spacers and absorber guide tubes at 930deg C. However, increased rates of dissolution occur above 1200deg C. (2) UO 2 dissolution in the Inconel-steel-Zircaloy melt starts at 1300deg C with increased rates above 1900deg C. (3) Fuel temperatures in the core centre are increased above 2550deg C, liquid (U,Zr)O 2 is generated. (4) Square UO 2 particles are reprecipitated from the Incoloy-steel-Zircaloy-UO 2 melt during cooling, the remaining metallic melt is oxygen poor; two types of intermetallic phases are formed. (5) Oxidized Fe and Zr and Al 2 O 3 from burnable absorber react to spinels which form a low melting eutectic with the fuel at 1500deg C. The spinel acts as lubricant for fuel transport to the lower reactor plenum above 1500deg C. (6) Ruthenium (Ru-106) is dissolved in the steel phase, antimony (Sb-125) in the α-Ag absorber during liquefaction. (7) Oxidation of the Zircaloy-steel phases takes place mainly in the reflood stage 3 of the accident scenario. (orig.) [de

  9. System design specification for rotary mode core sample trucks No. 2, 3, and 4 programmable logic controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dowell, J.L.; Akers, J.C.

    1995-01-01

    The system this document describes controls several functions of the Core Sample Truck(s) used to obtain nuclear waste samples from various underground storage tanks at Hanford. The system will monitor the sampling process and provide alarms and other feedback to insure the sampling process is performed within the prescribed operating envelope. The intended audience for this document is anyone associated with rotary or push mode core sampling. This document describes the Alarm and Control logic installed on Rotary Mode Core Sample Trucks (RMCST) number-sign 2, 3, and 4. It is intended to define the particular requirements of the RMCST alarm and control operation (not defined elsewhere) sufficiently for detailed design to implement on a Programmable Logic Controller (PLC)

  10. The proportionator: unbiased stereological estimation using biased automatic image analysis and non-uniform probability proportional to size sampling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gardi, Jonathan Eyal; Nyengaard, Jens Randel; Gundersen, Hans Jørgen Gottlieb

    2008-01-01

    examined, which in turn leads to any of the known stereological estimates, including size distributions and spatial distributions. The unbiasedness is not a function of the assumed relation between the weight and the structure, which is in practice always a biased relation from a stereological (integral......, the desired number of fields are sampled automatically with probability proportional to the weight and presented to the expert observer. Using any known stereological probe and estimator, the correct count in these fields leads to a simple, unbiased estimate of the total amount of structure in the sections...... geometric) point of view. The efficiency of the proportionator depends, however, directly on this relation to be positive. The sampling and estimation procedure is simulated in sections with characteristics and various kinds of noises in possibly realistic ranges. In all cases examined, the proportionator...

  11. Bayesian methods for the combination of core sampling data with historical models for tank characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    York, J.C.; Remund, K.M.; Chen, G.; Simpson, B.C.; Brown, T.M.

    1995-07-01

    A wide variety of information is available on the contents of the nuclear waste tanks at the Hanford site. This report describes an attempt to combine several sources of information using a Bayesian statistical approach. This methodology allows the combination of multiple disparate information sources. After each source of information is summarized in terms of a probability distribution function (pdf), Bayes' theorem is applied to combine them. This approach has been applied to characterizing tanks B-110, B-111, and B-201. These tanks were chosen for their simple waste matrices: B-110 and B-111 contain mostly 2C waste, and B-201 contains mostly 224 waste. Additionally,, the results of this analysis axe used to make predictions for tank T-111 (which contains both 2C and 224 waste). These predictions are compared to the estimates based on core samples from tank T-111

  12. Towards an integrated petrophysical tool for multiphase flow properties of core samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenormand, R. [Institut Francais du Petrole, Rueil Malmaison (France)

    1997-08-01

    This paper describes the first use of an Integrated Petrophysical Tool (IPT) on reservoir rock samples. The IPT simultaneously measures the following petrophysical properties: (1) Complete capillary pressure cycle: primary drainage, spontaneous and forced imbibitions, secondary drainage (the cycle leads to the wettability of the core by using the USBM index); End-points and parts of the relative permeability curves; Formation factor and resistivity index. The IPT is based on the steady-state injection of one fluid through the sample placed in a Hassler cell. The experiment leading to the whole Pc cycle on two reservoir sandstones consists of about 30 steps at various oil or water flow rates. It takes about four weeks and is operated at room conditions. Relative permeabilities are in line with standard steady-state measurements. Capillary pressures are in accordance with standard centrifuge measurements. There is no comparison for the resistivity index, but the results are in agreement with literature data. However, the accurate determination of saturation remains the main difficulty and some improvements are proposed. In conclusion, the Integrated Petrophysical Tool is as accurate as standard methods and has the advantage of providing the various parameters on the same sample and during a single experiment. The FIT is easy to use and can be automated. In addition, it can be operated in reservoir conditions.

  13. ANALYSIS OF TANK 28F SALTCAKE CORE SAMPLES FTF-456 - 467

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martino, C; Daniel McCabe, D; Tommy Edwards, T; Ralph Nichols, R

    2007-02-28

    Twelve LM-75 core samplers from Tank 28F sampling were received by SRNL for saltcake characterization. Of these, nine samplers contained mixtures of free liquid and saltcake, two contained only liquid, and one was empty. The saltcake contents generally appeared wet. A summary of the major tasks performed in this work are as follows: (1) Individual saltcake segments were extruded from the samplers and separated into saltcake and free liquid portions. (2) Free liquids were analyzed to estimate the amount of traced drill-string fluid contained in the samples. (3) The saltcake from each individual segment was homogenized, followed by analysis in duplicate. The analysis used more cost-effective and bounding radiochemical analyses rather than using the full Saltstone WAC suite. (4) A composite was created using an approximately equal percentage of each segment's saltcake contents. Supernatant liquid formed upon creation of the composite was decanted prior to use of the composite, but the composite was not drained. (5) A dissolution test was performed on the sample by contacting the composite with water at a 4:1 mass ratio of water to salt. The resulting soluble and insoluble fractions were analyzed. Analysis focused on a large subset of the Saltstone WAC constituents.

  14. Gamma ray spectrometry results from core samples collected for RESUME 95

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanderson, D.C.W.; Allyson, J.D.; Toivonen, H.; Honkamaa, T.

    1997-01-01

    Field sampling of an airfield at Vesivehmaa, near Vaeaeksy, Finland (Area I) was carried out between 26-29 May 1995, to establish the radionuclide deposition and inventory of Chernobyl derived 137 Cs, and natural radionuclides. The objective was to establish a common calibration site for in-situ and airborne gamma spectrometers, for Exercise RESUME 95 conducted in August 1995. The report presents the sampling details, handling and treatment. The analyses are discussed with particular emphasis given to 137 Ca, 134 Cs, 40 K, 214 Bi and 208 radionuclides, and the quantification of their respective deposition and inventories. The results have been used to estimate the effective concentrations of nuclides at the calibration site for in-situ and airborne gamma spectrometry, and the depth distribution. For 137 Cs the weighted mean activity per unit area takes on values of 50.7±5.2 kBq m -2 at 1 m ground clearance, 51.1±6.9 kBq m -2 at 50 m height and 47.9±8.5 kBq m -2 at 100 m. The similarity of these values confirms the suitability of the Vesivehmaa site for comparison of in-situ and airborne results despite variations of a factor of two between results from individual cores. The mean α/ρ value for 137 Cs in Area I is 0.77±0.10 cm 2 g -1 (relaxation mass per unit area, β 1.31±0.15 gcm -2 ). Additional soil sampling across parts of Area II (a 6x3 km area selected for mapping Chernobyl deposition) was carried out. The mean level of 137 Cs activity from these samples was 92.4±63 kBq m -2 , a sample taken near Laihansuo showing the largest value obtained at 172 kBq m -2 . (EG)

  15. A Review of Inflammatory Processes of the Breast with a Focus on Diagnosis in Core Biopsy Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy M. D’Alfonso

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory and reactive lesions of the breast are relatively uncommon among benign breast lesions and can be the source of an abnormality on imaging. Such lesions can simulate a malignant process, based on both clinical and radiographic findings, and core biopsy is often performed to rule out malignancy. Furthermore, some inflammatory processes can mimic carcinoma or other malignancy microscopically, and vice versa. Diagnostic difficulty may arise due to the small and fragmented sample of a core biopsy. This review will focus on the pertinent clinical, radiographic, and histopathologic features of the more commonly encountered inflammatory lesions of the breast that can be characterized in a core biopsy sample. These include fat necrosis, mammary duct ectasia, granulomatous lobular mastitis, diabetic mastopathy, and abscess. The microscopic differential diagnoses for these lesions when seen in a core biopsy sample will be discussed.

  16. A Review of Inflammatory Processes of the Breast with a Focus on Diagnosis in Core Biopsy Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alfonso, Timothy M; Ginter, Paula S; Shin, Sandra J

    2015-07-01

    Inflammatory and reactive lesions of the breast are relatively uncommon among benign breast lesions and can be the source of an abnormality on imaging. Such lesions can simulate a malignant process, based on both clinical and radiographic findings, and core biopsy is often performed to rule out malignancy. Furthermore, some inflammatory processes can mimic carcinoma or other malignancy microscopically, and vice versa. Diagnostic difficulty may arise due to the small and fragmented sample of a core biopsy. This review will focus on the pertinent clinical, radiographic, and histopathologic features of the more commonly encountered inflammatory lesions of the breast that can be characterized in a core biopsy sample. These include fat necrosis, mammary duct ectasia, granulomatous lobular mastitis, diabetic mastopathy, and abscess. The microscopic differential diagnoses for these lesions when seen in a core biopsy sample will be discussed.

  17. Summary of petrophysical analysis of Olkiluoto. Core samples 1990-2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heikkinen, E.; Oehman, I.; Paulamaeki, S.; Saeaevuori, H.; Vuoriainen, S.; Aaltonen, I.

    2009-04-01

    Posiva prepares for disposal of spent nuclear fuel in deep geological repository at Olkiluoto, Eurajoki. This is in accordance of the application filed in 1999, the Decision in Principle of the State Council in 2000, and ratification by the Parliament in 2001.The site characterization has included comprehensive geological, hydrological and geophysical investigations airborne, on ground and in drillholes since 1988. Petrophysical analysis has been carried out to enhance knowledge on physical properties in rock mass. Also the large scale geophysical interpretations will essentially benefit on this knowledge. This report is associated with and covering the 2005-2008 sampling campaign (932 samples), but also pre-existing results (506 samples from 1990 - 2004) are discussed in the report. Data has been acquired from non-broken core samples, and of representative locations of lithological units. Samples have been taken at 10-30 m interval from all core sections. Selecting the samples and analysis has been carried out for different purposes during campaigns. Altogether there are 1438 samples from drillholes OL-KR1 - OL-KR39 and ONK-PH01-PH07. Petrophysical measurements included density, susceptibility and remanence (partly oriented), resistivity, IP value (frequency effect), P-wave velocity and porosity. Sample data was analyzed for distributions and mutual relations. Petrophysical signatures of different parameters were assessed by lithology. Mineral composition and texture will affect to petrophysical results. Deformation and alteration cause an overprint to lithology specific values. In petrophysical sense, granite pegmatite is distinguished from all other rock types. It is of rather high resistivity and P-wave velocity, and low density and susceptibility. Other distinct lithological unit is mafic gneisses. They are described by high density and Pwave velocity, and also increased susceptibility, IP value and resistivity. The tonaliticgranodioritic- granitic gneiss

  18. Behaviour of Water Droplets Under the Influence of a Uniform Electric Field in Nanocomposite Samples of Epoxy Resin/TiO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Α. Bairaktari

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper nanocomposite samples of epoxy resin and TiO2 nanoparticles were investigated with water droplets on their surface. A uniform electric field was applied and the behaviour of the water droplets was observed. Parameters that were studied were the water conductivity, the droplet volume, the number of droplets and the droplet positioning with respect to (w.r.t. the electrodes. All above mentioned parameters influence the flashover voltage of the samples. It is to be noted that – at least in some cases – the water droplet positioning w.r.t. the electrodes was more important in determining the flashover voltage than the droplet volume.

  19. Low-energy absorption and luminescence of higher plant photosystem II core samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, Joseph L.; Smith, Paul J.; Pace, Ron J.; Krausz, Elmars

    2007-01-01

    The charge-separating state of PSII has been recently assigned as a homogeneously broadened band peaking at 705 nm. The possibility of observing emission due to luminescence from the charge-separating state was investigated. Emission from the charge-separating state is predicted to be both broad and substantially Stokes shifted. Our PSII cores show an easily observable and broad emission peaking near 735 nm when excited at 707 nm and beyond for temperatures below 100 K as well as the well-known F685 and F695 nm emission when excited at 633 nm. However, the 735 nm emission bears a close correspondence to that previously reported for the light harvesting pigment of photosystem I (PSI), LHCI-730, and we attribute our observed emission to a minor contamination of our sample with this protein. High sensitivity circular dichroism (CD) spectra establish that LHCI and/or PSI contamination of our samples does not contribute significantly to the absorption seen in the 700-730 nm region. Furthermore, systematic illumination-induced absorption changes seen in this region are shown to quantitatively track with charge separation and the subsequent secondary acceptor plastoquinone (Q A ) acceptor anion formation. These results confirm that absorption in the 700-730 nm region is associated with the reaction centre of active PSII

  20. Uniform Sampling of the Infinite Noncooperative Game on Unit Hypercube and Reshaping Ultimately Multidimensional Matrices of Player’s Payoff Values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romanuke Vadim

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper suggests a method of obtaining an approximate solution of the infinite noncooperative game on the unit hypercube. The method is based on sampling uniformly the players’ payoff functions with the constant step along each of the hypercube dimensions. The author states the conditions for a sufficiently accurate sampling and suggests the method of reshaping the multidimensional matrix of the player’s payoff values, being the former player’s payoff function before its sampling, into a matrix with minimally possible number of dimensions, where also maintenance of one-to-one indexing has been provided. Requirements for finite NE-strategy from NE (Nash equilibrium solution of the finite game as the initial infinite game approximation are given as definitions of the approximate solution consistency. The approximate solution consistency ensures its relative independence upon the sampling step within its minimal neighborhood or the minimally decreased sampling step. The ultimate reshaping of multidimensional matrices of players’ payoff values to the minimal number of dimensions, being equal to the number of players, stimulates shortened computations.

  1. Statistical searches for microlensing events in large, non-uniformly sampled time-domain surveys: A test using palomar transient factory data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price-Whelan, Adrian M.; Agüeros, Marcel A. [Department of Astronomy, Columbia University, 550 W 120th Street, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Fournier, Amanda P. [Department of Physics, Broida Hall, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Street, Rachel [Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network, Inc., 6740 Cortona Drive, Suite 102, Santa Barbara, CA 93117 (United States); Ofek, Eran O. [Benoziyo Center for Astrophysics, Weizmann Institute of Science, 76100 Rehovot (Israel); Covey, Kevin R. [Lowell Observatory, 1400 West Mars Hill Road, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States); Levitan, David; Sesar, Branimir [Division of Physics, Mathematics, and Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Laher, Russ R.; Surace, Jason, E-mail: adrn@astro.columbia.edu [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, Mail Stop 314-6, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2014-01-20

    Many photometric time-domain surveys are driven by specific goals, such as searches for supernovae or transiting exoplanets, which set the cadence with which fields are re-imaged. In the case of the Palomar Transient Factory (PTF), several sub-surveys are conducted in parallel, leading to non-uniform sampling over its ∼20,000 deg{sup 2} footprint. While the median 7.26 deg{sup 2} PTF field has been imaged ∼40 times in the R band, ∼2300 deg{sup 2} have been observed >100 times. We use PTF data to study the trade off between searching for microlensing events in a survey whose footprint is much larger than that of typical microlensing searches, but with far-from-optimal time sampling. To examine the probability that microlensing events can be recovered in these data, we test statistics used on uniformly sampled data to identify variables and transients. We find that the von Neumann ratio performs best for identifying simulated microlensing events in our data. We develop a selection method using this statistic and apply it to data from fields with >10 R-band observations, 1.1 × 10{sup 9} light curves, uncovering three candidate microlensing events. We lack simultaneous, multi-color photometry to confirm these as microlensing events. However, their number is consistent with predictions for the event rate in the PTF footprint over the survey's three years of operations, as estimated from near-field microlensing models. This work can help constrain all-sky event rate predictions and tests microlensing signal recovery in large data sets, which will be useful to future time-domain surveys, such as that planned with the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope.

  2. Gamma ray spectrometry results from core samples collected for RESUME 95

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanderson, D.C.W.; Allyson, J.D. [SURRC, East Kilbride, Scotland (United Kingdom); Toivonen, H.; Honkamaa, T. [STUK, Helsinki (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    Field sampling of an airfield at Vesivehmaa, near Vaeaeksy, Finland (Area I) was carried out between 26-29 May 1995, to establish the radionuclide deposition and inventory of Chernobyl derived {sup 137}Cs, and natural radionuclides. The objective was to establish a common calibration site for in-situ and airborne gamma spectrometers, for Exercise RESUME 95 conducted in August 1995. The report presents the sampling details, handling and treatment. The analyses are discussed with particular emphasis given to {sup 137}Ca, {sup 134}Cs, {sup 40}K, {sup 214}Bi and {sup 208} radionuclides, and the quantification of their respective deposition and inventories. The results have been used to estimate the effective concentrations of nuclides at the calibration site for in-situ and airborne gamma spectrometry, and the depth distribution. For {sup 137}Cs the weighted mean activity per unit area takes on values of 50.7{+-}5.2 kBq m{sup -2} at 1 m ground clearance, 51.1{+-}6.9 kBq m{sup -2} at 50 m height and 47.9{+-}8.5 kBq m{sup -2} at 100 m. The similarity of these values confirms the suitability of the Vesivehmaa site for comparison of in-situ and airborne results despite variations of a factor of two between results from individual cores. The mean {alpha}/{rho} value for {sup 137}Cs in Area I is 0.77{+-}0.10 cm{sup 2}g{sup -1} (relaxation mass per unit area, {beta} 1.31{+-}0.15 gcm{sup -2}). Additional soil sampling across parts of Area II (a 6x3 km area selected for mapping Chernobyl deposition) was carried out. The mean level of {sup 137}Cs activity from these samples was 92.4{+-}63 kBq m{sup -2}, a sample taken near Laihansuo showing the largest value obtained at 172 kBq m{sup -2}. (EG). 17 refs.

  3. Gamma ray spectrometry results from core samples collected for RESUME 95

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanderson, D C.W.; Allyson, J D [SURRC, East Kilbride, Scotland (United Kingdom); Toivonen, H; Honkamaa, T [STUK, Helsinki (Finland)

    1998-12-31

    Field sampling of an airfield at Vesivehmaa, near Vaeaeksy, Finland (Area I) was carried out between 26-29 May 1995, to establish the radionuclide deposition and inventory of Chernobyl derived {sup 137}Cs, and natural radionuclides. The objective was to establish a common calibration site for in-situ and airborne gamma spectrometers, for Exercise RESUME 95 conducted in August 1995. The report presents the sampling details, handling and treatment. The analyses are discussed with particular emphasis given to {sup 137}Ca, {sup 134}Cs, {sup 40}K, {sup 214}Bi and {sup 208} radionuclides, and the quantification of their respective deposition and inventories. The results have been used to estimate the effective concentrations of nuclides at the calibration site for in-situ and airborne gamma spectrometry, and the depth distribution. For {sup 137}Cs the weighted mean activity per unit area takes on values of 50.7{+-}5.2 kBq m{sup -2} at 1 m ground clearance, 51.1{+-}6.9 kBq m{sup -2} at 50 m height and 47.9{+-}8.5 kBq m{sup -2} at 100 m. The similarity of these values confirms the suitability of the Vesivehmaa site for comparison of in-situ and airborne results despite variations of a factor of two between results from individual cores. The mean {alpha}/{rho} value for {sup 137}Cs in Area I is 0.77{+-}0.10 cm{sup 2}g{sup -1} (relaxation mass per unit area, {beta} 1.31{+-}0.15 gcm{sup -2}). Additional soil sampling across parts of Area II (a 6x3 km area selected for mapping Chernobyl deposition) was carried out. The mean level of {sup 137}Cs activity from these samples was 92.4{+-}63 kBq m{sup -2}, a sample taken near Laihansuo showing the largest value obtained at 172 kBq m{sup -2}. (EG). 17 refs.

  4. Engineering task plan for upgrades to the leveling jacks on core sample trucks number 3 and 4; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KOSTELNIK, A.J.

    1999-01-01

    Characterizing the waste in underground storage tanks at the Hanford Site is accomplished by obtaining a representative core sample for analysis. Core sampling is one of the numerous techniques that have been developed for use given the environmental and field conditions at the Hanford Site. Core sampling is currently accomplished using either Push Mode Core Sample Truck No.1 or; Rotary Mode Core Sample Trucks No.2, 3 or 4. Past analysis (WHC 1994) has indicated that the Core Sample Truck (CST) leveling jacks are structurally inadequate when lateral loads are applied. WHC 1994 identifies many areas where failure could occur. All these failures are based on exceeding the allowable stresses listed in the American Institute of Steel Construction (AISC) code. The mode of failure is for the outrigger attachments to the truck frame to fail resulting in dropping of the CST and possible overturning (Ref. Ziada and Hundal, 1996). Out of level deployment of the truck can exceed the code allowable stresses in the structure. Calculations have been performed to establish limits for maintaining the truck level when lifting. The calculations and the associated limits are included in appendix A. The need for future operations of the CSTS is limited. Sampling is expected to be complete in FY-2001. Since there is limited time at risk for continued use of the CSTS with the leveling controls without correcting the structural problems, there are several design changes that could give incremental improvements to the operational safety of the CSTS with limited impact on available operating time. The improvements focus on making the truck easier to control during lifting and leveling. Not all of the tasks identified in this ETP need to be performed. Each task alone can improve the safety. This engineering task plan is the management plan document for implementing the necessary additional structural analysis. Any additional changes to meet requirements of standing orders shall require a

  5. Testing to expand the rotary-mode core sampling system operating envelope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witwer, K.S.

    1998-01-01

    Rotary sampling using the Rotary Mode Core Sampling System (RMCSS) is constrained by what is referred to as the ''Operating Envelope''. The Operating Envelop defines the maximum downward force, maximum rotational speed and minimum purge gas flow allowed during operation of the RMCSS. The original values of 1170 lb. down force, 55 RPM rotational speed, and 30 SCFM nitrogen purge gas were determined during original envelope testing. This envelope was determined by observing the temperature rise on the bitface while drilling into waste simulants. The maximum temperature in single-shell tanks (SSTS) is considered to be approximately 9O C and the critical drill bit temperature, which is the temperature at which an exothermic reaction could be initiated in the tank waste, was previously determined to be 150 C. Thus, the drill bit temperature increase was limited to 60 C. Thermal properties of these simulants approximated typical properties of waste tank saltcake. Later, more detailed envelope testing which used a pumice block simulant, showed a notably higher temperature rise while drilling. This pumice material, which simulated a ''worst case'' foreign object embedded in the waste, has lower thermal conductivity and lower thermal diffusivity than earlier simulants. These properties caused a slower heat transfer in the pumice than in the previous simulants and consequently a higher temperature rise. The maximum downward force was subsequently reduced to 750 lb (at a maximum 55 RPM and minimum 30 SCFM purge gas flow) which was the maximum value at which the drill bit could be operated and still remain below the 60 C temperature rise

  6. Synthesis, characterization and evaluation of uniformly sized core-shell imprinted microspheres for the separation trans-resveratrol from giant knotweed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhaohui; Liu Li; Li Hui; Yao Shouzhuo

    2009-01-01

    A novel core-shell molecularly imprinting microspheres (MIMs) with trans-resveratrol as the template molecule; acrylamide (AA) as functional monomer and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) as cross-linker, was prepared based on SiO 2 microspheres with surface imprinting technique. These core-shell trans-resveratrol imprinted microspheres were characterized by infrared spectra (IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results showed that these core-shell imprinted microspheres, which take on perfect spherical shape with average shell thickness of 150 nm, exhibit especially selective recognition for trans-resveratrol. These imprinted microspheres were applied as solid-phase extraction materials for selective extraction of trans-resveratrol from giant knotweed extracting solution successfully.

  7. Synthesis, characterization and evaluation of uniformly sized core-shell imprinted microspheres for the separation trans-resveratrol from giant knotweed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Zhaohui, E-mail: zhaohuizhang77@hotmail.com [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Jishou University, Jishou, 416000 (China); State Key Laboratory of Chemo/Biosensing and Chemometrics, Hunan University, Changsha, 410082 (China); Liu Li; Li Hui [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Jishou University, Jishou, 416000 (China); Yao Shouzhuo [State Key Laboratory of Chemo/Biosensing and Chemometrics, Hunan University, Changsha, 410082 (China)

    2009-09-15

    A novel core-shell molecularly imprinting microspheres (MIMs) with trans-resveratrol as the template molecule; acrylamide (AA) as functional monomer and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) as cross-linker, was prepared based on SiO{sub 2} microspheres with surface imprinting technique. These core-shell trans-resveratrol imprinted microspheres were characterized by infrared spectra (IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results showed that these core-shell imprinted microspheres, which take on perfect spherical shape with average shell thickness of 150 nm, exhibit especially selective recognition for trans-resveratrol. These imprinted microspheres were applied as solid-phase extraction materials for selective extraction of trans-resveratrol from giant knotweed extracting solution successfully.

  8. Electrostatically assisted fabrication of silver-dielectric core/shell nanoparticles thin film capacitor with uniform metal nanoparticle distribution and controlled spacing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xue; Niitsoo, Olivia; Couzis, Alexander

    2016-03-01

    An electrostatically-assisted strategy for fabrication of thin film composite capacitors with controllable dielectric constant (k) has been developed. The capacitor is composed of metal-dielectric core/shell nanoparticle (silver/silica, Ag@SiO2) multilayer films, and a backfilling polymer. Compared with the simple metal particle-polymer mixtures where the metal nanoparticles (NP) are randomly dispersed in the polymer matrix, the metal volume fraction in our capacitor was significantly increased, owing to the densely packed NP multilayers formed by the electrostatically assisted assembly process. Moreover, the insulating layer of silica shell provides a potential barrier that reduces the tunneling current between neighboring Ag cores, endowing the core/shell nanocomposites with a stable and relatively high dielectric constant (k) and low dielectric loss (D). Our work also shows that the thickness of the SiO2 shell plays a dominant role in controlling the dielectric properties of the nanocomposites. Control over metal NP separation distance was realized not only by variation the shell thickness of the core/shell NPs but also by introducing a high k nanoparticle, barium strontium titanate (BST) of relatively smaller size (∼8nm) compared to 80-160nm of the core/shell Ag@SiO2 NPs. The BST assemble between the Ag@SiO2 and fill the void space between the closely packed core/shell NPs leading to significant enhancement of the dielectric constant. This electrostatically assisted assembly method is promising for generating multilayer films of a large variety of NPs over large areas at low cost. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Sampling strategy to develop a core collection of Uruguayan maize landraces based on morphological traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malosetti, M.; Abadie, T.

    2001-01-01

    Core collections were suggested to improve germplasm utilization. A core collection is a subset chosen to represent the diversity of a collection with a minimum of redundancies. Because diversity is distributed between and within groups with different degrees of organization, an adequate

  10. Design review report for rotary mode core sample truck (RMCST) modifications for flammable gas tanks, preliminary design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corbett, J.E.

    1996-02-01

    This report documents the completion of a preliminary design review for the Rotary Mode Core Sample Truck (RMCST) modifications for flammable gas tanks. The RMCST modifications are intended to support core sampling operations in waste tanks requiring flammable gas controls. The objective of this review was to validate basic design assumptions and concepts to support a path forward leading to a final design. The conclusion reached by the review committee was that the design was acceptable and efforts should continue toward a final design review

  11. Systematic Evaluation of Non-Uniform Sampling Parameters in the Targeted Analysis of Urine Metabolites by 1H,1H 2D NMR Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlippenbach, Trixi von; Oefner, Peter J; Gronwald, Wolfram

    2018-03-09

    Non-uniform sampling (NUS) allows the accelerated acquisition of multidimensional NMR spectra. The aim of this contribution was the systematic evaluation of the impact of various quantitative NUS parameters on the accuracy and precision of 2D NMR measurements of urinary metabolites. Urine aliquots spiked with varying concentrations (15.6-500.0 µM) of tryptophan, tyrosine, glutamine, glutamic acid, lactic acid, and threonine, which can only be resolved fully by 2D NMR, were used to assess the influence of the sampling scheme, reconstruction algorithm, amount of omitted data points, and seed value on the quantitative performance of NUS in 1 H, 1 H-TOCSY and 1 H, 1 H-COSY45 NMR spectroscopy. Sinusoidal Poisson-gap sampling and a compressed sensing approach employing the iterative re-weighted least squares method for spectral reconstruction allowed a 50% reduction in measurement time while maintaining sufficient quantitative accuracy and precision for both types of homonuclear 2D NMR spectroscopy. Together with other advances in instrument design, such as state-of-the-art cryogenic probes, use of 2D NMR spectroscopy in large biomedical cohort studies seems feasible.

  12. TMI-2 [Three Mile Island Nuclear Power Station] fuel canister and core sample handling equipment used in INEL hot cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McConnell, J.W. Jr.; Shurtliff, W.T.; Lynch, R.J.; Croft, K.M.; Whitmill, L.J.; Allen, S.M.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes the specialized remote handling equipment developed and used at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) to handle samples obtained from the core of the damaged Unit 2 reactor at Three Mile Island Nuclear Power Station (TM-2). Samples of the core were removed, placed in TMI-2 fuel canisters, and transported to the INEL. Those samples will be examined as part of the analysis of the TMI-2 accident. The equipment described herein was designed for removing sample materials from the fuel canisters, assisting with initial examination, and processing samples in preparation for detailed examinations. The more complex equipment used microprocessor remote controls with electric motor drives providing the required force and motion capabilities. The remaining components were unpowered and manipulator assisted

  13. Active AirCore Sampling: Constraining Point Sources of Methane and Other Gases with Fixed Wing Unmanned Aerial Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bent, J. D.; Sweeney, C.; Tans, P. P.; Newberger, T.; Higgs, J. A.; Wolter, S.

    2017-12-01

    Accurate estimates of point source gas emissions are essential for reconciling top-down and bottom-up greenhouse gas measurements, but sampling such sources is challenging. Remote sensing methods are limited by resolution and cloud cover; aircraft methods are limited by air traffic control clearances, and the need to properly determine boundary layer height. A new sampling approach leverages the ability of unmanned aerial systems (UAS) to measure all the way to the surface near the source of emissions, improving sample resolution, and reducing the need to characterize a wide downstream swath, or measure to the full height of the planetary boundary layer (PBL). The "Active-AirCore" sampler, currently under development, will fly on a fixed wing UAS in Class G airspace, spiraling from the surface to 1200 ft AGL around point sources such as leaking oil wells to measure methane, carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide. The sampler collects a 100-meter long sample "core" of air in an 1/8" passivated stainless steel tube. This "core" is run on a high-precision instrument shortly after the UAS is recovered. Sample values are mapped to a specific geographic location by cross-referencing GPS and flow/pressure metadata, and fluxes are quantified by applying Gauss's theorem to the data, mapped onto the spatial "cylinder" circumscribed by the UAS. The AirCore-Active builds off the sampling ability and analytical approach of the related AirCore sampler, which profiles the atmosphere passively using a balloon launch platform, but will add an active pumping capability needed for near-surface horizontal sampling applications. Here, we show design elements, laboratory and field test results for methane, describe the overall goals of the mission, and discuss how the platform can be adapted, with minimal effort, to measure other gas species.

  14. Tank Vapor Sampling and Analysis Data Package for Tank 241-Z-361 Sampled 09/22/1999 and 09/27/1999, During Sludge Core Removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    VISWANATH, R.S.

    1999-01-01

    This data package presents sampling data and analytical results from the September 22 and 27, 1999, headspace vapor sampling of Hanford Site Tank 241-2-361 during sludge core removal. The Lockheed Martin Hanford Corporation (LMHC) sampling team collected the samples and Waste Management Laboratory (WML) analyzed the samples in accordance with the requirements specified in the 241-2361 Sludge Characterization Sampling and Analysis Plan, (SAP), HNF-4371/Rev. 1, (Babcock and Wilcox Hanford Corporation, 1999). Six SUMMA(trademark) canister samples were collected on each day (1 ambient field blank and 5 tank vapor samples collected when each core segment was removed). The samples were radiologically released on September 28 and October 4, 1999, and received at the laboratory on September 29 and October 6, 1999. Target analytes were not detected at concentrations greater than their notification limits as specified in the SAP. Analytical results for the target analytes and tentatively identified compounds (TICs) are presented in Section 2.2.2 starting on page 2B-7. Three compounds identified for analysis in the SAP were analyzed as TICs. The discussion of this modification is presented in Section 2.2.1.2

  15. Thermal property and density measurements of samples taken from drilling cores from potential geologic media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagedrost, J.F.; Capps, W.

    1983-12-01

    Density, steady-state conductivity, enthalpy, specific heat, heat capacity, thermal diffusivity and linear thermal expansion were measured on 59 materials from core drill samples of several geologic media, including rock salt, basalt, and other associated rocks from 7 potential sites for nuclear waste isolation. The measurements were conducted from or near to room temperature up to 500 0 C, or to lower temperatures if limited by specimen cracking or fracturing. Ample documentation establishes the reliability of the property measurement methods and the accuracy of the results. Thermal expansions of salts reached 2.2 to 2.8 percent at 500 0 C. Associated rocks were from 0.6 to 1.6 percent. Basalts were close to 0.3 percent at 500 0 C. Specific heats of salts varied from 0.213 to 0.233 cal g -1 C -1 , and basalts averaged 0.239 cal g -1 C -1 . Thermal conductivities of salts at 50 0 C were from 0.022 to 0.046 wcm -1 C -1 , and at 500 0 C, from 0.012 to 0.027 wcm -1 C -1 . Basalts conductivities ranged from 0.020 to 0.022 wcm -1 C -1 at 100 0 C and 0.016 to 0.018 at 500 0 C. There were no obvious conductivity trends relative to source location. Room temperature densities of salts were from 2.14 to 2.29 gcm -3 , and basalts, from 2.83 to 2.90 gcm -3 . The extreme friability of some materials made specimen fabrication difficult. 21 references, 17 figures, 28 tables

  16. Tank 241-AZ-102 Privatization Push Mode Core Sampling and Analysis Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TEMPLETON, A.M.

    1999-01-01

    This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) identifies characterization objectives pertaining to sample collection, laboratory analytical evaluation, and reporting requirements for samples obtained from tank 241-AZ-102

  17. Tank 241-AZ-102 Privatization Push Mode Core Sampling and Analysis Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RASMUSSEN, J.H.

    2000-01-01

    This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) identifies characterization objectives pertaining to sample collection, laboratory analytical evaluation, and reporting requirements for samples obtained from tank 241-AZ-102

  18. Design Review Report for formal review of safety class features of exhauster system for rotary mode core sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JANICEK, G.P.

    2000-01-01

    Report documenting Formal Design Review conducted on portable exhausters used to support rotary mode core sampling of Hanford underground radioactive waste tanks with focus on Safety Class design features and control requirements for flammable gas environment operation and air discharge permitting compliance

  19. Design Review Report for formal review of safety class features of exhauster system for rotary mode core sampling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JANICEK, G.P.

    2000-06-08

    Report documenting Formal Design Review conducted on portable exhausters used to support rotary mode core sampling of Hanford underground radioactive waste tanks with focus on Safety Class design features and control requirements for flammable gas environment operation and air discharge permitting compliance.

  20. Engineering task plan for the annual revision of the rotary mode core sampling system safety equipment list

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BOGER, R.M.

    1999-01-01

    This Engineering Task Plan addresses an effort to provide an update to the RMCS Systems 3 and 4 SEL and DCM in order to incorporate the changes to the authorization basis implemented by HNF-SD-WM-BIO-001, Rev. 0 (Draft), Addendum 5 , Safety Analysis for Rotary Mode Core Sampling. Responsibilities, task description, cost estimate, and schedule are presented

  1. National emission standards for hazardous air pollutants application for approval to construct rotary mode core-sampling truck and exhauster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-05-01

    Characterization of wastes in the underground single-shell tanks and double-shell tanks on the Hanford Site is crucial in developing the final disposal options for the waste and closure strategy for the Hanford Site. Additionally, characterization of tank waste is important for the waste tank safety programs. The Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (also referred to as the Tri-Party Agreement) Milestone M-10-00 requires the obtaining and analyzing of at least two samples from each single-shell tank, and Milestone M-10-13 specifically requires the ability to sample hard saltcake. Existing equipment does not allow sampling of all single-shell tanks within established tank safety limits. Consequently, the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office has developed a rotary mode core-sampling system that uses nitrogen gas to cool and clear the drill bit. A rotary mode core-sampling truck will be used on approximately 80 single-shell tanks which contain saltcake wastes, and will provide crucial information on the contents of the tanks. This application is a request for approval to construct and operate the rotary mode core-sampling truck and exhauster in the 200 East and 200 West Area Tank Farms of the Hanford Site. This request is being made pursuant to 40 CFR 61, Subpart H

  2. Preliminary stratigraphic and petrologic characterization of core samples from USW-G1, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waters, A.C.; Carroll, P.R.

    1981-11-01

    Tuffs of the Nevada Test Site are currently under investigation to determine their potential for long-term storage of radioactive waste. As part of this program, hole USW-G1 was drilled to a depth of 6000 ft below the surface, in the central part of the Yucca Mountain area, Nevada Test Site, Nevada. Petrographic study of the USW-G1 core is presented in this report and shows the tuffs (which generally were variably welded ash flows) are partly recrystallized to a variety of secondary minerals. The important alteration products are zeolites (heulandite, clinoptilolite, mordenite and analcime), smectite clays with minor interstratified illite, albite, micas, potassium feldspar, and various forms of silica. Iijima's zeolite zones I through IV of burial metamorphism can be recognized in the core. Zeolites are first observed at about the 1300-ft depth, and the high-temperature boundary of zeolite stability in this core occurs at about 4350 ft. Analcime persists, either metastably or as a retrograde mineral, deeper in the core. The oxidation state of Fe-Ti oxide minerals, through most of the core, increases as the degree of welding decreases, but towards the bottom of the hole, reducing conditions generally prevail. Four stratigraphic units transected by the core may be potentially favorable sites for a waste repository. These four units, in order of increasing depth in the core, are (1) the lower cooling unit of the Topopah Spring Member, (2) cooling unit II of the Bullfrog Member, (3) the upper part of the Tram tuff, and (4) the Lithic-rich tuff

  3. Preliminary stratigraphic and petrologic characterization of core samples from USW-G1, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waters, A.C.; Carroll, P.R. (eds.)

    1981-11-01

    Tuffs of the Nevada Test Site are currently under investigation to determine their potential for long-term storage of radioactive waste. As part of this program, hole USW-G1 was drilled to a depth of 6000 ft below the surface, in the central part of the Yucca Mountain area, Nevada Test Site, Nevada. Petrographic study of the USW-G1 core is presented in this report and shows the tuffs (which generally were variably welded ash flows) are partly recrystallized to a variety of secondary minerals. The important alteration products are zeolites (heulandite, clinoptilolite, mordenite and analcime), smectite clays with minor interstratified illite, albite, micas, potassium feldspar, and various forms of silica. Iijima`s zeolite zones I through IV of burial metamorphism can be recognized in the core. Zeolites are first observed at about the 1300-ft depth, and the high-temperature boundary of zeolite stability in this core occurs at about 4350 ft. Analcime persists, either metastably or as a retrograde mineral, deeper in the core. The oxidation state of Fe-Ti oxide minerals, through most of the core, increases as the degree of welding decreases, but towards the bottom of the hole, reducing conditions generally prevail. Four stratigraphic units transected by the core may be potentially favorable sites for a waste repository. These four units, in order of increasing depth in the core, are (1) the lower cooling unit of the Topopah Spring Member, (2) cooling unit II of the Bullfrog Member, (3) the upper part of the Tram tuff, and (4) the Lithic-rich tuff.

  4. Neutron activation analysis of sediment core samples of Lake Erhai in southern China and a Salt Lake in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toyoda, Kazuhiro; Shinozuka, Yoshitsugu; Miura, Masahiro; Moriyasu, Yuki

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this research is in the verification of the hypothesis that the long-lived nuclide ratio of Th/Sc in the deposit sample dug up in the lake with the hinterland of the granite quality is the index of a past change of precipitation and of the event such as earthquakes. As a preceding step the relation between an environmental change and a climate change was studied by the measuring result of the ratio of Th/Sc by the neutron activation analysis about the digging core sample of the Nepalese Katmandu basin (For the past 700,000 years) and the core sample (For 40,000 years and 8,000 years of the past) in Lake Biwa. (H. Katsuta)

  5. The pxarCore Library - Technical Documentation, Reference Manual, and Sample Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Spannagel, Simon; Perrey, Hanno Christopher

    2015-01-01

    This document describes the pxarCore library as of version 2.7, a versatile cross-platform library to program and read out devices featuring PSI46-type readout chips (ROCs) via the PSI digital test beoard (DTB). The design principles and features are presented together with an overview over possible configurations and use cases. The pxarCore library is built as flexible hardware interface and is capable of programming and reading out various combinations of ROCs. Most of the DTB firmware complexity is abstracted to allow users to address the attached devices via a simple yet versatile interface.

  6. Development of the RANCOR Rotary-Percussive Coring System for Mars Sample Return

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulsen, Gale; Indyk, Stephen; Zacny, Kris

    2014-01-01

    A RANCOR drill was designed to fit a Mars Exploration Rover (MER) class vehicle. The low mass of 3 kg was achieved by using the same actuator for three functions: rotation, percussions, and core break-off. Initial testing of the drill exposed an unexpected behavior of an off-the-shelf sprag clutch used to couple and decouple rotary-percussive function from the core break off function. Failure of the sprag was due to the vibration induced during percussive drilling. The sprag clutch would back drive in conditions where it was expected to hold position. Although this did not affect the performance of the drill, it nevertheless reduced the quality of the cores produced. Ultimately, the sprag clutch was replaced with a custom ratchet system that allowed for some angular displacement without advancing in either direction. Replacing the sprag with the ratchet improved the collected core quality. Also, premature failure of a 300-series stainless steel percussion spring was observed. The 300-series percussion spring was ultimately replaced with a music wire spring based on performances of previously designed rotary-percussive drill systems.

  7. A new CF-IRMS system for quantifying stable isotopes of carbon monoxide from ice cores and small air samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Wang

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available We present a new analysis technique for stable isotope ratios (δ13C and δ18O of atmospheric carbon monoxide (CO from ice core samples. The technique is an online cryogenic vacuum extraction followed by continuous-flow isotope ratio mass spectrometry (CF-IRMS; it can also be used with small air samples. The CO extraction system includes two multi-loop cryogenic cleanup traps, a chemical oxidant for oxidation to CO2, a cryogenic collection trap, a cryofocusing unit, gas chromatography purification, and subsequent injection into a Finnigan Delta Plus IRMS. Analytical precision of 0.2‰ (±1δ for δ13C and 0.6‰ (±1δ for δ18O can be obtained for 100 mL (STP air samples with CO mixing ratios ranging from 60 ppbv to 140 ppbv (~268–625 pmol CO. Six South Pole ice core samples from depths ranging from 133 m to 177 m were processed for CO isotope analysis after wet extraction. To our knowledge, this is the first measurement of stable isotopes of CO in ice core air.

  8. Blind identification of full-field vibration modes of output-only structures from uniformly-sampled, possibly temporally-aliased (sub-Nyquist), video measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yongchao; Dorn, Charles; Mancini, Tyler; Talken, Zachary; Nagarajaiah, Satish; Kenyon, Garrett; Farrar, Charles; Mascareñas, David

    2017-03-01

    Enhancing the spatial and temporal resolution of vibration measurements and modal analysis could significantly benefit dynamic modelling, analysis, and health monitoring of structures. For example, spatially high-density mode shapes are critical for accurate vibration-based damage localization. In experimental or operational modal analysis, higher (frequency) modes, which may be outside the frequency range of the measurement, contain local structural features that can improve damage localization as well as the construction and updating of the modal-based dynamic model of the structure. In general, the resolution of vibration measurements can be increased by enhanced hardware. Traditional vibration measurement sensors such as accelerometers have high-frequency sampling capacity; however, they are discrete point-wise sensors only providing sparse, low spatial sensing resolution measurements, while dense deployment to achieve high spatial resolution is expensive and results in the mass-loading effect and modification of structure's surface. Non-contact measurement methods such as scanning laser vibrometers provide high spatial and temporal resolution sensing capacity; however, they make measurements sequentially that requires considerable acquisition time. As an alternative non-contact method, digital video cameras are relatively low-cost, agile, and provide high spatial resolution, simultaneous, measurements. Combined with vision based algorithms (e.g., image correlation or template matching, optical flow, etc.), video camera based measurements have been successfully used for experimental and operational vibration measurement and subsequent modal analysis. However, the sampling frequency of most affordable digital cameras is limited to 30-60 Hz, while high-speed cameras for higher frequency vibration measurements are extremely costly. This work develops a computational algorithm capable of performing vibration measurement at a uniform sampling frequency lower than

  9. Heterogeneity of PTEN and ERG expression in prostate cancer on core needle biopsies: implications for cancer risk stratification and biomarker sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Rajal B; Bentley, James; Jeffery, Zach; DeMarzo, Angelo M

    2015-05-01

    ERG and PTEN biomarkers are increasingly being analyzed on prostate core biopsies (NBXs); ERG as a marker of clonality and number of separately arising tumor foci and PTEN for prognostic information. Yet, in patients with multiple biopsy cores positive for cancer (PCa), there is no standardized approach for interrogation of these biomarkers in terms of the number of positive cores to evaluate. A total of 194 NBX cases containing more than one positive core with cancer were evaluated for ERG overexpression and PTEN loss by immunostaining (immunohistochemistry) of all positive cores. ERG overexpression or PTEN loss in at least one cancer core was present in 111 (57%) and 69 (36%) cases respectively. ERG overexpression was significantly associated with PTEN loss (P < .0001), and PTEN loss was associated with a high Gleason score (P < .0001). Inter- and intra-tumor core staining heterogeneity for ERG overexpression occurred in 42% and 5% cases and for PTEN loss both intra- and inter-tumor core heterogeneity was 68%. PTEN staining was highly discordant between PCa sites regardless of laterality. When the Gleason score was non-uniform across PCa sites, the combination of cores showing the highest Gleason score and largest tumor volume provided the best representation of ERG overexpression (92%) and PTEN loss (98%). When grades were uniform across cancer sites, the highest tumor volume core was generally representative of ERG overexpression (90%) but was less representative for PTEN loss (76%). Our results suggest that knowledge of this heterogeneity is critical for developing optimal yet cost-effective strategies to identify these underlying molecular abnormalities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Biostratigraphic analysis of core samples from wells drilled in the Devonian shale interval of the Appalachian and Illinois Basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, S.J.; Zielinski, R.E.

    1978-07-14

    A palynological investigation was performed on 55 samples of core material from four wells drilled in the Devonian Shale interval of the Appalachian and Illinois Basins. Using a combination of spores and acritarchs, it was possible to divide the Middle Devonian from the Upper Devonian and to make subdivisions within the Middle and Upper Devonian. The age of the palynomorphs encountered in this study is Upper Devonian.

  11. A safety equipment list for rotary mode core sampling systems operation in single shell flammable gas tanks; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SMALLEY, J.L.

    1999-01-01

    This document identifies all interim safety equipment to be used for rotary mode core sampling of single-shell flammable gas tanks utilizing Rotary Mode Core Sampling systems (RMCS). This document provides the safety equipment for RMCS trucks HO-68K-4600, HO-68K-4647, trucks three and four respectively, and associated equipment. It is not intended to replace or supersede WHC-SD-WM-SEL-023, (Kelly 1991), or WHC-SD-WM-SEL-032, (Corbett 1994), which classifies 80-68K-4344 and HO-68K-4345 respectively. The term ''safety equipment'' refers to safety class (SC) and safety significant (SS) equipment, where equipment refers to structures, systems and components (SSC's). The identification of safety equipment in this document is based on the credited design safety features and analysis contained in the Authorization Basis (AB) for rotary mode core sampling operations in single-shell flammable gas tanks. This is an interim safety classification since the AB is interim. This document will be updated to reflect the final RMCS equipment safety classification designations upon completion of a final AB which will be implemented with the release of the Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR)

  12. Synthesis, characterization and nitrite ion sensing performance of reclaimable composite samples through a core-shell structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xiao; Yuqing, Zhao; Cui, Jiantao; Zheng, Qian; Bo, Wang

    2018-02-01

    The following paper reported and discussed a nitrite ion optical sensing platform based on a core-shell structure, using superamagnetic nanoparticles as the core, a silica molecular sieve MCM-41 as the shell and two rhodamine derivatives as probe, respectively. This superamagnetic core made this sensing platform reclaimable after finishing nitrite ion sensing procedure. This sensing platform was carefully characterized by means of electron microscopy images, porous structure analysis, magnetic response, IR spectra and thermal stability analysis. Detailed analysis suggested that the emission of these composite samples was quenchable by nitrite ion, showing emission turn off effect. A static sensing mechanism based on an additive reaction between chemosensors and nitrite ion was proposed. These composite samples followed Demas quenching equation against different nitrite ion concentrations. Limit of detection value was obtained as low as 0.4 μM. It was found that, after being quenched by nitrite ion, these composite samples could be reclaimed and recovered by sulphamic acid, confirming their recyclability.

  13. A safety equipment list for rotary mode core sampling systems operation in single shell flammable gas tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SMALLEY, J.L.

    1999-01-01

    This document identifies all interim safety equipment to be used for rotary mode core sampling of single-shell flammable gas tanks utilizing Rotary Mode Core Sampling systems (RMCS). This document provides the safety equipment for RMCS trucks HO-68K-4600, HO-68K-4647, trucks three and four respectively, and associated equipment. It is not intended to replace or supersede WHC-SD-WM-SEL-023, (Kelly 1991), or WHC-SD-WM-SEL-032, (Corbett 1994), which classifies 80-68K-4344 and HO-68K-4345 respectively. The term ''safety equipment'' refers to safety class (SC) and safety significant (SS) equipment, where equipment refers to structures, systems and components (SSC's). The identification of safety equipment in this document is based on the credited design safety features and analysis contained in the Authorization Basis (AB) for rotary mode core sampling operations in single-shell flammable gas tanks. This is an interim safety classification since the AB is interim. This document will be updated to reflect the final RMCS equipment safety classification designations upon completion of a final AB which will be implemented with the release of the Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR)

  14. Nondestructive continuous physical property measurements of core samples recovered from hole B, Taiwan Chelungpu-Fault Drilling Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirono, Tetsuro; Yeh, En-Chao; Lin, Weiren; Sone, Hiroki; Mishima, Toshiaki; Soh, Wonn; Hashimoto, Yoshitaka; Matsubayashi, Osamu; Aoike, Kan; Ito, Hisao; Kinoshita, Masataka; Murayama, Masafumi; Song, Sheng-Rong; Ma, Kuo-Fong; Hung, Jih-Hao; Wang, Chien-Ying; Tsai, Yi-Ben; Kondo, Tomomi; Nishimura, Masahiro; Moriya, Soichi; Tanaka, Tomoyuki; Fujiki, Toru; Maeda, Lena; Muraki, Hiroaki; Kuramoto, Toshikatsu; Sugiyama, Kazuhiro; Sugawara, Toshikatsu

    2007-07-01

    The Taiwan Chelungpu-Fault Drilling Project was undertaken in 2002 to investigate the faulting mechanism of the 1999 Mw 7.6 Taiwan Chi-Chi earthquake. Hole B penetrated the Chelungpu fault, and core samples were recovered from between 948.42- and 1352.60-m depth. Three major zones, designated FZB1136 (fault zone at 1136-m depth in hole B), FZB1194, and FZB1243, were recognized in the core samples as active fault zones within the Chelungpu fault. Nondestructive continuous physical property measurements, conducted on all core samples, revealed that the three major fault zones were characterized by low gamma ray attenuation (GRA) densities and high magnetic susceptibilities. Extensive fracturing and cracks within the fault zones and/or loss of atoms with high atomic number, but not a measurement artifact, might have caused the low GRA densities, whereas the high magnetic susceptibility values might have resulted from the formation of magnetic minerals from paramagnetic minerals by frictional heating. Minor fault zones were characterized by low GRA densities and no change in magnetic susceptibility, and the latter may indicate that these minor zones experienced relatively low frictional heating. Magnetic susceptibility in a fault zone may be key to the determination that frictional heating occurred during an earthquake on the fault.

  15. Data precision of X-ray fluorescence (XRF) scanning of discrete samples with the ITRAX XRF core-scanner exemplified on loess-paleosol samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Profe, Jörn; Ohlendorf, Christian

    2017-04-01

    XRF-scanning is the state-of-the-art technique for geochemical analyses in marine and lacustrine sedimentology for more than a decade. However, little attention has been paid to data precision and technical limitations so far. Using homogenized, dried and powdered samples (certified geochemical reference standards and samples from a lithologically-contrasting loess-paleosol sequence) minimizes many adverse effects that influence the XRF-signal when analyzing wet sediment cores. This allows the investigation of data precision under ideal conditions and documents a new application of the XRF core-scanner technology at the same time. Reliable interpretations of XRF results require data precision evaluation of single elements as a function of X-ray tube, measurement time, sample compaction and quality of peak fitting. Ten-fold measurement of each sample constitutes data precision. Data precision of XRF measurements theoretically obeys Poisson statistics. Fe and Ca exhibit largest deviations from Poisson statistics. The same elements show the least mean relative standard deviations in the range from 0.5% to 1%. This represents the technical limit of data precision achievable by the installed detector. Measurement times ≥ 30 s reveal mean relative standard deviations below 4% for most elements. The quality of peak fitting is only relevant for elements with overlapping fluorescence lines such as Ba, Ti and Mn or for elements with low concentrations such as Y, for example. Differences in sample compaction are marginal and do not change mean relative standard deviation considerably. Data precision is in the range reported for geochemical reference standards measured by conventional techniques. Therefore, XRF scanning of discrete samples provide a cost- and time-efficient alternative to conventional multi-element analyses. As best trade-off between economical operation and data quality, we recommend a measurement time of 30 s resulting in a total scan time of 30 minutes

  16. Ice age aerosol content from east Antarctic ice core samples and past wind strength

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petit, J.R.; Briat, M.; Royer, A.

    1981-01-01

    The possible link between the aerosol content from the 905 deep Dome C ice core (East Antartica) which spans some 32,000 yr (Lorius et al. Nature; 280:644 (1979)) and climate, is considered. No evidence of major global or local volcanic activity was found though large marine and continental inputs (respectively 5 and 20 times higher than present) were observed at the end of the last Glacial stage. It is considered that they reflect glacial age climate with stronger atmospheric circulation, enhanced aridity and faster aerosol transport towards the Antarctic continent. (U.K.)

  17. The Importance of Mars Samples in Constraining the Geological and Geophysical Processes on Mars and the Nature of its Crust, Mantle, and Core

    Science.gov (United States)

    iMOST Team; Herd, C. D. K.; Ammannito, E.; Anand, M.; Debaille, V.; Hallis, L. J.; McCubbin, F. M.; Schmitz, N.; Usui, T.; Weiss, B. P.; Altieri, F.; Amelin, Y.; Beaty, D. W.; Benning, L. G.; Bishop, J. L.; Borg, L. E.; Boucher, D.; Brucato, J. R.; Busemann, H.; Campbell, K. A.; Carrier, B. L.; Czaja, A. D.; Des Marais, D. J.; Dixon, M.; Ehlmann, B. L.; Farmer, J. D.; Fernandez-Remolar, D. C.; Fogarty, J.; Glavin, D. P.; Goreva, Y. S.; Grady, M. M.; Harrington, A. D.; Hausrath, E. M.; Horgan, B.; Humayun, M.; Kleine, T.; Kleinhenz, J.; Mangold, N.; Mackelprang, R.; Mayhew, L. E.; McCoy, J. T.; McLennan, S. M.; McSween, H. Y.; Moser, D. E.; Moynier, F.; Mustard, J. F.; Niles, P. B.; Ori, G. G.; Raulin, F.; Rettberg, P.; Rucker, M. A.; Sefton-Nash, E.; Sephton, M. A.; Shaheen, R.; Shuster, D. L.; Siljestrom, S.; Smith, C. L.; Spry, J. A.; Steele, A.; Swindle, T. D.; ten Kate, I. L.; Tosca, N. J.; Van Kranendonk, M. J.; Wadhwa, M.; Werner, S. C.; Westall, F.; Wheeler, R. M.; Zipfel, J.; Zorzano, M. P.

    2018-04-01

    We present the main sample types from any potential Mars Sample Return landing site that would be required to constrain the geological and geophysical processes on Mars, including the origin and nature of its crust, mantle, and core.

  18. Tanks 3F and 2F Saltcake Core and Supernate Sample Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MARTINO, CHRISTOPHERJ

    2004-01-01

    In support of Low-Curie Salt (LCS) process validation at the Savannah River Site (SRS), Liquid Waste Disposition (LWD) has undertaken a program of tank waste characterization, including salt sampling. As part of this initiative, they sampled the surface of the saltcake in Tank 3F and Tank 2F using approximately 12-inch long sample tubes. A series of three saltcake samples were taken of the upper crust in Tank 3F and a single saltcake sample was taken from the bottom of a liquid-filled well in Tank 2F. In addition to analysis of the solid saltcake samples, the liquid contained in the Tank 3F samples and a separate supernate sample from Tank 2F were studied. The primary objective of the characterization is to gather information that will be useful to the selection and processing of the next waste tanks. Most important is the determination of the 137Cs concentration and liquid retention properties of Tank 3F and Tank 2F saltcake to enable projection of drained, dissolved salt composition. Additional information will aid in refining the waste characterization system (WCS) and could assist the eventual salt treatment or processing

  19. Geochemistry of core samples of the Tiva Canyon Tuff from drill hole UE-25 NRG number-sign 3, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterman, Z.E.; Futa, K.

    1996-01-01

    The Tiva Canyon Tuff of Miocene age is composed of crystal-poor, high-silica rhyolite overlain by a crystal-rich zone that is gradational in composition from high-silica rhyolite to quartz latite. Each of these zones is divided into subzones that have distinctive physical, mineralogical, and geochemical features.Accurate identification of these subzones and their contacts is essential for detailed mapping and correlation both at the surface and in the subsurface in drill holes and in the exploratory studies facility (ESF). This report presents analyses of potassium (K), calcium (Ca), titanium (Ti), rubidium (Rb), strontium (Sr), yttrium (Y), zirconium (Zr), niobium (Nb), barium (Ba), lanthanum (La), and cerium (Ce) in core samples of the Tiva Canyon Tuff from drill hole UE-25 NRG number-sign 3. The concentrations of most of these elements are remarkably constant throughout the high-silica rhyolite, but at its upper contact with the crystal-rich zone, Ti, Zr, Ba, Ca, Sr, La, Ce, and K begin to increase progressively through the crystal-rich zone. In contrast, Rb and Nb decrease, and Y remains essentially constant. Initial 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios are relatively uniform in the high-silica rhyolite with a mean value of 0.7117, whereas initial 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios decrease upward in the quartz latite to values as low as 0.7090

  20. Final report on the sampling and analysis of sediment cores from the L-Area oil and chemical basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-08-01

    Nine vibracores were collected in the L-Area oil and chemical basin (904-83G) during late March and early April 1985. These cores were collected for analysis of the sludge on the basin floor and the underlying sediment. Several different field and laboratory analyses were performed on each three inch segment of all the cores. These included: (1) Sediment characterization; (2) Percent moisture; (3) Dry weight; (4) Spectral gamma analysis; (5) Gross alpha and beta analysis. Detailed chemical analysis were measured on selected intervals of 2 cores (LBC-5 and 6) for complete chemical characterization of the sediments. This sampling program was conducted to provide information so that a closure plan for the basin could be developed. This report describes the methods employed during the project and provide a hard copy of the analytical results from the sample analyses. Included in the appendices are copies of all field and laboratory notes taken during the project and copies of the gas chromatograms for the petroleum hydrocarbon analysis. All chemical results were also submitted on a 5-inch floppy disk.

  1. Mineralogic and petrologic investigation of post-test core samples from the Spent Fuel Test - Climax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryerson, F.J.; Beiriger, J.

    1985-02-01

    We have characterized a suite of samples taken subsequent to the end of the Spent Fuel Test - Climax by petrographic and microanalytical techniques and determined their mineral assemblage, modal properties, and mineral chemistry. The samples were obtained immediately adjacent to the canister borehole at a variety of depths and positions within the canister drift, as well as radially outward from each canister hole. This method of sampling allows variations in post-test mineralogic properties to be evaluated on the basis of (1) depth along a particular canister hole and (2) position within the canister drift, with respect to the heat and radiation sources, and with respect to the pre - test samples. In no case did we find any significant correlation between the mineralogical properties and variables listed above. In short, the Spent Fuel Test - Climax has produced no identifiable mineralogical response in the Climax quartz monzonite. 12 refs., 11 figs., 5 tabs

  2. Two-dimensional T2 distribution mapping in rock core plugs with optimal k-space sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Dan; Balcom, Bruce J

    2012-07-01

    Spin-echo single point imaging has been employed for 1D T(2) distribution mapping, but a simple extension to 2D is challenging since the time increase is n fold, where n is the number of pixels in the second dimension. Nevertheless 2D T(2) mapping in fluid saturated rock core plugs is highly desirable because the bedding plane structure in rocks often results in different pore properties within the sample. The acquisition time can be improved by undersampling k-space. The cylindrical shape of rock core plugs yields well defined intensity distributions in k-space that may be efficiently determined by new k-space sampling patterns that are developed in this work. These patterns acquire 22.2% and 11.7% of the k-space data points. Companion density images may be employed, in a keyhole imaging sense, to improve image quality. T(2) weighted images are fit to extract T(2) distributions, pixel by pixel, employing an inverse Laplace transform. Images reconstructed with compressed sensing, with similar acceleration factors, are also presented. The results show that restricted k-space sampling, in this application, provides high quality results. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Laboratory measurements of the seismic velocities and other petrophysical properties of the Outokumpu deep drill core samples, eastern Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbra, Tiiu; Karlqvist, Ronnie; Lassila, Ilkka; Høgström, Edward; Pesonen, Lauri J.

    2011-01-01

    Petrophysical, in particular seismic velocity, measurements of the Outokumpu deep drill core (depth 2.5 km) have been carried out to characterize the geophysical nature of the Paleoproterozoic crustal section of eastern Finland and to find lithological and geophysical interpretations to the distinct crustal reflectors as observed in seismic surveys. The results show that different lithological units can be identified based on the petrophysical data. The density of the samples remained nearly constant throughout the drilled section. Only diopside-tremolite skarns and black schists exhibit higher densities. The samples are dominated by the paramagnetic behaviour with occasional ferromagnetic signature caused by serpentinitic rocks. Large variations in seismic velocities, both at ambient pressure and under in situ crustal conditions are observed. The porosity of the samples, which is extremely low, is either intrinsic by nature or caused by decompaction related to fracturing during the core retrieval. It is noteworthy that these microfractures have dramatically lowered the VP and VS values. From the measured velocities and density data we have calculated the seismic impedances, Young's modulus and Poisson's ratios for the lithological units of the Outokumpu section and from these data the reflection coefficients for the major lithological boundaries, evident in the surveyed section, were determined. The data show that the strong and distinct reflections visible in wide-angle seismic surveys are caused by interfaces between diopside-tremolite skarn and either serpentinites, mica schist or black schist.

  4. OPERATION OF A PUBLIC GEOLOGIC CORE AND SAMPLE REPOSITORY IN HOUSTON TEXAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott W. Tinker

    2003-06-01

    In the spring of 2002, the Department of Energy provided an initial 1-year grant to the Bureau of Economic Geology (BEG) at The University of Texas at Austin (UT). The grant covered the one-year operational expenses of a worldclass core and cuttings facility located in Houston, Texas, that BP America donated to the BEG. The DOE investment of $300,000, matched by a $75,000 UT contribution, provided critical first-year funds that were heavily leveraged by the BP gift of $7.0 million in facilities and cash. DOE also provided a one-month extension and grant of $30,000 for the month of May 2003. A 5-year plan to grow a permanent endowment in order to manage the facility in perpetuity is well under way and on schedule. The facility, named the Houston Research Center, represents an ideal model for a strong Federal, university, and private partnership to accomplish a national good. This report summarizes the activities supported by the initial DOE grant during the first 13 months of operation and provides insight into the activities and needs of the facility in the second year of operation.

  5. Per tree estimates with n-tree distance sampling: an application to increment core data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas B. Lynch; Robert F. Wittwer

    2002-01-01

    Per tree estimates using the n trees nearest a point can be obtained by using a ratio of per unit area estimates from n-tree distance sampling. This ratio was used to estimate average age by d.b.h. classes for cottonwood trees (Populus deltoides Bartr. ex Marsh.) on the Cimarron National Grassland. Increment...

  6. Frictional properties of JFAST core samples and implications for slow earthquakes at the Tohoku subduction zone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sawai, Michiyo; Niemeijer, André R.; Hirose, Takehiro; Spiers, Christopher J.

    2017-01-01

    Slow earthquakes occur in the shallow (<20 km deep) part of the Tohoku subduction zone. To understand how frictional properties of the plate boundary fault affect the generation of these slow earthquakes, we conducted friction experiments using borehole samples retrieved from the plate boundary

  7. Major- and trace elements in grain size fractions of the Apollo-17 core of the drilled sample 74001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraehenbuehl, U.; Gunten, H.R. von; Jost, D.; Meyer, G.; Wegmueller, F.

    1980-01-01

    Two layers of a drill sample were examined, one from a depth of 38 cm and the other from 58 cm depth. Neutron activation analysis was used for one group of elements, and radiochemical analysis for another. Over a range of grain size from 36 to 450 μm, the trace elements U, Co, and La were found to uniformly distributed, as was iron. The top layer consistently showed a 5-8% higher content. The volatile trace elements Ge and Cd were found to be enriched in the smaller grain sizes. This contradicts previous assumptions of an enrichment of the more volatile elements in top layers owing to more rapid cooling of volcanic eruptions. (R.S.)

  8. A method for combined Sr-Nd-Hf isotopic analysis of <10 mg dust samples: implication for ice core science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ujvari, Gabor; Wegner, Wencke; Klötzli, Urs

    2017-04-01

    Aeolian mineral dust particles below the size of 10-20 μm often experience longer distance transport in the atmosphere, and thus Aeolian dust is considered an important tracer of large-scale atmospheric circulation. Since ice core dust is purely Aeolian in origin, discrimination of its potential source region(s) can contribute to a better understanding of past dust activity and climatic/environmental causes. Furthermore, ice core dust source information provides critical experimental constraints for model simulations of past atmospheric circulation patterns [1,2]. However, to identify dust sources in past dust archives such as ice cores, the mineralogy and geochemistry of the wind-blown dust material must be characterized. While the amount of dust in marine cores or common terrestrial archives is sufficient for different types of analyses and even for multiple repeat measurements, dust content in ice cores is usually extremely low even for the peak dusty periods such as the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) (5-8 mg dust/kg ice; [3]). Since the most powerful dust fingerprinting methods, such as REE composition and Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic analyses are destructive there is a clear need to establish sequential separation techniques of Sr, Nd, Pb and other REEs to get the most information out of small (5-10 mg) dust samples recovered from ice cores. Although Hf isotopes have recently been added as a robust tool of aerosol/dust source discrimination (e.g. [4,5,6,7]), precise Hf isotopic measurements of small (reliable 176Hf/177Hf (and also 87Sr/86Sr, 143Nd/144Nd) ratios. Along with the standards 50, 10 and 5 mg aliquots of the fine (affected by acid treatment and these signatures are extremely stable both within run (0.000008 variability for the three aliquots, i.e. 0.15 ɛNd unit) and between runs of different laboratories (0.00006, ca 1 ɛNd unit). Hf isotopic compositions varied within 1 (NUS) and 5 ɛHf units (BEI) between the three aliquots, but the BEI sample always gave more

  9. Preparation of magnetic core mesoporous shell microspheres with C18-modified interior pore-walls for fast extraction and analysis of phthalates in water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhongbo; Huang, Danni; Fu, Chinfai; Wei, Biwen; Yu, Wenjia; Deng, Chunhui; Zhang, Xiangmin

    2011-09-16

    In this study, core-shell magnetic mesoporous microspheres with C18-functionalized interior pore-walls were synthesized through coating Fe(3)O(4) microspheres with a mesoporous inorganic-organic hybrid layer with a n-octadecyltriethoxysilane (C18TES) and tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) as the silica source and cetyltrimethylammonia bromide (CTAB) as a template. The obtained C18-functionalized Fe(3)O(4)@mSiO(2) microspheres possess numerous C18 groups anchored in the interior pore-walls, large surface area (274.7 m(2)/g, high magnetization (40.8 emu/g) and superparamagnetism, uniform mesopores (4.1 nm), which makes them ideal absorbents for simple, fast, and efficient extraction and enrichment of hydrophobic organic compounds in water samples. Several kinds of phthalates were used as the model hydrophobic organic compounds to systematically evaluate the performance of the C18-functionalized Fe(3)O(4)@mSiO(2) microspheres in extracting hydrophobic molecules by using a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Various parameters, including eluting solvent, the amounts of absorbents, extraction time and elution time were optimized. Hydrophobic extraction was performed in the interior pore of magnetic mesoporous microspheres, and the materials had the anti-interference ability to macromolecular proteins, which was also investigated in the work. Under the optimized conditions, C18-functionalized Fe(3)O(4)@mSiO(2) microspheres were successfully used to analyze the real water samples. The results indicated that this novel method was fast, convenient and efficient for the target compounds and could avoid being interfered by macromolecules. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Radioactive disequilibria in mineralised drill core samples from the Bjoerklund uranium occurence, northern Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smellie, J.A.T.

    1982-12-01

    Forming the basis of a pilot study to investigate the natural mobility of uranium and its daughter products within the geological environment, a series of six samples, chosen from two mineralised fracture zones at depths of 100-130m within a homogeneous leucocratic granite, were examined mineralogically and isotopically to establish the presence or absence of radioactive equilibrium that may indicate recent rock/water interaction processes (i.e. during the last 0.5 m.y.). The results show clear evidence of radioactive disequilibrium, and hence recent rock/water interaction, in four of the six samples. Some is attributable mostly to solution-solid 234 U recoil gain (weakly mineralised zones adjacent to the main mineralisation) and others to solid-solution 234 U recoil loss (moderate to highly mineralised zones). The richer type of impregnation mineralisation indicates apparent radioactive equilibrium. The absence of significant 238 U loss in the samples helps to underline the reducing conditions prevalent within open fracture systems at these depths. This has meant that uraninite, now found in fractured rock at about 100m depth, has been chemically stable in its environment for most, if not all, of its 1750 m.y. existence, including the last 0.5 m.y. when it has been closest to the atmosphere. This could indicate that spent nuclear fuel, which essentially is crystalline UO 2 , and comparable to uraninite once the main fission products have decayed, would also have been stable in this environment for similar periods of time. (Author)

  11. Interstitial water studies on small core samples, Deep Sea Drilling Project, Leg 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manheim, F. T.; Chan, K.M.; Sayles, F.L.

    1970-01-01

    Leg 5 samples fall into two categories with respect to interstitial water composition: 1) rapidly deposited terrigenous or appreciably terrigenous deposits, such as in Hole 35 (western Escanaba trough, off Cape Mendocino, California); and, 2) slowly deposited pelagic clays and biogenic muds and oozes. Interstitial waters in the former show modest to slight variations in chloride and sodium, but drastic changes in non-conservative ions such as magnesium and sulfate. The pelagic deposits show only relatively minor changes in both conservative and non-conservative pore fluid constituents. As was pointed out in earlier Leg Reports, it is believed that much of the variation in chloride in pore fluids within individual holes is attributable to the manipulation of samples on board ship and in the laboratory. On the other hand, the scatter in sodium is due in part to analytical error (on the order of 2 to 3 per cent, in terms of a standard deviation), and it probably accounts for most of the discrepancies in total anion and cation balance. All constituents reported here, with the exception of bulk water content, were analyzed on water samples which were sealed in plastic tubes aboard ship and were subsequently opened and divided into weighed aliquots in the laboratory. Analytical methods follow the atomic absorption, wet chemical and emission spectrochemical techniques briefly summarized in previous reports, e.g. Manheim et al., 1969, and Chan and Manheim, 1970. The authors acknowledge assistance from W. Sunda, D. Kerr, C. Lawson and H. Richards, and thank D. Spencer, P. Brewer and E. Degens for allowing the use of equipment and laboratory facilities.

  12. Estimates of the hydrologic impact of drilling water on core samples taken from partially saturated densely welded tuff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buscheck, T.A.; Nitao, J.J.

    1987-09-01

    The purpose of this work is to determine the extent to which drill water might be expected to be imbibed by core samples taken from densely welded tuff. In a related experimental study conducted in G-Tunnel, drill water imbibition by the core samples was observed to be minimal. Calculations were carried out with the TOUGH code with the intent of corroborating the imbibition observations. Due to the absence of hydrologic data pertaining directly to G-Tunnel welded tuff, it was necessary to apply data from a similar formation. Because the moisture retention curve was not available for imbibition conditions, the drainage curve was applied to the model. The poor agreement between the observed and calculated imbibition data is attributed primarily to the inappropriateness of the drainage curve. Also significant is the value of absolute permeability (k) assumed in the model. Provided that the semi-log plot of the drainage and imbibition moisture retention curves are parallel within the saturation range of interest, a simple relationship exists between the moisture retention curve, k, and porosity (/phi/) which are assumed in the model and their actual values. If k and /phi/ are known, we define the hysteresis factor λ to be the ratio of the imbibition and drainage suction pressures for any saturation within the range of interest. If k and /phi/ are unknown, λ also accounts for the uncertainties in their values. Both the experimental and modeling studies show that drill water imbibition by the core has a minimal effect on its saturation state. 22 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  13. Investigation of porosity and pore structure adjacent to fractures by PMMA method. Samples taken from drill cores at Olkiluoto

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siitari-Kauppi, M.; Ikonen, J.; Kauppi, L.; Lindberg, A.

    2010-10-01

    The porosity, pore structure and micro fracturing of 18 rock cores from drill holes OLKR4, OL-KR11, OL-KR13, OL-KR14, OL-KR15, OL-KR20 and OL-KR25. The porosity was investigated by the C-14-PMMA autoradiographic method. The main focus was to analyse the changes in porosity and mineralogy adjacent to the typical fractures in the bedrock of Olkiluoto as a mean of porosity profiles. The method makes it possible to study the spatial distribution of the pore space in rock, and the heterogeneity of rock matrices is revealed at the sub micrometre to the centimetre scale. Subsequent autoradiography and digital image analysis make it possible to analyse features limited in size by the range of C-14 beta radiation. The description of the method was given in Posiva working report 2009-03. The samples for this work were chosen in April 2008. The C-14-PMMA method involves the impregnation of centimetre-scale rock cores with C-14 labelled methylmethacrylate (C-14-MMA) in a vacuum, irradiation polymerisation, autoradiography and optical densitometry using digital image-processing techniques. Impregnation with C-14-MMA, a labelled low-molecular-weight and lowviscosity monomer which wets the silicate surfaces well and which can be fixed by polymerisation provides information about the accessible pore space in crystalline rock that cannot be obtained using other methods. The microscopy analyses for mineral identification were done for every PMMA impregnated sample in Geological Survey of Finland. The total porosities of the studied rock cores varied between 0.1 % and 8 %. However, spatially the porosities of 30 - 40 % were determined for the minerals that were strongly altered. The porosity changes were observed adjacent to the fracture surfaces forming from a few to several millimetres porous zones. The heterogeneity of the porosity patterns adjacent to the fracture surfaces was abundant due to mineral alteration. (orig.)

  14. The influence of coring method on the preservation of sedimentary and biogeochemical features when sampling soft-bottom, shallow coastal environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogg, Andrew O.M.; Attard, Karl M.; Stahl, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    It is frequently assumed that taking samples of soft marine sediments using surface-based gravity coring equipment causes minimal disruption to their sedimentological, biogeochemical, and biological condition. This assumption was evaluated by examining the potential disturbances caused when...... resuspension or compression during gravity coring. Using SCUBA for shallow-water soft-sediment sampling permits steady and controlled core-tube insertion and extraction, and more measured retrieval of the cores to the surface; this probably accounts for the observed differences. Whereas benthic lander......-based in situ measurement would be the preferred method for analyzing sediment parameters in detail in this type of environment, SCUBA-based sampling offers a more accurate alternative to surface-based gravity coring....

  15. Deep permeability of the San Andreas Fault from San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth (SAFOD) core samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, Carolyn A.; Lockner, David A.; Moore, Diane E.; Hickman, Stephen H.

    2014-01-01

    The San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth (SAFOD) scientific borehole near Parkfield, California crosses two actively creeping shear zones at a depth of 2.7 km. Core samples retrieved from these active strands consist of a foliated, Mg-clay-rich gouge containing porphyroclasts of serpentinite and sedimentary rock. The adjacent damage zone and country rocks are comprised of variably deformed, fine-grained sandstones, siltstones, and mudstones. We conducted laboratory tests to measure the permeability of representative samples from each structural unit at effective confining pressures, Pe up to the maximum estimated in situ Pe of 120 MPa. Permeability values of intact samples adjacent to the creeping strands ranged from 10−18 to 10−21 m2 at Pe = 10 MPa and decreased with applied confining pressure to 10−20–10−22 m2 at 120 MPa. Values for intact foliated gouge samples (10−21–6 × 10−23 m2 over the same pressure range) were distinctly lower than those for the surrounding rocks due to their fine-grained, clay-rich character. Permeability of both intact and crushed-and-sieved foliated gouge measured during shearing at Pe ≥ 70 MPa ranged from 2 to 4 × 10−22 m2 in the direction perpendicular to shearing and was largely insensitive to shear displacement out to a maximum displacement of 10 mm. The weak, actively-deforming foliated gouge zones have ultra-low permeability, making the active strands of the San Andreas Fault effective barriers to cross-fault fluid flow. The low matrix permeability of the San Andreas Fault creeping zones and adjacent rock combined with observations of abundant fractures in the core over a range of scales suggests that fluid flow outside of the actively-deforming gouge zones is probably fracture dominated.

  16. Preliminary biological sampling of GT3 and BT1 cores and the microbial community dynamics of existing subsurface wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, E. A.; Stamps, B. W.; Rempfert, K. R.; Ellison, E. T.; Nothaft, D. B.; Boyd, E. S.; Templeton, A. S.; Spear, J. R.

    2017-12-01

    Subsurface microbial life is poorly understood but potentially very important to the search for life on other planets as well as increasing our understanding of Earth's geobiological processes. Fluids and rocks of actively serpentinizing subsurface environments are a recent target of biological study due to their apparent ubiquity across the solar system. Areas of serpentinization can contain high concentrations of molecular hydrogen, H2, that can serve as the dominant fuel source for subsurface microbiota. Working with the Oman Drilling Project, DNA and RNA were extracted from fluids of seven alkaline wells and two rock cores from drill sites GT3 and BT1 within the Samail ophiolite. DNA and cDNA (produced via reverse transcription from the recovered RNA) were sequenced using universal primers to identify microbial life across all three domains. Alkaline subsurface fluids support a microbial community that changes with pH and host-rock type. In peridotite with pH values of >11, wells NSHQ 14 and WAB 71 have high relative abundances of Meiothermus, Methanobacterium, the family Nitrospiraceae, and multiple types of the class Dehalococcoidia. While also hosted in peridotite but at pH 8.5, wells WAB 104 and 105 have a distinct, more diverse microbial community. This increased variance in community make-up is seen in wells that sit near/at the contact of gabbro and peridotite formations as well. Core results indicate both sampled rock types host a very low biomass environment subject to multiple sources of contamination during the drilling process. Suggestions for contaminant reduction, such as having core handlers wear nitrile gloves and flame-sterilizing the outer surfaces of core rounds for biological sampling, would have minimal impact to overall ODP coreflow and maximize the ability to better understand in situ microbiota in this low-biomass serpentinizing subsurface environment. While DNA extraction was successful with gram amounts of crushed rock, much can be

  17. Toxic air pollutants notice of construction for rotary mode core sampling systems three and four and modification system two

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyekman, D.L.

    1998-01-01

    The Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) approved the construction and operation of Rotary Mode Core Sampling (RMCS) System Two on November 22, 1993 (NOC-93-04). This approval supported the characterization of waste in the single-shell tanks (SSTS) and double-shell tanks (DSTS) on the Hanford Site. The waste tank characterization sampling and analysis effort is vital to the safe operations of the Hanford Site tank farms, and the timely collection of the information necessary to support retrieval, pretreatment, disposal planning, and final closure strategy. This is based on the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) Recommendation 93-05 Implementation Plan (DOE-RL-94-001), US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) proposed the expedited construction and operation of two additional RMCS systems to support characterization of waste stored in SSTs and DSTS. RMCS currently is scheduled for approximately 50 (active or passively ventilated) of the 149 SSTs in the 200 East and 200 West Areas. If necessary, the RMCS will be used to sample other tanks currently not scheduled, subject to the requirements of this document and any applicable Ecology approval order. The typical components of the RMCS systems are shown in Figure 1. It should be noted that the Flammable Gas Detector cart is not being used during RMCS at this time. RMCS is scheduled for approximately 40 tanks that are not actively ventilated. These tanks operate at atmospheric pressure with passive (breather) high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters. The RMCS system uses nitrogen gas to cool and purge the drill bit assembly. Without the use of a portable ventilation system, the additional gas from RMCS might unsafely pressurize tanks that are not actively ventilated. The RMCS system also will generate aerosols and dust in the tank vapor head space. HEPA filters will be required on the portable exhauster during rotary mode core drilling to control radionuclide

  18. Student Wellbeing at a University in Post-Apartheid South Africa: A Comparison with a British University Sample Using the GP-CORE Measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Charles; Campbell, Megan

    2014-01-01

    This article provides GP-CORE norms for a South African university sample, which are compared to published data obtained from a United Kingdom university sample. The measure appears to be both reliable and valid for this multilingual and multicultural South African sample. The profiles of the psychological distress reported by white South African…

  19. Concentration of Antifouling Biocides and Metals in Sediment Core Samples in the Northern Part of Hiroshima Bay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noritaka Tsunemasa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Accumulation of Ot alternative antifoulants in sediment is the focus of this research. Much research had been done on surface sediment, but in this report, the accumulation in the sediment core was studied. The Ot alternative antifoulants, Diuron, Sea-Nine211, and Irgarol 1051, and the latter’s degradation product, M1, were investigated in five samples from the northern part of Hiroshima Bay. Ot compounds (tributyltin (TBT and triphenyltin (TPT were also investigated for comparison. In addition, metal (Pb, Cu, Zn, Fe and Mn levels and chronology were measured to better understand what happens after accumulation on the sea floor. It was discovered that Ot alternative antifoulant accumulation characteristics in sediment were like Ot compounds, with the concentration in the sediment core being much higher than surface sediment. The concentration in sediment seems to have been affected by the regulation of Ot compounds in 1990, due to the concentration of Ot alternative antifoulants and Ot compounds at the survey point in front of the dock, showing an increase from almost the same layer after the regulation.

  20. MODERATOR ELEMENTS FOR UNIFORM POWER NUCLEAR REACTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balent, R.

    1963-03-12

    This patent describes a method of obtaining a flatter flux and more uniform power generation across the core of a nuclear reactor. The method comprises using moderator elements having differing moderating strength. The elements have an increasing amount of the better moderating material as a function of radial and/or axial distance from the reactor core center. (AEC)

  1. Effects of Re-heating Tissue Samples to Core Body Temperature on High-Velocity Ballistic Projectile-tissue Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphrey, Caitlin; Henneberg, Maciej; Wachsberger, Christian; Maiden, Nicholas; Kumaratilake, Jaliya

    2017-11-01

    Damage produced by high-speed projectiles on organic tissue will depend on the physical properties of the tissues. Conditioning organic tissue samples to human core body temperature (37°C) prior to conducting ballistic experiments enables their behavior to closely mimic that of living tissues. To minimize autolytic changes after death, the tissues are refrigerated soon after their removal from the body and re-heated to 37°C prior to testing. This research investigates whether heating 50-mm-cube samples of porcine liver, kidney, and heart to 37°C for varying durations (maximum 7 h) can affect the penetration response of a high-speed, steel sphere projectile. Longer conditioning times for heart and liver resulted in a slight loss of velocity/energy of the projectile, but the reverse effect occurred for the kidney. Possible reasons for these trends include autolytic changes causing softening (heart and liver) and dehydration causing an increase in density (kidney). © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  2. Current status of restoration work for obstacle and upper core structure in reactor vessel of experimental fast reactor 'JOYO'. Recovery of MARICO-2 sample part

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashida, Takashi; Ito, Hideaki

    2015-01-01

    At Joyo reactor MK-III core in May 2007, due to the design deficiencies of the disconnect mechanism of the holding part and the sample part of the experimental apparatus with instrumentation lines (MARICO-2), a disconnect failure incident occurred in the sample part after irradiation test. The deformation of the sample part due to this failure incurred its interference with the lower surface of reactor core upper structure and the holddown axis body. By this, the operating range of the rotary plug was restricted, leading to the partial inhibition of the fuel exchange function that precluded the access to 1/4 of the assemblies of the reactor core. In face of restoration work, the preparation for restoration such the exchange of upper core structure, and the recovery of MARICO-2 sample part are under way. The following items are introduced here: (1) summary of restoration work and overall process of restoration work, (2) recovery operation of MARICO-2 sample part, (3) exchange of the upper core structure that was conducted this year, and (4) results of recovery of MARIKO-2 sample part. (A.O.)

  3. Revised South China Sea spreading history based on macrostructure analysis of IODP Expedition 349 core samples and geophysical data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Z.; Ding, W.; Zhao, X.; Qiu, N.; Lin, J.; Li, C.

    2017-12-01

    In Internaltional Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) Expedition 349, four sites were drilled and cored successfully in the South China Sea (SCS). Three of them are close to the central spreading ridge (Sites U1431, U1433 and U1434), and one (Site U1435) is located on an outer rise,,providingsignificant information on the spreading history of the SCS.In order to constrain the spreading historymore accurately with the core results, we analyzed the identifiable macrostructures (over 300 fractures, veins and slickensides)from all the consolidated samples of these four drill sites. Then we made a retrograde reconstruction of the SCS spreading history with the constraints of the estimated fractures and veins, post-spreading volcanism,seismic interpretation, as well as free-air gravity and magnetic anomaly and topography analysis. Our study indicates that the spreading of the SCS experienced at least one ridge jump event and two events of ridge orientation and spreading direction adjustment, which mademagnetic anomaly orientation, ridge positionand facture zone directionskeep changing in the South China Sea. During the last spreading stage, the spreading direction was north-southward but lasted for a very short time period. The oceanic crust is wider in the eastern SCS and tapers out toward west.Due to the subductionof SCS beneath the Philippine Sea plate, the seafloor began to develop new fractures:the NWW-to EW-trending R' shear faults and the NE-trending P faultsbecame dominant faults and controlled the eruption of post-drift volcanism.

  4. Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts & Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects. Appendix C: Samples of Student Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Common Core State Standards Initiative, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This document presents writing samples that have been annotated to illustrate the criteria required to meet the Common Core State Standards for particular types of writing--argument, informative/explanatory text, and narrative--in a given grade. Each of the samples exhibits at least the level of quality required to meet the Writing standards for…

  5. Preparation and characterisation of core-shell CNTs@MIPs nanocomposites and selective removal of estrone from water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ruixia; Su, Xiaoqian; He, Xiwen; Chen, Langxing; Zhang, Yukui

    2011-01-15

    This paper reports the preparation of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) functionalized with molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) for advanced removal of estrone. CNTs@Est-MIPs nanocomposites with a well-defined core-shell structure were obtained using a semi-covalent imprinting strategy, which employed a thermally reversible covalent bond at the surface of silica-coated CNTs for a large-scale production. The morphology and structure of the products were characterised by transmission electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The adsorption properties were demonstrated by equilibrium rebinding experiments and Scatchard analysis. The results demonstrate that the imprinted nanocomposites possess favourable selectivity, high capacity and fast kinetics for template molecule uptake, yielding an adsorption capacity of 113.5 μmol/g. The synthetic process is quite simple, and the different batches of synthesized CNTs@Est-MIPs nanocomposites showed good reproducibility in template binding. The feasibility of removing estrogenic compounds from environmental water using the CNTs@Est-MIPs nanocomposites was demonstrated using water samples spiked with estrone. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. A safety assessment of rotary mode core sampling in flammable gas single shell tanks: Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raymond, R.E.

    1996-04-15

    This safety assessment (SA) addresses each of the required elements associated with the installation, operation, and removal of a rotary-mode core sampling (RMCS) device in flammable-gas single-shell tanks (SSTs). The RMCS operations are needed in order to retrieve waste samples from SSTs with hard layers of waste for which push-mode sampling is not adequate for sampling. In this SA, potential hazards associated with the proposed action were identified and evaluated systematically. Several potential accident cases that could result in radiological or toxicological gas releases were identified and analyzed and their consequences assessed. Administrative controls, procedures and design changes required to eliminate or reduce the potential of hazards were identified. The accidents were analyzed under nine categories, four of which were burn scenarios. In SSTS, burn accidents result in unacceptable consequences because of a potential dome collapse. The accidents in which an aboveground burn propagates into the dome space were shown to be in the ``beyond extremely unlikely`` frequency category. Given the unknown nature of the gas-release behavior in the SSTS, a number of design changes and administrative controls were implemented to achieve these low frequencies. Likewise, drill string fires and dome space fires were shown to be very low frequency accidents by taking credit for the design changes, controls, and available experimental and analytical data. However, a number of Bureau of Mines (BOM) tests must be completed before some of the burn accidents can be dismissed with high confidence. Under the category of waste fires, the possibility of igniting the entrapped gases and the waste itself were analyzed. Experiments are being conducted at the BOM to demonstrate that the drill bit is not capable of igniting the trapped gas in the waste. Laboratory testing and thermal analysis demonstrated that, under normal operating conditions, the drill bit will not create high

  7. A safety assessment of rotary mode core sampling in flammable gas single shell tanks: Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raymond, R.E.

    1996-01-01

    This safety assessment (SA) addresses each of the required elements associated with the installation, operation, and removal of a rotary-mode core sampling (RMCS) device in flammable-gas single-shell tanks (SSTs). The RMCS operations are needed in order to retrieve waste samples from SSTs with hard layers of waste for which push-mode sampling is not adequate for sampling. In this SA, potential hazards associated with the proposed action were identified and evaluated systematically. Several potential accident cases that could result in radiological or toxicological gas releases were identified and analyzed and their consequences assessed. Administrative controls, procedures and design changes required to eliminate or reduce the potential of hazards were identified. The accidents were analyzed under nine categories, four of which were burn scenarios. In SSTS, burn accidents result in unacceptable consequences because of a potential dome collapse. The accidents in which an aboveground burn propagates into the dome space were shown to be in the ''beyond extremely unlikely'' frequency category. Given the unknown nature of the gas-release behavior in the SSTS, a number of design changes and administrative controls were implemented to achieve these low frequencies. Likewise, drill string fires and dome space fires were shown to be very low frequency accidents by taking credit for the design changes, controls, and available experimental and analytical data. However, a number of Bureau of Mines (BOM) tests must be completed before some of the burn accidents can be dismissed with high confidence. Under the category of waste fires, the possibility of igniting the entrapped gases and the waste itself were analyzed. Experiments are being conducted at the BOM to demonstrate that the drill bit is not capable of igniting the trapped gas in the waste. Laboratory testing and thermal analysis demonstrated that, under normal operating conditions, the drill bit will not create high

  8. Quasi-uniform Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coghetto Roland

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article, using mostly Pervin [9], Kunzi [6], [8], [7], Williams [11] and Bourbaki [3] works, we formalize in Mizar [2] the notions of quasiuniform space, semi-uniform space and locally uniform space.

  9. Quasi-uniform Space

    OpenAIRE

    Coghetto Roland

    2016-01-01

    In this article, using mostly Pervin [9], Kunzi [6], [8], [7], Williams [11] and Bourbaki [3] works, we formalize in Mizar [2] the notions of quasiuniform space, semi-uniform space and locally uniform space.

  10. Capillary ion chromatography with on-column focusing for ultra-trace analysis of methanesulfonate and inorganic anions in limited volume Antarctic ice core samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Estrella Sanz; Poynter, Sam; Curran, Mark; Haddad, Paul R; Shellie, Robert A; Nesterenko, Pavel N; Paull, Brett

    2015-08-28

    Preservation of ionic species within Antarctic ice yields a unique proxy record of the Earth's climate history. Studies have been focused until now on two proxies: the ionic components of sea salt aerosol and methanesulfonic acid. Measurement of the all of the major ionic species in ice core samples is typically carried out by ion chromatography. Former methods, whilst providing suitable detection limits, have been based upon off-column preconcentration techniques, requiring larger sample volumes, with potential for sample contamination and/or carryover. Here, a new capillary ion chromatography based analytical method has been developed for quantitative analysis of limited volume Antarctic ice core samples. The developed analytical protocol applies capillary ion chromatography (with suppressed conductivity detection) and direct on-column sample injection and focusing, thus eliminating the requirement for off-column sample preconcentration. This limits the total sample volume needed to 300μL per analysis, allowing for triplicate sample analysis with Application to composite ice-core samples is demonstrated, with coupling of the capillary ion chromatograph to high resolution mass spectrometry used to confirm the presence and purity of the observed methanesulfonate peak. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. School Uniforms Redux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling-Sendor, Benjamin

    2002-01-01

    Reviews a recent decision in "Littlefield" by the 5th Circuit upholding a school uniform policy. Advises board member who wish to adopt a school uniform policy to solicit input from parents and students, research the experiences of other school districts with uniform policies, and articulate the interests they wish to promote through uniform…

  12. Do School Uniforms Fit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Kerry A.

    2000-01-01

    In 1994, Long Beach (California) Unified School District began requiring uniforms in all elementary and middle schools. Now, half of all urban school systems and many suburban schools have uniform policies. Research on uniforms' effectiveness is mixed. Tightened dress codes may be just as effective and less litigious. (MLH)

  13. Mandatory School Uniforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Carl A.

    1996-01-01

    Shortly after implementing a mandatory school uniform policy, the Long Beach (California) Public Schools can boast 99% compliance and a substantial reduction in school crime. The uniforms can't be confused with gang colors, save parents money, and help identify outsiders. A sidebar lists ingredients for a mandatory uniform policy. (MLH)

  14. The WAIS Melt Monitor: An automated ice core melting system for meltwater sample handling and the collection of high resolution microparticle size distribution data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breton, D. J.; Koffman, B. G.; Kreutz, K. J.; Hamilton, G. S.

    2010-12-01

    Paleoclimate data are often extracted from ice cores by careful geochemical analysis of meltwater samples. The analysis of the microparticles found in ice cores can also yield unique clues about atmospheric dust loading and transport, dust provenance and past environmental conditions. Determination of microparticle concentration, size distribution and chemical makeup as a function of depth is especially difficult because the particle size measurement either consumes or contaminates the meltwater, preventing further geochemical analysis. Here we describe a microcontroller-based ice core melting system which allows the collection of separate microparticle and chemistry samples from the same depth intervals in the ice core, while logging and accurately depth-tagging real-time electrical conductivity and particle size distribution data. This system was designed specifically to support microparticle analysis of the WAIS Divide WDC06A deep ice core, but many of the subsystems are applicable to more general ice core melting operations. Major system components include: a rotary encoder to measure ice core melt displacement with 0.1 millimeter accuracy, a meltwater tracking system to assign core depths to conductivity, particle and sample vial data, an optical debubbler level control system to protect the Abakus laser particle counter from damage due to air bubbles, a Rabbit 3700 microcontroller which communicates with a host PC, collects encoder and optical sensor data and autonomously operates Gilson peristaltic pumps and fraction collectors to provide automatic sample handling, melt monitor control software operating on a standard PC allowing the user to control and view the status of the system, data logging software operating on the same PC to collect data from the melting, electrical conductivity and microparticle measurement systems. Because microparticle samples can easily be contaminated, we use optical air bubble sensors and high resolution ice core density

  15. Chapter 11: Sample Design Cross-Cutting Protocol. The Uniform Methods Project: Methods for Determining Energy Efficiency Savings for Specific Measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurnik, Charles W [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Khawaja, M. Sami [The Cadmus Group, Portland, OR (United States); Rushton, Josh [The Cadmus Group, Portland, OR (United States); Keeling, Josh [The Cadmus Group, Portland, OR (United States)

    2017-09-01

    Evaluating an energy efficiency program requires assessing the total energy and demand saved through all of the energy efficiency measures provided by the program. For large programs, the direct assessment of savings for each participant would be cost-prohibitive. Even if a program is small enough that a full census could be managed, such an undertaking would almost always be an inefficient use of evaluation resources. The bulk of this chapter describes methods for minimizing and quantifying sampling error. Measurement error and regression error are discussed in various contexts in other chapters.

  16. Development of a standard data base for FBR core nuclear design (XIII). Analysis of small sample reactivity experiments at ZPPR-9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Wakaei; Fukushima, Manabu; Ishikawa, Makoto

    2000-09-01

    A comprehensive study to evaluate and accumulate the abundant results of fast reactor physics is now in progress at O-arai Engineering Center to improve analytical methods and prediction accuracy of nuclear design for large fast breeder cores such as future commercial FBRs. The present report summarizes the analytical results of sample reactivity experiments at ZPPR-9 core, which has not been evaluated by the latest analytical method yet. The intention of the work is to extend and further generalize the standard data base for FBR core nuclear design. The analytical results of the sample reactivity experiments (samples: PU-30, U-6, DU-6, SS-1 and B-1) at ZPPR-9 core in JUPITER series, with the latest nuclear data library JENDL-3.2 and the analytical method which was established by the JUPITER analysis, can be concluded as follows: The region-averaged final C/E values generally agreed with unity within 5% differences at the inner core region. However, the C/E values of every sample showed the radial space-dependency increasing from center to core edge, especially the discrepancy of B-1 was the largest by 10%. Next, the influence of the present analytical results for the ZPPR-9 sample reactivity to the cross-section adjustment was evaluated. The reference case was a unified cross-section set ADJ98 based on the recent JUPITER analysis. As a conclusion, the present analytical results have sufficient physical consistency with other JUPITER data, and possess qualification as a part of the standard data base for FBR nuclear design. (author)

  17. Stratospheric Air Sub-sampler (SAS) and its application to analysis of Delta O-17(CO2) from small air samples collected with an AirCore

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mrozek, Dorota Janina; van der Veen, Carina; Hofmann, Magdalena E. G.; Chen, Huilin; Kivi, Rigel; Heikkinen, Pauli; Rockmann, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    We present the set-up and a scientific application of the Stratospheric Air Sub-sampler (SAS), a device to collect and to store the vertical profile of air collected with an AirCore (Karion et al., 2010) in numerous sub-samples for later analysis in the laboratory. The SAS described here is a 20m

  18. AirCore-HR: a high-resolution column sampling to enhance the vertical description of CH4 and CO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Membrive

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available An original and innovative sampling system called AirCore was presented by NOAA in 2010 (Karion et al., 2010. It consists of a long (>  100 m and narrow (<  1 cm stainless steel tube that can retain a profile of atmospheric air. The captured air sample has then to be analyzed with a gas analyzer for trace mole fraction. In this study, we introduce a new AirCore aiming to improve resolution along the vertical with the objectives to (i better capture the vertical distribution of CO2 and CH4, (ii provide a tool to compare AirCores and validate the estimated vertical resolution achieved by AirCores. This (high-resolution AirCore-HR consists of a 300 m tube, combining 200 m of 0.125 in. (3.175 mm tube and a 100 m of 0.25 in. (6.35 mm tube. This new configuration allows us to achieve a vertical resolution of 300 m up to 15 km and better than 500 m up to 22 km (if analysis of the retained sample is performed within 3 h. The AirCore-HR was flown for the first time during the annual StratoScience campaign from CNES in August 2014 from Timmins (Ontario, Canada. High-resolution vertical profiles of CO2 and CH4 up to 25 km were successfully retrieved. These profiles revealed well-defined transport structures in the troposphere (also seen in CAMS-ECMWF high-resolution forecasts of CO2 and CH4 profiles and captured the decrease of CO2 and CH4 in the stratosphere. The multi-instrument gondola also carried two other low-resolution AirCore-GUF that allowed us to perform direct comparisons and study the underlying processing method used to convert the sample of air to greenhouse gases vertical profiles. In particular, degrading the AirCore-HR derived profiles to the low resolution of AirCore-GUF yields an excellent match between both sets of CH4 profiles and shows a good consistency in terms of vertical structures. This fully validates the theoretical vertical resolution achievable by AirCores. Concerning CO2 although a

  19. Attempt of groundwater dating using the drilled rock core. 1. Development of the rock sampling method for measurement of noble gases dissolved in interstitial water in rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahara, Yasunori

    2002-01-01

    Groundwater dating in low permeable rock is very difficult and impracticable, because we take a very long time to collect groundwater sample in a borehole and have to invest much fund in production of the in-situ groundwater sampler and in operation of it. If we can directly measure noble gases dissolved in interstitial groundwater in rock core, we have a big merit to estimate groundwater resident time easy. In this study, we designed and produced a high vacuum container to let dissolved noble gases diffuse until reaching in equilibrium, and we made a handling manual of the rock core into the container and a procedure to vacuum out air from the sealed container. We compared data sets of noble gas concentration obtained from rock cores and groundwater sample collected from boreholes in-situ. The measured rocks are pumice-tuff rock, mud rock and hornfels, which have their permeabilities of 10 -6 cm/s, 10 -9 cm/s and 10 -11 cm/s, respectively. Consequently, we evaluated the rock core method is better than the in-situ groundwater sampling method for low permeable rock. (author)

  20. Determination of three-dimensional stress orientations in the Wenchuan earthquake Fault Scientific Drilling (WFSD) hole-1: A preliminary result by anelastic strain recovery measurements of core samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, J.; Lin, W.; Wang, L.; Tang, Z.; Sun, D.; Gao, L.; Wang, W.

    2010-12-01

    A great and destructive earthquake (Ms 8.0; Mw 7.9), Wunchuan earthquake struck on the Longmen Shan foreland trust zone in Sichuan province, China on 12 May 2008 (Xu et al., 2008; Episodes, Vol.31, pp.291-301). As a rapid response scientific drilling project, Wenchuan earthquake Fault Scientific Drilling (WFSD) started on 6 November 2008 shorter than a half of year from the date of earthquake main shock. The first pilot borehole (hole-1) has been drilled to the target depth (measured depth 1201 m MD, vertical depth 1179 m) at Hongkou, Dujianyan, Sichuan and passed through the main fault of the earthquake around 589 m MD. We are trying to determine three dimensional in-situ stress states in the WFSD boreholes by a core-based method, anelastic strain recovery (ASR) method (Lin et al., 2006; Tectonophysics, Vol4.26, pp.221-238). This method has been applied in several scientific drilling projects (TCDP: Lin et al., 2007; TAO, Vol.18, pp.379-393; NanTtoSEIZE: Byrne et al., 2009; GRL, Vol.36, L23310). These applications confirm the validity of using the ASR technique in determining in situ stresses by using drilled cores. We collected total 15 core samples in a depth range from 340 m MD to 1180 m MD, approximately for ASR measurements. Anelastic normal strains, measured every ten minutes in nine directions, including six independent directions, were used to calculate the anelastic strain tensors. The data of the ASR tests conducted at hole-1 is still undergoing analysis. As a tentative perspective, more than 10 core samples showed coherent strain recovery over one - two weeks. However, 2 or 3 core samples cannot be re-orientated to the global system. It means that we cannot rink the stress orientation determined by the core samples to geological structure. Unfortunately, a few core samples showed irregular strain recovery and were not analyzed further. The preliminary results of ASR tests at hole-1 show the stress orientations and stress regime changes a lot with the

  1. School Uniforms. Research Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Karen

    2007-01-01

    Does clothing make the person or does the person make the clothing? How does what attire a student wears to school affect their academic achievement? In 1996, President Clinton cited examples of school violence and discipline issues that might have been avoided had the students been wearing uniforms ("School uniforms: Prevention or suppression?").…

  2. Games Uniforms Unveiled

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Linda

    2008-01-01

    The uniforms for Beijing Olympics’ workers, technical staff and volunteers have been unveiled to mark the 200-day countdown to the Games. The uniforms feature the key element of the clouds of promise and will be in three colors:red for Beijing Olympic Games Committee staff, blue

  3. Sampling

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, Steven K

    2012-01-01

    Praise for the Second Edition "This book has never had a competitor. It is the only book that takes a broad approach to sampling . . . any good personal statistics library should include a copy of this book." —Technometrics "Well-written . . . an excellent book on an important subject. Highly recommended." —Choice "An ideal reference for scientific researchers and other professionals who use sampling." —Zentralblatt Math Features new developments in the field combined with all aspects of obtaining, interpreting, and using sample data Sampling provides an up-to-date treat

  4. Side core lifter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edelman, Ya A

    1982-01-01

    A side core lifter is proposed which contains a housing with guide slits and a removable core lifter with side projections on the support section connected to the core receiver. In order to preserve the structure of the rock in the core sample by means of guaranteeing rectilinear movement of the core lifter in the rock, the support and core receiver sections are hinged. The device is equipped with a spring for angular shift in the core-reception part.

  5. Sampling and analysis plan for the gunite and associated tanks interim remedial action, wall coring and scraping at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-02-01

    This Sampling and Analysis Plan documents the procedures for collecting and analyzing wall core and wall scraping samples from the Gunite and Associated Tanks. These activities are being conducted to support the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act at the gunite and associated tanks interim remedial action at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The sampling and analysis activities will be performed in concert with sludge retrieval and sluicing of the tanks. Wall scraping and/or wall core samples will be collected from each quadrant in each tank by using a scraping sampler and/or a coring drill deployed by the Houdini robot vehicle. Each sample will be labeled, transported to the Radioactive Materials Analytical Laboratory, and analyzed for physical and radiological characteristics, including total activity, gross alpha, gross beta, radioactive strontium and cesium, and other alpha- and gamma-emitting radionuclides. The data quality objectives process, based on US Environmental Protection Agency guidance, was applied to identify the objectives of this sampling and analysis. The results of the analysis will be used to (1) validate predictions of a strontium concrete diffusion model, (2) estimate the amount of radioactivity remaining in the tank shells, (3) provide information to correlate with measurements taken by the Gunite Tank Isotope Mapping Probe and the Characterization End Effector, and (4) estimate the performance of the wall cleaning system. This revision eliminates wall-scraping samples from all tanks, except Tank W-3. The Tank W-3 experience indicated that the wall scrapper does not collect sufficient material for analysis

  6. Results of submerged sediment core sampling and analysis on Par Pond, Pond C, and L Lake: July 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, J.W. II; Martin, F.D.; Friday, G.P.

    1996-06-01

    Sediment cores from shallow and deep water locations in Par Pond, Pond C, and L Lake were collected and analyzed in 1995 for radioactive and nonradioactive constituents. This core analysis was conducted to develop a defensible characterization of contaminants found in the sediments of Par Pond, Pond C, and L Lake. Mercury was the only nonradiological constituent with a nonestimated quantity that was detected above the U.S Environmental Protection Agency Region IV potential contaminants of concern screening criteria. It was detected at a depth of 0.3--0.6 meters (1.0--2.0 feet) at one location in L Lake. Cesium-137, promethium-146, plutonium-238, and zirconium-95 had significantly higher concentrations in Par Pond sediments than in sediments from the reference sites. Cobalt-60, cesium-137, plutonium-238, plutonium-239/240, and strontium-90 had significantly higher concentrations in L-Lake sediments than sediments from the reference sites

  7. The Mediating Role of Maximizer Decision Makin g Approach in Core Self - Evaluations and Entrepreneurial Persona lity Relationship: Konya Sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aykut Arslan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A lot of effort has been put to increase the number of entrepreneurs, the engines of the countries’ economic progress, and to promote entrepreneurship. In this regard, within the recent years in particular, studies, based on psychology and personality relationship are done to understand the entrepreneurial personality. To contribute to this topic and after searching the relevant literature, variables that might predict entrepreneurship have been incorporated into the model. It has been argued that one ofhese theories, core self-evaluations, may determine the entrepreneurial personality by enhancing their self-perceptions and awareness regarding their skills to utilize the opportunities. Moreover, it has also been investigated if the maximizer decision- making, one of the cognitive psychology theories, play a role as a mediator. Core self-evaluations account for 72% of the variance on entrepreneurship; but when maximizer decision-making is added, the amount of variance decreased to 65%. It may assumed to be an important result that entrepreneurial personality and maximizer decision-making cannot co-exist when the negative but statistical significant relationship between maximizer decision-making and core self-evaluations are considered

  8. Engineering task plan for the development, fabrication and installation of rotary mode core sample truck grapple hoist box level wind system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BOGER, R.M.

    1999-01-01

    This Engineering Task Plan is to design, generate fabrication drawings, fabricate, test, and install the grapple hoist level wind system for Rotary Mode Core Sample Trucks (RMCST) 3 and 4. Deliverables will include generating fabrication drawings, fabrication of one level wind system, updating fabrication drawings as required, and installation of level wind systems on RMCST 3 or 4. The installation of the level wind systems will be done during a preventive maintenance outage

  9. High-resolution delineation of chlorinated volatile organic compounds in a dipping, fractured mudstone: depth- and strata-dependent spatial variability from rock-core sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goode, Daniel J.; Imbrigiotta, Thomas E.; Lacombe, Pierre J.

    2014-01-01

    Synthesis of rock-core sampling and chlorinated volatile organic compound (CVOC) analysis at five coreholes, with hydraulic and water-quality monitoring and a detailed hydrogeologic framework, was used to characterize the fine-scale distribution of CVOCs in dipping, fractured mudstones of the Lockatong Formation of Triassic age, of the Newark Basin in West Trenton, New Jersey. From these results, a refined conceptual model for more than 55 years of migration of CVOCs and depth- and strata-dependent rock-matrix contamination was developed. Industrial use of trichloroethene (TCE) at the former Naval Air Warfare Center (NAWC) from 1953 to 1995 resulted in dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) TCE and dissolved TCE and related breakdown products, including other CVOCs, in underlying mudstones. Shallow highly weathered and fractured strata overlie unweathered, gently dipping, fractured strata that become progressively less fractured with depth. The unweathered lithology includes black highly fractured (fissile) carbon-rich strata, gray mildly fractured thinly layered (laminated) strata, and light-gray weakly fractured massive strata. CVOC concentrations in water samples pumped from the shallow weathered and highly fractured strata remain elevated near residual DNAPL TCE, but dilution by uncontaminated recharge, and other natural and engineered attenuation processes, have substantially reduced concentrations along flow paths removed from sources and residual DNAPL. CVOCs also were detected in most rock-core samples in source areas in shallow wells. In many locations, lower aqueous concentrations, compared to rock core concentrations, suggest that CVOCs are presently back-diffusing from the rock matrix. Below the weathered and highly fractured strata, and to depths of at least 50 meters (m), groundwater flow and contaminant transport is primarily in bedding-plane-oriented fractures in thin fissile high-carbon strata, and in fractured, laminated strata of the gently

  10. A core invasiveness gene signature reflects epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition but not metastatic potential in breast cancer cell lines and tissue samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melike Marsan

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Metastases remain the primary cause of cancer-related death. The acquisition of invasive tumour cell behaviour is thought to be a cornerstone of the metastatic cascade. Therefore, gene signatures related to invasiveness could aid in stratifying patients according to their prognostic profile. In the present study we aimed at identifying an invasiveness gene signature and investigated its biological relevance in breast cancer. METHODS & RESULTS: We collected a set of published gene signatures related to cell motility and invasion. Using this collection, we identified 16 genes that were represented at a higher frequency than observed by coincidence, hereafter named the core invasiveness gene signature. Principal component analysis showed that these overrepresented genes were able to segregate invasive and non-invasive breast cancer cell lines, outperforming sets of 16 randomly selected genes (all P<0.001. When applied onto additional data sets, the expression of the core invasiveness gene signature was significantly elevated in cell lines forced to undergo epithelial-mesenchymal transition. The link between core invasiveness gene expression and epithelial-mesenchymal transition was also confirmed in a dataset consisting of 2420 human breast cancer samples. Univariate and multivariate Cox regression analysis demonstrated that CIG expression is not associated with a shorter distant metastasis free survival interval (HR = 0.956, 95%C.I. = 0.896-1.019, P = 0.186. DISCUSSION: These data demonstrate that we have identified a set of core invasiveness genes, the expression of which is associated with epithelial-mesenchymal transition in breast cancer cell lines and in human tissue samples. Despite the connection between epithelial-mesenchymal transition and invasive tumour cell behaviour, we were unable to demonstrate a link between the core invasiveness gene signature and enhanced metastatic potential.

  11. Impedance imaging in core analysis. Imaging of phase distributions in samples of natural cores of North Sea chalk containing conducting as well as non-conducting fluids. Part: 1-3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laursen, S. [DTU, Inst. for Kemi (Denmark)] Moeller Nielsen, C. [DTU, Inst. for Energiteknik (Denmark)

    1997-12-31

    The present report documents the efforts to develop an impedance method for determining the distribution of the water saturation in a chalk core sample. Measurement of this distribution during a displacement process will make it possible to make numerical simulations of the process which may in turn reveal important rock parameters. The impedance method is one among other methods to determine saturation profiles in a research programme on rock parameters with participants from Danmarks Tekniske Universitet, DTU, and Danmarks og Groenlands Geologiske Undersoegelse, GEUS. The other methods investigated are nmr-scanning and {gamma}-logging. (au)

  12. Mono-, di- and trimethylated homologues of isoprenoid tetraether lipid cores in archaea and environmental samples: mass spectrometric identification and significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knappy, Chris; Barillà, Daniela; Chong, James; Hodgson, Dominic; Morgan, Hugh; Suleman, Muhammad; Tan, Christine; Yao, Peng; Keely, Brendan

    2015-12-01

    Higher homologues of widely reported C(86) isoprenoid diglycerol tetraether lipid cores, containing 0-6 cyclopentyl rings, have been identified in (hyper)thermophilic archaea, representing up to 21% of total tetraether lipids in the cells. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry confirms that the additional carbon atoms in the C(87-88) homologues are located in the etherified chains. Structures identified include dialkyl and monoalkyl ('H-shaped') tetraethers containing C(40-42) or C(81-82) hydrocarbons, respectively, many representing novel compounds. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometric analysis of hydrocarbons released from the lipid cores by ether cleavage suggests that the C(40) chains are biphytanes and the C(41) chains 13-methylbiphytanes. Multiple isomers, having different chain combinations, were recognised among the dialkyl lipids. Methylated tetraethers are produced by Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus in varying proportions depending on growth conditions, suggesting that methylation may be an adaptive mechanism to regulate cellular function. The detection of methylated lipids in Pyrobaculum sp. AQ1.S2 and Sulfolobus acidocaldarius represents the first reported occurrences in Crenarchaeota. Soils and aquatic sediments from geographically distinct mesotemperate environments that were screened for homologues contained monomethylated tetraethers, with di- and trimethylated structures being detected occasionally. The structural diversity and range of occurrences of the C(87-89) tetraethers highlight their potential as complementary biomarkers for archaea in natural environments. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Fast neutron (14 MeV) attenuation analysis in saturated core samples and its application in well logging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amin Attarzadeh; Mohammad Kamal Ghassem Al Askari; Tagy Bayat

    2009-01-01

    To introduce the application of nuclear logging, it is appropriate to provide a motivation for the use of nuclear measurement techniques in well logging. Importance aspects of the geological sciences are for instance grain and porosity structure and porosity volume of the rocks, as well as the transport properties of a fluid in the porous media. Nuclear measurements are, as a rule non-intrusive. Namely, a measurement does not destroy the sample, and it does not interfere with the process to be measured. Also, non- intrusive measurements are often much faster than the radiation methods, and can also be applied in field measurements. A common type of nuclear measurement employs neutron irradiation. It is powerful technique for geophysical analysis. In this research we illustrate the detail of this technique and it's applications to well logging and oil industry. Experiments have been performed to investigate the possibilities of using neutron attenuation measurements to determine water and oil content of rock sample. A beam of 14 MeV neutrons produced by a 150 KV neutron generator was attenuated by different samples and subsequently detected with plastic scintillators NE102 (Fast counter). Each sample was saturated with water and oil. The difference in neutron attenuation between dry and wet samples was compared with the fluid content determined by mass balance of the sample. In this experiment we were able to determine 3% of humidity in standard sample model (SiO 2 ) and estimate porosity in geological samples when saturated with different fluids. (Author)

  14. Core lifter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavlov, N G; Edel' man, Ya A

    1981-02-15

    A core lifter is suggested which contains a housing, core-clamping elements installed in the housing depressions in the form of semirings with projections on the outer surface restricting the rotation of the semirings in the housing depressions. In order to improve the strength and reliability of the core lifter, the semirings have a variable transverse section formed from the outside by the surface of the rotation body of the inner arc of the semiring aroung the rotation axis and from the inner a cylindrical surface which is concentric to the outer arc of the semiring. The core-clamping elements made in this manner have the possibility of freely rotating in the housing depressions under their own weight and from contact with the core sample. These semirings do not have weakened sections, have sufficient strength, are inserted into the limited ring section of the housing of the core lifter without reduction in its through opening and this improve the reliability of the core lifter in operation.

  15. Pellicle transmission uniformity requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Thomas L.; Ito, Kunihiro

    1998-12-01

    Controlling critical dimensions of devices is a constant battle for the photolithography engineer. Current DUV lithographic process exposure latitude is typically 12 to 15% of the total dose. A third of this exposure latitude budget may be used up by a variable related to masking that has not previously received much attention. The emphasis on pellicle transmission has been focused on increasing the average transmission. Much less, attention has been paid to transmission uniformity. This paper explores the total demand on the photospeed latitude budget, the causes of pellicle transmission nonuniformity and examines reasonable expectations for pellicle performance. Modeling is used to examine how the two primary errors in pellicle manufacturing contribute to nonuniformity in transmission. World-class pellicle transmission uniformity standards are discussed and a comparison made between specifications of other components in the photolithographic process. Specifications for other materials or parameters are used as benchmarks to develop a proposed industry standard for pellicle transmission uniformity.

  16. BWRVIP-123, Revision 1NP: BWR Vessel and Internals Project Removal and Analysis of Material Samples from Core Shroud and Top Guide at Susquehanna Unit 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howell, D.; Haertel, T.; Lindberg, J.; Oliver, B.; Greenwood, L.

    2005-01-01

    Fast and thermal fluence were determined by a laboratory analysis of the samples. Fluence in the upper regions of the shroud (between the H1 and H2 welds) was substantially lower than that in the belt line region (near the H4 weld). Fluence in the top guide was significantly higher than fluence on the core shroud. As expected, helium concentrations were highest in regions where fluence was highest. Estimates of the initial boron concentration were similar to measurements made on materials removed from other reactors. A technical justification evaluated the acceptability of the sampling process with respect to structural consequences of material removal and to increased cracking susceptibility due to the as-left condition. It was determined that the sampling process was acceptable on both counts

  17. Comparison of Mother, Father, and Teacher Reports of ADHD Core Symptoms in a Sample of Child Psychiatric Outpatients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sollie, Henrik; Larsson, Bo; Mørch, Willy-Tore

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To explore the significance of adding father ratings to mother and teacher ratings in the assessment of ADHD symptoms in children. Method: The ADHD Rating Scale-IV, the Child Behavior Checklist, and the Teacher Report Form were filled out by all three informants for a sample of 48 clinically referred children (79% boys) aged 6 to 15 (M…

  18. Impedance imaging in core analysis. Imaging of phase distributions in samples of natural cores of North Sea chalk containing conducting as well as non-conducting fluids. Part 1: Development of prototype measurement cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller Nielsen, C. [DTU, Inst. for Kemi (Denmark); Lauersen, S. [DTU, Lab. for Energiteknik (Denmark)

    1996-12-31

    To make reservoir simulations it is necessary to know such parameter functions as the capillary pressure curve, relative permeabilities etc. These are difficult to measure in chalk by means of traditional techniques because of the low permeability. In the present approach a displacement process is studied in detail and computer simulation with reservoir simulators can be used to determine parameter functions. To do this, however, it is necessary to know the developments of saturation profiles during the experiment. Different methods are tested in the programme. NMR-scanning and {gamma}-logging are methods where straight rays penetrate the sample and are partly absorbed. In electric current imaging an electric field is induced in the sample and detected at the surface. There are several benefits of this method compared with the others: There are no special safety requirements in contrast to work with radiation; No expensive and limited available equipment is needed unlike NMR; There are no intrinsic procedures slowing the method. There are, however, also drawbacks: Making measurements on a core sample implies the application of a large number of minute electrodes. To do this an implementation has to be derived from scratch; The inverse problem, i.e. the determination of the field inside the sample from surface measurements, is more difficult than the inverse problem of straight ray absorption. In the present report the development of an experimental technique is described. In part II of the report the interpretation of the experimental results will be discussed. (EG) 21 refs.

  19. Decomposition of macrophytes with uniformly C-14-labelled plant material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blake, G.

    1979-01-01

    Uniform labelling of plant such as macrophytes is relatively difficult to obtain. In my experiments I used samples of ripe stems and leaves of labelled maize which had grown for 110 days in a 14 Co 2 atmosphere. These samples were laid in a glass bowl for in situ and in vitro experiments under similar conditions of light and temperature. The aim of this study was to determine the shift of carbon through chosen compartments of a core (water, sediments, bacteria, invertebrates, atmosphere) and to understand the mineralization process with type of particulate organic matter. At low temperature (7 0 C), leaching of organic matter in the first 5 days increases bacteria activity, then radioactivity-incorporation level declines to the 60th day; CO 2 production was measured during experiments and was varying between 60% and 75% of used carbon of the tissue. (orig.) [de

  20. Efficient design of multiplier-less digital channelizers using recombination non-uniform filter banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaeen Kalathil

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel approach for the efficient realization of digital channelizers in software defined radios using recombination filter banks is proposed in this paper. Digital channelizer is the core of software defined radio. Computationally efficient design supporting multiple channels with different bandwidths and low complexity are inevitable requirements for the digital channelizers. Recombination filter banks method is used to obtain non-uniform filter banks with rational sampling factors, using a two stage structure. It consists of a uniform filter bank and trans-multiplexer. In this work, the uniform filter bank and trans-multiplexer are designed using cosine modulated filter banks. The prototype filter design is made simple, efficient and fast, using window method. The multiplier-less realization of recombination filter banks in the canonic signed digit space using nature inspired optimization algorithms, results in reduced implementation complexity.

  1. Uniform random number generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farr, W. R.

    1971-01-01

    Methods are presented for the generation of random numbers with uniform and normal distributions. Subprogram listings of Fortran generators for the Univac 1108, SDS 930, and CDC 3200 digital computers are also included. The generators are of the mixed multiplicative type, and the mathematical method employed is that of Marsaglia and Bray.

  2. Restricting uniformly open surjections

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kania, Tomasz; Rmoutil, M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 355, č. 9 (2017), s. 925-928 ISSN 1631-073X Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : Banach space * uniform spaces Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Pure mathematics Impact factor: 0.396, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1631073X17302261?via%3Dihub

  3. Uniformly irradiated polymer film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, S.L.

    1979-01-01

    Irradiated film having substantial uniformity in the radiation dosage profile is produced by irradiating the film within a trough having lateral deflection blocks disposed adjacent the film edges for deflecting electrons toward the surface of the trough bottom for further deflecting the electrons toward the film edge

  4. The Effect of Temperature and Injection Rate during Water Flooding Using Carbonate Core Samples: An Experimental Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaser Ahmadi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In many reservoirs, after water flooding, a large volume of oil is still left behind. Hot water injection is the most basic type of thermal recovery which increase recovery by improved sweep efficiency and thermal expansion of crude.In the present work, the effects of injection rate and the temperature of the injected water were surveyed by using core flooding apparatus. Water flooding was performed at different rates (0.2, 0.3, and 0.4 cc/min and temperatures (20 and 90 °C, and the reservoir temperature was about 63 °C. Oil recovery during hot water injection was more than water injection. Moreover, it was concluded that at injection rates of 0.2, 0.3, and 0.4 cc/min breakthrough time in hot water injection occurred 10 min later in comparison to water injection. The results showed that higher oil recovery and longer breakthrough time were obtained as a result of reducing injection rate. In the first 50 minutes, the oil recovery at injection rates of 0.2, 0.3 and 0.4 cc/min was 27.5, 34, and 46% respectively. It was found that at the beginning of injection, thermal and non-thermal injection recovery factors are approximately equal. Moreover, according to the results, recovery factor at the lowest rate in hot water (T=90 °C and q=0.2 cc/min is the best condition to obtain the highest recovery.

  5. Potential bacterial core species associated with digital dermatitis in cattle herds identified by molecular profiling of interdigital skin samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weiss Nielsen, Martin; Strube, Mikael Lenz; Isbrand, Anastasia

    2016-01-01

    of different molecular methods. Deep sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene variable regions V1–V2 showed that Treponema, Mycoplasma, Fusobacterium and Porphyromonas were the genera best differentiating the DD samples from the controls. Additional deep sequencing analysis of the most abundant genus, Treponema...... in the epidermal lesions and were present in only a subset of samples. RT-qPCR analysis showed that treponemes were also actively expressing a panel of virulence factors at the site of infection. Our results further support the hypothesis that species belonging to the genus Treponema are major pathogens of DD...... and also provide sufficient clues to motivate additional research into the role of M. fermentans, F. necrophorum and P. levii in the etiology of DD....

  6. Vote par sondage uniforme incorruptible

    OpenAIRE

    Blanchard , Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    International audience; Introduit en 2012 par David Chaum, le vote par sondage uniforme (random-sample voting) est un protocole de vote basé sur un choix d'une sous-population représentative , permettant de limiter les coûts tout en ayant de nombreux avantages, principalement lorsqu'il est couplé a d'autres techniques comme ThreeBallot. Nous analysons un problème de corruptibilité potentielle où les votants peuvent vendre leur vote au plus offrant et proposons une variation du protocole reméd...

  7. Comparison of simulants to actual neutralized current acid waste: process and product testing of three NCAW core samples from Tanks 101-AZ and 102-AZ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrey, E.V.; Tingey, J.M.; Elliott, M.L.

    1996-10-01

    A vitrification plant is planned to process the high-level waste (HLW) solids from Hanford Site tanks into canistered glass logs for disposal in a national repository. Programs were established within the Pacific Northwest Laboratory Vitrification Technology Development (PVTD) Project to test and model simulated waste to support design, feed processability, operations, permitting, safety, and waste-form qualification. Parallel testing with actual radioactive waste was performed on a laboratory-scale to confirm the validity of using simulants and glass property models developed from simulants. Laboratory-scale testing has been completed on three radioactive core samples from tanks 101-AZ and 102-AZ containing neutralized current acid waste (NCAW), which is one of the first waste types to be processed in the high-level waste vitrification plant under a privatization scenario. Properties of the radioactive waste measured during process and product testing were compared to simulant properties and model predictions to confirm the validity of simulant and glass property ,models work. This report includes results from the three NCAW core samples, comparable results from slurry and glass simulants, and comparisons to glass property model predictions.

  8. Comparison of simulants to actual neutralized current acid waste: Process and product testing of three NCAW core samples from Tanks 101-AZ and 102-AZ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrey, E.V.; Tingey, J.M.

    1996-04-01

    A vitrification plant is planned to process the high-level waste (HLW) solids from Hanford Site tanks into canistered glass logs for disposal in a national repository. Programs have been established within the Pacific Northwest Laboratory Vitrification Technology Development (PVTD) Project to test and model simulated waste to support design, feed processability, operations, permitting, safety, and waste-form qualification. Parallel testing with actual radioactive waste is being performed on a laboratory-scale to confirm the validity of using simulants and glass property models developed from simulants. Laboratory-scale testing has been completed on three radioactive core samples from tanks 101-AZ and 102-AZ containing neutralized current acid waste (NCAW), which is one of the first waste types to be processed in the high-level waste vitrification plant under a privatization scenario. Properties of the radioactive waste measured during process and product testing were compared to simulant properties and model predictions to confirm the validity of simulant and glass property models work. This report includes results from the three NCAW core samples, comparable results from slurry and glass simulants, and comparisons to glass property model predictions.

  9. Comparison of simulants to actual neutralized current acid waste: process and product testing of three NCAW core samples from Tanks 101-AZ and 102-AZ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrey, E.V.; Tingey, J.M.; Elliott, M.L.

    1996-10-01

    A vitrification plant is planned to process the high-level waste (HLW) solids from Hanford Site tanks into canistered glass logs for disposal in a national repository. Programs were established within the Pacific Northwest Laboratory Vitrification Technology Development (PVTD) Project to test and model simulated waste to support design, feed processability, operations, permitting, safety, and waste-form qualification. Parallel testing with actual radioactive waste was performed on a laboratory-scale to confirm the validity of using simulants and glass property models developed from simulants. Laboratory-scale testing has been completed on three radioactive core samples from tanks 101-AZ and 102-AZ containing neutralized current acid waste (NCAW), which is one of the first waste types to be processed in the high-level waste vitrification plant under a privatization scenario. Properties of the radioactive waste measured during process and product testing were compared to simulant properties and model predictions to confirm the validity of simulant and glass property ,models work. This report includes results from the three NCAW core samples, comparable results from slurry and glass simulants, and comparisons to glass property model predictions

  10. Comparison of simulants to actual neutralized current acid waste: Process and product testing of three NCAW core samples from Tanks 101-AZ and 102-AZ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrey, E.V.; Tingey, J.M.

    1996-04-01

    A vitrification plant is planned to process the high-level waste (HLW) solids from Hanford Site tanks into canistered glass logs for disposal in a national repository. Programs have been established within the Pacific Northwest Laboratory Vitrification Technology Development (PVTD) Project to test and model simulated waste to support design, feed processability, operations, permitting, safety, and waste-form qualification. Parallel testing with actual radioactive waste is being performed on a laboratory-scale to confirm the validity of using simulants and glass property models developed from simulants. Laboratory-scale testing has been completed on three radioactive core samples from tanks 101-AZ and 102-AZ containing neutralized current acid waste (NCAW), which is one of the first waste types to be processed in the high-level waste vitrification plant under a privatization scenario. Properties of the radioactive waste measured during process and product testing were compared to simulant properties and model predictions to confirm the validity of simulant and glass property models work. This report includes results from the three NCAW core samples, comparable results from slurry and glass simulants, and comparisons to glass property model predictions

  11. Oskarshamn site investigation. Hydrogeochemical monitoring programme for core and percussion drilled boreholes 2009. Summary of ground water chemistry results from spring and autumn sampling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Regander, Claes; Bergman, Bo (Sweco Environment AB (Sweden))

    2010-09-15

    This report summarises the results obtained in 2009 from the hydrogeochemical monitoring programme for core and percussion drilled boreholes. During 2009 groundwater sampling has been performed in monitored (permanently installed) boreholes in two sampling periods, spring (May-June), and autumn (October-November). Both in spring and autumn groundwater sampling was carried out in the following 12 sections; HLX28:2, HLX35:2, HLX37:1, HLX39:1, KLX08:4, KLX10:2, KLX10:5, KLX12A:2, KLX15A:3, KLX15A:6, KLX18A:3, KLX19A:3. The programme started in 2005 and since then water sampling has been performed twice every year. The objective of the hydrogeochemical monitoring programme is to determine the groundwater composition in selected sections chosen for this purpose. In 2009 the sampling of core drilled borehole sections has been conducted in time series, where each borehole section has been sampled at seven occasions. Percussion drilled borehole sections has been sampled at three occasions. The final sample in each section was taken when the electric conductivity had reached a stable level. Obtained results from the activities presented here include groundwater chemistry data in accordance with SKB chemistry class 5 including options and SKB chemistry reduced class 5. SKB chemistry reduced class 5 includes analysis of pH, electric conductivity, alkalinity, density, drill water (uranine), major cations (Chapter 5.4), F-, Br-, Cl-, SO{sub 4}2-, Fe(II)/Fe(tot), HS-, DOC, TOC and the isotopes delta2H, delta18O and 3H. Options for SKB chemistry class 5 include even lanthanoids and other trace elements, As, In, I, environmental metals, NH{sub 4}+, nutrient salts and the isotopes delta34S, delta37Cl, 87Sr/86Sr, 10B/11B, delta13C, 226Ra, 222Rn, 238U, 234U, 230Th and 232Th. All data from the activity are stored in the SICADA database

  12. Sensitivity of hepatitis C virus core antigen and antibody combination assays in a global panel of window period samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laperche, Syria; Nubling, C. Micha; Stramer, Susan L.; Brojer, Ewa; Grabarczyk, Piotr; Yoshizawa, Hiroshi; Kalibatas, Vytenis; El Elkyabi, Magdy; Moftah, Faten; Girault, Annie; van Drimmelen, Harry; Busch, Michael P.; Lelie, Nico

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Hepatitis C virus (HCV) antigen and antibody combination assays have been launched as a cost-effective alternative to nucleic acid testing (NAT) for reducing the antibody-negative window period (WP). Later, a HCV antigen chemiluminescence immunoassay (CLIA) became available. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS A panel composed of 337 HCV NAT–yield samples that were characterized for viral load (VL) and genotype was used to compare the sensitivity of two combination enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (Monolisa, Bio-Rad; and Murex, formerly Abbott) and a HCV antigen CLIA (Abbott). Analytic sensitivity was compared with HCV RNA detection using Ultrio (Grifols) by testing serial dilutions of 10 genotype (gt)1 to gt4 samples. RESULTS HCV antigen CLIA detected 92.4% of samples, whereas Monolisa and Murex detected 38.3 and 47.5%, respectively. In the HCV RNA VL range of 105 to 107 IU/mL, Monolisa and Murex detected 38% to 56% of gt1, 85% to 78% of gt2, and 21% to 37% of gt3. The overall geometric mean 50% limit of detection (range) of Ultrio on gt1 to gt4 dilution series was 3.5 (1.2–7.7) copies/mL, compared to 3.3 × 106 (4.4 × 105-2.7 × 107), 3.4 × 106 (2.2 × 105–4.2 × 107), and 2728 (415–7243) copies/mL for Monolisa, Murex, and HCV antigen CLIA, respectively. CONCLUSION Analytical sensitivity of NAT was on average 1 million- and 780-fold higher than combination assays and HCV antigen CLIA, respectively. Relative sensitivities of combination assays differed for genotypes with Murex being more sensitive for gt1 and gt3 and Monolisa more sensitive for gt2. Although being less sensitive than NAT, combination assays could be considered in resource-limited settings since they detect 38% to 47% of seronegative WP donations. PMID:26013970

  13. Mineralogic and petrologic investigation of pre-test core samples from the spent fuel test-climax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryerson, F.J.; Qualheim, B.J.

    1983-12-01

    Pre-test samples obtained from just inside the perimeter of the canister emplacement holes of the Spent Fuel Test-Climax have been characterized by petrographic and microanalytical techniques. The primary quartz monzonite has undergone various degrees of hydrothermal alteration as a result of natural processes. Alteration is most apparent on primary plagioclase and biotite. The most common secondary phases on plagioclase are muscovite and calcite, while the most common secondary phases on biotite are epidote and chlorite. The major alteration zones encountered are localized along filled fractures, i.e. veins. The thickness and mineralogy of the alteration zones can be correlated with the vein mineralogy, becoming wider and more complex mineralogically when the veins contain calcite. 7 references, 10 figures, 4 tables

  14. Sr-Nd-Hf Isotopic Analysis of <10 mg Dust Samples: Implications for Ice Core Dust Source Fingerprinting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ujvari, Gabor; Wegner, Wencke; Klötzli, Urs

    2018-01-01

    Combined Sr‐Nd‐Hf isotopic data of two reference materials (AGV‐1/BCR2) and 50, 10, and 5 mg aliquots of carbonate‐free fine grain (isotopic...... compositions (ICs) demonstrate that robust isotopic ratios can be obtained from 5 to 10 mg size rock samples using the ion exchange/mass spectrometry techniques applied. While 87Sr/86Sr ratios of dust aluminosilicate fractions are affected by even small changes in pretreatments, Nd isotopic ratios are found...... to be insensitive to acid leaching, grain‐size or weathering effects. However, the Nd isotopic tracer is sometimes inconclusive in dust source fingerprinting (BEI and NUS both close to ɛNd(0) –10). Hafnium isotopic values (

  15. Women in service uniforms

    OpenAIRE

    Hanna Karaszewska; Maciej Muskała

    2012-01-01

    The article discusses the problems of women who work in the uniformed services with the particular emphasis on the performing of the occupation of the prison service. It presents the legal issues relating to equal treatment of men and women in the workplace, formal factors influencing their employment, the status of women in prison, and the problems of their conducting in the professional role. The article also presents the results of research conducted in Poland and all over the world, on th...

  16. University of TX Bureau of Economic Geology's Core Research Centers: The Time is Right for Registering Physical Samples and Assigning IGSN's - Workflows, Stumbling Blocks, and Successes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averett, A.; DeJarnett, B. B.

    2016-12-01

    The University Of Texas Bureau Of Economic Geology (BEG) serves as the geological survey for Texas and operates three geological sample repositories that house well over 2 million boxes of geological samples (cores and cuttings) and an abundant amount of geoscience data (geophysical logs, thin sections, geochemical analyses, etc.). Material is accessible and searchable online, and it is publically available to the geological community for research and education. Patrons access information about our collection by using our online core and log database (SQL format). BEG is currently undertaking a large project to: 1) improve the internal accuracy of metadata associated with the collection; 2) enhance the capabilities of the database for both BEG curators and researchers as well as our external patrons; and 3) ensure easy and efficient navigation for patrons through our online portal. As BEG undertakes this project, BEG is in the early stages of planning to export the metadata for its collection into SESAR (System for Earth Sample Registration) and have IGSN's (International GeoSample Numbers) assigned to its samples. Education regarding the value of IGSN's and an external registry (SESAR) has been crucial to receiving management support for the project because the concept and potential benefits of registering samples in a registry outside of the institution were not well-known prior to this project. Potential benefits such as increases in discoverability, repository recognition in publications, and interoperability were presented. The project was well-received by management, and BEG fully supports the effort to register our physical samples with SESAR. Since BEG is only in the initial phase of this project, any stumbling blocks, workflow issues, successes/failures, etc. can only be predicted at this point, but by mid-December, BEG expects to have several concrete issues to present in the session. Currently, our most pressing issue involves establishing the most

  17. Drilling, Coring and Sampling Using Piezoelectric Actuated Mechanisms: From the USDC to a Piezo-Rotary-Hammer Drill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Sherrit, Stewart; Badescu, Mircea; Bao, Xiaoqi

    2012-01-01

    NASA exploration missions are increasingly including sampling tasks but with the growth in engineering experience (particularly, Phoenix Scout and MSL) it is now very much recognized that planetary drilling poses many challenges. The difficulties grow significantly with the hardness of sampled material, the depth of drilling and the harshness of the environmental conditions. To address the requirements for samplers that could be operated at the conditions of the various bodies in the solar system, a number of piezoelectric actuated drills and corers were developed by the Advanced Technologies Group of JPL. The basic configuration that was conceived in 1998 is known as the Ultrasonic/Sonic Driller/Corer (USDC), and it operates as a percussive mechanism. This drill requires as low preload as 10N (important for operation at low gravity) allowing to operate with as low-mass device as 400g, use an average power as low as 2- 3W and drill rocks as hard as basalt. A key feature of this drilling mechanism is the use of a free-mass to convert the ultrasonic vibrations generated by piezoelectric stack to sonic impacts on the bit. Using the versatile capabilities f the USDC led to the development of many configurations and device sizes. Significant improvement of the penetration rate was achieved by augmenting the hammering action by rotation and use of a fluted bit to remove cuttings. To reach meters deep in ice a wireline drill was developed called the Ultrasonic/Sonic Gopher and it was demonstrated in 2005 to penetrate about 2-m deep at Antarctica. Jointly with Honeybee Robotics, this mechanism is currently being modified to incorporate rotation and inchworm operation forming Auto-Gopher to reach meters deep in rocks. To take advantage of the ability of piezoelectric actuators to operate over a wide temperatures range, piezoelectric actuated drills were developed and demonstrated to operate at as cold as -200oC and as hot as 500oC. In this paper, the developed mechanisms

  18. Comparison of mother, father, and teacher reports of ADHD core symptoms in a sample of child psychiatric outpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sollie, Henrik; Larsson, Bo; Mørch, Willy-Tore

    2013-11-01

    To explore the significance of adding father ratings to mother and teacher ratings in the assessment of ADHD symptoms in children. The ADHD Rating Scale-IV, the Child Behavior Checklist, and the Teacher Report Form were filled out by all three informants for a sample of 48 clinically referred children (79% boys) aged 6 to 15 (M = 10.1) years. Correspondence between father and teacher reports on ADHD-specific symptoms (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC] = .38) exceeded that between mothers and teachers (ICC = .23). Fathers rated their children as having fewer problems than did mothers and teachers on Total scale scores and the Inattention subscale of the ADHD Rating Scale-IV. Mother ratings were more sensitive to an ADHD diagnosis, whereas father ratings better predicted an ADHD diagnosis requiring the two-setting criterion. The choice of parent informant and informant combination had a considerable impact on parent-teacher concordance and estimates of ADHD symptoms and subtypes in the child.

  19. High-precision dual-inlet IRMS measurements of the stable isotopes of CO2 and the N2O / CO2 ratio from polar ice core samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. K. Bauska

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available An important constraint on mechanisms of past carbon cycle variability is provided by the stable isotopic composition of carbon in atmospheric carbon dioxide (δ13C-CO2 trapped in polar ice cores, but obtaining very precise measurements has proven to be a significant analytical challenge. Here we describe a new technique to determine the δ13C of CO2 at very high precision, as well as measuring the CO2 and N2O mixing ratios. In this method, ancient air is extracted from relatively large ice samples (~400 g with a dry-extraction "ice grater" device. The liberated air is cryogenically purified to a CO2 and N2O mixture and analyzed with a microvolume-equipped dual-inlet IRMS (Thermo MAT 253. The reproducibility of the method, based on replicate analysis of ice core samples, is 0.02‰ for δ13C-CO2 and 2 ppm and 4 ppb for the CO2 and N2O mixing ratios, respectively (1σ pooled standard deviation. Our experiments show that minimizing water vapor pressure in the extraction vessel by housing the grating apparatus in a ultralow-temperature freezer (−60 °C improves the precision and decreases the experimental blank of the method to −0.07 ± 0.04‰. We describe techniques for accurate calibration of small samples and the application of a mass-spectrometric method based on source fragmentation for reconstructing the N2O history of the atmosphere. The oxygen isotopic composition of CO2 is also investigated, confirming previous observations of oxygen exchange between gaseous CO2 and solid H2O within the ice archive. These data offer a possible constraint on oxygen isotopic fractionation during H2O and CO2 exchange below the H2O bulk melting temperature.

  20. Uniform Thin Films of CdSe and CdSe(ZnS) Core(shell) Quantum Dots by Sol-Gel Assembly: Enabling Photoelectrochemical Characterization and Electronic Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korala, Lasantha; Wang, Zhijie; Liu, Yi; Maldonado, Stephen; Brock, Stephanie L.

    2013-01-01

    Optoelectronic properties of quantum dot (QD) films are limited by (1) poor interfacial chemistry and (2) non-radiative recombination due to surface traps. To address these performance issues, sol-gel methods are applied to fabricate thin films of CdSe and core(shell) CdSe(ZnS) QDs. High-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM) imaging with chemical analysis confirms that the surface of the QDs in the sol-gel thin films are chalcogen-rich, consistent with an oxidative-induced gelation mechanism in which connectivity is achieved by formation of dichalcogenide covalent linkages between particles. The ligand removal and assembly process is probed by thermogravimetric, spectroscopic and microscopic studies. Further enhancement of inter-particle coupling via mild thermal annealing, which removes residual ligands and reinforces QD connectivity, results in QD sol-gel thin films with superior charge transport properties, as shown by a dramatic enhancement of electrochemical photocurrent under white light illumination relative to thin films composed of ligand-capped QDs. A more than 2-fold enhancement in photocurrent, and a further increase in photovoltage can be achieved by passivation of surface defects via overcoating with a thin ZnS shell. The ability to tune interfacial and surface characteristics for the optimization of photophysical properties suggests that the sol-gel approach may enable formation of QD thin films suitable for a range of optoelectronic applications. PMID:23350924

  1. Women in service uniforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Karaszewska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the problems of women who work in the uniformed services with the particular emphasis on the performing of the occupation of the prison service. It presents the legal issues relating to equal treatment of men and women in the workplace, formal factors influencing their employment, the status of women in prison, and the problems of their conducting in the professional role. The article also presents the results of research conducted in Poland and all over the world, on the functioning of women in prison and their relations with officers of the Prison Service, as well as with inmates.

  2. Uniform gradient expansions

    CERN Document Server

    Giovannini, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Cosmological singularities are often discussed by means of a gradient expansion that can also describe, during a quasi-de Sitter phase, the progressive suppression of curvature inhomogeneities. While the inflationary event horizon is being formed the two mentioned regimes coexist and a uniform expansion can be conceived and applied to the evolution of spatial gradients across the protoinflationary boundary. It is argued that conventional arguments addressing the preinflationary initial conditions are necessary but generally not sufficient to guarantee a homogeneous onset of the conventional inflationary stage.

  3. Elastic anisotropy of core samples from the Taiwan Chelungpu Fault Drilling Project (TCDP): direct 3-D measurements and weak anisotropy approximations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis, Laurent; David, Christian; Špaček, Petr; Wong, Teng-Fong; Fortin, Jérôme; Song, Sheng Rong

    2012-01-01

    The study of seismic anisotropy has become a powerful tool to decipher rock physics attributes in reservoirs or in complex tectonic settings. We compare direct 3-D measurements of P-wave velocity in 132 different directions on spherical rock samples to the prediction of the approximate model proposed by Louis et al. based on a tensorial approach. The data set includes measurements on dry spheres under confining pressure ranging from 5 to 200 MPa for three sandstones retrieved at a depth of 850, 1365 and 1394 metres in TCDP hole A (Taiwan Chelungpu Fault Drilling Project). As long as the P-wave velocity anisotropy is weak, we show that the predictions of the approximate model are in good agreement with the measurements. As the tensorial method is designed to work with cylindrical samples cored in three orthogonal directions, a significant gain both in the number of measurements involved and in sample preparation is achieved compared to measurements on spheres. We analysed the pressure dependence of the velocity field and show that as the confining pressure is raised the velocity increases, the anisotropy decreases but remains significant even at high pressure, and the shape of the ellipsoid representing the velocity (or elastic) fabric evolves from elongated to planar. These observations can be accounted for by considering the existence of both isotropic and anisotropic crack distributions and their evolution with applied pressure.

  4. Dependence of Core and Extended Flux on Core Dominance ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Based on two extragalactic radio source samples, the core dominance parameter is calculated, and the correlations between the core/extended flux density and core dominance parameter are investi- gated. When the core dominance parameter is lower than unity, it is linearly correlated with the core flux density, ...

  5. Summary of micrographic analysis of selected core samples from Well ER-20-6n number 1 in support of matrix diffusion testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    ER-20-6number s ign1 was cored to determine fracture and lithologic properties proximal to the BULLION test cavity. Selected samples from ER-20-6number s ign1 were subjected to matrix and/or fracture diffusion experiments to assess solute movement in this environment. Micrographic analysis of these samples suggests that the similarity in bulk chemical composition results in very similar mineral assemblages forming along natural fractures. These samples are all part of the mafic-poor Calico Hills Formation and exhibit fracture-coating mineral assemblages dominated by mixed illite/smectite clay and illite, with local opaline silica (2,236 and 2, 812 feet), and zeolite (at 2,236 feet). Based on this small sample population, the magnitude to which secondary phases have formed on fracture surfaces bears an apparently inverse relationship to the competency of the host lithology, reflected by variations in the degree of fracturing and the development of secondary phases on fracture surfaces. In the flow breccia at 2,851 feet, thinly developed, localized coatings are developed along persistent open fracture apertures in this competent rock type. Fractures in the devitrified lava from 2,812 feet are irregular, and locally blocked by secondary mineral phases. Natural fractures on the zeolitized tuff from 2,236 feet are discontinuous and irregular and typically obstructed with secondary mineral phases. There are also a second set of clean fractures in the 2,236 foot sample which lack secondary mineral phases and are interpreted to have been induced by the BULLION test. Based on these results, it is expected that matrix diffusion will be enhanced in samples where potentially transmissive fractures exhibit the greatest degree of obstruction (2,236>2,812=2,835>2,851). It is unclear what influence the induced fractures observed at 2,236 feet may have on diffusion given the lack of knowledge on their extent. It is assumed that the bulk matrix diffusion characteristics of the

  6. Should School Nurses Wear Uniforms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of School Health, 2001

    2001-01-01

    This 1958 paper questions whether school nurses should wear uniforms (specifically, white uniforms). It concludes that white uniforms are often associated with the treatment of ill people, and since many people have a fear reaction to them, they are not necessary and are even undesirable. Since school nurses are school staff members, they should…

  7. The Brief Core Schema Scales (BCSS): psychometric properties and associations with paranoia and grandiosity in non-clinical and psychosis samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, David; Freeman, Daniel; Smith, Ben; Kuipers, Elizabeth; Bebbington, Paul; Bashforth, Hannah; Coker, Sian; Hodgekins, Joanne; Gracie, Alison; Dunn, Graham; Garety, Philippa

    2006-06-01

    Traditional instruments that measure self-esteem may not relate directly to the schema construct as outlined in recent cognitive models. The Brief Core Schema Scales (BCSS) aim to provide a theoretically coherent self-report assessment of schemata concerning self and others in psychosis. The scales assess four dimensions of self and other evaluation: negative-self, positive-self, negative-other, positive-other. We analysed the psychometric properties of the BCSS using a sample of 754 students recruited by email and 252 people with psychosis recruited as part of a trial of cognitive therapy. We report the internal consistency, stability and the factor structure of the scale, and the association of the BCSS with measures of self-esteem and with symptoms of paranoia and grandiosity. The BCSS have good psychometric properties and have more independence from mood than the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Schedule. People with chronic psychosis reported extreme negative evaluations of both self and others on these scales, but their levels of self-esteem and positive evaluations of self and others were similar to the student sample. Extreme negative evaluations of self and others appear to be characteristic of the appraisals of people with chronic psychosis, and are associated with symptoms of grandiosity and paranoia in the non-clinical population. The BCSS may provide a more useful measure of schemata about self and others than traditional measures of self-esteem.

  8. Core-shell Fe3O4 polydopamine nanoparticles as sorbent for magnetic dispersive solid-phase extraction of copper from food samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavuz, Emre; Tokalıoğlu, Şerife; Patat, Şaban

    2018-10-15

    In the present study, core-shell Fe 3 O 4 polydopamine nanoparticles were synthesized and used for the first time as an adsorbent for the vortex assisted magnetic dispersive solid phase extraction of copper from food samples. After elution, copper in the solutions was determined by FAAS. The adsorbent was characterized using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area, and zeta potential measurements. Various parameters affecting the magnetic dispersive solid-phase extraction were evaluated. The optimum pH and magnetic adsorbent amount were found to be 5 and 40 mg, respectively. Elution was made by 3 mL of 2 mol L -1 HNO 3 .The major advantage of the method is the fast equilibration during adsorption without the need for vortexing or shaking. The preconcentration factor and detection limit of the method were found to be 150 and 0.22 mg L -1 , respectively. The precision (as RSD%) and adsorption capacity of the method were 3.7% and 28 mg g -1 , respectively. The method was successfully verified by analyzing four certified reference materials (SPS-WW1 Batch 114 Wastewater, TMDA-53.3 Lake water, BCR-482 Lichen and 1573a Tomato Leaves) and by addition/recovery tests of copper standard solution in organic baby food, muesli, macaroni, honey, and milk samples. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Sampling in the Snow: High School Winter Field Experiences Provide Relevant, Real World Connections Between Scientific Practices and Disciplinary Core Ideas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, E. W.; Burakowski, E. A.

    2014-12-01

    For much of the northern United States, the months surrounding the winter solstice are times of increased darkness, low temperatures, and frozen landscapes. It's a time when many high school science educators, who otherwise would venture outside with their classes, hunker down and are wary of the outdoors. However, a plethora of learning opportunities lies just beyond the classroom. Working collaboratively, a high school science teacher and a snow scientist have developed multiple activities to engage students in the scientific process of collecting, analyzing and interpreting the winter world using snow data to (1) learn about the insulative properties of snow, and (2) to learn about the role of snow cover on winter climate through its reflective properties while participating in a volunteer network that collects snow depth, albedo (reflectivity), and density data. These outdoor field-based snow investigations incorporate Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) and disciplinary core ideas, including ESS2.C: The roles of water in Earth's surface processes and ESS2.D: Weather and Climate. Additionally, the lesson plans presented address Common Core State Standards (CCSS) in Mathematics, including the creation and analysis of bar graphs and time series plots (CCSS.Math.HSS-ID.A.1) and xy scatter plots (CCSS.Math.HSS-ID.B.6). High school students participating in the 2013/2014 snow sampling season described their outdoor learning experience as "authentic" and "hands-on" as compared to traditional class indoors. They emphasized that learning outdoors was essential to their understanding of underlying content and concepts because they "learn through actual experience."

  10. Skin carcinogenesis following uniform and non-uniform β irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charles, M.W.; Williams, J.P.; Coggle, J.E.

    1989-01-01

    Where workers or the general public may be exposed to ionising radiation, the irradiation is rarely uniform. The risk figures and dose limits recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) are based largely on clinical and epidemiological studies of reasonably uniform irradiated organs. The paucity of clinical or experimental data for highly non-uniform exposures has prevented the ICRP from providing adequate recommendations. This weakness has led on a number of occasions to the postulate that highly non-uniform exposures of organs could be 100,000 times more carcinogenic than ICRP risk figures would predict. This so-called ''hot-particle hypothesis'' found little support among reputable radiobiologists, but could not be clearly and definitively refuted on the basis of experiment. An experiment, based on skin tumour induction in mouse skin, is described which was developed to test the hypothesis. The skin of 1200 SAS/4 male mice has been exposed to a range of uniform and non-uniform sources of the β emitter 170 Tm (E max ∼ 1 MeV). Non-uniform exposures were produced using arrays of 32 or 8 2-mm diameter sources distributed over the same 8-cm 2 area as a uniform control source. Average skin doses varied from 2-100 Gy. The results for the non-uniform sources show a 30% reduction in tumour incidence by the 32-point array at the lower mean doses compared with the response from uniform sources. The eight-point array showed an order-of-magnitude reduction in tumour incidence compared to uniform irradiation at low doses. These results, in direct contradiction to the ''hot particle hypothesis'', indicate that non-uniform exposures produce significantly fewer tumours than uniform exposures. (author)

  11. Strain distributions in nano-onions with uniform and non-uniform compositions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan, H L; Karihaloo, B L; Wang, J; Yi, X

    2006-01-01

    Nano-onions are ellipsoidal or spherical particles consisting of a core surrounded by concentric shells of nanometre size. Nano-onions produced by self-assembly and colloidal techniques have different structures and compositions, and thus differ in the state of strains. The mismatch of the thermal expansion coefficients and lattice constants between neighbouring shells induces stress/strain fields in the core and shells, which in turn affect their physical/mechanical properties and/or the properties of the composites containing them. In this paper, the strains in embedded and free-standing nano-onions with uniform and non-uniform compositions are studied in detail. It is found that the strains in the nano-onions can be modified by adjusting their compositions and structures. The results are useful for the band structure engineering of semiconductor nano-onions

  12. Mesures de contraintes in-situ. Méthode de relaxation des carottes Measuring in-Situ Stresses. Relaxation Method with Core Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perreau P.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Dans cet article, on se propose de présenter les premiers résultats de l'étude de la méthode d'évaluation des contraintes par mesure de déformations différées d'une carotte après son extraction. Le travail correspondant a été réalisé dans le cadre du projet ARTEP Fracturation hydraulique . Les principes de cette méthode et les quelques éléments d'interprétation récemment publiés dans la littérature sont exposés dans un premier temps. Les résultats de deux campagnes de mesures sur deux puits de la SNEA-P (Soudron, novembre 1985 et Lanot, juillet 1986 sont ensuite présentés. Ces essais ont mis en évidence que les déformations différées d'une carotte dues au relachement des contraintes sont effectivement mesurables. Cependant, une interprétation quantitative de ces mesures nécessite une amélioration des conditions expérimentales (stabilisation thermique, stabilisation de l'état de saturation. This article describes the first results of research on a method of evaluating stresses by measuring the differred deformations of a core sample after it has been extracted. The corresponding research was done within the framework of an ARTEP project on Hydraulic Fracturing . The principles of this method and several interpretation aspects published recently in the literature are described in the first part. Then the results of two measurement campaigns using two SNEA-P wells (Soudron in November 1985 and Lanot in July 1986 are described. These tests revealed that the differed deformations of a core sample due to the relaxing of stresses can effectively be measured. However, a quantitative interpretation of these measurements requires an improvement to be made in the experimental conditions (thermal stabilization, stabilization of the state of saturation.

  13. Assessment indices for uniform and non-uniform thermal environments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Different assessment indices for thermal environments were compared and selected for proper assessment of indoor thermal environments.30 subjects reported their overall thermal sensation,thermal comfort,and thermal acceptability in uniform and non-uniform conditions.The results show that these three assessment indices provide equivalent evaluations in uniform environments.However,overall thermal sensation differs from the other two indices and cannot be used as a proper index for the evaluation of non-uniform environments.The relationship between the percentage and the mean vote for each index is established.

  14. Comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography separations of pharmaceutical samples using dual Fused-Core columns in the 2nd dimension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Anthony J; Ma, Lianjia

    2009-02-27

    This paper focuses on the application of RPLC x RPLC to pharmaceutical analysis and addresses the specific problem of separating co-eluting impurities/degradation products that maybe "hidden" within the peak envelope of the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) and thus may escape detection by conventional methods. A comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatograph (LC x LC) was constructed from commercially available HPLC equipment. This system utilizes two independently configurable 2nd dimension binary pumping systems to deliver independent flow rates, gradient profiles and mobile phase compositions to dual Fused-Core secondary columns. Very fast gradient separations (30s total cycle time) were achieved at ambient temperature without excessive backpressure and without compromising optimal 1st dimension sampling rates. The operation of the interface is demonstrated for the analysis of a 1mg/ml standard mixture containing 0.05% of a minor component. The practicality of using RPLC x RPLC for the analysis of actual co-eluting pharmaceutical degradation products, by exploiting pH-induced changes in selectivity, is also demonstrated using a three component mixture. This mixture (an API, an oxidation product of the API at 1.0%, w/w, and a photo degradant of the API at 0.5%, w/w) was used to assess the stability indicating nature of an established LC method for analysis of the API.

  15. UVIS Flat Field Uniformity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quijano, Jessica Kim

    2009-07-01

    The stability and uniformity of the low-frequency flat fields {L-flat} of the UVIS detector will be assessed by using multiple-pointing observations of the globular clusters 47 Tucanae {NGC104} and Omega Centauri {NGC5139}, thus imaging moderately dense stellar fields. By placing the same star over different portions of the detector and measuring relative changes in its brightness, it will be possible to determine local variations in the response of the UVIS detector. Based on previous experience with STIS and ACS, it is deemed that a total of 9 different pointings will suffice to provide adequate characterization of the flat field stability in any given band. For each filter to be tested, the baseline consists of 9 pointings in a 3X3 box pattern with dither steps of about 25% of the FOV, or 40.5", in either the x or y direction {useful also for CTE measurements, if needed in the future}. During SMOV, the complement of filters to be tested is limited to the following 6 filters: F225W, F275W, F336W, for Omega Cen, and F438W, F606W, and F814W for 47 Tuc. Three long exposures for each target are arranged such that the initial dither position is observed with the appropriate filters for that target within one orbit at a single pointing, so that filter-to-filter differences in the observed star positions can be checked. In addition to the 9 baseline exposures, two sets of short exposures will be taken:a} one short exposure will be taken of OmegaCen with each of the visible filters {F438W, F606W and F814W} in order to check the geometric distortion solution to be obtained with the data from proposal 11444;b} for each target, a single short exposure will be taken with each filter to facilitate the study of the PSF as a function of position on the detector by providing unsaturated images of sparsely-spaced bright stars.This proposal corresponds to Activity Description ID WF39. It should execute only after the following proposal has executed:WF21 - 11434

  16. School Uniforms: Esprit de Corps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Rosemary P.; Ryan, Thomas E.

    1998-01-01

    The benefits of school uniforms far outweigh their short-term costs. School uniforms not only keep students safe, but they increase their self-esteem, promote a more positive attitude toward school, lead to improved student behavior, and help blur social-class distinctions. Students are allowed to wear their own political or religious messages,…

  17. Uniform Single Valued Neutrosophic Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Broumi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a new concept named the uniform single valued neutrosophic graph. An illustrative example and some properties are examined. Next, we develop an algorithmic approach for computing the complement of the single valued neutrosophic graph. A numerical example is demonstrated for computing the complement of single valued neutrosophic graphs and uniform single valued neutrosophic graph.

  18. Comments on Beckmann's Uniform Reducts

    OpenAIRE

    Cook, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    Arnold Beckmann defined the uniform reduct of a propositional proof system f to be the set of those bounded arithmetical formulas whose propositional translations have polynomial size f-proofs. We prove that the uniform reduct of f + Extended Frege consists of all true bounded arithmetical formulas iff f + Extended Frege simulates every proof system.

  19. Diagnostic accuracy of 22/25-gauge core needle in endoscopic ultrasound-guided sampling: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Hyoung-Chul; Kang, Hyun; Lee, Jae Young; Choi, Geun Joo; Choi, Jung Sik

    2016-11-01

    To compare the diagnostic accuracy of endoscopic ultrasound-guided core needle aspiration with that of standard fine-needle aspiration by systematic review and meta-analysis. Studies using 22/25-gauge core needles, irrespective of comparison with standard fine needles, were comprehensively reviewed. Pooled sensitivity, specificity, diagnostic odds ratio (DOR), and summary receiver operating characteristic curves for the diagnosis of malignancy were used to estimate the overall diagnostic efficiency. The pooled sensitivity, specificity, and DOR of the core needle for the diagnosis of malignancy were 0.88 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.84 to 0.90), 0.99 (95% CI, 0.96 to 1), and 167.37 (95% CI, 65.77 to 425.91), respectively. The pooled sensitivity, specificity, and DOR of the standard needle were 0.84 (95% CI, 0.79 to 0.88), 1 (95% CI, 0.97 to 1), and 130.14 (95% CI, 34.00 to 495.35), respectively. The area under the curve of core and standard needle in the diagnosis of malignancy was 0.974 and 0.955, respectively. The core and standard needle were comparable in terms of pancreatic malignancy diagnosis. There was no significant difference in procurement of optimal histologic cores between core and standard needles (risk ratio [RR], 0.545; 95% CI, 0.187 to 1.589). The number of needle passes for diagnosis was significantly lower with the core needle (standardized mean difference, -0.72; 95% CI, -1.02 to -0.41). There were no significant differences in overall complications (RR, 1.26; 95% CI, 0.34 to 4.62) and technical failure (RR, 5.07; 95% CI, 0.68 to 37.64). Core and standard needles were comparable in terms of diagnostic accuracy, technical performance, and safety profile.

  20. Proteomics Core

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Proteomics Core is the central resource for mass spectrometry based proteomics within the NHLBI. The Core staff help collaborators design proteomics experiments in a...

  1. UOBPRM: A uniformly distributed obstacle-based PRM

    KAUST Repository

    Yeh, Hsin-Yi

    2012-10-01

    This paper presents a new sampling method for motion planning that can generate configurations more uniformly distributed on C-obstacle surfaces than prior approaches. Here, roadmap nodes are generated from the intersections between C-obstacles and a set of uniformly distributed fixed-length segments in C-space. The results show that this new sampling method yields samples that are more uniformly distributed than previous obstacle-based methods such as OBPRM, Gaussian sampling, and Bridge test sampling. UOBPRM is shown to have nodes more uniformly distributed near C-obstacle surfaces and also requires the fewest nodes and edges to solve challenging motion planning problems with varying narrow passages. © 2012 IEEE.

  2. An automated setup to measure paleoatmospheric δ13C-CH4, δ15N-N2O and δ18O-N2O in one ice core sample

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sperlich, P.; Buizert, C.; Jenk, T.M.; Sapart, C.J.; Prokopiou, M.; Röckmann, T.; Blunier, T.

    2013-01-01

    Air bubbles in ice core samples represent the only opportunity to study the isotopic variability of paleoatmospheric CH4 and N2O. The highest possible precision in isotope measurements is required to maximize the resolving power for CH4 and N2O sink and source reconstructions. We present a new setup

  3. Models of the earth's core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, D. J.

    1981-01-01

    Combined inferences from seismology, high-pressure experiment and theory, geomagnetism, fluid dynamics, and current views of terrestrial planetary evolution lead to models of the earth's core with five basic properties. These are that core formation was contemporaneous with earth accretion; the core is not in chemical equilibrium with the mantle; the outer core is a fluid iron alloy containing significant quantities of lighter elements and is probably almost adiabatic and compositionally uniform; the more iron-rich inner solid core is a consequence of partial freezing of the outer core, and the energy release from this process sustains the earth's magnetic field; and the thermodynamic properties of the core are well constrained by the application of liquid-state theory to seismic and labroatory data.

  4. Reaction of Topopah Spring tuff with J-13 water at 1500C: samples from drill cores USW G-1, USW GU-3, USW G-4, and UE-25h No. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oversby, V.M.

    1985-01-01

    Samples of Topopah Spring tuff selected from vertical drill holes USW G-1, GU-3, and G-4, and from the horizontal air-drilled hole at Fran Ridge were reacted with J-13 water at 150 0 C. The primary purpose of these experiments was to compare the resulting solution chemistries to estimate the degree of homogeneity that might be expected in thermally affected ground water in a potential nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. The second purpose was to relate data obtained from welded devitrified Topopah Spring tuff collected from the potential repository depth to that previously obtained using outcrop samples. The results show very similar aqueous phase chemistries for all samples after reaction for times up to 70 days. The largest difference in final solution concentrations was for silica in one of the samples from Fran Ridge. All vertical drill core samples gave results for silica that were in agreement to within +-6 ppM and indicated solubility controlled by cristobalite. The results for reaction at 150 0 C are in agreement with those obtained in previous experiments using surface outcrop samples from Fran Ridge. The major difference between the drill core results and the outcrop samples is found in the data for room-temperature rinse solutions. The outcrop samples show relatively large amounts of soluble salts that can be easily removed at room temperature. The data for room-temperature rinsing of drill core samples show no significant quantities of readily soluble salts. This result is particularly significant for the samples from the air-drilled hole at Fran Ridge, since drilling fluid that might have removed soluble salts was not used in the portion of the hole from which the samples were obtained. This result strongly suggests that the presence of soluble salts is a surface evaporation phenomenon, and that such materials are unlikely to be present at the depth of the repository

  5. Core Hunter 3: flexible core subset selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Beukelaer, Herman; Davenport, Guy F; Fack, Veerle

    2018-05-31

    Core collections provide genebank curators and plant breeders a way to reduce size of their collections and populations, while minimizing impact on genetic diversity and allele frequency. Many methods have been proposed to generate core collections, often using distance metrics to quantify the similarity of two accessions, based on genetic marker data or phenotypic traits. Core Hunter is a multi-purpose core subset selection tool that uses local search algorithms to generate subsets relying on one or more metrics, including several distance metrics and allelic richness. In version 3 of Core Hunter (CH3) we have incorporated two new, improved methods for summarizing distances to quantify diversity or representativeness of the core collection. A comparison of CH3 and Core Hunter 2 (CH2) showed that these new metrics can be effectively optimized with less complex algorithms, as compared to those used in CH2. CH3 is more effective at maximizing the improved diversity metric than CH2, still ensures a high average and minimum distance, and is faster for large datasets. Using CH3, a simple stochastic hill-climber is able to find highly diverse core collections, and the more advanced parallel tempering algorithm further increases the quality of the core and further reduces variability across independent samples. We also evaluate the ability of CH3 to simultaneously maximize diversity, and either representativeness or allelic richness, and compare the results with those of the GDOpt and SimEli methods. CH3 can sample equally representative cores as GDOpt, which was specifically designed for this purpose, and is able to construct cores that are simultaneously more diverse, and either are more representative or have higher allelic richness, than those obtained by SimEli. In version 3, Core Hunter has been updated to include two new core subset selection metrics that construct cores for representativeness or diversity, with improved performance. It combines and outperforms the

  6. Synthetic approaches to uniform polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Monzur; Brocchini, Steve

    2006-12-30

    Uniform polymers are characterised by a narrow molecular weight distribution (MWD). Uniformity is also defined by chemical structure in respect of (1) monomer orientation, sequence and stereo-regularity, (2) polymer shape and morphology and (3) chemical functionality. The function of natural polymers such as polypeptides and polynucleotides is related to their conformational structure (e.g. folded tertiary structure). This is only possible because of their high degree of uniformity. While completely uniform synthetic polymers are rare, polymers with broad structure and MWD are widely used in medicine and the biomedical sciences. They are integral components in final dosage forms, drug delivery systems (DDS) and in implantable devices. Increasingly uniform polymers are being used to develop more complex medicines (e.g. delivery of biopharmaceuticals, enhanced formulations or DDS's for existing actives). In addition to the function imparted by any new polymer it will be required to meet stringent specifications in terms of cost containment, scalability, biocompatibility and performance. Synthetic polymers with therapeutic activity are also being developed to exploit their polyvalent properties, which is not possible with low molecular weight molecules. There is need to utilise uniform polymers for applications where the polymer may interact with the systemic circulation, tissues or cellular environment. There are also potential applications (e.g. stimuli responsive coatings) where uniform polymers may be used for their more defined property profile. While it is not yet practical to prepare synthetic polymers to the same high degree of uniformity as proteins, nature also effectively utilises many polymers with lower degrees of uniformity (e.g. polysaccharides, poly(amino acids), polyhydroxyalkanoates). In recent years it has become possible to prepare with practical experimental protocols sufficient quantities of polymers that display many aspects of uniformity. This

  7. UOBPRM: A uniformly distributed obstacle-based PRM

    KAUST Repository

    Yeh, Hsin-Yi; Thomas, Shawna; Eppstein, David; Amato, Nancy M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a new sampling method for motion planning that can generate configurations more uniformly distributed on C-obstacle surfaces than prior approaches. Here, roadmap nodes are generated from the intersections between C

  8. Sampling and Analysis Plan for the Gunite and Associated Tanks Treatability Study, wall coring and scraping in Tanks W-3 and W-4 (North Tank Farm), Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-08-01

    This plan documents the procedures for collecting and analyzing wall core and wall scraping samples from Tanks W-3 and W-4 in the North Tank Farm. This is in support of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act Treatability Study of the Gunite and Associated Tanks at ORNL. The sampling and analysis will be in concert with sludge retrieval and sluicing of the tanks. Wall scraping and wall core samples will be collected from each quadrant in each tank by using a scraping sampler and a coring drill deployed by the Houdini robot vehicle. Each sample will be labeled, transported to the Radioactive Materials Analytical Laboratory and analyzed for physical/radiological characteristics, including total activity, gross alpha, gross beta, radioactive Sr + Cs, and other alpha and gamma emitting radionuclides. The Data Quality Objectives process, based on US EPA guidance (EPA QA/G-4, Sept. 1994), was applied to identify the objectives of this sampling and analysis. Results of the analysis will be used to validate predictions of a Sr concrete diffusion model, estimate the amount of radioactivity remaining in the tank shells, provide information to correlate with measurements taken by the Gunite Tank Isotope Mapping Probe and the Characterization End Effector, and estimate the performance of the wall cleaning system

  9. Visible-near infrared point spectrometry of drill core samples from Río Tinto, Spain: results from the 2005 Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE) drilling exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutter, Brad; Brown, Adrian J; Stoker, Carol R

    2008-10-01

    Sampling of subsurface rock may be required to detect evidence of past biological activity on Mars. The Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE) utilized the Río Tinto region, Spain, as a Mars analog site to test dry drilling technologies specific to Mars that retrieve subsurface rock for biological analysis. This work examines the usefulness of visible-near infrared (VNIR) (450-1000 nm) point spectrometry to characterize ferric iron minerals in core material retrieved during a simulated Mars drilling mission. VNIR spectrometry can indicate the presence of aqueously precipitated ferric iron minerals and, thus, determine whether biological analysis of retrieved rock is warranted. Core spectra obtained during the mission with T1 (893-897 nm) and T2 (644-652 nm) features indicate goethite-dominated samples, while relatively lower wavelength T1 (832-880 nm) features indicate hematite. Hematite/goethite molar ratios varied from 0 to 1.4, and within the 880-898 nm range, T1 features were used to estimate hematite/goethite molar ratios. Post-mission X-ray analysis detected phyllosilicates, which indicates that examining beyond the VNIR (e.g., shortwave infrared, 1000-2500 nm) will enhance the detection of other minerals formed by aqueous processes. Despite the limited spectral range of VNIR point spectrometry utilized in the MARTE Mars drilling simulation project, ferric iron minerals could be identified in retrieved core material, and their distribution served to direct core subsampling for biological analysis.

  10. A new set-up for simultaneous high-precision measurements of CO2, δ13C-CO2 and δ18O-CO2 on small ice core samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenk, Theo Manuel; Rubino, Mauro; Etheridge, David; Ciobanu, Viorela Gabriela; Blunier, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    Palaeoatmospheric records of carbon dioxide and its stable carbon isotope composition (δ13C) obtained from polar ice cores provide important constraints on the natural variability of the carbon cycle. However, the measurements are both analytically challenging and time-consuming; thus only data exist from a limited number of sampling sites and time periods. Additional analytical resources with high analytical precision and throughput are thus desirable to extend the existing datasets. Moreover, consistent measurements derived by independent laboratories and a variety of analytical systems help to further increase confidence in the global CO2 palaeo-reconstructions. Here, we describe our new set-up for simultaneous measurements of atmospheric CO2 mixing ratios and atmospheric δ13C and δ18O-CO2 in air extracted from ice core samples. The centrepiece of the system is a newly designed needle cracker for the mechanical release of air entrapped in ice core samples of 8-13 g operated at -45 °C. The small sample size allows for high resolution and replicate sampling schemes. In our method, CO2 is cryogenically and chromatographically separated from the bulk air and its isotopic composition subsequently determined by continuous flow isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS). In combination with thermal conductivity measurement of the bulk air, the CO2 mixing ratio is calculated. The analytical precision determined from standard air sample measurements over ice is ±1.9 ppm for CO2 and ±0.09 ‰ for δ13C. In a laboratory intercomparison study with CSIRO (Aspendale, Australia), good agreement between CO2 and δ13C results is found for Law Dome ice core samples. Replicate analysis of these samples resulted in a pooled standard deviation of 2.0 ppm for CO2 and 0.11 ‰ for δ13C. These numbers are good, though they are rather conservative estimates of the overall analytical precision achieved for single ice sample measurements. Facilitated by the small sample requirement

  11. THE GROWTH OF COOL CORES AND EVOLUTION OF COOLING PROPERTIES IN A SAMPLE OF 83 GALAXY CLUSTERS AT 0.3 < z < 1.2 SELECTED FROM THE SPT-SZ SURVEY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, M.; Bautz, M. W. [Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Benson, B. A.; Bleem, L. E.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Chang, C. L.; Crawford, T. M.; Crites, A. T. [Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Vikhlinin, A.; Stalder, B.; Ashby, M. L. N.; Bayliss, M. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); De Haan, T. [Department of Physics, McGill University, 3600 Rue University, Montreal, Quebec H3A 2T8 (Canada); Lin, H. W. [Caddo Parish Magnet High School, Shrevport, LA 71101 (United States); Aird, K. A. [University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Bocquet, S.; Desai, S. [Department of Physics, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet, Scheinerstr. 1, D-81679 Muenchen (Germany); Brodwin, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Missouri, 5110 Rockhill Road, Kansas City, MO 64110 (United States); Cho, H. M. [NIST Quantum Devices Group, 325 Broadway Mailcode 817.03, Boulder, CO 80305 (United States); Clocchiatti, A., E-mail: mcdonald@space.mit.edu [Departamento de Astronomia y Astrosifica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica (Chile); and others

    2013-09-01

    We present first results on the cooling properties derived from Chandra X-ray observations of 83 high-redshift (0.3 < z < 1.2) massive galaxy clusters selected by their Sunyaev-Zel'dovich signature in the South Pole Telescope data. We measure each cluster's central cooling time, central entropy, and mass deposition rate, and compare these properties to those for local cluster samples. We find no significant evolution from z {approx} 0 to z {approx} 1 in the distribution of these properties, suggesting that cooling in cluster cores is stable over long periods of time. We also find that the average cool core entropy profile in the inner {approx}100 kpc has not changed dramatically since z {approx} 1, implying that feedback must be providing nearly constant energy injection to maintain the observed ''entropy floor'' at {approx}10 keV cm{sup 2}. While the cooling properties appear roughly constant over long periods of time, we observe strong evolution in the gas density profile, with the normalized central density ({rho}{sub g,0}/{rho}{sub crit}) increasing by an order of magnitude from z {approx} 1 to z {approx} 0. When using metrics defined by the inner surface brightness profile of clusters, we find an apparent lack of classical, cuspy, cool-core clusters at z > 0.75, consistent with earlier reports for clusters at z > 0.5 using similar definitions. Our measurements indicate that cool cores have been steadily growing over the 8 Gyr spanned by our sample, consistent with a constant, {approx}150 M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1} cooling flow that is unable to cool below entropies of 10 keV cm{sup 2} and, instead, accumulates in the cluster center. We estimate that cool cores began to assemble in these massive systems at z{sub cool}=1.0{sup +1.0}{sub -0.2}, which represents the first constraints on the onset of cooling in galaxy cluster cores. At high redshift (z {approx}> 0.75), galaxy clusters may be classified as ''cooling flows

  12. Uniform excitations in magnetic nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørup, Steen; Frandsen, Cathrine; Hansen, Mikkel Fougt

    2010-01-01

    We present a short review of the magnetic excitations in nanoparticles below the superparamagnetic blocking temperature. In this temperature regime, the magnetic dynamics in nanoparticles is dominated by uniform excitations, and this leads to a linear temperature dependence of the magnetization...... and the magnetic hyperfine field, in contrast to the Bloch T3/2 law in bulk materials. The temperature dependence of the average magnetization is conveniently studied by Mössbauer spectroscopy. The energy of the uniform excitations of magnetic nanoparticles can be studied by inelastic neutron scattering....

  13. Uniform excitations in magnetic nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steen Mørup

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available We present a short review of the magnetic excitations in nanoparticles below the superparamagnetic blocking temperature. In this temperature regime, the magnetic dynamics in nanoparticles is dominated by uniform excitations, and this leads to a linear temperature dependence of the magnetization and the magnetic hyperfine field, in contrast to the Bloch T3/2 law in bulk materials. The temperature dependence of the average magnetization is conveniently studied by Mössbauer spectroscopy. The energy of the uniform excitations of magnetic nanoparticles can be studied by inelastic neutron scattering.

  14. YOUNG STARLESS CORES EMBEDDED IN THE MAGNETICALLY DOMINATED PIPE NEBULA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frau, P.; Girart, J. M.; Alves, F. O.; Beltran, M. T.; Morata, O.; Masque, J. M.; Busquet, G.; Sanchez-Monge, A.; Estalella, R.; Franco, G. A. P.

    2010-01-01

    The Pipe Nebula is a massive, nearby dark molecular cloud with a low star formation efficiency which makes it a good laboratory in which to study the very early stages of the star formation process. The Pipe Nebula is largely filamentary and appears to be threaded by a uniform magnetic field at scales of a few parsecs, perpendicular to its main axis. The field is only locally perturbed in a few regions, such as the only active cluster-forming core B59. The aim of this study is to investigate primordial conditions in low-mass pre-stellar cores and how they relate to the local magnetic field in the cloud. We used the IRAM 30 m telescope to carry out a continuum and molecular survey at 3 and 1 mm of early- and late-time molecules toward four selected starless cores inside the Pipe Nebula. We found that the dust continuum emission maps trace the densest regions better than previous Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) extinction maps, while 2MASS extinction maps trace the diffuse gas better. The properties of the cores derived from dust emission show average radii of ∼0.09 pc, densities of ∼1.3x10 5 cm -3 , and core masses of ∼2.5 M sun . Our results confirm that the Pipe Nebula starless cores studied are in a very early evolutionary stage and present a very young chemistry with different properties that allow us to propose an evolutionary sequence. All of the cores present early-time molecular emission with CS detections in the whole sample. Two of them, cores 40 and 109, present strong late-time molecular emission. There seems to be a correlation between the chemical evolutionary stage of the cores and the local magnetic properties that suggests that the evolution of the cores is ruled by a local competition between the magnetic energy and other mechanisms, such as turbulence.

  15. HYDRATE CORE DRILLING TESTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John H. Cohen; Thomas E. Williams; Ali G. Kadaster; Bill V. Liddell

    2002-11-01

    formation comprised of coarse, large-grain sand in ice. Results with this core showed that the viscosity of the drilling fluid must also be carefully controlled. When coarse sand was being cored, the core barrel became stuck because the drilling fluid was not viscous enough to completely remove the large grains of sand. These tests were very valuable to the project by showing the difficulties in coring permafrost or hydrates in a laboratory environment (as opposed to a field environment where drilling costs are much higher and the potential loss of equipment greater). Among the conclusions reached from these simulated hydrate coring tests are the following: Frozen hydrate core samples can be recovered successfully; A spring-finger core catcher works best for catching hydrate cores; Drilling fluid can erode the core and reduces its diameter, making it more difficult to capture the core; Mud must be designed with proper viscosity to lift larger cuttings; and The bottom 6 inches of core may need to be drilled dry to capture the core successfully.

  16. Uniformity calibration for ICT image

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng Gang; Liu Li; Que Jiemin; Zhang Yingping; Yin Yin; Wang Yanfang; Yu Zhongqiang; Yan Yonglian

    2004-01-01

    The uniformity of ICT image is impaired by beam hardening and the inconsistency of detector units responses. The beam hardening and the nonlinearity of the detector's output have been analyzed. The correction factors are determined experimentally by the detector's responses with different absorption length. The artifacts in the CT image of a symmetrical aluminium cylinder have been eliminated after calibration. (author)

  17. School Uniforms: Guidelines for Principals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essex, Nathan L.

    2001-01-01

    Principals desiring to develop a school-uniform policy should involve parents, teachers, community leaders, and student representatives; beware restrictions on religious and political expression; provide flexibility and assistance for low-income families; implement a pilot program; align the policy with school-safety issues; and consider legal…

  18. Uniform peanut performance test 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Uniform Peanut Performance Tests (UPPT) are designed to evaluate the commercial potential of advanced breeding peanut lines not formally released. The tests are performed in ten locations across the peanut production belt. In this study, 2 controls and 14 entries were evaluated at 8 locations....

  19. Sample descriptions and geophysical logs for cored well BP-3-USGS, Great Sand Dunes National Park and Preserve, Alamosa County, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grauch, V.J.S.; Skipp, Gary L.; Thomas, Jonathan V.; Davis, Joshua K.; Benson, Mary Ellen

    2015-01-01

    The BP-3-USGS well was drilled at the southwestern corner of Great Sand Dunes National Park in the San Luis Valley, south-central Colorado, 68 feet (ft, 20.7 meters [m]) southwest of the National Park Service’s boundary-piezometer (BP) well 3. BP-3-USGS is located at latitude 37°43ʹ18.06ʺN. and longitude 105°43ʹ39.30ʺW., at an elevation of 7,549 ft (2,301 m). The well was drilled through poorly consolidated sediments to a depth of 326 ft (99.4 m) in September 2009. Water began flowing from the well after penetrating a clay-rich layer that was first intercepted at a depth of 119 ft (36.3 m). The base of this layer, at an elevation of 7,415 ft (2,260 m) above sea level, likely marks the top of a regional confined aquifer recognized throughout much of the San Luis Valley. Approximately 69 ft (21 m) of core was recovered (about 21 percent), almost exclusively from clay-rich zones. Coarser grained fractions were collected from mud extruded from the core barrel or captured from upwelling drilling fluids. Natural gamma-ray, full waveform sonic, density, neutron, resistivity, spontaneous potential, and induction logs were acquired. The well is now plugged and abandoned.

  20. Synthesis of bulk quantity BN nanotubes with uniform morphology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen, G.; Zhang, T.; Huang, X.X.; Zhong, B.; Zhang, X.D.; Yu, H.M.

    2010-01-01

    Bulk quantity hexagonal BN nanotubes (h-BNNTs) with uniform morphology were synthesized via an improved ball-milling and annealing method. The sample was characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectrometry, electron energy loss spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, conventional transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high-resolution TEM. The results show that the fabricated BNNTs have a uniform diameter ranging from 80 to 100 nm and a length of about 50-60 μm.

  1. 46 CFR 310.11 - Cadet uniforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... for State, Territorial or Regional Maritime Academies and Colleges § 310.11 Cadet uniforms. Cadet uniforms shall be supplied at the school in accordance with the uniform regulations of the School. Those... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cadet uniforms. 310.11 Section 310.11 Shipping MARITIME...

  2. Failure of uniformly compression loaded debond damaged sandwich panels — An experimental and numerical study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moslemian, Ramin; Quispitupa, Amilcar; Berggreen, Christian

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with the failure of compression-loaded sandwich panels with an implanted circular face/core debond. Uniform compression tests were conducted on intact sandwich panels with three different types of core material (H130, H250 and PMI) and on similar panels with circular face...

  3. A study of uranium series disequilibrium in core profiles and mineral separates from the samples of Lac du Bonnet granite from the URL site, Pinawa, Manitoba, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanovich, M.; Longworth, G.; Wilkins, M.A.; Hasler, S.E.

    1987-12-01

    Uranium series disequilibrium measurements of actinide activities and activity ratios have been used to study the geochemical history of Lac du Bonnet granite, from the URL site, Pinawa, Canada. Measurements on core profiles between fractured surfaces and the parent rock show that the granite underwent high temperature events several million years ago, followed by more recent low temperature events within the last million years. The main locations for the rock/water interaction and exchange of actinides are the fracture surfaces. The results of similar measurements on separated mineral phases show that the 'soft' minerals such as biotite and feldspar are more vulnerable to weathering than the 'hard' accessory minerals such as zircon. (author)

  4. Transversals in 4-uniform hypergraphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henning, Michael A; Yeo, Anders

    2016-01-01

    with maximum degree ∆(H) ≤ 3, then τ (H) ≤ n/4 + m/6, which proves a known conjecture. We show that an easy corollary of our main result is that if H is a 4-uniform hypergraph with n vertices and n edges, then τ (H) ≤3/7 n, which was the main result of the Thomassé-Yeo paper [Combinatorica 27 (2007), 473...

  5. ESPRIT And Uniform Linear Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, R. H.; Goldburg, M.; Ottersten, B. E.; Swindlehurst, A. L.; Viberg, M.; Kailath, T.

    1989-11-01

    Abstract ¬â€?ESPRIT is a recently developed and patented technique for high-resolution estimation of signal parameters. It exploits an invariance structure designed into the sensor array to achieve a reduction in computational requirements of many orders of magnitude over previous techniques such as MUSIC, Burg's MEM, and Capon's ML, and in addition achieves performance improvement as measured by parameter estimate error variance. It is also manifestly more robust with respect to sensor errors (e.g. gain, phase, and location errors) than other methods as well. Whereas ESPRIT only requires that the sensor array possess a single invariance best visualized by considering two identical but other-wise arbitrary arrays of sensors displaced (but not rotated) with respect to each other, many arrays currently in use in various applications are uniform linear arrays of identical sensor elements. Phased array radars are commonplace in high-resolution direction finding systems, and uniform tapped delay lines (i.e., constant rate A/D converters) are the rule rather than the exception in digital signal processing systems. Such arrays possess many invariances, and are amenable to other types of analysis, which is one of the main reasons such structures are so prevalent. Recent developments in high-resolution algorithms of the signal/noise subspace genre including total least squares (TLS) ESPRIT applied to uniform linear arrays are summarized. ESPRIT is also shown to be a generalization of the root-MUSIC algorithm (applicable only to the case of uniform linear arrays of omni-directional sensors and unimodular cisoids). Comparisons with various estimator bounds, including CramerRao bounds, are presented.

  6. Uniform-droplet spray forming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blue, C.A.; Sikka, V.K. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Chun, Jung-Hoon [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Ando, T. [Tufts Univ., Medford, MA (United States)

    1997-04-01

    The uniform-droplet process is a new method of liquid-metal atomization that results in single droplets that can be used to produce mono-size powders or sprayed-on to substrates to produce near-net shapes with tailored microstructure. The mono-sized powder-production capability of the uniform-droplet process also has the potential of permitting engineered powder blends to produce components of controlled porosity. Metal and alloy powders are commercially produced by at least three different methods: gas atomization, water atomization, and rotating disk. All three methods produce powders of a broad range in size with a very small yield of fine powders with single-sized droplets that can be used to produce mono-size powders or sprayed-on substrates to produce near-net shapes with tailored microstructures. The economical analysis has shown the process to have the potential of reducing capital cost by 50% and operating cost by 37.5% when applied to powder making. For the spray-forming process, a 25% savings is expected in both the capital and operating costs. The project is jointly carried out at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Tuffs University, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Preliminary interactions with both finished parts and powder producers have shown a strong interest in the uniform-droplet process. Systematic studies are being conducted to optimize the process parameters, understand the solidification of droplets and spray deposits, and develop a uniform-droplet-system (UDS) apparatus appropriate for processing engineering alloys.

  7. Transformer core

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mehendale, A.; Hagedoorn, Wouter; Lötters, Joost Conrad

    2008-01-01

    A transformer core includes a stack of a plurality of planar core plates of a magnetically permeable material, which plates each consist of a first and a second sub-part that together enclose at least one opening. The sub-parts can be fitted together via contact faces that are located on either side

  8. Transformer core

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mehendale, A.; Hagedoorn, Wouter; Lötters, Joost Conrad

    2010-01-01

    A transformer core includes a stack of a plurality of planar core plates of a magnetically permeable material, which plates each consist of a first and a second sub-part that together enclose at least one opening. The sub-parts can be fitted together via contact faces that are located on either side

  9. Models of the earth's core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevenson, D.J.

    1981-01-01

    The combination of seismology, high pressure experiment and theory, geomagnetism, fluid dynamics, and current views of terrestrial planetary evolution lead to strong constraints on core models. The synthesis presented here is devoted to the defense of the following properties: (1) core formation was contemporaneous with earth accretion; (2) the outer, liquid core is predominately iron but cannot be purely iron; (3) the inner core-outer core boundary represents a thermodynamic equilibrium between a liquid alloys and a predominanately iron solid; (4) thermodynamic and transport properties of outer core can be estimated from liquid-state theories; and (5) the outer core is probably adiabatic and uniform in composition. None of these propositions are universally accepted by geophysicists. But, the intent of this paper is to present a coherent picture which explains most of the data with the fewest ad hoc assumptions. Areas in which future progress is both essential and likely are geo- and cosmochronology, seismological determinations of core structure, fluid dynamics of the core and mantle, and condensed matter physics

  10. Windscale pile core surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curtis, R.F.; Mathews, R.F.

    1996-01-01

    The two Windscale Piles were closed down, defueled as far as possible and mothballed for thirty years following a fire in the core of Pile 1 in 1957 resulting from the spontaneous release of stored Wigner energy in the graphite moderator. Decommissioning of the reactors commenced in 1987 and has reached the stage where the condition of both cores needs to be determined. To this end, non-intrusive and intrusive surveys and sampling of the cores have been planned and partly implemented. The objectives for each Pile differ slightly. The location and quantity of fuel remaining in the damaged core of Pile 1 needed to be established, whereas the removal of all fuel from Pile 2 needed to be confirmed. In Pile 1, the possible existence of a void in the core is to be explored and in Pile 2, the level of Wigner energy remaining required to be quantified. Levels of radioactivity in both cores needed to be measured. The planning of the surveys is described including strategy, design, safety case preparation and the remote handling and viewing equipment required to carry out the inspection, sampling and monitoring work. The results from the completed non-intrusive survey of Pile 2 are summarised. They confirm that the core is empty and the graphite is in good condition. The survey of Pile 1 has just started. (UK)

  11. Corrosion of MTR type fuel plates containing U3O8-Al cermet cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durazzo, M.

    1985-01-01

    The fuel plate samples containing U 3 O 8 -Al cermet cores with concentrations from 10 to 90% of U 3 O 8 weight were fabricated. Samples with 58% of U 3 O 8 eight were fabricated using compacts with densities from 75 to 95% of theoretical density. The influences of U 3 O 8 concentration and porosity of compacted core on porosity and uniformity of core thickness are discussed. The U 3 O 8 -Al cores were submitted to corrosion tests and exposed to deionized water at temperatures of 30, 50, 70 and 90 0 C by cladding deffect produced artificially. The results shown that core corrosion is accompanied by hydrogen release. The total volum of released hydrogen and the time interval to observe the initiation of hydrogen releasing (incubation time) are depending on core pososity and absolute temperature. A mechanism for U 3 O 8 -Al core corrosion process is proposed and discussed. The cladding of fuel plate samples was submitted to corrosion tests under similar conditons of the IAE-R1 reactor operating at 2, 5 and 10 MW. (Author) [pt

  12. TMI-2 core debris analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, B.A.; Carlson, E.R.

    1985-01-01

    One of the ongoing examination tasks for the damaged TMI-2 reactor is analysis of samples of debris obtained from the debris bed presently at the top of the core. This paper summarizes the results reported in the TMI-2 Core Debris Grab Sample Examination and Analysis Report, which will be available early in 1986. The sampling and analysis procedures are presented, and information is provided on the key results as they relate to the present core condition, peak temperatures during the transient, temperature history, chemical interactions, and core relocation. The results are then summarized

  13. Synthesis of core-shell molecularly imprinted polymer microspheres by precipitation polymerization for the inline molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction of thiabendazole from citrus fruits and orange juice samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barahona, Francisco; Turiel, Esther; Cormack, Peter A G; Martín-Esteban, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    In this work, the synthesis of molecularly imprinted polymer microspheres with narrow particle size distributions and core-shell morphology by a two-step precipitation polymerization procedure is described. Polydivinylbenzene (poly DVB-80) core particles were used as seed particles in the production of molecularly imprinted polymer shells by copolymerization of divinylbenzene-80 with methacrylic acid in the presence of thiabendazole (TBZ) and an appropriate porogen. Thereafter, polymer particles were packed into refillable stainless steel HPLC columns used in the development of an inline molecularly imprinted SPE method for the determination of TBZ in citrus fruits and orange juice samples. Under optimized chromatographic conditions, recoveries of TBZ within the range 81.1-106.4%, depending upon the sample, were obtained, with RSDs lower than 10%. This novel method permits the unequivocal determination of TBZ in the samples under study, according to the maximum residue levels allowed within Europe, in less than 20 min and without any need for a clean-up step in the analytical protocol. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts & Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects. Appendix B: Text Exemplars and Sample Performance Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Common Core State Standards Initiative, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The text samples presented in this document primarily serve to exemplify the level of complexity and quality that the Standards require all students in a given grade band to engage with. Additionally, they are suggestive of the breadth of texts that students should encounter in the text types required by the Standards. The choices should serve as…

  15. Analytical Results for 35 Mine-Waste Tailings Cores and Six Bed-Sediment Samples, and An Estimate of the Volume of Contaminated Material at Buckeye Meadow on Upper Basin Creek, Northern Jefferson County, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fey, David L.; Church, Stan E.; Finney, Christopher J.

    1999-01-01

    Metal-mining related wastes in the Boulder River basin study area in northern Jefferson County, Montana have been implicated in their detrimental effects on water quality with regard to acid-generation and toxic-metal solubilization. Flotation-mill tailings in the meadow below the Buckeye mine, hereafter referred to as the Buckeye mill-tailings site, have been identified as significant contributors to water quality degradation of Basin Creek, Montana. Basin Creek is one of three tributaries to the Boulder River in the study area; bed sediments and waters draining from the Buckeye mine have also been implicated. Geochemical analysis of 35 tailings cores and six bed-sediment samples was undertaken to determine the concentrations of Ag, As, Cd, Cu, Pb,and Zn present in these materials. These elements are environmentally significant, in that they can be toxic to fish and/or the invertebrate organisms that constitute their food. A suite of one-inch cores of dispersed flotation-mill tailings and underlying premining material was taken from a large, flat area north of Basin Creek near the site of the Buckeye mine. Thirty-five core samples were taken and divided into 204 subsamples. The samples were analyzed by ICP-AES (inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy) using a mixed-acid digestion. Results of the core analyses show that the elements listed above are present at moderate to very high concentrations (arsenic to 63,000 ppm, silver to 290 ppm, cadmium to 370 ppm, copper to 4,800 ppm, lead to 93,000 ppm, and zinc to 23,000 ppm). Volume calculations indicate that an estimated 8,400 metric tons of contaminated material are present at the site. Six bed-sediment samples were also subjected to the mixed-acid total digestion, and a warm (50°C) 2M HCl-1% H2O2 leach and analyzed by ICP-AES. Results indicate that bed sediments of Basin Creek are only slightly impacted by past mining above the Buckeye-Enterprise complex, moderately impacted at the upper (eastern

  16. Ground Penetrating Radar, Magnetic and Compositional Analysis of Sediment Cores and Surface Samples: The Relationships Between Lacustrine Sediments and Holocene Lake- Level and Climate Change at Deming Lake, Minnesota, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, R.; Lascu, I.; Plank, C.

    2007-12-01

    Deming Lake is a small (Deming. Cores were sampled continuously at a 1-2 cm resolution and sediment composition (in terms of percent organic matter, carbonate material, and minerogenic residue) was determined via loss on ignition (LOI). Isothermal remanent magnetization (IRM) and anhysteretic remanent magnetization (ARM) were used as proxies of magnetic mineral concentration and grain size. Four lithostratigraphic units were identified and correlated between cores based on these analyses. Changes in GPR facies corroborate the correlation between the two shallow cores. In order to inform our interpretation of down-core variations in magnetic properties and LOI values in terms of variations in lake depth, a suite of over 70 modern sediment samples were collected from the basin and analyzed. LOI compositional variability across the basin was high, with no clear trends related to depth or distance from shore. A sharp decrease in minerogenic content was observed at depths consistent with a predicted wave-base of 0.5 m, but aside from this trend it appears the steep slopes of much of the basin promote gravity driven slumping and mixing of sediments at depth. In the profundal sediments IRM values are routinely 5% higher than in the slope and littoral environments, while ARM/IRM ratios indicate an increase in magnetic grain size with water depth. We infer that an increase in coarse organic material in the shallow-water cores of Deming records a period of aridity (associated with a decrease lake-level less than 2m based on GPR profiles) and/or increased water clarity during the regionally expansive mid-Holocene dry period. We do not see clear evidence of late-Holocene lake level change of a significant magnitude (i.e. >1m). While remanence measurements (especially IRM) often correlate with the LOI residue, interference in the IRM resulting from the dissolution of magnetic minerals casts uncertainty into the reliability of our magnetic measurements as a signal of climate

  17. Reactor core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azekura, Kazuo; Kurihara, Kunitoshi.

    1992-01-01

    In a BWR type reactor, a great number of pipes (spectral shift pipes) are disposed in the reactor core. Moderators having a small moderating cross section (heavy water) are circulated in the spectral shift pipes to suppress the excess reactivity while increasing the conversion ratio at an initial stage of the operation cycle. After the intermediate stage of the operation cycle in which the reactor core reactivity is lowered, reactivity is increased by circulating moderators having a great moderating cross section (light water) to extend the taken up burnup degree. Further, neutron absorbers such as boron are mixed to the moderator in the spectral shift pipe to control the concentration thereof. With such a constitution, control rods and driving mechanisms are no more necessary, to simplify the structure of the reactor core. This can increase the fuel conversion ratio and control great excess reactivity. Accordingly, a nuclear reactor core of high conversion and high burnup degree can be attained. (I.N.)

  18. Ice Cores

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Records of past temperature, precipitation, atmospheric trace gases, and other aspects of climate and environment derived from ice cores drilled on glaciers and ice...

  19. [The new eubacterium Roseomonas baikalica sp. nov. isolated from core samples collected by deep-hole drilling of the bottom of Lake Baĭkal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreeva, I S; Pechurkina, N I; Morozova, O V; Riabchikova, E I; Belikov, S I; Puchkova, L I; Emel'ianova, E K; Torok, T; Repin, V E

    2007-01-01

    Microbiological analysis of samples of sedimentary rocks from various eras of the geological history of the Baikal rift has enabled us to isolate a large number of microorganisms that can be classified into new, previously undescribed species. The present work deals with the identification and study of the morphological, biochemical, and physiological properties of one such strain, Che 82, isolated from sample C-29 of 3.4-3.5 Ma-old sedimentary rocks taken at a drilling depth of 146.74 m. As a result of our investigations, strain Che 82 is described as a new bacterial species, Roseomonas baikalica sp. nov., belonging to the genus Roseomonas within the family Methylobacteriaceae, class Alphaproteobacteria.

  20. Rb-Sr systematics in drill core samples of the Eye-Dashwa Lakes pluton at the whole rock and mineral scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterman, Z.E.; Futa, K.; Kamineni, D.C.

    1990-01-01

    Twenty-one whole-rock samples from boreholes ATK-1 and ATK-6 define a precise Rb-Sr isochron with an age of 2637 ± 33 Ma and initial 87 Sr/ 86 Sr intercept, IR(Sr), of 0.70144 ± 0.00006. An internal mineral isochron for ATC-1 (991-997) and biotites from ATK-1 (35.63) and ATK-1 (3.84) give younger ages of 2541 ± 14 Ma 2574 ± 25 Ma, and 2534 ± 25 Ma, respectively. Data for samples from fracture zones scatter but correlate around an isochron of 2281 ± 153 Ma. The internal isochron and biotite ages record cooling below about 300 C due to uplift and erosion. The younger age, 2281 ± 153 Ma, records an episode or episodes of brittle failure at relatively high crustal levels. These fractures provided pathways for infiltration of water, which facilitated the mineralogical alteration

  1. Thermal Expansivity Between 150 and 800°C of Hydrothermally Altered Conduit Dyke Samples from USDP-4 Drill Core (Mt Unzen, Shimabara, Japan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, T. I.; Hess, K. U.; Vasseur, J.; Wadsworth, F. B.; Gilg, H. A.; Nakada, S.; Dingwell, D. B.

    2017-12-01

    When hot magma intrudes the crust, the surrounding rocks expand. Similarly, the cooling magma contracts. The expansion and contraction of these multiphase materials is not simple and often requires empirical constraint. Therefore, we constrained the thermal expansivity of Unzen dome and conduit samples using a NETZSCH® DIL 402C. Following experiments, those samples were scanned using a Phoenix v|tome|x m to observe the cracks that may have developed during the heating and cooling. The dome samples do not show petrological or chemical signs of alteration. However, the alteration of the conduit dykes is represented by the occurrence of the main secondary phases such as chlorite, sulfides, carbonates, R1 (Reichweite parameter) illite-smectite, and kaolinite. These alteration products indicate an (I) early weak to moderate argillic magmatic alteration, and a (II) second stage weak to moderate propylitic hydrothermal alteration. The linear thermal expansion coefficient aL of the dome material is K-1 between 150° and 800°C and shows a sharp peak of up to K-1 around the alpha-beta-quartz-transition ( 573°C). In contrast, aL of the hydrothermally altered conduit samples starts to increase around 180° and reaches K-1 at 400°C. We interpret this effect as being due to the water content of the kaolinite and the R1 illite-smectite, which induces larger expansions per degree temperature change. Furthermore, the altered conduit samples show a more pronounced increases of aL between 500 and 650°C of up to peaks at K-1, which is generated by the breakdown of chlorite, iron-rich dolomite solid solutions, calcite, and pyrite. We use a 1D conductive model of heat transfer to explore how the country rock around the Unzen conduit zone would heat up after intrusion. In turn, we convert these temperature profiles to thermal stress profiles, assuming the edifice is largely undeformable. We show that these high linear thermal expansion coefficients of the hydrothermally altered

  2. Long GRBs sources population non-uniformity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkhangelskaja, Irene

    Long GRBs observed in the very wide energy band. It is possible to separate two subsets of GRBs with high energy component (E > 500 MeV) presence. First type events energy spectra in low and high energy intervals are similar (as for GRB 021008) and described by Band, power law or broken power law models look like to usual bursts without emission in tens MeV region. For example, Band spectrum of GRB080916C covering 6 orders of magnitude. Second ones contain new additional high energy spectral component (for example, GRB 050525B and GRB 090902B). Both types of GRBs observed since CGRO mission beginning. The low energy precursors existence are typical for all types bursts. Both types of bursts temporal profiles can be similar in the various energy regions during some events or different in other cases. The absence of hard to soft evolution in low energy band and (or) presence of high energy precursors for some events are the special features of second class of GRBs by the results of preliminary data analysis and this facts gives opportunities to suppose differences between these two GRBs subsets sources. Also the results of long GRB redshifts distribution analysis have shown its shape contradiction to uniform population objects one for our Metagalaxy to both total and various redshifts definition methods GRBs sources samples. These evidences allow making preliminary conclusion about non-uniformity of long GRBs sources population.

  3. An automated GC-C-GC-IRMS setup to measure palaeoatmospheric δ13C-CH4, δ15N-N2O and δ18O-N2O in one ice core sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Sperlich

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Air bubbles in ice core samples represent the only opportunity to study the mixing ratio and isotopic variability of palaeoatmospheric CH4 and N2O. The highest possible precision in isotope measurements is required to maximize the resolving power for CH4 and N2O sink and source reconstructions. We present a new setup to measure δ13C-CH4, δ15N-N2O and δ18O-N2O isotope ratios in one ice core sample and with one single IRMS instrument, with a precision of 0.09, 0.6 and 0.7‰, respectively, as determined on 0.6–1.6 nmol CH4 and 0.25–0.6 nmol N2O. The isotope ratios are referenced to the VPDB scale (δ13C-CH4, the N2-air scale (δ15N-N2O and the VSMOW scale (δ18O-N2O. Ice core samples of 200–500 g are melted while the air is constantly extracted to minimize gas dissolution. A helium carrier gas flow transports the sample through the analytical system. We introduce a new gold catalyst to oxidize CO to CO2 in the air sample. CH4 and N2O are then separated from N2, O2, Ar and CO2 before they get pre-concentrated and separated by gas chromatography. A combustion unit is required for δ13C-CH4 analysis, which is equipped with a constant oxygen supply as well as a post-combustion trap and a post-combustion GC column (GC-C-GC-IRMS. The post-combustion trap and the second GC column in the GC-C-GC-IRMS combination prevent Kr and N2O interferences during the isotopic analysis of CH4-derived CO2. These steps increase the time for δ13C-CH4 measurements, which is used to measure δ15N-N2O and δ18O-N2O first and then δ13C-CH4. The analytical time is adjusted to ensure stable conditions in the ion source before each sample gas enters the IRMS, thereby improving the precision achieved for measurements of CH4 and N2O on the same IRMS. The precision of our measurements is comparable to or better than that of recently published systems. Our setup is calibrated by analysing multiple reference gases that were injected over bubble-free ice samples. We show

  4. Iowa Geologic Sampling Points

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Point locations of geologic samples/files in the IGS repository. Types of samples include well cuttings, outcrop samples, cores, drillers logs, measured sections,...

  5. Determination of Organophosphorous Pesticides in Environmental Water Samples Using Surface-Engineered C18 Functionalized Silica-Coated Core-Shell Magnetic Nanoparticles-Based Extraction Coupled with GC-MS/MS Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Neha; Kumari, Supriya; Nair, Kishore; Alam, Samsul; Raza, Syed K

    2017-05-01

    The present paper depicts a novel method based on magnetic SPE (MSPE) for the determination of organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) such as phorate, malathion, and chlorpyrifos in environmental water samples. In this study, C18 functionalized silica-coated core-shell iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) were used as a surface-engineered magnetic sorbent for the selective extraction of pesticides from aqueous samples, followed by GC-MS and GC-tandem MS analysis for confirmative determination of the analytes. Various important method parameters, including quantity of MNP adsorbent, volume of sample, effective time for extraction, nature of the desorbing solvent, and pH of the aqueous sample, were investigated and optimized to obtain maximum method performance. Under the optimized instrumental analysis conditions, good linearity (r2 value ≥0.994) was achieved at the concentration range of 0.5-500 μg/L. Recoveries were in the range of 79.2-96.3 and 80.4-97.5% in selective-ion monitoring and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) modes, respectively, at the spiking concentrations of 1, 5, and 10 μg/L. MRM mode showed better sensitivity, selectivity, and low-level detection (0.5 μg/L) of analytes. The novel MSPE method is a simple, cheap, rapid, and eco-friendly method for the determination of OPs in environmental water samples.

  6. Decidability of uniform recurrence of morphic sequences

    OpenAIRE

    Durand , Fabien

    2012-01-01

    We prove that the uniform recurrence of morphic sequences is decidable. For this we show that the number of derived sequences of uniformly recurrent morphic sequences is bounded. As a corollary we obtain that uniformly recurrent morphic sequences are primitive substitutive sequences.

  7. Uniform Statistical Convergence on Time Scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yavuz Altin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We will introduce the concept of m- and (λ,m-uniform density of a set and m- and (λ,m-uniform statistical convergence on an arbitrary time scale. However, we will define m-uniform Cauchy function on a time scale. Furthermore, some relations about these new notions are also obtained.

  8. Preparation of uniform porous hydroxyapatite biomaterials by a new method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Yuejun; Tang Yuefeng; Lv Chuntang; Zhou Zhonghua

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, a new method of preparation of uniform porous hydroxyapatite biomaterials was reported. In order to obtain uniform porous biomaterials, disk samples were formed by the mixture of hydroxyapatite (HAP) powders and monodispersed polystyrene microspheres, and then HAP uniform porous materials with different diameter and different porosity (diameter: 436 ± 25 nm, 892 ± 20 nm and 1890 ± 20 nm, porosity: 46.5%, 41.3% and 34.7%, respectively) were prepared by sintering these disk samples at 1250 deg. C for 5 h. The pure phase of HAP powders fabricated by the hydrothermal technology was confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The surface and size distribution of pores in HAP biomaterials were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the pore size distribution in porous HAP biomaterials was tested by mercury intrusion method

  9. Uniform magnetic excitations in nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørup, Steen; Hansen, Britt Rosendahl

    2005-01-01

    We have used a spin-wave model to calculate the temperature dependence of the (sublattice) magnetization of magnetic nanoparticles. The uniform precession mode, corresponding to a spin wave with wave vector q=0, is predominant in nanoparticles and gives rise to an approximately linear temperature...... dependence of the (sublattice) magnetization well below the superparamagnetic blocking temperature for both ferro-, ferri-, and antiferromagnetic particles. This is in accordance with the results of a classical model for collective magnetic excitations in nanoparticles. In nanoparticles of antiferromagnetic...... materials, quantum effects give rise to a small deviation from the linear temperature dependence of the (sublattice) magnetization at very low temperatures. The complex nature of the excited precession states of nanoparticles of antiferromagnetic materials, with deviations from antiparallel orientation...

  10. Chemistry of Selected Core Samples, Concentrate, Tailings, and Tailings Pond Waters: Pea Ridge Iron (-Lanthanide-Gold) Deposit, Washington County, Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grauch, Richard I.; Verplanck, Philip L.; Seeger, Cheryl M.; Budahn, James R.; Van Gosen, Bradley S.

    2010-01-01

    The Minerals at Risk and for Emerging Technologies Project of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Mineral Resources Program is examining potential sources of lanthanide elements (rare earth elements) as part of its objective to provide up-to-date geologic information regarding mineral commodities likely to have increased demand in the near term. As part of the examination effort, a short visit was made to the Pea Ridge iron (-lanthanide-gold) deposit, Washington County, Missouri in October 2008. The deposit, currently owned by Wings Enterprises, Inc. of St. Louis, Missouri (Wings), contains concentrations of lanthanides that may be economic as a primary product or as a byproduct of iron ore production. This report tabulates the results of chemical analyses of the Pea Ridge samples and compares rare earth elements contents for world class lanthanide deposits with those of the Pea Ridge deposit. The data presented for the Pea Ridge deposit are preliminary and include some company data that have not been verified by the USGS or by the Missouri Department of Natural Resources, Division of Geology and Land Survey (DGLS), Geological Survey Program (MGS). The inclusion of company data is for comparative purposes only and does not imply an endorsement by either the USGS or MGS.

  11. Spacetime transformations from a uniformly accelerated frame

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedman, Yaakov; Scarr, Tzvi

    2013-01-01

    We use the generalized Fermi–Walker transport to construct a one-parameter family of inertial frames which are instantaneously comoving to a uniformly accelerated observer. We explain the connection between our approach and that of Mashhoon. We show that our solutions of uniformly accelerated motion have constant acceleration in the comoving frame. Assuming the weak hypothesis of locality, we obtain local spacetime transformations from a uniformly accelerated frame K′ to an inertial frame K. The spacetime transformations between two uniformly accelerated frames with the same acceleration are Lorentz. We compute the metric at an arbitrary point of a uniformly accelerated frame. (paper)

  12. Determining Late Pleistocene to Early Holocene deglaciation of the Baltic Ice Lake through sedimentological core sample analysis of IODP Site M0064

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, A. L.; Passchier, S.

    2016-12-01

    This study investigates the deglaciation history of the Scandinavian Ice Sheet (SIS) within the Baltic Sea's Hanö Bay from the Late Pleistocene to the Holocene using samples from International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) Site M0064. The research aims to understand how the speed of deglaciation influences Baltic Ice Lake (BIL) drainage patterns and relative sea level changes on a high-resolution timescale. Glacial history of the SIS has been studied through glacial till analysis, surface exposure dating, and modeling, encompassing its most recent deglaciation 20-14ka BP, and suggests ice retreated from the project site 16.7ka BP. Between 17 and 14ka BP global sea level rose 4 meters per century, accompanied by a dramatic increase in atmospheric carbon. This period of rapid sea level rise and global warming is a valuable analog for understanding the Earth's current and projected climate. This project uses particle size analysis to better understand the late-glacial depositional environment in Hanö Bay, and ICP-OES geochemical analysis for evidence pertaining to changing sediment provenance and bottom water oxygenation in the BIL. Diamicton is present between 47 and 9 mbsf in Hole M0064D. At 8 mbsf, the sediment exhibits a prominent upward transition from well-laminated cm-scale grey to more thinly laminated reddish brown rhythmites. With calculated Al/Ti ratios, we find that there is not much provenance change in the sequence, however we see fluctuations in Mn/Al ratios, implying shifts in sediment color may be chemical, possibly indicating redox changes in the water column during sediment deposition. Although we find that particle size in the varve sequence does not change, this factor may be driving chemical fluctuations in the diamicton. These results increase the understanding of ice retreat, paleocirculation and relative sea level changes in the Baltic Sea at the onset of the last deglaciation.

  13. Reactor core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuura, Tetsuaki; Nomura, Teiji; Tokunaga, Kensuke; Okuda, Shin-ichi

    1990-01-01

    Fuel assemblies in the portions where the gradient of fast neutron fluxes between two opposing faces of a channel box is great are kept loaded at the outermost peripheral position of the reactor core also in the second operation cycle in the order to prevent interference between a control rod and the channel box due to bending deformation of the channel box. Further, the fuel assemblies in the second row from the outer most periphery in the first operation cycle are also kept loaded at the second row in the second operation cycle. Since the gradient of the fast neutrons in the reactor core is especially great at the outer circumference of the reactor core, the channel box at the outer circumference is bent such that the surface facing to the center of the reactor core is convexed and the channel box in the second row is also bent to the identical direction, the insertion of the control rod is not interfered. Further, if the positions for the fuels at the outermost periphery and the fuels in the second row are not altered in the second operation cycle, the gaps are not reduced to prevent the interference between the control rod and the channel box. (N.H.)

  14. Sample management implementation plan: Salt Repository Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of the Sample Management Implementation Plan is to define management controls and building requirements for handling materials collected during the site characterization of the Deaf Smith County, Texas, site. This work will be conducted for the US Department of Energy Salt Repository Project Office (SRPO). The plan provides for controls mandated by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the US Environmental Protection Agency. Salt Repository Project (SRP) Sample Management will interface with program participants who request, collect, and test samples. SRP Sample Management will be responsible for the following: (1) preparing samples; (2) ensuring documentation control; (3) providing for uniform forms, labels, data formats, and transportation and storage requirements; and (4) identifying sample specifications to ensure sample quality. The SRP Sample Management Facility will be operated under a set of procedures that will impact numerous program participants. Requesters of samples will be responsible for definition of requirements in advance of collection. Sample requests for field activities will be approved by the SRPO, aided by an advisory group, the SRP Sample Allocation Committee. This document details the staffing, building, storage, and transportation requirements for establishing an SRP Sample Management Facility. Materials to be managed in the facility include rock core and rock discontinuities, soils, fluids, biota, air particulates, cultural artifacts, and crop and food stuffs. 39 refs., 3 figs., 11 tabs

  15. Complexity of nearshore strontium-to-calcium ratio variability in a core sample of the massive coral Siderastrea siderea obtained in Coral Bay, St. John, U.S. Virgin Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, Christopher D.; Kuffner, Ilsa B.; Hickey, T. Don; Morrison, Jennifer M.; Flannery, Jennifer A.

    2013-01-01

    Strontium-to-calcium ratios (Sr/Ca) were measured on the skeletal matrix of a core sample from a colony of the massive coral Siderastrea siderea collected in Coral Bay, St. John, U.S. Virgin Islands. Strontium and calcium are incorporated into the coral skeleton during the precipitation of aragonite by the coral polyps and their ratio is highly temperature dependent. The robustness of this temperature dependence makes Sr/Ca a reliable proxy for sea surface temperature (SST). Details presented from the St. John S. siderea core indicate that terrestrial inputs of sediment and freshwater can disrupt the chemical balance and subsequently complicate the utility of Sr/Ca in reconstructing historical SST. An approximately 44-year-long record of Sr/Ca shows that an annual SST signal is recorded but with an increasing Sr/Ca trend from 1980 to present, which is likely the result of runoff from the mountainous terrain of St. John. The overwhelming influence of the terrestrial fingerprint on local seawater chemistry makes utilizing Sr/Ca as a SST proxy in nearshore environments very difficult.

  16. Discovery of Uniformly Expanding Universe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cahill R. T.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Saul Perlmutter and the Brian Schmidt – Adam Riess teams reported that their Friedmann-model GR-based analysis of their supernovae magnitude-redshift data re- vealed a new phenomenon of “dark energy” which, it is claimed, forms 73% of the energy / matter density of the present-epoch universe, and which is linked to the further claim of an accelerating expansion of the universe. In 2011 Perlmutter, Schmidt and Riess received the Nobel Prize in Physics “for the discovery of the accelerating ex- pansion of the Universe through observations of distant supernovae”. Here it is shown that (i a generic model-independent analysis of this data reveals a uniformly expanding universe, (ii their analysis actually used Newtonian gravity, and finally (iii the data, as well as the CMB fluctuation data, does not require “dark energy” nor “dark matter”, but instead reveals the phenomenon of a dynamical space, which is absent from the Friedmann model.

  17. YOUNG STARLESS CORES EMBEDDED IN THE MAGNETICALLY DOMINATED PIPE NEBULA. II. EXTENDED DATA SET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frau, P.; Girart, J. M.; Padovani, M.; Beltrán, M. T.; Sánchez-Monge, Á.; Busquet, G.; Morata, O.; Masqué, J. M.; Estalella, R.; Alves, F. O.; Franco, G. A. P.

    2012-01-01

    The Pipe nebula is a massive, nearby, filamentary dark molecular cloud with a low star formation efficiency threaded by a uniform magnetic field perpendicular to its main axis. It harbors more than a hundred, mostly quiescent, very chemically young starless cores. The cloud is therefore a good laboratory to study the earliest stages of the star formation process. We aim to investigate the primordial conditions and the relation among physical, chemical, and magnetic properties in the evolution of low-mass starless cores. We used the IRAM 30 m telescope to map the 1.2 mm dust continuum emission of five new starless cores, which are in good agreement with previous visual extinction maps. For the sample of nine cores, which includes the four cores studied in a previous work, we derived an A V to N H 2 factor of (1.27 ± 0.12) × 10 –21 mag cm 2 and a background visual extinction of ∼6.7 mag possibly arising from the cloud material. We derived an average core diameter of ∼0.08 pc, density of ∼10 5 cm –3 , and mass of ∼1.7 M ☉ . Several trends seem to exist related to increasing core density: (1) the diameter seems to shrink, (2) the mass seems to increase, and (3) the chemistry tends to be richer. No correlation is found between the direction of the surrounding diffuse medium magnetic field and the projected orientation of the cores, suggesting that large-scale magnetic fields seem to play a secondary role in shaping the cores. We also used the IRAM 30 m telescope to extend the previous molecular survey at 1 and 3 mm of early- and late-time molecules toward the same five new Pipe nebula starless cores, and analyzed the normalized intensities of the detected molecular transitions. We confirmed the chemical differentiation toward the sample and increased the number of molecular transitions of the 'diffuse' (e.g., the 'ubiquitous' CO, C 2 H, and CS), 'oxo-sulfurated' (e.g., SO and CH 3 OH), and 'deuterated' (e.g., N 2 H + , CN, and HCN) starless core groups

  18. TMI-2 core examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobbins, R.R.; MacDonald, P.E.; Owen, D.E.

    1983-01-01

    The examination of the damaged core at the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) reactor is structured to address the following safety issues: fission product release, transport, and deposition; core coolability; containment integrity; and recriticality during severe accidents; as well as zircaloy cladding ballooning and oxidation during so-called design basis accidents. The numbers of TMI-2 components or samples to be examined, the priority of each examination, the safety issue addressed by each examination, the principal examination techniques to be employed, and the data to be obtained and the principal uses of the data are discussed in this paper

  19. Methods for obtaining a uniform volume concentration of implanted ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reutov, V.F.

    1995-01-01

    Three simple practical methods of irradiations with high energy particles providing the conditions for obtaining a uniform volume concentration of the implanted ions in the massive samples are described in the present paper. Realization of the condition of two-sided irradiation of a plane sample during its rotation in the flux of the projectiles is the basis of the first method. The use of free air as a filter with varying absorbent ability due to movement of the irradiated sample along ion beam brought to the atmosphere is at the basis of the second method of uniform ion alloying. The third method for obtaining a uniform volume concentration of the implanted ions in a massive sample consists of irradiation of a sample through the absorbent filter in the shape of a foil curved according to the parabolic law moving along its surface. The first method is the most effective for obtaining a great number of the samples, for example, for mechanical tests, the second one - for irradiation in different gaseous media, and the third one - for obtaining high concentrations of the implanted ions under controlled (regulated) thermal and deformation conditions. 2 refs., 7 figs

  20. School uniforms: tradition, benefit or predicament?

    OpenAIRE

    Van Aardt, Annette Marie; Wilken, Ilani

    2012-01-01

    This article focuses on the controversies surrounding school uniforms. Roleplayers in this debate in South Africa are parents, learners and educators, and arguments centre on aspects such as identity, economy and the equalising effect of school uniforms, which are considered in the literature to be benefits. Opposing viewpoints highlight the fact that compulsory uniforms infringe on learners’ constitutional rights to self-expression. The aim of this research was to determine the perspectives ...

  1. Ferromagnetic resonance studies of lunar core stratigraphy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Housley, R. M.; Cirlin, E. H.; Goldberg, I. B.; Crowe, H.

    1976-01-01

    We first review the evidence which links the characteristic ferromagnetic resonance observed in lunar fines samples with agglutinatic glass produced primarily by micrometeorite impacts and present new results on Apollo 15, 16, and 17 breccias which support this link by showing that only regolith breccias contribute significantly to the characteristic FMR intensity. We then provide a calibration of the amount of Fe metal in the form of uniformly magnetized spheres required to give our observed FMR intensities and discuss the theoretical magnetic behavior to be expected of Fe spheres as a function of size. Finally, we present FMR results on samples from every 5 mm interval in the core segments 60003, 60009, and 70009. These results lead us to suggest: (1) that secondary mixing may generally be extensive during regolith deposition so that buried regolith surfaces are hard to recognize or define; and (2) that local grinding of rocks and pebbles during deposition may lead to short scale fluctuations in grain size, composition, and apparent exposure age of samples.

  2. Washing and changing uniforms: is guidance being adhered to?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Yvonne Camilla; Justham, David

    To allay public apprehension regarding the risk of nurses' uniforms transmitting healthcare-associated infections (HCAI), national and local guidelines have been issued to control use, laundry and storage. This paper aims to measure the knowledge of registered nurses (RNs) and healthcare assistants (HCAs) working within a rural NHS foundation Trust and their adherence to the local infection prevention and control (IPC) standard regarding uniforms through a Trust-wide audit. Stratified random sampling selected 597 nursing staff and 399 responded (67%) by completing a short questionnaire based on the local standard. Responses were coded and transferred to SPSS (v. 17) for analysis. The audit found that nursing staff generally adhere to the guidelines, changing their uniforms daily and immediately upon accidental soiling, and wearing plastic aprons where indicated. At home, staff normally machine-wash and then iron their uniforms at the hottest setting. Nevertheless, few observe the local direction to place their newly-laundered uniforms in protective covers. This paper recommends a re-audit to compare compliance rates with baseline figures and further research into the reasons why compliance is lacking to sanction interventions for improvement, such as providing relevant staff education and re-introducing appropriate changing facilities.

  3. TMI-2 core bore acquisition summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolman, E.L.; Smith, R.P.; Martin, M.R.; McCardell, R.K.; Broughton, J.M.

    1986-09-01

    Core bore samples were obtained from the severely damaged TMI-2 core during July and August, 1986. A description of the TMI-2 core bore drilling unit used to obtain samples; a summary and discussion of the data from the ten core bore segments which were obtained; and the initial results of analysis and evaluation of these data are presented in this report. The impact of the major findings relative to our understanding of the accident scenario is also discussed

  4. Phosphate, carbonate and organic matter distribution in sediment cores off Bombay-Saurashtra coast, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Setty, M.G.A.P.; Rao, Ch.M.

    relationship. The total phosphorus value is high in the core from the slope, almost uniform in the cores from the outer shelf and a core from the nearby basin, but poor in a core (no. 3) considered to be from a 'closed basin' within the shelf. The total...

  5. Core BPEL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallwyl, Tim; Højsgaard, Espen

    The Web Services Business Process Execution Language (WS-BPEL) is a language for expressing business process behaviour based on web services. The language is intentionally not minimal but provides a rich set of constructs, allows omission of constructs by relying on defaults, and supports language......, does not allow omissions, and does not contain ignorable elements. We do so by identifying syntactic sugar, including default values, and ignorable elements in WS-BPEL. The analysis results in a translation from the full language to the core subset. Thus, we reduce the effort needed for working...

  6. Uniform deposition of size-selected clusters using Lissajous scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beniya, Atsushi; Watanabe, Yoshihide; Hirata, Hirohito

    2016-01-01

    Size-selected clusters can be deposited on the surface using size-selected cluster ion beams. However, because of the cross-sectional intensity distribution of the ion beam, it is difficult to define the coverage of the deposited clusters. The aggregation probability of the cluster depends on coverage, whereas cluster size on the surface depends on the position, despite the size-selected clusters are deposited. It is crucial, therefore, to deposit clusters uniformly on the surface. In this study, size-selected clusters were deposited uniformly on surfaces by scanning the cluster ions in the form of Lissajous pattern. Two sets of deflector electrodes set in orthogonal directions were placed in front of the sample surface. Triangular waves were applied to the electrodes with an irrational frequency ratio to ensure that the ion trajectory filled the sample surface. The advantages of this method are simplicity and low cost of setup compared with raster scanning method. The authors further investigated CO adsorption on size-selected Pt n (n = 7, 15, 20) clusters uniformly deposited on the Al 2 O 3 /NiAl(110) surface and demonstrated the importance of uniform deposition.

  7. Uniform deposition of size-selected clusters using Lissajous scanning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beniya, Atsushi; Watanabe, Yoshihide, E-mail: e0827@mosk.tytlabs.co.jp [Toyota Central R& D Labs., Inc., 41-1 Yokomichi, Nagakute, Aichi 480-1192 (Japan); Hirata, Hirohito [Toyota Motor Corporation, 1200 Mishuku, Susono, Shizuoka 410-1193 (Japan)

    2016-05-15

    Size-selected clusters can be deposited on the surface using size-selected cluster ion beams. However, because of the cross-sectional intensity distribution of the ion beam, it is difficult to define the coverage of the deposited clusters. The aggregation probability of the cluster depends on coverage, whereas cluster size on the surface depends on the position, despite the size-selected clusters are deposited. It is crucial, therefore, to deposit clusters uniformly on the surface. In this study, size-selected clusters were deposited uniformly on surfaces by scanning the cluster ions in the form of Lissajous pattern. Two sets of deflector electrodes set in orthogonal directions were placed in front of the sample surface. Triangular waves were applied to the electrodes with an irrational frequency ratio to ensure that the ion trajectory filled the sample surface. The advantages of this method are simplicity and low cost of setup compared with raster scanning method. The authors further investigated CO adsorption on size-selected Pt{sub n} (n = 7, 15, 20) clusters uniformly deposited on the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/NiAl(110) surface and demonstrated the importance of uniform deposition.

  8. School Uniform Policies in Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunsma, David L.

    2006-01-01

    The movement for school uniforms in public schools continues to grow despite the author's research indicating little if any impact on student behavior, achievement, and self-esteem. The author examines the distribution of uniform policies by region and demographics, the impact of these policies on perceptions of school climate and safety, and…

  9. School Uniform Policies: Students' Views of Effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Teresa M.; Moreno, Josephine

    2001-01-01

    Focus-group interviews of New York City middle-school students about their perceptions of the effectiveness of the school-uniform policy. Finds that students' perceptions of the effects of school-uniform policy on school culture varied considerably with those intended by the principal. (Contains 40 references.) (PKP)

  10. School Uniforms and Discourses on Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodine, Ann

    2003-01-01

    This ethnographic study examined the introduction of school uniforms in the public schools of one California city. Findings indicated that the uniform issue intersected with issues such as student safety and violence, family stress, egalitarianism, competitive dressing, and a power struggle over shaping the childhood environment. It was concluded…

  11. Student Dress Codes and Uniforms. Research Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Howard

    2009-01-01

    According to an Education Commission of the States "Policy Report", research on the effects of dress code and school uniform policies is inconclusive and mixed. Some researchers find positive effects; others claim no effects or only perceived effects. While no state has legislatively mandated the wearing of school uniforms, 28 states and…

  12. School Dress Codes and Uniform Policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Wendell

    2002-01-01

    Opinions abound on what students should wear to class. Some see student dress as a safety issue; others see it as a student-rights issue. The issue of dress codes and uniform policies has been tackled in the classroom, the boardroom, and the courtroom. This Policy Report examines the whole fabric of the debate on dress codes and uniform policies…

  13. A School Uniform Program That Works.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loesch, Paul C.

    1995-01-01

    According to advocates, school uniforms reduce gang influence, decrease families' clothing expenditures, and help mitigate potentially divisive cultural and economic differences. Aiming to improve school climate, a California elementary school adopted uniforms as a source of pride and affiliation. This article describes the development of the…

  14. Devaney's chaos on uniform limit maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Kesong; Zeng Fanping; Zhang Gengrong

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The transitivity may not been inherited even if the sequence functions mixing. → The sensitivity may not been inherited even if the iterates of sequence have some uniform convergence. → Some equivalence conditions for the transitivity and sensitivity for uniform limit function are given. → A non-transitive sequence may converge uniformly to a transitive map. - Abstract: Let (X, d) be a compact metric space and f n : X → X a sequence of continuous maps such that (f n ) converges uniformly to a map f. The purpose of this paper is to study the Devaney's chaos on the uniform limit f. On the one hand, we show that f is not necessarily transitive even if all f n mixing, and the sensitive dependence on initial conditions may not been inherited to f even if the iterates of the sequence have some uniform convergence, which correct two wrong claims in . On the other hand, we give some equivalence conditions for the uniform limit f to be transitive and to have sensitive dependence on initial conditions. Moreover, we present an example to show that a non-transitive sequence may converge uniformly to a transitive map.

  15. Growth functions for some uniformly amenable groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dronka Janusz

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available We present a simple constructive proof of the fact that every abelian discrete group is uniformly amenable. We improve the growth function obtained earlier and find the optimal growth function in a particular case. We also compute a growth function for some non-abelian uniformly amenable group.

  16. On Uniform Exponential Trichotomy in Banach Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovacs Monteola Ilona

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we consider three concepts of uniform exponential trichotomy on the half-line in the general framework of evolution operators in Banach spaces. We obtain a systematic classification of uniform exponential trichotomy concepts and the connections between them.

  17. Controlling of density uniformity of polyacrylate foams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shan Wenwen; Yuan Baohe; Wang Yanhong; Xu Jiayun; Zhang Lin

    2010-01-01

    The density non-uniformity existing in most low-density foams will affect performance of the foams. The trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate (TMPTA) foam targets were prepared and controlling methods of the foams, density uniformity were explored together with its forming mechanism. It has been found that the UV-light with high intensity can improve the distribution uniformity of the free radicals induced by UV photons in the solvents, thus improve the density uniformity of the foams. In addition, container wall would influence the concentration distribution of the solution, which affects the density uniformity of the foams. Thus, the UV-light with high intensity was chosen together with polytetrafluoroethylene molds instead of glass molds to prepare the foams with the density non-uniformity less than 10%. β-ray detection technology was used to measure the density uniformity of the TMPTA foams with the density in the range of 10 to 100 mg · cm -3 , and the results show that the lower the foam density is, the worse the density uniformity is. (authors)

  18. A Uniform Syntax and Discourse Structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hardt, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    I present arguments in favor of the Uniformity Hypothesis: the hypothesis that discourse can extend syntax dependencies without conflicting with them. I consider arguments that Uniformity is violated in certain cases involving quotation, and I argue that the cases presented in the literature...

  19. Cantilever arrays with self-aligned nanotips of uniform height

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koelmans, W W; Peters, T; Berenschot, E; De Boer, M J; Siekman, M H; Abelmann, L

    2012-01-01

    Cantilever arrays are employed to increase the throughput of imaging and manipulation at the nanoscale. We present a fabrication process to construct cantilever arrays with nanotips that show a uniform tip–sample distance. Such uniformity is crucial, because in many applications the cantilevers do not feature individual tip–sample spacing control. Uniform cantilever arrays lead to very similar tip–sample interaction within an array, enable non-contact modes for arrays and give better control over the load force in contact modes. The developed process flow uses a single mask to define both tips and cantilevers. An additional mask is required for the back side etch. The tips are self-aligned in the convex corner at the free end of each cantilever. Although we use standard optical contact lithography, we show that the convex corner can be sharpened to a nanometre scale radius by an isotropic underetch step. The process is robust and wafer-scale. The resonance frequencies of the cantilevers within an array are shown to be highly uniform with a relative standard error of 0.26% or lower. The tip–sample distance within an array of up to ten cantilevers is measured to have a standard error around 10 nm. An imaging demonstration using the AFM shows that all cantilevers in the array have a sharp tip with a radius below 10 nm. The process flow for the cantilever arrays finds application in probe-based nanolithography, probe-based data storage, nanomanufacturing and parallel scanning probe microscopy. (paper)

  20. Environmental radionuclide concentrations: statistical model to determine uniformity of distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cawley, C.N.; Fenyves, E.J.; Spitzberg, D.B.; Wiorkowski, J.; Chehroudi, M.T.

    1980-01-01

    In the evaluation of data from environmental sampling and measurement, a basic question is whether the radionuclide (or pollutant) is distributed uniformly. Since physical measurements have associated errors, it is inappropriate to consider the measurements alone in this determination. Hence, a statistical model has been developed. It consists of a weighted analysis of variance with subsequent t-tests between weighted and independent means. A computer program to perform the calculations is included

  1. On Uniform Weak König's Lemma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kohlenbach, Ulrich

    2002-01-01

    The so-called weak Konig's lemma WKL asserts the existence of an infinite path b in any infinite binary tree (given by a representing function f). Based on this principle one can formulate subsystems of higher-order arithmetic which allow to carry out very substantial parts of classical mathematics...... which-relative to PRA -implies the schema of 10-induction). In this setting one can consider also a uniform version UWKL of WKL which asserts the existence of a functional which selects uniformly in a given infinite binary tree f an infinite path f of that tree. This uniform version of WKL...

  2. Magnetic solid phase extraction using ionic liquid-coated core-shell magnetic nanoparticles followed by high-performance liquid chromatography for determination of Rhodamine B in food samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jieping; Zhu, Xiashi

    2016-06-01

    Three hydrophobic ionic liquids (ILs) (1-butyl-3-methylimidazole hexafluorophosphate ([BMIM]PF6), 1-hexyl-3-methyl-imidazole hexafluoro-phosphate ([HMIM]PF6), and 1-octyl-3-methylimidazole hexafluorophosphate ([OMIM]PF6)) were used to coat Fe3O4@SiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) with core-shell structures to prepare magnetic solid phase extraction (MSPE) agents (Fe3O4@SiO2@IL). A novel method of MSPE coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography for the separation/analysis of Rhodamine B was then established. The results showed that Rhodamine B was adsorbed rapidly on Fe3O4@SiO2@[OMIM]PF6 and was released using ethanol. Under optimal conditions, the pre-concentration factor for the proposed method was 25. The linear range, limit of detection (LOD), correlation coefficient (R), and relative standard deviation (RSD) were found to be 0.50-150.00 μgL(-1), 0.08 μgL(-1), 0.9999, and 0.51% (n=3, c=10.00 μgL(-1)), respectively. The Fe3O4@SiO2 NPs could be re-used up to 10 times. The method was successfully applied to the determination of Rhodamine B in food samples. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Core calculations of JMTR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagao, Yoshiharu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Research Establishment

    1998-03-01

    In material testing reactors like the JMTR (Japan Material Testing Reactor) of 50 MW in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, the neutron flux and neutron energy spectra of irradiated samples show complex distributions. It is necessary to assess the neutron flux and neutron energy spectra of an irradiation field by carrying out the nuclear calculation of the core for every operation cycle. In order to advance core calculation, in the JMTR, the application of MCNP to the assessment of core reactivity and neutron flux and spectra has been investigated. In this study, in order to reduce the time for calculation and variance, the comparison of the results of the calculations by the use of K code and fixed source and the use of Weight Window were investigated. As to the calculation method, the modeling of the total JMTR core, the conditions for calculation and the adopted variance reduction technique are explained. The results of calculation are shown. Significant difference was not observed in the results of neutron flux calculations according to the difference of the modeling of fuel region in the calculations by K code and fixed source. The method of assessing the results of neutron flux calculation is described. (K.I.)

  4. Uniform Facility Data Set US (UFDS-1997)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Uniform Facility Data Set (UFDS), formerly the National Drug and Alcohol Treatment Unit Survey or NDATUS, was designed to measure the scope and use of drug abuse...

  5. Uniform Facility Data Set US (UFDS-1998)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Uniform Facility Data Set (UFDS) was designed to measure the scope and use of drug abuse treatment services in the United States. The survey collects information...

  6. Nonimaging solar concentrator with uniform irradiance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winston, Roland; O'Gallagher, Joseph J.; Gee, Randy C.

    2004-09-01

    We report results of a study our group has undertaken under NREL/DOE auspices to design a solar concentrator with uniform irradiance on a planar target. This attribute is especially important for photovoltaic concentrators.

  7. Uniforms, status and professional boundaries in hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmons, Stephen; East, Linda

    2011-11-01

    Despite their comparative neglect analytically, uniforms play a key role in the delineation of occupational boundaries and the formation of professional identity in healthcare. This paper analyses a change to the system of uniforms in one UK hospital, where management have required all professions (with the exception of doctors) to wear the same 'corporate' uniform. Focus groups were conducted with the professionals and patients. We analyse this initiative as a kind of McDonaldisation, seeking to create a new 'corporate' worker whose allegiance is principally to the organisation, rather than a profession. Our findings show how important uniforms are to their wearers, both in terms of the defence of professional boundaries and status, as well as the construction of professional identity. © 2011 The Authors. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2011 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. Uniform Reserve Training and Retirement Category Administration

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kohner, D

    1997-01-01

    This Instruction implement policy as provided in DoD Directive 1215.6, assigns responsibilities and prescribes procedures that pertain to the designation and use of uniform Reserve component (RC) categories (RCCs...

  9. Tolerancing a lens for LED uniform illumination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Jieun; Sasian, Jose

    2017-08-01

    A method to evaluate tolerance sensitivities for lenses used to produce uniform illumination is presented. Closed form surfaces are used to define optical surfaces and relative illumination is calculated from light etendue considerations.

  10. Development and application of the capacity to make tests of dynamic displacement in samples of oil well drilling cores; Desarrollo y aplicacion de la capacidad para realizar pruebas de desplazamiento dinamico en muestras de nucleos de perforacion de pozos petroleros

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contreras L, Enrique; Garcia M, Pablo [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2001-07-01

    In the Laboratory of Deposits of the Gerencia de Geotermia of the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) the capacity has been developed to make tests of dynamic oil displacement by means of gas or brine injection in samples of oil well drilling cores. Also the methodologies to interpret the results of these tests in terms of dynamics and the efficiency of the oil recovery in terms of the relative permeability have been developed. These capacities represent a very important contribution towards the improvement of the insufficiency that exists in the country to make the large amount of tests of dynamic displacement that demand the different Actives of PEMEX Exploration and Production (PEP), since they satisfy their necessities of data on which the activities of design and implementation of the most suitable techniques for the hydrocarbon recovery of the oil deposits lean. In the present work these capacities are described and some examples are presented of the results that have been obtained from their application in special studies of drilling cores, which have been recently made in the Laboratory of Deposits of the IIE for diverse Actives of PEP exploitation. [Spanish] En el laboratorio de yacimientos de la Gerencia de Geotermia del Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) se ha desarrollado la capacidad de realizar pruebas de desplazamiento dinamico de aceite mediante inyeccion de salmuera o de gases en muestras de nucleos de perforacion de pozos petroleros. Tambien se han desarrollado las metodologias para interpretar los resultados de estas pruebas en terminos de la dinamica y la eficiencia de la recuperacion de aceite y en terminos de la permeabilidades relativas. Estas capacidades representan una contribucion muy importante hacia el mejoramiento de la insuficiencia que existe en el pais para realizar la gran cantidad de pruebas de desplazamiento dinamico que demandan los diferentes activos de explotacion de PEMEX Exploracion y Produccion (PEP), ya

  11. Uniform emergency codes: will they improve safety?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    There are pros and cons to uniform code systems, according to emergency medicine experts. Uniformity can be a benefit when ED nurses and other staff work at several facilities. It's critical that your staff understand not only what the codes stand for, but what they must do when codes are called. If your state institutes a new system, be sure to hold regular drills to familiarize your ED staff.

  12. Quasiparticles in non-uniformly magnetized plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sosenko, P.P.

    1994-01-01

    A quasiparticle concept is generalized for the case of non-uniformly magnetized plasma. Exact and reduced continuity equations for the microscopic density in the quasiparticle phase space are derived, and the nature of quasiparticles is analyzed. The theory is developed for the general case of relativistic particles in electromagnetic fields, besides non-uniform but stationary magnetic fields. Effects of non-stationary magnetic fields are briefly investigated also. 26 refs

  13. Amostragem de acessos introduzidos e melhorados para composição de uma coleção núcleo de milho Sampling of introduced and improved access to composition of a core collection of corn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo Rodrigues Coimbra

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Visando a amostragem de acessos para comporem uma coleção núcleo de milho, foram amostrados acessos introduzidos e melhorados da Coleção Ativa de Germoplasma da Embrapa Milho e Sorgo, localizada em Sete Lagoas, MG. A estratégia de amostragem utilizada foi baseada em análise multivariada, sendo adotada intensidade de amostragem de 20%. A estratificação dos acesos introduzidos foi realizada principalmente de acordo com o país de origem, local de avaliação e tipo de grão. Para os acessos melhorados considerou-se principalmente o tipo de grão e a instituição responsável pela realização do melhoramento do acesso. Verificou-se a necessidade de se realizar a caracterização e avaliação de muitos acessos introduzidos e melhorados. Foi possível observar a existência de variabilidade genética entre os acessos introduzidos e melhorados. As características altura de planta e peso de mil grãos foram as que mais contribuíram para a discriminação dos genótipos. A utilização combinada do método de Tocher tendo como medida de dissimilaridade a distância euclidiana invertida e a análise de dispersão gráfica com base nos três primeiros componentes principais foi eficiente. Foi possível a amostragem de acessos para comporem uma coleção núcleo de milho com base em análise multivariada a partir de dados de caracterização e avaliação.Aiming at the selection of accessions to compose a core collection of maize, were sampled access introduced and improved of Active Germplasm Bank at Embrapa Milho e Sorgo, located in Sete Lagoas, MG, Brazil. The sampling strategy was based in multivariate analysis, and adopted a sampling rate of 20% of accesses. Stratification of introduced accessions was in according with the country of origin, place of assessment and type of grain. For improved access was considered mainly the type of grain and the institution responsible for improvement of access. There is a need to perform the

  14. The mathematical description of uniformity and related theorems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Chuanwen; Yi Chundi; Wang Gang; Li Longsuo; Wang Chuncheng

    2009-01-01

    Uniform index is a conception that can describe the uniformity of a finite point set in a polyhedron, and is closely related to chaos. In order to study uniform index, the concept of contained uniform index is defined, which is similar to uniform index and has good mathematical properties. In this paper, we prove the convergence of the contained uniform index, and develop the base of proving the convergence of uniform index.

  15. Impact of Uniform Methods on Interlaboratory Antibody Titration Variability: Antibody Titration and Uniform Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachegowda, Lohith S; Cheng, Yan H; Long, Thomas; Shaz, Beth H

    2017-01-01

    -Substantial variability between different antibody titration methods prompted development and introduction of uniform methods in 2008. -To determine whether uniform methods consistently decrease interlaboratory variation in proficiency testing. -Proficiency testing data for antibody titration between 2009 and 2013 were obtained from the College of American Pathologists. Each laboratory was supplied plasma and red cells to determine anti-A and anti-D antibody titers by their standard method: gel or tube by uniform or other methods at different testing phases (immediate spin and/or room temperature [anti-A], and/or anti-human globulin [AHG: anti-A and anti-D]) with different additives. Interlaboratory variations were compared by analyzing the distribution of titer results by method and phase. -A median of 574 and 1100 responses were reported for anti-A and anti-D antibody titers, respectively, during a 5-year period. The 3 most frequent (median) methods performed for anti-A antibody were uniform tube room temperature (147.5; range, 119-159), uniform tube AHG (143.5; range, 134-150), and other tube AHG (97; range, 82-116); for anti-D antibody, the methods were other tube (451; range, 431-465), uniform tube (404; range, 382-462), and uniform gel (137; range, 121-153). Of the larger reported methods, uniform gel AHG phase for anti-A and anti-D antibodies had the most participants with the same result (mode). For anti-A antibody, 0 of 8 (uniform versus other tube room temperature) and 1 of 8 (uniform versus other tube AHG), and for anti-D antibody, 0 of 8 (uniform versus other tube) and 0 of 8 (uniform versus other gel) proficiency tests showed significant titer variability reduction. -Uniform methods harmonize laboratory techniques but rarely reduce interlaboratory titer variance in comparison with other methods.

  16. Radar Doppler Processing with Nonuniform Sampling.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerry, Armin W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-07-01

    Conventional signal processing to estimate radar Doppler frequency often assumes uniform pulse/sample spacing. This is for the convenience of t he processing. More recent performance enhancements in processor capability allow optimally processing nonuniform pulse/sample spacing, thereby overcoming some of the baggage that attends uniform sampling, such as Doppler ambiguity and SNR losses due to sidelobe control measures.

  17. Design and analysis of a toroidal tester for the measurement of core losses under axial compressive stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alatawneh, Natheer; Rahman, Tanvir; Lowther, David A.; Chromik, Richard

    2017-06-01

    Electric machine cores are subjected to mechanical stresses due to manufacturing processes. These stresses include radial, circumferential and axial components that may have significant influences on the magnetic properties of the electrical steel and hence, on the output and efficiencies of electrical machines. Previously, most studies of iron losses due to mechanical stress have considered only radial and circumferential components. In this work, an improved toroidal tester has been designed and developed to measure the core losses and the magnetic properties of electrical steel under a compressive axial stress. The shape of the toroidal ring has been verified using 3D stress analysis. Also, 3D electromagnetic simulations show a uniform flux density distribution in the specimen with a variation of 0.03 T and a maximum average induction level of 1.5 T. The developed design has been prototyped, and measurements were carried out using a steel sample of grade 35WW300. Measurements show that applying small mechanical stresses normal to the sample thickness rises the delivered core losses, then the losses decrease continuously as the stress increases. However, the drop in core losses at high stresses does not go lower than the free-stress condition. Physical explanations for the observed trend of core losses as a function of stress are provided based on core loss separation to the hysteresis and eddy current loss components. The experimental results show that the effect of axial compressive stress on magnetic properties of electrical steel at high level of inductions becomes less pronounced.

  18. 7 CFR 1005.61 - Computation of uniform prices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... month, the market administrator shall compute a uniform butterfat price, a uniform skim milk price, and...) and (a)(2) of this section. (b) Uniform skim milk price. The uniform skim milk price per hundredweight... paragraph (a) of this section times 3.5 pounds of butterfat; and (2) Multiply the uniform skim milk price...

  19. 7 CFR 1006.61 - Computation of uniform prices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., the market administrator shall compute a uniform butterfat price, a uniform skim milk price, and a... section. (b) Uniform skim milk price. The uniform skim milk price per hundredweight, rounded to the... paragraph (a) of this section times 3.5 pounds of butterfat; and (2) Multiply the uniform skim milk price...

  20. 7 CFR 1131.61 - Computation of uniform prices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., the market administrator shall compute a uniform butterfat price, a uniform skim milk price, and a... section. (b) Uniform skim milk price. The uniform skim milk price per hundredweight, rounded to the... paragraph (a) of this section times 3.5 pounds of butterfat; and (2) Multiply the uniform skim milk price...

  1. 7 CFR 1007.61 - Computation of uniform prices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., the market administrator shall compute a uniform butterfat price, a uniform skim milk price, and a... section. (b) Uniform skim milk price. The uniform skim milk price per hundredweight, rounded to the... paragraph (a) of this section times 3.5 pounds of butterfat; and (2) Multiply the uniform skim milk price...

  2. Analysis of pellet coating uniformity using a computer scanner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šibanc, Rok; Luštrik, Matevž; Dreu, Rok

    2017-11-30

    A fast method for pellet coating uniformity analysis, using a commercial computer scanner was developed. The analysis of the individual particle coating thicknesses was based on using a transparent orange colored coating layer deposited on white pellet cores. Besides the analysis of the coating thickness the information of pellet size and shape was obtained as well. Particle size dependent coating thickness and particle size independent coating variability was calculated by combining the information of coating thickness and pellet size. Decoupling coating thickness variation sources is unique to presented method. For each coating experiment around 10000 pellets were analyzed, giving results with a high statistical confidence. Proposed method was employed for the performance evaluation of classical Wurster and swirl enhanced Wurster coater operated at different gap settings and air flow rates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Design of a high field uniformity electromagnet for Penning trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itteera, Janvin; Singh, Kumud; Teotia, Vikas; Ukarde, Priti; Malhotra, Sanjay; Taly, Y.K.; Joshi, Manoj; Rao, Pushpa

    2013-01-01

    An ion trap (Penning trap) facility is being developed at BARC for spectroscopy studies. This requires the design of an iron core electromagnet capable of generating high magnetic fields (∼1.7T) at the centre of an 88 mm long air gap. This electromagnet provides the requisite dipole magnetic field which when superimposed on the electrostatic quadrupoles ensures a stable trapping of ions. To conduct high precision spectroscopy studies, we need to ensure a high degree of magnetic field uniformity ( 3 volume (Trap zone). Various pole shoe profiles were studied and modelled, FEM simulation of the same were conducted to compute the magnetic field intensity and field uniformity. Owing to the large air gap and requirement of high field intensity in the GFR, the exciting coils need to handle high current densities, which require water cooled systems. Double Pan-Cake coil design is selected for powering the magnet. Electrical, thermal and hydraulic designs of the coils are completed and a prototype double pancake coil was fabricated and tested for verifying the electrical and thermal parameter. The spatial field homogeneity is achieved by shimming the pole tip. Temporal stability of magnet requires a highly stable power supply for exciting the coils and its stability class is derived from FEM simulations. This paper discusses the electromagnetic design and development of the penning trap magnet being developed at BARC. (author)

  4. Ultrasonic transducer design for uniform insonation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, G.H.; Balcer-Kubiczek, E.K.; McCulloch, D.

    1984-01-01

    Techniques used in transducer development for acoustical imaging have been evaluated for the purpose of producing broad, uniform ultrasonic fields from planar radiators. Such fields should be useful in hyperthermia, physical therapy, and ultrasonic bioeffects studies. Fourier inversion of the circ function yielded a source velocity distribution proportional to (P/r) exp ((-ik/2Z) (2Z/sup 2/+r/sup 2/)) J/sub 1/(krP/Z), where r is the radial source coordinate, k is the wave number, and P is the desired radius of uniform insonation at a depth Z in water. This source distribution can be truncated without significantly degrading the solution. A simpler solution consists of exponentially shading the edge of an otherwise uniformly excited disk transducer. This approach was successfully approximated experimentally

  5. Uniform color space is not homogeneous

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehni, Rolf G.

    2002-06-01

    Historical data of chroma scaling and hue scaling are compared and evidence is shown that we do not have a reliable basis in either case. Several data sets indicate explicitly or implicitly that the number of constant sized hue differences between unique hues as well as in the quadrants of the a*, b* diagram differs making what is commonly regarded as uniform color space inhomogeneous. This problem is also shown to affect the OSA-UCS space. A Euclidean uniform psychological or psychophysical color space appears to be impossible.

  6. On Uniformly finitely extensible Banach spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Castillo, Jesús M. F.; Ferenczi, Valentin; Moreno, Yolanda

    2013-01-01

    We continue the study of Uniformly Finitely Extensible Banach spaces (in short, UFO) initiated in Moreno-Plichko, \\emph{On automorphic Banach spaces}, Israel J. Math. 169 (2009) 29--45 and Castillo-Plichko, \\emph{Banach spaces in various positions.} J. Funct. Anal. 259 (2010) 2098-2138. We show that they have the Uniform Approximation Property of Pe\\l czy\\'nski and Rosenthal and are compactly extensible. We will also consider their connection with the automorphic space problem of Lindenstraus...

  7. Uniform topology on EQ-algebras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Jiang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we use filters of an EQ-algebra E to induce a uniform structure (E, , and then the part induce a uniform topology in E. We prove that the pair (E, is a topological EQ-algebra, and some properties of (E, are investigated. In particular, we show that (E, is a first-countable, zero-dimensional, disconnected and completely regular space. Finally, by using convergence of nets, the convergence of topological EQ-algebras is obtained.

  8. TMI-2 core boring machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croft, K.M.; Helbert, H.J.; Laney, W.M.

    1986-01-01

    An important and essential aspect of the TMI-2 defueling effort is to determine what occurred in the core region during the accident. Remote cameras and probes only portray a portion of the overall picture. What lies beneath the rubble bed and solidified sublayer is, as yet, unknown. This paper discusses the TMI-2 Core Boring Machine, which has been developed to drill into the damaged core of the TMI-2 reactor and extract stratified samples of the core. This machine, its unique support structure, positioning and leveling systems, and specially designed drill bits, combine to provide a unique mechanical system. In addition, the machine is controlled by a microprocessor; which actually controls the drilling operation, allowing relatively inexperienced operators to drill the core samples. A data acquisition system is data integral with the controlling system and collects data relative to system conditions and monitored parameters during drilling. Data obtained during the actual drilling operations are collected in a data base which will be used for actual mapping of the core region, identifying materials and stratification levels that are present

  9. Numerical study on core damage and interpretation of in situ state of stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakala, M. [Gridpoint Finland Oy (Finland)

    1999-06-01

    Core disking is a phenomenon where a diamond cored core sample will be sliced when released from a stressed host rock. Ring disking is a similar phenomenon which takes place during overcoring with a pilot hole. Because of the uniform shape and spacing of disk fracturing, it has the potential to be used for estimating the in situ state of stress. If this is feasible, it could be used in high stress states where the traditional stress measuring techniques are not valid or even possible. In this work the both the core disking and ring disking phenomena were studied based on the elastic bottom hole stress application developed and a series of fracture growth stability simulations. The results-showed that both phenomena are very complicated and site specific, but the spacing, shape, extent and initiation point are clearly stress state dependent. Throughout the work, guidelines for the in situ stress field interpretation method were developed and implemented for the borehole aligned orthogonal stress field and Poisson`s ratio of 0.25. Based on this study, the in situ state of stress can be estimated with acceptable accuracy if information on both core disking and ring disking is available. On the other hand, as an indirect method, there are no reasons to use it if direct measurements can be used. (orig.) 35 refs.

  10. Numerical study on core damage and interpretation of in situ state of stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakala, M.

    1999-06-01

    Core disking is a phenomenon where a diamond cored core sample will be sliced when released from a stressed host rock. Ring disking is a similar phenomenon which takes place during overcoring with a pilot hole. Because of the uniform shape and spacing of disk fracturing, it has the potential to be used for estimating the in situ state of stress. If this is feasible, it could be used in high stress states where the traditional stress measuring techniques are not valid or even possible. In this work the both the core disking and ring disking phenomena were studied based on the elastic bottom hole stress application developed and a series of fracture growth stability simulations. The results-showed that both phenomena are very complicated and site specific, but the spacing, shape, extent and initiation point are clearly stress state dependent. Throughout the work, guidelines for the in situ stress field interpretation method were developed and implemented for the borehole aligned orthogonal stress field and Poisson's ratio of 0.25. Based on this study, the in situ state of stress can be estimated with acceptable accuracy if information on both core disking and ring disking is available. On the other hand, as an indirect method, there are no reasons to use it if direct measurements can be used. (orig.)

  11. Energetics of LMFBR core disruptive accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchaterre, J.F.

    1979-01-01

    In general, in the design of fast reactor systems, containment design margins are specified by investigating the response of the containment to core disruptive accidents. The results of these analyses are then translated into criteria which the designers must meet. Currently, uniform and agreed upon criteria are lacking, and in this time while they are being developed, the designer should be aware of the considerations which go into the particular criteria he must work with, and participate in their development. This paper gives an overview of the current state of the art in assessing core disruptive accidents and the design implications of this process. (orig.)

  12. Animal MRI Core

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Animal Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Core develops and optimizes MRI methods for cardiovascular imaging of mice and rats. The Core provides imaging expertise,...

  13. Coded aperture imaging with uniformly redundant arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenimore, E.E.; Cannon, T.M.

    1980-01-01

    A system is described which uses uniformly redundant arrays to image non-focusable radiation. The array is used in conjunction with a balanced correlation technique to provide a system with no artifacts so that virtually limitless signal-to-noise ratio is obtained with high transmission characteristics. The array is mosaicked to reduce required detector size over conventional array detectors. 15 claims

  14. School Uniform Revisited: Procedure, Pressure and Equality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carney, Damian; Sinclair, Adele

    2006-01-01

    The House of Lords' decision in "R. (on the application of Begum) v. The Headteacher and Governors of Denbigh High School" considered whether a particular school uniform policy infringed a student's right to manifest her religion under Article 9. This paper analyses the content of this decision, and explores how schools should approach…

  15. School Uniforms in Urban Public High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draa, Virginia Ann Bendel

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether or not the implementation of a mandatory uniform policy in urban public high schools improved school performance measures at the building level for rates of attendance, graduation, academic proficiency, and student conduct as measured by rates of suspensions and expulsions. Sixty-four secondary…

  16. Mandatory School Uniforms and Freedom of Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vopat, Mark C.

    2010-01-01

    On 10 December 2007 the Akron City School Board--following the precedent set by many school systems across the United States and the world--instituted a policy of mandatory school uniforms for all students in grades K-8. The measure was met with mixed reviews. While many parents supported the measure, a small group of parents from a selective,…

  17. Dynamic Uniform Scaling for Multiobjective Genetic Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Gerulf; Goldberg, David E.

    2004-01-01

    Before Multiobjective Evolutionary Algorithms (MOEAs) can be used as a widespread tool for solving arbitrary real world problems there are some salient issues which require further investigation. One of these issues is how a uniform distribution of solutions along the Pareto non-dominated front c...

  18. Evaluation model development for sprinkler irrigation uniformity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    Sprinkle and trickle irrigation. The. Blackburn Press, New Jersey, USA. Li JS, Rao MJ (1999). Evaluation method of sprinkler irrigation nonuniformity. Trans. CSAE. 15(4): 78-82. Lin Z, Merkley GP (2011). Relationships between common irrigation application uniformity indicators. Irrig Sci. Online First™, 27 January. 2011.

  19. Uniform semiclassical approximation for absorptive scattering systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussein, M.S.; Pato, M.P.

    1987-07-01

    The uniform semiclassical approximation of the elastic scattering amplitude is generalized to absorptive systems. An integral equation is derived which connects the absorption modified amplitude to the absorption free one. Division of the amplitude into a diffractive and refractive components is then made possible. (Author) [pt

  20. Magnetostatics of the uniformly polarized torus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beleggia, Marco; De Graef, Marc; Millev, Yonko

    2009-01-01

    We provide an exhaustive description of the magnetostatics of the uniformly polarized torus and its derivative self-intersecting (spindle) shapes. In the process, two complementary approaches have been implemented, position-space analysis of the Laplace equation with inhomogeneous boundary condit...

  1. Dynamic Uniform Scaling for Multiobjective Genetic Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Gerulf; Goldberg, D.E.

    2004-01-01

    Before Multiobjective Evolutionary Algorithms (MOEAs) can be used as a widespread tool for solving arbitrary real world problems there are some salient issues which require further investigation. One of these issues is how a uniform distribution of solutions along the Pareto non-dominated front can...

  2. Improving rooting uniformity in rose cuttings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Telgen, van H.J.; Eveleens-Clark, B.A.; Garcia Victoria, N.

    2007-01-01

    Studies to improve rooting uniformity of single node stem cuttings for rose are reported. We found that the variation in shoot growth in a young rose crop depended on the variation in root number of the cuttings, which, in turn, was related to the auxin concentration applied to the cutting before

  3. Evaluation model development for sprinkler irrigation uniformity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A new evaluation method with accompanying software was developed to precisely calculate uniformity from catch-can test data, assuming sprinkler distribution data to be a continuous variable. Two interpolation steps are required to compute unknown water application depths at grid distribution points from radial ...

  4. uniform van die staatspresidentswag - herkoms en tradisie

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A blue uniform was inter alia proposed in 1980 but finally rejected by the Prime Minister in 1984. Instructions were issued to put forth new ideas. All the arguments in ..... In 1896 Is die rang van kommandant van die Staatsartlllerie verhoog tot die van lultenant-kolonel. Henning Pretorlus, father and first commandant of the.

  5. Effects of Core Cavity on a Flow Distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Tae-Soon; Kim, Kihwan [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    The axial pressure drop is removed in the free core condition, But the actual core has lots of fuel bundles and mixing vanes to the flow direction. The axial pressure drop induces flow uniformity. In a uniform flow having no shear stress, the cross flow or cross flow mixing decreases. The mixing factor is important in the reactor safety during a Steam Line Break (SLB) or Main Steam Line Break (MSLB) transients. And the effect of core cavity is needed to evaluate the realistic core mixing factor quantification. The multi-dimensional flow mixing phenomena in a core cavity has been studied using a CFD code. The 1/5-scale model was applied for the reactor flow analysis. A single phase water flow conditions were considered for the 4-cold leg and DVI flows. To quantify the mixing intensity, a boron scalar was introduced to the ECC injection water at cold legs and DVI nozzles. The present CFD pre-study was performed to quantify the effects of core structure on the mixing phenomena. The quantified boron mixing scalar in the core simulator model represented the effect of core cavity on the core mixing phenomena. This simulation results also give the information for sensor resolution to measure the boron concentration in the experiments and response time to detect mixing phenomena at the core and reactor vessel.

  6. Procedures for sampling radium-contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleischhauer, H.L.

    1985-10-01

    Two procedures for sampling the surface layer (0 to 15 centimeters) of radium-contaminated soil are recommended for use in remedial action projects. Both procedures adhere to the philosophy that soil samples should have constant geometry and constant volume in order to ensure uniformity. In the first procedure, a ''cookie cutter'' fashioned from pipe or steel plate, is driven to the desired depth by means of a slide hammer, and the sample extracted as a core or plug. The second procedure requires use of a template to outline the sampling area, from which the sample is obtained using a trowel or spoon. Sampling to the desired depth must then be performed incrementally. Selection of one procedure over the other is governed primarily by soil conditions, the cookie cutter being effective in nongravelly soils, and the template procedure appropriate for use in both gravelly and nongravelly soils. In any event, a minimum sample volume of 1000 cubic centimeters is recommended. The step-by-step procedures are accompanied by a description of the minimum requirements for sample documentation. Transport of the soil samples from the field is then addressed in a discussion of the federal regulations for shipping radioactive materials. Interpretation of those regulations, particularly in light of their application to remedial action soil-sampling programs, is provided in the form of guidance and suggested procedures. Due to the complex nature of the regulations, however, there is no guarantee that our interpretations of them are complete or entirely accurate. Preparation of soil samples for radium-226 analysis by means of gamma-ray spectroscopy is described

  7. Canceling the momentum in a phase-shifting algorithm to eliminate spatially uniform errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibino, Kenichi; Kim, Yangjin

    2016-08-10

    In phase-shifting interferometry, phase modulation nonlinearity causes both spatially uniform and nonuniform errors in the measured phase. Conventional linear-detuning error-compensating algorithms only eliminate the spatially variable error component. The uniform error is proportional to the inertial momentum of the data-sampling weight of a phase-shifting algorithm. This paper proposes a design approach to cancel the momentum by using characteristic polynomials in the Z-transform space and shows that an arbitrary M-frame algorithm can be modified to a new (M+2)-frame algorithm that acquires new symmetry to eliminate the uniform error.

  8. Sudden cardiac arrest in sports - need for uniform registration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solberg, E E; Borjesson, M; Sharma, S

    2016-01-01

    , the importance of gender, ethnicity and age of the athlete, as well as the type and level of sporting activity. A precise instruction for autopsy practice in the case of a SCD of athletes is given, including the role of molecular samples and evaluation of possible doping. Rational decisions about cardiac...... preparticipation screening and cardiac safety at sport facilities requires increased data quality concerning incidence, aetiology and management of SCA/SCD in sports. Uniform standard registration of SCA/SCD in athletes and leisure sportsmen would be a first step towards this goal....

  9. Magnet polepiece design for uniform magnetic force on superparamagnetic beads

    OpenAIRE

    Fallesen, Todd; Hill, David B.; Steen, Matthew; Macosko, Jed C.; Bonin, Keith; Holzwarth, George

    2010-01-01

    Here we report construction of a simple electromagnet with novel polepieces which apply a spatially uniform force to superparamagnetic beads in an optical microscope. The wedge-shaped gap was designed to keep ∂Bx∕∂y constant and B large enough to saturate the bead. We achieved fields of 300–600 mT and constant gradients of 67 T∕m over a sample space of 0.5×4 mm2 in the focal plane of the microscope and 0.05 mm along the microscope optic axis. Within this space the maximum force on a 2.8 μm di...

  10. Core Flow Distribution from Coupled Supercritical Water Reactor Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po Hu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces an extended code package PARCS/RELAP5 to analyze steady state of SCWR US reference design. An 8 × 8 quarter core model in PARCS and a reactor core model in RELAP5 are used to study the core flow distribution under various steady state conditions. The possibility of moderator flow reversal is found in some hot moderator channels. Different moderator flow orifice strategies, both uniform across the core and nonuniform based on the power distribution, are explored with the goal of preventing the reversal.

  11. Alteration of helical vortex core without change in flow topology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Velte, Clara Marika; Okulov, Valery; Hansen, Martin Otto Laver

    2011-01-01

    topology. The helical symmetry as such is preserved, although the characteristic parameters of helical symmetry of the vortex core transfer from a smooth linear variation to a different trend under the influence of a non-uniform pressure gradient, causing an increase in helical pitch without changing its......The abrupt expansion of the slender vortex core with changes in flow topology is commonly known as vortex breakdown. We present new experimental observations of an alteration of the helical vortex core in wall bounded turbulent flow with abrupt growth in core size, but without change in flow...

  12. Uniformity testing: assessment of a centralized web-based uniformity analysis system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klempa, Meaghan C

    2011-06-01

    Uniformity testing is performed daily to ensure adequate camera performance before clinical use. The aim of this study is to assess the reliability of Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center's locally built, centralized, Web-based uniformity analysis system by examining the differences between manufacturer and Web-based National Electrical Manufacturers Association integral uniformity calculations measured in the useful field of view (FOV) and the central FOV. Manufacturer and Web-based integral uniformity calculations measured in the useful FOV and the central FOV were recorded over a 30-d period for 4 cameras from 3 different manufacturers. These data were then statistically analyzed. The differences between the uniformity calculations were computed, in addition to the means and the SDs of these differences for each head of each camera. There was a correlation between the manufacturer and Web-based integral uniformity calculations in the useful FOV and the central FOV over the 30-d period. The average differences between the manufacturer and Web-based useful FOV calculations ranged from -0.30 to 0.099, with SD ranging from 0.092 to 0.32. For the central FOV calculations, the average differences ranged from -0.163 to 0.055, with SD ranging from 0.074 to 0.24. Most of the uniformity calculations computed by this centralized Web-based uniformity analysis system are comparable to the manufacturers' calculations, suggesting that this system is reasonably reliable and effective. This finding is important because centralized Web-based uniformity analysis systems are advantageous in that they test camera performance in the same manner regardless of the manufacturer.

  13. Synthesis of uniform carbon at silica nanocables and luminescent silica nanotubes with well controlled inner diameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian Haisheng; Yu Shuhong; Ren Lei; Yang Yipeng; Zhang Wei

    2006-01-01

    Uniform carbon at silica nanocables and silica nanotubes with well-controlled inner diameters can be synthesized in an easy way by a sacrificial templating method. This was performed using carbon nanofibres as hard templates that were synthesized previously by a hydrothermal carbonization process. Silica nanotubes with well-controlled inner diameters were synthesized from carbon at silica core-shell nanostructures by removal of the core carbon component. The inner diameters of the as-prepared silica nanotubes can be well controlled from several nanometres to hundreds of nanometres by adjusting the diameters of the carbon nanofibres. The silica nanotubes synthesized by this method display strong photoluminescence in ultraviolet at room temperature. Such uniform silica nanotubes might find potential applications in many fields such as encapsulation, catalysis, chemical/biological separation, and sensing

  14. High uniformity magnetic coil for search of neutron electric dipole moment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez Galvan, A., E-mail: apg@caltech.edu [W.K. Kellogg Radiation Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA, 91125 (United States); Plaster, B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, 40506 (United States); Boissevain, J.; Carr, R.; Filippone, B.W.; Mendenhall, M.P.; Schmid, R. [W.K. Kellogg Radiation Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA, 91125 (United States); Alarcon, R.; Balascuta, S. [Department of Physics, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States)

    2011-12-21

    We present in this article a prototype magnetic coil that has been developed for a new search for the electric dipole moment of the neutron at the Spallation Neutron Source at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The gradients of the magnetic field generated by the coil have been optimized to reduce known systematic effects and to yield long polarization lifetimes of the trapped particles sampling the highly uniform magnetic field. Measurements of the field uniformity of this prototype magnetic coil are also presented.

  15. 24 CFR 5.801 - Uniform financial reporting standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Uniform financial reporting... and Urban Development GENERAL HUD PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS; WAIVERS Uniform Financial Reporting Standards § 5.801 Uniform financial reporting standards. (a) Applicability. This subpart H implements uniform...

  16. A method to measure the mean thickness and non-uniformity of non-uniform thin film by alpha-ray thickness gauge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyahara, Hiroshi; Yoshida, Makoto; Watanabe, Tamaki

    1977-01-01

    The α-ray thickness gauge is used to measure non-destructively the thicknesses of thin films, and up to the present day, a thin film with uniform thickness is only taken up as the object of α-ray thickness gauge. When the thickness is determined from the displacement between the absorption curves in the presence and absence of thin film, the absorption curve must be displaced in parallel. When many uniform particles were dispersed as sample, the shape of the absorption curve was calculated as the sum of many absorption curves corresponding to the thin films with different thicknesses. By the comparison of the calculated and measured absorption curves, the number of particles, or the mean superficial density can be determined. This means the extension of thickness measurement from uniform to non-uniform films. Furthermore, these particle models being applied to non-uniform thin film, the possibility of measuring the mean thickness and non-uniformity was discussed. As the result, if the maximum difference of the thickness was more than 0.2 mg/cm 2 , the nonuniformity was considered to distinguish by the usual equipment. In this paper, an α-ray thickness gauge using the absorption curve method was treated, but one can apply this easily to an α-ray thickness gauge using α-ray energy spectra before and after the penetration of thin film. (auth.)

  17. Field sampling of residual aviation gasoline in sandy soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostendorf, D.W.; Hinlein, E.S.; Yuefeng, Xie; Leach, L.E.

    1991-01-01

    Two complementary field sampling methods for the determination of residual aviation gasoline content in the contaminated capillary fringe of a fine, uniform, sandy soil were investigated. The first method featured field extrusion of core barrels into pint-size Mason jars, while the second consisted of laboratory partitioning of intact stainless steel core sleeves. Soil samples removed from the Mason jars (in the field) and sleeve segments (in the laboratory) were subjected to methylene chloride extraction and gas chromatographic analysis to compare their aviation gasoline content. The barrel extrusion sampling method yielded a vertical profile with 0.10m resolution over an essentially continuous 5.0m interval from the ground surface to the water table. The sleeve segment alternative yielded a more resolved 0.03m vertical profile over a shorter 0.8m interval through the capillary fringe. The two methods delivered precise estimates of the vertically integrated mass of aviation gasoline at a given horizontal location, and a consistent view of the vertical profile as well. In the latter regard, a 0.2m thick lens of maximum contamination was found in the center of the capillary fringe, where moisture filled all voids smaller than the mean pore size. The maximum peak was resolved by the core sleeve data, but was partially obscured by the barrel extrusion observations, so that replicate barrels or a half-pint Mason jar size should be considered for data supporting vertical transport analyses in the absence of sleeve partitions

  18. Activity uniformity of Ir-192 seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ling, C.C.; Gromadzki, Z.C.

    1981-01-01

    A simple device that uses materials and apparatus commonly available in a radiotherapy department has been designed, fabricated and used in routine quality control relative to the activity uniformity of clinical Ir-192 seeds in ribbons. Detailed evaluation indicated that this system is easy to use and can yield relative activity measurements of individual Ir-192 seeds accurate to within 2%. With this device, activity uniformity of commercial Ir-192 seeds from two manufacturers has been assessed. For the seven shipments of Ir-192 seeds studied, the root mean square variations of individual seed strength from the average of each shipment ranged from 3.4 to 7.1%. Variation in seed activity by more than +- 10% from the average is not uncommon

  19. Non-uniform tube representation of proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mikael Sonne

    Treating the full protein structure is often neither computationally nor physically possible. Instead one is forced to consider various reduced models capturing the properties of interest. Previous work have used tubular neighborhoods of the C-alpha backbone. However, assigning a unique radius...... might not correctly capture volume exclusion - of crucial importance when trying to understand a proteins $3$d-structure. We propose a new reduced model treating the protein as a non-uniform tube with a radius reflecting the positions of atoms. The tube representation is well suited considering X......-ray crystallographic resolution ~ 3Å while a varying radius accounts for the different sizes of side chains. Such a non-uniform tube better capture the protein geometry and has numerous applications in structural/computational biology from the classification of protein structures to sequence-structure prediction....

  20. Casimir energy for a piecewise uniform string

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brevik, I.; Nielsen, H.B.

    1989-07-01

    The Casimir energy for the transverse oscillations of a piecewise uniform closed string is calculated. The string consists of two parts I and II, endowed in general with different tensions and mass densities, although adjusted in such a way that the velocity of sound always equals the velocity of light. The dispersion equation is worked out under general conditions, and the frequency spectrum is determined in special cases. When the ratio L II /L I between the string lengths is an integer, it is in principle possible to determine the frequency spectrum through solving algebraic equations of increasingly high degree. The Casimir energy relative to the uniform string is in general found to be negative, although in the special case L I =L II the energy is equal to zero. Delicate points in the regularization procedure are discussed; they point toward an anomaly in the theory. (orig.)

  1. Uniform analytic approximation of Wigner rotation matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Scott E.

    2018-02-01

    We derive the leading asymptotic approximation, for low angle θ, of the Wigner rotation matrix elements, dm1m2 j(θ ) , uniform in j, m1, and m2. The result is in terms of a Bessel function of integer order. We numerically investigate the error for a variety of cases and find that the approximation can be useful over a significant range of angles. This approximation has application in the partial wave analysis of wavepacket scattering.

  2. Physical optics in a uniform gravitational field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacyan, Shahen

    2012-01-01

    The motion of a (quasi-)plane wave in a uniform gravitational field is studied. It is shown that the energy of an elliptically polarized wave does not propagate along a geodesic, but in a direction that is rotated with respect to the gravitational force. The similarity with the walk-off effect in anisotropic crystals or the optical Magnus effect in inhomogeneous media is pointed out.

  3. 78 FR 50359 - Civilian Health and Medical Program of the Uniformed Services (CHAMPUS); TRICARE Uniform Health...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-19

    ... Organization (HMO) Benefit--Prime Enrollment Fee Exemption for Survivors of Active Duty Deceased Sponsors and... Enrollment Fee Exemption for Survivors of Active Duty Deceased Sponsors and Medically Retired Uniformed Services [[Page 50360

  4. Core design for use with precision composite reflectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Christopher C. (Inventor); Jacoy, Paul J. (Inventor); Schmitigal, Wesley P. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A uniformly flexible core, and method for manufacturing the same, is disclosed for use between the face plates of a sandwich structure. The core is made of a plurality of thin corrugated strips, the corrugations being defined by a plurality of peaks and valleys connected to one another by a plurality of diagonal risers. The corrugated strips are orthogonally criss-crossed to form the core. The core is particularly suitable for use with high accuracy spherically curved sandwich structures because undesirable stresses in the curved face plates are minimized due to the uniform flexibility characteristics of the core in both the X and Y directions. The core is self venting because of the open geometry of the corrugations. The core can be made from any suitable composite, metal, or polymer. Thermal expansion problems in sandwich structures may be minimized by making the core from the same composite materials that are selected in the manufacture of the curved face plates because of their low coefficients of thermal expansion. Where the strips are made of a composite material, the core may be constructed by first cutting an already cured corrugated sheet into a plurality of corrugated strips and then secondarily bonding the strips to one another or, alternatively, by lying a plurality of uncured strips orthogonally over one another in a suitable jig and then curing and bonding the entire plurality of strips to one another in a single operation.

  5. Geochemical stratigraphy of two regolith cores from the Central Highlands of the moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korotev, R. L.

    1991-01-01

    High-resolution concentration profiles are presented for 20-22 chemical elements in the under 1-mm grain-size fractions of 60001-7 and 60009/10. Emphasis is placed on the stratigraphic features of the cores, and the fresh results are compared with those of previous petrographic and geochemical studies. For elements associated with major mineral phases, the variations in concentration in both cores exceed that observed in some 40 samples of surface and trench soils. Most of the variation in lithophile element concentrations at depths of 18 to 21 cm results from the mixing of two components - oil that is relatively mafic and rich in incompatible trace elements (ITEs), and coarse-grained anorthosite. The linearity of mixing lines on two-element concentration plots argues that the relative abundances of these various subcomponents are sufficiently uniform from sample to sample and from region to region in the core that the mixture behaves effectively as a single component. Soils at depths of 52-55 cm exhibit very low concentrations of ITEs.

  6. Uniformity: The key to better inventory management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boshears, G.

    1993-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to show how uniformity in describing parts and materials can be the key ingredient to more effective inventory management. Although most nuclear utilities have some type of computer system for maintenance management as well as materials tracking, few have a system to provide the various users with complete information about parts and material in stock. One of the industry's most perplexing problems is How do you know, and find, the item you need to repair a particular piece of equipment or component? In many instances it is easier to order a new one from the manufacturer rather than try to find it on-site, which can result in inaccurate usage records, over-stocking, frustration, and strain on cash flow. What is needed is a higher degree of uniformity within a station, and a utility, of catalog descriptions for parts and material that will satisfy all users-planners, craftsmen, warehouse personnel, and buyers. The results of attaining this uniformity are improved performance through searchability, duplicate stock avoidance, interchangeability, substitutability, and more accurate bills of material; economic benefits will also be noted

  7. Beam uniformity of flat top lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chao; Cramer, Larry; Danielson, Don; Norby, James

    2015-03-01

    Many beams that output from standard commercial lasers are multi-mode, with each mode having a different shape and width. They show an overall non-homogeneous energy distribution across the spot size. There may be satellite structures, halos and other deviations from beam uniformity. However, many scientific, industrial and medical applications require flat top spatial energy distribution, high uniformity in the plateau region, and complete absence of hot spots. Reliable standard methods for the evaluation of beam quality are of great importance. Standard methods are required for correct characterization of the laser for its intended application and for tight quality control in laser manufacturing. The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) has published standard procedures and definitions for this purpose. These procedures have not been widely adopted by commercial laser manufacturers. This is due to the fact that they are unreliable because an unrepresentative single-pixel value can seriously distort the result. We hereby propose a metric of beam uniformity, a way of beam profile visualization, procedures to automatically detect hot spots and beam structures, and application examples in our high energy laser production.

  8. Strong Law of Large Numbers for Hidden Markov Chains Indexed by an Infinite Tree with Uniformly Bounded Degrees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huilin Huang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We study strong limit theorems for hidden Markov chains fields indexed by an infinite tree with uniformly bounded degrees. We mainly establish the strong law of large numbers for hidden Markov chains fields indexed by an infinite tree with uniformly bounded degrees and give the strong limit law of the conditional sample entropy rate.

  9. k-core covers and the core

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanchez-Rodriguez, E.; Borm, Peter; Estevez-Fernandez, A.; Fiestras-Janeiro, G.; Mosquera, M.A.

    This paper extends the notion of individual minimal rights for a transferable utility game (TU-game) to coalitional minimal rights using minimal balanced families of a specific type, thus defining a corresponding minimal rights game. It is shown that the core of a TU-game coincides with the core of

  10. Apparatus for measurement of tree core density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blincow, D.W.

    1975-01-01

    Apparatus is described for direct measurement of the density of a core sample from a tree. A radiation source and detector with a receptacle for the core therebetween, an integrator unit for the detector output, and an indicating meter driven by the integrator unit are described

  11. Understanding core conductor fabrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swenson, D E

    2011-01-01

    ESD Association standard test method ANSI/ESD STM2.1 - Garments (STM2.1), provides electrical resistance test procedures that are applicable for materials and garments that have surface conductive or surface dissipative properties. As has been reported in other papers over the past several years 1 fabrics are now used in many industries for electrostatic control purposes that do not have surface conductive properties and therefore cannot be evaluated using the procedures in STM2.1 2 . A study was conducted to compare surface conductive fabrics with samples of core conductor fibre based fabrics in order to determine differences and similarities with regards to various electrostatic properties. This work will be used to establish a new work item proposal within WG-2, Garments, in the ESD Association Standards Committee in the USA.

  12. Investigation of Non-Uniform Rust Distribution and Its Effects on Corrosion Induced Cracking in Reinforced Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutrisno Wahyuniarsih

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Uniform corrosion still widely used by a lot of researchers and engineers to analyze the corrosion induced cracking. However, in practice, corrosion process occurred non-uniformly. The part nearest to the exposed surface is more likely to have faster corrosion initiation compared with other regions. This research is mainly focused on investigating the effect of non-uniform rust distribution to cover cracking in reinforced concrete. An experimental test performed using accelerated corrosion test by using 5% NaCl solution and applied a constant electric current to the concrete samples. The rust distribution and measurement were observed by using a digital microscope. Based on the experimental result, it was found that the rust was distributed in a non-uniform pattern. As a result, the cracks also formed non-uniformly along the perimeter of steel bar. At the last part of this paper, a simulation result of concrete cracking induced by non-uniform corrosion is presented. The result compared with a simulation using uniform corrosion assumption to investigate the damage pattern of each model. The simulation result reveals stress evolution due to rust expansion which leads to concrete cracking. Furthermore, a comparison of stresses induced by non-uniform corrosion and uniform corrosion indicates that non-uniform corrosion could lead to earlier damage to the structure which is specified by the formation and propagation of the crack.

  13. Effect of non-uniform Hall parameter on the electrode voltage drop in Faraday-type combustion MHD generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, G.P.; Rohatgi, V.K.

    1982-01-01

    Following a simplified approach, an expression is derived for the gas-dynamic voltage drop in a finitely segmented Faraday-type combustion MHD generator, taking into account the non-uniform Hall parameter across the channel. Combining the electrical sheath voltage drop, discussed briefly, with the gas-dynamic voltage drop, the effect of a non-uniform Hall parameter on the electrode voltage drop is studied using the theoretical and experimental input parameters of the Indian MHD channel test. The condition for the validity of the usual assumption of uniform Hall parameter across the channel is pointed out. Analysis of the measured electrode voltage drop predicts the real gas conductivity in the core to be in the range of 60 to 75 per cent of the theoretically calculated core conductivity. (author)

  14. A Science and Risk-Based Pragmatic Methodology for Blend and Content Uniformity Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayeed-Desta, Naheed; Pazhayattil, Ajay Babu; Collins, Jordan; Doshi, Chetan

    2018-04-01

    This paper describes a pragmatic approach that can be applied in assessing powder blend and unit dosage uniformity of solid dose products at Process Design, Process Performance Qualification, and Continued/Ongoing Process Verification stages of the Process Validation lifecycle. The statistically based sampling, testing, and assessment plan was developed due to the withdrawal of the FDA draft guidance for industry "Powder Blends and Finished Dosage Units-Stratified In-Process Dosage Unit Sampling and Assessment." This paper compares the proposed Grouped Area Variance Estimate (GAVE) method with an alternate approach outlining the practicality and statistical rationalization using traditional sampling and analytical methods. The approach is designed to fit solid dose processes assuring high statistical confidence in both powder blend uniformity and dosage unit uniformity during all three stages of the lifecycle complying with ASTM standards as recommended by the US FDA.

  15. Fracture Behaviours in Compression-loaded Triangular Corrugated Core Sandwich Panels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaid N.Z.M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The failure modes occurring in sandwich panels based on the corrugations of aluminium alloy, carbon fibre-reinforced plastic (CFRP and glass fibre-reinforced plastic (GFRP are analysed in this work. The fracture behaviour of these sandwich panels under compressive stresses is determined through a series of uniform lateral compression performed on samples with different cell wall thicknesses. Compression test on the corrugated-core sandwich panels were conducted using an Instron series 4505 testing machine. The post-failure examinations of the corrugated-core in different cell wall thickness were conducted using optical microscope. Load-displacement graphs of aluminium alloy, GFRP and CFRP specimens were plotted to show progressive damage development with five unit cells. Four modes of failure were described in the results: buckling, hinges, delamination and debonding. Each of these failure modes may dominate under different cell wall thickness or loading condition, and they may act in combination. The results indicate that thicker composites corrugated-core panels tend can recover more stress and retain more stiffness. This analysis provides a valuable insight into the mechanical behaviour of corrugated-core sandwich panels for use in lightweight engineering applications.

  16. Cores to the rescue: how old cores enable new science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, E.; Noren, A. J.; Brady, K.

    2016-12-01

    The value of archiving scientific specimens and collections for the purpose of enabling further research using new analytical techniques, resolving conflicting results, or repurposing them for entirely new research, is often discussed in abstract terms. We all agree that samples with adequate metadata ought to be archived systematically for easy access, for a long time and stored under optimal conditions. And yet, as storage space fills, there is a temptation to cull the collection, or when a researcher retires, to discard the collection unless the researcher manages to make his or her own arrangement for the collection to be accessioned elsewhere. Nobody has done anything with these samples in over 20 years! Who would want them? It turns out that plenty of us do want them, if we know how to find them and if they have sufficient metadata to assess past work and suitability for new analyses. The LacCore collection holds over 33 km of core from >6700 sites in diverse geographic locations worldwide with samples collected as early as 1950s. From these materials, there are many examples to illustrate the scientific value of archiving geologic samples. One example that benefitted Ito personally were cores from Lakes Mirabad and Zeribar, Iran, acquired in 1963 by Herb Wright and his associates. Several doctoral and postdoctoral students generated and published paleoecological reconstructions based on cladocerans, diatoms, pollen or plant macrofossils, mostly between 1963 and 1967. The cores were resampled in 1990s by a student being jointly advised by Wright and Ito for oxygen isotope analysis of endogenic calcite. The results were profitably compared with pollen and the results published in 2001 and 2006. From 1979 until very recently, visiting Iran for fieldwork was not pallowed for US scientists. Other examples will be given to further illustrate the power of archived samples to advance science.

  17. Bottom sample taker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garbarenko, O V; Slonimskiy, L D

    1982-01-01

    In order to improve the quality of the samples taken during offshore exploration from benthic sediments, the proposed design of the sample taker has a device which makes it possible to regulate the depth of submersion of the core lifter. For this purpose the upper part of the core lifter has an inner delimiting ring, and within the core lifter there is a piston suspended on a cable. The position of the piston in relation to the core lifter is previously assigned depending on the compactness of the benthic sediments and is fixed by tension of the cable which is held by a clamp in the cover of the core taker housing. When lowered to the bottom, the core taker is released, and under the influence of hydrostatic pressure of sea water, it enters the sediments. The magnitude of penetration is limited by the distance between the piston and the stopping ring. The piston also guarantees better preservation of the sample when the instrument is lifted to the surface.

  18. Sample-taking apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanov, Y I; Ismailov, R A; Orazov, A

    1980-10-07

    The invention refers to the equipment for testing water-bearing levels in loose rocks. Its purpose is to simultaneously remove with the rock sample a separate fluid sample from the assigned interval. The sample-taking apparatus contains a core lifter which can be submerged into the casting string with housing and front endpiece in the form of a rod with a piston which covers the cavity of the core lifter, as well as mechanism for fixing and moving the endpiece within the core lifter cavity. The device differs from the known similar devices because the upper part of the housing of the core lifter is equipped with a filter and mobile casting which covers the filter. In this case the casing is connected to the endpiece rod and the endpiece is installed with the possibility of movement which is limited with fixing in the upper position and in the extreme upper position it divides the core lifter cavity into two parts, filter settling tank and core-receiving cavity.

  19. Archive of Geosample Data and Information from the University of Minnesota National Lacustrine Core Repository (LacCore)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Lacustrine Core Repository (LacCore), operated by the University of Minnesota is a partner in the Index to Marine and Lacustrine Geological Samples...

  20. Cylindrization of a PWR core for neutronic calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Rubens Souza dos

    2005-01-01

    In this work we propose a core cylindrization, starting from a PWR core configuration, through the use of an algorithm that becomes the process automated in the program, independent of the discretization. This approach overcomes the problem stemmed from the use of the neutron transport theory on the core boundary, in addition with the singularities associated with the presence of corners on the outer fuel element core of, existents in the light water reactors (LWR). The algorithm was implemented in a computational program used to identification of the control rod drop accident in a typical PWR core. The results showed that the algorithm presented consistent results comparing with an production code, for a problem with uniform properties. In our conclusions, we suggest, for future works, for analyzing the effect on mesh sizes for the Cylindrical geometry, and to compare the transport theory calculations versus diffusion theory, for the boundary conditions with corners, for typical PWR cores. (author)

  1. Temperature uniformity in the CERN CLOUD chamber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Dias

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The CLOUD (Cosmics Leaving OUtdoor Droplets experiment at CERN (European Council for Nuclear Research investigates the nucleation and growth of aerosol particles under atmospheric conditions and their activation into cloud droplets. A key feature of the CLOUD experiment is precise control of the experimental parameters. Temperature uniformity and stability in the chamber are important since many of the processes under study are sensitive to temperature and also to contaminants that can be released from the stainless steel walls by upward temperature fluctuations. The air enclosed within the 26 m3 CLOUD chamber is equipped with several arrays (strings of high precision, fast-response thermometers to measure its temperature. Here we present a study of the air temperature uniformity inside the CLOUD chamber under various experimental conditions. Measurements were performed under calibration conditions and run conditions, which are distinguished by the flow rate of fresh air and trace gases entering the chamber at 20 and up to 210 L min−1, respectively. During steady-state calibration runs between −70 and +20 °C, the air temperature uniformity is better than ±0.06 °C in the radial direction and ±0.1 °C in the vertical direction. Larger non-uniformities are present during experimental runs, depending on the temperature control of the make-up air and trace gases (since some trace gases require elevated temperatures until injection into the chamber. The temperature stability is ±0.04 °C over periods of several hours during either calibration or steady-state run conditions. During rapid adiabatic expansions to activate cloud droplets and ice particles, the chamber walls are up to 10 °C warmer than the enclosed air. This results in temperature differences of ±1.5 °C in the vertical direction and ±1 °C in the horizontal direction, while the air returns to its equilibrium temperature with a time constant of about 200 s.

  2. Tomographical properties of uniformly redundant arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cannon, T.M.; Fenimore, E.E.

    1978-01-01

    Recent work in coded aperture imaging has shown that the uniformly redundant array (URA) can image distant planar radioactive sources with no artifacts. The performance of two URA apertures when used in a close-up tomographic imaging system is investigated. It is shown that a URA based on m sequences is superior to one based on quadratic residues. The m sequence array not only produces less obnoxious artifacts in tomographic imaging, but is also more resilient to some described detrimental effects of close-up imaging. It is shown that in spite of these close-up effects, tomographic depth resolution increases as the source is moved closer to the detector

  3. SAM revisited: uniform semiclassical approximation with absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussein, M.S.; Pato, M.P.

    1986-01-01

    The uniform semiclassical approximation is modified to take into account strong absorption. The resulting theory, very similar to the one developed by Frahn and Gross is used to discuss heavy-ion elastic scattering at intermediate energies. The theory permits a reasonably unambiguos separation of refractive and diffractive effects. The systems 12 C+ 12 C and 12 C+ 16 O, which seem to exhibit a remnant of a nuclear rainbow at E=20 Mev/N, are analysed with theory which is built directly on a model for the S-matrix. Simple relations between the fit S-matrix and the underlying complex potential are derived. (Author) [pt

  4. Angular momentum conservation for uniformly expanding flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayward, Sean A

    2007-01-01

    Angular momentum has recently been defined as a surface integral involving an axial vector and a twist 1-form, which measures the twisting around the spacetime due to a rotating mass. The axial vector is chosen to be a transverse, divergence-free, coordinate vector, which is compatible with any initial choice of axis and integral curves. Then a conservation equation expresses the rate of the change of angular momentum along a uniformly expanding flow as a surface integral of angular momentum densities, with the same form as the standard equation for an axial Killing vector, apart from the inclusion of an effective energy tensor for gravitational radiation

  5. Nonimaging reflectors for efficient uniform illumination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, J M; Kashin, P; Rabl, A

    1992-10-01

    Nonimaging reflectors that are an extension of the design principle that was developed for compound parabolic concentrator type devices are proposed for illumination applications. The optical designs presented offer maximal lighting efficiency while they retain sharp angular control of the radiation and highly uniform flux densities on distant target planes. Our results are presented for symmetrical configurations in two dimensions (troughlike reflectors) for flat and for tubular sources. For fields of view of practical interest (half-angle in the 30-60 degrees range), these devices can achieve minimum-tomaximum intensity ratios of 0.7, while they remain compact and incur low reflective losses.

  6. Formation of Uniform Hollow Silica microcapsules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Huan; Kim, Chanjoong

    2013-03-01

    Microcapsules are small containers with diameters in the range of 0.1 - 100 μm. Mesoporous microcapsules with hollow morphologies possess unique properties such as low-density and high encapsulation capacity, while allowing controlled release by permeating substances with a specific size and chemistry. Our process is a one-step fabrication of monodisperse hollow silica capsules with a hierarchical pore structure and high size uniformity using double emulsion templates obtained by the glass-capillary microfluidic technique to encapsulate various active ingredients. These hollow silica microcapsules can be used as biomedical applications such as drug delivery and controlled release.

  7. A uniform Tauberian theorem in dynamic games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khlopin, D. V.

    2018-01-01

    Antagonistic dynamic games including games represented in normal form are considered. The asymptotic behaviour of value in these games is investigated as the game horizon tends to infinity (Cesàro mean) and as the discounting parameter tends to zero (Abel mean). The corresponding Abelian-Tauberian theorem is established: it is demonstrated that in both families the game value uniformly converges to the same limit, provided that at least one of the limits exists. Analogues of one-sided Tauberian theorems are obtained. An example shows that the requirements are essential even for control problems. Bibliography: 31 titles.

  8. Uniformly bounded representations of the Lorentz groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brega, A.O.

    1982-01-01

    For the Lorentz group G = SO/sub e/(n + 1, 1)(ngreater than or equal to 2) the author constructs a family of uniformly bounded representations by means of analytically continuing a certain normalization of the unitary principal series. The method the author uses relies on an analysis of various operators under a Mellin transform and extends earlier work of E.N. Wilson. In a series of papers Kunze and Stein initiated the theory of uniformly bounded representations of semisimple Lie groups; the starting point is the unitary principal series T(sigma,s) obtained in a certain subgroup M of G and a purely imaginary number s. From there Kunze and Stein constructed families of representations R(sigma,s) depending analytically on a parameter s in a domain D of C containing the imaginary axis which are unitarily equilvalent to T(sigma,s) for s contained in the set of imaginary numbers and whose operator norms are uniformly bounded for each s in D. In the case of the Lorentz groups SO/sub e/(n + 1, 1)(ngreater than or equal to2) and the trivial representation 1 of M, E.N. Wilson obtained such a family R(1,s) for the domain D = [s contained in the set of C: absolute value Re(s) Vertical Bar2]. For this domain D and for any representation sigma of M the author provides a family R(sigma,s) of uniformly bounded representations analytically continuing T(sigma,s), thereby generalizing Wilson's work. The author has also investigated certain symmetry properties of the representations R(sigma,s) under the action of the Weyl group. The trivial representation is Weyl group invariant and the family R(1,s) obtained by Wilson satisfies R(1,s) = R(1,-s) reflecting this. Obtained was the analogous result R(sigma,s) = R(sigma,-s) for some well known representations sigma that are Weyl group invariant. This involves the explicit computation of certain constants arising in the Fourier transforms of intertwining operators

  9. Apparatus for uniform pumping of lasing media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Condit, W.C.; Eccles, S.F.

    1975-01-01

    Electron beam pumping of gaseous or liquid lasing media is carried out by means of electron pulses generated by an electron accelerator. Between the accelerator and the laser cavity, the electron pulse is subjected to a magnetic field to turn the electron pulse approximately through a quarter orbit, so that in essence the direction of pulse travel is changed from axial to lateral. This procedure then enables pumping of the laser cavity uniformly and simultaneously, or in any desired traveling wave mode, over the entire length of the laser cavity with relatively short, and highly intense, electron pulses. (U.S.)

  10. A practical technique for the generation of highly uniform LIPSS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ardron, Marcus, E-mail: ma745@hw.ac.uk [School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, Heriot Watt University, Edinburgh EH14 4AS (United Kingdom); Renishaw PLC, Research Avenue North, Riccarton, Edinburgh EH14 4AP (United Kingdom); Weston, Nick [Renishaw PLC, Research Avenue North, Riccarton, Edinburgh EH14 4AP (United Kingdom); Hand, Duncan [School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, Heriot Watt University, Edinburgh EH14 4AS (United Kingdom)

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • Formation of uniform LIPSS on stainless steel is greatly aided by polishing in an orthogonal direction to the expected periodic features. Roughness of a sample surface must avoid vector spatial frequency content near to that of the expected LIPSS. • A very simple polishing technique was found to be suitable. • Surface finish requirement was predicted based on the efficacy factor theory; one of the few theories to give qualitatively strong agreement with experimental evidence in a field that is not fully explained by current theories. • Modelled and experimental results presented. • Using a line focused beam from an ultrafast laser facilitated the rapid production of relatively large areas of LIPSS with a modest laser repetition rate. - Abstract: Laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) can be reliably produced with ultrashort (<10 ps) laser pulses given fluence near the ablation threshold. Neat, parallel, uniform structures are harder to reproduce. Electrodynamic models show a field at normal incidence interacts with the surface resulting in periodicity in intensity along the surface in the direction of the incident E-field producing ridges and toughs on the surface orthogonal to the E-field. A completely smooth surface offers nothing to perturb the eventual periodic feature formation but is very difficult to achieve: we have demonstrated that simply avoiding surface roughness components near the frequency and direction of the emergent features significantly improves uniform feature production. An appropriate unidirectional polishing process can be realised using an inexpensive spinning cloth wheel. By using a cylindrical lens we were also able to process stainless steel surfaces at 5 mm{sup 2} s{sup −1} so indicating useful industrial potential.

  11. A practical technique for the generation of highly uniform LIPSS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ardron, Marcus; Weston, Nick; Hand, Duncan

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Formation of uniform LIPSS on stainless steel is greatly aided by polishing in an orthogonal direction to the expected periodic features. Roughness of a sample surface must avoid vector spatial frequency content near to that of the expected LIPSS. • A very simple polishing technique was found to be suitable. • Surface finish requirement was predicted based on the efficacy factor theory; one of the few theories to give qualitatively strong agreement with experimental evidence in a field that is not fully explained by current theories. • Modelled and experimental results presented. • Using a line focused beam from an ultrafast laser facilitated the rapid production of relatively large areas of LIPSS with a modest laser repetition rate. - Abstract: Laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) can be reliably produced with ultrashort (<10 ps) laser pulses given fluence near the ablation threshold. Neat, parallel, uniform structures are harder to reproduce. Electrodynamic models show a field at normal incidence interacts with the surface resulting in periodicity in intensity along the surface in the direction of the incident E-field producing ridges and toughs on the surface orthogonal to the E-field. A completely smooth surface offers nothing to perturb the eventual periodic feature formation but is very difficult to achieve: we have demonstrated that simply avoiding surface roughness components near the frequency and direction of the emergent features significantly improves uniform feature production. An appropriate unidirectional polishing process can be realised using an inexpensive spinning cloth wheel. By using a cylindrical lens we were also able to process stainless steel surfaces at 5 mm 2 s −1 so indicating useful industrial potential

  12. Reactor core fuel management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silvennoinen, P.

    1976-01-01

    The subject is covered in chapters, entitled: concepts of reactor physics; neutron diffusion; core heat transfer; reactivity; reactor operation; variables of core management; computer code modules; alternative reactor concepts; methods of optimization; general system aspects. (U.K.)

  13. Nuclear reactor core catcher

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    A nuclear reactor core catcher is described for containing debris resulting from an accident causing core meltdown and which incorporates a method of cooling the debris by the circulation of a liquid coolant. (U.K.)

  14. A stability criterion for HNFDE with non-uniform delays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xingwen; Zhong Shouming; Zhang Fengli

    2005-01-01

    Stability of functional differential equations (FDE) is an increasingly important problem in both science and engineering. Delays, whether uniform or non-uniform, play an important role in the dynamics of a system. Since non-uniform delay is more general and less focused than uniform delay, this paper concentrates on the stability of high-order neutral functional differential equations (HNFDE) with non-uniform delay, and proposes a sufficient condition for it. This result may be widely helpful, thanks to the frequent emergence of a HNFDE with non-uniform delay in various fields. Its effectiveness is illustrated by some examples

  15. Seismic core shroud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puri, A.; Mullooly, J.F.

    1981-01-01

    A core shroud is provided, comprising: a coolant boundary, following the shape of the core boundary, for channeling the coolant through the fuel assemblies; a cylindrical band positioned inside the core barrel and surrounding the coolant boundary; and support members extending from the coolant boundary to the band, for transferring load from the coolant boundary to the band. The shroud may be assembled in parts using automated welding techniques, and it may be adjusted to fit the reactor core easily

  16. Two-dimensional thermal-hydraulic behavior in core in SCTF Core-II cold leg injection tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwamura, Takamichi; Sobajima, Makoto; Okubo, Tsutomu; Ohnuki, Akira; Abe, Yutaka; Adachi, Hiromichi

    1985-07-01

    Major purpose of the Slab Core Test Program is to investigate the two-dimensional thermal-hydraulic behavior in the core during the reflood phase in a PWR-LOCA. In order to investigate the effects of radial power profile, three cold leg injection tests with different radial power profiles under the same total heating power and core stored energy were performed by using the Slab Core Test Facility (SCTF) Core-II. It was revealed by comparing these three tests that the heat transfer was enhanced in the higher power bundles and degraded in the lower power bundles in the non-uniform radial power profile tests. The turnaround temperature in the high power bundles were evaluated to be reduced by about 40 to 120 K. On the other hand, a two-dimensional flow in the core was also induced by the non-uniform water accumulation in the upper plenum and the quench was delayed resultantly in the bundles corresponding to the peripheral bundles of a PWR. However, the effect of the non-uniform upper plenum water accumulation on the turnaround temperature was small because the effect dominated after the turnaround of the cladding temperature. Selected data from Tests S2-SH1, S2-SH2 and S2-O6 are also presented in this report. Some data from Tests S2-SH1 and S2-SH2 were compared with TRAC post-test calculations performed by the Los Alamos National Laboratory. (author)

  17. Gauge field theoretic solution of a uniformly moving screw dislocation and admissibility of supersonic speeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, P.; Zhang, X.

    2006-01-01

    The failure of classical elasticity to address dislocation behavior spatially close to its core and (in Lorentz-type fashion) near the speed of sound is well known. In gauge field theory of defects, the latter are not postulated a priori in an ad hoc fashion rather defects such as dislocations arise naturally as a consequence of broken translational symmetry exhibiting solutions that are physically meaningful (e.g., removal of divergence of stress and the natural emergence of a core making redundant the artificial cut-off radius). In the present work we present the gauge field theoretic solution to the problem of a uniformly moving screw dislocation. Apart from the formal derivations, we show that stress divergence at the core of the dislocation is removed at all time and (consistent with atomistic simulations), supersonic states are found to be admissible

  18. Reactivity effect of non-uniformly distributed fuel in fuel solution systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirano, Yasushi; Yamane, Yoshihiro; Nishina, Kojiro; Mitsuhashi, Ishi.

    1991-01-01

    A numerical method to determine the optimal fuel distribution for minimum critical mass, or maximum k-effective, is developed using the Maximum Principle in order to evaluate the maximum effect of non-uniformly distributed fuel on reactivity. This algorithm maximizes the Hamiltonian directly by an iterative method under a certain constraint-the maintenance of criticality or total fuel mass. It ultimately reaches the same optimal state of a flattened fuel importance distribution as another algorithm by Dam based on perturbation theory. This method was applied to two kinds of spherical cores with water reflector in the simulating reprocessing facility. In the slightly-enriched uranyl nitrate solution core, the minimum critical mass decreased by less than 1% at the optimal moderation state. In the plutonium nitrate solution core, the k-effective increment amounted up to 4.3% Δk within the range of present study. (author)

  19. Preparing Magnetocaloric LaFeSi Uniform Microstructures by Spark Plasma Sintering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vicente, N.; Ocanã, J.; Neves Bez, Henrique

    2014-01-01

    Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) of LaFeSi alloy powders was conducted to prepare magnetocaloric La-Fe-Si-based uniform microstructures. Two electrically insulating discs made of alumina were interposed between the punches and powder sample inhibiting the flow of electric current across the powder...... from hydrogenated and decrypted casting ingot. The characterizations of sintered samples were performed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Archimedes principle, Vicker’s hardness and microhardness. The uniformity of the microstructure was evaluated by checking the evidence of position on the Vicker...

  20. YOUNG STARLESS CORES EMBEDDED IN THE MAGNETICALLY DOMINATED PIPE NEBULA. II. EXTENDED DATA SET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frau, P.; Girart, J. M.; Padovani, M. [Institut de Ciencies de l' Espai (CSIC-IEEC), Campus UAB, Facultat de Ciencies, Torre C-5p, E-08193 Bellaterra, Catalunya (Spain); Beltran, M. T.; Sanchez-Monge, A. [INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo Enrico Fermi 5, I-50125 Firenze (Italy); Busquet, G. [INAF-Istituto di Astrofisica e Planetologia Spaziali, via Fosso del Cavaliere 100, I-00133 Roma (Italy); Morata, O. [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Masque, J. M.; Estalella, R. [Departament d' Astronomia i Meteorologia and Institut de Ciencies del Cosmos (IEEC-UB), Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona, Catalunya (Spain); Alves, F. O. [Argelander-Institut fuer Astronomie der Universitaet Bonn, Auf dem Huegel 71, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Franco, G. A. P. [Departamento de Fisica-ICEx-UFMG, Caixa Postal 702, 30.123-970, Belo Horizonte (Brazil)

    2012-11-01

    The Pipe nebula is a massive, nearby, filamentary dark molecular cloud with a low star formation efficiency threaded by a uniform magnetic field perpendicular to its main axis. It harbors more than a hundred, mostly quiescent, very chemically young starless cores. The cloud is therefore a good laboratory to study the earliest stages of the star formation process. We aim to investigate the primordial conditions and the relation among physical, chemical, and magnetic properties in the evolution of low-mass starless cores. We used the IRAM 30 m telescope to map the 1.2 mm dust continuum emission of five new starless cores, which are in good agreement with previous visual extinction maps. For the sample of nine cores, which includes the four cores studied in a previous work, we derived an A {sub V} to N{sub H{sub 2}} factor of (1.27 {+-} 0.12) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -21} mag cm{sup 2} and a background visual extinction of {approx}6.7 mag possibly arising from the cloud material. We derived an average core diameter of {approx}0.08 pc, density of {approx}10{sup 5} cm{sup -3}, and mass of {approx}1.7 M {sub Sun }. Several trends seem to exist related to increasing core density: (1) the diameter seems to shrink, (2) the mass seems to increase, and (3) the chemistry tends to be richer. No correlation is found between the direction of the surrounding diffuse medium magnetic field and the projected orientation of the cores, suggesting that large-scale magnetic fields seem to play a secondary role in shaping the cores. We also used the IRAM 30 m telescope to extend the previous molecular survey at 1 and 3 mm of early- and late-time molecules toward the same five new Pipe nebula starless cores, and analyzed the normalized intensities of the detected molecular transitions. We confirmed the chemical differentiation toward the sample and increased the number of molecular transitions of the 'diffuse' (e.g., the 'ubiquitous' CO, C{sub 2}H, and CS), &apos