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Sample records for uniaxial magnetic anisotropy

  1. Direct Observation of Magnetocrystalline Anisotropy Tuning Magnetization Configurations in Uniaxial Magnetic Nanomaterials

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Shimeng; Fu, Jiecai; Li, Hongli; Zhu, Liu; Hu, Yang; Xia, Weixing; Zhang, Xixiang; Peng, Yong; Zhang, Junli

    2018-01-01

    Discovering the effect of magnetic anisotropy on the magnetization configurations of magnetic nanomaterials is essential and significant for not only enriching the fundamental knowledge of magnetics but also facilitating the designs of desired magnetic nanostructures for diverse technological applications, such as data storage devices, spintronic devices, and magnetic nanosensors. Herein, we present a direct observation of magnetocrystalline anisotropy tuning magnetization configurations in uniaxial magnetic nanomaterials with hexagonal structure by means of three modeled samples. The magnetic configuration in polycrystalline BaFe12O19 nanoslice is a curling structure, revealing that the effect of magnetocrystalline anisotropy in uniaxial magnetic nanomaterials can be broken by forming an amorphous structure or polycrystalline structure with tiny grains. Both single crystalline BaFe12O19 nanoslice and individual particles of single-particle-chain BaFe12O19 nanowire appear in a single domain state, revealing a dominant role of magnetocrystalline anisotropy in the magnetization configuration of uniaxial magnetic nanomaterials. These observations are further verified by micromagnetic computational simulations.

  2. Direct Observation of Magnetocrystalline Anisotropy Tuning Magnetization Configurations in Uniaxial Magnetic Nanomaterials

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Shimeng

    2018-03-20

    Discovering the effect of magnetic anisotropy on the magnetization configurations of magnetic nanomaterials is essential and significant for not only enriching the fundamental knowledge of magnetics but also facilitating the designs of desired magnetic nanostructures for diverse technological applications, such as data storage devices, spintronic devices, and magnetic nanosensors. Herein, we present a direct observation of magnetocrystalline anisotropy tuning magnetization configurations in uniaxial magnetic nanomaterials with hexagonal structure by means of three modeled samples. The magnetic configuration in polycrystalline BaFe12O19 nanoslice is a curling structure, revealing that the effect of magnetocrystalline anisotropy in uniaxial magnetic nanomaterials can be broken by forming an amorphous structure or polycrystalline structure with tiny grains. Both single crystalline BaFe12O19 nanoslice and individual particles of single-particle-chain BaFe12O19 nanowire appear in a single domain state, revealing a dominant role of magnetocrystalline anisotropy in the magnetization configuration of uniaxial magnetic nanomaterials. These observations are further verified by micromagnetic computational simulations.

  3. Switching the uniaxial magnetic anisotropy by ion irradiation induced compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Ye; Amarouche, Teyri; Xu, Chi; Rushforth, Andrew; Böttger, Roman; Edmonds, Kevin; Campion, Richard; Gallagher, Bryan; Helm, Manfred; Jürgen von Bardeleben, Hans; Zhou, Shengqiang

    2018-04-01

    In the present work, the uniaxial magnetic anisotropy of GaMnAsP is modified by helium ion irradiation. According to the micro-magnetic parameters, e.g. resonance fields and anisotropy constants deduced from ferromagnetic resonance measurements, a rotation of the magnetic easy axis from out-of-plane [0 0 1] to in-plane [1 0 0] direction is achieved. From the application point of view, our work presents a novel avenue in modifying the uniaxial magnetic anisotropy in GaMnAsP with the possibility of lateral patterning by using lithography or focused ion beam.

  4. On the limits of uniaxial magnetic anisotropy tuning by a ripple surface pattern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arranz, Miguel A. [Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, Avda. Camilo J. Cela 10, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain); Colino, Jose M., E-mail: josemiguel.colino@uclm.es [Instituto de Nanociencia, Nanotecnología y Materiales Moleculares, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, Campus de la Fábrica de Armas, 45071 Toledo (Spain); Palomares, Francisco J. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, c/ Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz 3, 28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2014-05-14

    Ion beam patterning of a nanoscale ripple surface has emerged as a versatile method of imprinting uniaxial magnetic anisotropy (UMA) on a desired in-plane direction in magnetic films. In the case of ripple patterned thick films, dipolar interactions around the top and/or bottom interfaces are generally assumed to drive this effect following Schlömann's calculations for demagnetizing fields of an ideally sinusoidal surface [E. Schlömann, J. Appl. Phys. 41, 1617 (1970)]. We have explored the validity of his predictions and the limits of ion beam sputtering to induce UMA in a ferromagnetic system where other relevant sources of magnetic anisotropy are neglected: ripple films not displaying any evidence of volume uniaxial anisotropy and where magnetocrystalline contributions average out in a fine grain polycrystal structure. To this purpose, the surface of 100 nm cobalt films grown on flat substrates has been irradiated at fixed ion energy, fixed ion fluency but different ion densities to make the ripple pattern at the top surface with wavelength Λ and selected, large amplitudes (ω) up to 20 nm so that stray dipolar fields are enhanced, while the residual film thickness t = 35–50 nm is sufficiently large to preserve the continuous morphology in most cases. The film-substrate interface has been studied with X-ray photoemission spectroscopy depth profiles and is found that there is a graded silicon-rich cobalt silicide, presumably formed during the film growth. This graded interface is of uncertain small thickness but the range of compositions clearly makes it a magnetically dead layer. On the other hand, the ripple surface rules both the magnetic coercivity and the uniaxial anisotropy as these are found to correlate with the pattern dimensions. Remarkably, the saturation fields in the hard axis of uniaxial continuous films are measured up to values as high as 0.80 kG and obey a linear dependence on the parameter ω{sup 2}/Λ/t in quantitative

  5. Interplay of uniaxial and cubic anisotropy in epitaxial Fe thin films on MgO (001 substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srijani Mallik

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Epitaxial Fe thin films were grown on annealed MgO(001 substrates at oblique incidence by DC magnetron sputtering. Due to the oblique growth configuration, uniaxial anisotropy was found to be superimposed on the expected four-fold cubic anisotropy. A detailed study of in-plane magnetic hysteresis for Fe on MgO thin films has been performed by Magneto Optic Kerr Effect (MOKE magnetometer. Both single step and double step loops have been observed depending on the angle between the applied field and easy axis i.e. along ⟨100⟩ direction. Domain images during magnetization reversal were captured by Kerr microscope. Domain images clearly evidence two successive and separate 90° domain wall (DW nucleation and motion along cubic easy cum uniaxial easy axis and cubic easy cum uniaxial hard axis, respectively. However, along cubic hard axis two 180° domain wall motion dominate the magnetization reversal process. In spite of having four-fold anisotropy it is essential to explain magnetization reversal mechanism in 0°< ϕ < 90° span as uniaxial anisotropy plays a major role in this system. Also it is shown that substrate rotation can suppress the effect of uniaxial anisotropy superimposed on four-fold anisotropy.

  6. A phenomenological approach to study the effect of uniaxial anisotropy on the magnetization of ferromagnetic nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Marín, N.; Cuchillo, A.; Knobel, M.; Vargas, P.

    2018-04-01

    We study the effect of the uniaxial anisotropy in a system of ideal, noninteracting ferromagnetic nanoparticles by means of a thermodynamical model. We show that the effect of the anisotropy can be easily assimilated in a temperature shift Ta∗, in analogy to what was proposed by Allia et al. (2001) in the case of interacting nanomagnets. The phenomenological anisotropic Ta∗ parameter can be negative, indicating an antiferromagnetic-like behavior, or positive, indicating a ferromagnetic-like character as seen in the inverse susceptibility behavior as a function of temperature. The study is done considering an easy axis distribution to take into account the anisotropy axis dispersion in real samples (texture). In the case of a volumetric uniform distribution of anisotropy axes, the net effect makes Ta∗ to vanish, and the magnetic susceptibility behaves like a conventional superparamagnetic system, whereas in the others a finite value is obtained for Ta∗ . When magnetic moment distribution is considered, the effect is to enhance the Ta∗ parameter, when the dispersion of the magnetic moments becomes wider.

  7. Electric-regulated enhanced in-plane uniaxial anisotropy in FeGa/PMN-PT composite using oblique pulsed laser deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Huang, Chaojuan; Turghun, Mutellip; Duan, Zhihua; Wang, Feifei; Shi, Wangzhou

    2018-04-01

    The FeGa film with in-plane uniaxial magnetic anisotropy was fabricated onto different oriented single-crystal lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate using oblique pulsed laser deposition. An enhanced in-plane uniaxial magnetic anisotropy field of FeGa film can be adjusted from 18 Oe to 275 Oe by tuning the oblique angle and polarizing voltage. The competitive relationship of shape anisotropy and strain anisotropy has been discussed, which was induced by oblique angle and polarizing voltage, respectively. The (100)-oriented and (110)-oriented PMN-PT show completely different characters on voltage-dependent magnetic properties, which could be attributed to various anisotropy directions depended on different strain directions.

  8. On the in-plane uniaxial anisotropy formation by using Fe–Co–Zr–N films: A theoretical and experimental investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seemann, K., E-mail: klaus.seemann@kit.edu; Beirle, S.; Leiste, H.

    2016-09-01

    In the present paper a simple theoretical approach for the in-plane uniaxial anisotropy evolution in thin films is introduced. In order to show, what are the conditions for a uniaxial anisotropy formation during annealing a ferromagnetic film in an external static magnetic field, a Hamiltonian, i.e., mean energy balances were established with introducing their annealing temperature dependence. At this point, a 1-dimesional chain-like arrangement of Fe and Co elements for an “isotropic” and uniaxial anisotropy state for the numerical computation was assumed. It was shown that a critical energy and annealing temperature (temperature threshold) can be attained from which a uniaxial anisotropy arises. Comparatively, calculations according to the Neél theory delivered the activation energy for inducing a uniaxial anisotropy. The experimental verification of the calculations, by using Fe{sub 40}Co{sub 37}Zr{sub 11}N{sub 12} films which were produced by reactive magnetron sputtering, yielded the activation energy of about 250 meV. Annealing temperatures above 473 K (200 °C) enabled marked uniaxial anisotropies. This correlated with the numerical quantum mechanical estimations which yielded a critical annealing temperature of approximately 449 K (176 °C). The calculated critical energy of 243 meV was in a good agreement with the verified experiments if one assumes a short range order of at least 10 ferromagnetic atoms in line (5Fe+5Co) for computation. - Highlights: • Model and theoretical description of the uniaxial anisotropy in ferromagnetic films. • Critical energy and a critical temperature for inducing the uniaxial anisotropy. • Investigation of the activation energy for inducing the uniaxial anisotropy. • Comparison with the model and according to the Neél theory.

  9. Observation of Various and Spontaneous Magnetic Skyrmionic Bubbles at Room Temperature in a Frustrated Kagome Magnet with Uniaxial Magnetic Anisotropy

    KAUST Repository

    Hou, Zhipeng

    2017-06-07

    The quest for materials hosting topologically protected skyrmionic spin textures continues to be fueled by the promise of novel devices. Although many materials have demonstrated the existence of such spin textures, major challenges remain to be addressed before devices based on magnetic skyrmions can be realized. For example, being able to create and manipulate skyrmionic spin textures at room temperature is of great importance for further technological applications because they can adapt to various external stimuli acting as information carriers in spintronic devices. Here, the first observation of skyrmionic magnetic bubbles with variable topological spin textures formed at room temperature in a frustrated kagome Fe3 Sn2 magnet with uniaxial magnetic anisotropy is reported. The magnetization dynamics are investigated using in situ Lorentz transmission electron microscopy, revealing that the transformation between different magnetic bubbles and domains is via the motion of Bloch lines driven by an applied external magnetic field. These results demonstrate that Fe3 Sn2 facilitates a unique magnetic control of topological spin textures at room temperature, making it a promising candidate for further skyrmion-based spintronic devices.

  10. Uniaxial anisotropy in magnetite thin film-Magnetization studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiechec, A.; Korecki, J.; Handke, B.; Kakol, Z.; Owoc, D.; Antolak, D.A.; Kozlowski, A.

    2006-01-01

    Magnetization and electrical resistivity measurements have been performed on a stoichiometric single crystalline magnetite Fe 3 O 4 thin film (thickness of ca. 500 nm) MBE deposited on MgO (1 0 0) substrate. The aim of these studies was to check the influence of preparation method and sample form (bulk vs. thin film) on magnetic anisotropy properties in magnetite. The film magnetization along versus applied magnetic field has been determined both in the direction parallel and perpendicular to the film surface, and at temperatures above and below the Verwey transition. We have found, in agreement with published results, that the in-plane field of 10 kOe was not sufficient to saturate the sample. This can be understood if some additional factor, on top of the bulk magnetocrystalline anisotropy, is taken into account

  11. Perpendicular magnetic anisotropy and the magnetization process in CoFeB/Pd multilayer films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngo, Duc-The; Tran, Quang-Hung; Møhave, Kristian; Quach, Duy-Truong; Phan, The-Long; Kim, Dong-Hyun

    2014-01-01

    The perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) and dynamic magnetization-reversal process in [CoFeB t nm/Pd 1.0 nm] n (t = 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1.0 and 1.2 nm; n = 2 − 20) multilayer films have been studied by means of magnetic hysteresis and Kerr effect measurements. Strong and controllable PMA with an effective uniaxial anisotropy up to 7.7 × 10 6  Jm −3 and a saturation magnetization as low as 200 emu cm −3 are achieved. The surface/interfacial anisotropy of the CoFeB/Pd interfaces—the main contribution to the PMA—is separated from the effective uniaxial anisotropy of the films and appears to increase with the number of CoFeB/Pd bilayers. Observation of the magnetic domains during a magnetization-reversal process, using polar magneto-optical Kerr microscopy, reveals the detailed behavior of the nucleation and displacement of the domain walls. (paper)

  12. Determination of the Fe magnetic anisotropies and the CoO frozen spins in epitaxial CoO/Fe/Ag(001)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, J. Li, Y.; Park, J. S.; Jenkins, C. A.; Arenholz, E.; Scholl, A.; Tan, A.; Son, H.; Zhao, H. W.; Hwang, Chanyong; Qiu, Z. Q.

    2011-04-28

    CoO/Fe/Ag(001) films were grown epitaxially and studied by X-ray Magnetic Circular Dichroism (XMCD) and X-ray Magnetic Linear Dichroism (XMLD). After field cooling along the Fe[100] axis to 80 K, exchange bias, uniaxial anisotropy, and 4-fold anisotropy of the films were determined by hysteresis loop and XMCD measurements by rotating the Fe magnetization within the film plane. The CoO frozen spins were determined by XMLD measurement as a function of CoO thickness.We find that among the exchange bias, uniaxial anisotropy, and 4-fold anisotropy, only the uniaxial magnetic anisotropy follows thickness dependence of the CoO frozen spins.

  13. Magnetic anisotropy in (Ga,Mn)As: Influence of epitaxial strain and hole concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glunk, M.; Daeubler, J.; Dreher, L.; Schwaiger, S.; Schoch, W.; Sauer, R.; Limmer, W.; Brandlmaier, A.; Goennenwein, S. T. B.; Bihler, C.; Brandt, M. S.

    2009-05-01

    We present a systematic study on the influence of epitaxial strain and hole concentration on the magnetic anisotropy in (Ga,Mn)As at 4.2 K. The strain was gradually varied over a wide range from tensile to compressive by growing a series of (Ga,Mn)As layers with 5% Mn on relaxed graded (In,Ga)As/GaAs templates with different In concentration. The hole density, the Curie temperature, and the relaxed lattice constant of the as-grown and annealed (Ga,Mn)As layers turned out to be essentially unaffected by the strain. Angle-dependent magnetotransport measurements performed at different magnetic-field strengths were used to probe the magnetic anisotropy. The measurements reveal a pronounced linear dependence of the uniaxial out-of-plane anisotropy on both strain and hole density. Whereas the uniaxial and cubic in-plane anisotropies are nearly constant, the cubic out-of-plane anisotropy changes sign when the magnetic easy axis flips from in-plane to out-of-plane. The experimental results for the magnetic anisotropy are quantitatively compared with calculations of the free energy based on a mean-field Zener model. Almost perfect agreement between experiment and theory is found for the uniaxial out-of-plane and cubic in-plane anisotropy parameters of the as-grown samples. In addition, magnetostriction constants are derived from the anisotropy data.

  14. Magnetic anisotropies in ultrathin bismuth iron garnet films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popova, Elena; Franco Galeano, Andres Felipe; Deb, Marwan; Warot-Fonrose, Bénédicte; Kachkachi, Hamid; Gendron, François; Ott, Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    Ultrathin bismuth iron garnet Bi 3 Fe 5 O 12 films were grown epitaxially on (001)-oriented gadolinium gallium garnet substrates. Film thickness varied from two to three dozens of unit cells. Bi 3 Fe 5 O 12 films grow pseudomorphically on substrates up to a thickness of 20 nm, and then a lattice relaxation occurs. Magnetic properties of the films were studied as a function of bismuth iron garnet thickness. The magnetization and cubic anisotropy decrease with decreasing film thickness. The uniaxial magnetocrystalline anisotropy is constant for all film thicknesses. For two unit cell thick films, the easy magnetization axis changes from in-plane to perpendicular to the plane direction. Such a reorientation takes place as a result of the competition of constant uniaxial perpendicular anisotropy with weakening film magnetization. - Highlights: ► Ultrathin Bi 3 Fe 5 O 12 films were grown epitaxially on structure-matching substrates. ► Magnetic properties of Bi 3 Fe 5 O 12 were studied down to the thickness of 2.5 nm. ► Reorientation of easy magnetization axis as a function of film thickness was observed

  15. Magnetic anisotropies in ultrathin bismuth iron garnet films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popova, Elena, E-mail: popova@physique.uvsq.fr [Groupe d' Etude de la Matière Condensée (GEMaC), CNRS/Université de Versailles-Saint-Quentin, 45 Avenue des Etats-Unis, 78035 Versailles (France); Franco Galeano, Andres Felipe [Laboratoire PROcédés, Matériaux et Energie Solaire (PROMES), CNRS/Université de Perpignan Via Domitia, 52 Avenue Paul Alduy, 66860 Perpignan (France); Deb, Marwan [Groupe d' Etude de la Matière Condensée (GEMaC), CNRS/Université de Versailles-Saint-Quentin, 45 Avenue des Etats-Unis, 78035 Versailles (France); Warot-Fonrose, Bénédicte [Centre d' Elaboration de Matériaux et d' Etudes Structurales (CEMES), CNRS, 29 rue Jeanne Marvig, 31055 Toulouse (France); Transpyrenean Associated Laboratory for Electron Microscopy (TALEM), CEMES-INA, CNRS–Universidad de Zaragoza (Spain); Kachkachi, Hamid [Laboratoire PROcédés, Matériaux et Energie Solaire (PROMES), CNRS/Université de Perpignan Via Domitia, 52 Avenue Paul Alduy, 66860 Perpignan (France); Gendron, François [Institut des NanoSciences de Paris (INSP), CNRS/Université Pierre et Marie Curie-Paris 6, 4 place Jussieu, Boîte courrier 840, 75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Ott, Frédéric [Laboratoire Léon Brillouin (LLB), CNRS/CEA, Bâtiment 563, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette Cedex (France); and others

    2013-06-15

    Ultrathin bismuth iron garnet Bi{sub 3}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12} films were grown epitaxially on (001)-oriented gadolinium gallium garnet substrates. Film thickness varied from two to three dozens of unit cells. Bi{sub 3}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12} films grow pseudomorphically on substrates up to a thickness of 20 nm, and then a lattice relaxation occurs. Magnetic properties of the films were studied as a function of bismuth iron garnet thickness. The magnetization and cubic anisotropy decrease with decreasing film thickness. The uniaxial magnetocrystalline anisotropy is constant for all film thicknesses. For two unit cell thick films, the easy magnetization axis changes from in-plane to perpendicular to the plane direction. Such a reorientation takes place as a result of the competition of constant uniaxial perpendicular anisotropy with weakening film magnetization. - Highlights: ► Ultrathin Bi{sub 3}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12} films were grown epitaxially on structure-matching substrates. ► Magnetic properties of Bi{sub 3}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12} were studied down to the thickness of 2.5 nm. ► Reorientation of easy magnetization axis as a function of film thickness was observed.

  16. Giant magnetic anisotropy and tunnelling of the magnetization in Li2(Li_{1-x}Fe_x)N

    OpenAIRE

    Jesche, A.; McCallum, R. W.; Thimmaiah, S.; Jacobs, J. L.; Taufour, V.; Kreyssig, A.; Houk, R. S.; Bud'ko, S. L.; Canfield, P. C.

    2014-01-01

    Large magnetic anisotropy and coercivity are key properties of functional magnetic materials and are generally associated with rare earth elements. Here we show an extreme, uniaxial magnetic anisotropy and the emergence of magnetic hysteresis in Li2(Li1-xFex)N. An extrapolated, magnetic anisotropy field of 220 Tesla and a coercivity field of over 11 Tesla at 2 Kelvin outperform all known hard-ferromagnets and single-molecule magnets (SMMs). Steps in the hysteresis loops and relaxation phenome...

  17. Effects of Transverse Magnetic Anisotropy on Current-Induced Spin Switching

    OpenAIRE

    Misiorny, Maciej; Barnaś, Józef

    2013-01-01

    Spin-polarized transport through bistable magnetic adatoms or single-molecule magnets (SMMs), which exhibit both uniaxial and transverse magnetic anisotropy, is considered theoretically. The main focus is on the impact of transverse anisotropy on transport characteristics and the adatom's/SMM's spin. In particular, we analyze the role of quantum tunneling of magnetization (QTM) in the mechanism of the current-induced spin switching, and show that the QTM phenomenon becomes revealed as resonan...

  18. Correlation between physical structure and magnetic anisotropy of a magnetic nanoparticle colloid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, C. L.; Jackson, A. J.; Borchers, J. A.; Gruettner, C.; Ivkov, R.

    2018-05-01

    We show the effects of a time-invariant magnetic field on the physical structure and magnetic properties of a colloid comprising 44 nm diameter magnetite magnetic nanoparticles, with a 24 nm dextran shell, in water. Structural ordering in this colloid parallel to the magnetic field occurs simultaneously with the onset of a colloidal uniaxial anisotropy. Further increases in the applied magnetic field cause the nanoparticles to order perpendicular to the field, producing unexpected colloidal unidirectional and trigonal anisotropies. This magnetic behavior is distinct from the cubic magnetocrystalline anisotropy of the magnetite and has its origins in the magnetic interactions among the mobile nanoparticles within the colloid. Specifically, these field-induced anisotropies and colloidal rearrangements result from the delicate balance between the magnetostatic and steric forces between magnetic nanoparticles. These magnetic and structural rearrangements are anticipated to influence applications that rely upon time-dependent relaxation of the magnetic colloids and fluid viscosity, such as magnetic hyperthermia and shock absorption.

  19. Energy-based ferromagnetic material model with magnetic anisotropy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steentjes, Simon, E-mail: simon.steentjes@iem.rwth-aachen.de [Institute of Electrical Machines - RWTH Aachen University, Schinkelstr. 4, D-52056 Aachen (Germany); Henrotte, François, E-mail: francois.henrotte@uclouvain.be [Institute of Mechanics Materials and Civil Engineering - UCL, Av. G. Lemaître 4-6, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Hameyer, Kay [Institute of Electrical Machines - RWTH Aachen University, Schinkelstr. 4, D-52056 Aachen (Germany)

    2017-03-01

    Non-oriented soft magnetic materials are commonly assumed to be magnetically isotropic. However, due to the rolling process a preferred direction exists along the rolling direction. This uniaxial magnetic anisotropy, and the related magnetostriction effect, are critical to the accurate calculation of iron losses and magnetic forces in rotating electrical machines. This paper proposes an extension of an isotropic energy-based vector hysteresis model to account for these two effects. - Highlights: • Energy-based vector hysteresis model with magnetic anisotropy. • Two-scale model to account for pinning field distribution. • Pinning force and reluctivity are extended to anisotropic case.

  20. Quantum Monte Carlo simulation for S=1 Heisenberg model with uniaxial anisotropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukamoto, Mitsuaki; Batista, Cristian; Kawashima, Naoki

    2007-01-01

    We perform quantum Monte Carlo simulations for S=1 Heisenberg model with an uniaxial anisotropy. The system exhibits a phase transition as we vary the anisotropy and a long range order appears at a finite temperature when the exchange interaction J is comparable to the uniaxial anisotropy D. We investigate quantum critical phenomena of this model and obtain the line of the phase transition which approaches a power-law with logarithmic corrections at low temperature. We derive the form of logarithmic corrections analytically and compare it to our simulation results

  1. Anisotropy and relaxation processes of uniaxially oriented CoFe2O4 nanoparticles dispersed in PDMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonel, P.S.; Negri, R.M.; Leyva, A.G.; Jorge, G.A.

    2012-01-01

    When a uniaxial magnetic field is applied to a non-magnetic dispersive medium filled with magnetic nanoparticles, they auto-assemble into thin needles parallel to the field direction, due to the strong dipolar interaction among them. We have prepared in this way magnetically oriented nanocomposites of nanometer-size CoFe 2 O 4 particles in a polydimethylsiloxane polymer matrix, with 10% w/w of magnetic particles. We present the characteristic magnetic relaxation curves measured after the application of a magnetic field forming an angle α with respect to the needle direction. We show that the magnetic viscosity (calculated from the logarithmic relaxation curves) as a function of α presents a minimum at α=0, indicating slower relaxation processes associated with this configuration of fields. The results seems to point out that the local magnetic anisotropy of the nanoparticles is oriented along the needles, resulting in the macroscopic magnetic anisotropy observed in our measurements.

  2. Thickness and angular dependent magnetic anisotropy of La0.67Sr0.33MnO3 thin films by Vectorial Magneto Optical Kerr Magnetometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaluvadi, S. K.; Perna, P.; Ajejas, F.; Camarero, J.; Pautrat, A.; Flament, S.; Méchin, L.

    2017-10-01

    We investigate the in-plane magnetic anisotropy in La0.67Sr0.33MnO3 thin films grown on SrTiO3 (001) substrate using angular dependent room temperature Vectorial Magneto-Optical Kerr Magnetometry. The experimental data reveals that the magnetic anisotropy symmetry landscape significantly changes depending upon the strain and thickness. At low film thickness (12 and 25 nm) the dominant uniaxial anisotropy is due to interface effects, step edges due to mis-cut angle of SrTiO3 substrate. At intermediate thickness, the magnetic anisotropy presents a competition between magnetocrystalline (biaxial) and substrate step induced (uniaxial) anisotropy. Depending upon their relative strengths, a profound biaxial or uniaxial or mixed anisotropy is favoured. Above the critical thickness, magnetocrystalline anisotropy dominates all other effects and shows a biaxial anisotropy.

  3. Mechanism of tailored magnetic anisotropy in amorphous Co{sub 68}Fe{sub 24}Zr{sub 8} thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Yu, E-mail: yu.fu@uni-due.de, E-mail: cangcangzhulin@gmail.com; Meckenstock, R.; Farle, M. [Fakultät für Physik and Center for Nanointegration Duisburg-Essen (CeNIDE), Universität Duisburg-Essen, 47057 Duisburg (Germany); Barsukov, I., E-mail: ibarsuko@uci.edu [Fakultät für Physik and Center for Nanointegration Duisburg-Essen (CeNIDE), Universität Duisburg-Essen, 47057 Duisburg (Germany); Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States); Lindner, J. [Fakultät für Physik and Center for Nanointegration Duisburg-Essen (CeNIDE), Universität Duisburg-Essen, 47057 Duisburg (Germany); Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Bautzner Landstr. 400, 01328 Dresden (Germany); Raanaei, H. [Department of Physics, Persian Gulf University, Bushehr 75169 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hjörvarsson, B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Box 516 SE-75120 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2014-02-17

    The mechanism of tailored magnetic anisotropy in amorphous Co{sub 68}Fe{sub 24}Zr{sub 8} thin films was investigated by ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) on samples deposited without an applied magnetic field, with an out-of-plane field and an in-plane field. Analysis of FMR spectra profiles, high frequency susceptibility calculations, and statistical simulations using a distribution of local uniaxial magnetic anisotropy reveal the presence of atomic configurations with local uniaxial anisotropy, of which the direction can be tailored while the magnitude remains at an intrinsically constant value of 3.0(2) kJ/m{sup 3}. The in-plane growth field remarkably sharpens the anisotropy distribution and increases the sample homogeneity. The results benefit designing multilayer spintronic devices based on highly homogeneous amorphous layers with tailored magnetic anisotropy.

  4. Nanoscale magnetic ratchets based on shape anisotropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Jizhai; Keller, Scott M.; Liang, Cheng-Yen; Carman, Gregory P.; Lynch, Christopher S.

    2017-02-01

    Controlling magnetization using piezoelectric strain through the magnetoelectric effect offers several orders of magnitude reduction in energy consumption for spintronic applications. However strain is a uniaxial effect and, unlike directional magnetic field or spin-polarized current, cannot induce a full 180° reorientation of the magnetization vector when acting alone. We have engineered novel ‘peanut’ and ‘cat-eye’ shaped nanomagnets on piezoelectric substrates that undergo repeated deterministic 180° magnetization rotations in response to individual electric-field-induced strain pulses by breaking the uniaxial symmetry using shape anisotropy. This behavior can be likened to a magnetic ratchet, advancing magnetization clockwise with each piezostrain trigger. The results were validated using micromagnetics implemented in a multiphysics finite elements code to simulate the engineered spatial and temporal magnetic behavior. The engineering principles start from a target device function and proceed to the identification of shapes that produce the desired function. This approach opens a broad design space for next generation magnetoelectric spintronic devices.

  5. Fourfold magnetic anisotropy, coercivity and magnetization reversal of Co/V bilayers grown on MgO(0 0 1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calleja, J F [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Oviedo, Calvo Sotelo s/n, 33007 Oviedo (Spain); Muro, M GarcIa del [Departament de Fisica Fonamental and Institut de Nanociencia i Nanotecnologia IN2UB de la Universitat de Barcelona, MartIi Franques, 1, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Presa, B [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Oviedo, Calvo Sotelo s/n, 33007 Oviedo (Spain); Matarranz, R [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Oviedo, Calvo Sotelo s/n, 33007 Oviedo (Spain); Corrales, J A [Departmento de Informatica, Universidad de Oviedo, Edificio Departamental 1, Campus de Viesques s/n, 33204 Gijon (Spain); Labarta, A [Departament de Fisica Fonamental and Institut de Nanociencia i Nanotecnologia IN2UB de la Universitat de Barcelona, MartIi Franques, 1, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Contreras, M C [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Oviedo, Calvo Sotelo s/n, 33007 Oviedo (Spain)

    2007-11-21

    Magnetic anisotropy and magnetization reversal of Al/Co/V/MgO(0 0 1) thin films have been investigated. The films were fabricated by magnetron sputtering. The roles of both Co and V layers thicknesses have been studied. Magnetic characterization has been carried out by transverse susceptibility (TS) measurements and hysteresis loops. Cobalt is grown in the hcp structure on V with the c axis parallel to the film plane. Two types of hcp Co crystal are grown with the c axes perpendicular to each other. This structure gives rise to a fourfold magnetic anisotropy. When the V layer thickness is below 40 A a superimposed uniaxial anisotropy develops, the effect of which is a depression in the TS, in agreement with theoretical calculations. This uniaxial anisotropy is induced by the substrate and due to a discontinuous growth of the V layer. For hcp Co grown on V, the magnetic anisotropy rapidly increases with Co layer thickness. In this case, unexpected shifted hysteresis loops along the hard axes were observed when the films were not saturated. This has been explained by taking into account the magnetization reversal along the hard axis: it proceeds via magnetization rotation of some portions of the film at high fields, and by domain wall motion of the rest of the film at lower field values.

  6. Fourfold magnetic anisotropy, coercivity and magnetization reversal of Co/V bilayers grown on MgO(0 0 1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calleja, J F; Muro, M GarcIa del; Presa, B; Matarranz, R; Corrales, J A; Labarta, A; Contreras, M C

    2007-01-01

    Magnetic anisotropy and magnetization reversal of Al/Co/V/MgO(0 0 1) thin films have been investigated. The films were fabricated by magnetron sputtering. The roles of both Co and V layers thicknesses have been studied. Magnetic characterization has been carried out by transverse susceptibility (TS) measurements and hysteresis loops. Cobalt is grown in the hcp structure on V with the c axis parallel to the film plane. Two types of hcp Co crystal are grown with the c axes perpendicular to each other. This structure gives rise to a fourfold magnetic anisotropy. When the V layer thickness is below 40 A a superimposed uniaxial anisotropy develops, the effect of which is a depression in the TS, in agreement with theoretical calculations. This uniaxial anisotropy is induced by the substrate and due to a discontinuous growth of the V layer. For hcp Co grown on V, the magnetic anisotropy rapidly increases with Co layer thickness. In this case, unexpected shifted hysteresis loops along the hard axes were observed when the films were not saturated. This has been explained by taking into account the magnetization reversal along the hard axis: it proceeds via magnetization rotation of some portions of the film at high fields, and by domain wall motion of the rest of the film at lower field values

  7. Thickness dependence of magnetic anisotropy and domains in amorphous Co{sub 40}Fe{sub 40}B{sub 20} thin films grown on PET flexible substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Zhenhua, E-mail: tangzhenhua1988@163.com [Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Functional Soft Condensed Matter, School of Materials and Energy, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Department of Physics, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong (China); Ni, Hao [Department of Physics, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong (China); College of science, China university of petroleum, Qingdao, Shandong 266580 China (China); Lu, Biao [Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Functional Soft Condensed Matter, School of Materials and Energy, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Zheng, Ming [Department of Physics, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong (China); Huang, Yong-An [Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Functional Soft Condensed Matter, School of Materials and Energy, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Lu, Sheng-Guo, E-mail: sglu@gdut.edu.cn [Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Functional Soft Condensed Matter, School of Materials and Energy, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Tang, Minghua [Key Laboratory of Low Dimensional Materials and Application Technology, Ministry of Education (Xiangtan University), Xiangtan, Hunan 411105 (China); Gao, Ju [Department of Physics, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong (China)

    2017-03-15

    The amorphous Co{sub 40}Fe{sub 40}B{sub 20} (CoFeB) films (5–200 nm in thickness) were grown on flexible polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates using the DC magnetron-sputtering method. The thickness dependence of structural and magnetic properties of flexible CoFeB thin films was investigated in detail. The in-plane uniaxial magnetic anisotropy induced by strain as a function of thickness was obtained in flexible CoFeB thin films, and a critical thickness of ~150 nm for in-plane magnetic anisotropy was observed. Moreover, the domains and the uniaxial anisotropy as a function of angular direction of applied magnetic field were characterized. The results show potential for designing CoFeB-based flexible spintronic devices in which the physical parameters could be tailored by controlling the thickness of the thin film. - Graphical abstract: The in-plane uniaxial magnetic anisotropy induced by strain as a function of thickness was obtained in flexible CoFeB thin films, and a critical thickness of ~150 nm for in-plane magnetic anisotropy was observed. Moreover, the domains and the uniaxial anisotropy as a function of angular direction of applied magnetic field were characterized. - Highlights: • The thickness effect on the magnetic properties in amorphous CoFeB thin films grown on flexible substrates was investigated. • The in-plane uniaxial magnetic anisotropy induced by strains was observed. • A critical thickness of ~ 150 nm for the flexible CoFeB thin film on PET substrate was obtained.

  8. Thickness dependence of the magnetic anisotropy and dynamic magnetic response of ferromagnetic NiFe films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, E F; Corrêa, M A; Chesman, C; Bohn, F; Della Pace, R D; Plá Cid, C C; Kern, P R; Carara, M; Alves Santos, O; Rodríguez-Suárez, R L; Azevedo, A; Rezende, S M

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the thickness dependence of the magnetic anisotropy and dynamic magnetic response of ferromagnetic NiFe films. We go beyond quasi-static measurements and focus on the dynamic magnetic response by considering three complementary techniques: the ferromagnetic resonance, magnetoimpedance and magnetic permeability measurements. We verify remarkable modifications in the magnetic anisotropy, i.e. the well-known behavior of in-plane uniaxial magnetic anisotropy systems gives place to a complex magnetic behavior as the thickness increases, and splits the films in two groups according to the magnetic properties. We identify magnetoimpedance and magnetic permeability curves with multiple resonance peaks, as well as the evolution of the ferromagnetic resonance absorption spectra, as fingerprints of strong changes of the magnetic properties associated to the vanishing of the in-plane magnetic anisotropy and to the emergence of non-homogeneous magnetization configuration, local anisotropies and out-of-plane anisotropy contribution arisen as a consequence of the non-uniformities of the stress stored in the film as the thickness is increased and/or to the columnar growth of the film. We interpret the experimental results in terms of the structural and morphological properties, quasi-static magnetic behavior, magnetic domain structure and different mechanisms governing the magnetization dynamics at distinct frequency ranges. (paper)

  9. Understanding the magnetic anisotropy in Fe-Si amorphous alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz, J.; Hamdan, N.M.; Jalil, P.; Hussain, Z.; Valvidares, S.M.; Alameda, J.M.

    2002-08-01

    The origin of the magnetic anisotropy in a very disordered Fe-Si alloy has been investigated. The alloy containing 40 percent at. Si was prepared in the form of a thin film in a DC magnetron sputtering chamber. Structural disorder was obtained from Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure spectroscopy. The uniformity and lack of inhomogeneities at a microscopic level was checked by measuring their transverse magnetic susceptibility and hysteresis loops. The orbital component of the magnetic moment was measured by X-ray Magnetic Circular Dichroism spectroscopy. The orbital moment was extraordinary high, 0.4mB. Such a high value contrasted with the relatively small uniaxial anisotropy energy of the thin film (2kJ/m3). This suggests that the cause of the magnetic anisotropy in this alloy was a small degree of correlation in the orientation of the local orbital moments along a preferential direction.

  10. Understanding the magnetic anisotropy in Fe-Si amorphous alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz, J.; Hamdan, N.M.; Jalil, P.; Hussain, Z.; Valvidares, S.M.; Alameda, J.M.

    2002-01-01

    The origin of the magnetic anisotropy in a very disordered Fe-Si alloy has been investigated. The alloy containing 40 percent at. Si was prepared in the form of a thin film in a DC magnetron sputtering chamber. Structural disorder was obtained from Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure spectroscopy. The uniformity and lack of inhomogeneities at a microscopic level was checked by measuring their transverse magnetic susceptibility and hysteresis loops. The orbital component of the magnetic moment was measured by X-ray Magnetic Circular Dichroism spectroscopy. The orbital moment was extraordinary high, 0.4mB. Such a high value contrasted with the relatively small uniaxial anisotropy energy of the thin film (2kJ/m3). This suggests that the cause of the magnetic anisotropy in this alloy was a small degree of correlation in the orientation of the local orbital moments along a preferential direction

  11. Effects of Transverse Magnetic Anisotropy on Current-Induced Spin Switching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misiorny, Maciej; Barnaś, Józef

    2013-07-01

    Spin-polarized transport through bistable magnetic adatoms or single-molecule magnets (SMMs), which exhibit both uniaxial and transverse magnetic anisotropy, is considered theoretically. The main focus is on the impact of transverse anisotropy on transport characteristics and the adatom’s or SMM’s spin. In particular, we analyze the role of quantum tunneling of magnetization (QTM) in the mechanism of the current-induced spin switching, and show that the QTM phenomenon becomes revealed as resonant peaks in the average values of the molecule’s spin and in the charge current. These features appear at some resonant fields and are observable when at least one of the electrodes is ferromagnetic.

  12. Anisotropy and relaxation processes of uniaxially oriented CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles dispersed in PDMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonel, P.S.; Negri, R.M. [Instituto de Quimica Fisica de Materiales, Ambiente y Energia (INQUIMAE), Departamento de Quimica Inorganica, Analitica y Quimica Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellon II, Av. Cantilo s/n (1428), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Leyva, A.G. [Grupo de Materia Condensada, Gerencia de Investigacion y Aplicaciones, Centro Atomico Constituyentes, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Avda. Gral. Paz 1499 (1650) San Martin, Pcia. de Buenos Aires, Argentina - Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnologia, UNSAM (Argentina); Jorge, G.A., E-mail: gjorge@df.uba.ar [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellon I, Av. Cantilo s/n (1428), Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2012-08-15

    When a uniaxial magnetic field is applied to a non-magnetic dispersive medium filled with magnetic nanoparticles, they auto-assemble into thin needles parallel to the field direction, due to the strong dipolar interaction among them. We have prepared in this way magnetically oriented nanocomposites of nanometer-size CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} particles in a polydimethylsiloxane polymer matrix, with 10% w/w of magnetic particles. We present the characteristic magnetic relaxation curves measured after the application of a magnetic field forming an angle {alpha} with respect to the needle direction. We show that the magnetic viscosity (calculated from the logarithmic relaxation curves) as a function of {alpha} presents a minimum at {alpha}=0, indicating slower relaxation processes associated with this configuration of fields. The results seems to point out that the local magnetic anisotropy of the nanoparticles is oriented along the needles, resulting in the macroscopic magnetic anisotropy observed in our measurements.

  13. Controlling the induced anisotropy in soft magnetic films for high-frequency applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chezan, A.R.; Craus, C.B.; Chechenin, N.G.; Vystavel, T.; Hosson, J.Th.M. De; Niesen, L.; Boerma, D.O.

    Nanocrystalline soft magnetic Fe–Zr–N films were successfully deposited by dc magnetron reactive sputtering. The nitrogen content was controlled by varying the Ar/N2 ratio and/or the substrate temperature. The films have saturation magnetization and induced uniaxial anisotropy values in the range

  14. Observation of Various and Spontaneous Magnetic Skyrmionic Bubbles at Room Temperature in a Frustrated Kagome Magnet with Uniaxial Magnetic Anisotropy

    KAUST Repository

    Hou, Zhipeng; Ren, Weijun; Ding, Bei; Xu, Guizhou; Wang, Yue; Yang, Bing; Zhang, Qiang; Zhang, Ying; Liu, Enke; Xu, Feng; Wang, Wenhong; Wu, Guangheng; Zhang, Xixiang; Shen, Baogen; Zhang, Zhidong

    2017-01-01

    to various external stimuli acting as information carriers in spintronic devices. Here, the first observation of skyrmionic magnetic bubbles with variable topological spin textures formed at room temperature in a frustrated kagome Fe3 Sn2 magnet with uniaxial

  15. Thickness dependence of magnetic anisotropy and intrinsic anomalous Hall effect in epitaxial Co{sub 2}MnAl film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, K.K., E-mail: kkmeng@ustb.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Miao, J.; Xu, X.G. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Zhao, J.H. [State Key Laboratory of Superlattices and Microstructures, Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100083 (China); Jiang, Y. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2017-04-04

    We have investigated the thickness dependence of magnetic anisotropy and intrinsic anomalous Hall effect (AHE) in single-crystalline full-Heusler alloy Co{sub 2}MnAl (CMA) grown by molecular-beam epitaxy on GaAs(001). The magnetic anisotropy is the interplay of uniaxial and the fourfold anisotropy, and the corresponding anisotropy constants have been deduced. Considering the thickness of CMA is small, we ascribe it to the influence from interface stress. The AHE in CMA is found to be well described by a proper scaling. The intrinsic anomalous conductivity is found to be smaller than the calculated one and is thickness dependent, which is ascribed to the influence of chemical ordering by affecting the band structure and Fermi surface. - Highlights: • Single-crystalline full-Heusler alloy Co{sub 2}MnAl grown by molecular-beam epitaxy. • Uniaxial and the fourfold magnetic anisotropies in Heusler alloys. • Anomalous Hall effect in Heusler alloys. • The intrinsic contributions modified by chemical ordering.

  16. Interfacial tuning of perpendicular magnetic anisotropy and spin magnetic moment in CoFe/Pd multilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ngo, D.-T., E-mail: ndthe82@gmail.com [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, 4 Engineering Drive 3, Singapore 117576 (Singapore); Meng, Z.L. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, 4 Engineering Drive 3, Singapore 117576 (Singapore); Tahmasebi, T. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, 4 Engineering Drive 3, Singapore 117576 (Singapore); Data Storage Institute, A-STAR (Agency for Science Technology and Research), 5 Engineering Drive 1, Singapore 117608 (Singapore); Yu, X. [Singapore Synchrotron Light Source, National University of Singapore, 5 Research Link, Singapore 117603 (Singapore); Thoeng, E. [Singapore Synchrotron Light Source, National University of Singapore, 5 Research Link, Singapore 117603 (Singapore); Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Yeo, L.H. [Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Rusydi, A., E-mail: phyandri@nus.edu.sg [Singapore Synchrotron Light Source, National University of Singapore, 5 Research Link, Singapore 117603 (Singapore); Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Han, G.C [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, 4 Engineering Drive 3, Singapore 117576 (Singapore); Teo, K.-L., E-mail: eleteokl@nus.edu.sg [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, 4 Engineering Drive 3, Singapore 117576 (Singapore)

    2014-01-15

    We report on a strong perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in [CoFe 0.4 nm/Pd t]{sub 6} (t=1.0–2.0 nm) multilayers fabricated by DC sputtering in an ultrahigh vacuum chamber. Saturation magnetization, M{sub s}, and uniaxial anisotropy, K{sub u}, of the multilayers decrease with increasing the spacing thickness; with a M{sub s} of 155 emu/cc and a K{sub u} of 1.14×10{sup 5} J/m{sup 3} at a spacing thickness of t=2 nm. X-ray absorption spectroscopy and X-ray magnetic circular dichroism measurements reveal that spin and orbital magnetic moments of Co and Fe in CoFe film decrease as a function of Pd thickness, indicating the major contribution of surface/interfacial magnetism to the magnetic properties of the film. - Highlights: • Strong perpendicular magnetic anisotropy essentially contributed by interfacial anisotropy. • Controllably magnetic properties with low M{sub s}, high K{sub u}, high P. • Interfacial magnetic moments modified by CoFe/Pd interfaces with strong spin–orbit coupling. • Narrow Bloch walls with Néel caps. • Superior magnetic characteristics for spin-torque applications.

  17. Role of the substrate on the magnetic anisotropy of magnetite thin films grown by ion-assisted deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prieto, Pilar; Prieto, José Emilio; Gargallo-Caballero, Raquel; Marco, José Francisco; Figuera, Juan de la

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The magnetic anisotropy of magnetite thin films is controlled by the substrate induced microstructure. • Single-crystal oxide substrates induce fourfold in-plane magnetic anisotropy • MgO and SrTiO_3 substrates show the same magnetic behavior despite its different mismatch with Fe_3O_4 films. • Silicon and glass substrates induce in-plane magnetic isotropy and uniaxial anisotropy, respectively. - Abstract: Magnetite (Fe_3O_4) thin films were deposited on MgO (0 0 1), SrTiO_3 (0 0 1), LaAlO_3 (0 0 1) single crystal substrates as well on as silicon and amorphous glass in order to study the effect of the substrate on their magnetic properties, mainly the magnetic anisotropy. We have performed a structural, morphological and compositional characterization by X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy and Rutherford backscattering ion channeling in oxygen resonance mode. The magnetic anisotropy has been investigated by vectorial magneto-optical Kerr effect. The results indicate that the magnetic anisotropy is especially influenced by the substrate-induced microstructure. In-plane isotropy and uniaxial anisotropy behavior have been observed on silicon and glass substrates, respectively. The transition between both behaviors depends on grain size. For LaAlO_3 substrates, in which the lattice mismatch between the Fe_3O_4 films and the substrate is significant, a weak in-plane fourfold magnetic anisotropy is induced. However when magnetite is deposited on MgO (0 0 1) and SrTiO_3 (0 0 1) substrates, a well-defined fourfold in-plane magnetic anisotropy is observed with easy axes along [1 0 0] and [0 1 0] directions. The magnetic properties on these two latter substrates are similar in terms of magnetic anisotropy and coercive fields.

  18. Stress induced anisotropy in CoFeMn soft magnetic nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leary, A. M., E-mail: leary@cmu.edu; Keylin, V.; McHenry, M. E. [Materials Science and Engineering Department, Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Ave., Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 (United States); Ohodnicki, P. R. [Functional Materials Development Division, National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), 626 Cochrans Mill Road, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15236 (United States)

    2015-05-07

    The use of processing techniques to create magnetic anisotropy in soft magnetic materials is a well-known method to control permeability and losses. In nanocomposite materials, field annealing below the Curie temperature results in uniaxial anisotropy energies up to ∼2 kJ/m{sup 3}. Higher anisotropies up to ∼10 kJ/m{sup 3} result after annealing Fe-Si compositions under stress due to residual stress in the amorphous matrix acting on body centered cubic crystals. This work describes near zero magnetostriction Co{sub 80−x−y}Fe{sub x}Mn{sub y}Nb{sub 4}B{sub 14}Si{sub 2} soft magnetic nanocomposites, where x and y < 8 at.% with close packed crystalline grains that show stress induced anisotropies up to ∼50 kJ/m{sup 3} and improved mechanical properties with respect to Fe-Si compositions. Difference patterns measured using transmission X-ray diffraction show evidence of affine strain with respect to the stress axis.

  19. Temperature dependence of magnetic anisotropies in ultrathin Fe film on vicinal Si(111)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yong-Sheng; He, Wei; Ye, Jun; Hu, Bo; Tang, Jin; Zhang, Xiang-Qun [State Key Laboratory of Magnetism and Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Cheng, Zhao-Hua, E-mail: zhcheng@aphy.iphy.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Magnetism and Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); School of Physical Sciences, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2017-05-01

    The temperature dependence of magnetic anisotropy of ultrathin Fe film with different thickness epitaxially grown on vicinal Si(111) substrate has been quantitatively investigated using the anisotropic magnetoresistance(AMR) measurements. Due to the effect of the vicinal substrate, the magnetic anisotropy is the superposition of a four-fold, a two-fold and a weakly six-fold contribution. It is found that the temperature dependence of the first-order magnetocrystalline anisotropies coefficient follows power laws of the reduced magnetization m(T)(=M(T)/M(0)) being consistent with the Callen and Callen's theory. However the temperature dependence of uniaxial magnetic anisotropy (UMA) shows novel behavior that decreases roughly as a function of temperature with different power law for samples with different thickness. We also found that the six-fold magnetocrystalline anisotropy is almost invariable over a wide temperature range. Possible mechanisms leading to the different exponents are discussed.

  20. Topological spin-hedgehog crystals of a chiral magnet as engineered with magnetic anisotropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanazawa, N.; White, J. S.; Rønnow, H. M.; Dewhurst, C. D.; Morikawa, D.; Shibata, K.; Arima, T.; Kagawa, F.; Tsukazaki, A.; Kozuka, Y.; Ichikawa, M.; Kawasaki, M.; Tokura, Y.

    2017-12-01

    We report the engineering of spin-hedgehog crystals in thin films of the chiral magnet MnGe by tailoring the magnetic anisotropy. As evidenced by neutron scattering on films with different thicknesses and by varying a magnetic field, we can realize continuously deformable spin-hedgehog crystals, each of which is described as a superposition state of a different set of three spin spirals (a triple-q state). The directions of the three propagation vectors q vary systematically, gathering from the three orthogonal 〈100 〉 directions towards the film normal as the strength of the uniaxial magnetic anisotropy and/or the magnetic field applied along the film normal increase. The formation of triple-q states coincides with the onset of topological Hall signals, that are ascribed to skew scattering by an emergent magnetic field originating in the nontrivial topology of spin hedgehogs. These findings highlight how nanoengineering of chiral magnets makes possible the rational design of unique topological spin textures.

  1. Uniaxial in-plane magnetization of iron nanolayers grown within an amorphous matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghafari, M., E-mail: mohammad.ghafari@kit.edu; Hahn, H. [Herbert Gleiter Institute of Nanoscience, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094 (China); Institute of Nanotechnology, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Mattheis, R. [Leibniz Institute for Photonic Technology IPHT, Jena (Germany); McCord, J. [Institute for Materials Science, Kiel University Kiel, Kaiserstraße 2, 24143 Kiel (Germany); Brand, R. A. [Institute of Nanotechnology, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Macedo, W. A. A. [Laboratório de Física Aplicada, Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN), 31270-901 Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2014-08-18

    Conversion electron Mössbauer spectroscopy is used to determine the magnetic ground state at zero magnetic field of four-monolayer thick amorphous iron layers as part of a CoFeB-Fe multilayer stack. By comparing the intensities of the magnetic hyperfine field, an easy in-plane axis of the amorphous embedded Fe layer is verified, which is collinear to the uniaxial anisotropy axis of the neighboring amorphous CoFeB. Despite the soft magnetic character of the Fe layers, external fields up to 4 T perpendicular to the film plane are insufficient to completely align the embedded Fe moments parallel to the magnetic field due to a local disorder of the magnetic moments of the Fe atoms.

  2. Electronic, magnetic, and magnetocrystalline anisotropy properties of light lanthanides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackett, Timothy A.; Baldwin, D. J.; Paudyal, D.

    2017-11-01

    Theoretical understanding of interactions between localized and mobile electrons and the crystal environment in light lanthanides is important because of their key role in much needed magnetic anisotropy in permanent magnet materials that have a great impact in automobile and wind turbine applications. We report electronic, magnetic, and magnetocrystalline properties of these basic light lanthanide elements studied from advanced density functional theory (DFT) calculations. We find that the inclusion of onsite 4f electron correlation and spin orbit coupling within the full-potential band structure is needed to understand the unique magnetocrystalline properties of these light lanthanides. The onsite electron correlation, spin orbit coupling, and full potential for the asphericity of charge densities must be taken into account for the proper treatment of 4f states. We find the variation of total energy as a function of lattice constants that indicate multiple structural phases in Ce contrasting to a single stable structure obtained in other light lanthanides. The 4f orbital magnetic moments are partially quenched as a result of crystalline electric field splitting that leads to magnetocrystalline anisotropy. The charge density plots have similar asphericity and environment in Pr and Nd indicating similar magnetic anisotropy. However, Ce and Sm show completely different asphericity and environment as both orbital moments are significantly quenched. In addition, the Fermi surface structures exemplified in Nd indicate structural stability and unravel a cause of anisotropy. The calculated magnetocrystalline anisotropy energy (MAE) reveals competing c-axis and in-plane anisotropies, and also predicts possibilities of unusual structural deformations in light lanthanides. The uniaxial magnetic anisotropy is obtained in the double hexagonal closed pack structures of the most of the light lanthanides, however, the anisotropy is reduced or turned to planar in the low symmetry

  3. Manipulating the magnetic anisotropy and magnetization dynamics by stress: Numerical calculation and experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, M. A.; Bohn, F.

    2018-05-01

    We perform a theoretical and experimental investigation of the magnetic properties and magnetization dynamics of a ferromagnetic magnetostrictive multilayer grown onto a flexible substrate and submitted to external stress. We calculate the magnetic behavior and magnetoimpedance effect for a trilayered system from an approach that considers a magnetic permeability model for planar geometry and a magnetic free energy density which takes into account induced uniaxial and magnetoelastic anisotropy contributions. We verify remarkable modifications of the magnetic anisotropy with external stress, as well as we show that the dynamic magnetic response is strongly affected by these changes. We discuss the magnetic features that lead to modifications of the frequency limits where distinct mechanisms are responsible by the magnetoimpedance variations, enabling us to manipulate the resonance fields. To test the robustness of the approach, we directly compare theoretical results with experimental data. Thus, we provide experimental evidence to confirm the validity of the theoretical approach, as well as to manipulate the resonance fields to tune the MI response according to real applications in devices.

  4. Magnetic properties of magnetic liquids with iron-oxide particles - the influence of anisotropy and interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, C.; Hanson, M.; Pedersen, Michael Stanley

    1997-01-01

    Magnetic liquids containing iron-oxide particles were investigated by magnetization and Mossbauer measurements. The particles were shown to be maghemite with a spontanious saturation magentization Ms = 320 kA m-1 at 200 K and a normalized high-field susceptibility x/M0 = 5.1x10-6 mkA-1, practically...... independent of temperature. Ms increases with decreasing temperature according to an effective Bloch law with an exponent larger than 1.5, as expected for fine magnetic particles. The model of magnetic particles with uniaxial anisotropy and the actual size distribution gives a consistent description...... of independent measurements of the temperature dependence of the hyperfine field and the isothermal magnetization versus field. From this an effective anisotropy constant of about 4.5x10 4 J m-3 is estimated for a particle with diameter 7.5 nm. The magnetic relaxation, as observed in zero...

  5. Magnetic anisotropy, damping, and interfacial spin transport in Pt/LSMO bilayers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. K. Lee

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We report ferromagnetic resonance measurements of magnetic anisotropy and damping in epitaxial La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 (LSMO and Pt capped LSMO thin films on SrTiO3 (001 substrates. The measurements reveal large negative perpendicular magnetic anisotropy and a weaker uniaxial in-plane anisotropy that are unaffected by the Pt cap. The Gilbert damping of the bare LSMO films is found to be low α = 1.9(1 × 10−3, and two-magnon scattering is determined to be significant and strongly anisotropic. The Pt cap increases the damping by 50% due to spin pumping, which is also directly detected via inverse spin Hall effect in Pt. Our work demonstrates efficient spin transport across the Pt/LSMO interface.

  6. Magnetic anisotropy, damping, and interfacial spin transport in Pt/LSMO bilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, H. K., E-mail: hankl@uci.edu; Barsukov, I.; Yang, L.; Krivorotov, I. N. [Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States); Swartz, A. G.; Kim, B. [Geballe Laboratory for Advanced Materials, Department of Applied Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Hwang, H. Y. [Geballe Laboratory for Advanced Materials, Department of Applied Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Stanford Institute for Materials and Energy Sciences, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States)

    2016-05-15

    We report ferromagnetic resonance measurements of magnetic anisotropy and damping in epitaxial La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3} (LSMO) and Pt capped LSMO thin films on SrTiO{sub 3} (001) substrates. The measurements reveal large negative perpendicular magnetic anisotropy and a weaker uniaxial in-plane anisotropy that are unaffected by the Pt cap. The Gilbert damping of the bare LSMO films is found to be low α = 1.9(1) × 10{sup −3}, and two-magnon scattering is determined to be significant and strongly anisotropic. The Pt cap increases the damping by 50% due to spin pumping, which is also directly detected via inverse spin Hall effect in Pt. Our work demonstrates efficient spin transport across the Pt/LSMO interface.

  7. Influence of deposition field on the magnetic anisotropy in epitaxial Co70Fe30 films on GaAs(001)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hindmarch, A.T.; Arena, D.; Dempsey, K.J.; Henini, M.; Marrows, C.H.

    2010-01-01

    The effect of the application of a magnetic field during deposition of epitaxial Co 70 Fe 30 onto GaAs(001) is shown; we find an initially counterintuitive result. For field applied along the interfacial uniaxial hard axis the relative effective uniaxial magnetic anisotropy is increased by a factor of two in comparison to both field along the uniaxial easy axis, or no field; usually, application of a deposition field results in a uniaxial easy axis parallel to this field direction. We show that the deposition field changes the maximal projection of the atomic orbital magnetic moments onto the easy axis, which corresponds to a deposition field induced shift in the Helmholtz free-energy landscape of the system.

  8. In-plane magnetic anisotropy and temperature dependence of switching field in (Ga, Mn) as ferromagnetic semiconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamara, S; Terki, F; Dumas, R; Dehbaoui, M; Sadowski, J; Galéra, R M; Tran, Q-H; Charar, S

    2012-06-01

    We explore the magnetic anisotropy of GaMnAs ferromagnetic semiconductor by Planar Hall Effect (PHE) measurements. Using low magnitude of applied magnetic field (i.e., when the magnitude H is smaller than both cubic Hc and uniaxial Hu anisotropy field), we have observed various shapes of applied magnetic field direction dependence of Planar Hall Resistance (PHR). In particular, in two regions of temperature. At T Tc/2 the "zigzag-shape" signal of PHR. They reflect different magnetic anisotropy and provide information about magnetization reversal process in GaMnAs ferromagnetic semiconductor. The theoretical model calculation of PHR based on the free energy density reproduces well the experimental data. We report also the temperature dependence of anisotropy constants and magnetization orientations. The transition of easy axis from biaxial to uniaxiale axes has been observed and confirmed by SQUID measurements.

  9. Giant magnetic anisotropy and tunnelling of the magnetization in Li2(Li1-xFex)N

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jesche, A.; McCallum, R. W.; Thimmaiah, S.; Jacobs, J. L.; Taufour, V.; Kreyssig, A.; Houk, R. S.; Bud’ko, S. L.; Canfield, P. C.

    2014-02-25

    Large magnetic anisotropy and coercivity are key properties of functional magnetic materials and are generally associated with rare earth elements. Here we show an extreme, uniaxial magnetic anisotropy and the emergence of magnetic hysteresis in Li2(Li1-xFex)N. An extrapolated, magnetic anisotropy field of 220 T and a coercivity field of over 11 T at 2 K outperform all known hard ferromagnets and single-molecular magnets. Steps in the hysteresis loops and relaxation phenomena in striking similarity to single-molecular magnets are particularly pronounced for x<<1 and indicate the presence of nanoscale magnetic centres. Quantum tunnelling, in the form of temperature-independent relaxation and coercivity, deviation from Arrhenius behaviour and blocking of the relaxation, dominates the magnetic properties up to 10 K. The simple crystal structure, the availability of large single crystals and the ability to vary the Fe concentration make Li2(Li1-xFex)N an ideal model system to study macroscopic quantum effects at elevated temperatures and also a basis for novel functional magnetic materials.

  10. Strain-dependent magnetic anisotropy in GaMnAs on InGaAs templates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daeubler, Joachim; Glunk, Michael; Schwaiger, Stephan; Dreher, Lukas; Schoch, Wladimir; Sauer, Rolf; Limmer, Wolfgang [Institut fuer Halbleiterphysik, Universitaet Ulm, 89069 Ulm (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    We have systematically studied the influence of strain on the magnetic anisotropy of GaMnAs by means of HRXRD reciprocal space mapping and angle-dependent magnetotransport. For this purpose, a series of GaMnAs layers with Mn contents of {proportional_to}5% was grown by low-temperature MBE on relaxed InGaAs/GaAs templates with different In concentrations, enabling us to vary the strain in the GaMnAs layers continuously from tensile to compressive, including the unstrained state. Considering both, as-grown and annealed samples, the anisotropy parameter describing the uniaxial out-of-plane magnetic anisotropy has been found to vary linearly with hole density and strain. As a consequence, the out-of-plane direction gradually undergoes a transition from a magnetic hard axis to a magnetic easy axis from compressive to tensile strain.

  11. Correction between B and H, and the analysis of the magnetization into uniaxial superconductor in the limit at large values of B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, I.G. de.

    1994-04-01

    Using the London theory, a correction is obtained between the direction of the magnetic induction B and the applied magnetic field H in superconductors with uniaxial anisotropy when the Ginsburg-Landau constant is not so large. One analysis of the magnetization as function of angle α is made. (author). 5 refs, 2 figs

  12. Correction between B and H, and the analysis of the magnetization into uniaxial superconductor in the limit at large values of B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, I.G. de

    1994-04-01

    Using the London theory, a correction is obtained between the direction of the magnetic induction B and the applied magnetic field H in superconductors with uniaxial anisotropy when the Ginsburg-Landau constant is not so large. One analysis of the magnetization as function of angle {alpha} is made. (author). 5 refs, 2 figs.

  13. A magneto-optic technique for studying magnetization reversal processes and anisotropies applied to Co/Cu/Co trilayer structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daboo, C.; Bland, J. A. C.; Hicken, R. J.; Ives, A. J. R.; Baird, M. J.; Walker, M. J.

    1993-05-01

    We report the magnetization reversal and magnetic anisotropy behavior of ultrathin Co/Cu(111)/Co (dCu=20 and 27 Å) trilayer structures prepared by MBE on a 500-Å Ge/GaAs(110) epilayer. We describe an arrangement in which the magnetization components parallel and perpendicular to the applied field are both determined from longitudinal MOKE measurements. For the samples examined, coherent rotation of the magnetization vector is observed when the magnetic field is applied along the hard in-plane anisotropy axis, with the magnitude of the magnetization vector constant and close to its bulk value. Results of micromagnetic calculations closely reproduce the observed parallel and perpendicular magnetization loops, and yield strong uniaxial magnetic anisotropies in both layers while the interlayer coupling appears to be absent or negligible in comparison with the anisotropy strengths. An absence of antiferromagnetic (AF) coupling has been observed previously [W. F. Egelhoff, Jr. and M. T. Kief, Phys. Rev. B 45, 7795 (1992)] in contrast to recent results, indicating that AF coupling [M. T. Johnson et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 969 (1992)] and GMR [D. Grieg et al., J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 110, L239 (1992)] can occur in Co/Cu(111)/Co structures grown by MBE, but these properties are sensitively dependent on growth conditions. The absence of coupling in our samples is attributed to the presence of a significant interface roughness induced by the Ge epilayer. The uniaxial anisotropies are assumed to arise from strain or defects induced in the film.

  14. Coercivity and induced magnetic anisotropy by stress and/or field annealing in Fe- and Co- based (Finemet-type) amorphous alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miguel, C.; Zhukov, A.; Val, J.J. del; Gonzalez, J.

    2005-01-01

    Uniaxial magnetic anisotropy has been induced in amorphous Fe 73.5 Cu 1 Nb 3 Si 15.5 B 7 (Fe-rich) and (Co 77 Si 13.5 B 9.5 ) 90 Fe 7 Nb 3 (Co-rich) ferromagnetic alloys by annealing under stress and/or magnetic field. Such anisotropy plays a crucial role on the magnetization process and, consequently, determine the future applications of these materials. The mechanisms involved on the origin of such induced magnetic anisotropy showed significant differences between Fe-rich and Co-rich amorphous alloys. This work provides a comparative study of the coercive field and induced magnetic anisotropy in Fe-rich and Co-rich (Finemet) amorphous alloys treated by stress and/or field

  15. Self-assembly of heterogeneous supramolecular structures with uniaxial anisotropy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Osés, M; Gonzalez-Lakunza, N; Silanes, I; Gourdon, A; Arnau, A; Ortega, J E

    2006-12-28

    Uniaxial anisotropy in two-dimensional self-assembled supramolecular structures is achieved by the coadsorption of two different linear molecules with complementary amine and imide functionalization. The two-dimensional monolayer is defined by a one-dimensional stack of binary chains, which can be forced to line up along steps in vicinal surfaces. The competing driving forces in the self-organization process are discussed in light of the structures observed during single molecule adsorption and coadsorption on flat and vicinal surfaces and the corresponding theoretical calculations.

  16. Determination of anisotropy constants of protein encapsulated iron oxide nanoparticles by electron magnetic resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Hongyan; Klem, Michael T.; Sebby, Karl B.; Singel, David J.; Young, Mark; Douglas, Trevor; Idzerda, Yves U.

    2009-01-01

    Angle-dependent electron magnetic resonance was performed on 4.9, 8.0, and 19 nm iron oxide nanoparticles encapsulated within protein capsids and suspended in water. Measurements were taken at liquid nitrogen temperature after cooling in a 1 T field to partially align the particles. The angle dependence of the shifts in the resonance field for the iron oxide nanoparticles (synthesized within Listeria-Dps, horse spleen ferritin, and cowpea chlorotic mottle virus) all show evidence of a uniaxial anisotropy. Using a Boltzmann distribution for the particles' easy-axis direction, we are able to use the resonance field shifts to extract a value for the anisotropy energy, showing that the anisotropy energy density increases with decreasing particle size. This suggests that surface anisotropy plays a significant role in magnetic nanoparticles of this size

  17. Determination of anisotropy constants of protein encapsulated iron oxide nanoparticles by electron magnetic resonance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Hongyan [Department of Physics, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States); Center for Bio-Inspired Nanomaterials, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States); Klem, Michael T.; Sebby, Karl B.; Singel, David J. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States); Center for Bio-Inspired Nanomaterials, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States); Young, Mark [Department of Plant Sciences and Plant Pathology, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States); Center for Bio-Inspired Nanomaterials, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States); Douglas, Trevor [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States); Center for Bio-Inspired Nanomaterials, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States); Idzerda, Yves U. [Department of Physics, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States); Center for Bio-Inspired Nanomaterials, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States)], E-mail: Idzerda@montana.edu

    2009-02-15

    Angle-dependent electron magnetic resonance was performed on 4.9, 8.0, and 19 nm iron oxide nanoparticles encapsulated within protein capsids and suspended in water. Measurements were taken at liquid nitrogen temperature after cooling in a 1 T field to partially align the particles. The angle dependence of the shifts in the resonance field for the iron oxide nanoparticles (synthesized within Listeria-Dps, horse spleen ferritin, and cowpea chlorotic mottle virus) all show evidence of a uniaxial anisotropy. Using a Boltzmann distribution for the particles' easy-axis direction, we are able to use the resonance field shifts to extract a value for the anisotropy energy, showing that the anisotropy energy density increases with decreasing particle size. This suggests that surface anisotropy plays a significant role in magnetic nanoparticles of this size.

  18. Skyrmion robustness in noncentrosymmetric magnets with axial symmetry: The role of anisotropy and tilted magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonov, A. O.; Kézsmárki, I.

    2017-12-01

    We investigate the stability of Néel skyrmions against tilted magnetic fields in polar magnets with uniaxial anisotropy ranging from easy-plane to easy-axis type. We construct the corresponding phase diagrams and investigate the internal structure of skewed skyrmions with displaced cores. We find that moderate easy-plane anisotropy increases the stability range of Néel skyrmions for fields along the symmetry axis, while moderate easy-axis anisotropy enhances their robustness against tilted magnetic fields. We stress that the direction along which the skyrmion cores are shifted depends on the symmetry of the underlying crystal lattice. The cores of Néel skyrmions, realized in polar magnets with Cn v symmetry, are displaced either along or opposite to the off-axis (in-plane) component of the magnetic field depending on the rotation sense of the magnetization, dictated by the sign of the Dzyaloshinskii constant. The core shift of antiskyrmions, present in noncentrosymmetric magnets with D2 d symmetry, depends on the in-plane orientation of the magnetic field and can be parallel, antiparallel, or perpendicular to it. We argue that the role of anisotropy in magnets with axially symmetric crystal structure is different from that in cubic helimagnets. Our results can be applied to address recent experiments on polar magnets with C3 v symmetry, GaV4S8 and GaV4Se8 , and Mn1.4Pt0.9Pd0.1Sn with D2 d symmetry.

  19. Determination of the saturation magnetization, anisotropy field, mean field interaction, and switching field distribution for nanocrystalline hard magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCallum, R. William

    2005-01-01

    For a uniaxial nanocrystalline magnetic material, the determination of the saturation magnetization, M s , requires measurements of the magnetization at fields which exceed the anisotropy field. For a typical RE-Tm compound, where RE=rare earth and Tm=transition metal, this may require fields above 7 T if the approach to saturation law is used. However for an isotropic material composed of a random distribution of non-interacting uniaxial grains, both M s and the anisotropy filed, H a , may be determined by fitting the Stoner-Wohlfarth (SW) model (Philos. Trans. Roy. Soc. 240 (1948) 599) to the reversible part of the demagnetization curve in the first quadrant. Furthermore, using the mean field interaction model of Callen, Liu and Cullen [2], a quantitative measure of the interaction strength for interacting particles may be determined. In conjunction with an analytical fit to the first quadrant demagnetization curve of the SW model, this allows M s , H a and the mean field interaction constant of a nanocrystalline magnet to be determined from measurements below 5 T. Furthermore, comparison of the model solution for the reversible magnetization with experimental data in the 2nd and 3rd quadrants allows the accurate determination of the switching field distribution. In many cases the hysteresis loop may be accurately described by a normal distribution of switching fields

  20. The resonance susceptibility of two-layer exchange-coupled ferromagnetic film with a combined uniaxial and cubic anisotropy in the layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shul’ga, N.V., E-mail: shulga@anrb.ru; Doroshenko, R.A.

    2016-12-01

    A numerical investigation of the resonance dynamic susceptibility of ferromagnetic exchange-coupled two-layer films with a combined cubic and uniaxial magnetic anisotropy of the layers has been performed. It has been found that the presence of cubic anisotropy leads to the fact that much of the off-diagonal components of the dynamic susceptibility are nonzero. The change of the ferromagnetic resonance frequencies and dynamic susceptibility upon the magnetization along the [100], [010], and [011] directions have been calculated. The evolution of the profile of the dynamic susceptibility occurring during the magnetization has been described. The impact of changes in the distribution of equilibrium and dynamic components of the magnetization on the dependences of the components of the dynamic susceptibility and the ferromagnetic resonance frequency on the external magnetic fields has been discussed. - Highlights: • The extremes in the dependences of integrated dynamic susceptibility components are observed at low fields. • Lower extremes can be observed at a shift of the localization of the lower FMR mode toward the interface between the layers. • The features of the distribution of the dynamic susceptibility over the thickness have been discussed. • The cubic anisotropy leads to the fact that the off-diagonal integrated dynamic susceptibility components are essential. • FMR signal can be excited in vicinity of the interlayer boundary.

  1. Layering and temperature-dependent magnetization and anisotropy of naturally produced Ni/NiO multilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pappas, S. D.; Trachylis, D.; Velgakis, M. J. [Laboratory of High-Tech Materials, School of Engineering, University of Patras, 26504 Patras (Greece); Kapaklis, V.; Joensson, P. E.; Papaioannou, E. Th. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Box 516, SE-751 20 Uppsala (Sweden); Delimitis, A. [Chemical Process Engineering Research Institute (CPERI), Centre for Research and Technology Hellas (CERTH), 57001 Thermi, Thessaloniki (Greece); Poulopoulos, P. [Laboratory of High-Tech Materials, School of Engineering, University of Patras, 26504 Patras (Greece); Institut fuer Experimentalphysik, Freie Universitaet Berlin, Arnimallee 14, D-14195 Berlin-Dahlem (Germany); Materials Science Department, University of Patras, 26504 Patras (Greece); Fumagalli, P. [Institut fuer Experimentalphysik, Freie Universitaet Berlin, Arnimallee 14, D-14195 Berlin-Dahlem (Germany); Politis, C. [Laboratory of High-Tech Materials, School of Engineering, University of Patras, 26504 Patras (Greece); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, Texas 76019 (United States)

    2012-09-01

    Ni/NiO multilayers were grown by magnetron sputtering at room temperature, with the aid of the natural oxidation procedure. That is, at the end of the deposition of each single Ni layer, air is let to flow into the vacuum chamber through a leak valve. Then, a very thin NiO layer ({approx}1.2 nm) is formed. Simulated x-ray reflectivity patterns reveal that layering is excellent for individual Ni-layer thickness larger than 2.5 nm, which is attributed to the intercalation of amorphous NiO between the polycrystalline Ni layers. The magnetization of the films, measured at temperatures 5-300 K, has almost bulk-like value, whereas the films exhibit a trend to perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) with an unusual significant positive interface anisotropy contribution, which presents a weak temperature dependence. The power-law behavior of the multilayers indicates a non-negligible contribution of higher order anisotropies in the uniaxial anisotropy. Bloch-law fittings for the temperature dependence of the magnetization in the spin-wave regime show that the magnetization in the multilayers decreases faster as a function of temperature than the one of bulk Ni. Finally, when the individual Ni-layer thickness decreases below 2 nm, the multilayer stacking vanishes, resulting in a dramatic decrease of the interface magnetic anisotropy and consequently in a decrease of the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy.

  2. NiO/Fe(001): Magnetic anisotropy, exchange bias, and interface structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mlynczak, E. [Jerzy Haber Institute of Catalysis and Surface Chemistry, Polish Academy of Sciences, Niezapominajek 8, 30-239 Krakow (Poland); Luches, P. [S3, Istituto Nanoscienze-CNR, Via G. Campi 213/a, I-41125 Modena (Italy); Valeri, S. [S3, Istituto Nanoscienze-CNR, Via G. Campi 213/a, I-41125 Modena (Italy); Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Matematiche e Informatiche, Universita di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Via G. Campi 213/a, 41100 Modena (Italy); Korecki, J. [Jerzy Haber Institute of Catalysis and Surface Chemistry, Polish Academy of Sciences, Niezapominajek 8, 30-239 Krakow (Poland); Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, AGH University of Science and Technology, al.Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Krakow (Poland)

    2013-06-21

    The magnetic and structural properties of NiO/Fe epitaxial bilayers grown on MgO(001) were studied using magnetooptic Kerr effect (MOKE) and conversion electron Moessbauer spectroscopy (CEMS). The bilayers were prepared under ultra high vacuum conditions using molecular beam epitaxy with oblique deposition. Two systems were compared: one showing the exchange bias (100ML-NiO/24ML-Fe), ML stands for a monolayer, and another where the exchange bias was not observed (50ML-NiO/50ML-Fe). For both, the magnetic anisotropy was found to be complex, yet dominated by the growth-induced uniaxial anisotropy. The training effect was observed for the 100ML-NiO/24ML-Fe system and quantitatively described using the spin glass model. The composition and magnetic state of the interfacial Fe layers were studied using {sup 57}Fe-CEMS. An iron oxide phase (Fe{sup 3+}{sub 4}Fe{sup 2+}{sub 1}O{sub 7}), as thick as 31 A, was identified at the NiO/Fe interface in the as-deposited samples. The ferrimagnetic nature of the interfacial iron oxide film explains the complex magnetic anisotropy observed in the samples.

  3. Study of anisotropy, magnetization reversal and damping in ultrathin Co films on MgO (0 0 1) substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallik, Srijani; Bedanta, Subhankar

    2018-01-01

    Ultrathin Co films of 3 nm thickness have been prepared on MgO (0 0 1) substrate in presence or absence of substrate pre-annealing. Uniaxial anisotropy is induced in the samples due to the deposition under oblique angle of incidence. Along with the oblique deposition induced anisotropy, another uniaxial anisotropy contribution has been observed due to pre-annealing. However, no cubic anisotropy has been observed here as compared to the thicker films. Angle dependent ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) measurement confirms the presence of two anisotropies in the pre-annealed sample with ∼18° misalignment with each other. The two anisotropy constants were calculated from both superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometry and FMR spectroscopy. The magnetization reversal is governed by nucleation dominated aftereffect followed by domain wall motion for the pre-annealed sample. Branched domains are observed for the sample prepared without pre-annealing which indicates grain disorientation of Co. However, in the thicker (25 nm) Co films ripple domains were observed in contrary to ultrathin (3 nm) films.

  4. Electronic structure and magnetic anisotropy of Sm2Fe17Nx

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akai, Hisazumi; Ogura, Masako

    2014-03-01

    Electronic structure and magnetic properties of Sm2Fe17Nx are studies on the basis of the first-principles electronic structure calculation in the framework of the density functional theory within the local density and coherent potential approximations. The magnetic anisotropy of the system as a function of nitrogen concentration x is discussed by taking account not only of the crystal field effects but also of the effects of the f-electron transfer from Sm to the neighboring sites. Also discussed is the magnetic transition temperature that is estimated by mapping the system into a Heisenberg model. The results show the crystalline magnetic anisotropy changes its direction from in-plane to uniaxial ones as x increases. It takes the maximum value near x ~ 2 . 8 and then decreases slightly towards x = 3 . The mechanism for these behaviors is discussed in the light of the results of detailed calculations on the bonding properties between Sm and its neighboring N. This work was partly supported by Elements Strategy Initiative Center for Magnetic Materials Project, the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan.

  5. Magnetic moment and magnetocrystalline anisotropy of 3d-ion subsystem in R2T14B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartashevich, M.I.; Kudrevatykh, N.V.; Andreev, A.V.; Rejmer, V.A.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of substituting cobalt for iron on the magnetic moment, magneto-crystalline anisotropy and thermal expansion of R 2 (Fe 1-x Co x ) 14 B single crystals (R=Y, Gd, 0≤x≤0.3) is investigated. The uniaxial magnetic anisotropy constant K 1 for the 3d-subsystem passes through a maximum at T=4.2 K with increasing Co concentration. For T c the temperature dependence of K 1 does not possess a positive slope. The magnetic moment of the 3d-subsystem at 4.2 K does not exhibit the maximum at intermediate concentrations observed for most R(Fe, Co)-intermetallics. An explanation is presented of the changes in the magnetic properties. It is shown that the variation of the interatomic distances on thermal expansion should not affect the magnitude of the anisotropy constant of the 3d- and R-subsystems

  6. Effect of interionic anisotropy on the phase states and spectra of a non-Heisenberg magnet with S = 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kosmachev, O. A.; Krivtsova, A. V.; Fridman, Yu. A., E-mail: yuriifridman@gmail.com [Vernadskii Crimea Federal University (Russian Federation)

    2016-02-15

    We study the effect of interionic anisotropy on the phase states of a non-Heisenberg ferromagnet with magnetic ion spin S = 1. It is shown that depending on the relation between the interionic anisotropy constants, uniaxial and angular ferromagnetic and nonmagnetic phases exist in the system. We analyze the dynamic properties of the system in the vicinity of orientational phase transitions, as well as a phase transition in the magnetic moment magnitude. It is shown that orientational phase transitions in ferromagnetic and nematic phases can be first- as well as second-order.

  7. Effect of Cu buffer layer on magnetic anisotropy of cobalt thin films deposited on MgO(001 substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Sheraz Ahmad

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Cobalt thin films with 5 nm thickness were prepared on single-crystal MgO (001 substrates with different thickness Cu buffer (0 nm, 5 nm, 10 nm, 20 nm. The structure, magnetic properties and transport behaviors were investigated by employing low-energy-electron-diffraction (LEED, magneto-optical Kerr effect (MOKE and anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR. By comparing the magnetic properties of the sample as-deposited (without Cu buffer layer one with those having the buffer Cu, we found that the magnetic anisotropy was extremely affected by the Cu buffer layer. The magnetic anisotropy of the as-deposited, without buffer layer, sample shows the uniaxial magnetic anisotropy (UMA. We found that the symmetry of the magnetic anisotropy is changed from UMA to four-fold when the thickness of the Cu buffer layer reaches to 20 nm. Meanwhile, the coercivity increased from 49 Oe (without buffer layer to 300 Oe (with 20 nm Cu buffer, in the easy axis direction, as the thickness of the buffer layer increases. Moreover, the magnitudes of various magnetic anisotropy constants were determined from torque curves on the basis of AMR results. These results support the phenomenon shown in the MOKE.

  8. Magnetization switching behavior with competing anisotropies in epitaxial Co3FeN /MnN exchange-coupled bilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajiri, T.; Yoshida, T.; Jaiswal, S.; Filianina, M.; Borie, B.; Ando, H.; Asano, H.; Zabel, H.; Kläui, M.

    2016-11-01

    We report unusual magnetization switching processes and angular-dependent exchange bias effects in fully epitaxial Co3FeN /MnN bilayers, where magnetocrystalline anisotropy and exchange coupling compete, probed by longitudinal and transverse magneto-optic Kerr effect (MOKE) magnetometry. The MOKE loops show multistep jumps corresponding to the nucleation and propagation of 90∘ domain walls in as-grown bilayers. By inducing exchange coupling, we confirm changes of the magnetization switching process due to the unidirectional anisotropy field of the exchange coupling. Taking into account the experimentally obtained values of the fourfold magnetocrystalline anisotropy, the unidirectional anisotropy field, the exchange-coupling constant, and the uniaxial anisotropy including its direction, the calculated angular-dependent exchange bias reproduces the experimental results. These results demonstrate the essential role of the competition between magnetocrystalline anisotropy and exchange coupling for understanding and tailoring exchange-coupling phenomena usable for engineering switching in fully epitaxial bilayers made of tailored materials.

  9. Anisotropy, magnetic field and stress influences on the phase transitions on spin-flop-type antiferromagnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machado, S.F.; Espirito Santo Univ., Vitoria; Tsallis, C.

    1983-01-01

    Within a mean field approximation, the influences of anisotropy (in the spin space) and external uniaxial stress on the Heisenberg antiferromagnet in the presence of magnetic field are discussed. The phase diagram evolution (as function of anisotropy and stress) which is obtained, enables a satisfactory overall interpretation of recent experiments on Mn(Br sub(1-x) Cl sub(x)) 2 .4H 2 O, K 2 [FeCl 5 (H 2 O)], CoCl 2 .6H 2 O and (C 2 H 5 NH 3 ) 2 CuCl 4 . (Author) [pt

  10. Dual-mode ferromagnetic resonance in an FeCoB/Ru/FeCoB synthetic antiferromagnet with uniaxial anisotropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cuiling; Zhang, Shouheng; Qiao, Shizhu; Du, Honglei; Liu, Xiaomin; Sun, Ruicong; Chu, Xian-Ming; Miao, Guo-Xing; Dai, Youyong; Kang, Shishou; Yan, Shishen; Li, Shandong

    2018-05-01

    Dual-mode ferromagnetic resonance is observed in FeCoB/Ru/FeCoB trilayer synthetic antiferromagnets with uniaxial in-plane magnetic anisotropy. The optical mode is present in the (0-108 Oe) magnetic field range, where the top and bottom layer magnetizations are aligned in opposite directions. The strong acoustic mode appears, when the magnetic field exceeds the 300 Oe value, which corresponds to the flop transition in the trilayer. Magnetic field and angular dependences of resonant frequencies are studied for both optical (low-field) and acoustic (high field) modes. The low-field mode is found to be anisotropic but insensitive to the magnetic field value. In contrast, the high field mode is quasi-isotropic, but its resonant frequency is tunable by the value of the magnetic field. The coexistence of two modes of ferromagnetic resonance as well as switching between them with the increase in the magnetic field originates from the difference in the sign of interlayer coupling energy at the parallel and antiparallel configurations of the synthetic antiferromagnet. The dual-mode resonance in the studied trilayer structures provides greater flexibility in the design and functionalization of micro-inductors in monolithic microwave integrated circuits.

  11. Control of the magnetic in-plane anisotropy in off-stoichiometric NiMnSb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerhard, F.; Schumacher, C.; Gould, C.; Molenkamp, L. W.

    2014-01-01

    NiMnSb is a ferromagnetic half-metal which, because of its rich anisotropy and very low Gilbert damping, is a promising candidate for applications in information technologies. We have investigated the in-plane anisotropy properties of thin, molecular beam epitaxy-grown NiMnSb films as a function of their Mn concentration. Using ferromagnetic resonance to determine the uniaxial and four-fold anisotropy fields, (2K U )/(M s ) and (2K 1 )/(M s ) , we find that a variation in composition can change the strength of the four-fold anisotropy by more than an order of magnitude and cause a complete 90° rotation of the uniaxial anisotropy. This provides valuable flexibility in designing new device geometries

  12. Controlling the anisotropy and domain structure with oblique deposition and substrate rotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Chowdhury

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Effect of substrate rotation on anisotropy and domain structure for a thin ferromagnetic film has been investigated in this work. For this purpose Co films with 10 nm thickness have been prepared by sputtering with oblique angle of incidence for various substrate rotations. This method of preparation induces a uniaxial anisotropy due to shadow deposition effect. The magnetization reversal is studied by magneto-optic Kerr effect (MOKE based microscope in the longitudinal geometry. The Co films prepared by rotating the substrate with 10 and 20 rpm weakens the anisotropy but does not completely give isotropic films. But this leads to high dispersion in local grain anisotropy resulting in ripple and labyrinth domains. It is observed that the substrate rotation has moderate effect on uniaxial anisotropy but has significant effect on the magnetization reversal process and the domain structure.

  13. Uniaxial-pressure dependence of the magnetization dynamics in the high-symmetry single-molecule magnet Mn12-MeOH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, James H.; Bhaskaran, Lakshmi; Hill, Stephen; Myasoedov, Yuri; Zeldov, Eli; Del Barco, Enrique; Friedman, Jonathan; Fournet, Adeline; Christou, George

    2015-03-01

    The single-molecule magnet [Mn12O12(O2CCH3)16(CH3OH)4]CH3OH (``Mn12-MeOH'') is a high-symmetry sibling of the Mn12-Acetate SMM that offers a prime opportunity to explore the consequences of molecular symmetry. A previous study has shown that applied pressure induced changes in the Mn12-Acetate's anisotropy parameters. Here we present the results of a study in which uniaxial pressure was applied to a crystalline sample of Mn12-MeOH in order to examine how the pressure affects the quantum tunneling of magnetization at low temperature. We find that the pressure induces an increase in the resonant tunneling rate manifested as a change in the height of the tunneling steps in the magnetic hysteresis. These results suggest that pressure is altering symmetry-breaking terms in the molecule's spin Hamiltonian, giving rise to increased tunneling.

  14. Structure organization and magnetic properties of microscale ferrogels: The effect of particle magnetic anisotropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryzhkov, Aleksandr V.; Melenev, Petr V.; Balasoiu, Maria; Raikher, Yuriy L.

    2016-08-01

    The equilibrium structure and magnetic properties of a ferrogel object of small size (microferrogel(MFG)) are investigated by coarse-grained molecular dynamics. As a generic model of a microferrogel (MFG), a sample with a lattice-like mesh is taken. The solid phase of the MFG consists of magnetic (e.g., ferrite) nanoparticles which are mechanically linked to the mesh making some part of its nodes. Unlike previous models, the finite uniaxial magnetic anisotropy of the particles, as it is the case for real ferrogels, is taken into account. For comparison, two types of MFGs are considered: MFG-1, which dwells in virtually non-aggregated state independently of the presence of an external magnetic field, and MFG-2, which displays aggregation yet under zero field. The structure states of the samples are analyzed with the aid of angle-resolved radial distribution functions and cluster counts. The results reveal the crucial role of the matrix elasticity on the structure organization as well as on magnetization of both MFGs. The particle anisotropy, which plays insignificant role in MFG-1 (moderate interparticle magnetodipole interaction), becomes an important factor in MFG-2 (strong interaction). There, the restrictions imposed on the particle angular freedom by the elastic matrix result in notable diminution of the particle chain lengths as well as the magnetization of the sample. The approach proposed enables one to investigate a large variety of MFGs, including those of capsule type and to purposefully choose the combination of their magnetoelastic parameters.

  15. Magnetisation switching in a ferromagnetic Heisenberg nanoparticle with uniaxial anisotropy: a Monte Carlo investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ledue, D.; Berche, P.E.; Patte, R.

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the thermal-activated magnetisation reversal in a single ferromagnetic nanoparticle with uniaxial anisotropy using Monte Carlo simulations. The aim of this work is to reproduce the reversal magnetisation by uniform rotation at very low temperature in the high-energy barrier hypothesis, that is to realize the Neel-Brown model. For this purpose we have considered a simple cubic nanoparticle where each site is occupied by a classical Heisenberg spin. The Hamiltonian is the sum of an exchange interaction term, a single-ion anisotropy term and a Zeeman interaction term. Our numerical data of the thermal variation of the switching field are compared to an approximated expression and previous experimental results on Co nanoparticles

  16. Effect of soft underlayer magnetic anisotropy on perpendicular recording process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, C.K.; Kim, E.S.; Yoon, S.Y.; Kong, S.H.; Lee, H.S.; Oh, H.S.; Kim, Y.S.

    2007-01-01

    The presence of the soft magnetic underlayer (SUL) in perpendicular magnetic recording (PMR) media is essential for the application. It is commonly understood that the SUL provides the return flux path and enhances the writing field by enhancing the recording field from the write pole. However, SUL increases the magnetic noise during the read back process due to magnetic domain walls in the SUL. Hence, it is common to grow SUL with large uniaxial or unidirectional magnetic anisotropy field (H k ) to reduce domain wall noise. In this paper, we explore the effect of increasing SUL H k on the recording process. We studied this effect by using the finite element micromagnetic simulation. Our simulation results show that the contribution of SUL to the writing field amplitude is reduced with increasing H k . This reduction in magnetic field from high H k SUL actually improves the recording performance due to the better field gradient at SUL. The simulation results are qualitatively consistent with the actual experimental data obtained from the Guzik measurement

  17. Ground-state phase diagram of an (S, S') = (1, 2) spin-alternating chain with competing single-ion anisotropies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonegawa, T; Okamoto, K; Sakai, T; Kaburagi, M

    2009-01-01

    Employing various numerical methods, we determine the ground-state phase diagram of an (S, S') = (1, 2) spin-alternating chain with antiferromagnetic nearest-neighboring exchange interactions and uniaxial single-ion anisotropies. The resulting phase diagram consists of eight kinds of phases including two phases which accompany the spontaneous breaking of the translational symmetry and a ferrimagnetic phase in which the ground-state magnetization varies continuously with the uniaxial single-ion anisotropy constants for the S=1 and S =2 spins. The appearance of these three phases is attributed to the competition between the uniaxial single-ion anisotropies of both spins.

  18. Magnetic anisotropy and anisotropic magnetoresistance of (Ga,Mn)As Layers on (113)A GaAs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donhauser, Daniela; Dreher, Lukas; Daeubler, Joachim; Glunk, Michael; Rapp, Christoph; Schoch, Wladimir; Sauer, Rolf; Limmer, Wolfgang [Institut fuer Halbleiterphysik, Universitaet Ulm (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    We study the magnetic anisotropy and the anisotropic magnetoresistance of compressively strained (Ga,Mn)As films with various Mn concentrations, grown on (113)A-oriented GaAs substrates. High-resolution x-ray diffraction (HRXRD) studies reveal a monoclinic symmetry of the distorted (113)A layers in agreement with an explicit calculation of the strain tensor. Based on this result, general expressions for the resistivity tensor and the free energy of single-crystalline ferromagnets are derived from a series expansion with respect to the magnetization orientation, including terms up to the fourth order. With these expressions we are able to model the measured angular dependences of our magnetotransport data with the assumption of a single ferromagnetic domain model. In order to quantitatively derive the resistivity and anisotropy parameters the longitudinal and transverse resistivities are experimentally studied for magnetic fields rotated within the (113), (33 anti 2), and (anti 110) plane at various field strengths. It turned out that some of the resistivity parameters significantly depend on the strength of the external magnetic field. Furthermore we found that the layers exhibit a uniaxial anisotropy along the [001] crystallographic axis, which can be theoretically explained based on the explicit form of the strain tensor.

  19. A vector model for off-axis hysteresis loops using anisotropy field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamali, Ali, E-mail: alijamal@gwu.edu [Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, The George Washington University, Washington, D.C. 20052 (United States); Torre, Edward Della [Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, The George Washington University, Washington, D.C. 20052 (United States); Cardelli, Ermanno [Department of Engineering, University of Perugia, Perugia (Italy); ElBidweihy, Hatem [Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, United States Naval Academy, Annapolis, MD 21402 (United States); Bennett, Lawrence H. [Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, The George Washington University, Washington, D.C. 20052 (United States)

    2016-11-15

    A model for the off-axis vector magnetization of a distribution of uniaxial particles is presented. Recent work by the authors decomposed the magnetization into two components and modeled the total vector magnetization as their vector sum. In this paper, to account for anisotropy, the direction of the reversible magnetization component is specified by the vector sum of the applied field and an effective anisotropy field. The formulation of the new anisotropy field (AF) model is derived and its results are discussed considering (i) oscillation and rotational modes, (ii) lag angle, and (iii) unitary magnetization. The advantages of the AF model are outlined by comparing its results to the results of the classical Stoner–Wohlfarth model.

  20. A vector model for off-axis hysteresis loops using anisotropy field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamali, Ali; Torre, Edward Della; Cardelli, Ermanno; ElBidweihy, Hatem; Bennett, Lawrence H.

    2016-01-01

    A model for the off-axis vector magnetization of a distribution of uniaxial particles is presented. Recent work by the authors decomposed the magnetization into two components and modeled the total vector magnetization as their vector sum. In this paper, to account for anisotropy, the direction of the reversible magnetization component is specified by the vector sum of the applied field and an effective anisotropy field. The formulation of the new anisotropy field (AF) model is derived and its results are discussed considering (i) oscillation and rotational modes, (ii) lag angle, and (iii) unitary magnetization. The advantages of the AF model are outlined by comparing its results to the results of the classical Stoner–Wohlfarth model.

  1. 2D magnetization of grain-oriented 3%-Si steel under uniaxial stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Permiakov, V.; Dupre, L.; Pulnikov, A.; Melkebeek, J.

    2005-01-01

    Magnetization in electrical steels is strongly affected by mechanical stress. The stress dependence of magnetic properties of non-oriented steels has been studied at one- and two-dimensional magnetization. This paper deals with the stress effect on one- and two-dimensional magnetization in grain-oriented 3%-Si steel. The special magnetic measurements system is applied to combine uniaxial stress and 2D magnetic measurements. The uniaxial stress ranges from 10 MPa compressive stress to 100 MPa tensile stress. A domain theory is a suitable tool for prediction and a physical explanation of stress dependency in grain-oriented steel

  2. Magnetic anisotropy of Ni/Cr multilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, S.; Xia, H.

    1997-01-01

    The magnetic anisotropy of Ni/Cr multilayers has been investigated by using vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) and ferromagnetic resonance techniques (FMR). The FMR spectra are obtained as a function of the orientation of the applied magnetic field from in-plane to out-of-plane. The results are fitted theoretically to determine the magnetic anisotropy. From VSM and FMR, a positive value for Ni/Cr interface anisotropy is obtained, which favours a perpendicular easy axis. The possible mechanism for the perpendicular anisotropy has been discussed and it may be attributed to the magnetostriction, caused by intrinsic stress due to lattice mismatch. (orig.). With 005 figs., 001 tabs

  3. Ferromagnetic resonance frequency increase and resonance line broadening of a ferromagnetic Fe–Co–Hf–N film with in-plane uniaxial anisotropy by high-frequency field perturbation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seemann, K.; Leiste, H.; Krüger, K.

    2013-01-01

    Soft ferromagnetic Fe-Co-Hf-N films, produced by reactive r.f. magnetron sputtering, are useful to study the ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) by means of frequency domain permeability measurements up to the GHz range. Films with the composition Fe 33 Co 43 Hf 10 N 14 exhibit a saturation polarisation J s of around 1.35 T. They are consequently considered as being uniformly magnetised due to an in-plane uniaxial anisotropy of approximately μ 0 H u ≈4.5 m T after annealing them, e.g., at 400 °C in a static magnetic field for 1 h. Being exposed to a high-frequency field, the precession of magnetic moments leads to a marked frequency-dependent permeability with a sharp Lorentzian shaped imaginary part at around 2.33 GHz (natural resonance peak), which is in a very good agreement with the modified Landau–Lifschitz–Gilbert (LLG) differential equation. A slightly increased FMR frequency and a clear increase in the resonance line broadening due to an increase of the exciting high-frequency power (1–25.1 mW), considered as an additional perturbation of the precessing system of magnetic moments, could be discovered. By solving the homogenous LLG differential equation with respect to the in-plane uniaxial anisotropy, it was revealed that the high-frequency field perturbation impacts the resonance peak position f FMR and resonance line broadening Δf FMR characterised by a completed damping parameter α=α eff +Δα. Adapted from this result, the increase in f FMR and decrease in lifetime of the excited level of magnetic moments associated with Δf FMR , similar to a spin-½ particle in a static magnetic field, was theoretically elaborated as well as compared with experimental data. - Highlights: • Impact on the resonance frequency and resonance line by the high-frequency power. • Theoretic approach by solving the LLG differential equation. • Experimental verification and magnon processes. • Theoretical and experimental determination of the resonance state

  4. A general perspective on the magnetization reversal in cylindrical soft magnetic nanowires with dominant shape anisotropy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuncser, A. [National Institute of Materials Physics, PO Box MG-7, 077125 Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); University of Bucharest, Faculty of Physics, PO Box MG-11, 077125 Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Antohe, S. [University of Bucharest, Faculty of Physics, PO Box MG-11, 077125 Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Kuncser, V., E-mail: kuncser@infim.ro [National Institute of Materials Physics, PO Box MG-7, 077125 Bucharest-Magurele (Romania)

    2017-02-01

    Peculiarities of the magnetization reversal process in cylindrical Ni-Cu soft magnetic nanowires with dominant shape anisotropy are analyzed via both static and time dependent micromagnetic simulations. A reversible process involving a coherent-like spin rotation is always observed for magnetic fields applied perpendicularly to the easy axis whereas nucleation of domain walls is introduced for fields applied along the easy axis. Simple criteria for making distinction between a Stoner-Wohlfarth type rotation and a nucleation mechanism in systems with uniaxial magnetic anisotropy are discussed. Superposed reversal mechanisms can be in action for magnetic fields applied at arbitrary angles with respect to the easy axis within the condition of an enough strong axial component required by the nucleation. The dynamics of the domain wall, involving two different stages (nucleation and propagation), is discussed with respect to initial computing conditions and orientations of the magnetic field. A nucleation time of about 3 ns and corkscrew domain walls propagating with a constant velocity of about 150 m/s are obtained in case of Ni-Cu alloy (Ni rich side) NWs with diameters of 40 nm and high aspect ratio. - Highlights: • The formation and the dynamics of the domain walls in magnetic nanowires have been studied by micromagnetic simulations. • Simple criteria for making distinction between Stoner-Wohlfarth type and nucleation mechanisms in nanowires were discussed. • Corkscrew domain walls or quasi-coherent spin rotation may be induced depending on the field orientation. • The nucleation time was estimated at 3 ns and the wall velocity at 150 m/s. • A simple way for tuning the wall velocity in such systems was mentioned.

  5. High-resolution vector magnetometry: Piezo-spin-polarization effect and in-plane strain-induced dominating uniaxial magnetic anisotropy in a 200-nm-thick Ni thin film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benito, L.

    2018-04-01

    Owing to its high-sensitivity, reliability, fast, versatile and cost-effective operation, vibrating sample magnetometers (VSM) are massively popular characterization instruments at Magnetism laboratories worldwide. Nevertheless, the inherent appearance of synchronous noise represents a major drawback, which critically limits the fine probing of nanometer-sized media. I here report on an innovative approach to eliminate synchronous noise in VSM. This consists of fitting engineered mechanical devices that absorbs vibration energy, dissipating that into heat. Complementarily, a novel transversal pick-up coil system is also presented and analyzed; this detection system has been engineered to enhance the noise-to-signal ratio and optimized for measuring small size thin film samples. The implementation of a combined mechanical and electromagnetic approach enables to notably enhance the VSM performance, achieving a sensitivity better than 1 ×10-6 emu and a resolution below 5 ×10-8 emu, so that the magnetization vector in nanostructured media can be accurately mapped out down to cryogenic temperatures. I lastly show precision magnetometry measurements carried out in an epitaxial (0 0 1)-oriented 200 nm-thick Ni thin film. The analysis reveals the arising of an in-plane dominating strain-induced uniaxial magnetic anisotropy, K2ef = - 6.455kJ m - 3 , and a stunning piezo-spin-polarization effect resulting in a remarkable 10% modulation of the magnetization vector, ∼ 27 emu/cm3, with respect to the cubic lattice axes. Both effects are attributed to the likely existence of an orthorhombic lattice distortion, i.e.εxx -εyy ≈ - 2 ×10-3 . This categorical link enables to assign the observed anisotropic spin-polarization in the Ni overlayer to a two-ion magnetoelastic coupling effect.

  6. Spin reorientation and magnetic anisotropy in Y2Co17-xCr x (x 1.17-3.0) compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuquan, B.; Tegus, O.; Dagula, W.; Brueck, E.; Boer, F.R. de; Buschow, K.H.J.

    2005-01-01

    Spin reorientation transitions and magnetic anisotropy in Y 2 Co 17-x Cr x (x = 1.17-3.0) compounds have been investigated by means of X-ray diffraction and magnetization measurements. The powder X-ray diffraction patterns show that most samples crystallize as a single phase with the rhombohedral Th 2 Zn 17 -type structure. However, in the compound Y 2 Co 14 Cr 3 the Th 2 Zn 17 phase coexist with the hexagonal Th 2 Ni 17 -type phase. The lattice parameters a and c hardly change and the unit cell volume V increases slightly with increasing Cr content. The X-ray diffraction patterns of the aligned powder of the samples have confirmed that at room temperature the compound with x = 1.17 has planar anisotropy, but the compounds with x = 1.76, 2.34 and 3.00 have uniaxial anisotropy. Spin reorientation phenomena occur in all of the compounds. With increasing Cr content, the Curie temperature, the spin reorientation temperature, the spontaneous magnetization, and the anisotropy constant K 2 of the Y 2 Co 17-x Cr x (x = 1.17-3.0) compounds decrease strongly while the anisotropy constant K 1 increases in the range of x from 1.17 to 2.34 and then decreases in the range of x from 2.34 to 3.00

  7. Periodic reversal of magneto-optic Faraday rotation on uniaxial birefringence crystal with ultrathin magnetic films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. W. Su

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available An experimental approach of inclined incidence magneto-optic Faraday effect observed in the polar plane is applied. Three samples containing ferromagnetic cobalt ultrathin films on a semiconductor zinc oxide (0001 single crystal substrate with in-plane and out-of-plane anisotropy are evaluated. Through the fine adjustment of crossed polarizers in the magneto-optic effect measurement completely recorded the detail optical and magneto-optical responses from the birefringent crystal substrate and the magnetic film, especially for the signal induced from the substrate with uniaxial optical axis. The angle dependency of interference phenomena periodically from the optical and magneto-optical responses is attributed to the birefringence even in the absence of a magnetic field. The new type of observation finds that the transmission Faraday intensity in the oblique incidence includes a combination of polarization rotations, which results from optical compensation from the substrate and magneto-optical Faraday effects from the film. The samples grown at different rates and examined by this method exhibit magnetic structure discriminations. This result can be applied in the advanced polarized-light technologies to enhance the spatial resolution of magnetic surfaces with microstructural information under various magnetic field direction.

  8. Lack of dependence between intrinsic magnetic damping and perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in Cu(t{sub Cu})/[Ni/Co]{sub N} multilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Minghong [Key Laboratory of Micro and Nano Photonic Structures (Ministry of Education), Department of Optical Science and Engineering, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Li, Wei [State Key Laboratory of Precision Spectroscopy, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062 (China); Ren, Yang [School of Physics and Astronomy, Yunnan University, Kunming 650000 (China); Zhang, Zongzhi, E-mail: zzzhang@fudan.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Micro and Nano Photonic Structures (Ministry of Education), Department of Optical Science and Engineering, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Jin, Q.Y. [Key Laboratory of Micro and Nano Photonic Structures (Ministry of Education), Department of Optical Science and Engineering, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)

    2017-04-15

    The correlation between magnetic damping and perpendicular magnetic anisotropy has been investigated in Cu(t{sub Cu})/[Ni/Co]{sub N} multilayers by time-resolved magneto-optical Kerr effect. The uniaxial magnetic anisotropy constant K{sub u} is varied in the range of 3.0–3.6 Merg/cm{sup 3} by tuning either multilayer repetition number N or Cu thickness t{sub Cu}. It is found that the PMA strength K{sub u} increases with the increase of N, while the damping constant α{sub 0} keeps nearly a constant of 0.025, implying the intrinsic damping is independent of the K{sub u} tuned by N. In contrast, as t{sub Cu} increases from 2.5 to 20 nm, the α{sub 0} value rises continuously up to 0.040, in spite of the rather weak enhancement in K{sub u} and its non-monotonic variation behavior. We consider the constant α{sub 0} with N is due to the unchanged spin-orbit coupling strength at each Co/Ni interface, while the obvious enhancement in α{sub 0} with t{sub Cu} results mainly from the increased degree of spin disordering at the rougher Cu/Ni interface. - Highlights: • The perpendicular magnetic anisotropy K{sub u} is tuned in Cu(t{sub Cu})/[Ni/Co]{sub N} system. • The intrinsic magnetic damping is found to be independent K{sub u}. • Extrinsic damping increases with t{sub Cu} due to large interfacial spin disordering.

  9. Structure induced magnetic anisotropy behavior in Co/GaAs(001) films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blundell, S. J.; Gester, M.; Bland, J. A. C.; Daboo, C.; Gu, E.; Baird, M. J.; Ives, A. J. R.

    1993-05-01

    Epitaxial Co has been grown on GaAs(001) and studied by both low-energy electron diffraction (LEED) and reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED), and by the magneto-optic Kerr effect (MOKE) and polarized neutron reflection (PNR). Three samples were fabricated using different growth procedures: (1) ``interrupted'' growth (including an anneal); (2) and (3) continuous growth of similar thicknesses. For sample 1, RHEED patterns indicate an initial growth in the bcc phase followed by a relaxation into a distorted single phase at completion of growth, whereas samples 2 and 3 showed a multicrystalline structure after growth. LEED patterns were used to check the existence of the 2×4 reconstruction patterns before growth, but no LEED patterns could be obtained after more than 2 Å Co was deposited, in contrast to the RHEED patterns which remained visible throughout the growth. Structural analysis of the completed films indicates the formation of a ˜10 Å CoO layer on the Co/air interface, and gives thicknesses for magnetic material of (1) 30 Å and (2) 80 Å. Sample 1 showed a dominant fourfold magnetic anisotropy with the easy axis parallel to the (100) direction and with a strength 2K4/M of ˜0.5 kOe, smaller in magnitude than that reported for bcc films on GaAs(110) but along the same axis [G. A. Prinz et al., J. Appl. Phys. 57, 3672 (1985)]. However, samples 2 and 3 showed only a large uniaxial anisotropy along the (110) direction of strength 2K1/M of ˜1.5 kOe and ˜2.5 kOe, respectively, similar in magnitude to those previously observed [G. A. Prinz et al., J. Appl. Phys. 57, 3676 (1985)]. We attribute the origin of the contrasting magnetic anisotropy behavior observed to the differences in final structure.

  10. The right circular polarized waves in the three-dimensional anisotropic dispersive photonic crystals consisting of the magnetized plasma and uniaxial material as the Faraday effects considered

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Hai-Feng; Liu, Shao-Bin; Tang, Yi-Jun; Zhen, Jian-Ping

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the properties of the right circular polarized (RCP) waves in the three-dimensional (3D) dispersive photonic crystals (PCs) consisting of the magnetized plasma and uniaxial material with face-centered-cubic (fcc) lattices are theoretically investigated by the plane wave expansion method, which the homogeneous anisotropic dielectric spheres (the uniaxial material) immersed in the magnetized plasma background, as the Faraday effects of magnetized plasma are considered (the incidence electromagnetic wave vector is parallel to the external magnetic field at any time). The equations for calculating the anisotropic photonic band gaps (PBGs) for the RCP waves in the first irreducible Brillouin zone are theoretically deduced. The anisotropic PBGs and a flatbands region can be obtained. The effects of the ordinary-refractive index, extraordinary-refractive index, anisotropic dielectric filling factor, plasma frequency, and plasma cyclotron frequency (the external magnetic field) on the properties of first two anisotropic PBGs for the RCP waves are investigated in detail, respectively. The numerical results show that the anisotropy can open partial band gaps in fcc lattices at U and W points, and the complete PBGs for the RCP waves can be achieved compared to the conventional 3D dispersive PCs composed of the magnetized plasma and isotropic material. It is also shown that the first two anisotropic PBGs can be tuned by those parameters as mentioned above. Those PBGs can be enlarged by introducing the uniaxial material into such 3D PCs as the Faraday effects are considered

  11. Magnetic anisotropy and organization of nanoparticles in heads and antennae of neotropical leaf-cutter ants, Atta colombica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, Odivaldo C; Srygley, Robert B; Riveros, Andre J; Barbosa, Marcia A; Esquivel, Darci M S; Wajnberg, Eliane

    2014-01-01

    Oriented magnetic nanoparticles have been suggested as a good candidate for a magnetic sensor in ants. Behavioural evidence for a magnetic compass in neotropical leaf-cutter ants, Atta colombica (Formicidae: Attini), motivated a study of the arrangement of magnetic particles in the ants’ four major body parts by measuring the angular dependence of the ferromagnetic resonance spectra at room temperature. Spectra of the thoraces and those of the abdomens showed no significant angular dependence, while those of the antennae and those of the heads exhibited a periodic dependence relative to the magnetic field. Fitting of the angular dependence of the resonant field resulted in an unexpected magnetic anisotropy with uniaxial symmetry. High values of the first order anisotropy constant were observed for the magnetic material in antennae (−2.9  ×  10 5  erg cm −3 ) and heads (−1  ×  10 6  erg   cm −3 ) as compared to body parts of other social insects. In addition, the magnitude of the anisotropy in the heads was comparable to that observed in magnetite nanoparticles of 4–5 nm diameter. For the antennae, the mean angle of the particles’ easy magnetization axis (EA) was estimated to be 41° relative to the straightened antenna’s long axis. For the heads, EA was approximately 60° relative to the head’s axis running from midway between the spines to the clypeus. These physical characteristics indicate organized magnetic nanoparticles with a potential for directional sensitivity, which is an important feature of magnetic compasses. (paper)

  12. Positive temperature coefficient of magnetic anisotropy in polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF)-based magnetic composites

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Yiwei; Wang, Baomin; Zhan, Qingfeng; Tang, Zhenhua; Yang, Huali; Liu, Gang; Zuo, Zhenghu; Zhang, Xiaoshan; Xie, Yali; Zhu, Xiaojian; Chen, Bin; Wang, Junling; Li, Run-Wei

    2014-01-01

    The magnetic anisotropy is decreased with increasing temperature in normal magnetic materials, which is harmful to the thermal stability of magnetic devices. Here, we report the realization of positive temperature coefficient of magnetic anisotropy in a novel composite combining β-phase polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) with magnetostrictive materials (magnetostrictive film/PVDF bilayer structure). We ascribe the enhanced magnetic anisotropy of the magnetic film at elevated temperature to the st...

  13. Magnetic anisotropies of (Ga,Mn)As films and nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, Frank

    2011-02-02

    In this work the magnetic anisotropies of the diluted magnetic semiconductor (Ga,Mn)As were investigated experimentally. (Ga,Mn)As films show a superposition of various magnetic anisotropies which depend sensitively on various parameters such as temperature, carrier concentration or lattice strain. However, the anisotropies of lithographically prepared (Ga,Mn)As elements differ significantly from an unpatterned (Ga,Mn)As film. In stripe-shaped structures this behaviour is caused by anisotropic relaxation of the compressive lattice strain. In order to determine the magnetic anisotropies of individual (Ga,Mn)As nanostructures a combination of ferromagnetic resonance and time-resolved scanning Kerr microscopy was employed in this thesis. In addition, local changes of the magnetic anisotropy in circular and rectangular structures were visualized by making use of spatially resolved measurements. Finally, also the influence of the laterally inhomogeneous magnetic anisotropies on the static magnetic properties, such as coercive fields, was investigated employing spatially resolved static MOKE measurements on individual (Ga,Mn)As elements. (orig.)

  14. Domain engineering of the metastable domains in the 4f-uniaxial-ferromagnet CeRu2Ga2B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulferding, D.; Kim, H.; Yang, I.; Jeong, J.; Barros, K.; Kato, Y.; Martin, I.; Ayala-Valenzuela, O. E.; Lee, M.; Choi, H. C.; Ronning, F.; Civale, L.; Baumbach, R. E.; Bauer, E. D.; Thompson, J. D.; Movshovich, R.; Kim, Jeehoon

    2017-04-01

    In search of novel, improved materials for magnetic data storage and spintronic devices, compounds that allow a tailoring of magnetic domain shapes and sizes are essential. Good candidates are materials with intrinsic anisotropies or competing interactions, as they are prone to host various domain phases that can be easily and precisely selected by external tuning parameters such as temperature and magnetic field. Here, we utilize vector magnetic fields to visualize directly the magnetic anisotropy in the uniaxial ferromagnet CeRu2Ga2B. We demonstrate a feasible control both globally and locally of domain shapes and sizes by the external field as well as a smooth transition from single stripe to bubble domains, which opens the door to future applications based on magnetic domain tailoring.

  15. Magnetic anisotropies in SmCo thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, K.

    1993-01-01

    A systemic study of the deposition processes and magnetic properties for the Sm-Co film system has been carried out. Films of Sm-Co system with various magnetic anisotropies have been synthesized through sputter deposition in both crystalline and amorphous phases. The origins of various anisotropies have been studied. Thermalized sputter deposition process control was used to synthesize Fe enriched Sm-Co films with rhombohedral Th 2 Zn 17 type structure. The film exhibited unusually strong textures with the crystallographic c axes of the crystallites aligned in the film plane. A large anisotropy was resulted with easy axis in the film plane. A well defined and large in-the-film-plane anisotropy of exceptionally high value of 3.3 x 10 6 erg/cm 3 has been obtained in the amorphous SmCo films by applying a magnetic field in the film plane during deposition. It was found that the in-the-film-plane anisotropy depended essentially on the applied field and Sm concentration. For films not synthesized through thermallized sputtering, the easy axis of the film could reoriented. A perpendicular anisotropy was also presented in the film synthesized through thermallized sputtering deposition. A large in-plane anisotropy was obtained in films deposited above ambient temperatures. It was concluded that the surface induced short range ordering was the origin of the in-the-film-phase anisotropy observed in amorphous film deposited in the presence of a magnetic field. The formation mechanism was different from that of the short range ordering induced by field annealing. The perpendicular anisotropy was shown to be growth induced. Large in-plane anisotropy in amorphous films was resulted form partial crystallization in the film. Both the formation of growth induced structure and partial crystallization in the film prevented the formation of the pair ordering and decreased in-the-film-plane anisotropy

  16. Magnetization reversal of in-plane uniaxial Co films and its dependence on epitaxial alignment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Idigoras, O., E-mail: o.idigoras@nanogune.eu; Suszka, A. K.; Berger, A. [CIC nanoGUNE Consolider, Tolosa Hiribidea 76, E-20018 Donostia-San Sebastian (Spain); Vavassori, P. [CIC nanoGUNE Consolider, Tolosa Hiribidea 76, E-20018 Donostia-San Sebastian (Spain); IKERBASQUE, The Basque Foundation for Science, E-48011 Bilbao (Spain); Obry, B.; Hillebrands, B. [Fachbereich Physik and Landesforschungzentrum OPTIMAS, Technische Universität Kaiserslautern, Erwin-Schrödinger-Straße 56, D-67663 Kaiserslautern (Germany); Landeros, P. [Departamento de Física, Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María, Avenida España 1680, 2390123 Valparaíso (Chile)

    2014-02-28

    This work studies the influence of crystallographic alignment onto magnetization reversal in partially epitaxial Co films. A reproducible growth sequence was devised that allows for the continuous tuning of grain orientation disorder in Co films with uniaxial in-plane anisotropy by the controlled partial suppression of epitaxy. While all stable or meta-stable magnetization states occurring during a magnetic field cycle exhibit a uniform magnetization for fully epitaxial samples, non-uniform states appear for samples with sufficiently high grain orientation disorder. Simultaneously with the occurrence of stable domain states during the magnetization reversal, we observe a qualitative change of the applied field angle dependence of the coercive field. Upon increasing the grain orientation disorder, we observe a disappearance of transient domain wall propagation as the dominating reversal process, which is characterized by an increase of the coercive field for applied field angles away from the easy axis for well-ordered epitaxial samples. Upon reaching a certain disorder threshold level, we also find an anomalous magnetization reversal, which is characterized by a non-monotonic behavior of the remanent magnetization and coercive field as a function of the applied field angle in the vicinity of the nominal hard axis. This anomaly is a collective reversal mode that is caused by disorder-induced frustration and it can be qualitatively and even quantitatively explained by means of a two Stoner-Wohlfarth particle model. Its predictions are furthermore corroborated by Kerr microscopy and by Brillouin light scattering measurements.

  17. On the estimation of the magnetic easy axis in pipeline steels using magnetic Barkhausen noise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martínez-Ortiz, P. [Laboratorio de Evaluación No Destructiva Electromagnética (LENDE), ESIME-SEPI, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, UPALM Edif. Z-4 3 Piso, Zacatenco, Mexico D.F. 07738 (Mexico); Pérez-Benitez, J.A., E-mail: benitez_edl@yahoo.es [Laboratorio de Evaluación No Destructiva Electromagnética (LENDE), ESIME-SEPI, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, UPALM Edif. Z-4 3 Piso, Zacatenco, Mexico D.F. 07738 (Mexico); Espina-Hernández, J.H. [Laboratorio de Evaluación No Destructiva Electromagnética (LENDE), ESIME-SEPI, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, UPALM Edif. Z-4 3 Piso, Zacatenco, Mexico D.F. 07738 (Mexico); Caleyo, F.; Hallen, J.M. [Departamento de Ingeniería Metalúrgica, ESIQIE, UPALM Edif. 7, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Zacatenco, C.P. 07738 México D.F. (Mexico)

    2015-01-15

    A method for determination of the magnetic easy axis of the Roll Magnetic Anisotropy in API-5L steels is proposed. The method is based on the fact that the angular dependence of the energy corresponding to the main peak of the Magnetic Barkhausen signal presents uniaxial anisotropy with its easy axis parallel to the rolling direction, independently of the angular dependence of the magnetocrystalline energy in the materials. The proposal is also justified based on the analysis of the influence of microstructural changes, produced by hot-rolling on the domain wall dynamics. - Highlights: • Propose a method for finding the easy axis of roll magnetic anisotropy. • Study of the causes of multi-axial anisotropy of MBN energy in API-5L steels. • Analyze the causes of the roll magnetic anisotropy.

  18. On the estimation of the magnetic easy axis in pipeline steels using magnetic Barkhausen noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martínez-Ortiz, P.; Pérez-Benitez, J.A.; Espina-Hernández, J.H.; Caleyo, F.; Hallen, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    A method for determination of the magnetic easy axis of the Roll Magnetic Anisotropy in API-5L steels is proposed. The method is based on the fact that the angular dependence of the energy corresponding to the main peak of the Magnetic Barkhausen signal presents uniaxial anisotropy with its easy axis parallel to the rolling direction, independently of the angular dependence of the magnetocrystalline energy in the materials. The proposal is also justified based on the analysis of the influence of microstructural changes, produced by hot-rolling on the domain wall dynamics. - Highlights: • Propose a method for finding the easy axis of roll magnetic anisotropy. • Study of the causes of multi-axial anisotropy of MBN energy in API-5L steels. • Analyze the causes of the roll magnetic anisotropy

  19. Large Magnetic Anisotropy in HfMnP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, David; Lamichhane, Tej; Taufour, Valentin; Masters, Morgan; Thimmaiah, Srinivasa; Bud'Ko, Ser'gey; Canfield, Paul

    We present a theoretical and experimental study of two little-studied manganese phosphide ferromagnets, HfMnP and ZrMnP, with Curie temperatures above room temperature. We find an anisotropy field in HfMnP approaching 10 T - larger than that of the permanent magnet workhorse NdFeB magnets. From theory we determine the source of this anisotropy. Our results show the potential of 3d-element-based magnetic materials for magnetic applications.

  20. Anisotropic magnetism in field-structured composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, James E.; Venturini, Eugene; Odinek, Judy; Anderson, Robert A.

    2000-01-01

    Magnetic field-structured composites (FSCs) are made by structuring magnetic particle suspensions in uniaxial or biaxial (e.g., rotating) magnetic fields, while polymerizing the suspending resin. A uniaxial field produces chainlike particle structures, and a biaxial field produces sheetlike particle structures. In either case, these anisotropic structures affect the measured magnetic hysteresis loops, with the magnetic remanence and susceptibility increased significantly along the axis of the structuring field, and decreased slightly orthogonal to the structuring field, relative to the unstructured particle composite. The coercivity is essentially unaffected by structuring. We present data for FSCs of magnetically soft particles, and demonstrate that the altered magnetism can be accounted for by considering the large local fields that occur in FSCs. FSCs of magnetically hard particles show unexpectedly large anisotropies in the remanence, and this is due to the local field effects in combination with the large crystalline anisotropy of this material. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society

  1. Effect of defects, magnetocrystalline anisotropy, and shape anisotropy on magnetic structure of iron thin films by magnetic force microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Xu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Microstructures of magnetic materials, including defects and crystallographic orientations, are known to strongly influence magnetic domain structures. Measurement techniques such as magnetic force microscopy (MFM thus allow study of correlations between microstructural and magnetic properties. The present work probes effects of anisotropy and artificial defects on the evolution of domain structure with applied field. Single crystal iron thin films on MgO substrates were milled by Focused Ion Beam (FIB to create different magnetically isolated squares and rectangles in [110] crystallographic orientations, having their easy axis 45° from the sample edge. To investigate domain wall response on encountering non-magnetic defects, a 150 nm diameter hole was created in the center of some samples. By simultaneously varying crystal orientation and shape, both magnetocrystalline anisotropy and shape anisotropy, as well as their interaction, could be studied. Shape anisotropy was found to be important primarily for the longer edge of rectangular samples, which exaggerated the FIB edge effects and provided nucleation sites for spike domains in non-easy axis oriented samples. Center holes acted as pinning sites for domain walls until large applied magnetic fields. The present studies are aimed at deepening the understanding of the propagation of different types of domain walls in the presence of defects and different crystal orientations.

  2. Voltage manipulation of the magnetization reversal in Fe/n-GaAs/piezoelectric heterostructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yuanyuan; Luo, Wengang; Zhu, Lijun; Zhao, Jianhua; Wang, Kaiyou

    2015-01-01

    We carefully investigated the in-plane magnetization reversal and corresponding magnetic domain structures in Fe/n-GaAs/piezoelectric heterostructure using longitudinal magneto-optical Kerr microscopy. The coexistence of the in-plane <100> cubic and [11 ¯ 0] uniaxial magnetic anisotropy was observed in this system at virgin state. The piezo voltages can effectively manipulate the magnetic properties of the Fe/n-GaAs/piezoelectric heterostructure, where the manipulation of two-jump to one-jump magnetization switching during the magnetic reversal was achieved with magnetic field applied in [100] direction. Our findings on manipulation of ferromagnetization in this heterostructure could be important for future metal-semiconductor spintronic applications. The additional uniaxial anisotropy induced by piezo voltages obtained at ±75 V is ±1.4×10 3 J/m 3 . - Highlights: • In this work, we use piezo voltages not only realize the significant change of coercivity but also effectively manipulate the magnetization transition from one step to two steps during magnetic reversal, indicating that the piezo-voltages can be used to effectively control the magnetization reversal. • The additional uniaxial anisotropy induced by piezo voltages at +/−75 V are +/−1.4×10 3 J/m 3 . This work could be very used for future metal-semiconductor spintronic devices

  3. Anisoft - Advanced Treatment of Magnetic Anisotropy Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadima, M.

    2017-12-01

    Since its first release, Anisoft (Anisotropy Data Browser) has gained a wide popularity in magnetic fabric community mainly due to its simple and user-friendly interface enabling very fast visualization of magnetic anisotropy tensors. Here, a major Anisoft update is presented transforming a rather simple data viewer into a platform offering an advanced treatment of magnetic anisotropy data. The updated software introduces new enlarged binary data format which stores both in-phase and out-of-phase (if measured) susceptibility tensors (AMS) or tensors of anisotropy of magnetic remanence (AMR) together with their respective confidence ellipses and values of F-tests for anisotropy. In addition to the tensor data, a whole array of specimen orientation angles, orientation of mesoscopic foliation(s) and lineation(s) is stored for each record enabling later editing or corrections. The input data may be directly acquired by AGICO Kappabridges (AMS) or Spinner Magnetometers (AMR); imported from various data formats, including the long-time standard binary ran-format; or manually created. Multiple anisotropy files can be combined together or split into several files by manual data selection or data filtering according to their values. Anisotropy tensors are conventionally visualized as principal directions (eigenvectors) in equal-area projection (stereoplot) together with a wide array of quantitative anisotropy parameters presented in histograms or in color-coded scatter plots showing mutual relationship of up to three quantitative parameters. When dealing with AMS in variable low fields, field-independent and field-dependent components of anisotropy can be determined (Hrouda 2009). For a group of specimens, individual principal directions can be contoured, or a mean tensor and respective confidence ellipses of its principal directions can be calculated using either the Hext-Jelinek (Jelinek 1978) statistics or the Bootstrap method (Constable & Tauxe 1990). Each graphical

  4. Magnetic anisotropy and magnetization switching in ferromagnetic GaMnAs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Limmer, Wolfgang [Institut fuer Halbleiterphysik, Universitaet Ulm (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    Characteristic features of semiconductor spintronics such as the anisotropic magnetoresistance or the spin-polarization of charge carriers are intimately connected with the macroscopic magnetization in a ferromagnetic semiconductor. The orientation of the magnetization is controlled by magnetic anisotropy which predominantly ar ises from crystal symmetry, sample geometry, and strain. A detailed knowledge of this anisotropy is indispensable for the design of novel spintronic devices. In this talk, angle-dependent magnetotransport is demonstrated to be an excellent tool for probing magnetic anisotropy as an alternative to the standard ferromagnetic-resonance method. Moreover, its ability to trace the movement of the magnetization vector in a variable external magnetic field makes it ideally suitable f or studying magnetization switching, a potential basic effect in future logical devices. Experimental data recorded from a variety of different GaMnAs samples a re analyzed by means of model calculations which are based on a series expansion of the resistivity tensor, a numerical minimization of the free enthalpy with respect to the magnetization orientation, and the assumption that the GaMnAs laye rs under study consist of single ferromagnetic domains.

  5. Canonical Transform Method for Treating Strongly Anisotropy Magnets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cooke, J. F.; Lindgård, Per-Anker

    1977-01-01

    An infinite-order perturbation approach to the theory of magnetism in magnets with strong single-ion anisotropy is given. This approach is based on a canonical transformation of the system into one with a diagonal crystal field, an effective two-ion anisotropy, and reduced ground-state corrections....... A matrix-element matching procedure is used to obtain an explicit expression for the spin-wave energy to second order. The consequences of this theory are illustrated by an application to a simple example with planar anisotropy and an external magnetic field. A detailed comparison between the results...

  6. A perturbative DFT approach for magnetic anisotropy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khoo, Khoong Hong; Laskowski, Robert, E-mail: rolask@ihpc.a-star.edu.sg

    2017-04-15

    We develop a perturbative formalism for computing magnetocrystalline anisotropy within density functional theory and the magnetic force theorem. Instead of computing eigenvalues of the spin–orbit Hamiltonian for selected spin polarizations, as in the conventional “force theorem” approach, we show that the effect can be cast into a redefined form of the spin–orbit operator. This allows to separate the large eigenvalue shift due to spin-orbit interaction common for both polarizations from the much smaller magnetic anisotropy splitting. As a consequence the anisotropy splitting may by considered as a perturbation.

  7. Magnetic anisotropy of YFe.sub.3./sub. compound

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bolyachkin, A.S.; Neznakhin, D.S.; Garaeva, T.V.; Andreev, Alexander V.; Bartashevich, M. I.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 426, Mar (2017), s. 740-743 ISSN 0304-8853 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA16-03593S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : magnetic anisotropy * magnetization anisotropy * single crystal Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 2.630, year: 2016

  8. Spin-Orbit Torque-Assisted Switching in Magnetic Insulator Thin Films with Perpendicular Magnetic Anisotropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Mingzhong

    As an in-plane charge current flows in a heavy metal film with spin-orbit coupling, it produces a torque that can induce magnetization switching in a neighboring ferromagnetic metal film. Such spin-orbit torque (SOT)-induced switching has been studied extensively in recent years and has shown higher efficiency than switching using conventional spin-transfer torque. This presentation reports the SOT-assisted switching in heavy metal/magnetic insulator systems.1 The experiments made use of Pt/BaFe12O19 bi-layered structures. Thanks to its strong spin-orbit coupling, Pt has been widely used to produce pure spin currents in previous studies. BaFe12O19 is an M-type barium hexagonal ferrite and is often referred as BaM. It is one of the few magnetic insulators with strong magneto-crystalline anisotropy and shows an effective uniaxial anisotropy field of about 17 kOe. It's found that the switching response in the BaM film strongly depends on the charge current applied to the Pt film. When a constant magnetic field is applied in the film plane, the charge current in the Pt film can switch the normal component of the magnetization (M⊥) in the BaM film between the up and down states. The current also dictates the up and down states of the remnant magnetization when the in-plane field is reduced to zero. When M⊥ is measured by sweeping an in-plane field, the response manifests itself as a hysteresis loop, which evolves in a completely opposite manner if the sign of the charge current is flipped. When the coercivity is measured by sweeping an out-of-plane field, its value can be reduced or increased by as much as about 500 Oe if an appropriate charge current is applied. 1. P. Li, T. Liu, H. Chang, A. Kalitsov, W. Zhang, G. Csaba, W. Li, D. Richardson, A. Demann, G. Rimal, H. Dey, J. S. Jiang, W. Porod, S. Field, J. Tang, M. C. Marconi, A. Hoffmann, O. Mryasov, and M. Wu, Nature Commun. 7:12688 doi: 10.1038/ncomms12688 (2016).

  9. Measurements of magnetic anisotropy in sickle cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvo Souza, L.H. de.

    1982-03-01

    Room temperature magnetic measurements in deoxigenated sickle cells showed the existence of magnetic anisotropy, Δchi=1,29 x 10 -3 . This effect was supposed paramagnetic and considered to be due to the iron atoms of the hemoglobin molecules which are one over the other, forming ordered chains inside the erythrocytes. Low temperature (liquid He - 4,2K) measurements of the magnetic anisotropy of sickle cells and normal red blood cells diluted in a cryoprotector was made to confirm the paramagnetic origin of the fenomena. For that purpose it was used a superconductor magnetometer coupled to a SQUID, developed in the 'Laboratorio do Estado Solido do Departamento de Fisica da PUC-RJ'. The results obtained seem to confirm the expected paramagnetic anisotropy and, furthermore, suggest the presence of magnetic interactions among the iron atoms in the sickle cells samples. (Author) [pt

  10. Role of the magnetic anisotropy in organic spin valves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Kalappattil

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic anisotropy plays an important role in determining the magnetic functionality of thin film based electronic devices. We present here, the first systematic study of the correlation between magnetoresistance (MR response in organic spin valves (OSVs and magnetic anisotropy of the bottom ferromagnetic electrode over a wide temperature range (10 K–350 K. The magnetic anisotropy of a La0.67Sr0.33MnO3 (LSMO film epitaxially grown on a SrTiO3 (STO substrate was manipulated by reducing film thickness from 200 nm to 20 nm. Substrate-induced compressive strain was shown to drastically increase the bulk in-plane magnetic anisotropy when the LSMO became thinner. In contrast, the MR response of LSMO/OSC/Co OSVs for many organic semiconductors (OSCs does not depend on either the in-plane magnetic anisotropy of the LSMO electrodes or their bulk magnetization. All the studied OSV devices show a similar temperature dependence of MR, indicating a similar temperature-dependent spinterface effect irrespective of LSMO thickness, resulting from the orbital hybridization of carriers at the OSC/LSMO interface.

  11. Physical properties of elongated magnetic particles: magnetization and friction coefficient anisotropies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vereda, Fernando; de Vicente, Juan; Hidalgo-Alvarez, Roque

    2009-06-02

    Anisotropy counts: A brief review of the main physical properties of elongated magnetic particles (EMPs) is presented. The most important characteristic of an EMP is the additional contribution of shape anisotropy to the total anisotropy energy of the particle, when compared to spherical magnetic particles. The electron micrograph shows Ni-ferrite microrods fabricated by the authors.We present an overview of the main physical properties of elongated magnetic particles (EMPs), including some of their more relevant properties in suspension. When compared to a spherical magnetic particle, the most important characteristic of an EMP is an additional contribution of shape anisotropy to the total anisotropy energy of the particle. Increasing aspect ratios also lead to an increase in both the critical single-domain size of a magnetic particle and its resistance to thermally activated spontaneous reversal of the magnetization. For single-domain EMPs, magnetization reversal occurs primarily by one of two modes, coherent rotation or curling, the latter being facilitated by larger aspect ratios. When EMPs are used to prepare colloidal suspensions, other physical properties come into play, such as their anisotropic friction coefficient and the consequent enhanced torque they experience in a shear flow, their tendency to align in the direction of an external field, to form less dense sediments and to entangle into more intricate aggregates. From a more practical point of view, EMPs are discussed in connection with two interesting types of magnetic colloids: magnetorheological fluids and suspensions for magnetic hyperthermia. Advances reported in the literature regarding the use of EMPs in these two systems are included. In the final section, we present a summary of the most relevant methods documented in the literature for the fabrication of EMPs, together with a list of the most common ferromagnetic materials that have been synthesized in the form of EMPs.

  12. Scaling-based prediction of magnetic anisotropy in grain-oriented steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najgebauer Mariusz

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the scaling-based approach to analysis and prediction of magnetic anisotropy in grain-oriented steels. Results of the anisotropy scaling indicate the existence of two universality classes. The hybrid approach to prediction of magnetic anisotropy, combining the scaling analysis with the ODFs method, is proposed. This approach is examined in prediction of angular dependencies of magnetic induction as well as magnetization curves for the 111-35S5 steel. It is shown that it is possible to predict anisotropy of magnetic properties based on measurements in three arbitrary directions for φ = 0°, 60° and 90°. The relatively small errors between predicted and measured values of magnetic induction are obtained.

  13. Ab initio studies of magnetic anisotropy energy in highly Co-doped ZnO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Łusakowski, A., E-mail: lusak@ifpan.edu.pl [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Al. Lotników 32/46, PL-02668 Warsaw (Poland); Szuszkiewicz, W. [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Al. Lotników 32/46, PL-02668 Warsaw (Poland); Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, University of Rzeszów, ul. S. Pigonia 1, PL-35959 Rzeszów (Poland)

    2017-03-15

    Density functional theory (DFT) calculations of the energy of magnetic anisotropy for diluted magnetic semiconductor (Zn,Co)O were performed using OpenMX package with fully relativistic pseudopotentials. The analysis of the band spin-orbit interaction and the magnetic ion's surrounding on magnetic anisotropy have been provided. As a result, the calculations show that the magnetic anisotropy in (Zn,Co)O solid solution, mainly of the single ion anisotropy type has been caused by Co ions. - Highlights: • The magnetic anisotropy in (Zn,Co)O is mainly due to anisotropy of single cobalt ion. • The magnetic anisotropy of (Zn,Co)O strongly depends on the nearest neighborhood of magnetic ion including local lattice deformations. • For (Zn,Co)O the energy of magnetic anisotropy is described by second order terms in magnetization.

  14. Magnetic transitions and phases in random-anisotropy magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sellmyer, D.J.; Nafis, S.; O'Shea, M.J.

    1988-01-01

    The generality and universality of the Ising spin-glass-like phase transitions observed in several rare-earth, random-anisotropy magnets are discussed. Some uncertainties and practical problems in determining critical exponents are considered, and a comparison is made to insulating spin glasses and crystalline spin glasses where an apparent anisotropy-induced crossover from Heisenberg to Ising-like behavior is seen. The observation of a reentrant transition in a weak anisotropy system and its correlation with the theory of Chudnovsky, Saslow, and Serota [Phys. Rev. B 33, 251 (1986)] for the correlated spin glass is discussed

  15. Magnetic transitions and phases in random-anisotropy magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellmyer, D. J.; Nafis, S.; O'Shea, M. J.

    1988-04-01

    The generality and universality of the Ising spin-glass-like phase transitions observed in several rare-earth, random-anisotropy magnets are discussed. Some uncertainties and practical problems in determining critical exponents are considered, and a comparison is made to insulating spin glasses and crystalline spin glasses where an apparent anisotropy-induced crossover from Heisenberg to Ising-like behavior is seen. The observation of a reentrant transition in a weak anisotropy system and its correlation with the theory of Chudnovsky, Saslow, and Serota [Phys. Rev. B 33, 251 (1986)] for the correlated spin glass is discussed.

  16. Magnetic anisotropy of ultrafine 316L stainless steel fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shyr, Tien-Wei, E-mail: twshyr@fcu.edu.tw [Department of Fiber and Composite Materials, Feng Chia University, No. 100, Wenhwa Road, Seatwen, Taichung 40724, Taiwan, ROC (China); Huang, Shih-Ju [Department of Fiber and Composite Materials, Feng Chia University, No. 100, Wenhwa Road, Seatwen, Taichung 40724, Taiwan, ROC (China); Wur, Ching-Shuei [Department of Physics, National Cheng Kung University, No. 1, University Road, Tainan 70101, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2016-12-01

    An as-received 316L stainless steel fiber with a diameter of 20 μm was drawn using a bundle drawing process at room temperature to form ultrafine stainless steel fibers with diameters of 12, 8, and 6 μm. The crystalline phases of the fibers were analyzed using the X-ray diffraction (XRD) profile fitting technique. The grain sizes of γ-austenite and α′-martensite were reduced to nanoscale sizes after the drawing process. XRD analysis and focused ion beam-scanning electron microscope observations showed that the newly formed α′-martensitic grains were closely arrayed in the drawing direction. The magnetic property was measured using a superconducting quantum interference device vibrating sample magnetometer. The magnetic anisotropy of the fibers was observed by applying a magnetic field parallel and perpendicular to the fiber axis. The results showed that the microstructure anisotropy including the shape anisotropy, magnetocrystalline anisotropy, and the orientation of the crystalline phases strongly contributed to the magnetic anisotropy. - Highlights: • The martensitic transformation of the 316L SS fiber occurred during the cold drawn. • The grain sizes of γ-austenite and α′-martensite were reduced to the nanoscale. • The newly formed martensitic grains were closely arrayed in the drawing direction. • The drawing process caused the magnetic easy axis to be aligned with the fiber axis. • The microstructure anisotropy strongly contributed to the magnetic anisotropy.

  17. Voltage manipulation of the magnetization reversal in Fe/n-GaAs/piezoelectric heterostructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yuanyuan; Luo, Wengang; Zhu, Lijun; Zhao, Jianhua; Wang, Kaiyou, E-mail: kywang@semi.ac.cn

    2015-02-01

    We carefully investigated the in-plane magnetization reversal and corresponding magnetic domain structures in Fe/n-GaAs/piezoelectric heterostructure using longitudinal magneto-optical Kerr microscopy. The coexistence of the in-plane <100> cubic and [11{sup ¯}0] uniaxial magnetic anisotropy was observed in this system at virgin state. The piezo voltages can effectively manipulate the magnetic properties of the Fe/n-GaAs/piezoelectric heterostructure, where the manipulation of two-jump to one-jump magnetization switching during the magnetic reversal was achieved with magnetic field applied in [100] direction. Our findings on manipulation of ferromagnetization in this heterostructure could be important for future metal-semiconductor spintronic applications. The additional uniaxial anisotropy induced by piezo voltages obtained at ±75 V is ±1.4×10{sup 3} J/m{sup 3}. - Highlights: • In this work, we use piezo voltages not only realize the significant change of coercivity but also effectively manipulate the magnetization transition from one step to two steps during magnetic reversal, indicating that the piezo-voltages can be used to effectively control the magnetization reversal. • The additional uniaxial anisotropy induced by piezo voltages at +/−75 V are +/−1.4×10{sup 3} J/m{sup 3}. This work could be very used for future metal-semiconductor spintronic devices.

  18. Magnetic anisotropy considerations in magnetic force microscopy studies of single superparamagnetic nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nocera, Tanya M; Agarwal, Gunjan; Chen Jun; Murray, Christopher B

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, superparamagnetic nanoparticles (SPNs) have become increasingly important in applications ranging from solid state memory devices to biomedical diagnostic and therapeutic tools. However, detection and characterization of the small and unstable magnetic moment of an SPN at the single particle level remains a challenge. Further, depending on their physical shape, crystalline structure or orientation, SPNs may also possess magnetic anisotropy, which can govern the extent to which their magnetic moments can align with an externally applied magnetic field. Here, we demonstrate how we can exploit the magnetic anisotropy of SPNs to enable uniform, highly-sensitive detection of single SPNs using magnetic force microscopy (MFM) in ambient air. Superconducting quantum interference device magnetometry and analytical transmission electron microscopy techniques are utilized to characterize the collective magnetic behavior, morphology and composition of the SPNs. Our results show how the consideration of magnetic anisotropy can enhance the ability of MFM to detect single SPNs at ambient room temperature with high force sensitivity and spatial resolution. (paper)

  19. Computing magnetic anisotropy constants of single molecule magnets

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We present here a theoretical approach to compute the molecular magnetic anisotropy parameters, and for single molecule magnets in any given spin eigenstate of exchange spin Hamiltonian. We first describe a hybrid constant -valence bond (VB) technique of solving spin Hamiltonians employing full spatial ...

  20. Capping layer-tailored interface magnetic anisotropy in ultrathin Co2FeAl films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belmeguenai, M.; Zighem, F.; Chérif, S. M.; Gabor, M. S.; Petrisor, T.; Tiusan, C.

    2015-01-01

    Co 2 FeAl (CFA) thin films of various thicknesses (2 nm ≤ d ≤ 50 nm) have been grown on (001) MgO single crystal substrates and then capped with Cr, V, and Ta. Their magnetic and structural properties have been studied by x-ray diffraction (XRD), vibrating sample magnetometry, and broadband microstrip ferromagnetic resonance (MS-FMR). The XRD revealed that the films are epitaxial with the cubic [001] CFA axis normal to the substrate plane and that the chemical order varies from the B2 phase to the A2 phase when decreasing the thickness. The deduced lattice parameters showed that the Cr-capped films exhibit a larger tetragonal distortion, as compared with the films capped with V or Ta. The presence of magnetic dead layers has been observed in CFA samples capped with V and Ta but not in the case of the Cr-capped ones. The effective magnetization, deduced from the fit of MS-FMR measurements, increases (decreases) linearly with the CFA inverse thickness (1/d) for the Cr-capped (Ta-capped) films while it is constant for the V-capped ones. This allows quantifying the perpendicular surface anisotropy coefficients of −0.46 erg/cm 2 and 0.74 erg/cm 2 for Cr and Ta-capped films, respectively. Moreover, the fourfold and the uniaxial anisotropy fields, measured in these films, showed different trends with a respect to the CFA inverse thickness. This allows inferring that a non-negligible part of the fourfold magnetocrystalline term is of interfacial origin

  1. Angular dependence of magnetization reversal in epitaxial chromium telluride thin films with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pramanik, Tanmoy, E-mail: pramanik.tanmoy@utexas.edu; Roy, Anupam, E-mail: anupam@austin.utexas.edu; Dey, Rik, E-mail: rikdey@utexas.edu; Rai, Amritesh; Guchhait, Samaresh; Movva, Hema C.P.; Hsieh, Cheng-Chih; Banerjee, Sanjay K.

    2017-09-01

    Highlights: • Perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in epitaxial Cr{sub 2}Te{sub 3} has been investigated. • Presence of a relatively strong second order anisotropy contribution is observed. • Magnetization reversal is explained quantitatively using a 1D defect model. • Relative roles of nucleation and pinning in magnetization reversal are discussed. • Domain structures and switching process are visualized by micromagnetic simulation. - Abstract: We investigate magnetic anisotropy and magnetization reversal mechanism in chromium telluride thin films grown by molecular beam epitaxy. We report existence of strong perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in these thin films, along with a relatively strong second order anisotropy contribution. The angular variation of the switching field observed from the magnetoresistance measurement is explained quantitatively using a one-dimensional defect model. The model reveals the relative roles of nucleation and pinning in the magnetization reversal, depending on the applied field orientation. Micromagnetic simulations are performed to visualize the domain structure and switching process.

  2. Cylindrical magnetization model for glass-coated microwires with circular anisotropy: Statics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torrejon, J.; Thiaville, A.; Adenot-Engelvin, A.L.; Vazquez, M.; Acher, O.

    2011-01-01

    The static magnetization profile of glass-coated microwires with effective circular anisotropy is investigated using micromagnetics. In this family of microwires, the ferromagnetic nucleus with an amorphous character presents a magnetic structure composed of an inner region with axial domains and an outer region with circular domains, due to magnetoelastic anisotropy. A one-dimensional micromagnetic model is developed, taking into account both the exchange and magnetoelastic anisotropy energies, and solved quasi analytically. The total energy, magnetization profiles and magnetization curves are investigated as a function of radius and anisotropy constant of the nucleus. This work represents a fundamental study of the magnetization process in these amorphous microwires and provides guidelines for the production of microwires with tailored magnetic properties. En passant, the nucleation problem in an infinite cylinder, introduced by W.F. Brown, is revisited. - Research highlights: → Magnetic microwires with circular anisotropy are studied by micromagnetic model. → The ratio R/Δ is a fundamental quantity to determine the magnetic structure. → Reduction of diameter and anisotropy favours the growth of axial core.

  3. Magnetization reversal mechanisms under oblique magnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ntallis, N.; Efthimiadis, K.G., E-mail: kge@auth.gr

    2017-03-01

    In this work finite element micromagnetic simulations were performed in order to study the reversal mechanisms of spherical ferromagnetic particles with uniaxial magnetocrystalline anisotropy, when they are magnetized along an oblique direction with respect to the anisotropy axis. Magnetization loops are taken in different directions of external magnetic field, at different anisotropy constants and particle sizes. In the simulation results, the three reversal mechanisms (coherent, curling and domains) are observed and new phenomena arise due to the action of oblique magnetic fields. Moreover, the dependence of the critical fields with respect to the angle of the external field is presented. - Highlights: • Finite element micromagnetic simulation of the three different reversal mechanisms. • For the curling mechanism, the new phenomenon is the rotation of the vortex. • In the domain reversal mechanism, the formed domain wall is smaller than 180°. • In soft ferromagnetic particles a rearrangement of the magnetic domains is observed.

  4. Origin of perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in Co/Ni multilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, M.; Hübner, R.; Suess, D.; Heinrich, B.; Girt, E.

    2017-07-01

    We studied the variation in perpendicular magnetic anisotropy of (111) textured Au /N ×[Co /Ni ]/Au films as a function of the number of bilayer repeats N . The ferromagnetic resonance and superconducting quantum interference device magnetometer measurements show that the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy of Co/Ni multilayers first increases with N for N ≤10 and then moderately decreases for N >10 . The model we propose reveals that the decrease of the anisotropy for N reduction in the magnetoelastic and magnetocrystalline anisotropies. A moderate decrease in the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy for N >10 is due to the reduction in the magnetocrystalline and the surface anisotropies. To calculate the contribution of magnetoelastic anisotropy in the Co/Ni multilayers, in-plane and out-of-plane x-ray diffraction measurements are performed to determine the spacing between Co/Ni (111) and (220) planes. The magnetocrystalline bulk anisotropy is estimated from the difference in the perpendicular and parallel g factors of Co/Ni multilayers that are measured using the in-plane and out-of-plane ferromagnetic resonance measurements. Transmission electron microscopy has been used to estimate the multilayer film roughness. These values are used to calculate the roughness-induced surface and magnetocrystalline anisotropy coefficients as a function of N .

  5. Magnetic phase transitions and hydrostatic pressure or uniaxial stress experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloch, D.

    1980-01-01

    Crystals submitted to high hydrostatic pressure or uniaxial stress have been investigated by means of neutron scattering. The techniques used are described and applications to pressure or stress induced T = 0 magnetic to nonmagnetic transitions (Pr,PrSb) and continuous to discontinuous order-disorder transitions (MnO) are given. (orig.)

  6. Exchange anisotropy and micromagnetic properties of PtMn/NiFe bilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pokhil, Taras; Linville, Eric; Mao, Sining

    2001-01-01

    Magnetic microstructure, exchange induced uniaxial and unidirectional anisotropy and structural transformation have been studied in PtMn/NiFe bilayer films and small elements as a function of annealing time. The relationship between the fcc-fct ordering phase transformation in PtMn and the development of exchange induced magnetic properties in PtMn/NiFe bilayers is complicated by the fact that the transformation occurs throughout the entire volume of the PtMn film, while the exchange between the layers is predominantly an interface effect. Consequently, the development of the exchange anisotropy should depend primarily on the character of the structural transformation at the interface between PtMn and NiFe. The purpose of this article is to correlate the volume phase transformation in PtMn to the development of exchange anisotropy and micromagnetic behavior in PtMn/NiFe bilayers. The interface structure can be inferred from the anisotropy and micromagnetic measurements, leading to a model that explains the relationship between the volume and interface transformation structures in PtMn, and magnetic properties of the bilayers. The structure and magnetic properties were characterized by x-ray diffraction, vibrating sample magnetometry, and magnetic force microscopy. [copyright] 2001 American Institute of Physics

  7. Magnetic properties of URu2Si2 under uniaxial stress by neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourdarot, Frederic; Martin, Nicolas; Raymond, Stephane; Regnault, Louis-Pierre; Aoki, Dai; Taufour, Valentin; Flouquet, Jacques

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to compare the magnetic behavior of URu 2 Si 2 under uniaxial stress along the a axis with the behavior under hydrostatic pressure. Both are very similar, but uniaxial stress presents a critical stress σ x a [0.33(5) GPa] that is smaller than the hydrostatic critical pressure p x (0.5 GPa) where the ground state switches from a HO (hidden-order) to AF (antiferromagnetic) ground state. From these critical values and Larmor neutron diffraction, we conclude that the magnetic properties are governed by the shortest U-U distance in the plane (a lattice parameter). Under stress, the orthorhombic unit cell stays centered. A key point shown by this study is the presence of a threshold for the uniaxial stress along the a axis before the appearance of the large AF moment, which indicates no mixture of the order parameter between the HO ground state and the AF one as under hydrostatic pressure. The two most intense longitudinal magnetic excitations at Q 0 =(1,0,0) and Q 1 =(0.6,0,0) were measured in the HO state: the excitation at Q 0 decreases in energy while the excitation at Q 1 increases in energy with the uniaxial stress along the a axis. The decrease of the energy of the excitation at Q 0 seems to indicate a critical energy-gap value of 1.2(1) meV at σ x a . A similar value was derived from studies under hydrostatic pressure at p x .

  8. Structural, magnetic characterization (dependencies of coercivity and loss with the frequency) of magnetic cores based in Finemet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osinalde, M.; Infante, P.; Domínguez, L.; Blanco, J. M.; del Val, J. J.; Chizhik, A.; González, J.

    2017-12-01

    We report changes of coercivity, induced magnetic anisotropy, magneto-optical domain structure and frequency dependencies of coercivity and energy loss (up to 10 MHz) associated with the structural modifications produced by thermal treatments under applied magnetic field (field annealing) in toroidal wound cores of Fe73.5Cu1Nb3Si15.5B7 amorphous alloy. The thermal treatment (535 °C, 1 h) leads to the typical nanocrystalline structure of α-Fe(Si) nanograins (60-65% relative volume, 10-20 nm average grain size embedded in a residual amorphous matrix, while the magnetic field with the possibility to be applied in two directions to the toroidal core axis, that is in transverse (which is equivalent to the transverse direction of the ribbon) or longitudinal (equivalent to the longitudinal direction of the ribbon), develops a macroscopic uniaxial magnetic anisotropy in the transverse (around 245 J/m3) or longitudinal (around 85 J/m3) direction of the ribbon, respectively. It is remarkable the quasi-unhysteretic character of the cores with these two kinds of field annealing as comparing with that of the as-quenched one. Magneto-optical study by Kerr-effect of the ribbons provides useful information on the domain structure of the surface in agreement with the direction and intensity of the induced magnetic anisotropy. This induced uniaxial magnetic anisotropy plays a very important role on the Hc(f) and EL(f) curves, (f: frequency), being drastic the presence and direction of the induced magnetic anisotropy. In addition, these frequency dependencies show a significant change at the frequency around 100 Hz.

  9. Nanomagnets with high shape anisotropy and strong crystalline anisotropy: perspectives on magnetic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campanella, H; Llobet, J; Esteve, J; Plaza, J A; Jaafar, M; Vázquez, M; Asenjo, A; Del Real, R P

    2011-01-01

    We report on a new approach for magnetic imaging, highly sensitive even in the presence of external, strong magnetic fields. Based on FIB-assisted fabricated high-aspect-ratio rare-earth nanomagnets, we produce groundbreaking magnetic force tips with hard magnetic character where we combine a high aspect ratio (shape anisotropy) together with strong crystalline anisotropy (rare-earth-based alloys). Rare-earth hard nanomagnets are then FIB-integrated to silicon microcantilevers as highly sharpened tips for high-field magnetic imaging applications. Force resolution and domain reversing and recovery capabilities are at least one order of magnitude better than for conventional magnetic tips. This work opens new, pioneering research fields on the surface magnetization process of nanostructures based either on relatively hard magnetic materials—used in magnetic storage media—or on materials like superparamagnetic particles, ferro/antiferromagnetic structures or paramagnetic materials.

  10. Capping layer-tailored interface magnetic anisotropy in ultrathin Co{sub 2}FeAl films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belmeguenai, M., E-mail: belmeguenai.mohamed@univ-paris13.fr; Zighem, F.; Chérif, S. M. [LSPM (CNRS-UPR 3407), Université Paris 13, Sorbonne Paris Cité, 99 Avenue Jean-Baptiste Clément, 93430 Villetaneuse (France); Gabor, M. S., E-mail: mihai.gabor@phys.utcluj.ro; Petrisor, T. [Center for Superconductivity, Spintronics and Surface Science, Department of Physics and Chemistry, Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, Str. Memorandumului No. 28, RO-400114 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Tiusan, C. [Center for Superconductivity, Spintronics and Surface Science, Department of Physics and Chemistry, Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, Str. Memorandumului No. 28, RO-400114 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Institut Jean Lamour, CNRS, Lorraine Université, BP 70239, F-54506 Vandoeuvre (France)

    2015-01-14

    Co{sub 2}FeAl (CFA) thin films of various thicknesses (2 nm ≤ d ≤ 50 nm) have been grown on (001) MgO single crystal substrates and then capped with Cr, V, and Ta. Their magnetic and structural properties have been studied by x-ray diffraction (XRD), vibrating sample magnetometry, and broadband microstrip ferromagnetic resonance (MS-FMR). The XRD revealed that the films are epitaxial with the cubic [001] CFA axis normal to the substrate plane and that the chemical order varies from the B2 phase to the A2 phase when decreasing the thickness. The deduced lattice parameters showed that the Cr-capped films exhibit a larger tetragonal distortion, as compared with the films capped with V or Ta. The presence of magnetic dead layers has been observed in CFA samples capped with V and Ta but not in the case of the Cr-capped ones. The effective magnetization, deduced from the fit of MS-FMR measurements, increases (decreases) linearly with the CFA inverse thickness (1/d) for the Cr-capped (Ta-capped) films while it is constant for the V-capped ones. This allows quantifying the perpendicular surface anisotropy coefficients of −0.46 erg/cm{sup 2} and 0.74 erg/cm{sup 2} for Cr and Ta-capped films, respectively. Moreover, the fourfold and the uniaxial anisotropy fields, measured in these films, showed different trends with a respect to the CFA inverse thickness. This allows inferring that a non-negligible part of the fourfold magnetocrystalline term is of interfacial origin.

  11. Tuning the Magnetic Anisotropy at a Molecule-Metal Interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bairagi, K.; Bellec, A.; Repain, V.

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate that a C60 overlayer enhances the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy of a Co thin film, inducing an inverse spin reorientation transition from in plane to out of plane. The driving force is the C60/Co interfacial magnetic anisotropy that we have measured quantitatively in situ...

  12. Synergy and destructive interferences between local magnetic anisotropies in binuclear complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guihéry, Nathalie; Ruamps, Renaud [Laboratoire de Chimie et Physique Quantiques, UMR5625, University of Toulouse 3, Paul Sabatier, 118 route de Narbonne, 31062 Toulouse (France); Maurice, Rémi [SUBATECH, IN2P3/EMN Nantes/University of Nantes, 4 rue Alfred Kastler, BP 20722 44307, Nantes, Cedex 3 (France); Graaf, Coen de [University Rovira i Virgili, Marcelli Domingo s/n, 43007 Tarragona (Spain)

    2015-12-31

    Magnetic anisotropy is responsible for the single molecule magnet behavior of transition metal complexes. This behavior is characterized by a slow relaxation of the magnetization for low enough temperatures, and thus for a possible blocking of the magnetization. This bistable behavior can lead to possible technological applications in the domain of data storage or quantum computing. Therefore, the understanding of the microscopic origin of magnetic anisotropy has received a considerable interest during the last two decades. The presentation focuses on the determination of the anisotropy parameters of both mono-nuclear and bi-nuclear types of complexes and on the control and optimization of the anisotropic properties. The validity of the model Hamiltonians commonly used to characterize such complexes has been questioned and it is shown that neither the standard multispin Hamiltonian nor the giant spin Hamiltonian are appropriate for weakly coupled ions. Alternative models have been proposed and used to properly extract the relevant parameters. Rationalizations of the magnitude and nature of both local anisotropies of single ions and the molecular anisotropy of polynuclear complexes are provided. The synergy and interference effects between local magnetic anisotropies are studied in a series of binuclear complexes.

  13. Giant magnetic anisotropy of rare-earth adatoms and dimers adsorbed by graphene oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kai-Cheng; Li, Yong-Feng; Liu, Yong; Zhu, Yan; Shi, Li-Bin

    2017-05-24

    Nowadays, transition-metal adatoms and dimers with giant magnetic anisotropy have attracted much attention due to their potential applications in data storage, spintronics and quantum computations. Using density-functional calculations, we investigated the magnetic anisotropy of the rare-earth adatoms and dimers adsorbed by graphene oxide. Our calculations reveal that the adatoms of Tm, Er and Sm possess giant magnetic anisotropy, typically larger than 40 meV. When the dimers of (Tm,Er,Sm)-Ir are adsorbed onto graphene oxide, the magnetic anisotropy even exceeds 200 meV. The magnetic anisotropy can be tuned by the external electric field as well as the environment.

  14. Synthesis and characterization of uniaxial ferrogels with Ni nanorods as magnetic phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bender, P.; Guenther, A.; Tschoepe, A.; Birringer, R.

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, the rotation of magnetic nanorods in a soft hydrogel matrix induced by a homogeneous magnetic field is investigated. Magnetic nanorods of ∼151.2nm length and ∼17.7nm diameter are synthesized via current-pulsed electrodeposition of nickel into porous aluminum oxide-templates. The nanorods are processed towards a stable colloidal dispersion by dissolution of the alumina template in aqueous NaOH to which PVP (polyvinyl-pyrrolidone) is added as surfactant. These suspensions are used to prepare gelatine-based ferrogels of different shear modulus with either isotropic or uniaxial orientation-distribution of the nanorods. While magnetization measurements of rigid ferrogels mainly reflect the magnetic properties of the nickel nanorods, the magnetization behavior of soft ferrogels is significantly influenced by a field-induced rotation of the nickel nanorods in the low compliant matrix. A particular analysis of magnetization measurements on uniaxial ferrogels enables to quantify the rotation angle of the nanorods with respect to their initial orientation under the influence of a transversal homogeneous magnetic field. The analysis of the field-dependent rotation also allows to estimate the local shear modulus of the matrix which is demonstrated by an investigation of room temperature ageing process of the ferrogel. - Highlights: → We present the synthesis of ferrogels containing ferromagnetic Ni nanorods. → The torque in the homogeneous magnetic field leads to a rotation of the nanorods. → The rotation angle increases with decreasing shear modulus of the gel matrix. → The local shear modulus can be estimated by analyzing magnetization measurements.

  15. Temperature dependence of the interfacial magnetic anisotropy in W/CoFeB/MgO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoung-Min Lee

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The interfacial perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in W/CoFeB (1.2 ∼ 3 nm/MgO thin film structures is strongly dependent on temperature, and is significantly reduced at high temperature. The interfacial magnetic anisotropy is generally proportional to the third power of magnetization, but an additional factor due to thermal expansion is required to explain the temperature dependence of the magnetic anisotropy of ultrathin CoFeB films. The reduction of the magnetic anisotropy is more prominent for the thinner films; as the temperature increases from 300 K to 400 K, the anisotropy is reduced ∼50% for the 1.2-nm-thick CoFeB, whereas the anisotropy is reduced ∼30% for the 1.7-nm-thick CoFeB. Such a substantial reduction of magnetic anisotropy at high temperature is problematic for data retention when incorporating W/CoFeB/MgO thin film structures into magneto-resistive random access memory devices. Alternative magnetic materials and structures are required to maintain large magnetic anisotropy at elevated temperatures.

  16. Magnetic anisotropy of lecithin membranes. A new anisotropy susceptometer

    OpenAIRE

    Scholz, F.; Boroske, E.; Helfrich, W.

    1984-01-01

    Cylindrical giant vesicles prepared from egg lecithin and 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC) are oriented in an external magnetic field and observed by phase contrast microscopy. The anisotropic part of the diamagnetic susceptibility of the lecithin membrane is determined from the distribution of angles between the magnetic field and the long cylinder axis due to thermal fluctuations. The anisotropy of DMPC is found to be larger by a factor of 2 than that of egg lecithin. This...

  17. Size-dependent magnetic anisotropy of PEG coated Fe3O4 nanoparticles; comparing two magnetization methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayek, C.; Manna, K.; Imam, A. A.; Alqasrawi, A. Y.; Obaidat, I. M.

    2018-02-01

    Understanding the size dependent magnetic anisotropy of iron oxide nanoparticles is essential for the successful application of these nanoparticles in several technological and medical fields. PEG-coated iron oxide (Fe3O4) nanoparticles with core diameters of 12 nm, 15 nm, and 16 nm were synthesized by the usual co-precipitation method. The morphology and structure of the nanoparticles were investigated using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Magnetic measurements were conducted using a SQUID. The effective magnetic anisotropy was calculated using two methods from the magnetization measurements. In the first method the zero-field-cooled magnetization versus temperature measurements were used at several applied magnetic fields. In the second method we used the temperature-dependent coercivity curves obtained from the zero-field-cooled magnetization versus magnetic field hysteresis loops. The role of the applied magnetic field on the effective magnetic anisotropy, calculated form the zero-field-cooled magnetization versus temperature measurements, was revealed. The size dependence of the effective magnetic anisotropy constant Keff obtained by the two methods are compared and discussed.

  18. Magnetic anisotropy study of UGe2in a static high magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakon, T; Saito, S; Koyama, K; Awaji, S; Sato, I; Nojima, T; Watanabe, K; Motokawa, M; Sato, N K

    2006-01-01

    UGe 2 has orthorhombic C mmm crystalline symmetry and shows ferromagnetic Heavy-Fermion (HF) Superconductor, which provides superconductivity under pressure in the range from 1.0 GPa to 1.5 GPa. Magnetic field dependence of magnetization shows strong magnetic anisotropy. When a magnetic field is applied parallel to easy axis (a-axis), magnetization presents ferromagnetic behavior. At 4.2 K, which is much lower than the Curie temperature T c = 54 K. Spontaneous magnetization is 1.4 μ B /U, and the magnetization gradually increase with increasing field. On the contrary, when a field is applied parallel to hard axis (b-axis or c-axis), magnetization increases linearly with increasing magnetic field. As for H//b-axis, magnetization is 0.23 μ B /U even at 27 T. Magnetocrystalline anisotropy constant is obtained as 230 [T μ B ] 3.4[kJ/kg] at 4.2 K. This value is comparable with rare-earth magnet Nd 2 Fe 17 , which is typical strongly correlated ferromagnet

  19. Investigations of the polymer/magnetic interface of organic spin-valves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morley, N.A., E-mail: n.a.morley@sheffield.ac.uk [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Sheffield, Mappin Street, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom); Dost, R.; Lingam, A.S.V. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Sheffield, Mappin Street, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom); Barlow, A.J. [National EPSRC XPS Users’ Service, School of Mechanical and Systems Engineering, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 7RU (United Kingdom)

    2015-12-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Metal carbide and sulphide species are detected at a polymer–magnetic interface. • Top magnetic electrodes on P3HT have uniaxial anisotropy. • Top magnetic electrodes on PBTTT are isotropic. - Abstract: This work investigates the top interface of an organic spin-valve, to determine the interactions between the polymer and top magnetic electrode. The polymers studied are regio-regular poly(3-hexylthiophene) (RR-P3HT) and poly(2,5-bis(3-hexadecylthiophen-2-yl)thieno[3,2-b]thiophene (PBTTT) and the magnetic top electrodes are NiFe and Fe. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) is used to determine the bonding at the interface, along with the extent of how oxidised the magnetic layers are, while atomic force microscopy (AFM) is used to determine the surface roughness. A magneto-optic Kerr effect (MOKE) magnetometer is used to study the magnetic properties of the top electrode. It is shown that at the organic–magnetic interface the magnetic atoms interact with the polymer, as metallic–sulphide and metallic-carbide species are present at the interface. It is also shown that the structure of the polymer influences the anisotropy of the magnetic electrode, such that the magnetic electrodes grown on RR-P3HT have uniaxial anisotropy, while those grown on PBTTT are isotropic.

  20. Electronic and magnetic properties of Si substituted Fe3Ge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shanavas, K. V.; McGuire, Michael A.; Parker, David S.

    2015-01-01

    Using first principles calculations, we studied the effect of Si substitution in the hexagonal Fe 3 Ge. We find the low temperature magnetic anisotropy in this system to be planar and originating mostly from the spin-orbit coupling in Fe-d states. Reduction of the unitcell volume reduces the magnitude of in-plane magnetic anisotropy, eventually turning it positive which reorients the magnetic moments to the axial direction. Substituting Ge with the smaller Si ions also increases the anisotropy, potentially enhancing the region of stability of the axial magnetization, which is beneficial for magnetic applications such as permanent magnets. Our experimental measurements on samples of Fe 3 Ge 1−x Si x confirm these predictions and show that substitution of about 6% of the Ge with Si increases by approximately 35 K the temperature range over which anisotropy is uniaxial

  1. Giant enhancement of magnetocrystalline anisotropy in ultrathin manganite films via nanoscale 1D periodic depth modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajapitamahuni, Anil; Zhang, Le; Singh, Vijay; Burton, John; Koten, Mak; Shield, Jeffrey; Tsymbal, Evgeny; Hong, Xia

    We report a unusual giant enhancement of in-plane magnetocrystalline anisotropy (MCA) in ultrathin colossal magnetoresistive oxide films due to 1D nanoscale periodic depth modulation. High quality epitaxial thin films of La0.67Sr0.33MnO3 (LSMO) of thickness 6 nm were grown on (001) SrTiO3 substrates via off-axis radio frequency magnetron sputtering. The top 2 nm of LSMO films are patterned into periodic nano-stripes using e-beam lithography and reactive ion etching. The resulting structure consists of nano-stripes of 2 nm height and 100-200 nm width on top of a 4 nm thick continuous base layer. We employed planar Hall effect measurements to study the in-plane magnetic anisotropy of the unpatterned and nanopatterned films. The unpatterned films show a biaxial anisotropy with easy axis along [110]. The extracted anisotropy energy density is ~1.1 x 105 erg/cm3, comparable to previously reported values. In the nanopatterned films, a strong uniaxial anisotropy is developed along one of the biaxial easy axes. The corresponding anisotropy energy density is ~5.6 x 106 erg/cm3 within the nano-striped volume, comparable to that of Co. We attribute the observed uniaxial MCA to MnO6 octahedral rotations/tilts and the enhancement in the anisotropy energy density to the strain gradient within the nano-stripes.

  2. The origin of transverse anisotropy in axially symmetric single molecule magnets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barra, Anne-Laure; Caneschi, Andrea; Cornia, Andrea; Gatteschi, Dante; Gorini, Lapo; Heiniger, Leo-Philipp; Sessoli, Roberta; Sorace, Lorenzo

    2007-09-05

    Single-crystal high-frequency electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy has been employed on a truly axial single molecule magnet of formula [Mn(12)O(12)(tBu-CH(2)CO(2))16(CH(3)OH)4].CH(3)OH to investigate the origin of the transverse magnetic anisotropy, a crucial parameter that rules the quantum tunneling of the magnetization. The crystal structure, including the absolute structure of the crystal used for EPR experiments, has been fully determined and found to belong to I4 tetragonal space group. The angular dependence of the resonance fields in the crystallographic ab plane shows the presence of high-order tetragonal anisotropy and strong dependence on the MS sublevels with the second-highest-field transition being angular independent. This was rationalized including competing fourth- and sixth-order transverse parameters in a giant spin Hamiltonian which describes the magnetic anisotropy in the ground S = 10 spin state of the cluster. To establish the origin of these anisotropy terms, the experimental results have been further analyzed using a simplified multispin Hamiltonian which takes into account the exchange interactions and the single ion magnetic anisotropy of the Mn(III) centers. It has been possible to establish magnetostructural correlations with spin Hamiltonian parameters up to the sixth order. Transverse anisotropy in axial single molecule magnets was found to originate from the multispin nature of the system and from the breakdown of the strong exchange approximation. The tilting of the single-ion easy axes of magnetization with respect to the 4-fold molecular axis of the cluster plays the major role in determining the transverse anisotropy. Counterintuitively, the projections of the single ion easy axes on the ab plane correspond to hard axes of magnetization.

  3. Magnetic Anisotropy by Rashba Spin-Orbit Coupling in Antiferromagnetic Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ieda, Jun'ichi; Barnes, Stewart E.; Maekawa, Sadamichi

    2018-05-01

    Magnetic anisotropy in an antiferromagnet (AFM) with inversion symmetry breaking (ISB) is investigated. The magnetic anisotropy energy (MAE) resulting from the Rashba spin-orbit and s-d type exchange interactions is determined for two different models of AFMs. The global ISB model, representing the effect of a surface, an interface, or a gating electric field, results in an easy-plane magnetic anisotropy. In contrast, for a local ISB model, i.e., for a noncentrosymmetric AFM, perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) arises. Both results differ from the ferromagnetic case, in which the result for PMA depends on the band structure and dimensionality. These MAE contributions play a key role in determining the direction of the Néel order parameter in antiferromagnetic nanostructures, and reflect the possibility of electrical-field control of the Néel vector.

  4. Magnetic and structural properties of ion beam sputtered Fe–Zr–Nb–B–Cu thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modak, S.S.; Kane, S.N.; Gupta, A.; Mazaleyrat, F.; LoBue, M.; Coisson, M.; Celegato, F.; Tiberto, P.; Vinai, F.

    2012-01-01

    Magnetic and structural properties of Fe–Zr–Nb–B–Cu thin films, prepared by ion beam sputtering on silicon substrates by using a target made up of amorphous ribbons of nominal composition Fe 84 Zr 3.5 Nb 3.5 B 8 Cu 1 , are reported. As-deposited thin film samples exhibit an in-plane uniaxial anisotropy, which can be ascribed to the preparation technique and the coupling of quenched-in internal stresses. Structural measurements indicate no significant variation of the grain size with thickness and with the annealing temperature. Increase in surface irregularities with annealing temperature and oxidation results in aggregates that would act as pinning centers, affecting the magnetic properties leading to magnetic hardening of the specimens. The role of the magnetic anisotropy is thoroughly discussed with the help of magnetic and ferromagnetic resonance measurements. - Highlights: ►Ion beam sputtered Fe–Zr–Nb–B–Cu thin films of different thickness are prepared. ►Films exhibit in-plane uniaxial anisotropy, which reduces with thermal treatments. ►Increased surface roughness leads to wall pinning, increasing the coercive field.

  5. The role of rare-earth dopants in tailoring the magnetism and magnetic anisotropy in Fe4N

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zirun; Mi, Wenbo; Bai, Haili

    2018-05-01

    The magnetism and magnetic anisotropy of the rare-earth (RE) atom-substituted Fe4N are investigated by first-principles calculations. It is found that the substitution of one RE atom results in an antiferromagnetic coupling with the Fe atoms. The 4f-3d exchange interaction has an important influence on the density of states of Fe near the Fermi level. PrFe3N and NdFe3N with a tetragonal structure exhibit giant magnetic anisotropy energy larger than 5 meV/atom. The magnetic anisotropy depends on the distribution of partial states of d or f orbital near the Fermi level. As Eu substitutes Fe in Fe4N, the magnetic moment of Eu3FeN even exceeds 23 μB. Our theoretical predictions point out the possibilities of tuning the magnetism and magnetic anisotropy of Fe4N upon RE doping.

  6. Analytical description of changes in the magnetic states of chromium-nickel steel under uniaxial elastic deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorkunov, E. S.; Yakushenko, E. I.; Zadvorkin, S. M.; Mushnikov, A. N.

    2017-12-01

    Dependences of magnetization and magnetic permeability of the 15KhN4D structural steel on the value of uniaxial stresses and magnetic field strength are obtained. A polynomial approximation fairly accurately describing the observed changes is proposed on the basis of experimental data.

  7. Site-specific magnetic anisotropies in R2Fe14B systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshioka, T.; Tsuchiura, H.

    2018-04-01

    The local magnetic anisotropy of R ions in R2Fe14B (R = Dy, Ho) systems is studied based on a microscopic effective spin model constructed from the information obtained by using first-principles calculations. By taking into account up to 6-th order crystal electric field parameters, the model satisfactory describes the observed magnetization curves and the temperature dependence of anisotropy constants. We found that at low temperatures, the noncollinear structure appears in the Ho2Fe14B system reflecting the local magnetic anisotropy.

  8. Magnetic and structural properties of Co2FeAl thin films grown on Si substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belmeguenai, Mohamed; Tuzcuoglu, Hanife; Gabor, Mihai; Petrisor, Traian; Tiusan, Coriolan; Berling, Dominique; Zighem, Fatih; Mourad Chérif, Salim

    2015-01-01

    The correlation between magnetic and structural properties of Co 2 FeAl (CFA) thin films of different thicknesses (10 nmuniaxial anisotropy with a random easy axis direction. The coercive field, measured with the applied field along the easy axis direction, and the uniaxial anisotropy field increase linearly with the inverse of the CFA thickness. The microstrip line ferromagnetic resonance measurements for in-plane and perpendicular applied magnetic fields revealed that the effective magnetization and the uniaxial in-plane anisotropy field follow a linear variation versus the inverse CFA thickness. This allows deriving a perpendicular surface anisotropy coefficient of −1.86 erg/cm 2 . - Highlights: • Various Co 2 FeAl thin films were grown on a Si(001) substrates and annealed at 600 °C. • The thickness dependence of magnetic and structural properties has been studied. • X-ray measurements revealed an (011) out-of-plane textured growth of the films. • The easy axis coercive field varies linearly with the inverse CFA thickness. • The effective magnetization increases linearly with the inverse film thickness

  9. Electron temperature anisotropy modeling and its effect on anisotropy-magnetic field coupling in an underdense laser heated plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morreeuw, J.P.; Dubroca, B. [CEA Centre d' Etudes Scientifiques et Techniques d' Aquitaine, 33 - Le Barp (France); Sangam, A.; Dubroca, B.; Charrier, P.; Tikhonchuk, V.T. [Bordeaux-1 Univ., CELIA, 33 - Talence (France); Sangam, A.; Dubroca, B.; Charrier, P. [Bordeaux-1 Univ., MAB, 33 - Talence (France)

    2006-06-15

    The laser interaction with an underdense plasma leads to an anisotropic laser heating of electrons. This temperature anisotropy gradient in turn is the source of an early magnetic field, which has an important effect on the plasma evolution, due to the thermal flux reduction. We describe the temperature anisotropy by an evolution equation including the anisotropy-magnetic field coupling and observe a rather efficient magnetic field generation. However at high anisotropy levels, a small-scale instability emerges, leading to a serious problem in numerical calculations. We introduce the kinetics effects, which fix the problem by the anisotropy diffusion through the heat flux tensor. A constant-coefficient Fokker-Planck model in the 2-dimensional geometry allows us to derive an anisotropy diffusion term. The diffusion coefficient is fitted from the kinetic theory of the collisional anisotropic (Weibel) instability growth rate. Such an anisotropy diffusion term wipes out the unphysical instability without any undesirable smoothing. This diffusion along with the viscosity term leads also to a quite good restitution of the Weibel instability growth rate and to the short wavelength cutoff, even in a weakly collisional situation. This allows us to use such a model to predict the emergence of the Weibel instability as well as its saturation. (authors)

  10. Phenomenological description of anisotropy effects in some ferromagnetic superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shopova, Diana V., E-mail: sho@issp.bas.bg [TCCM Research Group, Institute of Solid State Physics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, BG-1784 Sofia (Bulgaria); Todorov, Michail D. [Department of Applied Mathematics and Computer Science, Technical University of Sofia, 1000 Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2015-07-03

    We study phenomenologically the role of anisotropy in ferromagnetic superconductors UGe{sub 2}, URhGe, and UCoGe for the description of their phase diagrams. We use the Ginzburg–Landau free energy in its uniform form as we will consider only spatially independent solutions. This is an expansion of previously derived results where the effect of Cooper-pair and crystal anisotropies is not taken into account. The three compounds are separately discussed with the special stress on UGe{sub 2}. The main effect comes from the strong uniaxial anisotropy of magnetization while the anisotropy of Cooper pairs and crystal anisotropy only slightly change the phase diagram in the vicinity of Curie temperature. The limitations of this approach are also discussed. - Highlights: • Anisotropic Landau energy for description of ferromagnetic superconductors is proposed. • Meissner phases are described with their existence and stability conditions. • The application of the model to UGe{sub 2} is discussed. • The limitations to apply the model for description of experimental data are explained.

  11. Linear stability analysis of a levitated nanomagnet in a static magnetic field: Quantum spin stabilized magnetic levitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusconi, C. C.; Pöchhacker, V.; Cirac, J. I.; Romero-Isart, O.

    2017-10-01

    We theoretically study the levitation of a single magnetic domain nanosphere in an external static magnetic field. We show that, apart from the stability provided by the mechanical rotation of the nanomagnet (as in the classical Levitron), the quantum spin origin of its magnetization provides two additional mechanisms to stably levitate the system. Despite the Earnshaw theorem, such stable phases are present even in the absence of mechanical rotation. For large magnetic fields, the Larmor precession of the quantum magnetic moment stabilizes the system in full analogy with magnetic trapping of a neutral atom. For low magnetic fields, the magnetic anisotropy stabilizes the system via the Einstein-de Haas effect. These results are obtained with a linear stability analysis of a single magnetic domain rigid nanosphere with uniaxial anisotropy in a Ioffe-Pritchard magnetic field.

  12. LDA+DMFT Approach to Magnetocrystalline Anisotropy of Strong Magnets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Xin Zhu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The new challenges posed by the need of finding strong rare-earth-free magnets demand methods that can predict magnetization and magnetocrystalline anisotropy energy (MAE. We argue that correlated electron effects, which are normally underestimated in band-structure calculations, play a crucial role in the development of the orbital component of the magnetic moments. Because magnetic anisotropy arises from this orbital component, the ability to include correlation effects has profound consequences on our predictive power of the MAE of strong magnets. Here, we show that incorporating the local effects of electronic correlations with dynamical mean-field theory provides reliable estimates of the orbital moment, the mass enhancement, and the MAE of YCo_{5}.

  13. A model considering mechanical anisotropy of magnetic-field-induced superelastic strain in magnetic shape memory alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Yuping; Yu, Kai

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► The model analyzes mechanical anisotropy of magnetic shape memory alloy. ► The numerical evaluation of Eshelby tensor of shape memory alloy is obtained. ► Interaction energy of magnetic shape memory alloy is analyzed. - Abstract: Under applied mechanical load and magnetic field, a micromechanics-based thermodynamic model taking account of mechanical anisotropy of magnetic shape memory alloys (MSMAs) is developed in this work. Considering the crystallographic and magnetic microstructure, the internal state variables are chosen and the model can capture the magnetic shape memory effect caused by the martensitic variant reorientation process. It is assumed that the Gibbs free energy is consisted of the mechanical potential energy of anisotropic matrix, the Zeeman energy and the magnetocrystalline anisotropy energy in the model. In terms of the balance between the thermodynamic driving force derived from the reduction of Gibbs free energy and the resistive force for the variant reorientation, the kinetic equation is established and the Eshelby tensor of anisotropic MSMAs is then obtained by using numerical evaluation. At last, the effects of the anisotropy on interaction energy and macroscopic strain are discussed. The assumption of isotropy tends to underestimate interaction energy and macroscopic strain. The results considering mechanical anisotropy are in good agreement with the experimental data.

  14. Symmetry mismatch-driven perpendicular magnetic anisotropy for perovskite/brownmillerite heterostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Zhong, Zhicheng; Guan, Xiangxiang; Shen, Xi; Zhang, Jine; Han, Furong; Zhang, Hui; Zhang, Hongrui; Yan, Xi; Zhang, Qinghua; Gu, Lin; Hu, Fengxia; Yu, Richeng; Shen, Baogen; Sun, Jirong

    2018-05-15

    Grouping different transition metal oxides together by interface engineering is an important route toward emergent phenomenon. While most of the previous works focused on the interface effects in perovskite/perovskite heterostructures, here we reported on a symmetry mismatch-driven spin reorientation toward perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in perovskite/brownmillerite heterostructures, which is scarcely seen in tensile perovskite/perovskite heterostructures. We show that alternately stacking perovskite La 2/3 Sr 1/3 MnO 3 and brownmillerite LaCoO 2.5 causes a strong interface reconstruction due to symmetry discontinuity at interface: neighboring MnO 6 octahedra and CoO 4 tetrahedra at the perovskite/brownmillerite interface cooperatively relax in a manner that is unavailable for perovskite/perovskite interface, leading to distinct orbital reconstructions and thus the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. Moreover, the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy is robust, with an anisotropy constant two orders of magnitude greater than the in-plane anisotropy of the perovskite/perovskite interface. The present work demonstrates the great potential of symmetry engineering in designing artificial materials on demand.

  15. Magnetic and structural properties of Co{sub 2}FeAl thin films grown on Si substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belmeguenai, Mohamed, E-mail: belmeguenai.mohamed@univ-paris13.fr [LSPM (CNRS-UPR 3407) 99 Avenue Jean-Baptiste Clément Université Paris 13, 93430 Villetaneuse (France); Tuzcuoglu, Hanife [LSPM (CNRS-UPR 3407) 99 Avenue Jean-Baptiste Clément Université Paris 13, 93430 Villetaneuse (France); Gabor, Mihai; Petrisor, Traian [Center for Superconductivity, Spintronics and Surface Science, Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, Street Memorandumului No. 28, RO-400114 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Tiusan, Coriolan [Center for Superconductivity, Spintronics and Surface Science, Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, Street Memorandumului No. 28, RO-400114 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Institut Jean Lamour, CNRS, Université de Nancy, BP 70239, F-54506 Vandoeuvre (France); Berling, Dominique [IS2M (CNRS-LRC 7228), 15 rue Jean Starcky, Université de Haute-Alsace, BP 2488, 68057 Mulhouse-Cedex (France); Zighem, Fatih; Mourad Chérif, Salim [LSPM (CNRS-UPR 3407) 99 Avenue Jean-Baptiste Clément Université Paris 13, 93430 Villetaneuse (France)

    2015-01-01

    The correlation between magnetic and structural properties of Co{sub 2}FeAl (CFA) thin films of different thicknesses (10 nmuniaxial anisotropy with a random easy axis direction. The coercive field, measured with the applied field along the easy axis direction, and the uniaxial anisotropy field increase linearly with the inverse of the CFA thickness. The microstrip line ferromagnetic resonance measurements for in-plane and perpendicular applied magnetic fields revealed that the effective magnetization and the uniaxial in-plane anisotropy field follow a linear variation versus the inverse CFA thickness. This allows deriving a perpendicular surface anisotropy coefficient of −1.86 erg/cm{sup 2}. - Highlights: • Various Co{sub 2}FeAl thin films were grown on a Si(001) substrates and annealed at 600 °C. • The thickness dependence of magnetic and structural properties has been studied. • X-ray measurements revealed an (011) out-of-plane textured growth of the films. • The easy axis coercive field varies linearly with the inverse CFA thickness. • The effective magnetization increases linearly with the inverse film thickness.

  16. Interface magnetism of iron grown on sulfur and hydrogen passivated GaAs(001)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kardasz, B.; Watkins, S. P.; Montoya, E. A.; Burrowes, C.; Girt, E.; Heinrich, B.

    2012-01-01

    Sulfur (S) and hydrogen (H) atom passivated GaAs(001) templates were used for deposition of ultrathin crystalline Fe films using molecular beam epitaxy, where the Fe thickness ranged from 10 to 45 atomic layers. Reflection high-energy electron diffraction patterns showed that the S- and H-passivated surfaces had no and very weak (1 x 2) superlattice reconstructions, respectively. This indicates that these GaAs(001) templates have a square-like symmetry. Magnetic anisotropies were investigated using the in-plane angular dependence of ferromagnetic resonance at 36 GHz. The in-plane cubic and uniaxial anisotropies and perpendicular uniaxial field were described by bulk and interface contributions, indicating that the Fe films have a high lattice coherence. The magnetic properties of the Fe films were compared to those grown on more commonly used GaAs(001) templates having a (4 x 6) reconstruction with an As-rich in-plane uniaxial symmetry. The Fe films grown on S-passivated templates exhibited unique magnetic properties caused by a decreased lattice spacing compared to the bulk Fe.

  17. Interface magnetism of iron grown on sulfur and hydrogen passivated GaAs(001)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kardasz, B.; Watkins, S. P.; Montoya, E. A.; Burrowes, C.; Girt, E.; Heinrich, B.

    2012-04-01

    Sulfur (S) and hydrogen (H) atom passivated GaAs(001) templates were used for deposition of ultrathin crystalline Fe films using molecular beam epitaxy, where the Fe thickness ranged from 10 to 45 atomic layers. Reflection high-energy electron diffraction patterns showed that the S- and H-passivated surfaces had no and very weak (1 x 2) superlattice reconstructions, respectively. This indicates that these GaAs(001) templates have a square-like symmetry. Magnetic anisotropies were investigated using the in-plane angular dependence of ferromagnetic resonance at 36 GHz. The in-plane cubic and uniaxial anisotropies and perpendicular uniaxial field were described by bulk and interface contributions, indicating that the Fe films have a high lattice coherence. The magnetic properties of the Fe films were compared to those grown on more commonly used GaAs(001) templates having a (4 x 6) reconstruction with an As-rich in-plane uniaxial symmetry. The Fe films grown on S-passivated templates exhibited unique magnetic properties caused by a decreased lattice spacing compared to the bulk Fe.

  18. Thickness dependence of voltage-driven magnetization switching in FeCo/PI/piezoelectric actuator heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, B. S.; Guo, X. B.; Wu, K.; Li, D.; Zuo, Y. L.; Xi, L.

    2016-03-01

    Strain mediated magnetization switching of ferromagnetic/substrate/piezoelectric actuator heterostructures has become a hot issue due to the advantage of low-power consumption. In this work, Fe65Co35 thin films were deposited on a flexible polyamides (PI) substrate, which has quite low Young’s module (~4 GPa for PI as compared to ~180 GPa for Si) and benefits from complete transfer of the strain from the piezoelectric actuator to magnetic thin films. A complete 90° transition of the magnetic easy axis was realized in 50 nm thick FeCo films under the voltage of 70 V, while a less than 90° rotation angle of the magnetic easy axis direction was observed in other samples, which was ascribed to the distribution of the anisotropy field and/or the orthogonal misalignment between stress induced anisotropy and original uniaxial anisotropy. A model considering two uniaxial anisotropies with orthogonal arrangement was used to quantitatively understand the observed results and the linear-like voltage dependent anisotropy field, especially for 10 nm FeCo films, in which the switching mechanism along the easy axis direction can be explained by the domain wall depinning model. It indicates that the magnetic domain-wall movement velocity may be controlled by strain through tuning the energy barrier of the pinning in heterostructures. Moreover, voltage-driven 90° magnetization switching with low-power consumption was achieved in this work.

  19. Thickness dependence of voltage-driven magnetization switching in FeCo/PI/piezoelectric actuator heterostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui, B S; Guo, X B; Wu, K; Li, D; Zuo, Y L; Xi, L

    2016-01-01

    Strain mediated magnetization switching of ferromagnetic/substrate/piezoelectric actuator heterostructures has become a hot issue due to the advantage of low-power consumption. In this work, Fe 65 Co 35 thin films were deposited on a flexible polyamides (PI) substrate, which has quite low Young’s module (∼4 GPa for PI as compared to ∼180 GPa for Si) and benefits from complete transfer of the strain from the piezoelectric actuator to magnetic thin films. A complete 90° transition of the magnetic easy axis was realized in 50 nm thick FeCo films under the voltage of 70 V, while a less than 90° rotation angle of the magnetic easy axis direction was observed in other samples, which was ascribed to the distribution of the anisotropy field and/or the orthogonal misalignment between stress induced anisotropy and original uniaxial anisotropy. A model considering two uniaxial anisotropies with orthogonal arrangement was used to quantitatively understand the observed results and the linear-like voltage dependent anisotropy field, especially for 10 nm FeCo films, in which the switching mechanism along the easy axis direction can be explained by the domain wall depinning model. It indicates that the magnetic domain-wall movement velocity may be controlled by strain through tuning the energy barrier of the pinning in heterostructures. Moreover, voltage-driven 90° magnetization switching with low-power consumption was achieved in this work. (paper)

  20. Magnetic anisotropy and magnetostriction in nanocrystalline Fe–Al alloys obtained by melt spinning technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    García, J.A.; Carrizo, J. [Depto. de Física de la Universidad de Oviedo, c/Calvo Sotelo s/n, 33007 Oviedo (Spain); Elbaile, L., E-mail: elbaile@uniovi.es [Depto. de Física de la Universidad de Oviedo, c/Calvo Sotelo s/n, 33007 Oviedo (Spain); Lago-Cachón, D.; Rivas, M. [Depto. de Física de la Universidad de Oviedo, c/Calvo Sotelo s/n, 33007 Oviedo (Spain); Castrillo, D. [Depto. de Ciencias de los Materiales de la Universidad de Oviedo, c/Independencia, 33004 Oviedo (Spain); Pierna, A.R. [Depto. de Ingeniería Química y Medio Ambiente, EUPSS, UPV/EHU, San Sebastián (Spain)

    2014-12-15

    A study about the magnetic anisotropy and magnetostriction in ribbons of composition Fe{sub 81}Al{sub 19} and Fe{sub 70}Al{sub 30} obtained by the melt spinning technique is presented. The hysteresis loops indicate that the easy magnetization direction lies in both cases on the plane of the ribbon. Torque magnetometry measurements show that the in-plane magnetic anisotropy constant results 10100 J m{sup −3} and 490 J m{sup −3} for the Fe{sub 81}Al{sub 19} and Fe{sub 70}Al{sub 30} respectively. After a thermal treatment of 2 h at 473 K to remove the residual stresses, the in-plane magnetic anisotropy constants falls down to 2500 J m{sup −3} in the first composition and remains the same in the second one, while the easy direction remains the same. Measurements of the magnetostriction and the residual stresses of both ribbons allow us to explain the above mentioned results about the magnetic anisotropy and to conclude that the residual stresses via magnetostriction are the main source of magnetic anisotropy in the case of Fe{sub 81}Al{sub 19} ribbon but they do not influence this property in the ribbon of composition Fe{sub 70}Al{sub 30}. - Highlights: • The origin of magnetic anisotropy of Fe{sub 81}Al{sub 19} and Fe{sub 70}Al{sub 30} ribbons has been studied. • The magnetic anisotropy lies in the plane of the ribbons. • A huge difference in magnetic anisotropy between two ribbons has been observed. • Magnetostriction and residual stresses explain the magnetic anisotropy in Fe{sub 81}Al{sub 19} ribbon.

  1. Minnealloy: a new magnetic material with high saturation flux density and low magnetic anisotropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehedi, Md; Jiang, Yanfeng; Suri, Pranav Kumar; Flannigan, David J.; Wang, Jian-Ping

    2017-09-01

    We are reporting a new soft magnetic material with high saturation magnetic flux density, and low magnetic anisotropy. The new material is a compound of iron, nitrogen and carbon, α‧-Fe8(NC), which has saturation flux density of 2.8  ±  0.15 T and magnetic anisotropy of 46 kJ m-3. The saturation flux density is 27% higher than pure iron, a widely used soft magnetic material. Soft magnetic materials are very important building blocks of motors, generators, inductors, transformers, sensors and write heads of hard disk. The new material will help in the miniaturization and efficiency increment of the next generation of electronic devices.

  2. Exchange coupling in hybrid anisotropy magnetic multilayers quantified by vector magnetometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison, C., E-mail: C.Morrison.2@warwick.ac.uk; Miles, J. J.; Thomson, T. [School of Computer Science, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Anh Nguyen, T. N. [Materials Physics, School of ICT, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Electrum 229, 164 40 Kista (Sweden); Spintronics Research Group, Laboratory for Nanotechnology (LNT), VNU-HCM, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam); Fang, Y.; Dumas, R. K. [Department of Physics, University of Gothenburg, 412 96 Gothenburg (Sweden); Åkerman, J. [Materials Physics, School of ICT, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Electrum 229, 164 40 Kista (Sweden); Department of Physics, University of Gothenburg, 412 96 Gothenburg (Sweden)

    2015-05-07

    Hybrid anisotropy thin film heterostructures, where layers with perpendicular and in-plane anisotropy are separated by a thin spacer, are novel materials for zero/low field spin torque oscillators and bit patterned media. Here, we report on magnetization reversal and exchange coupling in a archetypal Co/Pd (perpendicular)-NiFe (in-plane) hybrid anisotropy system studied using vector vibrating sample magnetometry. This technique allows us to quantify the magnetization reversal in each individual magnetic layer, and measure of the interlayer exchange as a function of non-magnetic spacer thickness. At large (>1 nm) spacer thicknesses Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida-like exchange dominates, with orange-peel coupling providing a significant contribution only for sub-nm spacer thickness.

  3. Magnetic anisotropies and rotational hysteresis in Ni81Fe19/Fe50Mn50 films: A study by torque magnetometry and anisotropic magnetoresistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, O. E.; de Siqueira, J. V.; Kern, P. R.; Garcia, W. J. S.; Beck, F.; Rigue, J. N.; Carara, M.

    2018-04-01

    Exchange bias properties of NiFe/FeMn thin films have been investigated through X-ray diffraction, hysteresis loops, angular measurements of anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR) and magnetic torque. As first predicted by Meiklejohn and Bean we found a decrease on the bias field as the NiFe layer thickness increases. However such reduction is not as strong as expected and it was attributed to the increase on the number of uncompensed antiferromagnetic spins resulting from the increase on the number of FeMn grains at the interface as the thickness of the NiFe layer is increased. The angular evolution of AMR and the magnetic torque were calculated and compared to the experimental ones using the minimization of the free magnetic energy and finding the magnetization equilibrium angle. The free energy, for each grain of the polycrystalline sample, is composed by the following terms: Zeeman, uniaxial, unidirectional and the rotatable energies. While from the AMR curves we obtain stable anisotropy fields independently on the measuring fields, from the torque curves we obtain increasing values of the uniaxial and rotatable fields, as the measuring field is increased. These results were attributed to the physical origin and sensitivity of the two different techniques. Magnetoresistance is mainly sensitive to the inner portion of the ferromagnetic layer, and the torque brings out information of the whole ferromagnetic layer including the interface of the layers. In this way, we believe that the increase in the uniaxial and rotatable values were due to an increase on the volume of the ferromagnetic layer, near the interfaces, which is made to rotate with the measuring field. Studying the rotational hysteresis by both techniques allows to separately obtain the contributions coming from the inner portion of ferromagnetic layer and from the interface.

  4. Recent advances in anisotropy of magnetic remanence: New software and practical examples

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chadima, Martin

    -, special issue (2012), s. 59-60 ISSN 1335-2806. [Castle meeting New Trends in Geomagnetism : Paleo, rock and environmental magnetism/13./. 17.06.2012-23.06.2012, Zvolen] Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : magnetic susceptibility * anisotropy * anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography http://gauss.savba.sk/GPIweb/conferences/Castle2012/abstrCastle.pdf

  5. Electronic and magnetic properties of Si substituted Fe{sub 3}Ge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shanavas, K. V., E-mail: kavungalvees@ornl.gov; McGuire, Michael A.; Parker, David S. [Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6056 (United States)

    2015-09-28

    Using first principles calculations, we studied the effect of Si substitution in the hexagonal Fe{sub 3}Ge. We find the low temperature magnetic anisotropy in this system to be planar and originating mostly from the spin-orbit coupling in Fe-d states. Reduction of the unitcell volume reduces the magnitude of in-plane magnetic anisotropy, eventually turning it positive which reorients the magnetic moments to the axial direction. Substituting Ge with the smaller Si ions also increases the anisotropy, potentially enhancing the region of stability of the axial magnetization, which is beneficial for magnetic applications such as permanent magnets. Our experimental measurements on samples of Fe{sub 3}Ge{sub 1−x}Si{sub x} confirm these predictions and show that substitution of about 6% of the Ge with Si increases by approximately 35 K the temperature range over which anisotropy is uniaxial.

  6. Magnetic anisotropy of nonmodulated Ni-Mn-Ga martensite revisited

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Heczko, Oleg; Straka, L.; Novák, Václav; Fähler, S.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 107, č. 9 (2010), 09A914/1-09A914/3 ISSN 0021-8979 Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) M100100913 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : magnetic anisotropy of non-modulated martensite * temperature dependence of anisotropy * Ni-Mn-Ga * adaptive martensite Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.064, year: 2010 http://jap.aip.org/resource/1/japiau/v107/i9/p09A914_s1

  7. Magnetic anisotropy and order parameter in nanostructured CoPt particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komogortsev, S. V.; Iskhakov, R. S.; Zimin, A. A.; Filatov, E. Yu.; Korenev, S. V.; Shubin, Yu. V.; Chizhik, N. A.; Yurkin, G. Yu.; Eremin, E. V.

    2013-10-01

    The correlation of magnetic anisotropy energy with order parameter in the crystallites of CoPt nanostructured particles prepared by thermal decomposition and further annealing has been studied by investigation of the approach magnetization to saturation curves and x-ray powder diffraction pattern profiles. It is shown that magnetic anisotropy energy value in partially ordered CoPt crystallite could be described as an intermediate case between two extremes, corresponding to either single or several c-domains of L10 phase in crystallite.

  8. Neutron depolarization study of static and dynamic magnetic properties of ferromagnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuesser, N.

    1986-01-01

    In this thesis neutron depolarization experiments are performed on amorphous and crystalline ferromagnetic materials. The subjects studied are concerned with 'domain structure in magnetically weak uniaxial amorphous ferromagnetic ribbons', 'static critical behaviour at the ferromagnetic-paramagnetic phase transition', 'small magnetic anisotropy in nickel near T c ', and 'magnetization reversal in conducting ferromagnets'. 87 refs.; 37 figs.; 3 tabs

  9. Magnetic anisotropy of thin sputtered MgB2 films on MgO substrates in high magnetic fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savio Fabretti

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the magnetic anisotropy ratio of thin sputtered polycrystalline MgB2 films on MgO substrates. Using high magnetic field measurements, we estimated an anisotropy ratio of 1.35 for T = 0 K with an upper critical field of 31.74 T in the parallel case and 23.5 T in the perpendicular case. Direct measurements of a magnetic-field sweep at 4.2 K show a linear behavior, confirmed by a linear fit for magnetic fields perpendicular to the film plane. Furthermore, we observed a change of up to 12% of the anisotropy ratio in dependence of the film thickness.

  10. Magnetization reversal in single molecule magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokacheva, Louisa

    2002-09-01

    I have studied the magnetization reversal in single molecule magnets (SMMs). SMMs are Van der Waals crystals, consisting of identical molecules containing transition metal ions, with high spin and large uniaxial magnetic anisotropy. They can be considered as ensembles of identical, iso-oriented nanomagnets. At high temperature, these materials behave as superparamagnets and their magnetization reversal occurs by thermal activation. At low temperature they become blocked, and their magnetic relaxation occurs via thermally assisted tunneling or pure quantum tunneling through the anisotropy barrier. We have conducted detailed experimental studies of the magnetization reversal in SMM material Mn12-acetate (Mn12) with S = 10. Low temperature measurements were conducted using micro-Hall effect magnetometry. We performed hysteresis and relaxation studies as a function of temperature, transverse field, and magnetization state of the sample. We identified magnetic sublevels that dominate the tunneling at a given field, temperature and magnetization. We observed a crossover between thermally assisted and pure quantum tunneling. The form of this crossover depends on the magnitude and direction of the applied field. This crossover is abrupt (first-order) and occurs in a narrow temperature interval (tunneling mechanisms in Mn12.

  11. Magnetic properties of amorphous Tb-Fe thin films with an artificially layered structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, N.

    1986-01-01

    An alternating terbium-iron (Tb-Fe) multilayer structure artificially made in amorphous Tb-Fe thin films gives rise to excellent magnetic properties of large perpendicular uniaxial anisotropy, large saturation magnetization, and large coercivity over a wide range of Tb composition in the films. The films are superior to amorphous Tb-Fe alloy thin films, especially when they are piled up with a monatomic layer of Tb and several atomic layers of Fe in an alternating fashion. Small-angle x-ray diffraction analysis confirmed the layering of monatomic layers of Tb and Fe, where the periodicity of the layers was found to be about 5.9 A. Direct evidence for an artificially layered structure was obtained by transmission electron microscopic and Auger electron spectroscopic observations. Together with magnetic measurements of hysteresis loops and torque curves, it has been concluded that the most important origin of the large magnetic uniaxial anisotropy can be attributed to the Tb-Fe pairs aligned perpendicular to the films

  12. Magnetic anisotropy and neutron scattering studies of some rare earth metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Day, R.

    1978-08-01

    The thesis is concerned with magnetic anisotropy of dysprosium and alloys of gadolinium: yttrium, and also neutron scattering studies of dysprosium. The experiments are discussed under the topic headings: magnetic anisotropy, rare earths, torque measurements, elastic neutron scattering, inelastic neutron scattering, dysprosium measurements, and results for the gadolinium: yttrium alloys. (U.K.)

  13. Structural changes in microferrogels cross-linked by magnetically anisotropic particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryzhkov, A.V., E-mail: ryzhkov.a@icmm.ru [Perm National Research Polytechnic University, Perm 614990 (Russian Federation); Institute of Continuous Media Mechanics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Ural Branch, Perm 614013 (Russian Federation); Raikher, Yu. L. [Institute of Continuous Media Mechanics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Ural Branch, Perm 614013 (Russian Federation)

    2017-06-01

    Chaining of magnetic nanoparticles in a microscopic ferrogel (MFG) due to interparticle interaction and external field is analyzed by the coarse-grained molecular dynamics. The embedded nanoparticles, unlike existing conventional models, are assumed to possess uniaxial magnetic anisotropy. By that, the consideration is brought closer to reality. Evolution of particle chains, both in length and straightness, is handled with the aid of “axial” radial distribution function that is sensitive to orientation of the aggregates. The effect of the particle magnetic anisotropy on the structural alterations as well as on volume changes of MFGs is demonstrated.

  14. Effect of uniaxial strain on the quantum critical phase of Sr{sub 3}Ru{sub 2}O{sub 7}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barber, Mark E.; Brodsky, Daniel O.; Mackenzie, Andrew P. [Scottish Universities Physics Alliance (SUPA), School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St. Andrews, St. Andrews KY16 9SS (United Kingdom); Max Planck Institute for Chemical Physics of Solids, Noethnitzer Strasse 40, Dresden 01187 (Germany); Hicks, Clifford W. [Max Planck Institute for Chemical Physics of Solids, Noethnitzer Strasse 40, Dresden 01187 (Germany); Perry, Robin [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3FD (United Kingdom)

    2016-07-01

    Sr{sub 3}Ru{sub 2}O{sub 7} has a metamagnetic quantum critical endpoint, which in highly pure samples is masked by a novel phase. This phase is isotropic in the absence of symmetry-breaking fields, but weak in-plane magnetic fields are well-known to induce strong resistive anisotropy, leading to speculation that the phase intrinsically breaks the tetragonal symmetry of the lattice. We have used uniaxial strain to break the symmetry of the lattice and have found a dramatic response: compression by 0.1%, for example, induces a resistive anisotropy of ∝ 2.5. I will discuss these results in the context of the underlying symmetry of the anomalous phase.

  15. Origin of perpendicular magnetic anisotropy of SmCo5 thin films with Cu underlayer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sayama, Junichi; Mizutani, Kazuki; Asahi, Toru; Ariake, Jun; Ouchi, Kazuhiro; Osaka, Tetsuya

    2006-01-01

    Effects of the Cu underlayer thickness and the addition of Cu to a Sm-Co layer on magnetic properties and microstructure of SmCo 5 thin films exhibiting perpendicular magnetic anisotropy were studied. The origin of the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy was discussed from these experimental results. A thick Cu underlayer of more than 100 nm brought about high perpendicular magnetic anisotropy leading to the squareness ratio equal to unity. The Cu addition enhanced the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy and reduced the Cu underlayer thickness required to obtain the squareness ratio of unity. X-ray diffractometry showed that the crystalline orientation of the Sm-Co layer did not correlate with that of the Cu underlayer. Auger electron spectroscopy revealed that Cu atoms were diffused up to the Sm-Co layer from the Cu underlayer. From the results, Cu atoms existing in the Sm-Co layer were suggested to be strongly related with an appearance of the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy by introducing the Cu underlayer

  16. Spin waves in terbium. III. Magnetic anisotropy at zero wave vector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houmann, Jens Christian Gylden; Jensen, J.; Touborg, P.

    1975-01-01

    The energy gap at zero wave vector in the spin-wave dispersion relation of ferromagnetic. Tb has been studied by inelastic neutron scattering. The energy was measured as a function of temperature and applied magnetic field, and the dynamic anisotropy parameters were deduced from the results...... the effects of zero-point deviations from the fully aligned ground state, and we tentatively propose polarization-dependent two-ion couplings as their origin........ The axial anisotropy is found to depend sensitively on the orientation of the magnetic moments in the basal plane. This behavior is shown to be a convincing indication of considerable two-ion contributions to the magnetic anisotropy at zero wave vector. With the exception of the sixfold basal...

  17. Experimental and numerical study on mechanical properties of aluminum alloy under uniaxial tensile test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Daghfas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective is to model the behavior of 7075 aluminum alloy and built an experimental database to identify the model parameters. The first part of the paper presents an experimental database on 7075 aluminum alloy. Thus, uniaxial tensile tests are carried in three loading directions relative to the rolling direction, knowing that the fatigue of aircraft structures is traditionally managed based on the assumption of uniaxial loads. From experimental database, the mechanical properties are extracted, particularly the various fractures owing to pronounced anisotropy relating to material. In second part, plastic anisotropy is then modeled using the identification strategy which depends on yield criteria, hardening law and evolution law. In third part, a comparison with experimental data shows that behavior model can successfully describe the anisotropy of the Lankford coefficient.

  18. Magnetic anisotropy in rare-earth metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mourits; Bjerrum Møller, Hans; Lindgård, Per-Anker

    1970-01-01

    The magnetic field dependence of the energy of long- wavelength magnons in Tb-10%Ho has been studied by inelastic neutron scattering. The results agree with the `frozen-lattice' model, provided that the second-order magnetoelastic effect is taken into account. The planar anisotropy is almost...

  19. Three-dimensional spin mapping of antiferromagnetic nanopyramids having spatially alternating surface anisotropy at room temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kangkang; Smith, Arthur R

    2012-11-14

    Antiferromagnets play a key role in modern spintronic devices owing to their ability to modify the switching behavior of adjacent ferromagnets via the exchange bias effect. Consequently, detailed measurements of the spin structure at antiferromagnetic interfaces and surfaces are highly desirable, not only for advancing technologies but also for enabling new insights into the underlying physics. Here using spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy at room-temperature, we reveal in three-dimensions an orthogonal spin structure on antiferromagnetic compound nanopyramids. Contrary to expected uniaxial anisotropy based on bulk properties, the atomic terraces are found to have alternating in-plane and out-of-plane magnetic anisotropies. The observed layer-wise alternation in anisotropy could have strong influences on future nanoscale spintronic applications.

  20. Structure of nanoparticles in transformer oil-based magnetic fluids, anisotropy of acoustic attenuation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kúdelčík, Jozef; Bury, Peter; Kopčanský, Peter; Timko, Milan

    2015-01-01

    The anisotropy of acoustic attenuation in transformer oil-based magnetic fluids upon the external magnetic field was studied to discover the structure of nanoparticles. When a magnetic field is increased, the interaction between the external magnetic field and the magnetic moments of the nanoparticles leads to the aggregation of magnetic nanoparticles and following clusters formation. However, the temperature of magnetic fluids and the concentration of nanoparticles also have very important influence on the structural changes. The measurement of the dependence of the acoustic attenuation on the angle between the magnetic field direction and acoustic wave vector (anisotropy) can give the useful information about the structure of magnetic nanoparticles formations. In the present, the results of anisotropy measurements of the transformer oil-based magnetic fluids are described and using appropriate theory the basic parameters of clusters are calculated. On the basis of the performed calculations, the proportion of the acoustic wave energy used for excitation of the translational and rotational degrees of freedom was also established. - Highlights: • Nanoparticles formation in transformer oil-based magnetic fluids was investigated. • The anisotropy acoustic spectroscopy as the method of investigation was used. • The external conditions on the structure of magnetic fluids were studied. • The structure parameters using suitable theoretical model were determined

  1. Structure of nanoparticles in transformer oil-based magnetic fluids, anisotropy of acoustic attenuation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kúdelčík, Jozef, E-mail: kudelcik@fyzika.uniza.sk [Department of Physics, University of Žilina, Univerzitná 1, 010 01 Žilina (Slovakia); Bury, Peter [Department of Physics, University of Žilina, Univerzitná 1, 010 01 Žilina (Slovakia); Kopčanský, Peter; Timko, Milan [Department of Magnetism, IEP SAS, Watsonova 47, 040 01 Košice (Slovakia)

    2015-08-15

    The anisotropy of acoustic attenuation in transformer oil-based magnetic fluids upon the external magnetic field was studied to discover the structure of nanoparticles. When a magnetic field is increased, the interaction between the external magnetic field and the magnetic moments of the nanoparticles leads to the aggregation of magnetic nanoparticles and following clusters formation. However, the temperature of magnetic fluids and the concentration of nanoparticles also have very important influence on the structural changes. The measurement of the dependence of the acoustic attenuation on the angle between the magnetic field direction and acoustic wave vector (anisotropy) can give the useful information about the structure of magnetic nanoparticles formations. In the present, the results of anisotropy measurements of the transformer oil-based magnetic fluids are described and using appropriate theory the basic parameters of clusters are calculated. On the basis of the performed calculations, the proportion of the acoustic wave energy used for excitation of the translational and rotational degrees of freedom was also established. - Highlights: • Nanoparticles formation in transformer oil-based magnetic fluids was investigated. • The anisotropy acoustic spectroscopy as the method of investigation was used. • The external conditions on the structure of magnetic fluids were studied. • The structure parameters using suitable theoretical model were determined.

  2. Current distribution and giant magnetoimpedance in composite wires with helical magnetic anisotropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buznikov, N.A.; Antonov, A.S.; Granovsky, A.B.; Kim, C.G.; Kim, C.O.; Li, X.P.; Yoon, S.S.

    2006-01-01

    The giant magnetoimpedance effect in composite wires consisting of a non-magnetic inner core and soft magnetic shell is studied theoretically. It is assumed that the magnetic shell has a helical anisotropy. The current and field distributions in the composite wire are found by means of a simultaneous solution of Maxwell equations and the Landau-Lifshitz equation. The expressions for the diagonal and off-diagonal impedance are obtained for low and high frequencies. The dependences of the impedance on the anisotropy axis angle and the shell thickness are analyzed. Maximum field sensitivity is shown to correspond to the case of the circular anisotropy in the magnetic shell. It is demonstrated that the optimum shell thickness to obtain maximum impedance ratio is equal to the effective skin depth in the magnetic material

  3. Current distribution and giant magnetoimpedance in composite wires with helical magnetic anisotropy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buznikov, N.A. [Institute for Theoretical and Applied Electrodynamics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 125412 (Russian Federation) and Research Center for Advanced Magnetic Materials, Chungnam National University, Daeduk Science Town, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: n_buznikov@mail.ru; Antonov, A.S. [Institute for Theoretical and Applied Electrodynamics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 125412 (Russian Federation); Granovsky, A.B. [Faculty of Physics, M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow 119992 (Russian Federation); Kim, C.G. [Research Center for Advanced Magnetic Materials, Chungnam National University, Daeduk Science Town, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: cgkim@cnu.ac.kr; Kim, C.O. [Research Center for Advanced Magnetic Materials, Chungnam National University, Daeduk Science Town, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Li, X.P. [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Division of Bioengineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 119260 (Singapore); Yoon, S.S. [Research Center for Advanced Magnetic Materials, Chungnam National University, Daeduk Science Town, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Physics, Andong National University, Andong 760-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-01-15

    The giant magnetoimpedance effect in composite wires consisting of a non-magnetic inner core and soft magnetic shell is studied theoretically. It is assumed that the magnetic shell has a helical anisotropy. The current and field distributions in the composite wire are found by means of a simultaneous solution of Maxwell equations and the Landau-Lifshitz equation. The expressions for the diagonal and off-diagonal impedance are obtained for low and high frequencies. The dependences of the impedance on the anisotropy axis angle and the shell thickness are analyzed. Maximum field sensitivity is shown to correspond to the case of the circular anisotropy in the magnetic shell. It is demonstrated that the optimum shell thickness to obtain maximum impedance ratio is equal to the effective skin depth in the magnetic material.

  4. Effects of anisotropies in turbulent magnetic diffusion in mean-field solar dynamo models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pipin, V. V. [Institute of Solar-Terrestrial Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Irkutsk 664033 (Russian Federation); Kosovichev, A. G. [Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)

    2014-04-10

    We study how anisotropies of turbulent diffusion affect the evolution of large-scale magnetic fields and the dynamo process on the Sun. The effect of anisotropy is calculated in a mean-field magnetohydrodynamics framework assuming that triple correlations provide relaxation to the turbulent electromotive force (so-called the 'minimal τ-approximation'). We examine two types of mean-field dynamo models: the well-known benchmark flux-transport model and a distributed-dynamo model with a subsurface rotational shear layer. For both models, we investigate effects of the double- and triple-cell meridional circulation, recently suggested by helioseismology and numerical simulations. To characterize the anisotropy effects, we introduce a parameter of anisotropy as a ratio of the radial and horizontal intensities of turbulent mixing. It is found that the anisotropy affects the distribution of magnetic fields inside the convection zone. The concentration of the magnetic flux near the bottom and top boundaries of the convection zone is greater when the anisotropy is stronger. It is shown that the critical dynamo number and the dynamo period approach to constant values for large values of the anisotropy parameter. The anisotropy reduces the overlap of toroidal magnetic fields generated in subsequent dynamo cycles, in the time-latitude 'butterfly' diagram. If we assume that sunspots are formed in the vicinity of the subsurface shear layer, then the distributed dynamo model with the anisotropic diffusivity satisfies the observational constraints from helioseismology and is consistent with the value of effective turbulent diffusion estimated from the dynamics of surface magnetic fields.

  5. Enhancement in the interfacial perpendicular magnetic anisotropy and the voltage-controlled magnetic anisotropy by heavy metal doping at the Fe/MgO interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takayuki Nozaki

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the influence of heavy metal doping at the Fe/MgO interface on the interfacial perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA and the voltage-controlled magnetic anisotropy (VCMA in magnetic tunnel junctions prepared by sputtering-based deposition. The interfacial PMA was increased by tungsten doping and a maximum intrinsic interfacial PMA energy, Ki,0 of 2.0 mJ/m2 was obtained. Ir doping led to a large increase in the VCMA coefficient by a factor of 4.7 compared with that for the standard Fe/MgO interface. The developed technique provides an effective approach to enhancing the interfacial PMA and VCMA properties in the development of voltage-controlled spintronic devices.

  6. Magnetic anisotropy of (Sm, Y)2Fe17Ny compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Y.; Tegus, O.; Li, Q.A.; Tang, N.; Yu, M.J.; Zhao, R.W.; Kuang, J.P.; Yang, F.M.; Zhou, G.F.; Li, X.; Boer, F.R. de

    1992-01-01

    A study of the crystal structure and the magnetic properties, especially the magnetocrystalline anisotropy of (Sm 1-x Y x ) 2 Fe 17 N y compounds (x = 0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, and 1.0, 2 2 Zn 17 - or Th 2 Ni 17 -type structure as the original compounds. The Curie temperatures decrease from 750 to 700 K as x increases from 0 to 1. The anisotropy field decreases linearly with increasing yttrium content. The spin reorientation has been investigated by means of high field magnetization measurements, AC-susceptibility measurements and thermomagnetic analysis, combined with X-ray diffraction. The anisotropy constants K 1 , K 2 and K 3 were derived by a phenomenological analysis, using magnetization curves measured in high fields, applied perpendicular to the alignment direction of the powder samples. A tentative spin phase diagram of the series is presented. (orig.)

  7. Soft Magnetic Properties of High-Entropy Fe-Co-Ni-Cr-Al-Si Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Chung Lin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Soft magnetic properties of Fe-Co-Ni-Al-Cr-Si thin films were studied. As-deposited Fe-Co-Ni-Al-Cr-Si nano-grained thin films showing no magnetic anisotropy were subjected to field-annealing at different temperatures to induce magnetic anisotropy. Optimized magnetic and electrical properties of Fe-Co-Ni-Al-Cr-Si films annealed at 200 °C are saturation magnetization 9.13 × 105 A/m, coercivity 79.6 A/m, out-of-plane uniaxial anisotropy field 1.59 × 103 A/m, and electrical resistivity 3.75 μΩ·m. Based on these excellent properties, we employed such films to fabricate magnetic thin film inductor. The performance of the high entropy alloy thin film inductors is superior to that of air core inductor.

  8. Magnetic hysteresis scaling in thulium: Implication of irreversibility-related scaling for soliton wall motion in an Ising system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Satoru

    2013-01-01

    We report low-field magnetic hysteresis scaling in thulium with strong uniaxial anisotropy. A power-law hysteresis scaling with an exponent of 1.13±0.02 is found between hysteresis loss and remanent flux density of minor loops in the low-temperature ferrimagnetic phase. This exponent value is slightly lower than 1.25–1.4 observed previously for ferromagnets and helimagnets. Unlike spiral and/or Bloch walls with a finite transition width, typical for Dy, Tb, and Ho with planar anisotropy, a soliton wall with a sudden phase shift between neighboring domains may dominate in Tm due to its Ising-like character. The observations imply the presence of universality class of hysteresis scaling that depends on the type of magnetic anisotropy. - Highlights: ► We observe magnetic hysteresis scaling in thulium with a power law exponent of 1.13. ► Irreversibility of soliton walls dominates owing to its strong uniaxial anisotropy. ► The exponent is lower than those for Bloch wall and spiral wall. ► The results imply the presence of universality class that depends on the wall type.

  9. Flow-induced elastic anisotropy of metallic glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Y.H.; Concustell, A.; Carpenter, M.A.; Qiao, J.C.; Rayment, A.W.; Greer, A.L.

    2016-01-01

    As-cast bulk metallic glasses are isotropic, but anisotropy can be induced by thermomechanical treatments. For example, the diffraction halo in the structure function S(Q) observed in transmission becomes elliptical (rather than circular) after creep in uniaxial tension or compression. Published studies associate this with frozen-in anelastic strain and bond-orientational anisotropy. Results so far are inconsistent on whether viscoplastic flow of metallic glasses can induce anisotropy. Preliminary diffraction data suggest that the anisotropy, if any, is very low, while measurements of the elastic properties suggest that there is induced anisotropy, opposite in sign to that due to anelastic strain. We study three bulk metallic glasses, Ce 65 Al 10 Cu 20 Co 5 , La 55 Ni 10 Al 35 , and Pd 40 Ni 30 Cu 10 P 20 . By using resonant ultrasound spectroscopy to determine the full elasticity tensor, the effects of relaxation and rejuvenation can be reliably separated from uniaxial anisotropy (of either sign). The effects of viscoplastic flow in tension are reported for the first time. We find that viscoplastic flow of bulk metallic glasses, particularly in tension, can induce significant anisotropy that is distinct from that associated with frozen-in anelastic strain. The conditions for inducing such anisotropy are explored in terms of the Weissenberg number (ratio of relaxation times for primary relaxation and for shear strain rate). There is a clear need for further work to characterize the structural origins of flow-induced anisotropy and to explore the prospects for improved mechanical and other properties through induced anisotropy.

  10. Effect of external magnetic effect of external magnetic field annealing on magnetic texture of Mo containing NANOPERM-type alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanuch, T.; Miglierini, M.; Greneche, J.-M.; Skorvanek, I.; Schaaf, P.

    2006-01-01

    External magnetic fields are known to modify microstructure of materials during their solidification and/or crystallisation. In an external magnetic field strong particle to particle interactions lead to a highly anisotropic microstructure. If the alloy is in ferromagnetic state, stronger particle magnetization - external field interactions and also particle-to-particle couplings are expected. To reveal the magnetic texture, originally amorphous precursors of Fe 76 Mo 8 Cu 1 B 15 were annealed at 510 grad C and 550 grad C in an external longitudinal and transverse magnetic field of 0.025 T and 0.8 T, respectively. Magnetic measurements were applied to follow the changes of saturation magnetization and coercive force. Moessbauer experiments were performed at room and liquid nitrogen temperature to provide an information about orientation of with respect to an external magnetic field. The obtained results were compared with those achieved on zero field annealed samples. We can conclude that such a low external magnetic fields applied during crystallisation cause no significant changes in the magnetic microstructural anisotropy. Afterwards, magneto-optical Kerr effect (MOKE) was applied to investigate possible changes at the surface of the ribbon as a function of annealing temperature and applied magnetic field. We observed combination of uniaxial anisotropy, which originates from the shape anisotropy, and four-fold anisotropy, which is a contribution from crystallites of nanometre size embedded in the residual amorphous matrix. We expect more pronounced effects on cobalt substituted (Fe1 -x Co x ) 76 Mo 8 Cu 1 B 15 alloy. (authors)

  11. Nanoconstriction spin-Hall oscillator with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divinskiy, B.; Demidov, V. E.; Kozhanov, A.; Rinkevich, A. B.; Demokritov, S. O.; Urazhdin, S.

    2017-07-01

    We experimentally study spin-Hall nano-oscillators based on [Co/Ni] multilayers with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. We show that these devices exhibit single-frequency auto-oscillations at current densities comparable to those for in-plane magnetized oscillators. The demonstrated oscillators exhibit large magnetization precession amplitudes, and their oscillation frequency is highly tunable by the electric current. These features make them promising for applications in high-speed integrated microwave circuits.

  12. Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction and magnetic anisotropies in Uranium compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandratskii, L. M.

    2018-05-01

    We report on the first-principles study of complex noncollinear magnetic structures in Uranium compounds. We contrast two cases. The first is the periodic magnetic structure of U2Pd2In with exactly orthogonal atomic moments, the second is an incommensurate plane spiral structure of UPtGe where the angle between atomic moments of nearest neighbors is also close to 90°. We demonstrate that the hierarchy of magnetic interactions leading to the formation of the magnetic structure is opposite in the two cases. In U2Pd2In, the magnetic anisotropy plays the leading role, followed by the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (DMI) interaction specifying the chirality of the structure. Here, the interatomic exchange interaction does not play important role. In UPtGe the hierarchy of the interactions is opposite. The leading interaction is the interatomic exchange interaction responsible for the formation of the incommensurate spiral structure followed by the DMI responsible for the selected chirality of the helix. The magnetic anisotropy is very weak that is a prerequisite for keeping the distortion of the helical structure weak.

  13. Influence of magnetic anisotropy on the superferromagnetic ordering in nanocomposites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørup, Steen; Christiansen, Gunnar Dan

    1993-01-01

    Magnetic interaction between ultrafine particles may result in superferromagnetism, i.e., ordering of the magnetic moments of particles which would be superparamagnetic if they were noninteracting. In this article we discuss the influence of the magnetic anisotropy on the temperature dependence o...

  14. Controlling the competing magnetic anisotropy energies in FineMET amorphous thin films with ultra-soft magnetic properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ansar Masood

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Thickness dependent competing magnetic anisotropy energies were investigated to explore the global magnetic behaviours of FineMET amorphous thin films. A dominant perpendicular magnetization component in the as-deposited state of thinner films was observed due to high magnetoelastic anisotropy energy which arises from stresses induced at the substrate-film interface. This perpendicular magnetization component decreases with increasing film thickness. Thermal annealing at elevated temperature revealed a significant influence on the magnetization state of the FineMET thin films and controlled annealing steps leads to ultra-soft magnetic properties, making these thin films alloys ideal for a wide range of applications.

  15. Preparation of ring-shaped composite bonded magnets with continuously controlled anisotropy distribution for internal space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, F; Yamada, O; Ohya, S; Kobayashi, O; Nakano, M; Fukunaga, H

    2010-01-01

    We have already reported an advanced method for producing a radially-anisotropic rare earth composite bonded magnet with continuously controlled direction of anisotropy. The magnet has been applied to an inner rotor as a practical usage. In this study, the outstanding preparation method was adopted into the preparation of a magnet applied for an outer rotor. An optimized condition of extrusion and compaction at an elevated temperature could be obtained. In addition, a low pressure configuration to the ring-shaped magnet from plural preformed magnets was carried out, which had specific distribution of magnetic anisotropy for internal space for a small motor, by using self recoverability based on the viscous deformation without an alignment field. No deterioration of magnetic properties was detected through the process even if those magnets were miniaturized. Resultantly, the (BH) max of a ring-shaped magnet with the continuously controlled direction of magnetic anisotropy attained the value of 186 kJ/m 3 , and we obtained sine-wave magnetic anisotropy distribution, even if those magnets were miniaturized.

  16. Tailoring of in-plane magnetic anisotropy in polycrystalline cobalt thin films by external stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Dileep, E-mail: dkumar@csr.res.in [UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientic Research, Khandwa Road, Indore 452001 (India); Singh, Sadhana [UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientic Research, Khandwa Road, Indore 452001 (India); Vishawakarma, Pramod [School of Nanotechnology, RGPV, Bhopal 462036 (India); Dev, Arun Singh; Reddy, V.R. [UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientic Research, Khandwa Road, Indore 452001 (India); Gupta, Ajay [Amity Center for Spintronic Materials, Amity University, Sector 125, Noida 201303 (India)

    2016-11-15

    Polycrystalline Co films of nominal thickness ~180 Å were deposited on intentionally curved Si substrates. Tensile and compressive stresses of 100 MPa and 150 MPa were induced in the films by relieving the curvature. It has been found that, within the elastic limit, presence of stress leads to an in-plane magnetic anisotropy in the film and its strength increases with increasing stress. Easy axis of magnetization in the films is found to be parallel/ transverse to the compressive /tensile stresses respectively. The origin of magnetic anisotropy in the stressed films is understood in terms of magneto- elastic coupling, where the stress try to align the magnetic moments in order to minimize the magneto-elastic as well as anisotropy energy. Tensile stress is also found to be responsible for the surface smoothening of the films, which is attributed to the movement of the atoms associated with the applied stress. The present work provides a possible way to tailor the magnetic anisotropy and its direction in polycrystalline and amorphous films using external stress. - Highlights: • Tensile and compressive stresses were induced in Co films by removing the bending force from the substrates after film deposition. • Controlled external mechanical stress is found to be responsible for magnetic anisotropies in amorphous and polycrystalline thin films, where crystalline anisotropy is absent. • Tensile stress leads to surface smoothening of the polycrystalline Co films.

  17. Banana regime pressure anisotropy in a bumpy cylinder magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Perciante, A.L.; Callen, J.D.; Shaing, K.C.; Hegna, C.C.

    2006-01-01

    The pressure anisotropy is calculated for a plasma in a bumpy cylindrical magnetic field in the low collisionality (banana) regime for small magnetic-field modulations (ε≡ΔB/2B parallel is then calculated and is shown to exceed the flux-surface-averaged parallel viscous force parallel > by a factor of O(1/ε). A high-frequency limit (ω>>ν) for the pressure anisotropy is also determined and the calculation is then extended to include the full frequency dependence by using an expansion in Cordey eigenfunctions

  18. Light-induced changes of cubic and uniaxial magnetic aniosotropy in a magnet doped by strongly anisotropic ions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zaytseva, I.; Stupakiewicz, A.; Maziewski, A.; Zablotskyy, Vitaliy A.

    254-255, - (2003), s. 118-120 ISSN 0304-8853. [Soft Magnetic Material Conference ( SMM 15). Bilbao, 05.09.2001-07.09.2001] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : photomagnetic effects * light-induced anisotropy * garnets Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.910, year: 2003

  19. Magnetic ground states in nanocuboids of cubic magnetocrystalline anisotropy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonilla, F.J., E-mail: fbonilla@cicenergigune.com; Lacroix, L.-M.; Blon, T., E-mail: thomas.blon@insa-toulouse.fr

    2017-04-15

    Flower and easy-axis vortex states are well-known magnetic configurations that can be stabilized in small particles. However, <111> vortex (V<111>), i.e. a vortex state with its core axis along the hard-axis direction, has been recently evidenced as a stable configuration in Fe nanocubes of intermediate sizes in the flower/vortex transition. In this context, we present here extensive micromagnetic simulations to determine the different magnetic ground states in ferromagnetic nanocuboids exhibiting cubic magnetocrystalline anisotropy (MCA). Focusing our study in the single-domain/multidomain size range (10–50 nm), we showed that V<111> is only stable in nanocuboids exhibiting peculiar features, such as a specific size, shape and magnetic environment, contrarily to the classical flower and easy-axis vortex states. Thus, to track experimentally these V<111> states, one should focused on (i) nanocuboids exhibiting a nearly perfect cubic shape (size distorsion <12%) made of (ii) a material which combines a zero or positive MCA and a high saturation magnetization, such as Fe or FeCo; and (iii) a low magnetic field environment, V<111> being only observed in virgin or remanent states. - Highlights: • The <111> vortex is numerically determined in nanocubes of cubic anisotropy. • It constitutes an intermediate state in the single-domain limit. • Such a vortex can only be stabilized in perfect or slightly deformed nanocuboids. • It exists in nanocuboids made of materials with zero or positive cubic anisotropy. • The associated magnetization reversal is described by a rotation of the vortex axis.

  20. Anisotropy of magnetic properties in 2D arrays of permalloy antidots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolmychek, I.A., E-mail: irisha@shg.ru [Moscow State University, 119991 GSP-1, Leninskie Gory, Moscow (Russian Federation); Krutyanskiy, V.L.; Gusev, K.S.; Murzina, T.V. [Moscow State University, 119991 GSP-1, Leninskie Gory, Moscow (Russian Federation); Tahir, N.; Kurant, Z.; Maziewski, A. [Department of Physics, University of Bialystok (Poland); Ding, J.; Adeyeye, A.O. [Department of Electrical Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore (Singapore)

    2016-12-15

    Anisotropy of linear and nonlinear magnetooptical (MO) effects in a regular array of Py antidots is studied by means of the MO Kerr effect at the fundamental and second harmonic wavelengths. We have demonstrated that the value of the MO effect, coercivity, and magnetization distribution depend substantially on the azimuthal orientation of the antidots array relatively to the external magnetic field. - Highlights: • The results from the anisotropy of Py antidots are presented. • The hard magnetization axis is oriented along the side of the antidot square lattice. • The value of the saturated LMOKE effect is isotropic. • The maximum of the SHG magnetic contrast was observed along easy axis.

  1. Magnetic stability in exchange-spring and exchange bias systems after multiple switching cycles.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, J. S.; Inomata, A.; You, C.-Y.; Pearson, J. E.; Bader, S. D.

    2001-06-01

    We have studied the magnetic stability in exchange bias and exchange spring systems prepared via epitaxial sputter deposition. The two interfacial exchange coupled systems, Fe/Cr(211) double superlattices consisting of a ferromagnetic and an antiferromagnetic Fe/Cr superlattice that are exchange coupled through a Cr spacer, and Sin-Co/Fe exchange-spring bilayer structures with ferromagnetically coupled hard Sin-Co layer and soft Fe layer, were epitaxially grown on suitably prepared Cr buffer layers to give rise to different microstructure and magnetic anisotropy. The magnetic stability was investigated using the magneto-optic Kerr effect during repeated reversal of the soft layer magnetization by field cycling up to 10{sup 7} times. For uniaxial Fe/Cr exchange biased double superlattices and exchange spring bilayers with uniaxial Sin-Co, small but rapid initial decay in the exchange bias field HE and in the remanent magnetization is observed. However, the exchange spring bilayers with biaxial and random in-plane anisotropy in the Sin-Co layer shows gradual decay in H{sub E} and without large reduction of the magnetization. The different decay behaviors are attributed to the different microstructure and spin configuration of the pinning layers.

  2. Spin structure factors of Heisenberg spin chain in the presence of anisotropy and magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rezania, H., E-mail: rezania.hamed@gmail.com

    2017-02-01

    We have theoretically studied the spin structure factors of spin chain in the presence of longitudinal field and transverse anisotropy. The possible effects of easy axis magnetization are investigated in terms of anisotropy in the Heisenberg interactions. This anisotropy is considered for exchange coupling constants perpendicular to magnetic field direction. The original spin model hamiltonian is mapped to a bosonic model via a hard core bosonic transformation where an infinite hard core repulsion is imposed to constrain one boson occupation per site. Using Green's function approach, the energy spectrum of quasiparticle excitation has been obtained. The spectrum of the bosonic gas has been implemented in order to obtain two particle propagator which corresponds to spin structure factor of original Heisenberg chain model Hamiltonian. The results show the position of peak in the longitudinal structure factor at fixed value for anisotropy moves to higher frequency with magnetic field. Also the intensity of dynamical structure factor decreases with magnetic field. A small dependence of longitudinal dynamical spin structure factor on the anisotropy is observed for fixed value of magnetic field. Our results show longitudinal static structure factor is found to be monotonically increasing with magnetic field due to increase of spins aligning along magnetic field. Furthermore the dispersion behaviors of static longitudinal and transverse structure factors for different magnetic fields and anisotropy parameters are addressed. - Highlights: • Theoretical calculation of spin structure factors of Heisenberg chain. • The investigation of the effect of anisotropy spin structure factors of Heisenberg chain. • The investigation of the effect of magnetic field on spin structure factors of Heisenberg chain.

  3. Spin structure factors of Heisenberg spin chain in the presence of anisotropy and magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezania, H.

    2017-01-01

    We have theoretically studied the spin structure factors of spin chain in the presence of longitudinal field and transverse anisotropy. The possible effects of easy axis magnetization are investigated in terms of anisotropy in the Heisenberg interactions. This anisotropy is considered for exchange coupling constants perpendicular to magnetic field direction. The original spin model hamiltonian is mapped to a bosonic model via a hard core bosonic transformation where an infinite hard core repulsion is imposed to constrain one boson occupation per site. Using Green's function approach, the energy spectrum of quasiparticle excitation has been obtained. The spectrum of the bosonic gas has been implemented in order to obtain two particle propagator which corresponds to spin structure factor of original Heisenberg chain model Hamiltonian. The results show the position of peak in the longitudinal structure factor at fixed value for anisotropy moves to higher frequency with magnetic field. Also the intensity of dynamical structure factor decreases with magnetic field. A small dependence of longitudinal dynamical spin structure factor on the anisotropy is observed for fixed value of magnetic field. Our results show longitudinal static structure factor is found to be monotonically increasing with magnetic field due to increase of spins aligning along magnetic field. Furthermore the dispersion behaviors of static longitudinal and transverse structure factors for different magnetic fields and anisotropy parameters are addressed. - Highlights: • Theoretical calculation of spin structure factors of Heisenberg chain. • The investigation of the effect of anisotropy spin structure factors of Heisenberg chain. • The investigation of the effect of magnetic field on spin structure factors of Heisenberg chain.

  4. Development of a tensile-stress-induced anisotropy in amorphous magnetic thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandal, K.; Vazquez, M.; Garcia, D.; Castano, F.J.; Prados, C.; Hernando, A.

    2000-01-01

    Magnetic anisotropy was induced in positive magnetostrictive Fe 80 B 20 and negative magnetostrictive Co 75 Si 15 B 10 thin films by developing a tensile stress within the samples. The films were grown on the concave surfaces of mechanically bowed glass substrates. On releasing the substrates from the substrate holders, a tensile stress was developed within the samples that modified the domain structure. As a result of it, a magnetic easy axis parallel to the direction of the stress was induced in FeB sample whereas in CoSiB sample the induced easy axis was perpendicular to the direction of the developed stress. To produce magnetic multilayers with crossed anisotropy, FeB/CoSiB bilayers and FeB/Cu/CoSiB trilayers were grown on bowed substrates. The study of magnetic properties of the multilayers indicates the development of crossed anisotropy within them, particularly when the magnetic layers are separated by a nonmagnetic Cu layer

  5. Monte Carlo studies of two-dimensional random-anisotropy magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denholm, D. R.; Sluckin, T. J.

    1993-07-01

    We have carried out a systematic set of Monte Carlo simulations of the Harris-Plischke-Zuckermann lattice model of random magnetic anisotropy on a two-dimensional square lattice, using the classical Metropolis algorithm. We have considered varying temperature T, external magnetic field H (both in the reproducible and irreproducible limits), time scale of the simulation τ in Monte Carlo steps and anisotropy ratio D/J. In the absence of randomness this model reduces to the XY model in two dimensions, which possesses the familiar Kosterlitz-Thouless low-temperature phase with algebraic but no long-range order. In the presence of random anisotropy we find evidence of a low-temperature phase with some disordered features, which might be identified with a spin-glass phase. The low-temperature Kosterlitz-Thouless phase survives at intermediate temperatures for low randomness, but is no longer present for large D/J. We have also studied the high-H approach to perfect order, for which there are theoretical predictions due to Chudnovsky.

  6. Tunnel Junction with Perpendicular Magnetic Anisotropy: Status and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengxing Wang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ, which arises from emerging spintronics, has the potential to become the basic component of novel memory, logic circuits, and other applications. Particularly since the first demonstration of current induced magnetization switching in MTJ, spin transfer torque magnetic random access memory (STT-MRAM has sparked a huge interest thanks to its non-volatility, fast access speed, and infinite endurance. However, along with the advanced nodes scaling, MTJ with in-plane magnetic anisotropy suffers from modest thermal stability, high power consumption, and manufactural challenges. To address these concerns, focus of research has converted to the preferable perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA based MTJ, whereas a number of conditions still have to be met before its practical application. This paper overviews the principles of PMA and STT, where relevant issues are preliminarily discussed. Centering on the interfacial PMA in CoFeB/MgO system, we present the fundamentals and latest progress in the engineering, material, and structural points of view. The last part illustrates potential investigations and applications with regard to MTJ with interfacial PMA.

  7. Phase formation and magnetic properties of YFe12-xNbx (x=0.70-0.90) compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuquan, B.; Wang, J.L.; Tegus, O.; Dagula, W.; Tang, N.; Yang, F.M.; Wu, G.H.; Brueck, E.; Boer, F.R. de; Buschow, K.H.J.

    2005-01-01

    The phase formation and the magnetic properties of YFe 12-x Nb x (x=0.70-0.90) compounds have been investigated by means of X-ray diffraction and magnetization measurements. The powder X-ray diffraction patterns show that all compounds investigated crystallize single phase in the tetragonal ThMn 12 -type of structure. The lattice parameters and the unit-cell volume increase slightly with increasing Nb content, but the Curie temperature does not change. The X-ray-diffraction patterns of aligned powders of the samples show that all the compounds investigated have uniaxial anisotropy at room temperature. At 1.5K, the spontaneous magnetization, the anisotropy field and the anisotropy constant K 1 decrease with increasing Nb content

  8. Tailoring of magnetic anisotropy of Fe-rich microwires by stress induced anisotropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhukov, A.; Zhukova, V.; Larin, V.; Gonzalez, J.

    2006-01-01

    We report on tailoring of magnetic properties and GMI of Fe 69 B 12 Si 14 C 5 glass-coated microwires by stress annealing. The induced magnetic anisotropy field depend on temperature and time of annealing and applied stress. At certain conditions considerable GMI effect (up to 65%) has been achieved. Application of the tensile stress drastically affects the shape of the hysteresis loop of stress-annealed sample and its GMI effect. In this way the shape of the hysteresis loop and GMI effect can by tailored by controllable way

  9. Novel surface anisotropy term in the FMR spectra of amorphous microwires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutowski, M.W.; Zuberek, R.; Zhukov, A.

    2004-01-01

    Some recent publications on ferromagnetic resonance in amorphous wires mention presumably a new kind of anisotropy, called there circumferential anisotropy, as an explanation of various observed spectral features. In this paper, we argue that there is no special reason to speak of the new kind of anisotropy, since the observed spectra can be well described in terms of more traditional uniaxial and surface anisotropies alone

  10. Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) studies of Campanian ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    trial, paralic and shallow marine strata. It com- prises of lower ... Sillakkudi sandstone was deposited under shallow ..... Jelinek V 1978 Statistical processing of anisotropy of mag- ... reorientation of magnetic fabrics in deep-sea sediments at.

  11. Magnetic properties of permalloy films with different thicknesses deposited onto obliquely sputtered Cu underlayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Xiaoyu; Sun, Xiaojun; Wang, Jianbo; Liu, Qingfang

    2015-01-01

    In this work, the influence of obliquely sputtered Cu underlayer of 10 nm on the magnetic properties of normally sputtered Permalloy thin films with different thicknesses from 10 nm to 150 nm has been investigated. It has been found that the samples with the Permalloy layer thickness ranging from 10 nm to 70 nm exhibit a good in-plane uniaxial magnetic anisotropy, and the increase of the film thickness leads to a decrease of the anisotropy field and the natural resonance frequency. The critical Permalloy layer thickness for stripe domain initiation of these films is about 80 nm, which is thinner than that of obliquely sputtered Permalloy thin films without an underlayer. The characteristic shapes of hysteresis loops which can be called ''transcritical'' are observed above the critical thickness. The condition and mechanism of appearing stripe domain structure were discussed and it has been found that the frequency response of permeability of the anisotropic films shows the characteristics of multi-peak resonance. - Highlights: • Py films were fabricated on obliquely sputtered Cu underlayers by RF magnetron sputtering. • Effects of Py layer thickness on anisotropy, ferromagnetic resonance frequency have been studied. • Samples with Py layer (<70 nm) show a good in-plane uniaxial magnetic anisotropy. • Samples with Py layer (>80 nm) show stripe domains and multi-peaks in permeability spectra

  12. Magnetic properties of epitaxial bismuth ferrite-garnet mono- and bilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semuk, E.Yu.; Berzhansky, V.N.; Prokopov, A.R.; Shaposhnikov, A.N.; Karavainikov, A.V.; Salyuk, O.Yu.; Golub, V.O.

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic properties of Bi 1.5 Gd 1.5 Fe 4.5 Al 0.5 O 12 (84 nm) and Bi 2.8 Y 0.2 Fe 5 O 12 (180 nm) films epitaxially grown on gallium-gadolinium garnet (GGG) single crystal (111) substrate as well as Bi 1.5 Gd 1.5 Fe 4.5 Al 0.5 O 12 /Bi 2.8 Y 0.2 Fe 5 O 12 bilayer were investigated using ferromagnetic resonance technique. The mismatch of the lattice parameters of substrate and magnetic layers leads to formation of adaptive layers which affect on the high order anisotropy constant of the films but practically do not affect on uniaxial perpendicular magnetic anisotropy The magnetic properties of the bilayer film were explained in supposition of strong exchange coupling between magnetic layers taking into account film-film and film-substrate elastic interaction. - Highlights: • Magnetic parameters of epitaxial Bi-YIG films and bilayers on GGG substrate. • Adaptive layers affect on high order magnetic anisotropy. • Magnetic properties of bilayers are result of strong exchange interaction

  13. Perpendicular magnetic anisotropy and the magnetization process in CoFeB/Pd multilayer films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ngo, Duc-The; Quach, Duy-Truong; Hung, Tran Quang

    2014-01-01

    The perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) and dynamic magnetization-reversal process in [CoFeB t nm/Pd 1.0 nm]n(t = 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1.0 and 1.2 nm; n = 2 − 20) multilayer films have been studied by means of magnetic hysteresis and Kerr effect measurements. Strong and controllable PMA with an eff...

  14. Bifurcation magnetic resonance in films magnetized along hard magnetization axis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasilevskaya, Tatiana M., E-mail: t_vasilevs@mail.ru [Ulyanovsk State University, Leo Tolstoy 42, 432017 Ulyanovsk (Russian Federation); Sementsov, Dmitriy I.; Shutyi, Anatoliy M. [Ulyanovsk State University, Leo Tolstoy 42, 432017 Ulyanovsk (Russian Federation)

    2012-09-15

    We study low-frequency ferromagnetic resonance in a thin film magnetized along the hard magnetization axis performing an analysis of magnetization precession dynamics equations and numerical simulation. Two types of films are considered: polycrystalline uniaxial films and single-crystal films with cubic magnetic anisotropy. An additional (bifurcation) resonance initiated by the bistability, i.e. appearance of two closely spaced equilibrium magnetization states is registered. The modification of dynamic modes provoked by variation of the frequency, amplitude, and magnetic bias value of the ac field is studied. Both steady and chaotic magnetization precession modes are registered in the bifurcation resonance range. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An additional bifurcation resonance arises in a case of a thin film magnetized along HMA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bifurcation resonance occurs due to the presence of two closely spaced equilibrium magnetization states. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Both regular and chaotic precession modes are realized within bifurcation resonance range. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Appearance of dynamic bistability is typical for bifurcation resonance.

  15. Bifurcation magnetic resonance in films magnetized along hard magnetization axis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasilevskaya, Tatiana M.; Sementsov, Dmitriy I.; Shutyi, Anatoliy M.

    2012-01-01

    We study low-frequency ferromagnetic resonance in a thin film magnetized along the hard magnetization axis performing an analysis of magnetization precession dynamics equations and numerical simulation. Two types of films are considered: polycrystalline uniaxial films and single-crystal films with cubic magnetic anisotropy. An additional (bifurcation) resonance initiated by the bistability, i.e. appearance of two closely spaced equilibrium magnetization states is registered. The modification of dynamic modes provoked by variation of the frequency, amplitude, and magnetic bias value of the ac field is studied. Both steady and chaotic magnetization precession modes are registered in the bifurcation resonance range. - Highlights: ► An additional bifurcation resonance arises in a case of a thin film magnetized along HMA. ► Bifurcation resonance occurs due to the presence of two closely spaced equilibrium magnetization states. ► Both regular and chaotic precession modes are realized within bifurcation resonance range. ► Appearance of dynamic bistability is typical for bifurcation resonance.

  16. Study of relaxation processes and uniaxial anisotropy in the Europium Gallium Garnet epitaxial films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukhopadhyay, P.

    1987-04-01

    We report here the magnetic properties of Europium-Gallium Garnet LPE films of the type Eu x Y 3-x Fe 5-y Ga y O 12 (where O< x<1.2 and 1< y<1.1). The mechanism by which the magnetic moments relax in Eu or Sm Garnets is still not fully understood. We have made studies on Eu-Ga garnet films and explain some of the results observed in these films. Pb and Pt ions are always found as impurities in our films. Pb ions contribute to the anisotropy in the film. Most of the experimental results can be explained with the three sub lattice model. The shape of the FMR line width shows strong sensitivity towards the surface impurities. (author). 18 refs, 6 figs, 1 tab

  17. Dynamics of Magnetic Nanoparticles Studied by Neutron Scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mikkel Fougt; Bødker, Franz; Mørup, Steen

    1997-01-01

    We present the first triple-axis neutron scattering measurements of magnetic fluctuations in nanoparticles using an antiferromagnetic reflection. Both the superparamagnetic relaxation and precession modes in similar to 15 nm hematite particles are: observed. The results have been consistently...... analyzed on the basis of a simple model with uniaxial anisotropy and the Neel-Brown theory for the relaxation....

  18. Trigonal Prismatic Tris-pyridineoximate Transition Metal Complexes: A Cobalt(II) Compound with High Magnetic Anisotropy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlov, Alexander A; Savkina, Svetlana A; Belov, Alexander S; Nelyubina, Yulia V; Efimov, Nikolay N; Voloshin, Yan Z; Novikov, Valentin V

    2017-06-19

    High magnetic anisotropy is a key property of paramagnetic shift tags, which are mostly studied by NMR spectroscopy, and of single molecule magnets, for which magnetometry is usually used. We successfully employed both these methods in analyzing magnetic properties of a series of transition metal complexes, the so-called clathrochelates. A cobalt complex was found to be both a promising paramagnetic shift tag and a single molecule magnet because of it having large axial magnetic susceptibility tensor anisotropy at room temperature (22.5 × 10 -32 m 3 mol -1 ) and a high effective barrier to magnetization reversal (up to 70.5 cm -1 ). The origin of this large magnetic anisotropy is a negative value of zero-field splitting energy that reaches -86 cm -1 according to magnetometry and NMR measurements.

  19. Magneto-structural properties and magnetic anisotropy of small transition-metal clusters: a first-principles study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blonski, Piotr; Hafner, Juergen

    2011-01-01

    Ab initio density-functional calculations including spin-orbit coupling (SOC) have been performed for Ni and Pd clusters with three to six atoms and for 13-atom clusters of Ni, Pd, and Pt, extending earlier calculations for Pt clusters with up to six atoms (2011 J. Chem. Phys. 134 034107). The geometric and magnetic structures have been optimized for different orientations of the magnetization with respect to the crystallographic axes of the cluster. The magnetic anisotropy energies (MAE) and the anisotropies of spin and orbital moments have been determined. Particular attention has been paid to the correlation between the geometric and magnetic structures. The magnetic point group symmetry of the clusters varies with the direction of the magnetization. Even for a 3d metal such as Ni, the change in the magnetic symmetry leads to small geometric distortions of the cluster structure, which are even more pronounced for the 4d metal Pd. For a 5d metal the SOC is strong enough to change the energetic ordering of the structural isomers. SOC leads to a mixing of the spin states corresponding to the low-energy spin isomers identified in the scalar-relativistic calculations. Spin moments are isotropic only for Ni clusters, but anisotropic for Pd and Pt clusters, orbital moments are anisotropic for the clusters of all three elements. The magnetic anisotropy energies have been calculated. The comparison between MAE and orbital anisotropy invalidates a perturbation analysis of magnetic anisotropy for these small clusters.

  20. Magnetic anisotropies and magnetic switching in Co films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bland, J. A. C.; Baird, M. J.; Leung, H. T.; Ives, A. J. R.; Mackay, K. D.; Hughes, H. P.

    1992-07-01

    We have used the magneto-optical Kerr effect to investigate the role of the substrate and growth conditions in determining the magnetic switching behaviour of Co films in the thickness range 100-200 Å supported by GaAs(001) and Si(111) substrates. We discuss the anisotropic magnetic hysteresis behaviour observed for Co/GaAs and Co/Si films in terms of coherent rotation of the magnetisation vector during magnetic switching. Equivalent films supported by glass substrates are found to be almost isotropic in-plane. The in-plane coercive and saturation fields are observed to lie in the range 20-80 Oe but perpendicular saturation fields of 25 and 19 kOe are found for the Co/Si and Co/GaAs systems respectively which substantially exceed the demagnetising field in each case. The measured perpendicular anisotropy fields differ strongly from the values for hcp and bcc Co and are attributed to the details of the interface and film structure. We also report strongly frequency dependent magnetic switching behaviour in these Co films.

  1. Ising-type magnetic anisotropy in a cobalt(II) nitronyl nitroxide compound: a key to understanding the formation of molecular magnetic nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caneschi, A; Gatteschi, Dante; Lalioti, N; Sessoli, R; Sorace, L; Tangoulis, V; Vindigni, A

    2002-01-04

    The compound [Co(hfac)2-(NITPhOMe)2] (2) (hfac = hexafluoroacetylacetonate, NITPhOMe = 4'-methoxyphenyl-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide) crystallizes in the triclinic P1 space group, a= 10.870(5), b = 11.520(5), c = 19.749(5) A, alpha = 78.05(5), beta = 84.20(5), gamma = 64.51(5) degrees, Z = 2. It can be considered a model system for studying the nature of the magnetic anisotropy of [Co(hfac)2(NITPhOMe)] (1), which was recently reported to behave as a molecular magnetic wire. The magnetic anisotropy of 2 was investigated by EPR spectroscopy and SQUID magnetometry both in the polycrystalline powder and in a single crystal. The experimental magnetic anisotropy was related to the anisotropy of the central ion and to the exchange interaction between the cobalt(II) ion and the radicals.

  2. Magnetic anisotropy in rapidly quenched amorphous glass-coated nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Óvári, T.-A.; Rotărescu, C.; Atițoaie, A.; Corodeanu, S.; Lupu, N., E-mail: nicole@phys-iasi.ro; Chiriac, H.

    2016-07-15

    Results on the roles played by the magnetoelastic and magnetostatic anisotropy terms in the magnetic behavior of glass-coated magnetostrictive amorphous nanowires prepared by means of rapid solidification are reported. Their contributions have been analyzed both experimentally, through hysteresis loop measurements, and theoretically, using micromagnetic simulations. All the investigated samples exhibit a magnetically bistable behavior, characterized by a single-step magnetization reversal when the applied field reaches a critical threshold value, called switching field. The combined interpretation of the experimental and theoretical data allows one to understand the effect of the magnetoelastic term on the value of the switching field, on one hand, and the effect of the magnetostatic term on the nucleation mechanism on the other, both with an essential impact on the characteristics of the nanowires’ magnetic bistability. The results are crucial for understanding the basic magnetic properties of these novel rapidly solidified ultrathin magnetic wires, as well as for tailoring their properties according to the specific requirements of various sensing applications. - Highlights: • Glass-coated nanowires have been very recently prepared by rapid solidification. • Amorphous wires change their properties as their diameter reaches the nano range. • Here we report on their main anisotropy terms: magnetoelastic and shape. • The results are essential for tailoring their properties for future applications.

  3. Magnetic anisotropy and anisotropic ballistic conductance of thin magnetic wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabirianov, R.

    2006-01-01

    The magnetocrystalline anisotropy of thin magnetic wires of iron and cobalt is quite different from the bulk phases. The spin moment of monatomic Fe wire may be as high as 3.4 μ B , while the orbital moment as high as 0.5 μ B . The magnetocrystalline anisotropy energy (MAE) was calculated for wires up to 0.6 nm in diameter starting from monatomic wire and adding consecutive shells for thicker wires. I observe that Fe wires exhibit the change sign with the stress applied along the wire. It means that easy axis may change from the direction along the wire to perpendicular to the wire. We find that ballistic conductance of the wire depends on the direction of the applied magnetic field, i.e. shows anisotropic ballistic magnetoresistance. This effect occurs due to the symmetry dependence of the splitting of degenerate bands in the applied field which changes the number of bands crossing the Fermi level. We find that the ballistic conductance changes with applied stress. Even for thicker wires the ballistic conductance changes by factor 2 on moderate tensile stain in our 5x4 model wire. Thus, the ballistic conductance of magnetic wires changes in the applied field due to the magnetostriction. This effect can be observed as large anisotropic BMR in the experiment

  4. Tuning stress-induced magnetic anisotropy and high frequency properties of FeCo films deposited on different curvature substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Z.K.; Feng, E.X.; Liu, Q.F.; Wang, J.B.; Xue, D.S.

    2012-01-01

    It is important to control magnetic anisotropy of ferromagnetic materials. In this work, FeCo thin films are deposited on the curving substrates by electrochemical deposition to adjust the stress-induced magnetic anisotropy. The compressive stress is produced in the as-deposited films after the substrates are flattened. A simplified theoretical model of ferromagnetic resonance is utilized to measure the intrinsic magnetic anisotropy field and saturation magnetization. The results show that the stress-induced magnetic anisotropy and the resonance frequency increase with the increase of substrate curvature. The induced easy axis is perpendicular to the compressive stress direction.

  5. Flow stress anisotropy in aluminium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul Jensen, D.; Hansen, N.

    1990-01-01

    The plastic anisotropy of cold-rolled high purity aluminum (99.996%) and commercially pure aluminum (99.6%) has been investigated. Sample parameters were the initial grain size and the degree of plastic strain (ϵ < 3.00). Flow stresses (0.2% offset) were measured at room temperature by uniaxial t...

  6. 1/3 magnetization plateau in a one-dimensional anisotropic ferrimagnet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonegawa, T [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Fukui University of Technology, Fukui 910-8505 (Japan); Sakai, T [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Spring-8, Hyogo 679-5148, and Crest JST, Japan (Japan); Okamoto, K [Department of Physics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan); Kaburagi, M [Faculty of Cross-Cultural Studies, Kobe University, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan)

    2006-11-15

    Using mainly numerical methods, we investigate the ground-state magnetization curve of a mixed spin chain with uniaxial single-ion anisotropies, where S = 1 and S = 2 spins are alternating and coupled antiferromagnetically. Special attention is paid to the magnetization plateau, the 1/3-plateau, which appears at one third of the saturation magnetization in the magnetization curve. It is found that there appear three kinds of 1/3-plateaux, one of which has a quantum nature, while the remaining two have a classical (Ising) nature.

  7. Calculation of magnetization curves and probability distribution for monoclinic and uniaxial systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobh, Hala A.; Aly, Samy H.; Yehia, Sherif

    2013-01-01

    We present the application of a simple classical statistical mechanics-based model to selected monoclinic and hexagonal model systems. In this model, we treat the magnetization as a classical vector whose angular orientation is dictated by the laws of equilibrium classical statistical mechanics. We calculate for these anisotropic systems, the magnetization curves, energy landscapes and probability distribution for different sets of relevant parameters and magnetic fields of different strengths and directions. Our results demonstrate a correlation between the most probable orientation of the magnetization vector, the system's parameters, and the external magnetic field. -- Highlights: ► We calculate magnetization curves and probability angular distribution of the magnetization. ► The magnetization curves are consistent with probability results for the studied systems. ► Monoclinic and hexagonal systems behave differently due to their different anisotropies

  8. Analysis of the magnetic anisotropy in SmCo5 and GdCo5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, T.; Jin, H.; Groessinger, R.; Kou, X.; Kirchmayr, H.R.

    1991-01-01

    The temperature dependence of the magnetic anisotropy constant K 1 for SmCo 5 and GdCo 5 is well reproduced by calculations based on a single-ion model taking into account the anisotropies of the R--Co exchange interaction and the Co-sublattice magnetic moment. The anisotropy of the R--Co exchange interaction plays an important role in reproducing the experimental K 1 (T) for SmCo 5 and GdCo 5 . It is found that the absolute value of the second order crystalline electric field parameter A 0 2 in SmCo 5 decreases monotonically with increasing temperature

  9. Influence of an ac magnetic field and induced magnetic anisotropy on the surface magnetoimpedance tensor in an amorphous wire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, A P; Zhukova, V; Zhukov, A; Dominguez, L; Chizhik, A; Blanco, J M; Gonzalez, J

    2004-01-01

    The influence of an ac magnetic field and the induced magnetic anisotropy (by field annealing and torsion annealing) on the magnetoimpedance (MI) tensor in an amorphous wire has been analysed. The experimental measurements were carried out in an amorphous wire of composition (Co 0.94 Fe 0.06 ) 72.5 Si 12.5 B 15 , with a negative, nearly zero magnetostriction constant, excited either by an ac circular, h φ , or an axial, h z , magnetic field created by an ac electric current passing along the wire or through an exciting coil mounted on the wire, respectively. The ac current amplitude was changed from 7.5 to 40 mA and the current frequency f was varied from 1.5 to 20 MHz. The induced magnetic anisotropies modify the MI response drastically. The field annealed sample shows a unique peak of the MI effect, while the torsion annealed sample presents an asymmetric giant magnetoimpedance ratio associated with the induced magnetic anisotropy which provokes such thermal treatments

  10. Thermal effects and in-plane magnetic anisotropy in thin-film recording media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajan, Antony; Abarra, E.N.; Acharya, B.R.; Inomata, A.; Okamoto, I.; Shinohara, M.

    2003-01-01

    The effect of thermal activation on the in-plane magnetic anisotropy [measured as orientation ratio (OR)] of granular longitudinal magnetic recording media is investigated. Temperature and time dependent studies were made on media with different magnetic layer thicknesses. We find that OR is independent of temperature for a stable medium but shows a large increase with temperature for thermally unstable media. At low temperatures and high field sweep rates, the OR values are found to be the same, independent of the magnetic layer thickness. The unique value when thermal activation is reduced is consistent with the high population of the cobalt c axes along the texturing direction as the origin of anisotropy

  11. Review- Magnetic orientation and magnetic anisotropy in paramagnetic layered oxides containing rare-earth ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigeru Horii, Atsushi Ishihara, Takayuki Fukushima, Tetsuo Uchikoshi, Hiraku Ogino, Tohru S Suzuki, Yoshio Sakka, Jun-ichi Shimoyama and Kohji Kishio

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The magnetic anisotropies and easy axes of magnetization at room temperature were determined, and the effects of rare-earth (RE ions were clarified for RE-based cuprates, RE-doped bismuth-based cuprates and RE-doped Bi-based cobaltite regarding the grain orientation by magnetic field. The easy axis, determined from the powder orientation in a static field of 10 T, depended qualitatively on the type of RE ion for all three systems. On the other hand, the magnetization measurement of the c-axis oriented powders, aligned in static or rotating fields, revealed that the type of RE ion strongly affected not only the directions of the easy axis but also the absolute value of magnetic anisotropy, and an appropriate choice of RE ion is required to minimize the magnetic field used for grain orientation. We also studied the possibility of triaxial grain orientation in high-critical-temperature superconductors by a modulated oval magnetic field. In particular, triaxial orientation was attempted in a high-oxygen-pressure phase of orthorhombic RE-based cuprates Y2Ba4Cu7Oy. Although the experiment was performed in epoxy resin, which is not practical, in-plane alignment within 3° was achieved.

  12. Thermoelectric anisotropy in the iron-based superconductor Ba (Fe1-xCox) 2As2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matusiak, Marcin; Rogacki, Krzysztof; Wolf, Thomas

    2018-06-01

    We report on the in-plane anisotropy of the Seebeck and Nernst coefficients as well as of the electrical resistivity determined for a series of strain-detwinned single crystals of Ba (Fe1-xC ox) 2A s2 . Two underdoped samples (x =0.024 , 0.045) exhibiting a transition from the tetragonal paramagnetic phase to the orthorhombic spin density wave (SDW) phase (at Ttr=100 and 60 K, respectively) show an onset of Nernst anisotropy at temperatures above 200 K, which is significantly higher than Ttr. In the optimally doped sample (x =0.06 ) the transport properties also appear to be in-plane anisotropic below T ≈120 K, despite the fact that this particular composition does not show any evidence of long-range magnetic order. However, the anisotropy observed in the optimally doped crystal is rather small, and for the Seebeck and Nernst coefficients the difference between values measured along and across the uniaxial strain has an opposite sign to those observed for underdoped crystals with x =0.024 and 0.045. For these two samples, the insensitivity of the Nernst anisotropy to the SDW transition suggests that the origin of nematicity might be something other than magnetic.

  13. Measurements of Hk and Ms in thin magnetic films by the angular dependence of the planar Hall effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatskicheva, M.; Vatskichev, L.

    1987-11-01

    It is shown that the angular dependences of the planar Hall effect measured with infinite magnetic field and with magnetic field H⩾ Hk have an intersection point and this fact is enough for measuring the anisotropy field Hk applying the method presented by Pastor, Ferreiro and Torres in J. Magn. Magn. Mat. 53 (1986) 349, 62 (1986) 101. The scaling of the Hall tension U proportional to M2s in mV/Am -1 gives a possibility for calculating the Ms-values of the films. These assumptions are verified for NiFe- and NiFeGe films with a uniaxial magnetic anisotropy.

  14. Magnetic anisotropy and magnetic phase transitions in RFe.sub.5./sub.Al.sub.7./sub..

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gorbunov, Denis; Yasin, S.; Andreev, Alexander V.; Skourski, Y.; Mushnikov, N. V.; Rosenfeld, E.V.; Zherlitsyn, S.; Wosnitza, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 383, Jun (2015), 208-214 ISSN 0304-8853 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP204/12/0150 Grant - others:AVČR(CZ) M100101203 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : rare-earth intermetallics * magnetic anisotropy * ferrimagnetism * high magnetic fields * spontaneous transition * field-induced transition Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.357, year: 2015

  15. Comparison of Theories of Anisotropy in Transformer Oil-Based Magnetic Fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozef Kudelcik

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The external magnetic field in transformer oil-based magnetic fluids leads to the aggregation of magnetic nanoparticles and formation of clusters. These aggregations are the result of the interaction between the external magnetic field and the magnetic moments of the nanoparticles occurs. However, the temperature of magnetic fluids has also very important influence on the structural changes because the mechanism of thermal motion acts against the cluster creation. The acoustic spectroscopy was used to study the anisotropy of transformer oil-based magnetic fluids upon the effect of an external magnetic field and temperature. In present the anisotropy of the magnetic fluids can be described by two theories. Taketomi theory assumes the existence of spherical clusters. These clusters form long chains, aligned in a magnetic field direction. Shliomis in his theory supposed that only nanoparticles formed chains. A comparison of the experimental results with the predictions of the Taketomi theory allowed a determination of the cluster radius and the number density of the colloidal particles. The proportions of the acoustic wave energy used for excitation of the translational and rotational motion were determined.

  16. Discovery of ferromagnetism with large magnetic anisotropy in ZrMnP and HfMnP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamichhane, Tej N.; Taufour, Valentin; Kaluarachchi, Udhara S.; Bud' ko, Sergey L.; Canfield, Paul C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States); The Ames Laboratory, US Department of Energy, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States); Masters, Morgan W. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States); Parker, David S. [Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Thimmaiah, Srinivasa [The Ames Laboratory, US Department of Energy, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States)

    2016-08-29

    ZrMnP and HfMnP single crystals are grown by a self-flux growth technique, and structural as well as temperature dependent magnetic and transport properties are studied. Both compounds have an orthorhombic crystal structure. ZrMnP and HfMnP are ferromagnetic with Curie temperatures around 370 K and 320 K, respectively. The spontaneous magnetizations of ZrMnP and HfMnP are determined to be 1.9 μ{sub B}/f.u. and 2.1 μ{sub B}/f.u., respectively, at 50 K. The magnetocaloric effect of ZrMnP in terms of entropy change (ΔS) is estimated to be −6.7 kJ m{sup −3} K{sup −1} around 369 K. The easy axis of magnetization is [100] for both compounds, with a small anisotropy relative to the [010] axis. At 50 K, the anisotropy field along the [001] axis is ∼4.6 T for ZrMnP and ∼10 T for HfMnP. Such large magnetic anisotropy is remarkable considering the absence of rare-earth elements in these compounds. The first principle calculation correctly predicts the magnetization and hard axis orientation for both compounds, and predicts the experimental HfMnP anisotropy field within 25%. More importantly, our calculations suggest that the large magnetic anisotropy comes primarily from the Mn atoms, suggesting that similarly large anisotropies may be found in other 3d transition metal compounds.

  17. Discovery of ferromagnetism with large magnetic anisotropy in ZrMnP and HfMnP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamichhane, Tej N.; Taufour, Valentin; Kaluarachchi, Udhara S.; Bud'ko, Sergey L.; Canfield, Paul C.; Masters, Morgan W.; Parker, David S.; Thimmaiah, Srinivasa

    2016-01-01

    ZrMnP and HfMnP single crystals are grown by a self-flux growth technique, and structural as well as temperature dependent magnetic and transport properties are studied. Both compounds have an orthorhombic crystal structure. ZrMnP and HfMnP are ferromagnetic with Curie temperatures around 370 K and 320 K, respectively. The spontaneous magnetizations of ZrMnP and HfMnP are determined to be 1.9 μ_B/f.u. and 2.1 μ_B/f.u., respectively, at 50 K. The magnetocaloric effect of ZrMnP in terms of entropy change (ΔS) is estimated to be −6.7 kJ m"−"3 K"−"1 around 369 K. The easy axis of magnetization is [100] for both compounds, with a small anisotropy relative to the [010] axis. At 50 K, the anisotropy field along the [001] axis is ∼4.6 T for ZrMnP and ∼10 T for HfMnP. Such large magnetic anisotropy is remarkable considering the absence of rare-earth elements in these compounds. The first principle calculation correctly predicts the magnetization and hard axis orientation for both compounds, and predicts the experimental HfMnP anisotropy field within 25%. More importantly, our calculations suggest that the large magnetic anisotropy comes primarily from the Mn atoms, suggesting that similarly large anisotropies may be found in other 3d transition metal compounds.

  18. Surface magnetic anisotropy in glass-coated amorphous microwires as determined from ferromagnetic resonance measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Miquel, H.; Garcia, J.M.; Garcia-Beneytez, J.M.; Vazquez, M.

    2001-01-01

    The ferromagnetic resonance frequency of different Co base glass-coated amorphous magnetic microwires about 3.5 μm in diameter with negative, vanishing and positive magnetostriction has been investigated from power absorption measurements in the microwave frequency range. The experimental technique employed here involves the replacement of the dielectric of a coaxial transmission line by the sample to be measured. From the evolution of the resonance frequency with DC applied magnetic field, the surface magnetic anisotropy field of the microwires has been quantitatively obtained and, as expected, found to depend on the sign and strength of the magnetostriction. Similar values for the surface anisotropy are obtained in comparison with bulk anisotropy as determined from quasi-static hysteresis loops measurements

  19. Perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in granular multilayers of CoPd alloyed nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivas, L. G.; Rubín, J.; Figueroa, A. I.; Bartolomé, F.; García, L. M.; Deranlot, C.; Petroff, F.; Ruiz, L.; González-Calbet, J. M.; Pascarelli, S.; Brookes, N. B.; Wilhelm, F.; Chorro, M.; Rogalev, A.; Bartolomé, J.

    2016-05-01

    Co-Pd multilayers obtained by Pd capping of pre-deposited Co nanoparticles on amorphous alumina are systematically studied by means of high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, extended x-ray absorption fine structure, SQUID-based magnetometry, and x-ray magnetic circular dichroism. The films are formed by CoPd alloyed nanoparticles self-organized across the layers, with the interspace between the nanoparticles filled by the non-alloyed Pd metal. The nanoparticles show atomic arrangements compatible with short-range chemical order of L 10 strucure type. The collective magnetic behavior is that of ferromagnetically coupled particles with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy, irrespective of the amount of deposited Pd. For increasing temperature three magnetic phases are identified: hard ferromagnetic with strong coercive field, soft-ferromagnetic as in an amorphous asperomagnet, and superparamagnetic. Increasing the amount of Pd in the system leads to both magnetic hardness increment and higher transition temperatures. Magnetic total moments of 1.77(4) μB and 0.45(4) μB are found at Co and Pd sites, respectively, where the orbital moment of Co, 0.40(2) μB, is high, while that of Pd is negligible. The effective magnetic anisotropy is the largest in the capping metal series (Pd, Pt, W, Cu, Ag, Au), which is attributed to the interparticle interaction between de nanoparticles, in addition to the intraparticle anisotropy arising from hybridization between the 3 d -4 d bands associated to the Co and Pd chemical arrangement in a L 10 structure type.

  20. Determination of perpendicular magnetic anisotropy based on the magnetic droplet nucleation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Tomoe; Kim, Duck-Ho; Okuno, Takaya; Hirata, Yuushou; Futakawa, Yasuhiro; Yoshikawa, Hiroki; Kim, Sanghoon; Tsukamoto, Arata; Shiota, Yoichi; Moriyama, Takahiro; Ono, Teruo

    2018-05-01

    We propose an alternative method of determining the magnetic anisotropy field μ0 H K in ferro-/ferrimagnets. On the basis of the droplet nucleation model, there exists linearity between domain-wall (DW) energy density and in-plane magnetic field. We find that the slope is simply represented by μ0 H K and Dzyaloshinskii–Moriya interaction (DMI). By measuring the in-plane magnetic field dependence of the coercivity field, closely corresponding to the DW energy density, a robust value for μ0 H K can be quantified. This robust value can be used to determine μ0 H K over a wide range of values, overcoming the limitations caused by the small strength of the external magnetic field typically used in experiments.

  1. Magnetic Properties of Fe(001) Thin Films on GaAs(001) Deposited by RF Magnetron Sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeya, Hirokazu; Takahashi, Yutaka; Inaba, Nobuyuki; Kirino, Fumiyoshi; Ohtake, Mitsuru; Futamoto, Masaaki

    2011-01-01

    Fe thin films, down to 6 nm thick, were prepared on GaAs(001) substrates by RF magnetron sputtering. The x-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses show that the epitaxial thin films of Fe(001) were grown with cube-on-cube orientation on GaAs(001). Magnetic properties were investigated by vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM) and ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) spectroscopy. The magnetization curves obtained by applying in-plane magnetic fields indicate that easy (hard) direction is along [100] ([110]) and the saturation magnetization is close to the bulk values. The in-plane magnetic anisotropy measured by FMR shows four-fold symmetry, as expected for bcc Fe. We did not observe the in-plane uniaxial magnetic anisotropy reported on the MBE-grown Fe films on GaAs substrates.

  2. Magnetic anisotropies in epitaxial Fe3O4/GaAs(100) patterned structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, W.; Zhang, D.; Yuan, S. J.; Huang, Z. C.; Zhai, Y.; Wong, P. K. J.; Wu, J.; Xu, Y. B.

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies on epitaxial Fe 3 O 4 rings in the context of spin-transfer torque effect have revealed complicated and undesirable domain structures, attributed to the intrinsic fourfold magnetocrystalline anisotropy in the ferrite. In this Letter, we report a viable solution to this problem, utilizing a 6-nm-thick epitaxial Fe 3 O 4 thin film on GaAs(100), where the fourfold magnetocrystalline anisotropy is negligible. We demonstrate that in the Fe 3 O 4 planar wires patterned from our thin film, such a unique magnetic anisotropy system has been preserved, and relatively simple magnetic domain configurations compared to those previous reports can be obtained

  3. Magnetic properties of epitaxial bismuth ferrite-garnet mono- and bilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semuk, E.Yu.; Berzhansky, V.N.; Prokopov, A.R.; Shaposhnikov, A.N.; Karavainikov, A.V. [Taurida National V.I. Vernadsky University, Vernadsky Avenue, 4, 95007 Simferopol (Ukraine); Salyuk, O.Yu. [Institute of Magnetism NASU and MESU, 36-B Vernadsky Blvd., 03142 Kiev (Ukraine); Golub, V.O., E-mail: golub@imag.kiev.ua [Institute of Magnetism NASU and MESU, 36-B Vernadsky Blvd., 03142 Kiev (Ukraine)

    2015-11-15

    Magnetic properties of Bi{sub 1.5}Gd{sub 1.5}Fe{sub 4.5}Al{sub 0.5}O{sub 12} (84 nm) and Bi{sub 2.8}Y{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12} (180 nm) films epitaxially grown on gallium-gadolinium garnet (GGG) single crystal (111) substrate as well as Bi{sub 1.5}Gd{sub 1.5}Fe{sub 4.5}Al{sub 0.5}O{sub 12}/Bi{sub 2.8}Y{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12} bilayer were investigated using ferromagnetic resonance technique. The mismatch of the lattice parameters of substrate and magnetic layers leads to formation of adaptive layers which affect on the high order anisotropy constant of the films but practically do not affect on uniaxial perpendicular magnetic anisotropy The magnetic properties of the bilayer film were explained in supposition of strong exchange coupling between magnetic layers taking into account film-film and film-substrate elastic interaction. - Highlights: • Magnetic parameters of epitaxial Bi-YIG films and bilayers on GGG substrate. • Adaptive layers affect on high order magnetic anisotropy. • Magnetic properties of bilayers are result of strong exchange interaction.

  4. Spin-reorientation and anisotropy of the magnetization in single crystalline Ho2Co15Si2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tegus, O.

    2000-01-01

    We have studied the magnetic properties of a Ho 2 Co 15 Si 2 single crystal. The easy magnetization direction is parallel to the c-axis in an extended temperature region below the Curie temperature. A spin-reorientation transition takes place at 323 K, leading to an easy magnetization direction perpendicular to the c-axis below this temperature. We have compared the present results with those obtained previously on various R 2 Co 17 single crystals and found that Si substitution not only leads to a sign reversal in the Co sublattice anisotropy but also leads to a substantial anisotropy of the saturation magnetization. Sign and magnitude of the magnetization anisotropy are conserved during the spin-reorientation transition. (orig.)

  5. Dependence of magnetic anisotropy on MgO sputtering pressure in Co20Fe60B20/MgO stacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaidatzis, A.; Serletis, C.; Niarchos, D.

    2017-10-01

    We investigated the dependence of magnetic anisotropy of Ta/Co20Fe60B20/MgO stacks on the Ar partial pressure during MgO deposition, in the range between 0.5 and 15 mTorr. The stacks are studied before and after annealing at 300°C and it is shown that magnetic anisotropy significantly depends on Ar partial pressure. High pressure results in stacks with very low perpendicular magnetic anisotropy even after annealing, while low pressure results in stacks with perpendicular anisotropy even at the as-deposited state. A monotonic increase of magnetic anisotropy energy is observed as Ar partial pressure is decreased.

  6. Magnetic properties of exchange biased and of unbiased oxide/permalloy thin layers: a ferromagnetic resonance and Brillouin scattering study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zighem, F; Roussigne, Y; Cherif, S-M; Moch, P [Laboratoire des Proprietes Mecaniques et Thermodynamiques des Materiaux, CNRS UPR 9001, Universite Paris Nord, 93430 Villetaneuse (France); Ben Youssef, J [Laboratoire de Magnetisme de Bretagne, CNRS, Universite de Bretagne Occidentale, 29285 Brest (France); Paumier, F, E-mail: fatih.zighem@cea.f [Institut Pprime, CNRS UPR 3346, Universite de Poitiers, ENSMA, 86962 Futuroscope (France)

    2010-10-13

    Microstrip ferromagnetic resonance and Brillouin scattering are used to provide a comparative determination of the magnetic parameters of thin permalloy layers interfaced with a non-magnetic (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) or with an antiferromagnetic oxide (NiO). It results from our microstructural study that no preferential texture is favoured in the observed polycrystalline sublayers. It is shown that the perpendicular anisotropy can be monitored using an interfacial surface energy term which is practically independent of the nature of the interface. In the interval of thicknesses investigated (5-25 nm) the saturation magnetization does not significantly differ from the reported one in bulk permalloy. In-plane uniaxial anisotropy and exchange bias anisotropy are also derived from the study of the dynamic magnetic excitations and compared with our independent evaluations using conventional magnetometry.

  7. Perpendicular magnetic anisotropy and magnetization dynamics in oxidized CoFeAl films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Di; Zhang, Zhe; Li, Le; Zhang, Zongzhi; Zhao, H. B.; Wang, J.; Ma, B.; Jin, Q. Y.

    2015-07-01

    Half-metallic Co-based full-Heusler alloys with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA), such as Co2FeAl in contact with MgO, are receiving increased attention recently due to its full spin polarization for high density memory applications. However, the PMA induced by MgO interface can only be realized for very thin magnetic layers (usually below 1.3 nm), which would have strong adverse effects on the material properties of spin polarization, Gilbert damping parameter, and magnetic stability. In order to solve this issue, we fabricated oxidized Co50Fe25Al25 (CFAO) films with proper thicknesses without employing the MgO layer. The samples show controllable PMA by tuning the oxygen pressure (PO2) and CFAO thickness (tCFAO), large perpendicular anisotropy field of ~8.0 kOe can be achieved at PO2 = 12% for the sample of tCFAO = 2.1 nm or at PO2 = 7% for tCFAO = 2.8 nm. The loss of PMA at thick tCFAO or high PO2 results mainly from the formation of large amount of CoFe oxides, which are superparamagnetic at room temperature but become hard magnetic at low temperatures. The magnetic CFAO films, with strong PMA in a relatively wide thickness range and small intrinsic damping parameter below 0.028, would find great applications in developing advanced spintronic devices.

  8. Origin and spectroscopic determination of trigonal anisotropy in a heteronuclear single-molecule magnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorace, L.; Boulon, M.-E.; Totaro, P.; Cornia, A.; Fernandes-Soares, J.; Sessoli, R.

    2013-09-01

    W-band (ν ≅ 94 GHz) electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy was used for a single-crystal study of a star-shaped Fe3Cr single-molecule magnet (SMM) with crystallographically imposed trigonal symmetry. The high resolution and sensitivity accessible with W-band EPR allowed us to determine accurately the axial zero-field splitting terms for the ground (S = 6) and first two excited states (S = 5 and S = 4). Furthermore, spectra recorded by applying the magnetic field perpendicular to the trigonal axis showed a π/6 angular modulation. This behavior is a signature of the presence of trigonal transverse magnetic anisotropy terms whose values had not been spectroscopically determined in any SMM prior to this work. Such in-plane anisotropy could only be justified by dropping the so-called “giant spin approach” and by considering a complete multispin approach. From a detailed analysis of experimental data with the two models, it emerged that the observed trigonal anisotropy directly reflects the structural features of the cluster, i.e., the relative orientation of single-ion anisotropy tensors and the angular modulation of single-ion anisotropy components in the hard plane of the cluster. Finally, since high-order transverse anisotropy is pivotal in determining the spin dynamics in the quantum tunneling regime, we have compared the angular dependence of the tunnel splitting predicted by the two models upon application of a transverse field (Berry-phase interference).

  9. Anisotropies in magnetic field evolution and local Lyapunov exponents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, X.Z.; Boozer, A.H.

    2000-01-01

    The natural occurrence of small scale structures and the extreme anisotropy in the evolution of a magnetic field embedded in a conducting flow is interpreted in terms of the properties of the local Lyapunov exponents along the various local characteristic (un)stable directions for the Lagrangian flow trajectories. The local Lyapunov exponents and the characteristic directions are functions of Lagrangian coordinates and time, which are completely determined once the flow field is specified. The characteristic directions that are associated with the spatial anisotropy of the problem, are prescribed in both Lagrangian and Eulerian frames. Coordinate transformation techniques are employed to relate the spatial distributions of the magnetic field, the induced current density, and the Lorentz force, which are usually followed in Eulerian frame, to those of the local Lyapunov exponents, which are naturally defined in Lagrangian coordinates

  10. Light propagation in two-dimensional photonic crystals based on uniaxial polar materials: results on polaritonic spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Urrea, H. A.; Duque, C. A.; Pérez-Quintana, I. V.; Mora-Ramos, M. E.

    2017-03-01

    The dispersion relations of two-dimensional photonic crystals made of uniaxial polaritonic cylinders arranged in triangular lattice are calculated. The particular case of the transverse magnetic polarization is taken into account. Three different uniaxial materials showing transverse phonon-polariton excitations are considered: aluminum nitride, gallium nitride, and indium nitride. The study is carried out by means of the finite-difference time-domain technique for the solution of Maxwell equations, together with the method of the auxiliary differential equation. It is shown that changing the filling fraction can result in the modification of both the photonic and polaritonic bandgaps in the optical dispersion relations. Wider gaps appear for smaller filling fraction values, whereas a larger number of photonic bandgaps will occur within the frequency range considered when a larger filling fraction is used. The effect of including the distinct wurtzite III-V nitride semiconductors as core materials in the cylinders embedded in the air on the photonic properties is discussed as well, highlighting the effect of the dielectric anisotropy on the properties of the polaritonic part of the photonic spectrum.

  11. Modified magnetic anisotropy at LaCoO3/La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 interfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cabero

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Controlling magnetic anisotropy is an important objective towards engineering novel magnetic device concepts in oxide electronics. In thin film manganites, magnetic anisotropy is weak and it is primarily determined by the substrate, through induced structural distortions resulting from epitaxial mismatch strain. On the other hand, in cobaltites, with a stronger spin orbit interaction, magnetic anisotropy is typically much stronger. In this paper, we show that interfacing La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 (LSMO with an ultrathin LaCoO3 (LCO layer drastically modifies the magnetic anisotropy of the manganite, making it independent of the substrate and closer to the magnetic isotropy characterizing its rhombohedral structure. Ferromagnetic resonance measurements evidence a tendency of manganite magnetic moments to point out-of-plane suggesting non collinear magnetic interactions at the interface. These results may be of interest for the design of oxide interfaces with tailored magnetic structures for new oxide devices.

  12. Ultra-high resistive and anisotropic CoPd–CaF{sub 2} nanogranular soft magnetic films prepared by tandem-sputtering deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naoe, Masayuki, E-mail: naoe@denjiken.ne.jp [Research Institute for Electromagnetic Materials, 2-1-1 Yagiyama-Minami, Taihaku-ku, Sendai 982-0807 (Japan); Kobayashi, Nobukiyo [Research Institute for Electromagnetic Materials, 2-1-1 Yagiyama-Minami, Taihaku-ku, Sendai 982-0807 (Japan); Ohnuma, Shigehiro [Research Institute for Electromagnetic Materials, 2-1-1 Yagiyama-Minami, Taihaku-ku, Sendai 982-0807 (Japan); Frontier Research Institute for Interdisciplinary Sciences, Tohoku University, 6-3 Aramaki-aza-Aoba, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Iwasa, Tadayoshi; Arai, Ken-Ichi [Research Institute for Electromagnetic Materials, 2-1-1 Yagiyama-Minami, Taihaku-ku, Sendai 982-0807 (Japan); Masumoto, Hiroshi [Frontier Research Institute for Interdisciplinary Sciences, Tohoku University, 6-3 Aramaki-aza-Aoba, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan)

    2015-10-01

    Ultra-high resistive and anisotropic soft magnetic films for gigahertz applications are desirable to demonstrate the really practical films. Here we present a study of novel nanogranular films fabricated by tandem-sputtering deposition. Their electromagnetic properties and nanostructure have also been discussed. These films consisted of nanocrystallized CoPd alloy-granules and CaF{sub 2} matrix, and a specimen having a composition of (Co{sub 0.69}Pd{sub 0.31}){sub 52}–(Ca{sub 0.31}F{sub 0.69}){sub 48} exhibited distinct in-plane uniaxial anisotropy after uniaxial field annealing with granule growth. Its complex permeability spectra have a ferromagnetic resonance frequency extending to the Super-High-Frequency band due to its higher anisotropy field, and its frequency response was quite well reproduced by a numerical calculation based on the Landau–Lifshitz–Gilbert equation. Furthermore, it was clarified that the CaF{sub 2}-based nanogranular film exhibits a hundredfold higher electrical resistivity than conventional oxide or nitride-based films. Higher resistivity enables the film thickness to achieve a margin exceeding threefold against eddy current loss. The greater resistivity of nanogranular films is attributed to the wide energy bandgap and superior crystallinity of CaF{sub 2} matrix. - Highlights: • We fabricated high-resistive and anisotropic granular films by tandem-sputtering. • CaF{sub 2}-based films exhibit a hundredfold higher resistivity than conventional films. • Uniaxial field annealing improved the magnetic properties dramatically. • High uniaxial anisotropy extended ferromagnetic resonance frequency to 4 GHz. • Annealed samples can be regarded as a ferromagnetic homogenized material.

  13. Tailoring perpendicular magnetic anisotropy with graphene oxide membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Ning, Keyu; Liu, Houfang; Li, Linsen; Li, Huanglong; Feng, Jiafeng; Yang, Baishun; Liu, Xiao; Li, Yuxing; Chen, Yanhui; Wei, Hongxiang; Han, Xiufeng; Mao, Shengcheng; Zhang, Xixiang; Yang, Yi; Ren, Tian-ling

    2017-01-01

    Graphene oxide (GO) membranes have been widely explored for their excellent physical and chemical properties, and abundant functional groups. In this work, we report the improvement of the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) of CoFeB thin films by applying a coating of GO membranes. We observe that the PMA of the CoFeB/MgAl–O stacks is strongly enhanced by the coating of GO membranes and even reaches 0.6 mJ m−2 at room temperature after an annealing process. The critical thickness of the membrane-coated CoFeB for switching the magnetization from the out-of-plane to the in-plane axis exceeds 1.6 nm. First-principle calculations are performed to investigate the contribution of the GO membranes to the magnetic anisotropy energy (MAE). Due to changes in the hybridization of 3d orbitals, varying the location of the C atomic layer with Co changes the contribution of the Co–C stacks to PMA. Thus, the large PMA achieved with GO membranes can be attributed to the orbital hybridization of the C and O atoms with the Co orbitals. These results provide a comprehensive understanding of the PMA and point towards opportunities to achieve multifunctional graphene-composite spintronic devices.

  14. Tailoring perpendicular magnetic anisotropy with graphene oxide membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Ning, Keyu

    2017-11-15

    Graphene oxide (GO) membranes have been widely explored for their excellent physical and chemical properties, and abundant functional groups. In this work, we report the improvement of the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) of CoFeB thin films by applying a coating of GO membranes. We observe that the PMA of the CoFeB/MgAl–O stacks is strongly enhanced by the coating of GO membranes and even reaches 0.6 mJ m−2 at room temperature after an annealing process. The critical thickness of the membrane-coated CoFeB for switching the magnetization from the out-of-plane to the in-plane axis exceeds 1.6 nm. First-principle calculations are performed to investigate the contribution of the GO membranes to the magnetic anisotropy energy (MAE). Due to changes in the hybridization of 3d orbitals, varying the location of the C atomic layer with Co changes the contribution of the Co–C stacks to PMA. Thus, the large PMA achieved with GO membranes can be attributed to the orbital hybridization of the C and O atoms with the Co orbitals. These results provide a comprehensive understanding of the PMA and point towards opportunities to achieve multifunctional graphene-composite spintronic devices.

  15. Perpendicular magnetic anisotropy of amorphous ferromagnetic CoSiB/[Pt,Au] multilayer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, S.; Yim, H. I.

    2012-01-01

    Perpendicular magnetic anisotropy is being widely studied as a possible candidate for a high density spin-transfer torque magnetic random access memory. The key issues of a high-density spin-transfer torque magnetic random access memory are decreasing the switching current and the high thermal stability. In order to solve these problems, two approaches are suggested: One is the development a new amorphous ferromagnetic material as a pinned layer for a multilayer with a low saturated magnetization (M s ) value because of the interface roughness between the two layers. The other is a search for the most suitable materials with high perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in order to have high thermal stability. In this work, we present an amorphous ferromagnetic Co 75 Si 15 B 10 material and compare the magnetic properties of a [CoSiB (0.3, 0.4, 0.5 nm)/Pt (1.4 nm)] 5 multilayer and new combinations [CoSiB (0.3, 0.4, 0.5 nm)/Au (1.5 nm)] 5 .

  16. Method and means for measuring the anisotropy of a plasma in a magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shohet, J.L.; Greene, D.G.S.

    1973-10-23

    Anisotropy is measured of a free-free-bremsstrahlungradiation-generating plasma in a magnetic field by collimating the free-free bremsstrahlung radiation in a direction normal to the magnetic field and scattering the collimated free- free bremsstrahlung radiation to resolve the radiation into its vector components in a plane parallel to the electric field of the bremsstrahlung radiation. The scattered vector components are counted at particular energy levels in a direction parallel to the magnetic field and also normal to the magnetic field of the plasma to provide a measure of anisotropy of the plasma. (Official Gazette)

  17. Perpendicular magnetic anisotropy influence on voltage-driven spin-diode effect in magnetic tunnel junctions: A micromagnetic study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frankowski, Marek, E-mail: mfrankow@agh.edu.pl [AGH University of Science and Technology, al. Mickiewicza 30, Department of Electronics, 30-059 Kraków (Poland); Chȩciński, Jakub [AGH University of Science and Technology, al. Mickiewicza 30, Department of Electronics, 30-059 Kraków (Poland); AGH University of Science and Technology, al. Mickiewicza 30, Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, 30-059 Kraków (Poland); Skowroński, Witold; Stobiecki, Tomasz [AGH University of Science and Technology, al. Mickiewicza 30, Department of Electronics, 30-059 Kraków (Poland)

    2017-05-01

    We study the influence of the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy on the voltage-induced ferromagnetic resonance in magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs). An MTJ response to the applied radio-frequency voltage excitation is investigated using micromagnetic calculations with the free layer oriented both in-plane and out-of-plane. Our model allows for a quantitative description of the magnetic system parameters such as resonance frequency, sensitivity or quality factor and for a distinction between material-dependent internal damping and disorder-dependent effective damping. We find that the sensitivity abruptly increases up to three orders of magnitude near the anisotropy transition regime, while the quality factor declines due to effective damping increase. We attribute the origin of this behaviour to the changes of the exchange energy in the system, which is calculated using micromagnetic approach. - Highlights: • Micromagnetic approach is used for modelling of voltage-induced spin-diode effect. • Voltage-induced switching simulations are performed. • Spin-diode line is analyzed as a function of perpendicular anisotropy energy. • Effective damping, quality factor and sensitivity are calculated.

  18. Effects of Dzyaloshinsky–Moriya interaction on magnetism in nanodisks from a self-consistent approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Zhaosen, E-mail: liuzhsnj@yahoo.com [Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics (China); Ian, Hou, E-mail: houian@umac.mo [University of Macau, Institute of Applied Physics and Materials Engineering, FST (China)

    2016-01-15

    We give a theoretical study on the magnetic properties of monolayer nanodisks with both Heisenberg exchange and Dzyaloshinsky–Moriya (DM) interactions. In particular, we survey the magnetic effects caused by anisotropy, external magnetic field, and disk size when DM interaction is present by means of a new quantum simulation method facilitated by a self-consistent algorithm based on mean field theory. This computational approach finds that uniaxial anisotropy and transversal magnetic field enhance the net magnetization as well as increase the transition temperature of the vortical phase while preserving the chiralities of the swirly magnetic structures, whereas when the strength of DM interaction is sufficiently strong for a given disk size, magnetic domains appear within the circularly bounded region, which vanish and give in to a single vortex when a transversal magnetic field is applied. The latter confirms the magnetic skyrmions induced by the magnetic field as observed in the experiments.

  19. Magnetic anisotropy of some R2CO17 compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, W.I.; Melville, D.

    1978-01-01

    The singular-point detection technique, in which the second derivative of the magnetization with respect to field is examined, has been used to determine the anisotropy field Bsub(A) = (2/Msub(s)) (K 1 + 2K 2 ) for Sm 2 Co 17 , Er 2 Co 17 , and Tm 2 Co 17 over the temperature range 77 - 300 K. Exrapolation of the initial part of the hard-direction magnetization curve for aligned powders enables K 1 and K 2 to be estimated. For Er 2 Co 17 and Tm 2 Co 17 the rare-earth (R) and cobalt sublattices are oppositely aligned, so that the onset of ordering of the R sublattice leads to a decrease in saturation magnetization as the temperature is lowered. This is in sharp contrast to the rapid increase in K 1 at low temperatures. By subtracting the corresponding Msub(s) values from that of Y 2 Co 17 the temperature dependence of the R sublattice can be determined. It is found that K 1 is directly proportional to the cube of this quantity, indicating the dominance of the rare-earth sublattice in determining the anisotropic properties of these compounds. For Sm 2 Co 17 the anisotropy constant varies very strongly with the reduced magnetization. (author)

  20. Tuning the effective parameters in (Ta/Cu/[Ni/Co]x/Ta) multilayers with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayareh, Zohreh; Moradi, Mehrdad; Mahmoodi, Saman

    2018-06-01

    In this paper, we report perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) in a (Ta/Cu/[Ni/Co]x/Ta) multilayers structure. These typical structures usually include a multilayer of ferromagnetic and transition metal thin films. Usually, magnetic anisotropy is characterized by magnetization loops determined by magnetometer or magneto-optical Kerr effect (MOKE). The interface between ferromagnetic and metallic layers plays an important role in magnetic anisotropy evolution from out-of-plane to in-plane in (Ta/Cu/[Ni/Co]/Ta) structure. Obtained results from MOKE and magnetometry of these samples show that they have different easy axes due to change in thickness of Cu as spacer layer and difference in number of repetition of [Ni/Co] stacks.

  1. Manipulation of perpendicular magnetic anisotropy of single Fe atom adsorbed graphene via MgO(1 1 1) substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Mingming; Tang, Weiqing; Wu, Yaping; Ke, Congming; Guo, Fei; Zhang, Chunmiao; Yang, Weihuang; Wu, Zhiming; Kang, Junyong

    2018-05-01

    Perpendicular magnetic anisotropy is significantly important for realizing a long-term retention of information for spintronics devices. Inspired by 2D graphene with its high charge carrier mobility and long spin diffusion length, we report a first-principles design framework on perpendicular magnetic anisotropy engineering of a Fe atom adsorbed graphene by employing a O-terminated MgO (1 1 1) substrate. Determined by the adsorption sites of the Fe atom, a tunable magnetic anisotropy is realized in Fe/graphene/MgO (1 1 1) structure, with the magnetic anisotropy energy of  ‑0.48 meV and 0.23 meV, respectively, corresponding to the in-plane and out of plane easy magnetizations. Total density of states suggest a half-metallicity with a 100% spin polarization in the system. Decomposed densities of Fe-3d states reveal the orbital contributions to the magnetic anisotropy for different Fe adsorption sites. Bonding interaction and charge redistribution regulated by MgO substrate are found responsible for the novel perpendicular magnetic anisotropy engineering in the system. The effective manipulation of perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in present work offers some references for the design and construction of 2D spintronics devices.

  2. Magnetic anisotropy induced by crystallographic orientation and morphological alignment in directionally-solidified eutectic Mn-Sb alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lou, Chang-Sheng [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shenyang Ligong University, Shenyang 110159 (China); Key Laboratory of Electromagnetic Processing of Materials (Ministry of Education), Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Liu, Tie, E-mail: liutie@epm.neu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Electromagnetic Processing of Materials (Ministry of Education), Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Dong, Meng; Wu, Chun; Shao, Jian-Guo; Wang, Qiang [Key Laboratory of Electromagnetic Processing of Materials (Ministry of Education), Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China)

    2017-02-15

    The influences of the crystallographic orientation and morphological alignment upon the magnetic anisotropic behavior of polycrystalline materials were investigated. Microstructures obtained in eutectic Mn-Sb alloys via directional solidification simultaneously displayed crystallographic orientation and morphological alignment. Both the crystallographic orientation and the morphological alignment were able to induce magnetic anisotropy in the alloys, wherein the influence of the crystallographic orientation and the morphological alignment upon the magnetic anisotropic behavior of the alloys strongly depended upon their directions and exhibited either mutual promotion or competition. These findings may provide useful guidance for the fabrication design of functional magnetic materials. - Highlights: • We study effects of orientation in crystal and morphology on magnetic anisotropy. • Both orientation in crystal and morphology can induce magnetic anisotropy. • Their effects depend on direction and exhibit either mutual promotion or competition.

  3. Intrinsic magnetic torque at low magnetic induction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doria, M.M.; Oliveira, I.G. de.

    1993-01-01

    Using anisotropic London theory the intrinsic magnetic torque for extreme type II uniaxial superconductors for any value of the magnetic induction is obtained. It is considered the vortex lines straight and take into account the contribution of the supercurrents flowing inside the vortex core within the London theory. It is shown that the interline and intra line free energies give opposite torque contributions, the first drives the magnetic induction parallel to the superconductor's axis of symmetry and the second orthogonal to it. At high magnetic induction torque expression obtained generalizes V. Kogan's formula since it has no free parameters other than the anisotropy γ = m 1 /m 3 and the Ginzburg-Landau parameter κ. At low magnetic induction it is proposed a way to observe vortex chains effects in the total torque based on the fact that London theory is linear and the energy to make a single vortex line in space is independent of the magnetic induction. (author)

  4. Doping effects of Fe ion on magnetic anisotropy of YBa2Cu3Oy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ugawa, T.; Horii, S.; Maeda, T.; Haruta, M.; Shimoyama, J.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •We clarified orientation effects of Fe-doped Y123 in modulated rotating fields. •Y123 showed two different hard magnetic axes due to twin microstructures. •The two hard magnetic axes in Fe-doped Y123 were [1 0 0] and [1 1 0] directions. •Magnetic anisotropy of the [1 1 0] grain was higher than that of the [1 0 0] grain. -- Abstract: We report magnetic alignment of YBa 2 (Cu 1−x Fe x ) 3 O y (Fe-doped Y123, x = 0–0.1) powders under modulated rotation magnetic fields (MRFs) and roles of Fe ion as a determination factor of magnetic anisotropy in Y123. The Fe-free and Fe-doped Y123 powder samples aligned in the MRF of 10 T showed two different orientation types of the hard axis in Y123 grains. From an X-ray rocking curve measurement for the magnetically aligned powder samples of the Fe-doped Y123, inplane magnetic anisotropy for Y123 grains with the hard axis parallel to the [1 1 0] direction was found to be higher than that for Y123 grains with the hard axis parallel to the [0 1 0] direction

  5. Exploration of Fermi-Pasta-Ulam Behavior in a Magnetic System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Jeramy; Camley, Robert E.; Anderson, Nicholas R.

    2018-04-01

    We study nonlinear spin motion in one-dimensional magnetic chains. We find significant differences from the classic Fermi-Pasta-Ulam (FPU) problem examining nonlinear elastic motion in a chain. We find that FPU behavior, the transfer of energy among low order eigenmodes, does not occur in magnetic systems with only exchange and external fields, but does exist if a uniaxial anisotropy is also present. The FPU behavior may be altered or turned off through the magnitude and orientation of an external magnetic field. A realistic micromagnetic model shows such behavior could be measurable.

  6. Thermally activated magnetization reversal in monatomic magnetic chains on surfaces studied by classical atomistic spin-dynamics simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, David S G; Mavropoulos, Phivos; Bluegel, Stefan; Lounis, Samir

    2011-01-01

    We analyse the spontaneous magnetization reversal of supported monatomic chains of finite length due to thermal fluctuations via atomistic spin-dynamics simulations. Our approach is based on the integration of the Landau-Lifshitz equation of motion of a classical spin Hamiltonian in the presence of stochastic forces. The associated magnetization lifetime is found to obey an Arrhenius law with an activation barrier equal to the domain wall energy in the chain. For chains longer than one domain wall width, the reversal is initiated by nucleation of a reversed magnetization domain primarily at the chain edge followed by a subsequent propagation of the domain wall to the other edge in a random-walk fashion. This results in a linear dependence of the lifetime on the chain length, if the magnetization correlation length is not exceeded. We studied chains of uniaxial and triaxial anisotropy and found that a triaxial anisotropy leads to a reduction of the magnetization lifetime due to a higher reversal attempt rate, even though the activation barrier is not changed.

  7. Magnetic anisotropy of single Co atom on CuN surface

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Shick, Alexander; Máca, František; Lichtenstein, A.I.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 105, č. 7 (2009), 07C309/1-07C309/3 ISSN 0021-8979 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GC202/07/J047 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : magnetic anisotropy energy * first principle calculations * cobalt * CuN Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.072, year: 2009

  8. Physical aspects of magnetic hyperthermia: Low-frequency ac field absorption in a magnetic colloid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raikher, Yu. L.; Stepanov, V.I.

    2014-01-01

    A uniaxially anisotropic superparamagnetic particle suspended in a viscous fluid and subjected to an ac field is considered. Consistently taking into account both internal (Néel) and external (Brownian) magnetic relaxations, a simple expression for the dynamic susceptibility is obtained. This result, with regard to the ac field energy absorption, is compared to the common heuristic approach. This is done for a model polydisperse colloid containing maghemite nanoparticles, which are assumed to posses either bulk or surface magnetic anisotropy. It is shown that viscous losses caused by the particle motion in a fluid matrix make important contribution to the full magnetic response of a ferrocolloid and, thus, its ability to absorb the ac field energy. The obtained exact expression, which takes in both dissipation mechanisms, paves the way to correct optimization of the nanoparticle-mediated heating effect. - Highlights: • A uniaxially anisotropic superparamagnetic particle suspended in a viscous fluid and subjected to an ac field is considered. • Consistently taking into account both internal (Néel) and external (Brownian) magnetic relaxations, a simple expression for the dynamic susceptibility is obtained. • This result, with regard to the ac field energy absorption, is compared to the common heuristic approach using as a benchmark a model polydisperse colloid containing maghemite nanoparticles, which are assumed to posses either bulk or surface magnetic anisotropy. • It is shown that viscous losses caused by the particle motion in a fluid matrix make important contribution to the full magnetic response of a ferrocolloid and, thus, its ability to absorb the ac field energy. • The obtained exact expression, which takes in both dissipation mechanisms, paves the way to correct optimization of the nanoparticle-mediated heating effect

  9. Magnetocrystalline Anisotropy of Magnetic Grains in Co80Pt20:Oxide Thin Films Probed by X-ray Magnetic Circular Dichroism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, W.; Morton, S. A.; Wong, P. K. J.; Arenholz, E.; Lu, B.; Cheng, T. Y.; Xu, Y. B.; Laan, G. van der; Hu, X.F

    2011-01-12

    Using angle-dependent x-ray magnetic circular dichroism, we have measured magnetic hysteresis loops at the Co L2,3 edges of oxide-doped Co80Pt20 thin films. The magnetocrystalline anisotropy energy (MAE) of the Co atoms, which is the main source of the magnetocrystalline anisotropy of the CoPt magnetic grains, has been determined directly from these element-specific hysteresis loops. When the oxide volume fraction (OVF) is increased from 16.6% to 20.7%, the Co MAE has been found to decrease from 0.117 meV/atom to 0.076 meV/atom. While a larger OVF helps one to achieve a smaller grain size, it reduces the magnetocrystalline anisotropy, as demonstrated unambiguously from the direct Co MAE measurements. Our results suggest that those Co80Pt20:oxide films with an OVF between 19.1% and 20.7% are suitable candidates for high-density magnetic recording.

  10. Generation of strong inhomogeneous stray fields by high-anisotropy permanent magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samofalov, V.N. [National Technical University Kharkov Polytechnical Institute, 21 Frunze St., 61002 Kharkov (Ukraine)]. E-mail: samofalov@kpi.kharkov.ua; Ravlik, A.G. [National Technical University Kharkov Polytechnical Institute, 21 Frunze St., 61002 Kharkov (Ukraine); Belozorov, D.P. [National Scientific Center Kharkov Institute of Physics and Techonology, NAS of Ukraine, 1 Akademicheskaja St., 61108 Kharkov (Ukraine); Avramenko, B.A. [National Technical University Kharkov Polytechnical Institute, 21 Frunze St., 61002 Kharkov (Ukraine)

    2004-10-01

    Magnetic stray fields for systems of permanent magnets with high magnetic anisotropy are calculated and measured. It is shown that intensity of these fields exceeds value of an induction of a material of magnets in some time. Besides, these fields are characterized by high gradients, and size H-bar H can reach values up to10{sup 10}-10{sup 11}Oe{sup 2}/cm. Estimations of extremely achievable fields and their gradients are made.

  11. Magnetic characteristics and nanostructures of FePt granular films with GeO2 segregant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Takuya; Moriya, Tomohiro; Hatayama, Masatoshi; Tsumura, Kaoru; Kikuchi, Nobuaki; Okamoto, Satoshi; Kitakami, Osamu; Shimatsu, Takehito

    2017-01-01

    To realize a granular film composed of L10-FePt grains with high uniaxial magnetic anisotropy energy, Ku, and segregants for energy-assisted magnetic recording, a FePt-GeO2/FePt-C stacked film was investigated in the engineering process. The FePt-GeO2/FePt-C stacked film fabricated at a substrate temperature of 450 °C realized uniaxial magnetic anisotropy, Kugrain , of about 2.5 × 107 erg/cm3, which is normalized by the volume fraction of FePt grains, and a granular structure with an averaged grain size of 7.7 nm. As the thickness of the FePt-GeO2 upper layer was increased to 9 nm, the Ku values were almost constant. That result differs absolutely from the thickness dependences of the other oxide segregant materials such as SiO2 and TiO2. Such differences on the oxide segregant are attributed to their chemical bond. The strong covalent bond of GeO2 is expected to result in high Ku of the FePt-GeO2/FePt-C stacked films.

  12. Tuning the electrical and optical anisotropy of a monolayer black phosphorus magnetic superlattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X. J.; Yu, J. H.; Luo, K.; Wu, Z. H.; Yang, W.

    2018-04-01

    We investigate theoretically the effects of modulated periodic perpendicular magnetic fields on the electronic states and optical absorption spectrum in monolayer black phosphorus (phosphorene). We demonstrate that different phosphorene magnetic superlattice (PMS) orientations can give rise to distinct energy spectra, i.e. tuning the intrinsic electronic anisotropy. Rashba spin-orbit coupling (RSOC) develops a spin-splitting energy dispersion in this phosphorene magnetic superlattice. Anisotropic momentum-dependent carrier distributions along/perpendicular to the magnetic strips are demonstrated. The manipulations of these exotic electronic properties by tuning superlattice geometry, magnetic field and the RSOC term are addressed systematically. Accordingly, we find bright-to-dark transitions in the ground-state electron-hole pair transition rate spectrum and the PMS orientation-dependent anisotropic optical absorption spectrum. This feature offers us a practical way of modulating the electronic anisotropy in phosphorene by magnetic superlattice configurations and detecting this modulation capability by using an optical technique.

  13. Magnetic anisotropy of [Mo(CN)7]4- anions and fragments of cyano-bridged magnetic networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chibotaru, Liviu F; Hendrickx, Marc F A; Clima, Sergiu; Larionova, Joulia; Ceulemans, Arnout

    2005-08-18

    Quantum chemistry calculations of CASSCF/CASPT2 level together with ligand field analysis are used for the investigation of magnetic anisotropy of [Mo(CN)7]4- complexes. We have considered three types of heptacyano environments: two ideal geometries, a pentagonal bipyramid and a capped trigonal prism, and the heptacyanomolybdate fragment of the cyano-bridged magnetic network K2[Mn(H2O)2]3[Mo(CN)7]2.6H2O. At all geometries the first excited Kramers doublet is found remarkably close to the ground one due to a small orbital energy gap in the ligand field spectrum, which ranges between a maximal value in the capped trigonal prism (800 cm(-1)) and zero in the pentagonal bipyramid. The small value of this gap explains (i) the axial form of the g tensor and (ii) the strong magnetic anisotropy even in strongly distorted complexes. Comparison with available experimental data for the g tensor of the mononuclear precursors reveals good agreement with the present calculations for the capped trigonal prismatic complex and a significant discrepancy for the pentagonal bipyramidal one. The calculations for the heptacyanomolybdate fragment of K2[Mn(H2O)2]3[Mo(CN)7]2.6H2O give g(perpendicular)/g(parallel) approximately 0.5 and the orientation of the local anisotropy axis close to the symmetry axis of an idealized pentagonal bipyramid. These findings are expected to be important for the understanding of the magnetism of anisotropic Mo(III)-Mn(II) cyano-bridged networks based on the [Mo(CN)7]4- building block.

  14. Perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in Mn2VIn (001) films: An ab initio study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zipporah, Muthui; Robinson, Musembi; Julius, Mwabora; Arti, Kashyap

    2018-05-01

    First principles study of the magnetic anisotropy of Mn2VIn (001) films show perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA), which increases as a function of the thickness of the film. Density functional theory (DFT) as implemented in the Vienna Ab initio simulation package (VASP) is employed here to perform a comprehensive theoretical investigation of the structural, electronic and magnetic properties of the Mn2VIn(001) films of varying thickness. Our calculations were performed on fully relaxed structures, with five to seventeen mono layers (ML). The degree of spin polarization is higher in the (001) Mn2VIn thin films as compared to the bulk in contrast to what is usually the case and as in Mn2VAl, which is isoelectronic to Mn2VIn as well as inCo2VIn (001) films studied for comparison. Tetragonal distortions are found in all the systems after relaxation. The distortion in the Mn2VIn system persists even for the 17ML thin film, resulting in PMA in the Mn2VIn system. This significant finding has potential to contribute to spin transfer torque (STT) and magnetic random access memory MRAM applications, as materials with PMA derived from volume magnetocrystalline anisotropy are being proposed as ideal magnetic electrodes.

  15. Magnetic anisotropy in a permalloy microgrid fabricated by near-field optical lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, S. P.; Lebib, A.; Peyrade, D.; Natali, M.; Chen, Y.; Lew, W. S.; Bland, J. A. C.

    2001-01-01

    We report the fabrication and magnetic properties of permalloy microgrids prepared by near-field optical lithography and characterized using high-sensitivity magneto-optical Kerr effect techniques. A fourfold magnetic anisotropy induced by the grid architecture is identified. [copyright] 2001 American Institute of Physics

  16. Magnetic properties of Cobalt thin films deposited on soft organic layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergenti, I. [ISMN-CNR via P. Gobetti 101, Bologna 40129 (Italy)]. E-mail: i.bergenti@bo.ismn.cnr.it; Riminucci, A. [ISMN-CNR via P. Gobetti 101, Bologna 40129 (Italy); Arisi, E. [ISMN-CNR via P. Gobetti 101, Bologna 40129 (Italy); Murgia, M. [ISMN-CNR via P. Gobetti 101, Bologna 40129 (Italy); Cavallini, M. [ISMN-CNR via P. Gobetti 101, Bologna 40129 (Italy); Solzi, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita di Parma and CNISM, Parco Area delle Scienze 7/A, Parma 43100 (Italy); Casoli, F. [IMEM-CNR Parco Area delle Scienze 37/A, Parma 43100 (Italy); Dediu, V. [ISMN-CNR via P. Gobetti 101, Bologna 40129 (Italy)

    2007-09-15

    Magnetic and morphological properties of Cobalt thin films grown by RF sputtering on organic Alq3 layers were investigated by magneto-optical Kerr effect (MOKE) technique and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The AFM images indicate a template growth of Co layers on top of Alq3, the magnetic film 'decorates' the surface of organic material. This peculiar morphology induces a strong uniaxial magnetic anisotropy in the Co films, as detected by MOKE measurements. Results are important for the operation of a new class of devices-vertical organic spin valves.

  17. Two-dimensional chiral asymmetry in unidirectional magnetic anisotropy structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perna, P., E-mail: paolo.perna@imdea.org; Guerrero, R.; Niño, M. A. [IMDEA-Nanoscience, c/ Faraday, 9 Campus de Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Ajejas, F.; Maccariello, D.; Cuñado, J. L. [IMDEA-Nanoscience, c/ Faraday, 9 Campus de Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); DFMC and Instituto “Nicolás Cabrera”, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Muñoz, M. [IMM-CSIC, Isaac Newton 8, PTM, 28760 Tres Cantos, Madrid (Spain); ISOM, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Prieto, J. L. [ISOM, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Miranda, R.; Camarero, J. [IMDEA-Nanoscience, c/ Faraday, 9 Campus de Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); DFMC and Instituto “Nicolás Cabrera”, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Condensed Matter Physics Center (IFIMAC), Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2016-05-15

    We investigate the symmetry-breaking effects of magnetic nanostructures that present unidirectional (one-fold) magnetic anisotropy. Angular and field dependent transport and magnetic properties have been studied in two different exchange-biased systems, i.e. ferromagnetic (FM)/ antiferromagnetic (AFM) bilayer and spin-valve structures. We experimentally show the direct relationships between the magnetoresistance (MR) response and the magnetization reversal pathways for any field value and direction. We demonstrate that even though the MR signals are related to different transport phenomena, namely anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR) and giant magnetoresistance (GMR), chiral asymmetries are found around the magnetization hard-axis direction, in both cases originated from the one-fold symmetry of the interfacial exchange coupling. Our results indicate that the chiral asymmetry of transport and magnetic behaviors are intrinsic of systems with an unidirectional contribution.

  18. Two-dimensional chiral asymmetry in unidirectional magnetic anisotropy structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Perna

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the symmetry-breaking effects of magnetic nanostructures that present unidirectional (one-fold magnetic anisotropy. Angular and field dependent transport and magnetic properties have been studied in two different exchange-biased systems, i.e. ferromagnetic (FM/ antiferromagnetic (AFM bilayer and spin-valve structures. We experimentally show the direct relationships between the magnetoresistance (MR response and the magnetization reversal pathways for any field value and direction. We demonstrate that even though the MR signals are related to different transport phenomena, namely anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR and giant magnetoresistance (GMR, chiral asymmetries are found around the magnetization hard-axis direction, in both cases originated from the one-fold symmetry of the interfacial exchange coupling. Our results indicate that the chiral asymmetry of transport and magnetic behaviors are intrinsic of systems with an unidirectional contribution.

  19. Magnetization reversal mechanism of Nd-Fe-B films with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xiaoxi; Ishida, Go; Morisako, Akimitsu

    2011-01-01

    The microstructure and magnetic properties of Nd-Fe-B films with thicknesses from 100 nm to 3 nm have been investigated. All the films show excellent perpendicular magnetic anisotropy with a squareness ratio of 1 in the perpendicular direction and almost zero coercivity in the in-plane direction. Of particular interest is that the initial magnetization curves sensitively depended on the film thickness. Films thicker than 15 nm show steep initial magnetization curve. Although the films have coercivities larger than 21 kOe, the films can be fully magnetized from the thermally demagnetized state with a field as small as 5 kOe. With the decrease of film thickness to 5 nm, the initial magnetization curve becomes flat. The evolution of initial magnetization curves with film thickness can be understood by the microstructure of the films. Films with thickness of 15 nm show close-packed grains without any intergranular phases. Such microstructures lead to steep initial magnetization curves. On the other hand, when the film thickness decreased to 3 nm, the film thickness became nonuniform. Such microstructure leads to flat initial magnetization curves.

  20. Four-fold magnetic anisotropy in a Co film on MgO(0 0 1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pires, M.J.M.; Cotta, A.A.C.; Martins, M.D.; Silva, A.M.A.; Macedo, W.A.A.

    2011-01-01

    The development of devices based on magnetic tunnel junctions has raised new interests on the structural and magnetic properties of the interface Co/MgO. In this context, we have grown ultrathin Co films (≤30 A) by molecular-beam epitaxy on MgO(0 0 1) substrates kept at different temperatures (T S ). Their structural and magnetic properties were correlated and discussed in the context of distinct magnetic anisotropies for Co phases reported in the literature. The sample characterization has been done by reflection high energy electron diffraction, magneto-optical Kerr effect and ferromagnetic resonance. The main focus of the work is on a sample deposited at T S =25 o C, as its particular way of growth has enabled a bct Co structure to settle on the substrate, where it is not normally obtained without specific seed layers. This sample presented the best crystallinity, softer magnetic properties and a four-fold in-plane magnetic anisotropy with Co easy directions. Concerning the samples prepared at T S =200 and 500 o C, they show fcc and polycrystalline structures, respectively and more intricate magnetic anisotropy patterns. - Research Highlights: →Results suggest the lattice is already after the Bain transformation for T S =25 o C, and the Co film has a bct structure instead of an fct one. →For deposition temperature of T S =25 o C, a four-fold in-plane magnetic anisotropy with Co easy directions has been obtained. →The growth mode of Co on MgO single crystals at different temperatures resulted in bct Co at T S =25 o C, fcc Co at T S =200 o C and polycrystalline Co at T S =500 o C.

  1. Tuning magnetic properties of magnetoelectric BiFeO 3-NiFe 2O 4 nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, S. P.; Bihler, C.; Brandt, M. S.; Goennenwein, S. T. B.; Gajek, M.; Ramesh, R.

    2009-02-01

    Multifunctional thin film nanostructures containing soft magnetic materials such as nickel ferrite are interesting for potential applications in microwave signal processing because of the possibility to shrink the size of device architecture and limit device power consumption. An essential prerequisite to future applications of such a system is a firm understanding of its magnetic properties. We show that nanostructures composed of ferrimagnetic NiFe 2O 4 pillars in a multiferroic BiFeO 3 matrix can be tuned magnetically by altering the aspect ratio of the pillars by depositing films of varying thickness. Magnetic anisotropy is studied using ferromagnetic resonance, which shows that the uniaxial magnetic anisotropy in the growth direction changes sign upon increasing the film thickness. The magnitude of this anisotropy contribution can be explained via a combination of shape and magnetostatic effects, using the object-oriented micromagnetic framework (OOMMF). The key factors determining the magnetic properties of the films are shown to be the aspect ratio of individual pillars and magnetostatic interactions between neighboring pillars.

  2. Tuning magnetic properties of magnetoelectric BiFeO3-NiFe2O4 nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crane, S.P.; Bihler, C.; Brandt, M.S.; Goennenwein, S.T.B.; Gajek, M.; Ramesh, R.

    2009-01-01

    Multifunctional thin film nanostructures containing soft magnetic materials such as nickel ferrite are interesting for potential applications in microwave signal processing because of the possibility to shrink the size of device architecture and limit device power consumption. An essential prerequisite to future applications of such a system is a firm understanding of its magnetic properties. We show that nanostructures composed of ferrimagnetic NiFe 2 O 4 pillars in a multiferroic BiFeO 3 matrix can be tuned magnetically by altering the aspect ratio of the pillars by depositing films of varying thickness. Magnetic anisotropy is studied using ferromagnetic resonance, which shows that the uniaxial magnetic anisotropy in the growth direction changes sign upon increasing the film thickness. The magnitude of this anisotropy contribution can be explained via a combination of shape and magnetostatic effects, using the object-oriented micromagnetic framework (OOMMF). The key factors determining the magnetic properties of the films are shown to be the aspect ratio of individual pillars and magnetostatic interactions between neighboring pillars

  3. On the Origin of the Large Magnetic Anisotropy of Rare Earth-Cobalt Compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szpunar, B.; Lindgård, Per-Anker

    1979-01-01

    Experimental data on the magnetocrystalline anisotropy in Co, YCo5, GdCo5, SmCo5 and Y2Co17 is analysed using a single-ion crystal field and isotropic exchange interaction. The large magnetic anisotropy at high temperatures in the alloys is due to significant deviations in the alloy lattices...

  4. Magnetic anisotropy in GaMnAs; Magnetische Anisotropie in GaMnAs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daeubler, Joachim

    2009-07-02

    The goal of the present work was the detailed investigation of the impact of parameters like vertical strain, hole concentration, substrate orientation and patterning on the MA in GaMnAs. At first a method is introduced enabling us to determine the MA from angle-dependent magnetotransport measurements. This method was used to analyze the impact of vertical strain {epsilon}{sub zz} on the MA in a series of GaMnAs layers with a Mn content of 5% grown on relaxed InGaAs-templates. While hole concentration and Curie temperature were found to be unaffected by vertical strain, a significant dependence of the MA on {epsilon}{sub zz} was found. The most pronounced dependence was observed for the anisotropy parameter B{sub 2} {sub perpendicular} {sub to}, representing the intrinsic contribution to the MA perpendicular to the layer plane. For this parameter a linear dependence on {epsilon}{sub zz} was found, resulting in a strain-induced transition of the magnetic easy axis with increasing strain from in-plane to out-of-plane at {epsilon}{sub zz} {approx} -0.13%. Post-growth annealing of the samples leads to an outdiffusion and/or regrouping of the highly mobile Mn interstitial donor defects, resulting in an increase in both p and T{sub C}. For the annealed samples, the transition from in-plane to out-of-plane easy axis takes place at {epsilon}{sub zz} {approx} -0.07%. From a comparison of as-grown and annealed samples, B{sub 2} {sub perpendicular} {sub to} was found to be proportional to both p and {epsilon}{sub zz}, B{sub 2} {sub perpendicular} {sub to} {proportional_to} p .{epsilon}{sub zz}. To study the influence of substrate orientation on the magnetic properties of GaMnAs, a series of GaMnAs layers with Mn contents up to 5% was grown on (001)- and (113)A-oriented GaAs substrates. The hole densities and Curie temperatures, determined from magnetotransport measurements, are drastically reduced in the (113)A layers. The differences in the magnetic properties of (113)A- and

  5. Investigation of the use of uniaxial comb-shaped Galfenol patches for a guided wave-based magnetostrictive phased array sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Byungseok; Pines, Darryll J.

    2018-05-01

    This paper investigates the use of uniaxial comb-shaped Fe-Ga alloy (Galfenol) patches in the development of a Magnetostrictive Phased Array Sensor (MPAS) for the Guided Wave (GW) damage inspection technique. The MPAS consists of six highly-textured Galfenol patches with a preferred orientation and a Hexagonal Magnetic Circuit Device (HMCD). The Galfenol patches individually aligned to distinct azimuthal directions were permanently attached to a thin aluminum plate specimen. The detachable HMCD encloses a biasing magnet and six sensing coils with unique directional sensing preferences, equivalent to the specific orientation of the discrete Galfenol patches. The preliminary experimental tests validated that the GW sensing performance and directional sensitivity of the Galfenol-based sensor were significantly improved by the magnetic shape anisotropy effect on the fabrication of uniaxial comb fingers to a Galfenol disc patch. We employed a series of uniaxial comb-shaped Galfenol patches to form an MPAS with a hexagonal sensor configuration, uniformly arranged within a diameter of 1". The Galfenol MPAS was utilized to identify structural damage simulated by loosening joint bolts used to fasten the plate specimen to a frame structure. We compared the damage detection results of the MPAS with those of a PZT Phased Array Sensor (PPAS) collocated to the back surface of the plate. The directional filtering characteristic of the Galfenol MPAS led to acquiring less complicated GW signals than the PPAS using omnidirectional PZT discs. However, due to the detection limit of the standard hexagonal patterned array, the two array sensors apparently identified only the loosened bolts located along one of the preferred orientations of the array configuration. The use of the fixed number of the Galfenol patches for the MPAS construction constrained the capability of sensing point multiplication of the HMCD by altering its rotational orientation, resulting in such damage detection

  6. Magnetic anisotropy in intermetallic compounds containing both uranium and 3d-metal

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Andreev, Alexander V.; Tereshina, Evgeniya; Gorbunov, Denis; Šantavá, Eva; Šebek, Josef; Žáček, Martin; Homma, Y.; Shiokawa, Y.; Satoh, I.; Yamamura, Y.; Komatsubara, T.; Watanabe, K.; Koyama, K.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 114, č. 9 (2013), s. 727-733 ISSN 0031-918X R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP204/12/0150 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : uranium intermetallics * magnetic anisotropy * ferromagnetism Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.605, year: 2013

  7. Artificially controlled stress anisotropy and magnetic properties of FeTaN thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng, H.; Jarratt, J.D.; Minor, M.K.; Barnard, J.A.

    1997-01-01

    This article presents a new method of investigating internal stress effects on thin film magnetic properties, in this case magnetically soft FeTaN sputtered films. The FeTaN films were deposited on a series of oxidized silicon (111) substrates prestressed to different degrees. During sputtering all the deposition conditions were kept exactly the same for all the samples. However, anisotropic stresses with different amplitudes are systematically introduced into the films when the prestressed wafers were released. In this way, FeTaN films with compressive stress varying from 80 to 608 MPa are produced. We found that the saturation magnetostriction (λ s ), anisotropy field (H k ), initial permeability (μ i ) as well as easy axis orientation of FeTaN thin films are strongly affected by the induced stress anisotropy. A stress ratio concept is proposed as a measure of the degree of the stress anisotropy. Models for easy-hard axis switching induced by stress for magnetic films with positive magnetostriction are discussed. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  8. Magnetic properties of Sm2Co17-xCrx (0 ≤ x ≤ 3.0) compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuquan, B.; Wang, J.L.; Tegus, O.; Dagula, W.; Tang, N.; Wang, W.Q.; Yang, F.M.; Brueck, E.; Boer, F.R. de; Buschow, K.H.J.

    2004-01-01

    The structural and magnetic properties of Sm 2 Co 17-x Cr x (0≤x≤3.0) compounds have been investigated by means of X-ray diffraction and magnetization measurements. The powder X-ray diffraction patterns show that all samples crystallize as a single phase with the rhombohedral Th 2 Zn 17 -type structure. The lattice parameters a and V increase monotonically with increasing Cr content, but the lattice parameter c increases very slowly with increasing Cr content. The X-ray diffraction patterns of the aligned powder of the samples have confirmed that all the compounds investigated have uniaxial anisotropy. The Curie temperature of the compounds decreases rapidly the spontaneous magnetization M 0 , the anisotropy field B a , and the anisotropy constant K 1 of Sm 2 Co 17-x Cr x (0≤x≤3.0) compounds decrease strongly with increasing Cr content

  9. NANO-MULTILAYERS WITH HIGH PERPENDICULAR ANISOTROPY FOR MAGNETIC RECORDING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    T. Yang; B.H. Li; K. Kang; T. Suzuki

    2003-01-01

    (FePt/Ag)n nano-multilayers were deposited on MgO (100) single crystal with laser ablation and then subjected to annealing. FePt L1o grains with (001) texture and thus a large perpendicular magnetic anisotropy constant Ku of the order of 106J/m3 were formed. A thick Ag layer is found to be favorable for decreasing the dispersion of the easy axis for magnetization. The measurement of time decay of magnetization gave rise to a small activation volume of the order of 10-25 m3, showing the promising of being the recording medium for future high density perpendicular recording.

  10. Determination of plastic anisotropy of zirconium alloys cladding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamshchikov, N.V.; Prasolov, P.F.; Shestak, V.E.

    1991-01-01

    Method for determining plastic anisotropy of zurconium alloy cladding is described. It is based on consideration of material as a combination of transversal crystallites with known distribution over orientations. Such approach enables to describe cladding resistance to plastic deformation at arbitrary stressed state, using the results of texture investigations and uniaxial tests of samples, cut out of claddings along three directions. Plastic anisotropy of fuel element claddings 9.15 and 13.6 mm in diameter up to several percents of plastic deformation is shown

  11. Magnetic Alignment of Block Copolymer Microdomains by Intrinsic Chain Anisotropy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rokhlenko, Yekaterina; Gopinadhan, Manesh; Osuji, Chinedum O; Zhang, Kai; O'Hern, Corey S; Larson, Steven R; Gopalan, Padma; Majewski, Paweł W; Yager, Kevin G

    2015-12-18

    We examine the role of intrinsic chain susceptibility anisotropy in magnetic field directed self-assembly of a block copolymer using in situ x-ray scattering. Alignment of a lamellar mesophase is observed on cooling across the disorder-order transition with the resulting orientational order inversely proportional to the cooling rate. We discuss the origin of the susceptibility anisotropy, Δχ, that drives alignment and calculate its magnitude using coarse-grained molecular dynamics to sample conformations of surface-tethered chains, finding Δχ≈2×10^{-8}. From field-dependent scattering data, we estimate that grains of ≈1.2  μm are present during alignment. These results demonstrate that intrinsic anisotropy is sufficient to support strong field-induced mesophase alignment and suggest a versatile strategy for field control of orientational order in block copolymers.

  12. Anisotropy barrier reduction in fast-relaxing Mn12 single-molecule magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Stephen; Murugesu, Muralee; Christou, George

    2009-11-01

    An angle-swept high-frequency electron paramagnetic resonance (HFEPR) technique is described that facilitates efficient in situ alignment of single-crystal samples containing low-symmetry magnetic species such as single-molecule magnets (SMMs). This cavity-based technique involves recording HFEPR spectra at fixed frequency and field, while sweeping the applied field orientation. The method is applied to the study of a low-symmetry Jahn-Teller variant of the extensively studied spin S=10 Mn12 SMMs (e.g., Mn12 -acetate). The low-symmetry complex also exhibits SMM behavior, but with a significantly reduced effective barrier to magnetization reversal (Ueff≈43K) and, hence, faster relaxation at low temperature in comparison with the higher-symmetry species. Mn12 complexes that crystallize in lower symmetry structures exhibit a tendency for one or more of the Jahn-Teller axes associated with the MnIII atoms to be abnormally oriented, which is believed to be the cause of the faster relaxation. An extensive multi-high-frequency angle-swept and field-swept electron paramagnetic resonance study of [Mn12O12(O2CCH2But)16(H2O)4]ṡCH2Cl2ṡMeNO2 is presented in order to examine the influence of the abnormally oriented Jahn-Teller axis on the effective barrier to magnetization reversal. The reduction in the axial anisotropy, D , is found to be insufficient to account for the nearly 40% reduction in Ueff . However, the reduced symmetry of the Mn12 core gives rise to a very significant second-order transverse (rhombic) zero-field-splitting anisotropy, E≈D/6 . This, in turn, causes a significant mixing of spin projection states well below the top of the classical anisotropy barrier. Thus, magnetic quantum tunneling is the dominant factor contributing to the effective barrier reduction in fast relaxing Mn12 SMMs.

  13. Modification of magnetic anisotropy in metallic glasses using high ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The data gives a straight line as a best fit as shown in figure 4. It can be safely inferred that the residual stresses produced in the glassy metals could be the main cause of the reduction in in-plane magnetic anisotropy. This phe- nomenon is in conformity with the magnetostriction effect in which mechanical stresses. 1098.

  14. Electric field controlled reversible magnetic anisotropy switching studied by spin rectification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Hengan; Fan, Xiaolong; Wang, Fenglong; Jiang, Changjun; Rao, Jinwei; Zhao, Xiaobing; Xue, Desheng; Gui, Y. S.; Hu, C.-M.

    2014-01-01

    In this letter, spin rectification was used to study the electric field controlled dynamic magnetic properties of the multiferroic composite which is a Co stripe with induced in-plane anisotropy deposited onto a Pb(Mg 1∕3 Nb 2∕3 )O 3 -PbTiO 3 substrate. Due to the coupling between piezoelectric and magnetoelastic effects, a reversible in-plane anisotropy switching has been realized by varying the history of the applied electric field. This merit results from the electric hysteresis of the polarization in the nonlinear piezoelectric regime, which has been proved by a butterfly type electric field dependence of the in-plane anisotropy field. Moreover, the electric field dependent effective demagnetization field and linewidth have been observed at the same time

  15. Evidence for nanoscale two-dimensional Co clusters in CoPt{sub 3} films with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cross, J O [Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Newville, M [Consortium for Advanced Radiation Sources, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Maranville, B B; Hellman, F [Department of Physics, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Bordel, C [Department of Physics, University of California at Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Harris, V G, E-mail: cbordel@berkeley.ed [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Northeastern University, Boston, MA 02115 (United States)

    2010-04-14

    The length scale of the local chemical anisotropy responsible for the growth-temperature-induced perpendicular magnetic anisotropy of face-centered cubic CoPt{sub 3} alloy films was investigated using polarized extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS). These x-ray measurements were performed on a series of four (111) CoPt{sub 3} films epitaxially grown on (0001) sapphire substrates. The EXAFS data show a preference for Co-Co pairs parallel to the film plane when the film exhibits magnetic anisotropy, and random chemical order otherwise. Furthermore, atomic pair correlation anisotropy was evidenced only in the EXAFS signal from the next neighbors to the absorbing Co atoms and from multiple scattering paths focused through the next neighbors. This suggests that the Co clusters are no more than a few atoms in extent in the plane and one monolayer in extent out of the plane. Our EXAFS results confirm the correlation between perpendicular magnetic anisotropy and two-dimensional Co segregation in CoPt{sub 3} alloy films, and establish a length scale on the order of 10 A for the Co clusters.

  16. Perpendicular magnetic anisotropy of CoFeB\\Ta bilayers on ALD HfO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bart F. Vermeulen

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA is an essential condition for CoFe thin films used in magnetic random access memories. Until recently, interfacial PMA was mainly known to occur in materials stacks with MgO\\CoFe(B interfaces or using an adjacent crystalline heavy metal film. Here, PMA is reported in a CoFeB\\Ta bilayer deposited on amorphous high-κ dielectric (relative permittivity κ=20 HfO2, grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD. PMA with interfacial anisotropy energy Ki up to 0.49 mJ/m2 appears after annealing the stacks between 200°C and 350°C, as shown with vibrating sample magnetometry. Transmission electron microscopy shows that the decrease of PMA starting from 350°C coincides with the onset of interdiffusion in the materials. High-κ dielectrics are potential enablers for giant voltage control of magnetic anisotropy (VCMA. The absence of VCMA in these experiments is ascribed to a 0.6 nm thick magnetic dead layer between HfO2 and CoFeB. The results show PMA can be easily obtained on ALD high-κ dielectrics.

  17. Magnetic anisotropy of heteronuclear dimers in the gas phase and supported on graphene: relativistic density-functional calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Błoński, Piotr; Hafner, Jürgen

    2014-04-09

    The structural and magnetic properties of mixed PtCo, PtFe, and IrCo dimers in the gas phase and supported on a free-standing graphene layer have been calculated using density-functional theory, both in the scalar-relativistic limit and self-consistently including spin-orbit coupling. The influence of the strong magnetic moments of the 3d atoms on the spin and orbital moments of the 5d atoms, and the influence of the strong spin-orbit coupling contributed by the 5d atom on the orbital moments of the 3d atoms have been studied in detail. The magnetic anisotropy energy is found to depend very sensitively on the nature of the eigenstates in the vicinity of the Fermi level, as determined by band filling, exchange splitting and spin-orbit coupling. The large magnetic anisotropy energy of free PtCo and IrCo dimers relative to the easy direction parallel to the dimer axis is coupled to a strong anisotropy of the orbital magnetic moments of the Co atom for both dimers, and also on the Ir atom in IrCo. In contrast the PtFe dimer shows a weak perpendicular anisotropy and only small spin and orbital anisotropies of opposite sign on the two atoms. For dimers supported on graphene, the strong binding within the dimer and the stronger interaction of the 3d atom with the substrate stabilizes an upright geometry. Spin and orbital moments on the 3d atom are strongly quenched, but due to the weaker binding within the dimer the properties of the 5d atom are more free-atom-like with increased spin and orbital moments. The changes in the magnetic moment are reflected in the structure of the electronic eigenstates near the Fermi level, for all three dimers the easy magnetic direction is now parallel to the dimer axis and perpendicular to the graphene layer. The already very large magnetic anisotropy energy (MAE) of IrCo is further enhanced by the interaction with the support, the MAE of PtFe changes sign, and that of the PtCo dimer is reduced. These changes are discussed in relation to

  18. New structures of Fe3S for rare-earth-free permanent magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shu; Zhao, Xin; Wu, Shunqing; Nguyen, Manh Cuong; Zhu, Zi-zhong; Wang, Cai-Zhuang; Ho, Kai-Ming

    2018-02-01

    We applied an adaptive genetic algorithm (AGA) to search for low-energy crystal structures of Fe3S. A number of structures with energies lower than that of the experimentally reported Pnma and I-4 structures have been obtained from our AGA searches. These low-energy structures can be classified as layer-motif and column-motif structures. In the column-motif structures, Fe atoms self-assemble into rods with a bcc type of underlying lattice, which are separated by the holes terminated by S atoms. In the layer-motif structures, the bulk Fe is broken into slabs of several layers passivated by S atoms. Magnetic property calculations showed that the column-motif structures exhibit reasonably high uniaxial magnetic anisotropy. In addition, we examined the effect of Co doping to Fe3S and found that magnetic anisotropy can be enhanced through Co doping.

  19. Tuning magnetic properties of magnetoelectric BiFeO{sub 3}-NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crane, S.P. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)], E-mail: scrane@berkeley.edu; Bihler, C.; Brandt, M.S. [Walter Schottky Institut, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Goennenwein, S.T.B. [Walther-Meissner-Institut, Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Gajek, M. [Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Ramesh, R. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2009-02-15

    Multifunctional thin film nanostructures containing soft magnetic materials such as nickel ferrite are interesting for potential applications in microwave signal processing because of the possibility to shrink the size of device architecture and limit device power consumption. An essential prerequisite to future applications of such a system is a firm understanding of its magnetic properties. We show that nanostructures composed of ferrimagnetic NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} pillars in a multiferroic BiFeO{sub 3} matrix can be tuned magnetically by altering the aspect ratio of the pillars by depositing films of varying thickness. Magnetic anisotropy is studied using ferromagnetic resonance, which shows that the uniaxial magnetic anisotropy in the growth direction changes sign upon increasing the film thickness. The magnitude of this anisotropy contribution can be explained via a combination of shape and magnetostatic effects, using the object-oriented micromagnetic framework (OOMMF). The key factors determining the magnetic properties of the films are shown to be the aspect ratio of individual pillars and magnetostatic interactions between neighboring pillars.

  20. Annealing and thickness effects on magnetic properties of Co2FeAl alloy films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ke; Xu, Zhan; Ling, Fujin; Wang, Yahong; Dong, Shuo

    2018-03-01

    Co2FeAl (CFA) films in a wide thickness range between 2 and 100 nm are sputtered at room temperature. Perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) is achieved in the annealed structure of Pd/CFA/MgO with CFA thickness ranging between 2.3 and 4.9 nm. PMA as high as 2 × 106 erg/cm3 is demonstrated in the structures annealed in the temperature range between 300 and 350 °C. Positive contributions to the PMA made by the interfaces of Pd/CFA and CFA/MgO are identified. For the as-deposited structure of MgO/CFA/Ta with thick CFA alloy up to 5 nm or above a high effective saturation magnetization of 983.9 ± 30.1 emu/cc is derived from the fitting and an in-plane uniaxial magnetic anisotropy of 104 erg/cm3 in magnitude is revealed by angular dependent magnetic measurements. In addition to the increase in saturation magnetization, a fourfold cubic magnetic anisotropy is found to develop with annealing, in line with the improvement of the crystalline structure confirmed by X-ray diffraction measurements. Out results provide some useful information for the design of the CFA-based magnetoelectronic devices.

  1. Laser heating and oxygen partial pressure effects on the dynamic magnetic properties of perpendicular CoFeAlO films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Di [Key Laboratory of Micro and Nano Photonic Structures (Ministry of Education), Department of Optical Science and Engineering, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Li, Wei [State Key Laboratory of Precision Spectroscopy and Department of Physics, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062 (China); Tang, Minghong [Key Laboratory of Micro and Nano Photonic Structures (Ministry of Education), Department of Optical Science and Engineering, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Zhang, Zongzhi, E-mail: zzzhang@fudan.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Micro and Nano Photonic Structures (Ministry of Education), Department of Optical Science and Engineering, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Lou, Shitao [State Key Laboratory of Precision Spectroscopy and Department of Physics, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062 (China); Jin, Q.Y. [Key Laboratory of Micro and Nano Photonic Structures (Ministry of Education), Department of Optical Science and Engineering, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); State Key Laboratory of Precision Spectroscopy and Department of Physics, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062 (China)

    2016-07-01

    The impact of oxidation and laser heating on the dynamic magnetic properties of perpendicularly magnetized Co{sub 50}Fe{sub 25}Al{sub 25}O films has been studied by time-resolved magneto-optical Kerr effect in a fs-laser pump-probe setup. We find that pump laser fluence F{sub p} can affect the effective magnetic anisotropy field and thus the precession frequency f seriously, leading to an increased dependence of effective magnetic damping factor α{sub eff} on the external field at higher fluences. Moreover, the α{sub eff} increases with increasing the oxygen partial pressure P{sub O2} while the uniaxial anisotropy energy K{sub u} and Landau factor g decrease, owing to the increased proportion of superparamagnetic CoFe oxides formed by over-oxidation. By optimizing both the F{sub p} and P{sub O2}, the intrinsic damping factor is determined to be lower than 0.028 for the perpendicular film showing a uniaxial anisotropy energy as high as 4.3×10{sup 6} erg/cm{sup 3}. The results in this study provide a promising approach to manipulate the magnetic parameters for possible applications in spintronic devices. - Highlights: • A new kind of perpendicular thin film material, oxidized CoFeAl, has been fabricated. • The precession frequency and effective damping are strongly affected by higher fluence. • The effective damping factor increases with oxygen partial pressure. • The intrinsic damping factor is below 0.028 for the CFAO film with K{sub u}=4.3×10{sup 6} erg/cm{sup 3}.

  2. Strong out-of-plane magnetic anisotropy in ion irradiated anatase TiO2 thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Stiller

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The temperature and field dependence of the magnetization of epitaxial, undoped anatase TiO2 thin films on SrTiO3 substrates was investigated. Low-energy ion irradiation was used to modify the surface of the films within a few nanometers, yet with high enough energy to produce oxygen and titanium vacancies. The as-prepared thin film shows ferromagnetism which increases after irradiation with low-energy ions. An optimal and clear magnetic anisotropy was observed after the first irradiation, opposite to the expected form anisotropy. Taking into account the experimental parameters, titanium vacancies as di-Frenkel pairs appear to be responsible for the enhanced ferromagnetism and the strong anisotropy observed in our films. The magnetic impurities concentrations was measured by particle-induced X-ray emission with ppm resolution. They are ruled out as a source of the observed ferromagnetism before and after irradiation.

  3. Effect of the growth conditions on the anisotropy, domain structures and the relaxation in Co thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallik, Srijani; Mallick, Sougata; Bedanta, Subhankar, E-mail: sbedanta@niser.ac.in

    2017-04-15

    We report a systematic study on the anisotropy symmetry, magnetic domains and magnetic relaxation behavior in Co thin films deposited on MgO (001) substrate by varying (i) the pre-annealing condition and (ii) the speed of substrate rotation during deposition. Substrate annealing prior to deposition leads to the formation of textured thin films. On contrary Co films prepared without substrate pre-annealing exhibit polycrystalline nature. Surface topography imaged by atomic force microscopy (AFM) depicts a profound effect of growth condition on grain size and its distribution. Magnetic hysteresis measurement along with simultaneous domain imaging has been performed by magneto optic Kerr effect (MOKE) based microscope by varying the angle (ϕ) between the easy axis and the direction of applied magnetic field. We observed the existence of cubic and uniaxial anisotropy due to the presence of substrate annealing and oblique angular deposition, respectively. Along the easy axis, magnetization reversal is governed by 180° domain wall motion via branched domains. However, for easy axis<ϕmagnetic relaxation behavior under constant magnetic field strongly depends on the size and distribution of the grains. - Highlights: • This article provides a systematic study of textured growth of Co on MgO(001) substrate. • The structure has clear implication on the magnetic properties. • The magnetic relaxation has been studied for both textured and polycrystalline films.

  4. Ball solitons in kinetics of the first order magnetic phase transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nietz, V.V.; Osipov, A.A.

    2007-01-01

    The theory of magnetic ball solitons (BS), arising as a result of the energy fluctuations at the spin-flop transition induced by a magnetic field in antiferromagnets with uniaxial anisotropy, is presented. Such solitons are possible in a wide range of amplitudes and energies, including the negative energy relative to an initial condition. When such an antiferromagnet is in a metastable condition, ball solitons are born with the greatest probability if the energy of solitons is close to zero. Evolution of these solitons, at which they develop into macroscopic domains of a new magnetic phase, is analyzed, thus carrying out full phase reorganization

  5. Composite bonded magnets with controlled anisotropy directions prepared by viscous deformation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, Fumitoshi; Kawamura, Kiyomi; Okada, Yukihiro; Murakami, Hiroshi; Ogushi, Masaki; Nakano, Masaki; Fukunaga, Hirotoshi

    2007-01-01

    When a radially anisotropic rare earth bonded magnet for a rotor with a high (BH) max value is magnetized multi-polarly, its flux distributes rectangularly and increases a cogging torque. In order to overcome this difficulty, we newly developed highly dense Sm 2 Fe 17 N 3 and Nd 2 Fe 14 B-based composite bonded magnets with continuously controlled anisotropy directions by using a viscous deformation technique

  6. Magnetic and magnetoelastic properties of the random anisotropy amorphous magnets Tb2(FexNi1-x)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De la Fuente, C.; Arnaudas, J.I.; Del Moral, A.; Ciria, M.

    1996-01-01

    Amorphous Tb 2 (Fe x Ni 1-x ) compounds show the strongest random anisotropy known: D/J≅5.2, between crystal field and exchange strengths, separately obtained. The magnetic phase diagram shows two speri-magnetic phases. The effective magnetic moment is reduced, μ eff. (5 K, 12 T)≅7.2 μ B /Tb 3+ . Magnetostriction is very large and constant, λ t (5 K, 12 T)≅4.1.10 -3 . The local distribution of Tb 3+ ions is aspherical. (orig.)

  7. Perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in CoXPd100-X alloys for magnetic tunnel junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, B. D.; Natarajarathinam, A.; Tadisina, Z. R.; Chen, P. J.; Shull, R. D.; Gupta, S.

    2017-08-01

    CoFeB/MgO-based perpendicular magnetic tunnel junctions (p-MTJ's) with high anisotropy and low damping are critical for spin-torque transfer random access memory (STT-RAM). Most schemes of making the pinned CoFeB fully perpendicular require ferrimagnets with high damping constants, a high temperature-grown L10 alloy, or an overly complex multilayered synthetic antiferromagnet (SyAF). We report a compositional study of perpendicular CoxPd alloy-pinned Co20Fe60B20/MgO based MTJ stacks, grown at moderate temperatures in a planetary deposition system. The perpendicular anisotropy of the CoxPd alloy films can be tuned based on the layer thickness and composition. The films were characterized by alternating gradient magnetometry (AGM), energy-dispersive X-rays (EDX), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Current-in-plane tunneling (CIPT) measurements have also been performed on the compositionally varied CoxPd MTJ stacks. The CoxPd alloy becomes fully perpendicular at approximately x = 30% (atomic fraction) Co. Full-film MTJ stacks of Si/SiO2/MgO (13)/CoXPd100-x (50)/Ta (0.3)/CoFeB (1)/MgO (1.6)/CoFeB (1)/Ta (5)/Ru (10), with the numbers enclosed in parentheses being the layer thicknesses in nm, were sputtered onto thermally oxidized silicon substrates and in-situ lamp annealed at 400 °C for 5 min. CIPT measurements indicate that the highest TMR is observed for the CoPd composition with the highest perpendicular magnetic anisotropy.

  8. Microscopic and macroscopic inhomogeneity of magnetization and anistropy in amorphous rare earth/transition metal films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hafner, D.; Hoffmann, H.

    1979-01-01

    Amorphous Gd/Co and Gd/Co/Mo-films are investigated by measuring the field dependence of the susceptibility. This allows a determination of the value and sign of the perpendicular uniaxial anisotropy as well as the value of the effective ripple stray field. The measurements are made at spots of 50 to 100 μm diameter, allowing one to scan the film surface. Measurements from a spot on the film surface and at the opposing spot on the film-glass substrate interface are performed simultaneously. In this way the anisotropy at two related points on both surfaces of the film can be compared. In general the results show the existence of a ripple stray field which can be accounted for by inhomogeneities in the amorphous films. The perpendicular anisotropy at the free film surface is always lower than the perpendicular anisotropy at the film-substrate interface. In some cases the magnetization at the film surface is in-plane, while at the substrate the magnetization is out-of-plane. The reduction of the perpendicular anisotropy is an ageing effect due to oxidation. (author)

  9. Quantum turnstile operation of single-molecule magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moldoveanu, V; Dinu, I V; Tanatar, B; Moca, C P

    2015-01-01

    The time-dependent transport through single-molecule magnets coupled to magnetic or non-magnetic electrodes is studied in the framework of the generalized master equation method. We investigate the transient regime induced by the periodic switching of the source and drain contacts. If the electrodes have opposite magnetizations the quantum turnstile operation allows the stepwise writing of intermediate excited states. In turn, the transient currents provide a way to read these states. Within our approach we take into account both the uniaxial and transverse anisotropy. The latter may induce additional quantum tunneling processes which affect the efficiency of the proposed read-and-write scheme. An equally weighted mixture of molecular spin states can be prepared if one of the electrodes is ferromagnetic. (paper)

  10. Magnetization reversal in magnetic dot arrays: Nearest-neighbor interactions and global configurational anisotropy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van de Wiele, Ben [Department of Electrical Energy, Systems and Automation, Ghent University, Technologiepark 913, B-9052 Ghent-Zwijnaarde (Belgium); Fin, Samuele [Dipartimento di Fisica e Scienze della Terra, Università degli Studi di Ferrara, 44122 Ferrara (Italy); Pancaldi, Matteo [CIC nanoGUNE, E-20018 Donostia-San Sebastian (Spain); Vavassori, Paolo [CIC nanoGUNE, E-20018 Donostia-San Sebastian (Spain); IKERBASQUE, Basque Foundation for Science, E-48013 Bilbao (Spain); Sarella, Anandakumar [Physics Department, Mount Holyoke College, 211 Kendade, 50 College St., South Hadley, Massachusetts 01075 (United States); Bisero, Diego [Dipartimento di Fisica e Scienze della Terra, Università degli Studi di Ferrara, 44122 Ferrara (Italy); CNISM, Unità di Ferrara, 44122 Ferrara (Italy)

    2016-05-28

    Various proposals for future magnetic memories, data processing devices, and sensors rely on a precise control of the magnetization ground state and magnetization reversal process in periodically patterned media. In finite dot arrays, such control is hampered by the magnetostatic interactions between the nanomagnets, leading to the non-uniform magnetization state distributions throughout the sample while reversing. In this paper, we evidence how during reversal typical geometric arrangements of dots in an identical magnetization state appear that originate in the dominance of either Global Configurational Anisotropy or Nearest-Neighbor Magnetostatic interactions, which depends on the fields at which the magnetization reversal sets in. Based on our findings, we propose design rules to obtain the uniform magnetization state distributions throughout the array, and also suggest future research directions to achieve non-uniform state distributions of interest, e.g., when aiming at guiding spin wave edge-modes through dot arrays. Our insights are based on the Magneto-Optical Kerr Effect and Magnetic Force Microscopy measurements as well as the extensive micromagnetic simulations.

  11. Ising-like spin anisotropy and competing antiferromagnetic-ferromagnetic orders in GdBaCo2O5.5 single crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taskin, A A; Lavrov, A N; Ando, Yoichi

    2003-06-06

    In RBaCo2O5+x compounds (R is rare earth), a ferromagnetic-antiferromagnetic competition is accompanied by a giant magnetoresistance. We study the magnetization of detwinned GdBaCo2O5.5 single crystals and find a remarkable uniaxial anisotropy of Co3+ spins which is tightly linked with the chain oxygen ordering in GdO0.5 planes. Reflecting the underlying oxygen order, CoO2 planes also develop a spin-state order consisting of Co3+ ions in alternating rows of S=1 and S=0 states. The magnetic structure appears to be composed of weakly coupled ferromagnetic ladders with Ising-like moments, which gives a simple picture for magnetotransport phenomena.

  12. Magnetic anisotropy and giant magnetoimpedance in NiFe electroplated on Cu wires

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kraus, Luděk; Butta, M.; Ripka, P.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 1 (2013), s. 53-55 ISSN 1546-198X R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP102/12/2177 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : nife films * electrodeposition * magnetic anisotropy Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.558, year: 2013 http://dx.doi.org/10.1166/sl.2013.2791

  13. Static devices with new permanent magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chavanne, J.; Laforest, J.; Pauthenet, R.

    1987-01-01

    The high remanence and coercivity of the new permanent magnet materials are of special interest in the static applications. High ordering temperature and are uniaxial anisotropy at the origin of their good permanent magnet properties are obtained in rare earth-transition metal compounds. Binary SmCo/sub 5/ and Sm/sub 2/Co/sub 17/ and ternary Nd/sub 2/Fe/sub 14/B compounds are the basis materials of the best permanent magnets. new concepts of calculations of static devices with these magnets can be applied: the magnetization can be considered as ridig, the density of the surface Amperian current is constant, the relative permeability is approximately 1 and the induction calculations are linear. Examples of hexapoles with Sm-Co and NdFeB magnets are described and the performances are compared. The problems of temperature behavior and corrosion resistance are underlined

  14. Assessment of velocity anisotropy in rocks

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lokajíček, Tomáš; Goel, R. K.; Rudajev, Vladimír; Dwivedi, R.D.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 57, January (2013), s. 142-152 ISSN 1365-1609 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA205/08/0676; GA AV ČR IAA300130906; GA ČR(CZ) GAP104/12/0915 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : elastic anisotropy * acoustic emission * uniaxial loading * hydrostatic loading Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 1.424, year: 2013

  15. Electric field controlled reversible magnetic anisotropy switching studied by spin rectification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Hengan; Fan, Xiaolong, E-mail: fanxiaolong@lzu.edu.cn; Wang, Fenglong; Jiang, Changjun; Rao, Jinwei; Zhao, Xiaobing; Xue, Desheng [Key Laboratory for Magnetism and Magnetic Materials of Ministry of Education, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Gui, Y. S.; Hu, C.-M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N2 (Canada)

    2014-03-10

    In this letter, spin rectification was used to study the electric field controlled dynamic magnetic properties of the multiferroic composite which is a Co stripe with induced in-plane anisotropy deposited onto a Pb(Mg{sub 1∕3}Nb{sub 2∕3})O{sub 3}-PbTiO{sub 3} substrate. Due to the coupling between piezoelectric and magnetoelastic effects, a reversible in-plane anisotropy switching has been realized by varying the history of the applied electric field. This merit results from the electric hysteresis of the polarization in the nonlinear piezoelectric regime, which has been proved by a butterfly type electric field dependence of the in-plane anisotropy field. Moreover, the electric field dependent effective demagnetization field and linewidth have been observed at the same time.

  16. Magnetic and Random Anisotropy Studies in some Amorphous Fe-Based Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tlemçani, Mohamed; Benbachir, Khadija; Sayouri, Salaheddine; Meknassi, K.; Kadiri, H.

    2000-12-01

    We have studied the magnetization of melt spun amorphous Fe100-x-yCrx(PCSi)y alloys with 4≤x≤11 and 19≤y≤22 under magnetic fields up to 18 kOe, and have analyzed the results at 10 K in the framework of the phenomenological model of Chudnovsky and Serota. Behaviour of magnetic moment and exchange and anisotropy constants has been compared to that of the same parameters in amorphous FeNi(BSi), FeNiCr(BSi) and FeV(BSi).

  17. Study of the magnetic anisotropy in Ni/Cu and Ni/glass thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherif, S.-M.; Layadi, A.; Ben Youssef, J.; Nacereddine, C.; Roussigne, Y.

    2007-01-01

    The magnetic properties of evaporated Ni/Cu and Ni/glass thin films have been investigated by means of the vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), the Brillouin light scattering (BLS) and magnetic force microscopy (MFM). The Ni thickness, t, ranges from 31 to 165 nm. The second- and fourth-order magnetic anisotropy constants, K 1 and K 2 , have been included; for the Ni/Cu series, K 1 was found to decrease from 1.0x10 6 to 0.18x10 6 erg/cm 3 as t increases from 31 to 165 nm, while K 2 increased from 0.24x10 6 to 0.8x10 6 erg/cm 3 . Over all the thickness range, the magnetization easy axis is in plane. For thinner films, there is a good agreement between anisotropy constant values inferred from VSM and BLS. Stripe domains were observed for t≥165 nm in Ni/glass and t≥90 nm in Ni/Cu

  18. Handling magnetic anisotropy and magnetoimpedance effect in flexible multilayers under external stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agra, K.; Bohn, F. [Departamento de Física Teórica e Experimental, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, 59078-900 Natal, RN (Brazil); Mori, T.J.A. [Laboratório Nacional de Luz Síncrotron, Rua Giuseppe Máximo Scolfaro, 1000, Guará, 13083-100 Campinas, SP (Brazil); Callegari, G.L.; Dorneles, L.S. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, 97105-900 Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Correa, M.A., E-mail: marciocorrea@dfte.ufrn.br [Departamento de Física Teórica e Experimental, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, 59078-900 Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2016-12-15

    We investigate the dynamic magnetic response though magnetoimpedance effect of ferromagnetic flexible NiFe/Ta and FeCuNbSiB/Ta multilayers under external stress. We explore the possibility of handling magnetic anisotropy, and consequently the magnetoimpedance effect, of magnetostrictive multilayers deposited onto flexible substrates. We quantify the sensitivity of the multilayers under external stress by calculating the ratio between impedance variations and external stress changes, and show that considerable values can be reached by tuning the magnetic field, frequency, magnetostriction constant, and external stress. The results extend possibilities of application of magnetostrictive multilayers deposited onto flexible substrates when under external stress and place them as very attractive candidates as element sensor for the development of sensitive smart touch sensors. - Highlights: • We investigate the magnetoimpedance effect in magnetostrictive flexible multilayers grown on flexible substrates. • The external applied stress enables to tuning the samples anisotropies, and consequently the MI performance. • The flexible substrate becomes promising candidate for RF-frequency devices.

  19. Magnetic anisotropy and quantized spin waves in hematite nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klausen, Stine Nyborg; Lefmann, Kim; Lindgård, Per-Anker

    2004-01-01

    We report on the observation of high-frequency collective magnetic excitations, (h) over bar omegaapproximate to1.1 meV, in hematite (alpha-Fe2O3) nanoparticles. The neutron scattering experiments include measurements at temperatures in the range 6-300 K and applied fields up to 7.5 T as well...... as polarization analysis. We give an explanation for the field- and temperature dependence of the excitations, which are found to have strongly elliptical out-of-plane precession. The frequency of the excitations gives information on the magnetic anisotropy constants in the system. We have in this way determined...

  20. Structure and magnetic properties of Gd2Co17-xCr x (1.17 ≤ x ≤ 3.0) compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuquan, B.; Tegus, O.; Dagula, W.; Brueck, E.; Klaasse, J.C.P.; Buschow, K.H.J.

    2007-01-01

    The structure and magnetic properties of Gd 2 Co 17-x Cr x (1.17 ≤ x ≤ 3.0) compounds have been investigated by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and magnetization measurements. The powder X-ray diffraction patterns show that all samples crystallize as a single phase with the rhombohedral Th 2 Zn 17 -type structure. The lattice parameters a and the unit cell volume V increases slightly with increasing Cr content, but the c parameter varies in a less simple way with increasing Cr content. The X-ray diffraction patterns of the magnetically aligned samples show that all compounds investigated have uniaxial anisotropy. Spin reorientation phenomena occur in all of the compounds. The Curie temperature T C , the spin reorientation temperature T sr , the spontaneous magnetization M 0 and the saturation magnetization M s decrease with the increasing Cr content. The anisotropy constant K 1 and the anisotropy field B a of the compounds at room temperature reach a maximum for x = 1.76. The M 0 and M s increase with increasing temperature from 5 K to 300 K. The easy-axis anisotropy of all compounds changes to easy-plane anisotropy at low temperatures and the spin reorientation phenomena are more pronounced for low Cr concentration

  1. Evolution of magnetic and transport properties in pore-modified CoAlO antidot arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Y G; Lim, S L; Ong, C K

    2007-01-01

    CoAlO composite antidot arrays were fabricated on self-organized porous anodic aluminium oxide (AAO) membranes. The effects of pore size and film thickness on the magnetism and magnetotransport properties of the CoAlO films were investigated. On increasing the pore dimensions in the arrays, an anisotropic to isotropic magnetism transition was observed. The result is discussed based on the competitive contributions from the external field induced uniaxial anisotropy and the topology-induced shape anisotropy superimposed by the stray fields from the pore channels. Magnetoresistance showed corresponding variations with increasing pore sizes, as evidenced by a magnetoresistance variation from typically anisotropic to nearly isotropic behaviour. When deposited on large-pored AAO membranes, the antidot arrays showed no obvious anisotropy at different film thicknesses. It led to negligible magnetoresistive loops in the thick films of high structural continuity. The possible reasons for spin-independent electron scatterings are discussed

  2. Magnetic anisotropy in the incommensurate ScFe{sub 4}Al{sub 8} system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rećko, K., E-mail: k.recko@uwb.edu.pl [Faculty of Physics, University of Białystok, K. Ciołkowskiego 1L, 15-245 Białystok (Poland); Dobrzyński, L. [National Centre for Nuclear Research, A. Soltan 7, 05-400 Otwock-Świerk (Poland); Waliszewski, J.; Szymański, K. [Faculty of Physics, University of Białystok, K. Ciołkowskiego 1L, 15-245 Białystok (Poland)

    2015-08-15

    Neutron scattering and magnetization data are used for estimation of the spin ordering in ScFe{sub 4}Al{sub 8}. Results of experimental measurements are compared with the ground state configurations obtained by simulated annealing algorithms. The origins of the magnetocrystalline anisotropy of the scandium intermetallic alloy and the conditions of the coexistence of two different magnetic modulations as a function of the exchange integrals are discussed. The influence of the dipolar interactions for the noncollinearity and incommensurability in ScFe{sub 4}Al{sub 8} was determined. - Highlights: • We found dipolar and DM interactions as the anisotropy origins of 3d–3d–3p alloy. • We covered the explanation of incommensurability and noncollinearity of ScFe{sub 4}Al{sub 8}. • We discussed the magnetism resulting from competitiveness of exchange effects.

  3. Ferromagnetic (Ga,Mn)As layers and nanostructures: control of magnetic anisotropy by strain engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenisch, Jan

    2008-07-01

    This work studies the fundamental connection between lattice strain and magnetic anisotropy in the ferromagnetic semiconductor (Ga,Mn)As. The first chapters provide a general introduction into the material system and a detailed description of the growth process by molecular beam epitaxy. A finite element simulation formalism is developed to model the strain distribution in (Ga,Mn)As nanostructures is introduced and its predictions verified by high-resolution X-ray diffraction methods. The influence of lattice strain on the magnetic anisotropy is explained by an magnetostatic model. A possible device application is described in the closing chapter. (orig.)

  4. On the single-ion Magnetic Anisotropy of the Rare-Earth Metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolmakova, N.P.; Tishin, A.M.; Bohr, Jakob

    1996-01-01

    The temperature dependences of the single-ion magnetic anisotropy constants for Tb and Dy metals are calculated in terms of the multipole moments of the rare-earth ions utilizing the available crystal-field parameters. The results are compared with the existing experimental data....

  5. Microstructural and magnetic properties of thin obliquely deposited films: A simulation approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solovev, P.N., E-mail: platon.solovev@gmail.com [Kirensky Institute of Physics, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 50/38, Akademgorodok, Krasnoyarsk 660036 (Russian Federation); Siberian Federal University, 79, pr. Svobodnyi, Krasnoyarsk 660041 (Russian Federation); Izotov, A.V. [Kirensky Institute of Physics, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 50/38, Akademgorodok, Krasnoyarsk 660036 (Russian Federation); Siberian Federal University, 79, pr. Svobodnyi, Krasnoyarsk 660041 (Russian Federation); Belyaev, B.A. [Kirensky Institute of Physics, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 50/38, Akademgorodok, Krasnoyarsk 660036 (Russian Federation); Siberian Federal University, 79, pr. Svobodnyi, Krasnoyarsk 660041 (Russian Federation); Reshetnev Siberian State Aerospace University, 31, pr. Imeni Gazety “Krasnoyarskii Rabochii”, Krasnoyarsk 660014 (Russian Federation)

    2017-05-01

    The relation between microstructural and magnetic properties of thin obliquely deposited films has been studied by means of numerical techniques. Using our developed simulation code based on ballistic deposition model and Fourier space approach, we have investigated dependences of magnetometric tensor components and magnetic anisotropy parameters on the deposition angle of the films. A modified Netzelmann approach has been employed to study structural and magnetic parameters of an isolated column in the samples with tilted columnar microstructure. Reliability and validity of used numerical methods is confirmed by a good agreement of the calculation results with each other, as well as with our experimental data obtained by the ferromagnetic resonance measurements of obliquely deposited thin Ni{sub 80}Fe{sub 20} films. The combination of these numerical methods can be used to design a magnetic film with a desirable value of uniaxial magnetic anisotropy and to extract the obliquely deposited film structure from only magnetic measurements. - Highlights: • We present a simulation approach to study a relation between structural and magnetic properties of oblique films. • The calculated dependence of magnetic anisotropy on a deposition angle accords well with the experiment. • A modified Netzelmann approach is proposed. • It allows for the computation of magnetic and structural parameters of an isolated column. • Proposed approach can be used for theoretical studies and for characterization of oblique films.

  6. Perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in Co2FeAl0.5Si0.5/MgO bottom electrodes for magnetic tunnel junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, X.Q.; Wu, Y.; Gao, S.; Xu, X.G.; Miao, J.; Jiang, Y.

    2013-01-01

    Perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) was achieved in annealed Co 2 FeAl 0.5 Si 0.5 (CFAS)/MgO-based multilayers with good thermal stability up to 400 °C and a large anisotropy energy density K u over 2.0 × 10 5 J/m 3 . The thickness of the full-Heusler CFAS film to maintain PMA is up to 4.8 nm in which the co-existence of disordered A2, ordered B2 and fully ordered L2 1 structures is observed. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis demonstrates that the origin of the PMA is the hybridization between Co 3d and O 2p orbitals at the CFAS/MgO interface. - Highlights: • We achieved perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) in Co 2 FeAl 0.5 Si 0.5 (4.8 nm) film; • L2 1 , B2 and A2 phases coexist in perpendicular magnetic anisotropic Co 2 FeAl 0.5 Si 0.5 ; • Magnetic properties have strong dependence on the annealing temperature; • The PMA is induced by the hybridization between Co-3d and O-2p orbitals

  7. Theoretical study of Cherenkov radiation emission in anisotropic uniaxial crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delbart, A; Derre, J

    1996-04-01

    A theoretical review of the Cherenkov radiation emission in uniaxial crystals is presented. The formalism of C. Muzicar in terms of energetic properties of the emitted waves are corrected. This formalism is used to simulate the Cherenkov radiation emission in a strongly birefringent sodium nitrate crystal (NaNO{sub 3}) and to investigate the consequences of the slight anisotropy of sapphire (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) on the design of the Optical Trigger. (author). 12 refs. Submitted to Physical Review, D (US).

  8. Precision ESR Measurements of Transverse Anisotropy in the Single-molecule Magnet Ni4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Jonathan; Collett, Charles; Allao Cassaro, Rafael

    We present a method to precisely determine the transverse anisotropy in a single-molecule magnet (SMM) through electron-spin resonance measurements of a tunnel splitting that arises from the anisotropy via first-order perturbation theory. We demonstrate the technique using the SMM Ni4 diluted via co-crystallization in a diamagnetic isostructural analogue. At 5% dilution, we find markedly narrower resonance peaks than are observed in undiluted samples. Ni4 has a zero-field tunnel splitting of 4 GHz, and we measure that transition at several nearby frequencies using custom loop-gap resonators, allowing a precise determination of the tunnel splitting. Because the transition under investigation arises due to a first-order perturbation from the transverse anisotropy, and lies at zero field, we can relate the splitting to the transverse anisotropy independent of any other Hamiltonian parameters. This method can be applied to other SMMs with zero-field tunnel splittings arising from first-order transverse anisotropy perturbations. NSF Grant No. DMR-1310135.

  9. Structural and magnetic anisotropy in the epitaxial FeV2O4 (110) spinel thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xiaolan; Wang, Yuhang; Zhao, Kehan; Liu, Na; Sun, Gaofeng; Zhang, Liuwan

    2015-11-01

    The epitaxial 200-nm-thick FeV2O4(110) films on (110)-oriented SrTiO3, LaAlO3 and MgAl2O4 substrates were fabricated for the first time by pulsed laser deposition, and the structural, magnetic, and magnetoresistance anisotropy were investigated systematically. All the films are monoclinic, whereas its bulk is cubic. Compared to FeV2O4 single crystals, films on SrTiO3 and MgAl2O4 are strongly compressively strained in [001] direction, while slightly tensily strained along normal [110] and in-plane [ 1 1 ¯ 0 ] directions. In contrast, films on LaAlO3 are only slightly distorted from cubic. The magnetic hard axis is in direction, while the easier axis is along normal [110] direction for films on SrTiO3 and MgAl2O4, and in-plane [ 1 1 ¯ 0 ] direction for films on LaAlO3. Magnetoresistance anisotropy follows the magnetization. The magnetic anisotropy is dominated by the magnetocrystalline energy, and tuned by the magneto-elastic coupling.

  10. The temperature dependence of magnetic anisotropy of Nd-Fe-B thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Takuya; Hashimoto, Ryuji; Tanaka, Yoshitomo; Suzuki, Kenichi; Enokido, Yasushi; Choi, Kyung-Ku; Suzuki, Takao

    2018-05-01

    The magnetic properties of Nd-Fe-B thin films with the three different compositions (#1: Nd12.6Fe81.5B5.9, #2: Nd14.6Fe78.1B7.4 and #3: Nd22.6Fe66.2B11.2) are discussed. With increasing Nd content, the c-axis orientation along the film normal is enhanced. It is found that sample #2 possesses the saturation magnetization Ms very close to that for Nd2Fe14B over a temperature range from 100 to about 300K. The magnetic anisotropy constant Ku2 for sample #2 is the highest among those samples, but smaller by about 20%, as compared to that for Nd2Fe14B. It is of interest to note that the temperature TR at which Ku1 changes its sign is lower by about 30K as compared to that previously reported for Nd2Fe14B. The reason for this discrepancy is not clear, but could be due to the presence of the minority phases of Nd-rich compounds and also a possible contribution of the magneto-elastic effect to the net magnetic anisotropy.

  11. Recent developments in hard magnetic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asti, G.

    1989-01-01

    Hard magnetic materials find ever-increasing uses in modern technology. Their importance is mainly in the domain of permanent magnets, but a variety of other applications is being offered to this class of materials, especially for what regards the areas of information storage, telecommunications and special electronic devices. These developments are connected to the emphasis that is more and more given to thin films having high magnetic anisotropy. The recent advancement in the field of hard magnetic materials is among the best examples where technology depends to a great extent upon the continuous progress in the scientific knowledge. The research activity is characterized by the introduction of new classes of materials and continuous improvements in the preparation techniques both for what regards industrial processing and method for obtaining high quality materials in form of crystals, films or amorphous specimens. In this respect a special place must be reserved to rare earth transition metal compounds, a class of materials that attracted enormeous attention after the discovery by Hoffer and Strnat in 1966 of the large uniaxial magnetocrystalline anisotropy of the compound YCo 5 . Beside the so called 1:5 phase, other compositions of technical importance are the 2:17 and the recently discovered Nd 2 Fe 14 B, which is a real new ternary phase having tetragonal crystal structure. Great efforts have been done to gain a better understanding of the magnetic anisotropy and its relationship to the coercivity is of leading importance for a further development in this important area of magnetism. (orig.)

  12. Magnetic anisotropy of two-dimensional nanostructures: Transition-metal triangular stripes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorantes-Davila, J.; Villasenor-Gonzalez, P.; Pastor, G.M.

    2005-01-01

    The magnetic anisotropy energy (MAE) of one-dimensional stripes having infinite length and triangular lateral structure are investigated in the framework of a self-consistent tight-binding method. One observes discontinuous changes in the easy magnetization direction along the crossover from one to two dimensions. The MAE oscillates as a function of stripe width and depends strongly on the considered transition metal (TM). The MAE of the two-leg ladder is strongly reduced as compared to that of the monoatomic chain and the convergence to the two-dimensional limit is rather slow

  13. Magnetic anisotropy of YNi2B2C single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baran, M.; Gladczuk, L.; Gorecka, J.; Szymczak, H.; Szymczak, R.; Drzazga, Z.; Winiarska, H.

    1994-01-01

    Reversible and irreversible magnetization processes in YNi 2 B 2 C single crystal have been measured and analysed in terms of existing theories. Performed measurements suggest that anisotropy of the effective mass in YNi 2 B 2 C superconductor is rather small and similar to that observed in conventional superconductors. Effect of hydrostatic pressure on T c is shown to be typical of low-temperature superconductors. It is suggested that the layered structure of YNi 2 B 2 C has some effect on the irreversible magnetization processes observed in this superconductor. ((orig.))

  14. Measurement of electron paramagnetic resonance using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozuki, Kohei; Nagashima, Takeshi; Hangyo, Masanori

    2011-12-05

    We present a frequency-domain electron spin resonance (ESR) measurement system using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy. A crossed polarizer technique is utilized to increase the sensitivity in detecting weak ESR signals of paramagnets caused by magnetic dipole transitions between magnetic sublevels. We demonstrate the measurements of ESR signal of paramagnetic copper(II) sulfate pentahydrate with uniaxial anisotropy of the g-factor under magnetic fields up to 10 T. The lineshape of the obtained ESR signals agrees well with the theoretical predictions for a powder sample with the uniaxial anisotropy.

  15. Optical anisotropy induced by mechanical strain around the fundamental gap of GaAs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortega-Gallegos, J.; Lastras-Martinez, A.; Lastras-Martinez, L.F. [Instituto de Investigacion en Comunicacion Optica, Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, Alvaro Obregon 64, San Luis Potosi (Mexico); Balderas-Navarro, R.E. [Instituto de Investigacion en Comunicacion Optica, Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, Alvaro Obregon 64, San Luis Potosi (Mexico); Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, Alvaro Obregon 64, San Luis Potosi (Mexico)

    2008-07-01

    We report on a theoretical-experimental study of reflectance anisotropy spectroscopy (RAS) of GaAs (001) crystals under uniaxial stress. The study was carried out in the energy region around the fundamental transition. RAS spectra in the energy range from 1.2-1.7 eV were measured with a photoelastic-modulator-based spectrometer. To induce an optical anisotropy, the GaAs crystals were thinned down to 400 {mu}m and an calibrated uniaxial stress was applied by deflection. RAS showed a line shape consisting of an oscillation at around E{sub 0}. On the basis of a perturbative approach employing the Pikus-Bir Hamiltonian, we calculated the RAS line shape and found a close agreement with the experimental spectra. (copyright 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  16. Pressless process in route of obtaining sintered Nd–Fe–B magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popov, A.G, E-mail: apopov@imp.uran.ru [Institute of Metal Physics, UB of the RAS, 18, S. Kovalevskoy, Street, 620990 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Golovnia, O.A. [Institute of Metal Physics, UB of the RAS, 18, S. Kovalevskoy, Street, 620990 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Bykov, V.A. [Institute of Metallurgy, UB of the RAS, 101, Amundsena, Street, 620016 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation)

    2015-06-01

    A short review on the pressless process (PLP) involved in the manufacture of sintered Nd–Fe–B magnet is given. Two approaches to increasing the degree of powder alignment with a high filling density ρ{sub f} in PLP-containers are proposed. (1) An increase in the pulse duration of applied magnetic field from 3.6 to 6.5 ms enhances the magnetic alignment of magnets prepared from the powder with ρ{sub f}=2.5 g/cm{sup 3} and ρ{sub f}=3 g/cm{sup 3} by 3% and 11%, respectively. (2) Addition of internal lubricants such as zinc stearate or esters reduces friction forces between the powder particles and, when the concentration of lubricants is bellow a critical concentration C{sub cr}, increases B{sub r} and (BH){sub max} by 5–7%. Simulation of the magnetic alignment of uniaxial particles demonstrates that a decrease in the coefficient of friction between the powder particles from 0.9 to 0.6 caused by the lubricant addition enhances the alignment degree. Contact dilatometry was used to study the anisotropy of densification of PLP-powders upon sintering. It has been shown that the anisotropy of the powder shrinkage is formed at the first stage of sintering at the temperature about 800 °C and is caused by the capillary action in the Nd-rich liquid. - Highlights: • A review of the pressless process for NdFeB magnets in the world and Russia is given. • Enhancement of the alignment degree by application of pulsed magnetic field is studied. • Reduction of the friction forces via addition of internal lubricants is proposed. • The simulation of the magnetic alignment of Nd–Fe–B uniaxial particles is presented. • A reason of anisotropic shrinkage of the powder at sintering is suggested.

  17. Influence of nitrogen on magnetic properties of indium oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashok, Vishal Dev; De, S. K.

    2013-07-01

    Magnetic properties of indium oxide (In2O3) prepared by the decomposition of indium nitrate/indium hydroxide in the presence of ammonium chloride (NH4Cl) has been investigated. Structural and optical characterizations confirm that nitrogen is incorporated into In2O3. Magnetization has been convoluted to individual diamagnetic paramagnetic and ferromagnetic contributions with varying concentration of NH4Cl. Spin wave with diverging thermal exponent dominates in both field cool and zero field cool magnetizations. Uniaxial anisotropy plays an important role in magnetization as a function of magnetic field at higher concentration of NH4Cl. Avrami analysis indicates the absence of pinning effect in the magnetization process. Ferromagnetism has been interpreted in terms of local moments induced by anion dopant and strong hybridization with host cation.

  18. Influence of nitrogen on magnetic properties of indium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashok, Vishal Dev; De, S K

    2013-01-01

    Magnetic properties of indium oxide (In 2 O 3 ) prepared by the decomposition of indium nitrate/indium hydroxide in the presence of ammonium chloride (NH 4 Cl) has been investigated. Structural and optical characterizations confirm that nitrogen is incorporated into In 2 O 3 . Magnetization has been convoluted to individual diamagnetic paramagnetic and ferromagnetic contributions with varying concentration of NH 4 Cl. Spin wave with diverging thermal exponent dominates in both field cool and zero field cool magnetizations. Uniaxial anisotropy plays an important role in magnetization as a function of magnetic field at higher concentration of NH 4 Cl. Avrami analysis indicates the absence of pinning effect in the magnetization process. Ferromagnetism has been interpreted in terms of local moments induced by anion dopant and strong hybridization with host cation. (paper)

  19. Micromagnetic study of skyrmion stability in confined magnetic structures with perpendicular anisotropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, R. L.; Garcia, F.; Novais, E. R. P.; Sinnecker, J. P.; Guimarães, A. P.

    2018-04-01

    Skyrmions are emerging topological spin structures that are potentially revolutionary for future data storage and spintronics applications. The existence and stability of skyrmions in magnetic materials is usually associated to the presence of the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (DMI) in bulk magnets or in magnetic thin films lacking inversion symmetry. While some methods have already been proposed to generate isolated skyrmions in thin films with DMI, a thorough study of the conditions under which the skyrmions will remain stable in order to be manipulated in an integrated spintronic device are still an open problem. The stability of such structures is believed to be a result of ideal combinations of perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA), DMI and the interplay between geometry and magnetostatics. In the present work we show some micromagnetic results supporting previous experimental observations of magnetic skyrmions in spin-valve stacks with a wide range of DMI values. Using micromagnetic simulations of cobalt-based disks, we obtain the magnetic ground state configuration for several values of PMA, DMI and geometric parameters. Skyrmion numbers, corresponding to the topological charge, are calculated in all cases and confirm the occurrence of isolated, stable, axially symmetric skyrmions for several combinations of DMI and anisotropy constant. The stability of the skyrmions in disks is then investigated under magnetic field and spin-polarized current, in finite temperature, highlighting the limits of applicability of these spin textures in spintronic devices.

  20. Study of the magnetic anisotropy in Ni/Cu and Ni/glass thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cherif, S.-M. [Laboratoire PMTM, Institut Galilee, Univeriste Paris 13, Villetaneuse, 93340 (France); Layadi, A. [Departement de Physique, Universite Ferhat Abbas, Setif 19000 (Algeria)]. E-mail: a_layadi@yahoo.fr; Ben Youssef, J. [Laboratoire de Magnetisme de Bretagne, U.B.O., Brest 29238 (France); Nacereddine, C. [Departement de Physique, Universite Ferhat Abbas, Setif 19000 (Algeria); Roussigne, Y. [Laboratoire PMTM, Institut Galilee, Univeriste Paris 13, Villetaneuse, 93340 (France)

    2007-01-01

    The magnetic properties of evaporated Ni/Cu and Ni/glass thin films have been investigated by means of the vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), the Brillouin light scattering (BLS) and magnetic force microscopy (MFM). The Ni thickness, t, ranges from 31 to 165 nm. The second- and fourth-order magnetic anisotropy constants, K {sub 1} and K {sub 2}, have been included; for the Ni/Cu series, K {sub 1} was found to decrease from 1.0x10{sup 6} to 0.18x10{sup 6} erg/cm{sup 3} as t increases from 31 to 165 nm, while K {sub 2} increased from 0.24x10{sup 6} to 0.8x10{sup 6} erg/cm{sup 3}. Over all the thickness range, the magnetization easy axis is in plane. For thinner films, there is a good agreement between anisotropy constant values inferred from VSM and BLS. Stripe domains were observed for t{>=}165 nm in Ni/glass and t{>=}90 nm in Ni/Cu.

  1. Manipulating magnetic anisotropy of the ultrathin Co2FeAl full-Heusler alloy film via growth orientation of the Pt buffer layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen, F.S.; Xiang, J.Y.; Hao, C.X.; Zhang, F.; Lv, Y.F.; Wang, W.H.; Hu, W.T.; Liu, Z.Y.

    2013-01-01

    The ultrathin films of Co 2 FeAl (CFA) full-Heusler alloy were prepared between two Pt layers on MgO single crystals by magnetron sputtering. By controlling the substrate temperature, different growth orientations of the Pt underlayers were realized, and their effects were investigated on the magnetic anisotropy of the ultrathin CFA film. It was revealed that different Pt orientations lead to distinctly different magnetic anisotropy for the sandwiched ultrathin CFA films. The Pt (111) orientation favors the perpendicular anisotropy, while the appearance of partial Pt (001) orientation leads to the quick decrease of perpendicular anisotropy and the complete Pt (001) orientation gives rise to the in-plane anisotropy. With the Pt (111) orientation, the temperature and thickness-induced spin reorientation transitions were investigated in the sandwiched ultrathin CFA films. - Highlights: • Different Pt orientations lead to different magnetic anisotropy for sandwiched ultrathin CFA films. • The Pt (111) orientation favors the perpendicular anisotropy for CFA layer. • Temperature and thickness-induced spin reorientation transitions were investigated in sandwiched ultrathin CFA films. • 0.8 nm CFA film is good candidate as electrode in magnetic tunnel junctions

  2. Excitation of magnetic inhomogeneities in three-layer ferromagnetic structure with different parameters of the magnetic anisotropy and exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekomasov, E.G., E-mail: EkomasovEG@gmail.com [Bashkir State University, 32, Validy Str., Ufa, 450076 (Russian Federation); Murtazin, R.R. [Bashkir State University, 32, Validy Str., Ufa, 450076 (Russian Federation); Nazarov, V.N. [Institute of Molecule and Crystal Physics Ufa Research Centre of Russian Academy of Sciences, Prospekt Oktyabrya 151, Ufa, 450075 (Russian Federation)

    2015-07-01

    The generation and evolution of magnetic inhomogeneities, emerging in a thin flat layer with the parameters of the magnetic anisotropy and exchange interaction, with the parameters different from other two thick layers of the three-layer ferromagnetic structure, were investigated. The parameters ranges that determine the possibility of their existence were found. The possibility of the external magnetic field influence on the structure and dynamic properties of localized magnetic inhomogeneities was shown. - Highlights: • The generation of magnetic inhomogeneities in the three-layer ferromagnetic. • The influence of an external field on the parameters of magnetic inhomogeneities. • Numerical study of the structure and dynamics of magnetic inhomogeneities.

  3. Enhancing the magnetic anisotropy of maghemite nanoparticles via the surface coordination of molecular complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, Yoann; Daffé, Niéli; Michel, Aude; Georgelin, Thomas; Yaacoub, Nader; Grenèche, Jean-Marc; Choueikani, Fadi; Otero, Edwige; Ohresser, Philippe; Arrio, Marie-Anne; Cartier-dit-Moulin, Christophe; Sainctavit, Philippe; Fleury, Benoit; Dupuis, Vincent; Lisnard, Laurent; Fresnais, Jérôme

    2015-01-01

    Superparamagnetic nanoparticles are promising objects for data storage or medical applications. In the smallest—and more attractive—systems, the properties are governed by the magnetic anisotropy. Here we report a molecule-based synthetic strategy to enhance this anisotropy in sub-10-nm nanoparticles. It consists of the fabrication of composite materials where anisotropic molecular complexes are coordinated to the surface of the nanoparticles. Reacting 5 nm γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles with the [CoII(TPMA)Cl2] complex (TPMA: tris(2-pyridylmethyl)amine) leads to the desired composite materials and the characterization of the functionalized nanoparticles evidences the successful coordination—without nanoparticle aggregation and without complex dissociation—of the molecular complexes to the nanoparticles surface. Magnetic measurements indicate the significant enhancement of the anisotropy in the final objects. Indeed, the functionalized nanoparticles show a threefold increase of the blocking temperature and a coercive field increased by one order of magnitude. PMID:26634987

  4. Voltage control of a magnetic switching field for magnetic tunnel junctions with low resistance and perpendicular magnetic anisotropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tezuka, N.; Oikawa, S.; Matsuura, M.; Sugimoto, S.; Nishimura, K.; Irisawa, T.; Nagamine, Y.; Tsunekawa, K.

    2018-05-01

    The authors investigated the voltage control of a magnetic anisotropy field for perpendicular-magnetic tunnel junctions (p-MTJs) with low and high resistance-area (RA) products and for synthetic antiferromagnetic free and pinned layers. It was found that the sample with low RA products was more sensitive to the applied bias voltage than the sample with high RA products. The bias voltage effect was less pronounced for our sample with the synthetic antiferromagnetic layer for high RA products compared to the MTJs with single free and pinned layers.

  5. Antidot patterned single and bilayer thin films based on ferrimagnetic Tb-Co alloy with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulesh, N. A.; Vázquez, M.; Lepalovskij, V. N.; Vas'kovskiy, V. O.

    2018-02-01

    Hysteresis properties and magnetization reversal in TbCo(30 nm) and FeNi(10 nm)/TbCo(30 nm) films with nanoscale antidot lattices are investigated to test the effect of nanoholes on the perpendicular anisotropy in the TbCo layer and the induced exchange bias in the FeNi layer. The antidots are introduced by depositing the films on top of hexagonally ordered porous anodic alumina substrates with pore diameter and interpore distance fixed to 75 nm and 105 nm, respectively. The analysis of combined vibrating sample magnetometry, Kerr microscopy and magnetic force microscopy imaging measurements has allowed us to link macroscopic and local magnetization reversal processes. For magnetically hard TbCo films, we demonstrate the tunability of magnetic anisotropy and coercive field (i.e., it increases from 0.2 T for the continuous film to 0.5 T for the antidot film). For the antidot FeNi/TbCo film, magnetization of FeNi is confirmed to be in plane. Although an exchange bias has been locally detected in the FeNi layer, the integrated hysteresis loop has increased coercivity and zero shift along the field axis due to the significantly decreased magnetic anisotropy of TbCo layer.

  6. Perpendicular Magnetic Anisotropy in FePt Patterned Media Employing a CrV Seed Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun Dong

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A thin FePt film was deposited onto a CrV seed layer at 400°C and showed a high coercivity (~3,400 Oe and high magnetization (900–1,000 emu/cm3 characteristic of L10 phase. However, the magnetic properties of patterned media fabricated from the film stack were degraded due to the Ar-ion bombardment. We employed a deposition-last process, in which FePt film deposited at room temperature underwent lift-off and post-annealing processes, to avoid the exposure of FePt to Ar plasma. A patterned medium with 100-nm nano-columns showed an out-of-plane coercivity fivefold larger than its in-plane counterpart and a remanent magnetization comparable to saturation magnetization in the out-of-plane direction, indicating a high perpendicular anisotropy. These results demonstrate the high perpendicular anisotropy in FePt patterned media using a Cr-based compound seed layer for the first time and suggest that ultra-high-density magnetic recording media can be achieved using this optimized top-down approach.

  7. Anisotropy of Magnetic Moments and Energy in Tetragonal Fe-Co Alloys from First Principles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Turek, Ilja; Kudrnovský, Josef; Carva, K.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 5 (2013), s. 1581-1584 ISSN 1557-1939 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP204/11/1228 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 ; RVO:68378271 Keywords : density functional theory * magnetic anisotropy Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.930, year: 2013

  8. Comparison of the Magnetic Anisotropy and Spin Relaxation Phenomenon of Dinuclear Terbium(III) Phthalocyaninato Single-Molecule Magnets Using the Geometric Spin Arrangement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Takaumi; Damjanović, Marko; Katoh, Keiichi; Kitagawa, Yasutaka; Yasuda, Nobuhiro; Lan, Yanhua; Wernsdorfer, Wolfgang; Breedlove, Brian K; Enders, Markus; Yamashita, Masahiro

    2018-02-28

    Herein we report the synthesis and characterization of a dinuclear Tb III single-molecule magnet (SMM) with two [TbPc 2 ] 0 units connected via a fused-phthalocyaninato ligand. The stable and robust complex [(obPc)Tb(Fused-Pc)Tb(obPc)] (1) was characterized by using synchrotron radiation measurements and other spectroscopic techniques (ESI-MS, FT-IR, UV). The magnetic couplings between the Tb III ions and the two π radicals present in 1 were explored by means of density functional theory (DFT). Direct and alternating current magnetic susceptibility measurements were conducted on magnetically diluted and nondiluted samples of 1, indicating this compound to be an SMM with improved properties compared to those of the well-known [TbPc 2 ] -/0/+ and the axially symmetric dinuclear Tb III phthalocyaninato triple-decker complex (Tb 2 (obPc) 3 ). Assuming that the probability of quantum tunneling of the magnetization (QTM) occurring in one TbPc 2 unit is P QTM , the probability of QTM simultaneously occurring in 1 is P QTM 2 , meaning that QTM is effectively suppressed. Furthermore, nondiluted samples of 1 underwent slow magnetic relaxation times (τ ≈ 1000 s at 0.1 K), and the blocking temperature (T B ) was determined to be ca. 16 K with an energy barrier for spin reversal (U eff ) of 588 cm -1 (847 K) due to D 4d geometry and weak inter- and intramolecular magnetic interactions as an exchange bias (H bias ), reducing QTM. Four hyperfine steps were observed by micro-SQUID measurement. Furthermore, solution NMR measurements (one-dimensional, two-dimensional, and dynamic) were done on 1, which led to the determination of the high rotation barrier (83 ± 10 kJ/mol) of the obPc ligand. A comparison with previously reported Tb III triple-decker compounds shows that ambient temperature NMR measurements can indicate improvements in the design of coordination environments for SMMs. A large U eff causes strong uniaxial magnetic anisotropy in 1, leading to a χ ax value (1.39

  9. The formation of magnetic silicide Fe3Si clusters during ion implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakirev, N.; Zhikharev, V.; Gumarov, G.

    2014-05-01

    A simple two-dimensional model of the formation of magnetic silicide Fe3Si clusters during high-dose Fe ion implantation into silicon has been proposed and the cluster growth process has been computer simulated. The model takes into account the interaction between the cluster magnetization and magnetic moments of Fe atoms random walking in the implanted layer. If the clusters are formed in the presence of the external magnetic field parallel to the implanted layer, the model predicts the elongation of the growing cluster in the field direction. It has been proposed that the cluster elongation results in the uniaxial magnetic anisotropy in the plane of the implanted layer, which is observed in iron silicide films ion-beam synthesized in the external magnetic field.

  10. The formation of magnetic silicide Fe3Si clusters during ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balakirev, N.; Zhikharev, V.; Gumarov, G.

    2014-01-01

    A simple two-dimensional model of the formation of magnetic silicide Fe 3 Si clusters during high-dose Fe ion implantation into silicon has been proposed and the cluster growth process has been computer simulated. The model takes into account the interaction between the cluster magnetization and magnetic moments of Fe atoms random walking in the implanted layer. If the clusters are formed in the presence of the external magnetic field parallel to the implanted layer, the model predicts the elongation of the growing cluster in the field direction. It has been proposed that the cluster elongation results in the uniaxial magnetic anisotropy in the plane of the implanted layer, which is observed in iron silicide films ion-beam synthesized in the external magnetic field

  11. Magnetic property variation in carbon steel and chrome-molybdenum steel as a function of uniaxial stress noncoaxial with the magnetic field (abstract)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sablik, M.J.; Kaminski, D.A.; Jiles, D.C.; Biner, S.B.

    1993-01-01

    Magnescope 1 magnetic measurements were made on carbon steel specimens ranging from 0.1--0.8 wt %C and on chrome-molybdenum steel specimens cut from electric power plant pipes previously in service. The carbon steel specimens were heat-treated using three procedures: (1) spheroidization, (2) quenching, and (3) quench and tempering. The specimens were subjected to uniaxial tension up to 40 ksi. The inspection head was aligned so that the magnetic field was oriented at different angles with respect to the stress axis. Magnetic properties (such as coercivity and maximum differential permeability) were extracted from digitized magnetic hysteresis loop measurements. Magnetic properties were studied as a function of stress at each angle of stress-field orientation. To our knowledge, such a comprehensive study of noncoaxial stress and field effects has never been accomplished before for such a wide variety of steel specimens. Results for the various materials are presented for different orientation angles and compared to numerical results from the noncoaxial magnetomechanical hysteresis model of Sablik et al. 2

  12. Thick CoFeB with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in CoFeB-MgO based magnetic tunnel junction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. B. Naik

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated the effect of an ultra-thin Ta insertion in the CoFeB (CoFeB/Ta/CoFeB free layer (FL on magnetic and tunneling magnetoresistance (TMR properties of a CoFeB-MgO system with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA. It is found that the critical thickness (tc to sustain PMA is doubled (tc = 2.6 nm in Ta-inserted CoFeB FL as compared to single CoFeB layer (tc = 1.3 nm. While the effective magnetic anisotropy is found to increase with Ta insertion, the saturation magnetization showed a slight reduction. As the CoFeB thickness increasing, the thermal stability of Ta inserted structure is significantly increased by a factor of 2.5 for total CoFeB thickness less than 2 nm. We have observed a reasonable value of TMR for a much thicker CoFeB FL (thickness = 2-2.6 nm with Ta insertion, and without significant increment in resistance-area product. Our results reveal that an ultra-thin Ta insertion in CoFeB might pay the way towards developing the high-density memory devices with enhanced thermal stability.

  13. Electric anisotropy in high density polyethylene + carbon black composites induced by mechanical deformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vigueras-Santiago, E; Hernandez-Lopez, S; Camacho-Lopez, M A; Lara-Sanjuan, O, E-mail: eviguerass@uaemex.m [Laboratorio de Investigacion y Desarrollo de Materiales Avanzados (LIDMA), Facultad de Quimica, UAEM. Paseo Colon esq. con Paseo Tollocan, s/n. C.P. 50000, Toluca (Mexico)

    2009-05-01

    High density polyethylene + carbon black composites with electrical anisotropy was studied. Electrical anisotropy was induced by uniaxial mechanical deformation and injection moulding. We show that anisotropy depends on the carbon black concentration and percentage deformation. Resistivity had the highest anisotropy resistivity around the percolation threshold. Perpendicular resistivity showed two magnitude orders higher than parallel resistivity for injected samples, whereas resistivity showed an inverse behaviour for 100% tensile samples. Both directions were set respect to the deformation axe. Anisotropy could be explained in terms of the molecular deformation (alignment) of the polymer chains as a response of the deformation process originating a redistribution of the carbon black particles in both directions. Alignment of the polymer chains was evidenced by polarized Raman spectroscopy.

  14. The sandwich domain structure in a Fe-based amorphous ribbon with uniaxial magnetic anisotropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhmetko, D.N.; Matsura, A.V.; Troschenkov, Y.N.; Seidametov, S.V.

    2011-01-01

    The formation and motion of two domain walls parallel to the ribbon surface are discovered during its dynamic magnetic reversal. The domain walls form near by the middle plane of a ribbon and move to its opposite main surfaces with different velocities.

  15. High quality TmIG films with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy grown by sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, C. N.; Tseng, C. C.; Yeh, S. L.; Lin, K. Y.; Cheng, C. K.; Fanchiang, Y. T.; Hong, M.; Kwo, J.

    Ferrimagnetic thulium iron garnet (TmIG) films grown on gadolinium gallium garnet substrates recently showed stress-induced perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA), attractive for realization of quantum anomalous Hall effect (QAHE) of topological insulator (TI) films via the proximity effect. Moreover, current induced magnetization switching of Pt/TmIG has been demonstrated for the development of room temperature (RT) spintronic devices. In this work, high quality TmIG films (about 25nm) were grown by sputtering at RT followed by post-annealing. We showed that the film composition is tunable by varying the growth parameters. The XRD results showed excellent crystallinity of stoichiometric TmIG films with an out-of-plane lattice constant of 1.2322nm, a narrow film rocking curve of 0.017 degree, and a film roughness of 0.2 nm. The stoichiometric films exhibited PMA and the saturation magnetization at RT was 109 emu/cm3 (RT bulk value 110 emu/cm3) with a coercive field of 2.7 Oe. In contrast, TmIG films of Fe deficiency showed in-plane magnetic anisotropy. The high quality sputtered TmIG films will be applied to heterostructures with TIs or metals with strong spin-orbit coupling for novel spintronics.

  16. Calculation of the magnetic anisotropy energy and finite-temperature magnetic properties of transition-metal films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garibay-Alonso, R; Villasenor-Gonzalez, P; Dorantes-Davila, J; Pastor, G M

    2004-01-01

    The magnetic anisotropy energy at the interface (IMAE) of Co films deposited on the Pd(111) surface are determined in the framework of a self-consistent, real-space tight-binding method at zero temperature. Significant spin moments are induced at the Pd atoms at the interface which have an important influence on the observed reorientation transitions as a function of Co film thickness. Film-substrate hybridizations are therefore crucial for the magneto-anisotropic behaviour of thin transition-metal films deposited on metallic non-magnetic substrates. Furthermore, using a real-space recursive expansion of the local Green function and within the virtual-crystal approximation we calculate the magnetization curves and the Curie temperature T C for free-standing Fe films

  17. High field magnetic anisotropy in praseodymium gallium garnet at low temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Wei; Yue Yuan; Liu Gongqiang

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → A detailed analysis of crystal field effect is presented, and a set of new crystal field parameters is given to study the magnetic behaviors of the paramagnetic praseodymium gallium garnet (PrGaG). → The contribution of the exchange interaction between the praseodymium ions to the magnetic properties of PrGaG is further explored. Meanwhile, some characteristics of exchange interaction are revealed. → With the consideration of crystal field and exchange interaction, the available experiments are successfully fitted by our theoretical model. → Our theory suggests that PrGaG is ferromagnetic ordering at low temperatures, and the exchange interaction is anisotropic. - Abstract: In this paper, with the consideration of crystal field and exchange interaction between the rare-earth Pr 3+ ions, the magnetic anisotropy in praseodymium gallium garnet (PrGaG) in high magnetic fields and at low temperatures is theoretically analyzed. A set of relatively suitable CF parameters is obtained by studying the influence of the variations of nine CF parameters on the magnetization. However, only taking crystal field effect into account, theoretical calculations indicate that the experiments cannot be excellently interpreted. Then, the exchange interaction between Pr 3+ ion, which can be described as an effective exchange field H v = vM = vχH e = ηH e , is further considered. On the other hand, by evaluating the variation of the parameter η with the magnetic fields, our theory implies that PrGaG exhibits ferrimagnetic ordering at low temperatures, and the exchange interaction in PrGaG displays obvious anisotropy. Also, the theoretical data show better agreements with the experimental results.

  18. Manipulating magnetic anisotropy of the ultrathin Co{sub 2}FeAl full-Heusler alloy film via growth orientation of the Pt buffer layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen, F.S., E-mail: wenfsh03@126.com [State Key Lab of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Xiang, J.Y.; Hao, C.X.; Zhang, F.; Lv, Y.F. [State Key Lab of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Wang, W.H. [Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing 100080 (China); Hu, W.T.; Liu, Z.Y. [State Key Lab of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China)

    2013-12-15

    The ultrathin films of Co{sub 2}FeAl (CFA) full-Heusler alloy were prepared between two Pt layers on MgO single crystals by magnetron sputtering. By controlling the substrate temperature, different growth orientations of the Pt underlayers were realized, and their effects were investigated on the magnetic anisotropy of the ultrathin CFA film. It was revealed that different Pt orientations lead to distinctly different magnetic anisotropy for the sandwiched ultrathin CFA films. The Pt (111) orientation favors the perpendicular anisotropy, while the appearance of partial Pt (001) orientation leads to the quick decrease of perpendicular anisotropy and the complete Pt (001) orientation gives rise to the in-plane anisotropy. With the Pt (111) orientation, the temperature and thickness-induced spin reorientation transitions were investigated in the sandwiched ultrathin CFA films. - Highlights: • Different Pt orientations lead to different magnetic anisotropy for sandwiched ultrathin CFA films. • The Pt (111) orientation favors the perpendicular anisotropy for CFA layer. • Temperature and thickness-induced spin reorientation transitions were investigated in sandwiched ultrathin CFA films. • 0.8 nm CFA film is good candidate as electrode in magnetic tunnel junctions.

  19. Surface-termination-dependent magnetism and strong perpendicular magnetocrystalline anisotropy of an FeRh(001) thin film

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jekal, S.; Rhim, S.H.; Hong, S.C.; Son, W.-J.; Shick, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 92, č. 6 (2015), " 064410-1"-" 064410-6" ISSN 1098-0121 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-07172S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : magnetic anisotropy * magnetic recording * surface science Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.736, year: 2014

  20. Engineering giant magnetic anisotropy in single-molecule magnets by dimerizing heavy transition-metal atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Jiaxing; Hu, Jun

    2018-05-01

    The search for single-molecule magnets with large magnetic anisotropy energy (MAE) is essential for the development of molecular spintronics devices for use at room temperature. Through systematic first-principles calculations, we found that an Os–Os or Ir–Ir dimer embedded in the (5,5‧-Br2-salophen) molecule gives rise to a large MAE of 41.6 or 51.4 meV, respectively, which is large enough to hold the spin orientation at room temperature. Analysis of the electronic structures reveals that the top Os and Ir atoms play the most important part in the total spin moments and large MAEs of the molecules.

  1. Solid-solution stability and preferential site-occupancy in (R-R')2Fe14B compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colin, C. V.; Ito, M.; Yano, M.; Dempsey, N. M.; Suard, E.; Givord, D.

    2016-06-01

    The rare-earth (R) uniaxial anisotropy of R2Fe14B compounds with magnetic R atoms (e.g., Nd or Pr) is at the origin of the exceptional hard magnetic properties achieved in magnets based on these compounds. The uniaxial anisotropy found in Ce2Fe14B is attributed mainly to the magnetism of Fe. Ce is the most abundant R element and there has been much recent effort to fabricate magnets in which Ce is partially substituted for Nd. In the present neutron study of (R1-xCex)2Fe14B (R = La or Nd), Ce is found to enter the R2Fe14B phase over the entire composition range. The crystallographic parameters decrease with increasing Ce content and the Ce atoms preferentially occupy the smaller 4f sites. It is concluded that Ce in these (RR')2Fe14B compounds essentially maintains the intermediate valence character found in Ce2Fe14B. It is proposed that, in this intermediate valence state, Ce weakly contributes to uniaxial anisotropy, thus making a link with the fact that significant coercivity is preserved in Ce-substituted NdFeB magnets.

  2. Solid-solution stability and preferential site-occupancy in (R-R′)2Fe14B compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colin, C. V.; Dempsey, N. M.; Ito, M.; Yano, M.; Suard, E.; Givord, D.

    2016-01-01

    The rare-earth (R) uniaxial anisotropy of R 2 Fe 14 B compounds with magnetic R atoms (e.g., Nd or Pr) is at the origin of the exceptional hard magnetic properties achieved in magnets based on these compounds. The uniaxial anisotropy found in Ce 2 Fe 14 B is attributed mainly to the magnetism of Fe. Ce is the most abundant R element and there has been much recent effort to fabricate magnets in which Ce is partially substituted for Nd. In the present neutron study of (R 1−x Ce x ) 2 Fe 14 B (R = La or Nd), Ce is found to enter the R 2 Fe 14 B phase over the entire composition range. The crystallographic parameters decrease with increasing Ce content and the Ce atoms preferentially occupy the smaller 4f sites. It is concluded that Ce in these (RR′) 2 Fe 14 B compounds essentially maintains the intermediate valence character found in Ce 2 Fe 14 B. It is proposed that, in this intermediate valence state, Ce weakly contributes to uniaxial anisotropy, thus making a link with the fact that significant coercivity is preserved in Ce-substituted NdFeB magnets.

  3. Shape-induced anisotropy in antiferromagnetic nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomonay, O.; Kondovych, S.; Loktev, V.

    2014-01-01

    High fraction of the surface atoms considerably enhances the influence of size and shape on the magnetic and electronic properties of nanoparticles. Shape effects in ferromagnetic nanoparticles are well understood and allow us to set and control the parameters of a sample that affect its magnetic anisotropy during production. In the present paper we study the shape effects in the other widely used magnetic materials – antiferromagnets, – which possess vanishingly small or zero macroscopic magnetization. We take into account the difference between the surface and bulk magnetic anisotropy of a nanoparticle and show that the effective magnetic anisotropy depends on the particle shape and crystallographic orientation of its faces. The corresponding shape-induced contribution to the magnetic anisotropy energy is proportional to the particle volume, depends on magnetostriction, and can cause formation of equilibrium domain structure. Crystallographic orientation of the nanoparticle surface determines the type of domain structure. The proposed model allows us to predict the magnetic properties of antiferromagnetic nanoparticles depending on their shape and treatment. - Highlights: • We demonstrate that the shape effects in antiferromagnetic nanoparticles stem from the difference of surface and bulk magnetic properties combined with strong magnetoelastic coupling. • We predict shape-induced anisotropy in antiferromagnetic particles with large aspect ratio. • We predict different types of domain structures depending on the orientation of the particle faces

  4. Growth and magnetic study of sputtered Fe/Al multilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherif, S.M.; Bouziane, K.; Roussigne, Y.; Al-Busaidy, M.

    2007-01-01

    Brillouin light scattering (BLS) and vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM) were used to study the effect of interfacial intermixing and microstructure on the magnetic properties of DC magnetron sputtered Fe/Al multilayers (MLs) on Si(1 0 0) substrate. Three samples with nominal composition [Al (4 nm)/Fe (3.7 nm)] x18 and deposited under different negative DC bias voltages (V b = -50, -200 and -400 V) have been investigated. The X-ray diffraction results indicate that the FeAl MLs have a poor crystallinity with no evidence of the absence of B2 phase. The grazing X-ray reflectivity results suggest that the interfacial roughness and intermixing were gradually reduced from 0.7 to 0.5 nm (±0.05 nm) by increasing V b from -50 to -400 V. The magnetization measurements demonstrate the presence of in-plane uniaxial anisotropy and magnetically dead interfacial layers. The BLS results reveal spin-wave surface modes whose frequencies also depend on the applied V b . The same trend upon V b was observed for the perpendicular and in-plane anisotropies

  5. Growth and magnetic study of sputtered Fe/Al multilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cherif, S.M. [LPMTM (CNRS-UPR 9001), Universite Paris 13, 99 Av. J.B. Clement, 93430 Villetaneuse (France); Bouziane, K. [LPMTM (CNRS-UPR 9001), Universite Paris 13, 99 Av. J.B. Clement, 93430 Villetaneuse (France) and Department of Physics, College of Science, Sultan Qaboos University, P.O. Box 36, Al-Khodh 123 (Oman)]. E-mail: bouzi@squ.edu.om; Roussigne, Y. [LPMTM (CNRS-UPR 9001), Universite Paris 13, 99 Av. J.B. Clement, 93430 Villetaneuse (France); Al-Busaidy, M. [Department of Physics, College of Science, Sultan Qaboos University, P.O. Box 36, Al-Khodh 123 (Oman)

    2007-03-15

    Brillouin light scattering (BLS) and vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM) were used to study the effect of interfacial intermixing and microstructure on the magnetic properties of DC magnetron sputtered Fe/Al multilayers (MLs) on Si(1 0 0) substrate. Three samples with nominal composition [Al (4 nm)/Fe (3.7 nm)]{sub x18} and deposited under different negative DC bias voltages (V {sub b} = -50, -200 and -400 V) have been investigated. The X-ray diffraction results indicate that the FeAl MLs have a poor crystallinity with no evidence of the absence of B2 phase. The grazing X-ray reflectivity results suggest that the interfacial roughness and intermixing were gradually reduced from 0.7 to 0.5 nm ({+-}0.05 nm) by increasing V {sub b} from -50 to -400 V. The magnetization measurements demonstrate the presence of in-plane uniaxial anisotropy and magnetically dead interfacial layers. The BLS results reveal spin-wave surface modes whose frequencies also depend on the applied V{sub b}. The same trend upon V {sub b} was observed for the perpendicular and in-plane anisotropies.

  6. The formation of magnetic silicide Fe{sub 3}Si clusters during ion implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balakirev, N. [Kazan National Research Technological University, K.Marx st. 68, Kazan 420015 (Russian Federation); Zhikharev, V., E-mail: valzhik@mail.ru [Kazan National Research Technological University, K.Marx st. 68, Kazan 420015 (Russian Federation); Gumarov, G. [Zavoiskii Physico-Technical Institute of Russian Academy of Sciences, 10/7 Sibirskii trakt st., Kazan 420029 (Russian Federation)

    2014-05-01

    A simple two-dimensional model of the formation of magnetic silicide Fe{sub 3}Si clusters during high-dose Fe ion implantation into silicon has been proposed and the cluster growth process has been computer simulated. The model takes into account the interaction between the cluster magnetization and magnetic moments of Fe atoms random walking in the implanted layer. If the clusters are formed in the presence of the external magnetic field parallel to the implanted layer, the model predicts the elongation of the growing cluster in the field direction. It has been proposed that the cluster elongation results in the uniaxial magnetic anisotropy in the plane of the implanted layer, which is observed in iron silicide films ion-beam synthesized in the external magnetic field.

  7. Characterization of the magnetic anisotropy in thin films of La1-xSrxMnO3 using the planar Hall effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bason, Y.; Klein, L.; Yau, J.B.; Hong, X.; Ahn, C.H.

    2004-01-01

    Thin films of the colossal magnetoresistance material La 1-x Sr x MnO 3 (LSMO) grown on SrTiO 3 substrates exhibit bi-axial magnetocrystalline anisotropy with easy axes along the [110] and [1 anti 1 0] directions. We have recently discovered that the intrinsic biaxial magnetic anisotropy combined with a giant planar Hall effect lead to striking switching behavior in the transverse resistivity of LSMO films (Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2593 (2004)). Here we use this phenomenon as a sensitive tool for measuring in-plane magnetization in order to characterize the magnetic anisotropy. (Abstract Copyright [2004], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  8. Non-London electrodynamics in a multiband London model: Anisotropy-induced nonlocalities and multiple magnetic field penetration lengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silaev, Mihail; Winyard, Thomas; Babaev, Egor

    2018-05-01

    The London model describes strongly type-2 superconductors as massive vector field theories, where the magnetic field decays exponentially at the length scale of the London penetration length. This also holds for isotropic multiband extensions, where the presence of multiple bands merely renormalizes the London penetration length. We show that, by contrast, the magnetic properties of anisotropic multiband London models are not this simple, and the anisotropy leads to the interband phase differences becoming coupled to the magnetic field. This results in the magnetic field in such systems having N +1 penetration lengths, where N is the number of field components or bands. That is, in a given direction, the magnetic field decay is described by N +1 modes with different amplitudes and different decay length scales. For certain anisotropies we obtain magnetic modes with complex masses. That means that magnetic field decay is not described by a monotonic exponential increment set by a real penetration length but instead is oscillating. Some of the penetration lengths are shown to diverge away from the superconducting phase transition when the mass of the phase-difference mode vanishes. Finally the anisotropy-driven hybridization of the London mode with the Leggett modes can provide an effectively nonlocal magnetic response in the nominally local London model. Focusing on the two-component model, we discuss the magnetic field inversion that results from the effective nonlocality, both near the surface of the superconductor and around vortices. In the regime where the magnetic field decay becomes nonmonotonic, the multiband London superconductor is shown to form weakly-bound states of vortices.

  9. Determination of the out-of-plane anisotropy contributions (first and second anisotropy terms) in amorphous Nd-Co thin films by micromagnetic numerical simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Prado, L. M.; Cid, R.; Morales, R.; Diaz, J.; Vélez, M.; Rubio, H.; Hierro-Rodriguez, A.; Alameda, J. M.

    2018-06-01

    Amorphous Nd-Co thin films exhibit stripe shaped periodic magnetic domains with local out-of-plane magnetization components due to their perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. This anisotropy has been quantified in a fairly simple way by reproducing the experimental magnetization curves by means of micromagnetic numerical simulations. The simulations show that the first (K1) and second (K2) anisotropy constants must be used to properly describe the variation of the stripe domains with the in plane applied magnetic field. A strong temperature dependence of both K1 and K2 has been obtained between 10 K and room temperature. This anisotropy behavior is characteristic of two magnetically coupled 3d-4f sublattices with competing anisotropies.

  10. Influence of strong single-ion anisotropy on phase states of 3D and 2D frustrated magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fridman, Yu.A.; Kosmachev, O.A.; Matunin, D.A.; Gorelikov, G.A.; Klevets, Ph.N.

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the influence of strong single-ion anisotropy, exceeding exchange interaction, and frustrated exchange interaction on spin-wave excitation spectra and phase states using the Hubbard operators' technique, allowing the exact account of single-ion anisotropy. The results show that both the homogeneous phases (ferromagnetic and quadrupolar) and the spatially inhomogeneous phase (spiral structure) are possible in the 3D magnetic crystal. The region of existence of the spiral structure is considerably smaller than that in the analogues system, but with weak single-ion anisotropy. The situation is more complex in the 2D system; another spatially inhomogeneous state (the domain structure) can be realized in addition to the spiral magnetic structure. The phase diagrams for both the 3D and 2D systems were plotted.

  11. Micromagnetic simulation of two-body magnetic nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fei; Lu, Jincheng; Yang, Yu; Lu, Xiaofeng; Tang, Rujun; Sun, Z. Z.

    2017-05-01

    Field-induced magnetization dynamics was investigated in a system of two magnetic nanoparticles with uniaxial anisotropies and magnetostatic interaction. By using the micromagnetic simulation, ultralow switching field strength was found when the separation distance between the two particles reaches a critical small value on nanometer scale in the perpendicular configuration where the anisotropic axes of the two particles are perpendicular to the separation line. The switching field increases sharply when the separation is away from the critical distance. The same results were observed when varying the radius of particles. The micromagnetic results are consistent with the previous theoretical prediction where dipolar interaction between two single-domain magnetic particles was considered. Our present simulations offered further proofs and possibilities for the low-power applications of information storage as the two-body magnetic nanoparticles could be implemented as a composite information bit.

  12. Magnetic anisotropy energy and effective exchange interactions in Co intercalated graphene on Ir(111)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Shick, Alexander; Hong, S.C.; Máca, František; Lichtenstein, A.I.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 47 (2014), "476003-1"-"476003-6" ISSN 0953-8984 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP204/10/0330; GA ČR GB14-37427G Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : magnetic anisotropy * Co monolayer * graphene Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.346, year: 2014

  13. Observation of high magnetocrystalline anisotropy on Co doping in rare earth free Fe2P magnetic material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Jyoti; Singh, Om Pal; Tomar, Monika; Gupta, Vinay; Kashyap, Manish K.

    2018-04-01

    ab-initio investigation of magnetocrystalline anisotropy energy (MAE) for Fe2P and CoFeP using density functional theory based full-potential linear augmented plane wave (FPLAPW) is reported. CoFeP alloy exhibits large magnetic moment 13.28 µB and enhanced anisotropy energy reaching as high as 1326 µeV/f.u. This energy is nearly doubled as compared to its parent Fe2P alloy, making this system a promising candidate for a rare earth free permanent magnet. Substituitng Co at Fe-3f site in Fe2P helps in stabilizing the new structure and further improves the magnetic properties.

  14. Magnetic switching, relaxation, and domain structure of a Co/Si(111) film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, M. J.; Bland, J. A. C.; Gu, E.; Ives, A. J. R.; Schumann, F. O.; Hughes, H. P.

    1993-11-01

    We have used scanning magneto-optic Kerr effect (MOKE) microscopy to investigate the magnetic relaxation of a polycrystalline hcp 125 Å Co/Si(111) film with planar uniaxial anisotropy, on time scales between 10 and 2400 s and with a spatial resolution of 15 μm. In a static magnetic field slightly less than the coercive field and applied along the easy axis direction, domains develop and the magnetization reversal proceeds via displacements of 180° domain walls. Microscopic images of this metastable state allow the 180° domains to be identified by calibration of the MOKE signal with respect to that for the saturated magnetization states. The 180° reversed domains are observed to grow in the direction of the field in the form of narrow fingers, extending via short Barkhausen jumps, randomly spaced in time over the entire time-scale range investigated, with typical distances between pinning sites of the order of microns. This reversal behavior is qualitatively similar to that reported for Au/Co perpendicular anisotropy films a few monolayers thick.

  15. Nonlinear dynamic behaviour of a rotor-foundation system coupled through passive magnetic bearings with magnetic anisotropy - Theory and experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Søren; Santos, Ilmar F.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, the nonlinear dynamic behaviour of a vertical rigid rotor interacting with a flexible foundation by means of two passive magnetic bearings is quantified and evaluated. The quantification is based on theoretical and experimental investigation of the non-uniformity (anisotropy......) of the magnetic field and the weak nonlinearity of the magnetic forces. Through mathematical modelling the nonlinear equations of motion are established for describing the shaft and bearing housing lateral dynamics coupled via the nonlinear and non-uniform magnetic forces. The equations of motion are solved...

  16. Relaxation dynamics of magnetization transitions in synthetic antiferromagnet with perpendicular anisotropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talantsev, A.; Lu, Y.; Fache, T.; Lavanant, M.; Hamadeh, A.; Aristov, A.; Koplak, O.; Morgunov, R.; Mangin, S.

    2018-04-01

    Two synthetic antiferromagnet bilayer systems with strong perpendicular anisotropy CoFeB/Ta/CoFeB and Pt/Co/Ir/Co/Pt have been grown using sputtering techniques. For both systems two types of magnetization transitions have been studied. The first one concerns transitions from a state where magnetizations of the two magnetic layers are parallel (P state) to a state where magnetizations of the two layers are aligned antiparallel (AP state). The second one concerns transitions between the two possible antiparallel alignments (AP+  to AP-). For both systems and both transitions after-effect measurements can be understood in the frame of nucleation—propagation model. Time derivative analysis of magnetic relaxation curves and mapping of the first order reversal curves at different temperature allowed us to demonstrate the presence of different pinning centers, which number can be controlled by magnetic field and temperature.

  17. Magnetization measurements of a novel family of heteronuclear Mn{sub 2}Ni{sub 3} SMM clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gieb, Klaus; Kroener, Wolfgang; Mueller, Paul [Department of Physics and Interdisciplinary Center for Molecular Materials (ICMM), Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg (Germany); Das, Animesh; Demeshko, Serhiy; Meyer, Franc [Institut fuer Anorganische Chemie, Georg-August-Universitaet Goettingen (Germany); Krupskaya, Yulia; Klingeler, Ruediger; Kataev, Vladislav; Buechner, Bernd [Leibniz-Institute for Solid State and Materials Research IFW Dresden (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    We report on magnetic measurements of two heterometallic Mn{sup III}{sub 2}Ni{sup II}{sub 3}X{sub 2}L{sub 4}(LH){sub 2}(H2O){sub 2} (X=Cl, Br) complexes. These compounds have a ground state spin of S=7 and show an easy-axis type of anisotropy. DC and AC susceptibility measurements were performed with a commercial SQUID magnetometer. A home-made micro-Hall-probe magnetometer was used to perform the characterization at mK temperatures. We found an uniaxial anisotropy parameter of D{approx_equal}-0.5 K. Magnetic hysteresis and quantum tunneling of magnetization was observed at temperatures below a blocking temperature T{sub B}{approx_equal}1.5 K. The shape of the hysteresis loop is influenced by intermolecular interactions. The signature of these interactions can be modified by the variation of the Mn coordination partner X.

  18. Magnetic properties of Ni nanoparticles dispersed in silica prepared by high-energy ball milling

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, E. M.; Montero, M. I.; Cebollada, F.; de Julián, C.; Vicent, J. L.; González, J. M.

    1998-04-01

    We analyze the magnetic properties of mechanically ground nanosized Ni particles dispersed in a SiO2 matrix. Our magnetic characterization of the as-milled samples show the occurrence of two blocking processes and that of non-monotonic milling time evolutions of the magnetic-order temperature, the high-field magnetization and the saturation coercivity. The measured coercivities exhibit giant values and a uniaxial-type temperature dependence. Thermal treatment carried out in the as-prepared samples result in a remarkable coercivity reduction and in an increase of the high-field magnetization. We conclude, on the basis of the consideration of a core (pure Ni) and shell (Ni-Si inhomogeneous alloy) particle structure, that the magnetoelastic anisotropy plays the dominant role in determining the magnetic properties of our particles.

  19. Anisotropy of susceptibility in rocks that are magnetically non-linear even in weak fields

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chadima, Martin; Ježek, J.; Hrouda, F.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 19, EGU General Assembly 2017 (2017) ISSN 1029-7006. [European Geosciences Union General Assembly. 23.04.2017-28.04.2017, Vienna] Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility * field-dependent susceptibility * second-rank tensor Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography http://meetingorganizer.copernicus.org/EGU2017/EGU2017-7210-1.pdf

  20. Spin torque switching of 20 nm magnetic tunnel junctions with perpendicular anisotropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajek, M.; Nowak, J. J.; Sun, J. Z.; Trouilloud, P. L.; O'Sullivan, E. J.; Abraham, D. W.; Gaidis, M. C.; Hu, G.; Brown, S.; Zhu, Y.; Robertazzi, R. P.; Gallagher, W. J.; Worledge, D. C.

    2012-03-01

    Spin-transfer torque magnetic random access memory (STT-MRAM) is one of the most promising emerging non-volatile memory technologies. MRAM has so far been demonstrated with a unique combination of density, speed, and non-volatility in a single chip, however, without the capability to replace any single mainstream memory. In this paper, we demonstrate the basic physics of spin torque switching in 20 nm diameter magnetic tunnel junctions with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy materials. This deep scaling capability clearly indicates the STT MRAM device itself may be suitable for integration at much higher densities than previously proven.

  1. Nanocrystalline iron nitride films with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Ajay; Dubey, Ranu; Leitenberger, W.; Pietsch, U.

    2008-01-01

    Nanocrystalline α-iron nitride films have been prepared using reactive ion-beam sputtering. Films develop significant perpendicualr magnetic anisotropy (PMA) with increasing thickness. A comparison of x-ray diffraction patterns taken with scattering vectors in the film plane and out of the film plane provides a clear evidence for development of compressive strain in the film plane with thickness. Thermal annealing results in relaxation of the strain, which correlates very well with the relaxation of PMA. This suggests that the observed PMA is a consequence of the breaking of the symmetry of the crystal structure due to the compressive strain

  2. Surface magnetization and the role of pattern defects in various types of ripple patterned films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colino, Jose M; Arranz, Miguel A; Barbero, Antonio J; Bollero, A; Camarero, J

    2016-01-01

    We present a detailed study of the magnetic properties of cobalt films with wide-area nanoscale ripple patterns, either on their surface only, or on both the film surface and substrate interface. Angular dependence vectorial-resolved magnetometry measurements and magnetic force microscopy with in situ magnetic field have been used to determine the magnetization reversal processes to correlate them to the different patterned nanostructures. All the samples show well-defined uniaxial magnetic anisotropy with the anisotropy axis lying along the ripple direction. Atomic force microscopy of the different types of pattern reveals various pattern defects: height corrugation and breaks of continuity along the ripple direction, and overlapping ripples and Y-shaped defects (pattern dislocation) across the pattern. In spite of the existence of such customary defects of erosive-regime patterns, the type of low-amplitude, surface-patterned films remarkably behave as a macrospin over almost the whole in-plane angular range (340°), with negligible spread of anisotropy axis or energy. In turn, it is found that high-amplitude surface-patterned films develop an angular distribution of anisotropy axes, probably related to the large distribution of amplitudes in a pattern of short ripples, and a significant distribution of anisotropy fields ΔH k /H k up to 15%. On the other hand, films grow on pre-patterned silicon with a significantly longer mean ripple length, and develop a larger anisotropy energy with H k up to 110 mT, probably because of the double interface effect. The switching fields close to the magnetization easy axis of all types of ripple pattern are not well reproduced by the macrospin approximation, but the observed pattern defects seem to be not responsible for the domain wall pinning that occurs with the field applied along the ripple direction. (paper)

  3. Magnetic field alignment of coil-coil diblock copolymers and blends via intrinsic chain anisotropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rokhlenko, Yekaterina; Majewski, Pawel; Larson, Steven; Yager, Kevin; Gopalan, Padma; Avgeropoulos, Apostolos; Chan, Edwin; Osuji, Chinedum

    Magnetic fields can control alignment of self-assembled soft materials such as block copolymers provided there is a suitably large magnetic susceptibility anisotropy present in the system. Recent results have highlighted the existence of a non-trivial intrinsic anisotropy in coil-coil diblock copolymers, specifically in lamellar-forming PS-b-P4VP, which enables alignment at field strengths of a few tesla in systems lacking mesogenic components. Alignment is predicated on correlation in the orientation of end-end vectors implied by the localization of block junctions at the microdomain interface and is observed on cooling across the order-disorder transition in the presence of the field. For appropriate combinations of field strength and grain size, we can leverage intrinsic chain anisotropy to magnetically direct self-assembly of many non-mesogenic systems, including other coil-coil BCPs like PS-b-PDMS and PS-b-PMMA, blends of BCPs of disparate morphologies and MWs, and blends of BCPs with homopolymers. This is noteworthy as blends of PS-b-P4VP with PEO provide a route to form functional materials such as nanoporous films by dissolution of PEO, or aligned ion conduction materials. We survey these various systems using TEM and in-situ X-ray scattering to study the phase behavior and temperature-, time- and field- dependent dynamics of alignment.

  4. Magnetic anisotropy of single 3d spins on a CuN surface

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Shick, Alexander; Máca, František; Lichtenstein, A.I.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 79, č. 17 (2009), 172409/1-172409/4 ISSN 1098-0121 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100100912; GA ČR(CZ) GC202/07/J047 Grant - others:DFG(DE) SFB668-A3; German-Czech collaboration(DE) 436TSE113/53/0-1 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : magnetic anisotropy * first principle calculations * iron * manganese * CuN Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.475, year: 2009

  5. Some device implications of voltage controlled magnetic anisotropy in Co/Gd2O3 thin films through REDOX chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Guanhua; Noviasky, Nicholas; Cao, Shi; Sabirianov, Ildar; Yin, Yuewei; Ilie, Carolina C.; Kirianov, Eugene; Sharma, Nishtha; Sokolov, Andrei; Marshall, Andrew; Xu, Xiaoshan; Dowben, Peter A.

    2018-04-01

    The effect of intermediate interfacial oxidation on the in-plane magnetization of multilayer stack Pt/Co/Gd2O3, on a p-type silicon substrate, has been investigated by magneto-optical Kerr effect (MOKE) measurements, the anomalous Hall effect, and magnetoresistance measurements. While voltage controlled perpendicular magnetic anisotropy of a metal/oxide heterostructure is known, this heterostructure displays an inverse relationship between voltage and coercivity. The anomalous Hall effect demonstrates a significant change in hysteresis, with the applied bias sign. There is a higher perpendicular magnetic anisotropy with positive bias exposure.

  6. Perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in Co{sub X}Pd{sub 100−X} alloys for magnetic tunnel junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, B.D.; Natarajarathinam, A.; Tadisina, Z.R. [Center for Materials for Information Technology, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 (United States); Chen, P.J.; Shull, R.D. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States); Gupta, S., E-mail: Sgupta@eng.ua.edu [Center for Materials for Information Technology, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 (United States)

    2017-08-15

    Highlights: • CoPd alloy perpendicular anisotropy dependent on composition and thickness. • CIPT results show that TMR tracks with PMA of CoPd. • Potential replacement for Co/Pd multilayers. - Abstract: CoFeB/MgO-based perpendicular magnetic tunnel junctions (p-MTJ’s) with high anisotropy and low damping are critical for spin-torque transfer random access memory (STT-RAM). Most schemes of making the pinned CoFeB fully perpendicular require ferrimagnets with high damping constants, a high temperature-grown L1{sub 0} alloy, or an overly complex multilayered synthetic antiferromagnet (SyAF). We report a compositional study of perpendicular Co{sub x}Pd alloy-pinned Co{sub 20}Fe{sub 60}B{sub 20}/MgO based MTJ stacks, grown at moderate temperatures in a planetary deposition system. The perpendicular anisotropy of the Co{sub x}Pd alloy films can be tuned based on the layer thickness and composition. The films were characterized by alternating gradient magnetometry (AGM), energy-dispersive X-rays (EDX), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Current-in-plane tunneling (CIPT) measurements have also been performed on the compositionally varied Co{sub x}Pd MTJ stacks. The Co{sub x}Pd alloy becomes fully perpendicular at approximately x = 30% (atomic fraction) Co. Full-film MTJ stacks of Si/SiO{sub 2}/MgO (13)/Co{sub X}Pd{sub 100−x} (50)/Ta (0.3)/CoFeB (1)/MgO (1.6)/CoFeB (1)/Ta (5)/Ru (10), with the numbers enclosed in parentheses being the layer thicknesses in nm, were sputtered onto thermally oxidized silicon substrates and in-situ lamp annealed at 400 °C for 5 min. CIPT measurements indicate that the highest TMR is observed for the CoPd composition with the highest perpendicular magnetic anisotropy.

  7. Magnetic domain pattern asymmetry in (Ga, Mn)As/(Ga,In)As with in-plane anisotropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera Diez, L.; Rapp, C.; Schoch, W.; Limmer, W.; Gourdon, C.; Jeudy, V.; Honolka, J.; Kern, K.

    2012-04-01

    Appropriate adjustment of the tensile strain in (Ga, Mn)As/(Ga,In)As films allows for the coexistence of in-plane magnetic anisotropy, typical of compressively strained (Ga, Mn)As/GaAs films, and the so-called cross-hatch dislocation pattern seeded at the (Ga,In)As/GaAs interface. Kerr microscopy reveals a close correlation between the in-plane magnetic domain and dislocation patterns, absent in compressively strained materials. Moreover, the magnetic domain pattern presents a strong asymmetry in the size and number of domains for applied fields along the easy [11¯0] and hard [110] directions which is attributed to different domain wall nucleation/propagation energies. This strong influence of the dislocation lines in the domain wall propagation/nucleation provides a lithography-free route to the effective trapping of domain walls in magneto-transport devices based on (Ga, Mn)As with in-plane anisotropy.

  8. Anisotropy of out-of-phase magnetic susceptibility of rocks as a tool for direct determination of magnetic subfabrics of some minerals: an introductory study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hrouda, F.; Chadima, Martin; Ježek, J.; Pokorný, J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 208, č. 1 (2017), s. 385-402 ISSN 0956-540X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAAX00130801 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : magnetic and electrical properties * magnetic fabrics and anisotropy * magnetic mineralogy and petrology * rock and mineral magnetism Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy OBOR OECD: Geology Impact factor: 2.414, year: 2016

  9. Effect of substrate rotation on domain structure and magnetic relaxation in magnetic antidot lattice arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallick, Sougata; Mallik, Srijani; Bedanta, Subhankar

    2015-01-01

    Microdimensional triangular magnetic antidot lattice arrays were prepared by varying the speed of substrate rotation. The pre-deposition patterning has been performed using photolithography technique followed by a post-deposition lift-off. Surface morphology taken by atomic force microscopy depicted that the growth mechanism of the grains changes from chain like formation to island structures due to the substrate rotation. Study of magnetization reversal via magneto optic Kerr effect based microscopy revealed reduction of uniaxial anisotropy and increase in domain size with substrate rotation. The relaxation measured under constant magnetic field becomes faster with rotation of the substrate during deposition. The nature of relaxation for the non-rotating sample can be described by a double exponential decay. However, the relaxation for the sample with substrate rotation is well described either by a double exponential or a Fatuzzo-Labrune like single exponential decay, which increases in applied field

  10. Anisotropy of the ferromagnetic L10 phase in the Mn-Al-C alloys induced by high-pressure spark plasma sintering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyrman, Muriel; Ahmim, Smail; Pasko, Alexandre; Etgens, Victor; Mazaleyrat, Frédéric; Quetel-Weben, Simon; Perrière, Loïc; Guillot, Ivan

    2018-05-01

    The metastable τ-phase of MnAl equi-atomic compound belongs to a family of ferromagnetic alloys with L10 crystal structure. Stabilization of the phase by adding 2 at. % using manganese carbide (Mn23C6) enhances the magnetization in relation with the increase in lattice volume. It is thus a promising candidate for rare-earth-free permanent magnets. Coercivity of Mn-Al-C alloys being still weak, there is an interest to see to which extend sintering/transformation of the ɛ-phase by Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) can increase the coercivity and the anisotropy. The structural and the magnetic properties were studied for samples sintered at 550 °C under uniaxial pressure of 100, 200, 300 and 400 MPa. Coercivity, remanence and anistotropy appears with the sintering pressure. The high pressure applied while sintering produces preferential orientation of the flake-shaped grains which influences the remanence.

  11. Angular tuning of the magnetic birefringence in rippled cobalt films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arranz, Miguel A., E-mail: MiguelAngel.Arranz@uclm.es [Facultad de Ciencias y Tecnologías Químicas, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, Avda. Camilo J. Cela 10, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain); Colino, José M. [Instituto de Nanociencia, Nanotecnología y Materiales Moleculares, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, Campus de la Fábrica de Armas, 45071 Toledo (Spain)

    2015-06-22

    We report the measurement of magnetically induced birefringence in rippled Co films. For this purpose, the magneto-optical properties of ion beam eroded ferromagnetic films were studied using Kerr magnetometry and magnetic birefringence in the transmitted light intensity. Upon sufficient ion sculpting, these ripple surface nanostructures developed a defined uniaxial anisotropy in the in-plane magnetization, finely tuning the magnetic birefringence effect. We have studied its dependence on the relative orientation between the ripple direction and the magnetic field, and found this effect to be dramatically correlated with the capability to neatly distinguish the mechanisms for the in-plane magnetization reversal, i.e., rotation and nucleation. This double refraction corresponds univocally to the two magnetization axes, parallel and perpendicular to the ripples direction. We have also observed that tuned birefringence in stack assemblies of rippled Co films, which enables us to technically manipulate the number and direction of refraction axes.

  12. Angular tuning of the magnetic birefringence in rippled cobalt films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arranz, Miguel A.; Colino, José M.

    2015-01-01

    We report the measurement of magnetically induced birefringence in rippled Co films. For this purpose, the magneto-optical properties of ion beam eroded ferromagnetic films were studied using Kerr magnetometry and magnetic birefringence in the transmitted light intensity. Upon sufficient ion sculpting, these ripple surface nanostructures developed a defined uniaxial anisotropy in the in-plane magnetization, finely tuning the magnetic birefringence effect. We have studied its dependence on the relative orientation between the ripple direction and the magnetic field, and found this effect to be dramatically correlated with the capability to neatly distinguish the mechanisms for the in-plane magnetization reversal, i.e., rotation and nucleation. This double refraction corresponds univocally to the two magnetization axes, parallel and perpendicular to the ripples direction. We have also observed that tuned birefringence in stack assemblies of rippled Co films, which enables us to technically manipulate the number and direction of refraction axes

  13. Magnetism and magnetic mineralogy of ash flow tuffs from Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlinger, C.M.; Veblen, D.R.; Rosenbaum, J.G.

    1991-01-01

    The magnetic susceptibility χ and remanent magnetization of an ash flow sheet are profoundly influenced by cooling history after emplacement. Maxima and minima in χ measured along profiles at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, identify persistent magnetic marker horizons within vitric portions of the Tiva Canyon and underlying Topopah Spring Members of the Paintbrush Tuff. The observed stratigraphic changes in magnetic properties reflect variations in amounts and mineralogy of Fe-Ti oxide phenocrysts, and the presence, shape, size, and mineralogy of magnetic Fe-oxide microcrystals that precipitated at high temperature after emplacement of each sheet. The size variations of the precipitated Fe-oxides, which were established using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and petrographic observation, are consistent both with variations in magnetic susceptibility measured at the outcrop and with variations in the intensity of remanent magnetization. Several interpretations of the shape anisotropy of the precipitated Fe-oxide are possible, including growth by a dislocation mechanism. Additionally, the observed elongation of precipitated microcrystals is consistent with theoretical predictions for growth in a uniaxial stress field. Susceptibility variations as established at the outcrop, as well as in the borehole, offer a potentially useful tool for stratigraphic correlation of ash flow sheets

  14. Induced Magnetic Anisotropy in Liquid Crystals Doped with Resonant Semiconductor Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Marzal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, there are many efforts to improve the electrooptical properties of liquid crystals by means of doping them with different types of nanoparticles. In addition, liquid crystals may be used as active media to dynamically control other interesting phenomena, such as light scattering resonances. In this sense, mixtures of resonant nanoparticles hosted in a liquid crystal could be a potential metamaterial with interesting properties. In this work, the artificial magnetism induced in a mixture of semiconductor nanoparticles surrounded by a liquid crystal is analyzed. Effective magnetic permeability of mixtures has been obtained using the Maxwell-Garnett effective medium theory. Furthermore, permeability variations with nanoparticles size and their concentration in the liquid crystal, as well as the magnetic anisotropy, have been studied.

  15. Magnetic anisotropy of graphene quantum dots decorated with a ruthenium adatom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Beljakov

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The creation of magnetic storage devices by decoration of a graphene sheet by magnetic transition-metal adatoms, utilizing the high in-plane versus out-of-plane magnetic anisotropy energy (MAE, has recently been proposed. This concept is extended in our density-functional-based modeling study by incorporating the influence of the graphene edge on the MAE. We consider triangular graphene flakes with both armchair and zigzag edges in which a single ruthenium adatom is placed at symmetrically inequivalent positions. Depending on the edge-type, the graphene edge was found to influence the MAE in opposite ways: for the armchair flake the MAE increases close to the edge, while the opposite is true for the zigzag edge. Additionally, in-plane pinning of the magnetization direction perpendicular to the edge itself is observed for the first time.

  16. The effect of crystalline and shape anisotropy on the magnetic properties of Co and Ni nano wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golipour, R.; Khayyatian, A.; Ramazani, A.; Almasi Kashi, M.

    2007-01-01

    Co and Ni magnetic nano wires with different diameter and deposition time were fabricated into the alumina template using ac electrodeposition, For Ni nano wires with 30 nm diameter the coercivity initially increased then dropped with deposition time, while it only increased with deposition time for all the other diameters. In general, the results showed that the coercivity reduced with diameter. The maximum coercivity was obtained for the Co nano wire made with 30 nm diameter and 30 s deposition time and further electrodeposition time causes a reduction of the coercivity. The effect of crystal and shape anisotropy on the magnetic properties were investigated and the results revealed that the crystal anisotropy has dominant role on the coercive field of Co nano wires, while there is a competitive effect between both the anisotropies for the Ni nano wires changing the coercivity

  17. Element-specific analysis of the magnetic anisotropy in Mn-based antiferromagnetic alloys from first principles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Khmelevskyi, S.; Shick, Alexander; Mohn, P.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 83, č. 22 (2011), "224419-1"-"224419-5" ISSN 1098-0121 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP204/10/0330; GA AV ČR IAA100100912 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : magnetic anisotropy * antiferromagnetism Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.691, year: 2011

  18. Solid-solution stability and preferential site-occupancy in (R-R′){sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colin, C. V.; Dempsey, N. M. [CNRS, Inst NEEL, F-38000 Grenoble (France); Univ. Grenoble Alpes, Inst NEEL, F-38000 Grenoble (France); Ito, M. [CNRS, Inst NEEL, F-38000 Grenoble (France); Univ. Grenoble Alpes, Inst NEEL, F-38000 Grenoble (France); Advanced Material Engineering Div., Toyota Motor Corporation, Susono 410-1193 (Japan); Yano, M. [Advanced Material Engineering Div., Toyota Motor Corporation, Susono 410-1193 (Japan); Suard, E. [Institut Laue-Langevin, CS 20156-38042 Grenoble cedex 9 (France); Givord, D. [CNRS, Inst NEEL, F-38000 Grenoble (France); Univ. Grenoble Alpes, Inst NEEL, F-38000 Grenoble (France); Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, 21941-972 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2016-06-13

    The rare-earth (R) uniaxial anisotropy of R{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B compounds with magnetic R atoms (e.g., Nd or Pr) is at the origin of the exceptional hard magnetic properties achieved in magnets based on these compounds. The uniaxial anisotropy found in Ce{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B is attributed mainly to the magnetism of Fe. Ce is the most abundant R element and there has been much recent effort to fabricate magnets in which Ce is partially substituted for Nd. In the present neutron study of (R{sub 1−x}Ce{sub x}){sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B (R = La or Nd), Ce is found to enter the R{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B phase over the entire composition range. The crystallographic parameters decrease with increasing Ce content and the Ce atoms preferentially occupy the smaller 4f sites. It is concluded that Ce in these (RR′){sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B compounds essentially maintains the intermediate valence character found in Ce{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B. It is proposed that, in this intermediate valence state, Ce weakly contributes to uniaxial anisotropy, thus making a link with the fact that significant coercivity is preserved in Ce-substituted NdFeB magnets.

  19. Ising versus XY anisotropy in frustrated R(2)Ti(2)O(7) compounds as "Seen" by Polarized Neutrons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, H; Gukasov, A; Mirebeau, I; Bonville, P; Decorse, C; Dhalenne, G

    2009-07-31

    We studied the field induced magnetic order in R(2)Ti(2)O(7) pyrochlore compounds with either uniaxial (R=Ho, Tb) or planar (R=Er, Yb) anisotropy, by polarized neutron diffraction. The determination of the local susceptibility tensor {chi(parallel to),chi(perpendicular)} provides a universal description of the field induced structures in the paramagnetic phase (2-270 K), whatever the field value (1-7 T) and direction. Comparison of the thermal variations of chi(parallel to) and chi(perpendicular) with calculations using the rare earth crystal field shows that exchange and dipolar interactions must be taken into account. We determine the molecular field tensor in each case and show that it can be strongly anisotropic.

  20. Pressure-Induced Enhanced Magnetic Anisotropy in Mn(N(CN)2)2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quintero, P. A. [University of Florida, Gainesville; Rajan, D. [University of Florida, Gainesville; Peprah, M. K. [University of Florida, Gainesville; Brinzari, T. V. [University of Florida, Gainesville; Fishman, Randy Scott [ORNL; Talham, Daniel R. [University of Florida, Gainesville; Meisel, Mark W. [University of Florida, Gainesville

    2015-01-01

    Using DC and AC magnetometry, the pressure dependence of the magnetization of the threedimensional antiferromagnetic coordination polymer Mn(N(CN)2)2 was studied up to 12 kbar and down to 8 K. The magnetic transition temperature, Tc, increases dramatically with applied pressure (P), where a change from Tc(P = ambient) = 16:0 K to Tc(P = 12:1 kbar) = 23:5 K was observed. In addition, a marked difference in the magnetic behavior is observed above and below 7.1 kbar. Specifically, for P < 7:1 kbar, the differences between the field-cooled and zero-field-cooled (fc-zfc) magnetizations, the coercive field, and the remanent magnetization decrease with increasing pressure. However, for P > 7:1 kbar, the behavior is inverted. Additionally, for P > 8:6 kbar, minor hysteresis loops are observed. All of these effects are evidence of the increase of the superexchange interaction and the appearance of an enhanced exchange anisotropy with applied pressure.

  1. Investigation of magnetic anisotropy and role of underlayer in obliquely sputtered metallic thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lisfi, A.; Nguyen, L.T.; Lodder, J.C.; Williams, C.M.

    2004-01-01

    Co and Co-Ni films have been obliquely sputtered on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) with and without Cr underlayer. The spin-reorientation observed in films directly deposited on PET is related to the low magnetocrystalline anisotropy of Co (FCC) and change in microstructure from columns to elongated nuclei. Cr underlayer enhances magnetic anisotropy due to HCP structure of Co, which dominates the shape of columns. The double switching in Co/Cr films grown at 70 deg. is a consequence of low packing density of Cr columns of the underlayer

  2. Failure Analysis in Magnetic Tunnel Junction Nanopillar with Interfacial Perpendicular Magnetic Anisotropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weisheng Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic tunnel junction nanopillar with interfacial perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA-MTJ becomes a promising candidate to build up spin transfer torque magnetic random access memory (STT-MRAM for the next generation of non-volatile memory as it features low spin transfer switching current, fast speed, high scalability, and easy integration into conventional complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS circuits. However, this device suffers from a number of failure issues, such as large process variation and tunneling barrier breakdown. The large process variation is an intrinsic issue for PMA-MTJ as it is based on the interfacial effects between ultra-thin films with few layers of atoms; the tunneling barrier breakdown is due to the requirement of an ultra-thin tunneling barrier (e.g., <1 nm to reduce the resistance area for the spin transfer torque switching in the nanopillar. These failure issues limit the research and development of STT-MRAM to widely achieve commercial products. In this paper, we give a full analysis of failure mechanisms for PMA-MTJ and present some eventual solutions from device fabrication to system level integration to optimize the failure issues.

  3. Giant magnetic anisotropy and robust quantum anomalous Hall effect in boron-doped graphene with Re-adsorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kai-Cheng; Li, Yong-Feng; Liu, Yong; Zhu, Yan

    2018-04-01

    Recently topological materials have attracted much attention due to their quantization transports as well as edge states. It will be excellent to realize the robust quantum anomalous Hall transports in graphene-based devices. Using density-functional theory and tight-binding method, we investigated the structural, magnetic and topological properties for the boron-doped graphene with Re-adsorption. A large band-gap of 32.5 meV is opened by the Rashba spin-orbital coupling, and the band-gap is robust against the shape deformation of  ± 4% along the zigzag direction. Giant magnetic anisotropy emerges in this adsorption system together with the Fermi level lying in the band gap. Both the magnetic anisotropy and the band gap can be tuned by a moderate electric field. Calculations reveal that the system exhibits the quantization transports with the Chern number C=2 .

  4. Role of Ta-spacer layer on tuning the tilt angle magnetic anisotropy of L1{sub 1}-CoPt/Ta/NiFe exchange springs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saravanan, P., E-mail: psdrdo@gmail.com [Defence Metallurgical Research Laboratory, Hyderabad 500058 (India); Talapatra, A.; Mohanty, J. [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Hyderabad, Hyderabad 502285 (India); Hsu, Jen-Hwa, E-mail: jhhsu@phys.ntu.edu.tw [Department of Physics, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Kamat, S.V. [Defence Metallurgical Research Laboratory, Hyderabad 500058 (India)

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • Role of Ta-spacer layer in L1{sub 1}-CoPt(10 nm)/Ta//NiFe(4 nm) trilayers was investigated. • Domain size increased at the expense of magnetic phase contrast with increasing t{sub Ta}. • Tilt angle magnetization increased from 43° to 77° upon increasing t{sub Ta} (0–2.5 nm). • Micromagnetic studies confirmed the existence of tilted magnetic anisotropy. • Ta-spacer is effective in preserving competing anisotropies of CoPt and NiFe-layers. - Abstract: L1{sub 1}-CoPt/Ta/NiFe trilayers are chosen as model films for probing the role of spacer layer on tuning the tilt angle magnetization (θ{sub M}) in such exchange springs. For this purpose, a non-magnetic layer (Ta) with varying thickness (t{sub Ta}) from 0 to 2.5 nm was inserted between 10-nm thick CoPt film exhibiting strong perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) and 4-nm thick NiFe film having in-plane magnetic anisotropy (IMA). With the insertion of Ta-spacer, the magnetic hysteresis loops become more and more tilted as t{sub Ta} increases. Upon increasing the t{sub Ta} from 0 to 2.5 nm, the estimated SQR{sub ⊥} (=M{sub r⊥}/M{sub s⊥}) from the M–H loops is found to decrease moderately; while the θ{sub M} increases significantly from 43° to 77°. MFM images revealed maze-like domain patterns and the domain size tends to increase at the expense of magnetic phase contrast with increasing t{sub Ta}. Micro-magnetic simulation of tilt in the anisotropy axis with respect to the bare CoPt-layer showed a trend similar to that of those observed with the M–H loops obtained by VSM measurements. The results of present study suggest that the insertion of Ta-spacer is not only beneficial in terms of preserving the competing anisotropies such as PMA and IMA of CoPt and NiFe-layers respectively through weakened exchange coupling; but also, act as an appropriate means for realizing tunable tilted magnetic anisotropy in the L1{sub 1}-CoPt/NiFe exchange springs.

  5. Stable evaluation of Green's functions in cylindrically stratified regions with uniaxial anisotropic layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, H.; Donderici, B.; Teixeira, F. L.

    2016-11-01

    We present a robust algorithm for the computation of electromagnetic fields radiated by point sources (Hertzian dipoles) in cylindrically stratified media where each layer may exhibit material properties (permittivity, permeability, and conductivity) with uniaxial anisotropy. Analytical expressions are obtained based on the spectral representation of the tensor Green's function based on cylindrical Bessel and Hankel eigenfunctions, and extended for layered uniaxial media. Due to the poor scaling of these eigenfunctions for extreme arguments and/or orders, direct numerical evaluation of such expressions can produce numerical instability, i.e., underflow, overflow, and/or round-off errors under finite precision arithmetic. To circumvent these problems, we develop a numerically stable formulation through suitable rescaling of various expressions involved in the computational chain, to yield a robust algorithm for all parameter ranges. Numerical results are presented to illustrate the robustness of the formulation including cases of practical interest.

  6. Magnetization, Magnetocrystalline Anisotropy and the Crystalline Electric Field in Rare-Earth Al2 Compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Purwins, H. -G.; Walker, E.; Barbara, B.

    1974-01-01

    a quantitative quantum mechanical description of the magnetization and the related magnetocrystalline anisotropy in terms of a cubic crystalline electric field and an isotropic exchange interaction. The parameters used in this description can be unified to good approximation to all REAl2 intermetallic compounds......Magnetization measurements are reported for single crystals of PrAl2 in the range from 4.2K to 30K for magnetic fields up to 150 kOe applied in the (100), (110) and (111) directions. For these measurements, together with the magnetization results obtained earlier for TbAl2 the authors give...

  7. Origin of second-order transverse magnetic anisotropy in Mn12-acetate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornia, A.; Sessoli, R.; Sorace, L.; Gatteschi, D.; Barra, A. L.; Daiguebonne, C.

    2002-01-01

    The symmetry breaking effects for quantum tunneling of the magnetization in Mn 12 -acetate, a molecular nanomagnet, represent an open problem. We present structural evidence that the disorder of the acetic acid of crystallization induces sizable distortion of the Mn(III) sites, giving rise to six different isomers. Four isomers have symmetry lower than tetragonal and a nonzero second-order transverse magnetic anisotropy, which has been evaluated using a ligand field approach. The result of the calculation leads to an improved simulation of electron paramagnetic resonance spectra and justifies the tunnel splitting distribution derived from the field sweep rate dependence of the hysteresis loops

  8. Ferromagnetic resonance linewidth and damping in perpendicular-anisotropy magnetic multilayers thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaujour, Jean-Marc

    2010-03-01

    Transition metal ferromagnetic films with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) have ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) linewidths that are one order of magnitude larger than soft magnetic materials, such as pure iron (Fe) and permalloy (NiFe) thin films. We have conducted systematic studies of a variety of thin film materials with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy to investigate the origin of the enhanced FMR linewidths, including Ni/Co and CoFeB/Co/Ni multilayers. In Ni/Co multilayers the PMA was systematically reduced by irradiation with Helium ions, leading to a transition from out-of-plane to in-plane easy axis with increasing He ion fluence [1,2]. The FMR linewidth depends linearly on frequency for perpendicular applied fields and increases significantly when the magnetization is rotated into the film plane with an applied in-plane magnetic field. Irradiation of the film with Helium ions decreases the PMA and the distribution of PMA parameters, leading to a large reduction in the FMR linewidth for in-plane magnetization. These results suggest that fluctuations in the PMA lead to a large two magnon scattering contribution to the linewidth for in-plane magnetization and establish that the Gilbert damping is enhanced in such materials (α˜0.04, compared to α˜0.002 for pure Fe) [2]. We compare these results to those on CoFeB/Co/Ni and published results on other thin film materials with PMA [e.g., Ref. 3]. [1] D. Stanescu et al., J. Appl. Phys. 103, 07B529 (2008). [2] J-M. L. Beaujour, D. Ravelosona, I. Tudosa, E. Fullerton, and A. D. Kent, Phys. Rev. B RC 80, 180415 (2009). [3] N. Mo, J. Hohlfeld, M. ulIslam, C. S. Brown, E. Girt, P. Krivosik, W. Tong, A. Rebel, and C. E. Patton, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 022506 (2008). *Research done in collaboration with: A. D. Kent, New York University, D. Ravelosona, Institut d'Electronique Fondamentale, UMR CNRS 8622, Universit'e Paris Sud, E. E. Fullerton, Center for Magnetic Recording Research, UCSD, and supported by NSF

  9. Influence of Shape Anisotropy on Magnetization Dynamics Driven by Spin Hall Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. G. Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As the lateral dimension of spin Hall effect based magnetic random-access memory (SHE-RAM devices is scaled down, shape anisotropy has varied influence on both the magnetic field and the current-driven switching characteristics. In this paper, we study such influences on elliptic film nanomagnets and theoretically investigate the switching characteristics for SHE-RAM element with in-plane magnetization. The analytical expressions for critical current density are presented and the results are compared with those obtained from macrospin and micromagnetic simulation. It is found that the key performance indicators for in-plane SHE-RAM, including thermal stability and spin torque efficiency, are highly geometry dependent and can be effectively improved by geometric design.

  10. Hybrid Spintronic Structures With Magnetic Oxides and Heusler Alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Y. B.; Hassan, S. S. A.; Wong, P. K. J.

    2008-01-01

    Hybrid spintronic structures, integrating half-metallic magnetic oxides and Heusler alloys with their predicted high spin polarization, are important for the development of second-generation spintronics with high-efficient spin injection. We have synthesized epitaxial magnetic oxide Fe3O4 on Ga......As(100) and the unit cell of the Fe3O4 was found to be rotated by 45 degrees to match the gallium arsenide GaAs. The films were found to have a bulk-like moment down to 3-4 nm and a low coercivity indicating a high-quality magnetic interface. The magnetization hysteresis loops of the ultrathin films...... are controlled by uniaxial magnetic anisotropy. The dynamic response of the sample shows a heavily damped precessional response to the applied field pulses. In the Heusler alloy system of Co-2 MnGa on GaAs, we found that the magnetic moment was reduced for thicknesses down to 10 nm, which may account...

  11. Effects of eddy current and dispersion of magnetic anisotropy on the high-frequency permeability of Fe-based nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, M., E-mail: mangui@gmail.com [State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films & Integrated Devices, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu (China); Rozanov, K.N.; Zezyulina, P.A. [Institute for Theoretical and Applied Electromagnetics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Wu, Yan-Hui [State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films & Integrated Devices, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu (China)

    2015-06-01

    Fe–Cu–Nb–Si–B microflakes have been prepared by ball milling. The structural, magnetostatic and microwave permeability of the flakes and flake-filled composites have been studied. Two ferromagnetic phases, nanograins and amorphous matrix, are found in the flakes. The Mössbauer study shows that the nanograins are α-Fe{sub 3}(Si) with D0{sub 3} superlattice structure. High resolution transmission electron microscopy shows that the nanograins are well dispersed in the matrix. The microwave permeability of composites containing the flakes has been measured. The comparison of the intrinsic permeability of the flakes obtained from the permeability measurements and from the anisotropy field distribution reveals a disagreement in the magnetic loss peak location. It is concluded that the low-frequency loss in the composites is not due to the effect of eddy currents. The low-frequency loss may be attributed to other sources, such as domain wall motion or peculiarities of the magnetic structure of the flakes in the composite. - Highlights: • Hyperfine interactions have been studied for the Fe-based nanocomposites. Please see Fig. 3. • The distribution of magnetic anisotropy has been derived from the initial magnetization curve of the composite. Please see Fig. 6. • The magnetic loss peak has been reconstructed from the measured permeability of composites and from the anisotropy field distribution. Please see Fig. 9.

  12. Effects of eddy current and dispersion of magnetic anisotropy on the high-frequency permeability of Fe-based nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, M.; Rozanov, K.N.; Zezyulina, P.A.; Wu, Yan-Hui

    2015-01-01

    Fe–Cu–Nb–Si–B microflakes have been prepared by ball milling. The structural, magnetostatic and microwave permeability of the flakes and flake-filled composites have been studied. Two ferromagnetic phases, nanograins and amorphous matrix, are found in the flakes. The Mössbauer study shows that the nanograins are α-Fe 3 (Si) with D0 3 superlattice structure. High resolution transmission electron microscopy shows that the nanograins are well dispersed in the matrix. The microwave permeability of composites containing the flakes has been measured. The comparison of the intrinsic permeability of the flakes obtained from the permeability measurements and from the anisotropy field distribution reveals a disagreement in the magnetic loss peak location. It is concluded that the low-frequency loss in the composites is not due to the effect of eddy currents. The low-frequency loss may be attributed to other sources, such as domain wall motion or peculiarities of the magnetic structure of the flakes in the composite. - Highlights: • Hyperfine interactions have been studied for the Fe-based nanocomposites. Please see Fig. 3. • The distribution of magnetic anisotropy has been derived from the initial magnetization curve of the composite. Please see Fig. 6. • The magnetic loss peak has been reconstructed from the measured permeability of composites and from the anisotropy field distribution. Please see Fig. 9

  13. Spin-orbit torque induced switching in a magnetic insulator thin film with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, J. X.; Yu, G. Q.; Tang, C.; Wang, K. L.; Shi, J.

    Spin-orbit torque (SOT) has been demonstrated to be efficient to manipulate the magnetization in heavy-metal/ferromagnetic metal (HM/FMM) heterostructures. In HM/magnetic insulator (MI) heterostructures, charge currents do not flow in MI, but pure spin currents generated by the spin Hall effect in HM can enter the MI layer to cause magnetization dynamics. Here we report SOT-induced magnetization switching in Tm3Fe5O12/Pt heterostructures, where Tm3Fe5O12 (TmIG) is a MI grown by pulsed laser deposition with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. The anomalous Hall signal in Pt is used as a probe to detect the magnetization switching. Effective magnetic fields due to the damping-like and field-like torques are extracted using a harmonic Hall detection method. The experiments are carried out in heterostructures with different TmIG film thicknesses. Both the switching and harmonic measurements indicate a more efficient SOT generation in HM/MI than in HM/FMM heterostructures. Our comprehensive experimental study and detailed analysis will be presented. This work was supported as part of the SHINES, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the US Department of Energy, Office of Science, Basic Energy Sciences under Award No. SC0012670.

  14. Magnetic anisotropy of textured Nnsub(2,85)Nisub(0,15)Bsub(4)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlasov, K.B.; Timoshchuk, V.I.; Sesekin, P.N.

    1975-01-01

    Magnetic measurements on Mnsub(2.85)Nisub(0.15)Bsub(4) alloy powder oriented in magnetic field were carried out. The alloy was made by sintering briquetted magnesium, boron, and nickel powders in an evacuated quartz ampule at a temperature of 1150 deg C for 40 h. The average particle size obtained was of an order of 30 μm. The sintered alloy was desintegrated to a particle size below 10 μm and resultant powder placed in a spirit-of-wine filled ampule. The orientation effect was caused by suspension cooling in a magnetic field, of 25 kOe to temperatures below the ferromagnetic transition point and was fixed by further cooling below alcohol freezing temperature. The research indicated that the pattern of magnetizing curves of the alloy in fields of an order of tens of kilooersteds was largely due to the crystallographic magnetic anisotropy energy

  15. Anisotropy of Anhysteretic Remanenct Magnetization (AARM) and its Dependence on Experimental Parameters - Implications for Fabric Interpretation and Paleomagnetic Corrections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinberg, J. M.; Biedermann, A. R.; Bilardello, D.; Jackson, M.

    2017-12-01

    Magnetic fabrics often serve as proxies for mineral fabrics, and anisotropy of remanent magnetization in particular assesses the crystallographic and shape preferred orientation of ferromagnetic (sensu lato) minerals. Anisotropy of anhysteretic remanent magnetization (AARM) is most commonly measured by imparting a set of directional anhysteretic remanences over the entire coercivity range of the sample, or up to the maximum field the (de)magnetizer can reach. However, if several ferromagnetic minerals or grain sizes coexist in a rock, they may be affected by different stress fields or stages of deformation. For example, if magnetite is present both as exsolution lamellae within silicates as well as interstitial grains between silicates, then these two populations may possess significantly different fabrics. In this study, we investigate how AARM in a rock changes when the remanence is imparted over different coercivity windows. For this, remanences are imposed over 0-20, 0-50, 0-100, 0-180, and 20-50, 50-100 and 100-180 mT. We will also investigate how the strength of the DC bias field affects AARM tensors. Preliminary results on rocks from a series of lithologies indicate that principal directions, degree and shape of the ARM anisotropy can vary dramatically across different coercivity windows. The degree of anisotropy can either decrease or increase as higher-coercivity grains are included. In particular, it should be noted that the coercivity fraction carrying the largest portion of the remanence does not necessarily dominate the AARM. Principal directions can be similar for all coercivity windows, but a number of samples show distinct orientations of the 0-20 mT AARM tensors vs the 50-100 or 100-180 mT tensors, with the 0-50, 0-100 and 0-180 mT AARMs being a combination of these two fabrics. Changes in AARM tensors will influence the interpretation of inferred flow or deformation patterns, as well as anisotropy corrections of paleomagnetic data. Therefore

  16. Evidence for equivalence of diffusion processes of passive scalar and magnetic fields in anisotropic Navier-Stokes turbulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurčišinová, E; Jurčišin, M

    2017-05-01

    The influence of the uniaxial small-scale anisotropy on the kinematic magnetohydrodynamic turbulence is investigated by using the field theoretic renormalization group technique in the one-loop approximation of a perturbation theory. The infrared stable fixed point of the renormalization group equations, which drives the scaling properties of the model in the inertial range, is investigated as the function of the anisotropy parameters and it is shown that, at least at the one-loop level of approximation, the diffusion processes of the weak passive magnetic field in the anisotropically driven kinematic magnetohydrodynamic turbulence are completely equivalent to the corresponding diffusion processes of passively advected scalar fields in the anisotropic Navier-Stokes turbulent environments.

  17. Long-wavelength optical phonon behavior in uniaxial strained graphene: Role of electron-phonon interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Assili, Mohamed; Haddad, Sonia

    2014-01-01

    We derive the frequency shifts and the broadening of $\\Gamma$ point longitudinal optical (LO) and transverse optical (TO) phonon modes, due to electron-phonon interaction, in graphene under uniaxial strain as a function of the electron density and the disorder amount. We show that, in the absence of a shear strain component, such interaction gives rise to a lifting of the degeneracy of the LO and TO modes which contributes to the splitting of the G Raman band. The anisotropy of the electronic...

  18. Electric field-controlled magnetization in exchange biased IrMn/Co/PZT multilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huong Giang, D T; Duc, N H; Agnus, G; Maroutian, T; Lecoeur, P

    2013-01-01

    Electric-field modulating exchange bias and near 180° deterministic magnetization switching at room temperature are demonstrated in simple antiferromagnetic/ferromagnetic/ferroelectric (AFM/FM/FE) exchange-coupled multiferroic multilayers of IrMn/Co/PZT. A rather large exchange bias field shift up to ΔH ex /H ex = 500% was obtained. This change governs mainly the electric-field strength rather than the applied current. It is explained as being realized through the competition between the electric-field induced uniaxial and unidirectional anisotropies. These results show good prospects for low-power spintronic devices. (paper)

  19. Theory of magnetic anisotropy in III.sub.1-x./sub.Mn.sub.x./sub.V ferromagnets

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Abolfath, M.; Jungwirth, Tomáš; Brum, J.; MacDonald, A. H.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 63, č. 5 (2001), s. 054418-1 - 054418-14 ISSN 0163-1829 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC P5.10; GA ČR GA202/98/0085 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : ferromagnetic semiconductors * magnetic anisotropy Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.070, year: 2001

  20. Anisotropies in TeV Cosmic Rays Related to the Local Interstellar Magnetic Field from the IBEX Ribbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwadron, N A; Moebius, E; Adams, F C; Christian, E; Desiati, P; Frisch, P; Funsten, H O; Jokipii, J R; McComas, D J; Zank, G P

    2015-01-01

    The Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) observes enhanced Energetic Neutral Atoms (ENAs) emission in the keV energy range from a narrow (∼20° wide) ''ribbon'' in the sky that appears to be centered on the direction of the local interstellar (LIS) magnetic field. The Milagro collaboration, the Asγ collaboration and the IceCube observatory have recently made global maps of cosmic ray fluxes in the TeV energy range, revealing anisotropic structures ordered in part by the local interstellar magnetic field and the interstellar flow. This paper following from a recent publication in Science makes the link between these disparate observations by developing a simple model of the magnetic structure surrounding the heliosphere in the Local Interstellar Medium (LISM) that is consistent with both IBEX ENA fluxes and TeV cosmic ray anisotropies. The model also employs the revised velocity direction of the LIC derived from neutral He observations by IBEX. By modeling the propagation of cosmic rays through this magnetic field structure, we specifically show that (1) the large-scale TeV anisotropy provides a roughly consistent orientation for the local interstellar magnetic field at the center of the IBEX Ribbon and corroborates the ∼ 3 μG magnitude of the local interstellar magnetic field derived from IBEX observations of the global heliosphere; (2) and small-scale structures in cosmic rays (over < 30° angular scales) are influenced by the interstellar field interaction with the heliosphere at energies < 10 TeV. Thus, we provide a link between IBEX ENA observations, IBEX neutral observations of interstellar He, and TeV cosmic ray anisotropies, which are strongly influenced by the interactions between the local interstellar magnetic field, the flow of the local interstellar plasma, and the global heliosphere

  1. Optimizing magnetic anisotropy of La{sub 1−x}Sr{sub x}MnO{sub 3} nanoparticles for hyperthermia applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rashid, Amin ur [Magnetism Laboratory, Department of Physics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan); Department of Applied Physical and Material Sciences, University of Swat, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (Pakistan); Manzoor, Sadia, E-mail: sadia_manzoor@comsats.edu.pk [Magnetism Laboratory, Department of Physics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2016-12-15

    Maximizing the magnetothermal response of magnetic nanoparticles (MNP's) for hyperthermia applications is a complex problem, because it depends sensitively upon interrelated magnetic and structural parameters. The task is somewhat simpler for systems with fixed composition, e.g. Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} or CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}, in which the particle size is the only means of modifying the magnetic anisotropy, and hence the magnetothermal response. In the La{sub 1−x}Sr{sub x}MnO{sub 3} system however, the magnetic interactions as well as the particle size both change with the Sr concentration x, which makes it a much more complex system for which to optimize the hyperthermia response. We have investigated the effect of magnetic anisotropy on the magnetothermal response of La{sub 1−x}Sr{sub x}MnO{sub 3} nanoparticles as a function of the particle size as well as the Sr concentration x where 0.20≤x≤0.45. The optimum particle size range is 25–30 nm for all concentrations, where the specific absorption rate (SAR) has a maximum. The linear response theory (LRT) has been applied to this system and good agreement has been found between the experimental and theoretically determined values of the SAR for samples lying in the single domain regime and having large enough anisotropy energies. The agreement is much better for the intermediate concentrations of 0.27 and 0.33, because of their large anisotropy as compared to other concentrations. It is concluded that the LRT can be successfully used to predict the SAR of these nanoparticles, provided they possess large enough effective anisotropies. Values of the ILP have been obtained for these samples and found to be comparable to those of magnetite and some commercial ferrofluids. - Highlights: • For La{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}MnO{sub 3} system, the magnetic anisotropy is determined not only by the particle size, but also by the strontium content x, we made a systematic study of both these parameters on its magnetothermal

  2. Magnetic anisotropy and reduced neodymium magnetic moments in Nd.sub.3./sub.Ru.sub.4./sub.Al.sub.12./sub..

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gorbunov, Denis; Henriques, Margarida Isabel Sousa; Andreev, Alexander V.; Eigner, Václav; Gukasov, A.; Fabrèges, X.; Skourski, Y.; Petříček, Václav; Wosnitza, J.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 93, č. 2 (2016), 1-11, č. článku 024407. ISSN 1098-0121 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA16-03593S; GA ČR GA15-12653S; GA MŠk LO1603 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) CZ.2.16/3.1.00/24510 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : rare- earth intermetallics * ferromagnetism * magnetic anisotropy * neutron diffraction Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.736, year: 2014

  3. Strain, magnetic anisotropy, and anisotropic magnetoresistance in (Ga,Mn)As on high-index substrates: Application to (113)A -oriented layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreher, L.; Donhauser, D.; Daeubler, J.; Glunk, M.; Rapp, C.; Schoch, W.; Sauer, R.; Limmer, W.

    2010-06-01

    Based on a detailed theoretical examination of the lattice distortion in high-index epilayers in terms of continuum mechanics, expressions are deduced that allow the calculation and experimental determination of the strain tensor for (hhl) -oriented (Ga,Mn)As layers. Analytical expressions are derived for the strain-dependent free-energy density and for the resistivity tensor for monoclinic and orthorhombic crystal symmetries, phenomenologically describing the magnetic anisotropy and anisotropic magnetoresistance by appropriate anisotropy and resistivity parameters, respectively. Applying the results to (113)A orientation with monoclinic crystal symmetry, the expressions are used to determine the strain tensor and the shear angle of a series of (113)A -oriented (Ga,Mn)As layers by high-resolution x-ray diffraction and to probe the magnetic anisotropy and anisotropic magnetoresistance at 4.2 K by means of angle-dependent magnetotransport. Whereas the transverse-resistivity parameters are nearly unaffected by the magnetic field, the parameters describing the longitudinal resistivity are strongly field dependent.

  4. Off-specular polarized neutron reflectometry study of magnetic dots with a strong shape anisotropy

    CERN Document Server

    Temst, K; Moshchalkov, V V; Bruynseraede, Y; Fritzsche, H; Jonckheere, R

    2002-01-01

    We have measured the off-specular polarized neutron reflectivity of a regular array of rectangular magnetic polycrystalline Co dots, which were prepared by a combination of electron-beam lithography, molecular beam deposition, and lift-off processes. The dots have a length-to-width ratio of 4:1 imposing a strong shape anisotropy. The intensity of the off-specular satellite reflection was monitored as a function of the magnetic field applied parallel to the rows of dots and in the plane of the sample, allowing us to analyze the magnetization-reversal process using the four spin-polarized cross sections. (orig.)

  5. Perpendicular magnetic anisotropy at the interface between ultrathin Fe film and MgO studied by angular-dependent x-ray magnetic circular dichroism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okabayashi, J. [Research Center for Spectrochemistry, The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Koo, J. W.; Mitani, S. [National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), Tsukuba 305-0047 (Japan); Graduate School of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba 305-8577 (Japan); Sukegawa, H. [National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), Tsukuba 305-0047 (Japan); Takagi, Y.; Yokoyama, T. [Institute of Molecular Science, Okazaki, Aichi 444-8585 (Japan)

    2014-09-22

    Interface perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) in ultrathin Fe/MgO (001) has been investigated using angular-dependent x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD). We found that anisotropic orbital magnetic moments deduced from the analysis of XMCD contribute to the large PMA energies, whose values depend on the annealing temperature. The large PMA energies determined from magnetization measurements are related to those estimated from the XMCD and the anisotropic orbital magnetic moments through the spin-orbit interaction. The enhancement of anisotropic orbital magnetic moments can be explained mainly by the hybridization between the Fe 3d{sub z}{sup 2} and O 2p{sub z} states.

  6. Dynamical formation of spatially localized arrays of aligned nanowires in plastic films with magnetic anisotropy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragouli, Despina; Buonsanti, Raffaella; Bertoni, Giovanni; Sangregorio, Claudio; Innocenti, Claudia; Falqui, Andrea; Gatteschi, Dante; Cozzoli, Pantaleo Davide; Athanassiou, Athanassia; Cingolani, Roberto

    2010-04-27

    We present a simple technique for magnetic-field-induced formation, assembling, and positioning of magnetic nanowires in a polymer film. Starting from a polymer/iron oxide nanoparticle casted solution that is allowed to dry along with the application of a weak magnetic field, nanocomposite films incorporating aligned nanocrystal-built nanowire arrays are obtained. The control of the dimensions of the nanowires and of their localization across the polymer matrix is achieved by varying the duration of the applied magnetic field, in combination with the evaporation dynamics. These multifunctional anisotropic free-standing nanocomposite films, which demonstrate high magnetic anisotropy, can be used in a wide field of technological applications, ranging from sensors to microfluidics and magnetic devices.

  7. Anisotropy effects in superconductors with magnetic impurities. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Entel, P.

    1976-01-01

    The influence of Fermi surface anisotropy on the specific heat jumps, ΔC, at the phase transition for superconductors containing magnetic and nonmagnetic impurities is discussed. In the framework of a simple two-band or two-zone model we find for small interband electron-phonon coupling constants characteristic maxima in the ΔC(Tsub(c))-curve. These departures from the corresponding ΔC-curve of a single-band isotropic superconductor are mostly pronounced for weak and strong interband Coulomb scattering of conduction electrons on nonmagnetic ions. There is only a small range of intermediate scattering rates for which the maxima are smeared out. (orig.) [de

  8. Magnetic anisotropy and pressure dependence of the order temperature in the Gd3(FeTi)29 compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morellon, L.; Arnold, Z.; Pareti, L.; Albertini, F.; Paoluzi, A.

    1995-01-01

    In this work we report ac initial magnetic susceptibility under pressure, singular point detection (SPD) and linear thermal expansion measurements in the Gd 3 (FeTi) 29 intermetallic compound. From these measurements we have determined the anisotropy field, the order temperature and its pressure dependence. The thermal expansion measurement shows an Invar-like anomaly at the order temperature, T C =520 K, which decreases under increasing pressure with a slope of dT C /dp=-2.7 K/kbar. As the Gd 3+ ion is isotropic, no contribution to the anisotropy from the 4f sublattice is expected and low values of the anisotropy fields have been observed. (orig.)

  9. Anisotropies of field-dependent in-phase and out-of-phase magnetic susceptibilities of some pyrrhotite-bearing rocks

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hrouda, F.; Chadima, Martin; Ježek, J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 19, EGU General Assembly 2017 (2017) ISSN 1029-7006. [European Geosciences Union General Assembly. 23.04.2017-28.04.2017, Vienna] Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility * field-dependent susceptibility * pyrrhotite Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography http://meetingorganizer.copernicus.org/EGU2017/EGU2017-7091.pdf

  10. Magnetic anisotropy of MnAs-films on GaAs(0 0 1) studied with ferromagnetic resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindner, J.; Tolinski, T.; Lenz, K.; Kosubek, E.; Wende, H.; Baberschke, K.; Ney, A.; Hesjedal, T.; Pampuch, C.; Koch, R.; Daeweritz, L.; Ploog, K.H.

    2004-01-01

    Thin films of MnAs grown on GaAs(0 0 1) show a self-organized structure of coexisting ferromagnetic α- and paramagnetic β-MnAs stripes in the temperature interval from 10 to 40 deg. C. We quantify the magnetic anisotropies of the α-stripes via ferromagnetic resonance and superconducting quantum interference device magnetometry for samples with thicknesses of 57 and 165 nm. The easy axis of magnetization is found to be located perpendicular to the stripe direction, whereas the direction parallel to the stripes is a hard one. While the intrinsic anisotropies show a bulk-like behavior and explain the direction of the hard axis, the key to understanding the direction of the easy axis is given by the demagnetizing fields due to the stripe formation

  11. Magnetic ground and remanent states of synthetic metamagnets with perpendicular anisotropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiselev, N S; Roessler, U K; Bogdanov, A N; Hellwig, O

    2011-01-01

    In this work, we summarize our theoretical results within a phenomenological micromagnetic approach for magnetic ground state and nonequilibrium states as topological magnetic defects in multilayers with strong perpendicular anisotropy and antiferromagnetic (AF) interlayer exchange coupling (IEC), e.g. [Co/Pt(Pd)]/Ru(Ir, NiO). We give detailed analysis of our model together with the most representative results which elucidate common features of such systems. We discuss phase diagrams of the magnetic ground state, and compare solutions of our model with experimental data. A model to assess the stability of so-called tiger tail patterns is presented. It is found that these modulated topological defect cannot be stabilized by an interplay between magnetostatic and IEC energies only. It is argued that tiger tail patterns arise as nuclei of ferro-stripe structure in AF domain walls and that they are stabilized by domain wall pinning.

  12. Effect of hydrogenation disproportionation conditions on magnetic anisotropy in Nd-Fe-B powder prepared by dynamic hydrogenation disproportionation desorption recombination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masao Yamazaki

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Various anisotropic Nd-Fe-B magnetic powders were prepared by the dynamic hydrogenation disproportionation desorption recombination (d-HDDR treatment with different hydrogenation disproportionation (HD times (tHD. The resulting magnetic properties and microstructural changes were investigated. The magnetic anisotropy was decreased with increasing tHD. In the d-HDDR powders with higher magnetic anisotropy, fine (200–600 nm and coarse (600–1200 nm Nd2Fe14B grains were observed. The coarse Nd2Fe14B grains showed highly crystallographic alignment of the c-axis than fine Nd2Fe14B grains. In the highly anisotropic Nd2Fe14B d-HDDR powder, a large area fraction of lamellar-like structures consisting of NdH2 and α-Fe were observed after HD treatment. Furthermore, the mean diameter of the lamellar-like regions, where lamellar-like structures orientate to the same direction in the HD-treated alloys was close to that of coarse Nd2Fe14B grains after d-HDDR treatment. Thus, the lamellar-like regions were converted into the crystallographically aligned coarse Nd2Fe14B grains during desorption recombination treatment, and magnetic anisotropy is closely related to the volume fraction of lamellar-like regions observed after HD treatment.

  13. Magnetic and transport properties of Sm7Rh3 single crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsutaoka, Takanori; Noguchi, Daisuke; Nakamori, Yuko; Nakamoto, Go; Kurisu, Makio

    2013-01-01

    A Sm 7 Rh 3 single crystal with Th 7 Fe 3 -type hexagonal structure was grown by the Czochralski method. The magnetic and transport measurements revealed a uniaxial magnetocrystalline anisotropy in the magnetic susceptibility, magnetization and electrical resistivity. Sm 7 Rh 3 was found to exhibit antiferromagnetic transition at T N =54.0 K and another magnetic transition at T t =25.0 K. The specific heat data clearly showed the bulk nature of paramagnetic to ordered magnetic phase transition by the presence of a sharp peak at T N and a small anomaly at T t . The paramagnetic susceptibility does not obey the Curie–Weiss law, attributing to the temperature independent Van Vleck contribution and Pauli paramagnetism of conduction electrons. Metamagnetic phase transitions were observed along the c-axis in the ordered states. The magnetic field H–temperature T phase diagram was constructed. Anisotropic paramagnetic electrical resistivity showed the small negative temperature coefficients

  14. Influence of magnetic anisotropy on dynamic magnonic crystals created by surface acoustic waves in yttrium iron garnet films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kryshtal, R.G.; Medved, A.V., E-mail: avm@ms.ire.rssi.ru

    2017-03-15

    Experimental results on the investigation of the influence of magnetic crystallographic anisotropy onto parameters of dynamic magnonic crystals arising at surface acoustic wave (SAW) propagation in yttrium iron garnet (YIG) films are presented. The main features of such an influence, as we have shown, are: 1) appearance of extra magnonic band gaps together with the normal magnonic band gap existing without anisotropy, 2) the absence of reflections of the incident surface magnetostatic wave at the frequency of these extra gaps, 3) the same depth for the extra gaps was achieved with a relatively small SAW power, almost by the order of magnitude less than in the case of normal magnonic gaps caused by SAW. A possible explanation of the features is given on the base of inelastic scattering of surface magnetostatic waves by SAW with the transformation of the reflected surface wave to the anisotropic direct volume magnetostatic wave existence of which is due to cubic crystallographic anisotropy in YIG. These results may be useful in designing new devices of information processing. - Highlights: • A new mechanism of creation of dynamic magnonic crystals by SAW propagating in real YIG films with magnetic anisotropy is investigated. • This mechanism is based on inelastic scattering of SMSW by SAW with SMSW transformation to the anisotropic volume magnetostatic wave. • This mechanism brings to creating by SAW additional (extra) magnonic stop bands for SMSW. • The given depth of these band gaps is achieved at SAW powers of the order of magnitude less than in the case of normal magnonic gaps created by SAW in the magnonic crystal without taking into account the anisotropy. • No reflected waves, usually taking place at SMSW propagation at the frequency of normal magnonic gaps, were detected. Such extra gaps look like a magnonic 'black hole' for SMSW. • These new properties of SAW-magnonic crystals, given by the magnetic anisotropy, may be used at creating

  15. Influence of magnetic anisotropy on dynamic magnonic crystals created by surface acoustic waves in yttrium iron garnet films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kryshtal, R.G.; Medved, A.V.

    2017-01-01

    Experimental results on the investigation of the influence of magnetic crystallographic anisotropy onto parameters of dynamic magnonic crystals arising at surface acoustic wave (SAW) propagation in yttrium iron garnet (YIG) films are presented. The main features of such an influence, as we have shown, are: 1) appearance of extra magnonic band gaps together with the normal magnonic band gap existing without anisotropy, 2) the absence of reflections of the incident surface magnetostatic wave at the frequency of these extra gaps, 3) the same depth for the extra gaps was achieved with a relatively small SAW power, almost by the order of magnitude less than in the case of normal magnonic gaps caused by SAW. A possible explanation of the features is given on the base of inelastic scattering of surface magnetostatic waves by SAW with the transformation of the reflected surface wave to the anisotropic direct volume magnetostatic wave existence of which is due to cubic crystallographic anisotropy in YIG. These results may be useful in designing new devices of information processing. - Highlights: • A new mechanism of creation of dynamic magnonic crystals by SAW propagating in real YIG films with magnetic anisotropy is investigated. • This mechanism is based on inelastic scattering of SMSW by SAW with SMSW transformation to the anisotropic volume magnetostatic wave. • This mechanism brings to creating by SAW additional (extra) magnonic stop bands for SMSW. • The given depth of these band gaps is achieved at SAW powers of the order of magnitude less than in the case of normal magnonic gaps created by SAW in the magnonic crystal without taking into account the anisotropy. • No reflected waves, usually taking place at SMSW propagation at the frequency of normal magnonic gaps, were detected. Such extra gaps look like a magnonic 'black hole' for SMSW. • These new properties of SAW-magnonic crystals, given by the magnetic anisotropy, may be used at creating

  16. Impact of stochastic primordial magnetic fields on the scalar contribution to cosmic microwave background anisotropies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finelli, Fabio; Paci, Francesco; Paoletti, Daniela

    2008-01-01

    We study the impact of a stochastic background of primordial magnetic fields on the scalar contribution of cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies and on the matter power spectrum. We give the correct initial conditions for cosmological perturbations and the exact expressions for the energy density and Lorentz force associated to the stochastic background of primordial magnetic fields, given a power-law for their spectra cut at a damping scale. The dependence of the CMB temperature and polarization spectra on the relevant parameters of the primordial magnetic fields is illustrated.

  17. Magnetic avalanches in manganese-acetate, "magnetic deflagration"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Yoko

    Mn12-acetate, first synthesized in 1980 by Lis, is one example of a class of many molecules called single molecule magnets (SMMs) or molecular nanomagnets. These molecules have several atomic spins strongly coupled together within each molecule. They exhibit interesting quantum mechanical phenomena at low temperatures such as quantum tunneling of magnetization, which was first found with Mn12-acetate in 1996 by Friedman, et al. , and Berry phase oscillations which were measured in Fe8 (another SMM) in 1999 by Wernsdorfer, et al. In addition to possible application as memory storage and qubits for quantum computers, these systems provide the means for studies of mesoscopic physics as well as the interactions of the molecules with their environment, such as phonon, photon, nuclear spin, intermolecular dipole, and exchange interactions. Mn12-acetate has twelve Mn ions magnetically coupled in the center of the molecule yielding a giant spin of S = 10 at low temperature. It also has a large uniaxial anisotropy of 65 K. Below 3 K, magnetization curves show strong hysteresis due to the anisotropy barrier. At thesis temperatures, the spin relaxes through the barrier by quantum tunneling of magnetization, which produces regularly-spaced multiple resonant steps in the hysteresis curve. Magnetic avalanches, first detected by Paulsen et al., also occur for some samples only at low temperature, leading to a very fast single-step reversal of the full magnetization, which clearly differs from relaxation by tunneling. In this thesis, I present the results of detailed experimental studies of two aspects of magnetic avalanche phenomenon: "conditions for the triggering of avalanches" and "propagation of the avalanche front". In the first study, we find the magnetic fields at which avalanches occur are stochastically distributed in a particular range of fields. For the second study, we conducted local time-resolved measurements. The results indicate the magnetization avalanches spread

  18. Study of magnetic properties and relaxation in amorphous Fe73.9Nb3.1Cu0.9Si13.2B8.9 thin films produced by ion beam sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Celegato, F.; Coiesson, M.; Magni, A.; Tiberto, P.; Vinai, F.; Kane, S. N.; Modak, S. S.; Gupta, A.; Sharma, P.

    2007-01-01

    Amorphous Fe 73.9 Nb 3.1 Cu 0.9 Si 13.2 B 8.9 thin films have been produced by ion beam sputtering with two different beam energies (500 and 1000 eV). Magnetic measurements indicate that the samples display a uniaxial magnetic anisotropy, especially for samples prepared with the lower beam energy. Magnetization relaxation has been measured on both films with an alternating gradient force magnetometer and magneto-optical Kerr effect. Magnetization relaxation occurs on time scales of tens of seconds and can be described with a single stretched exponential function. Relaxation intensity turns out to be higher when measured along the easy magnetization axis

  19. Shape anisotropy: tensor distance to anisotropy measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weldeselassie, Yonas T.; El-Hilo, Saba; Atkins, M. S.

    2011-03-01

    Fractional anisotropy, defined as the distance of a diffusion tensor from its closest isotropic tensor, has been extensively studied as quantitative anisotropy measure for diffusion tensor magnetic resonance images (DT-MRI). It has been used to reveal the white matter profile of brain images, as guiding feature for seeding and stopping in fiber tractography and for the diagnosis and assessment of degenerative brain diseases. Despite its extensive use in DT-MRI community, however, not much attention has been given to the mathematical correctness of its derivation from diffusion tensors which is achieved using Euclidean dot product in 9D space. But, recent progress in DT-MRI has shown that the space of diffusion tensors does not form a Euclidean vector space and thus Euclidean dot product is not appropriate for tensors. In this paper, we propose a novel and robust rotationally invariant diffusion anisotropy measure derived using the recently proposed Log-Euclidean and J-divergence tensor distance measures. An interesting finding of our work is that given a diffusion tensor, its closest isotropic tensor is different for different tensor distance metrics used. We demonstrate qualitatively that our new anisotropy measure reveals superior white matter profile of DT-MR brain images and analytically show that it has a higher signal to noise ratio than fractional anisotropy.

  20. Stable evaluation of Green's functions in cylindrically stratified regions with uniaxial anisotropic layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, H., E-mail: haksu.moon@gmail.com [ElectroScience Laboratory, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43212 (United States); Donderici, B., E-mail: burkay.donderici@halliburton.com [Sensor Physics & Technology, Halliburton Energy Services, Houston, TX 77032 (United States); Teixeira, F.L., E-mail: teixeira@ece.osu.edu [ElectroScience Laboratory, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43212 (United States)

    2016-11-15

    We present a robust algorithm for the computation of electromagnetic fields radiated by point sources (Hertzian dipoles) in cylindrically stratified media where each layer may exhibit material properties (permittivity, permeability, and conductivity) with uniaxial anisotropy. Analytical expressions are obtained based on the spectral representation of the tensor Green's function based on cylindrical Bessel and Hankel eigenfunctions, and extended for layered uniaxial media. Due to the poor scaling of these eigenfunctions for extreme arguments and/or orders, direct numerical evaluation of such expressions can produce numerical instability, i.e., underflow, overflow, and/or round-off errors under finite precision arithmetic. To circumvent these problems, we develop a numerically stable formulation through suitable rescaling of various expressions involved in the computational chain, to yield a robust algorithm for all parameter ranges. Numerical results are presented to illustrate the robustness of the formulation including cases of practical interest.

  1. Effects of hydrostatic pressure and uniaxial strain on spin-Peierls transition in an organic radical magnet, BBDTA·InCl4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mito, Masaki; Kawagoe, Seiichiro; Deguchi, Hiroyuki; Takagi, Seichi; Fujita, Wataru; Awaga, Kunio; Kondo, Ryusuke; Kagoshima, Seiichi

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the effects of hydrostatic pressure and uniaxial strain on the spin-Peierls (SP) transition of an organic radical magnet, benzo[1,2-d:4,5-d']bis[1,3,2]dithiazole(BBDTA)·InCl 4 . It has a one-dimensional coordination polymer structure along its c-axis and its SP transition occurs at 108 K. The SP transition temperature T SP decreased to 99 K at a hydrostatic pressure of 10 kbar, while it increased to 132 K at a uniaxial strain along the c-axis of 8 kbar. The pressure dependences of T SP under these two conditions were discussed by evaluating two parameters, namely, the intrachain interaction 2J/k B and the effective spin-lattice coupling parameter η, that are related to T SP by the equation T SP =1.6ηJ/k B . Under ambient pressure, the a- and c-axes of this material shortened monotonically with decreasing temperature, while the b-axis elongated below T SP . In this study, we found the correlation between η and the change in the lattice constant b. 2J/k B increased with increasing hydrostatic pressure and uniaxial strain, suggesting that the contraction along the c-axis does not depend on the manner of pressurization. From the evaluation of η, the observed variation in T SP is explained by the difference between the changes in b under the two pressurization conditions. (author)

  2. Statistical-mechanical theory of the overall magnetic properties of mesocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, J P

    2004-10-01

    The mesocrystal showing both electrorheological and magnetorheological effects is called electro-magnetorheological (EMR) solids. Prediction of the overall magnetic properties of the EMR solids is a challenging task due to the coexistence of the uniaxially anisotropic behavior and structural transition as well as long-range interaction between the suspended particles. To consider the uniaxial anisotropy effect, we present an anisotropic Kirkwood-Fröhlich equation for calculating the effective permeabilities by adopting an explicit characteristic spheroid rather than a characteristic sphere used in the derivation of the usual Kirkwood-Fröhlich equation. Further, by applying an Ewald-Kornfeld formulation we are able to investigate the effective permeability by including the structural transition and long-range interaction explicitly. Our theory can reduce to the usual Kirkwood-Fröhlich equation and Onsager equation naturally. To this end, the numerical simulation shows the validity of monitoring the structure of EMR solids by detecting their effective permeabilities.

  3. A challenging hysteresis operator for the simulation of Goss-textured magnetic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardelli, Ermanno [Dipartimento di Ingegneria, Università di Perugia, Via G. Duranti, 67, 06125 Perugia (Italy); Centre for Electric and Magnetic Applied Research, Perugia (Italy); Faba, Antonio [Centre for Electric and Magnetic Applied Research, Perugia (Italy); Polo Didattico Scientifico di Terni, Strada Pentima Bassa n. 4, 05100 Terni (Italy); Laudani, Antonino [Università Roma tre, Via Ostiense, 159, 00154 Roma (Italy); Pompei, Michele [Dipartimento di Ingegneria, Università di Perugia, Via G. Duranti, 67, 06125 Perugia (Italy); Quondam Antonio, Simone, E-mail: simonequondam87@gmail.com [Dipartimento di Ingegneria, Università di Perugia, Via G. Duranti, 67, 06125 Perugia (Italy); Fulginei, Francesco Riganti; Salvini, Alessandro [Università Roma tre, Via Ostiense, 159, 00154 Roma (Italy)

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • New 2-D hysteresis operator for the simulation of Goss-textured ferromagnets at macromagnetic scale-length. • The operator is derived from the classic Stoner–Wohlfarth but the in-plane magnetic anisotropy is cubic. • The single hysteron model is defined exploiting only one “moving” hysteresis operator. • Results are especially promising for FEM based calculations, where the magnetization state in each point must be recalculated at each time step. • Numerical accuracy is proved by comparison with measured data. - Abstract: A new hysteresis operator for the simulation of Goss-textured ferromagnets is here defined. The operator is derived from the classic Stoner–Wohlfarth model, where the anisotropy energy is assumed to be cubic instead of uniaxial, in order to reproduce the magnetic behavior of Goss textured ferromagnetic materials, such as grain-oriented Fe–Si alloys, Ni–Fe alloys, and Ni–Co alloys. A vector hysteresis model based on a single hysteresis operator is then implemented and used for the prediction of the rotational magnetizations that have been measured in a sample of grain-oriented electrical steel. This is especially promising for FEM based calculations, where the magnetization state in each point must be recalculated at each time step. Finally, the computed loops, as well as the magnetic losses, are compared to the measured data.

  4. State diagram of a perpendicular magnetic tunnel junction driven by spin transfer torque: A power dissipation approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavanant, M. [Institut Jean Lamour, UMR CNRS 7198 – Université de Lorraine, Nancy (France); Department of Physics, New York University, New York, NY 10003 (United States); Petit-Watelot, S. [Institut Jean Lamour, UMR CNRS 7198 – Université de Lorraine, Nancy (France); Kent, A.D. [Department of Physics, New York University, New York, NY 10003 (United States); Mangin, S., E-mail: stephane.mangin@univ-lorraine.fr [Institut Jean Lamour, UMR CNRS 7198 – Université de Lorraine, Nancy (France)

    2017-04-15

    The state diagram of a magnetic tunnel junction with perpendicularly magnetized electrodes in the presence of spin-transfer torques is computed in a macrospin approximation using a power dissipation model. Starting from the macrospin's energy we determine the stability of energy extremum in terms of power received and dissipated, allowing the consideration of non-conservative torques associated with spin transfer and damping. The results are shown to be in agreement with those obtained by direct integration of the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert-Slonczewski equation. However, the power dissipation model approach is faster and shows the reason certain magnetic states are stable, such as states that are energy maxima but are stabilized by spin transfer torque. Breaking the axial system, such as by a tilted applied field or tilted anisotropy, is shown to dramatically affect the state diagrams. Finally, the influence of a higher order uniaxial anisotropy that can stabilize a canted magnetization state is considered and the results are compared to experimental data. - Highlights: • Methods to compute state Diagram (Voltage Versus Field) for perpendicular Magnetic Tunnel Junctions. • Comparison between the conventional LLG model and a model based on Power dissipation to study magnetization reversal in magnetic tunnel junction.

  5. Magnetic stripes and holes: Complex domain patterns in perforated films with weak perpendicular anisotropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Valdés-Bango

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Hexagonal antidot arrays have been patterned on weak perpendicular magnetic anisotropy NdCo films by e-beam lithography and lift off. Domain structure has been characterized by Magnetic Force Microscopy at remanence. On a local length scale, of the order of stripe pattern period, domain configuration is controlled by edge effects within the stripe pattern: stripe domains meet the hole boundary at either perpendicular or parallel orientation. On a longer length scale, in-plane magnetostatic effects dominate the system: clear superdomains are observed in the patterned film with average in-plane magnetization along the easy directions of the antidot array, correlated over several antidot array cells.

  6. Magnetic stripes and holes: Complex domain patterns in perforated films with weak perpendicular anisotropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdés-Bango, F.; Vélez, M.; Alvarez-Prado, L. M.; Alameda, J. M.; Martín, J. I.

    2017-05-01

    Hexagonal antidot arrays have been patterned on weak perpendicular magnetic anisotropy NdCo films by e-beam lithography and lift off. Domain structure has been characterized by Magnetic Force Microscopy at remanence. On a local length scale, of the order of stripe pattern period, domain configuration is controlled by edge effects within the stripe pattern: stripe domains meet the hole boundary at either perpendicular or parallel orientation. On a longer length scale, in-plane magnetostatic effects dominate the system: clear superdomains are observed in the patterned film with average in-plane magnetization along the easy directions of the antidot array, correlated over several antidot array cells.

  7. Spin canting in a Dy-based single-chain magnet with dominant next-nearest-neighbor antiferromagnetic interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernot, K.; Luzon, J.; Caneschi, A.; Gatteschi, D.; Sessoli, R.; Bogani, L.; Vindigni, A.; Rettori, A.; Pini, M. G.

    2009-04-01

    We investigate theoretically and experimentally the static magnetic properties of single crystals of the molecular-based single-chain magnet of formula [Dy(hfac)3NIT(C6H4OPh)]∞ comprising alternating Dy3+ and organic radicals. The magnetic molar susceptibility χM displays a strong angular variation for sample rotations around two directions perpendicular to the chain axis. A peculiar inversion between maxima and minima in the angular dependence of χM occurs on increasing temperature. Using information regarding the monomeric building block as well as an ab initio estimation of the magnetic anisotropy of the Dy3+ ion, this “anisotropy-inversion” phenomenon can be assigned to weak one-dimensional ferromagnetism along the chain axis. This indicates that antiferromagnetic next-nearest-neighbor interactions between Dy3+ ions dominate, despite the large Dy-Dy separation, over the nearest-neighbor interactions between the radicals and the Dy3+ ions. Measurements of the field dependence of the magnetization, both along and perpendicularly to the chain, and of the angular dependence of χM in a strong magnetic field confirm such an interpretation. Transfer-matrix simulations of the experimental measurements are performed using a classical one-dimensional spin model with antiferromagnetic Heisenberg exchange interaction and noncollinear uniaxial single-ion anisotropies favoring a canted antiferromagnetic spin arrangement, with a net magnetic moment along the chain axis. The fine agreement obtained with experimental data provides estimates of the Hamiltonian parameters, essential for further study of the dynamics of rare-earth-based molecular chains.

  8. Electric-field-control of magnetic anisotropy of Co0.6Fe0.2B0.2/oxide stacks using reduced voltage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kita, Koji; Abraham, David W.; Gajek, Martin J.; Worledge, D. C.

    2012-08-01

    We have demonstrated purely electrical manipulation of the magnetic anisotropy of a Co0.6Fe0.2B0.2 film by applying only 8 V across the CoFeB/oxide stack. A clear transition from in-plane to perpendicular anisotropy was observed. The quantitative relationship between interface anisotropy energy and the applied electric-field was determined from the linear voltage dependence of the saturation field. By comparing the dielectric stacks of MgO/Al2O3 and MgO/HfO2/Al2O3, enhanced voltage control was also demonstrated, due to the higher dielectric constant of the HfO2. These results suggest the feasibility of purely electrical control of magnetization with small voltage bias for spintronics applications.

  9. Experimental determination of limit angle of helical anisotropy in amorphous magnetic microwires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chizhik, A.; Zhukov, A.; Blanco, J.M.; Gonzalez, J.; Gawronski, P.

    2009-01-01

    The influence of the torsion stress on the surface magnetic structure in Co-rich amorphous glass covered microwires has been investigated. The limit angle of the surface helical anisotropy induced by the torsion stress has been determined in agreement with the model which considers the torsion stress as a interference of two tensile stresses of opposite signs directed at 45 deg. and 135 deg. relative to the longitudinal axis of the wire

  10. Variation in the strain anisotropy of Zircaloy with temperature and strain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hindle, E.D.; Worswick, D.

    1984-04-01

    Strain anisotropy was investigated at temperatures in the range 293 to 1117K in circular tensile specimens prepared from rolled Zircaloy-2 plate so that their tensile axes were parallel to and transverse to the rolling direction. The strain anisotropy factor for both types of specimen increased markedly in the high alpha phase region above 923K reaching a maximum at circa 1070K. Above this temperature in the alpha-plus-beta phase region the strain anisotropy decreased rapidly as the proportion of beta phase increased and was almost non-existent at 1173K. The strain anisotropy was markedly strain dependent, particularly in the high alpha phase region. The study was extended to Zircaloy-4 pressurized water reactor (PWR) 17 x 17 type fuel rod tubing specimens which were strained under biaxial conditions using cooling conditions which promoted uniform diametral strain over most of their lengths (circa 250 mm). In these circumstances the strain anisotropy is manifest by a reduction in length. Measurement of this change along with that in diameter and wall thickness produced data from which the strain anisotropy factor was calculated. The results, although influenced by additional factors discussed in the paper, were similar to those observed in the uniaxial Zircaloy-2 tensile tests. (author)

  11. Electric-field effects on magnetic anisotropy in Pd/Fe/Pd(0 0 1) surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haraguchi, Shinya; Tsujikawa, Masahito; Gotou, Junpei; Oda, Tatsuki

    2011-01-01

    Electric-field (EF) effects have been studied on magnetic anisotropy in the metallic surfaces Pt/Fe/Pt(0 0 1) and Pd/Fe/Pd(0 0 1) by means of the first-principles electronic structure calculation which employs the generalized gradient approximation. The variation of anisotropy energy with respect to the EF is found to be opposite to each other. The modulus rate of the variation is larger by a few factors in the Pt substrate than in the Pd one. These results agree qualitatively well with the available experimental data. The electronic structures are presented and the origins in EF effects are discussed along a line of the second perturbative fashion.

  12. Room-temperature superparamagnetism due to giant magnetic anisotropy in Mo S defected single-layer MoS2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M. A.; Leuenberger, Michael N.

    2018-04-01

    Room-temperature superparamagnetism due to a large magnetic anisotropy energy (MAE) of a single atom magnet has always been a prerequisite for nanoscale magnetic devices. Realization of two dimensional (2D) materials such as single-layer (SL) MoS2, has provided new platforms for exploring magnetic effects, which is important for both fundamental research and for industrial applications. Here, we use density functional theory (DFT) to show that the antisite defect (Mo S ) in SL MoS2 is magnetic in nature with a magnetic moment μ of  ∼2 μB and, remarkably, exhibits an exceptionally large atomic scale MAE =\\varepsilon\\parallel-\\varepsilon\\perp of  ∼500 meV. Our calculations reveal that this giant anisotropy is the joint effect of strong crystal field and significant spin–orbit coupling (SOC). In addition, the magnetic moment μ can be tuned between 1 μB and 3 μB by varying the Fermi energy \\varepsilonF , which can be achieved either by changing the gate voltage or by chemical doping. We also show that MAE can be raised to  ∼1 eV with n-type doping of the MoS2:Mo S sample. Our systematic investigations deepen our understanding of spin-related phenomena in SL MoS2 and could provide a route to nanoscale spintronic devices.

  13. Quantum teleportation via a two-qubit Heisenberg XY chain-effects of anisotropy and magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeo Ye [Centre for Mathematical Sciences, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge CB3 0WB (United Kingdom); Liu Tongqi [Department of Engineering, Trumpington Street, Cambridge CB3 1PZ (United Kingdom); Lu Yuen [Computer Laboratory, William Gates Building, 15 J J Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0FD (United Kingdom); Yang Qizhong [Cavendish Laboratory, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom)

    2005-04-08

    In this paper we study the influence of anisotropy on the usefulness of the entanglement in a two-qubit Heisenberg XY chain at thermal equilibrium in the presence of an external magnetic field, as a resource for quantum teleportation via the standard teleportation protocol. We show that the nonzero thermal entanglement produced by adjusting the external magnetic field beyond some critical strength is a useful resource. We also consider entanglement teleportation via two two-qubit Heisenberg XY chains.

  14. Quantum teleportation via a two-qubit Heisenberg XY chain-effects of anisotropy and magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeo Ye; Liu Tongqi; Lu Yuen; Yang Qizhong

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we study the influence of anisotropy on the usefulness of the entanglement in a two-qubit Heisenberg XY chain at thermal equilibrium in the presence of an external magnetic field, as a resource for quantum teleportation via the standard teleportation protocol. We show that the nonzero thermal entanglement produced by adjusting the external magnetic field beyond some critical strength is a useful resource. We also consider entanglement teleportation via two two-qubit Heisenberg XY chains

  15. Ferromagnetic resonance features of degenerate GdN semiconductor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vidyasagar, Reddithota, E-mail: dr.vidyasagar1979@gmail.com [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Kobe University, 1-1 Rokkodai, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan); Kita, Takashi [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Kobe University, 1-1 Rokkodai, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan); Sakurai, Takahiro; Shimokawa, Tokuro [Centre for Support to Research and Education Activities, Kobe University, 1-1 Rokkodai, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan); Ohta, Hitoshi [Molecular Photoscience Research Center and Graduate School of Science, Kobe University, 1-1 Rokkodai, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan)

    2017-06-15

    Using X-band Ferromagnetic Resonance (FMR) Spectroscopy, we demonstrate the microscopic ferromagnetic resonance features of degenerated GdN semiconductor. The FMR spectrum suggests a single resonance mode below 10 K; interestingly, this particular structure is found to exhibit a peculiar magnetic resonance (PMR) on the top of the uniform FMR while temperature increases from 12–36 K. The low-field PMR mode attributed to the differently magnetized part of the film with an easy in-plane axis. The narrow-field gap between PMR and uniform FMR suggests the strong coupling owning to the differently magnetized part with easy in-plane axis and the magnetized part with an out-of-plane axis. The saturation magnetization, cubic magnetocrystalline anisotropy, and uniaxial anisotropy of GdN epitaxial film have been evaluated by the angular-dependence FMR. - Highlights: • Observation of peculiar magnetic resonance (PMR) on the top of ferromagnetic resonance (FMR). • Newly evolving PMR manifests differently magnetized part of the film with an easy in-plane axis. • Narrow gap between PMR and FMR owing to the strong interaction between two spin–wave resonances. • Uniaxial anisotropy increases with GdN thickness decreases.

  16. Diffraction Plane Dependence of Micro Residual Stresses in Uniaxially Extended Carbon Steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Hanabusa

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In the stress measurement using X-ray or neutron diffraction, an elastic anisotropy as well as a plastic anisotropy of crystal must be carefully considered. In the X-ray and neutron diffraction stress measurement for polycrystalline materials, a particular {hkl} plane is used in measuring lattice strains. The dependence of an X-ray elastic constant on a diffraction plane is a typical example caused by an elastic anisotropy of the crystal. The yield strength and the work hardening rate of a single crystal depend on a crystallographic direction of the crystal. The difference in the yield strength and the work hardening rate relating to the crystallographic direction develops different residual stresses measured on each {hkl} diffraction after plastic deformation of a polycrystalline material. The present paper describes the result of the neutron stress measurement on uniaxially extended low and middle carbon steels. A tri-axial residual stress state developed in the extended specimens was measured on different kind of {hkl} diffraction plane. The measurement on the {110}, {200} and {211} diffraction showed that residual stresses increased with increasing the plastic elongation and the residual stresses on {110} were compressive, {200} were tensile and those on {211} were the middle of the former two planes.

  17. How to probe transverse magnetic anisotropy of a single-molecule magnet by electronic transport?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misiorny, M.; Burzuri, E.; Gaudenzi, R.; Park, K.; Leijnse, M.; Wegewijs, M.; Paaske, J.; Cornia, A.; van der Zant, H.

    We propose an approach for in-situ determination of the transverse magnetic anisotropy (TMA) of an individual molecule by electronic transport measurements, see Phys. Rev. B 91, 035442 (2015). We study a Fe4 single-molecule magnet (SMM) captured in a gateable junction, a unique tool for addressing the spin in different redox states of a molecule. We show that, due to mixing of the spin eigenstates of the SMM, the TMA significantly manifests itself in transport. We predict and experimentally observe the pronounced intensity modulation of the Coulomb peak amplitude with the magnetic field in the linear-response transport regime, from which the TMA parameter E can be estimated. Importantly, the method proposed here does not rely on the small induced tunnelling effects and, hence, works well at temperatures and electron tunnel broadenings by far exceeding the tunnel splittings and even E itself. We deduce that the TMA for a single Fe4 molecule captured in a junction is substantially larger than the bulk value. Work supported by the Polish Ministry of Science and Education as `Iuventus Plus' project (IP2014 030973) in years 2015-2016.

  18. Study of uniaxial nematic lyomesophases by x-ray diffraction and auxiliary techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bittencourt, D.R.S.

    1986-01-01

    The uniaxial lyotropic nematic liquid crystals made of amphiphile/water/decanol/salt have been studied. The amphiphiles sodium decyl sulphate and sodium dodecil sulphate have been used. Characterization of samples conditioned in plane and cylindrical cells has been made by orthoscopic polarized optical microscopy (OM) and X.ray diffraction (XD) by observation of orientation under surface and magnetic field effects. It was possible to determine the director orientation of uniaxial discotic (N D ) and cylindrical (N C ) samples under surface and magnetic effects by both OM and XD techniques in independent ways. The homologous amphiphilies sodium octil, decil and dodecil sulfate, in powder form, have been studied by Debye-Scherrer technique. Observed reflexions have been indexed and crystallographic parameters determined. Good agreement between calculated and measured densities has been obtained. A crysostat for temperature variation in the interval- 10 0 /60 0 has been constructed, XD diagrams has been obtained for sodium decil sulfate samples allowing determination of phase transitions of two systems. Scattering curves at room temperatures have been obtained in a small-angle X-ray diffractometer. Analysis of profiles allowed determination of short range positional order and correlation ranges. Interference function between scattering objects have been obtained using structural models for the micelles of the uniaxial nematic phases. (author) [pt

  19. Effect of sample shape on nonlinear magnetization dynamics under an external magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vagin, Dmitry V.; Polyakov, Oleg P.

    2008-01-01

    Effect of sample shape on the nonlinear collective dynamics of magnetic moments in the presence of oscillating and constant external magnetic fields is studied using the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert (LLG) approach. The uniformly magnetized sample is considered to be an ellipsoidal axially symmetric particle described by demagnetization factors and uniaxial crystallographic anisotropy formed some angle with an applied field direction. It is investigated as to how the change in particle shape affects its nonlinear magnetization dynamics. To produce a regular study, all results are presented in the form of bifurcation diagrams for all sufficient dynamics regimes of the considered system. In this paper, we show that the sample's (particle's) shape and its orientation with respect to the external field (system configuration) determine the character of magnetization dynamics: deterministic behavior and appearance of chaotic states. A simple change in the system's configuration or in the shapes of its parts can transfer it from chaotic to periodic or even static regime and back. Moreover, the effect of magnetization precession stall and magnetic moments alignment parallel or antiparallel to the external oscillating field is revealed and the way of control of such 'polarized' states is found. Our results suggest that varying the particle's shape and fields' geometry may provide a useful way of magnetization dynamics control in complex magnetic systems

  20. Intrinsic magnetic properties of L1(0) FeNi obtained from meteorite NWA 6259

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poirier, E; Pinkerton, FE; Kubic, R; Mishra, RK; Bordeaux, N; Mubarok, A; Lewis, LH; Goldstein, JI; Skomski, R; Barmak, K

    2015-05-07

    FeNi having the tetragonal L1(0) crystal structure is a promising new rare-earth-free permanent magnet material. Laboratory synthesis is challenging, however, tetragonal L1(0) FeNi-the mineral "tetrataenite"-has been characterized using specimens found in nickel-iron meteorites. Most notably, the meteorite NWA 6259 recovered from Northwest Africa is 95 vol.% tetrataenite with a composition of 43 at.% Ni. Hysteresis loops were measured as a function of sample orientation on a specimen cut from NWA 6259 in order to rigorously deduce the intrinsic hard magnetic properties of its L1(0) phase. Electron backscatter diffraction showed that NWA 6259 is strongly textured, containing L1(0) grains oriented along any one of the three equivalent cubic directions of the parent fcc structure. The magnetic structure was modeled as a superposition of the three orthonormal uniaxial variants. By simultaneously fitting first-quadrant magnetization data for 13 different orientations of the sample with respect to the applied field direction, the intrinsic magnetic properties were estimated to be saturation magnetization 4 pi M-s = 14.7 kG and anisotropy field H-a = 14.4 kOe. The anisotropy constant K = 0.84 MJ/m(3) is somewhat smaller than the value K = 1.3 MJ/m(3) obtained by earlier researchers from nominally equiatomic FeNi prepared by neutron irradiation accompanied by annealing in a magnetic field, suggesting that higher Ni content (fewer Fe antisite defects) may improve the anisotropy. The fit also indicated that NWA 6259 contains one dominant variant (62% by volume), the remainder of the sample being a second variant, and the third variant being absent altogether. (C) 2015 AIP Publishing LLC.

  1. Origin of interfacial perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in MgO/CoFe/metallic capping layer structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Shouzhong; Wang, Mengxing; Yang, Hongxin; Zeng, Lang; Nan, Jiang; Zhou, Jiaqi; Zhang, Youguang; Hallal, Ali; Chshiev, Mairbek; Wang, Kang L; Zhang, Qianfan; Zhao, Weisheng

    2015-12-11

    Spin-transfer-torque magnetic random access memory (STT-MRAM) attracts extensive attentions due to its non-volatility, high density and low power consumption. The core device in STT-MRAM is CoFeB/MgO-based magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ), which possesses a high tunnel magnetoresistance ratio as well as a large value of perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA). It has been experimentally proven that a capping layer coating on CoFeB layer is essential to obtain a strong PMA. However, the physical mechanism of such effect remains unclear. In this paper, we investigate the origin of the PMA in MgO/CoFe/metallic capping layer structures by using a first-principles computation scheme. The trend of PMA variation with different capping materials agrees well with experimental results. We find that interfacial PMA in the three-layer structures comes from both the MgO/CoFe and CoFe/capping layer interfaces, which can be analyzed separately. Furthermore, the PMAs in the CoFe/capping layer interfaces are analyzed through resolving the magnetic anisotropy energy by layer and orbital. The variation of PMA with different capping materials is attributed to the different hybridizations of both d and p orbitals via spin-orbit coupling. This work can significantly benefit the research and development of nanoscale STT-MRAM.

  2. Scaling of coercivity in a 3d random anisotropy model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Proctor, T.C., E-mail: proctortc@gmail.com; Chudnovsky, E.M., E-mail: EUGENE.CHUDNOVSKY@lehman.cuny.edu; Garanin, D.A.

    2015-06-15

    The random-anisotropy Heisenberg model is numerically studied on lattices containing over ten million spins. The study is focused on hysteresis and metastability due to topological defects, and is relevant to magnetic properties of amorphous and sintered magnets. We are interested in the limit when ferromagnetic correlations extend beyond the size of the grain inside which the magnetic anisotropy axes are correlated. In that limit the coercive field computed numerically roughly scales as the fourth power of the random anisotropy strength and as the sixth power of the grain size. Theoretical arguments are presented that provide an explanation of numerical results. Our findings should be helpful for designing amorphous and nanosintered materials with desired magnetic properties. - Highlights: • We study the random-anisotropy model on lattices containing up to ten million spins. • Irreversible behavior due to topological defects (hedgehogs) is elucidated. • Hysteresis loop area scales as the fourth power of the random anisotropy strength. • In nanosintered magnets the coercivity scales as the six power of the grain size.

  3. Through-process characterization of local anisotropy of Non-oriented electrical steel using magnetic Barkhausen noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Youliang; Mehdi, Mehdi; Hilinski, Erik J.; Edrisy, Afsaneh

    2018-05-01

    Magnetic Barkhausen noise (MBN) signals were measured on a non-oriented electrical steel through all the thermomechanical processing stages, i.e. hot rolling, hot band annealing, cold rolling and final annealing. The temperature of the final annealing was varied from 600 °C to 750 °C so that the steel consisted of partially or completely recrystallized microstructures and different levels of residual stresses. The angular MBNrms (root mean square) values were compared to the texture factors in the same directions, the latter being calculated from the crystallographic texture measured by electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). It was found that, in the cold-rolled, hot-rolled and completely recrystallized steels, the angular MBNrms followed a cosine function with respect to the angle of magnetization, while in partially recrystallized state such a relation does not exist. After cold rolling, the maximum MBNrms was observed in the rolling direction (RD) and the minimum MBNrms was in the transverse direction (TD), which was inconsistent with the magnetocrystalline anisotropy as indicated by the texture factor. After hot rolling, the maximum and minimum MBNrms values were observed in the TD and RD, respectively, exactly opposite to the cold-rolled state. If the steel was completely recrystallized, the maximum MBNrms was normally observed at a direction that was 15-30° from the minimum texture factor. If the steel was partially recrystallized, both the magnetocrystalline anisotropy of the material and the residual stress contributed to the angular MBNrms, which resulted in the deviation of the relationship from a cosine function. The relative strength of the two factors determined which factor would dominate the overall magnetic anisotropy.

  4. Diffraction by a grating made of a uniaxial dielectric-magnetic medium exhibiting negative refraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Depine, Ricardo A [Grupo de Electromagnetismo Aplicado, Departamento de FIsica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellon I, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Lakhtakia, Akhlesh [CATMAS-Computational and Theoretical Materials Sciences Group, Department of Engineering Science and Mechanics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802-6812 (United States); Department of Physics, Imperial College, London SW7 2BZ (United Kingdom)

    2005-08-01

    Diffraction of linearly polarized plane electromagnetic waves at the periodically corrugated boundary of vacuum and a linear, homogeneous, uniaxial, dielectric-magnetic medium is formulated as a boundary-value problem and solved using the Rayleigh method. The focus is on situations where the diffracted fields maintain the same polarization state as the s- or p-polarized incident plane wave. Attention is paid to two classes of diffracting media: those with negative definite permittivity and permeability tensors, and those with indefinite permittivity and permeability tensors. For the situations investigated, whereas the dispersion equations in the diffracting medium turn out to be elliptic for the first class of diffracting media, they are hyperbolic for the second class. Examples are reported with the first class of diffracting media of instances when the grating acts either as a positively refracting interface or as a negatively refracting interface. For the second class of diffracting media, hyperbolic dispersion equations imply the possibility of an infinite number of refraction channels.

  5. Diffraction by a grating made of a uniaxial dielectric-magnetic medium exhibiting negative refraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Depine, Ricardo A; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh

    2005-01-01

    Diffraction of linearly polarized plane electromagnetic waves at the periodically corrugated boundary of vacuum and a linear, homogeneous, uniaxial, dielectric-magnetic medium is formulated as a boundary-value problem and solved using the Rayleigh method. The focus is on situations where the diffracted fields maintain the same polarization state as the s- or p-polarized incident plane wave. Attention is paid to two classes of diffracting media: those with negative definite permittivity and permeability tensors, and those with indefinite permittivity and permeability tensors. For the situations investigated, whereas the dispersion equations in the diffracting medium turn out to be elliptic for the first class of diffracting media, they are hyperbolic for the second class. Examples are reported with the first class of diffracting media of instances when the grating acts either as a positively refracting interface or as a negatively refracting interface. For the second class of diffracting media, hyperbolic dispersion equations imply the possibility of an infinite number of refraction channels

  6. Effects of hydrostatic pressure on the electron g|| factor and g-factor anisotropy in GaAs-(Ga, Al)As quantum wells under magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porras-Montenegro, N; Duque, C A; Oliveira, L E; Reyes-Gomez, E

    2008-01-01

    The hydrostatic-pressure effects on the electron-effective Lande g || factor and g-factor anisotropy in semiconductor GaAs-Ga 1-x Al x As quantum wells under magnetic fields are studied. The g || factor is computed by considering the non-parabolicity and anisotropy of the conduction band through the Ogg-McCombe effective Hamiltonian, and numerical results are displayed as functions of the applied hydrostatic pressure, magnetic fields, and quantum-well widths. Good agreement between theoretical results and experimental measurements in GaAs-(Ga, Al)As quantum wells for the electron g factor and g-factor anisotropy at low values of the applied magnetic field and in the absence of hydrostatic pressure is obtained. Present results open up new possibilities for manipulating the electron-effective g factor in semiconductor heterostructures.

  7. Ultra-high resistive and anisotropic CoPd-CaF2 nanogranular soft magnetic films prepared by tandem-sputtering deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naoe, Masayuki; Kobayashi, Nobukiyo; Ohnuma, Shigehiro; Iwasa, Tadayoshi; Arai, Ken-Ichi; Masumoto, Hiroshi

    2015-10-01

    Ultra-high resistive and anisotropic soft magnetic films for gigahertz applications are desirable to demonstrate the really practical films. Here we present a study of novel nanogranular films fabricated by tandem-sputtering deposition. Their electromagnetic properties and nanostructure have also been discussed. These films consisted of nanocrystallized CoPd alloy-granules and CaF2 matrix, and a specimen having a composition of (Co0.69Pd0.31)52-(Ca0.31F0.69)48 exhibited distinct in-plane uniaxial anisotropy after uniaxial field annealing with granule growth. Its complex permeability spectra have a ferromagnetic resonance frequency extending to the Super-High-Frequency band due to its higher anisotropy field, and its frequency response was quite well reproduced by a numerical calculation based on the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation. Furthermore, it was clarified that the CaF2-based nanogranular film exhibits a hundredfold higher electrical resistivity than conventional oxide or nitride-based films. Higher resistivity enables the film thickness to achieve a margin exceeding threefold against eddy current loss. The greater resistivity of nanogranular films is attributed to the wide energy bandgap and superior crystallinity of CaF2 matrix.

  8. Tuning of optical mode magnetic resonance in CoZr/Ru/CoZr synthetic antiferromagnetic trilayers by oblique sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenqiang; Wang, Fenglong; Cao, Cuimei; Li, Pingping; Yao, Jinli; Jiang, Changjun

    2018-04-01

    CoZr/Ru/CoZr synthetic antiferromagnetic trilayers with strong antiferromagnetic interlayer coupling were fabricated by an oblique sputtering method that induced in-plane uniaxial magnetic anisotropy. A microstrip method using a vector network analyzer was applied to investigate the magnetic resonance modes of the trilayers, including the acoustic modes (AMs) and the optical modes (OMs). At zero magnetic field, the CoZr/Ru/CoZr trilayers showed OMs with resonance frequencies of up to 7.1 GHz. By increasing the applied external magnetic field, the magnetic resonance mode can be tuned to various OMs, mixed modes, and AMs. Additionally, the magnetic resonance mode showed an angular dependence between the magnetization and the microwave field, which showed similar switching of the magnetic modes with variation of the angle. Our results provide important information that will be helpful in the design of multifunctional microwave devices.

  9. TeV Cosmic-Ray Anisotropy from the Magnetic Field at the Heliospheric Boundary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    López-Barquero, V. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Xu, S. [Department of Astronomy, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Desiati, P. [Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophysics Center (WIPAC), University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53703 (United States); Lazarian, A. [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Pogorelov, N. V. [Department of Physics, University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL 35899 (United States); Yan, H. [DESY, Platanenallee 6, D-15738 Zeuthen (Germany)

    2017-06-10

    We performed numerical calculations to test the suggestion by Desiati and Lazarian that the anisotropies of TeV cosmic rays may arise from their interactions with the heliosphere. For this purpose, we used a magnetic field model of the heliosphere and performed direct numerical calculations of particle trajectories. Unlike earlier papers testing the idea, we did not employ time-reversible techniques that are based on Liouville’s theorem. We showed numerically that for scattering by the heliosphere, the conditions of Liouville’s theorem are not satisfied, and the adiabatic approximation and time-reversibility of the particle trajectories are not valid. Our results indicate sensitivity to the magnetic structure of the heliospheric magnetic field, and we expect that this will be useful for probing this structure in future research.

  10. Strain-induced recovery of electronic anisotropy in 90°-twisted bilayer phosphorene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jiafeng; Luo, Qiangjun; Jia, Lei; Zhang, Z. Y.; Shi, H. G.; Yang, D. Z.; Si, M. S.

    2018-01-01

    It is well known that anisotropy determines the preferred transport direction of carriers. To manipulate the anisotropy is an exciting topic in two-dimensional materials, where the carriers are confined within individual layers. In this work, it is found that uniaxial strain can tune the electronic anisotropy of the 90°-twisted bilayer phosphorene. In this unique bilayer structure, the zigzag direction of one layer corresponds to the armchair one of the other layer and vice versa. Owing to this complementary structure, the directional (zigzag or armchair) deformation response to strain of one layer is opposite to that of the other layer, where the in-plane positive Poisson's ratio plays a key role. As a result, the doubly degenerate highest valence bands split, followed by a recovery of anisotropy. More interestingly, such an anisotropy, namely, the ratio of the effective mass along the Γ \\text- X direction to that along the Γ \\text- Y direction, reaches as high as 6 under a small strain of 1%, and keeps nearly unchanged up to a strain of 3%. In addition, high anisotropy only holds for hole carriers as the conduction band is insensitive to strain. These findings should shed new light on the design of semiconducting devices, where the hole acts as the transport carrier.

  11. Effect of Tm substitution on the magnetic properties and local magnetic anisotropy of amorphous Fe80-xTm xB20 ribbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sayouty, E.H.; Annouar, F.; Lassri, H.; Randrianantoandro, N.; Greneche, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    We have carried out magnetic and Moessbauer studies of amorphous Fe 80-x Tm x B 20 alloys (0 ≤ x ≤ 16). With an increasing Tm content, both the Curie temperature T C and the magnetic moment of Fe atom μ Fe decrease. We have extracted the value of exchange constant A from T C and that of the local magnetic anisotropy constant K L from the coercivity. Moessbauer studies were performed in a transmission geometry and also using the conversion electron spectroscopy. Both Moessbauer spectrometry techniques show that the average hyperfine field decreases linearly with the addition of rare-earth

  12. Tuning anisotropy barriers in a family of tetrairon(III) single-molecule magnets with an S = 5 ground state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accorsi, Stefania; Barra, Anne-Laure; Caneschi, Andrea; Chastanet, Guillaume; Cornia, Andrea; Fabretti, Antonio C; Gatteschi, Dante; Mortalo, Cecilia; Olivieri, Emiliano; Parenti, Francesca; Rosa, Patrick; Sessoli, Roberta; Sorace, Lorenzo; Wernsdorfer, Wolfgang; Zobbi, Laura

    2006-04-12

    Tetrairon(III) Single-Molecule Magnets (SMMs) with a propeller-like structure exhibit tuneable magnetic anisotropy barriers in both height and shape. The clusters [Fe4(L1)2(dpm)6] (1), [Fe4(L2)2(dpm)6] (2), [Fe4(L3)2(dpm)6].Et2O (3.Et2O), and [Fe4(OEt)3(L4)(dpm)6] (4) have been prepared by reaction of [Fe4(OMe)6(dpm)6] (5) with tripodal ligands R-C(CH2OH)3 (H3L1, R = Me; H3L2, R = CH2Br; H3L3, R = Ph; H3L4, R = tBu; Hdpm = dipivaloylmethane). The iron(III) ions exhibit a centered-triangular topology and are linked by six alkoxo bridges, which propagate antiferromagnetic interactions resulting in an S = 5 ground spin state. Single crystals of 4 reproducibly contain at least two geometric isomers. From high-frequency EPR studies, the axial zero-field splitting parameter (D) is invariably negative, as found in 5 (D = -0.21 cm(-1)) and amounts to -0.445 cm(-1) in 1, -0.432 cm(-1) in 2, -0.42 cm(-1) in 3.Et2O, and -0.27 cm(-1) in 4 (dominant isomer). The anisotropy barrier Ueff determined by AC magnetic susceptibility measurements is Ueff/kB = 17.0 K in 1, 16.6 K in 2, 15.6 K in 3.Et2O, 5.95 K in 4, and 3.5 K in 5. Both |D| and U(eff) are found to increase with increasing helical pitch of the Fe(O2Fe)3 core. The fourth-order longitudinal anisotropy parameter B4(0), which affects the shape of the anisotropy barrier, concomitantly changes from positive in 1 ("compressed parabola") to negative in 5 ("stretched parabola"). With the aid of spin Hamiltonian calculations the observed trends have been attributed to fine modulation of single-ion anisotropies induced by a change of helical pitch.

  13. Stress-induced magnetic anisotropy in nanocrystalline alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varga, L.K.; Gercsi, Zs.; Kovacs, Gy.; Kakay, A.; Mazaleyrat, F.

    2003-01-01

    Stress-annealing experiments were extended to both nanocrystalline alloy families, Finemet and Nanoperm (Hitperm), and, for comparison, to amorphous Fe 62 Nb 8 B 30 alloy. For both Finemet and bulk amorphous, stress-annealing results in a strong induced transversal anisotropy (flattening of hysteresis loop) but yields longitudinal induced anisotropy (square hysteresis loop) in Nanoperm and Hitperm. These results are interpreted in terms of back-stress theory

  14. High-field magnetization curve of random-anisotropy amorphous magnet: Observation of a crossover and link to structural short-range order

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippi, J.; Amaral, V. S.; Barbara, B.

    1991-08-01

    High-field magnetization curves of the series of amorphous alloys DyxGd1-xNi have been measured up to 15 tesla and interpreted in the framework of the theory of Chudnovsky et al. The results show several features (high-field crossovers, correlation volume of local-anisotropy directions, ferromagnetic correlation length) all consistent with each other and in agreement with theoretical predictions.

  15. High-field magnetization curve of random-anisotropy amorphous magnet: Observation of a crossover and link to structural short-range order

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filippi, J.; Amaral, V.S.; Barbara, B.

    1991-01-01

    High-field magnetization curves of the series of amorphous alloys Dy x Gd 1-x Ni have been measured up to 15 tesla and interpreted in the framework of the theory of Chudnovsky et al. The results show several features (high-field crossovers, correlation volume of local-anisotropy directions, ferromagnetic correlation length) all consistent with each other and in agreement with theoretical predictions

  16. Relationship between Magnetic Anisotropy below Pseudogap Temperature and Short-Range Antiferromagnetic Order in High-Temperature Cuprate Superconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morinari, Takao

    2018-06-01

    The central issue in high-temperature cuprate superconductors is the pseudogap state appearing below the pseudogap temperature T*, which is well above the superconducting transition temperature. In this study, we theoretically investigate the rapid increase of the magnetic anisotropy below the pseudogap temperature detected by the recent torque-magnetometry measurements on YBa2Cu3Oy [Y. Sato et al., 10.1038/nphys4205" xlink:type="simple">Nat. Phys. 13, 1074 (2017)]. Applying the spin Green's function formalism including the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction arising from the buckling of the CuO2 plane, we obtain results that are in good agreement with the experiment and find a scaling relationship. Our analysis suggests that the characteristic temperature associated with the magnetic anisotropy, which coincides with T*, is not a phase transition temperature but a crossover temperature associated with the short-range antiferromagnetic order.

  17. Nanocrystallinity and magnetic property enhancement in melt-spun iron-rare earth-base hard magnetic alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, H.A.; Manaf, A.; Zhang, P.Z.

    1993-01-01

    Refinement of the grain size below ∼35 nm mean diameter in melt-spun FeNdB-base alloys leads to enhancement of remanent polarization, J r , above the level predicted by the Stoner-Wohlfarth theory for an aggregate of independent, randomly oriented, and uniaxial magnetic particles. This article summarizes the results of the recent systematic research on this phenomenon, including the influence of alloy composition and processing conditions on the crystallite size, degree of enhancement of J r , and maximum energy product (BH) max . It has been shown that the effect can also occur in ternary FeNdB alloys, without the addition of silicon or aluminum, which was originally thought necessary, providing the nanocrystallites are not magnetically decoupled by a paramagnetic second phase. Values of (BH) max above 160 kJ. m -3 have been achieved. The relationship between grain size, J r , intrinsic coercivity, J H c , and (BH) max are discussed in terms of magnetic exchange coupling, anisotropy, and other parameters. Recent extension of this work to the enhancement of properties in Fe-Mischmental-Boron-base alloys and to bonded magnets with a nanocrystalline structure is also described

  18. Enhancement of perpendicular magnetic anisotropy and anomalous hall effect in Co/Ni multilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yiwei; Zhang, Jingyan, E-mail: jyzhang@ustb.edu.cn; Jiang, Shaolong; Liu, Qianqian; Li, Xujing; Yu, Guanghua, E-mail: ghyu@mater.ustb.edu.cn

    2016-12-15

    The perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) and the anomalous Hall effect (AHE) in Co/Ni multilayer were optimized by manipulating its interface structure (inducing HfO{sub 2} capping layer and Pt insertion) and post-annealing treatment. A strong PMA can be obtained in Co/Ni multilayers with HfO{sub 2} capping layer even after annealing at 400 °C. The heavy metal Hf may improve the interfacial spin-orbit coupling, which responsible for the enhanced PMA and high annealing stability. Moreover, the multilayer containing HfO{sub 2} capping layer also exhibited high saturation anomalous Hall resistivity through post-annealing, which is 0.85 μΩ cm after annealing at 375 °C, 211% larger than in the sample at deposited state which is only 0.27 μΩ cm. The enhancement of AHE is mainly attributed to the interface scattering through post-annealing treatment. - Highlights: • The perpendicular magnetic anisotropy and anomalous Hall effect of Co/Ni multilayer films were studied. • The PMA thermal stability of the Co/Ni ML can be enhanced by HfO{sub 2} capping layer and Pt insertion. • The anomalous Hall resistivity of Co/Ni ML covered by HfO{sub 2} was enhanced by post-annealing treatment.

  19. Magnetization reversal in ultrashort magnetic field pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, M.; Lopusnik, R.; Fassbender, J.; Hillebrands, B.

    2000-01-01

    We report the switching properties of a thin magnetic film subject to an ultrashort, laterally localized magnetic field pulse, obtained by numerical investigations. The magnetization distribution in the film is calculated on a grid assuming Stoner-like coherent rotation within the grid square size. Perpendicularly and in-plane magnetized films exhibit a magnetization reversal due to a 4 ps magnetic field pulse. Outside the central region the pulse duration is short compared to the precession period. In this area the evolution of the magnetization during the field pulse does not depend strongly on magnetic damping and/or pulse shape. However, the final magnetization distribution is affected by the magnetic damping. Although the pulse duration is short compared to the precession period, the time needed for the relaxation of the magnetization to the equilibrium state is rather large. The influence of the different magnetic anisotropy contributions and the magnetic damping parameter enters into the magnetization reversal process. Comparing the case of perpendicular anisotropy with different kinds of in-plane anisotropies, a principal difference is found due to the symmetry of the shape anisotropy with respect to the anisotropy in question

  20. Structure, magnetic behavior, and anisotropy of homoleptic trinuclear lanthanoid 8-quinolinolate complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilton, Nicholas F; Deacon, Glen B; Gazukin, Olga; Junk, Peter C; Kersting, Berthold; Langley, Stuart K; Moubaraki, Boujemaa; Murray, Keith S; Schleife, Frederik; Shome, Mahasish; Turner, David R; Walker, Julia A

    2014-03-03

    Three complexes of the form [Ln(III)3(OQ)9] (Ln = Gd, Tb, Dy; OQ = 8-quinolinolate) have been synthesized and their magnetic properties studied. The trinuclear complexes adopt V-shaped geometries with three bridging 8-quinolinolate oxygen atoms between the central and peripheral eight-coordinate metal atoms. The magnetic properties of these three complexes differ greatly. Variable-temperature direct-current (dc) magnetic susceptibility measurements reveal that the gadolinium and terbium complexes display weak antiferromagnetic nearest-neighbor magnetic exchange interactions. This was quantified in the isotropic gadolinium case with an exchangecoupling parameter of J = -0.068(2) cm(-1). The dysprosium compound displays weak ferromagnetic exchange. Variable-frequency and -temperature alternating-current magnetic susceptibility measurements on the anisotropic cases reveal that the dysprosium complex displays single-molecule-magnet behavior, in zero dc field, with two distinct relaxation modes of differing time scales within the same molecule. Analysis of the data revealed anisotropy barriers of Ueff = 92 and 48 K for the two processes. The terbium complex, on the other hand, displays no such behavior in zero dc field, but upon application of a static dc field, slow magnetic relaxation can be observed. Ab initio and electrostatic calculations were used in an attempt to explain the origin of the experimentally observed slow relaxation of the magnetization for the dysprosium complex.

  1. Intrinsic magnetic properties of L10 FeNi obtained from meteorite NWA 6259

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poirier, Eric; Pinkerton, Frederick E.; Kubic, Robert; Mishra, Raja K.; Bordeaux, Nina; Lewis, Laura H.; Mubarok, Arif; Goldstein, Joseph I.; Skomski, Ralph; Barmak, Katayun

    2015-01-01

    FeNi having the tetragonal L1 0 crystal structure is a promising new rare-earth-free permanent magnet material. Laboratory synthesis is challenging, however, tetragonal L1 0 FeNi—the mineral “tetrataenite”—has been characterized using specimens found in nickel-iron meteorites. Most notably, the meteorite NWA 6259 recovered from Northwest Africa is 95 vol. % tetrataenite with a composition of 43 at. % Ni. Hysteresis loops were measured as a function of sample orientation on a specimen cut from NWA 6259 in order to rigorously deduce the intrinsic hard magnetic properties of its L1 0 phase. Electron backscatter diffraction showed that NWA 6259 is strongly textured, containing L1 0 grains oriented along any one of the three equivalent cubic directions of the parent fcc structure. The magnetic structure was modeled as a superposition of the three orthonormal uniaxial variants. By simultaneously fitting first-quadrant magnetization data for 13 different orientations of the sample with respect to the applied field direction, the intrinsic magnetic properties were estimated to be saturation magnetization 4πM s  = 14.7 kG and anisotropy field H a  = 14.4 kOe. The anisotropy constant K = 0.84 MJ/m 3 is somewhat smaller than the value K = 1.3 MJ/m 3 obtained by earlier researchers from nominally equiatomic FeNi prepared by neutron irradiation accompanied by annealing in a magnetic field, suggesting that higher Ni content (fewer Fe antisite defects) may improve the anisotropy. The fit also indicated that NWA 6259 contains one dominant variant (62% by volume), the remainder of the sample being a second variant, and the third variant being absent altogether

  2. Nonequilibrium Dynamics of Anisotropic Large Spins in the Kondo Regime: Time-Dependent Numerical Renormalization Group Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roosen, David; Wegewijs, Maarten R.; Hofstetter, Walter

    2008-02-01

    We investigate the time-dependent Kondo effect in a single-molecule magnet (SMM) strongly coupled to metallic electrodes. Describing the SMM by a Kondo model with large spin S>1/2, we analyze the underscreening of the local moment and the effect of anisotropy terms on the relaxation dynamics of the magnetization. Underscreening by single-channel Kondo processes leads to a logarithmically slow relaxation, while finite uniaxial anisotropy causes a saturation of the SMM’s magnetization. Additional transverse anisotropy terms induce quantum spin tunneling and a pseudospin-1/2 Kondo effect sensitive to the spin parity.

  3. Epitaxial growth and magnetic properties of Fe4-xMnxN thin films grown on MgO(0 0 1) substrates by molecular beam epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzai, Akihito; Takata, Fumiya; Gushi, Toshiki; Toko, Kaoru; Suemasu, Takashi

    2018-05-01

    Epitaxial Fe4-xMnxN (x = 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4) thin films were successfully grown on MgO(0 0 1) single-crystal substrates by molecular beam epitaxy, and their crystalline qualities and magnetic properties were investigated. It was found that the lattice constants of Fe4-xMnxN obtained from X-ray diffraction measurement increased with the Mn content. The ratio of the perpendicular lattice constant c to the in-plane lattice constant a of Fe4-xMnxN was found to be about 0.99 at x ⩾ 2. The magnetic properties evaluated using a vibrating sample magnetometer at room temperature revealed that all of the Fe4-xMnxN films exhibited ferromagnetic behavior regardless of the value of x. In addition, the saturation magnetization decreased non-linearly as the Mn content increased. Finally, FeMn3N and Mn4N exhibited perpendicular anisotropy and their uniaxial magnetic anisotropy energies were 2.2 × 105 and 7.5 × 105 erg/cm3, respectively.

  4. Noise suppression and crosstalk analysis of on-chip magnetic film-type noise suppressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jingyan; Muroga, Sho; Endo, Yasushi; Hashi, Shuichiro; Naoe, Masayuki; Yokoyama, Hiroo; Hayashi, Yoshiaki; Ishiyama, Kazushi

    2018-05-01

    This paper discusses near field, conduction and crosstalk noise suppression of magnetic films with uniaxial anisotropy on transmission lines for a film-type noise suppressor in the GHz frequency range. The electromagnetic noise suppressions of magnetic films with different permeability and resistivity were measured and simulated with simple microstrip lines. The experimental and simulated results of Co-Zr-Nb and CoPd-CaF2 films agreed with each other. The results indicate that the higher permeability leads to a better near field shielding, and in the frequency range of 2-7 GHz, a higher conduction noise suppression. It also suggests that the higher resistivity results in a better crosstalk suppression in the frequency range below 2 GHz. These results can support the design guidelines of the magnetic film-type noise suppressor used in the next generation IC chip.

  5. Computing magnetic anisotropy constants of single molecule magnets

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Treating the anisotropy Hamiltonian as perturbation, we compute ... The dependence of DM on the energy gap between the ground and the excited states in both the systems has also been studied by using different sets of exchange constants.

  6. Magnetization measurement of single La0.67Ca0.33MnO3 nanotubes in perpendicular magnetic fields using a micromechanical torsional oscillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonio, D.; Dolz, M.I.; Pastoriza, H.

    2010-01-01

    Using a silicon micromechanical resonator as a sensitive magnetometer, the authors have studied both experimentally and theoretically the magnetic behavior of two isolated ferromagnetic nanotubes of perovskite La 0.67 Ca 0.33 MnO 3 . The article investigates the specific configuration where a magnetic field H is applied perpendicular to the magnetic easy axis of an isolated nanotube characterized by an uniaxial anisotropy constant K. In this situation, the magnetization M reduces the effective elastic constant k M of the resonator. This softening of the mechanical system is opposed to the hardening effect of M observed in a previous work, where H was applied parallel to the easy axis. Moreover, in this magnetic field configuration two distinct magnetization regimes are manifested, depending on the magnitude of H. For H>>2K/M the magnetization is almost parallel to the applied magnetic field and for H<<2K/M it is almost parallel to the easy axis of the nanotube. At a certain value of H there is a sharp transition from one regime to the other, accompanied by a peak in the energy dissipation.

  7. Magnetocrystalline anisotropy and magnetic domain structure of ErFe11Ti and HoFe11Ti compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pastushenkov, Yury G.; Skokov, Konstantin P.; Skourski, Yury; Lebedeva, Ludmila; Ivanova, Tatyana; Grushichev, Anton; Mueller, Karl-Hartmut

    2006-01-01

    Tetragonal ThMn 12 -type single crystalline ErFe 11 Ti and HoFe 11 Ti samples have been investigated by magnetization measurements and by observations of the magnetic domain structure at various temperatures between 10 and 300K. The magnetic structure of ErFe 11 Ti changes from room temperature 'easy axis' (c-axis) type to conical at spin-reorientation temperature T SR =50K. The HoFe 11 Ti has a metastable anisotropy energy minimum in the a-direction at T<40K. It leads to a first-order magnetization process detected by magnetization measurements along the a-axis in this temperature region

  8. Interactions controlled evolution of complex magnetoresistance in as-deposited Ag100−xCox nanogranular films with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Dinesh; Chaudhary, Sujeet; Pandya, Dinesh K.

    2015-01-01

    Evolution of a complex magnetoresistance and dc-magnetization behavior of as-deposited co-sputtered Ag 100−x Co x films with the variation of cobalt concentration ‘x’ from 25.2 to 45.1 at% is presented. At 20 K, a transition from normal to complex magnetoresistance behavior, in conjunction with magnetic force microscopy evidence of the existence of a magnetic microstructure resulting in perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) is observed for x=32.6 cobalt concentration film. The dc-magnetization studies provide additional support to the presence of PMA in film that gets reduced with the increase of cobalt concentration. The complex magnetoresistance (MR) behavior also decreases with the increase of ‘x’. The room temperature MR, coercivity behavior and remanence to saturation magnetization ratio indicate the presence of direct ferromagnetic interactions due to the presence of ferromagnetic particles for x≥32.6 films. The observed complex MR behavior and presence of PMA are interpreted in terms of manifestation of the transition of interparticle magnetic interaction nature from dipolar to direct ferromagnetic. - Highlights: • Complex MR with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) is observed. • MFM evidenced the presence of PMA. • Complex MR and PMA decreases with the increase of cobalt concentration. • Observed results are correlated with the nature of magnetic interactions

  9. Tuning of Magnetic Anisotropy in Hexairon(III) Rings by Host-Guest Interactions: An Investigation by High-Field Torque Magnetometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornia; Affronte; Jansen; Abbati; Gatteschi

    1999-08-01

    Full chemical control of magnetic anisotropy in hexairon(III) rings can be achieved by varying the size of the guest alkali metal ion. Dramatically different anisotropies characterize the Li(I) and Na(I) complexes of [Fe(6)(OMe)(12)(L)(6)] (L=1,3-propanedione derivatives; a schematic representation of the Li(I) complex is shown), as revealed by high-field torque magnetometry-Iron: (g), oxygen: o, carbon: o, Li(+): plus sign in circle.

  10. COSMIC-RAY TRANSPORT AND ANISOTROPIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biermann, Peter L. [MPI for Radioastronomy, Auf dem Huegel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Becker Tjus, Julia; Mandelartz, Matthias [Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, Fakultaet fuer Physik and Astronomie, Theoretische Physik I, D-44780 Bochum (Germany); Seo, Eun-Suk [Department of Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States)

    2013-05-10

    We show that the large-scale cosmic-ray anisotropy at {approx}10 TeV can be explained by a modified Compton-Getting effect in the magnetized flow field of old supernova remnants. Cosmic rays arrive isotropically to the flow field and are then carried along with the flow to produce a large-scale anisotropy in the arrival direction. This approach suggests an optimum energy scale for detecting the anisotropy. Two key assumptions are that propagation is based on turbulence following a Kolmogorov law and that cosmic-ray interactions are dominated by transport via cosmic-ray-excited magnetic irregularities through the stellar wind of an exploding star and its shock shell. A prediction is that the amplitude is smaller at lower energies due to incomplete sampling of the velocity field and also smaller at larger energies due to smearing.

  11. Reversible and irreversible temperature-induced changes in exchange-biased planar Hall effect bridge (PHEB) magnetic field sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rizzi, G.; Lundtoft, N.C.; Østerberg, F.W.

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the changes of planar Hall effect bridge magnetic field sensors upon exposure to temperatures between 25° C and 90°C. From analyses of the sensor response vs. magnetic fields we extract the exchange bias field Hex, the uniaxial anisotropy field HK and the anisotropic...... magnetoresistance (AMR) of the exchange biased thin film at a given temperature and by comparing measurements carried out at elevated temperatures T with measurements carried out at 25° C after exposure to T, we can separate the reversible from the irreversible changes of the sensor. The results are not only...... relevant for sensor applications but also demonstrate the method as a useful tool for characterizing exchange-biased thin films....

  12. Dipolar-Biased Tunneling of Magnetization in Crystals of Single Molecule Magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awaga, Kunio

    2007-03-01

    The molecular cluster Mn12 has attracted much interest as a single-molecule magnet (SMM) and as a multi-redox system. It has a high-spin ground state of S=10 and a strong uniaxial magnetic anisotropy, and the combination of the two natures makes an effective potential barrier between the up and down spin states. At low temperatures, the magnetization curve exhibited a hysteresis loop and the quantum tunneling of magnetization (QTM). In the present work, we studied the structure and magnetic properties of the mixed-metal SMM, Mn11Cr, through the analysis of Mn11Cr/Mn12 mixed crystal. High-frequency EPR spectra were well explained by assuming that Mn11Cr was in a ground spin-state of S=19/2 with nearly the same EPR parameter set as for Mn12. QTM in Mn11Cr was observed with the same field interval as for Mn12. The magnetization of Mn11Cr and Mn12 in the mixed crystal can be independently manipulated by utilizing the difference between their coercive fields. The resonance fields of QTM in Mn11Cr are significantly affected by the magnetization direction of Mn12, suggesting the effect of dipolar-biased tunneling. Besides SMM, we would also like to report the unusual magnetic properties of spherical hollow nanomagnets, the electrical properties of heterocyclic thiazyl radicals, and their possible applications in spintronics and organic electronics.

  13. The influence of applied tensile stress on power loss in Co-rich amorphous Co-Fe-Si-B ribbons with induced magnetic anisotropy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, H; Nielsen, K; Nielsen, Otto V

    1982-01-01

    and atf = 400Hz,J_{max} = 0.10T. Measurements are carried out on samples in a stress-relieved state and with magnetic anisotropies induced by stress or field annealing. Atf = 50Hz, a minimum m Ptversus σ is observed. The σ-value (sigma_{min}) corresponding to the minimum PTincreases with increasing |Ku......|. Atf = 400Hz, a minimum in PTversus σ is observed in the samples with induced magnetic anisotropy, whereassigma_{min} = 0in the stress-relieved samiales. However, no correlation between andsigma_{min}and Kuis possible from the present data....

  14. Magnetic loss, permeability, and anisotropy compensation in CoO-doped Mn-Zn ferrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatrice, Cinzia; Dobák, Samuel; Tsakaloudi, Vasiliki; Ragusa, Carlo; Fiorillo, Fausto; Martino, Luca; Zaspalis, Vassilis

    2018-04-01

    Mn-Zn ferrite samples prepared by conventional solid state reaction method and sintering at 1325 °C were Co-enriched by addition of CoO up to 6000 ppm and characterized versus frequency (DC - 1GHz), peak polarization (2 mT - 200 mT), and temperature (23 °C - 120 °C). The magnetic losses at room temperature are observed to pass through a deep minimum value around 4000 ppm CoO at all polarizations values. This trend is smoothed out either by approaching the MHz range or by increasing the temperature. Conversely, the initial permeability attains its maximum value around the same CoO content, while showing moderate monotonical decrease with increasing CoO at the typical working temperatures of 80 - 100 °C. The energy loss