WorldWideScience

Sample records for unexpectedly large phase

  1. Unexpected levels and movement of radon in a large warehouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gammage, R.B.; Espinosa, G.

    2004-01-01

    Alpha-track detectors, used in screening for radon, identified a large warehouse with levels of radon as high as 20 p Ci/l. This circumstance was unexpected because large bay doors were left open for much of the day to admit 1 8-wheeler trucks, and exhaust fans in the roof produced good ventilation. More detailed temporal and spatial investigations of radon and air-flow patterns were made with electret chambers, Lucas-cell flow chambers, tracer gas, smoke pencils and pressure sensing micrometers. An oval-dome shaped zone of radon (>4 p Ci/L) persisted in the central region of each of four separate bays composing the warehouse. Detailed studies of air movement in the bay with the highest levels of radon showed clockwise rotation of air near the outer walls with a central dead zone. Sub slab, radon-laden air ingresses the building through expansion joints between the floor slabs to produce the measured radon. The likely source of radon is air within porous, karst bedrock that underlies much of north-central Tennessee where the warehouse is situated

  2. Unexpectedly large charge radii of neutron-rich calcium isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia Ruiz, R F; Blaum, K; Ekström, A; Frömmgen, N; Hagen, G; Hammen, M; Hebeler, K; Holt, J D; Jansen, G R; Kowalska, M; Kreim, K; Nazarewicz, W; Neugart, R; Neyens, G; Nörtershäuser, W; Papenbrock, T; Papuga, J; Schwenk, A; Simonis, J; Wendt, K A; Yordanov, D T

    2016-01-01

    Despite being a complex many-body system, the atomic nucleus exhibits simple structures for certain ‘magic’ numbers of protons and neutrons. The calcium chain in particular is both unique and puzzling: evidence of doubly magic features are known in 40,48Ca, and recently suggested in two radioactive isotopes, 52,54Ca. Although many properties of experimentally known calcium isotopes have been successfully described by nuclear theory, it is still a challenge to predict the evolution of their charge radii. Here we present the first measurements of the charge radii of 49,51,52Ca, obtained from laser spectroscopy experiments at ISOLDE, CERN. The experimental results are complemented by state-of-the-art theoretical calculations. The large and unexpected increase of the size of the neutron-rich calcium isotopes beyond N = 28 challenges the doubly magic nature of 52Ca and opens new intriguing questions on the evolution of nuclear sizes away from stability, which are of importance for our understanding of neutron-...

  3. Unexpectedly normal phase behavior of single homopolymer chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, W.; Strauch, T.; Rampf, F.; Binder, K.

    2007-01-01

    Employing Monte Carlo simulations, we show that the topology of the phase diagram of a single flexible homopolymer chain changes in dependence on the range of an attractive square well interaction between the monomers. For a range of attraction larger than a critical value, the equilibrium phase diagram of the single polymer chain and the corresponding polymer solution phase diagram exhibit vapor (swollen coil, dilute solution), liquid (collapsed globule, dense solution), and solid phases. Otherwise, the liquid-vapor transition vanishes from the equilibrium phase diagram for both the single chain and the polymer solution. This change in topology of the phase diagram resembles the behavior known for colloidal dispersions. The interplay of enthalpy and conformational entropy in the polymer case thus can lead to the same topology of phase diagrams as the interplay of enthalpy and translational entropy in simple liquids

  4. Unexpected low thermal conductivity and large power factor in Dirac semimetal Cd3As2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Zhang; Tong, Zhou; Sihang, Liang; Junzhi, Cao; Xiang, Yuan; Yanwen, Liu; Yao, Shen; Qisi, Wang; Jun, Zhao; Zhongqin, Yang; Faxian, Xiu

    2016-01-01

    Thermoelectrics has long been considered as a promising way of power generation for the next decades. So far, extensive efforts have been devoted to the search of ideal thermoelectric materials, which require both high electrical conductivity and low thermal conductivity. Recently, the emerging Dirac semimetal Cd3As2, a three-dimensional analogue of graphene, has been reported to host ultra-high mobility and good electrical conductivity as metals. Here, we report the observation of unexpected low thermal conductivity in Cd3As2, one order of magnitude lower than the conventional metals or semimetals with a similar electrical conductivity, despite the semimetal band structure and high electron mobility. The power factor also reaches a large value of 1.58 mW·m-1·K-2 at room temperature and remains non-saturated up to 400 K. Corroborating with the first-principles calculations, we find that the thermoelectric performance can be well-modulated by the carrier concentration in a wide range. This work demonstrates the Dirac semimetal Cd3As2 as a potential candidate of thermoelectric materials. Project supported by the National Young 1000 Talent Plan China, the Pujiang Talent Plan in Shanghai, China, the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61322407 and 11474058), the Fund for Fostering Talents in Basic Science of the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. J1103204), and the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2011CB921803).

  5. Unexpected large room-temperature ferromagnetism in porous Cu{sub 2}O thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou, Xue [College of Physics Science & Information Engineering, Hebei Normal University, Shijiazhuang 050024 (China); Key Laboratory of Advanced Films of Hebei Province, Shijiazhuang 050024 (China); Sun, Huiyuan, E-mail: huiyuansun@126.com [College of Physics Science & Information Engineering, Hebei Normal University, Shijiazhuang 050024 (China); Key Laboratory of Advanced Films of Hebei Province, Shijiazhuang 050024 (China); Liu, Lihu; Jia, Xiaoxuan; Liu, Huiyuan [College of Physics Science & Information Engineering, Hebei Normal University, Shijiazhuang 050024 (China); Key Laboratory of Advanced Films of Hebei Province, Shijiazhuang 050024 (China)

    2015-05-15

    Porous Cu{sub 2}O films have been fabricated on porous anodic alumina substrates using DC-reactive magnetron sputtering with pure Cu targets, and unexpectedly large room temperature ferromagnetism has been observed in the films. The maximum saturation magnetic moment along the out-of-plane direction was as high as 94 emu/cm{sup 3}. Photoluminescence spectra show that the ferromagnetism originates with oxygen vacancies. The ferromagnetism could be adjusted by changing the concentration of oxygen vacancies through annealing in an oxygen atmosphere. These observations suggest that the origin of the ferromagnetism is due to coupling between oxygen vacancies with local magnetic moments in the porous Cu{sub 2}O films, which can occur either directly through exchange interactions between oxygen vacancies, or through the mediation of conduction electrons. Such a ferromagnet without the presence of any ferromagnetic dopant may find applications in spintronic devices. - Highlights: • Porous Cu{sub 2}O films were deposited on porous anodic alumina (PAA) substrates. • Significant room-temperature ferromagnetism has been observed in porous Cu{sub 2}O films. • Ferromagnetism of Cu{sub 2}O films exhibited different magnetic signals with the field. • The saturation magnetization is 94 emu/cm{sup 3} with an out-of-plane.

  6. Unexpected Relationships and Inbreeding in HapMap Phase III Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Eric L.; Baugher, Joseph D.; Shirley, Matthew D.; Frelin, Laurence P.; Pevsner, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    Correct annotation of the genetic relationships between samples is essential for population genomic studies, which could be biased by errors or omissions. To this end, we used identity-by-state (IBS) and identity-by-descent (IBD) methods to assess genetic relatedness of individuals within HapMap phase III data. We analyzed data from 1,397 individuals across 11 ethnic populations. Our results support previous studies (Pemberton et al., 2010; Kyriazopoulou-Panagiotopoulou et al., 2011) assessing unknown relatedness present within this population. Additionally, we present evidence for 1,657 novel pairwise relationships across 9 populations. Surprisingly, significant Cotterman's coefficients of relatedness K1 (IBD1) values were detected between pairs of known parents. Furthermore, significant K2 (IBD2) values were detected in 32 previously annotated parent-child relationships. Consistent with a hypothesis of inbreeding, regions of homozygosity (ROH) were identified in the offspring of related parents, of which a subset overlapped those reported in previous studies (Gibson et al. 2010; Johnson et al. 2011). In total, we inferred 28 inbred individuals with ROH that overlapped areas of relatedness between the parents and/or IBD2 sharing at a different genomic locus between a child and a parent. Finally, 8 previously annotated parent-child relationships had unexpected K0 (IBD0) values (resulting from a chromosomal abnormality or genotype error), and 10 previously annotated second-degree relationships along with 38 other novel pairwise relationships had unexpected IBD2 (indicating two separate paths of recent ancestry). These newly described types of relatedness may impact the outcome of previous studies and should inform the design of future studies relying on the HapMap Phase III resource. PMID:23185369

  7. Unexpected Diagnosis of Cerebral Toxoplasmosis by 16S and D2 Large-Subunit Ribosomal DNA PCR and Sequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse, Alexandra Yasmin Collin; Kvich, Lasse Andersson; Eickhardt-Dalbøge, Steffen Robert

    2015-01-01

    The protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii causes severe opportunistic infections. Here, we report an unexpected diagnosis of cerebral toxoplasmosis. T. gondii was diagnosed by 16S and D2 large-subunit (LSU) ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequencing of a cerebral biopsy specimen and confirmed by T. gondii...

  8. Hydrogenation of Penta-Graphene Leads to Unexpected Large Improvement in Thermal Conductivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xufei; Varshney, Vikas; Lee, Jonghoon; Zhang, Teng; Wohlwend, Jennifer L; Roy, Ajit K; Luo, Tengfei

    2016-06-08

    Penta-graphene (PG) has been identified as a novel two-dimensional (2D) material with an intrinsic bandgap, which makes it especially promising for electronics applications. In this work, we use first-principles lattice dynamics and iterative solution of the phonon Boltzmann transport equation (BTE) to determine the thermal conductivity of PG and its more stable derivative, hydrogenated penta-graphene (HPG). As a comparison, we also studied the effect of hydrogenation on graphene thermal conductivity. In contrast to hydrogenation of graphene, which leads to a dramatic decrease in thermal conductivity, HPG shows a notable increase in thermal conductivity, which is much higher than that of PG. Considering the necessity of using the same thickness when comparing thermal conductivity values of different 2D materials, hydrogenation leads to a 63% reduction in thermal conductivity for graphene, while it results in a 76% increase for PG. The high thermal conductivity of HPG makes it more thermally conductive than most other semiconducting 2D materials, such as the transition metal chalcogenides. Our detailed analyses show that the primary reason for the counterintuitive hydrogenation-induced thermal conductivity enhancement is the weaker bond anharmonicity in HPG than PG. This leads to weaker phonon scattering after hydrogenation, despite the increase in the phonon scattering phase space. The high thermal conductivity of HPG may inspire intensive research around HPG and other derivatives of PG as potential materials for future nanoelectronic devices. The fundamental physics understood from this study may open up a new strategy to engineer thermal transport properties of other 2D materials by controlling bond anharmonicity via functionalization.

  9. Unexpectedly large impact of forest management and grazing on global vegetation biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erb, Karl-Heinz; Kastner, Thomas; Plutzar, Christoph; Bais, Anna Liza S.; Carvalhais, Nuno; Fetzel, Tamara; Gingrich, Simone; Haberl, Helmut; Lauk, Christian; Niedertscheider, Maria; Pongratz, Julia; Thurner, Martin; Luyssaert, Sebastiaan

    2018-01-01

    Carbon stocks in vegetation have a key role in the climate system. However, the magnitude, patterns and uncertainties of carbon stocks and the effect of land use on the stocks remain poorly quantified. Here we show, using state-of-the-art datasets, that vegetation currently stores around 450 petagrams of carbon. In the hypothetical absence of land use, potential vegetation would store around 916 petagrams of carbon, under current climate conditions. This difference highlights the massive effect of land use on biomass stocks. Deforestation and other land-cover changes are responsible for 53-58% of the difference between current and potential biomass stocks. Land management effects (the biomass stock changes induced by land use within the same land cover) contribute 42-47%, but have been underestimated in the literature. Therefore, avoiding deforestation is necessary but not sufficient for mitigation of climate change. Our results imply that trade-offs exist between conserving carbon stocks on managed land and raising the contribution of biomass to raw material and energy supply for the mitigation of climate change. Efforts to raise biomass stocks are currently verifiable only in temperate forests, where their potential is limited. By contrast, large uncertainties hinder verification in the tropical forest, where the largest potential is located, pointing to challenges for the upcoming stocktaking exercises under the Paris agreement.

  10. Unexpectedly large impact of forest management and grazing on global vegetation biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erb, Karl-Heinz; Kastner, Thomas; Plutzar, Christoph; Bais, Anna Liza S; Carvalhais, Nuno; Fetzel, Tamara; Gingrich, Simone; Haberl, Helmut; Lauk, Christian; Niedertscheider, Maria; Pongratz, Julia; Thurner, Martin; Luyssaert, Sebastiaan

    2018-01-04

    Carbon stocks in vegetation have a key role in the climate system. However, the magnitude, patterns and uncertainties of carbon stocks and the effect of land use on the stocks remain poorly quantified. Here we show, using state-of-the-art datasets, that vegetation currently stores around 450 petagrams of carbon. In the hypothetical absence of land use, potential vegetation would store around 916 petagrams of carbon, under current climate conditions. This difference highlights the massive effect of land use on biomass stocks. Deforestation and other land-cover changes are responsible for 53-58% of the difference between current and potential biomass stocks. Land management effects (the biomass stock changes induced by land use within the same land cover) contribute 42-47%, but have been underestimated in the literature. Therefore, avoiding deforestation is necessary but not sufficient for mitigation of climate change. Our results imply that trade-offs exist between conserving carbon stocks on managed land and raising the contribution of biomass to raw material and energy supply for the mitigation of climate change. Efforts to raise biomass stocks are currently verifiable only in temperate forests, where their potential is limited. By contrast, large uncertainties hinder verification in the tropical forest, where the largest potential is located, pointing to challenges for the upcoming stocktaking exercises under the Paris agreement.

  11. The unexpectedly large dust and gas content of quiescent galaxies at z > 1.4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobat, R.; Daddi, E.; Magdis, G.; Bournaud, F.; Sargent, M.; Martig, M.; Jin, S.; Finoguenov, A.; Béthermin, M.; Hwang, H. S.; Renzini, A.; Wilson, G. W.; Aretxaga, I.; Yun, M.; Strazzullo, V.; Valentino, F.

    2018-03-01

    Early-type galaxies (ETGs) contain most of the stars present in the local Universe and, above a stellar mass content of 5 × 1010 solar masses, vastly outnumber spiral galaxies such as the Milky Way. These massive spheroidal galaxies have, in the present day, very little gas or dust in proportion to their mass1, and their stellar populations have been evolving passively for over 10 billion years. The physical mechanisms that led to the termination of star formation in these galaxies and depletion of their interstellar medium remain largely conjectural. In particular, there are currently no direct measurements of the amount of residual gas that might still be present in newly quiescent spheroidals at high redshift2. Here we show that quiescent ETGs at redshift z 1.8, close to their epoch of quenching, contained at least two orders of magnitude more dust at a fixed stellar mass compared with local ETGs. This implies the presence of substantial amounts of gas (5-10%), which has been consumed less efficiently than in more active galaxies, probably due to their spheroidal morphology, consistent with our simulations. This lower star formation efficiency, combined with an extended hot gas halo possibly maintained by persistent feedback from an active galactic nucleus, keep ETGs mostly passive throughout cosmic time.

  12. Adaptive designs for dose-finding in non-cancer phase II trials: influence of early unexpected outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resche-Rigon, Matthieu; Zohar, Sarah; Chevret, Sylvie

    2008-01-01

    In non-cancer phase II trials, dose-finding trials are usually carried out using fixed designs, in which several doses including a placebo are randomly distributed to patients. However, in certain vulnerable populations, such as neonates or infants, there is an heightened requirement for safety, precluding randomization. To estimate the minimum effective dose of a new drug from a non-cancer phase II trial, we propose the use of adaptive designs like the Continual Reassessment Method (CRM). This approach estimates the dose closest to some target response, and has been shown to be unbiased and efficient in cancer phase I trials. Based on a motivating example, we point out the individual influence of first outliers in this setting. A weighted version of the CRM is proposed as a theoretical benchmark to control for these outliers. Using simulations, we illustrate how this approach provides further insight into the behavior of the CRM. When dealing with low targets like a 10% failure rate, the CRM appears unable to rapidly overcome an early unexpected outcome. This behavior persisted despite changing the inference (Bayesian or likelihood), underlying dose-response model (though slightly improved using the power model), and the number of patients enrolled at each dose level. The choices for initial guesses of failure rates, the vague prior for the model parameter, and the log-log shape of weights can appear somewhat arbitrary. In phase II dose-finding studies in which failure targets are below 20%, the CRM appears quite sensitive to first unexpected outcomes. Using a power model for dose-response improves some behavior if the trial is started at the first dose level and includes at least three to five patients at the starting dose before applying the CRM allocation rule.

  13. Unexpected retention behavior of baicalin: Hydrophilic interaction like properties of a reversed-phase column.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magda, Balázs; Márta, Zoltán; Imre, Tímea; Kalapos-Kovács, Bernadett; Klebovich, Imre; Fekete, Jenő; Szabó, Pál T

    2015-01-01

    The original aim of this study was to develop a method for the determination of baicalin from membrane vesicles. The unconventional chromatographic separation ("inverse gradient elution" on a reversed phase column) was due to a lucky chance, which is detailed and discussed in this study. The validated liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method is proved to be sensitive, rapid and selective. Chromatographic separation was performed on a Zorbax SB-C8 column (250 mm × 4.6 mm, i.d.; 5 μm) with 0.1% formic acid in water and methanol by linear gradient elution. Quantification of baicalin was determined by multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode using electrospray ionization (ESI). The calibration curve was linear (r = 0.9987) over the concentration range from 1 to 1000 nM. The coefficient of variation and relative error of baicalin for intra- and inter-assay at three quality control (QC) levels were 2.0-10.2% and -6.1 to 6.7%, respectively. The lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) for baicalin was 1 nM (0.446 ng/ml), without preconcentration of the sample. This method was subsequently applied to vesicular transport assays of baicalin in membrane vesicles successfully. The developed method can open up new area of research in the chromatographic separation of flavonoids and their glucuronides. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Unexpectedly large cross sections of high-energy electrons ejected from water vapor by 6.0-10.0 MeV/u He2+ ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohsawa, D.; Sato, Y.; Okada, Y.; Shevelko, V.P.; Soga, F.

    2005-01-01

    We present absolute doubly differential cross sections (DDCS) of electron emission (= 2+ ions with water vapor, in which unexpectedly large DDCS values were observed at the backward angles, particularly in the high-energy region, as well as singly differential cross sections larger than the Rudd model by a factor of 2-3 at ∼10 keV. The experimental results imply that these high-energy electrons are accelerated through the Fermi-shuttle acceleration. We evaluated the partial cross sections, which contribute to this acceleration, to be 7.1 and 4.5x10 -19 cm 2 , respectively, leading to ∼0.7% of the total ionization cross sections

  15. The unexpectedly large proportion of high-mass star-forming cores in a Galactic mini-starburst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motte, F.; Nony, T.; Louvet, F.; Marsh, K. A.; Bontemps, S.; Whitworth, A. P.; Men'shchikov, A.; Nguyáën Luong, Q.; Csengeri, T.; Maury, A. J.; Gusdorf, A.; Chapillon, E.; Könyves, V.; Schilke, P.; Duarte-Cabral, A.; Didelon, P.; Gaudel, M.

    2018-04-01

    Understanding the processes that determine the stellar initial mass function (IMF) is a critical unsolved problem, with profound implications for many areas of astrophysics1. In molecular clouds, stars are formed in cores—gas condensations sufficiently dense that gravitational collapse converts a large fraction of their mass into a star or small clutch of stars. In nearby star-formation regions, the core mass function (CMF) is strikingly similar to the IMF, suggesting that the shape of the IMF may simply be inherited from the CMF2-5. Here, we present 1.3 mm observations, obtained with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array telescope, of the active star-formation region W43-MM1, which may be more representative of the Galactic-arm regions where most stars form6,7. The unprecedented resolution of these observations reveals a statistically robust CMF at high masses, with a slope that is markedly shallower than the IMF. This seriously challenges our understanding of the origin of the IMF.

  16. The unexpectedly large proportion of high-mass star-forming cores in a Galactic mini-starburst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motte, F.; Nony, T.; Louvet, F.; Marsh, K. A.; Bontemps, S.; Whitworth, A. P.; Men'shchikov, A.; Nguyen Luong, Q.; Csengeri, T.; Maury, A. J.; Gusdorf, A.; Chapillon, E.; Könyves, V.; Schilke, P.; Duarte-Cabral, A.; Didelon, P.; Gaudel, M.

    2018-06-01

    Understanding the processes that determine the stellar initial mass function (IMF) is a critical unsolved problem, with profound implications for many areas of astrophysics1. In molecular clouds, stars are formed in cores—gas condensations sufficiently dense that gravitational collapse converts a large fraction of their mass into a star or small clutch of stars. In nearby star-formation regions, the core mass function (CMF) is strikingly similar to the IMF, suggesting that the shape of the IMF may simply be inherited from the CMF2-5. Here, we present 1.3 mm observations, obtained with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array telescope, of the active star-formation region W43-MM1, which may be more representative of the Galactic-arm regions where most stars form6,7. The unprecedented resolution of these observations reveals a statistically robust CMF at high masses, with a slope that is markedly shallower than the IMF. This seriously challenges our understanding of the origin of the IMF.

  17. [Early diffuse hypertrophic osteitis recurrence. Unexpected and consternating development after a large évidement cavity. Apropos of 15 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleury, P; Basset, J M; Candau, P; Bré, M; Despreaux, G; Fabre, A; Saliba, N

    1985-01-01

    The authors report 15 cases collected over a period of 13 years (1972 - 1984) of a particularly serious eventuality affecting certain evacuation cavities: Early recurrence of diffuse hypertrophic osteitis (E.R.D.H.O.). This is a rare complication, occurring in 1.5% of cases of chronic otitis. However, the fact of having operated upon 7 cases in 1984 alone, whilst during the previous 12 years, only 8 had been seen, raised the alarm. The classical pattern of this complication occurs in 3 stages, each involving surgical operation: at the outset, chronic otitis with cholesteatoma or osteitis, most often mixed, for which an "inadequate" surgical procedure is performed. then, after a variable period which may exceed 10 years, a very large evacuation cavity was created by the authors. finally, 3rd and final stage: within 6 months, this cavity filled progressively and, at operation, the authors discovered a cavity virtually completely filled with a "fantastic" "moist sugar" osteitis, requiring a new evacuation cavity, even larger than that created before. In all cases, a successful result was obtained within a varying period, sometimes accompanied by spectacular improvement in general condition. The most plausible etiopathogenic hypothesis advanced to attempt to explain this phenomenon is that of secondary infection by a varied microbial flora, including, on the one hand, aerobic organisms usually discovered in such cases (pseudomonas pyocyaneus, proteus mirabilis) and, secondly, this being of essential importance, "anaerobic" bacteria, the bacteriological diagnosis of which requires application of a strict protocol. The authors have taken three decisions following their bibliographic investigations.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. Forced two phase helium cooling of large superconducting magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, M.A.; Burns, W.A.; Taylor, J.D.

    1979-08-01

    A major problem shared by all large superconducting magnets is the cryogenic cooling system. Most large magnets are cooled by some variation of the helium bath. Helium bath cooling becomes more and more troublesome as the size of the magnet grows and as geometric constraints come into play. An alternative approach to cooling large magnet systems is the forced flow, two phase helium system. The advantages of two phase cooling in many magnet systems are shown. The design of a two phase helium system, with its control dewar, is presented. The paper discusses pressure drop of a two phase system, stability of a two phase system and the method of cool down of a two phase system. The results of experimental measurements at LBL are discussed. Included are the results of cool down and operation of superconducting solenoids

  19. Foamed Antenna Support for Very Large Apertures, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed Phase I program will demonstrate the feasibility of the in-space production of large aperture antenna structures. The use of a novel open cell foam,...

  20. Traveling wave accelerating structures with a large phase advance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paramonov, V.V.

    2012-01-01

    The cells RF parameters for the well known Disk Loaded Waveguide (DLW) are considered in higher pass bands of TM01 wave, providing operating phase advance between 180 o - 1230 o per cell. With an appropriate shape optimization and some additional elements proposed traveling wave structures with such large phase advance overlap the classical first band DLW in RF efficiency. Examples of proposed structures together with RF and dispersion properties are presented.

  1. Unexpected finite size effects in interfacial systems: Why bigger is not always better—Increase in uncertainty of surface tension with bulk phase width

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longford, Francis G. J.; Essex, Jonathan W.; Skylaris, Chris-Kriton; Frey, Jeremy G.

    2018-06-01

    We present an unexpected finite size effect affecting interfacial molecular simulations that is proportional to the width-to-surface-area ratio of the bulk phase Ll/A. This finite size effect has a significant impact on the variance of surface tension values calculated using the virial summation method. A theoretical derivation of the origin of the effect is proposed, giving a new insight into the importance of optimising system dimensions in interfacial simulations. We demonstrate the consequences of this finite size effect via a new way to estimate the surface energetic and entropic properties of simulated air-liquid interfaces. Our method is based on macroscopic thermodynamic theory and involves comparing the internal energies of systems with varying dimensions. We present the testing of these methods using simulations of the TIP4P/2005 water forcefield and a Lennard-Jones fluid model of argon. Finally, we provide suggestions of additional situations, in which this finite size effect is expected to be significant, as well as possible ways to avoid its impact.

  2. Large conditional single-photon cross-phase modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Mahdi; Duan, Yiheng; Vuletić, Vladan

    2016-01-01

    Deterministic optical quantum logic requires a nonlinear quantum process that alters the phase of a quantum optical state by π through interaction with only one photon. Here, we demonstrate a large conditional cross-phase modulation between a signal field, stored inside an atomic quantum memory, and a control photon that traverses a high-finesse optical cavity containing the atomic memory. This approach avoids fundamental limitations associated with multimode effects for traveling optical photons. We measure a conditional cross-phase shift of π/6 (and up to π/3 by postselection on photons that remain in the system longer than average) between the retrieved signal and control photons, and confirm deterministic entanglement between the signal and control modes by extracting a positive concurrence. By upgrading to a state-of-the-art cavity, our system can reach a coherent phase shift of π at low loss, enabling deterministic and universal photonic quantum logic. PMID:27519798

  3. Characteristics of two-phase flows in large diameter channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlegel, J.P., E-mail: schlegelj@mst.edu [Department of Mining and Nuclear Engineering, Missouri University of Science and Technology, 301 W 14th St., Rolla, MO 65401 (United States); Hibiki, T.; Ishii, M. [School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, 400 Central Dr., West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States)

    2016-12-15

    Two-phase flows in large diameter channels have a great deal of importance in a wide variety of industrial applications. Nuclear systems, petroleum refineries, and chemical processes make extensive use of larger systems. Flows in such channels have very different properties from flows in smaller channels which are typically used in experimental research. In this paper, the various differences between flows in large and small channels are highlighted using the results of previous experimental and analytical research. This review is followed by a review of recent experiments in and model development for flows in large diameter channels performed by the authors. The topics of these research efforts range from void fraction and interfacial area concentration measurement to flow regime identification and modeling, drift-flux modeling for high void fraction conditions, and evaluation of interfacial area transport models for large diameter channels.

  4. Accelerating large-scale phase-field simulations with GPU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoming Shi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A new package for accelerating large-scale phase-field simulations was developed by using GPU based on the semi-implicit Fourier method. The package can solve a variety of equilibrium equations with different inhomogeneity including long-range elastic, magnetostatic, and electrostatic interactions. Through using specific algorithm in Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA, Fourier spectral iterative perturbation method was integrated in GPU package. The Allen-Cahn equation, Cahn-Hilliard equation, and phase-field model with long-range interaction were solved based on the algorithm running on GPU respectively to test the performance of the package. From the comparison of the calculation results between the solver executed in single CPU and the one on GPU, it was found that the speed on GPU is enormously elevated to 50 times faster. The present study therefore contributes to the acceleration of large-scale phase-field simulations and provides guidance for experiments to design large-scale functional devices.

  5. Large resistivity modulation in mixed-phase metallic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yeonbae; Liu, Z Q; Heron, J T; Clarkson, J D; Hong, J; Ko, C; Biegalski, M D; Aschauer, U; Hsu, S L; Nowakowski, M E; Wu, J; Christen, H M; Salahuddin, S; Bokor, J B; Spaldin, N A; Schlom, D G; Ramesh, R

    2015-01-07

    In numerous systems, giant physical responses have been discovered when two phases coexist; for example, near a phase transition. An intermetallic FeRh system undergoes a first-order antiferromagnetic to ferromagnetic transition above room temperature and shows two-phase coexistence near the transition. Here we have investigated the effect of an electric field to FeRh/PMN-PT heterostructures and report 8% change in the electrical resistivity of FeRh films. Such a 'giant' electroresistance (GER) response is striking in metallic systems, in which external electric fields are screened, and thus only weakly influence the carrier concentrations and mobilities. We show that our FeRh films comprise coexisting ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic phases with different resistivities and the origin of the GER effect is the strain-mediated change in their relative proportions. The observed behaviour is reminiscent of colossal magnetoresistance in perovskite manganites and illustrates the role of mixed-phase coexistence in achieving large changes in physical properties with low-energy external perturbation.

  6. Using lanthanoid complexes to phase large macromolecular assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talon, Romain; Kahn, Richard; Durá, M. Asunción; Maury, Olivier; Vellieux, Frédéric M. D.; Franzetti, Bruno; Girard, Eric

    2011-01-01

    A lanthanoid complex, [Eu(DPA) 3 ] 3− , was used to obtain experimental phases at 4.0 Å resolution of PhTET1-12s, a large self-compartmentalized homo-dodecameric protease complex of 444 kDa. Lanthanoid ions exhibit extremely large anomalous X-ray scattering at their L III absorption edge. They are thus well suited for anomalous diffraction experiments. A novel class of lanthanoid complexes has been developed that combines the physical properties of lanthanoid atoms with functional chemical groups that allow non-covalent binding to proteins. Two structures of large multimeric proteins have already been determined by using such complexes. Here the use of the luminescent europium tris-dipicolinate complex [Eu(DPA) 3 ] 3− to solve the low-resolution structure of a 444 kDa homododecameric aminopeptidase, called PhTET1-12s from the archaea Pyrococcus horikoshii, is reported. Surprisingly, considering the low resolution of the data, the experimental electron density map is very well defined. Experimental phases obtained by using the lanthanoid complex lead to maps displaying particular structural features usually observed in higher-resolution maps. Such complexes open a new way for solving the structure of large molecular assemblies, even with low-resolution data

  7. Multipodal Structure and Phase Transitions in Large Constrained Graphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Richard; Radin, Charles; Ren, Kui; Sadun, Lorenzo

    2017-07-01

    We study the asymptotics of large, simple, labeled graphs constrained by the densities of two subgraphs. It was recently conjectured that for all feasible values of the densities most such graphs have a simple structure. Here we prove this in the special case where the densities are those of edges and of k-star subgraphs, k≥2 fixed. We prove that under such constraints graphs are "multipodal": asymptotically in the number of vertices there is a partition of the vertices into M < ∞ subsets V_1, V_2, \\ldots , V_M, and a set of well-defined probabilities g_{ij} of an edge between any v_i \\in V_i and v_j \\in V_j. For 2≤ k≤ 30 we determine the phase space: the combinations of edge and k-star densities achievable asymptotically. For these models there are special points on the boundary of the phase space with nonunique asymptotic (graphon) structure; for the 2-star model we prove that the nonuniqueness extends to entropy maximizers in the interior of the phase space.

  8. Phased array inspection of large size forged steel parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupont-Marillia, Frederic; Jahazi, Mohammad; Belanger, Pierre

    2018-04-01

    High strength forged steel requires uncompromising quality to warrant advance performance for numerous critical applications. Ultrasonic inspection is commonly used in nondestructive testing to detect cracks and other defects. In steel blocks of relatively small dimensions (at least two directions not exceeding a few centimetres), phased array inspection is a trusted method to generate images of the inside of the blocks and therefore identify and size defects. However, casting of large size forged ingots introduces changes of mechanical parameters such as grain size, the Young's modulus, the Poisson's ratio, and the chemical composition. These heterogeneities affect the wave propagation, and consequently, the reliability of ultrasonic inspection and the imaging capabilities for these blocks. In this context, a custom phased array transducer designed for a 40-ton bainitic forged ingot was investigated. Following a previous study that provided local mechanical parameters for a similar block, two-dimensional simulations were made to compute the optimal transducer parameters including the pitch, width and number of elements. It appeared that depending on the number of elements, backwall reconstruction can generate high amplitude artefacts. Indeed, the large dimensions of the simulated block introduce numerous constructive interferences from backwall reflections which may lead to important artefacts. To increase image quality, the reconstruction algorithm was adapted and promising results were observed and compared with the scattering cone filter method available in the CIVA software.

  9. Two-phase flow structure in large diameter pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, T.R.; Schlegel, J.P.; Hibiki, T.; Ishii, M.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Local profiles of various quantities measured in large diameter pipe. ► Database for interfacial area in large pipes extended to churn-turbulent flow. ► Flow regime map confirms previous models for flow regime transitions. ► Data will be useful in developing interfacial area transport models for large pipes. - Abstract: Flow in large pipes is important in a wide variety of applications. In the nuclear industry in particular, understanding of flow in large diameter pipes is essential in predicting the behavior of reactor systems. This is especially true of natural circulation Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) designs, where a large-diameter chimney above the core provides the gravity head to drive circulation of the coolant through the reactor. The behavior of such reactors during transients and during normal operation will be predicted using advanced thermal–hydraulics analysis codes utilizing the two-fluid model. Essential to accurate two-fluid model calculations is reliable and accurate computation of the interfacial transfer terms. These interfacial transfer terms can be expressed as the product of one term describing the potential driving the transfer and a second term describing the available surface area for transfer, or interfacial area concentration. Currently, the interfacial area is predicted using flow regime dependent empirical correlations; however the interfacial area concentration is best computed through the use of the one-dimensional interfacial area transport equation (IATE). To facilitate the development of IATE source and sink term models in large-diameter pipes a fundamental understanding of the structure of the two-phase flow is essential. This understanding is improved through measurement of the local void fraction, interfacial area concentration and gas velocity profiles in pipes with diameters of 0.102 m and 0.152 m under a wide variety of flow conditions. Additionally, flow regime identification has been performed to

  10. Large-Aperture Membrane Active Phased-Array Antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karasik, Boris; McGrath, William; Leduc, Henry

    2009-01-01

    Large-aperture phased-array microwave antennas supported by membranes are being developed for use in spaceborne interferometric synthetic aperture radar systems. There may also be terrestrial uses for such antennas supported on stationary membranes, large balloons, and blimps. These antennas are expected to have areal mass densities of about 2 kg/sq m, satisfying a need for lightweight alternatives to conventional rigid phased-array antennas, which have typical areal mass densities between 8 and 15 kg/sq m. The differences in areal mass densities translate to substantial differences in total mass in contemplated applications involving aperture areas as large as 400 sq m. A membrane phased-array antenna includes patch antenna elements in a repeating pattern. All previously reported membrane antennas were passive antennas; this is the first active membrane antenna that includes transmitting/receiving (T/R) electronic circuits as integral parts. Other integral parts of the antenna include a network of radio-frequency (RF) feed lines (more specifically, a corporate feed network) and of bias and control lines, all in the form of flexible copper strip conductors on flexible polymeric membranes. Each unit cell of a prototype antenna (see Figure 1) contains a patch antenna element and a compact T/R module that is compatible with flexible membrane circuitry. There are two membrane layers separated by a 12.7-mm air gap. Each membrane layer is made from a commercially available flexible circuit material that, as supplied, comprises a 127-micron-thick polyimide dielectric layer clad on both sides with 17.5-micron-thick copper layers. The copper layers are patterned into RF, bias, and control conductors. The T/R module is located on the back side of the ground plane and is RF-coupled to the patch element via a slot. The T/R module is a hybrid multilayer module assembled and packaged independently and attached to the membrane array. At the time of reporting the information for

  11. Innovative phased array ultrasonic inspection solution for large rotor shafts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maes, G.; Devos, D.; Tremblay, P., E-mail: gmaes@zetec.com [Zetec, Ville de Quebec, Quebec (Canada)

    2016-05-15

    The increasing needs of energy production led to new rotor shaft designs with larger dimensions. A new generation of nuclear power plants is already being deployed worldwide with such heavy components. Their implementation requires new inspection tools in order to guarantee the public safety and to ensure the quality of these critical parts. Due to the long sound path, conventional ultrasonic (UT) techniques cannot provide adequate detectability of the reference reflectors required by the existing codes. Also, some standards require multiple angle beams to be applied in addition to the straight beam inspection, and this leads to long inspection times. This paper will address the implementation and validation of phased array (PA) UT techniques, using a semi-flexible 2D array probe, for the inspection of large mono-block rotor shaft forgings. It will show how the beam focusing and steering capabilities of phased array UT probes can be used to overcome the issues occurring with conventional UT probes. Results of acoustic beam simulation, as well as detectability measurements and data acquisitions on representative test specimens will be presented and compared with conventional UT performance. Various aspects of the hardware and software specification will be addressed, as well as the potential reduction of the total inspection time. (author)

  12. Unexpected high plasma cobalamin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arendt, Johan F B; Nexo, Ebba

    2013-01-01

    It is well-established that more than 8% of patients examined for vitamin B12 deficiency unexpectedly have increased plasma levels of the vitamin, but so far there are no guidelines for the clinical interpretation of such findings. In this review, we summarise known associations between high plasma...... cobalamin binding proteins, transcobalamin and haptocorrin. Based on current knowledge, we suggest a strategy for the clinical interpretation of unexpected high plasma cobalamin. Since a number of the associated diseases are critical and life-threatening, the strategy promotes the concept of 'think...

  13. An unexpected pulmonary bystander

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouthuyzen-Bakker, M.; Vorm, van der P. A.; Koning, K. J.; van der Werf, T. S.

    A 30-year-old man from Eritrea was admitted with a pulmonary bacterial abscess. Unexpectedly, histopathology of the resected lobe also revealed an infection with Schistosoma mansoni with surrounding granulomatous tissue and fibrosis. Patients from endemic areas are often asymptomatic with blood

  14. Unexpected strong attraction in the presence of continuum bound state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delfino, A.; Frederico, T.

    1992-06-01

    The result of few-particle ground-state calculation employing a two-particle non-local potential supporting a continuum bound state in addition to a negative-energy bound state has occasionally revealed unexpected large attraction in producing a very strongly bound ground state. In the presence of the continuum bound state the difference of phase shift between zero and infinite energies has an extra jump of φ as in the presence of an additional bound state. The wave function of the continuum bound state is identical with that of a strongly bound negative-energy state, which leads us to postulate a pseudo bound state in the two-particle system in order to explain the unexpected attraction. The role of the Pauli forbidden states is expected to be similar to these pseudo states. (author)

  15. The phases of large networks with edge and triangle constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Richard; Radin, Charles; Ren, Kui; Sadun, Lorenzo

    2017-10-01

    Based on numerical simulation and local stability analysis we describe the structure of the phase space of the edge/triangle model of random graphs. We support simulation evidence with mathematical proof of continuity and discontinuity for many of the phase transitions. All but one of the many phase transitions in this model break some form of symmetry, and we use this model to explore how changes in symmetry are related to discontinuities at these transitions.

  16. Phase-field-based lattice Boltzmann modeling of large-density-ratio two-phase flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Hong; Xu, Jiangrong; Chen, Jiangxing; Wang, Huili; Chai, Zhenhua; Shi, Baochang

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, we present a simple and accurate lattice Boltzmann (LB) model for immiscible two-phase flows, which is able to deal with large density contrasts. This model utilizes two LB equations, one of which is used to solve the conservative Allen-Cahn equation, and the other is adopted to solve the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. A forcing distribution function is elaborately designed in the LB equation for the Navier-Stokes equations, which make it much simpler than the existing LB models. In addition, the proposed model can achieve superior numerical accuracy compared with previous Allen-Cahn type of LB models. Several benchmark two-phase problems, including static droplet, layered Poiseuille flow, and spinodal decomposition are simulated to validate the present LB model. It is found that the present model can achieve relatively small spurious velocity in the LB community, and the obtained numerical results also show good agreement with the analytical solutions or some available results. Lastly, we use the present model to investigate the droplet impact on a thin liquid film with a large density ratio of 1000 and the Reynolds number ranging from 20 to 500. The fascinating phenomena of droplet splashing is successfully reproduced by the present model and the numerically predicted spreading radius exhibits to obey the power law reported in the literature.

  17. Phase separation and large deviations of lattice active matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitelam, Stephen; Klymko, Katherine; Mandal, Dibyendu

    2018-04-01

    Off-lattice active Brownian particles form clusters and undergo phase separation even in the absence of attractions or velocity-alignment mechanisms. Arguments that explain this phenomenon appeal only to the ability of particles to move persistently in a direction that fluctuates, but existing lattice models of hard particles that account for this behavior do not exhibit phase separation. Here we present a lattice model of active matter that exhibits motility-induced phase separation in the absence of velocity alignment. Using direct and rare-event sampling of dynamical trajectories, we show that clustering and phase separation are accompanied by pronounced fluctuations of static and dynamic order parameters. This model provides a complement to off-lattice models for the study of motility-induced phase separation.

  18. Thermodynamic Study for Conformal Phase in Large Nf Gauge Theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miura, Kohtaroh; Lombardo, Maria Paola; Pallante, Elisabetta

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the chiral phase transition at finite temperature (T) in colour SU(3) Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) with six species of fermions (Nf = 6) in the fundamental representation. The simulations have been performed by using lattice QCD with improved staggered fermions. The critical couplings

  19. Improved Large Segmented Optics Fabrication Using Magnetorheological Finishing, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Primary mirrors for large aperture telescopes (> 10 m) are collections of smaller (1-2 m), typically hexagonal, often aspheric, optical segments. NASA's next...

  20. Ultra-Lightweight Large Aperture Support Structures, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Ultra-lightweight membranes may prove to be very attractive for large aperture systems, but their value will be fully realized only if they are mated with equally...

  1. Broadband Reflective Coating Process for Large FUVOIR Mirrors, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ZeCoat Corporation will develop and demonstrate a set of revolutionary coating processes for making broadband reflective coatings suitable for very large mirrors (4+...

  2. Study of large nonlinear change phase in Hibiscus Sabdariffa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trejo-Durán, M.; Alvarado-Méndez, E.; Andrade-Lucio, J. A.; Rojas-Laguna, R.; Vázquez-Guevara, M. A.

    2015-09-01

    High intensities electromagnetic energy interacting with organic media gives rise to nonlinear optical effects. Hibiscus Sabdariffa is a flower whose concentrated solution presents interesting nonlinear optical properties. This organic material shows an important self-phase modulation with changes bigger than 2π. We present a diffraction ring patterns study of the Hibiscus Sabdariffa solution. Numerical results of transmittance, with refraction and simultaneous absorption, are shown.

  3. Large scale photovoltaic field trials. Second technical report: monitoring phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-09-15

    This report provides an update on the Large-Scale Building Integrated Photovoltaic Field Trials (LS-BIPV FT) programme commissioned by the Department of Trade and Industry (Department for Business, Enterprise and Industry; BERR). It provides detailed profiles of the 12 projects making up this programme, which is part of the UK programme on photovoltaics and has run in parallel with the Domestic Field Trial. These field trials aim to record the experience and use the lessons learnt to raise awareness of, and confidence in, the technology and increase UK capabilities. The projects involved: the visitor centre at the Gaia Energy Centre in Cornwall; a community church hall in London; council offices in West Oxfordshire; a sports science centre at Gloucester University; the visitor centre at Cotswold Water Park; the headquarters of the Insolvency Service; a Welsh Development Agency building; an athletics centre in Birmingham; a research facility at the University of East Anglia; a primary school in Belfast; and Barnstable civic centre in Devon. The report describes the aims of the field trials, monitoring issues, performance, observations and trends, lessons learnt and the results of occupancy surveys.

  4. Unexpected observations of muons from Cygnus X-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elbert, J.W.

    1986-01-01

    One surface experiment (Kiel) and two underground experiments (Soudan and Mt. Blanc) have detected unexpectedly large fluxes of cosmic ray muons from the approximate direction of Cygnus X-3, with signals showing the precise period of the system. The muon signals cannot be produced by any known type of elementary particle unless unexpected processes are involved

  5. Large Area Diamond Tribological Surfaces with Negligible Wear in Extreme Environments, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In Phase I we propose to demonstrate the processing of very large area diamond sliding bearings and tribological surfaces. The bearings and surfaces will experience...

  6. SPS-ALPHA: The First Practical Solar Power Satellite via Arbitrarily Large PHased Array

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — SPS-ALPHA (Solar Power Satellite via Arbitrarily Large Phased Array) is a novel, bio-mimetic approach to the challenge of space solar power. If successful, this...

  7. Complex and unexpected dynamics in simple genetic regulatory networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borg, Yanika; Ullner, Ekkehard; Alagha, Afnan; Alsaedi, Ahmed; Nesbeth, Darren; Zaikin, Alexey

    2014-03-01

    One aim of synthetic biology is to construct increasingly complex genetic networks from interconnected simpler ones to address challenges in medicine and biotechnology. However, as systems increase in size and complexity, emergent properties lead to unexpected and complex dynamics due to nonlinear and nonequilibrium properties from component interactions. We focus on four different studies of biological systems which exhibit complex and unexpected dynamics. Using simple synthetic genetic networks, small and large populations of phase-coupled quorum sensing repressilators, Goodwin oscillators, and bistable switches, we review how coupled and stochastic components can result in clustering, chaos, noise-induced coherence and speed-dependent decision making. A system of repressilators exhibits oscillations, limit cycles, steady states or chaos depending on the nature and strength of the coupling mechanism. In large repressilator networks, rich dynamics can also be exhibited, such as clustering and chaos. In populations of Goodwin oscillators, noise can induce coherent oscillations. In bistable systems, the speed with which incoming external signals reach steady state can bias the network towards particular attractors. These studies showcase the range of dynamical behavior that simple synthetic genetic networks can exhibit. In addition, they demonstrate the ability of mathematical modeling to analyze nonlinearity and inhomogeneity within these systems.

  8. Unexpected Ge-Ge contacts in the two-dimensional Ge{sub 4}Se{sub 3}Te phase and analysis of their chemical cause with the density of energy (DOE) function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuepers, Michael; Konze, Philipp M.; Maintz, Stefan; Steinberg, Simon [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Chair of Solid-State and Quantum Chemistry, RWTH Aachen University (Germany); Mio, Antonio M.; Cojocaru-Miredin, Oana; Zhu, Min; Wuttig, Matthias [I. Physikalisches Institut, RWTH Aachen University (Germany); Mueller, Merlin; Mayer, Joachim [Gemeinschaftslabor fuer Elektronenmikroskopie, RWTH Aachen University (Germany); Luysberg, Martina [Ernst-Ruska-Center, Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany); Dronskowski, Richard [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Chair of Solid-State and Quantum Chemistry, RWTH Aachen University (Germany); Juelich-Aachen Research Alliance (JARA-HPC), RWTH Aachen University (Germany)

    2017-08-14

    A hexagonal phase in the ternary Ge-Se-Te system with an approximate composition of GeSe{sub 0.75}Te{sub 0.25} has been known since the 1960s but its structure has remained unknown. We have succeeded in growing single crystals by chemical transport as a prerequisite to solve and refine the Ge{sub 4}Se{sub 3}Te structure. It consists of layers that are held together by van der Waals type weak chalcogenide-chalcogenide interactions but also display unexpected Ge-Ge contacts, as confirmed by electron microscopy analysis. The nature of the electronic structure of Ge{sub 4}Se{sub 3}Te was characterized by chemical bonding analysis, in particular by the newly introduced density of energy (DOE) function. The Ge-Ge bonding interactions serve to hold electrons that would otherwise go into antibonding Ge-Te contacts. (copyright 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  9. A phase transition between small- and large-field models of inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itzhaki, Nissan; Kovetz, Ely D

    2009-01-01

    We show that models of inflection point inflation exhibit a phase transition from a region in parameter space where they are of large-field type to a region where they are of small-field type. The phase transition is between a universal behavior, with respect to the initial condition, at the large-field region and non-universal behavior at the small-field region. The order parameter is the number of e-foldings. We find integer critical exponents at the transition between the two phases.

  10. Possible higher order phase transition in large-N gauge theory at finite temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishimura, Hiromichi

    2017-08-07

    We analyze the phase structure of SU(¥) gauge theory at finite temperature using matrix models. Our basic assumption is that the effective potential is dominated by double-trace terms for the Polyakov loops. As a function of the temperature, a background field for the Polyakov loop, and a quartic coupling, it exhibits a universal structure: in the large portion of the parameter space, there is a continuous phase transition analogous to the third-order phase transition of Gross,Witten and Wadia, but the order of phase transition can be higher than third. We show that different confining potentials give rise to drastically different behavior of the eigenvalue density and the free energy. Therefore lattice simulations at large N could probe the order of phase transition and test our results. Critical

  11. No large scale curvature perturbations during the waterfall phase transition of hybrid inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abolhasani, Ali Akbar; Firouzjahi, Hassan

    2011-01-01

    In this paper the possibility of generating large scale curvature perturbations induced from the entropic perturbations during the waterfall phase transition of the standard hybrid inflation model is studied. We show that whether or not appreciable amounts of large scale curvature perturbations are produced during the waterfall phase transition depends crucially on the competition between the classical and the quantum mechanical backreactions to terminate inflation. If one considers only the classical evolution of the system, we show that the highly blue-tilted entropy perturbations induce highly blue-tilted large scale curvature perturbations during the waterfall phase transition which dominate over the original adiabatic curvature perturbations. However, we show that the quantum backreactions of the waterfall field inhomogeneities produced during the phase transition dominate completely over the classical backreactions. The cumulative quantum backreactions of very small scale tachyonic modes terminate inflation very efficiently and shut off the curvature perturbation evolution during the waterfall phase transition. This indicates that the standard hybrid inflation model is safe under large scale curvature perturbations during the waterfall phase transition.

  12. Testing the QCD string at large Nc from the thermodynamics of the hadronic phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Thomas D.

    2007-02-01

    It is generally believed that in the limit of a large number of colors (Nc) the description of confinement via flux tubes becomes valid and QCD can be modeled accurately via a hadronic string theory—at least for highly excited states. QCD at large Nc also has a well-defined deconfinement transition at a temperature Tc. In this talk it is shown how the thermodyanmics of the metastable hadronic phase of QCD (above Tc) at large NC can be related directly to properties of the effective QCD string. The key points in the derivation is the weakly interacting nature of hadrons at large Nc and the existence of a Hagedorn temperature TH for the effective string theory. From this it can be seen at large Nc and near TH, the energy density and pressure of the hadronic phase scale as E ˜ (TH - T)-(D⊥-6)/2 (for D⊥ TH - T)-(D⊥-4)/2 (for D⊥ TH > Tc this behavior is of relevance only to the metastable phase. The prospect of using this result to extract D⊥ via lattice simulations of the metastable hadronic phase at moderately large Nc is discussed.

  13. Phases of a stack of membranes in a large number of dimensions of configuration space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borelli, M. E.; Kleinert, H.

    2001-05-01

    The phase diagram of a stack of tensionless membranes with nonlinear curvature energy and vertical harmonic interaction is calculated exactly in a large number of dimensions of configuration space. At low temperatures, the system forms a lamellar phase with spontaneously broken translational symmetry in the vertical direction. At a critical temperature, the stack disorders vertically in a meltinglike transition. The critical temperature is determined as a function of the interlayer separation l.

  14. The QCD Phase Diagram: Large Nc, Quarkyonic Matter and the Triple Point

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLerran, L.

    2010-01-01

    I discuss the phase diagram of QCD in the large N c limit. Qarkyonic Matter is described. The properties of QCD matter as measured in the abundance of produced particles are shown to be consistent with this phase diagram. A possible triple point of Hadronic Matter, Deconfined Matter and Quarkyonic Matter is shown to explain various behaviors of ratios of particle abundances seen in CERN fixed target experiments. (author)

  15. Phase Coherence of Large Amplitude MHD Waves in the Earth's Foreshock: Geotail Observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hada, Tohru; Koga, Daiki; Yamamoto, Eiko

    2003-01-01

    Large amplitude MHD turbulence is commonly found in the earth's foreshock region. It can be represented as a superposition of Fourier modes with characteristic frequency, amplitude, and phase. Nonlinear interactions between the Fourier modes are likely to produce finite correlation among the wave phases. For discussions of various transport processes of energetic particles, it is fundamentally important to determine whether the wave phases are randomly distributed (as assumed in quasi-linear theories) or they have a finite coherence. However, naive inspection of wave phases does not reveal anything, as the wave phase is sensitively related to the choice of origin of the coordinate, which should be arbitrary. Using a method based on a surrogate data technique and a fractal analysis, we analyzed Geotail magnetic field data to evaluate the phase coherence among the MHD waves in the earth's foreshock region. We show that the correlation of wave phases does exist, indicating that the nonlinear interactions between the waves is in progress. Furthermore, by introducing an index to represent the degree of the phase coherence, we discuss that the wave phases become more coherent as the turbulence amplitude increases, and also as the propagation angle of the most dominant wave mode becomes oblique. Details of the analysis as well as implications of the present results to transport processes of energetic particles will be discussed

  16. Effect of Large Negative Phase of Blast Loading on Structural Response of RC Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Zubair Iman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Structural response of reinforced concrete (RC elements for analysis and design are often obtained using the positive phase of the blast pressure curve disregarding the negative phase assuming insignificant contribution from the negative phase of the loading. Although, some insight on the effect of negative phase of blast pressure based on elastic single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF analysis was presented before, the influence of negative phase on different types of resistance functions of SDOF models and on realistic finite element analysis has not been explored. In this study, the effects of inclusion of pulse negative phase on structural response of RC elements from SDOF analysis and from more detailed finite element analysis have been investigated. Investigation of SDOF part has been conducted using MATLAB code that utilizes non-linear resistance functions of SDOF model. Detailed numerical investigation using finite element code DIANA was conducted on the significance of the negative phase on structural response. In the FE model, different support stiffness was used to explore the effect of support stiffness on the structural response due to blast negative phase. Results from SDOF and FE analyses present specific situations where the effect of large negative phase was found to be significant on the structural response of RC elements.

  17. A turbulence model for large interfaces in high Reynolds two-phase CFD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coste, P.; Laviéville, J.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Two-phase CFD commonly involves interfaces much larger than the computational cells. • A two-phase turbulence model is developed to better take them into account. • It solves k–epsilon transport equations in each phase. • The special treatments and transfer terms at large interfaces are described. • Validation cases are presented. - Abstract: A model for two-phase (six-equation) CFD modelling of turbulence is presented, for the regions of the flow where the liquid–gas interface takes place on length scales which are much larger than the typical computational cell size. In the other regions of the flow, the liquid or gas volume fractions range from 0 to 1. Heat and mass transfer, compressibility of the fluids, are included in the system, which is used at high Reynolds numbers in large scale industrial calculations. In this context, a model based on k and ε transport equations in each phase was chosen. The paper describes the model, with a focus on the large interfaces, which require special treatments and transfer terms between the phases, including some approaches inspired from wall functions. The validation of the model is based on high Reynolds number experiments with turbulent quantities measurements of a liquid jet impinging a free surface and an air water stratified flow. A steam–water stratified condensing flow experiment is also used for an indirect validation in the case of heat and mass transfer

  18. Two-group interfacial area concentration correlations of two-phase flows in large diameter pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Xiuzhong; Hibiki, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    The reliable empirical correlations and models are one of the important ways to predict the interfacial area concentration (IAC) in two-phase flows. However, up to now, no correlation or model is available for the prediction of the IAC in the two-phase flows in large diameter pipes. This study collected an IAC experimental database of two-phase flows taken under various flow conditions in large diameter pipes and presented a systematic way to predict the IAC for two-phase flows from bubbly, cap-bubbly to churn flow in large diameter pipes by categorizing bubbles into two groups (group-1: spherical and distorted bubble, group-2: cap bubble). Correlations were developed to predict the group-1 void fraction from the void fraction of all bubble. The IAC contribution from group-1 bubbles was modeled by using the dominant parameters of group-1 bubble void fraction and Reynolds number based on the parameter-dependent analysis of Hibiki and Ishii (2001, 2002) using one-dimensional bubble number density and interfacial area transport equations. A new drift velocity correlation for two-phase flow with large cap bubbles in large diameter pipes was derived in this study. By comparing the newly-derived drift velocity correlation with the existing drift velocity correlation of Kataoka and Ishii (1987) for large diameter pipes and using the characteristics of the representative bubbles among the group 2 bubbles, we developed the model of IAC and bubble size for group 2 cap bubbles. The developed models for estimating the IAC are compared with the entire collected database. A reasonable agreement was obtained with average relative errors of ±28.1%, ±54.4% and ±29.6% for group 1, group 2 and all bubbles respectively. (author)

  19. Wide-area phase-contrast X-ray imaging using large X-ray interferometers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Momose, Atsushi E-mail: momose@exp.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp; Takeda, Tohoru; Yoneyama, Akio; Koyama, Ichiro; Itai, Yuji

    2001-07-21

    Large X-ray interferometers are developed for phase-contrast X-ray imaging aiming at medical applications. A monolithic X-ray interferometer and a separate one are studied, and currently a 25 mmx20 mm view area can be generated. This paper describes the strategy of our research program and some recent developments.

  20. Wide-area phase-contrast X-ray imaging using large X-ray interferometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momose, Atsushi; Takeda, Tohoru; Yoneyama, Akio; Koyama, Ichiro; Itai, Yuji

    2001-07-01

    Large X-ray interferometers are developed for phase-contrast X-ray imaging aiming at medical applications. A monolithic X-ray interferometer and a separate one are studied, and currently a 25 mm×20 mm view area can be generated. This paper describes the strategy of our research program and some recent developments.

  1. Large scale electronic structure calculations in the study of the condensed phase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dam, H.J.J.; Guest, M.F.; Sherwood, P.; Thomas, J.M.H.; van Lenthe, J.H.; van Lingen, J.N.J.; Bailey, C.L.; Bush, I.J.

    2006-01-01

    We consider the role that large-scale electronic structure computations can now play in the modelling of the condensed phase. To structure our analysis, we consider four distict ways in which today's scientific targets can be re-scoped to take advantage of advances in computing resources: 1. time to

  2. Investigation of the neutron production phases of a large plasma focus device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayd, A.; Maurer, M.; Meinke, P.; Herold, H.; Bertalot, L.; Deutsch, R.; Grauf, W.; Jaeger, U.; Kaeppeler, H.J.; Lepper, F.; Oppenlaender, T.; Schmidt, H.; Schmidt, R.; Schwarz, J.; Schwoerer, K.; Shakhatre, M.

    1982-09-01

    Plasma dynamic behavior and neutron production in large focus devices with pinch currents of approximately 1 MA have been studied with theoretical as well as experimental methods. For treating turbulent plasma motion, a hybrid code based on the analytical computer algorithm REDUCE was developed. Experimental diagnostics include schlieren photographs, reaction proton localization with pinhole cameras and neutron measurements with Ag-counters and scintillators. Calculated and measured data concern the 280 kJ, 60 kV operational mode of the POSEIDON plasma focus. It is shown that for large pinch currents ( > 500 kA), neutron emission also appears before m = 0 onset in the intermediate phase. This part of the neutron production becomes predominant for very large currents. The lifetime of this intermediate phase strongly increases with increasing current. According to theory, the late phase of the focus is governed by strong turbulence phenomena. The lifetime of the turbulence packets is approximately 150 ns and seems to explain the long lasting neutron emission in this phase. (orig.)

  3. Development of a large-scale general purpose two-phase flow analysis code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terasaka, Haruo; Shimizu, Sensuke

    2001-01-01

    A general purpose three-dimensional two-phase flow analysis code has been developed for solving large-scale problems in industrial fields. The code uses a two-fluid model to describe the conservation equations for two-phase flow in order to be applicable to various phenomena. Complicated geometrical conditions are modeled by FAVOR method in structured grid systems, and the discretization equations are solved by a modified SIMPLEST scheme. To reduce computing time a matrix solver for the pressure correction equation is parallelized with OpenMP. Results of numerical examples show that the accurate solutions can be obtained efficiently and stably. (author)

  4. Unusually large unit cell of lipid bicontinuous cubic phase: towards nature's length scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hojun; Leal, Cecilia

    Lipid bicontinuous cubic phases are of great interest for drug delivery, protein crystallization, biosensing, and templates for directing hard material assembly. Structural modulations of lipid mesophases regarding phase identity and unit cell size are often necessary to augment loading and gain pore size control. One important example is the need for unit cells large enough to guide the crystallization of bigger proteins without distortion of the templating phase. In nature, bicontinuous cubic constructs achieve unit cell dimensions as high as 300 nm. However, the largest unit cell of lipid mesophases synthesized in the lab is an order of magnitude lower. In fact, it has been predicted theoretically that lipid bicontinuous cubic phases of unit cell dimensions exceeding 30 nm could not exist, as high membrane fluctuations would damp liquid crystalline order. Here we report non-equilibrium assembly methods of synthesizing metastable bicontinuous cubic phases with unit cell dimensions as high as 70 nm. The phases are stable for very long periods and become increasingly ordered as time goes by without changes to unit cell dimensions. We acknowledge the funding source as a NIH.

  5. Visualization of large waves in churn and annular two-phase flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dasgupta, Arnab; Chandraker, D.K.; Nayak, A.K.; Vijayan, P.K.; Kshirasagar, S.; Reddy, B.R.; Walker, S.P.

    2015-01-01

    The study of churn and annular two-phase flow regimes is important for boiling systems like nuclear reactors, U-tube steam generators etc. In this paper, visualization studies on air-water churn and annular two-phase flow regimes are reported. Though there are differences between air-water and boiling steam water systems, the major flow-pattern characteristics are similar (if not same).The specific object of study is the large waves which exist in both churn and annular regimes. These waves are responsible for majority of the momentum and mass dispersion across the phases. The differentiating characteristics of these waves in the chum and annular flow regimes are reported. The visualization also leads to a more quantitative representation of the transition from churn to annular flow. A new interpretation of the criterion for onset of entrainment is also evolved from the studies. (author)

  6. Phase transitions and transport in anisotropic superconductors with large thermal fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, D.S.

    1991-01-01

    Fluctuation effects in conventional superconductors such as broadening of phase transitions and flux creep tend to be very small primarily because of the large coherence lengths. Thus mean field theory, with only small fluctuation corrections, usually provides an adequate description of these systems. Regimes in which fluctuation effects cause qualitatively different physics are very difficult to study as they typically occur in very small regions of the phase diagram or, in transport, require measuring extremely small voltages. In striking contrast, in the high temperature cuprate superconductors a combination of factors - short coherence lengths, anisotropy and higher temperatures - make fluctuation effects many orders of magnitude larger. The current understanding of transport and phase transitions in the cuprate superconductors-particularly YBCO and BSCCO-is reviewed. New results are presented on the two-dimensional regimes and 2D-3D crossover in the strongly anisotropic case of BSCCO. The emphasis is on pinning and vortex glass behavior

  7. Large leptonic Dirac CP phase from broken democracy with random perturbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Shao-Feng; Kusenko, Alexander; Yanagida, Tsutomu T.

    2018-06-01

    A large value of the leptonic Dirac CP phase can arise from broken democracy, where the mass matrices are democratic up to small random perturbations. Such perturbations are a natural consequence of broken residual S3 symmetries that dictate the democratic mass matrices at leading order. With random perturbations, the leptonic Dirac CP phase has a higher probability to attain a value around ± π / 2. Comparing with the anarchy model, broken democracy can benefit from residual S3 symmetries, and it can produce much better, realistic predictions for the mass hierarchy, mixing angles, and Dirac CP phase in both quark and lepton sectors. Our approach provides a general framework for a class of models in which a residual symmetry determines the general features at leading order, and where, in the absence of other fundamental principles, the symmetry breaking appears in the form of random perturbations.

  8. Training to handle unexpected events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamlin, K.W.

    1987-01-01

    The importance of conducting hands-on training to deal with complex situations is well recognized. Since most utilities now own or have ordered their own control room simulators, access to simulator training facilities has improved greatly. Most utilities now have a control room shift rotation that includes a dedicated training shift. The opportunities for practicing operational control over unexpected and off-normal events are just beginning to be recognized. Areas that are being enhanced include teamwork training, diagnostics training, expanded simulator training programs, improvements in simulator instructor training, emergency procedures training, and training on the use of probabilistic risk assessment studies. All these efforts are aimed at the goal of improving the plant staff's ability to cope with unexpected and off-normal events

  9. Two-dimensional Potts antiferromagnets with a phase transition at arbitrarily large q

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Huang, Y.; Chen, K.; Deng, Y.; Jacobsen, J. L.; Kotecký, R.; Salas, J.; Sokal, Alan D.; Swart, Jan M.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 87, Č. 1 (2013), 12136-1-12136-5 ISSN 1539-3755 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP201/12/2613 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Monte Carlo simulation * two-dimensional lattices * q-state Potts Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 2.326, year: 2013 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2013/SI/swart-two-dimensional potts antiferromagnets with a phase transition at arbitrarily large q.pdf

  10. High Efficiency Large-Angle Pancharatnam Phase Deflector Based on Dual Twist Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-16

    construction and characterization of a ±40° beam steering device with 90% diffraction efficiency based on our dual-twist design at 633nm wavelength...N. & Escuti, M. J. Achromatic Wollaston prism beam splitter using polarization gratings. Opt. Lett. 41, 4461–4463 (2016). 13. Slussarenko, S., et...High-efficiency large-angle Pancharatnam phase deflector based on dual-twist design Kun Gao1, Colin McGinty1, Harold Payson2, Shaun Berry2, Joseph

  11. Confinement-deconfinement phase transition in hot and dense QCD at large N

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhitnitsky, Ariel R.

    2008-01-01

    We conjecture that the confinement-deconfinement phase transition in QCD at large number of colors N and N f c where θ dependence experiences a sudden change in behavior [A. Parnachev, A. Zhitnitsky, (arXiv: 0806.1736 [hep-ph])]. The conjecture is also supported by quantum field theory arguments when the instanton calculations (which trigger the θ dependence) are under complete theoretical control for T>T c , suddenly break down immediately below T c with sharp changes in the θ dependence. Finally, the conjecture is supported by a number of numerical lattice results. We employ this conjecture to study confinement-deconfinement phase transition of dense QCD at large μ in large N limit by analyzing the θ dependence. We find that the confinement-deconfinement phase transition at N f c ∼√(N)Λ QCD . This result agrees with recent findings by McLerran and Pisarski [L. McLerran, R.D. Pisarski, Nucl. Phys. A 796 (2007) 83]. We also speculate on case when N f ∼N

  12. Large three-dimensional photonic crystals based on monocrystalline liquid crystal blue phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chun-Wei; Hou, Chien-Tsung; Li, Cheng-Chang; Jau, Hung-Chang; Wang, Chun-Ta; Hong, Ching-Lang; Guo, Duan-Yi; Wang, Cheng-Yu; Chiang, Sheng-Ping; Bunning, Timothy J; Khoo, Iam-Choon; Lin, Tsung-Hsien

    2017-09-28

    Although there have been intense efforts to fabricate large three-dimensional photonic crystals in order to realize their full potential, the technologies developed so far are still beset with various material processing and cost issues. Conventional top-down fabrications are costly and time-consuming, whereas natural self-assembly and bottom-up fabrications often result in high defect density and limited dimensions. Here we report the fabrication of extraordinarily large monocrystalline photonic crystals by controlling the self-assembly processes which occur in unique phases of liquid crystals that exhibit three-dimensional photonic-crystalline properties called liquid-crystal blue phases. In particular, we have developed a gradient-temperature technique that enables three-dimensional photonic crystals to grow to lateral dimensions of ~1 cm (~30,000 of unit cells) and thickness of ~100 μm (~ 300 unit cells). These giant single crystals exhibit extraordinarily sharp photonic bandgaps with high reflectivity, long-range periodicity in all dimensions and well-defined lattice orientation.Conventional fabrication approaches for large-size three-dimensional photonic crystals are problematic. By properly controlling the self-assembly processes, the authors report the fabrication of monocrystalline blue phase liquid crystals that exhibit three-dimensional photonic-crystalline properties.

  13. Femtosecond time-resolved studies of coherent vibrational Raman scattering in large gas-phase molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayden, C.C.; Chandler, D.W.

    1995-01-01

    Results are presented from femtosecond time-resolved coherent Raman experiments in which we excite and monitor vibrational coherence in gas-phase samples of benzene and 1,3,5-hexatriene. Different physical mechanisms for coherence decay are seen in these two molecules. In benzene, where the Raman polarizability is largely isotropic, the Q branch of the vibrational Raman spectrum is the primary feature excited. Molecules in different rotational states have different Q-branch transition frequencies due to vibration--rotation interaction. Thus, the macroscopic polarization that is observed in these experiments decays because it has many frequency components from molecules in different rotational states, and these frequency components go out of phase with each other. In 1,3,5-hexatriene, the Raman excitation produces molecules in a coherent superposition of rotational states, through (O, P, R, and S branch) transitions that are strong due to the large anisotropy of the Raman polarizability. The coherent superposition of rotational states corresponds to initially spatially oriented, vibrationally excited, molecules that are freely rotating. The rotation of molecules away from the initial orientation is primarily responsible for the coherence decay in this case. These experiments produce large (∼10% efficiency) Raman shifted signals with modest excitation pulse energies (10 μJ) demonstrating the feasibility of this approach for a variety of gas phase studies. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  14. FALSIRE Phase II. CSNI project for Fracture Analyses of Large-Scale International Reference Experiments (Phase II). Comparison report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sievers, J.; Schulz, H.; Bass, R.; Pugh, C.; Keeney, J.

    1996-11-01

    A summary of Phase II of the Project for Fracture Analysis of Large-Scale International Reference Experiments (FALSIRE) is presented. A FALSIRE II Workshop focused on analyses of reference fracture experiments. More than 30 participants representing 22 organizations from 12 countries took part in the workshop. Final results for 45 analyses of the reference experiments were received from the participating analysts. For each experiment, analysis results provided estimates of variables that include temperature, crack-mouth-opening displacement, stress, strain, and applied K and J values. The data were sent electronically to the Organizing Committee, who assembled the results into a comparative data base using a special-purpose computer program. A comparative assessment and discussion of the analysis results are presented in the report. Generally, structural responses of the test specimens were predicted with tolerable scatter bands. (orig./DG)

  15. Large eddy simulation of a two-phase reacting swirl flow inside a cement cyclone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikulčić, Hrvoje; Vujanović, Milan; Ashhab, Moh'd Sami; Duić, Neven

    2014-01-01

    This work presents a numerical study of the highly swirled gas–solid flow inside a cement cyclone. The computational fluid dynamics – CFD simulation for continuum fluid flow and heat exchange was used for the investigation. The Eulearian–Lagrangian approach was used to describe the two-phase flow, and the large eddy simulation – LES method was used for correctly obtaining the turbulent fluctuations of the gas phase. A model describing the reaction of the solid phase, e.g. the calcination process, has been developed and implemented within the commercial finite volume CFD code FIRE. Due to the fact that the calcination process has a direct influence on the overall energy efficiency of the cement production, it is of great importance to have a certain degree of limestone degradation at the cyclone's outlet. The heat exchange between the gas and solid phase is of particular importance when studying cement cyclones, as it has a direct effect on the calcination process. In order to study the heat exchange phenomena and the flow characteristics, a three dimensional geometry of a real industrial scroll type cyclone was used for the CFD simulation. The gained numerical results, characteristic for cyclones, such as the pressure drop, and concentration of particles can thus be used for better understanding of the complex swirled two-phase flow inside the cement cyclone and also for improving the heat exchange phenomena. - Highlights: • CFD (computational fluid dynamics) is being increasingly used to enhance efficiency of reacting multi-phase flows. • Numerical model of calcination process was presented. • A detailed industrial geometry was used for the CFD simulation. • Presented model and measurement data are in good agreement

  16. Improved design of large wind turbine blades of fibre composites (Phase 2) - Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soerensen, B.F. [Risoe National Lab., Materials Research Dept., Roskilde (Denmark); Branner, K. [Risoe National Lab., Wind Energy Dept., Roskilde (Denmark); Stang, H. [Technical Univ. of Denmark, Dept. of Civil Engineering, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Jensen, H.M. [Aalborg Univ., Dept. of Building Technology and Structural Engineering (Denmark); Lund, E. [Aalborg Univ., Inst. of Mechanical Enginering (Denmark); Jacobsen, T.K. [LM glasfiber A/S, Lunderskov (Denmark); Halling, K.M. [Vestas Wind Systems A/S, Ringkoebing (Denmark)

    2005-08-01

    The major results of Phase 2 of a project concerning the development of new design methods for wind turbine blades are summarised. Finite element models were used for studying the buckling behaviour of a box girder, tested to failure in Phase 1 of this project. The deformation behaviour of a box girder section subjected to transverse forces was investigated experimentally and by modelling. Buckling-driven delamination of planar specimens was studied on experimentally and by modelling. A novel approach was proposed for the determination of mixed mode cohesive laws for large-scale crack bridging problems. The normal and shear stresses of the cohesive laws were obtained from data of the fracture resistance and the normal and tangential displacements of the cohesive zone. Delamination of a thin layer bonded to an elastic substrate close to corners and edges was also analysed. Results for the shape of the interface crack front and critical stress for steady-state delamination were obtained. (au)

  17. Large scale structure from biased non-equilibrium phase transitions percolation theory picture

    CERN Document Server

    Lalak, Z; Ovrut, B A; Ross, Graham G

    1995-01-01

    We give an analytical description of the spatial distribution of domain walls produced during a biased nonequilibrium phase transition in the vacuum state of a light scalar field. We discuss in detail the spectrum of the associated cosmological energy density perturbations. It is shown that the contribution coming from domain walls can enhance the standard cold dark matter spectrum in such a way as to account for the whole range of IRAS data and for the COBE measurement of the microwave background anisotropy. We also demonstrate that in case of a biased phase transition which allows a percolative description, the number of large size domain walls is strongly suppressed. This offers a way of avoiding excessive microwave background distorsions due to the gravitational field of domain walls present after decoupling.

  18. First light for GRAVITY: Phase referencing optical interferometry for the Very Large Telescope Interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravity Collaboration; Abuter, R.; Accardo, M.; Amorim, A.; Anugu, N.; Ávila, G.; Azouaoui, N.; Benisty, M.; Berger, J. P.; Blind, N.; Bonnet, H.; Bourget, P.; Brandner, W.; Brast, R.; Buron, A.; Burtscher, L.; Cassaing, F.; Chapron, F.; Choquet, É.; Clénet, Y.; Collin, C.; Coudé Du Foresto, V.; de Wit, W.; de Zeeuw, P. T.; Deen, C.; Delplancke-Ströbele, F.; Dembet, R.; Derie, F.; Dexter, J.; Duvert, G.; Ebert, M.; Eckart, A.; Eisenhauer, F.; Esselborn, M.; Fédou, P.; Finger, G.; Garcia, P.; Garcia Dabo, C. E.; Garcia Lopez, R.; Gendron, E.; Genzel, R.; Gillessen, S.; Gonte, F.; Gordo, P.; Grould, M.; Grözinger, U.; Guieu, S.; Haguenauer, P.; Hans, O.; Haubois, X.; Haug, M.; Haussmann, F.; Henning, Th.; Hippler, S.; Horrobin, M.; Huber, A.; Hubert, Z.; Hubin, N.; Hummel, C. A.; Jakob, G.; Janssen, A.; Jochum, L.; Jocou, L.; Kaufer, A.; Kellner, S.; Kendrew, S.; Kern, L.; Kervella, P.; Kiekebusch, M.; Klein, R.; Kok, Y.; Kolb, J.; Kulas, M.; Lacour, S.; Lapeyrère, V.; Lazareff, B.; Le Bouquin, J.-B.; Lèna, P.; Lenzen, R.; Lévêque, S.; Lippa, M.; Magnard, Y.; Mehrgan, L.; Mellein, M.; Mérand, A.; Moreno-Ventas, J.; Moulin, T.; Müller, E.; Müller, F.; Neumann, U.; Oberti, S.; Ott, T.; Pallanca, L.; Panduro, J.; Pasquini, L.; Paumard, T.; Percheron, I.; Perraut, K.; Perrin, G.; Pflüger, A.; Pfuhl, O.; Phan Duc, T.; Plewa, P. M.; Popovic, D.; Rabien, S.; Ramírez, A.; Ramos, J.; Rau, C.; Riquelme, M.; Rohloff, R.-R.; Rousset, G.; Sanchez-Bermudez, J.; Scheithauer, S.; Schöller, M.; Schuhler, N.; Spyromilio, J.; Straubmeier, C.; Sturm, E.; Suarez, M.; Tristram, K. R. W.; Ventura, N.; Vincent, F.; Waisberg, I.; Wank, I.; Weber, J.; Wieprecht, E.; Wiest, M.; Wiezorrek, E.; Wittkowski, M.; Woillez, J.; Wolff, B.; Yazici, S.; Ziegler, D.; Zins, G.

    2017-06-01

    GRAVITY is a new instrument to coherently combine the light of the European Southern Observatory Very Large Telescope Interferometer to form a telescope with an equivalent 130 m diameter angular resolution and a collecting area of 200 m2. The instrument comprises fiber fed integrated optics beam combination, high resolution spectroscopy, built-in beam analysis and control, near-infrared wavefront sensing, phase-tracking, dual-beam operation, and laser metrology. GRAVITY opens up to optical/infrared interferometry the techniques of phase referenced imaging and narrow angle astrometry, in many aspects following the concepts of radio interferometry. This article gives an overview of GRAVITY and reports on the performance and the first astronomical observations during commissioning in 2015/16. We demonstrate phase-tracking on stars as faint as mK ≈ 10 mag, phase-referenced interferometry of objects fainter than mK ≈ 15 mag with a limiting magnitude of mK ≈ 17 mag, minute long coherent integrations, a visibility accuracy of better than 0.25%, and spectro-differential phase and closure phase accuracy better than 0.5°, corresponding to a differential astrometric precision of better than ten microarcseconds (μas). The dual-beam astrometry, measuring the phase difference of two objects with laser metrology, is still under commissioning. First observations show residuals as low as 50 μas when following objects over several months. We illustrate the instrument performance with the observations of archetypical objects for the different instrument modes. Examples include the Galactic center supermassive black hole and its fast orbiting star S2 for phase referenced dual-beam observations and infrared wavefront sensing, the high mass X-ray binary BP Cru and the active galactic nucleus of PDS 456 for a few μas spectro-differential astrometry, the T Tauri star S CrA for a spectro-differential visibility analysis, ξ Tel and 24 Cap for high accuracy visibility observations

  19. LBNO-DEMO (WA105): a large demonstrator of the Liquid Argon double phase TPC

    CERN Document Server

    Trzaska, Wladyslaw Henryk

    2015-01-01

    LBNO-DEMO (WA105) is a large demonstrator of the double phase liquid argon TPC intended to develop and test the main elements of the GLACIER-based design for the purpose of scaling it up to the 10–50 kton size needed for Long Baseline Neutrino Oscillation studies. The crucial components of the design are: ultra-high argon purity in non-evacuable tank, long drifts, very high drift voltages, large area Micro Pattern Gas Detectors, and cold preamplifiers. The active volume of the demonstrator is 666 m3 (approximately 300t). WA105 is under construction at CERN and will be exposed to charged particle beams (0.5-20 GeV/c) in the North Area in 2018. The data will provide the necessary calibration of the detector performance and benchmark reconstruction algorithms. This project is a crucial milestone for the long baseline neutrino program, including projects like LBNO and DUNE.

  20. Improved design for large wind turbine blades of fibre composites (Phase 4) - Summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soerensen, B.F.; Toftegaard, H.; Goutanos, S. (Risoe DTU, Materials Research Div., Roskilde (Denmark)); Branner, K.; Berring, P. (Risoe DTU, Wind Energy Div., Roskilde (Denmark)); Lund, E. (Aalborg Univ., Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Aalborg (Denmark)); Wedel-Heinen, J. (Vestas Wind System, Randers (Denmark)); Garm, J.H. (LM Wind Power, Kolding (Denmark))

    2010-06-15

    Results are summarised for the project 'Improved design for large wind turbine blades (Phase 4)', partially supported by the Danish Energy Agency under the Ministry of Climate and Energy through the EUDP journal no.: 33033-0267. The aim of the project was to develop new and better design methods for wind turbine blades, so that uncertainties associated with damage and defects can be reduced. The topics that are studied include buckling-driven delamination of flat load-carrying laminates, cracking along interfaces in material joints (fracture mechanical characterisation and modelling), cyclic crack growth with large scale bridging and the use of cohesive laws in finite element programmes for simulating wind turbine blade failure. An overview is given of the methods and the major research results of the project. The implementation of the knowledge in the industry is discussed. Finally, some ideas for future research activities are considered. (author)

  1. Possibility of large final state interaction phases in light of B --> kpi and pipi data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou; Yang

    2000-05-22

    The newly observed &Bmacr;( 0)-->&Kmacr;( 0)pi(0) mode is quite sizable while pi(-)pi(+) is rather small. Data also hint at pi(-)pi(0) greater, similarpi(-)pi(+). Though consistent with zero, central values of CP violating asymmetries in K-pi(+,0) and &Kmacr;( 0)pi(-) show an interesting pattern. Taking cue from these, we suggest that, besides gamma identical witharg(V(*)(ub)) being large, the rescattering phase delta in Kpi and pipi modes may be greater than 90 degrees. If this is true, not only the above trends can be accounted for, but one would also find pi(0)pi(0) approximately pi(-)pi(+,0), and the CP asymmetry in &Bmacr;( 0) vs B0-->pi(-)pi(+) could be as large as -60%. These results can be tested in a couple of years.

  2. An optical spectrum of a large isolated gas-phase PAH cation: C78H26+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhen, Junfeng; Mulas, Giacomo; Bonnamy, Anthony; Joblin, Christine

    2016-01-01

    A gas-phase optical spectrum of a large polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) cation - C78H26+- in the 410-610 nm range is presented. This large all-benzenoid PAH should be large enough to be stable with respect to photodissociation in the harsh conditions prevailing in the interstellar medium (ISM). The spectrum is obtained via multi-photon dissociation (MPD) spectroscopy of cationic C78H26 stored in the Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance (FT-ICR) cell using the radiation from a mid-band optical parametric oscillator (OPO) laser. The experimental spectrum shows two main absorption peaks at 431 nm and 516 nm, in good agreement with a theoretical spectrum computed via time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT). DFT calculations indicate that the equilibrium geometry, with the absolute minimum energy, is of lowered, nonplanar C2 symmetry instead of the more symmetric planar D2h symmetry that is usually the minimum for similar PAHs of smaller size. This kind of slightly broken symmetry could produce some of the fine structure observed in some diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs). It can also favor the folding of C78H26+ fragments and ultimately the formation of fullerenes. This study opens up the possibility to identify the most promising candidates for DIBs amongst large cationic PAHs. PMID:26942230

  3. An Efficient Pipeline Wavefront Phase Recovery for the CAFADIS Camera for Extremely Large Telescopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Magdaleno

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we show a fast, specialized hardware implementation of the wavefront phase recovery algorithm using the CAFADIS camera. The CAFADIS camera is a new plenoptic sensor patented by the Universidad de La Laguna (Canary Islands, Spain: international patent PCT/ES2007/000046 (WIPO publication number WO/2007/082975. It can simultaneously measure the wavefront phase and the distance to the light source in a real-time process. The pipeline algorithm is implemented using Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA. These devices present architecture capable of handling the sensor output stream using a massively parallel approach and they are efficient enough to resolve several Adaptive Optics (AO problems in Extremely Large Telescopes (ELTs in terms of processing time requirements. The FPGA implementation of the wavefront phase recovery algorithm using the CAFADIS camera is based on the very fast computation of two dimensional fast Fourier Transforms (FFTs. Thus we have carried out a comparison between our very novel FPGA 2D-FFTa and other implementations.

  4. Effects of induced magnetic field on large scale pulsed MHD generator with two phase flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, M.; Koshiba, Y.; Matsushita, T.

    2004-01-01

    A large pulsed MHD generator 'SAKHALIN' was constructed in Russia (the former Soviet-Union) and operated with solid fuels. The 'SAKHALIN' with the channel length of 4.5 m could demonstrate the electric power output of 510 MW. The effects of induced magnetic field and two phase flow on the shock wave within the 'SAKHALIN' generator have been studied by time dependent, one dimensional analyses. It has been shown that the magnetic Reynolds number is about 0.58 for Run No. 1, and the induced magnetic flux density is about 20% at the entrance and exit of the MHD channel. The shock wave becomes stronger when the induced magnetic field is taken into account, when the operation voltage becomes low. The working gas plasma contains about 40% of liquid particles (Al 2 O 3 ) in weight, and the present analysis treats the liquid particles as another gas. In the case of mono-phase flow, the sharp shock wave is induced when the load voltage becomes small such as 500 V with larger Lorentz force, whereas in the case of two phase flow, the shock wave becomes less sharp because of the interaction with liquid particles

  5. Large magnetoresistance dips and perfect spin-valley filter induced by topological phase transitions in silicene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prarokijjak, Worasak; Soodchomshom, Bumned

    2018-04-01

    Spin-valley transport and magnetoresistance are investigated in silicene-based N/TB/N/TB/N junction where N and TB are normal silicene and topological barriers. The topological phase transitions in TB's are controlled by electric, exchange fields and circularly polarized light. As a result, we find that by applying electric and exchange fields, four groups of spin-valley currents are perfectly filtered, directly induced by topological phase transitions. Control of currents, carried by single, double and triple channels of spin-valley electrons in silicene junction, may be achievable by adjusting magnitudes of electric, exchange fields and circularly polarized light. We may identify that the key factor behind the spin-valley current filtered at the transition points may be due to zero and non-zero Chern numbers. Electrons that are allowed to transport at the transition points must obey zero-Chern number which is equivalent to zero mass and zero-Berry's curvature, while electrons with non-zero Chern number are perfectly suppressed. Very large magnetoresistance dips are found directly induced by topological phase transition points. Our study also discusses the effect of spin-valley dependent Hall conductivity at the transition points on ballistic transport and reveals the potential of silicene as a topological material for spin-valleytronics.

  6. Timing of Formal Phase Safety Reviews for Large-Scale Integrated Hazard Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massie, Michael J.; Morris, A. Terry

    2010-01-01

    Integrated hazard analysis (IHA) is a process used to identify and control unacceptable risk. As such, it does not occur in a vacuum. IHA approaches must be tailored to fit the system being analyzed. Physical, resource, organizational and temporal constraints on large-scale integrated systems impose additional direct or derived requirements on the IHA. The timing and interaction between engineering and safety organizations can provide either benefits or hindrances to the overall end product. The traditional approach for formal phase safety review timing and content, which generally works well for small- to moderate-scale systems, does not work well for very large-scale integrated systems. This paper proposes a modified approach to timing and content of formal phase safety reviews for IHA. Details of the tailoring process for IHA will describe how to avoid temporary disconnects in major milestone reviews and how to maintain a cohesive end-to-end integration story particularly for systems where the integrator inherently has little to no insight into lower level systems. The proposal has the advantage of allowing the hazard analysis development process to occur as technical data normally matures.

  7. Relating large-scale subsidence to convection development in Arctic mixed-phase marine stratocumulus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Gillian; Connolly, Paul J.; Dearden, Christopher; Choularton, Thomas W.

    2018-02-01

    Large-scale subsidence, associated with high-pressure systems, is often imposed in large-eddy simulation (LES) models to maintain the height of boundary layer (BL) clouds. Previous studies have considered the influence of subsidence on warm liquid clouds in subtropical regions; however, the relationship between subsidence and mixed-phase cloud microphysics has not specifically been studied. For the first time, we investigate how widespread subsidence associated with synoptic-scale meteorological features can affect the microphysics of Arctic mixed-phase marine stratocumulus (Sc) clouds. Modelled with LES, four idealised scenarios - a stable Sc, varied droplet (Ndrop) or ice (Nice) number concentrations, and a warming surface (representing motion southwards) - were subjected to different levels of subsidence to investigate the cloud microphysical response. We find strong sensitivities to large-scale subsidence, indicating that high-pressure systems in the ocean-exposed Arctic regions have the potential to generate turbulence and changes in cloud microphysics in any resident BL mixed-phase clouds.Increased cloud convection is modelled with increased subsidence, driven by longwave radiative cooling at cloud top and rain evaporative cooling and latent heating from snow growth below cloud. Subsidence strengthens the BL temperature inversion, thus reducing entrainment and allowing the liquid- and ice-water paths (LWPs, IWPs) to increase. Through increased cloud-top radiative cooling and subsequent convective overturning, precipitation production is enhanced: rain particle number concentrations (Nrain), in-cloud rain mass production rates, and below-cloud evaporation rates increase with increased subsidence.Ice number concentrations (Nice) play an important role, as greater concentrations suppress the liquid phase; therefore, Nice acts to mediate the strength of turbulent overturning promoted by increased subsidence. With a warming surface, a lack of - or low - subsidence

  8. Sudden unexpected death in infancy in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkel, Bo Gregers; Holst, Anders Gaarsdal; Theilade, Juliane

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background. Incidence of sudden unexpected death in infancy (SUDI) and sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) differs among studies and non-autopsied cases are difficult to assess. Objectives. To investigate causes of sudden death in infancy in a nationwide setting. Validate the use...... of the ICD-10 code for SIDS (R95) in the Danish Cause of Death registry. Design. A retrospective analysis of all infant deaths (death certificates and autopsy reports were read. Results. We identified 192 SUDI cases (10% of total deaths, 0.42 per 1000 births......) with autopsy performed in 87% of cases. In total, 49% of autopsied SUDI cases were defined as SIDS (5% of all deaths, 0.22 per 1000 births); Cardiac cause of death was denoted in 24% of cases. The Danish Cause of Death Registry misclassified 30% of SIDS cases. Conclusions. A large proportion of infant deaths...

  9. Gastric Adenomyoma: The Unexpected Mimicker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Adriana Duran Álvarez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastric adenomyoma is a rare benign tumor composed of epithelial structures and smooth muscle stroma. Here, we report an unusual case of gastric adenomyoma mostly composed of smooth muscle that was incidentally found during a laparoscopic intervention. On radiology, it mimicked an acquired hypertrophic pyloric stenosis in an adult patient, and pathologically it resembled a pure smooth muscle hamartoma. Complete submission of the lesion for histology was necessary to find the epithelial component and make the right diagnosis. As a mimicker of benign and malignant entities, gastric adenomyoma is usually an unexpected finding after surgery. The aim of this report is to analyze this adenomyoma variant in the setting of an unexplained thickening of the gastric wall, with explanations concerning histogenesis and biological potential.

  10. Fournier gangrene and unexpected death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bury, Danielle; Byard, Roger W

    2012-11-01

    Fournier gangrene represents a rare but progressive perineal infection that may result in rapid death. A 70-year-old man with poorly controlled diabetes mellitus and alcohol abuse is reported who was found unexpectedly dead. He had last been contacted the night before his death. At autopsy, the most striking finding was deep necrotic ulceration of the scrotum with exposure of underlying deep muscles and testicles, with blood cultures positive for Escherichia coli. Death was, therefore, attributed to necrotic ulceration/gangrene of the perineum (Fournier gangrene) that was due to E. coli sepsis with underlying contributing factors of diabetes mellitus and alcoholism. In addition there was morbid obesity (body mass index 46.9), cirrhosis of the liver, and marked focal coronary artery atherosclerosis with significant cardiomegaly. Fournier gangrene may be an extremely aggressive condition that can result in rapid death, as was demonstrated by the rapid progression in the reported case. © 2012 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  11. Effect of small in-plane anisotropy in the large-D phase systems based on Ni{sup 2+} (S=1) ions in Heisenberg antiferromagnetic chains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudowicz, Czesław, E-mail: crudowicz@zut.edu.pl

    2014-03-01

    Heisenberg antiferromagnetic chains based on Ni{sup 2+} ions with integer spin S=1 exhibit intriguing behavior, e.g. the Haldane gap phase and the large-D phase. The predicted transitions between the two phases and the Neel phase has generated search for real candidate systems. Crucial to this search is the interplay between the ‘in-plane anisotropy’, i.e. the rhombic zero-field splitting (ZFS) E-term, and the ‘planar anisotropy’, i.e. the axial ZFS D-term. This paper clarifies intricate properties of orthorhombic ZFS Hamiltonians (H{sub ZFS}) and inconsistencies revealed by critical survey of pertinent studies. Reporting the non-standard (D, E) sets with λ=E/D out of the standard range (0, 1/3) alongside the standard sets with λ∝(0, 1/3) indicates that these properties are not recognized. We show that direct comparisons of the non-standard and standard sets are meaningless and lead to incorrect conclusions on the strength of the ‘in-plane anisotropy’ (E) as compared with the ‘planar anisotropy’ (D). To remedy such problems, the ZFSP sets reported for the large-D phase candidate systems are reanalyzed using orthorhombic standardization. The six physically equivalent ZFSP sets are determined in the conventional (D, E) and Stevens (b{sub 2}{sup 0}, b{sub 2}{sup 2}) notation. These considerations help understanding intricacies inherent in orthorhombic H{sub ZFS} and provide consistent data for future modeling of ZFS parameters in the large-D phase and Haldane gap systems.

  12. A change of coordinates on the large phase space of quantum cohomology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabanov, A.

    2001-01-01

    The Gromov-Witten invariants of a smooth, projective variety V, when twisted by the tautological classes on the moduli space of stable maps, give rise to a family of cohomological field theories and endow the base of the family with coordinates. We prove that the potential functions associated to the tautological ψ classes (the large phase space) and the κ classes are related by a change of coordinates which generalizes a change of basis on the ring of symmetric functions. Our result is a generalization of the work of Manin-Zograf who studied the case where V is a point. We utilize this change of variables to derive the topological recursion relations associated to the κ classes from those associated to the ψ classes. (orig.)

  13. Large-Scale Cubic-Scaling Random Phase Approximation Correlation Energy Calculations Using a Gaussian Basis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Jan; Seewald, Patrick; Del Ben, Mauro; Hutter, Jürg

    2016-12-13

    We present an algorithm for computing the correlation energy in the random phase approximation (RPA) in a Gaussian basis requiring [Formula: see text] operations and [Formula: see text] memory. The method is based on the resolution of the identity (RI) with the overlap metric, a reformulation of RI-RPA in the Gaussian basis, imaginary time, and imaginary frequency integration techniques, and the use of sparse linear algebra. Additional memory reduction without extra computations can be achieved by an iterative scheme that overcomes the memory bottleneck of canonical RPA implementations. We report a massively parallel implementation that is the key for the application to large systems. Finally, cubic-scaling RPA is applied to a thousand water molecules using a correlation-consistent triple-ζ quality basis.

  14. Improved design for large wind turbine blades of fibre composites (Phase 3) - Summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soerensen, B.F. (Risoe DTU, Materials Research Div., Roskilde (Denmark)); Branner, K. (Risoe DTU, Wind Energy Div., Roskilde (Denmark)); Lund, E. (Aalborg Univ., Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Aalborg (Denmark)); Wedel-Heinen, J. (Vestas Wind System, Randers (Denmark)); Garm, J.H. (LM Glasfiber, Kolding (Denmark))

    2009-06-15

    An overview is given of the activities of the project 'Improved design for large wind turbine blades (Phase 3)', partially supported by the Danish Energy Agency under the Ministry of Climate and Energy through the EFP-grant no. 33031-0078. The project was focussed at the development of new design methods for wind turbine blades, so that uncertainties associated with damage and defects can be reduced. The following topics with respect to failure modes were covered: Buckling-driven delamination of load-carrying laminates, cracking along interfaces in material joints, implementation of cohesive laws in finite element programmes and hierarchical finite element models. Methods and major research results of the project are summarised. Some future goals for future research activities are briefly discussed. (author)

  15. Wilson loops in the Higgs phase of large N field theories on the conifold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caceres, E.; Hernandez, R.

    2000-04-01

    We study the quark-antiquark interaction in the large N limit of the superconformal field theory on D-3branes at a Calabi-Yau conical singularity. We compute the Wilson loop in the AdS 5 x T 11 supergravity background for the SU(2N) x SU(2N) theory. We also calculate the Wilson loop for the Higgs phase where the gauge group is broken to SU(N) x SU(N) x SU D (N). This corresponds to a two center configuration with some of the branes at the singularity and the rest of them at a smooth point. The calculation exhibits the expected Coulomb dependence for the interaction. The angular distribution of the BPS states is different than the one for a spherical horizon. (author)

  16. Solid State Large Area Pulsed Solar Simulator for 3-, 4- and 6-Junction Solar Cell Arrays, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Phase I was successful in delivering a complete prototype of the proposed innovation, an LED-based, solid state, large area, pulsed, solar simulator (ssLAPSS)....

  17. Large-Area, Multi-Junction, Epitaxial Lift-Off Solar Cells with Backside Contacts, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this Phase II program we propose to develop a manufacturable production process to introduce backside contacts to MicroLink Devices? large-area, multi-junction...

  18. Large-Area, Multi-Junction, Epitaxial Lift-Off Solar Cells with Backside Contacts, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this Phase I program we propose to develop an innovative fabrication process to introduce backside contacts to MicroLink Devices' large-area, multi-junction...

  19. KINETIC ALFVÉN WAVE GENERATION BY LARGE-SCALE PHASE MIXING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vásconez, C. L.; Pucci, F.; Valentini, F.; Servidio, S.; Malara, F.; Matthaeus, W. H.

    2015-01-01

    One view of the solar wind turbulence is that the observed highly anisotropic fluctuations at spatial scales near the proton inertial length d p may be considered as kinetic Alfvén waves (KAWs). In the present paper, we show how phase mixing of large-scale parallel-propagating Alfvén waves is an efficient mechanism for the production of KAWs at wavelengths close to d p and at a large propagation angle with respect to the magnetic field. Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD), Hall magnetohydrodynamic (HMHD), and hybrid Vlasov–Maxwell (HVM) simulations modeling the propagation of Alfvén waves in inhomogeneous plasmas are performed. In the linear regime, the role of dispersive effects is singled out by comparing MHD and HMHD results. Fluctuations produced by phase mixing are identified as KAWs through a comparison of polarization of magnetic fluctuations and wave-group velocity with analytical linear predictions. In the nonlinear regime, a comparison of HMHD and HVM simulations allows us to point out the role of kinetic effects in shaping the proton-distribution function. We observe the generation of temperature anisotropy with respect to the local magnetic field and the production of field-aligned beams. The regions where the proton-distribution function highly departs from thermal equilibrium are located inside the shear layers, where the KAWs are excited, this suggesting that the distortions of the proton distribution are driven by a resonant interaction of protons with KAW fluctuations. Our results are relevant in configurations where magnetic-field inhomogeneities are present, as, for example, in the solar corona, where the presence of Alfvén waves has been ascertained

  20. A 1372-element Large Scale Hemispherical Ultrasound Phased Array Transducer for Noninvasive Transcranial Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Junho; Hynynen, Kullervo

    2009-01-01

    Noninvasive transcranial therapy using high intensity focused ultrasound transducers has attracted high interest as a promising new modality for the treatments of brain related diseases. We describe the development of a 1372 element large scale hemispherical ultrasound phased array transducer operating at a resonant frequency of 306 kHz. The hemispherical array has a diameter of 31 cm and a 15.5 cm radius of curvature. It is constructed with piezoelectric (PZT-4) tube elements of a 10 mm in diameter, 6 mm in length and 1.4 mm wall thickness. Each element is quasi-air backed by attaching a cork-rubber membrane on the back of the element. The acoustic efficiency of the element is determined to be approximately 50%. The large number of the elements delivers high power ultrasound and offers better beam steering and focusing capability. Comparisons of sound pressure-squared field measurements with theoretical calculations in water show that the array provides good beam steering and tight focusing capability over an efficient volume of approximately 100x100x80 mm 3 with nominal focal spot size of approximately 2.3 mm in diameter at -6 dB. We also present its beam steering and focusing capability through an ex vivo human skull by measuring pressure-squared amplitude after phase corrections. These measurements show the same efficient volume range and focal spot sizes at -6 dB as the ones in water without the skull present. These results indicate that the array is sufficient for use in noninvasive transcranial ultrasound therapy.

  1. KINETIC ALFVÉN WAVE GENERATION BY LARGE-SCALE PHASE MIXING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vásconez, C. L.; Pucci, F.; Valentini, F.; Servidio, S.; Malara, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università della Calabria, I-87036, Rende (CS) (Italy); Matthaeus, W. H. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, DE 19716 (United States)

    2015-12-10

    One view of the solar wind turbulence is that the observed highly anisotropic fluctuations at spatial scales near the proton inertial length d{sub p} may be considered as kinetic Alfvén waves (KAWs). In the present paper, we show how phase mixing of large-scale parallel-propagating Alfvén waves is an efficient mechanism for the production of KAWs at wavelengths close to d{sub p} and at a large propagation angle with respect to the magnetic field. Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD), Hall magnetohydrodynamic (HMHD), and hybrid Vlasov–Maxwell (HVM) simulations modeling the propagation of Alfvén waves in inhomogeneous plasmas are performed. In the linear regime, the role of dispersive effects is singled out by comparing MHD and HMHD results. Fluctuations produced by phase mixing are identified as KAWs through a comparison of polarization of magnetic fluctuations and wave-group velocity with analytical linear predictions. In the nonlinear regime, a comparison of HMHD and HVM simulations allows us to point out the role of kinetic effects in shaping the proton-distribution function. We observe the generation of temperature anisotropy with respect to the local magnetic field and the production of field-aligned beams. The regions where the proton-distribution function highly departs from thermal equilibrium are located inside the shear layers, where the KAWs are excited, this suggesting that the distortions of the proton distribution are driven by a resonant interaction of protons with KAW fluctuations. Our results are relevant in configurations where magnetic-field inhomogeneities are present, as, for example, in the solar corona, where the presence of Alfvén waves has been ascertained.

  2. A Diffuse Interface Model for Incompressible Two-Phase Flow with Large Density Ratios

    KAUST Repository

    Xie, Yu; Wodo, Olga; Ganapathysubramanian, Baskar

    2016-01-01

    In this chapter, we explore numerical simulations of incompressible and immiscible two-phase flows. The description of the fluid–fluid interface is introduced via a diffuse interface approach. The two-phase fluid system is represented by a coupled Cahn–Hilliard Navier–Stokes set of equations. We discuss challenges and approaches to solving this coupled set of equations using a stabilized finite element formulation, especially in the case of a large density ratio between the two fluids. Specific features that enabled efficient solution of the equations include: (i) a conservative form of the convective term in the Cahn–Hilliard equation which ensures mass conservation of both fluid components; (ii) a continuous formula to compute the interfacial surface tension which results in lower requirement on the spatial resolution of the interface; and (iii) a four-step fractional scheme to decouple pressure from velocity in the Navier–Stokes equation. These are integrated with standard streamline-upwind Petrov–Galerkin stabilization to avoid spurious oscillations. We perform numerical tests to determine the minimal resolution of spatial discretization. Finally, we illustrate the accuracy of the framework using the analytical results of Prosperetti for a damped oscillating interface between two fluids with a density contrast.

  3. A Diffuse Interface Model for Incompressible Two-Phase Flow with Large Density Ratios

    KAUST Repository

    Xie, Yu

    2016-10-04

    In this chapter, we explore numerical simulations of incompressible and immiscible two-phase flows. The description of the fluid–fluid interface is introduced via a diffuse interface approach. The two-phase fluid system is represented by a coupled Cahn–Hilliard Navier–Stokes set of equations. We discuss challenges and approaches to solving this coupled set of equations using a stabilized finite element formulation, especially in the case of a large density ratio between the two fluids. Specific features that enabled efficient solution of the equations include: (i) a conservative form of the convective term in the Cahn–Hilliard equation which ensures mass conservation of both fluid components; (ii) a continuous formula to compute the interfacial surface tension which results in lower requirement on the spatial resolution of the interface; and (iii) a four-step fractional scheme to decouple pressure from velocity in the Navier–Stokes equation. These are integrated with standard streamline-upwind Petrov–Galerkin stabilization to avoid spurious oscillations. We perform numerical tests to determine the minimal resolution of spatial discretization. Finally, we illustrate the accuracy of the framework using the analytical results of Prosperetti for a damped oscillating interface between two fluids with a density contrast.

  4. Cognitive Readiness: Preparing for the Unexpected

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fletcher, J. D

    2004-01-01

    .... Anticipated operational requirements can be decomposed into specific tasks, conditions, and standards, but how should individuals, teams, and units prepare for the unexpected, which, by definition...

  5. The Unexpected Past of a Dwarf Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-08-01

    New Light on Cannibalism in the Local Group of Galaxies The Local Group of Galaxies consists of a few large spiral galaxies - for instance the Milky Way galaxy in which we live, and the Andromeda galaxy that is visible to the unaided eye in the northern constellation of the same name - as well as two dozen much smaller galaxies of mostly irregular shape. Whereas the larger galaxies have extended halos of very old stars, no such halos have ever been seen around the smaller ones. Now, however, Dante Minniti and Albert Zijlstra [1], working at the ESO 3.5-metre New Technology Telescope (NTT), have found a large halo of old and metal-poor stars around one of the dwarf galaxies in the Local Group. This finding is quite unexpected. It revises our understanding of star formation in these galaxies and provides important information about the past evolution of galaxies [2]. Galaxy halos The Milky Way galaxy is surrounded by a large, roughly spherical halo of old stars. The diameter is about 100,000 light years and the stars therein, known as Population II stars, are among the oldest known, with ages of 10 billion years or even more. They also differ from the younger stars nearer to the main plane of the Milky Way (in which our 4.7 billion year old Sun is located) by being very metal-poor. Many of the halo stars consist almost solely of hydrogen and helium, reflecting the composition of matter in the young Universe. This halo is important for our understanding of the processes that led to the formation of the Milky Way galaxy. It is believed that many of the halo stars and those of the same type found in globular clusters existed already before the Milky Way had fully formed. Galaxy cannibalism Many astronomers suspect that galaxies evolve and gradually grow larger and heavier by practising cannibalism on their own kind. In this picture, when two galaxies collide in space, the stars and nebulae in the smaller one will disperse and soon be taken over by the larger one, which

  6. Analysis of large two phase uranium dioxide bubble behavior in water and sodium pools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, R.L.

    1984-05-01

    An understanding of the behavior of large, two-phase UO 2 bubbles is important in assessing the consequences of a hypothetical core disruptive accident in a fast reactor. The UVABUBL II computer program was written to study the dynamics and heat and mass transfer in large UO 2 bubbles, and the code was used to analyze data from the underwater and undersodium FAST experiments conducted at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in which the behavior of UO 2 bubbles under a wide variety of conditions was examined. Significant understanding of the phenomena that govern UO 2 bubble behavior in both water and sodium was obtained by matching calculations of pressure, bubble size, and bubble growth and collapse rate to the experimental data. Heat and mass transfer included radiative heat losses and coolant entrainment. Larger heat transfer rates were calculated for the water tests with significant surface vaporization occurring. Because of the high thermal conductivity of sodium, no surface vaporization was calculated for the sodium tests. Entrainment was not found to be necessary for either the water or sodium tests, but calculations that included entrainment implied that it may be occurring. 38 references

  7. An Eulerian two-phase model for steady sheet flow using large-eddy simulation methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Zhen; Hsu, Tian-Jian; Chauchat, Julien

    2018-01-01

    A three-dimensional Eulerian two-phase flow model for sediment transport in sheet flow conditions is presented. To resolve turbulence and turbulence-sediment interactions, the large-eddy simulation approach is adopted. Specifically, a dynamic Smagorinsky closure is used for the subgrid fluid and sediment stresses, while the subgrid contribution to the drag force is included using a drift velocity model with a similar dynamic procedure. The contribution of sediment stresses due to intergranular interactions is modeled by the kinetic theory of granular flow at low to intermediate sediment concentration, while at high sediment concentration of enduring contact, a phenomenological closure for particle pressure and frictional viscosity is used. The model is validated with a comprehensive high-resolution dataset of unidirectional steady sheet flow (Revil-Baudard et al., 2015, Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 767, 1-30). At a particle Stokes number of about 10, simulation results indicate a reduced von Kármán coefficient of κ ≈ 0.215 obtained from the fluid velocity profile. A fluid turbulence kinetic energy budget analysis further indicates that the drag-induced turbulence dissipation rate is significant in the sheet flow layer, while in the dilute transport layer, the pressure work plays a similar role as the buoyancy dissipation, which is typically used in the single-phase stratified flow formulation. The present model also reproduces the sheet layer thickness and mobile bed roughness similar to measured data. However, the resulting mobile bed roughness is more than two times larger than that predicted by the empirical formulae. Further analysis suggests that through intermittent turbulent motions near the bed, the resolved sediment Reynolds stress plays a major role in the enhancement of mobile bed roughness. Our analysis on near-bed intermittency also suggests that the turbulent ejection motions are highly correlated with the upward sediment suspension flux, while

  8. Unexpectedly high piezoelectricity of Sm-doped lead zirconate titanate in the Curie point region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seshadri, Shruti B; Nolan, Michelle M; Tutuncu, Goknur; Forrester, Jennifer S; Sapper, Eva; Esteves, Giovanni; Granzow, Torsten; Thomas, Pam A; Nino, Juan C; Rojac, Tadej; Jones, Jacob L

    2018-03-07

    Large piezoelectric coefficients in polycrystalline lead zirconate titanate (PZT) are traditionally achieved through compositional design using a combination of chemical substitution with a donor dopant and adjustment of the zirconium to titanium compositional ratio to meet the morphotropic phase boundary (MPB). In this work, a different route to large piezoelectricity is demonstrated. Results reveal unexpectedly high piezoelectric coefficients at elevated temperatures and compositions far from the MPB. At temperatures near the Curie point, doping with 2 at% Sm results in exceptionally large piezoelectric coefficients of up to 915 pm/V. This value is approximately twice those of other donor dopants (e.g., 477 pm/V for Nb and 435 pm/V for La). Structural changes during the phase transitions of Sm-doped PZT show a pseudo-cubic phase forming ≈50 °C below the Curie temperature. Possible origins of these effects are discussed and the high piezoelectricity is posited to be due to extrinsic effects. The enhancement of the mechanism at elevated temperatures is attributed to the coexistence of tetragonal and pseudo-cubic phases, which enables strain accommodation during electromechanical deformation and interphase boundary motion. This work provides insight into possible routes for designing high performance piezoelectrics which are alternatives to traditional methods relying on MPB compositions.

  9. Large-Grain Superconducting Gun Cavity Testing Program Phase One Closing Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammons, L. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Bellavia, S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Belomestnykh, S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Ben-Zvi, I. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Cullen, C. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Dai, J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Degen, C. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Hahn, H. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Masi, L. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); McIntyre, G. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Schultheiss, C. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Seda, T. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Kellerman, R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Tallerico, T. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Todd, R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Tuozzolo, S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Xu, W. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Than, Y. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2013-10-31

    This report details the experimental configuration and RF testing results for the first phase of a large-grained niobium electron gun cavity testing program being conducted in the Small Vertical Testing Facility in the Collider-Accelerator Department. This testing is meant to explore multi-pacting in the cavity and shed light on the behavior of a counterpart cavity of identical geometry installed in the Energy Recovery LINAC being constructed in the Collider-Accelerator Department at Brookhaven National Laboratory. This test found that the Q of the large-grained cavity at 4 K reached ~6.5 × 108 and at 2 K reached a value of ~6 × 109. Both of these values are about a factor of 10 lower than would be expected for this type of cavity given the calculated surface resistance and the estimated geometry factor for this half-cell cavity. In addition, the cavity reached a peak voltage of 0.6 MV before there was sig-nificant decline in the Q value and a substantial increase in field emission. This relatively low volt-age, coupled with the low Q and considerable field emission suggest contamination of the cavity interior, possibly during experimental assembly. The results may also suggest that additional chemical etching of the interior surface of the cavity may be beneficial. Throughout the course of testing, various challenges arose including slow helium transfer to the cryostat and cable difficulties. These difficulties and others were eventually resolved, and the re-port discusses the operating experience of the experiment thus far and the plans for future work aimed at exploring the nature of multipacting with a copper cathode inserted into the cavity.

  10. The costs and effectiveness of large Phase III pre-licensure vaccine clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Prior to the 1980s, most vaccines were licensed based upon safety and effectiveness studies in several hundred individuals. Beginning with the evaluation of Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccines, much larger pre-licensure trials became common. The pre-licensure trial for Haemophilus influenzae oligosaccharide conjugate vaccine had more than 60,000 children and that of the seven-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine included almost 38,000 children. Although trial sizes for both of these studies were driven by the sample size required to demonstrate efficacy, the sample size requirements for safety evaluations of other vaccines have subsequently increased. With the demonstration of an increased risk of intussusception following the Rotashield brand rotavirus vaccine, this trend has continued. However, routinely requiring safety studies of 20,000-50,000 or more participants has two major downsides. First, the cost of performing large safety trials routinely prior to licensure of a vaccine is very large, with some estimates as high at US$200 million euros for one vaccine. This high financial cost engenders an opportunity cost whereby the number of vaccines that a company is willing or able to develop to meet public health needs becomes limited by this financial barrier. The second downside is that in the pre-licensure setting, such studies are very time consuming and delay the availability of a beneficial vaccine substantially. One might argue that in some situations, this financial commitment is warranted such as for evaluations of the risk of intussusception following newer rotavirus vaccines. However, it must be noted that while an increased risk of intussusception was not identified in large pre-licensure studies, in post marketing evaluations an increased risk of this outcome has been identified. Thus, even the extensive pre-licensure evaluations conducted did not identify an associated risk. The limitations of large Phase III trials have also been

  11. Three-point phase correlations: A new measure of non-linear large-scale structure

    CERN Document Server

    Wolstenhulme, Richard; Obreschkow, Danail

    2015-01-01

    We derive an analytical expression for a novel large-scale structure observable: the line correlation function. The line correlation function, which is constructed from the three-point correlation function of the phase of the density field, is a robust statistical measure allowing the extraction of information in the non-linear and non-Gaussian regime. We show that, in perturbation theory, the line correlation is sensitive to the coupling kernel F_2, which governs the non-linear gravitational evolution of the density field. We compare our analytical expression with results from numerical simulations and find a very good agreement for separations r>20 Mpc/h. Fitting formulae for the power spectrum and the non-linear coupling kernel at small scales allow us to extend our prediction into the strongly non-linear regime. We discuss the advantages of the line correlation relative to standard statistical measures like the bispectrum. Unlike the latter, the line correlation is independent of the linear bias. Furtherm...

  12. Large Eddy Simulations of Two-phase Turbulent Reactive Flows in IC Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banaeizadeh, Araz; Schock, Harold; Jaberi, Farhad

    2008-11-01

    The two-phase filtered mass density function (FMDF) subgrid-scale (SGS) model is used for large-eddy simulation (LES) of turbulent spray combustion in internal combustion (IC) engines. The LES/FMDF is implemented via an efficient, hybrid numerical method. In this method, the filtered compressible Navier-Stokes equations in curvilinear coordinate systems are solved with a generalized, high-order, multi-block, compact differencing scheme. The spray and the FMDF are implemented with Lagrangian methods. The reliability and the consistency of the numerical methods are established for different IC engines and the complex interactions among mean and turbulent velocity fields, fuel droplets and combustion are shown to be well captured with the LES/FMDF. In both spark-ignition/direct-injection and diesel engines, the droplet size and velocity distributions are found to be modified by the unsteady, vortical motions generated by the incoming air during the intake stroke. In turn, the droplets are found to change the in-cylinder flow structure. In the spark-ignition engine, flame propagation is similar to the experiment. In the diesel engine, the maximum evaporated fuel concentration is near the cylinder wall where the flame starts, which is again consistent with the experiment.

  13. Solar neutrino detection in a large volume double-phase liquid argon experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franco, D.; Agnes, P. [APC, Université Paris Diderot, CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/Irfu, Observatoire de Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Paris 75205 (France); Giganti, C.; Agostino, L.; De Cecco, S., E-mail: dfranco@in2p3.fr, E-mail: cgiganti@lpnhe.in2p3.fr, E-mail: pagnes@in2p3.fr, E-mail: lagostin@lpnhe.in2p3.fr, E-mail: sandro.dececco@lpnhe.in2p3.fr [LPNHE Paris, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Université Paris Diderot, CNRS/IN2P3, Paris 75252 (France); and others

    2016-08-01

    Precision measurements of solar neutrinos emitted by specific nuclear reaction chains in the Sun are of great interest for developing an improved understanding of star formation and evolution. Given the expected neutrino fluxes and known detection reactions, such measurements require detectors capable of collecting neutrino-electron scattering data in exposures on the order of 1 ktonne-yr, with good energy resolution and extremely low background. Two-phase liquid argon time projection chambers (LAr TPCs) are under development for direct Dark Matter WIMP searches, which possess very large sensitive mass, high scintillation light yield, good energy resolution, and good spatial resolution in all three cartesian directions. While enabling Dark Matter searches with sensitivity extending to the ''neutrino floor'' (given by the rate of nuclear recoil events from solar neutrino coherent scattering), such detectors could also enable precision measurements of solar neutrino fluxes using the neutrino-electron elastic scattering events. Modeling results are presented for the cosmogenic and radiogenic backgrounds affecting solar neutrino detection in a 300 tonne (100 tonne fiducial) LAr TPC operating at LNGS depth (3,800 meters of water equivalent). The results show that such a detector could measure the CNO neutrino rate with ∼15% precision, and significantly improve the precision of the {sup 7}Be and pep neutrino rates compared to the currently available results from the Borexino organic liquid scintillator detector.

  14. Statistical macrodynamics of large dynamical systems. Case of a phase transition in oscillator communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuramoto, Y.; Nishikawa, I.

    1987-01-01

    A model dynamical system with a great many degrees of freedom is proposed for which the critical condition for the onset of collective oscillations, the evolution of a suitably defined order parameter, and its fluctuations around steady states can be studied analytically. This is a rotator model appropriate for a large population of limit cycle oscillators. It is assumed that the natural frequencies of the oscillators are distributed and that each oscillator interacts with all the others uniformly. An exact self-consistent equation for the stationary amplitude of the collective oscillation is derived and is extended to a dynamical form. This dynamical extension is carried out near the transition point where the characteristic time scales of the order parameter and of the individual oscillators become well separated from each other. The macroscopic evolution equation thus obtained generally involves a fluctuating term whose irregular temporal variation comes from a deterministic torus motion of a subpopulation. The analysis of this equation reveals order parameter behavior qualitatively different from that in thermodynamic phase transitions, especially in that the critical fluctuations in the present system are extremely small

  15. THREE-POINT PHASE CORRELATIONS: A NEW MEASURE OF NONLINEAR LARGE-SCALE STRUCTURE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolstenhulme, Richard; Bonvin, Camille [Kavli Institute for Cosmology Cambridge and Institute of Astronomy, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 OHA (United Kingdom); Obreschkow, Danail [International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research (ICRAR), M468, University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Hwy, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia)

    2015-05-10

    We derive an analytical expression for a novel large-scale structure observable: the line correlation function. The line correlation function, which is constructed from the three-point correlation function of the phase of the density field, is a robust statistical measure allowing the extraction of information in the nonlinear and non-Gaussian regime. We show that, in perturbation theory, the line correlation is sensitive to the coupling kernel F{sub 2}, which governs the nonlinear gravitational evolution of the density field. We compare our analytical expression with results from numerical simulations and find a 1σ agreement for separations r ≳ 30 h{sup −1} Mpc. Fitting formulae for the power spectrum and the nonlinear coupling kernel at small scales allow us to extend our prediction into the strongly nonlinear regime, where we find a 1σ agreement with the simulations for r ≳ 2 h{sup −1} Mpc. We discuss the advantages of the line correlation relative to standard statistical measures like the bispectrum. Unlike the latter, the line correlation is independent of the bias, in the regime where the bias is local and linear. Furthermore, the variance of the line correlation is independent of the Gaussian variance on the modulus of the density field. This suggests that the line correlation can probe more precisely the nonlinear regime of gravity, with less contamination from the power spectrum variance.

  16. Trajectories of electrons with large longitudinal momenta in the phase plane during surfatron acceleration by an electromagnetic wave

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mkrtichyan, G. S., E-mail: hay-13@mail.ru [Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia (Russian Federation)

    2015-07-15

    The trajectories of electrons with large longitudinal momenta in the phase plane in the course of their surfatron acceleration by an electromagnetic wave propagating in space plasma across the external magnetic field are analyzed. Electrons with large longitudinal momenta are trapped immediately if the initial wave phase Ψ(0) on the particle trajectory is positive. For negative values of Ψ(0), no electrons trapping by the wave is observed over the available computational times. According to numerical calculations, the trajectories of trapped particles in the phase plane have a singular point of the stable focus type and the behavior of the trajectory corresponds to the motion in a complex nonstationary effective potential well. For some initial phases, electrons are confined in the region of the accelerating electric field for relatively short time, the energy gain being about 50–130% and more.

  17. Flextensional Microactuators for Large-Aperture Lightweight Cryogenic Deformable Mirrors, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — TRS Technologies proposes large stroke and high precision single crystal flextensional piezoelectric microactuators for cryogenic optic devices such as large...

  18. Operation of a forced two phase cooling system on a large superconducting magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, M.A.; Burns, W.A.; Eberhard, P.H.; Gibson, G.H.; Pripstein, M.; Ross, R.R.; Smits, R.G.; Taylor, J.D.; Van Slyke, H.

    1980-05-01

    This paper describes the operation of a forced two phase cooling system on a two meter diameter superconducting solenoid. The magnet is a thin high current density superconducting solenoid which is cooled by forced two phase helium in tubes around the coil. The magnet, which is 2.18 meters in diameter and 3.4 meters long, has a cold mass of 1700 kg. The two phase cooling system contains less than 300 liters of liquid helium, most of which is contained in a control dewar. This paper describes the operating characteristics of the LBL two phase forced cooling system during cooldown and warm up. The paper presents experimental data on operations of the magnet using either a helium pump or the refrigerator compressor to circulate two phase helium through the superconducting coil cooling tubes

  19. Formation of cubic phases from large unilamellar vesicles of dioleoylphosphatidylglycerol/monoolein membranes induced by low concentrations of Ca2+.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awad, Tarek S; Okamoto, Yoshihide; Masum, Shah Md; Yamazaki, Masahito

    2005-12-06

    We developed a new method for the transformation of large unilamellar vesicles (LUVs) into the cubic phase. We found that the addition of low concentrations of Ca(2+) to suspensions of multilamellar vesicles (MLVs) of membranes of monoolein (MO) and dioleoylphosphatidylglycerol (DOPG) mixtures (DOPG/MO) changed their L(alpha) phase to the cubic phases. For instance, the addition of 15-25 mM Ca(2+) to 30%-DOPG/70%-MO-MLVs induced the Q(229) phase, whereas the addition of > or =28 mM Ca(2+) induced the Q(224) phase. LUVs of DOPG/MO membranes containing > or =25 mol % DOPG were prepared easily. Low concentrations of Ca(2+) transformed these LUVs in excess buffer into the Q(224) or the Q(229) phase, depending on the Ca(2+) concentration. For example, 15 and 50 mM Ca(2+) induced the Q(224) and Q(229) phase in the 30%-DOPG/70%-MO-LUVs at 25 degrees C, respectively. This finding is the first demonstration of transformation of LUVs of lipid membranes into the cubic phase under excess water condition.

  20. Unexpected intra-operative diagnosis of a large cystic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Case report. A 70-year-old woman was admitted to hospital for investigation of ... was no prior surgical history of note. ... function tests and enzyme levels were within normal limits. The patient consented to surgical exploration because of diagnostic uncertainty and ongoing symptoms. ... being confirmed at time of surgery.5,6.

  1. Appearance of large crystalline domains in VO{sub 2} films grown on sapphire (001) and their phase transition characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azhan, Nurul Hanis; Su, Kui; Okimura, Kunio, E-mail: okifn@keyaki.cc.u-tokai.ac.jp [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Tokai University, Hiratsuka 259-1292 (Japan); Zaghrioui, Mustapha; Sakai, Joe [GREMAN, UMR 7347 CNRS, Université François Rabelais de Tours, Parc de Grandmont 37200 Tours (France)

    2015-06-28

    We report the first observation of large crystalline domains of several μm-size in VO{sub 2} films deposited on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (001) substrates by rf-biased reactive sputtering technique. The large crystalline domains, dominated with random in-plane oriented growth of (011){sub M1}-orientation, appear only under adequate substrate biasing, such as 10 W, while most biasing conditions result in conventional nanosized grains of highly oriented (010){sub M1}-orientation. Two temperature-controlled analyses, x-ray diffraction and micro-Raman spectroscopy, have revealed that some parts of large crystalline domains undergo intermediate monoclinic (M2) phase during the thermally-induced structural phase transition from monoclinic (M1) to rutile-tetragonal (R) phase. As an effect of the appearance of large crystalline domains, the film showed in-plane tensile stress, resulting in high T{sub IMT} of 69 °C due to the elongation of the V-V distance in its low-temperature monoclinic phase.

  2. Large Lattice Discretization Effects on the Phase Coexistence of Ionic Fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panagiotopoulos, A.Z.; Kumar, S.K.

    1999-01-01

    We examine the phase behavior of lattice restricted primitive models for integer values of the ratio of ionic diameter to lattice spacing, ξ . For ξ≤2 , there is coexistence between a disordered phase and an antiferromagnetic phase, but no vapor-liquid equilibrium. For ξ≥3 , a region of normal vapor-liquid coexistence is found, with critical temperatures and densities which are very close to their continuous space counterparts. Our findings stress that lattice structure can result in qualitatively different physics from continuous space models, but that the two models converge even for relatively coarsely discretized lattices. copyright 1999 The American Physical Society

  3. NIAC Phase I Study Final Report on Large Ultra-Lightweight Photonic Muscle Space Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Joe

    2016-01-01

    The research goal is to develop new tools support NASA's mission of understanding of the Cosmos by developing cost effective solutions that yield a leap in performance and science data. 'Maikalani' in Hawaiian translates to, "knowledge we gain from the cosmos." Missions like Hubble have fundamentally changed humanity's view of the cosmos. Last year's Nobel prize in physics was a result of astronomical discoveries. $9B class JWST size (6.5 meter diameter) space telescopes, when launched are anticipated to rewrite our knowledge of physics. Here we report on a neoteric meta-material telescope mirror technology designed to enable a factor of 100 or more reduction in areal density, a factor of 100 reduction in telescope production and launch costs as well as other advantages; a leap to enable missions to image the cosmos in unprecedented detail, with the associated gain in knowledge. Whether terahertz, visible or X-ray, reflectors used for high quality electromagnetic imaging require shape accuracy (surface figure) to far better than 1 wavelength (lambda) of the incident photons, more typically lambda/10 or better. Imaging visible light therefore requires mirror surfaces that approximate a desired curve (e.g. a sphere or paraboloid) with smooth shape deviation of th less than approximately 1/1000 the diameter of a human hair. This requires either thick high modulus material like glass or metal, or actuators to control mirror shape. During Phase I our team studied a novel solution to this systems level design mass/shape tradespace requirement both to advance the innovative space technology concept and also to help NASA and other agencies meet current operational and future mission requirements. Extreme and revolutionary NASA imaging missions such as Terrestrial Planet Imager (TPI) require lightweight mirrors with minimum diameters of 20 to 40 meters. For reference, NASA's great achievement; the Hubble space telescope, is only 2.4 meters in diameter. What is required is a

  4. Wireless Health Monitoring for Large Arrays of MEMS Sensors and Actuators, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of this Phase I project is to demonstrate an automated on-line structural health monitoring system for aircraft structures using a combination of...

  5. Low-Cost Composite Technology for Large Rocket Payload Fairings, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Commission on the Future of the U.S. Aerospace Industry states that reducing the cost to orbit is an essential ingredient for progress. This Phase I project will...

  6. Large Format LW Type-II SLS FPAs for Space Applications, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Phase I SBIR proposes to develop high performance (low dark current, high quantum efficiency, and low NEdT) infrared epitaxy materials based on Type II Strained...

  7. The role of upper mantle mineral phase transitions on the current structure of large-scale Earth's mantle convection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoraval, C.

    2017-12-01

    Describing the large-scale structures of mantle convection and quantifying the mass transfer between upper and lower mantle request to account for the role played by mineral phase transitions in the transition zone. We build a density distribution within the Earth mantle from velocity anomalies described by global seismic tomographic models. The density distribution includes thermal anomalies and topographies of the phase transitions at depths of 410 and 660 km. We compute the flow driven by this density distribution using a 3D spherical circulation model, which account for depth-dependent viscosity. The dynamic topographies at the surface and at the CMB and the geoid are calculated as well. Within the range of viscosity profiles allowing for a satisfying restitution of the long wavelength geoid, we perform a parametric study to decipher the role of the characteristics of phase diagrams - mainly the Clapeyron's slopes - and of the kinetics of phase transitions, which may modify phase transition topographies. Indeed, when a phase transition is delayed, the boundary between two mineral phases is both dragged by the flow and interfere with it. The results are compared to recent estimations of surface dynamic topography and to the phase transition topographies as revealed by seismic studies. The consequences are then discussed in terms of structure of mantle flow. Comparisons between various tomographic models allow us to enlighten the most robust features. At last, the role played by the phase transitions on the lateral variations of mass transfer between upper and lower mantle are quantified by comparison to cases with no phase transitions and confronted to regional tomographic models, which reflect the variability of the behaviors of the descending slabs in the transition zone.

  8. Contributions of Heterogeneous Ice Nucleation, Large-Scale Circulation, and Shallow Cumulus Detrainment to Cloud Phase Transition in Mixed-Phase Clouds with NCAR CAM5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X.; Wang, Y.; Zhang, D.; Wang, Z.

    2016-12-01

    Mixed-phase clouds consisting of both liquid and ice water occur frequently at high-latitudes and in mid-latitude storm track regions. This type of clouds has been shown to play a critical role in the surface energy balance, surface air temperature, and sea ice melting in the Arctic. Cloud phase partitioning between liquid and ice water determines the cloud optical depth of mixed-phase clouds because of distinct optical properties of liquid and ice hydrometeors. The representation and simulation of cloud phase partitioning in state-of-the-art global climate models (GCMs) are associated with large biases. In this study, the cloud phase partition in mixed-phase clouds simulated from the NCAR Community Atmosphere Model version 5 (CAM5) is evaluated against satellite observations. Observation-based supercooled liquid fraction (SLF) is calculated from CloudSat, MODIS and CPR radar detected liquid and ice water paths for clouds with cloud-top temperatures between -40 and 0°C. Sensitivity tests with CAM5 are conducted for different heterogeneous ice nucleation parameterizations with respect to aerosol influence (Wang et al., 2014), different phase transition temperatures for detrained cloud water from shallow convection (Kay et al., 2016), and different CAM5 model configurations (free-run versus nudged winds and temperature, Zhang et al., 2015). A classical nucleation theory-based ice nucleation parameterization in mixed-phase clouds increases the SLF especially at temperatures colder than -20°C, and significantly improves the model agreement with observations in the Arctic. The change of transition temperature for detrained cloud water increases the SLF at higher temperatures and improves the SLF mostly over the Southern Ocean. Even with the improved SLF from the ice nucleation and shallow cumulus detrainment, the low SLF biases in some regions can only be improved through the improved circulation with the nudging technique. Our study highlights the challenges of

  9. Cryogenic Piezo Actuators for Lightweight, Large Aperture, Deployable Membrane Mirrors, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Single crystal piezoelectric actuators are proposed to enable large stroke, high precision, shape control for cryogenic lightweight deployable membrane mirror...

  10. EORTC 24051: Unexpected side effects in a phase I study of TPF induction chemotherapy followed by chemoradiation with lapatinib, a dual EGFR/ErbB2 inhibitor, in patients with locally advanced resectable larynx and hypopharynx squamous cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lalami, Yassine; Specenier, Pol M.; Awada, Ahmad; Lacombe, Denis; Liberatoscioli, Cecilia; Fortpied, Catherine; El-Hariry, Iman; Bogaerts, Jan; Andry, Guy; Langendijk, J.A.; Vermorken, Jan B.

    2012-01-01

    Background: In this phase I/II study, the addition of lapatinib (LAP) was investigated in combination with the sequential use of both approaches TPF induction chemotherapy (ICT) followed by chemoradiation (CRT) in locally advanced larynx or hypopharynx squamous cell carcinoma. Patients and methods: Objectives were to assess maximum tolerated dose, dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) and to recommend a safe dose of LAP when administered with 4 cycles of TPF followed by CRT. Results: Seven male patients were included. Three patients were included in the first cohort, at dose level 1 (LAP 500 mg daily plus TPF). Renal toxicity was observed among these three patients (grade 3 [n = 1], grade 2 [n = 1] and grade 1 [n = 1]), with 1 DLT, leading to treatment interruption in this group. Nephrotoxicity was reversible after stopping LAP and hydration of the patients. In a second cohort of four patients administering docetaxel from the second cycle, 3 more DLTs were observed (grade 2 renal toxicity and grade 3 diarrhea, grade 3 anorexia and grade 3 stomatitis, and grade 4 neutropenia). Based on the occurrence of 4 DLTs at the first dose level of LAP, patient recruitment was closed. Conclusion: These data indicate that LAP cannot be combined safely with full dose TPF.

  11. Unexpected consequences of bedload diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devauchelle, O.; Abramian, A.; Lajeunesse, E.

    2017-12-01

    Sedimentary grains transported as bedload bump and bounce on the rough bed of the river that entrains them. The succession of these random events causes bedload particles to diffuse across the flow, towards the less active areas of the bed. In a fashion reminiscent of that proposed by Parker (1978) for suspended load, this mechanism opposes gravity to maintain the banks of alluvial rivers. In fact, diffusion is so tightly linked to bedload that it appears in the most basic sediment transport experiment--the straight channel we use to calibrate transport laws. Indeed, the fixed sides of the channel cause the flow, and thus the bed shear stress, to vary across the flume. This variation induces bedload diffusion, which in turn deforms the bed. As a consequence, to reliably calibrate a transport law, we need to measure the full profiles of shear stress and bedload transport, rather than bulk-average these quantities. Unfortunately, using a larger channel does not solve the problem, as a large aspect ratio favors the growth of streaks caused by a diffusion-induced instability. Based on these observations, we propose a different design for sediment transport experiments.

  12. Definition of technology development missions for early space stations. Large space structures, phase 2, midterm review

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    The large space structures technology development missions to be performed on an early manned space station was studied and defined and the resources needed and the design implications to an early space station to carry out these large space structures technology development missions were determined. Emphasis is being placed on more detail in mission designs and space station resource requirements.

  13. Effect of the single-scattering phase function on light transmission through disordered media with large inhomogeneities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marinyuk, V V; Sheberstov, S V

    2017-01-01

    We calculate the total transmission coefficient (transmittance) of a disordered medium with large (compared to the light wavelength) inhomogeneities. To model highly forward scattering in the medium we take advantage of the Gegenbauer kernel phase function. In a subdiffusion thickness range, the transmittance is shown to be sensitive to the specific form of the single-scattering phase function. The effect reveals itself at grazing angles of incidence and originates from small-angle multiple scattering of light. Our results are in a good agreement with numerical solutions to the radiative transfer equation. (paper)

  14. Embedded Electro-Optic Sensor Network for the On-Site Calibration and Real-Time Performance Monitoring of Large-Scale Phased Arrays

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yang, Kyoung

    2005-01-01

    This final report summarizes the progress during the Phase I SBIR project entitled "Embedded Electro-Optic Sensor Network for the On-Site Calibration and Real-Time Performance Monitoring of Large-Scale Phased Arrays...

  15. Effect of grain boundary phase on the magnetization reversal process of nanocrystalline magnet using large-scale micromagnetic simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Tsukahara

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effects of grain boundary phases on magnetization reversal in permanent magnets by performing large-scale micromagnetic simulations based on Landau–Lifshitz–Gilbert equation under a periodic boundary. We considered planar grain boundary phases parallel and perpendicular to an easy axis of the permanent magnet and assumed the saturation magnetization and exchange stiffness constant of the grain boundary phase to be 10% and 1%, respectively, for Nd2Fe14B grains. The grain boundary phase parallel to the easy axis effectively inhibits propagation of magnetization reversal. In contrast, the domain wall moves across the grain boundary perpendicular to the easy axis. These properties of the domain wall motion are explained by dipole interaction, which stabilizes the antiparallel magnetic configuration in the direction perpendicular to the magnetization orientation. On the other hand, the magnetization is aligned in the same direction by the dipole interaction parallel to the magnetization orientation. This anisotropy of the effect of the grain boundary phase shows that improvement of the grain boundary phase perpendicular to the easy axis effectively enhances the coercivity of permanent magnets.

  16. Mammalian play: training for the unexpected.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinka, M; Newberry, R C; Bekoff, M

    2001-06-01

    In this review, we present a new conceptual framework for the study of play behavior, a hitherto puzzling array of seemingly purposeless and unrelated behavioral elements that are recognizable as play throughout the mammalian lineage. Our major new functional hypothesis is that play enables animals to develop flexible kinematic and emotional responses to unexpected events in which they experience a sudden loss of control. Specifically, we propose that play functions to increase the versatility of movements used to recover from sudden shocks such as loss of balance and falling over, and to enhance the ability of animals to cope emotionally with unexpected stressful situations. To obtain this "training for the unexpected," we suggest that animals actively seek and create unexpected situations in play through self-handicapping; that is, deliberately relaxing control over their movements or actively putting themselves into disadvantageous positions and situations. Thus, play is comprised of sequences in which the players switch rapidly between well-controlled movements similar to those used in "serious" behavior and self-handicapping movements that result in temporary loss of control. We propose that this playful switching between in-control and out-of-control elements is cognitively demanding, setting phylogenetic and ontogenetic constraints on play, and is underlain by neuroendocrinological responses that produce a complex emotional state known as "having fun." Furthermore, we propose that play is often prompted by relatively novel or unpredictable stimuli, and is thus related to, although distinct from, exploration. We present 24 predictions that arise from our new theoretical framework, examining the extent to which they are supported by the existing empirical evidence and contrasting them with the predictions of four major alternative hypotheses about play. We argue that our "training for the unexpected" hypothesis can account for some previously puzzling

  17. Large N phase transitions and the fate of small Schwarzschild-AdS black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaffe, Laurence G.

    2018-01-01

    Sufficiently small Schwarzschild-AdS black holes in asymptotically global AdS5×S5 spacetime are known to become dynamically unstable toward deformation of the internal S5 geometry. The resulting evolution of such an unstable black hole is related, via holography, to the dynamics of supercooled plasma which has reached the limit of metastability in maximally supersymmetric large-N Yang-Mills theory on R ×S3. Puzzles related to the resulting dynamical evolution are discussed, with a key issue involving differences between the large-N limit in the dual field theory and typical large volume thermodynamic limits.

  18. Tapping in synchrony with a perturbed metronome: the phase correction response to small and large phase shifts as a function of tempo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repp, Bruno H

    2011-01-01

    When tapping is paced by an auditory sequence containing small phase shift (PS) perturbations, the phase correction response (PCR) of the tap following a PS increases with the baseline interonset interval (IOI), leading eventually to overcorrection (B. H. Repp, 2008). Experiment 1 shows that this holds even for fixed-size PSs that become imperceptible as the IOI increases (here, from 400 to 1200 ms). Earlier research has also shown (but only for IOI=500 ms) that the PCR is proportionally smaller for large than for small PSs (B. H. Repp, 2002a, 2002b). Experiment 2 introduced large PSs and found smaller PCRs than in Experiment 1, at all of the same IOIs. In Experiments 3A and 3B, the author investigated whether the change in slope of the sigmoid function relating PCR and PS magnitudes occurs at a fixed absolute or relative PS magnitude across different IOIs (600, 1000, 1400 ms). The results suggest no clear answer; the exact shape of the function may depend on the range of PSs used in an experiment. Experiment 4 examined the PCR in the IOI range from 1000 to 2000 ms and found overcorrection throughout, but with the PCR increasing much more gradually than in Experiment 1. These results provide important new information about the phase correction process and pose challenges for models of sensorimotor synchronization, which presently cannot explain nonlinear PCR functions and overcorrection. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

  19. INNOVATIVE NON-CONTACT METROLOGY SOLUTIONS FOR LARGE OPTICAL TELESCOPES, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA has unique non-contact precision metrology requirements for dimensionally inspecting the global position and orientation of large and highly-polished...

  20. Single Crystal Piezomotor for Large Stroke, High Precision and Cryogenic Actuations, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — TRS Technologies proposes a novel single crystal piezomotor for large stroke, high precision, and cryogenic actuations with capability of position set-hold with...

  1. Cryogenic Stepping Piezomotor for Large Torque, Precise Rotary Motion Control in Passive Optics, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — TRS Technologies proposes novel single crystal piezomotors for large torque, high precision, and cryogenic actuation with capability of position set-hold with...

  2. GPU-Accelerated Sparse Matrix Solvers for Large-Scale Simulations, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Many large-scale numerical simulations can be broken down into common mathematical routines. While the applications may differ, the need to perform functions such as...

  3. PERSPECTIVE TECHNOLOGIES OF THERMAL HARDENING OF LARGE-SIZE ARTICLES OF TWO-PHASE TITANIUM ALLOYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Fedulov

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to the development and industrial assimilation of the fundamentally new methods of thermal strengthening of large articles out of hardenable titanic alloys.

  4. ZnO HEMTs on Flexible Substrates for Large Area Monolithic Antenna Applications, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — AMBP Tech will implement Zinc Oxide high mobility material technology it has developed specifically for flexible electronics into a direct write process onto large...

  5. High Performance Computing-Accelerated Metrology for Large Optical Telescopes, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA has unique non-contact precision metrology requirements for dimensionally inspecting the global position and orientation of large and highly-polished...

  6. Very High Load Capacity Air Bearing Spindle for Large Diamond Turning Machines, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Diamond turning is able to produce highly aspheric visible quality optics which can be easily aligned. Very large optical systems such as OWL and EUSO are impossible...

  7. Advanced Materials and Production Technology for Very Large Solar Sail Structures, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Solar sails are an attractive means for propulsion of future spacecraft. One potential device for deploying and supporting very large solar sails is the CoilAble...

  8. Measurement of wavefront structure from large aperture optical components by phase shifting interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfe, C.R.; Lawson, J.K.; Kellam, M.; Maney, R.T.; Demiris, A.

    1995-01-01

    This paper discusses the results of high spatial resolution measurement of the transmitted or reflected wavefront of optical components using phase shifting interferometry with a wavelength of 6328 angstrom. The optical components studied range in size from approximately 50 mm x 100 mm to 400 mm x 750 mm. Wavefront data, in the form of 3-D phase maps, have been obtained for three regimes of scale length: ''micro roughness'', ''mid-spatial scale'', and ''optical figure/curvature.'' Repetitive wavefront structure has been observed with scale lengths from 10 mm to 100 mm. The amplitude of this structure is typically λ/100 to λ/20. Previously unobserved structure has been detected in optical materials and on the surfaces of components. We are using this data to assist in optimizing laser system design, to qualify optical components and fabrication processes under study in our component development program

  9. Large Three-Dimensional Photonic Crystals Based on Monocrystalline Liquid Crystal Blue Phases (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-28

    a pair of glass slides with plastic spacers to determine the cell gap: 100 and 300 μm for the polymer-free BPLCs and 12 μm for the polymer-stabilized...Nissan) and rubbed with cloth to induce uniform planar alignment. Measurements. Reflection and transmission spectra were taken using a spectro- meter...thermal recycles . Opt. Mater. Express 2, 1149–1155 (2012). 34. Onusseit, H. & Stegemeyer, H. Liquid single crystals of cholesteric blue phases. Z

  10. Quantum-Classical Phase Transition of the Escape Rate of Two-Sublattice Antiferromagnetic Large Spins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owerre, Solomon Akaraka; Paranjape, M. B.

    2014-11-01

    The Hamiltonian of a two-sublattice antiferromagnetic spins, with single (hard-axis) and double ion anisotropies described by H = J {\\hat S}1...\\hatS 2-2Jz \\hat {S}1z\\hat {S}2z+K(\\hat {S}1z2 +\\hat {S}2z2) is investigated using the method of effective potential. The problem is mapped to a single particle quantum-mechanical Hamiltonian in terms of the relative coordinate and reduced mass. We study the quantum-classical phase transition of the escape rate of this model. We show that the first-order phase transition for this model sets in at the critical value Jc = (Kc+Jz, c)/2 while for the anisotropic Heisenberg coupling H = J(S1xS2x +S1yS2y) + JzS1zS2z + K(S1z2+ S2z2) we obtain Jc = (2Kc-Jz, c)/3. The phase diagrams of the transition are also studied.

  11. Chromatographic lipophilicity determination using large volume injections of the solvents non-miscible with the mobile phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sârbu, Costel; Naşcu-Briciu, Rodica Domnica; Casoni, Dorina; Kot-Wasik, Agata; Wasik, Andrzej; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2012-11-30

    A new perspective in the lipophilicity evaluation through RP-HPLC is permitted by analysis of the retention factor (k) obtained by injecting large volumes of test samples prepared in solvents immiscible with mobile phase. The experiment is carried out on representative groups of compounds with increased toxicity (mycotoxins and alkaloids) and amines with important biological activity (naturally occurring monoamine compounds and related drugs), which are covering a large interval of lipophilicity. The stock solution of each compound was prepared in hexane and the used mobile phases were mixtures of methanol or acetonitrile and water, in suited volume ratio. The injected volume was between 10 and 100 μL, while the used stationary phases were RP-18 and RP-8. On both reverse stationary phases the retention factors were linearly decreasing while the injection volume was increasing. In all cases, the linear models were highly statistically significant. On the basis of the obtained results new lipophilicity indices were purposed and discussed. The developed lipophilicity indices and the computationally expressed ones are correlated at a high level of statistical significance. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Responses of Cloud Type Distributions to the Large-Scale Dynamical Circulation: Water Budget-Related Dynamical Phase Space and Dynamical Regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Sun; Del Genio, Anthony; Wang, Tao; Kahn, Brian; Fetzer, Eric J.; L'Ecuyer, Tristan S.

    2015-01-01

    Goals: Water budget-related dynamical phase space; Connect large-scale dynamical conditions to atmospheric water budget (including precipitation); Connect atmospheric water budget to cloud type distributions.

  13. Unexpected uncertainty, volatility and decision-making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Rachel Bland

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The study of uncertainty in decision making is receiving greater attention in the fields of cognitive and computational neuroscience. Several lines of evidence are beginning to elucidate different variants of uncertainty. Particularly, risk, ambiguity and expected and unexpected forms of uncertainty are well articulated in the literature. In this article we review both empirical and theoretical evidence arguing for the potential distinction between three forms of uncertainty; expected uncertainty, unexpected uncertainty and volatility. Particular attention will be devoted to exploring the distinction between unexpected uncertainty and volatility which has been less appreciated in the literature. This includes evidence from computational modelling, neuromodulation, neuroimaging and electrophysiological studies. We further address the possible differentiation of cognitive control mechanisms used to deal with these forms of uncertainty. Particularly we explore a role for conflict monitoring and the temporal integration of information into working memory. Finally, we explore whether the Dual Modes of Control theory provides a theoretical framework for understanding the distinction between unexpected uncertainty and volatility.

  14. Unexpected Translations in Urban Policy Mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zapata, Patrik; Zapata Campos, Maria José

    2015-01-01

    such as prototypes in order to travel. It was made mobile via relational sites or situations providing safe and accessible connections with Chureca residents. Paradoxically, these places also allowed extraordinary connections between actors located in different scales and spaces, facilitating unexpected local...

  15. Unexpected Translations in Urban Policy Mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zapata, Patrik; Zapata Campos, Maria José

    such as prototypes in order to travel. It was made mobile via relational sites or situations providing safe and accessible connections with Chureca residents. Paradoxically, these places also allowed extraordinary connections between actors located in different scales and spaces, facilitating unexpected local...

  16. Unexpected complications of bonded mandibular lingual retainers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Katsaros, C.; Livas, C.; Renkema, A.M.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The flexible spiral wire (FSW) retainer is the most frequently used type of fixed retainer bonded on all 6 anterior teeth. Our aim in this article was to demonstrate unexpected posttreatment changes in the labiolingual position of the mandibular anterior teeth associated with the use

  17. Large-Scale Flight Phase Identification from ADS-B Data Using Machine Learning Methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sun, J.; Ellerbroek, J.; Hoekstra, J.M.; Lovell, D.; Fricke, H.

    2016-01-01

    With the increasing availability of ADS-B transponders on commercial aircraft, as well as the rapidly growing deployment of ground stations that provide public access to their data, accessing open aircraft flight data is becoming easier for researchers. Given the large number of operational

  18. Costs of magnets for large fusion power reactors: Phase I, cost of superconductors for dc magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, J.R.

    1972-01-01

    Projections are made for dc magnet conductor costs for large fusion power reactors. A mature fusion economy is assumed sometime after 2000 A. D. in which approximately 90,000 MW(e) of fusion reactors are constructed/year. State of the art critical current vs. field characteristics for superconductors are used in these projections. Present processing techniques are used as a basis for the design of large plants sized to produce approximately one-half of the conductor needed for the fusion magnets. Multifilamentary Nb-Ti, Pb-Bi in glass fiber, GE Nb 3 Sn tape, Linde plasma sprayed Nb 3 Sn tape, and V 3 Ga tape superconductors are investigated, together with high purity aluminum cryoconductor. Conductor costs include processing costs [capital (equipment plus buildings), labor, and operating] and materials costs. Conductor costs are compared for two sets of material costs: current (1971 A. D.) costs, and projected (after 2000 A. D.) costs. (U.S.)

  19. Unexpected Symmetry in the Nodal Structure of the He Atom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bressanini, Dario; Reynolds, Peter J.

    2005-01-01

    The nodes of even simple wave functions are largely unexplored. Motivated by their importance to quantum simulations of fermionic systems, we have found unexpected symmetries in the nodes of several atoms and molecules. Here, we report on helium. We find that in both ground and excited states the nodes have simple forms. In particular, they have higher symmetry than the wave functions they come from. It is of great interest to understand the source of these new symmetries. For the quantum simulations that motivated the study, these symmetries may help circumvent the fermion sign problem

  20. Magnetic phase transitions and large magnetic entropy change with a wide temperature span in HoZn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Lingwei, E-mail: wei0396@hotmail.com [Key Laboratory of Electromagnetic Processing of Materials (Ministry of Education), Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Institut für Anorganische und Analytische Chemie, Universität Münster, Corrensstrasse 30, D-48149 Münster (Germany); Yuan, Ye [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR), Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research, P.O. Box 510119, 01314 Dresden (Germany); Zhang, Yikun [Key Laboratory of Electromagnetic Processing of Materials (Ministry of Education), Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Pöttgen, Rainer [Institut für Anorganische und Analytische Chemie, Universität Münster, Corrensstrasse 30, D-48149 Münster (Germany); Zhou, Shengqiang [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR), Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research, P.O. Box 510119, 01314 Dresden (Germany)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Magnetic phase transitions and magnetocaloric effect in HoZn were studied. • The critical properties of HoZn were systematically investigated. • The obtained critical exponents are satisfied with scaling theory. • A large reversible magnetocaloric effect in HoZn was observed. • HoZn could be a promising candidate for magnetic refrigeration. - Abstract: CsCl-type HoZn undergoes two successive magnetic phase transitions: (i) paramagnetic to ferromagnetic (FM) at T{sub C} ∼ 72 K and (ii) a spin reorientation (SR) at T{sub SR} ∼ 26 K. Magnetization and modified Arrott plots indicate that HoZn undergoes a second-order magnetic phase transition around T{sub C}. The obtained critical exponents have some small deviations from the mean-field theory, indicating a short range or a local magnetic interaction which is properly related to the coexistence of FM and SR transitions at low temperature. Two successive magnetic transitions in HoZn induce one broad pronounced peak together with a shoulder in the temperature dependence of the magnetic entropy change −ΔS{sub M}(T) curves, resulting in a wide temperature range with a large relative cooling power (RCP). For a field change of 0–7 T, the maximum value of −ΔS{sub M} is 15.2 J/kg K around T{sub C} with a large RCP value of 1124 J/kg. The large reversible magnetocaloric effect (MCE) and RC indicate that HoZn is a good candidate for active magnetic refrigeration.

  1. Large-area full field x-ray differential phase-contrast imaging using 2D tiled gratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröter, Tobias J.; Koch, Frieder J.; Kunka, Danays; Meyer, Pascal; Tietze, Sabrina; Engelhardt, Sabine; Zuber, Marcus; Baumbach, Tilo; Willer, Konstantin; Birnbacher, Lorenz; Prade, Friedrich; Pfeiffer, Franz; Reichert, Klaus-Martin; Hofmann, Andreas; Mohr, Jürgen

    2017-06-01

    Grating-based x-ray differential phase-contrast imaging (DPCI) is capable of acquiring information based on phase-shift and dark-field signal, in addition to conventional x-ray absorption-contrast. Thus DPCI gives an advantage to investigate composite materials with component wise similar absorption properties like soft tissues. Due to technological challenges in fabricating high quality gratings over a large extent, the field of view (FoV) of the imaging systems is limited to a grating area of a couple of square centimeters. For many imaging applications (e.g. in medicine), however, a FoV that ranges over several ten centimeters is needed. In this manuscript we propose to create large area gratings of theoretically any extent by assembling a number of individual grating tiles. We discuss the precision needed for alignment of each microstructure tile in order to reduce image artifacts and to preserve minimum 90% of the sensitivity obtainable with a monolithic grating. To achieve a reliable high precision alignment a semiautomatic assembly system consisting of a laser autocollimator, a digital microscope and a force sensor together with positioning devices was built. The setup was used to tile a first four times four analyzer grating with a size of 200 mm  ×  200 mm together with a two times two phase grating. First imaging results prove the applicability and quality of the tiling concept.

  2. Improved design of large wind turbine blades of fibre composites (Phase 2) - Summary Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bent F.; Branner, K.; Stang, H.

    2005-01-01

    girder section subjected to transverse forces was investigated experimentally and by modelling. Buckling-driven delamination of planar specimens was studied on experimentally and by modelling. A novel approachwas proposed for the determination of mixed mode cohesive laws for large-scale crack bridging...... problems. The normal and shear stresses of the cohesive laws were obtained from data of the fracture resistance and the normal and tangential displacements ofthe cohesive zone. Delamination of a thin layer bonded to an elastic substrate close to corners and edges was also analysed. Results for the shape...... of the interface crack front and critical stress for steady-state delamination were obtained....

  3. Large-scale building integrated photovoltaics field trial. First technical report - installation phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This report summarises the results of the first eighteen months of the Large-Scale Building Integrated Photovoltaic Field Trial focussing on technical aspects. The project aims included increasing awareness and application of the technology, raising the UK capabilities in application of the technology, and assessing the potential for building integrated photovoltaics (BIPV). Details are given of technology choices; project organisation, cost, and status; and the evaluation criteria. Installations of BIPV described include University buildings, commercial centres, and a sports stadium, wildlife park, church hall, and district council building. Lessons learnt are discussed, and a further report covering monitoring aspects is planned.

  4. Visualization and measurement of gas-liquid metal two-phase flow with large density difference using thermal neutrons as microscopic probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Y.; Hibiki, T.; Mishima, K.; Nishihara, H.; Yamamoto, A.; Kanda, K.; Tobita, Y.; Konishi, K.; Matsubayashi, M.

    1998-01-01

    In a core melt accident of a fast breeder reactor there is a possibility of boiling of fuel-steel mixture in the containment pool. In relation to safety evaluation on severe accident, it is indispensable to evaluate the recriticality of melted core. Gas-liquid two-phase flow with a large density difference is formed due to the boiling of fuel-steel mixture. Although the large density difference may affect the basic characteristics of two-phase flow, little work has been performed so far on two-phase flow with large density difference has not been performed well. In this study, visualization and void fraction measurement of gas-liquid metal two-phase flow were performed by using neutron radiography. The effect of the large density difference between gas and liquid phases on the basic flow characteristics of two-phase flow was clarified. (author)

  5. Novel concepts for the compression of large volumes of carbon dioxide-phase III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, J. Jeffrey [Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (United States); Allison, Timothy C. [Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (United States); Evans, Neal D. [Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (United States); Moreland, Brian [Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (United States); Hernandez, Augusto J. [Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (United States); Day, Meera [Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (United States); Ridens, Brandon L. [Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (United States)

    2014-06-30

    In the effort to reduce the release of CO2 greenhouse gases to the atmosphere, sequestration of CO2 from Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) and Oxy-Fuel power plants is being pursued. This approach, however, requires significant compression power to boost the pressure to typical pipeline levels. The penalty can be as high as 8-12% on a typical IGCC plant. The goal of this research is to reduce this penalty through novel compression concepts and integration with existing IGCC processes. The primary objective of the study of novel CO2 compression concepts is to reliably boost the pressure of CO2 to pipeline pressures with the minimal amount of energy required. Fundamental thermodynamics were studied to explore pressure rise in both liquid and gaseous states. For gaseous compression, the project investigated novel methods to compress CO2 while removing the heat of compression internal to the compressor. The highpressure ratio, due to the delivery pressure of the CO2 for enhanced oil recovery, results in significant heat of compression. Since less energy is required to boost the pressure of a cooler gas stream, both upstream and inter-stage cooling is desirable. While isothermal compression has been utilized in some services, it has not been optimized for the IGCC environment. Phase I of this project determined the optimum compressor configuration and developed technology concepts for internal heat removal. Other compression options using liquefied CO2 and cryogenic pumping were explored as well. Preliminary analysis indicated up to a 35% reduction in power is possible with the new concepts being considered. In the Phase II program, two experimental test rigs were developed to investigate the two concepts further. A new pump loop facility was constructed to qualify a cryogenic turbopump for use on liquid CO2 . Also, an internally cooled compressor diaphragm was developed

  6. Development of two-phase flow along a large vertical pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dirk Lucas; Prasser, H.M.

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: To qualify CFD codes for two-phase flow simulations, closure laws describing the interaction between the phases are needed. Vertical pipe flow is a suitable object for studying the corresponding phenomena in case of dispersed bubbly flow. Here, the bubbles move under clear boundary conditions, resulting in a shear field of nearly constant structure where the bubbles rise for a comparatively long time. This allows to study the lateral motion of the bubbles in a shear flow as well as bubble coalescence and break-up by comparing gas volume fraction distributions and bubble size distributions at different heights. Very detailed data were obtained at the TOPFLOW facility of the Forschungszentrum Rossendorf using an advanced wire-mesh sensor. This sensor measures the instantaneous conductivity distribution over the pipe cross section. The high frequency of the measurement (2500 frames/s) allows the detection of single bubbles by a special evaluation procedure. Bubble size distributions, gas volume fraction distributions and also gas fraction distributions decomposed according to the bubble size are delivered as result of the evaluation procedure. The use of two sensors allows to measure the profile of the gas velocity. In previous works similar data for pipe of 51.2 mm inner diameter were used for the validation of non-drag bubble forces [1] and the evaluation of the influence of radial profiles on the development of the flow pattern [2]. First investigations on scaling effects were done using data obtained at a pipe with an inner diameter of 194 mm [3]. A constant distance between gas injection and measuring plane of L/D ∼ 40 was used. From a new test series now measurements are available for varying distances between the injection device and the wire-mesh sensor. This allows the evaluation of the development of the flow along the pipe. The data are used for the development and validation of mesoscale models for the forces acting on

  7. Task Phase Recognition for Highly Mobile Workers in Large Building Complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stisen, Allan; Mathisen, Andreas; Krogh, Søren

    2016-01-01

    requirements on the accuracy of the indoor positioning, and thus come with low deployment and maintenance effort in real-world settings. We evaluated the proposed methods in a large hospital complex, where the highly mobile workers were recruited among the non-clinical workforce. The evaluation is based......-scale indoor work environments, namely from a WiFi infrastructure providing coarse grained indoor positioning, from inertial sensors in the workers’ mobile phones, and from a task management system yielding information about the scheduled tasks’ start and end locations. The methods presented have low...... on manually labelled real-world data collected over 4 days of regular work life of the mobile workforce. The collected data yields 83 tasks in total involving 8 different orderlies from a major university hospital with a building area of 160, 000 m2. The results show that the proposed methods can distinguish...

  8. Unexpected secoiridoid glucosides from Manulea corymbosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gousiadou, Chrysoula; Kokubun, Tetsuo; Gotfredsen, Charlotte H; Jensen, Søren R

    2014-03-28

    From an extract of Manulea corymbosa were isolated four known secoiridoid glucosides (1-4), 10 new monoterpenoid esters of secologanol, namely, manuleosides A-I (5-11, 13, and 14) and dimethyl rhodanthoside A (12), and four new phenylpropanoid esters of carbocyclic iridoid glucosides, manucorymbosides I-IV (15-18). Also, the caffeoyl phenylethanoid glycoside verbascoside was isolated. The presence of secoiridoids apparently derived from loganic acid in the family Scrophulariaceae is unprecedented and greatly unexpected.

  9. Unexpected Secoiridoid Glucosides from Manulea corymbosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gousiadou, Chrysoula; Kokubun, Tetsuo; Gotfredsen, Charlotte Held

    2014-01-01

    From an extract of Manulea corymbosa were isolated four known secoiridoid glucosides (1–4), 10 new monoterpenoid esters of secologanol, namely, manuleosides A–I (5–11, 13, and 14) and dimethyl rhodanthoside A (12), and four new phenylpropanoid esters of carbocyclic iridoid glucosides, manucorymbo......, manucorymbosides I–IV (15–18). Also, the caffeoyl phenylethanoid glycoside verbascoside was isolated. The presence of secoiridoids apparently derived from loganic acid in the family Scrophulariaceae is unprecedented and greatly unexpected....

  10. Circadian variation in unexpected postoperative death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenberg, J; Pedersen, M H; Ramsing, T

    1992-01-01

    Unexpected deaths still occur following major surgical procedures. The cause is often unknown but may be cardiac or thromboembolic in nature. Postoperative ischaemia, infarction and sudden cardiac death may be triggered by episodic or constant arterial hypoxaemia, which increases during the night...... deaths occurred at night-time. These results suggest a need for further studies of sleep- and respiration-related effects on postoperative nocturnal cardiac function. The efficacy of monitoring during this apparent high-risk period should be evaluated....

  11. Background suppression in Gerda Phase II and its study in the LArGe low background set-up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budjas, Dusan [Physik-Department E15, Technische Universitaet Muenchen (Germany); Collaboration: GERDA-Collaboration

    2013-07-01

    In Phase II of the Gerda experiment additional ∝20 kg of BEGe-type germanium detectors, enriched in {sup 76}Ge, will be deployed in liquid argon (LAr) to further increase the sensitivity for the half-life of neutrinoless double beta (0νββ) decay of {sup 76}Ge to > 2 . 10{sup 26} yr. To reduce background by a factor of 10 to the required level of < 10{sup -3} cts/(keV.kg.yr), it is necessary to employ active background-suppression techniques, including anti-Compton veto using scintillation light detection from LAr and pulse shape discrimination exploiting the characteristic electrical field distribution inside BEGe detectors. The latter technique can identify single-site events (typical for 0νββ) and efficiently reject multi-site events (mainly from γ-rays), as well as different types of background events from detector surfaces. The combined power of these techniques was studied for {sup 42}K and other background sources at the low background facility LArGe. Together with extensive simulations, the information from tracking of the Phase II detector material exposure to cosmic rays and based on the background contributions observed in Phase I, the expected background level in Phase II in the region of interest at 2039 keV, the Q{sub ββ} energy of {sup 76}Ge, is estimated. The preliminary analysis shows that contributions from all expected background components after all cuts are in line with the goal of Gerda Phase II.

  12. Treatment time reduction for large thermal lesions by using a multiple 1D ultrasound phased array system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, H.-L.; Chen, Y.-Y.; Yen, J.-Y.; Lin, W.-L.

    2003-01-01

    To generate large thermal lesions in ultrasound thermal therapy, cooling intermissions are usually introduced during the treatment to prevent near-field heating, which leads to a long treatment time. A possible strategy to shorten the total treatment time is to eliminate the cooling intermissions. In this study, the two methods, power optimization and acoustic window enlargement, for reducing power accumulation in the near field are combined to investigate the feasibility of continuously heating a large target region (maximally 3.2 x 3.2 x 3.2 cm 3 ). A multiple 1D ultrasound phased array system generates the foci to scan the target region. Simulations show that the target region can be successfully heated without cooling and no near-field heating occurs. Moreover, due to the fact that there is no cooling time during the heating sessions, the total treatment time is significantly reduced to only several minutes, compared to the existing several hours

  13. DETERMINING THE LARGE-SCALE ENVIRONMENTAL DEPENDENCE OF GAS-PHASE METALLICITY IN DWARF GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douglass, Kelly A.; Vogeley, Michael S.

    2017-01-01

    We study how the cosmic environment affects galaxy evolution in the universe by comparing the metallicities of dwarf galaxies in voids with dwarf galaxies in more dense regions. Ratios of the fluxes of emission lines, particularly those of the forbidden [O iii] and [S ii] transitions, provide estimates of a region’s electron temperature and number density. From these two quantities and the emission line fluxes [O ii] λ 3727, [O iii] λ 4363, and [O iii] λλ 4959, 5007, we estimate the abundance of oxygen with the direct T e  method. We estimate the metallicity of 42 blue, star-forming void dwarf galaxies and 89 blue, star-forming dwarf galaxies in more dense regions using spectroscopic observations from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7, as reprocessed in the MPA-JHU value-added catalog. We find very little difference between the two sets of galaxies, indicating little influence from the large-scale environment on their chemical evolution. Of particular interest are a number of extremely metal-poor dwarf galaxies that are less prevalent in voids than in the denser regions.

  14. Interventions to increase enrollment in a large multicenter phase 3 trial of carotid stenting vs. endarterectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longbottom, Mary E; Roberts, Jamie N; Tom, Meelee; Hughes, Susan E; Howard, Virginia J; Sheffet, Alice J; Meschia, James F; Brott, Thomas G

    2012-08-01

    Randomized clinical trials often encounter slow enrollment. Failing to meet sample size requirements has scientific, financial, and ethical implications. We report interventions used to accelerate recruitment in a large multicenter clinical trial that was not meeting prespecified enrollment commitments. The Carotid Revascularization Endarterectomy vs. Stenting Trial began randomization in December 2000. To accelerate enrollment, multiple recruitment tactics were initiated, which included expanding the number of sites, hiring a recruitment director (May 2003), broadening eligibility criteria (April 2005), branding with a study logo, Web site, and recruitment materials, increasing site visits by study leadership, sending e-mails to the site teams after every enrollment, distributing electronic newsletters, and implementing investigator and coordinator conferences. From December 2000 through May 2003, 14 sites became active (54 patients randomized), from June 2003 through April 2005, 44 sites were added (404 patients randomized), and from May 2005 through July 2008, 54 sites were added (2044 patients randomized). During these time intervals, the number of patients enrolled per site per year was 1·5, 3·6, and 5·6. For the single years 2004 to 2008, the mean monthly randomization rates per year were 19·7, 38·1, 56·4, 53·0, and 54·7 (annualized), respectively. Enrollment was highest after recruitment tactics were implemented: 677 patients in 2006, 636 in 2007, and 657 in 2008 (annualized). The prespecified sample size of 2502 patients, 47% asymptomatic, was accomplished on July 2008. Aggressive recruitment tactics and investment in a full-time recruitment director who can lead implementation may be effective in accelerating recruitment in multicenter trials. © 2012 The Authors. International Journal of Stroke © 2012 World Stroke Organization.

  15. Emergent Low-Symmetry Phases and Large Property Enhancements in Ferroelectric KNbO 3 Bulk Crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lummen, Tom T. A. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 USA; Leung, J. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 USA; Kumar, Amit [School of Mathematics and Physics, Queen' s University Belfast, University Road, Belfast BT71NN Northern Ireland UK; Wu, X. [Department of Physics, University of Texas at Austin, Austin TX 78712 USA; Ren, Y. [Department of Physics, University of Texas at Austin, Austin TX 78712 USA; VanLeeuwen, Brian K. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 USA; Haislmaier, Ryan C. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 USA; Holt, Martin [Center for Nanoscale Materials, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne IL 60439 USA; Lai, Keji [Department of Physics, University of Texas at Austin, Austin TX 78712 USA; Kalinin, Sergei V. [Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge TN 37831 USA; Gopalan, Venkatraman [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 USA

    2017-06-19

    The design of new or enhanced functionality in materials is traditionally viewed as requiring the discovery of new chemical compositions through synthesis. Large property enhancements may however also be hidden within already well-known materials, when their structural symmetry is deviated from equilibrium through a small local strain or field. Here, the discovery of enhanced material properties associated with a new metastable phase of monoclinic symmetry within bulk KNbO3 is reported. This phase is found to coexist with the nominal orthorhombic phase at room temperature, and is both induced by and stabilized with local strains generated by a network of ferroelectric domain walls. While the local microstructural shear strain involved is only approximate to 0.017%, the concurrent symmetry reduction results in an optical second harmonic generation response that is over 550% higher at room temperature. Moreover, the meandering walls of the low-symmetry domains also exhibit enhanced electrical conductivity on the order of 1 S m(-1). This discovery reveals a potential new route to local engineering of significant property enhancements and conductivity through symmetry lowering in ferroelectric crystals.

  16. Large field of view quantitative phase imaging of induced pluripotent stem cells and optical pathlength reference materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwee, Edward; Peterson, Alexander; Stinson, Jeffrey; Halter, Michael; Yu, Liya; Majurski, Michael; Chalfoun, Joe; Bajcsy, Peter; Elliott, John

    2018-02-01

    Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are reprogrammed cells that can have heterogeneous biological potential. Quality assurance metrics of reprogrammed iPSCs will be critical to ensure reliable use in cell therapies and personalized diagnostic tests. We present a quantitative phase imaging (QPI) workflow which includes acquisition, processing, and stitching multiple adjacent image tiles across a large field of view (LFOV) of a culture vessel. Low magnification image tiles (10x) were acquired with a Phasics SID4BIO camera on a Zeiss microscope. iPSC cultures were maintained using a custom stage incubator on an automated stage. We implement an image acquisition strategy that compensates for non-flat illumination wavefronts to enable imaging of an entire well plate, including the meniscus region normally obscured in Zernike phase contrast imaging. Polynomial fitting and background mode correction was implemented to enable comparability and stitching between multiple tiles. LFOV imaging of reference materials indicated that image acquisition and processing strategies did not affect quantitative phase measurements across the LFOV. Analysis of iPSC colony images demonstrated mass doubling time was significantly different than area doubling time. These measurements were benchmarked with prototype microsphere beads and etched-glass gratings with specified spatial dimensions designed to be QPI reference materials with optical pathlength shifts suitable for cell microscopy. This QPI workflow and the use of reference materials can provide non-destructive traceable imaging method for novel iPSC heterogeneity characterization.

  17. A Silicon Strip Detector for the Phase II High Luminosity Upgrade of the ATLAS Detector at the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00425747; McMahon, Stephen J

    2015-01-01

    ATLAS is a particle physics experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) that detects proton-proton collisions at a centre of mass energy of 14 TeV. The Semiconductor Tracker is part of the Inner Detector, implemented using silicon microstrip detectors with binary read-out, providing momentum measurement of charged particles with excellent resolution. The operation of the LHC and the ATLAS experiment started in 2010, with ten years of operation expected until major upgrades are needed in the accelerator and the experiments. The ATLAS tracker will need to be completely replaced due to the radiation damage and occupancy of some detector elements and the data links at high luminosities. These upgrades after the first ten years of operation are named the Phase-II Upgrade and involve a re-design of the LHC, resulting in the High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC). This thesis presents the work carried out in the testing of the ATLAS Phase-II Upgrade electronic systems in the future strips tracker a...

  18. Phase transition behavior of sediment transport at the sand-mud interface, across scales from flumes to the large rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, H.; Nittrouer, J. A.; Wu, B.; Zhang, Y.; Mohrig, D. C.; Lamb, M. P.; Wang, Y.; Fu, X.; Moodie, A. J.; Naito, K.; Parker, G.

    2017-12-01

    Sediment dispersal and deposition creates deltaic landscapes, establishes coastlines, and produces fertile floodplains, all of which serve as critical landforms inhabited by a large proportion of humankind. If poorly managed, sediment loads in these environments can elevate and clog channels, thereby enhancing hazards such as severe flooding. Predictive descriptions of sediment loads, however, are not well constrained, especially for fine-grained (silt and very-fine sand) dispersal systems, which often include river deltas and coastlines. Here, we show efforts to collect and analyze an extensive sediment load database for fine-grained channels, spanning from small flume experiments to large rivers, in order to evaluate the nature of sediment flux. Our analyses determined that sediment transport exhibits two distinct transport phases, separated by a discontinuous transition, whereby sediment flux differs by one to two orders of magnitude. It is determined that the transition responds to the bed material grain size, and we propose a phase diagram based on this metric alone. These findings help elucidate why previous theories of sediment transport at the sand-silt interface, which are typically continuous, are not able to give satisfactory predictions across different scales and environments. Our work serves to help evaluate anthropic influences on rivers, deltas, and coastlines, and can be applied to better constrain sediment flux of paleo-fluvial systems found on Earth and Mars. For example, in situ measurements of sediment flux for the silty-sandy bed of the lower Yellow River, China, validate the aforementioned phase transition behavior, and illustrate that the channel resides near the transition of high to low efficiency transport modes. Recent dam construction and resulting downstream coarsening of the bed via armoring, however, might lead to the unintended consequence of enhancing flood risk by driving the system to a low efficiency transport mode with high

  19. Multi-dimensional two-phase flow measurements in a large-diameter pipe using wire-mesh sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanai, Taizo; Furuya, Masahiro; Arai, Takahiro; Shirakawa, Kenetsu; Nishi, Yoshihisa; Ueda, Nobuyuki

    2011-01-01

    The authors developed a method of measurement to determine the multi-dimensionality of two phase flow. A wire-mesh sensor (WMS) can acquire a void fraction distribution at a high temporal and spatial resolution and also estimate the velocity of a vertical rising flow by investigating the signal time-delay of the upstream WMS relative to downstream. Previously, one-dimensional velocity was estimated by using the same point of each WMS at a temporal resolution of 1.0 - 5.0 s. The authors propose to extend this time series analysis to estimate the multi-dimensional velocity profile via cross-correlation analysis between a point of upstream WMS and multiple points downstream. Bubbles behave in various ways according to size, which is used to classify them into certain groups via wavelet analysis before cross-correlation analysis. This method was verified by air-water straight and swirl flows within a large-diameter vertical pipe. A high-speed camera is used to set the parameter of cross-correlation analysis. The results revealed that for the rising straight and swirl flows, large scale bubbles tend to move to the center, while the small bubble is pushed to the outside or sucked into the space where the large bubbles existed. Moreover, it is found that this method can estimate the rotational component of velocity of the swirl flow as well as measuring the multi-dimensional velocity vector at high temporal resolutions of 0.2 s. (author)

  20. High pressure study of water-salt systems, phase equilibria, partitioning, thermodynic properties and implication for large icy worlds hydrospheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journaux, B.; Brown, J. M.; Abramson, E.; Petitgirard, S.; Pakhomova, A.; Boffa Ballaran, T.; Collings, I.

    2017-12-01

    Water salt systems are predicted to be present in deep hydrosphere inside water-rich planetary bodies, following water/rock chemical interaction during early differentiation stages or later hydrothermal activity. Unfortunately the current knowledge of the thermodynamic and physical properties of aqueous salt mixtures at high pressure and high temperature is still insufficient to allow realistic modeling of the chemical or dynamic of thick planetary hydrospheres. Recent experimental results have shown that the presence of solutes, and more particularly salts, in equilibrium with high pressure ices have large effects on the stability fields, buoyancy and chemistry of all the phases present at these extreme conditions. Effects currently being investigated by our research group also covers ice melting curve depressions that depend on the salt species and incorporation of solutes inside the crystallographic lattice of high pressure ices. Both of these could have very important implication at the planetary scale, enabling thicker/deeper liquid oceans, and allowing chemical transportation through the high pressure ice layer in large icy worlds. We will present the latest results obtained in-situ using diamond anvil cell, coupled with Synchrotron X-Ray diffraction, Raman Spectroscopy and optical observations, allowing to probe the crystallographic structure, equations of state, partitioning and phase boundary of high pressure ice VI and VII in equilibrium with Na-Mg-SO4-Cl ionic species at high pressures (1-10 GPa). The difference in melting behavior depending on the dissolved salt species was characterized, suggesting differences in ionic speciation at liquidus conditions. The solidus P-T conditions were also measured as well as an increase of lattice volumes interpreted as an outcome of ionic incorporation in HP ice during incongruent crystallization. The measured phase diagrams, lattice volumes and important salt incorporations suggest a more complex picture of the

  1. Large area nuclear particle detectors using ET materials, phase 2. Final report, 9 May 1988-9 May 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wrigley, C.Y.; Storti, G.M.; Walter, L.; Mathews, S.

    1990-05-01

    This report presents work done under a Phase 2 SBIR contract for demonstrating large area detector planes utilizing Quantex electron trapping materials as a film medium for storing high-energy nuclide impingement information. The detector planes utilize energy dissipated by passage of the high-energy nuclides to produce localized populations of electrons stored in traps. Readout of the localized trapped electron populations is effected by scanning the ET plane with near-infrared, which frees the trapped electrons and results in optical emission at visible wavelengths. The effort involved both optimizing fabrication technology for the detector planes and developing a readout system capable of high spatial resolution for displaying the recorded nuclide passage tracks

  2. Two-Phase and Graph-Based Clustering Methods for Accurate and Efficient Segmentation of Large Mass Spectrometry Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dexter, Alex; Race, Alan M; Steven, Rory T; Barnes, Jennifer R; Hulme, Heather; Goodwin, Richard J A; Styles, Iain B; Bunch, Josephine

    2017-11-07

    Clustering is widely used in MSI to segment anatomical features and differentiate tissue types, but existing approaches are both CPU and memory-intensive, limiting their application to small, single data sets. We propose a new approach that uses a graph-based algorithm with a two-phase sampling method that overcomes this limitation. We demonstrate the algorithm on a range of sample types and show that it can segment anatomical features that are not identified using commonly employed algorithms in MSI, and we validate our results on synthetic MSI data. We show that the algorithm is robust to fluctuations in data quality by successfully clustering data with a designed-in variance using data acquired with varying laser fluence. Finally, we show that this method is capable of generating accurate segmentations of large MSI data sets acquired on the newest generation of MSI instruments and evaluate these results by comparison with histopathology.

  3. An extended algebraic variational multiscale-multigrid-multifractal method (XAVM4) for large-eddy simulation of turbulent two-phase flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasthofer, U.; Wall, W. A.; Gravemeier, V.

    2018-04-01

    A novel and comprehensive computational method, referred to as the eXtended Algebraic Variational Multiscale-Multigrid-Multifractal Method (XAVM4), is proposed for large-eddy simulation of the particularly challenging problem of turbulent two-phase flow. The XAVM4 involves multifractal subgrid-scale modeling as well as a Nitsche-type extended finite element method as an approach for two-phase flow. The application of an advanced structural subgrid-scale modeling approach in conjunction with a sharp representation of the discontinuities at the interface between two bulk fluids promise high-fidelity large-eddy simulation of turbulent two-phase flow. The high potential of the XAVM4 is demonstrated for large-eddy simulation of turbulent two-phase bubbly channel flow, that is, turbulent channel flow carrying a single large bubble of the size of the channel half-width in this particular application.

  4. Performance assessment of mass flow rate measurement capability in a large scale transient two-phase flow test system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nalezny, C.L.; Chapman, R.L.; Martinell, J.S.; Riordon, R.P.; Solbrig, C.W.

    1979-01-01

    Mass flow is an important measured variable in the Loss-of-Fluid Test (LOFT) Program. Large uncertainties in mass flow measurements in the LOFT piping during LOFT coolant experiments requires instrument testing in a transient two-phase flow loop that simulates the geometry of the LOFT piping. To satisfy this need, a transient two-phase flow loop has been designed and built. The load cell weighing system, which provides reference mass flow measurements, has been analyzed to assess its capability to provide the measurements. The analysis consisted of first performing a thermal-hydraulic analysis using RELAP4 to compute mass inventory and pressure fluctuations in the system and mass flow rate at the instrument location. RELAP4 output was used as input to a structural analysis code SAPIV which is used to determine load cell response. The computed load cell response was then smoothed and differentiated to compute mass flow rate from the system. Comparison between computed mass flow rate at the instrument location and mass flow rate from the system computed from the load cell output was used to evaluate mass flow measurement capability of the load cell weighing system. Results of the analysis indicate that the load cell weighing system will provide reference mass flows more accurately than the instruments now in LOFT

  5. Unexpected Far-Ultraviolet Photometric Characteristics On Mimas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royer, E. M.; Hendrix, A. R.

    2013-12-01

    While infrared and visible are the most common wavelength domains used to investigate planetary surfaces, ultraviolet (UV) data are significant and useful. Here, we present the first far-UV phase curves of Mimas, thus displaying another piece of the Saturnian System puzzle. Our preliminary results shows that, one more time, Mimas surface properties are far from what we was expected. Namely, we observe a leading hemisphere brighter than the trailing hemisphere at some far-UV wavelengths. We used the far-UV channel of the Cassini/UVIS instrument, ranging from 118 to 190 nm. Disk-integrated phase curves for the leading hemisphere and the trailing hemisphere, at 180nm, have been produced. Data points span from 0.5 to 163.5 degrees in phase angle. Mimas displays a leading hemisphere brighter than its trailing hemisphere, when theory and previous Voyager observations at longer wavelengths attest of a brighter trailing hemisphere due to the impact of the E-ring grains on this face of the satellite. Surprisingly, UVIS data show a very bright opposition effect on Mimas leading hemisphere, greater than what is observed on Tethys or Dione leading hemisphere at the same wavelength of 180 nm. Preliminary results of photometric properties modeling seem to indicate an important contribution of the coherent-backscattering process in the opposition surge. Exogenic processes such as bombardment by energetic electrons and/or E-ring grains are discussed to explain this unexpected surface property of Mimas.

  6. Falsire: CSNI project for fracture analyses of large-scale international reference experiments (Phase 1). Comparison report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    A summary of the recently completed Phase I of the Project for Fracture Analysis of Large-Scale International Reference Experiments (Project FALSIRE) is presented. Project FALSIRE was created by the Fracture Assessment Group (FAG) of Principal Working Group No. 3 (PWG/3) of the OECD/NEA Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI), formed to evaluate fracture prediction capabilities currently used in safety assessments of nuclear vessel components. The aim of the Project FALSIRE was to assess various fracture methodologies through interpretive analyses of selected large-scale fracture experiments. The six experiments used in Project FALSIRE (performed in the Federal Republic of Germany, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the U.S.A.) were designed to examine various aspects of crack growth in reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels under pressurized-thermal-shock (PTS) loading conditions. The analysis techniques employed by the participants included engineering and finite-element methods, which were combined with Jr fracture methodology and the French local approach. For each experiment, analysis results provided estimates of variables such as crack growth, crack-mouth-opening displacement, temperature, stress, strain, and applied J and K values. A comparative assessment and discussion of the analysis results are presented; also, the current status of the entire results data base is summarized. Some conclusions concerning predictive capabilities of selected ductile fracture methodologies, as applied to RPVs subjected to PTS loading, are given, and recommendations for future development of fracture methodologies are made

  7. Phase changes in superaustenitic steels after long-term annealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svoboda, M.; Kroupa, A. [Inst. of Physics of Materials, Academy of Sciences of Czech Republic, Brno (Czech Republic); Sopousek, J.; Vrest' al, J. [Inst. of Theoretical and Physical Chemistry, Masaryk Univ., Brno (Czech Republic); Miodownik, P. [Thermotech Ltd, The Surrey Research Park, Guildford (United Kingdom)

    2004-11-01

    A structural study was performed on the austenitic steels Avesta 254 SMO and Avesta 654 SMO after annealing at 700 C for 500, 3188, and 6170 h. Both Avesta steels initially show an unexpectedly large amount of the Laves phase, followed by a relatively slow development of the Sigma phase with equilibrium apparently not yet reached after 3188 h. Thermodynamic calculations confirm that the driving forces for alternative precipitates are very similar thus making it easy to form metastable precipitates that only change very slowly to the equilibrium state. TTT calculations also confirm that the Laves phase precipitates earlier than the Sigma phase as the temperature is lowered. (orig.)

  8. Unpredictable Root Canal Morphology: Expect the Unexpected

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohez J Makani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A maxillary first molar with more than four canals is an interesting example of anatomic variations, especially when two of these canals are detected, with separate apical foramen in the distal root. The inability to locate the unexpected canals of various anatomical configuration and subsequently treat them , may lead to therapeutic failures. Endodontic retreatment is usually the modality of choice in such cases. This report describes a case of a maxillary first molar with five canals (two mesial canals in mesial root, two distal canals in two distal roots and a palatal canal in palatal root. Additionally it shows a rare anatomic configuration and emphasizes the importance of identifying additional canals.

  9. Unexpected flood loss correlations across Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Naomi; Boyd, Jessica

    2017-04-01

    Floods don't observe country borders, as highlighted by major events across Europe that resulted in heavy economic and insured losses in 1999, 2002, 2009 and 2013. Flood loss correlations between some countries occur along multi-country river systems or between neighbouring nations affected by the same weather systems. However, correlations are not so obvious and whilst flooding in multiple locations across Europe may appear independent, for a re/insurer providing cover across the continent, these unexpected correlations can lead to high loss accumulations. A consistent, continental-scale method that allows quantification and comparison of losses, and identifies correlations in loss between European countries is therefore essential. A probabilistic model for European river flooding was developed that allows estimation of potential losses to pan-European property portfolios. By combining flood hazard and exposure information in a catastrophe modelling platform, we can consider correlations between river basins across Europe rather than being restricted to country boundaries. A key feature of the model is its statistical event set based on extreme value theory. Using historical river flow data, the event set captures spatial and temporal patterns of flooding across Europe and simulates thousands of events representing a full range of possible scenarios. Some known correlations were identified, such as between neighbouring Belgium and Luxembourg where 28% of events that affect either country produce a loss in both. However, our model identified some unexpected correlations including between Austria and Poland, and Poland and France, which are geographically distant. These correlations in flood loss may be missed by traditional methods and are key for re/insurers with risks in multiple countries. The model also identified that 46% of European river flood events affect more than one country. For more extreme events with a return period higher than 200 years, all events

  10. Water in stars: expected and unexpected

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, T.; Aoki, W.; Ohnaka, K.

    1999-03-01

    We have confirmed the presence of water in the early M giant α Cet (M1.5III) and supergiant KK Per (M2Iab) by the highest resolution grating mode of SWS, but this result is quite unexpected from present model atmospheres. In late M giant and supergiant stars, water observed originates partly in the photosphere as expected by the model atmospheres, but ISO SWS has revealed that the 2.7 mic\\ absorption bands appear to be somewhat stronger than predicted while 6.5 mic\\ bands weaker, indicating the contamination by an emission component. In the mid-infrared region extending to 45 mic, pure rotation lines of hho\\ appear as distinct emission on the high resolution SWS spectra of 30g Her (M7III) and S Per (M4-7Ia), along with the dust emission at 10, 13, 20 mic\\ and a new unidentified feature at 30 mic. Thus, together with the dust, water contributes to the thermal balance of the outer atmosphere already in the mid-infrared. The excitation temperature of hho\\ gas is estimated to be 500 - 1000 K. In view of this result for late M (super)giants, unexpected water observed in early M (super)giants should also be of non-photospheric in origin. Thus, ISO has finally established the presence of a new component of the outer atmosphere - a warm molecular envelope - in red giant and supergiant stars from early to late types. Such a rather warm molecular envelope will be a site of various activities such as chemical reactions, dust formation, mass-outflow etc.

  11. Unique Piezoelectric Properties of the Monoclinic Phase in Pb (Zr ,Ti )O3 Ceramics: Large Lattice Strain and Negligible Domain Switching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Longlong; Chen, Jun; Ren, Yang; Pan, Zhao; Zhang, Linxing; Xing, Xianran

    2016-01-01

    The origin of the excellent piezoelectric properties at the morphotropic phase boundary is generally attributed to the existence of a monoclinic phase in various piezoelectric systems. However, there exist no experimental studies that reveal the role of the monoclinic phase in the piezoelectric behavior in phase-pure ceramics. In this work, a single monoclinic phase has been identified in Pb (Zr ,Ti )O3 ceramics at room temperature by in situ high-energy synchrotron x-ray diffraction, and its response to electric field has been characterized for the first time. Unique piezoelectric properties of the monoclinic phase in terms of large intrinsic lattice strain and negligible domain switching have been observed. The extensional strain constant d33 and the transverse strain constant d31 are calculated to be 520 and -200 pm /V , respectively. These large piezoelectric coefficients are mainly due to the large intrinsic lattice strain, with very little extrinsic contribution from domain switching. The unique properties of the monoclinic phase provide new insights into the mechanisms responsible for the piezoelectric properties at the morphotropic phase boundary.

  12. Unique Piezoelectric Properties of the Monoclinic Phase in Pb(Zr,Ti)O_{3} Ceramics: Large Lattice Strain and Negligible Domain Switching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Longlong; Chen, Jun; Ren, Yang; Pan, Zhao; Zhang, Linxing; Xing, Xianran

    2016-01-15

    The origin of the excellent piezoelectric properties at the morphotropic phase boundary is generally attributed to the existence of a monoclinic phase in various piezoelectric systems. However, there exist no experimental studies that reveal the role of the monoclinic phase in the piezoelectric behavior in phase-pure ceramics. In this work, a single monoclinic phase has been identified in Pb(Zr,Ti)O_{3} ceramics at room temperature by in situ high-energy synchrotron x-ray diffraction, and its response to electric field has been characterized for the first time. Unique piezoelectric properties of the monoclinic phase in terms of large intrinsic lattice strain and negligible domain switching have been observed. The extensional strain constant d_{33} and the transverse strain constant d_{31} are calculated to be 520 and -200  pm/V, respectively. These large piezoelectric coefficients are mainly due to the large intrinsic lattice strain, with very little extrinsic contribution from domain switching. The unique properties of the monoclinic phase provide new insights into the mechanisms responsible for the piezoelectric properties at the morphotropic phase boundary.

  13. A study on the characteristics of upward air-water two-phase flow in a large pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Xiuzhong; Mishima, Kaichiro; Nakamura, Hideo

    2003-01-01

    Adiabatic upward air-water two-phase flow in a vertical large pipe (inner diameter, D: 0.2 m, ratio of pipe length to diameter, L/D: 60.5.) was experimentally investigated under various inlet conditions. Flow regime was observed and void fraction, bubble frequency, Sauter mean diameter, interfacial area concentration (IAC) and interfacial direction were measured with optical four-sensor probe. Characteristics of various flow regimes were analyzed carefully. Both the void fraction and the IAC demonstrated radial wall-peak and core-peak distributions in the undisturbed bubbly flow and the other flow regimes, respectively. The existence of bubbly secondary flow accounts for the core-peak distribution in the agitated bubbly, churn bubbly, churn slug and churn froth flow. The bubble frequency showed a wall-peak radial distribution only when the bubbles were small in diameter and the flow was in the undisturbed bubbly flow. The Sauter mean diameter of bubbles did not change much in the main flow of undisturbed bubbly, agitated bubbly and churn bubbly flow regimes and showed a core peak radial distribution in the churn slug flow. In the latter flow regime, the secondary flow disintegrated the bubbles, resulting in the decrease of the Sauter mean diameter. The measurements of the interfacial direction showed that the bubbly main flow and secondary flow can be displayed by the main flow peak and the secondary flow peak, respectively, in the PDF of the interfacial directional angle between the interfacial direction and the z-axis, η zi . The local average η zi at the bubble front hemispheres reflects the local bubble movement and is in direct connection with the flow regimes. Based on the analysis, the authors classified the flow regimes in the vertical large pipe quantitatively by the local average η zi . Bubbles in the liquid phase moved in a zigzag line with no inclination toward any direction in the plane vertical to z-axis in the pipe core. The axial differential

  14. Visualization and measurement of gas-liquid metal two-phase flow with large density difference using thermal neutrons as microscopic probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishima, K.; Hibiki, T.; Saito, Y.; Nishihara, H.; Tobita, Y.; Konishi, K.; Matsubayashi, M.

    1999-01-01

    In a core melt accident of a fast breeder reactor, there is a possibility of boiling of the fuel-steel mixture in the containment pool. In relation to safety evaluation on severe accident, it is indispensable to evaluate the possibility of re-criticality of melted core. Gas-liquid two-phase flow with a large liquid-to-gas density ratio is formed due to the boiling of fuel-steel mixture. Although it is anticipated that the large density ratio may affect the basic characteristics of two-phase flow, little work has been performed so far on two-phase flow with a large liquid-to-gas density ratio. In this study, visualization and void fraction measurement of gas-liquid metal two-phase flow were performed by using neutron radiography and image processing techniques. Then, the effect of large density difference between gas and liquid phases on the basic flow characteristics of two-phase flow was clarified

  15. Experimental synchronization of chaos in a large ring of mutually coupled single-transistor oscillators: Phase, amplitude, and clustering effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minati, Ludovico, E-mail: lminati@ieee.org, E-mail: ludovico.minati@unitn.it [MR-Lab, Center for Mind/Brain Science, University of Trento, Italy and Scientific Department, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Neurologico Carlo Besta, Milan (Italy)

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, experimental evidence of multiple synchronization phenomena in a large (n = 30) ring of chaotic oscillators is presented. Each node consists of an elementary circuit, generating spikes of irregular amplitude and comprising one bipolar junction transistor, one capacitor, two inductors, and one biasing resistor. The nodes are mutually coupled to their neighbours via additional variable resistors. As coupling resistance is decreased, phase synchronization followed by complete synchronization is observed, and onset of synchronization is associated with partial synchronization, i.e., emergence of communities (clusters). While component tolerances affect community structure, the general synchronization properties are maintained across three prototypes and in numerical simulations. The clusters are destroyed by adding long distance connections with distant notes, but are otherwise relatively stable with respect to structural connectivity changes. The study provides evidence that several fundamental synchronization phenomena can be reliably observed in a network of elementary single-transistor oscillators, demonstrating their generative potential and opening way to potential applications of this undemanding setup in experimental modelling of the relationship between network structure, synchronization, and dynamical properties.

  16. Experimental synchronization of chaos in a large ring of mutually coupled single-transistor oscillators: Phase, amplitude, and clustering effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minati, Ludovico

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, experimental evidence of multiple synchronization phenomena in a large (n = 30) ring of chaotic oscillators is presented. Each node consists of an elementary circuit, generating spikes of irregular amplitude and comprising one bipolar junction transistor, one capacitor, two inductors, and one biasing resistor. The nodes are mutually coupled to their neighbours via additional variable resistors. As coupling resistance is decreased, phase synchronization followed by complete synchronization is observed, and onset of synchronization is associated with partial synchronization, i.e., emergence of communities (clusters). While component tolerances affect community structure, the general synchronization properties are maintained across three prototypes and in numerical simulations. The clusters are destroyed by adding long distance connections with distant notes, but are otherwise relatively stable with respect to structural connectivity changes. The study provides evidence that several fundamental synchronization phenomena can be reliably observed in a network of elementary single-transistor oscillators, demonstrating their generative potential and opening way to potential applications of this undemanding setup in experimental modelling of the relationship between network structure, synchronization, and dynamical properties

  17. Solid-Phase Extraction and Large-Volume Sample Stacking-Capillary Electrophoresis for Determination of Tetracycline Residues in Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Islas

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Solid-phase extraction in combination with large-volume sample stacking-capillary electrophoresis (SPE-LVSS-CE was applied to measure chlortetracycline, doxycycline, oxytetracycline, and tetracycline in milk samples. Under optimal conditions, the proposed method had a linear range of 29 to 200 µg·L−1, with limits of detection ranging from 18.6 to 23.8 µg·L−1 with inter- and intraday repeatabilities < 10% (as a relative standard deviation in all cases. The enrichment factors obtained were from 50.33 to 70.85 for all the TCs compared with a conventional capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE. This method is adequate to analyze tetracyclines below the most restrictive established maximum residue limits. The proposed method was employed in the analysis of 15 milk samples from different brands. Two of the tested samples were positive for the presence of oxytetracycline with concentrations of 95 and 126 µg·L−1. SPE-LVSS-CE is a robust, easy, and efficient strategy for online preconcentration of tetracycline residues in complex matrices.

  18. 77 FR 42947 - Unexpected Urgent Refugee and Migration Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-20

    ... unexpected and urgent refugee and migration needs, including by contributions to international, governmental, and nongovernmental organizations and payment of administrative expenses of the Bureau of Population...

  19. Theory of mind for processing unexpected events across contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dungan, James A; Stepanovic, Michael; Young, Liane

    2016-08-01

    Theory of mind, or mental state reasoning, may be particularly useful for making sense of unexpected events. Here, we investigated unexpected behavior across both social and non-social contexts in order to characterize the precise role of theory of mind in processing unexpected events. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine how people respond to unexpected outcomes when initial expectations were based on (i) an object's prior behavior, (ii) an agent's prior behavior and (iii) an agent's mental states. Consistent with prior work, brain regions for theory of mind were preferentially recruited when people first formed expectations about social agents vs non-social objects. Critically, unexpected vs expected outcomes elicited greater activity in dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, which also discriminated in its spatial pattern of activity between unexpected and expected outcomes for social events. In contrast, social vs non-social events elicited greater activity in precuneus across both expected and unexpected outcomes. Finally, given prior information about an agent's behavior, unexpected vs expected outcomes elicited an especially robust response in right temporoparietal junction, and the magnitude of this difference across participants correlated negatively with autistic-like traits. Together, these findings illuminate the distinct contributions of brain regions for theory of mind for processing unexpected events across contexts. © The Author (2016). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Two-phase convection in the high-pressure ice layer of the large icy moons: geodynamical implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalousova, K.; Sotin, C.; Tobie, G.; Choblet, G.; Grasset, O.

    2015-12-01

    The H2O layers of large icy satellites such as Ganymede, Callisto, or Titan probably include a liquid water ocean sandwiched between the deep high-pressure ice layer and the outer ice I shell [1]. It has been recently suggested that the high-pressure ice layer could be decoupled from the silicate core by a salty liquid water layer [2]. However, it is not clear whether accumulation of liquids at the bottom of the high-pressure layer is possible due to positive buoyancy of water with respect to high-pressure ice. Numerical simulation of this two-phase (i.e. ice and water) problem is challenging, which explains why very few studies have self-consistently handled the presence and transport of liquids within the solid ice [e.g. 3]. While using a simplified description of water production and transport, it was recently showed in [4] that (i) a significant fraction of the high-pressure layer reaches the melting point and (ii) the melt generation and its extraction to the overlying ocean significantly influence the global thermal evolution and interior structure of the large icy moons.Here, we treat the high-pressure ice layer as a compressible mixture of solid ice and liquid water [5]. Several aspects are investigated: (i) the effect of the water formation on the vigor of solid-state convection and its influence on the amount of heat that is transferred from the silicate mantle to the ocean; (ii) the fate of liquids within the upper thermal boundary layer - whether they freeze or reach the ocean; and (iii) the effect of salts and volatile compounds (potentially released from the rocky core) on the melting/freezing processes. Investigation of these aspects will allow us to address the thermo-chemical evolution of the internal ocean which is crucial to evaluate the astrobiological potential of large icy moons. This work has been performed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract to NASA. [1] Hussmann et al. (2007), Treatise of

  1. Evolution of the structure of a gas-liquid two-phase flow in a large vertical pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horst-Michael Prasser; Matthias Beyer; Helmar Carl; Sabine Gregor; Dirk Lucas; Peter Schuetz; Frank-Peter Weiss

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Experimental results on the evolution of the radial gas fraction profiles, gas velocity profiles and bubble size distributions in a gas-liquid two-phase flow along a large vertical pipe of 194 mm inner diameter are presented. The tests were performed at the TOPFLOW facility in Rossendorf, where two wire-mesh sensors were used to measure sequences of two-dimensional distributions of local instantaneous gas fraction within the complete pipe cross-section with a lateral resolution of 3 mm and a sampling frequency of 2500 Hz. This data is the basis for a fast flow visualization and for the calculation of the mentioned profiles. The gas fraction profiles were obtained by averaging the sequences over time, velocities were measured by cross-correlation of the signals of the two sensors, which were located on a short (63 mm) distance behind each other. The high resolution of the mesh sensors allows to identify regions of connected measuring points in the data array, which are filled with the gas phase. This method was used to obtain the bubble size distributions. In the experiments, the superficial velocities ranged from 0.04 to 8 m/s for the gas phase and from 0.04 to 1.6 m/s for the liquid. In this way, the experiments cover the range from bubbly to churn turbulent flow regimes. The evolution of the flow structure was studied by varying the distance between the gas injection and the sensor position. This distance was changed by the help of a so-called variable gas injection set-up. It consists of 6 gas injection units, each of them equipped with three rings of orifices in the pipe wall for the gas injection. These rings are fed with the gas phase from ring chambers, which can be individually controlled by valves. The middle ring has orifices of 4 mm diameter, while the upper and the lower rings have nozzles of 1 mm diameter. In this way, 18 different inlet lengths and two different gas injection geometries can be chosen. The latter

  2. Effect of the Hartmann number on phase separation controlled by magnetic field for binary mixture system with large component ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heping, Wang; Xiaoguang, Li; Duyang, Zang; Rui, Hu; Xingguo, Geng

    2017-11-01

    This paper presents an exploration for phase separation in a magnetic field using a coupled lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) with magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). The left vertical wall was kept at a constant magnetic field. Simulations were conducted by the strong magnetic field to enhance phase separation and increase the size of separated phases. The focus was on the effect of magnetic intensity by defining the Hartmann number (Ha) on the phase separation properties. The numerical investigation was carried out for different governing parameters, namely Ha and the component ratio of the mixed liquid. The effective morphological evolutions of phase separation in different magnetic fields were demonstrated. The patterns showed that the slant elliptical phases were created by increasing Ha, due to the formation and increase of magnetic torque and force. The dataset was rearranged for growth kinetics of magnetic phase separation in a plot by spherically averaged structure factor and the ratio of separated phases and total system. The results indicate that the increase in Ha can increase the average size of separated phases and accelerate the spinodal decomposition and domain growth stages. Specially for the larger component ratio of mixed phases, the separation degree was also significantly improved by increasing magnetic intensity. These numerical results provide guidance for setting the optimum condition for the phase separation induced by magnetic field.

  3. Ombud's Corner: unexpected turn in the conversation?

    CERN Multimedia

    Sudeshna Datta-Cockerill

    2014-01-01

    Regular informal conversations with colleagues play a very important part in weaving the fabric of team spirit. They allow us to build the working relationships that are vital to the success of our projects and to create an environment of good will that is instrumental in averting potential conflict or crises. However, sometimes they can come with unexpected surprises…   Eric and his colleagues always meet on Monday mornings to have coffee together, before starting the working week. This is a very privileged moment for the team when there are no formal barriers or professional concerns: Mary may talk about a film that she saw at the weekend, Eric often goes hiking in the Jura with his friend Stefan, Hans has always got a story about his son’s prowess on the school football team and occasionally there is a bit of special news such as Louisa’s recent marriage, Pierre’s baby’s christening or Claude’s daughter’s graduation&...

  4. Sequence tagging reveals unexpected modifications in toxicoproteomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasari, Surendra; Chambers, Matthew C.; Codreanu, Simona G.; Liebler, Daniel C.; Collins, Ben C.; Pennington, Stephen R.; Gallagher, William M.; Tabb, David L.

    2010-01-01

    Toxicoproteomic samples are rich in posttranslational modifications (PTMs) of proteins. Identifying these modifications via standard database searching can incur significant performance penalties. Here we describe the latest developments in TagRecon, an algorithm that leverages inferred sequence tags to identify modified peptides in toxicoproteomic data sets. TagRecon identifies known modifications more effectively than the MyriMatch database search engine. TagRecon outperformed state of the art software in recognizing unanticipated modifications from LTQ, Orbitrap, and QTOF data sets. We developed user-friendly software for detecting persistent mass shifts from samples. We follow a three-step strategy for detecting unanticipated PTMs in samples. First, we identify the proteins present in the sample with a standard database search. Next, identified proteins are interrogated for unexpected PTMs with a sequence tag-based search. Finally, additional evidence is gathered for the detected mass shifts with a refinement search. Application of this technology on toxicoproteomic data sets revealed unintended cross-reactions between proteins and sample processing reagents. Twenty five proteins in rat liver showed signs of oxidative stress when exposed to potentially toxic drugs. These results demonstrate the value of mining toxicoproteomic data sets for modifications. PMID:21214251

  5. Quantum mechanical computations and spectroscopy: from small rigid molecules in the gas phase to large flexible molecules in solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barone, Vincenzo; Improta, Roberto; Rega, Nadia

    2008-05-01

    Interpretation of structural properties and dynamic behavior of molecules in solution is of fundamental importance to understand their stability, chemical reactivity, and catalytic action. While information can be gained, in principle, by a variety of spectroscopic techniques, the interpretation of the rich indirect information that can be inferred from the analysis of experimental spectra is seldom straightforward because of the subtle interplay of several different effects, whose specific role is not easy to separate and evaluate. In such a complex scenario, theoretical studies can be very helpful at two different levels: (i) supporting and complementing experimental results to determine the structure of the target molecule starting from its spectral properties; (ii) dissecting and evaluating the role of different effects in determining the observed spectroscopic properties. This is the reason why computational spectroscopy is rapidly evolving from a highly specialized research field into a versatile and widespread tool for the assignment of experimental spectra and their interpretation in terms of chemical physical effects. In such a situation, it becomes important that both computationally and experimentally oriented chemists are aware that new methodological advances and integrated computational strategies are available, providing reliable estimates of fundamental spectral parameters not only for relatively small molecules in the gas phase but also for large and flexible molecules in condensed phases. In this Account, we review the most significant methodological contributions from our research group in this field, and by exploiting some recent results of their application to the computation of IR, UV-vis, NMR, and EPR spectral parameters, we discuss the microscopic mechanisms underlying solvent and vibrational effects on the spectral parameters. After reporting some recent achievements for the study of excited states by first principle quantum mechanical

  6. Hybrid Electrostatic/Flextensional Deformable Membrane Mirror for Lightweight, Large Aperture and Cryogenic Space Telescopes, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — TRS Technologies proposes innovative hybrid electrostatic/flextensional membrane deformable mirror capable of large amplitude aberration correction for large...

  7. The analysis of large-scale gene expression correlated to the phase changes of the migratory locust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kang, Le; Chen, Xiangyong; Zhou, Yan

    2004-01-01

    The migratory locust is one of the most notorious agricultural pests that undergo a well known reversible, density-dependent phase transition from the solitary to the gregarious. To demonstrate the underlying molecular mechanisms of the phase change, we generated 76,012 ESTs from the whole body...... functional implications that numerous molecular activities are involved in phase plasticity. This study provides ample molecular markers and genomic information on hemimetabolous insects and insights into the genetic and molecular mechanisms of phase changes in locusts. Udgivelsesdato: 2004-Dec-21...

  8. 42 CFR 493.861 - Standard; Unexpected antibody detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard; Unexpected antibody detection. 493.861 Section 493.861 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN..., Or Any Combination of These Tests § 493.861 Standard; Unexpected antibody detection. (a) Failure to...

  9. Unexpected allergic reactions to food, a prospective study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michelsen-Huisman, A.D.; Os-Medendorp, H. van; Versluis, A.; Kruizinga, A.G.; Castenmiller, J.J.M.; Noteborn, H.P.J.M.; Houben, G.F.; Knulst, A.C.

    2013-01-01

    Unexpected reactions occur in patients with food allergy, but frequency data are scare. This prospective study investigates the frequency, severity and causes of unexpected allergic reactions to food in adults with a doctor's diagnosed food allergy. Participants complete an online questionnaire

  10. 77 FR 21389 - Unexpected Urgent Refugee and Migration Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-10

    ... April 3, 2012 Unexpected Urgent Refugee and Migration Needs Memorandum for the Secretary of State By the... 2(c)(1) of the Migration and Refugee Assistance Act of 1962 (the ``Act''), as amended, (22 U.S.C... United States Emergency Refugee and Migration Assistance Fund, for the purpose of meeting unexpected and...

  11. Printable Nano-Field Effect Transistors Combined with Carbon Nanotube Based Printable Interconnect Wires for Large-Area Deployable Active Phased-Array, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Flexible electronic circuits can be easily integrated with large area (>10m aperture), inflatable antennas to provide distributed control and processing...

  12. A Printable Silicon Nano-Field Effect Transistor with High Operating Frequency for Large-Area Deployable Active Phased-Array Antennas, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Flexible electronic circuits can be easily integrated with large area (>10m aperture), inflatable antennas to provide distributed control and processing...

  13. Accuracy in quantitative phase analysis of mixtures with large amorphous contents. The case of stoneware ceramics and bricks

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gualtieri, A. F.; Riva, V.; Bresciani, A.; Maretti, S.; Tamburini, M.; Viani, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 3 (2014), s. 835-846 ISSN 0021-8898 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1219 Keywords : amorphous phases * bricks * ceramics * internal standards * quantitative phase analysis Subject RIV: JN - Civil Engineering Impact factor: 3.720, year: 2014 http://scripts.iucr.org/cgi-bin/paper?S160057671400627X

  14. The deconfinement phase transition at large N: A study of the hot twisted Eguchi-Kawai model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, S.R.; Kogut, J.B.

    1984-01-01

    The deconfinement phase transition for SU(54) gauge theory is studied using twisted Eguchi-Kawai methods. Expectation values of the action, the Wilson line and the energy density are measured. We find evidence for deconfining phase transition and compare our data with the naive string picture. (orig.)

  15. Performance of lap splices in large-scale column specimens affected by ASR and/or DEF-extension phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    A large experimental program, consisting of the design, construction, curing, exposure, and structural load : testing of 16 large-scale column specimens with a critical lap splice region that were influenced by varying : stages of alkali-silica react...

  16. Improvement of estimation method of two-phase flow in a large diameter pipe. 2. Development of mechanistic interfacial drag force model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okawa, Tomio; Yoneda, Kimitoshi

    1998-01-01

    It is experimentally clarified that behavior of gas-liquid two-phase flow in large diameter pipe is different from one occurred in small diameter pipe. However, no special model for large diameter pipe is used in existing nuclear reactor safety analysis codes. In the present study, detailed investigation about the two-phase flow model used in the safety analysis was carried out to specify the physical phenomena which should be modeled more precisely. Based on the investigation, steam-water two-phase flow experiments using large diameter pipe was conducted to obtain new models. As a result, new evaluation methods for bubble size, heterogeneous distribution of void fraction, and wake formed behind bubble were developed. These new models were applied to the prediction of steam-water two-phase flow experiments using large diameter pipes to clarify their validity. It was consequently demonstrated that the accuracy of the numerical solution is remarkably improved not only for the experiment used for model development but also for the experiment where the pipe diameter, pressure, velocities, void fraction are different. (author)

  17. A simple transferable adaptive potential to study phase separation in large-scale xMgO-(1-x)SiO2 binary glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidault, Xavier; Chaussedent, Stéphane; Blanc, Wilfried

    2015-10-21

    A simple transferable adaptive model is developed and it allows for the first time to simulate by molecular dynamics the separation of large phases in the MgO-SiO2 binary system, as experimentally observed and as predicted by the phase diagram, meaning that separated phases have various compositions. This is a real improvement over fixed-charge models, which are often limited to an interpretation involving the formation of pure clusters, or involving the modified random network model. Our adaptive model, efficient to reproduce known crystalline and glassy structures, allows us to track the formation of large amorphous Mg-rich Si-poor nanoparticles in an Mg-poor Si-rich matrix from a 0.1MgO-0.9SiO2 melt.

  18. Unexpected pathological findings after laparoscopic cholecystectomy - analysis of 1131 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartosiak, Katarzyna; Liszka, Maciej; Drazba, Tomasz; Paśnik, Krzysztof; Janik, Michal R

    2018-03-01

    Gallbladder specimens are routinely sent for histopathological examination after cholecystectomy in order to rule out the presence of unexpected pathological findings. To establish the overall incidence of unexpected pathological findings in patients who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy for symptomatic gallbladder disease and determine whether the macroscopic appearance of the gallbladder in ultrasound examination could be a valid method for identifying patients with gallbladder malignancy. A retrospective study was conducted between 2013 and 2015. All histological reports (n = 1131) after cholecystectomy were searched for unexpected pathological findings. In cases where unexpected pathological findings were identified the additional analysis of preoperative abdominal ultrasound examination (USG) was done to determine the usefulness of USG in diagnosis of gallbladder malignancy. Of the 1131 patients included in the study, 356 (31.47%) were male and 774 (68.43%) were female. Unexpected pathological findings were present in 21 cases. The overall incidence of unexpected pathological findings was 1.86%. Only in 5 patients were suspicious appearances of gallbladder observed in preoperative ultrasound examination. In 16 patients there was no suspicion of malignancy. The positive predictive value of USG was 0.238. The incidence of unexpected pathological findings after laparoscopic cholecystectomy was 1.86%. Ultrasonography has low positive predictive value for identifying patients with malignant findings in a gallbladder specimen.

  19. Effects of unexpected chords and of performer's expression on brain responses and electrodermal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koelsch, Stefan; Kilches, Simone; Steinbeis, Nikolaus; Schelinski, Stefanie

    2008-07-09

    There is lack of neuroscientific studies investigating music processing with naturalistic stimuli, and brain responses to real music are, thus, largely unknown. This study investigates event-related brain potentials (ERPs), skin conductance responses (SCRs) and heart rate (HR) elicited by unexpected chords of piano sonatas as they were originally arranged by composers, and as they were played by professional pianists. From the musical excerpts played by the pianists (with emotional expression), we also created versions without variations in tempo and loudness (without musical expression) to investigate effects of musical expression on ERPs and SCRs. Compared to expected chords, unexpected chords elicited an early right anterior negativity (ERAN, reflecting music-syntactic processing) and an N5 (reflecting processing of meaning information) in the ERPs, as well as clear changes in the SCRs (reflecting that unexpected chords also elicited emotional responses). The ERAN was not influenced by emotional expression, whereas N5 potentials elicited by chords in general (regardless of their chord function) differed between the expressive and the non-expressive condition. These results show that the neural mechanisms of music-syntactic processing operate independently of the emotional qualities of a stimulus, justifying the use of stimuli without emotional expression to investigate the cognitive processing of musical structure. Moreover, the data indicate that musical expression affects the neural mechanisms underlying the processing of musical meaning. Our data are the first to reveal influences of musical performance on ERPs and SCRs, and to show physiological responses to unexpected chords in naturalistic music.

  20. Unexpected magnetism in low dimensional systems: the role of symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munoz, MC; Chico, L; Lopez-Sancho, MP; Beltran, JI; Gallego, S; Cerda, J

    2006-01-01

    The symmetry underlying the geometric structure of materials determines most of their physical properties. In low dimensional systems the role of symmetry is enhanced and can give rise to new phenomena. Here, we report on unexpected magnetism in carbon nanotubes and O-rich surfaces of ionic oxides, to show how its existence is closely related to the symmetry conditions. First, based on tight-binding models, we demonstrate that chiral carbon nanotubes present spin splitting at the Fermi level in the absence of a magneticfield, whereas achiral tubes preserve spin degeneracy. These remarkably different behaviors of chiral and non-chiral nanotubes are due to the intrinsic symmetry dependence of the spin-orbit interaction. Second, the occurrence of spin-polarization at ZrO 2 , Al 2 O 3 and MgO surfaces is proved by means of abinitio calculations within the density functional theory. Large spin moments develop at O-ended polar terminations, transforming the non-magnetic insulator into a half-metal. The magnetic moments mainly reside in the surface oxygen atoms, and their origin is related to the existence of 2p holes of well-defined spin polarization at the valence band of the ionic oxide. The direct relation between magnetization and local loss of donor charge shows that at the origin of these phenomena is the reduced surface symmetry

  1. Unexpected high-energy γ emission from decaying exotic nuclei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Gottardo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The N=52 Ga83 β decay was studied at ALTO. The radioactive 83Ga beam was produced through the ISOL photofission technique and collected on a movable tape for the measurement of γ-ray emission following β decay. While β-delayed neutron emission has been measured to be 56–85% of the decay path, in this experiment an unexpected high-energy 5–9 MeV γ-ray yield of 16(4% was observed, coming from states several MeVs above the neutron separation threshold. This result is compared with cutting-edge QRPA calculations, which show that when neutrons deeply bound in the core of the nucleus decay into protons via a Gamow–Teller transition, they give rise to a dipolar oscillation of nuclear matter in the nucleus. This leads to large electromagnetic transition probabilities which can compete with neutron emission, thus affecting the β-decay path. This process is enhanced by an excess of neutrons on the nuclear surface and may thus be a common feature for very neutron-rich isotopes, challenging the present understanding of decay properties of exotic nuclei.

  2. New set-up for high-quality soft-X-ray absorption spectroscopy of large organic molecules in the gas phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holch, Florian; Huebner, Dominique [Universitaet Wuerzburg, Experimentelle Physik VII, Am and Roentgen Reasearch Center for Complex Materials (RCCM) Hubland, 97074 Wuerzburg (Germany); Fink, Rainer [Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, ICMM and CENEM, Egerlandstrasse 3, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Schoell, Achim, E-mail: achim.schoell@physik.uni-wuerzburg.de [Universitaet Wuerzburg, Experimentelle Physik VII, Am and Roentgen Reasearch Center for Complex Materials (RCCM) Hubland, 97074 Wuerzburg (Germany); Umbach, Eberhard [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2011-11-15

    Highlights: {yields} We present a new set-up for x-ray absorption (NEXAFS) on large molecules in the gas-phase. {yields} The cell has a confined volume and can be heated. {yields} The spectra can be acquired fast, are of very high quality with respect tosignal-to-noise ratio and energy resolution. {yields} This allowsthe analysis of spectroscopic details (e.g. solid state effects by comparing gas- and condensed phase data). - Abstract: We present a new experimental set-up for the investigation of large (>128 amu) organic molecules in the gas-phase by means of near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy in the soft X-ray range. Our approach uses a gas cell, which is sealed off against the surrounding vacuum and which can be heated above the sublimation temperature of the respective molecular compound. Using a confined volume rather than a molecular beam yields short acquisition times and intense signals due to the high molecular density, which can be tuned by the container temperature. In turn, the resulting spectra are of very high quality with respect to signal-to-noise ratio and energy resolution, which are the essential aspects for the analysis of fine spectroscopic details. Using the examples of ANQ, NTCDA, and PTCDA, specific challenges of gas phase measurements on large organic molecules with high sublimation temperatures are addressed in detail with respect to the presented set-up and possible ways to tackle them are outlined.

  3. A 4 tonne demonstrator for large-scale dual-phase liquid argon time projection chambers arXiv

    CERN Document Server

    Aimard, B.; Asaadi, J.; Auger, M.; Aushev, V.; Autiero, D.; Badoi, M.M.; Balaceanu, A.; Balik, G.; Balleyguier, L.; Bechetoille, E.; Belver, D.; Blebea-Apostu, A.M.; Bolognesi, S.; Bordoni, S.; Bourgeois, N.; Bourguille, B.; Bremer, J.; Brown, G.; Brunetti, G.; Caiulo, D.; Calin, M.; Calvo, E.; Campanelli, M.; Cankocak, K.; Cantini, C.; Carlus, B.; Cautisanu, B.M.; Chalifour, M.; Chappuis, A.; Charitonidis, N.; Chatterjee, A.; Chiriacescu, A.; Chiu, P.; Conforti, S.; Cotte, Ph.; Crivelli, P.; Cuesta, C.; Dawson, J.; De Bonis, I.; De La Taille, C.; Delbart, A.; Desforge, D.; Di Luise, S.; Dimitru, B.S.; Doizon, F.; Drancourt, C.; Duchesneau, D.; Dulucq, F.; Dumarchez, J.; Duval, F.; Emery, S.; Ereditato, A.; Esanu, T.; Falcone, A.; Fusshoeller, K.; Gallego-Ros, A.; Galymov, V.; Geffroy, N.; Gendotti, A.; Gherghel-Lascu, M.; Giganti, C.; Gil-Botella, I.; Girerd, C.; Gomoiu, M.C.; Gorodetzky, P.; Hamada, E.; Hanni, R.; Hasegawa, T.; Holin, A.; Horikawa, S.; Ikeno, M.; Jiménez, S.; Jipa, A.; Karolak, M.; Karyotakis, Y.; Kasai, S.; Kasami, K.; Kishishita, T.; Kreslo, I.; Kryn, D.; Lastoria, C.; Lazanu, I.; Lehmann-Miotto, G.; Lira, N.; Loo, K.; Lorca, D.; Lutz, P.; Lux, T.; Maalampi, J.; Maire, G.; Maki, M.; Manenti, L.; Margineanu, R.M.; Marteau, J.; Martin-Chassard, G.; Mathez, H.; Mazzucato, E.; Misitano, G.; Mitrica, B.; Mladenov, D.; Molina Bueno, L.; Moreno Martínez, C.; Mols, J.Ph.; Mosu, T.S.; Mu, W.; Munteanu, A.; Murphy, S.; Nakayoshi, K.; Narita, S.; Navas-Nicolás, D.; Negishi, K.; Nessi, M.; Niculescu-Oglinzanu, M.; Nita, L.; Noto, F.; Noury, A.; Onishchuk, Y.; Palomares, C.; Parvu, M.; Patzak, T.; Pénichot, Y.; Pennacchio, E.; Periale, L.; Pessard, H.; Pietropaolo, F.; Piret, Y.; Popov, B.; Pugnere, D.; Radics, B.; Redondo, D.; Regenfus, C.; Remoto, A.; Resnati, F.; Rigaut, Y.A.; Ristea, C.; Rubbia, A.; Saftoiu, A.; Sakashita, K.; Sanchez, F.; Santos, C.; Scarpelli, A.; Schloesser, C.; Scotto Lavina, L.; Sendai, K.; Sergiampietri, F.; Shahsavarani, S.; Shoji, M.; Sinclair, J.; Soto-Oton, J.; Stanca, D.L.; Stefan, D.; Stroescu, P.; Sulej, R.; Tanaka, M.; Toboaru, V.; Tonazzo, A.; Tromeur, W.; Trzaska, W.H.; Uchida, T.; Vannucci, F.; Vasseur, G.; Verdugo, A.; Viant, T.; Vihonen, S.; Vilalte, S.; Weber, M.; Wu, S.; Yu, J.; Zambelli, L.; Zito, M.

    A 10 kilo-tonne dual-phase liquid argon TPC is one of the detector options considered for the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE). The detector technology relies on amplification of the ionisation charge in ultra-pure argon vapour and others several advantages compared to the traditional single-phase liquid argon TPCs. A 4.2 tonne dual-phase liquid argon TPC prototype, the largest of its kind, with an active volume of 3 x1x1 m^3 has been constructed and operated at CERN. In this paper we describe in detail the experimental setup and detector components as well as report on the operation experience. We also present the first results on the achieved charge amplification, prompt scintillation and electroluminiscence detection, and purity of the liquid argon from analyses of a collected sample of cosmic ray muons.

  4. Enhancement of phase space density by increasing trap anisotropy in a magneto-optical trap with a large number of atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vengalattore, M.; Conroy, R.S.; Prentiss, M.G.

    2004-01-01

    The phase space density of dense, cylindrical clouds of atoms in a 2D magneto-optic trap is investigated. For a large number of trapped atoms (>10 8 ), the density of a spherical cloud is limited by photon reabsorption. However, as the atom cloud is deformed to reduce the radial optical density, the temperature of the atoms decreases due to the suppression of multiple scattering leading to an increase in the phase space density. A density of 2x10 -4 has been achieved in a magneto-optic trap containing 2x10 8 atoms

  5. Complexity in an Unexpected Place: Quantities in Selected Acquisition Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    by the Army Acquisition Executive contains the following language . As a recently delegated Acquisition Category IC program, the AH-64E Apache...Complexity in an Unexpected Place: Quantities in Selected Acquisition Reports Gregory A. Davis, Project Leader Margaret L. Giles David M. Tate I...F E N S E A N A L Y S E S IDA Paper P-8490 Complexity in an Unexpected Place: Quantities in Selected Acquisition Reports Gregory A. Davis

  6. Unexpected Expectations The Curiosities of a Mathematical Crystal Ball

    CERN Document Server

    Wapner, Leonard M

    2012-01-01

    Unexpected Expectations: The Curiosities of a Mathematical Crystal Ball explores how paradoxical challenges involving mathematical expectation often necessitate a reexamination of basic premises. The author takes you through mathematical paradoxes associated with seemingly straightforward applications of mathematical expectation and shows how these unexpected contradictions may push you to reconsider the legitimacy of the applications. The book requires only an understanding of basic algebraic operations and includes supplemental mathematical background in chapter appendices. After a history o

  7. Gastrointestinal causes of sudden unexpected death: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Ritesh G; Ahmed, Saba; Pasha, Syed Bilal; Hussain, Syed Ather; Fatima, Huda; Kharoshah, Magdy A; Madadin, Mohammed

    2018-01-01

    Gastrointestinal conditions are a less common cause of sudden unexpected death when compared to other conditions such as cardiovascular conditions, but they are equally important. Various congenital and acquired gastrointestinal conditions that have resulted in sudden unexpected death are discussed. The possible lethal mechanisms behind each condition, along with any associated risk factors or secondary diseases, have been described. Through this article, we aim to highlight the need for physicians to prevent death in such conditions by ensuring that subclinical cases are diagnosed correctly before it is too late and by providing timely and efficacious treatment to the patient concerned. In addition, this review would certainly benefit the forensic pathologist while dealing with cases of sudden unexpected death due to gastrointestinal causes. This article is a review of the major gastrointestinal causes of sudden unexpected death. In addition, related fatal cases encountered occasionally in forensic autopsy practice are also included. There are several unusual and rare causes of life-threatening gastrointestinal bleeding that may lead to sudden unexpected death to cover all the entities in detail. Nevertheless, this article is a general guide to the topic of gastrointestinal causes of sudden unexpected death.

  8. Uncooled Radiation Hard Large Area SiC X-ray and EUV Detectors and 2D Arrays, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project seeks to design, fabricate, characterize and commercialize large area, uncooled and radiative hard 4H-SiC EUV ? soft X-ray detectors capable of ultra...

  9. SUPERPOLISHED SI COATED SIC OPTICS FOR RAPID MANUFACTURE OF LARGE APERTURE UV AND EUV TELESCOPES, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — SSG/Tinsley proposes an innovative optical manufacturing process that will allow the advancement of state-of-the-art Silicon Carbide (SiC) mirrors for large aperture...

  10. Impact of tissue atrophy on high-pass filtered MRI signal phase-based assessment in large-scale group-comparison studies: A simulation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweser, Ferdinand; Dwyer, Michael G.; Deistung, Andreas; Reichenbach, Jürgen R.; Zivadinov, Robert

    2013-10-01

    The assessment of abnormal accumulation of tissue iron in the basal ganglia nuclei and in white matter plaques using the gradient echo magnetic resonance signal phase has become a research focus in many neurodegenerative diseases such as multiple sclerosis or Parkinson’s disease. A common and natural approach is to calculate the mean high-pass-filtered phase of previously delineated brain structures. Unfortunately, the interpretation of such an analysis requires caution: in this paper we demonstrate that regional gray matter atrophy, which is concomitant with many neurodegenerative diseases, may itself directly result in a phase shift seemingly indicative of increased iron concentration even without any real change in the tissue iron concentration. Although this effect is relatively small results of large-scale group comparisons may be driven by anatomical changes rather than by changes of the iron concentration.

  11. Large power microwave nonlinear effects on multifunction amplifier chip for Ka-band T/R module of phased array radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Guo; Gu, Ling; Wu, Ruowu; Xu, Xiong; Zhou, Taifu; Niu, Xinjian; Liu, Yinghui; Wang, Hui; Wei, Yanyu; Guo, Changyong

    2017-12-01

    Nonlinear effects of large power millimeter wave on critical chips for the T/R module of phased array radar is experimental studied and analyzed in this paper. A multifunction amplifier chip is selected for our experiments. A solid continuous wave (CW) source and a large power pulsed magnetron are both employed to generate the Ka-band microwave. The input-output characteristics, the degradation and destroy threshold of the chips are obtained through a series of experimental tests. At last, the results are given by figures and analyzed theoretically.

  12. Phase structure of 3D Z(N) lattice gauge theories at finite temperature: Large-N and continuum limits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borisenko, O., E-mail: oleg@bitp.kiev.ua [Bogolyubov Institute for Theoretical Physics, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 03680 Kiev (Ukraine); Chelnokov, V., E-mail: chelnokov@bitp.kiev.ua [Bogolyubov Institute for Theoretical Physics, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 03680 Kiev (Ukraine); Gravina, M., E-mail: gravina@fis.unical.it [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università della Calabria, and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Gruppo Collegato di Cosenza, I-87036 Arcavacata di Rende, Cosenza (Italy); Papa, A., E-mail: papa@fis.unical.it [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università della Calabria, and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Gruppo Collegato di Cosenza, I-87036 Arcavacata di Rende, Cosenza (Italy)

    2014-11-15

    We study numerically three-dimensional Z(N) lattice gauge theories at finite temperature, for N=5,6,8,12,13 and 20 on lattices with temporal extension N{sub t}=2,4,8. For each model, we locate phase transition points and determine critical indices. We propose also the scaling of critical points with N. The data obtained enable us to verify the scaling near the continuum limit for the Z(N) models at finite temperatures.

  13. Phase structure of 3D Z(N) lattice gauge theories at finite temperature: Large-N and continuum limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borisenko, O.; Chelnokov, V.; Gravina, M.; Papa, A.

    2014-01-01

    We study numerically three-dimensional Z(N) lattice gauge theories at finite temperature, for N=5,6,8,12,13 and 20 on lattices with temporal extension N t =2,4,8. For each model, we locate phase transition points and determine critical indices. We propose also the scaling of critical points with N. The data obtained enable us to verify the scaling near the continuum limit for the Z(N) models at finite temperatures

  14. The thermal properties of beeswaxes: unexpected findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchwald, Robert; Breed, Michael D; Greenberg, Alan R

    2008-01-01

    Standard melting point analyses only partially describe the thermal properties of eusocial beeswaxes. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) revealed that thermal phase changes in wax are initiated at substantially lower temperatures than visually observed melting points. Instead of a sharp, single endothermic peak at the published melting point of 64 degrees C, DSC analysis of Apis mellifera Linnaeus wax yielded a broad melting curve that showed the initiation of melting at approximately 40 degrees C. Although Apis beeswax retained a solid appearance at these temperatures, heat absorption and initiation of melting could affect the structural characteristics of the wax. Additionally, a more complete characterization of the thermal properties indicated that the onset of melting, melting range and heat of fusion of beeswaxes varied significantly among tribes of social bees (Bombini, Meliponini, Apini). Compared with other waxes examined, the relatively malleable wax of bumblebees (Bombini) had the lowest onset of melting and lowest heat of fusion but an intermediate melting temperature range. Stingless bee (Meliponini) wax was intermediate between bumblebee and honeybee wax (Apini) in heat of fusion, but had the highest onset of melting and the narrowest melting temperature range. The broad melting temperature range and high heat of fusion in the Apini may be associated with the use of wax comb as a free-hanging structural material, while the Bombini and Meliponini support their wax structures with exogenous materials.

  15. Prognostic Relevance of Immunohistochemical Subclassification of Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma in Two Prospective Phase III Clinical Trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rayman, Nazik; Lam, King H.; van der Holt, Bronno; Koss, Clara; Veldhuizen, Dennis; Budel, Leo M.; Mulder, Andries H.; Verdonck, Leo F.; Delwel, Ruud; de Jong, Daphne; van Imhoff, Gustaaf W.; Sonneveld, Pieter

    Purpose: Until now molecular biologic techniques have not been easily used in daily clinical practice to stratify patients for therapeutic purposes. Therefore, we have investigated the prognostic relevance of the immunohistochemical (IHC) germinal center B-cell (GCB) versus non-GCB diffuse large

  16. Sympathetic vasoconstriction takes an unexpected pannexin detour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schak Nielsen, Morten

    2015-01-01

    Sympathetic vasoconstriction plays an important role in the control of blood pressure and the distribution of blood flow. In this issue of Science Signaling, Billaud et al. show that sympathetic vasoconstriction occurs through a complex scheme involving the activation of large-pore pannexin 1...... channels and the subsequent release of adenosine triphosphate that promotes contraction in an autocrine and paracrine manner. This elaborate mechanism may function as a point of intercept for other signaling pathways-for example, in relation to the phenomenon "functional sympatholysis," in which exercise...... abrogates sympathetic vasoconstriction in skeletal muscle. Because pannexin 1 channels are inhibited by nitric oxide, they may function as a switch to turn off adrenergic signaling in skeletal muscle during exercise....

  17. Can proceduralization support coping with the unexpected?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norros, Leena; Savioja, Paula; Liinasuo, Marja; Wahlstrom, Mikael [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Vuorimiehentie (Finland)

    2014-08-15

    Operations of safety critical industries unquestionably require a diversity of technical and organizational control measures to increase stability and predictability of the complex sociotechnical systems. Nevertheless, experiences from recent severe accidents and results of safety research have questioned the effectiveness of the prevailing safety management strategy that mainly relies on standardization and designed-in defenses. This paper discusses the identified need to balance between stability and flexibility in a concrete safety issue, i.e., proceduralization. The main research problem of our study is whether procedure guided practice can offer sufficient support for flexibility of operating activity. We shall frame our study with the help of a model that explains different aspects of procedures. We then elaborate how these different aspects were considered empirically in our 3-phase study. In the first study we interviewed 62 main control room operators and asked how they consider procedures to support balancing. In the second study we observed in detail 12 NPP operator crews' activity in a simulated loss-of-coolant accident. In a third study we inquired 5 procedure designers about their conceptions concerning procedure guidance in operator work. Drawing on either interview or behavioral data we analyzed the personnel's stance to the flexibility and stability balancing, and how the conceptions portray in the practices of procedure usage. Our results demonstrate that the operators are aware of the need for balancing flexibility and stability and consider successful balancing to represent 'good' professional action. In actual action many operators, however, tend towards more straightforward following of procedures. Designers also see the capability for balancing stability and flexibility as a key operator competence but describe actual acting simply as procedure-following. According to the documents of the nuclear community, procedure

  18. Can proceduralization support coping with the unexpected?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norros, Leena; Savioja, Paula; Liinasuo, Marja; Wahlstrom, Mikael

    2014-01-01

    Operations of safety critical industries unquestionably require a diversity of technical and organizational control measures to increase stability and predictability of the complex sociotechnical systems. Nevertheless, experiences from recent severe accidents and results of safety research have questioned the effectiveness of the prevailing safety management strategy that mainly relies on standardization and designed-in defenses. This paper discusses the identified need to balance between stability and flexibility in a concrete safety issue, i.e., proceduralization. The main research problem of our study is whether procedure guided practice can offer sufficient support for flexibility of operating activity. We shall frame our study with the help of a model that explains different aspects of procedures. We then elaborate how these different aspects were considered empirically in our 3-phase study. In the first study we interviewed 62 main control room operators and asked how they consider procedures to support balancing. In the second study we observed in detail 12 NPP operator crews' activity in a simulated loss-of-coolant accident. In a third study we inquired 5 procedure designers about their conceptions concerning procedure guidance in operator work. Drawing on either interview or behavioral data we analyzed the personnel's stance to the flexibility and stability balancing, and how the conceptions portray in the practices of procedure usage. Our results demonstrate that the operators are aware of the need for balancing flexibility and stability and consider successful balancing to represent 'good' professional action. In actual action many operators, however, tend towards more straightforward following of procedures. Designers also see the capability for balancing stability and flexibility as a key operator competence but describe actual acting simply as procedure-following. According to the documents of the nuclear community, procedure

  19. Final Technical Report for Quantum Embedding for Correlated Electronic Structure in Large Systems and the Condensed Phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, Garnet Kin-Lic [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)

    2017-04-30

    This is the final technical report. We briefly describe some selected results below. Developments in density matrix embedding. DMET is a quantum embedding theory that we introduced at the beginning of the last funding period, around 2012-2013. Since the first DMET papers, which demonstrated proof-of- principle calculations on the Hubbard model and hydrogen rings, we have carried out a number of different developments, including: Extending the DMET technology to compute broken symmetry phases, including magnetic phases and super- conductivity (Pub. 13); Calibrating the accuracy of DMET and its cluster size convergence against other methods, and formulation of a dynamical cluster analog (Pubs. 4, 10) (see Fig. 1); Implementing DMET for ab-initio molecular calculations, and exploring different self-consistency criteria (Pubs. 9, 14); Using embedding to defi ne quantum classical interfaces Pub. 2; Formulating DMET for spectral functions (Pub. 7) (see Fig. 1); Extending DMET to coupled fermion-boson problems (Pub. 12). Together with these embedding developments, we have also implemented a wide variety of impurity solvers within our DMET framework, including DMRG (Pub. 3), AFQMC (Pub. 10), and coupled cluster theory (CC) (Pub. 9).

  20. Unexpected lines due to hyperfine interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Hyperfine interaction is often viewed as a small perturbation that only broadens or in some cases splits a line into many closely spaced lines. In this work, we present some cases where this picture is obsolete and where the hyperfine interaction makes drastic changes to spectra. Off-diagonal hyperfine interaction introduces a mixing between states which can differ in the J quantum number. In most cases this mixing is very small, but even so it could have a dramatic influence on the spectra. Some metastable levels are sensitive to the hyperfine interaction and we show this by presenting the results for hyperfine-dependent lifetimes of the 3d 9 4s 3 D 3 level along parts of the higher end of the Ni-like iso-electronic sequence. In the absence of a nuclear spin, this level can only decay through a magnetic-octupole transition, but in the presence of a nuclear spin, the off-diagonal hyperfine interaction introduces a mixing with the 3d 9 4s 3 D 2 level and a new electric-quadrupole transition channel is opened. It is shown that this new transition channel in many cases is the dominant one and that the lifetime of the 3 D 3 level is sensitive to hyperfine interaction all along the sequence. An example of other types of states that are sensitive to hyperfine interaction are those belonging to configurations of the type nsn'l' where l≥3. In such systems the levels are close in energy and the open s-shell gives rise to a strong hyperfine interaction. This in turn introduces a large mixing between the hyperfine levels and shows up in the spectra as a large intensity redistribution among the hyperfine lines. We present detailed results for the 4s4d 3 D 2 -4s4f 3 F 2 transitions in Ga ii, and show that by including the hyperfine interaction in a proper way, we could reproduce experimental spectra that had not been possible earlier.

  1. E-health, phase two: the imperative to integrate process automation with communication automation for large clinical reference laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, L; Terner, C

    2001-01-01

    The initial efforts of e-health have fallen far short of expectations. They were buoyed by the hype and excitement of the Internet craze but limited by their lack of understanding of important market and environmental factors. E-health now recognizes that legacy systems and processes are important, that there is a technology adoption process that needs to be followed, and that demonstrable value drives adoption. Initial e-health transaction solutions have targeted mostly low-cost problems. These solutions invariably are difficult to integrate into existing systems, typically requiring manual interfacing to supported processes. This limitation in particular makes them unworkable for large volume providers. To meet the needs of these providers, e-health companies must rethink their approaches, appropriately applying technology to seamlessly integrate all steps into existing business functions. E-automation is a transaction technology that automates steps, integration of steps, and information communication demands, resulting in comprehensive automation of entire business functions. We applied e-automation to create a billing management solution for clinical reference laboratories. Large volume, onerous regulations, small margins, and only indirect access to patients challenge large laboratories' billing departments. Couple these problems with outmoded, largely manual systems and it becomes apparent why most laboratory billing departments are in crisis. Our approach has been to focus on the most significant and costly problems in billing: errors, compliance, and system maintenance and management. The core of the design relies on conditional processing, a "universal" communications interface, and ASP technologies. The result is comprehensive automation of all routine processes, driving out errors and costs. Additionally, compliance management and billing system support and management costs are dramatically reduced. The implications of e-automated processes can extend

  2. A simple model for the initial phase of a water plasma cloud about a large structure in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hastings, D.E.; Gatsonis, N.A.; Mogstad, T.

    1988-01-01

    Large structures in the ionosphere will outgas or eject neutral water and perturb the ambient neutral environment. This water can undergo charge exchange with the ambient oxygen ions and form a water plasma cloud. Additionally, water dumps or thruster firings can create a water plasma cloud. A simple model for the evolution of a water plasma cloud about a large space structure is obtained. It is shown that if the electron density around a large space structure is substantially enhanced above the ambient density then the plasma cloud will move away from the structure. As the cloud moves away, it will become unstable and will eventually break up into filaments. A true steady state will exist only if the total electron density is unperturbed from the ambient density. When the water density is taken to be consistent with shuttle-based observations, the cloud is found to slowly drift away on a time scale of many tens of milliseconds. This time is consistent with the shuttle observations

  3. Interlimb communication following unexpected changes in treadmill velocity during human walking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stevenson, Andrew James Thomas; Geertsen, Svend Sparre; Sinkjær, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Interlimb reflexes play an important role in human walking, particularly when dynamic stability is threatened by external perturbations or changes in the walking surface. Interlimb reflexes have recently been demonstrated in the contralateral biceps femoris (cBF) following knee joint rotations...... applied to the ipsilateral leg (iKnee) during the late stance phase of human gait (Stevenson et al. 2013). This interlimb reflex likely acts to slow the forward progression of the body in order to maintain dynamic stability following the perturbations. We examined this hypothesis by unexpectedly...... to slow the forward progression of the body and maintaining dynamic stability during walking, thus signifying a functional role for interlimb reflexes....

  4. Unexpected marked seizure improvement in paediatric epilepsy surgery candidates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoei-Hansen, Christina E; Mathiasen, René; Uldall, Peter

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: Epilepsy surgery is performed based on the assumption that medical refractory epilepsy will continue. Rarely seizure freedom occurs before surgery is performed, while the patient is being evaluated as an epilepsy surgery candidate. The aim of this study was to describe the number...... of children withdrawn from an epilepsy surgery programme due to unexpected seizure improvement. METHODS: We retrospectively studied 173 children under 18 years with medical refractory epilepsy referred for epilepsy surgery between 1996 and 2010. Medical records were reviewed in 2012 and 2015. RESULTS......: At the first evaluation point in 2012, 13 patients were withdrawn from the epilepsy surgery programme due to unexpected marked improvement. In 2015, 6 of them were still seizure free. They had unexpected seizure freedom due to change in AED treatment (n=3) or after a febrile episode (n=3). The mean number...

  5. Effects of large volume injection of aliphatic alcohols as sample diluents on the retention of low hydrophobic solutes in reversed-phase liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Victor; Galaon, Toma; Aboul-Enein, Hassan Y

    2014-01-03

    Recent studies showed that injection of large volume of hydrophobic solvents used as sample diluents could be applied in reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RP-LC). This study reports a systematic research focused on the influence of a series of aliphatic alcohols (from methanol to 1-octanol) on the retention process in RP-LC, when large volumes of sample are injected on the column. Several model analytes with low hydrophobic character were studied by RP-LC process, for mobile phases containing methanol or acetonitrile as organic modifiers in different proportions with aqueous component. It was found that starting with 1-butanol, the aliphatic alcohols can be used as sample solvents and they can be injected in high volumes, but they may influence the retention factor and peak shape of the dissolved solutes. The dependence of the retention factor of the studied analytes on the injection volume of these alcohols is linear, with a decrease of its value as the sample volume is increased. The retention process in case of injecting up to 200μL of upper alcohols is dependent also on the content of the organic modifier (methanol or acetonitrile) in mobile phase. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Structural imaging biomarkers of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wandschneider, Britta; Koepp, Matthias; Scott, Catherine; Micallef, Caroline; Balestrini, Simona; Sisodiya, Sanjay M; Thom, Maria; Harper, Ronald M; Sander, Josemir W; Vos, Sjoerd B; Duncan, John S; Lhatoo, Samden; Diehl, Beate

    2015-10-01

    Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy is a major cause of premature death in people with epilepsy. We aimed to assess whether structural changes potentially attributable to sudden death pathogenesis were present on magnetic resonance imaging in people who subsequently died of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy. In a retrospective, voxel-based analysis of T1 volume scans, we compared grey matter volumes in 12 cases of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (two definite, 10 probable; eight males), acquired 2 years [median, interquartile range (IQR) 2.8] before death [median (IQR) age at scanning 33.5 (22) years], with 34 people at high risk [age 30.5 (12); 19 males], 19 at low risk [age 30 (7.5); 12 males] of sudden death, and 15 healthy controls [age 37 (16); seven males]. At-risk subjects were defined based on risk factors of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy identified in a recent combined risk factor analysis. We identified increased grey matter volume in the right anterior hippocampus/amygdala and parahippocampus in sudden death cases and people at high risk, when compared to those at low risk and controls. Compared to controls, posterior thalamic grey matter volume, an area mediating oxygen regulation, was reduced in cases of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy and subjects at high risk. The extent of reduction correlated with disease duration in all subjects with epilepsy. Increased amygdalo-hippocampal grey matter volume with right-sided changes is consistent with histo-pathological findings reported in sudden infant death syndrome. We speculate that the right-sided predominance reflects asymmetric central influences on autonomic outflow, contributing to cardiac arrhythmia. Pulvinar damage may impair hypoxia regulation. The imaging findings in sudden unexpected death in epilepsy and people at high risk may be useful as a biomarker for risk-stratification in future studies. The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of

  7. Ordered one-component plasmas: Phase transitions, normal modes, large systems, and experiments in a storage ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiffer, J.P.

    1994-01-01

    The property of cold one-component plasmas, confined by external forces, to form an ordered array has been known for some time both from simulations and from experiment. The purpose of this talk is to summarize some recent work on simulations and some new experimental results. The author discusses some experimental work on real storage rings, magnetic storage devices in which partials circulate with large kinetic energies and for which laser cooling is used on partially ionized ions to attain temperatures ten or more orders of magnitude lower than their kinetic energies

  8. Optimized broad-histogram simulations for strong first-order phase transitions: droplet transitions in the large-Q Potts model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, Bela; Troyer, Matthias; Gull, Emanuel; Trebst, Simon; Huse, David A

    2010-01-01

    The numerical simulation of strongly first-order phase transitions has remained a notoriously difficult problem even for classical systems due to the exponentially suppressed (thermal) equilibration in the vicinity of such a transition. In the absence of efficient update techniques, a common approach for improving equilibration in Monte Carlo simulations is broadening the sampled statistical ensemble beyond the bimodal distribution of the canonical ensemble. Here we show how a recently developed feedback algorithm can systematically optimize such broad-histogram ensembles and significantly speed up equilibration in comparison with other extended ensemble techniques such as flat-histogram, multicanonical and Wang–Landau sampling. We simulate, as a prototypical example of a strong first-order transition, the two-dimensional Potts model with up to Q = 250 different states in large systems. The optimized histogram develops a distinct multi-peak structure, thereby resolving entropic barriers and their associated phase transitions in the phase coexistence region—such as droplet nucleation and annihilation, and droplet–strip transitions for systems with periodic boundary conditions. We characterize the efficiency of the optimized histogram sampling by measuring round-trip times τ(N, Q) across the phase transition for samples comprised of N spins. While we find power-law scaling of τ versus N for small Q∼ 2 , we observe a crossover to exponential scaling for larger Q. These results demonstrate that despite the ensemble optimization, broad-histogram simulations cannot fully eliminate the supercritical slowing down at strongly first-order transitions

  9. Unexpected Coexisting Myocardial Infarction Detected by Delayed Enhancement MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edouard Gerbaud

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of an unexpected coexisting anterior myocardial infarction detected by delayed enhancement MRI in a 41-year-old man following a presentation with a first episode of chest pain during inferior acute myocardial infarction. This second necrotic area was not initially suspected because there were no ECG changes in the anterior leads and the left descending coronary artery did not present any significant stenoses on emergency coronary angiography. Unrecognised myocardial infarction may carry important prognostic implications. CMR is currently the best imaging technique to detect unexpected infarcts.

  10. Very large phase shift of microwave signals in a 6 nm Hf x Zr1-x O2 ferroelectric at ±3 V

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragoman, Mircea; Modreanu, Mircea; Povey, Ian M.; Iordanescu, Sergiu; Aldrigo, Martino; Romanitan, Cosmin; Vasilache, Dan; Dinescu, Adrian; Dragoman, Daniela

    2017-09-01

    In this letter, we report for the first time very large phase shifts of microwaves in the 1-10 GHz range, in a 1 mm long gold coplanar interdigitated structure deposited over a 6 nm Hf x Zr1-x O2 ferroelectric grown directly on a high resistivity silicon substrate. The phase shift is larger than 60° at 1 GHz and 13° at 10 GHz at maximum applied DC voltages of ±3 V, which can be supplied by a simple commercial battery. In this way, we demonstrate experimentally that the new ferroelectrics based on HfO2 could play an important role in the future development of wireless communication systems for very low power applications.

  11. Effects of unexpected chords and of performer's expression on brain responses and electrodermal activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Koelsch

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is lack of neuroscientific studies investigating music processing with naturalistic stimuli, and brain responses to real music are, thus, largely unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This study investigates event-related brain potentials (ERPs, skin conductance responses (SCRs and heart rate (HR elicited by unexpected chords of piano sonatas as they were originally arranged by composers, and as they were played by professional pianists. From the musical excerpts played by the pianists (with emotional expression, we also created versions without variations in tempo and loudness (without musical expression to investigate effects of musical expression on ERPs and SCRs. Compared to expected chords, unexpected chords elicited an early right anterior negativity (ERAN, reflecting music-syntactic processing and an N5 (reflecting processing of meaning information in the ERPs, as well as clear changes in the SCRs (reflecting that unexpected chords also elicited emotional responses. The ERAN was not influenced by emotional expression, whereas N5 potentials elicited by chords in general (regardless of their chord function differed between the expressive and the non-expressive condition. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results show that the neural mechanisms of music-syntactic processing operate independently of the emotional qualities of a stimulus, justifying the use of stimuli without emotional expression to investigate the cognitive processing of musical structure. Moreover, the data indicate that musical expression affects the neural mechanisms underlying the processing of musical meaning. Our data are the first to reveal influences of musical performance on ERPs and SCRs, and to show physiological responses to unexpected chords in naturalistic music.

  12. The Fanconi Anemia BRCA Pathway as a Predictor of Benefit from Bevacizumab in a Large Phase 3 Clinical Trial in Ovarian Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    1 AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-13-1-0421 TITLE: The Fanconi Anemia BRCA Pathway as a Predictor of Benefit from Bevacizumab in a Large Phase III Clinical...DATES COVERED 30Sep2013 - 29Sep2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH-13-1-0421 The Fanconi Anemia BRCA Pathway as a Predictor of...another upfront clinical trial GOG262. We found that germline or somatic mutations in the BRCA- Fanconi anemia pathway was significantly associated with

  13. [Development of the unexpected reality scale for childcare training].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Yuko; Shitara, Saeko; Hamada, Shoko

    2016-10-01

    This study aimed to develop a scale for unexpected reality for childcare training (Study 1) and examine the change and influence it exerts on the efficacy of preschool teachers (Study 2). In Study 1, the sample consisted of 571 university and junior college students enrolled in a childcare course. After exploratory factor analysis, four factors were extracted: “actual feelings for childcare as a field of study,” “difficulties faced during involvement with children,” “negative aspects of the childcare worker,” and “severity of work.” The study’s scale was shown to be internally consistent and valid. In Study 2, the sample consisted of 122 junior college students enrolled in a childcare course. The results showed that the high-scoring groups of each unexpected reality subscales experienced less unexpected reality in the subsequent training session. Moreover, the results of multiple regression showed that preschool teacher efficacy was predicted positively by “actual feelings for childcare as a field of study” and negatively by “difficulties faced during involvement with children.” Thus, we suggest that for effective pre- and post-guidance of childcare training, unexpected realities should be considered.

  14. Thallium-201 accumulation in cerebral candidiasis: Unexpected finding on SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonami, N.; Matsuda, H.; Ooba, H.; Yokoyama, K.; Hisada, K.; Ikeda, K.; Yamashita, J.

    1990-01-01

    The authors present an unexpected finding of Tl-201 uptake in the intracerebral lesions due to candidiasis. SPECT demonstrated the extent of the lesions and a high target-to-background ratio. The regions where abnormal Tl-201 accumulation was seen were nearly consistent with CT scans of those enhanced by a contrast agent. After treatment, most of the abnormal Tl-201 accumulation disappeared

  15. Thallium-201 accumulation in cerebral candidiasis: Unexpected finding on SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonami, N.; Matsuda, H.; Ooba, H.; Yokoyama, K.; Hisada, K.; Ikeda, K.; Yamashita, J. (Kanazawa Univ. (Japan))

    1990-06-01

    The authors present an unexpected finding of Tl-201 uptake in the intracerebral lesions due to candidiasis. SPECT demonstrated the extent of the lesions and a high target-to-background ratio. The regions where abnormal Tl-201 accumulation was seen were nearly consistent with CT scans of those enhanced by a contrast agent. After treatment, most of the abnormal Tl-201 accumulation disappeared.

  16. Unexpected pathological findings in skills training and assessing skills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boendermaker, PM; Pols, J; Scherpbier, AJJA

    This article draws attention to unexpected pathological findings encountered by students and teachers when examining one another and/or simulated patients in skips training and assessment sessions. Although no literature on the subject was found it appears to be not uncommon far students and

  17. Unexpected sneezing after a peribulbar injection in a patient for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... anaesthetic in awake patients. We present a case report of an awake elderly male who experienced unexpected continuous sneezing immediately after the removal of the needle used for the peribulbar block, which was subsequently relieved with pheniramine maleate. Keywords: peribulbar block, pheniramine maleate, ...

  18. Mathematics Placement Test: Typical Results with Unexpected Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingalls, Victoria

    2011-01-01

    Based on the results of a prior case-study analysis of mathematics placement at one university, the mathematics department developed and piloted a mathematics placement test. This article describes the implementation process for a mathematics placement test and further analyzes the test results for the pilot group. As an unexpected result, the…

  19. Lattice Boltzmann modeling of contact angle and its hysteresis in two-phase flow with large viscosity difference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haihu; Ju, Yaping; Wang, Ningning; Xi, Guang; Zhang, Yonghao

    2015-09-01

    Contact angle hysteresis is an important physical phenomenon omnipresent in nature and various industrial processes, but its effects are not considered in many existing multiphase flow simulations due to modeling complexity. In this work, a multiphase lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) is developed to simulate the contact-line dynamics with consideration of the contact angle hysteresis for a broad range of kinematic viscosity ratios. In this method, the immiscible two-phase flow is described by a color-fluid model, in which the multiple-relaxation-time collision operator is adopted to increase numerical stability and suppress unphysical spurious currents at the contact line. The contact angle hysteresis is introduced using the strategy proposed by Ding and Spelt [Ding and Spelt, J. Fluid Mech. 599, 341 (2008)JFLSA70022-112010.1017/S0022112008000190], and the geometrical wetting boundary condition is enforced to obtain the desired contact angle. This method is first validated by simulations of static contact angle and dynamic capillary intrusion process on ideal (smooth) surfaces. It is then used to simulate the dynamic behavior of a droplet on a nonideal (inhomogeneous) surface subject to a simple shear flow. When the droplet remains pinned on the surface due to hysteresis, the steady interface shapes of the droplet quantitatively agree well with the previous numerical results. Four typical motion modes of contact points, as observed in a recent study, are qualitatively reproduced with varying advancing and receding contact angles. The viscosity ratio is found to have a notable impact on the droplet deformation, breakup, and hysteresis behavior. Finally, this method is extended to simulate the droplet breakup in a microfluidic T junction, with one half of the wall surface ideal and the other half nonideal. Due to the contact angle hysteresis, the droplet asymmetrically breaks up into two daughter droplets with the smaller one in the nonideal branch channel, and the

  20. Unexpected findings and promoting monocausal claims, a cautionary tale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland, Samantha Marie

    2017-10-01

    Stories of serendipitous discoveries in medicine incorrectly imply that the path from an unexpected observation to major discovery is straightforward or guaranteed. In this paper, I examine a case from the field of research about chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). In Norway, an unexpected positive result during clinical care has led to the development of a research programme into the potential for the immunosuppressant drug rituximab to relieve the symptoms of CFS. The media and public have taken up researchers' speculations that their research results indicate a causal mechanism for CFS - consequently, patients now have great hope that 'the cause' of CFS has been found, and thus, a cure is sure to follow. I argue that a monocausal claim cannot be correctly asserted, either on the basis of the single case of an unexpected, although positive, result or on the basis of the empirical research that has followed up on that result. Further, assertion and promotion of this claim will have specific harmful effects: it threatens to inappropriately narrow the scope of research on CFS, might misdirect research altogether, and could directly and indirectly harm patients. Therefore, the CFS case presents a cautionary tale, illustrating the risks involved in drawing a theoretical hypothesis from an unexpected observation. Further, I draw attention to the tendency in contemporary clinical research with CFS to promote new research directions on the basis of reductive causal models of that syndrome. Particularly, in the case of CFS research, underdetermination and causal complexity undermine the potential value of a monocausal claim. In sum, when an unexpected finding occurs in clinical practice or medical research, the value of following up on that finding is to be found not in the projected value of a singular causal relationship inferred from the finding but rather in the process of research that follows. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Fatigue life analysis of unexpected failure in a lamellar TiAl alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, K.S.

    1999-07-01

    Unexpected catastrophic failure occurred in specimens of a lamellar TiAl alloy tested by axial fatigue. The failure initiated at locations away from artificial defects introduced to the specimens as crack starters. Fractographic examination of the fracture surface revealed the presence of featureless, low-energy facets that suggested the catastrophic crack may have initiated in one or more large grains that cleaved on a cleavage plane or an interface. A crack growth analysis of fatigue life of the test specimens suggested that the catastrophic crack propagated at stress intensity levels below the large crack threshold. Furthermore, the catastrophic crack propagated at rates that were higher than the average rates exhibited by small cracks, as well as by the large crack under equivalent stress intensity ranges. Because of this, the conventional life prediction approach based on the large crack growth data grossly overpredicted the fatigue life.

  2. Unexpected storm-time nightside plasmaspheric density enhancement at low L shell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, X.; Bortnik, J.; Denton, R. E.; Yue, C.

    2017-12-01

    We have developed a three-dimensional dynamic electron density (DEN3D) model in the inner magnetosphere using a neural network approach. The DEN3D model can provide spatiotemporal distribution of the electron density at any location and time that spacecraft observations are not available. Given DEN3D's good performance in predicting the structure and dynamic evolution of the plasma density, the salient features of the DEN3D model can be used to gain further insight into the physics. For instance, the DEN3D models can be used to find unusual phenomena that are difficult to detect in observations or simulations. We report, for the first time, an unexpected plasmaspheric density increase at low L shell regions on the nightside during the main phase of a moderate storm during 12-16 October 2004, as opposed to the expected density decrease due to storm-time plasmaspheric erosion. The unexpected density increase is first discovered in the modeled electron density distribution using the DEN3D model, and then validated using in-situ density measurements obtained from the IMAGE satellite. The density increase was likely caused by increased earthward transverse field plasma transport due to enhanced nightside ExB drift, which coincided with enhanced solar wind electric field and substorm activity. This is consistent with the results of physics-based simulation SAMI3 model which show earthward enhanced plasma transport and electron density increase at low L shells during storm main phase.

  3. Study of the influence of particles on turbulence with the help of direct and large eddy simulations of gas-solid two-phase flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boivin, M.

    1996-12-31

    An investigation of dilute dispersed turbulent two-way coupling two-phase flows has been undertaken with the hemp of Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS) on stationary-forced homogeneous isotropic turbulence. The particle relaxation times range from the Kolmogorov to the Eulerian time scales and the load goes up to 1. The analyses is made within the Eulerian-model framework, enhanced by the National Hydraulics Laboratory Lagrangian approach, which is extended here to include inverse coupling and Reynolds effects. Particles are found to dissipate on average turbulence energy. The spectra of the fluid-particle exchange energy rate show that small particles drag the fluid at high wavenumbers, which explains the observed relative increase of small scale energy. A spectral analysis points as responsible mechanism the transfer of fluid-particle covariance by fluid turbulence. Regarding the modeling, he Reynolds dependency and the load contribution are found crucial for good predictions of the dispersed phase moments. A study for practical applications with Large Eddy Simulations (LES) has yielded: LES can be used two-way coupling two-phase flows provided that a dynamic mixed sub-grid scale model is adopted and the particle relaxation time is larger than the cutoff filter one; the inverse coupling should depend more on the position of this relaxation time with respect to the Eulerian one than to the Kolmogorov one. (author) 67 refs.

  4. Large-scale Experiment for Water and Gas Transport in Cementitious Backfill Materials (Phase 1 ): COLEX I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayer, G.; Wittmann, F.H.; Moetsch, H.A.

    1998-05-01

    In the planned Swiss repository for low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste, the voids between the waste containers will be backfilled with a highly permeable mortar (NAGRA designation: mortar M1 ). As well as providing mechanical stability through filling of voids and sorbing radionuclides, the mortar must divert gases formed in the repository as a result of corrosion into the neighbouring host rock. This will prevent damage which could be caused by excess pressure on the repository structures. Water transport, which is coupled to gas transport, is also of interest. The former is responsible for the migration of radionuclides. Up till now, numerical simulations for a repository situation were carried out using transport parameters determined for small samples in the laboratory. However, the numerical simulations still had to be validated by a large-scale experiment. The investigations presented here should close this gap. Investigations into gas and water transport were carried out using a column (up to 5.4 m high) filled with backfill mortar. The column has a modular construction and can be sealed at the top end with a material of defined permeability (plug or top plug). The possibility to vary the material of the plug allows the influence of the more impermeable cavern lining or possible gas escape vents in the cavern roof to be investigated. A gas supply is connected to the bottom end and is used to simulate different gas generation rates from the waste. A total of 5 experiments were carried out in which the gas generation rate, the column height and the permeability of the plug were varied. Before the start of the experiments, the mortar in the column and the plug were saturated with water to approx. 95 %. In all the experiments, an increase in pressure with time could be observed. The higher the gas generation rate and the lower the permeability of the plug, the more quickly this occurred. At the beginning, only water flow out of the top of the column

  5. Ultra trace analysis of PAHs by designing simple injection of large amounts of analytes through the sample reconcentration on SPME fiber after magnetic solid phase extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodaee, Nader; Mehdinia, Ali; Esfandiarnejad, Reyhaneh; Jabbari, Ali

    2016-01-15

    A simple solventless injection method was introduced based on the using of a solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fiber for injection of large amounts of the analytes extracted by the magnetic solid phase extraction (MSPE) procedure. The resulted extract from MSPE procedure was loaded on a G-coated SPME fiber, and then the fiber was injected into the gas chromatography (GC) injection port. This method combines the advantages of exhaustive extraction property of MSPE and the solvent-less injection of SPME to improve the sensitivity of the analysis. In addition, the analytes were re-concentrated prior to inject into the gas chromatography (GC) inlet because of the organic solvent removing from the remaining extract of MSPE technique. Injection of the large amounts of analytes was made possible by using the introduced procedure. Fourteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) with different volatility were used as model compounds to investigate the method performance for volatile and semi-volatile compounds. The introduced method resulted in the higher enhancement factors (5097-59376), lower detection limits (0.29-3.3pgmL(-1)), and higher sensitivity for the semi-volatile compounds compared with the conventional direct injection method. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Technical Design Report for large-scale neutrino detectors prototyping and phased performance assessment in view of a long-baseline oscillation experiment

    CERN Document Server

    De Bonis, I.; Duchesneau, D.; Pessard, H.; Bordoni, S.; Ieva, M.; Lux, T.; Sanchez, F.; Jipa, A.; Lazanu, I.; Calin, M.; Esanu, T.; Ristea, O.; Ristea, C.; Nita, L.; Efthymiopoulos, I.; Nessi, M.; Asfandiyarov, R.; Blondel, A.; Bravar, A.; Cadoux, F.; Haesler, A.; Karadzhov, Y.; Korzenev, A.; Martin, C.; Noah, E.; Ravonel, M.; Rayner, M.; Scantamburlo, E.; Bayes, R.; Soler, F.J.P.; Nuijten, G.A.; Loo, K.; Maalampi, J.; Slupecki, M.; Trzaska, W.H.; Campanelli, M.; Blebea-Apostu, A.M.; Chesneanu, D.; Gomoiu, M.C; Mitrica, B.; Margineanu, R.M.; Stanca, D.L.; Colino, N.; Gil-Botella, I.; Novella, P.; Palomares, C.; Santorelli, R.; Verdugo, A.; Karpikov, I.; Khotjantsev, A.; Kudenko, Y.; Mefodiev, A.; Mineev, O.; Ovsiannikova, T.; Yershov, N.; Enqvist, T.; Kuusiniemi, P.; De La Taille, C.; Dulucq, F.; Martin-Chassard, G.; Andrieu, B.; Dumarchez, J.; Giganti, C.; Levy, J.-M.; Popov, B.; Robert, A.; Agostino, L.; Buizza-Avanzini, M.; Dawson, J.; Franco, D.; Gorodetzky, P.; Kryn, D.; Patzak, T.; Tonazzo, A.; Vannucci, F.; Bésida, O.; Bolognesi, S.; Delbart, A.; Emery, S.; Galymov, V.; Mazzucato, E.; Vasseur, G.; Zito, M.; Bogomilov, M.; Tsenov, R.; Vankova-Kirilova, G.; Friend, M.; Hasegawa, T.; Nakadaira, T.; Sakashita, K.; Zambelli, L.; Autiero, D.; Caiulo, D.; Chaussard, L.; Déclais, Y.; Franco, D.; Marteau, J.; Pennacchio, E.; Bay, F.; Cantini, C.; Crivelli, P.; Epprecht, L.; Gendotti, A.; Di Luise, S.; Horikawa, S.; Murphy, S.; Nikolics, K.; Periale, L.; Regenfus, C.; Rubbia, A.; Sgalaberna, D.; Viant, T.; Wu, S.; Sergiampietri, F.; CERN. Geneva. SPS and PS Experiments Committee; SPSC

    2014-01-01

    In June 2012, an Expression of Interest for a long-baseline experiment (LBNO, CERN-SPSC-EOI-007) has been submitted to the CERN SPSC and is presently under review. LBNO considers three types of neutrino detector technologies: a double-phase liquid argon (LAr) TPC and a magnetised iron detector as far detectors. For the near detector, a high-pressure gas TPC embedded in a calorimeter and a magnet is the baseline design. A mandatory milestone in view of any future long baseline experiment is a concrete prototyping effort towards the envisioned large-scale detectors, and an accompanying campaign of measurements aimed at assessing the systematic errors that will be affecting their intended physics programme. Following an encouraging feedback from 108th SPSC on the technology choices, we have defined as priority the construction and operation of a $6\\times 6\\times 6$m$^3$ (active volume) double-phase liquid argon (DLAr) demonstrator, and a parallel development of the technologies necessary for large magnetised MIN...

  7. Optimized broad-histogram simulations for strong first-order phase transitions: droplet transitions in the large-Q Potts model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Bela; Gull, Emanuel; Trebst, Simon; Troyer, Matthias; Huse, David A.

    2010-01-01

    The numerical simulation of strongly first-order phase transitions has remained a notoriously difficult problem even for classical systems due to the exponentially suppressed (thermal) equilibration in the vicinity of such a transition. In the absence of efficient update techniques, a common approach for improving equilibration in Monte Carlo simulations is broadening the sampled statistical ensemble beyond the bimodal distribution of the canonical ensemble. Here we show how a recently developed feedback algorithm can systematically optimize such broad-histogram ensembles and significantly speed up equilibration in comparison with other extended ensemble techniques such as flat-histogram, multicanonical and Wang-Landau sampling. We simulate, as a prototypical example of a strong first-order transition, the two-dimensional Potts model with up to Q = 250 different states in large systems. The optimized histogram develops a distinct multi-peak structure, thereby resolving entropic barriers and their associated phase transitions in the phase coexistence region—such as droplet nucleation and annihilation, and droplet-strip transitions for systems with periodic boundary conditions. We characterize the efficiency of the optimized histogram sampling by measuring round-trip times τ(N, Q) across the phase transition for samples comprised of N spins. While we find power-law scaling of τ versus N for small Q \\lesssim 50 and N \\lesssim 40^2 , we observe a crossover to exponential scaling for larger Q. These results demonstrate that despite the ensemble optimization, broad-histogram simulations cannot fully eliminate the supercritical slowing down at strongly first-order transitions.

  8. Large-volume injection of sample diluents not miscible with the mobile phase as an alternative approach in sample preparation for bioanalysis: an application for fenspiride bioequivalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medvedovici, Andrei; Udrescu, Stefan; Albu, Florin; Tache, Florentin; David, Victor

    2011-09-01

    Liquid-liquid extraction of target compounds from biological matrices followed by the injection of a large volume from the organic layer into the chromatographic column operated under reversed-phase (RP) conditions would successfully combine the selectivity and the straightforward character of the procedure in order to enhance sensitivity, compared with the usual approach of involving solvent evaporation and residue re-dissolution. Large-volume injection of samples in diluents that are not miscible with the mobile phase was recently introduced in chromatographic practice. The risk of random errors produced during the manipulation of samples is also substantially reduced. A bioanalytical method designed for the bioequivalence of fenspiride containing pharmaceutical formulations was based on a sample preparation procedure involving extraction of the target analyte and the internal standard (trimetazidine) from alkalinized plasma samples in 1-octanol. A volume of 75 µl from the octanol layer was directly injected on a Zorbax SB C18 Rapid Resolution, 50 mm length × 4.6 mm internal diameter × 1.8 µm particle size column, with the RP separation being carried out under gradient elution conditions. Detection was made through positive ESI and MS/MS. Aspects related to method development and validation are discussed. The bioanalytical method was successfully applied to assess bioequivalence of a modified release pharmaceutical formulation containing 80 mg fenspiride hydrochloride during two different studies carried out as single-dose administration under fasting and fed conditions (four arms), and multiple doses administration, respectively. The quality attributes assigned to the bioanalytical method, as resulting from its application to the bioequivalence studies, are highlighted and fully demonstrate that sample preparation based on large-volume injection of immiscible diluents has an increased potential for application in bioanalysis.

  9. FORMATION OF THE INITIAL DISTRIBUTION OF PLASMA COMPONENTS ON THE PHASE PLANE OF LARGE PARTICLES METHOD IN ELECTRIC ARC SYNTHESIS CNS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. V. Abramov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the modeling of charged particles in a multicomponent plasma of electric arc discharge with binary collisions in the synthesis of carbon nanostructures (CNS. One of the common methods of obtaining the quality of fullerenes and nanotubes is arc synthesis under inert gas (helium. The determination of the necessary conditions and the mechanism of formation of carbon clusters in the plasma forming set CNS will more effectively and efficiently manage this process. Feature of the problem is that in a plasma arc discharge is a large number of particle interactions and on the cathode surface. Due to the high temperatures and high energy concentration in plasma detailed experimental investigation difficult to carry out. With the aim of avoiding difficult and costly physical experiments developed numerical methods for the analysis of plasma processes. In this article to solve a system of equations of Maxwell - Boltzmann basis for the authors had taken the method of large particles, which reduces the amount of computation and reduce the demands on computing resources. The authors cites the general design scheme of the large particles, and the algorithm of particle distribution of a multicomponent plasma in the phase plane at the initial time. In conclusion, the author argues that the results in the future will define the zone satisfies the energy conditions, the probability of formation of a plasma cluster groups of carbon involved in the synthesis of the CNS.

  10. Unexpected brain finding in pre-autopsy postmortem CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatzaraki, Vasiliki; Bolliger, Stephan A; Thali, Michael J; Eggert, Sebastian; Ruder, Thomas D

    2017-09-01

    A case is presented in which pre-autopsy postmortem computed tomography (PMCT) revealed an unexpected brain abscess with a related frontal sinusitis and an erosion of the posterior wall of the frontal sinus. PMCT findings enabled the forensic pathologists to adapt protective measures during autopsy and protect their health from infection. Pre-autopsy PMCT has been also useful in the early differential diagnosis procedure. The complementary use of postmortem imaging and autopsy can improve the quality of forensic death investigations.

  11. Investigating Initial Disclosures and Reactions to Unexpected, Positive HPV Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Rachel A; Hernandez, Rachael; Catona, Danielle

    2014-07-01

    Initial disclosures of health conditions are critical communication moments. Existing research focuses on disclosers; integrating confidants into studies of initial disclosures is needed. Guided by the disclosure decision-making model (DD-MM; Greene, 2009), this study examined what diagnosed persons and confidants may say when faced with unexpected test results and unexpected disclosures, respectively. Participants ( N = 151) recorded an audio-visual message for another person, after imagining that they or the other person had just received unexpected, positive HPV test results. The qualitative analysis revealed four themes: (1) impression management and social distance, (2) invisible symptoms and advice regarding future disclosures, (3) expressing and acknowledging emotional reactions, and (4) misunderstandings and lacking knowledge about HPV. These findings suggested that DD-MM may be a relevant framework for understanding not only when disclosers share, but what disclosers and confidants say in early conversations about new diagnoses. While disclosers' and confidants' messages showed marked similarities, important differences appeared. For example, confidants focused on assuaging disclosers' fear about the consequences, whereas disclosers expressed distress related to their uncertainty about the prognosis of an HPV infection and how to prepare for next steps. The discussion highlighted implications for the DD-MM, HPV disclosures, and future interventions.

  12. Why don't you like me? Midfrontal theta power in response to unexpected peer rejection feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Molen, M J W; Dekkers, L M S; Westenberg, P M; van der Veen, F M; van der Molen, M W

    2017-02-01

    Social connectedness theory posits that the brain processes social rejection as a threat to survival. Recent electrophysiological evidence suggests that midfrontal theta (4-8Hz) oscillations in the EEG provide a window on the processing of social rejection. Here we examined midfrontal theta dynamics (power and inter-trial phase synchrony) during the processing of social evaluative feedback. We employed the Social Judgment paradigm in which 56 undergraduate women (mean age=19.67 years) were asked to communicate their expectancies about being liked vs. disliked by unknown peers. Expectancies were followed by feedback indicating social acceptance vs. rejection. Results revealed a significant increase in EEG theta power to unexpected social rejection feedback. This EEG theta response could be source-localized to brain regions typically reported during activation of the saliency network (i.e., dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, insula, inferior frontal gyrus, frontal pole, and the supplementary motor area). Theta phase dynamics mimicked the behavior of the time-domain averaged feedback-related negativity (FRN) by showing stronger phase synchrony for feedback that was unexpected vs. expected. Theta phase, however, differed from the FRN by also displaying stronger phase synchrony in response to rejection vs. acceptance feedback. Together, this study highlights distinct roles for midfrontal theta power and phase synchrony in response to social evaluative feedback. Our findings contribute to the literature by showing that midfrontal theta oscillatory power is sensitive to social rejection but only when peer rejection is unexpected, and this theta response is governed by a widely distributed neural network implicated in saliency detection and conflict monitoring. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Sunitinib in relapsed or refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: a clinical and pharmacodynamic phase II multicenter study of the NCIC Clinical Trials Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckstein, Rena; Kuruvilla, John; Chua, Neil; Lee, Christina; Macdonald, David A; Al-Tourah, Abdulwahab J; Foo, Alison H; Walsh, Wendy; Ivy, S Percy; Crump, Michael; Eisenhauer, Elizabeth A

    2011-05-01

    There are limited effective therapies for most patients with relapsed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). We conducted a phase II trial of the multi-targeted vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) kinase inhibitor, sunitinib, 37.5 mg given orally once daily in adult patients with relapsed or refractory DLBCL. Of 19 enrolled patients, 17 eligible patients were evaluable for toxicity and 15 for response. No objective responses were seen and nine patients achieved stable disease (median duration 3.4 months). As a result, the study was closed at the end of the first stage. Grades 3-4 neutropenia and thrombocytopenia were observed in 29% and 35%, respectively. There was no relationship between change in circulating endothelial cell numbers (CECs) and bidimensional tumor burden over time. Despite some activity in solid tumors, sunitinib showed no evidence of response in relapsed/refractory DLBCL and had greater than expected hematologic toxicity.

  14. Large-scale numerical simulations on two-phase flow behavior in a fuel bundle of RMWR with the earth simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazuyuki, Takase; Hiroyuki, Yoshida; Hidesada, Tamai; Hajime, Akimoto; Yasuo, Ose

    2003-01-01

    Fluid flow characteristics in a fuel bundle of a reduced-moderation light water reactor (RMWR) with a tight-lattice core were analyzed numerically using a newly developed two-phase flow analysis code under the full bundle size condition. Conventional analysis methods such as sub-channel codes need composition equations based on the experimental data. In case that there are no experimental data regarding to the thermal-hydraulics in the tight-lattice core, therefore, it is difficult to obtain high prediction accuracy on the thermal design of the RMWR. Then the direct numerical simulations with the earth simulator were chosen. The axial velocity distribution in a fuel bundle changed sharply around a grid spacer and its quantitative evaluation was obtained from the present preliminary numerical study. The high prospect was acquired on the possibility of establishment of the thermal design procedure of the RMWR by large-scale direct simulations. (authors)

  15. Experiments on hydraulically-compensated Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) system using large-diameter vertical pipe two-phase flow test facility: test facility and test procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohtsu, Iwao; Murata, Hideo; Kukita, Yutaka; Kumamaru, Hiroshige.

    1996-07-01

    JAERI, the University of Tokyo, the Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry and Shimizu Corporation jointing performed and experimental study on two-phase flow in the hydraulically-compensated Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) system with a large-diameter vertical pipe two-phase flow test facility from 1993 to 1995. A hydraulically-compensated CAES system is a proposed, conceptual energy storage system where energy is stored in the form of compressed air in an underground cavern which is sealed by a deep (several hundred meters) water shaft. The shaft water head maintains a constant pressure in the cavern, of several mega Pascals, even during loading or unloading of the cavern with air. The dissolved air in the water, however, may create voids in the shaft when the water rises through the shaft during the loading, being forced by the air flow into the cavern. The voids may reduce the effective head of the shaft, and thus the seal may fail, if significant bubbling should occur in the shaft. This bubbling phenomenon (termed 'Champaign effect') and potential failure of the water seal ('blowout') are simulated in a scaled-height, scaled-diameter facility. Carbon dioxide is used to simulate high solubility of air in the full-height, full-pressure system. This report describes the expected and potential two-phase flow phenomena in a hydraulically-compensated CAES system, the test facility and the test procedure, a method to estimate quantities which are not directly measured by using measured quantities and hydrodynamic basic equations, and desirable additional instrumentation. (author)

  16. Highly selective solid-phase extraction and large volume injection for the robust gas chromatography-mass spectrometric analysis of TCA and TBA in wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insa, S; Anticó, E; Ferreira, V

    2005-09-30

    A reliable solid-phase extraction (SPE) method for the simultaneous determination of 2,4,6-trichloroanisole (TCA) and 2,4,6-tribromoanisole (TBA) in wines has been developed. In the proposed procedure 50 mL of wine are extracted in a 1 mL cartridge filled with 50 mg of LiChrolut EN resins. Most wine volatiles are washed up with 12.5 mL of a water:methanol solution (70%, v/v) containing 1% of NaHCO3. Analytes are further eluted with 0.6 mL of dichloromethane. A 40 microL aliquot of this extract is directly injected into a PTV injector operated in the solvent split mode, and analysed by gas chromatography (GC)-ion trap mass spectrometry using the selected ion storage mode. The solid-phase extraction, including sample volume and rinsing and elution solvents, and the large volume GC injection have been carefully evaluated and optimized. The resulting method is precise (RSD (%) TBA, respectively), robust (the absolute recoveries of both analytes are higher than 80% and consistent wine to wine) and friendly to the GC-MS system (the extract is clean, simple and free from non-volatiles).

  17. Unexpected Maternal Convulsion: An Idiopathic Case of Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome after Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jila Agah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES is associated with various clinical manifestations such as headache, blurred vision, confusion and tonic-clonic convulsion. Some of the predisposing factors for PRES include hypertensive encephalopathy, preeclampsia and eclampsia, lupus erythematosus, thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura and long-term use of immunosuppressive drugs. This condition rarely occurs after normotensive and uneventful pregnancies. Several theories have been proposed on the etiology of PRES. For instance, endothelial injury and brain edema have been reported as possible causes of PRES. Although PRES is a temporary condition, proper and timely management of the disorder in the acute phase is critical for the prevention of permanent neurological complications. During pregnancy, PRES is normally accompanied with hypertension. In this paper, we present a rare case of PRES in a normotensive pregnancy in a 25-year-old parturient woman (Gravida 2, Ab 1. The patient unexpectedly manifested symptoms of tonic-clonic convulsion one hour after an uneventful vaginal delivery, which were successfully managed. According to our observations, PRES has various clinical manifestations with unexpected occurrence in some cases. Therefore, it is recommended that maternity centers be well-equipped with resuscitation tools, emergency drugs and expert staff so as to manage unforeseen PRES efficiently and prevent permanent maternal neurological complications and mortality.

  18. Solid phase extraction of large volume of water and beverage samples to improve detection limits for GC-MS analysis of bisphenol A and four other bisphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xu-Liang; Popovic, Svetlana

    2018-01-01

    Solid phase extraction (SPE) of large volumes of water and beverage products was investigated for the GC-MS analysis of bisphenol A (BPA), bisphenol AF (BPAF), bisphenol F (BPF), bisphenol E (BPE), and bisphenol B (BPB). While absolute recoveries of the method were improved for water and some beverage products (e.g. diet cola, iced tea), breakthrough may also have occurred during SPE of 200 mL of other beverages (e.g. BPF in cola). Improvements in method detection limits were observed with the analysis of large sample volumes for all bisphenols at ppt (pg/g) to sub-ppt levels. This improvement was found to be proportional to sample volumes for water and beverage products with less interferences and noise levels around the analytes. Matrix effects and interferences were observed during SPE of larger volumes (100 and 200 mL) of the beverage products, and affected the accurate analysis of BPF. This improved method was used to analyse bisphenols in various beverage samples, and only BPA was detected, with levels ranging from 0.022 to 0.030 ng/g for products in PET bottles, and 0.085 to 0.32 ng/g for products in cans.

  19. Incidence of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy in community-based cohort in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Yan; Ding, Ding; Zhang, Qing; Yang, Bin; Wang, Taiping; Li, Beixu; Wang, Jie; Luo, Jianfeng; Kwan, Patrick; Wang, Wenzhi; Hong, Zhen; Sander, Josemir W

    2017-11-01

    Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) is associated with the high premature mortality observed among people with epilepsy. It is, however, considered a rare event in China, probably because of lack of awareness and limitation of studies in the country. We aimed to provide some initial estimation of the burden of SUDEP in China. We established a large Chinese community-based cohort of people with epilepsy between January 2010 and December 2011. For any participant who died during follow-up, detailed information on cause of death was obtained using a specifically designed Verbal Autopsy Questionnaire. All cases were reviewed by a multidisciplinary expert panel and reinvestigated if necessary. Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy incidence rates were estimated and case details provided. The cohort consisted of 1562 people and during a median 5years follow-up, 72 deaths were reported. The all-causes death incidence was 11.23 (95% CI 8.86-14.07) per 1000 person-years. Fifteen died suddenly and unexpectedly in a reasonable state of health in the week preceding death. We recorded detailed information of these 15 deaths. Thirteen were considered to be probable SUDEP and two possible SUDEP. The incidence of probable SUDEP was 2.03 (95% CI 1.13-3.38) per 1000 person-years, and the incidence of all suspected (probable and possible) SUDEP was 2.34 (95% CI 1.36-3.77) per 1000 person-years. The incidence of SUDEP was relatively high among Chinese people with epilepsy when compared with that in previous community-based studies from high-income countries. The burden of SUDEP in China requires further assessments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Unexpectedly high genetic variation in large unisexual clumps of the subdioecious plant Honckenya peploides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sánchez-Vilas, Julia; Philipp, Marianne; Retuerto, Rubén

    2010-01-01

    Honckenya peploides is a subdioecious dune plant that reproduces both sexually and by clonal growth. In northwest Spain this species was found to exhibit an extreme spatial segregation of the sexes, and our objective was to investigate genetic variation in unisexual clumps. Genetic variation was ...

  1. An unexpectedly large and loosely packed mitochondrial genome in the charophycean green alga Chlorokybus atmophyticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lemieux Claude

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Streptophyta comprises all land plants and six groups of charophycean green algae. The scaly biflagellate Mesostigma viride (Mesostigmatales and the sarcinoid Chlorokybus atmophyticus (Chlorokybales represent the earliest diverging lineages of this phylum. In trees based on chloroplast genome data, these two charophycean green algae are nested in the same clade. To validate this relationship and gain insight into the ancestral state of the mitochondrial genome in the Charophyceae, we sequenced the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA of Chlorokybus and compared this genome sequence with those of three other charophycean green algae and the bryophytes Marchantia polymorpha and Physcomitrella patens. Results The Chlorokybus genome differs radically from its 42,424-bp Mesostigma counterpart in size, gene order, intron content and density of repeated elements. At 201,763-bp, it is the largest mtDNA yet reported for a green alga. The 70 conserved genes represent 41.4% of the genome sequence and include nad10 and trnL(gag, two genes reported for the first time in a streptophyte mtDNA. At the gene order level, the Chlorokybus genome shares with its Chara, Chaetosphaeridium and bryophyte homologues eight to ten gene clusters including about 20 genes. Notably, some of these clusters exhibit gene linkages not previously found outside the Streptophyta, suggesting that they originated early during streptophyte evolution. In addition to six group I and 14 group II introns, short repeated sequences accounting for 7.5% of the genome were identified. Mitochondrial trees were unable to resolve the correct position of Mesostigma, due to analytical problems arising from accelerated sequence evolution in this lineage. Conclusion The Chlorokybus and Mesostigma mtDNAs exemplify the marked fluidity of the mitochondrial genome in charophycean green algae. The notion that the mitochondrial genome was constrained to remain compact during charophycean evolution is no longer tenable. Our data raise the possibility that the emergence of land plants was not associated with a substantial gain of intergenic sequences by the mitochondrial genome.

  2. Unexpectedly large impact of forest management and grazing on global vegetation biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erb, Karl-Heinz; Kastner, Thomas; Plutzar, Christoph; Bais, Anna Liza S; Carvalhais, Nuno; Fetzel, Tamara; Gingrich, Simone; Haberl, Helmut; Lauk, Christian; Niedertscheider, Maria; Pongratz, Julia; Thurner, Martin; Luyssaert, Sebastiaan

    2018-01-01

    Carbon stocks in vegetation have a key role in the climate system. However, the magnitude, patterns and uncertainties of carbon stocks and the effect of land use on the stocks remain poorly quantified. Here we show, using state-of-the-art datasets, that vegetation currently stores around 450

  3. Unexpected Anal Squamous Cells Carcinoma after Open Hemorrhoidectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navarra Luca

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of unexpected anal squamous cells carcinoma found in hemorrhoidectomy specimen. The patient had a 3-year history of prolapsing hemorrhoids. A prolapsing hemorrhoid was present at eleven o’clock in lithotomy. Milligan-Morgan was performed and gross examination of the specimen was unremarkable. Histopathologic evaluation showed noninvasive squamous cells carcinoma. The present case report evidences the opportunity of routine histopathologic analysis of hemorrhoidal specimens particularly in case of long-standing prolapse. Questions arise in the option of those techniques where no specimens are collected or tissue is excised far from deceased area.

  4. Unexpected death holograms: Animitas urban appeal in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lautaro Ojeda Ledesma

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at performing an integral analysis of the relation between popular religiousness and urban space in Chilean animitas [little shrines] practices. In order to do this, we propose a multipurpose analysis scheme, holding the concept of "unexpected death hologram". This scheme puts forward three supplementary classifications: animita as a holographic subject, as a holographic object and as a holographic place. Finally, these three classifications supplemented by interviews and topologic analyses show almost all the sociospatial factors present in this practice, accounting for the urban importance that this type of popular practice has

  5. Alopecia associated with unexpected leakage from electron cone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen, B.C.; Pennington, E.C.; Hussey, D.H.; Jani, S.K.

    1989-06-01

    Excessive irradiation due to unexpected leakage was found on a patient receiving electron beam therapy. The cause of this leakage was analyzed and the amount of leakage was measured for different electron beam energies. The highest leakage occurred with a 6 x 6 cm cone using a 12 MeV electron beam. The leakage dose measured along the side of the cone could be as great as 40%. Until the cones are modified or redesigned, it is advised that all patient setups be carefully reviewed to assure that no significant patient areas are in the side scatter region.

  6. Clinical impact of tumor location on the colon cancer survival and recurrence: analyses of pooled data from three large phase III randomized clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoyama, Toru; Kashiwabara, Kosuke; Oba, Koji; Honda, Michitaka; Sadahiro, Sotaro; Hamada, Chikuma; Maeda, Hiromichi; Mayanagi, Shuhei; Kanda, Mitsuro; Sakamoto, Junichi; Saji, Shigetoyo; Yoshikawa, Takaki

    2017-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine whether or not the overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) were affected by the tumor location in patients who underwent curative resection for colon cancer in a pooled analysis of three large phase III studies performed in Japan. In total, 4029 patients were included in the present study. Patients were classified as having right-side colon cancer (RC) if the primary tumor was located in the cecum, ascending colon, hepatic flexure or transverse colon, and left-side colon cancer (LCC) if the tumor site was within the splenic flexure, descending colon, sigmoid colon or recto sigmoid junction. The risk factors for the OS and DFS were analyzed. In the present study, 1449 patients were RC, and 2580 were LCC. The OS rates at 3 and 5 years after surgery were 87.6% and 81.6% in the RC group and 91.5% and 84.5% in the LCC group, respectively. Uni- and multivariate analyses showed that RRC increased the risk of death by 19.7% (adjusted hazard ratio = 1.197; 95% confidence interval, 1.020-1.408; P = 0.0272). In contrast, the DFS was similar between the two locations. The present study confirmed that the tumor location was a risk factor for the OS in patients who underwent curative treatment for colon cancer. Tumor location may, therefore, need to be considered a stratification factor in future phase III trials of colon cancer. © 2017 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Prediction value of serum HBV large surface protein in different phases of HBV infection and virological response of chronic hepatitis B patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Can; Wu, Wennan; Shang, Hongyan; Lin, Sheng; Xun, Zhen; Huang, Er; Lin, Jinpiao; Yang, Bin; Ou, Qishui

    2018-06-01

    Serum HBV large surface protein (HBV-LP) is an envelope protein that has a close relationship with HBV DNA level. This study is to explore the prediction value of HBV-LP in different phase of HBV infection and during antiviral therapy in chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients. A retrospective study was conducted in 2033 individuals, which included 1677 HBV infected patients in different phases and 356 healthy controls. HBV-LP, HBV serum markers and HBV DNA were detected by ELISA, CMIA and qRT-PCR, respectively. 85 CHB patients receiving PegIFNα or ETV were divided into virological response (VR) and partial virological response (PVR). The dynamic changes of HBV DNA and HBV-LP were observed. The level of HBV-LP in 2033 individuals was shown as: HBeAg-positive hepatitis > HBeAg-positive infection > HBeAg-negative hepatitis > HBeAg-negative infection > healthy controls. HBV-LP was positive in all patients whose HBV DNA > 1.0E + 06 IU/ml. When HBsAg was 1000 IU/ml, HBV DNAs were all negative if HBV-LP HBV-LP with HBV DNA was 100% in case of HBV-LP > 4.0 S/CO in HBeAg-positive patients and HBV-LP > 2.0 S/CO in HBeAg-negative ones. During antiviral therapy, baseline HBV-LP was lower in VR patients than that in PVR patients. The optimal cut-off points to predict VR by baseline HBV-LP were 32.4 and 28.6 S/CO for HBeAg-positive and HBeAg-negative hepatitis patients, respectively. HBV-LP may be a useful marker for distinguishing the different phases of HBV infection. Moreover, baseline HBV-LP level can be used for predicting VR of CHB patients. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. ERP correlates of unexpected word forms in a picture–word study of infants and adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duta, M.D.; Styles, S.J.; Plunkett, K.

    2012-01-01

    We tested 14-month-olds and adults in an event-related potentials (ERPs) study in which pictures of familiar objects generated expectations about upcoming word forms. Expected word forms labelled the picture (word condition), while unexpected word forms mismatched by either a small deviation in word medial vowel height (mispronunciation condition) or a large deviation from the onset of the first speech segment (pseudoword condition). Both infants and adults showed sensitivity to both types of unexpected word form. Adults showed a chain of discrete effects: positivity over the N1 wave, negativity over the P2 wave (PMN effect) and negativity over the N2 wave (N400 effect). Infants showed a similar pattern, including a robust effect similar to the adult P2 effect. These observations were underpinned by a novel visualisation method which shows the dynamics of the ERP within bands of the scalp over time. The results demonstrate shared processing mechanisms across development, as even subtle deviations from expected word forms were indexed in both age groups by a reduction in the amplitude of characteristic waves in the early auditory evoked potential. PMID:22483072

  9. Process improvement methodologies uncover unexpected gaps in stroke care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuner, Anthony D; Schemmel, Andrew J; Pooler, B Dustin; Yu, John-Paul J

    2018-01-01

    Background The diagnosis and treatment of acute stroke requires timed and coordinated effort across multiple clinical teams. Purpose To analyze the frequency and temporal distribution of emergent stroke evaluations (ESEs) to identify potential contributory workflow factors that may delay the initiation and subsequent evaluation of emergency department stroke patients. Material and Methods A total of 719 sentinel ESEs with concurrent neuroimaging were identified over a 22-month retrospective time period. Frequency data were tabulated and odds ratios calculated. Results Of all ESEs, 5% occur between 01:00 and 07:00. ESEs were most frequent during the late morning and early afternoon hours (10:00-14:00). Unexpectedly, there was a statistically significant decline in the frequency of ESEs that occur at the 14:00 time point. Conclusion Temporal analysis of ESEs in the emergency department allowed us to identify an unexpected decrease in ESEs and through process improvement methodologies (Lean and Six Sigma) and identify potential workflow elements contributing to this observation.

  10. When an Object Appears Unexpectedly: Object Circumvention in Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilmut, Kate; Du, Wenchong; Barnett, Anna L

    2017-01-01

    Obstacles often appear unexpectedly in our pathway and these require us to make immediate adjustments. Despite how regularly we encounter such situations only few studies have considered how we adjust to unexpected obstacles in the pathway that require us to walk around them. The authors considered how adults adjust to the possibility of an obstacle appearing and then also how foot placement is adjusted to circumvent an obstacle. Fifteen healthy adults walked down an 11-m walkway, initially they were told this was a clear pathway and nothing in the environment would change (no gate), they then performed a series of trials in which a gate may (gate close) or may not (gate open) partially obstruct their pathway. The authors found that mediolateral trunk velocity and acceleration was significantly increased when there was the possibility of an obstacle but before the obstacle appeared. This demonstrates an adaptive walking strategy that seems to enable healthy young adults to successfully circumvent obstacles. The authors also categorized foot placement adjustments and found that adults favored making shorter and wider steps away from the obstacle. They suggest this combination of adjustments allows participants to maintain stability while successfully circumventing the obstacle.

  11. Effect of emergency core cooling system flow reduction on channel temperature during recirculation phase of large break loss-of-coolant accident at Wolsong unit 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Seon Oh; Cho, Yong Jin [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sung Joong [Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-08-15

    The feasibility of cooling in a pressurized heavy water reactor after a large break loss-of-coolant accident has been analyzed using Multidimensional Analysis of Reactor Safety-KINS Standard code during the recirculation phase. Through evaluation of sensitivity of the fuel channel temperature to various effective recirculation flow areas, it is determined that proper cooling of the fuel channels in the broken loop is feasible if the effective flow area remains above approximately 70% of the nominal flow area. When the flow area is reduced by more than approximately 25% of the nominal value, however, incipience of boiling is expected, after which the thermal integrity of the fuel channel can be threatened. In addition, if a dramatic reduction of the recirculation flow occurs, excursions and frequent fluctuations of temperature in the fuel channels are likely to be unavoidable, and thus damage to the fuel channels would be anticipated. To resolve this, emergency coolant supply through the newly installed external injection path can be used as one alternative means of cooling, enabling fuel channel integrity to be maintained and permanently preventing severe accident conditions. Thus, the external injection flow required to guarantee fuel channel coolability has been estimated.

  12. Effect of emergency core cooling system flow reduction on channel temperature during recirculation phase of large break loss-of-coolant accident at Wolsong unit 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seon Oh Yu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The feasibility of cooling in a pressurized heavy water reactor after a large break loss-of-coolant accident has been analyzed using Multidimensional Analysis of Reactor Safety-KINS Standard code during the recirculation phase. Through evaluation of sensitivity of the fuel channel temperature to various effective recirculation flow areas, it is determined that proper cooling of the fuel channels in the broken loop is feasible if the effective flow area remains above approximately 70% of the nominal flow area. When the flow area is reduced by more than approximately 25% of the nominal value, however, incipience of boiling is expected, after which the thermal integrity of the fuel channel can be threatened. In addition, if a dramatic reduction of the recirculation flow occurs, excursions and frequent fluctuations of temperature in the fuel channels are likely to be unavoidable, and thus damage to the fuel channels would be anticipated. To resolve this, emergency coolant supply through the newly installed external injection path can be used as one alternative means of cooling, enabling fuel channel integrity to be maintained and permanently preventing severe accident conditions. Thus, the external injection flow required to guarantee fuel channel coolability has been estimated.

  13. Application of analytical capability to predict rapid cladding cooling and quench during the blowdown phase of a large break loss-of-coolant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aksan, S.N.; Tolman, E.L.; Nelson, R.A.

    1983-01-01

    Large-break Experiments L2-2 and L2-3 conducted in the Loss-of-Fluid Test (LOFT) facility experienced core-wide rapid quenches early in the blowdown transients. To further investigate rapid cladding quenches, separate effects experiments using Semiscale solid-type electric heater rods were conducted in the LOFT Test Support Facility (LTSF) over a wide range of inlet coolant conditions. The analytical capability to predict the cladding temperature response from selected LTSF experiments estimated to bound the hydraulic conditions causing the LOFT early blowdown quenches was investigated using the RELAP4 computer code and was shown to be acceptable over the film boiling cooldown phase. This analytical capability was then used to investigate the behavior of nuclear fuel rods under the same hydraulic conditions. The calculations show that, under rapid cooling conditions, the behaviors of nuclear and electrical heater rods are significantly different because the nuclear rods are conduction limited, while the electrical rods are convection limited

  14. Unified Phase Diagram for Iron-Based Superconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yanhong; Liu, Zhaoyu; Xie, Tao; Zhang, Wenliang; Gong, Dongliang; Hu, Ding; Ma, Xiaoyan; Li, Chunhong; Zhao, Lingxiao; Lin, Lifang; Xu, Zhuang; Tan, Guotai; Chen, Genfu; Meng, Zi Yang; Yang, Yi-Feng; Luo, Huiqian; Li, Shiliang

    2017-10-13

    High-temperature superconductivity is closely adjacent to a long-range antiferromagnet, which is called a parent compound. In cuprates, all parent compounds are alike and carrier doping leads to superconductivity, so a unified phase diagram can be drawn. However, the properties of parent compounds for iron-based superconductors show significant diversity and both carrier and isovalent dopings can cause superconductivity, which casts doubt on the idea that there exists a unified phase diagram for them. Here we show that the ordered moments in a variety of iron pnictides are inversely proportional to the effective Curie constants of their nematic susceptibility. This unexpected scaling behavior suggests that the magnetic ground states of iron pnictides can be achieved by tuning the strength of nematic fluctuations. Therefore, a unified phase diagram can be established where superconductivity emerges from a hypothetical parent compound with a large ordered moment but weak nematic fluctuations, which suggests that iron-based superconductors are strongly correlated electron systems.

  15. Unified Phase Diagram for Iron-Based Superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yanhong; Liu, Zhaoyu; Xie, Tao; Zhang, Wenliang; Gong, Dongliang; Hu, Ding; Ma, Xiaoyan; Li, Chunhong; Zhao, Lingxiao; Lin, Lifang; Xu, Zhuang; Tan, Guotai; Chen, Genfu; Meng, Zi Yang; Yang, Yi-feng; Luo, Huiqian; Li, Shiliang

    2017-10-01

    High-temperature superconductivity is closely adjacent to a long-range antiferromagnet, which is called a parent compound. In cuprates, all parent compounds are alike and carrier doping leads to superconductivity, so a unified phase diagram can be drawn. However, the properties of parent compounds for iron-based superconductors show significant diversity and both carrier and isovalent dopings can cause superconductivity, which casts doubt on the idea that there exists a unified phase diagram for them. Here we show that the ordered moments in a variety of iron pnictides are inversely proportional to the effective Curie constants of their nematic susceptibility. This unexpected scaling behavior suggests that the magnetic ground states of iron pnictides can be achieved by tuning the strength of nematic fluctuations. Therefore, a unified phase diagram can be established where superconductivity emerges from a hypothetical parent compound with a large ordered moment but weak nematic fluctuations, which suggests that iron-based superconductors are strongly correlated electron systems.

  16. Unexpected properties of Radim-type radon monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plch, J.; Burian, I.; Jilek, K.; Vosahlik, J.

    2004-01-01

    The results of numerous experiments carried out using Radim-type monitors are summarized. The monitor, which is based on collection of ions on the surface of a semiconductor detector in an electric field, exhibits enormous efficiency in collecting ions, which attains a value of 70% in the optimum case. The collection efficiency exhibits low dependence on the humidity: the efficiency decreases by 7.4% when the humidity changes from 50 to 90%. The dependence on the humidity is linear to 10% - in contradiction with the published results. The work gives the experimentally determined decreases in the presence of smoke and VOCs, which are acceptable even when the smoke and VOC concentrations are enormous. The results are analyzed and an attempt was made to theoretically explain these unexpected results. (author)

  17. Unexpected findings of a female team in Xochimilco, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Salgado, C

    1999-01-01

    This is a reflection about the methodological circumstances that led the author to certain unexpected information during the course of a qualitative approach to the perception of health problems of a group of poor families in the south of Mexico City. Special attention is paid to the influence of the research team composition (four women with different professional backgrounds, ages, marital statuses, and styles of personal interaction) and the psychoanalytic technique that influenced the study. The inclusion of people of different ages, professions, and personality traits proved extremely valuable both as a means of widening the possibilities for empathetic relations between the research group and the population studied and for increasing the shades of meaning that the team was able to capture.

  18. Wikiwijs: An unexpected journey and the lessons learned towards OER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Schuwer

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The Dutch Ministry of Education, Culture and Science has funded a five years program to encourage the use, creation and sharing of Open Educational Resources (OER by teachers from various types of education. This program is known as Wikiwijs. Ultimo 2013, the program has come to an end. As some of the assumptions at the start of Wikiwijs proved to work out in unexpected ways the lessons learned could fuel the next steps in developing Wikiwijs. Besides, other national initiatives on opening up education may also benefit from the lessons learned reported here. The main conclusion from five years Wikiwijs was that to accomplish mainstreaming OER, the Wikiwijs program should go along with other interventions that are more oriented toward prescriptive policies and regulations. In particular: the Dutch government should be more directive in persuading executive boards and teachers on schools to adopt OER as an important part of educational reform and the acquisition of 21st century skills.

  19. Unexpected radionuclide uptake due to calcification in muscles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khier, A.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: A male patient aged 27 years was injected with 1000 MBq of 99 Tc m -MDP. The patient was an active man indulging in contact sport. He presented with lower back and pelvic pain. Spot pictures were made of the pelvis, lumbar spine and femurs. Unexpected active radionuclide uptake in the muscles was seen. In the delayed static images, there was focal accumulation of tracer uptake in the muscles overlying the mid-shaft of the left femur consistent with myositis ossificans. Myositis ossificans is a benign ossifying process that is generally solitary and well circumscribed. It is most commonly found in the muscles but it may occur in other connective tissues, especially tendons and subcutaneous fat. This was presumably associated with chronic muscular injuries contracted during sports activity

  20. Nuclear fission - the unexpected discovery seventy years ago

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weis, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Seventy years ago, on December 17, 1938, Otto Hahn, Lise Meitner, and Fritz Strassmann discovered nuclear fission. It was a serendipitous discovery resulting from the consistent pursuit, for many years, of occasionally unexpected radiochemical experimental findings. Hardly any other scientific discovery has had such direct bearing on our life, changing our view of the world. It over-threw the tenet of physics, believed to be incontestable, that the atom was indivisible. The use of nuclear power it has made possible has given rise to immense benefits, but it has also allowed mankind's most dreadful weapon so far to be developed. All this is ample reason seventy years later to recall the discovery, the discoverers and their times. It will also be shown what later generations have made of this discovery, and what economic and ecological prospects it continues to hold. (orig.)

  1. Subclinical hyperthyroidism and sudden unexpected death in epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scorza, Fulvio A; Arida, Ricardo M; Cysneiros, Roberta M; Terra, Vera C; de Albuquerque, Marly; Machado, Hélio R; Cavalheiro, Esper A

    2010-04-01

    Epilepsy is the most common serious neurological condition and sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) is the most important direct epilepsy-related cause of death. Information concerning risk factors for SUDEP is conflicting, but high seizure frequency is a potential risk factor. Additionally, potential pathomechanisms for SUDEP are unknown, but it is very probable that cardiac arrhythmias during and between seizures or transmission of epileptic activity to the heart via the autonomic nervous system potentially play a role. In parallel, several studies have shown a link between hormones and epilepsy. However, exact knowledge regarding the association of thyroid hormones and epilepsy is lacking. As subclinical hyperthyroidism has been linked with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, we propose in this paper that SUDEP, at least in some cases, could be related with subclinical thyroid dysfunction. (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Sudden unexpected death under acute influence of cannabis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartung, Benno; Kauferstein, Silke; Ritz-Timme, Stefanie; Daldrup, Thomas

    2014-04-01

    The acute toxicity of cannabinoids is said to be low and there is little public awareness of the potentially hazardous cardiovascular effects of cannabis, e.g. marked increase in heart rate or supine blood pressure. We describe the cases of two young, putative healthy men who died unexpectedly under the acute influence of cannabinoids. To our knowledge, these are the first cases of suspected fatal cannabis intoxications where full postmortem investigations, including autopsy, toxicological, histological, immunohistochemical and genetical examinations, were carried out. The results of these examinations are presented. After exclusion of other causes of death we assume that the young men experienced fatal cardiovascular complications evoked by smoking cannabis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A study of the cool gas in the Large Magellanic Cloud. I. Properties of the cool atomic phase - a third H i absorption survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marx-Zimmer, M.; Herbstmeier, U.; Dickey, J. M.; Zimmer, F.; Staveley-Smith, L.; Mebold, U.

    2000-02-01

    The cool atomic interstellar medium of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) seems to be quite different from that in the Milky Way. In a series of three papers we study the properties of the cool atomic hydrogen in the LMC (Paper I), its relation to molecular clouds using SEST-CO-observations (Paper II) and the cooling mechanism of the atomic gas based on ISO-[\\CII]-investigations (Paper III). In this paper we present the results of a third 21 cm absorption line survey toward the LMC carried out with the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA). 20 compact continuum sources, which are mainly in the direction of the supergiant shell LMC 4, toward the surroundings of 30 Doradus and toward the eastern steep \\HI\\ boundary, have been chosen from the 1.4 GHz snapshot continuum survey of Marx et al. We have identified 20 absorption features toward nine of the 20 sources. The properties of the cool \\HI\\ clouds are investigated and are compared for the different regions of the LMC taking the results of Dickey et al. (survey 2) into account. We find that the cool \\HI\\ gas in the LMC is either unusually abundant compared to the cool atomic phase of the Milky Way or the gas is clearly colder (\\Tc\\ ~ 30 K) than that in our Galaxy (\\Tc\\ ~ 60 K). The properties of atomic clouds toward 30 Doradus and LMC 4 suggest a higher cooling rate in these regions compared to other parts of the LMC, probably due to an enhanced pressure near the shock fronts of LMC 4 and 30 Doradus. The detected cool atomic gas toward the eastern steep \\HI\\ boundary might be the result of a high compression of gas at the leading edge. The Australia Telescope is funded by the Commonwealth of Australia for operation as a National Facility managed by CSIRO.

  4. The hidden treasure in your data: phasing with unexpected weak anomalous scatterers from routine data sets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hegde, Raghurama P.; Fedorov, Alexander A.; Sauder, J. Michael; Burley, Stephen K.; Almo, Steven C.; Ramagopal, Udupi A.

    2017-03-22

    Single-wavelength anomalous dispersion (SAD) utilizing anomalous signal from native S atoms, or other atoms withZ≤ 20, generally requires highly redundant data collected using relatively long-wavelength X-rays. Here, the results from two proteins are presented where the anomalous signal from serendipitously acquired surface-bound Ca atoms with an anomalous data multiplicity of around 10 was utilized to drivede novostructure determination. In both cases, the Ca atoms were acquired from the crystallization solution, and the data-collection strategy was not optimized to exploit the anomalous signal from these scatterers. The X-ray data were collected at 0.98 Å wavelength in one case and at 1.74 Å in the other (the wavelength was optimized for sulfur, but the anomalous signal from calcium was exploited for structure solution). Similarly, using a test case, it is shown that data collected at ~1.0 Å wavelength, where thef'' value for sulfur is 0.28 e, are sufficient for structure determination using intrinsic S atoms from a strongly diffracting crystal. Interestingly, it was also observed thatSHELXDwas capable of generating a substructure solution from high-exposure data with a completeness of 70% for low-resolution reflections extending to 3.5 Å resolution with relatively low anomalous multiplicity. Considering the fact that many crystallization conditions contain anomalous scatterers such as Cl, Ca, Mnetc., checking for the presence of fortuitous anomalous signal in data from well diffracting crystals could prove useful in either determining the structurede novoor in accurately assigning surface-bound atoms.

  5. Theoretical evidence for unexpected O-rich phases at corners of MgO surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Saswata; Berger, Daniel; Reuter, Karsten; Ghiringhelli, Luca M.; Levchenko, Sergey V.

    2017-12-01

    Realistic oxide materials are often semiconductors, in particular at elevated temperatures, and their surfaces contain undercoordinated atoms at structural defects such as steps and corners. Using hybrid density-functional theory and ab initio atomistic thermodynamics, we investigate the interplay of bond-making, bond-breaking, and charge-carrier trapping at the corner defects at the (100) surface of a p -doped MgO in thermodynamic equilibrium with an O2 atmosphere. We show that by manipulating the coordination of surface atoms, one can drastically change and even reverse the order of stability of reduced versus oxidized surface sites.

  6. Willingness and ability to pay for unexpected dental expenses by Finnish adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widström Eeva

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since 2002, adults have been able to choose oral health care services in the public sector or in the private sector in Finland. Though various subsidies for care exist in both sectors, the Public Dental Service (PDS is a cheaper option for the patient but, on the other hand, there are no waiting lists for private care. The aim of this study was to assess middle-aged adults' use of dental services, willingness to pay (WTP and ability to pay (ATP for unexpected, urgent dental treatment. Methods Postal questionnaires on use of dental services were sent to a random sample of 1500 47-59 year old adults living in three large municipalities in the Helsinki region. The initial response rate was 65.8%. Two hypothetical scenarios were presented: "What would be the highest price you would be prepared to pay to have a lost filling replaced immediately, or, at the latest, the day after losing the filling?" and " How much could you pay for unexpected dental expenses at two weeks notice, if you suddenly needed more comprehensive treatment?" Logistic regression analysis was used to analyse factors related to WTP and ATP. Results Most respondents (89.6% had visited a dentist recently and a majority (76.1% had used private services. For immediate replacement of a lost filling, almost all respondents (93.2% were willing to pay the lower price charged in the PDS and 46.2% were willing to pay the private fee. High income and no subjective need for dental treatment were positively associated with the probability of paying a higher price. Most respondents (93.0% were able to pay a low fee, EUR 50 and almost half (41.6% at least EUR 300 for unexpected treatment at short notice. High income and male sex were associated with high ATP. Conclusion There was a strong and statistically significant relationship between income and WTP and ATP for urgent dental care, indicating that access to publicly provided services improved equity for persons with low

  7. BrahmVE platform for design and test of Large Scale Multi-agent Human-centric Mission Concepts, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Phase I proposal seeks support to extend the BrahmsVE architecture to support a multi-agent human-centric simulation of a hypothetical future ISS which is...

  8. Cannibalistic-morph Tiger Salamanders in unexpected ecological contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Kyle I.; Stockwell, Craig A.; Mushet, David M.

    2016-01-01

    Barred tiger salamanders [Ambystoma mavortium (Baird, 1850)] exhibit two trophic morphologies; a typical and a cannibalistic morph. Cannibalistic morphs, distinguished by enlarged vomerine teeth, wide heads, slender bodies, and cannibalistic tendencies, are often found where conspecifics occur at high density. During 2012 and 2013, 162 North Dakota wetlands and lakes were sampled for salamanders. Fifty-one contained A. mavortium populations; four of these contained cannibalistic morph individuals. Two populations with cannibalistic morphs occurred at sites with high abundances of conspecifics. However, the other two populations occurred at sites with unexpectedly low conspecific but high fathead minnow [Pimephales promelas (Rafinesque, 1820)] abundances. Further, no typical morphs were observed in either of these later two populations, contrasting with earlier research suggesting cannibalistic morphs only occur at low frequencies in salamander populations. Another anomaly of all four populations was the occurrence of cannibalistic morphs in permanent water sites, suggesting their presence was due to factors other than faster growth allowing them to occupy ephemeral habitats. Therefore, our findings suggest environmental factors inducing the cannibalistic morphism may be more complex than previously thought.

  9. Electrocardiographic features of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chyou, Janice Y; Friedman, Daniel; Cerrone, Marina; Slater, William; Guo, Yu; Taupin, Daniel; O'Rourke, Sean; Priori, Silvia G; Devinsky, Orrin

    2016-07-01

    Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) is the most common cause of epilepsy-related mortality. We hypothesized that electrocardiography (ECG) features may distinguish SUDEP cases from living subjects with epilepsy. Using a matched case-control design, we compared ECG studies of 12 consecutive cases of SUDEP over 10 years and 22 epilepsy controls matched for age, sex, epilepsy type (focal, generalized, or unknown/mixed type), concomitant antiepileptic, and psychotropic drug classes. Conduction intervals and prevalence of abnormal ventricular conduction diagnosis (QRS ≥110 msec), abnormal ventricular conduction pattern (QRS <110 msec, morphology of incomplete right or left bundle branch block or intraventricular conduction delay), early repolarization, and features of inherited cardiac channelopathies were assessed. Abnormal ventricular conduction diagnosis and pattern distinguished SUDEP cases from matched controls. Abnormal ventricular conduction diagnosis was present in two cases and no controls. Abnormal ventricular conduction pattern was more common in cases than controls (58% vs. 18%, p = 0.04). Early repolarization was similarly prevalent in cases and controls, but the overall prevalence exceeded that of published community-based cohorts. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 International League Against Epilepsy.

  10. A "present" for the future: the unexpected value of rediscovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ting; Kim, Tami; Brooks, Alison Wood; Gino, Francesca; Norton, Michael I

    2014-10-01

    Although documenting everyday activities may seem trivial, four studies reveal that creating records of the present generates unexpected benefits by allowing future rediscoveries. In Study 1, we used a time-capsule paradigm to show that individuals underestimate the extent to which rediscovering experiences from the past will be curiosity provoking and interesting in the future. In Studies 2 and 3, we found that people are particularly likely to underestimate the pleasure of rediscovering ordinary, mundane experiences, as opposed to extraordinary experiences. Finally, Study 4 demonstrates that underestimating the pleasure of rediscovery leads to time-inconsistent choices: Individuals forgo opportunities to document the present but then prefer rediscovering those moments in the future to engaging in an alternative fun activity. Underestimating the value of rediscovery is linked to people's erroneous faith in their memory of everyday events. By documenting the present, people provide themselves with the opportunity to rediscover mundane moments that may otherwise have been forgotten. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. Unexpected demography in the recovery of an endangered primate population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen B Strier

    Full Text Available Assessments of the status of endangered species have focused on population sizes, often without knowledge of demographic and behavioral processes underlying population recovery. We analyzed demographic data from a 28-year study of a critically endangered primate, the northern muriqui, to investigate possible changes in demographic rates as this population recovered from near extirpation. As the population increased from 60 to nearly 300 individuals, its growth rate declined due to increased mortality and male-biased birth sex ratios; the increased mortality was not uniform across ages and sexes, and there has been a recent increase in mortality of prime-aged males. If not for a concurrent increase in fertility rates, the population would have stabilized at 200 individuals instead of continuing to grow. The unexpected increase in fertility rates and in adult male mortality can be attributed to the muriquis' expansion of their habitat by spending more time on the ground. The demographic consequences of this behavioral shift must be incorporated into management tactics for this population and emphasize the importance of understanding demographic rates in the recovery of endangered species.

  12. Preferences of Patients for Discussing Sudden Unexpected Death in Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sūna Normunds

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available People with epilepsy have increased mortality rates, which is partially attributed to sudden unexpected death in epilepsy syndrome (SUDEP. Poor seizure control appears to be the strongest SUDEP risk factor. Management of epilepsy and adherence to therapy is critical to seizure control. The belief by caregivers of negative influence caused by being informed about the syndrome is the main reason SUDEP is not disclosed. There are no clear recommendations when to disclose the risk of SUDEP and how much information should be provided. We addressed the preferences of Latvian epilepsy patients for discussing SUDEP as well as awareness of the syndrome. Our study involved 55 epilepsy patients. We found that, as in other studies, our patients were relatively well informed about SUDEP. We found that a considerable proportion of patients preferred to receive information about SUDEP from a general practitioner. We note the belief of patients that the disclosure of SUDEP would either improve or have no effect on the quality of life. We were able to identify groups of patients with a self-reported belief of more frequent expected anxiety and poor adherence to medical treatment. Our data improves the understanding of preferences of patient for discussing the negative aspects of epilepsy.

  13. Finding the unexpected: pathological examination of surgically resected femoral heads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fornasier, V.L.; Battaglia, D.M.

    2005-01-01

    To study the clinically diagnosed disease process but also identify additional, clinically undetected pathologies in femoral heads resected for replacement arthroplasty. A retrospective review was carried out of the pathological findings in 460 surgically resected femoral heads. Serial sections were submitted to low-energy fine-detail radiography, then decalcified sections stained by the WHO method were examined. The preoperative clinical and imaging diagnoses were compared with the pathological findings and special interest was placed on assessing the clinical significance of any unexpected, clinically undetected findings. The most common findings included the presence of bone islands (solitary osteomas) and areas of avascular necrosis in addition to the primary joint disease for which the patient underwent surgery. The preoperative symptomatology did not distinguish between the known primary disease and the additional pathological findings. Some of the clinically unidentified lesions were of a size that fell below the ability of current clinical investigations to detect. However, the finding of lesions by tissue fine-detail radiography indicates that current, more sensitive clinical imaging techniques may identify them. Careful examination of surgically resected femoral heads is important to ensure that all pathologies are identified and assessed for clinical relevance. (orig.)

  14. Finding the unexpected: pathological examination of surgically resected femoral heads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fornasier, V.L. [St. Michael' s Hospital, University of Toronto, Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Battaglia, D.M. [St. Michael' s Hospital, University of Toronto, Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); St. Michael' s Hospital, University of Toronto, Division of Pathology, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2005-06-01

    To study the clinically diagnosed disease process but also identify additional, clinically undetected pathologies in femoral heads resected for replacement arthroplasty. A retrospective review was carried out of the pathological findings in 460 surgically resected femoral heads. Serial sections were submitted to low-energy fine-detail radiography, then decalcified sections stained by the WHO method were examined. The preoperative clinical and imaging diagnoses were compared with the pathological findings and special interest was placed on assessing the clinical significance of any unexpected, clinically undetected findings. The most common findings included the presence of bone islands (solitary osteomas) and areas of avascular necrosis in addition to the primary joint disease for which the patient underwent surgery. The preoperative symptomatology did not distinguish between the known primary disease and the additional pathological findings. Some of the clinically unidentified lesions were of a size that fell below the ability of current clinical investigations to detect. However, the finding of lesions by tissue fine-detail radiography indicates that current, more sensitive clinical imaging techniques may identify them. Careful examination of surgically resected femoral heads is important to ensure that all pathologies are identified and assessed for clinical relevance. (orig.)

  15. Unexpected Molecular Sieving Properties of Zeolitic Imidazolate Framework-8

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Chen

    2012-08-16

    We studied molecular sieving properties of zeolitic imidazolate framework-8 (ZIF-8) by estimating the thermodynamically corrected diffusivities of probe molecules at 35 °C. From helium (2.6 Å) to iso-C 4H 10 (5.0 Å), the corrected diffusivity drops 14 orders of magnitude. Our results further suggest that the effective aperture size of ZIF-8 for molecular sieving is in the range of 4.0 to 4.2 Å, which is significantly larger than the XRD-derived value (3.4 Å) and between the well-known aperture size of zeolite 4A (3.8 Å) and 5A (4.3 Å). Interestingly, because of aperture flexibility, the studied C 4 hydrocarbon molecules that are larger than this effective aperture size still adsorb in the micropores of ZIF-8 with kinetic selectivities for iso-C 4H 8/iso-C 4H 10 of 180 and n-C 4H 10/iso-C 4H 10 of 2.5 × 10 6. These unexpected molecular sieving properties open up new opportunities for ZIF materials for separations that cannot be economically achieved by traditional microporous adsorbents such as synthetic zeolites. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  16. Unexpected Molecular Sieving Properties of Zeolitic Imidazolate Framework-8

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Chen; Lively, Ryan P.; Zhang, Ke; Johnson, Justin R.; Karvan, Oguz; Koros, William J.

    2012-01-01

    We studied molecular sieving properties of zeolitic imidazolate framework-8 (ZIF-8) by estimating the thermodynamically corrected diffusivities of probe molecules at 35 °C. From helium (2.6 Å) to iso-C 4H 10 (5.0 Å), the corrected diffusivity drops 14 orders of magnitude. Our results further suggest that the effective aperture size of ZIF-8 for molecular sieving is in the range of 4.0 to 4.2 Å, which is significantly larger than the XRD-derived value (3.4 Å) and between the well-known aperture size of zeolite 4A (3.8 Å) and 5A (4.3 Å). Interestingly, because of aperture flexibility, the studied C 4 hydrocarbon molecules that are larger than this effective aperture size still adsorb in the micropores of ZIF-8 with kinetic selectivities for iso-C 4H 8/iso-C 4H 10 of 180 and n-C 4H 10/iso-C 4H 10 of 2.5 × 10 6. These unexpected molecular sieving properties open up new opportunities for ZIF materials for separations that cannot be economically achieved by traditional microporous adsorbents such as synthetic zeolites. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  17. Bah humbug: Unexpected Christmas cards and the reciprocity norm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Brian P

    2016-01-01

    The reciprocity norm refers to the expectation that people will help those who helped them. A well-known study revealed that the norm is strong with Christmas cards, with 20% of people reciprocating a Christmas card received from a stranger. I attempted to conceptually replicate and extend this effect. In Study 1, 755 participants received a Christmas card supposedly from a more- versus less-similar stranger. The reciprocation rate was unexpectedly low (2%), which did not allow for a test of a similarity effect. Two potential reasons for this low rate were examined in Study 2 in which 494 participants reported their likelihood of reciprocating a Christmas card from a stranger as well as their felt suspicions/threat about the card and their frequency of e-mail use. Reciprocation likelihood was negatively correlated with perceived threat/suspicion and e-mail use. It appears that reciprocating a gift from a stranger in offline settings may be less likely than expected.

  18. Towards Eulerian-Eulerian large eddy simulation of reactive two-phase plows; Vers la simulation des grandes echelles en formulation Euler-Euler des ecoulements reactifs diphasiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaufmann, A.

    2004-03-15

    Particle laden flows occur in industrial applications ranging from droplets in gas turbines to fluidized bed in chemical industry. Prediction of the dispersed phase properties such as concentration and dynamics are crucial for the design of more efficient devices that meet the new pollutant regulations of the European community. Numerical simulation coupling Lagrangian tracking of discrete particles with DNS or LES of the carrier phase provide a well established powerful tool to investigate particle laden flows. Such numerical methods have the drawback of being numerically very expensive for practical applications. Numerical simulations based on separate Eulerian balance equations for both phases, coupled through inter-phase exchange terms might be an effective alternative approach. This approach has been validated for the case of tracer particles with very low inertia that follow the carrier phase almost instantaneously due to their small response time compared with the micro-scale time scales of the carrier phase. Objective of this thesis is to extend this approach to more inertial particles that occur in practical applications such as fuel droplets in gas turbine combustors. Existing results suggest a separation of the dispersed phase velocity into a correlated and an uncorrelated component. The energy related to the uncorrelated component is about 30% of the total particle kinetic energy when the particle relaxation time is comparable to the Lagrangian integral time scale. The presence of this uncorrelated motion leads to stress terms in the Eulerian balance equation for the particle momentum. Models for this stress terms are proposed and tested. Numerical simulations in the Eulerian framework are validated by comparison with simulations using Lagrangian particle tracking. Additionally coupling of the Eulerian transport equations for the particles to combustion models is tested. (author)

  19. Explaining the unexpected success of the smoking ban in Italy: political strategy and transition to practice, 2000–2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mele, Valentina; Compagni, Amelia

    2010-01-01

    The approval (2003) and enforcement (2005) of a smoking ban in Italy have been viewed by many as an unexpectedly successful example of policy change. The present paper, by applying a processualist approach, concentrates on two policy cycles between 2000 and 2005. These had opposing outcomes: an incomplete decisional stage and an authoritative decision, enforced two years later. Through the analysis of the different phases of agenda setting, alternative specification and decision making, we have compared the quality of participation of policy entrepreneurs in the two cycles, their political strategies and, in these, the relevance of issue image. The case allows us to direct the attention of scholars and practitioners to an early phase of the policy implementation process – which we have named "transition to practice". This, managed with political strategy, might have strongly contributed to the final successful policy outcome.

  20. Lifting an unexpectedly heavy object : the effects on low-back loading and balance loss

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Burg, J C; van Dieën, J H; Toussaint, H M

    OBJECTIVE: This study evaluates the effects of lifting an unexpectedly heavy object on low-back loading and loss of balance. BACKGROUND: It is often suggested that lifting an unexpectedly heavy object may be a major risk factor for low-back pain. This may lead to an increase in muscle activation,

  1. Communication of Unexpected and Significant Findings on Chest Radiographs With an Automated PACS Alert System.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hayes, Sara A

    2014-08-01

    An integral part of realizing the enormous potential of imaging in patient care is close communication between radiologists and referring physicians. One key element of this process is the communication of unexpected significant findings. The authors examined the performance of a PACS-based alert system in the appropriate communication of reports containing unexpected significant findings to referring physicians.

  2. Unexpected Functional Divergence of Bat Influenza Virus NS1 Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkington, Hannah L; Juozapaitis, Mindaugas; Tsolakos, Nikos; Corrales-Aguilar, Eugenia; Schwemmle, Martin; Hale, Benjamin G

    2018-03-01

    Recently, two influenza A virus (FLUAV) genomes were identified in Central and South American bats. These sequences exhibit notable divergence from classical FLUAV counterparts, and functionally, bat FLUAV glycoproteins lack canonical receptor binding and destroying activity. Nevertheless, other features that distinguish these viruses from classical FLUAVs have yet to be explored. Here, we studied the viral nonstructural protein NS1, a virulence factor that modulates host signaling to promote efficient propagation. Like all FLUAV NS1 proteins, bat FLUAV NS1s bind double-stranded RNA and act as interferon antagonists. Unexpectedly, we found that bat FLUAV NS1s are unique in being unable to bind host p85β, a regulatory subunit of the cellular metabolism-regulating enzyme, phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K). Furthermore, neither bat FLUAV NS1 alone nor infection with a chimeric bat FLUAV efficiently activates Akt, a PI3K effector. Structure-guided mutagenesis revealed that the bat FLUAV NS1-p85β interaction can be reengineered (in a strain-specific manner) by changing two to four NS1 residues (96L, 99M, 100I, and 145T), thereby creating a hydrophobic patch. Notably, ameliorated p85β-binding is insufficient for bat FLUAV NS1 to activate PI3K, and a chimeric bat FLUAV expressing NS1 with engineered hydrophobic patch mutations exhibits cell-type-dependent, but species-independent, propagation phenotypes. We hypothesize that bat FLUAV hijacking of PI3K in the natural bat host has been selected against, perhaps because genes in this metabolic pathway were differentially shaped by evolution to suit the unique energy use strategies of this flying mammal. These data expand our understanding of the enigmatic functional divergence between bat FLUAVs and classical mammalian and avian FLUAVs. IMPORTANCE The potential for novel influenza A viruses to establish infections in humans from animals is a source of continuous concern due to possible severe outbreaks or pandemics. The

  3. Unexpected photoreactivation of Vibrio harveyi bacteria living in ionization environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alifano, P.; Tala, A.; Tredici, S. M.; Nassisi, V.; Siciliano, M. V.

    2011-01-01

    Bacteria undergoing environmental effects is extremely interesting for structural, mechanistic, and evolutionary implications. Luminescent bacteria that have evolved in a specific ambient have developed particular responses and their behavior can give us new suggestions on the task and production of luciferina proteins. To analyze the UV interaction under controlled laboratory conditions, we used photoluminescent bacterial strains belonging to a new species evolutionarily close to Vibrio harveyi sampled from a coastal cave with a high radon content that generates ionizing radiation. The survival of the bacterial strains was analyzed, in the light and in the dark, following a variety of genotoxic treatments including UV radiation exposure. The strains were irradiated by a germicide lamp. The results demonstrated that most of the strains exhibited a low rate of survival after the UV exposure. After irradiation by visible light following the UV exposure, all strains showed a high capability of photoreactivation when grown. This capability was quite unexpected because these bacteria were sampled from a dark ambient without UV radiation. This leads us to hypothesize that the photoreactivation in these bacteria might have been evolved to repair DNA lesions also induced by different radiation sources other than UV (e.g., x-ray) and that the luminescent bacteria might use their own light emission to carry out the photoreactivation. The high capability of photoreactivation of these bacteria was also justified by the results of deconvolution. The deconvolution was applied to the emission spectra and it was able to show evidence of different light peaks. The presence of the visible peak could control the photolysis enzyme.

  4. Copper imbalances in ruminants and humans: unexpected common ground.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suttle, Neville F

    2012-09-01

    Ruminants are more vulnerable to copper deficiency than humans because rumen sulfide generation lowers copper availability from forage, increasing the risk of conditions such as swayback in lambs. Molybdenum-rich pastures promote thiomolybdate (TM) synthesis and formation of unabsorbable Cu-TM complexes, turning risk to clinical reality (hypocuprosis). Selection pressures created ruminant species with tolerance of deficiency but vulnerability to copper toxicity in alien environments, such as specific pathogen-free units. By contrast, cases of copper imbalance in humans seemed confined to rare genetic aberrations of copper metabolism. Recent descriptions of human swayback and the exploratory use of TM for the treatment of Wilson's disease, tumor growth, inflammatory diseases, and Alzheimer's disease have created unexpected common ground. The incidence of pre-hemolytic copper poisoning in specific pathogen-free lambs was reduced by an infection with Mycobacterium avium that left them more responsive to treatment with TM but vulnerable to long-term copper depletion. Copper requirements in ruminants and humans may need an extra allowance for the "copper cost" of immunity to infection. Residual cuproenzyme inhibition in TM-treated lambs and anomalies in plasma copper composition that appeared to depend on liver copper status raise this question "can chelating capacity be harnessed without inducing copper-deficiency in ruminants or humans?" A model of equilibria between exogenous (TM) and endogenous chelators (e.g., albumin, metallothionein) is used to predict risk of exposure and hypocuprosis; although risk of natural exposure in humans is remote, vulnerability to TM-induced copper deficiency may be high. Biomarkers of TM impact are needed, and copper chaperones for inhibited cuproenzymes are prime candidates.

  5. Sudden unexpected death in infancy: place and time of death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasgow, J F T; Thompson, A J; Ingram, P J

    2006-01-01

    In recent years, many babies who die of Sudden Unexpected Death in Infancy (SUDI) in Northern Ireland are found dead in bed--i.e. co-sleeping--with an adult. In order to assess its frequency autopsy reports between April 1996 and August 2001 were reviewed and linked to temporal factors. The day and month of death, and the place where the baby was found were compared to a reference population of infant deaths between one week of age and the second birthday. Although the rate of SUDI was lower than the UK average, 43 cases of SUDI were identified, and two additional deaths with virtually identical autopsy findings that were attributed to asphyxia caused by suffocation due to overlaying. Thirty-two of the 45 (71%) were less than four months of age. In 30 of the 45 cases (67%) the history stated that the baby was bed sharing with others; 19 died sleeping in an adult bed, and 11 on a sofa or armchair. In 16 of the 30 (53%) there were at least two other people sharing the sleeping surface, and in one case, three. SUDI was twice as frequent at weekends (found dead Saturday-Monday mornings) compared to weekdays (psharing a place of sleep per se may not increase the risk of death, our findings may be linked to factors such as habitual smoking, consumption of alcohol or illicit drugs as reported in case-control studies. In advising parents on safer childcare practices, health professionals must be knowledgeable of current research and when, for example, giving advice on co-sleeping this needs to be person-specific cognisant of the risks within a household. New and better means of targeting such information needs to be researched if those with higher risk life-styles are to be positively influenced.

  6. Unexpected variation in neuroanatomy among diverse nematode species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziduan eHan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nematodes are considered excellent models for understanding fundamental aspects of neuron function. However, nematodes are less frequently used as models for examining the evolution of nervous systems. While the habitats and behaviors of nematodes are diverse, the neuroanatomy of nematodes is often considered highly conserved. A small number of nematode species greatly influences our understanding of nematode neurobiology. The free-living species Caenorhabditis elegans and, to a lesser extent, the mammalian gastrointestinal parasite Ascaris suum are, historically, the primary sources of knowledge regarding nematode neurobiology. Despite differences in size and habitat, C. elegans and Ascaris suum share a surprisingly similar neuroanatomy. Here, we examined species across several clades in the phylum Nematoda and show that there is a surprising degree of neuroanatomical variation both within and among nematode clades when compared to C. elegans and Ascaris. We found variation in the numbers of neurons in the ventral nerve cord and dye-filling pattern of sensory neurons. For example, we found that Pristionchus pacificus, a bacterial feeding species used for comparative developmental research, had 20% fewer ventral cord neurons compared to C. elegans. Steinernema carpocapse, an insect-parasitic nematode capable of jumping behavior, had 40% more ventral cord neurons than C. elegans. Interestingly, the non-jumping congeneric nematode, S. glaseri showed an identical number of ventral cord neurons as S. carpocapsae. There was also variability in the timing of neurodevelopment of the ventral cord with two of five species that hatch as second-stage juveniles showing delayed neurodevelopment. We also found unexpected variation in the dye-filling of sensory neurons among examined species. Again, sensory neuron dye-filling pattern did not strictly correlate with phylogeny. Our results demonstrate that variation in nematode neuroanatomy is more prevalent

  7. Unexpectedly high burden of rotavirus gastroenteritis in very young infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reilly Megan

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The highest incidence of rotavirus gastroenteritis has generally been reported in children 6-24 months of age. Young infants are thought to be partially protected by maternal antibodies acquired transplacentally or via breast milk. The purpose of our study was to assess the age distribution of children with confirmed community-acquired rotavirus gastroenteritis presenting to an urban referral hospital. Methods Children presenting to The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia with acute gastroenteritis have been monitored for the presence of rotavirus antigen in the stool by ELISA (followed by genotyping if ELISA-positive since the 1994-95 epidemic season. Results Over the last 12 rotavirus seasons prior to the introduction of the pentavalent rotavirus vaccine in 2006, stool specimens from 1646 patients tested positive for community-acquired rotavirus infection. Gender or age was not recorded in 6 and 5 cases, respectively. Overall, 58% of the cases occurred in boys. G1 was the predominant VP7 serotype, accounting for 72% of cases. The median (IQR age was 11 (5-21 months. A total of 790 (48% cases occurred in children outside the commonly quoted peak age range, with 27% in infants 24 months of age. A total of 220 (13% cases occurred during the first 3 months of life, and the highest number of episodes per month of age [97 (6%] was observed during the second month of life. Conclusions The incidence of community-acquired rotavirus gastroenteritis monitored over 12 seasons in the prevaccine era at a major university hospital was nearly constant for each month of age during the first year of life, revealing an unexpectedly high incidence of symptomatic rotavirus disease in infants

  8. The accrual anomaly - focus on changes in specific unexpected accruals results in new evidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schøler, Finn

    are specifically analyzed, namely the unexpected inventory accrual component and the unexpected accounts receivable accrual component, i.e. changes in accruals not motivated by corresponding changes in company activity-level. Additionally and for comparison, the accounting accruals are split into expected...... and unexpected accruals, estimated by the extended Jones model like in both some US-analyses and some international studies of the accrual anomaly phenomenon. It is found that the persistence of earnings is decreasing in the magnitude of the unexpected accrual components of earnings and that the persistence...... of current earnings performance is particularly decreasing in the magnitude of unexpected changes in inventory. The special accrual parts are related to the perceptions of earnings persistence implicit in the market prices, and it is found that the differences in earnings persistence are not rationally...

  9. Costly hide and seek pays: unexpected consequences of deceit in a social dilemma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szolnoki, Attila; Perc, Matjaž

    2014-01-01

    Deliberate deceptiveness intended to gain an advantage is commonplace in human and animal societies. In a social dilemma, an individual may only pretend to be a cooperator to elicit cooperation from others, while in reality he is a defector. With this as motivation, we study a simple variant of the evolutionary prisoner's dilemma game entailing deceitful defectors and conditional cooperators that lifts the veil on the impact of such two-faced behavior. Defectors are able to hide their true intentions at a personal cost, while conditional cooperators are probabilistically successful at identifying defectors and act accordingly. By focusing on the evolutionary outcomes in structured populations, we observe a number of unexpected and counterintuitive phenomena. We show that deceitful behavior may fare better if it is costly, and that a higher success rate of identifying defectors does not necessarily favor cooperative behavior. These results are rooted in the spontaneous emergence of cycling dominance and spatial patterns that give rise to fascinating phase transitions, which in turn reveal the hidden complexity behind the evolution of deception. (paper)

  10. A calorimetric particle detector using an iridium superconducting phase transition thermometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, M.; Dummer, D.; Cooper, S.; Igalson, J.; Proebst, F.; Seidel, W.

    1994-01-01

    We report on a calorimetric particles detector consisting of an 18.3 g silicon crystal and an iridium superconducting phase transition thermometer. The cryogenic calorimeter and the associated apparatus are described in detail. The pulses from irradiation with an α-particle source have a large unexpected overshoot in addition to the component expected from a naive thermal model. The pulse height spectrum displays an energy resolution of 1 percent FWHM at 6 MeV and good linearity. The noise, electrothermal feedback, and position dependence are discussed. (orig.)

  11. Unexpected Impacts of Global warming on Extreme Warm Spells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardeshmukh, P. D.; Compo, G. P.; McColl, C.; Penland, C.

    2017-12-01

    It is generally presumed that the likelihood of extreme warm spells around the globe has increased, and will continue to increase, due to global warming. However, we find that this is generally not true in three very different types of global observational datasets and uncoupled atmospheric model simulations of the 1959 to 2012 period with prescribed observed global SSTs, sea ice, and radiative forcing changes. While extreme warm spells indeed became more common in many regions, in many other regions their likelihood remained almost the same or even decreased from the first half to the second half of this period. Such regions of unexpected changes covered nearly 40 percent of the globe in both winter and summer. The basic reason for this was a decrease of temperature variability in such regions that offset or even negated the effect of the mean temperature shift on extreme warm spell probabilities. The possibility of such an impact on extreme value probabilities was highlighted in a recent paper by Sardeshmukh, Compo, and Penland (Journal of Climate 2015). The consistency of the changes in extreme warm spell probabilities among the different observational datasets and model simulations examined suggests that they are robust regional aspects of global warming associated with atmospheric circulation changes. This highlights the need for climate models to represent not just the mean regional temperature signals but also the changes in subseasonal temperature variability associated with global warming. However, current climate models (both CMIP3 and CMIP5) generally underestimate the magnitude of the changes in the atmospheric circulation and associated temperature variability. A likely major cause of this is their continuing underestimation of the magnitude of the spatial variation of tropical SST trends. By generating an overly spatially bland tropical SST warming in response to changes in radiative forcing, the models spuriously mute tropically

  12. Entering into the Unexpected: Managing Resilience in Extreme Situations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guarnieri, F.; Travadel, S.

    2016-01-01

    The popularity of the concept of safety culture has provided useful support for deterministic approaches to safety. The inclusion of ‘beyond design’ cases in severe accident management guidelines opened up the debate on the precautionary principle. However, a reflexive and vibrant safety culture should not stop there: even the most precautionary measures can prove to be lacking. Our discussion therefore focuses on the management of radical disruption caused by the collapse of pre-established frameworks for action. It goes beyond any objectivist consideration of the necessary conditions for rational decision-making in the event of an accident. Here, we are interested in ‘extreme situations’. Specifically, a management situation faced by operators who, should they lose control of their production facility, must take action despite the hazards and the lack of critical resources. They must respond to a social emergency that, if not satisfactorily resolved, will lead to damage on a scale never before seen. The Fukushima Daiichi accident is a useful case study of such a scenario. The short period from 11 to 15 March 2011 contains all of the ingredients of an extreme situation that was the result of an unexpected event. From the perspective of the management of engineering organizations, the question of entry into resilience arises. Prior to any normative prescription, this concerns the poorly understood mechanisms through which collective action develops in response to hazards and social pressure. In particular we study the sense making process through which actors regain control of the situation, and create an informal and ephemeral organizational kernel. The issue is addressed in terms of the human being as a whole, a subject whose actions are consistent with a defined purpose and affects and who is endowed with a representational capacity. Our epistemic perspective is constructivist and relies on the latest theoretical developments related to sensemaking. In

  13. Numerical study of Tallinn storm-water system flooding conditions using CFD simulations of multi-phase flow in a large-scale inverted siphon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, K.; Laanearu, J.; Annus, I.

    2017-10-01

    The numerical experiments are carried out for qualitative and quantitative interpretation of a multi-phase flow processes associated with malfunctioning of the Tallinn storm-water system during rain storms. The investigations are focused on the single-line inverted siphon, which is used as under-road connection of pipes of the storm-water system under interest. A multi-phase flow solver of Computational Fluid Dynamics software OpenFOAM is used for simulating the three-phase flow dynamics in the hydraulic system. The CFD simulations are performed with different inflow rates under same initial conditions. The computational results are compared essentially in two cases 1) design flow rate and 2) larger flow rate, for emptying the initially filled inverted siphon from a slurry-fluid. The larger flow-rate situations are under particular interest to detected possible flooding. In this regard, it is anticipated that the CFD solutions provide an important insight to functioning of inverted siphon under a restricted water-flow conditions at simultaneous presence of air and slurry-fluid.

  14. Improvement of Estimation method for two-phase flow in a large-diameter pipe. Pt. 4. Effect of the inlet boundary condition of the upward flow section on flow characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoneda, Kimitoshi; Okawa, Tomio; Zhou, Shirong

    1999-01-01

    In nuclear power plants, many large-diameter pipes are subject to gas-liquid two-phase flow. For rational design and performance estimation, the flow in the pipes should be predicted accurately. With the correlation used at present, however, the flow analysis can not reach desirable precision. This is partly due to the lack of understanding of the two-phase flow characteristics in large-diameter pipes. Therefore, steam-water two-phase flow in a vertical pipe (155 mm i.d.) was investigated empirically. Lateral distribution data of phase volume fraction, gas velocity and bubble diameter were obtained. The effects of the inlet boundary condition were also observed. The drift velocity in the developing region was considerably affected by the inlet boundary condition. By deriving the correlation of mean bubble diameter as a function of void fraction and pressure, the empirical data was predicted with high accuracy compared with the existing correlation used in best-estimate codes of nuclear reactor safety analysis. (author)

  15. Kinematic analysis of the flight phase of the Nordic combined and ski jump on a large hill (HS-134 m) during the 2009 Nordic World Ski Championships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svoboda, Zdenek; Janura, Miroslav; Cabell, Lee; Janurová, Eva

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the execution of the flight phase in the Nordic combined (NC) among three groups of competitors, representing different skill levels, and to compare them with three groups of ski jumpers (SJs). Thirty NC and thirty SJ competitors, who performed ski jumps on an HS-134 m jumping hill, were divided into three subgroups based on jump length execution. Two-dimensional (2-D) kinematic data were collected from the lower extremities, trunks, and skis of the competitors. The SJ group had a smaller lower extremity angle ( p jump lengths comparable to those of the SJ competitors by having significantly higher in-run velocities.

  16. The rewritable effects of bonded magnet for large starting torque and high efficiency in the small power single-phase written pole motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jae-Hak; Lee, Sung-Ho

    2009-04-01

    This paper presents a single-phase written pole motor using a bonded ring magnet for the small power home application. The motor has an exciter pole structure inside the stator and hybrid characteristics of an induction motor and permanent magnet motor. The design parameters and operating characteristics of the hybrid concept motor are investigated to increase starting torque and efficiency, which is most important for the small power home application. Larger starting torque and higher efficiency than those of the conventional induction motor could be obtained by using the rewritable characteristics of bonded magnet on the starting and running conditions.

  17. Patterning of self-assembled monolayers by phase-shifting mask and its applications in large-scale assembly of nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Fan; Zhang, Dakuan; Wang, Jianyu; Sheng, Yun; Wang, Xinran; Chen, Kunji; Zhou, Minmin [Key Laboratory of Advanced Photonic and Electronic Materials and School of Electronic Science and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Yan, Shancheng [Key Laboratory of Advanced Photonic and Electronic Materials and School of Electronic Science and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); School of Geography and Biological Information, Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Nanjing 210046 (China); Shen, Jiancang; Pan, Lijia; Shi, Yi, E-mail: yshi@nju.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Advanced Photonic and Electronic Materials and School of Electronic Science and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Micro-structures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2015-01-26

    A nonselective micropatterning method of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) based on laser and phase-shifting mask (PSM) is demonstrated. Laser beam is spatially modulated by a PSM, and periodic SAM patterns are generated sequentially through thermal desorption. Patterned wettability is achieved with alternating hydrophilic/hydrophobic stripes on octadecyltrichlorosilane monolayers. The substrate is then used to assemble CdS semiconductor nanowires (NWs) from a solution, obtaining well-aligned NWs in one step. Our results show valuably the application potential of this technique in engineering SAMs for integration of functional devices.

  18. Water hammer and column separation due to accidental simultaneous closure of control valves in a large scale two-phase flow experimental test rig

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergant, A.; Westende, van 't J.M.C.; Koppel, T.; Gale, J.; Hou, Q.; Pandula, Z.; Tijsseling, A.S.

    2010-01-01

    A large-scale pipeline test rig at Deltares, Delft, The Netherlands has been used for filling and emptying experiments. Tests have been conducted in a horizontal 250 mm diameter PVC pipe of 258 m length with control valves at the downstream and upstream ends. This paper investigates the accidental

  19. Homozygous and compound heterozygous mutations in the FBN1 gene: unexpected findings in molecular diagnosis of Marfan syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaud, Pauline; Hanna, Nadine; Aubart, Mélodie; Leheup, Bruno; Dupuis-Girod, Sophie; Naudion, Sophie; Lacombe, Didier; Milleron, Olivier; Odent, Sylvie; Faivre, Laurence; Bal, Laurence; Edouard, Thomas; Collod-Beroud, Gwenaëlle; Langeois, Maud; Spentchian, Myrtille; Gouya, Laurent; Jondeau, Guillaume; Boileau, Catherine

    2017-02-01

    Marfan syndrome (MFS) is an autosomal-dominant connective tissue disorder usually associated with heterozygous mutations in the gene encoding fibrillin-1 (FBN1). Homozygous and compound heterozygous cases are rare events and have been associated with a clinical severe presentation. Report unexpected findings of homozygosity and compound heterozygosity in the course of molecular diagnosis of heterozygous MFS and compare the findings with published cases. In the context of molecular diagnosis of heterozygous MFS, systematic sequencing of the FBN1 gene was performed in 2500 probands referred nationwide. 1400 probands carried a heterozygous mutation in this gene. Unexpectedly, among them four homozygous cases (0.29%) and five compound heterozygous cases (0.36%) were identified (total: 0.64%). Interestingly, none of these cases carried two premature termination codon mutations in the FBN1 gene. Clinical features for these carriers and their families were gathered and compared. There was a large spectrum of severity of the disease in probands carrying two mutated FBN1 alleles, but none of them presented extremely severe manifestations of MFS in any system compared with carriers of only one mutated FBN1 allele. This observation is not in line with the severe clinical features reported in the literature for four homozygous and three compound heterozygous probands. Homozygotes and compound heterozygotes were unexpectedly identified in the course of molecular diagnosis of MFS. Contrary to previous reports, the presence of two mutated alleles was not associated with severe forms of MFS. Although homozygosity and compound heterozygosity are rarely found in molecular diagnosis, they should not be overlooked, especially among consanguineous families. However, no predictive evaluation of severity should be provided. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  20. Fish consumption, contaminants and sudden unexpected death in epilepsy: many more benefits than risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FA. Scorza

    Full Text Available People with epilepsy have an increased risk of dying prematurely and the most common epilepsy-related category of death is sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP. SUDEP is mainly a problem for patients with chronic uncontrolled epilepsy. The ultimate goal of research in SUDEP is to develop new methods to prevent it and actions other than medical and surgical therapies that could be very useful. Nutritional aspects, i.e., omega-3 fatty acids deficiency, could have an interesting role in this scenario. Some animal and clinical studies have suggested that omega-3 fatty acids could be useful in the prevention and treatment of epilepsy and hence SUDEP. It has been ascertained that the only foods that provide large amounts of omega-3 are seafood (fish and shellfish; however, some fish are contaminated with methylmercury, which may counteract the positive effects of omega-3 fatty acids. Our update review summarises the knowledge of the role of fish consumption on epilepsy research.

  1. Out of Mind, Out of Sight: Unexpected Scene Elements Frequently Go Unnoticed Until Primed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavich, George M; Zimbardo, Philip G

    2013-12-01

    The human visual system employs a sophisticated set of strategies for scanning the environment and directing attention to stimuli that can be expected given the context and a person's past experience. Although these strategies enable us to navigate a very complex physical and social environment, they can also cause highly salient, but unexpected stimuli to go completely unnoticed. To examine the generality of this phenomenon, we conducted eight studies that included 15 different experimental conditions and 1,577 participants in all. These studies revealed that a large majority of participants do not report having seen a woman in the center of an urban scene who was photographed in midair as she was committing suicide. Despite seeing the scene repeatedly, 46 % of all participants failed to report seeing a central figure and only 4.8 % reported seeing a falling person. Frequency of noticing the suicidal woman was highest for participants who read a narrative priming story that increased the extent to which she was schematically congruent with the scene. In contrast to this robust effect of inattentional blindness , a majority of participants reported seeing other peripheral objects in the visual scene that were equally difficult to detect, yet more consistent with the scene. Follow-up qualitative analyses revealed that participants reported seeing many elements that were not actually present, but which could have been expected given the overall context of the scene. Together, these findings demonstrate the robustness of inattentional blindness and highlight the specificity with which different visual primes may increase noticing behavior.

  2. Unexpected Convergent Evolution of Nasal Domes between Pleistocene Bovids and Cretaceous Hadrosaur Dinosaurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Haley D; Faith, J Tyler; Jenkins, Kirsten E; Peppe, Daniel J; Plummer, Thomas W; Jacobs, Zenobia L; Li, Bo; Joannes-Boyau, Renaud; Price, Gilbert; Feng, Yue-Xing; Tryon, Christian A

    2016-02-22

    The fossil record provides tangible, historical evidence for the mode and operation of evolution across deep time. Striking patterns of convergence are some of the strongest examples of these operations, whereby, over time, similar environmental and/or behavioral pressures precipitate similarity in form and function between disparately related taxa. Here we present fossil evidence for an unexpected convergence between gregarious plant-eating mammals and dinosaurs. Recent excavations of Late Pleistocene deposits on Rusinga Island, Kenya, have uncovered a catastrophic assemblage of the wildebeest-like bovid Rusingoryx atopocranion. Previously known from fragmentary material, these new specimens reveal large, hollow, osseous nasal crests: a craniofacial novelty for mammals that is remarkably comparable to the nasal crests of lambeosaurine hadrosaur dinosaurs. Using adult and juvenile material from this assemblage, as well as computed tomographic imaging, we investigate this convergence from morphological, developmental, functional, and paleoenvironmental perspectives. Our detailed analyses reveal broad parallels between R. atopocranion and basal Lambeosaurinae, suggesting that osseous nasal crests may require a highly specific combination of ontogeny, evolution, and environmental pressures in order to develop. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Unexpected Leiomyosarcoma 4 Years after Laparoscopic Removal of the Uterus Using Morcellation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. R. Prins

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Laparoscopic hysterectomies are increasingly popular; a morcellation device is often used. Although there are some clear benefits, morcellation of tissue does have potential risks. Case Presentation. In this case report we present a 55-year-old woman with an abdominal tumour 4 years after a laparoscopic hysterectomy using a morcellation device. Postoperative histological analysis, compromised by morcellated tissue, showed benign myoma. Because of the benign tumour no follow-up was performed. The patient presented now with an abdominal tumour, and she was scheduled for surgical removal of the tumour. During abdominal surgery the tumour appeared malignant and biopsies were taken. Histological analysis showed leiomyosarcoma, and the patient was referred to a third care centre for further treatment. The patient recovered quickly after abdominal removal of the tumour; however, after 7 months the patient had complaints and a CT scan showed a large intra-abdominal tumour with possible lung metastasis. The patient received palliative chemotherapy and died after 10 months. Conclusion. This case shows that although unexpected after a hysterectomy, a leiomyosarcoma has to be considered in case of a suspect tumour in the lower abdomen.

  4. The crystal structures of EAP domains from Staphylococcus aureus reveal an unexpected homology to bacterial superantigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geisbrecht, Brian V; Hamaoka, Brent Y; Perman, Benjamin; Zemla, Adam; Leahy, Daniel J

    2005-04-29

    The Eap (extracellular adherence protein) of Staphylococcus aureus functions as a secreted virulence factor by mediating interactions between the bacterial cell surface and several extracellular host proteins. Eap proteins from different Staphylococcal strains consist of four to six tandem repeats of a structurally uncharacterized domain (EAP domain). We have determined the three-dimensional structures of three different EAP domains to 1.8, 2.2, and 1.35 A resolution, respectively. These structures reveal a core fold that is comprised of an alpha-helix lying diagonally across a five-stranded, mixed beta-sheet. Comparison of EAP domains with known structures reveals an unexpected homology with the C-terminal domain of bacterial superantigens. Examination of the structure of the superantigen SEC2 bound to the beta-chain of a T-cell receptor suggests a possible ligand-binding site within the EAP domain (Fields, B. A., Malchiodi, E. L., Li, H., Ysern, X., Stauffacher, C. V., Schlievert, P. M., Karjalainen, K., and Mariuzza, R. (1996) Nature 384, 188-192). These results provide the first structural characterization of EAP domains, relate EAP domains to a large class of bacterial toxins, and will guide the design of future experiments to analyze EAP domain structure/function relationships.

  5. Unexpected decline in tuberculosis cases coincident with economic recession -- United States, 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winston Carla A

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since 1953, through the cooperation of state and local health departments, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC has collected information on incident cases of tuberculosis (TB disease in the United States. In 2009, TB case rates declined -11.4%, compared to an average annual -3.8% decline since 2000. The unexpectedly large decline raised concerns that TB cases may have gone unreported. To address the unexpected decline, we examined trends from multiple sources on TB treatment initiation, medication sales, and laboratory and genotyping data on culture-positive TB. Methods We analyzed 142,174 incident TB cases reported to the U. S. National Tuberculosis Surveillance System (NTSS during January 1, 2000-December 31, 2009; TB control program data from 59 public health reporting areas; self-reported data from 50 CDC-funded public health laboratories; monthly electronic prescription claims for new TB therapy prescriptions; and complete genotyping results available for NTSS cases. Accounting for prior trends using regression and time-series analyses, we calculated the deviation between observed and expected TB cases in 2009 according to patient and clinical characteristics, and assessed at what point in time the deviation occurred. Results The overall deviation in TB cases in 2009 was -7.9%, with -994 fewer cases reported than expected (P Conclusions Our assessments show that the decline in reported TB was not an artifact of changes in surveillance methods; rather, similar declines were found through multiple data sources. While the steady decline of TB cases before 2009 suggests ongoing improvement in TB control, we were not able to identify any substantial change in TB control activities or TB transmission that would account for the abrupt decline in 2009. It is possible that other multiple causes coincident with economic recession in the United States, including decreased immigration and delayed access to

  6. An unexpected evolution of symptomatic mild middle cerebral artery (MCA stenosis: asymptomatic occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malferrari Giovanni

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The intracranial localization of large artery disease is recognized as the main cause of ischemic stroke in the world, considering all countries, although its global burden is widely underestimated. Indeed it has been reported more frequently in Asians and African-American people, but the finding of intracranial stenosis as a cause of ischemic stroke is relatively common also in Caucasians. The prognosis of patients with stroke due to intracranial steno-occlusion is strictly dependent on the time of recanalization. Moreover, the course of the vessel involvement is highly dynamic in both directions, improvement or worsening, although several data are derived from the atherosclerotic subtype, compared to other causes. Case description We report the clinical, neurosonological and neuroradiological findings of a young woman, who came to our Stroke Unit because of the abrupt onset of aphasia during her work. An urgent neurosonological examination showed a left M1 MCA stenosis, congruent with the presenting symptoms; magnetic resonance imaging confirmed this finding and identified an acute ischemic lesion on the left MCA territory. The past history of the patient was significant only for a hyperinsulinemic condition, treated with metformine, and a mild overweight. At this time a selective cerebral angiography was not performed because of the patient refusal and she was discharged on antiplatelet and lipid-lowering therapy, having failed to identify autoimmune or inflammatory diseases. Within 1 month, she went back to our attention because of the recurrence of aphasia, lasting about ten minutes. Neuroimaging findings were unchanged, but the patient accepted to undergo a selective cerebral angiography, which showed a mild left distal M1 MCA stenosis. During the follow-up the patient did not experienced any recurrence, but a routine neurosonological examination found an unexpected evolution of the known MCA stenosis, i.e. left M1 MCA

  7. Elliptic and higher order flow measured in a large phase space in $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}$=2.76 TeV Pb+Pb Collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Mohapatra, S

    2011-01-01

    A broad program of measurements using heavy ion collisions is underway in ATLAS, with the aim of studying the properties of QCD matter at high temperatures and densities. At momentum scales of a few GeV, elliptic flow (a cos(2ϕ) modulation of the eventwise azimuthal distribution) is a sensitive probe of the transport properties of the strongly coupled medium. At higher momentum it is thought to reflect differential energy loss of jets passing through the medium with different path lengths. This talk describes measurements performed using up to 9 pb-1 of lead-lead collision data provided at a nucleon-nucleon center-of-mass energy of 2.76 GeV by the Large Hadron Collider and collected by the ATLAS Detector during November and December 2010. Our elliptic flow results extend both to large pseudorapidity, using the large acceptance Inner Detector (|eta|<2.5) and the Forward Calorimeters (|eta|<4.9), and high transverse momentum. Comparisons to earlier data will provide insight into whether the matte...

  8. 75 FR 67015 - Unexpected Urgent Refugee And Migration Needs Resulting From Flooding InPakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    ... September 3, 2010 Unexpected Urgent Refugee And Migration Needs Resulting From Flooding InPakistan... humanitarian needs resulting from recent devastating flooding in Pakistan. You are authorized and directed to...

  9. Image correction during large and rapid B(0) variations in an open MRI system with permanent magnets using navigator echoes and phase compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianqi; Wang, Yi; Jiang, Yu; Xie, Haibin; Li, Gengying

    2009-09-01

    An open permanent magnet system with vertical B(0) field and without self-shielding can be quite susceptible to perturbations from external magnetic sources. B(0) variation in such a system located close to a subway station was measured to be greater than 0.7 microT by both MRI and a fluxgate magnetometer. This B(0) variation caused image artifacts. A navigator echo approach that monitored and compensated the view-to-view variation in magnetic resonance signal phase was developed to correct for image artifacts. Human brain imaging experiments using a multislice gradient-echo sequence demonstrated that the ghosting and blurring artifacts associated with B(0) variations were effectively removed using the navigator method.

  10. Geometric phase effects in excited state dynamics through a conical intersection in large molecules: N-dimensional linear vibronic coupling model study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiaru; Joubert-Doriol, Loïc; Izmaylov, Artur F.

    2017-08-01

    We investigate geometric phase (GP) effects in nonadiabatic transitions through a conical intersection (CI) in an N-dimensional linear vibronic coupling (ND-LVC) model. This model allows for the coordinate transformation encompassing all nonadiabatic effects within a two-dimensional (2D) subsystem, while the other N - 2 dimensions form a system of uncoupled harmonic oscillators identical for both electronic states and coupled bi-linearly with the subsystem coordinates. The 2D subsystem governs ultra-fast nonadiabatic dynamics through the CI and provides a convenient model for studying GP effects. Parameters of the original ND-LVC model define the Hamiltonian of the transformed 2D subsystem and thus influence GP effects directly. Our analysis reveals what values of ND-LVC parameters can introduce symmetry breaking in the 2D subsystem that diminishes GP effects.

  11. An unexpected beginning of year on the international petroleum market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nachet, S.

    1998-01-01

    The petroleum market seems to enter a durable easing phase in 1998. Most of price projections are between 16 and 18 U.S. Dollar per barrel of Brent, which represents a 1 to 2 U.S. Dollar reduction with respect to the same projections realized in December 1997. This paper analyzes the reasons of this situation and the possible duration of their effects: increase of the OPEC's production quotas in the end of November, the renewal of the resolution 986 of the United Nations concerning Iraq exports, and a mild winter and the Asian crisis which reduces the worldwide demand. (J.S.)

  12. Dealing with unexpected events : efficient and safe solutions to emergent repair on NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liekens Massazza, I.

    2015-07-01

    Nuclear Facilities are constantly challenged with unexpected events occurring on Primary Circuit components. A solution must be deployed quickly to minimize impact on the scheduled outage duration while guaranteeing safety, quality and ALARA standards. AREVA NP has demonstrated worldwide recognized capabilities and expertise through efficient management of various unexpected forced events through the time. Turnkey packaged solutions which are proposed are based on proven technics which can be quickly adapted and qualified to the specific problem, resulting in customers’ full satisfaction. (Author)

  13. An Unexpected Case of Lyme Disease in a Soldier Serving in Northern Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    MILITARY MEDICINE, 175,5:367,2010 An Unexpected Case of Lyme Disease in a Soldier Serving in Northern Iraq CPT Jeremy B. Fisher, SP USA *; CPT...Christopher E. Curtis, MC USAt 188143 ABSTRACT Lyme disease is a tick-transmitted disease caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi. Cases have been...Turkey.3-S We report an unexpected case of Lyme disease from Iraq. CASE REPORT A 28-year-old active duty Army male, on a deployment to northern Iraq

  14. Regional Queensland Parents' Views of Science Education: Some Unexpected Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boon, Helen J.

    2012-01-01

    Low post-compulsory science enrolments for secondary students have been a growing concern across the Western world. Research has examined factors relating to science curricula and students' attitudes about science, but parental views of science education remain largely unexplored in Australia. Because parents have a strong role in shaping their…

  15. Methodology for calculating the thickness free of sigma phase in duplex stainless steels large section parts during hiperquenching; Metodologia para el calculo de espesores limite libres de fase sigma durante el hipertemple en piezas de aceros duplex de gran seccion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimbert, P.; Guraya, T.; Torregary, A.; Bravo, P.

    2013-06-01

    To achieve the mechanical properties and corrosion resistance desired by duplex stainless steels used by the petrochemical and nuclear industry, parts are subjected to a hiperquenching heat treatment from about 1050 degree centigrade. This avoids the risk of intermetallic precipitation which drastically reduces the properties of these materials. However with increasing depth to which the deposits are present, the thicknesses for such pipes have been increased, resulting in higher levels of demand on all its manufacturing process, including the heat treatment. To avoid the precipitation of intermetallic phases such as sigma phase it is necessary to know the cooling profile in the center of the work piece and for this purpose to know the value of the Surface Heat Transfer Coefficient (h) is essential. This coefficient changes during the hiperquenching and its value is determined experimentally as it depends on several process parameters. Studies reveal that its value is stabilized within a few seconds. We can then assume that to know the cooling profile in the center of large sections it is only necessary to know the stabilized value of h. However, all the studies found in the literature are referred to diameters smaller than 100 mm. This paper has developed a methodology to predict the precipitation of intermetallic phases in duplex stainless steel parts with large thicknesses in industrial facilities from the calculation of h. This methodology allows us to calculate the cooling profiles without wasting any work piece using one or more sensorized patterns with thermocouples and a subsequent simulation with ANSYS. (Author)

  16. Effects of Muscle Fatigue, Creep, and Musculoskeletal Pain on Neuromuscular Responses to Unexpected Perturbation of the Trunk: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abboud, Jacques; Lardon, Arnaud; Boivin, Frédéric; Dugas, Claude; Descarreaux, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Trunk neuromuscular responses have been shown to adapt under the influence of muscle fatigue, as well as spinal tissue creep or even with the presence of low back pain (LBP). Despite a large number of studies exploring how these external perturbations affect the spinal stability, characteristics of such adaptations remains unclear. Aim: The purpose of this systematic review was to assess the quality of evidence of studies investigating trunk neuromuscular responses to unexpected trunk perturbation. More specifically, the targeted neuromuscular responses were trunk muscle activity reflex and trunk kinematics under the influence of muscle fatigue, spinal creep, and musculoskeletal pain. Methods: A research of the literature was conducted in Pubmed, Embase, and Sport-Discus databases using terms related to trunk neuromuscular reflex responses, measured by electromyography (baseline activity, reflex latency, and reflex amplitude) and/or trunk kinematic, in context of unexpected external perturbation. Moreover, independent variables must be either trunk muscle fatigue or spinal tissue creep or LBP. All included articles were scored for their electromyography methodology based on the "Surface Electromyography for the Non-Invasive Assessment of Muscles (SENIAM)" and the "International Society of Electrophysiology and Kinesiology (ISEK)" recommendations whereas overall quality of articles was scored using a specific quality checklist modified from the Quality Index. Meta-analysis was performed on reflex latency variable. Results: A final set of 29 articles underwent quality assessments. The mean quality score was 79%. No effect of muscle fatigue on erector spinae reflex latency following an unexpected perturbation, nor any other distinctive effects was found for back muscle fatigue and reflex parameters. As for spinal tissue creep effects, no alteration was found for any of the trunk reflex variables. Finally, the meta-analysis revealed an increased erector

  17. New product trial, use of edibles, and unexpected highs among marijuana and hashish users in Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Jane A; Davis, Kevin C; Duke, Jennifer C; Nonnemaker, James M; Bradfield, Brian R; Farrelly, Matthew C

    2017-07-01

    This study examines the relationships between trial of new marijuana or hashish products and unexpected highs, and use of edible products and unexpected highs. We conducted an online survey of 634 adult, past-year marijuana users in Colorado. We used logistic regression models to examine the relationship between new product trial or edible use and unexpected highs. In the first year that recreational marijuana was legal in Colorado, 71.4% of respondents tried a new marijuana or hashish product, and 53.6% used an edible product. Trial of new products was associated with greater odds of experiencing an unexpected high after controlling for age, gender, education, mental health status, current marijuana or hashish use, and mean amount of marijuana or hashish consumed in the past month (OR=2.13, pmarijuana or hashish products, or use edible marijuana or hashish products, are at greater risk for an unexpected high. It is possible that some negative outcomes associated with marijuana use and unexpected highs may be averted through a better understanding of how to use product packaging to communicate with consumers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Unexpected trapping of particles at a T junction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigolo, Daniele; Radl, Stefan; Stone, Howard A

    2014-04-01

    A common element in physiological flow networks, as well as most domestic and industrial piping systems, is a T junction that splits the flow into two nearly symmetric streams. It is reasonable to assume that any particles suspended in a fluid that enters the bifurcation will leave it with the fluid. Here we report experimental evidence and a theoretical description of a trapping mechanism for low-density particles in steady and pulsatile flows through T-shaped junctions. This mechanism induces accumulation of particles, which can form stable chains, or give rise to significant growth of bubbles due to coalescence. In particular, low-density material dispersed in the continuous phase fluid interacts with a vortical flow that develops at the T junction. As a result suspended particles can enter the vortices and, for a wide range of common flow conditions, the particles do not leave the bifurcation. Via 3D numerical simulations and a model of the two-phase flow we predict the location of particle accumulation, which is in excellent agreement with experimental data. We identify experimentally, as well as confirm by numerical simulations and a simple force balance, that there is a wide parameter space in which this phenomenon occurs. The trapping effect is expected to be important for the design of particle separation and fractionation devices, as well as used for better understanding of system failures in piping networks relevant to industry and physiology.

  19. Ultrafast dissociation: An unexpected tool for probing molecular dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morin, Paul; Miron, Catalin

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Ultrafast dissociation has been investigated by means of XPS and mass spectrometry. ► The interplay between electron relaxation and molecular dynamics is evidenced. ► Extension toward polyatomics, clusters, adsorbed molecules is considered. ► Quantum effects (spectral hole, angular effects) evidence the molecular field anisotropy. -- Abstract: Ultrafast dissociation following core–shell excitation into an antibonding orbital led to the early observation in HBr of atomic Auger lines associated to the decay of dissociated excited atoms. The purpose of this article is to review the very large variety of systems where such a situation has been encountered, extending from simple diatomic molecules toward more complex systems like polyatomics, clusters, or adsorbed molecules. Interestingly, this phenomenon has revealed an extremely rich and powerful tool for probing nuclear dynamics and its subtle interplay with electron relaxation occurring on a comparable time scale. Consequently this review covers a surprisingly large period, starting in 1986 and still ongoing.

  20. Multigenerational Head Start Participation: An Unexpected Marker of Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chor, Elise

    2018-01-01

    One-quarter of the Head Start population has a mother who participated in the program as a child. This study uses experimental Head Start Impact Study (HSIS) data on 3- and 4-year-olds (N = 2,849) to describe multigenerational Head Start families and their program experiences. In sharp contrast to full-sample HSIS findings, Head Start has large,…

  1. Photoelectron Imaging Spectroscopy as a Window to Unexpected Molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackstone, Christopher C.

    2017-06-01

    Targeting an anion with the formula CH_{3}O_{3} for exploration with photoelectron imaging spectroscopy, we determine its identity to be dihydroxymethanolate, an anion largely absent in the literature, and the conjugate base of the hypothetical species orthoformic acid. Comparing the observed photoelectron spectrum to CCSD-EOM-IP and CCSD-EOM-SF calculations completed in QChem and Franck-Condon overlap simulations in PESCAL, we are able to determine with confidence the connectivity of the atoms in this molecule.

  2. Interoceptive fear learning to mild breathlessness as a laboratory model for unexpected panic attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meike ePappens

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Fear learning is thought to play an important role in panic disorder. Benign interoceptive sensations can become predictors (conditioned stimuli - CSs of massive fear when experienced in the context of an initial panic attack (unconditioned stimulus – US. The mere encounter of these CSs on a later moment can induce anxiety and fear, and precipitate a new panic attack. It has been suggested that fear learning to interoceptive cues would result in unpredictable panic. The present study aimed to investigate whether fear learning to an interoceptive CS is possible without declarative knowledge of the CS-US contingency. The CS consisted of mild breathlessness (or: dyspnea, the US was a suffocation experience. During acquisition, the experimental group received 6 presentations of mild breathlessness immediately followed by suffocation; for the control group both experiences were always separated by an intertrial interval. In the subsequent extinction phase, participants received 6 unreinforced presentations of the CS. Expectancy of the US was rated continuously and startle eyeblink EMG, skin conductance and respiration were measured. Declarative knowledge of the CS-US relationship was also assessed with a post-experimental questionnaire. At the end of acquisition, both groups displayed the same levels of US expectancy and skin conductance in response to the CS, but the experimental group showed a fear potentiated startle eyeblink and a different respiratory response to the CS compared to the control group. Further analyses on a subgroup of CS-US unaware participants confirmed the presence of startle eyeblink conditioning in the experimental group but not in the control group. Our findings suggest that interoceptive fear learning is not dependent on declarative knowledge of the CS-US relationship. The present interoceptive fear conditioning paradigm may serve as an ecologically valid laboratory model for unexpected panic attacks.

  3. Non-targeted analysis of unexpected food contaminants using LC-HRMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunzelmann, Marco; Winter, Martin; Åberg, Magnus; Hellenäs, Karl-Erik; Rosén, Johan

    2018-03-29

    A non-target analysis method for unexpected contaminants in food is described. Many current methods referred to as "non-target" are capable of detecting hundreds or even thousands of contaminants. However, they will typically still miss all other possible contaminants. Instead, a metabolomics approach might be used to obtain "true non-target" analysis. In the present work, such a method was optimized for improved detection capability at low concentrations. The method was evaluated using 19 chemically diverse model compounds spiked into milk samples to mimic unknown contamination. Other milk samples were used as reference samples. All samples were analyzed with UHPLC-TOF-MS (ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry), using reversed-phase chromatography and electrospray ionization in positive mode. Data evaluation was performed by the software TracMass 2. No target lists of specific compounds were used to search for the contaminants. Instead, the software was used to sort out all features only occurring in the spiked sample data, i.e., the workflow resembled a metabolomics approach. Procedures for chemical identification of peaks were outside the scope of the study. Method, study design, and settings in the software were optimized to minimize manual evaluation and faulty or irrelevant hits and to maximize hit rate of the spiked compounds. A practical detection limit was established at 25 μg/kg. At this concentration, most compounds (17 out of 19) were detected as intact precursor ions, as fragments or as adducts. Only 2 irrelevant hits, probably natural compounds, were obtained. Limitations and possible practical use of the approach are discussed.

  4. Assessing the impact of safety monitoring on the efficacy analysis in large Phase III group sequential trials with non-trivial safety event rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Yanqiu; Palesch, Yuko Y; DeSantis, Stacia M; Zhao, Wenle

    2016-01-01

    In Phase III clinical trials for life-threatening conditions, some serious but expected adverse events, such as early deaths or congestive heart failure, are often treated as the secondary or co-primary endpoint, and are closely monitored by the Data and Safety Monitoring Committee (DSMC). A naïve group sequential design (GSD) for such a study is to specify univariate statistical boundaries for the efficacy and safety endpoints separately, and then implement the two boundaries during the study, even though the two endpoints are typically correlated. One problem with this naïve design, which has been noted in the statistical literature, is the potential loss of power. In this article, we develop an analytical tool to evaluate this negative impact for trials with non-trivial safety event rates, particularly when the safety monitoring is informal. Using a bivariate binary power function for the GSD with a random-effect component to account for subjective decision-making in safety monitoring, we demonstrate how, under common conditions, the power loss in the naïve design can be substantial. This tool may be helpful to entities such as the DSMCs when they wish to deviate from the prespecified stopping boundaries based on safety measures.

  5. Application of the coaxial smart drain in patients with a large air leak following anatomic lung resection: a prospective multicenter phase II analysis of efficacy and safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrera, Francesco; Filosso, Pier Luigi; Pompili, Cecilia; Olivetti, Stefania; Roffinella, Matteo; Imperatori, Andrea; Brunelli, Alessandro

    2018-01-01

    The presence of air leak following lung resection remains a frequent problem, which may prolong hospital stay and increase hospital costs. In the past, some studies documented the efficacy of soft and flexible chest tube in patients who underwent thoracic surgery. Nevertheless, safety in case of post-operative large air or liquid leak remains questionable. The objective of this study was to verify through a multicentre study the safety and the effectiveness of the coaxial chest tube in a consecutive series of selected patients who underwent anatomical pulmonary resection and with an active and large air leak. Between October 2016 and September 2017, data from patients submitted to anatomical lung resection with curative intent and operated in two Department of Thoracic Surgery of two different were prospectively collected. The inclusion criteria consisted in the presence of an air leak greater than 50 mL/min measured with a digital drainage system during the 3 postoperative hours. A descriptive statistic was used to report the incidence of complications assumed to be associated with the use of the coaxial drain. Forty-eight consecutive patients (27 males) submitted to lobectomy (37 patients: 77%) or anatomic segmentectomies (11 patients) were included in the analyses. Thirty-four operations (71%) were performed by video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS). The median duration of chest tubes was 13 days [interquartile range (IQR), 4-19] and the median duration of air leak was 9 days (IQR, 2-17.5). No patient had undrained postoperative pleural effusion judged to require an additional chest tube placement. There were 12 (25%) cases of clinically or radiologically significant surgical emphysema; in none of these patients any additional procedure or re-operation was required, and they were treated conservatively by increasing the level of suction. Our experience with this novel Coaxial Drain was satisfactory with no clinically relevant complication caused using this drain

  6. Application of the coaxial smart drain in patients with a large air leak following anatomic lung resection: a prospective multicenter phase II analysis of efficacy and safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filosso, Pier Luigi; Pompili, Cecilia; Olivetti, Stefania; Roffinella, Matteo; Imperatori, Andrea; Brunelli, Alessandro

    2018-01-01

    Background The presence of air leak following lung resection remains a frequent problem, which may prolong hospital stay and increase hospital costs. In the past, some studies documented the efficacy of soft and flexible chest tube in patients who underwent thoracic surgery. Nevertheless, safety in case of post-operative large air or liquid leak remains questionable. The objective of this study was to verify through a multicentre study the safety and the effectiveness of the coaxial chest tube in a consecutive series of selected patients who underwent anatomical pulmonary resection and with an active and large air leak. Methods Between October 2016 and September 2017, data from patients submitted to anatomical lung resection with curative intent and operated in two Department of Thoracic Surgery of two different were prospectively collected. The inclusion criteria consisted in the presence of an air leak greater than 50 mL/min measured with a digital drainage system during the 3 postoperative hours. A descriptive statistic was used to report the incidence of complications assumed to be associated with the use of the coaxial drain. Results Forty-eight consecutive patients (27 males) submitted to lobectomy (37 patients: 77%) or anatomic segmentectomies (11 patients) were included in the analyses. Thirty-four operations (71%) were performed by video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS). The median duration of chest tubes was 13 days [interquartile range (IQR), 4–19] and the median duration of air leak was 9 days (IQR, 2–17.5). No patient had undrained postoperative pleural effusion judged to require an additional chest tube placement. There were 12 (25%) cases of clinically or radiologically significant surgical emphysema; in none of these patients any additional procedure or re-operation was required, and they were treated conservatively by increasing the level of suction. Conclusions Our experience with this novel Coaxial Drain was satisfactory with no clinically

  7. Palliation of advanced pelvic malignant disease with large fraction pelvic radiation and misonidazole: final report of RTOG phase I/II study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spanos, W.J. Jr.; Wasserman, T.; Meoz, R.; Sala, J.; Kong, J.; Stetz, J.

    1987-01-01

    Between October 1979 and June 1982 forty-six patients were entered on a non-randomized Phase I-II protocol for the evaluation of Misonidazole combined with high dose per fraction radiation for the treatment of advanced pelvic malignancies. Pelvic radiation consisted of 1000 cGy in one fraction repeated at 4-week intervals for a total of three treatments. Oral Misonidazole at a dose of 4 gm/m2 was administered 4-6 hr prior to radiation (total dose 12 g/m2). The distribution of histology consisted of 20 gynecologic, 24 bowel, and 2 prostate malignancies. Of the thirty-seven patients completing the three treatments; there were 6 complete responses (14% CR), 10 partial responses (27% PR) 19 minimal or no response (32% NR), and 4 unevaluable. One patient remains NED 5.5 years following radiation. Toxicity directly related to Misonidazole was minimal and consisted primarily of transcient Grade 1, 2 peripheral neuropathy (20% Grade 1, 4% Grade 2) and Grade 2 ototoxicity (4%). Radiation toxicity was significant for late bowel damage. There were 4 (11%) Grade 3 and 7 (19%) Grade 4 gastro-intestinal (GI) toxicities. Kaplan-Meier plot of GI toxicity showed a progressive increase in incidence with time for projected rate of 49% Grade 3, 4 by 12-month. GI toxicity (Grade 3, 4) was also related to tumor response. The complication rate was 80% (4/6) for CR, 30% (3/10) for PR and 26% (5/19) for NR or progression. Because of the GI complication rate, this protocol for palliation of advanced pelvic malignancies has been replaced by a protocol that uses 4 fractions over 2 days (b.i.d.) of 370 cGy per fraction repeated at 3-week intervals for a total of 3 courses

  8. Frequency, severity and causes of unexpected allergic reactions to food: a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versluis, A; Knulst, A C; Kruizinga, A G; Michelsen, A; Houben, G F; Baumert, J L; van Os-Medendorp, H

    2015-02-01

    Food allergic patients have to deal with an avoidance diet. Confusing labelling terms or precautionary labels can result in misinterpretation and risk-taking behaviour. Even those patients that strictly adhere to their diet experience (sometimes severe) unexpected allergic reactions to food. The frequency, severity and causes of such reactions are unknown. The objective of this review was to describe the frequency, severity and causes of unexpected allergic reactions to food in food allergic patients aged > 12 years, in order to develop improved strategies to deal with their allergy. A systematic review was carried out by two researchers, in six electronic databases (CINAHL, Cochrane, EMBASE, Medline, Psychinfo and Scopus). The search was performed with keywords relating to the frequency, severity and causes of unexpected allergic reactions to food. This resulted in 24 studies which met the inclusion criteria; 18 observational and six qualitative studies. This review shows that knowledge about the frequency of unexpected reactions is limited. Peanut, nuts, egg, fruit/vegetables and milk are the main causal foods. Severe reactions and even fatalities occur. Most reactions take place at home, but a significant number also take place when eating at friends' houses or in restaurants. Labelling issues, but also attitude and risky behaviour of patients can attribute to unexpected reactions. We conclude that prospective studies are needed to get more insight in the frequency, severity, quantity of unintended allergen ingested and causes of unexpected allergic reactions to food, to be able to optimize strategies to support patients in dealing with their food allergy. Although the exact frequency is not known, unexpected reactions to food occur in a significant number of patients and can be severe. For clinical practice, this means that patient education and dietary instructions are necessary. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Unexpected magnetism, and transport properties in mixed lanthanide compound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Arjun; Gschneidner, Karl, Jr.; Pecharsky, Vitalij; Ames Laboratory Team

    For intelligent materials design it is desirable to have compounds which have multiple functionalities such as a large magnetoresistance, ferromagnetic and ferrimagnetic states, and field-induced first-order metamagnetic transitions. Here, we discuss one such example where we have combined two lanthanide elements Pr and Er in Pr0.6Er0.4Al2. This compound exhibits multiple functionalities in magnetic fields between 1 and 40 kOe. It undergoes only a trivial ferrimagnetism to paramagnetism transition in a zero magnetic field, but Pr0.6Er0.4Al2 exhibits a large positive magnetoresistance (MR) for H >=40 kOe, a small but non negligible negative MR for H field cooling from the paramagnetic state. These phenomena are attributed to the competition between single-ion anisotropies of Pr and Er ions coupled with the opposite nearest-neighbor and next-nearest-neighbor exchange interactions. This work was supported by the US Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Science, Division of Material Sciences and Engineering. The research was performed at the Ames Laboratory. The Ames Laboratory is operated by Iowa State University for the US D.

  10. Design and operation of power systems with large amounts of wind power. Final summary report, IEA WIND Task 25, Phase two 2009 - 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holttinen, H.; Kiviluoma, J. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland); Robitaille, A. [Hydro Quebec, Montreal QC (Canada)] [and others

    2013-01-15

    This report provides a summary of the results from recent wind integration studies. The studies address concerns about the impact of wind power's variability and uncertainty on power system reliability and costs as well as grid reinforcement needs. Quantifiable results are presented as summary graphs: results as a MW-increase in reserve requirements, or euro/MWh increase in balancing costs, or results for capacity value of wind power. Other results are briefly summarised, together with existing experience on the issues. There is already significant experience in integrating wind power in power systems. The mitigation of wind power impacts include more flexible operational methods, incentivising flexibility in other generating plants, increasing interconnection to neighbouring regions, and application of demand-side flexibility. Electricity storage is still not as cost effective in larger power systems as other means of flexibility, but is already seeing initial applications in places with limited transmission. Electricity markets, with cross-border trade of intra-day and balancing resources and emerging ancillary services markets, are seen as promising for future large penetration levels for wind power. (orig.)

  11. The bead on a rotating hoop revisited: an unexpected resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raviola, Lisandro A.; Véliz, Maximiliano E.; Salomone, Horacio D.; Olivieri, Néstor A.; Rodríguez, Eduardo E.

    2017-01-01

    The bead on a rotating hoop is a typical problem in mechanics, frequently posed to junior science and engineering students in basic physics courses. Although this system has a rich dynamics, it is usually not analysed beyond the point particle approximation in undergraduate textbooks, nor empirically investigated. Advanced textbooks show the existence of bifurcations owing to the system's nonlinear nature, and some papers demonstrate, from a theoretical standpoint, its points of contact with phase transition phenomena. However, scarce experimental research has been conducted to better understand its behaviour. We show in this paper that a minor modification to the problem leads to appealing consequences that can be studied both theoretically and empirically with the basic conceptual tools and experimental skills available to junior students. In particular, we go beyond the point particle approximation by treating the bead as a rigid spherical body, and explore the effect of a slightly non-vertical hoop's rotation axis that gives rise to a resonant behaviour not considered in previous works. This study can be accomplished by means of digital video and open source software. The experience can motivate an engaging laboratory project by integrating standard curriculum topics, data analysis and experimental exploration.

  12. Plastic debris ingestion by marine catfish: an unexpected fisheries impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Possatto, Fernanda E; Barletta, Mário; Costa, Monica F; do Sul, Juliana A Ivar; Dantas, David V

    2011-05-01

    Plastic marine debris is a pervasive type of pollution. River basins and estuaries are a source of plastics pollution for coastal waters and oceans. Estuarine fauna is therefore exposed to chronic plastic pollution. Three important catfish species [Cathorops spixii (N=60), Cathorops agassizii (N=60) and Sciades herzbergii (N=62)] from South Western Atlantic estuaries were investigated in a tropical estuary of the Brazilian Northeast in relation to their accidental ingestion of plastic marine debris. Individuals from all three species had ingested plastics. In C. spixii and C. agassizii, 18% and 33% of individuals had plastic debris in their stomachs, respectively. S. herzbergii showed 18% of individuals were contaminated. All ontogenetic phases (juveniles, sub-adults and adults) were contaminated. Nylon fragments from cables used in fishery activities (subsistence, artisanal and commercial) played a major role in this contamination. These catfish spend their entire life cycles within the estuary and are an important feeding resource for larger, economically important, species. It is not yet possible to quantify the scale and depth of the consequences of this type of pollution. However, plastics are well known threat to living resources in this and other estuaries. Conservation actions will need to from now onto take plastics pollution into consideration. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. An investigation into the causes of unexpected intra-operative transoesophageal echocardiography findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, H J; Mahmoud, A; Uddin, A; Mathew, T

    2012-04-01

    There is uncertainty regarding echocardiography before cardiac surgery, especially with regard to timing and disease progression as well as potential errors. We investigated the causes of unexpected intra-operative transoesophageal echocardiography findings by performing a 33-month audit. We found that there were 50/797 (6%) unexpected findings that led to an alteration in surgical strategy in 34 (4%) patients. Of the unexpected findings, 25 (50%) were unrelated to pre-operative pathology. After reviewing pre-operative studies and reports, unexpected findings were found to be due to: reporting errors in 20 patients (44%); limitations in transthoracic compared to transoesophageal echocardiography in 14 patients (30%); disease progression in 10 patients (22%); and inter-observer variability in two patients (4%). We identified six reports out of 797 (0.8%) that contained potentially serious errors. Surgical management changed in 18/20 (90%) patients in whom the unexpected change was due to reporting error, compared to 16/30 (53%) patients whose pre-operative echocardiogram was correctly reported (p = 0.006). Our study suggests that pre-operative echocardiography reporting errors are common and important. Anaesthesia © 2012 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

  14. Evidence of a splitting of the Mn-O distance and of a large lattice disorder in the charge-ordered phase of LiMn2O4 obtained by EXAFS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paolone, A.; Castellano, C.; Cantelli, R.; Rousse, G.; Masquelier, C.

    2003-01-01

    We measured the extended x-ray-absorption fine-structure (EXAFS) spectrum of LiMn 2 O 4 below room temperature in the charge-ordered phase and for comparison at room temperature in the cubic phase. By means of a standard fit procedure we verified that, as reported by neutron-scattering experiments, also at the local level there are two different Mn-O distances below room temperature, which correspond to the surroundings of well-defined Mn 3+ and Mn 4+ ions. This result is different from the ones obtained from previous EXAFS measurements and confirms the physical picture of the phase transition caused by the ordering of charges in contrast to a cooperative Jahn-Teller phenomenon. Moreover a large lattice disorder in the charge-ordered state, which determines a significant static contribution to the EXAFS Debye-Waller factor, has been found. This last result can be considered as the EXAFS spectral mark of charge-order transitions, even in those materials in which there is no clear evidence of the splitting of bond lengths

  15. Citizen science reveals unexpected continental-scale evolutionary change in a model organism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Silvertown

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Organisms provide some of the most sensitive indicators of climate change and evolutionary responses are becoming apparent in species with short generation times. Large datasets on genetic polymorphism that can provide an historical benchmark against which to test for recent evolutionary responses are very rare, but an exception is found in the brown-lipped banded snail (Cepaea nemoralis. This species is sensitive to its thermal environment and exhibits several polymorphisms of shell colour and banding pattern affecting shell albedo in the majority of populations within its native range in Europe. We tested for evolutionary changes in shell albedo that might have been driven by the warming of the climate in Europe over the last half century by compiling an historical dataset for 6,515 native populations of C. nemoralis and comparing this with new data on nearly 3,000 populations. The new data were sampled mainly in 2009 through the Evolution MegaLab, a citizen science project that engaged thousands of volunteers in 15 countries throughout Europe in the biggest such exercise ever undertaken. A known geographic cline in the frequency of the colour phenotype with the highest albedo (yellow was shown to have persisted and a difference in colour frequency between woodland and more open habitats was confirmed, but there was no general increase in the frequency of yellow shells. This may have been because snails adapted to a warming climate through behavioural thermoregulation. By contrast, we detected an unexpected decrease in the frequency of Unbanded shells and an increase in the Mid-banded morph. Neither of these evolutionary changes appears to be a direct response to climate change, indicating that the influence of other selective agents, possibly related to changing predation pressure and habitat change with effects on micro-climate.

  16. The Occurrence of the Recent Deadly Mexico Earthquakes was not that Unexpected

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Marquez, L.; Sarlis, N. V.; Skordas, E. S.; Varotsos, P.; Ramírez-Rojas, A.

    2017-12-01

    Most big Mexican earthquakes occur right along the interface between the colliding Cocos and North American plates, but the two recent deadly Mexico earthquakes, i.e., the magnitude 8.2 earthquake that struck the Mexico's Chiapas state on 7 September 2017 and the magnitude 7.1 earthquake that struck central Mexico, almost 12 days later, killing more than 400 people and reducing buildings to rubble in several States happened at two different spots in the flat-slab in the middle of the Cocos tectonic plate which is considered a geologically surprising area [1]. Here, upon considering a new type of analysis termed natural time, we show that their occurrence should not in principle puzzle scientists. Earthquakes may be considered as critical phenomena, see Ref. [2] and references therein and natural time analysis [3] uncovers an order parameter for seismicity. It has been shown [2] that the fluctuations of this order parameter exhibit a universal behavior with a probability density function (pdf), which is non-Gaussian having a left exponential tail [3]. Natural time analysis of seismicity in various tectonic regions of the Mexican Pacific Coast has been made in Ref.[4]. The study of the order parameter pdf for the Chiapas area as well as for the Guerrero area shows that the occurrence of large earthquakes in these two areas was not unexpected. References A. Witze, Deadly Mexico quakes not linked, Nature 549, 442 (2017). Varotsos PA, Sarlis NV, Skordas ES, Natural Time Analysis: The new view of time. Precursory Seismic Electric Signals, Earthquakes and other Complex Time-Series (Springer-Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg 2011) P. Varotsos et al., Similarity of fluctuations in correlated systems: the case of seismicity. Phys. Rev. E 72, 041103 (2005) A. Ramírez-Rojas and E.L. Flores-Márquez, Order parameter analysis of seismicity of the Mexican Pacific coast. Physica A, 392 2507 (2013)

  17. Unexpectedly long hospital stays as an indicator of risk of unsafe care: an exploratory study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghans, Ine; Hekkert, Karin D; den Ouden, Lya; Cihangir, Sezgin; Vesseur, Jan; Kool, Rudolf B; Westert, Gert P

    2014-01-01

    Objectives We developed an outcome indicator based on the finding that complications often prolong the patient's hospital stay. A higher percentage of patients with an unexpectedly long length of stay (UL-LOS) compared to the national average may indicate shortcomings in patient safety. We explored the utility of the UL-LOS indicator. Setting We used data of 61 Dutch hospitals. In total these hospitals had 1 400 000 clinical discharges in 2011. Participants The indicator is based on the percentage of patients with a prolonged length of stay of more than 50% of the expected length of stay and calculated among survivors. Interventions No interventions were made. Outcome measures The outcome measures were the variability of the indicator across hospitals, the stability over time, the correlation between the UL-LOS and standardised mortality and the influence on the indicator of hospitals that did have problems discharging their patients to other health services such as nursing homes. Results In order to compare hospitals properly the expected length of stay was computed based on comparison with benchmark populations. The standardisation was based on patients’ age, primary diagnosis and main procedure. The UL-LOS indicator showed considerable variability between the Dutch hospitals: from 8.6% to 20.1% in 2011. The outcomes had relatively small CIs since they were based on large numbers of patients. The stability of the indicator over time was quite high. The indicator had a significant positive correlation with the standardised mortality (r=0.44 (p0.05)). Conclusions The UL-LOS indicator is a useful addition to other patient safety indicators by revealing variation between hospitals and areas of possible patient safety improvement. PMID:24902727

  18. Meteoroid Measurements in the Deep Space Cruising and the Jupiter Trojan Rendezvous Phases of the Solar Power Sail Mission by the Arrayed Large-Area Dust Detectors in INterplanetary Space (ALADDIN)-II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, H.; Hirai, T.; Arai, K.; Fujii, M.

    2017-12-01

    The PVDF thin films have been long, space-proven instruments for hypervelocity impact detection in the diverse regions of the Solar System from orbits of Venus by IKAROS and of Pluto by New Horizons. In particular, light weight but large area membranes of a solar sail spacecraft is an ideal location for such detectors to be deployed for detecting statistically enough nubers of so large micrometeoroids that are sensitive to mean motion resonances and other gravitational effects of flux enhancements and voids with planets. The IKAROS spacecraft first detected in situ dust flux enhancement and gap region within the Earth's circumsolar dust ring as well as those of Venus by 0.54 m^2 detection area of ALADDIN sensors on the slar sail membrane. Advancing this heritage, the Solar Power Sail membrane will carry 0.4+ m^2 ALADDIN-II PVDF sensors with improved impact signal prosessng units to detect both hyperveloity dust impacts in the interplanetary space cruising phase and slow dust impacts bound to the Jupiter Trojan region in its rendezvours phase.

  19. Unexpected Regularity in Swimming Behavior of Clausocalanus furcatus Revealed by a Telecentric 3D Computer Vision System.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Bianco

    Full Text Available Planktonic copepods display a large repertoire of motion behaviors in a three-dimensional environment. Two-dimensional video observations demonstrated that the small copepod Clausocalanus furcatus, one the most widely distributed calanoids at low to medium latitudes, presented a unique swimming behavior that was continuous and fast and followed notably convoluted trajectories. Furthermore, previous observations indicated that the motion of C. furcatus resembled a random process. We characterized the swimming behavior of this species in three-dimensional space using a video system equipped with telecentric lenses, which allow tracking of zooplankton without the distortion errors inherent in common lenses. Our observations revealed unexpected regularities in the behavior of C. furcatus that appear primarily in the horizontal plane and could not have been identified in previous observations based on lateral views. Our results indicate that the swimming behavior of C. furcatus is based on a limited repertoire of basic kinematic modules but exhibits greater plasticity than previously thought.

  20. Unexpected enhancements and reductions of rf spin resonance strengths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Leonova

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available We recently analyzed all available data on spin-flipping stored beams of polarized protons, electrons, and deuterons. Fitting the modified Froissart-Stora equation to the measured polarization data after crossing an rf-induced spin resonance, we found 10–20-fold deviations from the depolarizing resonance strength equations used for many years. The polarization was typically manipulated by linearly sweeping the frequency of an rf dipole or rf solenoid through an rf-induced spin resonance; spin-flip efficiencies of up to 99.9% were obtained. The Lorentz invariance of an rf dipole’s transverse ∫Bdl and the weak energy dependence of its spin resonance strength E together imply that even a small rf dipole should allow efficient spin flipping in 100 GeV or even TeV storage rings; thus, it is important to understand these large deviations. Therefore, we recently studied the resonance strength deviations experimentally by varying the size and vertical betatron tune of a 2.1  GeV/c polarized proton beam stored in COSY. We found no dependence of E on beam size, but we did find almost 100-fold enhancements when the rf spin resonance was near an intrinsic spin resonance.

  1. Traces on sky. Unexpected results of regular observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churyumov, K. I.; Steklov, A. F.; Vidmachenko, A. P.; Dashkiev, N. G.; Steklov, E. A.

    2016-08-01

    If the fireball's track has noticeable angular size, it can be seen even in the daytime. After the flight, bolide remains a noticeable trace of a dust, dark against the light sky. If such a dust trail illuminated by the rays of the Sun, which had just hid behind the horizon (or even in the moonlight), it is visible as bright lanes in the night sky or in twilight. That's why we call it the twilight bolides. Usually, astronomical observations using of meteor patrols, carried out at night after the evening astronomical twilight. But from March 2013 to October 2015, the authors have obtained several thousands of different tracks in the sky over Kiev. Therefore, we have identified a special class of twilight observations of fireballs. We register the traces of invading to atmosphere of meteoroids of natural and artificial origin. At the same time, observe the traces of fireballs at the day-time are also possible. But they are less effective than in the twilight. Night observations of bright meteoric tracks can usually observe some seconds. While traces of the twilight bolides we observed from some minutes up to two hours, before they be scattered by atmospheric currents. It opens the great prospects for low-cost direct experiments probing of these tracks by using, for example, the astronomical aviation. We propose the twilight tracks are classified into the following types: AMT - aero-meteorological tracks, AST - aero-space, ATT - aero-technical, and NST - not yet classified tracks of unknown nature. During the short period of our observations (from March 2013 to 2016), was fixed falling at least a dozen fragments of cometary nuclei, at least five of sufficiently large and dozens of smaller fragments of meteoroids. The results of our observations also showed that during the morning and evening twilight over Kiev clearly visible the plume of aerosols of technical nature from the plants, factories and other production facilities.

  2. Superconductivity in the unconventional high pressure phase bismuth-III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semeniuk, Konstantin; Brown, Philip; Vasiljkovic, Aleksandar; Grosche, Malte [University of Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2015-07-01

    One of the most surprising developments in high pressure research was the realisation that many elements assume very unexpected high pressure structures, described in terms of extremely large or even infinite unit cells. Elemental bismuth, which has been known to undergo a series of pressure induced structural transitions between 25 kbar and 80 kbar, is an interesting example: the intermediate pressure Bi-III phase has a complex 'host-guest' structure consisting of two incommensurate sublattices. Since the unit cell is infinitely large, the description of electronic and lattice excitations is problematic. Apart from its metallic character and the observation of superconductivity at low temperature, little is known about the electronic structure in this phase. We investigate the electrical resistivity within the metallic Bi-III phase under high hydrostatic pressure and in applied magnetic field using a piston cylinder cell. Superconductivity is observed below 7.1 K, and we extract the temperature dependence of the upper critical field, which exceeds 2 T at low temperature. The normal state resistivity exhibits an approximately linear temperature dependence. This could be attributed to strong scattering from low-lying excitations, as caused by an unusually soft phonon spectrum. The results suggest that strong coupling superconductivity arises within the host-guest structure of Bi-III out of an unusual electronic state.

  3. The gap in the Arctic Cenozoic Record: Expect the Unexpected

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangiorgi, F.; Brumsack, H.; Schouten, S.; Brinkhuis, H.; Kaminski, M. A.; Reichart, G.; Stickley, C. E.; Willard, D. A.; Sinninghe Damste', J. S.

    2006-12-01

    Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 302, a.k.a. the Arctic Coring Expedition (ACEX), drilled more than 400 meters below the seafloor at the central Lomonosov Ridge, ca 250 km from the modern North Pole in water depths of about 1300 m. The partially recovered sediments provide a unique record of the geological and paleoceanographical evolution of the Arctic Ocean during the Cenozoic. The record indicates a transition from a "greenhouse world", characterized by a relative shallow marine setting, with organic-rich sediment and frequent brackish or even fresh surface waters during the latest Palaeocene and the early Eocene, to an "icehouse world" of hemipelagic sedimentation affected by the occurrence of sea ice from the middle Miocene to present. Much to our surprise, these two states are separated by a major hiatus, not obvious from the seismic record and the lithology of the cores, spanning at least 25 Ma as derived from dinocyst and benthic foraminifer stratigraphies. These testify that deposits of probable late early Miocene age directly overlie early middle Eocene sediments. To unravel the nature of the hiatus, we performed a multiproxy micropaleontological and geochemical study on the surrounding record, i.e. lithological units 1/6, 1/5 and 1/4, where the sediment changes from homogeneous dark into a cm-scaled alternation ("zebra-like") black and grey bands to light grey, blue and reddish-brown. Paleoenvironmental reconstructions based on organic-walled dinoflagellate cysts, pollen and spores, benthic foraminifera, inorganic and organic geochemistry and siliceous remains reveal conspicuous changes, suggesting a transition from brackish-freshwater to shallow-lagoonal and to open marine environments. These environmental turnovers, coupled with the occurrence of such a large hiatus, cannot be due to climatic shifts alone, but suggest that major tectonic rearrangements likely changed the depositional setting. On-going organic geochemical analysis will be

  4. Many unexpected abdominal findings on staging computed tomography in patients with colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmsted, Kim; Nørring, Keld; Laustrup, Lene Collatz

    2011-01-01

    ; an issue that was previously studied in relation to CT colonography, but not in relation to staging CT with intravenous contrast in CRC patients. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the number and significance of such unexpected findings on staging CTs in CRC patients.......Computed tomography (CT) was proven to be superior to preoperative abdominal ultrasound in the preoperative setting for detection of hepatic metastases from colorectal cancer (CRC). The higher sensitivity of CT has resulted in a number of unexpected abdominal findings of varying importance...

  5. Histone H1 interphase phosphorylation becomes largely established in G1 or early S phase and differs in G1 between T-lymphoblastoid cells and normal T cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gréen Anna

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Histone H1 is an important constituent of chromatin, and is involved in regulation of its structure. During the cell cycle, chromatin becomes locally decondensed in S phase, highly condensed during metaphase, and again decondensed before re-entry into G1. This has been connected to increasing phosphorylation of H1 histones through the cell cycle. However, many of these experiments have been performed using cell-synchronization techniques and cell cycle-arresting drugs. In this study, we investigated the H1 subtype composition and phosphorylation pattern in the cell cycle of normal human activated T cells and Jurkat T-lymphoblastoid cells by capillary electrophoresis after sorting of exponentially growing cells into G1, S and G2/M populations. Results We found that the relative amount of H1.5 protein increased significantly after T-cell activation. Serine phosphorylation of H1 subtypes occurred to a large extent in late G1 or early S phase in both activated T cells and Jurkat cells. Furthermore, our data confirm that the H1 molecules newly synthesized during S phase achieve a similar phosphorylation pattern to the previous ones. Jurkat cells had more extended H1.5 phosphorylation in G1 compared with T cells, a difference that can be explained by faster cell growth and/or the presence of enhanced H1 kinase activity in G1 in Jurkat cells. Conclusion Our data are consistent with a model in which a major part of interphase H1 phosphorylation takes place in G1 or early S phase. This implies that H1 serine phosphorylation may be coupled to changes in chromatin structure necessary for DNA replication. In addition, the increased H1 phosphorylation of malignant cells in G1 may be affecting the G1/S transition control and enabling facilitated S-phase entry as a result of relaxed chromatin condensation. Furthermore, increased H1.5 expression may be coupled to the proliferative capacity of growth-stimulated T cells.

  6. 75 FR 34617 - Unexpected Urgent Refugee and Migration Needs Related to Somalia and Food Pipeline Breaks for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-18

    ... unexpected and urgent refugee and migration needs, including by contributions to international, governmental, and nongovernmental organizations and payment of administrative expenses of the Bureau of Population...

  7. Thermodynamic and structural study of two-dimensional phase transitions and orientational order in films of linear molecules with a large quadrupole moment, physi-sorbed on lamellar substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terlain, Anne

    1984-01-01

    The 2D (two-dimensional) phase transitions and orientational order in N 2 O, CO 2 , C 2 N 2 and C 2 D 2 films physi-sorbed on the (0001) face of graphite or lamellar halides, were studied experimentally by adsorption isotherm measurements and neutron diffraction. The thermodynamic functions derived from sets of isotherms suggest that crystal monolayers of N 2 O, CO 2 , and C 2 N 2 adsorbed on graphite are orientationally ordered and that the quadrupolar interaction stabilizes the 2D crystal with respect to the 2D liquid. This stabilization leads to an increase in the 2D triple point temperature, T 2t as compared with the 2D critical temperature T 2c . For C 2 N 2 this stabilization is so pronounced that T 2t becomes virtually higher than T 2c , and the phase diagram qualitatively different, having no gas-liquid coexistence domain. From a neutron diffraction experiment we have determined the crystal structure of the C 2 N 2 monolayer. It supports our interpretation of the monolayer phase diagram. In N 2 O, CO 2 , C 2 N 2 films adsorbed on graphite the molecules lie flat on the surface and their orientational order hence differs from that in the bulk crystals resulting in a loss of adsorbate-adsorbate interaction energy. Beyond a given film thickness this loss will not be compensated by the adsorbate-substrate interaction and the film will stop growing. For most of the films studied a partial wetting transition is observed at which the film thickness increases discontinuously with temperature. Although C 2 N 2 and C 2 D 2 monolayers on graphite have comparable adsorption energies, only C 2 D 2 is adsorbed on lamellar halides. This adsorption is possible only because the monolayer has a large entropy due to orientational disorder. For C 2 N 2 , which has a higher moment of inertia, such an orientational disorder cannot exist. (author) [fr

  8. Mechanisms of membrane protein insertion into liposomes during reconstitution procedures involving the use of detergents. 1. Solubilization of large unilamellar liposomes (Prepared by reverse-phase evaporation) by Triton X-100 octyl glucoside, and sodium cholate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paternostre, M.T.; Roux, M.; Rigaud, J.L.

    1988-01-01

    The mechanisms governing the solubilization by Triton X-100, octyl glucoside, and sodium cholate of large unilamellar liposomes prepared by reverse-phase evaporation were investigated. The solubilization process is described by the three-stage model previously proposed for the detergents. In stage I, detergent monomers are incorporated into the phospholipid bilayers until they saturate the liposomes. At this point, i.e., stage II, mixed phospholipid-detergent micelles begin to form. By stage III, the lamellar to micellar transition is complete and all the phospholipids are present as mixed micelles. The turbidity of liposome preparations was systematically measured as a function of the amount of detergent added for a wide range of phospholipid concentrations. The results allowed a quantitative determination of the effective detergent to lipid molar ratios in the saturated liposomes. The monomer concentrations of the three detergents in the aqueous phase were also determined at the lamellar to micellar transitions. These transitions were also investigated by 31 P NMR spectroscopy, and complete agreement was found with turbidity measurements. Freeze-fracture electron microscopy and permeability studies in the sublytic range of detergent concentrations indicated that during stage I of solubilization detergent partitioning between the aqueous phase and the lipid bilayer greatly affects the basic permeability of the liposomes without significantly changing the morphology of the preparations. A rough approximation of the partition coefficients was derived from the turbidity and permeability data. It is concluded that when performed systematically, turbidity measurements constitute a very convenient and powerful technique for the quantitative study of the liposome solubilization process by detergents

  9. Autistic Traits Affect P300 Response to Unexpected Events, regardless of Mental State Inferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsuhiko Ishikawa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Limited use of contextual information has been suggested as a way of understanding cognition in people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD. However, it has also been argued that individuals with ASD may have difficulties inferring others’ mental states. Here, we examined how individuals with different levels of autistic traits respond to contextual deviations by measuring event-related potentials that reflect context usage. The Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ was used to quantify autistic-like traits in 28 university students, and 19 participants were defined as Low or High AQ groups. To additionally examine inferences about mental state, two belief conditions (with or without false belief were included. Participants read short stories in which the final sentence included either an expected or an unexpected word and rated the word’s degree of deviation from expectation. P300 waveform analysis revealed that unexpected words were associated with larger P300 waveforms for the Low AQ group, but smaller P300 responses in the High AQ group. Additionally, AQ social skill subscores were positively correlated with evaluation times in the Unexpected condition, whether a character’s belief was false or not. This suggests that autistic traits can affect responses to unexpected events, possibly because of decreased availability of context information.

  10. Sudden unexpected death in children with a previously diagnosed cardiovascular disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polderman, Florens N.; Cohen, Joeri; Blom, Nico A.; Delhaas, Tammo; Helbing, Wim A.; Lam, Jan; Sobotka-Plojhar, Marta A.; Temmerman, Arno M.; Sreeram, Narayanswani

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is known that children with previously diagnosed heart defects die suddenly. The causes of death are often unknown. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to identify all infants and children within the Netherlands with previously diagnosed heart disease who had a sudden unexpected death

  11. Sudden unexpected death in children with a previously diagnosed cardiovascular disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polderman, F.N.; Cohen, Joeri; Blom, N.A.; Delhaas, T.; Helbing, W.A.; Lam, J.; Sobotka-Plojhar, M.A.; Temmerman, Arno M.; Sreeram, N.

    2004-01-01

    Background: It is known that children with previously diagnosed heart defects die suddenly. The causes of death are often unknown. Objective: The aim of the study was to identify all infants and children within the Netherlands with previously diagnosed heart disease who had a sudden unexpected death

  12. Frequency, severity and causes of unexpected allergic reactions to food: A systematic literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versluis, A.; Knulst, A.C.; Kruizinga, A.G.; Michelsen, A.; Houben, G.F.; Baumert, J.L.; Os-Medendorp, H. van

    2015-01-01

    Summary: Food allergic patients have to deal with an avoidance diet. Confusing labelling terms or precautionary labels can result in misinterpretation and risk-taking behaviour. Even those patients that strictly adhere to their diet experience (sometimes severe) unexpected allergic reactions to

  13. The creative use of unexpected responses in the hypnotherapy of patients with conversion disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moene, F.C.; Hoogduin, C.A.L.

    1999-01-01

    In a previously completed empirical study examining the use of hypnosis in a comprehensive treatment program with 85 patients who suffered motor conversion symptoms, 16 patients were reported by their therapists to have had unusual and unexpected responses during hypnosis. This article summarizes

  14. 76 FR 53295 - Unexpected Urgent Refugee and Migration Needs Related to the Horn of Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-25

    ...-12 of August 8, 2011--Unexpected Urgent Refugee and Migration Needs Related to the Horn of Africa... Migration Needs Related to the Horn of Africa Memorandum for the Secretary of State By the authority vested... Department of State, related to the humanitarian crisis in the Horn of Africa. You are authorized and...

  15. 76 FR 14271 - Unexpected Urgent Refugee and Migration Needs Related to Libya

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-16

    ... March 7, 2011 Unexpected Urgent Refugee and Migration Needs Related to Libya Memorandum for the... States, including section 2(c)(1) of the Migration and Refugee Assistance Act of 1962 (the ``Act''), as... million from the United States Emergency Refugee and Migration Assistance Fund, for the purpose of meeting...

  16. 75 FR 67013 - Unexpected Urgent Refugee and Migration Needs Resulting from Violence in Kyrgyzstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    ... August 26, 2010 Unexpected Urgent Refugee and Migration Needs Resulting from Violence in Kyrgyzstan... laws of the United States, including section 2(c)(1) of the Migration and Refugee Assistance Act of... amount not to exceed $9.5 million from the United States Emergency Refugee and Migration Assistance Fund...

  17. Tourism Stocks in Times of Crises: An Econometric Investigation of Unexpected Non-macroeconomic Factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Zopiatis (Anastasios); C.S. Savva (Christos); N. Lambertides (Neophytos); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractFollowing the recent terrorist attacks in Paris, the European media emphatically pronounced that billions of Euros were wiped from tourism related stocks. The theoretical relationship of the industry with such unexpected non-macro incidents received moderate academic coverage.

  18. Adaptation to sudden unexpected loading of the low back - the effects of repeated trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skotte, J.H.; Fallentin, N.; Pedersen, Mogens Theisen

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate short-term changes in reactions to sudden unexpected loading of the low back. The study utilized a set-up where a horizontal force of 58 N pointing forward suddenly was applied to the upper part of the subject's trunk. EMG activity from the erector...

  19. The unexpected in primary care: a multicenter study on the emergence of unvoiced patient agenda.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peltenburg, M.; Fischer, J.E.; Bahrs, O.; Dulmen, S. van; Brink-Muinen, A. van den

    2004-01-01

    PURPOSE: Within the time constraints of a typical physician-patient encounter, the full patient agenda will rarely be voiced. Unexpectedly revealed issues that were neither on the patient's list of items for discussion nor anticipated by the physician constitute an emerging agenda. We aimed to

  20. Frequency, severity and causes of unexpected allergic reactions to food : A systematic literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versluis, A.; Knulst, A. C.; Kruizinga, A. G.; Michelsen, A.; Houben, G. F.; Baumert, J. L.; van Os-Medendorp, H.

    2015-01-01

    Summary: Food allergic patients have to deal with an avoidance diet. Confusing labelling terms or precautionary labels can result in misinterpretation and risk-taking behaviour. Even those patients that strictly adhere to their diet experience (sometimes severe) unexpected allergic reactions to

  1. Unexpected nitrile formation in bio-based mesoporous materials (Starbons®).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attard, Jennifer; Milescu, Roxana; Budarin, Vitaliy; Matharu, Avtar S; Clark, James H

    2018-01-16

    The bio-based mesoporous materials made from polysaccharides, Starbons® can be modified by two different routes to give high levels of N-content, unexpectedly including significant quantities of nitrile groups which can improve the materials performance in applications including metal capture.

  2. Challenging Ideals of Reciprocity in Undergraduate Teaching: The Unexpected Benefits of Unpredictable Cross-Cultural Fieldwork

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammersley, Laura A.; Bilous, Rebecca H.; James, Sarah W.; Trau, Adam M.; Suchet-Pearson, Sandie

    2014-01-01

    Geographers are increasingly grappling with the theoretical and practical implications of integrating an ethics of reciprocity into undergraduate learning and teaching. This paper draws on the unexpected experiences of a third-year human geography research methods fieldtrip to examine the process of balancing undergraduate student learning and…

  3. The Investigation of Unexpected Arsenic Compounds Observed in Routine Biological Monitoring Urinary Speciation Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Leese

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the identity of two unexpected arsenic species found separately in a number of urine samples sent to the Health and Safety Executive’s Health and Safety Laboratory for arsenic speciation (arsenobetaine, AB; arsenite, As3+; arsenate, As5+; monomethylarsonic acid, MMA5+; and dimethylarsinic acid, DMA5+. Micro liquid chromatography coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (µLC-ICP-MS and electrospray time of flight tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-QqTOF-MS/MS were used to identify the two arsenic peaks by comparison to several characterized arsenicals: arsenocholine, AC; trimethyl arsine oxide, TMAO; dimethylarsenoacetate, DMAA; dimethylarsenoethanol, DMAE; thio-dimethylarsinate, thio-DMA; thio-dimethylarsenoacetate, thio-DMAA and thio-dimethylarsenoethanol, thio-DMAE. The results from both the ICP-MS and ESI-QqTOF-MS/MS investigations indicate that the unexpected arsenic species termed peak 1 was thio-DMA. While the unexpected arsenic species termed peak 2 has yet to be identified, this investigation shows that it was not AC, TMAO, DMAA, DMAE, thio-DMA, thio-DMAA or thio-DMAE. This study demonstrates the incidence of unexpected arsenic species in both routine and non-routine urine samples from both workers and hospital patients.

  4. Teach Students to Dig for Understanding Using an Unexpected Technological Shovel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lake, Susan E. L.

    2004-01-01

    Online genealogy tools is an unexpected resource as these tools not only serve valuable for genealogy research, but also can be used by students to learn about their country's past and learn to use primary materials to draw conclusions. Some of these Online sources like the 1880 census available at www.ancestry.com, www.thepastwhispers.com, which…

  5. Unexpected MRI findings in clinically suspected Legg-Calve-Perthes disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lobert, Philip F.; Dillman, Jonathan R.; Strouse, Peter J.; Hernandez, Ramiro J. [University of Michigan Health System, Department of Radiology, Section of Pediatric Radiology, C.S. Mott Children' s Hospital/F3503, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2011-03-15

    In the setting of clinically suspected Legg-Calve-Perthes (LCP) disease and negative/equivocal radiographs, contrast-enhanced MRI can be performed to confirm the diagnosis. To determine the frequency of unexpected causes of hip pain as identified by MRI in children with clinically suspected LCP disease and negative/equivocal radiographs. All pediatric contrast-enhanced MRI examinations of the pelvis and hips performed between January 2000 and February 2009 to evaluate for possible LCP disease in the setting of negative/equivocal radiographs were identified. MRI examinations performed to evaluate for secondary avascular necrosis were excluded. Imaging reports were retrospectively reviewed for unexpected clinically important causes of hip pain. Thirty-six pediatric patients underwent contrast-enhanced MRI examinations for clinically suspected LCP disease in the setting of negative/equivocal radiographs. Twenty-two (61%) imaging studies were normal, while four (11%) imaging studies demonstrated findings consistent with LCP disease. Ten (28%) imaging studies revealed unexpected clinically important causes of hip pain, including nonspecific unilateral joint effusion and synovitis (n = 7, juvenile chronic arthritis was eventually diagnosed in 3 patients), sacral fracture (n = 1), apophyseal injury (n = 1), and femoral head subluxation (n = 1). MRI frequently reveals unexpected clinically important causes of hip pain in children with suspected LCP disease and negative/equivocal radiographs. (orig.)

  6. The own and social effects of an unexpected income shock: Evidence from the Dutch Postcode Lottery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuhn, P.J.; Kooreman, P.; Soetevent, A.R.; Kapteyn, A.

    2008-01-01

    In the Dutch Postcode Lottery a postal code (19 households on average) is randomly selected weekly, and prizes - consisting of cash and a new BMW - are awarded to lottery participants living in that postal code. On average, this generates a temporary, unexpected income shock equal to about eight

  7. Manganese-Catalyzed C−H Functionalizations: Hydroarylations and Alkenylations Involving an Unexpected Heteroaryl Shift

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Chengming

    2017-06-24

    A manganese-catalyzed regio- and stereoselective hydroarylation of allenes is reported. The C−H functionalization method provides access to various alkenylated indoles in excellent yields. Moreover, a hydroarylation/cyclization cascade involving an unexpected C−N bond cleavage and aryl shift has been developed, which provides a new synthetic approach to substituted pyrroloindolones.

  8. Unexpectedly slow decrease of Chernobyl-derived radiocesium in air and deposition in Bavaria/Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunzl, K.; Hoetzl, H.; Rosner, G.; Winkler, R.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper we analyze the corresponding data observed after the termination of the fresh fallout of Chernobyl-derived 137 Cs, and discuss possible reasons for the unexpectedly slow decrease of radiocesium in the air and in the total deposition to the ground. (SR)

  9. Unexpectedly slow decrease of Chernobyl-derived radiocesium in air and deposition in Bavaria/Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bunzl, K. [GSF-Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit, Neuherberg (Germany); Hoetzl, H. [GSF-Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit, Neuherberg (Germany); Rosner, G. [Inst. fuer Strahlenschutz, Oberschleissheim (Germany); Winkler, R. [Inst. fuer Strahlenschutz, Oberschleissheim (Germany)

    1995-09-01

    In this paper we analyze the corresponding data observed after the termination of the fresh fallout of Chernobyl-derived {sup 137}Cs, and discuss possible reasons for the unexpectedly slow decrease of radiocesium in the air and in the total deposition to the ground. (SR)

  10. All Intimate Grammars Leak: Reflections on "Indian Languages in Unexpected Places"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroskrity, Paul V.

    2011-01-01

    In this discussion of a set of studies that fits the trope of "Indian Languages in Unexpected Places," I explore the obvious necessity of developing a relevant notion of linguistic "leakage" following a famous image from the writings of the linguistic anthropologist Edward Sapir. Though in its original use, the concept applied more to the order of…

  11. Effects of unexpected lateral mass placement on trunk loading in lifting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Burg, J.C.E.; Kingma, I.; van Dieen, J.H.

    2003-01-01

    Study Design. A repeated measurements experiment of spinal loading in healthy subjects. Objectives. To test whether unexpected lateral mass placement increases low back loading and trunk movement when subjects are lifting a mass in upright posture. Summary of Background Data. Epidemiologic studies

  12. Manganese-Catalyzed C−H Functionalizations: Hydroarylations and Alkenylations Involving an Unexpected Heteroaryl Shift

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Chengming; Wang, Ai; Rueping, Magnus

    2017-01-01

    A manganese-catalyzed regio- and stereoselective hydroarylation of allenes is reported. The C−H functionalization method provides access to various alkenylated indoles in excellent yields. Moreover, a hydroarylation/cyclization cascade involving an unexpected C−N bond cleavage and aryl shift has been developed, which provides a new synthetic approach to substituted pyrroloindolones.

  13. Working memory representations persist in the face of unexpected task alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swan, Garrett; Wyble, Brad; Chen, Hui

    2017-07-01

    It is well known that information can be held in memory while performing other tasks concurrently, such as remembering a color or number during a separate visual search task. However, it is not clear what happens to stored information in the face of unexpected tasks, such as the surprise questions that are often used in experiments related to inattentional and change blindness. Does the unpredicted shift in task context cause memory representations to be cleared in anticipation of new information? To answer this question, we ran two experiments where the task unexpectedly switched partway through the experiment with a surprise question. Half of the participants were asked to report the same attribute (Exp. 1 = Identity, Exp. 2 = Color) of a target stimulus in both presurprise and postsurprise trials, while for the other half, the reported attribute switched from identity to color (Exp. 1) or vice versa (Exp. 2). Importantly, all participants had to read an unexpected set of instructions and respond differently on the surprise trial. Accuracy on the surprise trial was higher for the same-attribute groups than the different-attribute groups. Furthermore, there was no difference in reaction time on the surprise trial between the two groups. These results suggest that information participants expected to report can survive an encounter with an unexpected task. The implication is that failures to report information on a surprise trial in many experiments reflect genuine differences in memory encoding, rather than forgetting or overwriting induced by the surprise question.

  14. Responding In-the-Moment: Learning to Prepare for the Unexpected

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, John

    2015-01-01

    Becoming aware of something unexpected can be a form of awakening: sharpening attention, enriching noticing, opening up fresh possibilities of action, and educating awareness so as to enable a sensitive response to similar situations in the future. However it can also trigger tunnel vision (few if any actions available) or freezing (no actions…

  15. Critical Neural Substrates for Correcting Unexpected Trajectory Errors and Learning from Them

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutha, Pratik K.; Sainburg, Robert L.; Haaland, Kathleen Y.

    2011-01-01

    Our proficiency at any skill is critically dependent on the ability to monitor our performance, correct errors and adapt subsequent movements so that errors are avoided in the future. In this study, we aimed to dissociate the neural substrates critical for correcting unexpected trajectory errors and learning to adapt future movements based on…

  16. 3 CFR - Unexpected Urgent Refugee and Migration Needs Related to the Continuing Conflict in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Unexpected Urgent Refugee and Migration Needs Related to the Continuing Conflict in Pakistan Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents... to the Continuing Conflict in Pakistan Memorandum for the Secretary of State By the authority vested...

  17. Differences in investigations of sudden unexpected deaths in young people in a nationwide setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkel, Bo Gregers; Holst, Anders Gaarsdal; Theilade, Juliane

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Inherited disease may be causative in many young sudden unexpected death cases. Autopsy is essential in the counselling of the bereaved, as the family of the victim may be at risk too. In a nationwide setting operating under the same set of laws, we hypothesized that regional differen...

  18. Nationwide survey of rotavirus-associated encephalopathy and sudden unexpected death in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, Yoshiki; Ohashi, Masahiro; Ihira, Masaru; Hashimoto, Shuji; Taniguchi, Koki; Yoshikawa, Tetsushi

    2014-08-01

    Rotavirus can cause severe complications such as encephalopathy/encephalitis and sudden unexpected death. The incidence of rotavirus-associated encephalopathy/encephalitis or sudden unexpected death remains unknown. To clarify the clinical features of rotavirus-associated encephalitis/encephalopathy and sudden unexpected death, we conducted a nationwide survey in Japan. A two-part questionnaire was designed to determine the number of the cases and the clinical features of severe cases of rotavirus infection, including encephalitis/encephalopathy and sudden unexpected death, between 2009 and 2011. Of the 1365 questionnaires sent to hospitals, 963 (70.5%) were returned and eligible for analysis. We determined 58 cases of rotavirus-associated encephalitis/encephalopathy and 7 cases of sudden unexpected death. These patients were diagnosed with rotavirus infection by immunochromatography. Although 36/58 (62.1%) encephalitis/encephalopathy patients had no sequelae, 15/58 (25.9%) patients had neurological sequelae, and 7/58 (12.1%) patients had fatal outcomes. Pleocytosis was observed in 9/40 (22.5%) patients and cerebrospinal fluid protein levels were elevated in only 4/40 (10%) patients. Elevated lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) (>500 IU/L) or acidemia (pHdeath were 44.0 and 4.9 cases in Japan, respectively. Elevated LDH (>500 IU/L) or acidemia (pH<7.15) were related to a poor prognosis of the encephalitis/encephalopathy. Copyright © 2013 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Measurement of large nonlinear refractive index of natural pigment extracted from Hibiscus rosa-sinensis leaves with a low power CW laser and by spatial self-phase modulation technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, S.; Kumbhakar, P.

    2017-02-01

    We have reported here, for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, a high nonlinear refractive index (n2e) of a natural pigment extracted from Hibiscus rosa-sinensis leaves by using spatial self-phase modulation technique (SSPM) with a low power CW He-Ne laser radiation at 632.8 nm. It is found by UV-Vis absorption spectroscopic analysis that chlrophyll-a, chlrophyll-b and carotenoid are present in the pigment extract with 56%, 25% and 19%, respectively. The photoluminescence (PL) emission characteristics of the extracted samples have also been measured at room temperature as well as in the temperature range of 283-333 K to investigate the effect of temperature on luminescent properties of the sample. By analyzing the SSPM experimental data, the nonlinear refractive index value of pigment extract has been determined to be 3.5 × 10- 5 cm2/W. The large nonlinear refractive index has been assigned due to asymmetrical structure, molecular reorientation and thermally induced nonlinearity in the sample. The presented results might open new avenues for the green and economical technique of syntheses of organic dyes with such a large nonlinear optical property.

  20. Unexpected visitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1997-12-01

    More than 500 storm petrels invaded the Hibernia platform during October 1997, apparently attracted by the lights on the platform. Storm petrels are seabirds that can only take flight from the water, or by being tossed into the air. However, they are night flyers, so they must be tossed overboard at night to prevent them from being eaten up by seagulls. For this reason, the birds were collected during the day, kept in a box, and launched on their way at night. The Canadian Wildlife Service expressed interest in being kept informed about future seabird interactions with the platform.

  1. Unexpected observations after mapping LongSAGE tags to the human genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duret Laurent

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background SAGE has been used widely to study the expression of known transcripts, but much less to annotate new transcribed regions. LongSAGE produces tags that are sufficiently long to be reliably mapped to a whole-genome sequence. Here we used this property to study the position of human LongSAGE tags obtained from all public libraries. We focused mainly on tags that do not map to known transcripts. Results Using a published error rate in SAGE libraries, we first removed the tags likely to result from sequencing errors. We then observed that an unexpectedly large number of the remaining tags still did not match the genome sequence. Some of these correspond to parts of human mRNAs, such as polyA tails, junctions between two exons and polymorphic regions of transcripts. Another non-negligible proportion can be attributed to contamination by murine transcripts and to residual sequencing errors. After filtering out our data with these screens to ensure that our dataset is highly reliable, we studied the tags that map once to the genome. 31% of these tags correspond to unannotated transcripts. The others map to known transcribed regions, but many of them (nearly half are located either in antisense or in new variants of these known transcripts. Conclusion We performed a comprehensive study of all publicly available human LongSAGE tags, and carefully verified the reliability of these data. We found the potential origin of many tags that did not match the human genome sequence. The properties of the remaining tags imply that the level of sequencing error may have been under-estimated. The frequency of tags matching once the genome sequence but not in an annotated exon suggests that the human transcriptome is much more complex than shown by the current human genome annotations, with many new splicing variants and antisense transcripts. SAGE data is appropriate to map new transcripts to the genome, as demonstrated by the high rate of cross

  2. Destructive Interactions Between Mitigation Strategies and the Causes of Unexpected Failures in Natural Hazard Mitigation Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, S. J.; Fearnley, C. J.

    2013-12-01

    Large investments in the mitigation of natural hazards, using a variety of technology-based mitigation strategies, have proven to be surprisingly ineffective in some recent natural disasters. These failures reveal a need for a systematic classification of mitigation strategies; an understanding of the scientific uncertainties that affect the effectiveness of such strategies; and an understanding of how the different types of strategy within an overall mitigation system interact destructively to reduce the effectiveness of the overall mitigation system. We classify mitigation strategies into permanent, responsive and anticipatory. Permanent mitigation strategies such as flood and tsunami defenses or land use restrictions, are both costly and 'brittle': when they malfunction they can increase mortality. Such strategies critically depend on the accuracy of the estimates of expected hazard intensity in the hazard assessments that underpin their design. Responsive mitigation strategies such as tsunami and lahar warning systems rely on capacities to detect and quantify the hazard source events and to transmit warnings fast enough to enable at risk populations to decide and act effectively. Self-warning and voluntary evacuation is also usually a responsive mitigation strategy. Uncertainty in the nature and magnitude of the detected hazard source event is often the key scientific obstacle to responsive mitigation; public understanding of both the hazard and the warnings, to enable decision making, can also be a critical obstacle. Anticipatory mitigation strategies use interpretation of precursors to hazard source events and are used widely in mitigation of volcanic hazards. Their critical limitations are due to uncertainties in time, space and magnitude relationships between precursors and hazard events. Examples of destructive interaction between different mitigation strategies are provided by the Tohoku 2011 earthquake and tsunami; recent earthquakes that have impacted

  3. Inefficient postural responses to unexpected slips during walking in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, P F; Woollacott, M H

    1998-11-01

    Slips account for a high percentage of falls and subsequent injuries in community-dwelling older adults but not in young adults. This phenomenon suggests that although active and healthy older adults preserve a mobility level comparable to that of young adults, these older adults may have difficulty generating efficient reactive postural responses when they slip. This study tested the hypothesis that active and healthy older adults use a less effective reactive balance strategy than young adults when experiencing an unexpected forward slip occurring at heel strike during walking. This less effective balance strategy would be manifested by slower and smaller postural responses, altered temporal and spatial organization of the postural responses, and greater upper trunk instability after the slip. Thirty-three young adults (age range=19-34 yrs, mean=25+/-4 yrs) and 32 community-dwelling older adults (age range=70-87 yrs, mean=74+/-14 yrs) participated. Subjects walked across a movable forceplate which simulated a forward slip at heel strike. Surface electromyography was recorded from bilateral leg, thigh, hip, and trunk muscles. Kinematic data were collected from the right (perturbed) side of the body. Although the predominant postural muscles and the activation sequence of these muscles were similar between the two age groups, the postural responses of older adults were of longer onset latencies, smaller magnitudes, and longer burst durations compared to young adults. Older adults also showed a longer coactivation duration for the ankle, knee, and trunk agonist/antagonist pairs on the perturbed side and for the knee agonist/antagonist pair on the nonperturbed side. Behaviorally, older adults became less stable after the slips. This was manifested by a higher incidence of being tripped (21 trials in older vs 5 trials in young adults) and a greater trunk hyperextension with respect to young adults. Large arm elevation was frequently used by older adults to assist in

  4. Implementation factors affecting the large-scale deployment of digital health and well-being technologies: A qualitative study of the initial phases of the 'Living-It-Up' programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbakoba, Ruth; McGee-Lennon, Marilyn; Bouamrane, Matt-Mouley; Watson, Nicholas; Mair, Frances S

    2016-12-01

    Little is known about the factors which facilitate or impede the large-scale deployment of health and well-being consumer technologies. The Living-It-Up project is a large-scale digital intervention led by NHS 24, aiming to transform health and well-being services delivery throughout Scotland. We conducted a qualitative study of the factors affecting the implementation and deployment of the Living-It-Up services. We collected a range of data during the initial phase of deployment, including semi-structured interviews (N = 6); participant observation sessions (N = 5) and meetings with key stakeholders (N = 3). We used the Normalisation Process Theory as an explanatory framework to interpret the social processes at play during the initial phases of deployment.Initial findings illustrate that it is clear - and perhaps not surprising - that the size and diversity of the Living-It-Up consortium made implementation processes more complex within a 'multi-stakeholder' environment. To overcome these barriers, there is a need to clearly define roles, tasks and responsibilities among the consortium partners. Furthermore, varying levels of expectations and requirements, as well as diverse cultures and ways of working, must be effectively managed. Factors which facilitated implementation included extensive stakeholder engagement, such as co-design activities, which can contribute to an increased 'buy-in' from users in the long term. An important lesson from the Living-It-Up initiative is that attempting to co-design innovative digital services, but at the same time, recruiting large numbers of users is likely to generate conflicting implementation priorities which hinder - or at least substantially slow down - the effective rollout of services at scale.The deployment of Living-It-Up services is ongoing, but our results to date suggest that - in order to be successful - the roll-out of digital health and well-being technologies at scale requires a delicate and pragmatic trade

  5. Lower incidence of unexpected in-hospital death after interprofessional implementation of a bedside track-and-trigger system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bunkenborg, Gitte; Samuelson, Karin Samuelsonkarin; Poulsen, Ingrid

    2014-01-01

    In-hospital patients may suffer unexpected death because of suboptimal monitoring. Early recognition of deviating physiological parameters may enable staff to prevent unexpected in-hospital death. The aim of this study was to evaluate short- and long-term effects of systematic interprofessional u...... of early warning scoring, structured observation charts, and clinical algorithms for bedside action....

  6. Investigating Teachers' Appraisal of Unexpected Moments and Underlying Values: An Exploratory Case in the Context of Changing Mathematics Classroom Discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanna, Jillian M.; Herbel-Eisenmann, Beth; Seah, Wee Tiong

    2015-01-01

    This article provides an exploratory case study that examines what one teacher indicated as unexpected as she worked to become more purposeful about her classroom discourse practices. We found that she highlighted three areas as being unexpected: (1) aspects of lesson enactment; (2) characteristics of student learning and (3) her own…

  7. Frequentie en oorzaak van onverwachte allergische reacties op voedsel [Frequency and cause of unexpected allergic reactions to food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michelsen-Huisman, A.D.; Os-Medendorp, H. van; Versluis, A.; Kruizinga, A.G.; Castenmiller, J.J.M.; Noteborn, H.P.J.M.; Houben, G.F.; Knulst, A.C.

    2014-01-01

    Unexpected reactions occur in patients with food allergy, but frequency data are scare. This prospective study investigates the frequency, severity and causes of unexpected allergic reactions to food in adults with a doctor's diagnosed food allergy. Participants complete an online questionnaire

  8. Investigating unexpected magnetism of mesoporous silica-supported Pd and PdO nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Song, Hyon Min

    2015-01-13

    The synthesis and magnetic behavior of matrix-supported Pd and PdO nanoparticles (NPs) are described. Mesoporous silica with hexagonal columnal packing is selected as a template, and the impregnation method with thermal annealing is used to obtain supported Pd and PdO NPs. The heating rate and the annealing conditions determine the particle size and the phase of the NPs, with a fast heating rate of 30 °C/min producing the largest supported Pd NPs. Unusual magnetic behaviors are observed. (1) Contrary to the general belief that smaller Pd NPs or cluster size particles have higher magnetization, matrix-supported Pd NPs in this study maintain the highest magnetization with room temperature ferromagnetism when the size is the largest. (2) Twin boundaries along with stacking faults are more pronounced in these large Pd NPs and are believed to be the reason for this high magnetization. Similarly, supported PdO NPs were prepared under air conditions with different heating rates. Their phase is tetragonal (P42/mmc) with cell parameters of a = 3.050 Å and c = 5.344 Å, which are slightly larger than in the bulk phase (a = 3.03 Å, c = 5.33 Å). Faster heating rate of 30 °C/min also produces larger particles and larger magnetic hysteresis loop, although magnetization is smaller and few twin boundaries are observed compared to the supported metallic Pd NPs.

  9. Electronically soft phases in manganites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milward, G C; Calderón, M J; Littlewood, P B

    2005-02-10

    The phenomenon of colossal magnetoresistance in manganites is generally agreed to be a result of competition between crystal phases with different electronic, magnetic and structural order; a competition which can be strong enough to cause phase separation between metallic ferromagnetic and insulating charge-modulated states. Nevertheless, closer inspection of phase diagrams in many manganites reveals complex phases where the two order parameters of magnetism and charge modulation unexpectedly coexist. Here we show that such experiments can be naturally explained within a phenomenological Ginzburg-Landau theory. In contrast to models where phase separation originates from disorder or as a strain-induced kinetic phenomenon, we argue that magnetic and charge modulation coexist in new thermodynamic phases. This leads to a rich diagram of equilibrium phases, qualitatively similar to those seen experimentally. The success of this model argues for a fundamental reinterpretation of the nature of charge modulation in these materials, from a localized to a more extended 'charge-density wave' picture. The same symmetry considerations that favour textured coexistence of charge and magnetic order may apply to many electronic systems with competing phases. The resulting 'electronically soft' phases of matter with incommensurate, inhomogeneous and mixed order may be general phenomena in correlated systems.

  10. Incidentally found and unexpected tumors discovered by MRI examination for temporomandibular joint arthrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanagi, Yoshinobu; Asaumi, Jun-ichi E-mail: asaumi@md.okayama-u.ac.jp; Maki, Yuu; Murakami, Jun; Hisatomi, Miki; Matsuzaki, Hidenobu; Konouchi, Hironobu; Honda, Yosutoshi; Kishi, Kanji

    2003-07-01

    We examined the frequency of incidentally found or unexpected tumors discovered at the time of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations in the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) region for patients with suspicion of TMJ arthrosis. Five MR images (T1-weighted transverse scout image and proton density and T2-weighted oblique sagittal images at the open and closed mouth) were acquired. In 2776 MRI examinations of TMJ arthrosis, two tumors were discovered. They consisted of an adenoid cystic carcinoma in the deep portion of the parotid gland, and a malignant tumor extending from the infratemporal fossa to the parapharyngeal space. The rate of incidentally founded or unexpected tumors in TMJ examinations was low (0.072%), but the two tumors found were malignant tumors, and therefore, scout image should be carefully examined, not only used for positing the slice.

  11. Openness to the unexpected: Our Pathways to Careers in a Federal Research Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Kurt R.; Bunnell, David B.; Hondorp, Darryl W.; Taylor, William W.; Lynch, Abigail J.; Léonard, Nancy J.

    2014-01-01

    Many fisheries professionals may not be in the job they originally envisioned for themselves when they began their undergraduate studies. Rather, their current positions could be the result of unexpected, opportunistic, or perhaps even “lucky” open doors that led them down an unexpected path. In many cases, a mentor helped facilitate the unforeseen trajectory. We offer three unique stories about joining a federal fisheries research laboratory, from the perspective of a scientist, a joint manager-scientist, and a manager. We also use our various experiences to form recommendations that should help the next generation of fisheries professionals succeed in any stop along their journey, including being open to opportunities, setting high expectations, and finding a strong and supportive team environment to work in.

  12. Incidentally found and unexpected tumors discovered by MRI examination for temporomandibular joint arthrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagi, Yoshinobu; Asaumi, Jun-ichi; Maki, Yuu; Murakami, Jun; Hisatomi, Miki; Matsuzaki, Hidenobu; Konouchi, Hironobu; Honda, Yosutoshi; Kishi, Kanji

    2003-01-01

    We examined the frequency of incidentally found or unexpected tumors discovered at the time of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations in the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) region for patients with suspicion of TMJ arthrosis. Five MR images (T1-weighted transverse scout image and proton density and T2-weighted oblique sagittal images at the open and closed mouth) were acquired. In 2776 MRI examinations of TMJ arthrosis, two tumors were discovered. They consisted of an adenoid cystic carcinoma in the deep portion of the parotid gland, and a malignant tumor extending from the infratemporal fossa to the parapharyngeal space. The rate of incidentally founded or unexpected tumors in TMJ examinations was low (0.072%), but the two tumors found were malignant tumors, and therefore, scout image should be carefully examined, not only used for positing the slice

  13. Pupil dilation during recognition memory: Isolating unexpected recognition from judgment uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mill, Ravi D; O'Connor, Akira R; Dobbins, Ian G

    2016-09-01

    Optimally discriminating familiar from novel stimuli demands a decision-making process informed by prior expectations. Here we demonstrate that pupillary dilation (PD) responses during recognition memory decisions are modulated by expectations, and more specifically, that pupil dilation increases for unexpected compared to expected recognition. Furthermore, multi-level modeling demonstrated that the time course of the dilation during each individual trial contains separable early and late dilation components, with the early amplitude capturing unexpected recognition, and the later trailing slope reflecting general judgment uncertainty or effort. This is the first demonstration that the early dilation response during recognition is dependent upon observer expectations and that separate recognition expectation and judgment uncertainty components are present in the dilation time course of every trial. The findings provide novel insights into adaptive memory-linked orienting mechanisms as well as the general cognitive underpinnings of the pupillary index of autonomic nervous system activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Algorithmic phase diagrams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hockney, Roger

    1987-01-01

    Algorithmic phase diagrams are a neat and compact representation of the results of comparing the execution time of several algorithms for the solution of the same problem. As an example, the recent results are shown of Gannon and Van Rosendale on the solution of multiple tridiagonal systems of equations in the form of such diagrams. The act of preparing these diagrams has revealed an unexpectedly complex relationship between the best algorithm and the number and size of the tridiagonal systems, which was not evident from the algebraic formulae in the original paper. Even so, for a particular computer, one diagram suffices to predict the best algorithm for all problems that are likely to be encountered the prediction being read directly from the diagram without complex calculation.

  15. Large deviations

    CERN Document Server

    Varadhan, S R S

    2016-01-01

    The theory of large deviations deals with rates at which probabilities of certain events decay as a natural parameter in the problem varies. This book, which is based on a graduate course on large deviations at the Courant Institute, focuses on three concrete sets of examples: (i) diffusions with small noise and the exit problem, (ii) large time behavior of Markov processes and their connection to the Feynman-Kac formula and the related large deviation behavior of the number of distinct sites visited by a random walk, and (iii) interacting particle systems, their scaling limits, and large deviations from their expected limits. For the most part the examples are worked out in detail, and in the process the subject of large deviations is developed. The book will give the reader a flavor of how large deviation theory can help in problems that are not posed directly in terms of large deviations. The reader is assumed to have some familiarity with probability, Markov processes, and interacting particle systems.

  16. The unexpected product of Diels-Alder reaction between "indanocyclon" and maleimide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrowolski, Michał A.; Roszkowski, Piotr; Struga, Marta; Szulczyk, Daniel

    2017-02-01

    A heterocyclic compound commonly known as "indanocyclon" undergoes an unexpected Diels-Alder addition with maleimide. The resulting product has been isolated and characterized in order to get an information about its structure and possible mechanism of the reaction. Extensive comparison of single crystal properties of 3-(2,8-dioxo-1,3-diphenyl-2,8-dihydrocyclopenta[a]inden-8a(1H)-yl)pyrrolidine-2,5-dione and favorable product of the reaction has been also performed.

  17. Sunburn as a Cause of Unexpected Neutrophilia in a Healthy Pregnant Woman

    OpenAIRE

    Harper, Robert

    2018-01-01

    Background. Neutrophilia has a broad differential diagnosis and represents a systemic response to an infection or other inflammatory pathologies. Case. A 31-year-old woman, Gravida 3, Para 2 at 28 weeks of gestation, presented to the day assessment unit following routine blood tests that showed an unexpected marked neutrophilia. The underlying cause of the neutrophilia was sunburn. The sunburn recovered and her neutrophil count spontaneously normalised. Conclusion. Clinicians can add sunburn ...

  18. Sunburn as a Cause of Unexpected Neutrophilia in a Healthy Pregnant Woman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Harper

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Neutrophilia has a broad differential diagnosis and represents a systemic response to an infection or other inflammatory pathologies. Case. A 31-year-old woman, Gravida 3, Para 2 at 28 weeks of gestation, presented to the day assessment unit following routine blood tests that showed an unexpected marked neutrophilia. The underlying cause of the neutrophilia was sunburn. The sunburn recovered and her neutrophil count spontaneously normalised. Conclusion. Clinicians can add sunburn to the broad differential diagnosis of neutrophilia.

  19. Dynamic Asset Allocation Strategies Based on Volatility, Unexpected Volatility and Financial Turbulence

    OpenAIRE

    Grimsrud, David Borkner

    2015-01-01

    Masteroppgave økonomi og administrasjon- Universitetet i Agder, 2015 This master thesis looks at unexpected volatility- and financial turbulence’s predictive ability, and exploit these measures of financial risk, together with volatility, to create three dynamic asset allocation strategies, and test if they can outperform a passive and naively diversified buy-and-hold strategy. The idea with the dynamic strategies is to increase the portfolio return by keeping the portfolio risk at a low a...

  20. Unexpected optical limiting properties from MoS2 nanosheets modified by a semiconductive polymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Min; Chang, Meng-Jie; Wang, Qiang; Zhu, Zhen-Tong; Zhai, Xin-Ping; Zirak, Mohammad; Moshfegh, Alireza Z; Song, Ying-Lin; Zhang, Hao-Li

    2015-08-07

    Direct solvent exfoliation of bulk MoS2 with the assistance of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) produces a novel two-dimensional organic/inorganic semiconductor hetero-junction. The obtained P3HT-MoS2 nanohybrid exhibits unexpected optical limiting properties in contrast to the saturated absorption behavior of both P3HT and MoS2, showing potential in future photoelectric applications.

  1. An unexpected cause of diffuse alveolar hemorrhage in a kidney transplant patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlageter, Manuel; Jahn, Kathleen D; Tzankov, Alexandar; Wiese, Mark; Bubendorf, Lukas; Tamm, Michael; Savic, Spasenija

    2014-01-01

    Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH) is a life-threatening condition requiring urgent treatment. There are many different treatment-relevant causes of DAH, making the diagnostic approach to these patients complex and necessitating a multidisciplinary team. We report the case of a kidney transplant recipient in whom all diagnostic efforts did not reveal the cause of DAH, and only autopsy was able to establish an unexpected diagnosis. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Epilepsy and risk of death and sudden unexpected death in the young

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Anders Gaarsdal; Winkel, Bo Gregers; Risgaard, Bjarke

    2013-01-01

    Patients with epilepsy are at increased risk of premature death from all causes and likely also from sudden unexplained death (SUD). Many patients with epilepsy have significant comorbidity, and it is unclear how much of the increased risk can be explained by epilepsy itself. We aimed to chart...... the incidence of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) and estimate the risk of death from all causes and SUD conferred by epilepsy independently....

  3. On the unexpected oscillation of the total cross section for excitation in He2+ + H collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, D.R.; Reinhold, C.O.; Krstic, P.S.

    1996-01-01

    Recent calculations and measurements have revealed unexpected oscillations of the total cross section for excitation in low- to intermediate-energy He 2+ + H collisions. A physical explanation of this behavior is given here stemming from analysis of classical trajectory Monte Carlo simulations, molecular orbital close coupling calculations, and solution of the time-dependent Schroedinger equation on a numerical lattice. These results indicate that the observed behavior should be characteristic of a wide range of reactions in ion-atom collisions

  4. Cobalt-catalyzed hydrogenation of esters to alcohols: unexpected reactivity trend indicates ester enolate intermediacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srimani, Dipankar; Mukherjee, Arup; Goldberg, Alexander F G; Leitus, Gregory; Diskin-Posner, Yael; Shimon, Linda J W; Ben David, Yehoshoa; Milstein, David

    2015-10-12

    The atom-efficient and environmentally benign catalytic hydrogenation of carboxylic acid esters to alcohols has been accomplished in recent years mainly with precious-metal-based catalysts, with few exceptions. Presented here is the first cobalt-catalyzed hydrogenation of esters to the corresponding alcohols. Unexpectedly, the evidence indicates the unprecedented involvement of ester enolate intermediates. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Simultaneous repair of abdominal aortic aneurysm and resection of unexpected, associated abdominal malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illuminati, Giulio; Calio', Francesco G; D'Urso, Antonio; Lorusso, Riccardo; Ceccanei, Gianluca; Vietri, Francesco

    2004-12-15

    The management of unexpected intra-abdominal malignancy, discovered at laparotomy for elective treatment of an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA), is controversial. It is still unclear whether both conditions should be treated simultaneously or a staged approach is to be preferred. To contribute in improving treatment guidelines, we retrospectively reviewed the records of patients undergoing laparotomy for elective AAA repair. From January 1994 to March 2003, 253 patients underwent elective, trans-peritoneal repair of an AAA. In four patients (1.6%), an associated, unexpected neoplasm was detected at abdominal exploration, consisting of one renal, one gastric, one ileal carcinoid, and one ascending colon tumor. All of them were treated at the same operation, after aortic repair and careful isolation of the prosthetic graft. The whole series' operative mortality was 3.6%. None of the patients simultaneously treated for AAA and tumor resection died in the postoperative period. No graft-related infections were observed. Simultaneous treatment of AAA and tumor did not prolong significantly the mean length of stay in the hospital, compared to standard treatment of AAA alone. Except for malignancies of organs requiring major surgical resections, simultaneous AAA repair and resection of an associated, unexpected abdominal neoplasm can be safely performed, in most of the patients, sparing the need for a second procedure. Endovascular grafting of the AAA can be a valuable tool in simplifying simultaneous treatment, or in staging the procedures with a very short delay.

  6. Audit of radiology communication systems for critical, urgent, and unexpected significant findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, K A; Drinkwater, K J; Dugar, N; Howlett, D C

    2016-03-01

    To determine the compliance of UK radiology departments and trusts/healthcare organisations with National Patient Safety Agency and Royal College of Radiologist's published guidance on the communication of critical, urgent, and unexpected significant radiological findings. A questionnaire was sent to all UK radiology department audit leads asking for details of their current departmental policy regarding the issuing of alerts; use of automated electronic alert systems; methods of notification of clinicians of critical, urgent, and unexpected significant radiological findings; monitoring of results receipt; and examples of the more common types of serious pathologies for which alerts were issued. One hundred and fifty-four of 229 departments (67%) responded. Eighty-eight percent indicated that they had a policy in place for the communication of critical, urgent, and unexpected significant radiological findings. Only 34% had an automated electronic alert system in place and only 17% had a facility for service-wide electronic tracking of radiology reports. In only 11 departments with an electronic acknowledgement system was someone regularly monitoring the read rate. There is wide variation in practice across the UK with regard to the communication and monitoring of reports with many departments/trusts not fully compliant with published UK guidance. Despite the widespread use of electronic systems, only a minority of departments/trusts have and use electronic tracking to ensure reports have been read and acted upon. Copyright © 2015 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Hunting for unexpected post-translational modifications by spectral library searching with tier-wise scoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Chun Wai Manson; Lam, Henry

    2014-05-02

    Discovering novel post-translational modifications (PTMs) to proteins and detecting specific modification sites on proteins is one of the last frontiers of proteomics. At present, hunting for post-translational modifications remains challenging in widely practiced shotgun proteomics workflows due to the typically low abundance of modified peptides and the greatly inflated search space as more potential mass shifts are considered by the search engines. Moreover, most popular search methods require that the user specifies the modification(s) for which to search; therefore, unexpected and novel PTMs will not be detected. Here a new algorithm is proposed to apply spectral library searching to the problem of open modification searches, namely, hunting for PTMs without prior knowledge of what PTMs are in the sample. The proposed tier-wise scoring method intelligently looks for unexpected PTMs by allowing mass-shifted peak matches but only when the number of matches found is deemed statistically significant. This allows the search engine to search for unexpected modifications while maintaining its ability to identify unmodified peptides effectively at the same time. The utility of the method is demonstrated using three different data sets, in which the numbers of spectrum identifications to both unmodified and modified peptides were substantially increased relative to a regular spectral library search as well as to another open modification spectral search method, pMatch.

  8. Four unexpected lanthanide coordination polymers involving in situ reaction of solvent N, N-Dimethylformamide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Jun-Cheng; Tong, Wen-Quan; Fu, Ai-Yun; Xie, Cheng-Gen; Chang, Wen-Gui; Wu, Ju; Xu, Guang-Nian; Zhang, Ya-Nan; Li, Jun; Li, Yong; Yang, Peng-Qi

    2015-01-01

    Four unexpected 2D lanthanide coordination polymers have been synthesized through in situ reactions of DMF solvent under solvothermal conditions. The isostructural complexes 1–3 contain four types of 2 1 helical chains. While the Nd(III) ions are bridged through μ 2 -HIDC 2− and oxalate to form a 2D sheet along the bc plane without helical character in 4. Therefore, complex 1 exhibits bright red solid-state phosphorescence upon exposure to UV radiation at room temperature. - Graphical abstract: Four unexpected 2D lanthanide coordination polymers have been synthesized through in situ reactions of solvent DMF to formate acid or oxalic acid under solvothermal conditions. The isostructural complexes 1–3 contain four types of different 2 1 helical chains in the 2D layer and 1 exhibits bright red solid-state phosphorescence upon UV radiation. - Highlights: • Four unexpected 2D lanthanide coordination compounds have been synthesized through in situ reactions under solvothermal conditions. • The complexes 1–3 contain four types of 2 1 helical chains in the layer. • Complex 1 exhibits bright red solid-state phosphorescence upon exposure to UV radiation at room temperature

  9. The processing of unexpected positive response outcomes in the mediofrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferdinand, Nicola K; Mecklinger, Axel; Kray, Jutta; Gehring, William J

    2012-08-29

    The human mediofrontal cortex, especially the anterior cingulate cortex, is commonly assumed to contribute to higher cognitive functions like performance monitoring. How exactly this is achieved is currently the subject of lively debate but there is evidence that an event's valence and its expectancy play important roles. One prominent theory, the reinforcement learning theory by Holroyd and colleagues (2002, 2008), assigns a special role to feedback valence, while the prediction of response-outcome (PRO) model by Alexander and Brown (2010, 2011) claims that the mediofrontal cortex is sensitive to unexpected events regardless of their valence. However, paradigms examining this issue have included confounds that fail to separate valence and expectancy. In the present study, we tested the two competing theories of performance monitoring by using an experimental task that separates valence and unexpectedness of performance feedback. The feedback-related negativity of the event-related potential, which is commonly assumed to be a reflection of mediofrontal cortex activity, was elicited not only by unexpected negative feedback, but also by unexpected positive feedback. This implies that the mediofrontal cortex is sensitive to the unexpectedness of events in general rather than their valence and by this supports the PRO model.

  10. Climate change and landscape evolution in Provence-Alpes-Cote d'Azur. Volume 1 - Phase 1: identification of large landscape settings; Volume 2 - Phase 2: Hypotheses for climate change in the Provence-Alpes-Cote d'Azur region; Phase 3: Predictable effects of climate change on emblematic landscapes and action plan (technical sheets)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-08-01

    The main objective of this study is to give an insight on possible effects climate change may have on landscapes of the Provence-Alpes-Cote d'Azur region on the medium and long term according to current hypotheses regarding global warming for Mediterranean regions. A first phase aimed at identifying the main landscape settings of the region. This comprised a definition of the notion of landscape, a discussion of landscape definitions with respect to a regional scale, a framework for the definition of the main landscape settings, an identification of these landscape settings and their characterisation according to a set of criteria and parameters. The second phase aimed at giving an overview of hypotheses regarding climate change. The authors discuss various issues and knowledge about the world climate, available climate models and their uncertainties, and climatic predictions for the region. The third phase aimed at assessing predictable effects of climate change on emblematic landscapes and at defining actions plans. The different components of these action plans are then discussed for the identified landscapes for which the landscape context and challenges are described, and potential actors are indicated. These different phases are first presented, and more detailed reports are provided for each of them, notably with detailed reports and sheets for each landscape setting

  11. Macrodefect-free, large, and thick GaN bulk crystals for high-quality 2–6 in. GaN substrates by hydride vapor phase epitaxy with hardness control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujikura, Hajime; Konno, Taichiro; Suzuki, Takayuki; Kitamura, Toshio; Fujimoto, Tetsuji; Yoshida, Takehiro

    2018-06-01

    On the basis of a novel crystal hardness control, we successfully realized macrodefect-free, large (2–6 in.) and thick +c-oriented GaN bulk crystals by hydride vapor phase epitaxy. Without the hardness control, the introduction of macrodefects including inversion domains and/or basal-plane dislocations seemed to be indispensable to avoid crystal fracture in GaN growth with millimeter thickness. However, the presence of these macrodefects tended to limit the applicability of the GaN substrate to practical devices. The present technology markedly increased the GaN crystal hardness from below 20 to 22 GPa, thus increasing the available growth thickness from below 1 mm to over 6 mm even without macrodefect introduction. The 2 and 4 in. GaN wafers fabricated from these crystals had extremely low dislocation densities in the low- to mid-105 cm‑2 range and low off-angle variations (2 in.: <0.1° 4 in.: ∼0.2°). The realization of such high-quality 6 in. wafers is also expected.

  12. Single-Phase PLLs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Golestan, Saeed; Guerrero, Josep M.; Quintero, Juan Carlos Vasquez

    2017-01-01

    Single-phase phase-locked loops (PLLs) are popular for the synchronization and control of single-phase gridconnected converters. They are also widely used for monitoring and diagnostic purposes in the power and energy areas. In recent years, a large number of single-phase PLLs with different stru......-PLLs). The members of each category are then described and their pros and cons are discussed. This work provides a deep insight into characteristics of different single-phase PLLs and, therefore, can be considered as a reference for researchers and engineers....

  13. Unexpected Effects of Low Doses of a Neonicotinoid Insecticide on Behavioral Responses to Sex Pheromone in a Pest Insect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabhi, Kaouther K.; Esancy, Kali; Voisin, Anouk; Crespin, Lucille; Le Corre, Julie; Tricoire-Leignel, Hélène; Anton, Sylvia; Gadenne, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    In moths, which include many agricultural pest species, males are attracted by female-emitted sex pheromones. Although integrated pest management strategies are increasingly developed, most insect pest treatments rely on widespread use of neurotoxic chemicals, including neonicotinoid insecticides. Residual accumulation of low concentrations of these insecticides in the environment is known to be harmful to beneficial insects such as honey bees. This environmental stress probably acts as an “info-disruptor” by modifying the chemical communication system, and therefore decreases chances of reproduction in target insects that largely rely on olfactory communication. However, low doses of pollutants could on the contrary induce adaptive processes in the olfactory pathway, thus enhancing reproduction. Here we tested the effects of acute oral treatments with different low doses of the neonicotinoid clothianidin on the behavioral responses to sex pheromone in the moth Agrotis ipsilon using wind tunnel experiments. We show that low doses of clothianidin induce a biphasic effect on pheromone-guided behavior. Surprisingly, we found a hormetic-like effect, improving orientation behavior at the LD20 dose corresponding to 10 ng clothianidin. On the contrary, a negative effect, disturbing orientation behavior, was elicited by a treatment with a dose below the LD0 dose corresponding to 0.25 ng clothianidin. No clothianidin effect was observed on behavioral responses to plant odor. Our results indicate that risk assessment has to include unexpected effects of residues on the life history traits of pest insects, which could then lead to their adaptation to environmental stress. PMID:25517118

  14. Unexpected effects of low doses of a neonicotinoid insecticide on behavioral responses to sex pheromone in a pest insect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaouther K Rabhi

    Full Text Available In moths, which include many agricultural pest species, males are attracted by female-emitted sex pheromones. Although integrated pest management strategies are increasingly developed, most insect pest treatments rely on widespread use of neurotoxic chemicals, including neonicotinoid insecticides. Residual accumulation of low concentrations of these insecticides in the environment is known to be harmful to beneficial insects such as honey bees. This environmental stress probably acts as an "info-disruptor" by modifying the chemical communication system, and therefore decreases chances of reproduction in target insects that largely rely on olfactory communication. However, low doses of pollutants could on the contrary induce adaptive processes in the olfactory pathway, thus enhancing reproduction. Here we tested the effects of acute oral treatments with different low doses of the neonicotinoid clothianidin on the behavioral responses to sex pheromone in the moth Agrotis ipsilon using wind tunnel experiments. We show that low doses of clothianidin induce a biphasic effect on pheromone-guided behavior. Surprisingly, we found a hormetic-like effect, improving orientation behavior at the LD20 dose corresponding to 10 ng clothianidin. On the contrary, a negative effect, disturbing orientation behavior, was elicited by a treatment with a dose below the LD0 dose corresponding to 0.25 ng clothianidin. No clothianidin effect was observed on behavioral responses to plant odor. Our results indicate that risk assessment has to include unexpected effects of residues on the life history traits of pest insects, which could then lead to their adaptation to environmental stress.

  15. Endocranial Casts of Pre-Mammalian Therapsids Reveal an Unexpected Neurological Diversity at the Deep Evolutionary Root of Mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, Julien; Fernandez, Vincent; Manger, Paul R; Rubidge, Bruce S

    2017-01-01

    The origin and evolution of the mammalian brain has long been the focus of scientific enquiry. Conversely, little research has focused on the palaeoneurology of the stem group of Mammaliaformes, the Permian and Triassic non-mammaliaform Therapsida (NMT). This is because the majority of the NMT have a non-ossified braincase, making the study of their endocranial cast (sometimes called the "fossil brain") problematic. Thus, descriptions of the morphology and size of NMT endocranial casts have been based largely on approximations rather than reliable determination. Accordingly, here we use micro-CT scans of the skulls of 1 Dinocephalia and 3 Biarmosuchia, which are NMT with a fully ossified braincase and thus a complete endocast. For the first time, our work enables the accurate determination of endocranial shape and size in NMT. This study suggests that NMT brain size falls in the upper range of the reptilian and amphibian variation. Brain size in the dicynodont Kawingasaurus is equivalent to that of early Mammaliaformes, whereas the Dinocephalia show evidence of a secondary reduction of brain size. In addition, unlike other NMT in which the endocast has a tubular shape and its parts are arranged in a linear manner, the biarmosuchian endocast is strongly flexed at the level of the midbrain, creating a near right angle between the fore- and hindbrain. These data highlight an unexpected diversity of endocranial size and morphology in NMT, features that are usually considered conservative in this group. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Large deviations

    CERN Document Server

    Deuschel, Jean-Dominique; Deuschel, Jean-Dominique

    2001-01-01

    This is the second printing of the book first published in 1988. The first four chapters of the volume are based on lectures given by Stroock at MIT in 1987. They form an introduction to the basic ideas of the theory of large deviations and make a suitable package on which to base a semester-length course for advanced graduate students with a strong background in analysis and some probability theory. A large selection of exercises presents important material and many applications. The last two chapters present various non-uniform results (Chapter 5) and outline the analytic approach that allow

  17. Phase transitions in a gas of anyons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacKenzie, R.; Nebia-Rahal, F.; Paranjape, M. B.; Richer, J.

    2010-01-01

    We continue our numerical Monte Carlo simulation of a gas of closed loops on a 3 dimensional lattice, however, now in the presence of a topological term added to the action which corresponds to the total linking number between the loops. We compute the linking number using a novel approach employing certain notions from knot theory. Adding the topological term converts the particles into anyons. Interpreting the model as an effective theory that describes the 2+1-dimensional Abelian Higgs model in the asymptotic strong-coupling regime, the topological linking number simply corresponds to the addition to the action of the Chern-Simons term. The system continues to exhibit a phase transition as a function of the vortex mass as it becomes small. We find the following new results. The Chern-Simons term has no effect on the Wilson loop. On the other hand, it does effect the 't Hooft loop of a given configuration, adding the linking number of the 't Hooft loop with all of the dynamical vortex loops. We find the unexpected result that both the Wilson loop and the 't Hooft loop exhibit a perimeter law even though there are no massless particles in the theory, in both phases of the theory. It should be noted that our method suffers from numerical instabilities if the coefficient of the Chern-Simons term is too large; thus, we have restricted our results to small values of this parameter. Furthermore, interpreting the lattice loop gas as an effective theory describing the Abelian Higgs model is only known to be true in the infinite coupling limit; for strong but finite coupling this correspondence is only a conjecture, the validity of which is beyond the scope of this article.

  18. Antisite-disorder driven large exchange bias effect in phase separated La{sub 1.5}Ca{sub 0.5}CoMnO{sub 6} double perovskite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahoo, R.C.; Paladhi, D. [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, West Bengal 721302 (India); Dasgupta, Papri; Poddar, A. [Experimental Condensed Matter Physics Division, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, West Bengal (India); Singh, Ripandeep; Das, A. [Solid State Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Nath, T.K., E-mail: tnath@phy.iitkgp.ernet.in [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, West Bengal 721302 (India)

    2017-04-15

    Investigations of structural and magnetic properties of polycrystalline hole doped double perovskite La{sub 1.5}Ca{sub 0.5}CoMnO{sub 6} has clearly revealed the existence of structural antisite-disorder (either, Co–O–Co or Mn–O–Mn) in the system. The ordering of Co{sup 2+} and Mn{sup 4+} gives rise to a ferromagnetic transition around 157 K. A spin-canted antiferromagnetic transition is found in this material at T{sub CAFM} ~9 K. The effect of antisite-disorder in the double perovskite structure is most likely the prime reason for antiferromagnetic interaction. The temperature dependent inverse susceptibility exhibits Curie-Weiss like behaviour and it yields an effective paramagnetic moment of 6.49 μ{sub B}. At very low temperature (Tlarge exchange bias (EB) field of H{sub EB} ~5.5 kOe and can be tuned by the cooling field. The presence of zero-field cooled spontaneous EB effect (P-type and N-type) is confirmed to be not an experimental artefact - an inherent property of this double perovskite material. A phenomenological model has been proposed to explain the exchange coupling between the ferromagnetic and canted-antiferromagnetic interfaces of antisite-disordered La{sub 1.5}Ca{sub 0.5}CoMnO{sub 6} mainly on the basis of uncompensated interface spins. - Highlights: • Large exchange bias (EB) effect has been observed in 25% Ca doped La{sub 2}CoMnO{sub 6} antisite-disordered system. • Neutron powder diffraction analysis clearly suggested canted antiferromagnetic spin ordering at low temperature in our phase separated system. • A phenomenological model has been proposed for experimental results. • The results may be useful to acquire enough information about exchange biased interfaces for various magnetic device applications.

  19. Precision grip responses to unexpected rotational perturbations scale with axis of rotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Gregorio, Michael; Santos, Veronica J

    2013-04-05

    It has been established that rapid, pulse-like increases in precision grip forces ("catch-up responses") are elicited by unexpected translational perturbations and that response latency and strength scale according to the direction of linear slip relative to the hand as well as gravity. To determine if catch-up responses are elicited by unexpected rotational perturbations and are strength-, axis-, and/or direction-dependent, we imposed step torque loads about each of two axes which were defined relative to the subject's hand: the distal-proximal axis away from and towards the subject's palm, and the grip axis which connects the two fingertips. Precision grip responses were dominated initially by passive mechanics and then by active, unimodal catch-up responses. First dorsal interosseous activity, marking the start of the catch-up response, began 71-89 ms after the onset of perturbation. The onset latency, shape, and duration (217-231 ms) of the catch-up response were not affected by the axis, direction, or magnitude of the rotational perturbation, while strength was scaled by axis of rotation and slip conditions. Rotations about the grip axis that tilted the object away from the palm and induced rotational slip elicited stronger catch-up responses than rotations about the distal-proximal axis that twisted the object between the digits. To our knowledge, this study is the first to investigate grip responses to unexpected torque loads and to show characteristic, yet axis-dependent, catch-up responses for conditions other than pure linear slip. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Audit of radiology communication systems for critical, urgent, and unexpected significant findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, K.A.; Drinkwater, K.J.; Dugar, N.; Howlett, D.C.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To determine the compliance of UK radiology departments and trusts/healthcare organisations with National Patient Safety Agency and Royal College of Radiologist's published guidance on the communication of critical, urgent, and unexpected significant radiological findings. Materials and methods: A questionnaire was sent to all UK radiology department audit leads asking for details of their current departmental policy regarding the issuing of alerts; use of automated electronic alert systems; methods of notification of clinicians of critical, urgent, and unexpected significant radiological findings; monitoring of results receipt; and examples of the more common types of serious pathologies for which alerts were issued. Results: One hundred and fifty-four of 229 departments (67%) responded. Eighty-eight percent indicated that they had a policy in place for the communication of critical, urgent, and unexpected significant radiological findings. Only 34% had an automated electronic alert system in place and only 17% had a facility for service-wide electronic tracking of radiology reports. In only 11 departments with an electronic acknowledgement system was someone regularly monitoring the read rate. Conclusion: There is wide variation in practice across the UK with regard to the communication and monitoring of reports with many departments/trusts not fully compliant with published UK guidance. Despite the widespread use of electronic systems, only a minority of departments/trusts have and use electronic tracking to ensure reports have been read and acted upon. - Highlights: • UK wide audit of communication of significant radiology results. • 88% of departments have a communication policy in place. • 34% of departments have an automated electronic alert system. • 17% of Trusts have facility for service wide electronic tracking of radiology reports.

  1. Sodium antimony sulfide (NaSbS2: Turning an unexpected impurity into a promising, environmentally friendly novel solar absorber material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Utari Rahayu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We present a novel absorber material—NaSbS2—for solar cells. NaSbS2 is formed as an unexpected byproduct in the chemical synthesis of Sb2S3. However, NaSbS2 has many attractive features for a solar material. Here single phase NaSbS2 nanoparticles were synthesized through solution processing. NaSbS2 semiconductor-sensitized solar cells were demonstrated for the first time. The best cell yielded Jsc = 10.76 mA/cm2, Voc = 0.44 V, FF = 48.6%, and efficiency η = 2.30% under 1 sun. At the reduced 0.1 sun, the η increased to 3.18%—a respectable η for a new solar material.

  2. Unexpected structure in the E2 quasicontinuum spectrum of 154Dy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holzmann, R.; Khoo, T.L.; Ma, W.C.

    1988-01-01

    The evolution of the γ quasicontinuum spectrum with neutron number has been investigated in the sequence of dysprosium isotopes /sup 152,154,156/Dy. The three nuclei display a pronounced collective E2 component. In 154 Dy this component shows an unexpected splitting into two distinct parts, signifying a structural change along the γ cascade. The E2 and statistical components can be reproduced in simple γ cascade calculations; in 152 Dy and 156 Dy only rotational bands were included, whereas in 154 Dy additional vibration-like transitions were required to reproduce the two E2 peaks. 11 refs., 2 figs

  3. The unexpected stability of multiwall nanotubes under high pressure and shear deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pashkin, E. Y.; Pankov, A. M.; Kulnitskiy, B. A.; Mordkovich, V. Z.; Perezhogin, I. A.; Karaeva, A. R.; Popov, M. Y.; Sorokin, P. B.; Blank, V. D.

    2016-01-01

    The behavior of multiwall carbon nanotubes under a high pressure (up to 55 GPa) combined with shear deformation was studied by experimental and theoretical methods. The unexpectedly high stability of the nanotubes' structure under high stresses was observed. After the pressure was released, we observed that the nanotubes had restored their shapes. Atomistic simulations show that the hydrostatic and shear stresses affect the nanotubes' structure in a different way. It was found that the shear stress load in the multiwall nanotubes' outer walls can induce their connection and formation of an amorphized sp"3-hybridized region but internal core keeps the tubular structure.

  4. A new unexpected feature of superdeformed nuclei: strange degeneracies and their origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudek, J.

    1990-01-01

    Unexpected similarities between the superdeformed bands found recently in many nuclei of the mass A ∼ 150 and A ∼ 190 regions and the physical sense of this discovery are discussed. These similarities manifest themselves through the existence of nearly identical sequences of transitions belonging to two neighboring nuclei, and by now numerous nuclear pairs manifesting this feature have been found. The underlying microscopic mechanism is traced back to two independent effects: a readjustment of nuclear deformation diminishing the role of alignment of the least bound nucleus, and, the pseudospin symmetry, responsible for an approximate decoupling of the orbital and the intrinsic (pseudo) spin-degrees of freedom. 9 figs

  5. Costello Syndrome with Severe Nodulocystic Acne: Unexpected Significant Improvement of Acanthosis Nigricans after Oral Isotretinoin Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leelawadee Sriboonnark

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of 17-year-old female diagnosed with Costello syndrome. Genetic testing provided a proof with G12S mutation in the HRAS gene since 3 years of age with a presentation of severe nodulocystic acne on her face. After 2 months of oral isotretinoin treatment, improvement in her acne was observed. Interestingly, an unexpected significant improvement of acanthosis nigricans on her neck and dorsum of her hands was found as well. We present this case as a successful treatment option by using oral isotretinoin for the treatment of acanthosis nigricans in Costello syndrome patients.

  6. The unexpected stability of multiwall nanotubes under high pressure and shear deformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pashkin, E. Y.; Pankov, A. M.; Kulnitskiy, B. A.; Mordkovich, V. Z. [Technological Institute for Superhard and Novel Carbon Materials, 7a Centralnaya Street, Troitsk, Moscow 142190 (Russian Federation); Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, 9 Institutsky Lane, Dolgoprudny 141700 (Russian Federation); Perezhogin, I. A. [Technological Institute for Superhard and Novel Carbon Materials, 7a Centralnaya Street, Troitsk, Moscow 142190 (Russian Federation); Lomonosov Moscow State University, Leninskie Gory, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Karaeva, A. R. [Technological Institute for Superhard and Novel Carbon Materials, 7a Centralnaya Street, Troitsk, Moscow 142190 (Russian Federation); Popov, M. Y.; Sorokin, P. B.; Blank, V. D. [Technological Institute for Superhard and Novel Carbon Materials, 7a Centralnaya Street, Troitsk, Moscow 142190 (Russian Federation); Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, 9 Institutsky Lane, Dolgoprudny 141700 (Russian Federation); National University of Science and Technology MISiS, 4 Leninskiy Prospekt, Moscow 119049 (Russian Federation)

    2016-08-22

    The behavior of multiwall carbon nanotubes under a high pressure (up to 55 GPa) combined with shear deformation was studied by experimental and theoretical methods. The unexpectedly high stability of the nanotubes' structure under high stresses was observed. After the pressure was released, we observed that the nanotubes had restored their shapes. Atomistic simulations show that the hydrostatic and shear stresses affect the nanotubes' structure in a different way. It was found that the shear stress load in the multiwall nanotubes' outer walls can induce their connection and formation of an amorphized sp{sup 3}-hybridized region but internal core keeps the tubular structure.

  7. Cluster-level statistical inference in fMRI datasets: The unexpected behavior of random fields in high dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Ravi; Peterson, Bradley S

    2018-06-01

    Identifying regional effects of interest in MRI datasets usually entails testing a priori hypotheses across many thousands of brain voxels, requiring control for false positive findings in these multiple hypotheses testing. Recent studies have suggested that parametric statistical methods may have incorrectly modeled functional MRI data, thereby leading to higher false positive rates than their nominal rates. Nonparametric methods for statistical inference when conducting multiple statistical tests, in contrast, are thought to produce false positives at the nominal rate, which has thus led to the suggestion that previously reported studies should reanalyze their fMRI data using nonparametric tools. To understand better why parametric methods may yield excessive false positives, we assessed their performance when applied both to simulated datasets of 1D, 2D, and 3D Gaussian Random Fields (GRFs) and to 710 real-world, resting-state fMRI datasets. We showed that both the simulated 2D and 3D GRFs and the real-world data contain a small percentage (<6%) of very large clusters (on average 60 times larger than the average cluster size), which were not present in 1D GRFs. These unexpectedly large clusters were deemed statistically significant using parametric methods, leading to empirical familywise error rates (FWERs) as high as 65%: the high empirical FWERs were not a consequence of parametric methods failing to model spatial smoothness accurately, but rather of these very large clusters that are inherently present in smooth, high-dimensional random fields. In fact, when discounting these very large clusters, the empirical FWER for parametric methods was 3.24%. Furthermore, even an empirical FWER of 65% would yield on average less than one of those very large clusters in each brain-wide analysis. Nonparametric methods, in contrast, estimated distributions from those large clusters, and therefore, by construct rejected the large clusters as false positives at the nominal

  8. Sudden Unexpected Death During Sleep in Familial Dysautonomia: A Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma, Jose-Alberto; Norcliffe-Kaufmann, Lucy; Perez, Miguel A; Spalink, Christy L; Kaufmann, Horacio

    2017-08-01

    Sudden unexpected death during sleep (SUDS) is the most common cause of death in patients with familial dysautonomia (FD), an autosomal recessive disease characterized by sensory and autonomic dysfunction. It remains unknown what causes SUDS in these patients and who is at highest risk. We tested the hypothesis that SUDS in FD is linked to sleep-disordered breathing. We retrospectively identified patients with FD who died suddenly and unexpectedly during sleep and had undergone polysomnography within the 18-month period before death. For each case, we sampled one age-matched surviving subject with FD that had also undergone polysomnography within the 18-month period before study. Data on polysomnography, EKG, ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, arterial blood gases, blood count, and metabolic panel were analyzed. Thirty-two deceased cases and 31 surviving controls were included. Autopsy was available in six cases. Compared with controls, participants with SUDS were more likely to be receiving treatment with fludrocortisone (odds ratio [OR]; 95% confidence interval) (OR 29.7; 4.1-213.4), have untreated obstructive sleep apnea (OR 17.4; 1.5-193), and plasma potassium levels Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Rural families' interpretations of experiencing unexpected transition in the wake of a natural disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Gisele Cristina Manfrini; Boehs, Astrid Eggert; Denham, Sharon A; Nitschke, Rosane Gonçalves; Martini, Jussara Gue

    2017-02-13

    Natural disasters affect populations in various parts of the world. The impacts of disasters can cause many problems to the health of people and disruption to family life, potentially leading to an unexpected transition. The objective of this paper is to present the unexpected transitional experiences of rural families following a natural disaster. A multiple case study of six families was conducted with children and adolescents in a rural area affected by a 2008 disaster in southern Brazil. For data collection, we used participant observation, narrative interviews, genograms, ecomaps and an instrument called calendar routine. The analysis of the data resulted in different family interpretations about the changes resulting from the storm and compared life before and after the disaster. The loss of homes and loved ones, migration, unemployment, and losses from the farm were the main changes associated with new development tasks. The experiences of family transition after the disaster revealed that losses influenced social lives, daily routines and the preservation of cultural values.

  10. Unexpected findings at imaging: Predicting frequency in various types of studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lumbreras, Blanca; Gonzalez-Alvarez, Isabel; Lorente, Ma Fernanda; Calbo, Jorge; Aranaz, Jesus; Hernandez-Aguado, Ildefonso

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The objective was to evaluate the prevalence and associated variables of unsuspected findings from imaging tests in clinical practice. Material and Methods: Cross-sectional study of patients referred for an imaging test in 2006. Two independent radiologists classified the imaging tests according to the presence or absence of an unexpected finding in relation with the causes that prompted the test (kappa = 0.95). A thorough chart review of these patients was carried out as a quality control. Results: Out of 3259 patients in the study, 488 revealed unsuspected findings (15.0%). The prevalence of abnormal findings varied according to age: from 20.4% (150/734) in the over 74-group to 9.0% (76/847) in the under 43-group. The largest prevalence was in the category of infectious diseases (14/49, 28.6%) and in CT (260/901, 28.9%) and ultrasound (138/668, 20.7%). Studies showing moderate clinical information on the referral form were less likely to show unexpected findings than those with null or minor information (OR 0.51; 95% CI 0.36-0.73). Conclusion: Clinicians should expect the frequency of diseases detectable by imaging to increase in the future. Further research with follow-up of these findings is needed to estimate the effect of imaging technologies on final health outcomes.

  11. Risk, unexpected uncertainty, and estimation uncertainty: Bayesian learning in unstable settings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elise Payzan-LeNestour

    Full Text Available Recently, evidence has emerged that humans approach learning using Bayesian updating rather than (model-free reinforcement algorithms in a six-arm restless bandit problem. Here, we investigate what this implies for human appreciation of uncertainty. In our task, a Bayesian learner distinguishes three equally salient levels of uncertainty. First, the Bayesian perceives irreducible uncertainty or risk: even knowing the payoff probabilities of a given arm, the outcome remains uncertain. Second, there is (parameter estimation uncertainty or ambiguity: payoff probabilities are unknown and need to be estimated. Third, the outcome probabilities of the arms change: the sudden jumps are referred to as unexpected uncertainty. We document how the three levels of uncertainty evolved during the course of our experiment and how it affected the learning rate. We then zoom in on estimation uncertainty, which has been suggested to be a driving force in exploration, in spite of evidence of widespread aversion to ambiguity. Our data corroborate the latter. We discuss neural evidence that foreshadowed the ability of humans to distinguish between the three levels of uncertainty. Finally, we investigate the boundaries of human capacity to implement Bayesian learning. We repeat the experiment with different instructions, reflecting varying levels of structural uncertainty. Under this fourth notion of uncertainty, choices were no better explained by Bayesian updating than by (model-free reinforcement learning. Exit questionnaires revealed that participants remained unaware of the presence of unexpected uncertainty and failed to acquire the right model with which to implement Bayesian updating.

  12. Unexpected findings at imaging: Predicting frequency in various types of studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lumbreras, Blanca [Public Health Department, Miguel Hernandez University (Spain); CIBER en Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (Spain)], E-mail: blumbreras@umh.es; Gonzalez-Alvarez, Isabel [Radiodiagnostic Department, San Juan Hospital, 03550 Alicante (Spain)], E-mail: gonzalez_isa@gva.es; Lorente, Ma Fernanda [Radiodiagnostic Department, San Juan Hospital, 03550 Alicante (Spain)], E-mail: MARFERLORENTE@telefonica.net; Calbo, Jorge [Radiodiagnostic Department, San Juan Hospital, 03550 Alicante (Spain)], E-mail: jocalma@hotmail.com; Aranaz, Jesus [Preventive Medicine Department, San Juan Hospital, 03550 Alicante (Spain)], E-mail: aranaz_jes@gva.es; Hernandez-Aguado, Ildefonso [Public Health Department, Miguel Hernandez University (Spain); CIBER en Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (Spain)], E-mail: ihernandez@umh.es

    2010-04-15

    Objective: The objective was to evaluate the prevalence and associated variables of unsuspected findings from imaging tests in clinical practice. Material and Methods: Cross-sectional study of patients referred for an imaging test in 2006. Two independent radiologists classified the imaging tests according to the presence or absence of an unexpected finding in relation with the causes that prompted the test (kappa = 0.95). A thorough chart review of these patients was carried out as a quality control. Results: Out of 3259 patients in the study, 488 revealed unsuspected findings (15.0%). The prevalence of abnormal findings varied according to age: from 20.4% (150/734) in the over 74-group to 9.0% (76/847) in the under 43-group. The largest prevalence was in the category of infectious diseases (14/49, 28.6%) and in CT (260/901, 28.9%) and ultrasound (138/668, 20.7%). Studies showing moderate clinical information on the referral form were less likely to show unexpected findings than those with null or minor information (OR 0.51; 95% CI 0.36-0.73). Conclusion: Clinicians should expect the frequency of diseases detectable by imaging to increase in the future. Further research with follow-up of these findings is needed to estimate the effect of imaging technologies on final health outcomes.

  13. Age-related changes in posture response under a continuous and unexpected perturbation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Yi-Ching; Hsieh, Lin-Fen; Yang, Saiwei

    2014-01-22

    Aging is a critical factor to influence the functional performance during daily life. Without an appropriate posture control response when experiencing an unexpected external perturbation, fall may occur. A novel six-degree-of freedom platform with motion control protocol was designed to provide a real-life simulation of unexpected disturbance in order to discriminate the age-related changes of the balance control and the recovery ability. Twenty older adults and 20 healthy young adults participated in the study. The subjects stood barefoot on the novel movable platform, data of the center of mass (COM) excursion, joint rotation angle and electromyography (EMG) were recorded and compared. The results showed that the older adults had similar patterns of joint movement and COM excursion as the young adults during the balance reactive-recovery. However, larger proximal joint rotation in elderly group induced larger COM sway envelop and therefore loss of the compensatory strategy of posture recovery. The old adults also presented a lower muscle power. In order to keep an adequate joint stability preventing from falling, the EMG activity was increased, but the asymmetric pattern might be the key reason of unstable postural response. This novel design of moveable platform and test protocol comprised the computerized dynamic posturography (CDP) demonstrate its value to assess the possible sensory, motor, and central adaptive impairments to balance control and could be the training tool for posture inability person. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Rural families' interpretations of experiencing unexpected transition in the wake of a natural disaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele Cristina Manfrini Fernandes

    Full Text Available Abstract: Natural disasters affect populations in various parts of the world. The impacts of disasters can cause many problems to the health of people and disruption to family life, potentially leading to an unexpected transition. The objective of this paper is to present the unexpected transitional experiences of rural families following a natural disaster. A multiple case study of six families was conducted with children and adolescents in a rural area affected by a 2008 disaster in southern Brazil. For data collection, we used participant observation, narrative interviews, genograms, ecomaps and an instrument called calendar routine. The analysis of the data resulted in different family interpretations about the changes resulting from the storm and compared life before and after the disaster. The loss of homes and loved ones, migration, unemployment, and losses from the farm were the main changes associated with new development tasks. The experiences of family transition after the disaster revealed that losses influenced social lives, daily routines and the preservation of cultural values.

  15. Phases of Holographic QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lippert, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the Sakai-Sugimoto model of large N QCD at nonzero temperature and baryon chemical potential and in the presence of background electric and magnetic fields. We studied the holographic representation of baryons and the deconfinement, chiral-symmetry breaking, and nuclear matter phase transitions. In a background electric field, chiral-symmetry breaking corresponds to an insulator-conductor transition. A magnetic field both catalyzes chiral-symmetry breaking and generates, in the confined phase, a pseudo-scalar gradient or, in the deconfined phase, an axial current. The resulting phase diagram is in qualitative agreement with studies of hot, dense QCD.

  16. A propensity score analysis of the impact of surgical intervention on unexpected 30-day readmission following admission for subdural hematoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franko, Lynze R; Sheehan, Kyle M; Roark, Christopher D; Joseph, Jacob R; Burke, James F; Rajajee, Venkatakrishna; Williamson, Craig A

    2017-12-22

    OBJECTIVE Subdural hematoma (SDH) is a common disease that is increasingly being managed nonoperatively. The all-cause readmission rate for SDH has not previously been described. This study seeks to describe the incidence of unexpected 30-day readmission in a cohort of patients admitted to an academic neurosurgical center. Additionally, the relationship between operative management, clinical outcome, and unexpected readmission is explored. METHODS This is an observational study of 200 consecutive adult patients with SDH admitted to the neurosurgical ICU of an academic medical center. Demographic information, clinical characteristics, and treatment strategies were compared between readmitted and nonreadmitted patients. Multivariable logistic regression, weighted by the inverse probability of receiving surgery using propensity scores, was used to evaluate the association between operative management and unexpected readmission. RESULTS Of 200 total patients, 18 (9%) died during hospitalization and were not included in the analysis. Overall, 48 patients (26%) were unexpectedly readmitted within 30 days. Sixteen patients (33.3%) underwent SDH evacuation during their readmission. Factors significantly associated with unexpected readmission were nonoperative management (72.9% vs 54.5%, p = 0.03) and female sex (50.0% vs 32.1%, p = 0.03). In logistic regression analysis weighted by the inverse probability of treatment and including likely confounders, surgical management was not associated with likelihood of a good outcome at hospital discharge, but was associated with significantly reduced odds of unexpected readmission (OR 0.19, 95% CI 0.08-0.49). CONCLUSIONS Over 25% of SDH patients admitted to an academic neurosurgical ICU were unexpectedly readmitted within 30 days. Nonoperative management does not affect outcome at hospital discharge but is significantly associated with readmission, even when accounting for the probability of treatment by propensity score weighted

  17. Sequential Introduction of Cations Deriving Large-Grain Csx FA1-x PbI3 Thin Film for Planar Hybrid Solar Cells: Insight into Phase-Segregation and Thermal-Healing Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jiahao; Xu, Pan; Liu, Jian; You, Xiao-Zeng

    2017-03-01

    Composition engineering of perovskite materials has been demonstrated to be important for high-performance solar cells. Recently, the energy favorable hybridization of formamidinium (FA) and cesium (Cs) in three dimension lead halide perovskites has been attracting increasing attention due to its potential benefit on durability. Herein, we reported a simple and effective method to produce phase-pure CsxFA1-xPbI3 thin film via sequential introduction of cations, in which the FA cation was introduced by interdiffusion annealing in the presence of N-methylimidazole (NMI). NMI was employed as an additive to slow down the crystallization and thus drive the formation of CsxFA1-xPbI3 with micrometer grain size, which probably facilitate the charge dissociation and transportation in photovoltaic devices. More importantly, composition dependent phase-segregation has been revealed and investigated for the first time during the phase-pure mixed-cation perovskites CsxFA1-xPbI3. The present findings demonstrated that suppressing phase-segregation of mixed-cation perovskites by meticulous composition engineering is significant for further development of efficient photovoltaics. It also suggested that phase-pure Cs0.15FA0.85PbI3 may be a promising candidate with superior phase-durability, which performed an efficiency over 16% in planar perovskite solar cells. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Sudden Unexpected Death in Epilepsy: A Retrospective Autopsy Study of 112 Epileptic Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esen Melez, İpek; Arslan, Murat Nihat; Melez, Deniz Oğuzhan; Şanli, Ahmet Necati; Koç, Sermet

    2017-09-01

    Sudden unexpected deaths comprise the most important and worthy investigation case profiles in both neurology and forensic medicine. Epilepsy, which is one of the neuropathological causes of sudden unexpected deaths, is an important disorder having mysterious aspects. The aim of this study is to make common the points of view between neurology and forensic medicine experts and to discuss the features of the findings together with the related clinical hypotheses, leading to the differential diagnosis of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) by presenting autopsy findings and available medical data of patients who had a prior diagnosis of epilepsy. In Istanbul, the cases of 20334 autopsied patients who were referred to The Ministry of Justice Council of Forensic Medicine between 2007 and 2011 were identified from the complete forensic autopsy data of the city and were retrospectively reviewed. Patients who had a prior diagnosis of epilepsy were included. Both descriptive and inferential statistical analyses were performed through the parameters of demographical data, physical properties, incident features, macroscopic-microscopic autopsy findings, and cause of death initially for all cases and then separately for SUDEP cases. Among the 20334 patients, 112 were determined to have a prior diagnosis of epilepsy. A possible macroscopic and/or microscopic epileptic focus was present in 23 (20.5%) of these 112 cases. The cause of death was determined to be SUDEP in 40 (35.7%) cases, while it could not be determined in 28 (25%) cases. Among patients whose death cause was considered as SUDEP, the male-to-female ratio was 1.1:1, while the mean age was 31.5±13.9 years in males and 29.6±12.9 years in females. The presence of hypertrophy and myocardial scar tissue findings in the microscopic examination were significantly more frequent among patients determined to have died from cardiovascular diseases compared to patients in the SUDEP group (p=0.001 for each finding

  19. Patterns of unexpected in-hospital deaths: a root cause analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Curry J Paul

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Respiratory alarm monitoring and rapid response team alerts on hospital general floors are based on detection of simple numeric threshold breaches. Although some uncontrolled observation trials in select patient populations have been encouraging, randomized controlled trials suggest that this simplistic approach may not reduce the unexpected death rate in this complex environment. The purpose of this review is to examine the history and scientific basis for threshold alarms and to compare thresholds with the actual pathophysiologic patterns of evolving death which must be timely detected. Methods The Pubmed database was searched for articles relating to methods for triggering rapid response teams and respiratory alarms and these were contrasted with the fundamental timed pathophysiologic patterns of death which evolve due to sepsis, congestive heart failure, pulmonary embolism, hypoventilation, narcotic overdose, and sleep apnea. Results In contrast to the simplicity of the numeric threshold breach method of generating alerts, the actual patterns of evolving death are complex and do not share common features until near death. On hospital general floors, unexpected clinical instability leading to death often progresses along three distinct patterns which can be designated as Types I, II and III. Type I is a pattern comprised of hyperventilation compensated respiratory failure typical of congestive heart failure and sepsis. Here, early hyperventilation and respiratory alkalosis can conceal the onset of instability. Type II is the pattern of classic CO2 narcosis. Type III occurs only during sleep and is a pattern of ventilation and SPO2 cycling caused by instability of ventilation and/or upper airway control followed by precipitous and fatal oxygen desaturation if arousal failure is induced by narcotics and/or sedation. Conclusion The traditional threshold breach method of detecting instability on hospital wards was not

  20. Long bone histology of sauropterygia from the lower Muschelkalk of the Germanic basin provides unexpected implications for phylogeny.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Klein

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sauropterygia is an abundant and successful group of Triassic marine reptiles. Phylogenetic relationships of Triassic Sauropterygia have always been unstable and recently questioned. Although specimens occur in high numbers, the main problems are rareness of diagnostic material from the Germanic Basin and uniformity of postcranial morphology of eosauropterygians. In the current paper, morphotypes of humeri along with their corresponding bone histologies for Lower to Middle Muschelkalk sauropterygians are described and interpreted for the first time in a phylogenetic context. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Nothosaurus shows a typical plesiomorphic lamellar-zonal bone type, but varying growth patterns and the occurrence of a new humerus morphotype point to a higher taxonomic diversity than was known. In contrast to the enormous morphological variability of eosauropterygian humeri not assigned to Nothosaurus, their long bone histology is relatively uniform and can be divided into two histotypes. Unexpectedly, both of these histotypes reveal abundant fibrolamellar bone throughout the cortex. This pushes the origin of fibrolamellar bone in Sauropterygia back from the Cretaceous to the early Middle Triassic (early Anisian. Histotype A is assigned to Cymatosaurus, a basal member of the Pistosauroidea, which includes the plesiosaurs as derived members. Histotype B is related to the pachypleurosaur Anarosaurus. Contrary to these new finds, the stratigraphically younger pachypleurosaur Neusticosaurus shows the plesiomorphic lamellar-zonal bone type and an incomplete endochondral ossification, like Nothosaurus. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Histological results hypothetically discussed in a phylogenetical context have a large impact on the current phylogenetic hypothesis of Sauropterygia, leaving the pachypleurosaurs polyphyletic. On the basis of histological data, Neusticosaurus would be related to Nothosaurus, whereas Anarosaurus would follow

  1. Unexpected Type of Failure of Thermal Battery Resulting in a Near Miss to a Serious Injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richter, Daena Kei [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-10-01

    On 6/26/2015 at 1445 in 894/136, a thermal battery (approximately the size of a commercial size C cell) experienced an unexpected failure following a routine test where the battery is activated. The failure occurred while a test operator was transferring the battery from the testing primary containment box to another containment box within the same room; initial indications are that the battery package ruptured after it went into thermal runaway which led to the operator receiving bruising to the palm of the hand from the pressure of the expulsion. The operator was wearing the prescribed PPE, which was safety glasses and a high temperature glove on the hand that was holding the battery.

  2. Pseudotumoral ganglion cyst of a finger with unexpected remote origin: multimodality imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouilleau, Loic; Malghem, Jacques; Omoumi, Patrick; Simoni, Paolo; Vande Berg, Bruno C.; Lecouvet, Frederic E.; Barbier, Olivier

    2010-01-01

    The case of a ganglion cyst in the pulp of a fifth finger in an elderly woman initially mimicking a soft tissue tumor is described. Most typical sites of ganglion cysts are well documented at the wrist and in the vicinity of inter-phalangeal and metacarpo-phalangeal joints. In this case, ultrasonography (US) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated a cystic lesion within the pulp of the fifth finger and indicated carpal osteoarthritis as the distant - and unexpected - origin of the lesion. The suggested diagnosis of ganglion cyst was confirmed by computed tomography arthrography (CT arthrography) of the wrist, which showed opacification of the cyst on delayed acquisitions after intra-articular injection into the mid-carpal joint, through the fifth flexor digitorum tendon sheath. The communications between the degenerative carpal joint, the radio-ulnar bursa, the fifth flexor digitorum tendon sheath and the pedicle of the cyst were well demonstrated. (orig.)

  3. Critical properties of unlimited gliding: Unexpected flocking behavior driven by the exchange of information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigus-Kwiatkowska, Marta; Fronczak, Agata; Fronczak, Piotr

    2018-03-01

    Inspired by albatrosses that use thermal lifts to fly across oceans we develop a simple model of gliders that serves us to study theoretical limitations of unlimited exploration of the Earth. Our studies, grounded in physical theory of continuous percolation and biased random walks, allow us to identify a variety of percolation transitions, which are understood as providing potentially unlimited movement through a space in a specified direction. We discover an unexpected phenomenon of self-organization of gliders in clusters, which resembles the flock organization of birds. This self-organization is intriguing, as it occurs thanks to exchange of information only and without any particular rules that could favor the clustering of the gliders (in contrast to the causes well known in literature, like, for example, attractive forces used in the Vicsek-type models or fitness functions used in evolutionary computation).

  4. Unexpected Reading Dissociation in a Brazilian “nisei” with Crossed Aphasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Caramelli

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available There is an increased interest in reading impairments in the Japanese language, due to its particular writing system which includes two different scripts, Kanji (logograms and Kana (phonograms. Reading dissociations between Kanji and Kana have been described, showing that each system is processed differently by the cerebral hemispheres. We describe the case of a 68 year old Brazilian “nisei” (i.e. born from Japanese parents who had knowledge of both Japanese and Portuguese. He presented an ischemic stroke affecting the right hemisphere and subsequently developed a Broca's aphasia and an unexpected reading dissociation, with an impairment in Kana reading comprehension and a good performance in Kanji and in Portuguese. These findings suggest that the patient's right and left hemispheres have assumed opposite roles not only for oral but also for written language decodification.

  5. Benefits and unexpected artifacts of biplanar digital slot-scanning imaging in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blumer, Steven L. [Nemours/A.I duPont Hospital for Children, Department of Medical Imaging, Wilmington, DE (United States); Dinan, David [Nemours Children' s Hospital, Orlando, FL (United States); Grissom, Leslie E. [Nemours/Alfred I. duPont Hospital for Children, Department of Radiology, Wilmington, DE (United States)

    2014-07-15

    Biplanar digital slot-scanning allows for relatively low-dose orthopedic imaging, an advantage in imaging children given the growing concerns regarding radiosensitivity. We have used this system for approximately 1 year for orthopedic imaging of the spine and lower extremities. We have noted advantages of using the digital slot-scanning system when compared with computed radiographic and standard digital radiographic imaging systems, but we also found unexpected but common imaging artifacts that are the direct result of the imaging method and that have not been reported. This pictorial essay serves to familiarize radiologists with the advantages of the digital slot-scanning system as well as imaging artifacts common with this new technology. (orig.)

  6. Detection of gunshot primer residue on bone in an experimental setting-an unexpected finding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berryman, Hugh E; Kutyla, Alicja K; Russell Davis, J

    2010-03-01

    Pork ribs with intact muscle tissue were used in an experimental attempt to identify bullet wipe on bone at distances from 1 to 6 feet with 0.45 caliber, full metal jacket ammunition. This resulted in the unexpected finding of primer-derived gunshot residue (GSR) deep within the wound tract. Of significance is the fact that the GSR was deposited on the bone, under the periosteum, after the bullet passed through a Ziploc bag and c. 1 inch of muscle tissue. It is also important to note that the GSR persisted on the bone after the periosteum was forcibly removed. The presence of primer-derived GSR on bone provides the potential to differentiate gunshot trauma from blunt trauma when the bone presents an atypical gunshot wound. In this study, the presence of gunshot primer residue at a distance of 6 feet demonstrates the potential for establishing maximum gun-to-target distance for remote shootings.

  7. The Galeta Oil Spill. II. Unexpected Persistence of Oil Trapped in Mangrove Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, K. A.; Garrity, S. D.; Jorissen, D.; MacPherson, J.; Stoelting, M.; Tierney, J.; Yelle-Simmons, L.

    1994-04-01

    Sediment chemistry studies, undertaken as part of the long-term assessment of the Bahía las Minas (Panamá) oil spill, showed the unexpected persistence of the full range of aromatic hydrocarbon residues of the spilled crude oil in anoxic muds of coastal mangroves. Mangrove muds served as long-term reservoirs for chronic contamination of contiguous coastal communities for over 5 years. One result of the repeated history of oil pollution incidents along this coast was an increased proportion of dead mangrove ( Rhizophora mangle) roots in sediment cores which was related to contaminant loading and was detectable for at least 20 years after major oil spills. We suggest that this is the minimum time-scale that is to be expected for the loss of toxicity of oil trapped in muddy coastal habitats impacted by catastrophic oil spills.

  8. The Galeta oil spill: Pt. 2; Unexpected persistence of oil trapped in mangrove sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, K.A.; Jorissen, D.; MacPherson, J.; Stoelting, M.; Tierney, J.; Yelle-Simmons, L. (Bermuda Biological Station, Ferry Reach (Bermuda)); Garrity, S.D. (Coastal Zone Analysis, Sopchoppy, FL (United States))

    1994-04-01

    Sediment chemistry studies, undertaken as part of the long-term assessment of the Bahia las Minas (Panama) oil spill, showed the unexpected persistence of the full range of aromatic hydrocarbon residues of the spilled crude oil in anoxic muds of coastal mangroves. Mangrove muds served as long-term reservoirs for chronic contamination of contiguous coastal communities for over 5 years. One result of the repeated history of oil pollution incidents along this coast was an increased proportion of dead mangrove (Rhizophora mangle) roots in sediment cores which was related to contaminant loading and was detectable for at least 20 years after major oil spills. We suggest that this is the minimum time-scale that is to be expected for the loss of toxicity of oil trapped in muddy coastal habitats impacted by catastrophic oil spills. (author)

  9. Maintenance of equilibrium point control during an unexpectedly loaded rapid limb movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, R W; Richardson, C

    1984-06-08

    Two experiments investigated whether the equilibrium point hypothesis or the mass-spring model of motor control subserves positioning accuracy during spring loaded, rapid, bi-articulated movement. For intact preparations, the equilibrium point hypothesis predicts response accuracy to be determined by a mixture of afferent and efferent information, whereas the mass-spring model predicts positioning to be under a direct control system. Subjects completed a series of load-resisted training trials to a spatial target. The magnitude of a sustained spring load was unexpectedly increased on selected trials. Results indicated positioning accuracy and applied force varied with increases in load, which suggests that the original efferent commands are modified by afferent information during the movement as predicted by the equilibrium point hypothesis.

  10. Idiopathic infantile arterial calcification: a rare cause of sudden unexpected death in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Susana; Lopes, José Manuel; Oliveira, José Bessa; Santos, Agostinho

    2010-07-27

    Unexpected child death investigation is a difficult area of forensic practice in view of the wide range of possible genetic, congenital, and acquired natural and nonnatural causes. Idiopathic infantile arterial calcification (IIAC) is a rare autosomic recessive disease usually diagnosed postmortem. Inactivating mutations of the ENPP1 gene were described in 80% of the cases with IIAC. We report a case of a 5-year-old girl submitted to a forensic autopsy due to sudden death and possible medical negligence/parents child abuse. Major alterations found (intimal proliferation and deposition of calcium hydroxyapatite around the internal elastic lamina and media of arteries; acute myocardial infarct, stenotic and calcified coronary artery; perivascular and interstitial myocardial fibrosis; and subendocardial fibroelastosis) were diagnostic of IIAC. We reviewed IIAC cases published in the English literature and highlight the importance of adequate autopsy evaluation in cases of sudden child death.

  11. Impact of unexpected events, shocking news, and rumors on foreign exchange market dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Mark; Suleman, Omer; Williams, Stacy; Howison, Sam; Johnson, Neil F.

    2008-04-01

    The dynamical response of a population of interconnected objects, when exposed to external perturbations, is of great interest to physicists working on complex systems. Here we focus on human systems, by analyzing the dynamical response of the world’s financial community to various types of unexpected events—including the 9/11 terrorist attacks as they unfolded on a minute-by-minute basis. For the unfolding events of 9/11, our results show that there was a gradual collective understanding of what was happening, rather than an immediate realization. More generally, we find that for news items which are not simple economic statements—and hence whose implications for the market are not immediately obvious—there are periods of collective discovery during which opinions seem to vary in a remarkably synchronized way.

  12. Comprehensive study of unexpected microscope condensers formed in sample arrangements commonly used in optical microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Darshan B; Aldawsari, Mabkhoot Mudith S; Alharbi, Bandar Mohammed H; Sen, Sanchari; Grave de Peralta, Luis

    2015-09-01

    We show that various setups for optical microscopy which are commonly used in biomedical laboratories behave like efficient microscope condensers that are responsible for observed subwavelength resolution. We present a series of experiments and simulations that reveal how inclined illumination from such unexpected condensers occurs when the sample is perpendicularly illuminated by a microscope's built-in white-light source. In addition, we demonstrate an inexpensive add-on optical module that serves as an efficient and lightweight microscope condenser. Using such add-on optical module in combination with a low-numerical-aperture objective lens and Fourier plane imaging microscopy technique, we demonstrate detection of photonic crystals with a period nearly eight times smaller than the Rayleigh resolution limit.

  13. Heavy Metals, Cardiovascular Disease, and the Unexpected Benefits of Edetate Disodium Chelation Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamas, Gervasio A.; Navas-Acien, Ana; Mark, Daniel B.; Lee, Kerry L.

    2016-01-01

    This review summarizes evidence from 2 lines of research previously thought unrelated: the unexpectedly positive results of the Trial to Assess Chelation Therapy (TACT), and a body of epidemiological data showing that accumulation of biologically active metals, such as lead and cadmium, is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Considering these 2 areas of work together may lead to the identification of new, modifiable risk factors for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. We examine the history of chelation up through the report of TACT. We then describe work connecting higher metal levels in the body with the future risk of cardiovascular disease. We conclude by presenting a brief overview of a newly planned National Institutes of Health trial, TACT2, in which we will attempt to replicate the findings of TACT and to establish that removal of toxic metal stores from the body is a plausible mechanistic explanation for the benefits of edetate disodium treatment. PMID:27199065

  14. Left Ventricular Aneurysm: Sudden Unexpected Deaths in a 29-Year-Old Man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srettabunjong, Supawon

    2018-05-01

    Left ventricular aneurysm (LVA) is an abnormal dilated heart structure, either congenital or acquired. LVA is a rare cardiac condition with no symptoms in most cases, thus occasionally diagnosed during investigations of other diseases. Its association with certain cardiac complications and sudden cardiac deaths has been reported. However, its role as a cause of sudden unexpected death is rare. The author reported a sudden cardiac death in a 29-year-old man with LVA. Without a significant coronary artery disease and known etiologies of LVA, such an abnormal heart structure in the present case was considered congenital LVA. As no other possible mechanisms of death could be identified other than LVA with its associated pathologic lesions, mural thrombi, and dilated cardiomegaly, his death was attributable to fatal cardiac arrhythmia (most commonly ventricular tachycardia) secondary to LVA. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  15. Amygdala activity can be modulated by unexpected chord functions during music listening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koelsch, Stefan; Fritz, Thomas; Schlaug, Gottfried

    2008-12-03

    Numerous earlier studies have investigated the cognitive processing of musical syntax with regular and irregular chord sequences. However, irregular sequences may also be perceived as unexpected, and therefore have a different emotional valence than regular sequences. We provide behavioral data showing that irregular chord functions presented in chord sequence paradigms are perceived as less pleasant than regular sequences. A reanalysis of functional MRI data showed increased blood oxygen level-dependent signal changes bilaterally in the amygdala in response to music-syntactically irregular (compared with regular) chord functions. The combined data indicate that music-syntactically irregular events elicit brain activity related to emotional processes, and that, in addition to intensely pleasurable music or highly unpleasant music, single chord functions can also modulate amygdala activity.

  16. Large ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, David W

    2008-01-01

    This essay presents an alternative to the traditional view that ethics means judging individual behavior against standards of right and wrong. Instead, ethics is understood as creating ethical communities through the promises we make to each other. The "aim" of ethics is to demonstrate in our own behavior a credible willingness to work to create a mutually better world. The "game" of ethics then becomes searching for strategies that overlap with others' strategies so that we are all better for intending to act on a basis of reciprocal trust. This is a difficult process because we have partial, simultaneous, shifting, and inconsistent views of the world. But despite the reality that we each "frame" ethics in personal terms, it is still possible to create sufficient common understanding to prosper together. Large ethics does not make it a prerequisite for moral behavior that everyone adheres to a universally agreed set of ethical principles; all that is necessary is sufficient overlap in commitment to searching for better alternatives.

  17. Stability of vertical posture explored with unexpected mechanical perturbations: synergy indices and motor equivalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagata, Momoko; Falaki, Ali; Latash, Mark L

    2018-03-21

    We explored the relations between indices of mechanical stability of vertical posture and synergy indices under unexpected perturbations. The main hypotheses predicted higher posture-stabilizing synergy indices and higher mechanical indices of center of pressure stability during perturbations perceived by subjects as less challenging. Healthy subjects stood on a force platform and held in fully extended arms a bar attached to two loads acting downward and upward. One of the loads was unexpectedly released by the experimenter causing a postural perturbations. In different series, subjects either knew or did not know which of the two loads would be released. Forward perturbations were perceived as more challenging and accompanied by co-activation patterns among the main agonist-antagonist pairs. Backward perturbation led to reciprocal muscle activation patterns and was accompanied by indices of mechanical stability and of posture-stabilizing synergy which indicated higher stability. Changes in synergy indices were observed as early as 50-100 ms following the perturbation reflecting involuntary mechanisms. In contrast, predictability of perturbation direction had weak or no effect on mechanical and synergy indices of stability. These observations are interpreted within a hierarchical scheme of synergic control of motor tasks and a hypothesis on the control of movements with shifts of referent coordinates. The findings show direct correspondence between stability indices based on mechanics and on the analysis of multi-muscle synergies. They suggest that involuntary posture-stabilizing mechanisms show synergic organization. They also show that predictability of perturbation direction has strong effects on anticipatory postural adjustment but not corrective adjustments. We offer an interpretation of co-activation patterns that questions their contribution to postural stability.

  18. Unexpected improvement in core autism spectrum disorder symptoms after long-term treatment with probiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enzo Grossi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Autism spectrum disorder is a neurodevelopmental condition that typically displays socio-communicative impairment as well as restricted stereotyped interests and activities, in which gastrointestinal disturbances are commonly reported. We report the case of a boy with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD diagnosis, severe cognitive disability and celiac disease in which an unexpected improvement of autistic core symptoms was observed after four months of probiotic treatment. Method: The case study refers to a 12 years old boy with ASD and severe cognitive disability attending the Villa Santa Maria Institute in resident care since 2009. Diagnosis of ASDs according to DSM-V criteria was confirmed by ADOS-2 assessment (Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule. The medication used was VSL#3, a multi-strain mixture of ten probiotics. The treatment lasted 4 weeks followed by a four month follow-up. The rehabilitation program and the diet was maintained stable in the treatment period and in the follow up. ADOS-2 was assessed six times: two times before starting treatment; two times during the treatment and two times after interruption of the treatment. Results: The probiotic treatment reduced the severity of abdominal symptoms as expected but an improvement in Autistic core symptoms was unexpectedly clinically evident already after few weeks from probiotic treatment start. The score of Social Affect domain of ADOS improved changing from 20 to 18 after two months treatment with a further reduction of 1 point in the following two months. The level 17 of severity remained stable in the follow up period. It is well known that ADOS score does not fluctuate spontaneously along time in ASD and is absolutely stable. Conclusions: The appropriate use of probiotics deserves further research, which hopefully will open new avenues in the fight against ASD.

  19. Unexpected improvement in core autism spectrum disorder symptoms after long-term treatment with probiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossi, Enzo; Melli, Sara; Dunca, Delia; Terruzzi, Vittorio

    2016-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder is a neurodevelopmental condition that typically displays socio-communicative impairment as well as restricted stereotyped interests and activities, in which gastrointestinal disturbances are commonly reported. We report the case of a boy with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) diagnosis, severe cognitive disability and celiac disease in which an unexpected improvement of autistic core symptoms was observed after four months of probiotic treatment. The case study refers to a 12 years old boy with ASD and severe cognitive disability attending the Villa Santa Maria Institute in resident care since 2009. Diagnosis of ASDs according to DSM-V criteria was confirmed by ADOS-2 assessment (Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule). The medication used was VSL#3, a multi-strain mixture of ten probiotics. The treatment lasted 4 weeks followed by a four month follow-up. The rehabilitation program and the diet was maintained stable in the treatment period and in the follow up. ADOS-2 was assessed six times: two times before starting treatment; two times during the treatment and two times after interruption of the treatment. The probiotic treatment reduced the severity of abdominal symptoms as expected but an improvement in Autistic core symptoms was unexpectedly clinically evident already after few weeks from probiotic treatment start. The score of Social Affect domain of ADOS improved changing from 20 to 18 after two months treatment with a further reduction of 1 point in the following two months. The level 17 of severity remained stable in the follow up period. It is well known that ADOS score does not fluctuate spontaneously along time in ASD and is absolutely stable. The appropriate use of probiotics deserves further research, which hopefully will open new avenues in the fight against ASD.

  20. Spontaneous abortion and unexpected death: a critical discussion of Marquis on abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Mary Clayton

    2013-02-01

    In his classic paper, 'Why abortion is immoral', Don Marquis argues that what makes killing an adult seriously immoral is that it deprives the victim of the valuable future he/she would have otherwise had. Moreover, Marquis contends, because abortion deprives a fetus of the very same thing, aborting a fetus is just as seriously wrong as killing an adult. Marquis' argument has received a great deal of critical attention in the two decades since its publication. Nonetheless, there is a potential challenge to it that seems to have gone unnoticed. A significant percentage of fetuses are lost to spontaneous abortion. Once we bring this fact to our attention, it becomes less clear whether Marquis can use his account of the wrongness of killing to show that abortion is the moral equivalent of murder. In this paper, I explore the relevance of the rate of spontaneous abortion to Marquis' classic anti-abortion argument. I introduce a case I call Unexpected Death in which someone is about to commit murder, but, just as the would-be murderer is about to strike, his would-be victim dies unexpectedly. I then ask: what does Marquis' account of killing imply about the moral status of what the would-be murderer was about to do? I consider four responses Marquis could give to this question, and I examine what implications these responses have for Marquis' strategy of using his account of the wrongness of killing an adult to show that abortion is in the same moral category.