WorldWideScience

Sample records for unemployment descriptive note

  1. Labor Market Size and Unemployment Duration: A Theoretical Note

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Schaeffer; Tesfa Gebremedhin

    2004-01-01

    When job prospects are uncertain, labor market size matters even when labor and jobs, respectively, are homogenous. The expected unemployment duration and its standard deviation may then differ systematically with labor market size.

  2. A note on selection and gender unemployment gaps

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bičáková, Alena

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 38, č. 4 (2017), s. 428-438 ISSN 0195-3613 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36154G Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : selection bias * Manski bounds * gender unemployment gap Subject RIV: AH - Economics OBOR OECD: Applied Economics, Econometrics Impact factor: 0.545, year: 2016

  3. A note on selection and gender unemployment gaps

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bičáková, Alena

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 38, č. 4 (2017), s. 428-438 ISSN 0195-3613 Institutional support: Progres-Q24 Keywords : selection bias * Manski bounds * gender unemployment gap Subject RIV: AH - Economics OBOR OECD: Applied Economics, Econometrics Impact factor: 0.545, year: 2016

  4. Return to Learning, Return to Work: Helping Low-Qualified Adults Out of Unemployment. Briefing Note

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cedefop - European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training, 2013

    2013-01-01

    Since 2008, the question uppermost in policymakers' minds has understandably been the explosive growth of youth unemployment. But the crisis has also severely affected low-qualified adults, who face the highest rate of unemployment across Europe. A recent Cedefop study confirms that work-based training programmes can address the particular needs…

  5. Unemployment and unemployment protection in three groups of countries

    OpenAIRE

    Vroman, Wayne

    1999-01-01

    This report examines unemployment protection with emphasis on three groups of countries: 1) OECD, 2) Central-East Europe and the Former Soviet Union; and 3) East and South Asia. Section 1 notes the presence of various public social protection programs including pensions, work injury insurance, health insurance, and unemployment benefits. Section 2 describes the measurement of unemployment in these countries and provides details of their unemployment protection programs including unemployment ...

  6. Notes on Japanese Rhizocephala, with description of two new species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boschma, H.

    1935-01-01

    The following notes are based upon material of parasites on two Crustaceans from Japan, viz., Pachygrapsus crassipes Randall and Petrolisthes japonicus de Haan 1). Each of these two species may be infested by two different species of Rhizocephala: on Pachygrapsus crassipes occur the parasites

  7. Unemployment - Structural

    OpenAIRE

    Lindbeck, Assar

    1999-01-01

    Structural unemployment differs from cyclical unemployment by not disappearing in cyclical booms. In economic theory, structural unemployment is usually analysed in terms of the concept of equilibrium unemployment (the "natural unemployment rate" in Friedman’s terminology). Two elaborate concepts of equilibrium unemployment – the non-accelerating inflation rate of unemployment (the NAIRU) and the unemployment rate that induces firms and workers to accept the same real wage (the PS-WS-model) a...

  8. A Note on the Field-Theoretical Description of Superfluids

    CERN Document Server

    Andrianopoli, L; Grassi, P A; Trigiante, M

    2014-01-01

    Recently, a Lagrangian description of superfluids attracted some interest from the fluid/gravity-correspondence viewpoint. In this respect, the work of Dubovksy et al. has proposed a new field theoretical description of fluids, which has several interesting aspects. On another side, we have provided in arXiv:1304.2206 a supersymmetric extension of the original works. In the analysis of the Lagrangian structures a new invariant appeared which, although related to known invariants, provides, in our opinion, a better parametrisation of the fluid dynamics in order to describe the fluid/superfluid phases.

  9. Immigrant fertility in Sweden, 2000-2011: A descriptive note

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lotta Persson

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Modern Scandinavian population registers provide excellent data sources that allow a user to quickly gain an impression of the level of fertility and its structure across subpopulations. This may also allow the analyst to check a feature of the much-cited disruption hypothesis, at least in part. Objective: The purpose of this note is to exploit this potential to give an overview of the structure of recent total fertility after immigration to Sweden from various groups of sending countries, separately for males and females. In the process we demonstrate to what extent the post-migration fertility compensation which is part of the fertility disruption hypothesis is fulfilled in our study population. Due to the nature of our data we have refrained from studying fertility before migration. Methods: Based on data from a combination of two Swedish administrative registers (the Historic Population Register and the Multi-Generation Register that cover both men and women in the entire population for the years 2000-2011, we compute and plot TFR-like age-cumulated fertility levels, specific for years since immigration, for six groups of sending countries, separately for men and women. Results: We find that the post-migration fertility compensation specified as part of the fertility disruption hypothesis is visibly confirmed in our Swedish study population for female European immigrants from non-EU countries and for female immigrants from non-European countries with a low or medium UN Human Development Index, but not so for other female immigrants, i.e. not for those who come from a Nordic country or from a non-Nordic EU country, and not for female immigrants from a non-European country with a high Human Development Index, including the United States. We find mild but less conclusive evidence for the same feature for males. Conclusions: This shows that at least as far as post-migration fertility compensation is concerned, the disruption

  10. Youth Unemployment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockefeller Foundation, New York, NY.

    In the introduction to this conference report, the problem of youth unemployment is reviewed and youth unemployment rates for 1976 are analyzed. Lester C. Thurow's study is presented as a discussion of the problem of youth unemployment. He examined the impact of economic growth, looked at the significance of the effect of unemployment on youth,…

  11. Understanding unemployment

    OpenAIRE

    Guillaume Rocheteau

    2006-01-01

    Modern economists have built models of the labor market, which isolate the market’s key drivers and describe the way these interact to produce particular levels of unemployment. One of the most popular models used by macroeconomists today is the search-matching model of equilibrium unemployment. We explain this model, and show how it can be applied to understand the way various policies, such as unemployment benefits, taxes, or technological changes, can affect the unemployment rate.

  12. Unemployment duration and unemployment insurance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røed, Knut; Jensen, Peter; Thoursie, Anna

    2008-01-01

    Based on pooled register data from Norway and Sweden, we find that differences in unemployment duration patterns reflect dissimilarities in unemployment insurance (UI) systems in a way that convincingly establishes the link between economic incentives and job search behaviour. Specifically, UI...... benefits are relatively more generous for low-income workers in Sweden than in Norway, leading to relatively longer unemployment spells for low-income workers in Sweden. Based on the between-countries variation in replacement ratios, we find that the elasticity of the outflow rate from insured unemployment...

  13. Unemployment and Long-Term Unemployment of Immigrants in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerija Botrić

    2016-04-01

    older than 55 (in comparison to 35‒44 negative predictors: skilled agricultural, forestry and fishery workers and male persons. The analysis for the 2012 (crisis year has identified the following significant predictors of unemployment status for immigrants in Croatia, listed in the decreasing marginal effects order: positive predictors: elementary occupations, plant and machine operators, persons aged 15‒24 (in comparison to the reference age cohort 35‒44, craft and related trade workers, service and sales workers, persons older than 55 (in comparison to the reference age cohort; negative predictors: skilled agricultural, forestry and fishery workers and persons living in urban areas. The analysis has revealed that traditional predictors of labour market outcome status have also been significant for the immigrant population in Croatia. It also reveals that they change over time. The occupation of the immigrant is more important in the crisis, which is probably related to the adverse demand effects of specific economic activities. Additionally, age has gained increased importance in the crisis, which is similar to the experiences of the domicile population. The second segment of the analysis was focused on long-term unemployment. Unemployment is considered to be short-term if the person is in that status for less than a year (in accordance with the long-term unemployment definition used by the Eurostat and very long-term if the person is in that status for more than two years. Descriptive statistics reveals that there is a higher share of persons with lower secondary education in the long-term unemployment sample, while the highest share, regardless of the duration of the unemployment, is reserved for upper secondary education. The data also reveal that the share of unemployed immigrants registered as unemployed at the public employment service increased in the crisis year, regardless of the duration of the unemployment. It is also interesting to note that the

  14. Noted

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunberg, Geoffrey

    2013-01-01

    Considering how much attention people lavish on the technologies of writing--scroll, codex, print, screen--it's striking how little they pay to the technologies for digesting and regurgitating it. One way or another, there's no sector of the modern world that is not saturated with note-taking--the bureaucracy, the liberal professions, the…

  15. Tackling Unemployment

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-01-31

    Jan 31, 2014 ... Unemployment is synonymous to 'joblessness' and it breeds generalized hardship in life, helplessness, lack of social security, idleness, poverty, depression, suicidal tendencies, loss of self esteem, diseases like hypertension, and dependency even in very minor responsibilities. It has also been implicated ...

  16. Taxonomic notes on some Polyglyptini: descriptions of new genus and new species (Homoptera, Membracidae, Smiliinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albino M. Sakakibara

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Taxonomic notes on some Polyglyptini; descriptions of new genus and new species (Homoptera, Membracidae, Smiliinae. The genera Hemiptycha Germar, Metheisa Fowler, Maturnaria Metcalf, Aphetea Fowler, Dioclophara Kirkaldy, and Phormophora Stål, are redescribed; Creonus, gen.n. (type species: Maturna lloydi Funkhouser, 1914, and Aphetea robustula, sp.n. (from Bolivia, are described. Some nomenclatural changes are introduced, as follow: - Hemiptycha Germar, 1833 = Polyrhyssa Stål, 1869, syn.n.: - Hemiptycha cultrata (Coquebert, 1801, comb.n., = Polyglyptodes flavocostatus Haviland, 1925, syn.n., = Polyrhyssa cultrata maculata Fonseca, 1942, syn.n. - Hemiptycha obtecta (Fabricius, 1803 = Hille herbicola Haviland, 1925, syn.n. - Maturnaria ephippigera (Fairmaire, 1846 = Publilia tumulata Buckton, 1903, syn.n., = Metheisa fowleri Funkhouser, 1927, syn.n. - Creonus lloydi (Funkhouser, 1914, comb.n. - Aphetea parvula (Fabricius, 1803, comb.n., = Aphetea affinis Haviland, 1925, syn.n. - Dioclophara Kirkaldy, 1904 = lncolea Goding, 1926, syn.n. - Dioclophara viridula (Fairmaire, 1846 = Maturna multilineata Fonseca, 1942, syn.n. - Dioclophara variegata (Goding, 1926, comb.n. = lncolea viridis Goding, 1926, syn.n. - Phormophora maura (Fabricius, 1803 = Darnis dorsata Fabricius, 1803, syn.n.

  17. Notes on Neotropical Eumeninae, with the description of a new species of Pachodynerus de Saussure (Hymenoptera, Vespidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Gustavo Hermes

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Notes on Neotropical Eumeninae, with the description of a new species of Pachodynerus de Saussure (Hymenoptera, Vespidae. Taxonomic information on Neotropical Eumeninae is provided. A new species, Pachodynerus fessatus sp. nov. is described from southeastern São Paulo, Brazil. Additional material of Pachodynerus sericeus (Fox was examined, representing the first further specimens after the original description and including the previously unknown male. The examination of new material of the genus Stenonartonia adds some new distribution records and shows some previously unrecorded individual variation for some species. The males of Stenonartonia guaraya Garcete-Barrett and Stenonartonia rejectoides Garcete-Barrett are described for the first time.

  18. Unemployment Insurance Query (UIQ)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Unemployment Insurance Query (UIQ) provides State Unemployment Insurance agencies real-time online access to SSA data. This includes SSN verification and Title...

  19. A note on the translation of conceptual data models into description logics: disjointness and covering assumptions

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Casini, G

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available possibilities for conceptual data modeling. It also raises the question of how existing conceptual models using ER, UML or ORM could be translated into Description Logics (DLs), a family of logics that have proved to be particularly appropriate for formalizing...

  20. Raiding Opportunities and Unemployment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tranæs, Torben

    2001-01-01

    , all types of workers experience unemployment, high-ability workers involuntarily. The raiding opportunities give rise to involuntary unemployment without changing the basic properties of the competitive model and thus suggest new implications of various institutional parameters on unemployment......, in particular, unemployment compensation, minimum wages, wage taxation, and search requirements....

  1. Description and biological notes of the first species of Xenos (Strepsiptera:Stylopidae) parasitic in Polistes carnifex F. (Hymenoptera:Vespidae) in Mexico

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kathirithamby, J.; Hughes, David P.

    2006-01-01

    A description and biological notes on the first species of Xenos (X. hamiltoni) (Strepsiptera: Stylopidae) parasitic in Polistes carnifex F. from Mexico is given. A list of Strepsiptera and their hosts from Mexico is provided....

  2. Exercise in completing design information questionnaire for model research reactor: model description, notes, questionnaire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellinger, J.; Ho, T.

    1989-01-01

    The document which defines the inspection measures which the IAEA can deploy at any given nuclear facility is known as the Facility Attachment. For the Agency to negotiate an effective Facility Attachment it must have available certain design information, including the facility's identity, capacity and location; the form, location and flow of nuclear material and the layout of important items of equipment; and a description of the features and procedures relating to nuclear material accountancy, containment and surveillance. In practice such information is solicited in a format, standardized for each facility type, known as the Design Information Questionnaire or the D.I.Q. The nuclear activities used as a model in this course are those of a fictitious country called Pacifica. These nuclear activities bear some resemblance to those at the Australian Atomic Energy Commission's Research Establishment at Lucas Heights. Specifically, Pacifica has a 10 MW heavy water cooled and moderated research reactor using enriched uranium fuel which is very similar to the HIFAR reactor. The reactor and the associated laboratories are described and the Design Information Questionnaire for them is completed. figs., tabs

  3. Taxonomic notes of Hemixantha (Diptera: Richardiidae with description of a new species from the Amazon Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisiane Dilli Wentd

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Richardiidae is represented by ca. 180 species in 33 genera. A new species of Hemixantha, now totaling 20 species, is described from the Amazon Region, state of Pará, Brazil, and from Teoponte, Bolivia. Hemixantha maculosa sp. nov., H. picta Hennig, 1937 and H. pulchripennis Hendel, 1911 are richardiids known to have an extensively banded wing pattern. Hemixantha maculosa sp. nov. represents the first record of Hemixantha from the state of Pará and this species can be distinguished from H. picta and H. pulchripennis by anepisternum and dorsal half of anepimeron bright yellow and vein R2+3 slightly sinuous. Besides the hyaline areas on the wing of H. maculosa are very distinct from these other species, as follows: (1 subtrapezoidal median area in cell cua1 extended anteriorly to vein M1, separated from hyaline area in cell dm; (2 two oblique areas from costal margin almost to or beyond vein R4+5, one proximal to and one distal to level of crossvein r-m; (3 a circular area on basal part of cell r4+5 and (4 a triangular area on basal region of cell m1. An identification key, diagnoses, description and redescriptions, and illustrations to the species of Hemixantha with an extensively banded wing pattern are provided.

  4. Unemployment Policy in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Hergezelová

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose and Originality: Goal of the study is analysis of the unemployment policy in Slovakia and policy measures to increase the employment rate. Research question: What was the development of unemployment in the period from 2006 to September 2016 and what measures were taken by the Ministry of Labour, Social Affairs and Family to reduce the unemployment rate in Slovakia? Method: Comparison of the unemployment rate in period between 2006 to 2016. Information was gathered from online sources and publications. Using the collected data, the individual unemployment rates in all Slovak regions and districts will be compared. Results: During examined period between 2006 and 2016 the highest unemployment rate was 14.40% in 2010. The paper also mentions the economic crisis that struck Slovakia between 2008 and 2010. During this period, the unemployment in Slovakia increased by 4.8%. The primary objective of the government was to reduce the unemployment rate below 10%. This has been achieved in March 2016. The positive news is the tendency of constantly falling unemployment in our country. Society: Unemployment is one of the negative phenomena in society. Job loss or inability to find a job application one is deprived of the possibility to implement and enforce own life goals. Unemployed, unless one can find a job, can enter the phase of adaptation to the lifestyle of the unemployed, which is characterized by resignation, loss of hope, passivity. A person ceases to be active, considering that his work does not make sense. Job loss affects negatively self-peception, lower self-esteem and leads to feelings of inferiority. Limitations: The aim of the Slovak Republic was in 2016 to keep unemployment below 10% and then continue the trend of reducing unemployment by new laws, inviting new investors and put into practice various measures, such as various programs for the unemployed.

  5. Unemployment, ethnicity and psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boydell, J; Bebbington, P; Bhavsar, V; Kravariti, E; van Os, J; Murray, R M; Dutta, R

    2013-03-01

    This study describes the incidence of psychosis in unemployed people and determines whether unemployment has a greater impact on the development of psychosis amongst Black minority groups than White groups. Patients with a first diagnosis of Research Diagnostic Criteria psychosis, in a defined area of London from 1998 to 2004, were identified. Crude and standardised incidence rates of psychosis amongst unemployed people for each ethnic group were calculated. Poisson regression modelling tested for interactions between unemployment and ethnicity. Hundred cases occurred amongst employed people and 78 cases occurred amongst the unemployed people. When standardised to the employed White population of the area, White unemployed people had a standardised incidence ratio (SIR) of 11.7 (95% CI 6.4-19.7), Black Caribbean people had a SIR of 60.1(95% CI 39.3-88) and Black African people had a SIR of 40.7 (95% CI 25.8-61.1). There was no interaction however between ethnicity and unemployment (Likelihood ratio test P = 0.54). Rates of psychosis are high amongst unemployed people in south London and extremely high amongst Black Caribbean and Black African unemployed people. There was no evidence however that the minority groups were particularly sensitive to the stresses, limitations or meaning of unemployment. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  6. Trying the Unemployed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Magnus Paulsen

    investigates the transformation towards the ‘active society’ through the spectre of unemployment and how it is governed. Two puzzles in the transformations have motivated the inquiry: firstly, the co-existence of a plurality of different, and often contradictory, conceptions of who the unemployed are and why...... they are unemployed; and secondly, the co-existence of wills to emancipate the unemployed alongside the justification of using coercive measures towards them. This thesis argues that if we want to understand the varieties within the transformations, the “what?” question, it is necessary to address the “how?”; i...

  7. Extended unemployment and UI benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Robert G. Valletta; Katherine Kuang

    2010-01-01

    During the current labor market downturn, unemployment duration has reached levels well above its previous highs. Analysis of unemployment data suggests that extended unemployment insurance benefits have not been important factors in the increase in the duration of unemployment or in the elevated unemployment rate.

  8. Unemployment Benefit Exhaustion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filges, Trine; Pico Geerdsen, Lars; Knudsen, Anne-Sofie Due

    2015-01-01

    This systematic review studied the impact of exhaustion of unemployment benefits on the exit rate out of unemployment and into employment prior to benefit exhaustion or shortly thereafter. Method: We followed Campbell Collaboration guidelines to prepare this review, and ultimately located 12...

  9. Unemployment Dynamics and Age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den G.J.; Gijsbert, A.; Lomwel, van C.; Ours, van Jan C.

    1998-01-01

    Youth unemployment is an issue of primary concern in WesternEuropean countries. In this paper we analyze dynamics in unemployment foryouths, adults (prime-aged individuals), and elderly. We use quarterly Frenchunemployment data, stratified by gender, age group, and duration, over theperiod

  10. AUTOMATION AND UNEMPLOYMENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SCHMIDT, EMERSON P.; STEWART, CHARLES T.

    HIGH UNEMPLOYMENT RESULTS IN ECONOMIC LOSSES TO THE ECONOMY AND IMPOSES SUFFERING ON MILLIONS OF INDIVIDUALS AND FAMILIES. OF THE MANY TYPES, LONG-TERM STRUCTURAL UNEMPLOYMENT AFFECTS MORE THAN ONE MILLION WORKERS AND IS MOST INTRACTABLE TO TREATMENT AND DISTURBING IN TERMS OF HUMAN HARDSHIP. MOST OF THE WORKERS CLASSIFIED AS STRUCTURALLY…

  11. Rhode Island unemployment

    OpenAIRE

    Leonard Lardaro

    2010-01-01

    How can a state like Rhode Island have such a high unemployment rate? This question has been asked often over the past year, especially since at one point, Rhode Island found itself with the dubious distinction of having the highest unemployment rate in the United States. Following that extreme, Rhode Island seemed to settle into a niche where its rank was third nationally.

  12. Unemployment Insurance and Inequality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Birthe; Waisman, Gisela

    This paper examines the impact of higher unemployment insurance on the fraction of the work force paying into an unemployment insurance fond, wage differences and therefore inquality and education letting worker initial wealth being important for the decisions and implied values. As usually higher...... educated workers receive a lower fraction of their wages as unemployment insurance, we consider how the impact on labour market performance and wage differences and thereby inequality differ dependent on whether educated or uneducated workers receive higher benefits. The model can help shed light...... on the the puzzle why only some workers, for given educational level, pay into an unemployment insurance fond, the lower wealth mobility than income mobility as well as the relative compressed wage structure in countries with generous social assistance as well as unemployment insurance for low income workers...

  13. Understanding Unemployment Hysteresis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Niels Framroze

    What explains the persistence of unemployment? The literature on hysteresis, which is based on unit root testing in autoregressive models, consists of a vast number of univariate studies, i.e. that analyze unemployment series in isolation, but few multivariate analyses that focus on the sources...... of hysteresis. As a result, this question remains largely unanswered. This paper presents a multivariate econometric framework for analyzing hysteresis, which allows one to test different hypotheses about non-stationarity of unemployment against one another. For example, whether this is due to a persistently...... to UK quarterly data on prices, wages, output, unemployment and crude oil prices, suggests that, for the period 1988 up to the onset of the …financial crisis, the non-stationarity of UK unemployment cannot be explained as a result of slow adjustment, including sluggish wage formation as emphasized...

  14. [Ontogenetic conditions of unemployment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchtová, Božena; Smajs, Josef; Kulhavý, Viktor; Okrajek, Petr; Kukla, Lubomír

    2014-01-01

    Previous unemployment studies mostly dealt with unemployments economic causes and consequences. Hidden causes of male unemployment, independent from socio-economic circumstances of a society, could consist, besides others, in natural biological factors - family experience during childhood. Theoretical background of our study included the concept of psychical deprivation, the concept of human ontogenesis developmental stages of E. Erikson and knowledge of biodromal psychology. Using data from the European Longitudinal Study of Parenthood and Childhood international project we compared groups of employed and unemployed men by means of a retrospective survey and we studied the following: 1. What differences there were in their childhood; 2. To what extent educational approaches transfer from parents to their children; 3. What influence has negative experience from childhood on the future assertion of men in the labour market. The survey set consisted of 3141 (88.7%) employed men and 399 (11.3%) unemployed men in 1991-1992. Basic research data were acquired by means of questionnaires. Relative risk was used to compare the groups of the employed and the unemployed. The employed men are more likely to be from complete families then the unemployed men. The unemployed men, in comparison to the employed men, 2.08 times more frequently spent their childhood in orphanages, children's villages or in foster families, 3.89 times more frequently attended special schools, 2.22 times more frequently lived away from home until the age of 18 and 2.51 times more frequently lived in detention centres or in diagnostic institutes until the age of 18 (p unemployed men were psychically and physically abused in their childhood. Consequences of negative experience from childhood decrease the chances of inclusion of young men into the labour market. Social roles of young men (future fathers) could be also distorted by such experience. Social integration and social success rate of the

  15. Explaining Disparities in Unemployment Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Karanassou, Marika; Snower, Dennis J.

    1993-01-01

    This paper attempts to explain disparities among the unemployment experiences of different OECD countries in terms of the `fragility' of the short-run unemployment equilibrium (the impact of labour market shocks on the short-run unemployment rate) and the lag structure of the employment determination, wage setting, and labour force participation decisions. The effects of this lag structure on unemployment dynamics are captured through two general measures of `unemployment persistence' (occurr...

  16. Keynes, investment, unemployment and expectations

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Ron P.; Zoega, Gylfi

    2009-01-01

    In Keynes' General Theory, investment determines effective demand, which determines unemployment and the labour market plays a negligible role. In New Keynesian models, labour market institutions determine the natural rate of unemployment and the speed at which unemployment adjusts to it. Investment is mostly ignored as a key variable behind the problem of high unemployment, despite a strong empirical association between investment and unemployment. We discuss the evolution of the 'Keynesian'...

  17. UNEMPLOYMENT IN HUNEDOARA COUNTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CLAUDIA ISAC

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Unemployment highlights a state of imbalance on the labour market which is characterized by a surplus of workforce in relation to job vacancies. This imbalance has been more apparent in Hunedoara County than in other counties, due to the fact that there are 3 mono-industrial areas that have been restructured over the past two decades. The effects are presented in this paper in the form of a complex statistical analysis. Thus, based on the evolution of the number of unemployed individuals in 1995, one can observe the periods of significant adverse effects upon the degree of employment. Moreover, one can make correlations with periods of international financial crisis and with the number of employees in the County in order to determine significant variables of the unemployment phenomenon. The content of this paper is significant and represents the analysis of the number of unemployed in the Jiu Valley, scattered across towns. As a form of financial protection, the unemployment benefit represents a financial instrument in the cases determined by this negative phenomenon, which is why in conclusion we make a comparison of the ways this aid is granted throughout several years and in various forms.

  18. Predicting depressive symptoms in unemployed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marić Zorica

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study we review recent research literature focused on relationship between unemployment and depression, and theories emphasizing the mechanisms by which unemployment may contribute to increased levels of depression. Our research investigated depressive symptomatology and its predictors among unemployed people (N = 453 varying in length of unemployment. Results showed that self - mastery, self - esteem, financial strain, gender, intensity of job - seek behavior and length on unemployment were significant predictors of depressive symptoms. Results are discussed in light of current theories of unemployment and mental health and recommendations are made for practice.

  19. Notes on the genus Conchapelopia Fittkau (Diptera: Chironomidae: Tanypodinae) from southern China, with description of a new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niitsuma, Hiromi; Tang, Hongqu

    2017-02-22

    Two interesting species, Conchapelopia togamaculosa Sasa & Okazawa and a new species, Conchapelopia brachiata sp. n., were collected from southern China. The male, pupa and larva of the new species are described, and new distributions of the former species are noted. Although the male of the new species is very distinct from that of the former in the hypopygial median volsella, the pupa and larva stunningly resemble those of the former.

  20. How Effective are Unemployment Benefit Sanctions? Looking Beyond Unemployment Exit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arni, P.; Lalive, R.; van Ours, J.C.

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides a comprehensive evaluation of benefit sanctions, i.e. temporary reductions in unemployment benefits as punishment for noncompliance with eligibility requirements. In addition to the effects on unemployment durations, we evaluate the effects on post-unemployment employment

  1. State Dependence in Unemployment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmad, Nisar

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the extent state dependence among unemployed immigrants in a dynamic discrete choice framework. Three alternative methodologies are employed to control for the problem of the initial condition. The empirical findings show that there is a considerable correlation between the un...

  2. Informal Unemployment and Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolm, Ann-Sofie; Larsen, Birthe

    2016-01-01

    zealous enforcement policy will in this case improve educational incentives as it reduces the attractiveness of remaining a low-educated worker. However, unemployment also increases. Characterizing the optimal enforcement policies, we find that relatively more audits should be targeted towards the sector...

  3. Voluntary Public Unemployment Insurance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O. Parsons, Donald; Tranæs, Torben; Bie Lilleør, Helene

    Denmark has drawn much attention for its active labor market policies, but is almost unique in offering a voluntary public unemployment insurance program requiring a significant premium payment. A safety net program – a less generous, means-tested social assistance plan – completes the system...

  4. Unemployment and endogenous growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Schaik, A.B.T.M.; de Groot, H.L.F.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper we develop a two-sector endogenous growth model with a dual labour market, based on efficiency wages. Growth is driven by intentional R&D performed in the high-tech and high-wage sector. It is examined how a change in rivalry among firms affects simultaneously growth and unemployment.

  5. Overschooling and unemployment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meer, Peter H. van der

    2002-01-01

    Although overschooling is regarded as the result of imperfect allocation in the labour market, hardly any attention has been given to the influence of another imperfection, unemployment. Several researchers report about an increasing incidence of overschooling in the Netherlands. Although a lot of

  6. Unemployment and domestic violence

    OpenAIRE

    Dan Anderberg; Helmut Rainer; Jonathan Wadsworth; Tanya Wilson

    2014-01-01

    Contrary to popular belief, the incidence of domestic violence in Britain does not seem to have risen during the recession. But according to research by Jonathan Wadsworth and colleagues, men and women have experienced different risks of unemployment - and these have had contrasting effects on the level of physical abuse.

  7. What is unemployment in Europe?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Peder J.; Schmidt, Torben Dall

    2011-01-01

    The purpose in this article is to evaluate the consistency between two measures of unemployment in a cross-country context. We use the European Community Household Panel to identify unemployment at an individual level based as well on the ILO criteria for being classified as unemployed...... as on the individual respondent reporting to be unemployed. This opens a unique opportunity to compare unemployment measured in two different ways based on a cross European Union panel study covering the years 1994 to 2001. The two main questions addressed in this article are to which extent the two unemployment...... measures differ and whether transition rates out of unemployment depend on which concept we use. Both questions are answered in the affirmative. The overall conclusion is that it is important, especially in some of the EU countries, to include both measures of unemployment as guidelines and indicators...

  8. Description of the male of Eburella pinima Martins and notes on the geographical distribution of Eburodacrys aenigma Galileo & Martins and Eburodacrys lanei Zajciw (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pablo Botero

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Description of the male of Eburella pinima Martins and notes on the geographical distribution of Eburodacrys aenigma Galileo & Martins and Eburodacrys lanei Zajciw (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae. The male of Eburella pinima Martins, 1997 is described and illustrated for the first time. Information on Eburodacrys aenigma Galileo & Martins, 2006, previously known only from the female holotype, which lacked locality label, is herein complemented. This species is recorded from Brazil and the male is depicted for the first time. The geographical distribution of Eburodacrys lanei Zajciw, 1958 is further restricted here as some previous records are confirmed to result from misidentifications of E. aenigma.

  9. Taxonomic notes on Neoperla (Plecoptera: Perlidae) from Sichuan Province of China with the description of two new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weihai; Wang, Ying; Wang, Rongfeng

    2017-01-17

    Species of the perlid genus Neoperla from Sichuan Province, China are reviewed. Two new species are described, Neoperla caii Li & Wang, sp. nov. and N. emeishana Li & Wang, sp. nov. The new species are compared with related congeners. Available types of several known Neoperla species from Sichuan Province were studied and complementary descriptions or brief taxonomic comments are presented for N. bilineata Wu & Claassen, N. chui Wu & Claassen, N. microtumida Wu & Claassen, N. quadrata Wu & Claassen and N. truncata Wu.

  10. Description of the female of Navicordulia aemulatrix Pinto & Lamas and additional notes on the male (Odonata: Corduliidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, A P; Lamas, C J E

    2011-01-01

    The female of Navicordulia aemulatrix Pinto & Lamas is described and illustrated for the first time based on a single specimen from the same locality of the type series (state of Santa Catarina, [municipality of São Bento do Sul, 26°14'58"S, 49°22'59"W, railroad station] Rio Vermelho, 29.I.1952, in MZSP). In addition, further morphological notes for the male are provided based on three specimens collected at the type locality and at a new locality in the state of Santa Catarina (Timbó municipality). The pronotal process present in N. aemulatrix is re-evaluated and considered non-homologous to that found in Neocordulia setifera (Hagen in Selys) as previously suggested.

  11. Unemployment of the Young

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Mrgole

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available The article treats the social dimensions and paradox of the ideological perceptions related to the unemployment of the young. In the paper, Mrgole focuses on the presentation and analysis of rhetorical models and argumentative constructions constituting the basic set of accepted social perceptions about vocation vocational education, work and emploment. He proceeds by criticizing the fundamental premises of functionalist conceptions serving as the basis for predominant ideological models. Postulating linguistic conceptualisation as the basis, Mrgole derives the logic of perceiving employment. as a socially normative category, and Iilustrates the problem of juvenile unemployment in this light. The interpretation is founded on the results of the evaluation obtained by the experimental project entitled Centres for Younger Adults, in which Mrgole, as an associate of the Centre for Adult Education, has participated since 1995.

  12. Unemployment among breast cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsen, Kathrine; Ewertz, Marianne; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg; Badsberg, Jens Henrik; Osler, Merete

    2014-05-01

    Though about 20% of working age breast cancer survivors do not return to work after treatment, few studies have addressed risk factors for unemployment. The majority of studies on occupational consequences of breast cancer focus on non-employment, which is a mixture of sickness absence, unemployment, retirement pensions and other reasons for not working. Unemployment in combination with breast cancer may represent a particular challenge for these women. The aim of the present study is therefore to analyze the risk for unemployment in the years following diagnosis and treatment for breast cancer. This study included 14,750 women diagnosed with breast cancer in Denmark 2001-2009 identified through a population-based clinical database and linked with information from Danish administrative population based registers for information on labour market affiliation, socio-demography and co-morbid conditions. Multivariable analyses were performed by Cox's proportional hazard models. Two years after treatment, 81% of patients were still part of the work force, 10% of which were unemployed. Increasing duration of unemployment before breast cancer was associated with an adjusted HR = 4.37 (95% CI: 3.90-4.90) for unemployment after breast cancer. Other risk factors for unemployment included low socioeconomic status and demography, while adjuvant therapy did not increase the risk of unemployment. Duration of unemployment before breast cancer was the most important determinant of unemployment after breast cancer treatment. This allows identification of a particularly vulnerable group of patients in need of rehabilitation.

  13. Notes on some sertulariid hydroids (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa from the tropical western Pacific, with descriptions of nine new species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horia R. Galea

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Forty-three species of sertulariid hydroids (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa: Sertulariidae, collected from the tropical western Pacific (Taiwan, Philippines, New Caledonia, French Polynesia, Vanuatu, Fiji, Tonga, Solomon Islands during various expeditions of the French Tropical Deep-Sea Benthos program, are discussed. Of these, nine are new to science: Gonaxia nova sp. nov., G. plumularioides sp. nov., Sertularella folliformis sp. nov., Se. plicata sp. nov., Se. pseudocatena sp. nov., Se. splendida sp. nov., Se. tronconica sp. nov., Se. tubulosa sp. nov., and Symplectoscyphus paucicatillus sp. nov. The subspecies Symplectoscyphus johnstoni (Gray, 1843 tropicus Vervoort, 1993 is raised to species but, in order to avoid the secondary homonymy with Sy. tropicus (Hartlaub, 1901, the replacement name, Sy. fasciculatus nom. nov., is introduced. The male and female gonothecae of Diphasia cristata Billard, 1920, the male gonothecae of Gonaxia elegans Vervoort, 1993, as well as the female gonothecae of Salacia macer Vervoort & Watson, 2003, are described for the first time. Additional notes on the morphology of several other species are provided. All taxa are illustrated, in most cases using figures drawn at the same scale, so as to highlight the differences between related species.

  14. Welfare Systems and the Management of the Economic Risk of Unemployment: Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Karen Margrethe; Boesby, Dorte; Ploug, Niels

    The developments on the Danish Labour Market and in the Danish Labour Market Policy during the 1990s are described. Part I concentrates on the unemployment protection situation in the beginning of the 1990s and describes the unemployment system as it was in 1993, the year before a reform process...... of the Danish unemployment protection system began. In Part II the developments in the unemployment protection system from 1994 to 1999 are presented. This section includes a description of income packaging and net replacement rates for people receiving unemployment benefits. Finally the overall development...

  15. The first record of Litargus tetraspilotus (Coleoptera, Mycetophagidae in Brazil, with biological notes and complementary description of the species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julianne Milléo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Litargus tetraspilotus LeConte, 1856 was collected feeding on Oidium sp. (Fungi, Ascomycota, Erysiphaceae associated with fruit trees. This is the first time L. tetraspilotus is recorded in Brazil, totaling three species of Mycetophagidae for this country. This study aims to provide a complementary description of this species based on new characters and to present information on its life cycle under laboratory conditions and fluctuation in population in the field. During the period of inventories between July 2004 and August 2006, about every fifteen days, a total of 565 specimens of L. tetraspilotus were collected, with the highest abundance found on citrus plants, with values differing significantly between the two years. The population levels differed between the seasons; spring had the greatest abundance and autumn the least. There was a significant positive correlation of L. tetraspilotus abundance with rainfall and relative humidity. Mycetophagidae, as well as other mycophagous families of Brazilian coleopterans, are barely studied, warranting further future studies of their bioecology and systematics.

  16. Informal unemployment and education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann-Sofie Kolm

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper develops a four-sector equilibrium search and matching model with informal sector employment opportunities and educational choice. We show that underground activities reduce educational attainments if informal employment opportunities mainly are available for low-educated workers. A more zealous enforcement policy will in this case improve educational incentives as it reduces the attractiveness of remaining a low-educated worker. However, unemployment also increases. Characterizing the optimal enforcement policies, we find that relatively more audits should be targeted towards the sector employing low-educated workers; elsewise, a too low stock of educated workers is materialized.

  17. UNEMPLOYMENT AND SELF-CONCEPT

    OpenAIRE

    Redek, Tjaša; Sušjan, Andrej; Kostevc, Črt

    2013-01-01

    The article analyses the position of the unemployed in the labour market, primarily relationship between self-concept and self-esteem of workers and their motivation to seek work. The current crisis dramatically worsened labour market situation, making employment almost impossible for many, primarily the vulnerable groups (older, women). Survey data used in cluster analysis reveal that the unemployment is related to self-concept, but besides unemployment also other ...

  18. Obesity, Unemployment, and Earnings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juho Härkönen

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the effects of obesity—a clear signal of weight abnormality—on unemployment and earnings among Finnish men and women. Our empirical data consist of the last four waves (waves 4 to 8 of the Finnish section of the European Community Household Panel (ECHP data collected between 1998 and 2001. According to our results, obese women have a significantly higher risk of unemployment (even after controlling for age, level of education and other related factors, than women who are not obese. Furthermore, the generally weaker occupational positions of obese women tend to translate to lower earnings. Overall, obese women are more likely to have weaker labour market attachment  and hold socio-economically weaker positions. Similar results were not found among men. Thus, our results indicate the presence of gender discrimination in the Finnish labour market. In the conclusions we further discuss weight related impacts on succeeding in the labour market, but also its role as a possible risk factor in drifting away from employment. We reflect on this issue as a form of inequality that can have an increasing significance in the future.

  19. How effective are unemployment benefit sanctions? Looking beyond unemployment exit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arni, P.; Lalive, R.; van Ours, J.C.

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides a comprehensive evaluation of the effects of benefit sanctions on post-unemployment outcomes such as post-unemployment employment stability and earnings. We use rich register data which allow us to distinguish between a warning that a benefit reduction may take place in the near

  20. Entrepreneurship and unemployment in Japan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Stel, A.; Thurik, R.; Verheul, I.; Baljeu, L.

    2008-01-01

    We examine the relationship between entrepreneurship (as measured by fluctuations in the business ownership rate) and unemployment in Japan for the period between 1972 and 2002. We find that, although Japan’s unemployment rate has been influenced by specific exogenous shocks, the effects of

  1. Family Problems and Youth Unemployment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Goede, Martijn; Spruijt, Ed; Maas, Cora; Duindam, Vincent

    2000-01-01

    Examines how family and personal characteristics relate to the employment situation of adolescents (N=995) in Denmark. Results show that parental divorce, parental unemployment (only for males), low parental affective involvement, and adolescent relationship problems were related to youth unemployment, but educational career and work commitment…

  2. Unemployment among breast cancer survivors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Kathrine; Ewertz, Marianne; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg

    2014-01-01

    AIM: Though about 20% of working age breast cancer survivors do not return to work after treatment, few studies have addressed risk factors for unemployment. The majority of studies on occupational consequences of breast cancer focus on non-employment, which is a mixture of sickness absence......, unemployment, retirement pensions and other reasons for not working. Unemployment in combination with breast cancer may represent a particular challenge for these women. The aim of the present study is therefore to analyze the risk for unemployment in the years following diagnosis and treatment for breast...... cancer. METHOD: This study included 14,750 women diagnosed with breast cancer in Denmark 2001-2009 identified through a population-based clinical database and linked with information from Danish administrative population based registers for information on labour market affiliation, socio...

  3. Outsourcing, Unemployment and Welfare Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Christian Keuschnigg; Evelyn Ribi

    2007-01-01

    Outsourcing of labor intensive activities challenges the welfare state and undermines the protection of low-skilled workers. The stylized facts are that profits are concentrated among the high-skilled, involuntary unemployment is mostly among the low-skilled, and private unemployment insurance is missing. This paper analyzes the effectiveness of redistribution and insurance policies when heterogeneous firms can outsource labor intensive components to low-wage economies. The main results are: ...

  4. Sleep behavior and unemployment conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antillón, Marina; Lauderdale, Diane S; Mullahy, John

    2014-07-01

    Recent research has reported that habitually short sleep duration is a risk factor for declining health, including increased risk of obesity, diabetes and coronary heart disease. In this study we investigate whether macroeconomic conditions are associated with variation in mean sleep time in the United States, and if so, whether the effect is procyclical or countercyclical. We merge state unemployment rates from 2003 through 2012 with the American Time Use Survey, a nationally representative sample of adults with 24h time diaries. We find that higher aggregate unemployment is associated with longer mean sleep duration, with each additional point of state unemployment associated with an additional average 0.83 min of sleep (punemployment is associated with more sleeplessness. Instead, we find that higher state unemployment is associated with less frequent time use described as "sleeplessness" (marginal effect=0.05 at 4% unemployment and 0.034 at 14% unemployment, p<0.001), after controlling for a secular trend. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. 48 CFR 970.2270 - Unemployment compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Unemployment compensation... Unemployment compensation. (a) Each state has its own unemployment compensation system to provide payments to... unemployment compensation benefits through a payroll tax on employers. Most DOE contractors are subject to the...

  6. Optimal workfare with voluntary and involuntary unemployment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreiner, Claus Thustrup; Tranæs, Torben

    2005-01-01

    This paper addresses the welfare implications of introducing workfare into unemployment benefit policy. We consider a population composed of employed and unemployed workers and of individuals who do not seek employment. Job search behavior is unobservable, which means that voluntarily unemployed ...... by facilitating better unemployment insurance for workers, and we characterize the situations where this is the case.......This paper addresses the welfare implications of introducing workfare into unemployment benefit policy. We consider a population composed of employed and unemployed workers and of individuals who do not seek employment. Job search behavior is unobservable, which means that voluntarily unemployed...... individuals can claim unemployment insurance (UI) benefits intended for unemployed workers. As a consequence, pecuniary benefit schemes underinsure workers against unemployment. We show that requiring unproductive activities (workfare) in exchange for UI benefits may generate a Pareto improvement...

  7. AN ANALYSIS OF UNEMPLOYMENT IN THE COUNTRIES OF EASTERN AND CENTRAL EUROPE IN THE CONTEXT OF E.U. ADHERING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian\tLiviu\tSCUTARIU

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Unemployment is a negative phenomenon that manifests itself in any economy with varying degrees of intensity. In this paper we propose to analyze the evolution of unemployment in the EU. There are countries where economic recession was felt more intense and harder recovered from it, such as Greece or Spain. Within the European Union one notes some differences in unemployment between Member States but also in terms of age groups. In the EU youth unemployment rate is approximately double that the general unemployment rate, but the situation is worse in some countries where youth unemployment rate is even higher. Our analysis also focuses on trends recorded at regional level in Central and Eastern Europe countries in the context of their accession to the EU, highlighting positive developments, which were maintained in the coming years. The unemployment rate decrease is one of the objectives followed by the EU through its policies.

  8. The impact of EMU on European unemployment

    OpenAIRE

    Juan F. Jimeno; Jose Vinals

    1998-01-01

    Persistent unemployment is the top social and economic problem of most EU countries. Today, the unemployment rate in most EU countries is above ten percent and, although unemployment has decreased during expansions, the average EU unemployment rate within each cycle has increased since the early seventies. Although unemployment evolutions have been to some extent similar in EU countries, there are some outliers. On the one side, Portugal, Austria, the UK, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg, whic...

  9. Using voice to create hospital progress notes: Description of a mobile application and supporting system integrated with a commercial electronic health record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Thomas H; Alonso, W David; Markiel, J Andrew; Lybarger, Kevin; White, Andrew A

    2018-01-01

    We describe the development and design of a smartphone app-based system to create inpatient progress notes using voice, commercial automatic speech recognition software, with text processing to recognize spoken voice commands and format the note, and integration with a commercial EHR. This new system fits hospital rounding workflow and was used to support a randomized clinical trial testing whether use of voice to create notes improves timeliness of note availability, note quality, and physician satisfaction with the note creation process. The system was used to create 709 notes which were placed in the corresponding patient's EHR record. The median time from pressing the Send button to appearance of the formatted note in the Inbox was 8.8 min. It was generally very reliable, accepted by physician users, and secure. This approach provides an alternative to use of keyboard and templates to create progress notes and may appeal to physicians who prefer voice to typing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The health effects of US unemployment insurance policy: Does income from unemployment benefits prevent cardiovascular disease?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Walter (Stefan); M.M. Glymour (Maria); M. Avendano Pabon (Mauricio)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractObjective: Previous studies suggest that unemployment predicts increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, but whether unemployment insurance programs mitigate this risk has not been assessed. Exploiting US state variations in unemployment insurance benefit programs, we tested the

  11. YOUTH UNEMPLOYMENT AND SCHOOL DROPOUT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viorel POP

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Unemployment is one of the most serious problems of the contemporary world, fact which is expressed not only by all European statistics, statistics showing a growing number of unemployed, despite the consistent concern of the governments of all developed countries. Worse is that the unemployment is the highest among young people up to 25 years, many of them being university graduates. This way the trend of young people to stop attending studies appeared ... seeing as useless their efforts to invest in their future through university studies, the chances of finding a job are minimal despite their diplomas. Hence the name of "the lost generation" - the way that young people are called nowadays. The market economy, based mainly on private property is not considering social issues, it pursues just one goal: profit, more exactly the profit maximization.

  12. The impact of unemployment insurance benefits on the probability of migration of the unemployed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gose, E; Paul, C

    1990-08-01

    "By ignoring individual unemployment compensation benefits and conditions of job termination, past migration research has concluded that personal unemployment doubles the likelihood of interstate labor-force migration. Findings from the present study indicate that aggregating the unemployed, without adjusting for these two factors, overstates the probability of migration for the involuntarily unemployed benefit recipient and understates the likelihood of migration for the voluntarily unemployed benefit recipient. The results suggest that federal discretionary unemployment-compensation programs, which are implemented during recessionary periods, likely serve to retard out-migration of those who are involuntarily unemployed." Data are from a 1982 sample of unemployed U.S. workers. excerpt

  13. Unemployment and Subsequent Employment Stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wulfgramm, Melike; Fervers, Lukas

    2015-01-01

    Recent labour market reforms in Europe have been aimed at activating non-employed people and shortening unemployment duration. While this should indisputably be a central policy aim, the exclusive focus on quick re-employment neglects the importance of its quality and stability. Therefore......, this paper analyses the effect of labour market policy on re-employment stability in Europe. Combining EU-SILC longitudinal survey data with macro-data on labour market policy, we conduct multi-level survival analysis. Empirical evidence suggests that countries with more generous unemployment insurance......, and their positive effect on re-employment stability on the other hand....

  14. Inflation or unemployment? Who cares?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Lelyveld, Iman

    In the last two decades a large number of game-theoretic models describing monetary policy have been used to examine the characteristics of policies over a wide range of 'rules of the game'. Regardless of the specification of the model, the degree of inflation aversion - relative to unemployment -

  15. Rent control and unemployment duration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svarer, Michael; Rosholm, Michael; Munch, Jakob Roland

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we analyse how rent control affects the duration of individual unemployment. In atheoretical search model we distinguish between two effects of rent control. On one hand, rentcontrol reduces housing mobility and hence mobility in the labour market. On the other hand, tomaintain rent...

  16. Marriage, Wealth, and Unemployment Duration:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lentz, Rasmus; Tranæs, Torben

    and the wealthier the woman is, the longer it takes for her to find a job. The contrary is the case for men, where spouse income affects job finding positively: the more the wife earns, the faster the husband finds a job. This is so despite the fact that greater own wealth also prolongs unemployment spells for men...

  17. Are homeowners really more unemployed?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Jakob Roland; Rosholm, Michael; Svarer, Michael

    2006-01-01

    This article investigates the effects of homeownership on labour mobility and unemployment duration. We distinguish between finding employment locally or being geographically mobile. We find that homeownership hampers the propensity to move for job reasons, but improves the chances of finding local...

  18. Motivating and Counseling the Unemployed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Noordzij (Gera)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractDuring a ‘learning goal orientation’ training course for unemployed people, one of the participants, a woman in her forties, had a lot of resistance to participate in the course. I persuaded her to stay and assured her that all she had to do was sit down and watch. She persevered in her

  19. Business Cycle Dependent Unemployment Insurance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben M.; Svarer, Michael

    The consequences of business cycle contingencies in unemployment insurance systems are considered in a search-matching model allowing for shifts between "good" and "bad" states of nature. We show that not only is there an insurance argument for such contingencies, but there may also be an incentive...

  20. Recalls and unemployment insurance taxes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jurajda, Štěpán

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 10 (2004), s. 651-656 ISSN 1350-4851 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z7085904 Keywords : recalls * unemployment insurance taxes Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.135, year: 2004 http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&AN=14132347&site=ehost-live

  1. Benefit Reentitlement Conditions in Unemployment Insurance Schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben M.; Christoffersen, Mark Strøm; Svarer, Michael

    and employment requirements are substitute instruments in affecting job search incentives and thus gross unemployment. We analyse the optimal design of the unemployment insurance system (benefit levels, duration and employment requirements) under a utilitarian social welfare function. Simulations show...

  2. 20 CFR 617.58 - Unemployment insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Unemployment insurance. 617.58 Section 617.58 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TRADE ADJUSTMENT ASSISTANCE... Unemployment insurance. Unemployment insurance payable to an adversely affected worker shall not be denied or...

  3. The Impact of Youth Unemployment Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filges, Trine; Larsen, Birthe

    This paper examines the impact of unemployment, unemployment distribution, wages and welfare of Youth Unemployment Programmes (YUPs). This paper analyse what happens when the number of skilled workers increases relatively to the number of unskilled workers. The results depend on the productivity...... of the skilled workers when employed in the "skilled sector" relatively to the productivity of the unskilled worker....

  4. Unemployment Duration over the Business Cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosholm, Michael

    1996-01-01

    In this paper I study the way in which individual unemployment durations vary over the business cycle, as measured by the aggregate unemployment rate. I decompose the cyclical variations in observed unemployment durations into a composition al and a general part. The compositional part consists...

  5. The Match Quality Gains from Unemployment Insurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centeno, Mario

    2004-01-01

    The benefits of unemployment insurance (UI) by measuring its effect in match quality are assessed. The relationship between post-unemployment job tenure and measures of the state level UI generosity and the unemployment rate at the time of the job is analyzed, using NLSY data.

  6. 20 CFR 625.7 - Disaster Unemployment Assistance: Duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Disaster Unemployment Assistance: Duration... DISASTER UNEMPLOYMENT ASSISTANCE § 625.7 Disaster Unemployment Assistance: Duration. DUA shall be payable... unemployment which begin during a Disaster Assistance Period. ...

  7. Sleep Behavior and Unemployment Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Antillón, Marina; Lauderdale, Diane S.; Mullahy, John

    2014-01-01

    Recent research has reported that habitually short sleep duration is a risk factor for declining health, including increased risk of obesity, diabetes and coronary heart disease. In this study we investigate whether macroeconomic conditions are associated with variation in mean sleep time in the United States, and if so, whether the effect is procyclical or countercyclical. We merge state unemployment rates from 2003 through 2012 with the American Time Use Survey, a nationally representative ...

  8. Unemployment (Fears) and Deflationary Spirals

    OpenAIRE

    Den Haan, WJ; Riegler, M; Karner Rendahl, Robert Pontus

    2017-01-01

    The interaction of incomplete markets and sticky nominal wages is shown to magnify business cycles even though these two features—in isolation—dampen them. During recessions, fears of unemployment stir up precautionary sentiments that induce agents to save more. The additional savings may be used as investments in both a productive asset (equity) and an unproductive nominal liquid asset. The desire to hold the nominal liquid asset puts deflationary pressure on the economy which, provided that...

  9. Unemployment effects of climate policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babiker, Mustafa H.; Eckaus, Richard S.

    2007-01-01

    This paper models the unemployment effects of restrictions on greenhouse gas emissions, embodying two of the most significant types of short-term economic imperfections that generate unemployment: sectoral rigidities in labor mobility and sectoral rigidities in wage adjustments. A labor policy is also analyzed that would reduce the direct negative economic effects of the emissions restrictions. The politics of limiting greenhouse gas emissions are often dominated by relatively short-term considerations. Yet the current economic modeling of emissions limitations does not embody economic features that are likely to be particularly important in the short term, in particular, the politically sensitive unemployment rate. Moreover, only a few of these studies also consider policies that would offset the negative direct economic effects of emissions restrictions. For plausible estimates of the parameters, the model shows that, with the labor market imperfections, if there were no offsetting policies, the reductions in GNP in the U.S. in the first 10 years after emissions restrictions were imposed would be as much as 4%. However, if there were two policies, instead of just one: a counteracting labor market policy, as well as the emissions restrictions, the negative direct economic effects could be completely eliminated

  10. Social media fingerprints of unemployment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llorente, Alejandro; Garcia-Herranz, Manuel; Cebrian, Manuel; Moro, Esteban

    2015-01-01

    Recent widespread adoption of electronic and pervasive technologies has enabled the study of human behavior at an unprecedented level, uncovering universal patterns underlying human activity, mobility, and interpersonal communication. In the present work, we investigate whether deviations from these universal patterns may reveal information about the socio-economical status of geographical regions. We quantify the extent to which deviations in diurnal rhythm, mobility patterns, and communication styles across regions relate to their unemployment incidence. For this we examine a country-scale publicly articulated social media dataset, where we quantify individual behavioral features from over 19 million geo-located messages distributed among more than 340 different Spanish economic regions, inferred by computing communities of cohesive mobility fluxes. We find that regions exhibiting more diverse mobility fluxes, earlier diurnal rhythms, and more correct grammatical styles display lower unemployment rates. As a result, we provide a simple model able to produce accurate, easily interpretable reconstruction of regional unemployment incidence from their social-media digital fingerprints alone. Our results show that cost-effective economical indicators can be built based on publicly-available social media datasets.

  11. Social media fingerprints of unemployment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Llorente

    Full Text Available Recent widespread adoption of electronic and pervasive technologies has enabled the study of human behavior at an unprecedented level, uncovering universal patterns underlying human activity, mobility, and interpersonal communication. In the present work, we investigate whether deviations from these universal patterns may reveal information about the socio-economical status of geographical regions. We quantify the extent to which deviations in diurnal rhythm, mobility patterns, and communication styles across regions relate to their unemployment incidence. For this we examine a country-scale publicly articulated social media dataset, where we quantify individual behavioral features from over 19 million geo-located messages distributed among more than 340 different Spanish economic regions, inferred by computing communities of cohesive mobility fluxes. We find that regions exhibiting more diverse mobility fluxes, earlier diurnal rhythms, and more correct grammatical styles display lower unemployment rates. As a result, we provide a simple model able to produce accurate, easily interpretable reconstruction of regional unemployment incidence from their social-media digital fingerprints alone. Our results show that cost-effective economical indicators can be built based on publicly-available social media datasets.

  12. Honest Labor Bears a Lovely Face: Will Late-Life Unemployment Impact Health and Satisfaction in Retirement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Maren Wright; Birmingham, Wendy Church; Wadsworth, Lori; Chen, Wei; Bounsanga, Jerry; Gu, Yushan; Hung, Man

    2017-02-01

    Unemployment among older adults during recessionary cycles has been tied to early retirement decisions and negative health outcomes. This study explored episodes of unemployment experienced between age 50 and retirement as predictors of retirement age and health outcomes. A total of 1540 participants from the U.S. Health and Retirement Study aged 50 years and older who transitioned from workforce to retirement were analyzed with descriptive statistics and multiple regression controlling for unemployment, demographics, and health status. Late-life unemployment significantly related to earlier retirement age and lowered life satisfaction, independent of income effects. We found no main effect for late-life unemployment on physical health status. Potential improvements in future life satisfaction might be gained if job search obstacles are removed for older unemployed adults, reducing reliance on involuntary early retirement as an income source.

  13. The Great Recession, unemployment and suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norström, Thor; Grönqvist, Hans

    2015-02-01

    How have suicide rates responded to the marked increase in unemployment spurred by the Great Recession? Our paper puts this issue into a wider perspective by assessing (1) whether the unemployment-suicide link is modified by the degree of unemployment protection, and (2) whether the effect on suicide of the present crisis differs from the effects of previous economic downturns. We analysed the unemployment-suicide link using time-series data for 30 countries spanning the period 1960-2012. Separate fixed-effects models were estimated for each of five welfare state regimes with different levels of unemployment protection (Eastern, Southern, Anglo-Saxon, Bismarckian and Scandinavian). We included an interaction term to capture the possible excess effect of unemployment during the Great Recession. The largest unemployment increases occurred in the welfare state regimes with the least generous unemployment protection. The unemployment effect on male suicides was statistically significant in all welfare regimes, except the Scandinavian one. The effect on female suicides was significant only in the eastern European country group. There was a significant gradient in the effects, being stronger the less generous the unemployment protection. The interaction term capturing the possible excess effect of unemployment during the financial crisis was not significant. Our findings suggest that the more generous the unemployment protection the weaker the detrimental impact on suicide of the increasing unemployment during the Great Recession. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  14. Description of a new species of Apterotoxitiades Adlbauer, 2008 (Cerambycidae, Dorcasominae, Apatophyseini and the female of A. vivesi Adlbauer, 2008, with notes on the biology of the genus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Adlbauer

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Following the description of the Apatophyseini genus Apterotoxitiades Adlbauer, 2008 (Cerambycidae: Dorcasominae from South Africa, a new species has now been discovered in the eastern Drakensberg range of the country. The holotype female is here described as A. aspinosus Björnstad, sp. n. Also, a new small series collected at Hogsback, in the Amathole range, has allowed the description of the previously unknown female of the type species, A. vivesi Adlbauer, 2008. Both species are high altitude dwellers, occurring above 1300 m asl and their habitat consists mainly of mountain grassland interspersed with mistbelt forest pockets. All specimens were recorded in the austral winter to early spring, when these mountain ranges are occasionally covered in snow and night temperature plummet below 0 °C. They appear to be nocturnal and their complete lack of wings indicates a remarkable adaptation to cold conditions at high altitude.

  15. Growing population causes of unemployment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    At the March, 1995, International Meeting on Population and Social Development in Copenhagen, during the session on unemployment, underemployment, and population it was stated that the problem of employment was the extent to which a nation's labor supply was not matched by labor demand or job opportunities. Population was thus a supply factor, and the country's economic situation was a demand factor. The demographic variables that were considered important in the supply of labor were: a) the size and rate of growth of the population, which was a function of the birth rate, the death rate, and migration; and b) the age structure of the population, which was also a product of the rate of growth of the population and its distribution. An imbalance between the supply of labor and the demand for it gave rise to unemployment and underemployment. The vicious cycle generated by a high dependency burden associated with a young age-structure led to low savings and investments, which in turn led to low economic growth and a low standard of living. This produced high fertility rates, which in turn heightened the dependency burden perpetuating the cycle. This vicious cycle could be broken at only two points: at the high fertility stage, primarily by introducing family planning programs; and at the stage of low economic growth, by adopting policies to accelerate economic growth. To be successful, however, both actions had to be pursued simultaneously. Numerous participants emphasized the global nature of the issue of unemployment and underemployment; the effects of international competition and restrictive trade policies on employment opportunities. The growing disparity between North and South had created a social injustice between countries. Several participants called for more humane policies that favored democracy and promoted human development, and asked for assistance to help create an enabling environment for social and economic development.

  16. Accounting for unemployment: the long and short of it

    OpenAIRE

    Andreas Hornstein

    2012-01-01

    Shimer (2012) accounts for the volatility of unemployment based on a model of homogeneous unemployment. Using data on short-term unemployment he finds that most of unemployment volatility is accounted for by variations in the exit rate from unemployment. The assumption of homogeneous exit rates is inconsistent with the observed negative duration dependence of unemployment exit rates for the U.S. labor market. We construct a simple model of heterogeneous unemployment with short-term and long-t...

  17. Mental health among the unemployed and the unemployment rate in the municipality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strandh, Mattias; Novo, Mehmed; Hammarström, Anne

    2011-12-01

    Previous research has shown that unemployment experiences increase the risk of poor mental health and that this effect differs depending on individual characteristics. Relatively little is known, however, about how the unemployment rate and labour market conditions impact the relationship. This study investigates how municipal unemployment rates and vacancy rates affect mental health in a nationally representative longitudinal survey of initially unemployed Swedish respondents. The study uses a nationally representative longitudinal survey of currently and recently unemployed people in Sweden, in which respondents were re-interviewed one year after the initial interview. Mental health was measured using the GHQ-12. The present article uses multilevel models (hierarchical linear models) to combine municipal-level information on unemployment levels and vacancy rates with individual-level control variables. Higher municipal vacancy rates improved mental health among the unemployed. However, no coherent effect of municipal unemployment rate on the relationship between unemployment and mental health was found. The effect of municipal vacancy rates can be understood in terms of the impact of perceived opportunity on the sense of life-course predictability. That there was no effect of municipal unemployment rate indicates that high local unemployment levels do not reduce the sense of shame and perceived stigma among the unemployed. Taken together, our findings would seem to present a rather bleak picture of the current dramatic labour market situation. The unemployed will be negatively affected by the extremely low demand for labour, while they will not be able to take comfort from their growing numbers.

  18. The macroeconomics of demographic unemployment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlberg, M

    1990-02-01

    "What are the macroeconomic consequences of an increase in labour supply? In the short run, unemployment occurs, due to both lack of aggregate demand and capital shortage. Demand-side policy and money wage restraint prove to be ineffective in this situation, owing to capital shortage. On the other hand, a reduction in working hours without wage compensation as well as a policy mix of both demand-side policy and investment policy turn out to be effective. The reduction in working hours lowers individual income and raises individual leisure, as compared to the policy mix." (SUMMARY IN GER) excerpt

  19. Skill level, Cognitive Ability, Unemployment and Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Birthe

    2004-01-01

    -biasedtechnological shocks increase unemployment, this may explain why themarket it-self cannot respond to this by making it sufficiently attractiveto acquire skills. Consequently, the trade-off in-between subsidizing educationand thereby reducing unemployment and optimizing welfare maybe eliminated. We analyse this issue...... in a simple educational model andnext in a search equilibrium model including a skill choice decision.Keywords: Education, subsidies, efficiency, unemployment.JEL codes: I20, J64....

  20. Descriptions of two new species and one new subspecies from the Exocelina okbapensis-group, and notes on the E. aipo-group (Coleoptera, Dytiscidae, Copelatinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Shaverdo

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Two new species and one new subspecies of Exocelina Broun, 1886 from New Guinea are described: E. okbapensis Shaverdo & Balke, sp. n., E. okbapensis hajeki Shaverdo & Balke, ssp. n., and E. may Shaverdo & Balke, sp. n. These and two already described species are assigned to the E. okbapensis-group, which is morphologically (based on setation of the paramere and phylogenetically close to the E. aipo-group. On the latter, morphological and taxonomic notes are provided. An identification key to all known species of the groups is presented, and important diagnostic characters are illustrated. Data on the species distributions are mapped and show that the species occur only in the central mountain part of the island restricted by Wamena in the west and Sandaun Province in the east.

  1. Revision of Bondariella Hustache & Bondar (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), with descriptions of the first species from the Amazon and notes on natural history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, Roberta De Melo; Cordeiro Júnior, Mariano Brandão

    2015-09-15

    Bondariella Hustache & Bondar, 1942 is revised. In addition to the redescription of the genus and its four previously known species, we report and describe the first species from the Amazonian region: Bondariella rudicula sp. nov. and Bondariella crenata sp. nov. We also provide a key to the species, illustrations and notes on natural history. All six species of Bondariella have been collected on palm flowers from Brazil, with the previously known species having only been recorded from species of Syagrus Mart. from the Atlantic Forest and Caatinga biomes. The two new species have only been recorded from species of Euterpe Mart. from the Amazon biome. Future work may prove if the associations with Syagrus and Euterpe are specific to the biomes.

  2. Description of the last nymphal instar of Talipes appendiculatus (Hemiptera: Membracidae: Membracinae, and notes on the biology of the immatures and adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico Lencioni-Neto

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The last instar nymph of Talipes appendiculatus (Fonseca is described and illustrated, and biological data are given on the immatures and adults. The 5th instar nymph has the body covered with tuberculate chalazae; head and thorax without scoli; abdomen with terga III-VIII with single dorsal scoli, all different in size, III and VIII small, V the largest about 2x longer than wide. Descriptions of the adults (male and female are also provided, with the addition of some new characters. The species (adults, immatures of various stages has been collected on branches of Cassia fistula L. (Leguminosae: Caesalpinioidea, and is frequently attended by bees and wasps.

  3. Health effects of unemployment benefit program generosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cylus, Jonathan; Glymour, M Maria; Avendano, Mauricio

    2015-02-01

    We assessed the impact of unemployment benefit programs on the health of the unemployed. We linked US state law data on maximum allowable unemployment benefit levels between 1985 and 2008 to individual self-rated health for heads of households in the Panel Study of Income Dynamics and implemented state and year fixed-effect models. Unemployment was associated with increased risk of reporting poor health among men in both linear probability (b=0.0794; 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.0623, 0.0965) and logistic models (odds ratio=2.777; 95% CI=2.294, 3.362), but this effect is lower when the generosity of state unemployment benefits is high (b for interaction between unemployment and benefits=-0.124; 95% CI=-0.197, -0.0523). A 63% increase in benefits completely offsets the impact of unemployment on self-reported health. Results suggest that unemployment benefits may significantly alleviate the adverse health effects of unemployment among men.

  4. Jobless. Unemployment and young people's health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrell, S L; Taylor, R J; Kerr, C B

    1998-03-02

    Morrell, Taylor and Kerr, from the University of Sydney's Department of Public Health, review the evidence of an association between unemployment and psychological and physical ill-health in young people aged 15-24 years. Aggregate data show youth unemployment and youth suicide to be strongly associated. Youth unemployment is also associated with psychological symptoms, such as depression and loss of confidence. Effects on physical health have been less extensively studies; however, there is some evidence for an association with raised blood pressure. Finally, the prevalence of lifestyle risk factors (cannabis use and, less consistently, tobacco and alcohol consumption) is higher in unemployed compared with employed young people.

  5. Unemployment vs. In-work Benefits with Search Unemployment and Observable Abilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boone, J.; Bovenberg, A.L.

    2001-01-01

    This paper explores the optimal interaction between the tax system and unemployment compensation in insuring people against the risks of involuntary unemployment and low ability.To that end, we introduce search unemployment in a model of optimal non-linear income taxation.We find that the optimal

  6. Unemployment Benefits and Parental Resources: What Helps the Young Unemployed with Labour Market Integration?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Marita

    2008-01-01

    This article deals with the question of how different resources affect the labour market integration of the young unemployed. Previous research has often focused on the effects of unemployment compensation benefits on labour market outcomes. However, for young unemployed people additional parental resources may be even more important. The article…

  7. Youth Unemployment and Employment Policy: A Global Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Higgins, Niall

    This book looks at the issue of youth unemployment and examines policy responses. Part I considers the youth unemployment problem. Chapter 1 is an overview, covering size of the problem and the close relationship between youth and adult unemployment. Chapter 2 examines youth unemployment characteristics and distribution of unemployment across…

  8. Effects of Oil Shocks on the Unemployment: GVAR Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malek KhojastehNeghad

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Oil is not only one of the most significant and useful consumer goods but also is a remarkable material in energy production all around the world which has a lot of price fluctuation. oil shocks consider as a principal factor of many financial crises and have various effects on economy of countries. Hence, the assessment of price fluctuations on macroeconomic variables such as unemployment seems important. This paper survey the oil price inconstancy on unemployment in 31countries during the period from the second quarter of 1985 to the fourth quarter of 2009 through Global Vector Auto-Regression model. Results demonstrate except of the rest of W. Europe, there is a positive relationship between oil prices oscillation and unemployment. It should be noted in many area the feedback along with the lag that depends on the ratio of oil cost in national income, reliance level to imported oil, end-users ability to reduce their usage and substitute other sources, gas consumption quantity in economy, effect of higher prices on other energy sources, monetary policies adopt when face with oil price swaging and capability of goverments to apply the vary policies.

  9. A description of two new species of the genus Erenna (Siphonophora: Physonectae: Erennidae), with notes on recently collected specimens of other Erenna species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugh, P R; Haddock, S H D

    2016-11-10

    Two new Erenna species, E. insidiator sp. nov. and E. sirena sp. nov., are described from specimens collected in the vicinity of Monterey Bay, California, and also, for E. sirena at the southern end of the Gulf of California, Mexico. Further information on the three extant Erenna species is given, based on specimens collected in the same areas. These have enabled, for instance, the identification of three types of tentilla on the tentacles of E. cornuta Pugh, 2001, rather than the two noted on the single previously known specimen. The genus is remarkable for the presence of bioluminescent lures on the tentilla of all five species. In E. sirena sp. nov. the tentilla are also covered by a red-fluorescent layer, which was briefly described by Haddock et al. (2005), and further details are given herein. Another extraordinary feature of the colonies E. sirena sp. nov. is that the main part of the tentacle, with its tentilla, can be extended away from the siphosomal stem on a long peduncle. This phenomenon also appears to occur in E. laciniata Pugh, 2001, and has not been observed before for other physonect species.

  10. Demographic aspects of unemployment in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammouda, A A

    1979-01-01

    The extent and structure of open unemployment in the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan was examined. The data on unemployment in Jordan come from censuses and labor force sample surveys. The last census was conducted in 1961 and obviously cannot provide current information, but a multipurpose household survey has been conducted annually since 1972. The survey sample is a stratified multistage random sample; 3 strata are distinquished, i.e., cities, camps, and rural areas. For this survey, the unemployed are defined as those persons who are physically unable to perform work and who want work and are actively seeking work but are unemployed at present. In this analysis, those persons among the unemployed who are in the age group 12-14 are excluded. 82.3% of the unemployed in the sample were men. The total unemployment rate was 1.6%, but the rate for women was 2.8% and that for men only 1.5%. The rate for women may be overstated to an unknown extent due to underreporting of women in the labor force, yet it seems unlikely that this factor would explain all of the differences in the extent of unemployment between men and women. The cultural bias against work for women outside the home exerts an influence in making it more difficult for women to find a job, but because of this bias many women do not even enter the labor force and hence cannot be unemployed. Most of the unemployed were in the 20-24 age group and to a lesser extent in the 15-19 age group. Almost 60% of the unemployed were in these 2 age groups. Beyond these ages, the percentages of unemployed decreased regularly with age, with the age group 40-44 as a minor exception. When taking sex into account, the 1st phenomenon to be observed was the highly skewed age distribution of female unemployed who were all under age 30. Of the unemployed men, most were also young, with 34.6% in the 20-24 age group and 52.9% younger than 25 years. For married women the low unemployment rate can be explained by the fact that many

  11. The Gendered Consequences of Unemployment Insurance Reforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooi-Reci, Irma; Mills, Melinda

    2012-01-01

    This study examines whether a series of unemployment insurance benefit reforms that took place over a 20-year period in the Netherlands had a gendered effect on the duration of unemployment and labor market outcomes. Using longitudinal data from the Dutch Labor Supply Panel (OSA) over the period 1980-2000, and adopting a quasi-experimental design,…

  12. Aggregate Unemployment Decreases Individual Returns to Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammermueller, Andreas; Kuckulenz, Anja; Zwick, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Aggregate unemployment may affect individual returns to education through qualification-specific responses in participation and wage bargaining. This paper shows that an increase in regional unemployment by 1% decreases returns to education by 0.005 percentage points. This implies that higher skilled employees are better sheltered from labour…

  13. Unemployment in Families: The Case of Housework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gough, Margaret; Killewald, Alexandra

    2011-01-01

    Unemployment has consequences for individuals, but its impacts also reverberate through families. This paper examines how families adapt to unemployment in one area of life--time in housework. Using 74,881 observations from 10,390 couples in the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, we estimate fixed effects models and find that individuals spend…

  14. "Learning to Do" during High Unemployment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee-Weise, Michelle; Horn, Michael B.

    2013-01-01

    Even as the economy appears to have turned a corner, high unemployment persists. Strangely, as millions nationwide struggle to find work, there are millions of jobs that remain unfilled. High unemployment rates may therefore have less to do than commonly assumed with an economy that is not healthy enough to produce jobs or employers who are…

  15. Unemployment and the health of Slovak adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sleskova, Maria

    2006-01-01

    Research on unemployment started during the 1930’s and still attracts the attention of many researchers. It has been found that job loss has serious negative consequences for many aspects of the individual’s life. However, the influence of unemployment on the individual is not simple and is

  16. Unemployment Impairs Mental Health: Meta-Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Karsten I.; Moser, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    The effect of unemployment on mental health was examined with meta-analytic methods across 237 cross-sectional and 87 longitudinal studies. The average overall effect size was d = 0.51 with unemployed persons showing more distress than employed persons. A significant difference was found for several indicator variables of mental health (mixed…

  17. The Gendered Consequences of Unemployment Insurance Reforms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooi-Reci, Irma; Mills, Melinda

    2012-01-01

    This study examines whether a series of unemployment insurance benefit reforms that took place over a 20-year period in the Netherlands had a gendered effect on the duration of unemployment and labor market outcomes. Using longitudinal data from the Dutch Labor Supply Panel (OSA) over the period

  18. Youth Unemployment. The Causes and Consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    This report examines the causes and consequences of youth unemployment in Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) member countries. Summarized first is the youth unemployment situation since the 1974/1975 recession. In a section on recent developments in youth labor markets a series of tables and graphs provide data on youth…

  19. Optimal unemployment insurance with monitoring and sanctions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boone, J.; Fredriksson, P.; Holmlund, B.; van Ours, J.C.

    2007-01-01

    This article analyses the design of optimal unemployment insurance in a search equilibrium framework where search effort among the unemployed is not perfectly observable. We examine to what extent the optimal policy involves monitoring of search effort and benefit sanctions if observed search is

  20. Catching Hipo's: Screening, Wages and Unemployment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.C.W. Janssen (Maarten)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper, I study the wage a firm sets to attract high ability workers (hipo's) in situations of unemployment. I show that the higher unemployment, the larger a firm's incentives to sort high and low ability workers. Moreover, workers will signal their (high) ability in situations

  1. Unemployed citizen or 'at risk' client?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jørgen Elm; Caswell, Dorte; Marston, Greg

    2010-01-01

    The paper explores recent developments in Australian and Danish unemployment policies with a special focus on the technologies used to classify and categorize unemployed people on government benefits. Using governmentality as our theoretical framework, we consider the implications of reducing com...

  2. Youth Unemployment and Its Educational Consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Henry M.

    1983-01-01

    Competing explanations for youth unemployment (demography, minimum wages, education and training, economic conditions) have profoundly different implications for policy. The history of youth unemployment in Australia and the United States is explored and the causes of the problem as well as some solutions are evaluated. (LC)

  3. The gendered consequences of unemployment insurance reforms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooi-Reci, I.; Mills, M.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines whether a series of unemployment insurance benefit reforms that took place over a 20-year period in the Netherlands had a gendered effect on the duration of unemployment and labor market outcomes. Using longitudinal data from the Dutch Labor Supply Panel (OSA) over the period

  4. Wages, unemployment, and the underground economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolm, Ann-Sofie; Larsen, Birthe

    2003-01-01

    the impact of higher punishmentrates and a higher audit rate on labour market performance. We findthat a higher punishment rate reduces the size of the informal sectorand reduces unemployment. A higher audit rate has an ambiguousimpact on unemployment, and may actually increase the size of theunderground...

  5. Business Ownership and Unemployment in Japan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. van Acht; J. Stam; A.R. Thurik (Roy); I. Verheul (Ingrid)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractThe influence of industrial structure, more specifically of business ownership, is investigated on the level of unemployment in Japan. The question is to what extent business ownership, i.e., entrepreneurship, can reduce the level of unemployment. It will be concluded that Japan is

  6. Legislating health care coverage for the unemployed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palley, H A; Feldman, G; Gallner, I; Tysor, M

    1985-01-01

    Because the unemployed and their families are often likely to develop stress-related health problems, ensuring them access to health care is a public health issue. Congressional efforts thus far to legislate health coverage for the unemployed have proposed a system that recognizes people's basic need for coverage but has several limitations.

  7. Amended diagnosis and redescription of Pristimantis marmoratus (Boulenger, 1900 (Amphibia: Craugastoridae, with a description of its advertisement call and notes on its breeding ecology and phylogenetic relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe J.R. Kok

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The frog Pristimantis marmoratus was originally described as Hylodes marmoratus by George A. Boulenger in 1900 based on a single specimen reported to have been collected at the foot of Mount Roraima in Guyana in 1898. We herein discuss the exact location of the type locality of P. marmoratus and provide a redescription of the species based on new material from Kaieteur National Park and from the slopes of Maringma-tepui in Guyana. We also describe the previously unknown vocalization and breeding ecology of the species, and conducted an exploratory molecular analysis of the phylogenetic relationships within the genus Pristimantis represented by the members of the “unistrigatus species group” in the Guiana Shield. Pristimantis marmoratus is a small-sized species mainly distinguished from its known Guiana Shield congeners by the combination of F I < II, SVL ≤ 20.4 in males, presence of vocal slits in males, granular/pustulate dorsal skin with well-developed scapular ridges, basal webbing between fingers, fringes on fingers and toes, crossed iris, diffuse yellow or pale green wash on groin, and absence of flashy colour on axillary/pre-axillary region. The advertisement call consists of a single note repeated at a rate of ca 11 calls/min with a dominant frequency ranging from 2756 to 3101 Hz. Pristimantis marmoratus is primarily arboreal, exclusively active at dusk, and probably restricted to the pristine rainforests of the Pantepui uplands and highlands, east of the Gran Sabana between ca 600 and 1800 m above sea level. Preliminary molecular analyses recovered Pristimantis marmoratus as sister to an unnamed species from the Eastern Guiana Shield. On grounds of the newly established distributional extent we suggest maintaining the IUCN conservation status as Least Concern.

  8. Research Note:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Behuria, Pritish; Buur, Lars; Gray, Hazel

    2017-01-01

    its core conceptual and methodological features. This Research Note starts by setting out our understanding of political settlements and provides an overview of existing political settlements literature on African countries. The note then explores how the key concept of ‘holding power’ has been...

  9. Exploring the relationship of emotional intelligence with mental health status in polish unemployed persons – differences between men and women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knopp Katarzyna A.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the relationship between EI and the state of mental health of unemployed persons. Gender differences were also identified in terms of mental health and its correlation with EI. A sample of 160 Polish unemployed persons aged 35 to 45 years filled in self-descriptive measures of EI and mental health. Significant gender differences were found - unemployed women were characterised by a greater intensity of mental health disorders than unemployed men. EI was negatively correlated with mental health disorders, but the correlations were few and weaker than expected. However, when unemployed persons with a low, average and high EI were compared, it turned out that participants with a low EI were characterised by a significantly worse condition of mental health than participants with a average or high EI.

  10. Social capital, friendship networks, and youth unemployment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hällsten, Martin; Edling, Christofer; Rydgren, Jens

    2017-01-01

    Youth unemployment is a contemporary social problem in many societies. Youths often have limited access to information about jobs and limited social influence, yet little is known about the relationship between social capital and unemployment risk among youth. We study the effect of social capital on unemployment risk in a sample of 19 year olds of Swedish, Iranian, and Yugoslavian origin living in Sweden (N = 1590). We distinguish between two dimensions of social capital: occupational contact networks and friendship networks. First, ego's unemployment is found to be strongly associated with friends' unemployment among individuals of Yugoslavian origins and individuals of Swedish origin, but not Iranian origin. Second, occupational contact networks reduce unemployment risks for all groups, but especially so for Iranians. The effect sizes of the two dimensions are similar and substantial: going from low to high values on these measures is associated with a difference of some 60-70 percent relative difference in unemployment risk. The findings are robust to a number of different model specifications, including a rich set of social origin controls, personality traits, educational performance, friends' characteristics, and friendship network characteristics, as well as controls for geographical employment patterns. A sensitivity simulation shows that homogeneity bias need to be very strong to explain away the effect. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Impact of Unemployment on Crime in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Hsuan Huang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study discovers how unemployment rate explains the changes in the crime rate tendency in Europe by the two-stage-least square regression. The crime rate in the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU area is found evidently more sensitive to unemployment than the non-EMU countries. The adoption of a common currency also strengthens the connections of the criminal problem among the EMU countries. We found the seriousness of the endogenous bias involved using the OLS methodology, so previous findings on the small effect of unemployment on crime rate obtained by employing the OLS methodology could be unreliable. Empirically, a one-percentage-point increase in unemployment increases the property crime by nearly 9% on average. The large unemployment effect implies that the increase in the unemployment rate that occurred after the financial crisis in 2008, followed by the European sovereign-debt crisis, may account for the trending increasing tendencies of the crime rate in Europe. The high unemployment effect revealed markedly different policy implications than those that have previously been considered in the literature. These findings suggest that the key determinants for governmental authorities in the EMU area successfully mitigating crime would greatly depend on how the governments resolve their economic recession.

  12. Tunisia’s Revolution and Youth Unemployment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Siala

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Youth joblessness was one of the main triggers of Tunisia’s January Revolution. Unemployment rate in Tunisia has increased from 13 percent in 2010 to 18.3 percent in 2011 (NIS, 2011. Young people and women are more affected by this increase in unemployment .Thus, the purpose of this study is to examine the effects of various individual and job-related characteristics on the probabilities of unemployment of females and males aged 15–29 and to explore policy actions to create jobs in Tunisia. These issues are addressed using data from a 2010 survey of the National Institute of Statistics that provided information on the employment status of youth aged 15–29. The main estimated results show first that individual’s age, gender, marital status, level of education, sector of economic activity, type of employment and region of residence are significantly related to the unemployment. The results indicate that, for young workers, unemployment incidence increases with the level of education. Education has a greater impact on the unemployment of females than on that of males. Second, there is a negative and significant effect of the agricultural, educational and health sectors on the probability of transition into unemployment for women and men in which case the estimated impact is greater for men. Third, coastal area and public employment are associated with lower probability of transition into unemployment. Finally, Tunisian policymakers are aware of the fact that the elected National Constituent Assembly and the transitional government have a set of challenging tasks to accomplish in order to lower the rate of youth unemployment. For instance, generating funds for business development and infrastructure in non-coastal regions, and collaborating with the private sector to promote investment– whether foreign or domestic – and employment for educated young people.

  13. Is Unemployment Always Higher when Insiders Decide?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filges, Trine; Larsen, Birthe

    This paper challenges the traditional view that unemployment is high because insiders determine the union wage. The insiders in this paper are characterised by being more efficient when they search for a job than the outsiders, implying that they experience relatively less unemployment. We assume...... that wages are determined by a monopoly union and further that a union leader is elected by a majority voting rule. Insiders may prefer a lower wage that outsiders, implying the possibility of lower unemployment when insiders are decisive in the union than if outsiders were decisive in the union....

  14. Five Characteristics of Youth Unemployment in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Reilly, Jacqueline; Eichorst, Werner; Gábos, András

    2015-01-01

    Current levels of youth unemployment need to be understood in the context of increased labor market flexibility, an expansion of higher education, youth migration, and family legacies of long-term unemployment. Compared with previous recessions, European-wide policies and investments have...... significantly increased with attempts to support national policies. By mapping these developments and debates, we illustrate the different factors shaping the future of European labor markets. We argue that understanding youth unemployment requires a holistic approach that combines an analysis of changes...

  15. Contractual Incompleteness, Unemployment, and Labour Market Segmentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Altmann, Steffen; Falk, Armin; Grunewald, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    This article provides evidence that involuntary unemployment, and the segmentation of labour markets into firms offering "good" and "bad" jobs, may both arise as a consequence of contractual incompleteness.We provide a simple model that illustrates how unemployment and market segmentation may...... jointly emerge as part of a market equilibrium in environments where work effort is not third-party verifiable. Using experimental labour markets that differ only in the verifiability of effort, we demonstrate empirically that contractual incompleteness can cause unemployment and segmentation. Our data...

  16. House Prices, Geographical Mobility, and Unemployment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingholt, Marcus Mølbak

    2017-01-01

    Geographical mobility correlates positively with house prices and negatively with unemployment over the U.S. business cycle. I present a DSGE model in which declining house prices and tight credit conditions impede the mobility of indebted workers. This reduces the workers’ cross-area competition...... for jobs, causing wages and unemployment to rise. A Bayesian estimation shows that this channel more than quadruples the response of unemployment to adverse housing market shocks. The estimation also shows that adverse housing market shocks caused the decline in mobility during the Great Recession. Absent...

  17. RESEARCH NOTE

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Navya

    RESEARCH NOTE. CDKN2A and MC1R ... Department of Pharmacy and Department of Nursing, School of Health Sciences, Frederick. University, Nicosia ..... Appears with highest frequency in African, Asian-Indian, and Papua. New Guinean ...

  18. Editorial note

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tore Ahlbäck

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Editorial note of the Scripta Instituti Donneriani Aboensis, vol. 21, Postmodern Spirituality, based on papers read at the symposium on Postmodern Spirituality held at Åbo, Finland, on 11–13 June 2008.

  19. Project Notes

    Science.gov (United States)

    School Science Review, 1978

    1978-01-01

    Presents sixteen project notes developed by pupils of Chipping Norton School and Bristol Grammar School, in the United Kingdom. These Projects include eight biology A-level projects and eight Chemistry A-level projects. (HM)

  20. An Empirical Analyses of Unemployment Hysteresis and Natural Rate of Unemployment Approaches for MENA Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinan ERDOĞAN

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to test natural rate of unemployment and approach of unemployment hysteresis in MENA*** countries for the period of 1991-2014 by using panel data analysis methods which considering the cross-sectional dependency properties. Cross-sectional dependency test results indicate that there is cross-section dependency among all variables. According to CADF test results, unemployment rates in all countries have unit root. According to the CIPS test results, unemployment rates in MENA countries has unit root. In this context, all the impact of a shock can be seen on the unemployment rate in the mentioned region is permanent. Therefore; it can be said that the current approach of unemployment hysteresis in the region countries are valid.

  1. Writing a technical note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, K H; Peh, W C G

    2010-02-01

    A technical note is a short article giving a brief description of a specific development, technique or procedure, or it may describe a modification of an existing technique, procedure or device applicable to medicine. The technique, procedure or device described should have practical value and should contribute to clinical diagnosis or management. It could also present a software tool, or an experimental or computational method. Technical notes are variously referred to as technical innovations or technical developments. The main criteria for publication will be the novelty of concepts involved, the validity of the technique and its potential for clinical applications.

  2. Notes on Piezoelectricity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redondo, Antonio [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-02-03

    These notes provide a pedagogical discussion of the physics of piezoelectricity. The exposition starts with a brief analysis of the classical (continuum) theory of piezoelectric phenomena in solids. The main subject of the notes is, however, a quantum mechanical analysis. We first derive the Frohlich Hamiltonian as part of the description of the electron-phonon interaction. The results of this analysis are then employed to derive the equations of piezoelectricity. A couple of examples with the zinc blende and and wurtzite structures are presented at the end

  3. Reservation wages, expected wages and unemployment

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, S; Taylor, K

    2013-01-01

    We model unemployment duration, reservation and expected wages simultaneously for individuals not in work, where wage expectations are identified via an exogenous policy shock. The policy shock increased expected wages, which were found to be positively associated with reservation wages.

  4. Unemployment Insurance Benefit Levels and Consumption Changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Browning, Martin; Crossley, Thomas

    We use a survey of unemployed people to examine how a job loss impacts on household expenditures. The principal focus is on the effect of the level of income replacement provided by Unemployment Insurance. We restrict attention to a sub-sample of respondents who are still in their first spell...... of unemployment after six months. For this group we find large consumption falls, averaging about 16% of total expenditure. The actual fall depends on a variety of factors of which the most important is the pre-job loss ratio of the respondent's income to household income. The effects of varying the replacement...... within the household and hence on other facets of behaviour such as job search, unemployment duration and the quality of any new job taken...

  5. UNEMPLOYMENT IN URBAN ETHIOPIA: DETERMINANTS AND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eyerusalem

    Data from the 2004 wave of the Ethiopian Urban Socio Economic Survey on four major cities of .... public sector jobs and for those with their fathers are civil servants. Haile (2003), using ... not address rural unemployment. Two econometric ...

  6. The Effect of Unemployment Insurance Exhaustion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyk-Jensen, Stéphanie; Weatherall, Cecilie Dohlmann

    In this article we investigate how the long-term unemployed react to the threat of running out of unemployment insurance (UI) in a system in which other social benefits are available. The empirical analysis is based on very precise administrative records of unemployment spells in Denmark...... risk model to estimate the conditional probability of leaving unemployment to enter employment or receive other social benefits. We restrict our analysis to men aged 25-44 in 1998. Our results show that even for men having an initial UI entitlement for 4 years the threat of running out of UI indeed....... To identify the effect of UI exhaustion, we exploit the 1999 legislative change in the duration of benefit that progressively reduced regular UI entitlement from five to four years. According to time of entry into the UI system, all UI recipients had their potential UI period shortened. We use a competing...

  7. Do conditional benefits reduce equilibrium unemployment?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Ploeg, F.

    2006-01-01

    Although unconditional unemployment benefits destroy jobs in competitive and noncompetitive labor markets, conditional benefits can spur job growth in noncompetitive labor markets. Unconditional benefits reduce the penalty of shirking and misconduct, while conditional benefits increase this penalty.

  8. Essays on employment and unemployment transitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagore Garcia, Amparo

    2015-01-01

    This thesis addresses relevant questions related to labour market transitions in Spain. Using administrative records data from Spanish Social Security and applying correlated competing risks models, the impact of the current recession on unemployment and employment transitions and gender differences

  9. Hysteresis in unemployment: evidence from sector-specific unemployment in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Barışık, Salih; Cevik, Emrah Ismail

    2009-01-01

    High levels of inflation and unemployment have been experienced together in the world after 1970’s. Efforts of decreasing inflation have been achieved in the world after 1990’s. The fact that there has been no evidence the unemployment rate beginning to decrease despite the increasing growth rates in the USA and Europe countries recalls hysteresis effect. This phenomenon observed in Turkey after 1994 and 2001 crises. This paper examines hysteresis effect in sector-specific unemployment in Tur...

  10. Should Unemployment Insurance Vary with the Unemployment Rate? Theory and Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Kroft, Kory; Notowidigdo, Matthew J.

    2012-01-01

    We study how optimal unemployment insurance (UI) benefits vary over the business cycle by estimating how the moral hazard cost and the consumption smoothing benefit of UI vary with the unemployment rate. We find that the moral hazard cost is procyclical, greater when the unemployment rate is relatively low. By contrast, our evidence suggests that the consumption smoothing benefit of UI is acyclical. Using these estimates to calibrate our job search model, we find that a one standard deviation...

  11. Job search requirements for older unemployed workers

    OpenAIRE

    Bloemen, Hans

    2016-01-01

    Many OECD countries have, or have had, a policy that exempts older unemployed people from the requirement to search for a job. An aging population and low participation by older workers in the labor market increasingly place public finances under strain, and spur calls for policy measures that activate labor force participation by older workers. Introducing job search requirements for the older unemployed aims to increase their re-employment rates. Abolishing the exemption from job search req...

  12. Liquidity and Insurance for the Unemployed

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Shimer; Ivan Werning

    2008-01-01

    We study the optimal design of unemployment insurance for workers sampling job opportunities over time. We focus on the optimal timing of benefits and the desirability of allowing workers to freely access a riskless asset. When workers have constant absolute risk aversion preferences, it is optimal to use a very simple policy: a constant benefit during unemployment, a constant tax during employment that does not depend on the duration of the spell, and free access to savings using a riskless ...

  13. Suicide, unemployment, and economic recession in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias-García, Celso; Sáiz, Pilar A; Burón, Patricia; Sánchez-Lasheras, Fernando; Jiménez-Treviño, Luis; Fernández-Artamendi, Sergio; Al-Halabí, Susana; Corcoran, Paul; García-Portilla, M Paz; Bobes, Julio

    The aim of the present work is to determine the association between unemployment and suicide, and to investigate whether this association is affected by changes in the economic cycle or other variables such as age and sex. A time-trend analysis was conducted to study changes in the number of suicides between 1999 and 2013 in Spain. Pearson's correlation coefficients and regression models were used to find the association between unemployment and suicide. A significant positive association was found between unemployment and suicide in the pre-crisis period in men. In that period (1999-2007), each 1% annual increase in unemployment was associated with a 6.90% increase in the annual variation of suicide in the total population, and with a 9.04% increase in the annual variation of suicide in working age men. The correlation between unemployment and suicide is significant in periods of economic stability, but has weakened during the recent financial crisis. Unemployment and suicide have a complex relationship modulated by age, sex and economic cycle. Copyright © 2017 SEP y SEPB. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. 20 CFR 625.8 - Applications for Disaster Unemployment Assistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Applications for Disaster Unemployment... LABOR DISASTER UNEMPLOYMENT ASSISTANCE § 625.8 Applications for Disaster Unemployment Assistance. (a... unemployment shall be filed with respect to the individual's applicable State at the times and in the manner as...

  15. 20 CFR 325.4 - Claim for unemployment benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Claim for unemployment benefits. 325.4 Section 325.4 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT REGISTRATION FOR RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT BENEFITS § 325.4 Claim for unemployment benefits. (a...

  16. Modigliani’s comments on Sylos Labini’s theory of unemployment (1956-1958

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Rancan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This note discusses Modigliani’s and Sylos Labini’s unemployment theory starting from a long letter Modigliani wrote to his friend and colleague, commenting the provisional edition of “Oligopolio e Progresso Tecnico” (1956. While in his influential article review (1958 Modigliani especially analysed and developed along original lines Sylos Labini’s microeconomic theory, in the letter he deeply discussed Sylos Labini macroeconomics. Modigliani criticized Sylos Labini’s classical definition of investment and the ensuing confusion between monetary and real causes of unemployment. From their correspondence their different theoretical perspective clearly stands out: Modigliani was interested in explaining the emergence of unemployment equilibrium in a static context, Sylos Labini its persistence as the result of structural changes.

  17. SAFETY NOTES

    CERN Document Server

    TIS Secretariat

    2001-01-01

    Please note that the revisions of safety notes no 3 (NS 3 Rev. 2) and no 24 (NS 24 REV.) entitled respectively 'FIRE PREVENTION FOR ENCLOSED SPACES IN LARGE HALLS' and 'REMOVING UNBURIED ELV AND LVA ELECTRIC CONDUITS' are available on the web at the following urls: http://edmsoraweb.cern.ch:8001/cedar/doc.download?document_id=322811&version=1&filename=version_francaise.pdf http://edmsoraweb.cern.ch:8001/cedar/doc.download?document_id=322861&version=2&filename=version_francaise.pdf Paper copies can also be obtained from the TIS Divisional Secretariat, email tis.secretariat@cern.ch

  18. Welfare Systems and the Management of the Economic Risk of Unemployment: Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesby, Dorte; Dahl, Karen Margrethe; Ploug, Niels

    Developments on the Swedish Labour Market and in Swedish Labour Market Policy during the 1990s are described. Part I provides a picture of the situation on the Swedish labour market during the first part of the nineties. In Part II developments in the unemployment protection system since 1995...... are presented. This section also includes a description of income packaging and net replacement rates for people receiving unemployment benefits. Finally the overall development of the system during the nineties is assessed and discussed in Part III....

  19. Technical Note

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administratör

    In this report on four patients, we did not use any of these techniques. The existence and the site of the fistulas was clearly demonstrated using basic but important preoperative detailed assessment and two intraoperative findings. The preoperative referral note that indicated the site of technical difficulty during the previous ...

  20. Please note

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Members of the personnel are invited to take note that only parcels corresponding to official orders or contracts will be handled at CERN. Individuals are not authorised to have private merchandise delivered to them at CERN and private deliveries will not be accepted by the Goods Reception services. Thank you for your understanding. (Version française la semaine prochaine.)

  1. Editor's Note

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    On another note: the editor and the editorial team acknowledge the financial support of the Carnegie Corporation of New York through the University of Ghana Building A New Generation of Academics in Africa (BANGA-Africa) Project. We also use this platform to express our gratitude for the support of various stakeholders, ...

  2. Psychosocial aspect of quality of life among working and unemployed nurses and midwives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czekirda, Marta; Chruściel, Paweł; Czekirda, Neomi; Jarosz, Mirosław J

    2017-09-21

    The objective of the study was to explain differences in the subjective evaluation of the psychological and social aspects of quality of life in a group of working and unemployed nurses and midwives. The survey was conducted in a group of 620 professionally-active and inactive people (315 nurses and 305 midwives), selected by random stratified-systematic sampling. The tool used to gather empirical material was the standardized questionnaire WHOQoL-100. Professionally-active nurses evaluated the mental domain less favourably (M=12.33), compared with unemployed nurses (M=12.73), and the difference between average values was statistically significant (p=.043). It is also worth noting that in the group of midwives there were significant differences in each discussed domain. The unemployed respondents evaluated more positively the overall quality of life (M=14.29; p=.005) and the mental domain (M=12.85; p=.009), while the social domain was evaluated less favourably by the professionally-active midwives (M=12.73; p=.022). Paradoxically, those who were unemployed made slightly more positive evaluations in comparison with the professionally active. Professional work is not a factor preferably affecting the quality of life and its psychosocial dimension. The higher quality of life of the unemployed respondents may result from the buffering impact of social support.

  3. The Determinants of Actual Migration and the Role of Wages and Unemployment in Albania: an Empirical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Cattaneo

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper explores the determinants of internal migration in Albania, adopting the Harris-Todaro approach to migration: an internal migration function is estimated using district wage and unemployment rate differentials. The aggregate level wages and unemployment, included in the migration equation, are retrieved from a first stage wage and unemployment equations, estimated controlling for personal characteristics. Moreover, in order to test the predictions of the human capital model of migration, the difference between migrants and non-migrants is emphasized in the estimation. The data source is the "Living Standard Measurement Survey for Albania" (2002, undertaken by the national Institute of Statistics and the World Bank jointly. The results reveal that both wage and unemployment differentials are important determinants of the propensity to migrate in Albania. This conclusion is further emphasized by noting that migrants gain substantially in terms of higher returns to individual characteristics after emigration.

  4. [Unemployment and Addiction: The SUNRISE Project].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherbaum, N; Specka, M; Kaspar, C; Mikoteit, T; Lieb, B

    2018-01-01

    In the SUNRISE-project, the unemployment benefit office refers long-term unemployed clients (25-49 years old) to medical and psychological specialists of an addiction clinic, if substance-related problems are suspected as an obstacle for job placement. The present study aims at characterizing these clients with respect to educational qualifications, vocational training, diagnosed addictive disorders, and other mental disorders. Of special interest is the temporal sequence of unemployment and addictive disorders. Officials referred clients to medical examination if substance abuse was suspected. The examination was based on Europ-ASI, diagnosis of mental disorders based on SCID-I and SCID-II. In 87 out of the first 100 examined persons, an addictive disorder was diagnosed, most frequently alcohol-related disorders, and often multiple addictive disorders. These 87 clients were on average 40 years old (SD 8.5), and mostly male (73 out of 87 clients). About one-third had very low school qualification, and 55.2% had not completed vocational training. An additional psychiatric diagnosis was made in 51.7%. Addictive disorders had commenced during adolescence or early adulthood in most cases. The longest duration of continuous employment was 3 years (median). In only a few cases (7.4%), the current period of unemployment had started before regular substance use. Many long-term unemployed clients examined here showed deficits in schooling and vocational training, early onset of regular substance use, and additional mental disorders. In most cases, the addictive disorder did not emerge as a consequence of unemployment, but had existed before. Programs combining the efforts of unemployment benefit offices and the healthcare system are needed for these clients to help them gain access to the regular job market. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. How Changes in Unemployment Benefit Duration Affect the Inflow Into Unemployment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ours, J.C.; Tuit, S.

    2010-01-01

    We study how changes in the maximum benefit duration affec the inow into unemployment in the Netherlands. Until August 2003, workers who became un- employed after age 57.5 were entitled to unemployment benefits until the age of 65, after which they would receive old age pensions. This characteristic

  6. Unemployment, drugs and attitudes among European youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayllón, Sara; Ferreira-Batista, Natalia N

    2018-01-01

    This paper studies changes in the patterns of drug consumption and attitudes towards drugs in relation to sky-high (youth) unemployment rates brought about by the Great Recession. Our analysis is based on data for 28 European countries that refer to young people. We find that the consumption of cannabis and 'new substances' is positively related to increasing unemployment rates. An increase of 1% in the regional unemployment rate is associated with an increase of 0.7 percentage points in the ratio of young people who state that they have consumed cannabis at some point in time. Our findings also indicate that higher unemployment may be associated with more young people perceiving that access to drugs has become more difficult, particularly access to ecstasy, cocaine and heroin. According to young Europeans, when the economy worsens, anti-drug policies should focus on the reduction of poverty and unemployment, and not on implementing tougher measures against users. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Adolescent conscientiousness predicts lower lifetime unemployment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan, Mark; Daly, Michael; Delaney, Liam; Boyce, Christopher J; Wood, Alex M

    2017-04-01

    Existing research on Big Five personality and unemployment has relied on personality measures elicited after the respondents had already spent years in the labor market, an experience that could change personality. We clarify the direction of influence by using the British Cohort Study (N = 4,206) to examine whether conscientiousness and other Big Five personality traits at age 16-17 predict unemployment over age 16-42. Our hypothesis that higher conscientiousness in adolescence would predict lower unemployment was supported. In analyses controlling for intelligence, gender, and parental socioeconomic status, the less conscientious (-1 SD) had a predicted probability of unemployment twice as high (3.4% vs. 1.7%) as the highly conscientious (+1 SD), an effect size comparable to intelligence. Mediation analysis revealed that academic motivation and educational attainment explained only 8.9% of this association. Fostering conscientiousness in early life may be an effective way to reduce unemployment throughout adulthood. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Application note :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russo, Thomas V.

    2013-08-01

    The development of the XyceTM Parallel Electronic Simulator has focused entirely on the creation of a fast, scalable simulation tool, and has not included any schematic capture or data visualization tools. This application note will describe how to use the open source schematic capture tool gschem and its associated netlist creation tool gnetlist to create basic circuit designs for Xyce, and how to access advanced features of Xyce that are not directly supported by either gschem or gnetlist.

  9. Great expectations: Past wages and unemployment durations☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böheim, Renè; Horvath, Gerard Thomas; Winter-Ebmer, Rudolf

    2011-01-01

    Decomposing wages into worker and firm wage components, we find that firm-fixed components are sizeable parts of workers' wages. If workers can only imperfectly observe the extent of firm-fixed components in their wages, they might be misled about the overall wage distribution. Such misperceptions may lead to unjustified high reservation wages, resulting in overly long unemployment durations. We examine the influence of previous wages on unemployment durations for workers after exogenous lay-offs and, using Austrian administrative data, we find that younger workers are, in fact, unemployed longer if they profited from high firm-fixed components in the past. We interpret our findings as evidence for overconfidence generated by imperfectly observed productivity. PMID:22211003

  10. CORRELATION BETWEEN ECONOMIC GROWTH AND UNEMPLOYMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savu Mihaela

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The mankind progress is built on economic growth.Yet, the high rates of economic growth must be properly used and correlated with other macroeconomic indicators in order to get the aimed effects.At the Romanian economic level, there is an inverse ratio connection between the gross domestic product and the unemployed number, a connection of low intensity.The correlation of these two indicators was established using parametric and nonparametric methods of analyzing the statistic connection using the informatic soft. Setting the recession function allows us to calculate the unemployed number depending on the forecasting of the economic growth in Romania.

  11. Unemployment and Mental Disorders - An Empirical Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerbo, Esben; Eriksson, Tor Viking; Mortensen, Preben Bo

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is also to analyze the importance of unemployment and other social factors as risk factors for impaired mental health. It departs from previous studies in that we make use of information about first admissions to a psychiatric hospital or ward as our measure of mental...... from the Psychiatric case register. Secondly, we estimate conditional logistic regression models for case-control data on first admissions to a psychiatric hospital. The explanatory variables in the empirical analysis include age, gender, education, marital status, income, wealth, and unemployment (and...

  12. The Effects of Benefits, Incentives, and Sanctions on Youth Unemployment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosholm, Michael; Jensen, Peter S.; Nielsen, Michael Svarer

    1999-01-01

    The youth unemployment rate in Denmark has recently been declining dramatically, which is unique among the OECD countries. In 1996, a radical labour market reform was implemented, the Youth Unemployment Programme (YUP), directed towards unemployed, low-educated youth. This paper analyses the effe......The youth unemployment rate in Denmark has recently been declining dramatically, which is unique among the OECD countries. In 1996, a radical labour market reform was implemented, the Youth Unemployment Programme (YUP), directed towards unemployed, low-educated youth. This paper analyses...

  13. [Measurement of unemployment-related psychological stress: Validation of the Unemployment Stress (USS)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabóné Kapuvári, Virág; Martos, Tamás

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays the theme of unemployment and the given answers of it are up to date questions in psychology. In spite of this fact, the psychological methods measuring this phenomenon are often missing. That is why the Unemployment Stress Scale (USS) is presented in this article. The aim of our study is to develop a scale called USS and test it's validity and reliability. There were 287 adult unemployed persons asked in this study. Besides the USS we used the Beck Depression Scale, the Spielberger Anxiety Scale (TRAIT), the Sense of Coherence Scale (Hungarian version) and the Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale. According to our results, USS has showed an excellent criterion and construct validity. A useful scale has been formed according to test-retest results. (Cronbach-alfa: 0.88 and 0.86 according to the samples). Moreover our scale has a strong correlation with the Spielberger Anxiety Scale (TRAIT) and the Beck Depression Scale. These chracteristics of the new scale proved that we fond a factor, independent from the self esteem and the sense of coherence, which represents the stress level in the situation of unemployment. This scale is a professional construction to measure stress contributed to unemployment. The USS can be a useful scale in clinical practice because after measuring with this scale we can protect the personality of the unemployed by representing the actual unemployment stress level. That is why professionals can help earlier in a crisis like this.

  14. The Health Effects of US Unemployment Insurance Policy: Does Income from Unemployment Benefits Prevent Cardiovascular Disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Stefan; Glymour, Maria; Avendano, Mauricio

    2014-01-01

    Objective Previous studies suggest that unemployment predicts increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, but whether unemployment insurance programs mitigate this risk has not been assessed. Exploiting US state variations in unemployment insurance benefit programs, we tested the hypothesis that more generous benefits reduce CVD risk. Methods Cohort data came from 16,108 participants in the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) aged 50–65 at baseline interviewed from 1992 to 2010. Data on first and recurrent CVD diagnosis assessed through biennial interviews were linked to the generosity of unemployment benefit programmes in each state and year. Using state fixed-effect models, we assessed whether state changes in the generosity of unemployment benefits predicted CVD risk. Results States with higher unemployment benefits had lower incidence of CVD, so that a 1% increase in benefits was associated with 18% lower odds of CVD (OR:0.82, 95%-CI:0.71–0.94). This association remained after introducing US census regional division fixed effects, but disappeared after introducing state fixed effects (OR:1.02, 95%-CI:0.79–1.31).This was consistent with the fact that unemployment was not associated with CVD risk in state-fixed effect models. Conclusion Although states with more generous unemployment benefits had lower CVD incidence, this appeared to be due to confounding by state-level characteristics. Possible explanations are the lack of short-term effects of unemployment on CVD risk. Future studies should assess whether benefits at earlier stages of the life-course influence long-term risk of CVD. PMID:25025281

  15. Developing Apprenticeships. Briefing Note

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cedefop - European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training, 2014

    2014-01-01

    To reduce high unemployment among their young people, countries are looking to others for help. During the economic downturn, some countries have performed better and youth unemployment has remained relatively low, for example in Germany, the Netherlands and Austria. This has been attributed in part to their apprenticeships or "dual'"…

  16. Economic growth, sectoral structure and unemployment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, H.L.F.

    1998-01-01

    This thesis consists of three parts that deal with the relationship between the relative wealth of nations, economic growth, and the sectoral structure of economies. In the first part, the focus is on the relative stagnancy of Europe versus the USA in terms of productivity levels and unemployment.

  17. Policy-Making in Unemployment Services:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caswell, Dorte; Høybye-Mortensen, Matilde

    The development of paternalist policies, such as the increase of punitive methods in welfare services, has been identified and analysed internationally (Mead, 1998; Soss et al., 2011a). The combination of these with an emphasis on instruments such as competition and performance measurement has be...... are categorised as having problems besides unemployment (Caswell et al., 2011)....

  18. State Dependence in Unemployment among Danish Immigrants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmad, Nisar

    This study examines the extent state dependence among unemployed Danish immigrants in a dynamic discrete choice framework. Three alternative methodologies are employed to control for the problem of the initial condition. The empirical findings show that there is a considerable correlation between...

  19. A Forecast Model for Unemployment by Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tranæs, Torben; Larsen, Anders Holm; Groes, Niels

    1994-01-01

    We present a dynamic forecast model for the labour market: demand for labour by education and the distribution of labour by education among industries are determined endogenously with overall demand by industry given exogenously. The model is derived from a simple behavioural equation based on a ...... for educational groups, where the initial forecast year is a change point for unemployment....

  20. Meeting and activating the newly unemployed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rotger, Gabriel Pons

    -demanding activity. As intensive activation is usually accompanied by intensive search monitoring, it is important to disentangling the contribution of the costly activation programs from that of caseworker meetings. Using Danish data for the period 2010-13, the paper shows that requiring newly unemployed intensive...... activation, contrary to job search meetings, reduces employment and increases sickness benefit claims....

  1. Youth Unemployment Outline of a Psychosocial Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamm, Margrit

    2006-01-01

    This analysis of education policy constitutes an attempt to outline the problem of youth unemployment. Building on a recognition that structural change in the "society of labourers" has also affected the social entity "young people", it shows the problems inherent in our concept of linear transitions to working life and the…

  2. Youth unemployment: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furnham, A

    1985-06-01

    This paper sets out to review the studies on youth unemployment conducted in a range of English speaking countries: America, Australia and Great Britain. The studies have been divided into six sections: psychological adjustment, attributions and expectations, education about unemployment, job choice and work experience, values, and job interview training. The paucity of good studies in this area partly explains the lack of clear replicated findings or coherent theories for the causes, correlates and consequences of unemployment among young people, though this is an area of relevance to social policy. Furthermore, it was concluded that various factors such as individual differences, salient demographic variables and previous work experience have been neglected. Nevertheless, many of the studies seem to indicate the presence of a destructive vicious circle which young people experience when failing to get a job: stress and disappointment, leading to lowered self-esteem, a change in expectations, and minor psychiatric illnesses which handicap the job search and application process so making unemployment all the more likely.

  3. Explaining unemployment trends in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J. Dur (Robert)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper, a small macroeconomic model of the Dutch labour market is estimated. The model is used to detect the causes of the rise in unemployment since the early 70s. In contrast to existing empirical work, we treat labour supply as an endogenous variable. This adjustment appears to

  4. Violence, Grants, Poverty, Inequality, Unemployment and Hope ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Notwithstanding the impressive achievements recorded in poverty reduction, extraordinarily high levels of violent rebellion and strikes are encountered, unexpected after 20 years of democratic transition. This paper locates the drivers of this socio-political instability in poverty, inequality and unemployment: the consequence ...

  5. Unemployment, Entrepreneurial Education and Mega Universities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Individuals acquire education for two broad fundamental reasons, as an investment and as consumption. The investment function of education has continued to create tension for job search leading to cases of unemployment. Entrepreneurship education and establishment of mega universities have being identified as ...

  6. A Case Study and Balance Sheet Approach to Unemployment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesketh, Beryl; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Describes positive and negative aspects of employment and unemployment in a balance sheet framework. Discusses the value of the balance sheet approach in understanding individual differences in reactions to unemployment. (Author/KS)

  7. Refugee youth, unemployment and extremism: countering the myth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drew Mikhael

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Refugee youth unemployment has been linked to increased risk of extremism and/or exploitation. Research indicates, however, that unemployment is just one of many factors triggering frustration among young refugees.

  8. ANALYSIS OF UNEMPLOYMENT CHALLENGES IN PALESTINE BETWEEN 2000 AND 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed SALAMA

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the challenges of unemployment in Palestine between 2000 and 2015. The study aims to understand the trends and sources of unemployment in Palestine. Using the Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics (PCBS data, trend analysis was used to understand the trends of unemployment in both parts of Palestine (West Bank and Gaza Strip between 2000 and 2015. The Results showed that there is a downward trend in the unemployment rate in West Bank and an upward trend appears on the unemployment rate in Gaza Strip. The constraints during the second Intifada and the Siege on Gaza Strip are the main factors that affected on unemployment between 2000 and 2015. The economic growth difference in both parts of Palestine (West Bank and Gaza Strip can be one of the reasons that affecting on unemployment besides the other reasons. Some solutions are introduced for unemployment challenge in Palestine beside the solution of lack of independence issue.

  9. UNEMPLOYMENT TRENDS DURING ECONOMY CRISIS 2014-2015 IN RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostikova E. K.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article lists factors affecting the socio-economic situation and questions concerning unemployment in Russia are discussed specifically. The purpose is to identify weak points in the labor market. Visual support reflects the dynamics of unemployment in Russia during economy crisis. Unemployment trends by federal districts, the causes of regional unemployment imbalances are examined. The novelty of the author’s approach is to forecast the unemployment rate for future periods with expert assessments to determine the risk of deviation of unemployment from trend. Data were analyzed in terms of unemployment level in Europe and comparison with Russian indicators was conducted. Based on the research, causes of unemployment in Russia and ways of its decline were discovered. Appropriate conclusions were made.

  10. Misery loves company? A meta-regression examining aggregate unemployment rates and the unemployment-mortality association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelfs, David J; Shor, Eran; Blank, Aharon; Schwartz, Joseph E

    2015-05-01

    Individual-level unemployment has been consistently linked to poor health and higher mortality, but some scholars have suggested that the negative effect of job loss may be lower during times and in places where aggregate unemployment rates are high. We review three logics associated with this moderation hypothesis: health selection, social isolation, and unemployment stigma. We then test whether aggregate unemployment rates moderate the individual-level association between unemployment and all-cause mortality. We use six meta-regression models (each using a different measure of the aggregate unemployment rate) based on 62 relative all-cause mortality risk estimates from 36 studies (from 15 nations). We find that the magnitude of the individual-level unemployment-mortality association is approximately the same during periods of high and low aggregate-level unemployment. Model coefficients (exponentiated) were 1.01 for the crude unemployment rate (P = .27), 0.94 for the change in unemployment rate from the previous year (P = .46), 1.01 for the deviation of the unemployment rate from the 5-year running average (P = .87), 1.01 for the deviation of the unemployment rate from the 10-year running average (P = .73), 1.01 for the deviation of the unemployment rate from the overall average (measured as a continuous variable; P = .61), and showed no variation across unemployment levels when the deviation of the unemployment rate from the overall average was measured categorically. Heterogeneity between studies was significant (P unemployment experiences change when macroeconomic conditions change. Efforts to ameliorate the negative social and economic consequences of unemployment should continue to focus on the individual and should be maintained regardless of periodic changes in macroeconomic conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Editors' note

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denker, Carsten; Feller, Alex; Schmidt, Wolfgang; von der Lühe, Oskar

    2012-11-01

    This topical issue of Astronomische Nachrichten/Astronomical Notes is a collection of reference articles covering the GREGOR solar telescope, its science capabilities, its subsystems, and its dedicated suite of instruments for high-resolution observations of the Sun. Because ground-based telescopes have life spans of several decades, it is only natural that they continuously reinvent themselves. Literally, the GREGOR telescope builds on the foundations of the venerable Gregory-Coudé Telescope (GCT) at Observatorio del Teide, Tenerife, Spain. Acknowledging the fact that new discoveries in observational solar physics are driven by larger apertures to collect more photons and to scrutinize the Sun in finer detail, the GCT was decommissioned and the building was made available to the GREGOR project.

  12. Editorial note

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gani, Rafiqul; Hrymak, A.; Lee, J.

    2009-01-01

    industrial and educational applications. These articles will highlight theory, models, algorithms and applications with respect to value preservation and/or value creation or growth within the chemical product supply chain. To highlight and motivate research in the emerging challenges in PSE, we plan...... components of PSE—modeling, numerical analysis, optimization, systems and control theory, computer science, and, management science will be highlighted through the published articles (full-length papers, perspective papers, review papers, short notes and letters to the editor). They will cover...... and intelligent systems, integrated approaches to design, control and data analysis, systematic techniques for managing complexity, etc.), PSE emerging domains (product-process design, enterprise-wide optimization, energy and sustainability, biological engineering, pharmaceutical engineering, etc.) and novel...

  13. Unemployment of Non-western Immigrants in the Great Recession

    OpenAIRE

    Cerveny, J.; Ours, J.C. van

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: This paper examines whether unemployment of non-western immigrant workers in the Netherlands was disproportionally affected by the Great Recession. We analyze unemployment data covering the period November 2007 to February 2013 finding that the Great Recession affected unemployment rates of non-western immigrant workers in absolute terms more than unemployment rates of native workers. However, in relative terms there is not much of a difference. We also find that the sensitivity of ...

  14. Suicide and unemployment in Italy, 1982-1994

    OpenAIRE

    Preti, A.; Miotto, P.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether either the condition of being unemployed, or changes in unemployment rates are associated with suicide risk. DESIGN: Administrative data for suicide according to occupational status have been analysed considering three employment categories: employed, seeking new job (unemployed), seeking first job (never employed). Comparison of suicide rates by economic position and correlation between suicide and unemployment rates have been made. SUBJECTS AND SETTIN...

  15. Unemployment and Welfare State: What do the Data Tell Us?

    OpenAIRE

    DING, HONG

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyze the relationship between welfare expenditure by government and unemployment outcomes. Using a panel of 34 OECD countries from 1980 to 2010 and a two-way fixed effect model for panel data subject to endogeneity test and persistence test, the results of the paper suggest that total welfare expenditure as a percentage of GDP has a statistically significant positive impact on unemployment outcomes (total unemployment, long-term unemployment and youth unemployme...

  16. The Female-Male Differential in Unemployment Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemi, Beth

    1974-01-01

    The male-female differential in unemployment is attributed to three major factors. They are frictional unemployment, cyclical layoff often connected with lack of specific training, and occupational and geographic immobility. Women receive less specific training then men; however, the net effect of this lack on female unemployment is quite small.…

  17. 253 Education and the Paradox of Graduate Unemployment: The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FIRST LADY

    2011-01-18

    Jan 18, 2011 ... basically four major types of unemployment; the cyclical, seasonal, frictional and structural. Cyclical unemployment is the type of joblessness that occurs as a result of lower rates of production, during recessions in business cycles resulting in massive layoffs of workers. Seasonal unemployment results from.

  18. 20 CFR 606.41 - High unemployment deferral.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false High unemployment deferral. 606.41 Section... UNDER THE FEDERAL UNEMPLOYMENT TAX ACT; ADVANCES UNDER TITLE XII OF THE SOCIAL SECURITY ACT Relief from Interest Payment § 606.41 High unemployment deferral. (a) Applicability. Subsection (b)(3)(C) of section...

  19. 20 CFR 606.42 - High unemployment delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false High unemployment delay. 606.42 Section 606... THE FEDERAL UNEMPLOYMENT TAX ACT; ADVANCES UNDER TITLE XII OF THE SOCIAL SECURITY ACT Relief from Interest Payment § 606.42 High unemployment delay. (a) Applicability. Paragraph (9) of section 1202 (b) of...

  20. 45 CFR 302.65 - Withholding of unemployment compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Withholding of unemployment compensation. 302.65... HUMAN SERVICES STATE PLAN REQUIREMENTS § 302.65 Withholding of unemployment compensation. The State plan... State agency charged with the administration of the State unemployment compensation laws in accordance...

  1. 20 CFR 336.2 - Duration of normal unemployment benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Duration of normal unemployment benefits. 336... UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT DURATION OF NORMAL AND EXTENDED BENEFITS Normal Benefits § 336.2 Duration of normal unemployment benefits. (a) 130 compensable day limitation. A qualified employee who has satisfied the waiting...

  2. How Changes in Financial Incentives Affect the Duration of Unemployment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lalive, R.; van Ours, J.C.; Zweimüller, J.

    2004-01-01

    This paper studies how changes in the two key parameters of unemployment insurance - the benefit replacement rate (RR) and the potential duration of benefits (PBD) - affect the duration of unemployment.In 1989, the Austrian government made unemployment insurance more generous by changing,

  3. 44 CFR 206.141 - Disaster unemployment assistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Disaster unemployment assistance. 206.141 Section 206.141 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY... § 206.141 Disaster unemployment assistance. The authority to implement the disaster unemployment...

  4. Business cycles and compositional variation in U.S. unemployment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbring, J.H.; van den Berg, G.J.; van Ours, J.C.

    2002-01-01

    In this article, we study U.S. unemployment dynamics using grouped unemployment data from the Current Population Survey over the period 1968-1992. We estimate a model that traces variation in these unemployment data, both over time and between demographic groups, back to the underlying variation in

  5. Unemployment of Non-western Immigrants in the Great Recession

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cervený, J.; van Ours, J.C.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: This paper examines whether unemployment of non-western immigrant workers in the Netherlands was disproportionally affected by the Great Recession. We analyze unemployment data covering the period November 2007 to February 2013 finding that the Great Recession affected unemployment rates

  6. Unemployment of non-western immigrants in the Great Recession

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cervený, J.; van Ours, J.C.

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines whether unemployment of non-western immigrant workers in the Netherlands was disproportionally affected by the Great Recession. We analyze unemployment data covering the period November 2007–February 2013 finding that the Great Recession affected unemployment rates of non-western

  7. 45 CFR 233.101 - Dependent children of unemployed parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dependent children of unemployed parents. 233.101... unemployed parents. (a) Requirements for State Plans. Effective October 1, 1990 (for Puerto Rico, American... children of unemployed parents. A State plan under title IV-A for payment of such aid must: (1) Include a...

  8. 45 CFR 233.100 - Dependent children of unemployed parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dependent children of unemployed parents. 233.100... unemployed parents. (a) Requirements for State Plans. If a State wishes to provide AFDC for children of unemployed parents, the State plan under title IV-A of the Social Security Act must: (1) Include a definition...

  9. Social Support and Self-Esteem in Unemployed University Graduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lackovic-Grgin, Katica; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Examined the relationships between length of unemployment time, self-esteem and general life satisfaction of university graduates (n=98). Also examined the function of social support during the period of unemployment. Results indicated length of unemployment, contrary to previous findings, was not related to self-esteem and general life…

  10. Unemployment Insurance Fund Insolvency and Debt in Michigan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaustein, Saul J.

    Without changes in Michigan's unemployment insurance law, the state's unemployment insurance debt will probably reach $3.8 billion by the end of 1985. Currently, Michigan's employers pay unemployment insurance tax rates that vary from 1 to 9 percent, depending upon the amount of benefits charged against their accounts. Beginning with the federal…

  11. Editorial Note

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meer, F.; Ommen Kloeke, E.

    2015-07-01

    With this editorial note we would like to update you on the performance of the International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation (JAG) and inform you about changes that have been made to the composition of the editorial team. Our Journal publishes original papers that apply earth observation data for the management of natural resources and the environment. Environmental issues include biodiversity, land degradation, industrial pollution and natural hazards such as earthquakes, floods and landslides. As such the scope is broad and ranges from conceptual and more fundamental work on earth observation and geospatial sciences to the more problem-solving type of work. When I took over the role of Editor-in-Chief in 2012, I together with the Publisher set myself the mission to position JAG in the top-3 of the remote sensing and GIS journals. To do so we strived at attracting high quality and high impact papers to the journal and to reduce the review turnover time to make JAG a more attractive medium for publications. What has been achieved? Have we reached our ambitions? We can say that: The submissions have increased over the years with over 23% for the last 12 months. Naturally not all may lead to more papers, but at least a portion of the additional submissions should lead to a growth in journal content and quality.

  12. Note & Recensioni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available VolumiVito Campanelli, Web Aesthetics. How Digital Media Affect Culture and Society; Id., Remix It Yourself. Analisi socio-estetica delle forme comunicative del Web [Emanuele Crescimanno] • Jean-François Bordron, Image et vérité. Essais sur les dimensions iconiques de la connaissance [Veronica Estay Stange] • Stéphane Dumas, Les peaux créatrices – Esthétique de la sécrétion [Marc-Vincent Howlett]NoteQuidam veritatis effectus. A proposito di A Plea for Balance in Philosophy. Essays in honour of Paolo Parrini [Fabrizio Desideri] • A Single Face to Capture the Whole World: Literary Shapes and Shadows. An Interview With Tolm Coibin [Fabrizia Abbate] •Convegno Le sensible a l’oeuvre: savoirs du corps entre esthetique et neurosciences, Parigi, 15 Maggio 2014 [Jessica Murano] 

  13. ASPECT UNEMPLOYMENT PROBLEM IN RESOURCEEFFICIENT ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Sаmоkhvаlоv

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article the question of resource efficiency and the problem of unemployment. Stressed the importance of efficient use of human resources for domestic companies and the country as a whole. The definition of unemployment, which is one of the greatest challenges of the market economy. The problem of unemployment is one of the most important today, particularly for the Russian labor market. Analyzed, compared, such as the types of unemployment: frictional, structural and cyclical. The problem of unemployment exacerbates a difficult financial position, pushing to seek work of housewives, pensioners and students. It reflects the main approaches for the consideration of unemployment. The correlation between unemployment and economic crisis. Companies that are in a crisis, trying to maneuver and keep your team. Practice the system of long administrative leave and the use of part-time employment, resulting in a hidden unemployment. The extent of its increase as the phase-out. The main methods of state regulation that reduce unemployment associated with the development of ways of retraining the unemployed, social support for the unemployed, assistance in the creation of additional jobs, and others. We consider the law "On employment in the Russian Federation" and the activities of labor exchanges, represented by their main position and functions designed to support and help in finding work. It analyzes the level of unemployment over the past five years. To date, according to the Federal State Statistics Service, unemployment in Russia is 5.3 %. The lowest unemployment is currently in Moscow – less than 1 %, the highest in Ingushetia – more than 40 %. Nevertheless, unemployment in our country for more than seven million people, and it is a huge untapped resource.

  14. Macroeconomic Variables and Unemployment: The Case of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylan Taner Doğan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the response of unemployment to selective macroeconomics shocks over period of 2000:Q1-2010:Q1. It is found that positive shocks to growth, growth in export and and inflation reduce unemployment. On the other hand, shocks to exchange rate, interbank interest rate and money supply increase unemployment. Our results are consistent with Phillips curve and Okun’s Law suggestion. Namely, negative relationship between output and unemployment and positive relationship between unemployment and inflation are found. Also, this study found consistent results with earlier literature.

  15. Is Longer Unemployment Rewarded with Longer Job Tenure?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kohara, Miki; Sasaki, Masaru; Machikita, Tomohiro

    security offices: one includes information about the circumstances of job seekers receiving unemployment insurance, and the other includes information about job seekers applying for jobs. We first show a negative relationship between unemployment duration and the subsequent job duration. Restricting...... the sample to job seekers who changed search behaviors in the final 59 days before expiration of unemployment insurance, we secondly show an even greater negative effect of unemployment duration on the following job duration. The importance lies not only in the duration of unemployment. If job seekers keep...

  16. 20 CFR 325.2 - Procedure for registering for unemployment benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Procedure for registering for unemployment... UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT REGISTRATION FOR RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT BENEFITS § 325.2 Procedure for registering for unemployment benefits. (a) Registering as unemployed. To claim unemployment benefits for any day...

  17. 20 CFR 625.5 - Unemployment caused by a major disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Unemployment caused by a major disaster. 625... DISASTER UNEMPLOYMENT ASSISTANCE § 625.5 Unemployment caused by a major disaster. (a) Unemployed worker. The unemployment of an unemployed worker is caused by a major disaster if— (1) The individual has a...

  18. Self-reported unemployment status and recession: An analysis on the Italian population with and without mental health problems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Starace

    Full Text Available During economic recession people with mental health problems have higher risk of losing their job. This paper analyses the issue by considering the Italian rates of unemployment amongst individuals with and without mental health problems in 2005 and 2013, that is prior and during the economic crisis.We used data from the National surveys on "Health conditions and use of health services" carried out by the Italian National Institute of Statistics (ISTAT for the years 2005 and 2013. The surveys collected information on the health status and socioeconomic conditions of the Italian population. Self-reported unemployment status was analysed amongst individuals with and without reported mental health problems. In addition, descriptive statistics were performed in order to detect possible differences in the risk of unemployment within different regional contexts characterised by different socio-economic conditions.The recession determined increased disparities in unemployment rates between people with and without mental health problems. Regardless to the presence of mental health problems, young people were more likely to be unemployed. Among people who reported mental health problems, males were more likely to be unemployed than females. People with low education level were more likely to be unemployed, particularly during the recession and in presence of mental health problems. Changes in unemployment rates due to the crisis showed different patterns across different regions of the Country.These analyses confirm that in periods of economic crisis people with mental health problems are at risk of experiencing exclusion from labour market. In addition, the impact is even worse within the group with low education and younger age. These findings emphasise the importance of specific interventions aimed at promoting labour market participation and reintegration for people with mental health problems.

  19. Self-reported unemployment status and recession: An analysis on the Italian population with and without mental health problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starace, Fabrizio; Mungai, Francesco; Sarti, Elena; Addabbo, Tindara

    2017-01-01

    Purpose During economic recession people with mental health problems have higher risk of losing their job. This paper analyses the issue by considering the Italian rates of unemployment amongst individuals with and without mental health problems in 2005 and 2013, that is prior and during the economic crisis. Methods We used data from the National surveys on “Health conditions and use of health services” carried out by the Italian National Institute of Statistics (ISTAT) for the years 2005 and 2013. The surveys collected information on the health status and socioeconomic conditions of the Italian population. Self-reported unemployment status was analysed amongst individuals with and without reported mental health problems. In addition, descriptive statistics were performed in order to detect possible differences in the risk of unemployment within different regional contexts characterised by different socio-economic conditions. Results The recession determined increased disparities in unemployment rates between people with and without mental health problems. Regardless to the presence of mental health problems, young people were more likely to be unemployed. Among people who reported mental health problems, males were more likely to be unemployed than females. People with low education level were more likely to be unemployed, particularly during the recession and in presence of mental health problems. Changes in unemployment rates due to the crisis showed different patterns across different regions of the Country. Conclusions These analyses confirm that in periods of economic crisis people with mental health problems are at risk of experiencing exclusion from labour market. In addition, the impact is even worse within the group with low education and younger age. These findings emphasise the importance of specific interventions aimed at promoting labour market participation and reintegration for people with mental health problems. PMID:28376098

  20. [The general practitioner and the unemployed].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruud, J

    1992-02-20

    Unemployment has increased in Norway during the last years. In order to study the impact of unemployment on primary health care in Hedmark county, a questionnaire was sent to 132 general practitioners. 70% replied. Some of the questions dealt with the doctors' requests for social security benefits for patients whose problems were related to loss of job. During one week 30% of the doctors had written this kind of sickness certificate. Further, during one month, 35% had recommended rehabilitation or disability pension. During the last year, 26% of the doctors had received requests activity proposing sickness certification for some of their employees from companies that were forced to reduce activity. The author discusses these results, and outlines the possible consequences for patient, doctor and the social security system.

  1. Unemployment and mortality: evidence from the PSID.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliday, Timothy J

    2014-07-01

    We use micro-data to investigate the relationship between unemployment and mortality in the United States using Logistic regression on a sample of over 16,000 individuals. We consider baselines from 1984 to 1993 and investigate mortality up to ten years from the baseline. We show that poor local labor market conditions are associated with higher mortality risk for working-aged men and, specifically, that a one percentage point increase in the unemployment rate increases their probability of dying within one year of baseline by 6%. There is little to no such relationship for people with weaker labor force attachments such as women or the elderly. Our results contribute to a growing body of work that suggests that poor economic conditions pose health risks and illustrate an important contrast with studies based on aggregate data. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. State Dependence in Unemployment among Danish Immigrants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmad, Nisar

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the extent state dependence among unemployed Danish immigrants in a dynamic discrete choice framework. Three alternative methodologies are employed to control for the problem of the initial condition. The empirical findings show that there is a considerable correlation between...... compared to an individual who was employed at period “t-1”. This average partial effect is the same for western compared to non-western immigrants and women compared to men....

  3. PRE-ELECTIONAL DECREASE OF THE UNEMPLOYMENT RATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damjan Miličević

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Opportunistic business cycle models test whether the current government has the ability to reduce unemployment in pre-election period. First opportunistic business cycle models tested regressions using unemployment rate as the dependent variable, and for explanatory variables used unemployment rate in the previous two periods and political dummy variable defined as unity several quarters prior to election and zero elsewhere. Such models did not find evidence of opportunistic cycle for unemployment. Haynes and Stone in their model estimated regressions using unemployment as the dependent variable and sixteen dummy variables as explanatory variables (one for each quarter in the Presidential electoral term. Results showed that unemployment has roughly sinusoidal sixteen quarter cycle, where unemployment troughs on average the quarter of the election. Mentioned models are tested with data for the United States for the period from 1948 to 2011 where regressions results coincide with models mentioned in the article.

  4. The unemployed mid-career adult: stressors and support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynn Ribton-Turner

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The high rate of unemployment in South Africa is of national concern yet the experience of being unemployed is little understood; not enough is known about the unemployed condition in South Africa. In this study eight unemployed mid-career adults who had been out of work for longer than six months were interviewed in order to explore their lived experience. A qualitative methodology was used and from the extensive interview data, using qualitative content analysis, themes relating to the unemployed condition emerged. Results support, to a large degree, the existing literature and studies on the stressors impacting on the unemployed. This study offers additional insight into the support structures available for the unemployed adult.

  5. Unemployment, Growth and the Organisation of Work

    OpenAIRE

    Henri L.F. de Groot; Anton B.T.M. van Schaik

    2002-01-01

    We develop a two-sector endogenous growth model with a dual labour market resulting from the presence of an effort extraction function in one sector. Effort of workers can be influenced by pay and monitoring. This results in an endogenous non-competitive wage differential between sectors and a monitoring intensity that is a source of fixed costs for the firm. Growth is driven by investments in R&D performed in the high-wage sector. Unemployment is determined by the costs and benefits of waiti...

  6. Environmental policy, pollution, unemployment and endogenous growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lars Haagen; Nielsen, Søren Bo; Sørensen, Peter Birch

    1995-01-01

    The paper develops a model of endogenous economic growth with pollution externalities and a labor market distorted by union monopoly power and by taxes and transfers. We study the optimal second-best pollution tax and abatement policy and find that a shift toward greener preferences will tend...... to reduce unemployment, although it will hamper growth. We also find that greater labor-market distortions call for higher pollution tax rates. Finally, we show that a switch from quantity control of pollution combined with grandfathering of pollution rights to regulation via emission charges has...

  7. Illegal aliens, unemployment and immigration policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djajic, S

    1987-02-01

    "This paper develops a simple two-country model of illegal immigration in an attempt to examine the interaction among variables such as the stock of migrant labor, the unemployment rates of the two economies, and the rate of spending by the host country on the enforcement of its immigration restrictions. The focus of the analysis is on the dynamics of immigration policy and on its role in determining the nature of the mechanism by which disturbances to the labor market of one country are transmitted to that of the other in the short run and in the long run." excerpt

  8. Competing Risks Copula Models for Unemployment Duration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lo, Simon M. S.; Stephan, Gesine; Wilke, Ralf

    2017-01-01

    The copula graphic estimator (CGE) for competing risks models has received little attention in empirical research, despite having been developed into a comprehensive research method. In this paper, we bridge the gap between theoretical developments and applied research by considering a general...... class of competing risks copula models, which nests popular models such as the Cox proportional hazards model, the semiparametric multivariate mixed proportional hazards model (MMPHM), and the CGE as special cases. Analyzing the effects of a German Hartz reform on unemployment duration, we illustrate...

  9. Selection into Labor Force and Gender Unemployment Gaps

    OpenAIRE

    Alena Bicakova

    2014-01-01

    This paper sets the groundwork for analysis of the effect of selection into labor force on gender unemployment gaps. We derive the Manski bounds for gender unemployment gaps in 21 EU countries and show that in addition to the positive selection documented in the gender wage gap research, there is also evidence of negative selection into the labor force among women after childbirth. While positive selection of women into the labor force leads to downward bias in gender unemployment gaps, negat...

  10. COMPONENTS OF THE UNEMPLOYMENT ANALYSIS IN CONTEMPORARY ECONOMIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Enea-SMARANDACHE

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The unemployment is a permanent phenomenon in majority countries of the world, either with advanced economies, either in course of developed economies, and the implications and the consequences are more complexes, so that, practically, the fight with unemployment becomes a fundamental objective for the economy politics. In context, the authors proposed to set apart essentially components for unemployment analyse with the scope of identification the measures and the instruments of counteracted.

  11. Job search monitoring and assistance for the unemployed

    OpenAIRE

    Marinescu, Ioana E.

    2017-01-01

    In many countries, reducing unemployment is among the most important policy goals. In this context, monitoring job search by the unemployed and providing job search assistance can play a crucial role. However, more and more stringent monitoring and sanctions are not a panacea. Policymakers must consider possible downsides, such as unemployed people accepting less stable and lower-paying jobs. Tying “moderate” monitoring to job search assistance may be the essential ingredient to make this app...

  12. The Effects of Unemployment on the Earnings of Young Australians

    OpenAIRE

    Matthew Gray

    2000-01-01

    The high rates of youth unemployment experienced in a number of OECD economies has raised concerns about the effect of this on subsequent earnings. Using the Australian Youth Survey (AYS) a longitudinal survey of Australian youth, we estimate the effects of unemployment on subsequent hourly and weekly earnings. The estimates suggest that, when unobserved heterogeneity is taken into account, it is only long histories of unemployment which have a negative effect on hourly wages. On the other ha...

  13. The Thick Market Effect on Local Unemployment Rate Fluctuations

    OpenAIRE

    Li Gan; Qinghua Zhang

    2005-01-01

    This paper studies how the thick market effect influences local unemployment rate fluctuations. The paper presents a model to demonstrate that the average matching quality improves as the number of workers and firms increases. Unemployed workers accumulate in a city until the local labor market reaches a critical minimum size, which leads to cyclical fluctuations in the local unemployment rates. Since larger cities attain the critical market size more frequently, they have shorter unemploymen...

  14. The reaction of stock market returns to anticipated unemployment

    OpenAIRE

    Taamouti, Abderrahim; Gonzalo Muñoz, Jesús

    2012-01-01

    We empirically investigate the short-run impact of anticipated and unanticipated unemployment rates on stock prices. We particularly examine the nonlinearity in stock market's reaction to unemployment rate and study the effect at each individual point (quantile) of stock return distribution. Using nonparametric Granger causality and quantile regression based tests, we find that, contrary to the general findings in the literature, only anticipated unemployment rate has a strong impact on stock...

  15. Unemployment, Investment and Global Expected Returns: A Panel FAVAR Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Ron Smith; Gylfi Zoega

    2005-01-01

    We consider the hypothesis that a common factor, global expected returns, drives unemployment and investment in 21 OECD countries over the period 1960-2002. We investigate this hypothesis using a panel-factor augmented-vector autoregression (FAVAR). We first estimate the common factors of unemployment and investment by principal components and show that the first principal component of unemployment is almost identical to that of investment and that they both show the pattern one would expect ...

  16. Hysteresis and the natural rate of unemployment in Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, George

    1990-01-01

    Read before the Society, 23rd November 1989 Conventional Keynesian or Classical macroeconomic theories must be considered inadequate to explain unemployment experiences such as the Irish one. Rigidities that one might associate with fixed contracts, or even adjustment costs in relation to prices or quantities, can hardly account for 17 years of rising unemployment. Indeed, surely such an upturn in conjunction with the apparent breakdown of the unemployment-inflation relat...

  17. Rural-Urban Migration and Unemployment: Theory and Policy Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Zenou, Yves

    2010-01-01

    We develop a regional model where, in the city, unemployment prevails because of too high (efficiency) wages, while, in the rural area, workers are paid at their marginal productivity. We characterize the steady-state equilibrium and show that it is unique. We then consider two policies: decreasing urban unemployment benefits and subsidizing urban employment. We find that decreasing the unemployment benefit in the city creates urban jobs and reduces rural-urban migration since new migrants ha...

  18. Does an increase in unemployment income lead to longer unemployment spells?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toomet, Ott-Siim

    2005-01-01

    Danish unemployment assistance depends on age; it increases by 70% when unemployedindividuals turn 25. This feature is used to identify the impact of income on theunemployment-to-employment hazard rate. A mixed proportional hazard frameworkbased on a 10% representative Danish registry data set is...

  19. Financial Development and Unemployment in Emerging Market Economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bayar Yilmaz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Financial sector has experienced significant expansion together with accelerating financial globalization in recent years and had important positive and negative economic implications for all the economies. This study investigates the interaction among unemployment, financial development and domestic investment in 16 emerging market economies during 2001-2014 period using panel data analysis. We found that there was long relationship among the variables and domestic investment had negative impact on the unemployment, while financial development had no significant impact on the unemployment. Furthermore, there was unidirectional causality from development of financial sector to unemployment.

  20. Do Targeted Hiring Subsidies and Profiling Techniques Reduce Unemployment?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jahn, Elke; Wagner, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    To reduce equilibrium unemployment targeted hiring subsidies and profiling techniques for long-term unemployed are often recommended. To analyze the effects of these two instruments, our model combines two search methods: the public employment service and random search, jobseekers choose between...... an active and a passive search strategy, while labour market policy has two options available. First, only the long-term unemployed placed by the public employment service are subsidized. Second, the subsidy is paid for each match with a long-term unemployed irrespective of the search method used. We show...

  1. Coping with unemployment: does educational attainment make any difference?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ulla; Schmidt, Lone; Kriegbaum, Margit

    2006-01-01

    AIMS: The aim of this study was to examine the cross-sectional association between educational attainment and coping strategies with unemployment in a random sample of 37- to 56-year-old Danish men and women in long-term unemployment. METHODS: Data were based on a survey among 575 men and 1......,064 women who had been unemployed at least 70% of the time during a three-year period (October 1996 to October 1999). The outcome measures were two scales for coping with unemployment, one for problem-solving coping, and one for avoidant coping. Educational attainment was measured by years of vocational...

  2. Risk for unemployment of cancer survivors: A Danish cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Kathrine; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg; Diderichsen, Finn

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To investigate whether cancer survivors are at an increased risk for unemployment after cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cohort of 65,510 patients who were part of the workforce in the year before diagnosis and a random sample of 316,925 age and gender-matched controls were followed for up...... that the risk for unemployment was highest amongst persons aged 50-60 years at time of diagnosis. Risk factors for unemployment were found to be manual work, medium income and vocational education. CONCLUSION: Generally, cancer patients were at a small increased risk for unemployment and low socioeconomic...

  3. Do Targeted Hiring Subsidies and Profiling Techniques Reduce Unemployment?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jahn, Elke; Wagner, Thomas

    To reduce equilibrium unemployment targeted hiring subsidies and profilin techniques for long-term unemployed are often recommended. To analyze the effects of these two instruments, our model combines two search methods: the public employment serviceand random search, jobseekers choose between...... an active and a passive search strategy, while labour market policy has two options available. First, only the long-term unemployed placed by the public employment service are subsidized. Second, the subsidy is paid for each match with a long-term unemployed irrespective of the search method used. We show...

  4. Unemployment as a source of mental distress to individuals and their family: Unemployed parents' perceptions during the economic recession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frasquilho, Diana; de Matos, Margarida Gaspar; Santos, Teresa; Gaspar, Tânia; Caldas de Almeida, J M

    2016-08-01

    Due to the economic recession, several people in Europe became unemployed. This situation may risk their mental health. This study explored parents' perceptions about their unemployment's effects in daily life during the recession. A total of 59 unemployed parents (40.7% fathers and 59.3% mothers), ageing 44.4 years (±6.2), answer a question on how the unemployment affected their family lives. Thematic analysis was used to analyse data. The findings suggest that unemployment is a source of adult and youth mental distress and of economic hardship and changes in family relations. Support to unemployed individuals and their families could benefit from these insights when granting the needed financial and socioemotional assistance. © The Author(s) 2016.

  5. Unemployment, Parental Distress and Youth Emotional Well-Being: The Moderation Roles of Parent-Youth Relationship and Financial Deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frasquilho, Diana; de Matos, Margarida Gaspar; Marques, Adilson; Neville, Fergus G; Gaspar, Tânia; Caldas-de-Almeida, J M

    2016-10-01

    We investigated, in a sample of 112 unemployed parents of adolescents aged 10-19 years, the links between parental distress and change in youth emotional problems related to parental unemployment, and the moderation roles of parent-youth relationship and financial deprivation. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and correlations. Further, simple moderation, additive moderation, and moderated moderation models of regression were performed to analyze the effects of parental distress, parent-youth relationship and financial deprivation in predicting change in youth emotional problems related to parental unemployment. Results show that parental distress moderated by parent-youth relationship predicted levels of change in youth emotional problems related to parental unemployment. This study provides evidence that during job loss, parental distress is linked to youth emotional well-being and that parent-youth relationships play an important moderation role. This raises the importance of further researching parental distress impacts on youth well-being, especially during periods of high unemployment rates.

  6. Structural analysis of unemployment in the Russian Federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. F. Ibragimova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Research aim. The article analyzes the state of unemployment in theRussian Federation. Modern macroeconomic conditions and the state of the labor market necessitate identifying population groups, constituting unemployment risks. Both representatives of different schools of economic thought and modern Russian scholars devoted their work to studying unemployment problems and the need for government regulation of employment and unemployment. However, a more accurate characteristic of the level and state of unemployment requires a more thorough analysis.Materials and methods. In order to present the general picture of unemployment in theRussian Federation, structural analysis of the phenomenon is used with the help of corresponding indexes, which, in our opinion, make it possible to evaluate the level and state of unemployment in detail. Indexes of absolute structure changes, degree of absolute shift intensity were used for analysis, the level of concentration was determined etc.Results. The calculations revealed the most vulnerable groups in the structure of the unemployed, showing the necessity of searching for and applying new forms and tools of government policy for reducing the level of unemployment. According to the official statistics, the level of unemployment inRussia was 5.6 % in 2015. The labor market in theRussian Federation is characterized by a gender gap – unemployed men outnumber unemployed women by 7.8%. Besides, there is a consistent trend of increase in the number of university-educated unemployed people. According to the calculations, the percentage of women with higher and secondary education is higher than the share of men. The difference in the structure of the unemployed among women and men in regards to education is in average about 14% of the maximum possible. Quite a high level of youth unemployment (approximately 25% describes the unstable position of the given group in the labor market.Calculations of Grofman, Kazinets

  7. From unemployment to disability? Relationship between unemployment rate and new disability pensions in Iceland 1992-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorlacius, Sigurður; Ólafsson, Stefán

    2012-02-01

    The study was carried out in order to examine the effect of unemployment on the incidence of disability pension in Iceland by examining changes in this relationship from 1992 to 2007. The annual incidence of disability pension for the period 1992-2007 was calculated. Correlations and significance tests for the relationship between unemployment rates and disability pension incidence rates were calculated. The relationship was examined for different disease groups. Two big fluctuations occurred in the unemployment rate during the study period with an upswing in unemployment from 1993 to 1995 and in 2002 and 2003. In both cases, there were corresponding increases in the incidence of disability pension. The incidence of disability pension declined again when the level of unemployment went down, even though not to the same extent. Health and mental and physical capability determine the overall incidence of disability pension, but marginal fluctuations over time seem to be related to environmental conditions in the labour market, especially the unemployment rate. The observed disability pension incidence pattern in the two unemployment cycles of the study period indicates mainly that people with impaired health are forced out of the labour market in times of increasing unemployment rather than pointing towards a negative effect of unemployment on health. Our findings indicate that there is a need to strengthen the vocational rehabilitation system in Iceland as well as the support system for employment and social participation.

  8. The Link between Unemployment and Returns to Education: Evidence from 14 European Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Bernhard A.

    2002-01-01

    Estimates for 14 European countries used three models introducing unemployment, youth unemployment, and unemployment benefits respectively. Differences in unemployment probabilities at different educational levels and youth unemployment both appear to be important for a better understanding of the incentive structure behind educational decisions.…

  9. Unemployment and activation policies in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barth, Erling

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The NorSpaR project aims to analyse the main public policy initiatives by which Norway and Spain cope with the new social and economic challenges derived from the so-called New Social Risks (NSR. Although both countries present significant differences in their institutional settings (such as Spanish EU membership, or its belonging to diverse welfare regimes types (Norway is generally included in the Nordic regime, while Spain is part of the Mediterranean one, both countries share a common interest in addressing the aforementioned challenges while maintaining social cohesion. In the last decade, governments in both countries have tried to respond to those challenges by reforming their labour markets, adapting their unemployment schemes, as well as their gender, family and long-term care policies. The analysis covered in this project includes three areas of public policy addressing NSR. First, dependency is one of the most daunting challenges for post-industrial societies experiencing population ageing and with an increasing number of frail people in need of care. This situation is forcing governments to rethink their long-term care policies. Second, family and gender public programs need to respond to the growing difficulties of families in reconciling professional and family life. Third, in the transition to a post-industrial order, and in a context of mass unemployment, social protection systems have a renewed prominence. Along with the so-called passive policies offering financial support to the unemployed, active labour market policies are geared to put people back into work. In our analysis we try to find answers to the following questions: What are the challenges that each of these policies have been trying to address in recent years? How have these policies evolved? What kinds of reforms have been implemented, and which ones have been neglected? Have the policy goals and targets of welfare programs been modified in any significant way

  10. Graduate Unemployment in South Africa: Social Inequality Reproduced

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldry, Kim

    2016-01-01

    In this study, I examine the influence of demographic and educational characteristics of South African graduates on their employment/unemployment status. A sample of 1175 respondents who graduated between 2006 and 2012 completed an online survey. Using binary logistic regression, the strongest determinants of unemployment were the graduates' race,…

  11. Unemployment Benefit Exhaustion: Incentive Effects on Job-Finding Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filges, Trine; Geerdsen, Lars Pico; Knudsen, Anne-Sofie Due; Jørgensen, Anne-Marie Klint

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This systematic review studied the impact of exhaustion of unemployment benefits on the exit rate out of unemployment and into employment prior to benefit exhaustion or shortly thereafter. Method: We followed Campbell Collaboration guidelines to prepare this review, and ultimately located 12 studies for final analysis and interpretation.…

  12. Business cycles and compositional variation in U.S. unemployment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den G.J.; Abbring, J.H.

    1997-01-01

    In the past decades several features of U.S. unemployment dynamics have been investigated empirically. The original focus of research was onthe duration of unemployment. In later studies the cyclicality of incidence and duration, compositional effects and duration dependence of the exitrate out of

  13. Diagnosing Unemployment: The 'Classification' Approach to Multiple Causation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodenburg, P.

    2002-01-01

    The establishment of appropriate policy measures for fighting unemployment has always been difficult since causes of unemployment are hard to identify. This paper analyses an approach used mainly in the 1960s and 1970s in economics, in which classification is used as a way to deal with such a

  14. Youth's Unemployment and Illiteracy: Impact on National Security ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Though unemployment is a global phenomenon, the situation in Nigeria has reached the crises state, yet it is reported by economists, super financial institutions such as World Ban that the yearly growth of Nigeria economy is 7.8 percent. However, this paper espouses that unemployment, illiteracy and faulty institutional, ...

  15. The Relationship between Inflation and Unemployment in Ghana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The sample period was divided into two subsamples -from 1970 to 1982 and 1983 to 2013- in order to test for the effect of the Economic Recovery Programme on the relationship between inflation and unemployment. The empirical estimate reveals that, changes in unemployment does not brings about changes in inflation ...

  16. Youth unemployment and its consequences in Calabar metropolis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, consequences of youth unemployment in Nigeria were examined using Calabar metropolis in Cross River State as a case study. The literature is full of scholarly research on the social phenomenon of youth unemployment around the globe. This phenomenon has continued in Nigeria in the face of unfulfilled ...

  17. The Effect of Receiving Supplementary UI Benefits on Unemployment Duration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyyrä, Tomi; Parrotta, Pierpaolo; Rosholm, Michael

    We consider the consequences of working part-time on supplemen­tary unemployment insurance beneits in the Danish labour market. Following the "timing-of-events" approach we estimate causal effects of subsidized part-time work on the hazard rate out of unemployment insurance beneit receipt. We fin...

  18. Regional unemployment and human capital in transition economies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jurajda, Štěpán; Terrell, K.

    -, č. 77 (2007), s. 1-34 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : unemployment * human capital * regional labor markets Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://ipc.umich.edu/ working papers/ipc-77-jurajda,terrell,regional-unemployment-human- capital -transition-economies.pdf

  19. Who are the job seekers? : Explaining unemployment among doctoral recipients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yerkes, M.; Van de Schoot, R.; Sonneveld, H.

    2012-01-01

    Despite increased attention for doctoral education in recent years, one particular phenomenon has received little attention—the unemployment of doctoral candidates following graduation. While the unemployment of doctoral recipients is relatively low in comparison to the general popula-tion, the

  20. Career Transitions: The Experiences of Unemployed Women Managers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan, Terry A.

    2008-01-01

    A sample of 45 women managers was surveyed in a qualitative study to explore their experiences of being unemployed. The sample was purposeful, and the data were collected on a website-based survey. The experience of unemployment for female managers was far different from what was previously presumed from research largely drawn from male …

  1. Unemployment in South Africa: Building a Spatio-temporal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The spatial understanding of unemployment in South Africa is often limited to provinces. This paper explores ways to integrate unemployment data from 1991 to 2007 to obtain a spatially more detailed understanding of the phenomenon. Creating such a temporal GIS is challenging because of the changing administrative ...

  2. Characteristics and Determinants of Youth Unemployment in Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Youth unemployment is a serious concern to policy makers in many developing countries because of its multidimensional impact. In this connection, the paper attempts to characterize youth unemployment in Ethiopia and reveal its major determinants. Univariate results indicate that the youth in general, including teenager ...

  3. Maternal unemployment and childhood overweight: is there a relationship?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Leslie; Liu, Yujia; Rodriguez, Eunice

    2012-07-01

    Previous studies have shown a positive association between maternal work hours and childhood overweight. However, it is unclear what role job instability plays in this relationship; therefore, this study examined whether children whose mothers experienced unemployment were more likely to have greater increases in body mass index (BMI) as compared with children whose mothers were stably employed. The effects of unemployment benefits, welfare and number of hours worked were also explored. A multiple regression analysis was used to analyse changes in BMI over a 4-year period using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. In all, 4890 US children, aged 2-16 at baseline, were included in the analysis. As compared with children of mothers who were employed full-time and did not receive welfare, children of mothers who experienced unemployment and received unemployment benefits were not more likely to have significantly different changes in BMI. Yet children of mothers who experienced unemployment and did not receive unemployment benefits were significantly more likely to have greater increases in BMI. These results were also shown in models which controlled for height. This supports the conclusion that adiposity changes, and not simply growth-rate differences, account for the different BMI changes between groups. Aspects of maternal employment other than number of work hours are associated with child BMI, including unemployment events and what type of support a mother receives during the time of unemployment. This has implications for policies that relate to benefits for mothers who lose their jobs.

  4. The Long-Term Effects of Youth Unemployment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mroz, Thomas A.; Savage, Timothy H.

    2006-01-01

    Using NLSY data, we examine the long-term effects of youth unemployment on later labor market outcomes. Involuntary unemployment may yield suboptimal investments in human capital in the short run. A theoretical model of dynamic human capital investment predicts a rational "catch-up" response. Using semiparametric techniques to control for the…

  5. Youth unemployment in Nigeria: some implications for the third ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Youth unemployment in Nigeria: some implications for the third Millenium. ... Government in league with the private sector it is further suggested, can create job corps for school dropouts as one major remedy to unemployment. The paper further sees hope for Nigeria only if Youths are mobilized by way of genuinely ...

  6. Problems And Counselling Needs Of Unemployed Youths In Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Problems And Counselling Needs Of Unemployed Youths In Nigeria. ... African Journal for the Psychological Study of Social Issues ... Unemployed youths in Nigeria have problems in clusters of finance, family- related, health–related and socio-psychological and their most counselling need is how to develop skills that will ...

  7. Unemployment and labour force market in Republic of Kosova

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mic UKAJ, Msc.

    2013-07-01

    The very high rate of unemployment in Republic of Kosova presents one of main challenges that Country faces for a long time. The purpose of this research is to analyze the situation of labour force in Kosova, and come up with conclusions and recommendations regarding the creation of genuine economic policy which would cause the reduction of unemployment rate in country.

  8. Structure of labour market and unemployment in Sudan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nour, S.

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the structure of the labour market and unemployment in Sudan. One advantage of our analysis is that we explain several stylized facts on the labour market using new secondary data on population, employment and unemployment based on Sudan Central Bureau of Statistics (2010) the

  9. High Graduate Unemployment Rate and Taiwanese Undergraduate Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chih-Chun

    2011-01-01

    An expansion in higher education in combination with the recent global economic recession has resulted in a high college graduate unemployment rate in Taiwan. This study investigates how the high unemployment rate and financial constraints caused by economic cutbacks have shaped undergraduates' class choices, job needs, and future income…

  10. Background and Training Needs of Persistently Unemployed Negroes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beacham, Herbert C.

    1971-01-01

    The major purpose of the study was to describe the home, educational and occupational back grounds, econmic status, frequency and duration of unemployment of persistently unemployed Negroes in Tampa, Florida, and their expressed opinions about training, retraining, and relocation of their residences to obtain employment after training. (Author)

  11. The Psychological Effects of Unemployment on a Group of Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, Jim; Davies, Carol

    1984-01-01

    Three groups of 50 adolescents each (those employed since school, those involved in Youth Opportunities Programs YOP!, and those unemployed since school) were administered the Goldberg General Health Questionnaire, the Rosenberg Depression Scale, and two self-esteem inventories. The unemployed youth had lower self-esteem, more psychosomatic…

  12. Supporting Unemployed, Middle-Aged Men: A Psychoeducational Group Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphey, Charlotte M.; Shillingford, M. Ann

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a comprehensive group counseling approach to support unemployed, middle-aged men. An inclusive group curriculum designed to provide support and address potential mental health issues related to unemployment is introduced. The focus of the group is divided into 6 major areas that research has shown to have a significant impact…

  13. The role of empowerment and quality of life in depression severity among unemployed people with affective disorders receiving mental healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johanson, Suzanne; Bejerholm, Ulrika

    2017-09-01

    Sick leave and unemployment are highly prevalent among people with affective disorders. Their depression severity is disabling and inversely related to having employment. No evidence-based vocational rehabilitation exists for this target group. Knowledge is therefore needed to understand the psychosocial factors that affect depression severity in order to develop new rehabilitation interventions. This study examined relationships between depression severity and empowerment, working life aspirations, occupational engagement, and quality of life in unemployed people with affective disorders receiving mental healthcare. In this cross-sectional study of 61 participants, instruments on psychosocial factors and questions on descriptive sociodemographic and clinical characteristics were administered. Descriptive, correlation, and regression statistics were applied. Correlation and regression analyses showed significant inverse relations between depression severity and empowerment and quality of life. The odds for more severe depression decreased with higher empowerment and quality of life. However, neither extent of engagement in daily life nor working life aspiration was related to depression severity. An empowerment approach and strategies, which support the quality of life, are needed in development of vocational rehabilitation interventions, and bridging of mental healthcare and vocational services. Implications for Rehabilitation Enhancing empowerment and quality life in the return to work process can decrease depression severity in unemployed people with affective disorder. There is a need to address work issues in addition to symptom reduction in primary and mental healthcare. Bridging the service and time gap between vocational rehabilitation and healthcare is recommended for mitigating long-term unemployment for people with affective disorders who want to work.

  14. Projection 0f Labor Needs and Productivity to Reduce Unemployment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lestari Agusalim

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to estimate the amount of labor needs and productivity in Banten Province from 2016 until 2020. By estimating the needs and productivity of the labor, the government can use this information to create the appropriate policies in order to reduce the open unemployment rate (OUR in Banten Province. According to BPS data in 2014, OUR of Banten Province was the highest among other provinces in Java and second highest in Indonesia after Maluku. This study used the quantitative method, which are the exponential and geometric methods to project the labor needs. Other than that, this study used the descriptive method to interpret the quantitative data. The result showed that (1 from 2016 until 2020 there will be an increasing condition of employment, (2 from 2010 until 2014, the highest labor productivity were from electricity, gas and water sector. However from 2016 – 2020, the highest labor productivity will be from financing, insurance, real estate, land, and business services. (3 The number of OUR is expected to decrease annually. Meanwhile OUR in 2016 which is 7.39 percent will decrease to 3.94 percent in 2020.

  15. Self Service Technologies: A Cause of Unemployment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otekhile Cathy-Austin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The self-service technologies (SSTs are fast changing the conventional way of transacting business by business organisations. The rapid innovation of self-service technologies and its adoption and usages in all facets of human systems is acclaimed to be fast rendering low skilled workers jobless. The major sectors of the economy in advanced economies have reached their peaks and can no longer provide new employment due to an increase in the productivity growth rate as a result of technology advances. These SSTs have in no small measure brought about an increase in productivity growth rate, cost reduction and anincrease in the speed of service delivery to customers. This paper examines if self-service technologies truly are the cause of persistent unemployment through a study of the long term metamorphosis of the major economic sectors in advanced economies. This study revealed that the SSTs presents both risks and opportunities.

  16. Can a carbon permit system reduce Spanish unemployment?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faehn, Taran; Gomez-Plana, Antonio G.; Kverndokk, Snorre

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyses the impact of carbon policy on unemployment in Spain and whether recycling the public revenues earned from permit auctions can alleviate this problem. While Spain's deviation from the European Union's intermediate emission goals is more serious than most other member countries' unemployment in Spain is also well above average for the European Union. We use a computable general equilibrium model that includes unemployment in the markets for unskilled and skilled labour. We find that introducing carbon permits does not aggravate Spanish unemployment. In fact, if supplied with revenue recycling schemes, unemployment rates may actually fall. Contrary to other European studies, we find that the best option is to reduce payroll taxes on relatively skilled types of labour. This reform is successful in both increasing labour demand and dampening the supply response to rising wages. However, while all of the recycling schemes generate dividends in terms of aggregate welfare, none entirely offsets the abatement costs. (author)

  17. 75 FR 28070 - Comment Request for Information Collection: “Confidentiality & Disclosure of State Unemployment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-19

    ... State Unemployment Compensation Information Final Rule and State Income and Eligibility Verification... Unemployment Compensation Information final rule and State Income and Eligibility Verification System (IEVS... and Training Administration, Office of Unemployment Insurance, 200 Constitution Avenue, NW., Room...

  18. 76 FR 12760 - Comment Request for Information Collection for Report ETA 902, Disaster Unemployment Assistance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-08

    ... Collection for Report ETA 902, Disaster Unemployment Assistance Activities (OMB Control No. 1205- 0051... soliciting comments concerning the proposed extension of the ETA 902, Disaster Unemployment [email protected] . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Background The ETA 902 Report, Disaster Unemployment...

  19. 78 FR 16298 - Comment Request for Information Collection: Confidentiality and Disclosure of State Unemployment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-14

    ... Collection: Confidentiality and Disclosure of State Unemployment Compensation Information Final Rule and... about the regulatory requirements of the Confidentiality and Disclosure of State Unemployment... Administration, Office of Unemployment Insurance, 200 Constitution Avenue NW., Room S4524, Washington, DC 20210...

  20. 75 FR 24748 - Johnson Controls, Inc., Automotive Experience Division, Including Workers Whose Unemployment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-05

    ...., Automotive Experience Division, Including Workers Whose Unemployment Insurance (UI) Wages Are Paid Through... unemployment insurance (UI) tax account, under the name Hoover Universal. Accordingly, the Department is... Division, including workers whose unemployment insurance (UI) wages are paid through Hoover Universal...

  1. 76 FR 5070 - Offset of Tax Refund Payments To Collect Delinquent State Unemployment Compensation Debts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-28

    ... Payments To Collect Delinquent State Unemployment Compensation Debts AGENCY: Financial Management Service... (referred to as ``tax refund offset'') to collect delinquent State unemployment compensation debts. The Department of the Treasury (Treasury) will incorporate the procedures necessary to collect State unemployment...

  2. Unemployment, underweight, and obesity: Findings from Understanding Society (UKHLS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Amanda; Kumari, Meena

    2017-04-01

    Elevated morbidity and mortality among jobseekers may be partly explained by adiposity, but previous studies of unemployment and body mass index (BMI), which have usually modelled associations as linear, have produced inconsistent results. However, both underweight and obesity are associated with mortality, and both weight loss and weight gain associated with a stressful environment. If unemployment is associated with both underweight and obesity for different subgroups, these associations may previously have masked each other, whilst affecting health through divergent pathways. We investigated whether there is a previously overlooked U-shaped association of unemployment and BMI, which could help explain jobseekers' elevated morbidity and mortality, and identify groups vulnerable to underweight and obesity during unemployment. We used multinomial models to simultaneously investigate associations of unemployment with BMI-defined underweight, overweight, and obesity in 10,737 working-age UK adults from Understanding Society (UKHLS) in 2010-12. Moderating impacts of unemployment duration, demographic factors and smoking were explored. Current jobseekers were more likely to be underweight (Odds ratio (OR): 4.05, 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.12-7.73) and less likely to be overweight (OR: 0.71, CI: 0.55, 0.92) adjusted for gender, age, education, health, smoking and physical activity, while unemployed non-smokers had increased odds of obesity (OR: 1.52, CI: 1.06-2.18). Underweight and overweight associations were more apparent for longer-term jobseekers, men, and jobseekers from lower-income households. We conclude that unemployment is associated with underweight and, in nonsmokers, obesity. Results show the unemployment-adiposity relationship cannot be properly studied assuming unidirectionality of effects, and suggest unemployment may affect health of different groups via divergent adiposity-mediated pathways. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc

  3. Description of new species of Stenaelurillus Simon, 1886 from the Western Ghats of India with the redescription of Stenaelurillus lesserti Reimoser, 1934 and notes on mating plug in the genus (Arachnida, Araneae, Salticidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pothalil A. Sebastian

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A new species of the jumping spider genus Stenaelurillus Simon, 1886, S. albus sp. n., is described from the Western Ghats of India, one of the biodiversity hotspots of the world. Detailed morphological descriptions, diagnostic features and illustrations of copulatory organs of both sexes are given. Detailed redescription, diagnosis and illustration of S. lesserti Reimoser, 1934 are provided. The occurrence of a mating plug in the genus is reported.

  4. Childhood Self-Control and Unemployment Throughout the Life Span

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, Liam; Egan, Mark; Baumeister, Roy F.

    2015-01-01

    The capacity for self-control may underlie successful labor-force entry and job retention, particularly in times of economic uncertainty. Analyzing unemployment data from two nationally representative British cohorts (N = 16,780), we found that low self-control in childhood was associated with the emergence and persistence of unemployment across four decades. On average, a 1-SD increase in self-control was associated with a reduction in the probability of unemployment of 1.4 percentage points after adjustment for intelligence, social class, and gender. From labor-market entry to middle age, individuals with low self-control experienced 1.6 times as many months of unemployment as those with high self-control. Analysis of monthly unemployment data before and during the 1980s recession showed that individuals with low self-control experienced the greatest increases in unemployment during the recession. Our results underscore the critical role of self-control in shaping life-span trajectories of occupational success and in affecting how macroeconomic conditions affect unemployment levels in the population. PMID:25870404

  5. Short- and long-term effects of unemployment on fertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Janet; Schwandt, Hannes

    2014-01-01

    Scholars have been examining the relationship between fertility and unemployment for more than a century. Most studies find that fertility falls with unemployment in the short run, but it is not known whether these negative effects persist, because women simply may postpone childbearing to better economic times. Using more than 140 million US birth records for the period 1975–2010, we analyze both the short- and long-run effects of unemployment on fertility. We follow fixed cohorts of US-born women defined by their own state and year of birth, and relate their fertility to the unemployment rate experienced by each cohort at different ages. We focus on conceptions that result in a live birth. We find that women in their early 20s are most affected by high unemployment rates in the short run and that the negative effects on fertility grow over time. A one percentage point increase in the average unemployment rate experienced between the ages of 20 and 24 reduces the short-run fertility of women in this age range by six conceptions per 1,000 women. When we follow these women to age 40, we find that a one percentage point increase in the unemployment rate experienced at ages 20–24 leads to an overall loss of 14.2 conceptions. This long-run effect is driven largely by women who remain childless and thus do not have either first births or higher-order births. PMID:25267622

  6. Unemployment and household food hardship in the economic recession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jin; Kim, Youngmi; Birkenmaier, Julie

    2016-02-01

    The present study examined the association between unemployment and household food insecurity during the 2007-2009 economic recession in the USA. Longitudinal survey of the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP; 2008-2011). Food insecurity was measured by five questions excerpted from an eighteen-item Food Security Scale. Unemployment was measured by a dichotomous indicator, the number of job losses and the total duration of all episodes in the observation period. As nationally representative data, the SIPP interviewed respondents in multiple waves with a time interval of four months. The study created two analytic samples including working-age household heads employed at the beginning of the observation period. The size of the two samples was 14,417 and 13,080. Unemployment was positively associated with food insecurity (OR=1.55; 95% CI 1.32, 1.83; Punemployment (OR=1.54; 95% CI 1.27, 1.88; Punemployment, one more episode of unemployment increased the odds of food insecurity by 8% (OR=1.08; 95% CI 1.00, 1.18; Punemployment and food insecurity is useful to better identify and serve the at-risk population. Connecting unemployment assistance closely to nutrition assistance could lower the prevalence of food insecurity among unemployed households. Public policy should better account for both episodes and duration of unemployment to reduce food insecurity.

  7. Do small labor market entry cohorts reduce unemployment?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfred Garloff

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Germany, like many OECD countries, faces a shift in the age composition of its population,and will face an even more drastic demographic change in the years ahead. From a theoretical point of view, decreasing cohort sizes may on the one hand reduce unemployment due to inverse cohort crowding or, on the other hand, increase unemploymentif companies reduce jobs disproportionately. Consequently, the actual effect of cohort shrinkage on employment and unemployment is an empirical question. OBJECTIVE We quantitatively assess the relationship between (unemployment and cohort sizes. METHODS We analyze a long panel of population and labor-market data for Western German labor market regions. We isolate the direct, statistical effect of aging in a decomposition approach and estimate the overall effect by regression. In this context, we account for the likely endogeneity of cohort size due to migration of the young workforce across regions using lagged births as instrument. RESULTS The direct effect of the age composition of the labor force on unemployment is negligible.In contrast, the elasticities of unemployment and employment with regard to the labor-market entry cohort's size are significantly positive or negative, respectively. The causal effect indicates an over-elastic reaction by unemployment. CONCLUSIONS Our results provide good news for the Western German labor market: small entry cohorts are indeed likely to decrease the overall unemployment rate and thus to improve the situation of job seekers. Accordingly, we find the employment rate is positively affected by a decrease in the youth proportion.

  8. The agony of unemployment in the Euro Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ristanović Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper looks at the evolution of the unemployment problem in the Euro Area. Our goal is to look at what are the roots of the unemployment problem and to devise reasons of the already chronic unemployment problem. We show the main factors that prolong the agony of unemployment and whether it is likely that in the near future, the problem of unemployment in the Euro Area will bi past. In the Euro Area we follow the analysis of basic macroeconomic indicators of balance in an economy - GDP, inflation and unemployment. We consider whether the monetary strategy of inflation targeting has contributed to the unemployment problem, by reducing the potential output, but also to confirm that within the current global crisis there are some deviations from the theoretical concepts of basic macroeconomic relationships - Okun's law and the Phillips curve. We show that only Germany, with a 'small' sacrifice, can save the real sector in the peripheral Mediterranean countries, as well as in the entire Euro Area.

  9. Lecture Notes and Exercises for Course 21240 (Basic Analytical Chemistry)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1999-01-01

    The publication contains notes dealing with difficult topics in analytical chemistry (cfr. Course Descriptions, DTU), relevant exercises as well as final examination problems from the last years.......The publication contains notes dealing with difficult topics in analytical chemistry (cfr. Course Descriptions, DTU), relevant exercises as well as final examination problems from the last years....

  10. Lecture Notes and Exercises for Course 21240 (Basic Analytical Chemistry)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1998-01-01

    The publication contains notes dealing with difficult topics in analytical chemistry (cfr. Course Descriptions, DTU), relevant exercises as well as final examination problems from the last years.......The publication contains notes dealing with difficult topics in analytical chemistry (cfr. Course Descriptions, DTU), relevant exercises as well as final examination problems from the last years....

  11. Effect of unemployment on cardiovascular risk factors and mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagożdżon, P; Parszuto, J; Wrotkowska, M; Dydjow-Bendek, D

    2014-09-01

    Following the economic changes in Poland, increasing health discrepancies were observed during a period of 20 years, which may be partly attributable to the consequences of unemployment. To assess the association between unemployment, major cardiovascular risk factors and mental health. A cross-sectional study in which data were collected between 2009 and 2010 during preventive health examinations by an occupational medicine service in Gdansk, Poland. Data on blood pressure, resting heart rate, information about smoking habits, body mass index and history of use of mental health services were collected during these assessments. Multiple logistic regression was used during data analysis to adjust for age, gender, education and length of employment. Study participants comprised 3052 unemployed and 2059 employed individuals. After adjustment for age, gender, education and number of previous employments, the odds ratio (OR) for hypertension in relation to unemployment was 1.02 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.84-1.23]. There was a statistically significant negative association between being overweight and unemployment (OR = 0.81, 95% CI: 0.66-0.99). Smoking was positively associated with unemployment after adjustment for age and sex (OR = 1.45, 95% CI: 1.25-1.67). There was a positive relationship between mental ill-health and unemployment among study participants (OR = 2.05, 95% CI: 0.91-4.65), but this was not statistically significant. The patterns of major cardiovascular risk factors differed between unemployed and employed individuals in Poland. Our observations suggest employment status is a predictor of specific disease risk profiles; consequently, specific preventive measures are needed in unemployed individuals. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Unemployment and mental health scarring during the life course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strandh, Mattias; Winefield, Anthony; Nilsson, Karina; Hammarström, Anne

    2014-06-01

    There has been little research on the long-term relationship between unemployment experiences and mental health over the life course. This article investigates the relationship between youth unemployment as well as that of unemployment experiences during later periods and mental health at ages 16, 21, 30 and 42 years. The study makes use of the 'Northern Swedish Cohort' (NSC), a 27-year prospective cohort study. The cohort, investigated at ages 16, 18, 21, 30 and 42 years, consisted of all graduates from compulsory school in an industrial town in Sweden. Of the original 1083 participants, 94.3% of those still alive were still participating at the 27-year follow up. Mental health, measured through a three-item index of nervous symptoms, depressive symptoms and sleeping problems, was analysed using a repeated measures linear mixed models approach using ages 16, 21, 30 and 43 years. Unemployment exposure was measured as exposure to at least a 6-month spell during three periods; 18-21, 21-30 and 30-42 years. Youth unemployment was shown to be significantly connected with poorer mental health at all three target ages, 21, 30 and 42 years. Later singular unemployment experiences did not appear to have the same long-term negative effects. There was however an accumulation in poorer mental health among respondents with unemployment experiences during two, and even more so three, of the periods. There are long-term mental health scarring effects of exposure to youth unemployment and multiple exposure to unemployment during the life course. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  13. Labour market and the charasteristics of unemployment in Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MSc. Artan Haziri

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Kosovo, given its difficult past, is the most underdeveloped country of Europe. Gross national product is the lowest in the region, in 2009 was 1853 Euros per capita, which is half the value of the average gross natio-nal product of the region. Average economic growth in Kosovo during 2006-2009 was 4.8%. This economic growth, although seemingly large, given the low level of development in Kosovo cannot solve problems to address important economic issues that Kosovo faces, unemployment, poverty etc. Kosovo has a large import of goods and the export-import cover is only 10%, thus the trade deficit is extremely high. Unemploy-ment remains the main economic problem for many years in Kosovo. The unemployment rate in Kosovo remains high even though there are no clear statistics about the rate of unemployment. According to many stu-dies, whether local or international institutions, the unemployment rate ranges near 40%. So this high rate of unemployment  imposes as a pri-mary and essential task before the Kosovo institutions to establish poli-cies and strategies for promoting employment which is undoubtedly the best way to combat poverty.According to many studies, in order to keep the unemployment at current levels, Kosovo needs a growth rate of 7% and therefore we conclude that in order to reduce unemployment, the growth should be significantly increased over 7%, and with current developments this is unachievable, neither it is expected to be achieved by the competent institutions regarding economical growth

  14. Do Targeted Hiring Subsidies and Profiling Techniques Reduce Unemployment?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jahn, Elke; Wagner, Thomas

    To reduce unemployment targeted hiring subsidies for long-term unemployed are often recommended. To explore their effect on employment and wages, we devise a model with two types of unemployed and two methods of search, a public employment service (PES) and random search. The eligibility of a new......, which ad­vance the search effectiveness of the PES, crowd out the active jobseekers and reduce overall employment as well as social welfare. Nevertheless, reforms are a visible success for the PES and its target group, as they significantly increase the service's placement rate and lower the duration...

  15. The Patterns of Unemployment and the Geography of Social Housing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alves, Sonia

    2012-01-01

    . Although statistics of unemployment have already demonstrated the unequal incidence of the phenomenon in social groups, the issue of uneven territorial impact on the phenomenon at intra-urban level remains relatively unknown. The purpose of this article is to show and to interpret the spatial patterns...... of unemployment in the city of Porto using GIS (Geographic Information System - GIS) technology. Under this analysis the overlap of the spatial patterns of unemployment with the spatial distribution of social housing, allows the discussion of the relationship that occurs between these patterns and the reasons...

  16. The effect of receiving supplementary UI benefits on unemployment duration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomi, Kyyrä,; Pierpaolo, Parrotta,; Rosholm, Michael

    2013-01-01

    insurance benefit receipt. We find evidence of a negative in-treatment effect and a positive post-treatment effect, both of which vary across different groups of individuals. The resulting net effect on the expected unemployment duration is positive for some groups (e.g. married women) and negative......We consider the consequences of working part-time and receiving supplementary benefits for part-time unemployment in the Danish labor market. Following the timing-of-events approach we estimate causal effects of part-time work with supplementary benefits on the hazard rate out of unemployment...

  17. Does Financial Hardship Explain Differences Between Belgian and South African Unemployed Regarding Experiences of Unemployment, Employment Commitment, and Job Search Behaviour?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wouter Vleugels

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate whether Belgian and South African unemployed differed regarding three psychological dimensions of unemployment: affect (experiences of unemployment, attitudes (employment commitment, and behaviour (job search intensity. Moreover, we expected country of residence to indirectly influence unemployed people's experiences, employment commitment, and job search intensity via financial hardship. A cross-sectional survey design was used to test our hypotheses. Data were sampled from unemployed people in the Brussels area in Belgium ('N' = 305, and the Potchefstroom area in South Africa ('N' = 381. The results indicated that, compared to the Belgian unemployed, the South African unemployed experienced their unemployment as more negative, were more committed towards employment and more intensively searched for work. Moreover, country of residence indirectly influenced unemployed people's experiences, employment commitment, and job search intensity via financial hardship. Some policy recommendations are suggested.

  18. Unemployment estimation: Spatial point referenced methods and models

    KAUST Repository

    Pereira, Soraia; Turkman, Kamil Feridun; Correia, Luis; Rue, Haavard

    2017-01-01

    Portuguese Labor force survey, from 4th quarter of 2014 onwards, started geo-referencing the sampling units, namely the dwellings in which the surveys are carried. This opens new possibilities in analysing and estimating unemployment and its spatial

  19. The Incidence of Unemployment: Identifying Quits and Layoffs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Helena Skyt; Rosholm, Michael

    1997-01-01

    We analyse what determines the incidence of unemployment among Danish employees by estimation of a logit model for becoming unemployed. Our data is incomplete in the sense that we do not observe whether a transition was caused by the person quitting or being laid off, so we apply the EM-algorithm......We analyse what determines the incidence of unemployment among Danish employees by estimation of a logit model for becoming unemployed. Our data is incomplete in the sense that we do not observe whether a transition was caused by the person quitting or being laid off, so we apply the EM......-algorithm to this problem. The models are extended to account for the panel data structure of the data set by including random effects. We use exclusion restrictions to identify quits and lay offs. We find many quitters among young and old women but only few among men....

  20. Self-Blame and Commodification of Unemployed Young People

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pultz, Sabina

    Young people face the risk of unemployment in a labor market characterized by a drift towards precarious employment (Kalleberg, 2013). Building on poststructuralist theory this study documents how young unemployed people’s understanding of unemployment is affected by neoliberal discourses, also...... reflected in the technologies applied by the institutions in the employment area. As a result, responsibility for unemployment is increasingly placed on the individual and self-blame is promoted as the predominant explanation. This qualitative study consists of a combination of field observations made...... people experience their situation and position themselves in regards to this normative encouragement to blame themselves. Personal branding and networking are identified as strategies enforced by the employment system and can be viewed as technologies of the self encouraging young people to commodify...

  1. The impact of foreign direct investment on unemployment in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Palát

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The flow of foreign direct investment is one of the indicators of economic interconnection with the rest of the world. The paper is aimed at evaluating of inward FDI flows into Japanese economy and unemployment development. For many decades, Japan has attracted considerably lower levels of inward FDI compared to other developed countries of the world. Also the rate of unemployment in Japan was relatively low which is caused by a specific attitude of the active population of Japan towards employment issues. Methods of regression and correlation analysis (including testing the statistical significance were used in the analysis of FDI and unemployment. The correlation has been approved between FDI and the rate of unemployment.

  2. Active Labour Market Programme Participation for Unemployment Insurance Recipients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filges, Trine; Smedslund, Geir; Jørgensen, Anne-Marie Klint

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This review evaluates the effectiveness of Active Labour Market Programme (ALMP) participation on employment status for unemployment insurance recipients. Methods and Analysis: We followed Campbell Collaboration guidelines to conduct a systematic review. Results: A total of 73 studies...

  3. The trade-off between unemployment and wage inequality revisited

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bičáková, Alena

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 66, č. 4 (2014), s. 891-915 ISSN 0030-7653 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : unemployment * wage inequality * labor supply Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.846, year: 2014

  4. The trade-off between unemployment and wage inequality revisited

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bičáková, Alena

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 66, č. 4 (2014), s. 891-915 ISSN 0030-7653 Institutional support: PRVOUK-P23 Keywords : unemployment * wage inequality * labor supply Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.846, year: 2014

  5. A social net? Internet and social media use during unemployment

    OpenAIRE

    Feuls, Miriam; Fieseler, Christian; Suphan, Anne

    2014-01-01

    This is the author’s accepted, refereed manuscript to the article Many people who are unemployed tend to experience forms of psychological and social losses, including a weakened time structure, diminished social contacts, an absence of collective purpose, falling status, and inactivity. This article focuses on the experience of diminished social contacts and addresses whether social media help the unemployed maintain their relationships. Based on qualitative interviews with unempl...

  6. METHODOLOGICAL PROPOSAL FOR COMPILING THE ILO UNEMPLOYMENT WITH MONTHLY PERIODICITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia PISICĂ

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Development of methodology for deriving the monthly unemployment statistics directly from the quarterly Labour Force Survey (LFS results by econometric modeling meets the requirements of insuring the information on short-term needed for employment policies, aiming to achieve the objectives of Europe 2020. Estimated monthly data series according to the methodology allow assessment of short-term trends in unemployment measured according to the criteria of the International Labour Organisation (ILO in terms of comparability with European statistics.

  7. Labour Market Institutions and Unemployment: Does Finance Matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Christophe Rault; Anne-Gaël Vaubourg

    2012-01-01

    We explore whether finance influences the impact of labour market institutions on unemployment. Using a data set of 18 OECD countries over 1980–2004, we estimate a panel Vector AutoRegressive model. We check whether causalities from labour market variables to unemployment are affected by financial factors. In Belgium, Italy, Australia, Japan and Spain, accounting for financial indicators mitigates the benefits of labour market flexibility or makes it harmful to employment. In Austria, Canada,...

  8. A comparison of efficiency of mentoring and coaching the unemployed

    OpenAIRE

    Jagodnik, Sabina

    2017-01-01

    Master's thesis focuses on the comparison of mentoring and coaching of unemployed person entering labour market. Which approach is more siutable, considering unemployed person's needs, experience, knowledge and skills, which approach gives better results and what are advatages and disadvantages of both of them, are the questions anwsered by comparison between mentoring and coaching, based on three coaching and two mentoring process, using participatory action research approach. Effectiveness ...

  9. The causal effect of paternal unemployment on children's personality

    OpenAIRE

    Angelini, Viola; Bertoni, Marco; Corazzini, Luca

    2015-01-01

    Using longitudinal data from the German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP), we show that paternal unemployment has a surprisingly positive causal effect on the "Big 5" personality traits of children aged 17 to 25. In particular, our results from longitudinal value-added models for personality suggest that paternal unemployment makes children significantly more conscientious and less neurotic. Our results are robust to different estimation methods and to selection on unobservables. Furthermore, these...

  10. STABILITY, BIFURCATIONS AND CHAOS IN UNEMPLOYMENT NON-LINEAR DYNAMICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pagliari Carmen

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The traditional analysis of unemployment in relation to real output dynamics is based on some empirical evidences deducted from Okun’s studies. In particular the so called Okun’s Law is expressed in a linear mathematical formulation, which cannot explain the fluctuation of the variables involved. Linearity is an heavy limit for macroeconomic analysis and especially for every economic growth study which would consider the unemployment rate among the endogenous variables. This paper deals with an introductive study about the role of non-linearity in the investigation of unemployment dynamics. The main idea is the existence of a non-linear relation between the unemployment rate and the gap of GDP growth rate from its trend. The macroeconomic motivation of this idea moves from the consideration of two concatenate effects caused by a variation of the unemployment rate on the real output growth rate. These two effects are concatenate because there is a first effect that generates a secondary one on the same variable. When the unemployment rate changes, the first effect is the variation in the level of production in consequence of the variation in the level of such an important factor as labour force; the secondary effect is a consecutive variation in the level of production caused by the variation in the aggregate demand in consequence of the change of the individual disposal income originated by the previous variation of production itself. In this paper the analysis of unemployment dynamics is carried out by the use of the logistic map and the conditions for the existence of bifurcations (cycles are determined. The study also allows to find the range of variability of some characteristic parameters that might be avoided for not having an absolute unpredictability of unemployment dynamics (deterministic chaos: unpredictability is equivalent to uncontrollability because of the total absence of information about the future value of the variable to

  11. Psychiatric disorders and health service utilization in unemployed youth

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Aim Youth unemployment is associated with increased levels of anxiety, depression, alcohol abuse, reduced self-esteem and satisfaction with life. Up to date data based on standardized psychiatric diagnostic assessments in adolescent or young adult unemployment is very scarce. To our knowledge, this study has, for the first time, assessed both Axis-I (non-personality) and Axis-II (personality) psychiatric disorders and related constructs in a pres...

  12. Unemployment, labor costs, and recessions: implications for the inflation outlook

    OpenAIRE

    Fee, Kyle; Schweitzer, Mark E.

    2011-01-01

    Economists have been arguing about the connection between unemployment and infl ation for decades. Critics claim that the connection is unreliable and leads policymakers astray, while others argue that the relationship is useful for forecasting. We examine the more direct connections between elevated unemployment levels and the rate of increase in wage and labor costs, more generally. We fi nd that wage and labor cost growth has declined markedly following recent recessions. It has again decl...

  13. Note Taking and Recall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Judith L.; Harris, Mary B.

    1974-01-01

    To study the effect of note taking and opportunity for review on subsequent recall, 88 college students were randomly assigned to five treatment groups utilizing different note taking and review combinations. No treatment effects were found, although quality of notes was positively correlated with free recall an multiple-choice measures.…

  14. Young Long-term Unemployed and the Individualization of Responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Hobbins

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In Sweden, as in most Western societies, a common belief is that unemployment is somehow linked to the individual, her lack of work ethic, or other personal shortcomings rather than to structural causes. This is not only manifested in public arenas such as the media or political debates but also in our social surroundings. In recent years, these views have gained importance, indicating a shift in the location of responsibilities from the welfare state to the individual. This shift entails high demands and expectations on unemployed people and is something they have to deal with and relate to. One of the most exposed groups is young long-term unemployed. The aim of this article is to highlight how the discourse of individualized responsibility is reflected in unemployed peoples’ stories, and to shed light on the ways in which young long-term unemployed adults relate to and position themselves toward this discourse. Based on 18 qualitative interviews with young Swedish long-term unemployed people, the findings show three approaches to the discourse: conformity, distancing, and resistance.

  15. Unemployment Rate, Smoking in China: Are They Related?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qing; Shen, Jay J; Cochran, Chris

    2016-01-08

    Studies on the relationship between unemployment rate and smoking have yielded mixed results. The issue in China has not been studied. This study aims to examine the influence of unemployment rate on smoking in China. Logit model and two-stage least squares (2SLS) estimation were used to estimate the effects. Estimations were done for 4585 individual over 45 using data from China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study conducted in Zhejiang and Gansu provinces in 2008 and 2012. A percent increase in the unemployment rate resulted in the increase in the likelihood of smoking by a combined 9.1 percent for those who smoked including a 2.9% increase for those who smoked 1-10 cigarettes per day; a 2.8% increase for those who smoked 11-20 cigarettes per day; and a 3.4% increase for those who smoked 20 cigarettes or more per day. The effects were stronger for those who were employed. Non-drinkers were more likely to engage in smoking with increased unemployment rate. 2SLS estimation revealed the same association. The unemployment rate was positively associated with smoking behavior. Smoking control and intervention strategies should focus on both the individual's characteristics and the physical environment in which unemployment rate tend to rise.

  16. A picture for the coupling of unemployment and inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safdari, H.; Hosseiny, A.; Vasheghani Farahani, S.; Jafari, G. R.

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this article is to illustrate the scaling features of two well heard characters in the media; unemployment and inflation. We carry out a scaling analysis on the coupling between unemployment and inflation. This work is based on the wavelet analysis as well as the detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA). Through our analysis we state that while unemployment is time scale invariant, inflation is bi-scale. We show that inflation possess a five year time scale where it experiences different behaviours before and after this scale period. This behaviour of inflation provides basis for the coupling to inherit the stated time interval. Although inflation is bi-scale, it is unemployment that shows a strong multifractality feature. Owing to the cross wavelet analysis we provide a picture that illustrates the dynamics of coupling between unemployment and inflation regarding intensity, direction, and scale. The fact of the matter is that the coupling between inflation and unemployment is not equal in one way compared to the opposite. Regarding the scaling; coupling exhibits different features in various scales. In a sense that although in one scale its correlation behaves in a positive/negative manner, at the same time it can be negative/positive for another scale.

  17. Suicide and unemployment in Australia 1907-1990.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrell, S; Taylor, R; Quine, S; Kerr, C

    1993-03-01

    Ever since Durkheim postulated a relationship between economic change and suicide there has been evidence of a general association between aggregate data on unemployment and the frequency of suicide. Quantitatively, however, the association has been variable and it is clear that due to differing cultural, social and individual determinants of suicide, the relationship is complex. Methodological difficulties abound with interpretation of aggregate data. Australian records for most of the present century are suitable for examining secular trends in suicide and unemployment by age group and gender to gain an indication of the extent to which both parameters may be causally related. An aggregate/ecological study was designed to incorporate quantitative and qualitative strategies. Annual age-adjusted male and female suicide rates and annual unemployment rates were derived for the period 1907-1990. Female suicide rates were generally stable throughout the period, whereas those for males demonstrated sharp fluctuations with the peaks coinciding with times of high unemployment. The association between suicide and unemployment for 15-24 year old males was comparatively high for the recent period, 1966-1990. The increasingly youthful contribution to male suicide was demonstrated by a rise in the loss of life years during 1973-1984. Despite the inability of any investigation based on aggregate data to establish an unequivocable causal relationship, no evidence was detected to suggest that relatively high population levels of unemployment were not related to the occurrence of suicide.

  18. [Parents' unemployment, selected life conditions, adolescents' wellbeing and perceived health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supranowicz, Piotr

    2005-01-01

    Unemployment in Poland is one of the most negative outcomes of the economical transformations taking place in the last decade of the XX and first years of the XXI century. Therefore, the study on an influence of parents' unemployment upon adolescents' life conditions and health was undertaken in Health Promotion and Postgraduate Training Department of the National Institute of Hygiene. The data were collected from randomly selected sample of 783 students aged 14-15 years attending to ten private and public secondary schools (gymnasiums) in Warsaw. A part of the questionnaire elaborated in Health Promotion and Postgraduate Department covered information about negative life events, which had occurred in the previous year, also about a loss of the job by father or mother. The self-assessment of health, and physical and psychical wellbeing measured the perceived health. The study showed that significantly higher percentage of the students, whose father or mother had lost a job in the previous year, noticed also occurrence of father and mother health disorders, lack of support from father and mother, frequent quarrels between parents, too much of home duties, worsening a housing conditions, lack of possibilities to travel away on vacation and lack of own money. The differences were higher, if both the parents were unemployed. Moreover, the children of unemployed parents significantly lower assessed their health, and physical and psychical wellbeing. It is necessary to help immediately the students, whose parents are unemployed, with financial and psychological support in frame of the programmes of unemployment overcoming.

  19. 24 CFR 598.110 - Tests of pervasive poverty, unemployment and general distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., unemployment and general distress. 598.110 Section 598.110 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating... TWO AND THREE DESIGNATIONS Eligibility Requirements § 598.110 Tests of pervasive poverty, unemployment...) Unemployment. Unemployment is demonstrated by: (1) The most recent data available indicating that the annual...

  20. 20 CFR 601.2 - Approval of State unemployment compensation laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Approval of State unemployment compensation... unemployment compensation laws. States may at their option submit their unemployment compensation laws for... Employment and Training Administration (ETA), one copy of the State unemployment compensation law properly...

  1. 76 FR 18259 - Announcement Regarding Delaware Triggering “on” Tier Four of Emergency Unemployment Compensation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    ... Triggering ``on'' Tier Four of Emergency Unemployment Compensation 2008 (EUC08) AGENCY: Employment and...'' Tier Four of Emergency Unemployment Compensation 2008 (EUC08). Public Law 111-312 extended provisions... the EUC08 program for qualified unemployed workers claiming benefits in high unemployment states. The...

  2. 76 FR 18260 - Announcement Regarding Pennsylvania Triggering “Off” Tier Four of Emergency Unemployment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    ... Triggering ``Off'' Tier Four of Emergency Unemployment Compensation 2008 (EUC08). AGENCY: Employment and... ``off'' Tier Four of Emergency Unemployment Compensation 2008 (EUC08). Public Law 111-312 extended... the EUC08 program for qualified unemployed workers claiming benefits in high unemployment states. The...

  3. 24 CFR 597.102 - Tests of pervasive poverty, unemployment and general distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., unemployment and general distress. 597.102 Section 597.102 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating..., unemployment and general distress. (a) Pervasive poverty. Pervasive poverty shall be demonstrated by the... component areas of an affluent character. (b) Unemployment. Unemployment shall be demonstrated by: (1) Data...

  4. Transitions to Long-Term Unemployment Risk among Young People: Evidence from Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Elish; McGuinness, Seamus; O'Connell, Philip J.

    2012-01-01

    Many young people have short spells of unemployment during their transition from school to work; however, some often get trapped in unemployment and risk becoming long-term unemployed. Much research has been undertaken on the factors that influence unemployment risk for young people during their school-to-work transition. However, very little is…

  5. 26 CFR 1.501(c)(17)-1 - Supplemental unemployment benefit trusts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Supplemental unemployment benefit trusts. 1.501(c... Supplemental unemployment benefit trusts. (a) Requirements for qualification. (1) A supplemental unemployment... the purpose of providing supplemental unemployment compensation benefits (as defined in section 501(c...

  6. Factors Affecting Self-Esteem and Self-Efficacy in the Unemployed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddy, Luther M., III

    2013-01-01

    Unemployment is, and will likely continue to be, a problem in industrialized nations. Numerous studies have concluded unemployment negatively impacts self-esteem and self-efficacy. Additional studies have shown that unemployed individuals with lower self-esteem and self-efficacy tend to remain unemployed longer than individuals with higher…

  7. Are There Geographical Variations in the Psychological Cost of Unemployment in South Africa?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powdthavee, Nattavudh

    2007-01-01

    Are certain groups of unemployed individuals hurt less by unemployment than others? This paper is an attempt to test the hypothesis that non-pecuniary costs of unemployment may vary between societies with different unemployment rates. Using cross-sectional data from the SALDRU93 survey, I show that households' perceptions of life satisfaction are…

  8. Between unemployment and employment: experience of unemployed long-term pain sufferers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glavare, Maria; Löfgren, Monika; Schult, Marie-Louise

    2012-01-01

    This study explored and analysed how patients experienced possibilities for, and barriers to, work return after participation in a multi-professional pain-rehabilitation program followed by a coached work-training program (CWT). Eleven informants (8 women/3 men) with long-term musculoskeletal pain who had participated in the CWT program for 4-21 months (mean=11) comprised the study. A qualitative emergent design was used. Data collected with interviews were analysed using the constant comparison method of grounded theory. Triangulation in researchers were used. The analyses of the interviews resulted in the development of a three-category theoretical model, which was named "a way back to work". The main category "Experience of a way back to work" consisted of the informants' experience during the process between unemployment and employment. The category "Support" describes the help the informants received from various actors, and the category "Negative response" describes negative responses from the actors involved, which was an important barrier in the process between unemployment and employment. Professional individualised support, participants feeling involved in their rehabilitation process, coaching at real workplaces and multi-professional team including health care personnel, were valuable during the process towards work.

  9. A couple-level analysis of participation in physical activity during unemployment

    OpenAIRE

    Margaret Gough

    2017-01-01

    There is a well-documented negative correlation between unemployment and health. Yet, little research has examined how unemployment relates to participation in physical activity, and few researchers have considered how an individual's unemployment may affect the health of their spouse or partner. The purpose of this study is to answer three questions: 1. Is one's own unemployment associated with changes in physical activity participation? 2. Is one's partner's unemployment associated with cha...

  10. Once again on Interregional, International and Cross-age Comparison of Unemployment

    OpenAIRE

    Gennadi Kazakevitch

    2003-01-01

    Any discussion on unemployment is never restricted with the data on unemployment only. Unemployment is linked to several key indicators such as number of employed, active population and participation rate. As we often see, increase in unemployment occurs simultaneously with increase in the number of jobs, if participation rate increases at the same time. This makes doubtful any simplistic interregional, international, inter-temporal or cross-age comparison of unemployment data taken in isolat...

  11. Social support as moderator of the stress on unemployed people’s health

    OpenAIRE

    Guarino, Leticia Rosaria; Universidad Simón Bolívar; Sojo, Victor; Universidad Central de Venezuela, Caracas

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this research was to assess moderating role of two indexes of social support in the relationship between the length of unemployment and the physical and mental health of Venezuelan unemployed. Self-report measures were administered to a sample of 328 unemployed residents in Caracas, Venezuela. Results indicated that perceived social support acted as moderator in predicting better general health and lower somatization in the unemployed, acting as buffer of longer periods of unemploy...

  12. Description of a new species of skate of the genus Malacoraja Stehmann, 1970: the first species from the southwestern Atlantic Ocean, with notes on generic monophyly and composition (Chondrichthyes: Rajidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo R. de Carvalho

    Full Text Available The first report of a western South Atlantic soft skate, genus Malacoraja Stehmann, 1970, is described as Malacoraja obscura, new species, from the southeastern Brazilian continental slope off the states of Espírito Santo and Rio de Janeiro, in depths ranging from 808-1105 m. The new species is known from five specimens and is distinguished from congeners by its unique dorsal coloration with small, faded white spots on disc and pelvic fins, by retaining in larger specimens an irregular row of thorns along dorsal midline of tail (extending from tail base to two-thirds of tail length in 680 mm total length female, and by presenting a ventral tail midline devoid of small denticles only at base (naked region not extending posterior to pelvic fin rear margin. Further diagnostic characters in combination include the lack of scapular thorns in larger specimens, elevated number of tooth rows (64/62 tooth rows in subadult male of 505 mm TL, and 76/74 in large female of 680 mm TL and vertebrae (27-28 Vtr, 68-75 Vprd, ventral disc and tail with a uniform dark brown coloration, paired postventral fenestrae on scapulocoracoid, enlarged posterior postventral fenestra, circular foramen magnum and paired internal carotid foramina on braincase floor. Adult males were unavailable for study, but an anatomical description of M. obscura, n. sp., is provided. Comparisons are made with all known material of M. kreffti, literature accounts of M. senta, and with abundant material of South African M. spinacidermis; M. obscura, n. sp., most closely resembles M. spinacidermis from the eastern South Atlantic in squamation, coloration and size. Malacoraja is monophyletic due to its unique squamation and rostral appendices, and apparently comprises two species-groups, one for M. obscura and M. spinacidermis, and the other for M. kreffti and M. senta, but clarification of species-level relationships must await more anatomical information, particularly of the latter two

  13. “Activated, but Stuck”: Applying a Critical Occupational Lens to Examine the Negotiation of Long-Term Unemployment in Contemporary Socio-Political Contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debbie Laliberte Rudman

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Solutions for the problem of long-term unemployment are increasingly shaped by neoliberally-informed logics of activation and austerity. Because the implications of these governing frameworks for everyday life are not well understood, this pilot study applied a critical occupational science perspective to understand how long-term unemployment is negotiated within contemporary North American socio-political contexts. This perspective highlights the implications of policy and employment service re-configurations for the range of activities that constitute everyday life. Methods: Using a collaborative ethnographic community-engaged research approach, we recruited eight people in Canada and the United States who self-identified as experiencing long-term unemployment. We analyzed interviews and observation notes concerning four participants in each context using open coding, critical discourse analysis, and situational analysis. Results: This pilot study revealed a key contradiction in participants’ lives: being “activated, but stuck”. This contradiction resulted from the tension between individualizing, homogenizing frames of unemployment and complex, socio-politically shaped lived experiences. Analysis of this tension revealed how participants saw themselves “doing all the right things” to become re-employed, yet still remained stuck across occupational arenas. Conclusion: This pilot study illustrates the importance of understanding how socio-political solutions to long-term unemployment impact daily life and occupational engagement beyond the realm of job seeking and job acquisition.

  14. Inequalities in US Life Expectancy by Area Unemployment Level, 1990–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gopal K.; Siahpush, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the association between unemployment and life expectancy in the United States during 1990–2010. Census-based unemployment rates were linked to US county-level mortality data. Life expectancies were calculated by age, sex, race, and unemployment level during 1990–2010. Differences in life expectancy were decomposed by age and cause of death. Life expectancy was consistently lower in areas with higher unemployment rates. In 2006–2010, those in areas with high unemployment rates (≥9%) had a life expectancy of 76.9 years, compared with 80.7 years for those in areas with low unemployment rates (unemployment and life expectancy was stronger for men than for women. Life expectancy ranged from 69.9 years among black men in high unemployment areas to 90.0 years among Asian/Pacific Islander women in low unemployment areas. Disparities persisted over time. In 1990–1992, life expectancy was 4.7 years shorter in high unemployment than in low unemployment areas. In 2006–2010, the life expectancy difference between the lowest and highest unemployment areas decreased to 3.8 years. Heart disease, cancer, homicide, unintentional injuries, diabetes, HIV/AIDS, and liver cirrhosis contributed most to the lower life expectancy in high unemployment areas. High unemployment areas recorded larger gains in life expectancy than low unemployment areas, contributing to the narrowing gap during 1990–2010. PMID:27073716

  15. Inequalities in US Life Expectancy by Area Unemployment Level, 1990–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopal K. Singh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the association between unemployment and life expectancy in the United States during 1990–2010. Census-based unemployment rates were linked to US county-level mortality data. Life expectancies were calculated by age, sex, race, and unemployment level during 1990–2010. Differences in life expectancy were decomposed by age and cause of death. Life expectancy was consistently lower in areas with higher unemployment rates. In 2006–2010, those in areas with high unemployment rates (≥9% had a life expectancy of 76.9 years, compared with 80.7 years for those in areas with low unemployment rates (<3%. The association between unemployment and life expectancy was stronger for men than for women. Life expectancy ranged from 69.9 years among black men in high unemployment areas to 90.0 years among Asian/Pacific Islander women in low unemployment areas. Disparities persisted over time. In 1990–1992, life expectancy was 4.7 years shorter in high unemployment than in low unemployment areas. In 2006–2010, the life expectancy difference between the lowest and highest unemployment areas decreased to 3.8 years. Heart disease, cancer, homicide, unintentional injuries, diabetes, HIV/AIDS, and liver cirrhosis contributed most to the lower life expectancy in high unemployment areas. High unemployment areas recorded larger gains in life expectancy than low unemployment areas, contributing to the narrowing gap during 1990–2010.

  16. The Great Recession and America’s Geography of Unemployment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiede, Brian C.; Monnat, Shannon M.

    2017-01-01

    Background The Great Recession of 2007–2009 was the most severe and lengthy economic crisis in the U.S. since the Great Depression. The impacts on the population were multi-dimensional, but operated largely through local labor markets. Objective To examine differences in recession-related changes in county unemployment rates and assess how population and place characteristics shaped these patterns. Methods We calculate and decompose Theil Indexes to describe recession-related changes in the distribution of unemployment rates between counties and states. We use exploratory spatial statistics to identify geographic clusters of counties that experienced similar changes in unemployment. We use spatial regression to evaluate associations between county-level recession impacts on unemployment and demographic composition, industrial structure, and state context. Results The recession was associated with increased inequality between county labor markets within states, but declining between-state differences. Counties that experienced disproportionate recession-related increases in unemployment were spatially clustered and characterized by large shares of historically disadvantaged racial and ethnic minority populations, low educational attainment, and heavy reliance on pro-cyclical industries. Associations between these sources of vulnerability were partially explained by unobserved state-level factors. Conclusions The local consequences of macroeconomic trends are associated with county population characteristics, as well as the structural contexts and policy environments in which they are embedded. The recession placed upward pressure on within-state inequality between local labor market conditions. Contribution To present new estimates of the recession’s impact on local labor markets, quantify how heterogeneous impacts affected the distribution of unemployment prevalence, and identify county characteristics associated with disproportionately large recession

  17. The Great Recession and America's Geography of Unemployment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiede, Brian C; Monnat, Shannon M

    The Great Recession of 2007-2009 was the most severe and lengthy economic crisis in the U.S. since the Great Depression. The impacts on the population were multi-dimensional, but operated largely through local labor markets. To examine differences in recession-related changes in county unemployment rates and assess how population and place characteristics shaped these patterns. We calculate and decompose Theil Indexes to describe recession-related changes in the distribution of unemployment rates between counties and states. We use exploratory spatial statistics to identify geographic clusters of counties that experienced similar changes in unemployment. We use spatial regression to evaluate associations between county-level recession impacts on unemployment and demographic composition, industrial structure, and state context. The recession was associated with increased inequality between county labor markets within states, but declining between-state differences. Counties that experienced disproportionate recession-related increases in unemployment were spatially clustered and characterized by large shares of historically disadvantaged racial and ethnic minority populations, low educational attainment, and heavy reliance on pro-cyclical industries. Associations between these sources of vulnerability were partially explained by unobserved state-level factors. The local consequences of macroeconomic trends are associated with county population characteristics, as well as the structural contexts and policy environments in which they are embedded. The recession placed upward pressure on within-state inequality between local labor market conditions. To present new estimates of the recession's impact on local labor markets, quantify how heterogeneous impacts affected the distribution of unemployment prevalence, and identify county characteristics associated with disproportionately large recession-related increases in unemployment.

  18. The Great Recession and America's geography of unemployment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Thiede

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Great Recession of 2007-2009 was the most severe and lengthy economic crisis in the US since the Great Depression of the 1930s. The impacts on the population were multi-dimensional, but operated largely through local labor markets. Objective: To examine differences in recession-related changes in county unemployment rates and assess how population and place characteristics shaped these patterns. Methods: We calculate and decompose Theil Indexes to describe recession-related changes in the distribution of unemployment rates between counties and states. We use exploratory spatial statistics to identify geographic clusters of counties that experienced similar changes in unemployment. We use spatial regression to evaluate associations between county-level recession impacts on unemployment and demographic composition, industrial structure, and state context. Results: The recession was associated with increased inequality between county labor markets within states, but declining between-state differences. Counties that experienced disproportionate recession-related increases in unemployment were spatially clustered and characterized by large shares of historically disadvantaged racial and ethnic minority populations, low educational attainment, and heavy reliance on pro-cyclical industries. Associations between these sources of vulnerability were partially explained by unobserved state-level factors. Conclusions: The local consequences of macroeconomic trends are associated with county population characteristics, and the structural contexts and policy environments in which they are embedded. The recession placed upward pressure on within-state disparities in local labor market conditions. Contribution: To present new estimates of the recession's impact on local labor markets, quantify how heterogeneous impacts affected the distribution of unemployment prevalence, and identify county characteristics associated with disproportionately

  19. Duration on unemployment: geographic mobility and selectivity bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goss, E P; Paul, C; Wilhite, A

    1994-01-01

    Modeling the factors affecting the duration of unemployment was found to be influenced by the inclusion of migration factors. Traditional models which did not control for migration factors were found to underestimate movers' probability of finding an acceptable job. The empirical test of the theory, based on the analysis of data on US household heads unemployed in 1982 and employed in 1982 and 1983, found that the cumulative probability of reemployment in the traditional model was .422 and in the migration selectivity model was .624 after 30 weeks of searching. In addition, controlling for selectivity eliminated the significance of the relationship between race and job search duration in the model. The relationship between search duration and the county unemployment rate in 1982 became statistically significant, and the relationship between search duration and 1980 population per square mile in the 1982 county of residence became statistically insignificant. The finding that non-Whites have a longer duration of unemployment can better be understood as non-Whites' lower geographic mobility and lack of greater job contacts. The statistical significance of a high unemployment rate in the home labor market reducing the probability of finding employment was more in keeping with expectations. The findings assumed that the duration of employment accurately reflected the length of job search. The sample was redrawn to exclude discouraged workers and the analysis was repeated. The findings were similar to the full sample, with the coefficient for migration variable being negative and statistically significant and the coefficient for alpha remaining positive and statistically significant. Race in the selectivity model remained statistically insignificant. The findings supported the Schwartz model hypothesizing that the expansion of the radius of the search would reduce the duration of unemployment. The exclusion of the migration factor misspecified the equation for

  20. Description of the immature stages of Sigara (Tropocorixa jensenhaarupi (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Corixidae: Corixini, with ecological notes Descripción de los estadios larvales de Sigara (Tropocorixa jensenhaarupi (Heteroptera: Corixidae, con notas acerca de su ecología

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Cecilia Melo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Sigara (Tropocorixa jensenhaarupi Jaczewski is the smallest species of the subgenus ranging from 4.2-4.7 mm, and it is characterized by the absence of a strigil, the small and narrow genital capsule with a short hypandrium in males, and the shape of the abdominal tergite VII in females. This species is endemic to the Patagonian subregion (Andean region in Argentina. A monthly sampling study was performed during a year in northern Mendoza, and additional material was collected in southern Mendoza, more precisely from Bañado Carilauquen in the Llancanelo Lake Reserve (Malargüe Department. Since little is known about the ecological requirements of S. (T. jensenhaarupi, herein we describe its habitat, the environmental conditions and its association with other macroinvertebrates. Also, we provide a morphological description of larval stages, and provide new records of this species.Sigara (Tropocorixa jensenhaarupi Jaczewski es la especie más pequeña del subgénero (4.2-4.7 mm, y se caracteriza por la ausencia de estrigilo, la cápsula genital masculina pequeña y angosta con el hipandro corto, y la forma característica del tergito abdominal VII en las hembras. Esta especie es endémica de la subregión Patagónica (región Andina en Argentina. Se realizaron muestreos mensuales durante un año en el norte de la provincia de Mendoza, material adicional fue recolectado en el sur de la provincia, más precisamente en el Bañado Carilauquen en la Reserva Laguna Llancanelo (Departamento de Malargüe. Poco se conoce acerca de los requerimientos ecológicos de S. (T. jensenhaarupi, por lo que en este trabajo describimos su hábitat, las condiciones ambientales y su asociación con otros macroinvertebrados. Además, describimos los estadios larvales y damos nuevos registros de esta especie.

  1. Migration in the Face of Unemployment and Unemployment Risk: a Case Study of Temporal and Regional Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Kley

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This article employs an elaborated model of migration decision-making and behaviour to analyse the influence of individually experienced unemployment and unemployment risk. Following a contrast group design, respondents from two cities inGermanywith different levels of economic prosperity are compared using event history data from a tailor-made panel study. According to a micro-economic approach to migration it is expected that respondents living in an economically deprived city are more likely to decide in favour of migration and actually move compared to those living in a prosperous city because they often perceive opportunities as better elsewhere than at their current place of residence. Moreover, perceiving a risk of becoming unemployed in the near future might trigger migration decision-making more in a deprived city because difficulties to find a new job at the place of residence are anticipated. On the other hand, the new household economics approach and the theory of social networks stress the importance of the meso level. Individuals seldom decide in favour or against migration solely; the family rather makes joint decisions. Former research revealed that for unemployed people social networks are a major source for social support and are therefore especially important. There is evidence that in deprived regions social networks deter individuals stronger from moving than in others. These theoretical considerations and findings lead to the expectation that once people are unemployed they seldom leave deprived regions, what is at odds with the expectations from micro-economic theory. The analyses reveal that the perceived risk of becoming unemployed indeed triggers migration decision-making, but exclusively in the deprived city, whereas people who are already unemployed do not consider or plan leaving the city more often than employed people. Nevertheless, having a partner, children and family at the place of residence might outweigh the

  2. Descriptive Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wigram, Anthony Lewis

    2003-01-01

    Descriptive research is described by Lathom-Radocy and Radocy (1995) to include Survey research, ex post facto research, case studies and developmental studies. Descriptive research also includes a review of the literature in order to provide both quantitative and qualitative evidence of the effect...... starts will allow effect size calculations to be made in order to evaluate effect over time. Given the difficulties in undertaking controlled experimental studies in the creative arts therapies, descriptive research methods offer a way of quantifying effect through descriptive statistical analysis...

  3. Out of Unemployment? A Comparative Analysis of the Risks and Opportunities Longer-Term Unemployed Immigrant Youth Face when Entering the Labour Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmberg-Heimonen, Ira; Julkunen, Ilse

    2006-01-01

    Because of high unemployment rates among youth in Europe, comparative research has focused on identification of those risks and opportunities associated with the integration process from unemployment to work. The integration process of immigrant youth, however, received much less attention, despite their initially higher risk of unemployment than…

  4. 1. On note taking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaut, Alfred B J

    2005-02-01

    In this paper the author explores the theoretical and technical issues relating to taking notes of analytic sessions, using an introspective approach. The paper discusses the lack of a consistent approach to note taking amongst analysts and sets out to demonstrate that systematic note taking can be helpful to the analyst. The author describes his discovery that an initial phase where as much data was recorded as possible did not prove to be reliably helpful in clinical work and initially actively interfered with recall in subsequent sessions. The impact of the nature of the analytic session itself and the focus of the analyst's interest on recall is discussed. The author then describes how he modified his note taking technique to classify information from sessions into four categories which enabled the analyst to select which information to record in notes. The characteristics of memory and its constructive nature are discussed in relation to the problems that arise in making accurate notes of analytic sessions.

  5. Unemployment risk among individuals undergoing medical treatment for chronic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakaya, N; Nakamura, T; Tsuchiya, N; Tsuji, I; Hozawa, A; Tomita, H

    2016-03-01

    Chronic diseases increase the risk of unemployment even in non-disaster settings; therefore, in post-disaster settings, special attention needs to be paid to the employment status of those suffering from chronic diseases. To examine the association between chronic disease and the risk of unemployment in a disaster area. This cross-sectional study was conducted in Shichigahama Town, Miyagi, north-eastern Japan, where had been severely inundated by the 2011 tsunami. Logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate the association between undergoing medical treatment for a combination of chronic diseases (stroke, cancer, myocardial infarction and angina) and unemployment risk. Confounders such as psychological distress and levels of daily life activity were considered. Among the 2588 individuals studied, there was a statistically significant association between undergoing medical treatment for chronic disease and the risk of unemployment [odds ratio (OR) = 1.7, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.02-2.7, P unemployment risk was observed only in participants with a higher degree of psychological distress and/or poorer levels of daily life activity. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. The Normative Impact of Unemployment Insurance : A European Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Pierre Tabin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The debate on classification instruments for social security regimes opened by Esping-Andersen (1990 usually neglects the examination of the normative impact of the welfare state. This article focus on this latter through an analysis of systems of protection against unemployment in 11 of the European countries included in the database known as the Mutual Information System on Social Protection (MISSOC.We show in this article that unemployment insurance only recognize legal, authorized and declared salaried employees who have resided in the country for a set period of time, which confirms the close link between social policy and nationality, with some foreign workers being excluded from the circle of beneficiaries because of these norms. Unemployment insurance also always considers jobs as rare social goods - workers are expected to hold on to them, but they are declined differently along a person’s life course. The dominance of the male employment norm and the complete lack of consideration given to domestic labour by unemployment insurance contribute to structuring gendered roles as separate and hierarchically organized. Disparities between countries, whether related to contextual differences or to the history of the local welfare state, do not weaken these arguments since they are not founded upon fundamentally different conceptions of unemployment.

  7. Effects of Credit on Economic Growth, Unemployment and Poverty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mangasa Augustinus Sipahutar

    2016-06-01

                  Effect of credit on economic growth, unemployment and poverty provides evidence from Indonesia on the role of banks credit for promoting economic growth and reducing both unemployment and poverty.  To document the link between banks credit and economic growth, we estimate a VAR model and variance decompositions of annual GDP per capita growth rates to examine what proxy measures of banks credit are most important in accounting for economic growth over time and how much they contribute to explaining economic growth.  We also estimate an ECM to document the relationship between banks credit to both unemployment and poverty.  This paper revealed bi-direction causality between banks credit and economic growth.  Banks credit promotes economic growth and economic growth affects credit depth and financial development.  Furthermore, banks credit is a growth accelerating factor on Indonesian economic growth.  Banks credit is an endogenous growth and a good predictor on Indonesian economy. Our estimation model explained that credit allocated by banks increases business escalation to the real sectors then promotes economic growth, decreases unemployment rate through increasing in labor demanded, increases income and then decrease poverty.  This overall transmission mechanism just occurred through presence of banks credit by increasing money supply to the real sectors, promotes growth and social welfare.   Keywords :  banks credit, economic growth, growth accelerating factor, poverty, unemployment   JEL Classification : E51, E52, E58

  8. Some notes about the nuclear data libraries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panini, G.C.

    1984-01-01

    The paper gives a short description of the main nuclear data collections. The features which are particular of each source are enhanced and compared. Notes about the Nuclear Data Processing are also outlined. The paper is intended as a preliminary approach for people interested in the Nuclear Data management

  9. A note on notes: note taking and containment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Howard B

    2007-07-01

    In extreme situations of massive projective identification, both the analyst and the patient may come to share a fantasy or belief that his or her own psychic reality will be annihilated if the psychic reality of the other is accepted or adopted (Britton 1998). In the example of' Dr. M and his patient, the paradoxical dilemma around note taking had highly specific transference meanings; it was not simply an instance of the generalized human response of distracted attention that Freud (1912) had spoken of, nor was it the destabilization of analytic functioning that I tried to describe in my work with Mr. L. Whether such meanings will always exist in these situations remains a matter to be determined by further clinical experience. In reopening a dialogue about note taking during sessions, I have attempted to move the discussion away from categorical injunctions about what analysis should or should not do, and instead to foster a more nuanced, dynamic, and pair-specific consideration of the analyst's functioning in the immediate context of the analytic relationship. There is, of course, a wide variety of listening styles among analysts, and each analyst's mental functioning may be affected differently by each patient whom the analyst sees. I have raised many questions in the hopes of stimulating an expanded discussion that will allow us to share our experiences and perhaps reach additional conclusions. Further consideration may lead us to decide whether note taking may have very different meanings for other analysts and analyst-patient pairs, and whether it may serve useful functions in addition to the one that I have described.

  10. A couple-level analysis of participation in physical activity during unemployment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gough, Margaret

    2017-12-01

    There is a well-documented negative correlation between unemployment and health. Yet, little research has examined how unemployment relates to participation in physical activity, and few researchers have considered how an individual's unemployment may affect the health of their spouse or partner. The purpose of this study is to answer three questions: 1. Is one's own unemployment associated with changes in physical activity participation? 2. Is one's partner's unemployment associated with changes in physical activity participation? 3. Do changes in physical activity behaviors associated with unemployment differ by gender? This study uses nationally representative, longitudinal data on couples in the United States, covering the period 1999-2013. These data, obtained from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, are used to estimate fixed-effects models of the relationships between one's own, and one's partner's, unemployment and participation in physical activity. I find that for men unemployment is not associated with changes in physical activity time. For women, own unemployment is associated with increases in physical activity, whereas a partner's unemployment is associated with decreases in physical activity. I argue that unemployed women, unlike men, are able to take advantage of the increased availability of time through reduced labor supply to invest in their health during unemployment, which could have positive long-run consequences. Results suggest the importance of studying unemployment and health at the household level and suggest a need for further investigation into gender differences in unemployment and health.

  11. A couple-level analysis of participation in physical activity during unemployment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Gough

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available There is a well-documented negative correlation between unemployment and health. Yet, little research has examined how unemployment relates to participation in physical activity, and few researchers have considered how an individual's unemployment may affect the health of their spouse or partner. The purpose of this study is to answer three questions: 1. Is one's own unemployment associated with changes in physical activity participation? 2. Is one's partner's unemployment associated with changes in physical activity participation? 3. Do changes in physical activity behaviors associated with unemployment differ by gender? This study uses nationally representative, longitudinal data on couples in the United States, covering the period 1999–2013. These data, obtained from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, are used to estimate fixed-effects models of the relationships between one's own, and one's partner's, unemployment and participation in physical activity. I find that for men unemployment is not associated with changes in physical activity time. For women, own unemployment is associated with increases in physical activity, whereas a partner's unemployment is associated with decreases in physical activity. I argue that unemployed women, unlike men, are able to take advantage of the increased availability of time through reduced labor supply to invest in their health during unemployment, which could have positive long-run consequences. Results suggest the importance of studying unemployment and health at the household level and suggest a need for further investigation into gender differences in unemployment and health.

  12. Unemployment estimation: Spatial point referenced methods and models

    KAUST Repository

    Pereira, Soraia

    2017-06-26

    Portuguese Labor force survey, from 4th quarter of 2014 onwards, started geo-referencing the sampling units, namely the dwellings in which the surveys are carried. This opens new possibilities in analysing and estimating unemployment and its spatial distribution across any region. The labor force survey choose, according to an preestablished sampling criteria, a certain number of dwellings across the nation and survey the number of unemployed in these dwellings. Based on this survey, the National Statistical Institute of Portugal presently uses direct estimation methods to estimate the national unemployment figures. Recently, there has been increased interest in estimating these figures in smaller areas. Direct estimation methods, due to reduced sampling sizes in small areas, tend to produce fairly large sampling variations therefore model based methods, which tend to

  13. Youth, work, unemployment and identity: An social psychological approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimena del Carmen Gallardo Góngora

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This doctoral thesis aims to study some of the aspects of the work of young unemployed Chileans. This was done through the analysis of their “centrality” by taking into account the influence of values and concepts they have about work, in the process of their identity construction. The research was divided into two different sections. The first one is the theoretical framework, which consists of studies and analysis from a  social  psychological perspective in relation to the phenomena that come up from the main purpose of the study. For example, youth as a psychosocial phenomenon; work as meaning, centrality and psychosocial functions; Identity under a psychosocial approach as well as psychosocial effects due to the unemployment they suffer. The second section of the research is the qualitative analysis, which considers work factors regarding to young unemployed Chileans as well as the influence of such factors in the process of their identity construction.

  14. An Imputation Model for Dropouts in Unemployment Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilsson Petra

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Incomplete unemployment data is a fundamental problem when evaluating labour market policies in several countries. Many unemployment spells end for unknown reasons; in the Swedish Public Employment Service’s register as many as 20 percent. This leads to an ambiguity regarding destination states (employment, unemployment, retired, etc.. According to complete combined administrative data, the employment rate among dropouts was close to 50 for the years 1992 to 2006, but from 2007 the employment rate has dropped to 40 or less. This article explores an imputation approach. We investigate imputation models estimated both on survey data from 2005/2006 and on complete combined administrative data from 2005/2006 and 2011/2012. The models are evaluated in terms of their ability to make correct predictions. The models have relatively high predictive power.

  15. DETERMINANTS OF YOUTH UNEMPLOYMENT: A SURVEY OF THE LITERATURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulian CONDRATOV

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The issue of the unemployment concerning the population aged between 15-24 years has represented an important subject of research, due to the multiple implications that such a problem propagates on both social and economic sphere. Through this paper we wanted to achieve an updated synthesis of the results of the studies undertaken at an international level treating the unemployment problem among the young population. For combating efficiently this imbalance it is necessary to know its determinative factors. The studies undertaken along years identified determinative factors of different nature and, also, with a diffrent gravity of influence on the modification of the unemployment rate. Among the most important determinative factors the speciality litterature mentions: the demographic tendencies, the economic environment, the regulations concerning the work market and the educational system.

  16. Instability of capitalism inflation, unemployment, and business cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adil H. Mouhammed

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the instability of capitalism defined as a condition under which capitalism creates inflation, unemployment, and business cycles. Great economists such as Marx, Veblen, and Schumpeter have examined this problem, concluding that capitalist instability will transform capitalism. A model is developed in this paper to investigate instability, and the finding is that the basic causebehind instability is the conflict on income share: wages and profits. The fluctuations in the share of profits create inflation, unemployment, and business cycles. This generalization has been verified by using data from the American economy for the 1970s, 1980s, and the 1990s. Over this period, the paper concludes, whenthe profit share is high, moderate inflation and employment were generated, and when profit share is low, inflation, unemployment, and business cycles have appeared.

  17. Sociological analysis of the problem of unemployment among Ukrainian youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. O. Didukh

    2016-03-01

    The effect on the structure of youth unemployment factors such as age groups and distribution activities. Found that the most vulnerable to unemployment is the age group 15-24 years. Much attention is given to matching the level of education of young people and requirements of employers to their employees. Revealed that the necessary correction of the entire education system. Thus, the main conclusion is significant opportunity to improve the efficiency of the State Employment Center as one of the basic tools of the modern state youth policy. Proposed as an important step to regulate the problem of youth unemployment improvement of the State Employment Service, which should appeal to the international experience and to reform the mechanism of state support for entrepreneurship by providing incentives, subsidies or state aid to business expansion and others. That young people are the most responsive to the psychological perception of new technologies entrepreneurship.

  18. Unemployment and Causes of Hospital Admission Considering Different Analytical Approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg-Beckhoff, Gabriele; Gulis, Gabriel; Kronborg Bak, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    and circulatory disease. Register-based data was analysed for the period of 2006 to 2009. In the cross-sectional analysis, a multiple logistic regression model was conducted based on the year 2006 and cohort information from the same year onward up to 2009 was available for a cox regression model. Social welfare...... compensated unemployment and both types of disease specific hospital admission was associated statistically significant in the cross-sectional analysis. With regard to circulatory disease, the cohort approach suggests that social welfare compensated unemployment might lead to hospital admission due...... to the disease. Given the significant results in the cross-sectional analysis for hospital admission due to cancer, the unfound cohort effect might indicate a reverse causation suggesting that the disease caused joblessness and finally, social welfare compensated unemployment and not vice versa. Comparing...

  19. On that Note...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Harry

    1988-01-01

    Provides suggestions for note-taking from books, lectures, visual presentations, and laboratory experiments to enhance student knowledge, memory, and length of attention span during instruction. Describes topical and structural outlines, visual mapping, charting, three-column note-taking, and concept mapping. Benefits and application of…

  20. Making Notes, Making Meaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Jim

    2002-01-01

    Introduces notetaking tools used successfully with English-as-a-second-language students and low-achieving high school freshmen. Provides an overview of each tool and explains how students use them to take notes when reading textbooks and articles. Notes these tools and academic habits have helped students succeed in their mainstream academic…

  1. A note on Fukui’s note

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsai Cheng-Yu Edwin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This commentary relates Fukui’s (2015 note on weak vs. strong generation to two aspects of quantification in Chinese: quantifier scope and the syntactic licensing conditions of noninterrogative wh-expressions. It is shown that the phenomena under discussion echo Fukui’s (2015 view that only strong generation allows for a deeper understanding of natural language and that dependencies are to be distinguished structurally.

  2. RETRACTED: Technology and Unemployment for Executives in Hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayr Figueiredo de Oliveira

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Updated September 4, 2014. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- RETRACTION: The paper “Technology and Unemployment for Executives in Hospitals” by Jayr Figuereido, published in vol 7 (3 2012, has been retracted by the editors because significant parts of the paper were plagiarized and without proper citation to the publication “Gondim, S. M. G., Estramiana, J. L. Á., Luna, A. d. F., Oliveira, T. S. S. d., & Souza, G. C. d. (2010. Atribuições de causas ao desemprego e valores pessoais. Estudos de Psicologia (Natal, 15, 309-317”. This strong determination was taken by the editorial committee in order to correct this misbehavior and to compensate the detriment caused to the academic community. Apologies are offered to our readers for not having spotted this problem during the edition process. We are constantly introducing more tools in our editorial process in order to avoid plagiarism and abuses like the presented in this case. It is in our greatest concern to preserve the academic integrity of our publication. --------------------------------------------------------------- Abstract: This study aims to investigate how managers of health care institutions explain the causes of unemployment, and how this explanation is related to their personal and family values, in accordance with Schwartz’s theoretical model. For that, we used two questionnaires: one analyzes the explanations for unemployment, and the other one is the Portrait Values Questionnaire (PVQ 21 – short version. Employed and formerly unemployed workers do not show any significant differences in explaining the causes of unemployment. On the other hand, regarding values, formerly unemployed workers show universalism and benevolence, values related to the self-transcendence dimension. Employed workers, in turn, show values of security, related to the conservatism dimension. The conclusion is that, even though technological innovations

  3. [Fluctuations in unemployment and disability in Iceland 1992-2006].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorlacius, Sigurdur; Olafsson, Stefán

    2008-03-01

    To examine and explain the effect of unemployment on the number of disability pensioners in Iceland by examining changes in this relationship from 1992 to 2006. Information on gender and place of residence of new recipients of disability pension in Iceland and corresponding information on unemployment for each year in the period 1992 to 2006. The variables were correlated and disaggregated by gender and regions within Iceland. Two big fluctuations occurred in the rate of new disability pension receivers during the study period, with significant increases in disability from 1993 to 1995 and again from 2003 onwards. Both of these fluctuations are associated with considerable increases in the unemployment rate. The extent of new disability pensioners declined again when the level of unemployment went down, even though not to the same relative extent. In the upswing from 2003 a delay of about a year in the increase of disability pensioners' numbers, following the rise in unemployment rate, became more prominent and the overall rate of new disability pensioners reached new highs. The relationship applies equally to the capital area as well as the provincial areas as a whole. There is though a small deviation in three of the seven provincial areas, with less decline of the disability rate on the downswing. Health and capability condition determine the overall disability rate, but fluctuations over time are related to environmental conditions in the labour market, especially the unemployment rate. The features of the welfare system, especially the benefit and rehabilitation system, as well as the extent and character of activation measures in the labour market also influence the number of disability pensioners. A new method of disability assessment from late 1999 may have had some influence on the relationship during the latter part of the period and increasing applications from people with mental and psychiatric deficiencies seems to have had a significant influence on

  4. The influence of neighborhood unemployment on mortality after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unrath, Michael; Wellmann, Jürgen; Diederichs, Claudia; Binse, Lisa; Kalic, Marianne; Heuschmann, Peter Ulrich; Berger, Klaus

    2014-07-01

    Few studies have investigated the impact of neighborhood characteristics on mortality after stroke. Aim of our study was to analyze the influence of district unemployment as indicator of neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES-NH) on poststroke mortality, and to compare these results with the mortality in the underlying general population. Our analyses involve 2 prospective cohort studies from the city of Dortmund, Germany. In the Dortmund Stroke Register (DOST), consecutive stroke patients (N=1883) were recruited from acute care hospitals. In the Dortmund Health Study (DHS), a random general population sample was drawn (n=2291; response rate 66.9%). Vital status was ascertained in the city's registration office and information on district unemployment was obtained from the city's statistical office. We performed multilevel survival analyses to examine the association between district unemployment and mortality. The association between neighborhood unemployment and mortality was weak and not statistically significant in the stroke cohort. Only stroke patients exposed to the highest district unemployment (fourth quartile) had slightly higher mortality risks. In the general population sample, higher district unemployment was significantly associated with higher mortality following a social gradient. After adjustment for education, health-related behavior and morbidity was made the strength of this association decreased. The impact of SES-NH on mortality was different for stroke patients and the general population. Differences in the association between SES-NH and mortality may be partly explained by disease-related characteristics of the stroke cohort such as homogeneous lifestyles, similar morbidity profiles, medical factors, and old age. Copyright © 2014 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Unemployment and Subsequent Employment Stability: Does Labour Market Policy Matter?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wulfgramm, Melike; Fervers, Lukas

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyses the effect of unemployment insurance generosity and active labour market policy on reemployment stability in Europe. Using EU‐SILC and OECD data, we conduct discrete time survival analyses with shared frailty specification to identify policy effects at the micro and macro level....... These results point to a policy trade‐off between the well‐confirmed disincentive and locking‐in effect of unemployment benefits and ALMP programmes on the one hand, and their positive effect on reemployment stability on the other hand....

  6. Effects of Credit on Economic Growth, Unemployment and Poverty

    OpenAIRE

    Sipahutar, Mangasa Augustinus

    2016-01-01

    Abstract               Effect of credit on economic growth, unemployment and poverty provides evidence from Indonesia on the role of banks credit for promoting economic growth and reducing both unemployment and poverty.  To document the link between banks credit and economic growth, we estimate a VAR model and variance decompositions of annual GDP per capita growth rates to examine what proxy measures of banks credit are most important in accounting for economic growth over time and ho...

  7. Unemployment Among Mexican Immigrant Men in the United States, 2003 – 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laird, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Based on their socioeconomic characteristics, Mexican immigrant men should have very high un-employment. More than half do not have a high school diploma. One in four works in construction; at the height of the recent recession, 20% of construction workers were unemployed. Yet their unemployment rates are similar to those of native-born white men. After controlling for education and occupation, Mexican immigrant men have lower probabilities of unemployment than native-born white men – both before and during the recent recession. I consider explanations based on eligibility for unemployment benefits, out-migrant selection for unemployment, and employer preferences for Mexican immigrant labor. PMID:25432614

  8. A study of actions in operative notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Pakhomov, Serguei; Burkart, Nora E; Ryan, James O; Melton, Genevieve B

    2012-01-01

    Operative notes contain rich information about techniques, instruments, and materials used in procedures. To assist development of effective information extraction (IE) techniques for operative notes, we investigated the sublanguage used to describe actions within the operative report 'procedure description' section. Deep parsing results of 362,310 operative notes with an expanded Stanford parser using the SPECIALIST Lexicon resulted in 200 verbs (92% coverage) including 147 action verbs. Nominal action predicates for each action verb were gathered from WordNet, SPECIALIST Lexicon, New Oxford American Dictionary and Stedman's Medical Dictionary. Coverage gaps were seen in existing lexical, domain, and semantic resources (Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) Metathesaurus, SPECIALIST Lexicon, WordNet and FrameNet). Our findings demonstrate the need to construct surgical domain-specific semantic resources for IE from operative notes.

  9. Mysore study: A study of suicide notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namratha, P; Kishor, M; Sathyanarayana Rao, T S; Raman, Rajesh

    2015-01-01

    Suicide is one of the leading causes of preventable deaths. Recent data suggest South India as one of the regions with highest suicide rates in the world. In 2013, 134,799 people committed suicide in India according to the statistics released by the National Crime Records Bureau. Suicide note is one of the most important sources to understand suicide, which may be beneficial in suicide prevention. Studies on suicidal notes from this part of the world are sparse. The aim was to study the themes in suicide notes that might be useful in prevention strategies. A descriptive study of all suicide notes of those individuals who committed suicide between 2010 and 2013 available with Police Department, Mysore district was obtained and analyzed. A total of 22 suicide note were available. A majority of suicide note was in age group of 16-40 years (86%) and most were men (59%). All suicide notes were handwritten, the majority (70%) in regional language Kannada. Length of notes varied from just few words to few pages. Contents of suicide notes included apology/shame/guilt (80%), love for those left behind (55%) and instruction regarding practical affairs (23%). Most have blamed none for the act (50%). 23% mentioned that they are committing suicide to prove their innocence. 32% mentioned a last wish. The majority of suicidal note contained "guilt" which is a strong indicator of possible depression in deceased. Creating awareness about suicide among public and ensuring access to professionals trained in suicide prevention is need of the hour in this part of the world.

  10. MixedNotes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jokela, Tero; Lucero, Andrés

    2014-01-01

    Affinity Diagramming is a technique to organize and make sense of qualitative data. It is commonly used in Contextual Design and HCI research. However, preparing notes for and building an Affinity Diagram remains a laborious process, with a wide variety of different approaches and practices....... In this paper, we present MixedNotes, a novel technique to prepare physical paper notes for Affinity Diagramming, and a software tool to support this technique. The technique has been tested with large real-life Affinity Diagrams with overall positive results....

  11. Parental unemployment and children's happiness: A longitudinal study of young people's well-being in unemployed households☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powdthavee, Nattavudh; Vernoit, James

    2014-01-01

    Using a unique longitudinal data of British youths we estimate how adolescents' overall happiness is related to parents' exposure to unemployment. Our within-child estimates suggest that parental job loss when the child was relatively young has a positive influence on children's overall happiness. However, this positive association became either strongly negative or statistically insignificant as the child grew older. The estimated effects of parental job loss on children's happiness also appear to be unrelated to its effect on family income, parent–child interaction, and children's school experience. Together these findings offer new psychological evidence of unemployment effects on children's livelihood. PMID:24932068

  12. Unemployment and Underemployment: A Narrative Analysis about Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blustein, David L.; Kozan, Saliha; Connors-Kellgren, Alice

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we conducted a narrative analysis of interviews with unemployed and underemployed adults to better understand their experiences and to learn how they are coping with job loss. Seven men and six women from diverse backgrounds who were receiving career exploration and job search services were interviewed at a one-stop career center in…

  13. Coping with Unemployment: Personality, Role Demands, and Time Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hoye, Greet; Lootens, Hanne

    2013-01-01

    Time structure has been found to be an important coping mechanism for dealing with the negative effects of unemployment on psychological well-being. This study extends the literature by investigating personality (openness to experience, conscientiousness, extraversion, neuroticism, and proactivity) and role demands (marital status, being the only…

  14. Unemployment Anxiety of Student Taking Sports Education in University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Shalal Abdulla; Devecioglu, Sebahattin

    2018-01-01

    Anxiety is one of the critical medical conditions that affect individuals due to various reasons. Some of these reasons may be related to inheritance while others are acquired during major life events. In this investigation, the level of unemployment anxiety was evaluated for students at Firat University, Elazig, Turkey. The study population…

  15. A Glimpse of Urban Youth Unemployment in Ethiopia | Gizaw ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this article is to explore the employment status, issues, causes, and possible policy options. The study used both secondary and primary data sources. The study indicated that urban youth unemployment in Ethiopia is fast growing mainly due to the imbalance between the demand and supply sides of the job ...

  16. Gender unemployment gaps: evidence from the new EU member states

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bičáková, Alena

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 2 (2010), s. 41-97 ISSN 1211-3298 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP402/08/P466 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : gender unemployment gap * labor force participation * family leave policies Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cerge-ei.cz/pdf/wp/Wp410.pdf

  17. Gender unemployment gaps in the EU: blame the family

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bičáková, Alena

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 22 (2016), s. 1-31 E-ISSN 2193-9012 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP402/12/G130 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : gender unemployment gap * family leave * gender discrimination Subject RIV: AH - Economics

  18. 253 Education and the Paradox of Graduate Unemployment: The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FIRST LADY

    2011-01-18

    Jan 18, 2011 ... The paper is an assessment of education, graduate unemployment and the ... acknowledged as a legitimized vehicle for self and societal advancement. The ... curriculum and pedagogical reforms, upgrading existing facilities to match ... It is against this background that the paper examines the issue of.

  19. Does Unemployment Lead to a Less Healthy Lifestyle?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaiser, Micha; Bauer, Jan Michael; Sousa-Poza, Alfonso

    2017-01-01

    In this article, we use 22 years of data from the German Socio-Economic Panel and information on plant closures to investigate the effects of unemployment on four indicators of unhealthy lifestyles: diet, alcohol consumption, smoking and (a lack of) physical activity. In contrast to much...

  20. Developing Digital Immigrants' Computer Literacy: The Case of Unemployed Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ktoridou, Despo; Eteokleous-Grigoriou, Nikleia

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of a 40-hour computer course for beginners provided to a group of unemployed women learners with no/minimum computer literacy skills who can be characterized as digital immigrants. The aim of the study is to identify participants' perceptions and experiences regarding technology,…

  1. Youth Unemployment and Localized Impact: A Career Studies Teacher's Story

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godden, Lorraine

    2015-01-01

    The global economic downturn and high youth unemployment have created a challenging context for Ontario secondary-school teachers to meet the compulsory half-credit career studies course objectives intended to support school-to-work (STW) transition. Bronfenbrener's (1979) ecological systems theory provided a clear framework to examine influences…

  2. Unemployment Assistance and Transition to Employment in Argentina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Iturriza (Ana); A.S. Bedi (Arjun Singh); R.A. Sparrow (Robert)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractIn 2001-02, Argentina experienced a wrenching economic crisis. Plan Jefes, implemented in May 2002, was Argentina's institutional response to the increases in unemployment and poverty triggered by the crisis. The program provided a social safety net and appears to have successfully

  3. Experiments on unemployment benefit sanctions and job search behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boone, J.; Sadrieh, A.; van Ours, J.C.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an experimental study on unemployment benefit sanctions. The experimental set-up allows us to distinguish between the effect of benefit sanctions once they are imposed (the ex post effect) and the threat of getting a benefit sanction imposed (the ex ante effect).

  4. Regional unemployment and human capital in transition economies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jurajda, Štěpán; Terrell, K.

    -, č. 345 (2007), s. 1-34 ISSN 1211-3298 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : unemployment * human capital * regional labor markets Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cerge-ei.cz/pdf/wp/Wp345.pdf

  5. Regional unemployment and human capital in transition economies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jurajda, Štěpán; Terrell, K.

    -, č. 6569 (2007), s. 1-34 ISSN 0265-8003 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : human capital * unemployment * labour mobility Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cepr.org/pubs/new-dps/dplist.asp?dpno=6569.asp

  6. Unemployment in Kenya: Some economic factors affecting wage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article analyses the economic factors affecting wage employment in Kenya, where open unemployment fell from 15 per cent in 1998/1999 to 13 per cent in 2005/2006. As of 2005/2006, wage employment constituted 13 per cent of the total working population, which implies that doubling wage employment will absorb ...

  7. Just a Phase? Youth Unemployment in the Republic of Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, Emer

    2008-01-01

    Ireland has experienced an unprecedented level of economic growth since the mid-1990s. The present article assesses the extent to which this phenomenon has altered the level and nature of youth unemployment, using data from six waves of a nationally representative survey of school-leavers. The main impact of the "Celtic Tiger" has been…

  8. Youth Unemployment and Labour Market Transitions in Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audas, Rick; Berde, Eva; Dolton, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Unemployment and labour market adjustment have featured prominently in the problems of transitional economies. However, the position of young people and their transitions from school to work in these new market economies has been virtually ignored. This paper examines a new large longitudinal data set relating to young people in Hungary over the…

  9. Unemployment Menace and the Fallacy of Microcredit Policy in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the issue of unemployment and the impact of microfinance banks' credit facilities on its reduction for the period of 22 years between 1992 and 2014. The study employed secondary data obtained from Central Bank of Nigeria and National Bureau of Statistics. The data obtained was subjected to ...

  10. The consequences of unemployment on diet composition and purchase behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smed, Sinne; Tetens, Inge; Lund, Thomas Bøker

    2018-01-01

    as a trend accounting for the duration. SETTING: A household panel which registers daily food purchases combined with detailed nutritional information and registration of the duration of unemployment at individual level. The structure of the data set facilitates the detection of effects or associations...

  11. Maquiladoras, Women's Work, and Unemployment in Northern Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiano, Susan

    1984-01-01

    Uses Marxist/feminist concepts to explain employment patterns among female workers in multinational maquiladoras (assembly plants) in northern Mexico. Concludes that maquiladoras have not alleviated regional unemployment for either sex, but have created a docile low-wage work force that includes a pool of surplus labor. Contains 48 references. (SV)

  12. 26 CFR 1.85-1 - Unemployment compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    .... (a) Introduction. Section 85 prescribes rules relating to the inclusion in gross income of... than in cash or on some other basis. (ii) Disability and worker's compensation payments. Amounts in the nature of unemployment compensation also include cash disability payments made pursuant to a governmental...

  13. Unemployment and psychological distress among graduates: A longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaufeli, Wilmar B.; Van Yperen, Nico W.

    1992-01-01

    A longitudinal study which addresses the relationship between unemployment and psychological distress in Dutch technical college graduates is presented. Two samples were studied: sample 1 (N = 635) consisted of students leaving technical college and sample 2 (N = 487) consisted of technical college

  14. Structural unemployment and its effects: There is always a reflexive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this case the dominant economic discourse had penetrated the consciousness of a young man who was unemployed. Opening a conversation on the internalised effects of this discourse enabled a shift in response. Enabling consideration of the dominant discourse and facilitating such shifts in response are suggested as ...

  15. Unemployment and Labor Market Institutions : An Empirical Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belot, M.V.K.; van Ours, J.C.

    2001-01-01

    The development of the unemployment rate di¤ers substantially between OECD countries.In this paper we investigate to what extent these differences are related to labor market institutions.In our analysis we use data of eighteen OECD countries over the period 1960-1994 and show that the way in which

  16. Do flexible labor markets indeed reduce unemployment? A robustness check

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vergeer, R.; Kleinknecht, A.

    2012-01-01

    Nickell et al. (2005) have frequently been cited as empirical evidence that labor market rigidities cause high unemployment. We find that their model is not robust. Leaving their database unchanged and changing three details in their estimation procedure, it turns out that several policy-relevant

  17. Rural-urban migration and urban unemployment in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aigbokhan, B E

    1988-01-01

    This paper argues that urban unemployment in Nigeria has been due largely to a failure on the part of the government to pursue policies that reflect commitment on its part to its stated objectives, particularly with regard to employment opportunities. Rural-urban migration has been taking place in the country since the 1960s and at an increasing rate since the 1970s. Economic policies have contributed to this, notably the rural-urban imbalance resulting from the pattern of allocation of public investment expenditures and the wages determination process which tends to concentrate more on the urban sector. These have contributed to the widening urban-rural income differentials. In the face of such migration, the urban industrial sector has been able to absorb only a negligible proportion of migrants. A major factor that has contributed to this is the increased capital-intensity of the sector. Some laudable measures have been introduced this year, notably the establishment of the Directorate of Employment and the Directorate of Food, Road, and Rural infrastructure. The latter, if effectively implemented, should enhance rural income and thereby reduce the rural-urban income gap. The former should reduce the problem of open unemployment. While it is too early to assess the effects of these 2 measures on urban unemployment, they may not improve urban unemployment significantly. There is still the need to design policies to increase labor absorption in general.

  18. A New Approach to Helping the Hard to Place Unemployed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Niklas; Caswell, Dorte; Larsen, Flemming

    2017-01-01

    the labour market participation of the most vulnerable groups. We argue that the goal of including a greater share of the harder-to-place unemployed in the labour market is not likely to be achieved through the tried and tested ways of developing knowledge, policy and practice. Rather, we propose a different...

  19. New Estimates of the Effect of Unemployment on Enlisted Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-07-01

    S14cw’tity lafication) New Estimates of the Effect of Umemployment on Enlisted Retention 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Ile, TYPE OF REPORT 3b~. TIME COVERED...wider swings in the umemployment rate during recent years, relative military pay has played at least as important a role as the unemployment rate in

  20. An econometric examination of growth, unemployment and poverty ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unemployment, on the other hand, refers to a state of joblessness or an involuntary idleness of a person willing to work at the prevailing rate of pay but unable to find it while poverty is generally conceptualized as lack of adequate resources to obtain and consume a certain bundle of goods and services. This work on an ...

  1. Labour Markets, Unemployment and Training for Quality: Germany and Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Thomas; Maguire, Keith

    1998-01-01

    Although unemployment is a serious problem in Europe, deregulating labor markets is not the solution. Deregulation could lead to decline in quality and competitiveness. The example of Japan shows the interaction of education, training, human resource management, and quality control. (SK)

  2. Regional unemployment and human capital in transition economies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jurajda, Štěpán; Terrell, K.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 2 (2009), s. 241-274 ISSN 0967-0750 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : unemployment * human capital * regional labour markets Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.774, year: 2009

  3. Unemployment, inquality and the policy of Europe: 1984-2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James K. Galbraith

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper reconsiders the problem of unemployment in Europe at multiple geographic levels and through time from 1984 to 2000. We employ a panel structure that permits us to separate regional, national and continental influences on Europeanunemployment. Important local effects include the economic growth rate, relative wealth or poverty, and the proportion of young people in the labor force. As part of this analysis, we assess the relationship between pay inequality and unemployment in Europe, following the insight of Harris and Todaro (1970 that pay inequalities influence job search. With our own panel of inequality measures derived from Eurostat's REGIO data set, we find that higher pay inequality, though usually taken to indicate greater labor market flexibility, is associated with more, not less,unemployment. Among large countries distinctive effects at the national level are few, perhaps indicating that national labor market institutions are not a decisive factor in the determination of unemployment. Changes in the macro-environment are picked up by time fixed effects, and these show a striking pan-European rise inunemployment immediately following the Maastricht Treaty, though with some encouraging recovery late in the decade.

  4. Is labour market training a curse for the unemployed?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosholm, Michael; Skipper, Lars

    2009-01-01

    In 1994 a social experiment was conducted in Denmark, where unemployed applicants for classroom training were randomised into treatment and control groups. The data are contaminated by the presence of no-shows and crossovers, biasing the traditional experimental estimator. We interpret our...

  5. Youth Unemployment in Nigeria: The Relevance of Vocational and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Youth Unemployment in Nigeria: The Relevance of Vocational and Technical Education. ... Vocational/technical education has been an integral part of national development strategies in many societies because of its impact on human resource development, productivity, and economic ... NESG Economic Indicators Vol.

  6. Youth unemployment rate and impact of financial crises

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Choudhry, Misbah Tanveer; Marelli, Enrico; Signorelli, Marcello

    2012-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to assess the impact of financial crises on the youth unemployment rate (YUR). The authors consider different types of financial crises (systemic banking crises, non-systemic banking crises, currency crises and debt crises) and different groups of countries,

  7. Lagos Notes and Records

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... Lagos Notes and Records is an annual, interdisciplinary journal of the humanities. ... Insuring the Nation: Europeans and the Emergence of Modern Insurance Business in Colonial Nigeria ...

  8. Notes on Contributors

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NOTES ON CONTRIBUTORS. Samuel AMOAKO, Associate Researcher, South African Research Unit in Social Change. Contact Details: C/o Lucinda Bercony, Humanities Research Village (House No. 3). University of Johannesburg, P. O. Box 524. Bunting Road Campus, Auckland Park, 2006.

  9. NCEP Internal Office Notes

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) and its predecessors have produced internal publications, known as Office Notes, since the mid-1950's. In...

  10. Writing a Condolence Note

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... through the eyes of others. For example, a mother whose son had died found out that her ... few suggestions on ending your condolence note: “Our love and support will always be here for you.” “ ...

  11. A note on name individuation and identifying descriptions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kate H

    used to refer to either the famous philosopher or to the shipping magnate. ..... chain that produced the use of the name is a list containing the generic name and the ... arcane issues concerning currency individuation, object to my claim that I ...

  12. Notes on the genus Digitaria, with descriptions of new species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henrard, J.Th.

    1934-01-01

    Some years ago I had the opportunity to study more extensively a very interesting group of grasses, belonging to what is now accepted as a distinct genus, the genus Digitaria, formerly belonging as a subgenus to the genus Panicum. As to living plants of this group I was familiar with two european

  13. Analytical dynamics course notes

    CERN Document Server

    Lindenbaum, Samuel D

    1994-01-01

    This book comprises a set of lecture notes on rational mechanics, for part of the graduate physics curriculum, delivered by the late Prof. Shirley L. Quimby during his tenure at Columbia University, New York. The notes contain proofs of basic theorems, derivations of formulae and amplification of observations, as well as the presentation and solution of illustrative problems. Collateral readings from more than 50 source references are indicated at appropriate places in the text.

  14. The Institutional Foundations of Medicalization: A Cross-national Analysis of Mental Health and Unemployment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffel, Veerle; Beckfield, Jason; Bracke, Piet

    2017-09-01

    In this study, we question (1) whether the relationship between unemployment and mental healthcare use, controlling for mental health status, varies across European countries and (2) whether these differences are patterned by a combination of unemployment and healthcare generosity. We hypothesize that medicalization of unemployment is stronger in countries where a low level of unemployment generosity is combined with a high level of healthcare generosity. A subsample of 36,306 working-age respondents from rounds 64.4 (2005-2006) and 73.2 (2010) of the cross-national survey Eurobarometer was used. Country-specific logistic regression and multilevel analyses, controlling for public disability spending, changes in government spending, economic capacity, and unemployment rate, were performed. We find that unemployment is medicalized, at least to some degree, in the majority of the 24 nations surveyed. Moreover, the medicalization of unemployment varies substantially across countries, corresponding to the combination of the level of unemployment and of healthcare generosity.

  15. Note Taking and Note Sharing While Browsing Campaign Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robertson, Scott P.; Vatrapu, Ravi; Abraham, George

    2009-01-01

    Participants were observed while searching and browsing the internet for campaign information in a mock-voting situation in three online note-taking conditions: No Notes, Private Notes, and Shared Notes. Note taking significantly influenced the manner in which participants browsed for information...

  16. Unemployment and psychological distress one year after childbirth in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saurel-Cubizolles, M J; Romito, P; Ancel, P Y; Lelong, N

    2000-03-01

    To analyse the relation between unemployment and the psychological distress of mothers one year after childbirth. Multicentric survey concerning births occurring between September 1993 and July 1994. In France: two maternity units in the Parisian area and one in Champagne-Ardennes, in the east of France, comprising both urban and rural areas. Primipara and secondipara women were interviewed three times: at birth by a face to face interview, five months and 12 months after the birth, by postal questionnaires, with a 83% response rate for the two postal questionnaires. The analysis includes 632 women who answered all three stages of the survey. Psychological distress was mainly assessed one year after birth by the 12-item General Health Questionnaire. After adjustment for unwanted pregnancy, marital conflicts, marital status, hospitalisation of the baby during the last year, lack of confiding relationship, depressive or anxious troubles before pregnancy, age, educational level and parity, unemployed women had an excess of psychological distress compared with employed women (OR = 1.87; 95% CI = 1.12, 3.13). The ratios for housewives were very close to those of employed women. Among the unemployed women, 60% had recently been without a job, since a few months before or after the birth. An excess of psychological distress among unemployed compared with employed women was observed in all social groups defined by the current or last occupation, but with various extents. Psychological distress was specially linked to the employment status in the group of women with the more qualified occupations. Even after a birth, when women are very much involved in their maternal role, those seeking a job have worse mental health than those in a stable situation, either employed or housewives. In France, the unemployment rate among young women is high. It is specially important that social regulations protecting employment during and after pregnancy are adequately applied. Employers

  17. Descriptive statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nick, Todd G

    2007-01-01

    Statistics is defined by the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) thesaurus as the science and art of collecting, summarizing, and analyzing data that are subject to random variation. The two broad categories of summarizing and analyzing data are referred to as descriptive and inferential statistics. This chapter considers the science and art of summarizing data where descriptive statistics and graphics are used to display data. In this chapter, we discuss the fundamentals of descriptive statistics, including describing qualitative and quantitative variables. For describing quantitative variables, measures of location and spread, for example the standard deviation, are presented along with graphical presentations. We also discuss distributions of statistics, for example the variance, as well as the use of transformations. The concepts in this chapter are useful for uncovering patterns within the data and for effectively presenting the results of a project.

  18. Analysis of unemployment regulation tools oriented towards labour supply in Lithuania

    OpenAIRE

    Šakienė, Henrika

    2011-01-01

    The need of unemployment regulation is very important issue nowadays. Unemployment regulation tools can be address towards labour supply either demand. Recently opened scientists discussion about growing need to regulate labour supply because of high volunteer caused unemployment and situation when open work places cannot be filled with existing labour supply because of the various reasons. This article objective is to review possible unemployment regulation tools oriented towards labour supp...

  19. Testing the impact of unemployment on self-employment: empirical evidence from OECD countries

    OpenAIRE

    Halicioglu, Ferda; Yolac, Sema

    2015-01-01

    The impact of unemployment on self-employment is rather an ambiguous issue in economics. According to refugee effect approach, there are two counter arguments: the theory of income choice argument suggests that increased unemployment may lead to increased self-employment activities whereas the counter argument defends the view that an increase in unemployment rates may decrease the endowments of human capital and entrepreneurial talent causing a rise in unemployment rates further. The empiric...

  20. Labour Market Flexibility and Regional Unemployment Rate Dynamics: Spain (1980-1995)

    OpenAIRE

    Roberto Bande; Marika Karanassou

    2006-01-01

    This paper aims to shed light in the dynamics of Spanish regional unemployment rates and determine the driving forces of their disparities. The Spanish economy has one of the highest unemployment rates in the EU and is characterised by severe regional disparities. We apply the chain reaction theory of unemployment according to which the evolution of unemployment is driven by the interplay of lagged adjustment processes and the spillover effects within the labour market system. Our model inclu...

  1. THE PROBLEM OF YOUTH UNEMPLOYMENT IN RUSSIA AS A PRIORITY PROBLEM OF THE MODERN LABOR MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. E. Chekanova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses one of the problems of the modern economy - the problem of youth unemployment in Russia. The article presents statistical data on youth unemployment. Analysing the characteristics of youth unemployment in Russian Federation. Considers the problems of the youth labour market, recommendations for change, youth unemployment. The peculiarities of youth as a social group and its specifi c diff erences in the situation on the labour market.

  2. Higher Education and Unemployment: A Cointegration and Causality Analysis of the Case of Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdem, Ekrem; Tugcu, Can Tansel

    2012-01-01

    This article analyses the short and the long-term relations between higher education and unemployment in Turkey for the period 1960-2007. It chooses the recently developed ARDL cointegration and Granger causality of Dolado and Lutkepohl (1996) methods. While the proxy of unemployment is total unemployment rate, higher education graduates were…

  3. 77 FR 66482 - Federal-State Unemployment Compensation Program: Certifications for 2012 Under the Federal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Federal-State Unemployment Compensation Program: Certifications for 2012 Under the Federal Unemployment Tax Act AGENCY: Employment and Training... Federal Unemployment Tax Act, 26 U.S.C. 3301 et seq., thereby enabling employers who make contributions to...

  4. 75 FR 57145 - Federal-State Unemployment Compensation Program; Funding Goals for Interest-Free Advances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-17

    ... Unemployment Compensation Program; Funding Goals for Interest-Free Advances; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal Register... Unemployment Compensation Program; Funding Goals for Interest-Free Advances AGENCY: Employment and Training... unemployment compensation (UC) upon the State meeting ``funding goals, established under regulations issued by...

  5. 20 CFR 625.4 - Eligibility requirements for Disaster Unemployment Assistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Unemployment Assistance. 625.4 Section 625.4 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR DISASTER UNEMPLOYMENT ASSISTANCE § 625.4 Eligibility requirements for Disaster Unemployment Assistance. An individual shall be eligible to receive a payment of DUA with respect to a week of...

  6. 78 FR 39773 - Monta Vista Software, LLC, a Subsidiary of Cavium, Inc., Including Workers Whose Unemployment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-02

    ...,537B] Monta Vista Software, LLC, a Subsidiary of Cavium, Inc., Including Workers Whose Unemployment..., a Subsidiary of Cavium, Inc., Including Workers Whose Unemployment Insurance (UI) Wages are Reported..., Inc., Including Workers Whose Unemployment Insurance (UI) Wages, are Reported Through Trinet HR...

  7. 75 FR 68001 - Federal-State Unemployment Compensation Program: Certifications for 2010 under the Federal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Federal-State Unemployment Compensation Program: Certifications for 2010 under the Federal Unemployment Tax Act AGENCY: Employment and Training... Federal Unemployment Tax Act, 26 U.S.C. 3301 et seq., thereby enabling employers who make contributions to...

  8. 20 CFR 336.11 - Exhaustion of rights to normal unemployment benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exhaustion of rights to normal unemployment... RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT DURATION OF NORMAL AND EXTENDED BENEFITS Extended Benefits § 336.11 Exhaustion of rights to normal unemployment benefits. For the purposes of this part, the Board considers that...

  9. 26 CFR 31.6011(a)-3A - Returns of the railroad unemployment repayment tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Returns of the railroad unemployment repayment... unemployment repayment tax. (a) Requirement—(1) Employers. Every rail employer (as defined in section 3323(a) and section 1 of the Railroad Unemployment Insurance Act) shall make a return of the tax imposed by...

  10. 26 CFR 31.6001-4 - Additional records under Federal Unemployment Tax Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Additional records under Federal Unemployment... Federal Unemployment Tax Act. (a) Records of employers. Every employer liable for tax under the Federal Unemployment Tax Act for any calendar year shall, with respect to each such year, keep such records as are...

  11. 26 CFR 31.3402(o)-1 - Extension of withholding to supplemental unemployment compensation benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... unemployment compensation benefits. 31.3402(o)-1 Section 31.3402(o)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... of withholding to supplemental unemployment compensation benefits. (a) In general. Withholding of income tax is required under section 3402(o) with respect to payments of supplemental unemployment...

  12. 77 FR 59420 - Comment Request for Information Collection; Pell Grants and the Payment of Unemployment Benefits...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-27

    ... Collection; Pell Grants and the Payment of Unemployment Benefits to Individuals in Approved Training... Pell Grants and the payment of unemployment benefits to individuals in approved training. DATES... November 26, 2012. ADDRESSES: Submit written comments to Scott Gibbons, Office of Unemployment Insurance...

  13. 77 FR 35061 - Announcement Regarding States Triggering “Off” in the Emergency Unemployment Compensation 2008...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-12

    ... Triggering ``Off'' in the Emergency Unemployment Compensation 2008 Program and the Federal-State Extended...: Announcement regarding states triggering ``off'' in the Emergency Unemployment Compensation 2008 (EUC08... average, seasonally adjusted total unemployment rate in Connecticut fell below the 8.0% rate required to...

  14. 77 FR 21811 - Announcement Regarding States Triggering “Off” in the Emergency Unemployment Compensation 2008...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-11

    ... Triggering ``Off'' in the Emergency Unemployment Compensation 2008 (EUC08) Program and the Federal-State.... SUMMARY: Announcement regarding states triggering ``off'' in the Emergency Unemployment Compensation 2008... average, seasonally-adjusted total unemployment rate (TUR trigger) for Texas fell below the 8.5% threshold...

  15. 26 CFR 301.6106-1 - Publicity of unemployment tax returns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Publicity of unemployment tax returns. 301.6106... Records § 301.6106-1 Publicity of unemployment tax returns. For provisions relating to publicity of returns made in respect of unemployment tax imposed by chapter 23 of the Code, see §§ 301.6103(a)-1, 301...

  16. 26 CFR 31.6011(a)-3 - Returns under Federal Unemployment Tax Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Returns under Federal Unemployment Tax Act. 31... Provisions of Subtitle F, Internal Revenue Code of 1954) § 31.6011(a)-3 Returns under Federal Unemployment Tax Act. (a) Requirement. Every person shall make a return of tax under the Federal Unemployment Tax...

  17. 13 CFR 310.2 - Pressing need; alleviation of unemployment or underemployment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... unemployment or underemployment. 310.2 Section 310.2 Business Credit and Assistance ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE SPECIAL IMPACT AREAS § 310.2 Pressing need; alleviation of unemployment or... Special Need. (b) For purposes of this part, excessive unemployment exists if the twenty-four (24) month...

  18. 76 FR 77260 - Proposed Information Collection Request (ICR) for the Evaluation of the Unemployment Compensation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-12

    ... Unemployment Compensation Provisions of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009; Comment Request... major challenges for the U.S. system of unemployment compensation (UC). For example, sharply increasing lengths of unemployment spells prompted Federal legislation that extended the potential duration of UC...

  19. 26 CFR 31.6402(a)-3 - Refund of Federal unemployment tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Refund of Federal unemployment tax. 31.6402(a... Provisions of Subtitle F, Internal Revenue Code of 1954) § 31.6402(a)-3 Refund of Federal unemployment tax... 3301 of the Federal Unemployment Tax Act or a corresponding provision of prior law, or (b) Interest...

  20. 78 FR 67200 - Federal-State Unemployment Compensation Program: Certifications for 2013 Under the Federal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Federal-State Unemployment Compensation Program: Certifications for 2013 Under the Federal Unemployment Tax Act AGENCY: Employment and Training... Federal Unemployment Tax Act, 26 U.S.C. 3301 et seq., thereby enabling employers who make contributions to...

  1. 20 CFR 654.13 - Determination of areas of substantial unemployment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Determination of areas of substantial unemployment. 654.13 Section 654.13 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... 10582 § 654.13 Determination of areas of substantial unemployment. An area of substantial unemployment...

  2. 76 FR 68790 - Federal-State Unemployment Compensation Program: Certifications for 2011 Under the Federal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Federal-State Unemployment Compensation Program: Certifications for 2011 Under the Federal Unemployment Tax Act AGENCY: Employment and Training... Federal Unemployment Tax Act, 26 U.S.C. 3301 et seq., thereby enabling employers who make contributions to...

  3. 77 FR 35062 - Announcement Regarding States Triggering “Off” in the Emergency Unemployment Compensation 2008...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-12

    ... Triggering ``Off'' in the Emergency Unemployment Compensation 2008 Program and the Federal-State Extended...: Announcement regarding states triggering ``off'' in the Emergency Unemployment Compensation 2008 (EUC08... unemployment rate be at least 110% of one of the rates from a comparable period in one of the three prior years...

  4. 20 CFR 606.33 - No payment of interest from unemployment fund. [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false No payment of interest from unemployment fund... LABOR TAX CREDITS UNDER THE FEDERAL UNEMPLOYMENT TAX ACT; ADVANCES UNDER TITLE XII OF THE SOCIAL SECURITY ACT Interest on Advances § 606.33 No payment of interest from unemployment fund. [Reserved] ...

  5. 76 FR 4724 - Catawba Sox, LLC Formerly Known as Catawba Sox, Inc. Including Workers Whose Unemployment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-26

    ... Known as Catawba Sox, Inc. Including Workers Whose Unemployment Insurance UI) Wages Are Paid Through...., had their wages reported under a separated unemployment insurance (UI) tax account under the name..., LLC, formerly known as Catawba Sox, Inc., including workers whose unemployment insurance (UI) wages...

  6. 38 CFR 1.506 - Disclosure of records to Federal Government departments, State unemployment compensation agencies...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Federal Government departments, State unemployment compensation agencies, and the Office of Servicemembers....506 Disclosure of records to Federal Government departments, State unemployment compensation agencies... official purposes by any department or other agency of the U.S. Government or any state unemployment...

  7. 26 CFR 1.6050B-1 - Information returns by person making unemployment compensation payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... unemployment compensation payments. 1.6050B-1 Section 1.6050B-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... Information returns by person making unemployment compensation payments. For taxable years beginning after December 31, 1978, every person who makes payments of unemployment compensation (as defined in section 85...

  8. Risk and Nostalgia: The Problem of Education and Youth Unemployment in Australia--A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessant, Judith

    2002-01-01

    Explanations for persistent youth unemployment (deficits in the unemployed, structural need for unemployment, location of decision-making power) lead to education of youth at risk as a solution, an old paradigm inadequate for the restructured labor market. New questions must be asked, such as separating income from waged labor and finding other…

  9. Factors Influencing Youth Unemployment in Australia: 1980-1994. Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth. Research Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Gary N.; Fleming, Nicole

    A study examined unemployment among Australian young people between 1980-94, using data obtained from the four Youth in Transition cohorts born in 1961, 1965, 1970, and 1975. It investigated factors that influenced becoming unemployed and leaving unemployment. Findings indicated that low school achievement in literacy and numeracy was consistently…

  10. Mobility Assistance Programmes for Unemployed Workers, Job Search Behaviour and Labour Market Outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caliendo, M.; Künn, Steffen; Mahlstedt, R.

    2017-01-01

    The appealing idea of geographically relocating unemployed job seekers from depressed to prosperous regions and hence reducing unemployment leads to industrialised countries offering financial support to unemployed job seekers when searching for and/or accepting jobs in distant regions. In this

  11. Hidden Disadvantage: Asian American Unemployment and the Great Recession. EPI Issue Brief #277

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Algernon

    2010-01-01

    Nationally, Asian Americans have the lowest unemployment rate of the major racial groups. But a closer look at unemployment by educational attainment shows a more complicated picture. Asian Americans with bachelor's degrees have a higher unemployment rate than whites with comparable education, but Asian American high school dropouts are more…

  12. Recent Trends in Veteran Unemployment as Measured in the Current Population Survey and the American Community Survey

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Savych, Bogdan; Klerman, Jacob A; Loughran, David S

    2008-01-01

    ...". Analyses of CPS data indicates that veteran youth unemployment increased relative to nonveteran youth unemployment between 2003 and 2005 "and that this relative increase is statistically significant...

  13. Analysis of the development and prediction of the rate of unemployment in selected countries with market and transitive economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erich Maca

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is aimed at the presentation of findings achieved in the study of the dynamics and trends of the rate of unemployment in selected countries with market and transitive economy in the reference period 1995–2001. In addition to the description of developmental trends of analysed time series by means of trend functions of linear, quadratic, exponential, logarithmic, power and inverse types their informative ability was verified as a starting base for the realization of point prediction of investigated events for 2005. With given 95% probability, minimum and maximum values are determined of the evaluated macroeconomic indicator for a defined time horizon.

  14. Duration of unemployment and suicide in Australia over the period 1985-2006: an ecological investigation by sex and age during rising versus declining national unemployment rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner, Allison; Page, Andrew; LaMontagne, Anthony D

    2013-03-01

    The relationship between unemployment and suicide may be sensitive to demographic factors, national unemployment rates, and length of time without employment. This study investigated these factors in relation to suicide in Australia for the period 1985-2006, in an ecological study. The outcome variable was annual suicide rate by age group, sex and the eight states and territories over 22 years of observation (total observations=1760). The main predictor variable was the average duration of unemployment in the population, categorised into three time periods (4 weeks). Poisson regression models were used to investigate the relationship between duration of unemployment and suicide over the years 1985-2006 in a series of cross-sectional analyses. Interaction analyses indicated significant differences during periods of declining or increasing labour market opportunity and by age group. During periods of declining unemployment rates in the country, longer durations of unemployment were associated with higher male suicide rates. During periods of increasing unemployment in the country, longer unemployment duration was associated with lower male suicide rates. Effect modification was also apparent by age-group, with stronger associations between unemployment duration and male suicide evident in those aged 25-34 and 55-64, and weaker associations in those aged 15-24 and 44-54 years. Longer length of unemployment was not associated with an increase in female suicide rates. The labour market opportunities in Australia modified the effect of duration of unemployment on suicide, and the effect was more prominent in men and older age groups. This may reflect social norms and acceptability about unemployment, as well as life-stage influences associated with transitions into and out of the labour market.

  15. A Critique of the Unemployment Insurance Amendment Bill, 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Olivier

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The contribution critically reflects on the proposed amendments to the Unemployment Insurance Act Act 63 of 2001 (the UIA / the Act, introduced via the provisions of the Unemployment Insurance Amendment Bill of 2015 (B25-2015. Several shortcomings and deficiencies are addressed and improvements introduced by the proposed amending legislation, including the extension of coverage to a wider range of beneficiaries, the extension of the period of benefits (to a maximum of 365 days, the increase of the rate of maternity benefits of a (female contributor's earnings, the adjustment of the accrual rate of a contributor's duration of benefits from 1 day for every 6 days of employment to 1 day for every 5 days of employment, and some attempt to provide for employment retention and the re-entry of unemployed contributors into the labour market. And yet, despite these important contributions to the development of unemployment insurance in South Africa, several matters appearing from the Bill point towards inconsistent, inadequate and inappropriate treatment of core elements of the unemployment insurance system. Recommendations have been made to address these matters, which among others relate to: •\tThe insufficient alignment of the UIA with ILO, UN and SADC standards in key areas of concern; •\tUnclear or absent provisions in relation to the coverage and/or application of the UIA in relation to public servants, migrant workers, and the self- and informally employed; •\tInadequate provision for employment promotion, the prevention, combating and reduction of unemployment, and reintegration into employment; •\tInappropriate provisions relating to benefit rates and periods, among others concerning the Minister's power to set/amend the Income Replacement Rate and to vary the benefit period by regulation; •\tInconsistent and discriminatory provisions requiring a 13-week qualifying period for accessing maternity benefits; •\tInappropriate provisions

  16. Physicians’ Progress Notes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bansler, Jørgen; Havn, Erling C.; Mønsted, Troels

    2013-01-01

    in patient care, they have not dealt specifically with the role, structure, and content of the progress notes. As a consequence, CSCW research has not yet taken fully into account the fact that progress notes are coordinative artifacts of a rather special kind, an open-ended chain of prose texts, written...... sequentially by cooperating physicians for their own use as well as for that of their colleagues. We argue that progress notes are the core of the medical record, in that they marshal and summarize the overwhelming amount of data that is available in the modern hospital environment, and that their narrative...... format is uniquely adequate for the pivotal epistemic aspect of cooperative clinical work: the narrative format enables physicians to not only record ‘facts’ but also—by filtering, interpreting, organizing, and qualifying information—to make sense and act concertedly under conditions of uncertainty...

  17. Grouping Notes Through Nodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dove, Graham; Abildgaard, Sille Julie Jøhnk; Biskjær, Michael Mose

    , both individually and when grouped, and their role in categorisation in semantic long-term memory. To do this, we adopt a multimodal analytical approach focusing on interaction between humans, and between humans and artefacts, alongside language. We discuss in detail examples of four different...... externalisation functions served by Post-ItTM notes, and show how these functions are present in complex overlapping combinations rather than being discrete. We then show how the temporal development of Post-ItTM note interactions supports categorisation qualities of semantic long-term memory....

  18. Grouping Notes Through Nodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dove, Graham; Abildgaard, Sille Julie; Biskjær, Michael Mose

    2017-01-01

    , both individually and when grouped, and their role in categorisation in semantic long-term memory. To do this, we adopt a multimodal analytical approach focusing on interaction between humans, and between humans and artefacts, alongside language. We discuss in detail examples of four different...... externalisation functions served by Post-ItTM notes, and show how these functions are present in complex overlapping combinations rather than being discrete. We then show how the temporal development of Post-ItTM note interactions supports categorisation qualities of semantic long-term memory....

  19. Perceived Racial Discrimination in the Workplace and Body Weight among the Unemployed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroki, Masanori

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the association between body weight and the likelihood that people perceive that they have been the victims of racial discrimination in the workplace among the unemployed. I find that unemployed obese men and women are 8.4 percentage points and 7.7 percentage points, respectively, more likely to have experienced racial discrimination before becoming unemployed than their non-obese counterparts. For unemployed men, the relationship between body weight and perceived racial discrimination does not seem to be associated with race. For unemployed women, being black and obese significantly increases the likelihood of perceiving racial discrimination.

  20. Household unemployment and the labour supply of married women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bingley, Paul; Walker, Ian

    1997-01-01

    of spouses. A model of labour supply is estimated for married women allowing for endogenous unemployment durations of husbands and wives, using 43531 married couples drawn from UK Family Expenditure Surveys 1978-92. Evaluating the impact of the reform requires that we distinguish between transfer programme......A recent reform to the UK Unemployment Insurance (UI) system has reduced the duration of entitlement from 12 to 6 months. The UI and welfare systems interact in the UK in such a way that exhaustion of UI for married individuals has potentially large disincentive effects on the labour supply...... induced incentive effects and any correlation between labour supply and wages within couples; complementarily between the leisure times of spouses; and a discouraged worker effect. We find that shifting households with a medium duration unemploymed husband from UI onto Income Support, the main UK welfare...

  1. FROM UNEMPLOYMENT TO WORK: AN ECONOMETRIC ANALYSIS WITH SPATIAL CONSTRAINTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana Calavrezo

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our research is to analyze how the urban organization affects the unemployment-to-work transitions by considering several spatial indicators. This permits to capture two separate effects: "spatial mismatch" and "neighbourhood effects". In order to study the unemployment-to-work transitions, we implement survival models. They are applied on a sample obtained by merging three French databases: the "Trajectoires des demandeurs d'emplois" survey, the 1999 French census and finally, a database containing town inventory information. More precisely, in this paper, we analyze the duration of the first observed employment episode by using spatial indicators and by controlling three potential biases (endogeneity bias, selection bias and attrition bias.

  2. An economists' manifesto on unemployment in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. MODIGLIANI

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In this Manifesto, we make a set of proposals to fight unemployment in the EU. We believe that the European unemployment problem needs to be attacked on two fronts: through a broad spectrum of supply-side policies and the demand management policy. The expansion of aggregate demand is necessary to increase both investment and employment. However, unless supply-side measures are also taken, demand expansion can result in more inflation instead of more employment, because of the mismatch between the demand and supply of labour. What is important to stress is that both demand and supply-side policies must be adopted together by all European countries, in order both to avoid beggar-thy-neighbor problems and, at the same time, to catch all the possible complementary effects of these policies.

  3. Experimental evidence from active placement efforts among unemployed in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hägglund, Pathric

    2014-06-01

    This article uses data from a field experiment in Sweden to analyze the effects of active placement efforts. In particular, the relative efficiency between combining job-search monitoring and job-search assistance, and monitoring alone, is analyzed. Although the impact estimates are generally imprecisely estimated, a general conclusion is that placement programs are effective policies in increasing the job exit rate for various groups of unemployed. I find that monitoring of job search is an efficient method to increase off-unemployment exit rate both alone and combined with job-search assistance services. The results, however, indicate that the combined services generate more permanent job exits. © The Author(s) 2014.

  4. Unemployment and health selection in diverging economic conditions: Compositional changes? Evidence from 28 European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heggebø, Kristian; Dahl, Espen

    2015-11-04

    Unemployment and health selection in diverging economic conditions: Compositional changes? Evidence from 28 european countries. People with ill health tend to be overrepresented among the unemployment population. The relationship between health and unemployment might, however, be sensitive to the overall economic condition. Specifically, the health composition of the unemployment population could change dramatically when the economy takes a turn for the worse. Using EU-SILC cross sectional data from 2007 (pre-crisis) and 2011 (during crisis) and linear regression models, this paper investigates the relationship between health and unemployment probabilities under differing economic conditions in 28 European countries. The countries are classified according to (i) the level of and (ii) increase in unemployment rate (i.e. >10 percent and doubling of unemployment rate = crisis country). Firstly, the unemployment likelihood for people with ill health is remarkably stable over time in Europe: the coefficients are very similar in pre-crisis and crisis years. Secondly, people with ill health have experienced unemployment to a lesser extent than those with good health status in the crisis year (when we pool the data and compare 2007 and 2011), but only in the countries with a high and rising unemployment rate. The health composition of the unemployment population changes significantly for the better, but only in those European countries that have been severely hit by the current economic crisis.

  5. Is part-time sick leave helping the unemployed?

    OpenAIRE

    Andrén, Daniela

    2011-01-01

    Using a discrete choice one-factor model, we estimate mean treatment parameters and distributional treatment parameters to analyze the effects of degree of sick leave on the probability of full recovery of lost work capacity for employed and unemployed individuals, respectively. Our results indicate that one year after the sick leave spell started, the average potential impact of part-time sick listing on an individual randomly chosen from the population on sick leave was positive for both gr...

  6. Unemployment and welfare consequences of international outsourcing under monopolistic competition

    OpenAIRE

    Richard A. Brecher; Zhiqi Chen

    2014-01-01

    This paper challenges the conventional academic view that international outsourcing is just another form of gainful trade. Contrary to that view, we show that labourservice outsourcing can reduce the highwage country's welfare even when productmarket trade is beneficial, within a model that combines involuntary unemployment and monopolistic competition. Outsourcing's impact on welfare is worsened by a definite loss of jobs and a possible contraction in the range of varieties produced worldwid...

  7. Financial Development and Unemployment in Emerging Market Economies

    OpenAIRE

    Bayar Yilmaz

    2016-01-01

    Financial sector has experienced significant expansion together with accelerating financial globalization in recent years and had important positive and negative economic implications for all the economies. This study investigates the interaction among unemployment, financial development and domestic investment in 16 emerging market economies during 2001-2014 period using panel data analysis. We found that there was long relationship among the variables and domestic investment had negative im...

  8. THE DETERMINATS OF THE UNEMPLOYMENT RATE EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE FROM ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pall Katalin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Among other aspects, the 2007-2009 financial and economic crisis had an impact on the Romanian labor force, too. The aim of this article is to analyze the macroeconomic determinants of the unemployment rate in Romania, using an econometric model. We use the GDP, net and gross wage, monetary policy rate, inflation rate, budget deficit, average RON/EUR exchange rate, export and import values to estimate the model. The analyzed period is 2000-2009.

  9. THE EVOLUTION OR INVOLUTION OF POLICIES TO COMBAT YOUTH UNEMPLOYMENT?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ştefania Cristina GHIOCANU

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A current problem that Romania is facing is high unemployment among young people. Despite the implementation of policies to fight it and improve some of them, this problem is still present on the agenda of the public institutions at the national level and those of the European Union. In Romania, companies that hire inexperienced youngs in force receive from the Romanian state, through European funds between 200-300 euros / month per employee.A boost for companies to increase employability among youth. A first question that arises here is: this policy does not discriminate, directly employability among adults, creating consciously or not, unemployment among them? By the present research I wanted to provide an overview of public policies implemented in this area, showing both the negative aspects which could lead to a deeper issues that are behind it: discrimination of adults in employment and those positive could lead to a clear evolution in this area. The aim is to demonstrate whether the policies implemented in Romania to fight youth unemployment represented an evolution or involution more in this regard? Reported for purpose, targets are those that require to define the concept of young and category directly concerned by these policies, according to Union legislation, to present a concrete statistical data on youth unemployment since 2002 until now,because in 2002 was taken the first private assumption of companies, as simulation of modules for youth employment and analysis of public policies implemented in this field. A final proposed target It is to follow the results of the policies implemented in these years and demonstrate that led to an evolution or involution, including the negative aspects that stood in the way of fulfilling expectations and the proposed actions. To achieve these objectives, the method proposed for research is the analysis of legislation and documents.

  10. A Profile of Mpumalanga: Demographics, Poverty, Inequality and Unemployment

    OpenAIRE

    Pauw, Kalie

    2005-01-01

    This paper forms part of a series of papers that present profiles of South Africa's provinces, with a specific focus on key demographic statistics, poverty and inequality estimates, and estimates of unemployment. In this volume comparative statistics are presented for agricultural and non-agricultural households, as well as households from different racial groups, locations (metropolitan, urban and rural areas) and district municipalities of Mpumalanga. Most of the data presented are drawn fr...

  11. A Profile of Gauteng: Demographics, Poverty, Inequality and Unemployment

    OpenAIRE

    Pauw, Kalie

    2005-01-01

    This paper forms part of a series of papers that present profiles of South Africa's provinces, with a specific focus on key demographic statistics, poverty and inequality estimates, and estimates of unemployment. In this volume comparative statistics are presented for agricultural and non-agricultural households, as well as households from different racial groups, locations (metropolitan, urban and rural areas) and district municipalities of Gauteng. Most of the data presented are drawn from ...

  12. Crime, Inequality and Unemployment in England and Wales

    OpenAIRE

    Dongxu Wu; Zhongmin Wu

    2011-01-01

    Abstract A model of crime is developed based on principles from the existing literature with some original insight. The implications of the model are that income inequality and unemployment are important explanatory variables for crimes motivated by economic gain, but do not offer much explanatory power for other types of crime. A panel data of UK regions over the years from 2002 to 2007 is then used to test these predictions. The empirical results strongly support the hypothesis t...

  13. Local unemployment and the timing of post-secondary schooling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sievertsen, Hans Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Using Danish administrative data on all high school graduates from 1984 to 1992, I show that local unemployment has both a short- and a long-run effect on school enrollment and completion. The short-run effect causes students to advance their enrollment, and consequently their completion, of addi......, of additional schooling. The long-run effect causes students who would otherwise never have enrolled to enroll and complete schooling. The effects are strongest for children of parents with no higher education....

  14. Strategies for Structural Youth Unemployment: a Capability Approach for Guidance

    OpenAIRE

    Massimiliano Costa; Daniele Morselli; John Polesel; Suzanne Rice

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is to present an innovative approach for guidance. The article starts by introducing the structural reason of unemployment in Italy. It presents the Australian model of guidance and the new reforms on guidance which are being introduced in Italy. It then describes a Change Laboratory intervention carried in a vocational setting in Australia in 2012, which is proposed as model of guidance based on the capability approach.The different stakeholders actively participate i...

  15. Does Tax Evasion Affect Unemployment and Educational Choice ?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolm, Ann-Sofie; Larsen, Birthe

    2003-01-01

    While examining the macroeconomic effects of government taxand punishment policies, this paper develops a three-sector generalequilibrium model featuring matching frictions and worker-firm wagebargaining. Workers are assumed to differ in ability, and the choiceof education is determined endogenou...... to choose punishment rates so to more than fully counteractthe distortion created by the government's inability to tax theinformal sector.JEL-codes: H26, I21, J64Keywords: Tax evasion, underground economy, education, matching,unemployment....

  16. Optimal income taxation with endogenous participation and search unemployment

    OpenAIRE

    Lehmann, Etienne; Parmentier, Alexis; van der Linden, Bruno

    2011-01-01

    This paper characterizes the optimal redistributive taxation when individuals are hetero- geneous in two exogenous dimensions: their skills and their values of non-market activities. Search-matching frictions on the labor markets create unemployment. Wages, labor demand and participation are endogenous. The government only observes wage levels. Under a Max- imin objective, if the elasticity of participation decreases along the distribution of skills, at the optimum, the average tax rate is in...

  17. Explaining the Rise in Danish Vocational Education System Dropouts: The Effect of a Youth Unemployment Program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Martin D.; Park, Do-Yeun

    This project focuses on the impact of Denmark’s Youth Unemployment Program(YUP) enacted in late 1990s on the rise in VET dropout rates. The Youth Unemployment Program targeted unemployed, low-educated youth to strengthen the employment possibilities and to motivate for them to undertake an educat......This project focuses on the impact of Denmark’s Youth Unemployment Program(YUP) enacted in late 1990s on the rise in VET dropout rates. The Youth Unemployment Program targeted unemployed, low-educated youth to strengthen the employment possibilities and to motivate for them to undertake...... an education. If the Youth Unemployment Program incentivized less capable/ambitious students to enter vocational education, it would increase the dropout rates via selection. This project investigates whether the program had an effect on the population characteristics of incoming VET students and the resulting...

  18. Note by Note: a New Revolution in Cooking

    OpenAIRE

    Burke, Roisin; Danaher, Pauline

    2016-01-01

    Note by note cooking is an application of Molecular Gastronomy. It was first proposed by French Physical Chemist and Molecular Gastronomy Co-founder, Hervé This. Note by Note dishes are being created as part of Ph.D. research in the Dublin Institute of Technology, Cathal Brugha Street.

  19. Should My Unemployment Problem Be Solved by Others?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dušanka Lužar

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available Through implementation of various forms of group and individual counselling, and team approach, the Employment Agency is achieving its goal, stating that the involvement of every individual in employment programmes should be defined by his or her planned career. This basically means that the unemployed should be motivated to actively engage in planning their careers and in seeking for employment. In order to enable individuals to assess their abilities and prepare to present themselves to potential employers, the Agency has designed a workshop entitled "Ways to work and jobs". Its primary target is motivating the participants for solving the problem of work and employment. Individuals too often believe that their employment problems should be solved by third parties instead of assuming personal responsibility. Many of the unemployed think that they are in dire straits; they need to be dissuaded, shown that the seemingly hopeless situation is a mere misconception , and that unemployment is in a way a trial which might lead to a better, more fulfilling period of life and work.

  20. Technological Unemployment: an approximation to the Latin American Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDRÉS AGUILERA

    Full Text Available Recent advancements in Artificial Intelligence (AI, robotics, control systems, software and related technologies have revived the debate on the influence that technology has on labor markets. So far, the focus of the literature has been on advanced economies. This document aims to analyze the following variables: domestic spending in science and technology, GDP per capita, nominal minimum wage, domestic spending in education and their impact on unemployment rate in seven Latin American countries from 1996 to 2011. Panel data was used to measure the relation of these variables with unemployment rates in the region. The results allowed us to conclude that investment in Science and Technology in the region has not reached levels that potentially reduce employment; on the contrary, innovation is regarded as a source of labor productivity gains. The broader implications of technology and automation are yet to be seen, however, both firms and the public sector in the region must prepare for massive technological unemployement, as predicted by recent models.

  1. THE EDUCATION – AN IMPORTANT FACTOR ON UNEMPLOYMENT AND PROFESSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    COSTESCU EMILIA MIHAELA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article I intend to explain how a good education system influence the unemployment. The relationship between unemployment and the level of education is obvious: the rate of unemployment decreases as it passes from a lower level of education to a higher, respectively, as they get older. The education contributes to revenue growth to an individual and it is strongly correlated with the reduction of poverty, illiteracy and income inequality. This article contains information on the labor market insertion of young graduates. To perform this analysis I used statistical data available to the National Institute of Statistics of Romania and on other sites in the field. The occupational structure analysis indicates some changes in the last 10 years in Romania and also in the European Union. It is true also, that the crisis had a dramatic impact on economies and labour markets and Romania is experiencing a general decline of the number of jobs available. The higher education graduates find jobs harder which corresponds to the skills acquired in college, so they end up accepting jobs for which they are overqualified, or another jobs in a totally different field.

  2. Did the Great Recession Downsize Immigrants and Native-Born Americans Differently? Unemployment Differentials by Nativity, Race and Gender from 2007 to 2013 in the U.S.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharron Xuanren Wang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We use data from the Current Population Survey from 2007 and 2013 to investigate demographic differentials in unemployment during the Great Recession in the U.S. Although our analysis is primarily exploratory and descriptive, our major research objective is to illuminate the unemployment differential between the foreign born and the native born. The findings indicate that during the height of the Great Recession, the foreign born had higher unemployment rates than the native born. However, this differential is statistically explained by their observed characteristics, such as race/ethnicity, gender, age and education. With the net of those variables and a few other demographic covariates, foreign born workers as an overall group actually had somewhat lower chances of being unemployed than native born workers. This finding is discussed in terms of the selectivity of immigrant workers and the possibility that they are somewhat more immediately dependent on having a job. After breaking down the foreign born into major racial/ethnic groups, the results suggest that foreign-born blacks and foreign-born Hispanics are particularly selective with the net of their observed characteristics. The possible sources of such differentials by race/ethnicity and by gender are discussed.

  3. Note Taking for Geography Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneale, Pauline E.

    1998-01-01

    Addresses geography students' questions about why, when, and how to take notes. Outlines a step-by-step process for taking notes from written sources and from class lectures. Discusses what types of notes are appropriate for various types of sources. Suggests some ideas for making notes useful for individual learning styles. (DSK)

  4. 77 FR 11160 - Notice of a Change in Status of the Payable Periods in the Emergency Unemployment Compensation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-24

    ... Payable Periods in the Emergency Unemployment Compensation 2008 (EUC08) Program for Connecticut and... announces a change in status of the payable periods in the Emergency Unemployment Compensation 2008 (EUC08... unemployed workers claiming benefits in high unemployment states. The Department of Labor produces a trigger...

  5. 76 FR 80407 - Notice of a Change in Status of the Payable Periods in the Emergency Unemployment Compensation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-23

    ... Payable Periods in the Emergency Unemployment Compensation 2008 (EUC08) Program for Texas AGENCY... Four of Emergency Unemployment Compensation 2008 (EUC08) for weeks of unemployment beginning December... claiming benefits in high unemployment states. The Department of Labor produces a trigger notice indicating...

  6. 77 FR 2091 - Notice of a Change in Status of the Payable Periods in the Emergency Unemployment Compensation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-13

    ... Payable Periods in the Emergency Unemployment Compensation 2008 (EUC08) Program for Iowa and Oklahoma... Notice of a Change in Status of the payable period in the Emergency Unemployment Compensation 2008 (EUC08... unemployed workers claiming benefits in high unemployment states. The Department of Labor produces a trigger...

  7. Commento di Modigliani alla teoria della disoccupazione di Sylos Labini (attraverso la corrispondenza del 1956. (Modigliani’s comments on Sylos Labini’s theory of unemployment (1956-1958

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Rancan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This note discusses Modigliani’s and Sylos Labini’s unemployment theory starting from a long letter Modigliani wrote to his friend and colleague, commenting the provisional edition of “Oligopolio e Progresso Tecnico” (1956. While in his influential article review (1958 Modigliani especially analysed and developed along original lines Sylos Labini’s microeconomic theory, in the letter he deeply discussed Sylos Labini macroeconomics. Modigliani criticized Sylos Labini’s classical definition of investment and the ensuing confusion between monetary and real causes of unemployment. From their correspondence their different theoretical perspective clearly stands out: Modigliani was interested in explaining the emergence of unemployment equilibrium in a static context, Sylos Labini its persistence as the result of structural changes. 

  8. How the Issue of Unemployment and the Unemployed Is Treated in Adult Education Literature within Polish and U.S. Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogorzelska, Marzanna; Biniecki, Susan Yelich

    2016-01-01

    This paper, based on a qualitative analysis of adult education literature, presents a comparison of approaches to unemployment-related problems in Poland and the US. Unemployment serves here as a lens through which attitudes towards various areas connected with adult education can be viewed. The conclusions drawn from the research can be both the…

  9. OpenLabNotes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    List, Markus; Franz, Michael; Tan, Qihua

    2015-01-01

    be advantageous if an ELN was Integrated with a laboratory information management system to allow for a comprehensive documentation of experimental work including the location of samples that were used in a particular experiment. Here, we present OpenLabNotes, which adds state-of-the-art ELN capabilities to Open......LabFramework, a powerful and flexible laboratory information management system. In contrast to comparable solutions, it allows to protect the intellectual property of its users by offering data protection with digital signatures. OpenLabNotes effectively Closes the gap between research documentation and sample management......, thus making Open-Lab Framework more attractive for laboratories that seek to increase productivity through electronic data management....

  10. A note on Marx

    OpenAIRE

    Olesen, Finn; Jensen, Frank

    2001-01-01

    Throughout all his life Karl Marx wrote angrily about capitalism. By use of a dialectic approach he was convinced that the working class had to unite and make a social revolution and thereby free them selves from exploitation. Marx himself was in many ways a dialectic person as we try to show in the note. So in some sense he became one with his scientific methodology.

  11. The role of under-employment and unemployment in recent birth cohort effects in Australian suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Andrew; Milner, Allison; Morrell, Stephen; Taylor, Richard

    2013-09-01

    High suicide rates evident in Australian young adults during an epidemic period in the 1990s appear to have been sustained in older age-groups in the subsequent decade. This period also coincides with changes in employment patterns in Australia. This study investigates age, period, and birth cohort effects in Australian suicide over the 20th century, with particular reference to the period subsequent to the 1990s youth suicide epidemic in young males. Period- and cohort-specific trends in suicide were examined for 1907-2010 based on descriptive analysis of age-specific suicide rates and a series of age-period-cohort (APC) models using Poisson regression. Under-employment rates (those employed part-time seeking additional hours of work) and unemployment rates (those currently seeking employment) for the latter part of this time series (1978-2010) were also examined and compared with period- and cohort-specific trends in suicide. A significant increasing birth cohort effect in male suicide rates was evident in birth cohorts born after 1970-74, after adjusting for the effects age and period. An increasing birth cohort effect was also evident in female suicide rates, but was of a lesser magnitude. Increases in male cohort-specific suicide rates were significantly correlated with increases in cohort-specific under-employment and unemployment rates. Birth cohorts that experienced the peak of the suicide epidemic during the 1990s have continued to have higher suicide rates than cohorts born in earlier epochs. This increase coincides with changes to a labour force characterised by greater 'flexibility' and 'casualised' employment, especially in younger aged cohorts. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Youth unemployment and functional somatic symptoms in adulthood: results from the Northern Swedish cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brydsten, Anna; Hammarström, Anne; Strandh, Mattias; Johansson, Klara

    2015-10-01

    Little is known about the possible long-term health consequences of youth unemployment. Research indicates that unemployment may lead to socioeconomic downward mobility and mental health problems, but we still lack knowledge of the long-term health consequences of youth unemployment. This article examines the potential long-term association between youth unemployment and functional somatic symptoms in adulthood. The 'Northern Swedish cohort' was used with data from five data collections, from 1981 (age 16) until 2007 (age 42). Youth unemployment was measured as months in unemployment between age 16 and 21, and health outcome as functional somatic symptoms (an index of 10 items of self-reported symptoms). Linear regression was used to analyse the relationship between months in youth unemployment and functional somatic symptoms at age 21 and age 42, stratified for women and men and adjusted for potential confounders, such as time spent in education at age 21 and later unemployment between age 21 and 42. Youth unemployment was significantly related to functional somatic symptoms at age 21 for men after controlling for confounders, but not for women. Among men, the association remained for functional somatic symptoms at age 42, after controlling for confounders. Adolescence seems to be a sensitive period during which unemployment could have remaining health effects in adulthood, at least for men, though assumptions of causality are tentative and more research is needed. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  13. Inequalities of quality of life in unemployed young adults: A population-based questionnaire study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edén Lena

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is well known that unemployment is a great problem both to the exposed individual and to the whole society. Unemployment is reported as more common among young people compared to the general level of unemployment. Inequity in health status and life-satisfaction is related to unemployment. The purpose of this population-based study was to describe QOL among unemployed young people compared to those who are not unemployed, and to analyse variables related to QOL for the respective groups. Methods The sample consisted of 264 young unemployed individuals and 528 working or studying individuals as a reference group. They all received a questionnaire about civil status, educational level, immigration, employment status, self-reported health, self-esteem, social support, social network, spare time, dwelling, economy and personal characteristics. The response rate was 72%. The significance of differences between proportions was tested by Fisher's exact test or by χ2 test. Multivariate analysis was carried out by means of a logistic regression model. Results Our results balance the predominant picture of youth unemployment as a principally negative experience. Although the unemployed reported lower levels of QOL than the reference group, a majority of unemployed young adults reported good QOL, and 24% even experienced higher QOL after being unemployed. Positive QOL related not only to good health, but also to high self-esteem, satisfaction with spare time and broad latitude for decision-making. Conclusion Even if QOL is good among a majority of unemployed young adults, inequalities in QOL were demonstrated. To create more equity in health, individuals who report reduced subjective health, especially anxiety need extra attention and support. Efforts should aim at empowering unemployed young adults by identifying their concerns and resources, and by creating individual programmes in relation not only to education and work, but also

  14. Inequalities of quality of life in unemployed young adults: a population-based questionnaire study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelsson, Lars; Andersson, Ingemar H; Edén, Lena; Ejlertsson, Göran

    2007-03-21

    It is well known that unemployment is a great problem both to the exposed individual and to the whole society. Unemployment is reported as more common among young people compared to the general level of unemployment. Inequity in health status and life-satisfaction is related to unemployment. The purpose of this population-based study was to describe QOL among unemployed young people compared to those who are not unemployed, and to analyse variables related to QOL for the respective groups. The sample consisted of 264 young unemployed individuals and 528 working or studying individuals as a reference group. They all received a questionnaire about civil status, educational level, immigration, employment status, self-reported health, self-esteem, social support, social network, spare time, dwelling, economy and personal characteristics. The response rate was 72%. The significance of differences between proportions was tested by Fisher's exact test or by chi2 test. Multivariate analysis was carried out by means of a logistic regression model. Our results balance the predominant picture of youth unemployment as a principally negative experience. Although the unemployed reported lower levels of QOL than the reference group, a majority of unemployed young adults reported good QOL, and 24% even experienced higher QOL after being unemployed. Positive QOL related not only to good health, but also to high self-esteem, satisfaction with spare time and broad latitude for decision-making. Even if QOL is good among a majority of unemployed young adults, inequalities in QOL were demonstrated. To create more equity in health, individuals who report reduced subjective health, especially anxiety need extra attention and support. Efforts should aim at empowering unemployed young adults by identifying their concerns and resources, and by creating individual programmes in relation not only to education and work, but also to personal development.

  15. Progresso tecnico, forme di mercato e disoccupazione. ( Technical progress, market forms and unemployment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. ASIMAKOPULOS A.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Lo scopo del presente lavoro è triplice . Il primo obiettivo è quello di sottolineare l'importanza delle intuizioni da trovare nel lavoro di Sylos Labini . Il secondo scopo è quello di espandere su di essa distinguendo tra i diversi tipi di progresso tecnico . Infine , il terzo obiettivo è quello di commentare il confronto di Labini di Ricardo e Keynes sulla possibilità di disoccupazione tecnologica . Per quanto riguarda la sua descrizione del progresso tecnologico come " risparmio di lavoro " , l'autore mostra che una descrizione più completa sarebbe più utile per i suoi scopiThe purpose of the present paper is threefold. The first purpose is to emphasise the importance of the insights to be found in Sylos Labini’s work. The second purpose is to expand upon it by distinguishing  between the different types of technical progress. Finally, the third purpose is to comment on Labini’s comparison of Ricardo and Keynes on the possibility of technological unemployment. Regarding his description of technological progress as “labour saving”, the author shows that a more comprehensive description would be more useful for his purposes.JEL: E24, J64, O33

  16. IS YOUTH UNEMPLOYMENT ASSOCIATED WITH THE LEVEL OF CRIME, MIGRATION, SUICIDE AND DIVORCE? AN EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE FROM TURKEY

    OpenAIRE

    Özer, Ufuk; Topal, Mehmet Hanefi

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: Youth unemployment is one of the important socio-economic problems in Turkey. Previousstudies on youth unemployment in Turkey focused specifically on the causes and economic influences ofyouth unemployment. Studies on the social consequences of youth unemployment are quite limited. Thisstudy aims to empirically examine whether youth unemployment in Turkey has an effect on other socialproblems such as crime, migration, suicide and divorce.Method: The data of 26 regions (NUTS-2) in Tur...

  17. Duration of unemployment and depression: a cross-sectional survey in Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stankunas, Mindaugas; Kalediene, Ramune; Starkuviene, Skirmante; Kapustinskiene, Violeta

    2006-07-05

    In spite of a growing economy, unemployment is still a severe socio-economic problem in Lithuania. Nonetheless, no studies have been performed about the associations between unemployment and mental health in Lithuania. The aim of this study was to evaluate the associations between unemployment duration and depression in Lithuania. The data was collected in a cross-sectional study in 2005. There were 429 filled-in questionnaires received (53.6% response rate) from unemployed persons registered with the Kaunas Labour Market Office. The severity of depression symptoms was evaluated using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Logistic regression was used to estimate the risk factors for occurrence of depression. Sex, age, place of residence, marital status, education, income and practiced religion were the independent variables. Long-term unemployment was defined as lasting a duration of 12 months or more. The findings showed that long-term unemployed persons had more episodes of a depressive mood in the past 12 months in comparison with the group of the short-term unemployed. In addition, the BDI score mean was higher among the long-term unemployed compared with the short-term unemployed (10.1 +/- 8.8 and 14.2 +/- 9.5 respectively, p unemployment and BDI score had a positive correlation (r = 0.1968, p unemployed, the risk of depression increased significantly when the person was female, had an older age and had experienced more episodes of unemployment. Among the long-term unemployed, an older age was the risk factor for development of depression. However, higher education and income were the factors that significantly decreased the risk of developing depression for-short term as well as for long-term unemployed. The results indicated that depression is a severe problem in the unemployed population. Depression is more elevated among the long-term unemployed. This leads to arguing for common efforts in providing needed social support and health care to reduce the

  18. Workforce re-entry for Japanese unemployed dental hygienists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usui, Y; Miura, H

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to define the profile of unemployed dental hygienists who could be enticed to re-enter the workforce and the factors that could facilitate their re-entry into the dental field in Japan. The questionnaire was mailed with a postage-paid return envelope to a sample of 3095 licensed dental hygienists. A 50.4% response rate (S = 1477) was observed. The rate of working dental hygienists was 60.3% (n = 891), and of unemployed dental hygienists was 39.7% (n = 586). Of the latter, 31.9% (n = 187) stated intentions of returning to the workplace. The unemployed dental hygienists seeking employment were more often married and had more children, compared with working dental hygienists currently. This group also had significantly fewer total service years. Moreover, only 11.96% of them belonged to the Japan Dental Hygienists' Association, and 41.3% of those attended training workshops. According to their response, they perceived their top three major barriers to re-entry as 'lack sufficient dental hygiene skill', 'child rearing' and 'poor working atmosphere'. 'Flexibility in the work schedule' and 'location' were the most important factors for re-entry from their perspective. There were not many dental hygienists hoping to return to the dental field. The findings suggested that strategies to encourage non-practicing dental hygienists to re-entry should be emphasized in the areas of a flexible working atmosphere, easy access to information on how to return to practice and guidance on how to maintain professionalism during inactivity. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Does public spending affect unemployment in an emerging market?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent A. Onodugo

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The Nigerian economy in the last two decades up until 2013 has been growing at an average of 6% and yet unemployment was equally growing in the region of 20% within the same period. This paradoxical situation has led to a flurry of studies and postulations aimed at providing explanation and solution to the phenomenon. This study making use of a regression model with annual data from 1980 to 2013, empirically determined the impact of public sector expenditures (CEXP and REXP together with private sector investment (PINV on unemployment (UNEMP in Nigeria. Capital expenditure and private sector investment both in the medium to long-run were found to serve as catalyst towards reduction of unemployment, while recurrent expenditure was not statistically strong enough to do same. The R-2 (0.84 showed that greater proportion of the total variations in UNEMP was brought about by variations in the regressors. Further tests like autocorrelation, hetroscedasticity, specification error, and multicollinearity indicated respectively that there is no presence of autocorrelation hence the model produced a parsimonious result; the variance is constant over time; the link test confirmed by Ramsey reset test suggested there was no specification error; and lastly the variance inflation factor (VIF of the variables implies that there is no evidence of multicollinearity. The study recommends, inter alia, that the proportion of capital expenditure in Nigerian budget profile should be systematically increased while the recurrent expenditure should be reduced; and there is need to stimulate competition among investors through removal of structural and institutional rigidities and government should design clear policy incentives to private sector investment.

  20. Notes on Laser Acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tajima, T.

    2008-01-01

    This note intends to motivate our effort toward the advent of new methods of particle acceleration, utilizing the fast rising laser technology. By illustrating the underlying principles in an intuitive manner and thus less jargon-clad fashion, we seek a direction in which we shall be able to properly control and harness the promise of laser acceleration. First we review the idea behind the laser wakefield. We then go on to examine ion acceleration by laser. We examine the sheath acceleration in particular and look for the future direction that allows orderly acceleration of ions in high energies