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Sample records for undisturbed soil samples

  1. Diffusion probe for gas sampling in undisturbed soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Søren O

    2014-01-01

    Soil-atmosphere fluxes of trace gases such as methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) are determined by complex interactions between biological activity and soil conditions. Soil gas concentration profiles may, in combination with other information about soil conditions, help to understand emission...... controls. This note describes a simple and robust diffusion probe for soil gas sampling as part of flux monitoring programs. It can be deployed with minimum disturbance of in-situ conditions, also at sites with a high or fluctuating water table. Separate probes are used for each sampling depth...... on peat soils used for grazing showed soil gas concentrations of CH4 and N2O as influenced by topography, site conditions, and season. The applicability of the diffusion probe for trace gas monitoring is discussed....

  2. Colloid and phosphorus leaching from undisturbed soil cores sampled along a natural clay gradient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vendelboe, Anders Lindblad; Møldrup, Per; Heckrath, Goswin Johann

    2011-01-01

    correlated to the accumulated outflow and was described as a diffusion controlled process, using ¾(accumulated outflow). The mass of leached particles was positively correlated to the clay content as well as to water-dispersible colloids. Particulate phosphorus (P) was linearly correlated to concentration......The presence of strongly sorbing compounds in groundwater and tile drains can be a result of colloid-facilitated transport. Colloid and phosphorus leaching from macropores in undisturbed soil cores sampled across a natural clay gradient at Aarup, Denmark, were studied. The aim of the study...... was to correlate easily measurable soil properties, such as clay content and water-dispersible colloids, to colloid and phosphorus leaching. The clay contents across the gradient ranged from 0.11 to 0.23 kg kgj1. Irrigating with artificial rainwater, all samples showed a high first flush of colloids and phosphorus...

  3. Radionuclide migration test using undisturbed aerated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Tadatoshi; Ohtsuka, Yoshiro; Ogawa, Hiromichi; Wadachi, Yoshiki

    1988-01-01

    As one of the most important part of safety assessment on the shallow land disposal of lowlevel radioactive waste, the radionuclide migration was studied using undisturbed soil samples, in order to evaluate an exact radionuclide migration in an aerated soil layer. Soil samples used in the migration test were coastal sand and loamy soil which form typical surface soil layers in Japan. The aqueous solution containing 60 CoCl 2 , 85 SrCl 2 and 137 CsCl was fed into the soil column and concentration of each radionuclide both in effluent and in soil was measured. Large amount of radionuclides was adsorbed on the surface of soil column and small amount of radionuclides moved deep into the soil column. Difference in the radionuclide profile was observed in the low concentration portion particularly. It is that some fractions of 60 Co and 137 Cs are stable in non-ionic form and move downward through the soil column together with water. The radionuclide distribution in the surface of soil column can be fairly predicted with a conventional migration equation for ionic radionuclides. As a result of radionuclide adsorption, both aerated soil layers of coastal sand and loamy soil have large barrier ability on the radionuclide migration through the ground. (author)

  4. Solute diffusivity in undisturbed soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægdsmand, Mette; Møldrup, Per; Schjønning, Per

    2012-01-01

    Solute diffusivity in soil plays a major role in many important processes with relation to plant growth and environmental issues. Soil solute diffusivity is affected by the volumetric water content as well as the morphological characteristics of water-filled pores. The solute diffusivity in intact...

  5. Availability of {sup 99}Tc in undisturbed soil cores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denys, Sebastien; Echevarria, Guillaume E-mail: guillaume.echevarria@ensaia.inpl-nancy.fr; Florentin, Louis; Leclerc-Cessac, Elisabeth; Morel, Jean-Louis

    2003-07-01

    Models for safety assessment of radioactive waste repositories need accurate values of the soil-to-plant transfer of radionuclides. In oxidizing environments, {sup 99}Tc is expected to occur as pertechnetate ({sup 99}TcO{sub 4}{sup -}). Due to its high mobility, leaching of this element in the field might be important, potentially affecting the reliability of estimated transfer parameters of {sup 99}Tc as measured in closed experimental systems such as hydroponics or pot experiments. The aim of this experiment was to measure the leaching of {sup 99}Tc in undisturbed irrigated soil cores under cultivation as well as plant uptake and to study the possible competition between the two transfer pathways. Undisturbed soil cores (50x50 cm) were sampled from a Rendzic Leptosol (R), a colluvial Fluvic Cambisol (F) and a Dystric Cambisol (D) using PVC tubes (three cores sampled per soil type). Each core was equipped with a leachate collector at the bottom, allowing the monitoring of {sup 99}Tc leaching through the cores. Cores were placed in a greenhouse and maize (Zea mays L., cv. DEA, Pioneer[reg]) was sown. After 135 d, maize was harvested and radioactivity determined in both plant and water samples. Results showed that during the growing period, leaching of {sup 99}Tc was limited, due to the high evapotranspiration rate of maize. After harvest, leaching of {sup 99}Tc went on because of the absence of evapotranspiration. Effective uptake (EU) of {sup 99}Tc in leaves and grains was calculated. EU reached 70% of the input in the leaves and was not significantly different among soils. These results confirmed those obtained from pot experiments, even though leaching was allowed to occur in close-to-reality hydraulical conditions. As a consequence, it was concluded that pot experiments are an adequate surrogate for more complex 'close-to-reality' experimental systems for measuring transfer factors.

  6. Availability of 99Tc in undisturbed soil cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denys, Sebastien; Echevarria, Guillaume; Florentin, Louis; Leclerc-Cessac, Elisabeth; Morel, Jean-Louis

    2003-01-01

    Models for safety assessment of radioactive waste repositories need accurate values of the soil-to-plant transfer of radionuclides. In oxidizing environments, 99 Tc is expected to occur as pertechnetate ( 99 TcO 4 - ). Due to its high mobility, leaching of this element in the field might be important, potentially affecting the reliability of estimated transfer parameters of 99 Tc as measured in closed experimental systems such as hydroponics or pot experiments. The aim of this experiment was to measure the leaching of 99 Tc in undisturbed irrigated soil cores under cultivation as well as plant uptake and to study the possible competition between the two transfer pathways. Undisturbed soil cores (50x50 cm) were sampled from a Rendzic Leptosol (R), a colluvial Fluvic Cambisol (F) and a Dystric Cambisol (D) using PVC tubes (three cores sampled per soil type). Each core was equipped with a leachate collector at the bottom, allowing the monitoring of 99 Tc leaching through the cores. Cores were placed in a greenhouse and maize (Zea mays L., cv. DEA, Pioneer[reg]) was sown. After 135 d, maize was harvested and radioactivity determined in both plant and water samples. Results showed that during the growing period, leaching of 99 Tc was limited, due to the high evapotranspiration rate of maize. After harvest, leaching of 99 Tc went on because of the absence of evapotranspiration. Effective uptake (EU) of 99 Tc in leaves and grains was calculated. EU reached 70% of the input in the leaves and was not significantly different among soils. These results confirmed those obtained from pot experiments, even though leaching was allowed to occur in close-to-reality hydraulical conditions. As a consequence, it was concluded that pot experiments are an adequate surrogate for more complex 'close-to-reality' experimental systems for measuring transfer factors

  7. Quantitative imaging of cation adsorption site densities in undisturbed soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keck, Hannes; Strobel, Bjarne W.; Gustafsson, Jon-Petter; Koestel, John

    2017-04-01

    The vast majority of present soil system models assume a homogeneous distribution and accessibility of cation adsorption sites (CAS) within soil structural units like e.g. soil horizons. This is however in conflict with several recent studies finding that CAS in soils are not uniformly but patchily distributed at and below the cm-scale. It is likely that the small-scale distribution of CAS has significant impact on the performance of these models. However, systematic approaches to map CAS densities in undisturbed soil with 3-D resolution that could lead to respective model improvements are still lacking. We therefore investigated the 3-D distribution of the CAS in undisturbed soils using X-ray scanning and barium ions as a contrast agent. We appraised the validity of the approach by comparing X-ray image-derived cation exchange coefficients (CEC) with ones obtained using the ammonium acetate method. In the process, we evaluated whether there were larger CAS concentrations at aggregate and biopore boundaries as it is often hypothesized. We sampled eight small soil cores (approx. 10 ccm) from different locations with contrasting soil texture and organic matter contents. The samples were first saturated with a potassium chloride solution (0.1 mol per liter), whereupon a 3-D X-ray image was taken. Then, the potassium chloride solution was flushed out with a barium chloride solution (0.3 mol per liter) with barium replacing the potassium from the CAS due to its larger exchange affinity. After X-ray images as well as electrical conductivity in the effluent indicated that the entire sample had been saturated with the barium chloride, the sample was again rinsed using the potassium chloride solution. When the rinsing was complete a final 3-D X-ray image was acquired. The difference images between final and initial 3-D X-ray images were interpreted as depicting the adsorbed barium as the density of barium exceeds the one of potassium by more than 2 times. The X-ray image

  8. Large zero-tension plate lysimeters for soil water and solute collection in undisturbed soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Peters

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Water collection from undisturbed unsaturated soils to estimate in situ water and solute fluxes in the field is a challenge, in particular if soils are heterogeneous. Large sampling devices are required if preferential flow paths are present. We present a modular plate system that allows installation of large zero-tension lysimeter plates under undisturbed soils in the field. To investigate the influence of the lysimeter on the water flow field in the soil, a numerical 2-D simulation study was conducted for homogeneous soils with uni- and bimodal pore-size distributions and stochastic Miller-Miller heterogeneity. The collection efficiency was found to be highly dependent on the hydraulic functions, infiltration rate, and lysimeter size, and was furthermore affected by the degree of heterogeneity. In homogeneous soils with high saturated conductivities the devices perform poorly and even large lysimeters (width 250 cm can be bypassed by the soil water. Heterogeneities of soil hydraulic properties result into a network of flow channels that enhance the sampling efficiency of the lysimeter plates. Solute breakthrough into zero-tension lysimeter occurs slightly retarded as compared to the free soil, but concentrations in the collected water are similar to the mean flux concentration in the undisturbed soil. To validate the results from the numerical study, a dual tracer study with seven lysimeters of 1.25×1.25 m area was conducted in the field. Three lysimeters were installed underneath a 1.2 m filling of contaminated silty sand, the others deeper in the undisturbed soil. The lysimeters directly underneath the filled soil material collected water with a collection efficiency of 45%. The deeper lysimeters did not collect any water. The arrival of the tracers showed that almost all collected water came from preferential flow paths.

  9. Analytical description of transfer of Pu-239 in undisturbed soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tianshan, Ren; Linsalata, P; Cohen, N

    1986-04-01

    The paper reports on an analytical model for describing the horizontal and down-ward transfer of /sup 239/Pu in undisturbed soil based on observed data. The model has been developed to predict how the depth distribution of /sup 239/Pu in soil would change with time. This information is essential for estimation of the quantities of /sup 239/Pu that have entered surface water body via erosion and runoff processes and for estimation of the long-term impact of /sup 239/Pu isice the commencement of nuclear fallout deposition.

  10. Occurrence of an exotic earthworm (Amynthas agrestis) in undisturbed soils of the southern Appalachian Mountains, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mac. A. Callaham; Paul F. Hendrix; Ross J. Phillips

    2003-01-01

    This study documents the occurrence of an aggressive invasive earthworm species in undisturbed forest soils of the southern Appalachian Mountains of northern Georgia, USA. Earthworms were sorted from samples collected in pitfall traps that had been set in mature, mesic oak-hickory forests in remote, high elevation, locations across northern Georgia. Specimens were...

  11. Monitoring of Gasoline-ethanol Degradation In Undisturbed Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Österreicher-Cunha, P.; Nunes, C. M. F.; Vargas, E. A.; Guimarães, J. R. D.; Costa, A.

    Environmental contamination problems are greatly emphasised nowadays because of the direct threat they represent for human health. Traditional remediation methods fre- quently present low efficiency and high costs; therefore, biological treatment is being considered as an accessible and efficient alternative for soil and water remediation. Bioventing, commonly used to remediate petroleum hydrocarbon spills, stimulates the degradation capacity of indigenous microorganisms by providing better subsur- face oxygenation. In Brazil, gasoline and ethanol are mixed (78:22 v/v); some authors indicate that despite gasoline high degradability, its degradation in subsurface is hin- dered by the presence of much more rapidly degrading ethanol. Contaminant distribu- tion and degradation in the subsurface can be monitored by several physical, chemical and microbiological methodologies. This study aims to evaluate and follow the degra- dation of a gasoline-ethanol mixture in a residual undisturbed tropical soil from Rio de Janeiro. Bioventing was used to enhance microbial degradation. Shifts in bacte- rial culturable populations due to contamination and treatment effects were followed by conventional microbiology methods. Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) measure- ments, which consist of the emission of electro-magnetic waves into the soil, yield a visualisation of contaminant degradation because of changes in soil conductivity due to microbial action on the pollutants. Chemical analyses will measure contaminant residue in soil. Our results disclosed contamination impact as well as bioventing stim- ulation on soil culturable heterotrophic bacterial populations. This multidisciplinary approach allows for a wider evaluation of processes occurring in soil.

  12. A simplified 137Cs transport model for estimating erosion rates in undisturbed soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xinbao; Long Yi; He Xiubin; Fu Jiexiong; Zhang Yunqi

    2008-01-01

    137 Cs is an artificial radionuclide with a half-life of 30.12 years which released into the environment as a result of atmospheric testing of thermo-nuclear weapons primarily during the period of 1950s-1970s with the maximum rate of 137 Cs fallout from atmosphere in 1963. 137 Cs fallout is strongly and rapidly adsorbed by fine particles in the surface horizons of the soil, when it falls down on the ground mostly with precipitation. Its subsequent redistribution is associated with movements of the soil or sediment particles. The 137 Cs nuclide tracing technique has been used for assessment of soil losses for both undisturbed and cultivated soils. For undisturbed soils, a simple profile-shape model was developed in 1990 to describe the 137 Cs depth distribution in profile, where the maximum 137 Cs occurs in the surface horizon and it exponentially decreases with depth. The model implied that the total 137 Cs fallout amount deposited on the earth surface in 1963 and the 137 Cs profile shape has not changed with time. The model has been widely used for assessment of soil losses on undisturbed land. However, temporal variations of 137 Cs depth distribution in undisturbed soils after its deposition on the ground due to downward transport processes are not considered in the previous simple profile-shape model. Thus, the soil losses are overestimated by the model. On the base of the erosion assessment model developed by Walling, D.E., He, Q. [1999. Improved models for estimating soil erosion rates from cesium-137 measurements. Journal of Environmental Quality 28, 611-622], we discuss the 137 Cs transport process in the eroded soil profile and make some simplification to the model, develop a method to estimate the soil erosion rate more expediently. To compare the soil erosion rates calculated by the simple profile-shape model and the simple transport model, the soil losses related to different 137 Cs loss proportions of the reference inventory at the Kaixian site of the

  13. Unsaturated transport of inorganic cations in undisturbed soil columns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jardine, P.M.; Jacobs, G.K.

    1990-01-01

    The unsaturated transport of Sr, Co, and Ca were studied in undisturbed soil columns (14 x 40 cm) of saprolitic shale to evaluate the significance of time dependent mass transfer and multispecies competitive exchange during transport. Observed breakthrough curves (BTCs) for Sr and Co were delayed relative to nonreactive Br BTC indicating that the former tracers were adsorbed by the soil. Effluent concentrations of Sr and Co were modeled with the classical convective dispersive (CD) equation and nonequilibrium mass transfer considerations did not appear necessary. Cation exchange equilibria relationships obtained from both shake batch and miscible displacement methods adequately described the thermodynamic processes which were prevalent during transport. These results suggest that the preferential transport of a reactive tracer is negligible for the realistic unsaturated conditions used in the study, and that the massive saprolite within the soil is a chemically active constituent during transport of reactive solutes. The implications of these findings for modeling in-situ subsurface contaminant transport are discussed. 7 refs., 9 figs

  14. Nitrogen transformations and greenhouse gas emissions from a riparian wetland soil: An undisturbed soil column study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munoz-Leoz, Borja [Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, University of the Basque Country, UPV/EHU, E-48013 Bilbao (Spain); Antigueedad, Inaki [Department of Geodynamic, University of the Basque Country, UPV/EHU, E-48940 Leioa (Spain); Garbisu, Carlos [Department of Ecosystems, NEIKER-Tecnalia, E-48160 Derio (Spain); Ruiz-Romera, Estilita, E-mail: estilita.ruiz@ehu.es [Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, University of the Basque Country, UPV/EHU, E-48013 Bilbao (Spain)

    2011-01-15

    Riparian wetlands bordering intensively managed agricultural fields can act as biological filters that retain and transform agrochemicals such as nitrate and pesticides. Nitrate removal in wetlands has usually been attributed to denitrification processes which in turn imply the production of greenhouse gases (CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}O). Denitrification processes were studied in the Salburua wetland (northern Spain) by using undisturbed soil columns which were subsequently divided into three sections corresponding to A-, Bg- and B2g-soil horizons. Soil horizons were subjected to leaching with a 200 mg NO{sub 3}{sup -} L{sup -1} solution (rate: 90 mL day{sup -1}) for 125 days at two different temperatures (10 and 20 {sup o}C), using a new experimental design for leaching assays which enabled not only to evaluate leachate composition but also to measure gas emissions during the leaching process. Column leachate samples were analyzed for NO{sub 3}{sup -} concentration, NH{sub 4}{sup +} concentration, and dissolved organic carbon. Emissions of greenhouse gases (CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}O) were determined in the undisturbed soil columns. The A horizon at 20 {sup o}C showed the highest rates of NO{sub 3}{sup -} removal (1.56 mg N-NO{sub 3}{sup -} kg{sup -1} DW soil day{sup -1}) and CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}O production (5.89 mg CO{sub 2} kg{sup -1} DW soil day{sup -1} and 55.71 {mu}g N-N{sub 2}O kg{sup -1} DW soil day{sup -1}). For the Salburua wetland riparian soil, we estimated a potential nitrate removal capacity of 1012 kg N-NO{sub 3}{sup -} ha{sup -1} year{sup -1}, and potential greenhouse gas emissions of 5620 kg CO{sub 2} ha{sup -1} year{sup -1} and 240 kg N-N{sub 2}O ha{sup -1} year{sup -1}. - Research Highlights: {yields}A new experimental design is proposed for leaching assays to simulate nitrogen transformations in riparian wetland soil. {yields}Denitrification is the main process responsible for nitrate removal in the riparian zone of Salburua wetland. {yields

  15. Distribution and behavior of {sup 137}Cs in undisturbed soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satta, Naoya [Kyoto Univ., Kumatori, Osaka (Japan). Research Reactor Inst.

    1996-04-01

    The depth distribution of {sup 137}Cs in soils which has not been artificially disturbed for 100 years was compared to fallout history. The model of {sup 137}Cs distribution rate was established to estimate fallout history from soil samples. (J.P.N.)

  16. Derivation of 137Cs deposition density from measurement of 137Cs inventories in undisturbed soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hien, P.D.; Hiep, H.T.; Quang, N.H.; Huy, N.Q.; Binh, N.T.; Hai, P.S.; Long, N.Q.; Bac, V.T

    2012-01-01

    The 137 Cs inventories in undisturbed soils were measured for 292 locations across the territory of Vietnam. the logarithmic inventory values were regressed against characteristics of sampling sites, such as geographical coordinates, annual rainfall and physico-chemical parameters of soil. The regression model containing latitude and annual rainfall as determinants could explain 76% of the variations in logarithmic inventory values across the territory. The model part was interpreted as the logarithmic 137 Cs deposition density. At the 95% confidence level, 137 Cs deposition density could be predicted be the model ± 7% relative uncertainty. the latitude mean 137 Cs deposition density increases northward from 237 Bq m -2 to 1097 Bq m -2 , while the corresponding values derived from the UNSCEAR (1969) global pattern are 300 Bq m -2 and 600 Bq m -2 . High 137 Cs inputs were found in high-rainfall areas in northern and central parts of the territory. (author)

  17. 3D-printing of undisturbed soil imaged by X-ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacher, Matthias; Koestel, John; Schwen, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    The unique pore structures in Soils are altered easily by water flow. Each sample has a different morphology and the results of repetitions vary as well. Soil macropores in 3D-printed durable material avoid erosion and have a known morphology. Therefore potential and limitations of reproducing an undisturbed soil sample by 3D-printing was evaluated. We scanned an undisturbed soil column of Ultuna clay soil with a diameter of 7 cm by micro X-ray computer tomography at a resolution of 51 micron. A subsample cube of 2.03 cm length with connected macropores was cut out from this 3D-image and printed in five different materials by a 3D-printing service provider. The materials were ABS, Alumide, High Detail Resin, Polyamide and Prime Grey. The five print-outs of the subsample were tested on their hydraulic conductivity by using the falling head method. The hydrophobicity was tested by an adapted sessile drop method. To determine the morphology of the print-outs and compare it to the real soil also the print-outs were scanned by X-ray. The images were analysed with the open source program ImageJ. The five 3D-image print-outs copied from the subsample of the soil column were compared by means of their macropore network connectivity, porosity, surface volume, tortuosity and skeleton. The comparison of pore morphology between the real soil and the print-outs showed that Polyamide reproduced the soil macropore structure best while Alumide print-out was the least detailed. Only the largest macropore was represented in all five print-outs. Printing residual material or printing aid material remained in and clogged the pores of all print-out materials apart from Prime Grey. Therefore infiltration was blocked in these print-outs and the materials are not suitable even though the 3D-printed pore shapes were well reproduced. All of the investigated materials were insoluble. The sessile drop method showed angles between 53 and 85 degrees. Prime Grey had the fastest flow rate; the

  18. Modelling 137Cs uptake in plants from undisturbed soil monoliths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waegeneers, Nadia; Smolders, Erik; Merckx, Roel

    2005-01-01

    A model predicting 137 Cs uptake in plants was applied on data from artificially contaminated lysimeters. The lysimeter data involve three different crops (beans, ryegrass and lettuce) grown on five different soils between 3 and 5 years after contamination and where soil solution composition was monitored. The mechanistic model predicts plant uptake of 137 Cs from soil solution composition. Predicted K concentrations in the rhizosphere were up to 50-fold below that in the bulk soil solution whereas corresponding 137 Cs concentration gradients were always less pronounced. Predictions of crop 137 Cs content based on rhizosphere soil solution compositions were generally closer to observations than those based on bulk soil solution composition. The model explained 17% (beans) to 91% (lettuce) of the variation in 137 Cs activity concentrations in the plants. The model failed to predict the 137 Cs activity concentration in ryegrass where uptake of the 5-year-old 137 Cs from 3 soils was about 40-fold larger than predicted. The model generally underpredicted crop 137 Cs concentrations at soil solution K concentration below about 1.0 mM. It is concluded that 137 Cs uptake can be predicted from the soil solution composition at adequate K nutrition but that significant uncertainties remain when soil solution K is below 1 mM

  19. Vertical migration of 85Sr, 137Cs and 131I in various arable and undisturbed soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palagyi, S.; Palagyiova, J.

    2003-01-01

    The vertical migration of 85 Sr, 137 Cs and 131 I in some arable and undisturbed single-contaminated soils was studied by gamma-spectrometry measurements under lysimetric laboratory conditions during irrigation of the soil profiles with wet atmospheric precipitation for about one year, except 131 I. A new simple exponential compartment (box) model was derived, which makes it possible to calculate the migration rate constants and migration rates in the individual soil layers (vertical sections) as well as the total vertical migration rate constants and total vertical migration rates of radionuclides in the bulk soil horizon. The relaxation times of radionuclides in respective soil horizons can also be evaluated. (author)

  20. Evaluating equilibrium and non-equilibrium transport of bromide and isoproturon in disturbed and undisturbed soil columns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dousset, S.; Thevenot, M.; Pot, V.; Šimunek, J.; Andreux, F.

    2007-12-01

    In this study, displacement experiments of isoproturon were conducted in disturbed and undisturbed columns of a silty clay loam soil under similar rainfall intensities. Solute transport occurred under saturated conditions in the undisturbed soil and under unsaturated conditions in the sieved soil because of a greater bulk density of the compacted undisturbed soil compared to the sieved soil. The objective of this work was to determine transport characteristics of isoproturon relative to bromide tracer. Triplicate column experiments were performed with sieved (structure partially destroyed to simulate conventional tillage) and undisturbed (structure preserved) soils. Bromide experimental breakthrough curves were analyzed using convective-dispersive and dual-permeability (DP) models (HYDRUS-1D). Isoproturon breakthrough curves (BTCs) were analyzed using the DP model that considered either chemical equilibrium or non-equilibrium transport. The DP model described the bromide elution curves of the sieved soil columns well, whereas it overestimated the tailing of the bromide BTCs of the undisturbed soil columns. A higher degree of physical non-equilibrium was found in the undisturbed soil, where 56% of total water was contained in the slow-flow matrix, compared to 26% in the sieved soil. Isoproturon BTCs were best described in both sieved and undisturbed soil columns using the DP model combined with the chemical non-equilibrium. Higher degradation rates were obtained in the transport experiments than in batch studies, for both soils. This was likely caused by hysteresis in sorption of isoproturon. However, it cannot be ruled out that higher degradation rates were due, at least in part, to the adopted first-order model. Results showed that for similar rainfall intensity, physical and chemical non-equilibrium were greater in the saturated undisturbed soil than in the unsaturated sieved soil. Results also suggested faster transport of isoproturon in the undisturbed soil due

  1. Cesium-137 inventory of the undisturbed soil areas in the Londrina Region, Parana, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrello, Avacir C.; Appoloni, Carlos Roberto

    2005-01-01

    Cesium-137 is an artificial radionuclide introduced in the environment through the radioactive fallout of the superficial tests of nuclear weapons. The cesium-137 deposition occurred to middles of the 1980-decade and, due to the Chernobyl accident, great part of Europe had a additional fallout of cesium-137. The contaminations of this accident do not have reached Southern Hemisphere. Cesium-137 is an alkaline metal, high electropositive, that in contact with the soil is strongly adsorbed to the clay in the FES (Frayed Edge Sites) and RES (Regular Edge Sites) positions, and it movement by chemical processes in the soil is insignificant. Because of this, cesium-137 became a good soil marker, and its movement is related to the soil movement particles, so that the cesium-137 have been used in the study of the soil redistribution processes, as a tool of quantifying the rates of soil losses and gain. To use this methodology, it is necessary the knowledge of the reference inventory of cesium-137, that is given as function of the total concentration of cesium-137 deposited in an area by the radioactive fallout. If a sampling point presents less cesium-137 than the reference inventory, this point is considered a point with soil loss; otherwise, the point is considered a point with soil deposition. To evaluate the cesium-137 inventory in the Londrina region, four areas of the undisturbed soil were sampling in grid of 3x3, with a distance of 9 meters among the points. Of these four sampling areas, three areas were of native forest (labeled Mata1, Mata2 and Mata UEL), and one was a pasture area. Cesium-137 inventory was 223 ± 41 Bq m -2 , 240 ± 65 Bq m -2 and 305 ± 36 Bq m -2 for Mata UEL, Mata1 and Mata2, respectively, and of 211 ± 28 Bq m -2 for the native pasture. Considering the deviation in each value, it is not possible to conclude that there are differences among the values of cesium-137 inventory, so that the average reference inventory of cesium-137 for the

  2. Quantitative imaging of the 3-D distribution of cation adsorption sites in undisturbed soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keck, Hannes; Strobel, Bjarne W.; Petter Gustafsson, Jon; Koestel, John

    2017-10-01

    Several studies have shown that the distribution of cation adsorption sites (CASs) is patchy at a millimetre to centimetre scale. Often, larger concentrations of CASs in biopores or aggregate coatings have been reported in the literature. This heterogeneity has implications on the accessibility of CASs and may influence the performance of soil system models that assume a spatially homogeneous distribution of CASs. In this study, we present a new method to quantify the abundance and 3-D distribution of CASs in undisturbed soil that allows for investigating CAS densities with distance to the soil macropores. We used X-ray imaging with Ba2+ as a contrast agent. Ba2+ has a high adsorption affinity to CASs and is widely used as an index cation to measure the cation exchange capacity (CEC). Eight soil cores (approx. 10 cm3) were sampled from three locations with contrasting texture and organic matter contents. The CASs of our samples were saturated with Ba2+ in the laboratory using BaCl2 (0.3 mol L-1). Afterwards, KCl (0.1 mol L-1) was used to rinse out Ba2+ ions that were not bound to CASs. Before and after this process the samples were scanned using an industrial X-ray scanner. Ba2+ bound to CASs was then visualized in 3-D by the difference image technique. The resulting difference images were interpreted as depicting the Ba2+ bound to CASs only. The X-ray image-derived CEC correlated significantly with results of the commonly used ammonium acetate method to determine CEC in well-mixed samples. The CEC of organic-matter-rich samples seemed to be systematically overestimated and in the case of the clay-rich samples with less organic matter the CEC seemed to be systematically underestimated. The results showed that the distribution of the CASs varied spatially within most of our samples down to a millimetre scale. There was no systematic relation between the location of CASs and the soil macropore structure. We are convinced that the approach proposed here will strongly

  3. Infiltration characteristics of non-aqueous phase liquids in undisturbed loessal soil cores

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yunqiang; SHAO Ming'an

    2009-01-01

    The widespread contamination of soils and aquifers by non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPL), such as crude oil, poses serious environmental and health hazards globally. Understanding the infiltration characteristics of NAPL in soil is crucial in mitigating or remediating soil contamination. The infiltration characteristics of crude and diesel oils into undisturbed loessal soil cores, collected in polymethyl methacrylate cylindrical columns, were investigated under a constant fluid head (3 cm) of either crude oil or diesel oil. The infiltration rate of both crude and diesel oils decreased exponentially as wetting depth increased with time. Soil core size and bulk density both had a significant effect on NAPL infiltration through the undisturbed soil cores; a smaller core size or a greater bulk density both reduced oil penetration to depth. Compacting soil in areas susceptible to oil spills may be an effective way to reduce contamination. The infiltration of NAPL into soil cores was spatially anisotropic and heterogeneous, thus recording the data at four points on the soil core is a good way to improve the accuracy of experimental results. Our results provided information about crude and diesel oils, rather than their components, and may have practical value for remediation of contaminated loessal soils.

  4. Infiltration characteristics of non-aqueous phase liquids in undisturbed loessal soil cores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yunqiang; Shao, Ming'an

    2009-01-01

    The widespread contamination of soils and aquifers by non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPL), such as crude oil, poses serious environmental and health hazards globally. Understanding the infiltration characteristics of NAPL in soil is crucial in mitigating or remediating soil contamination. The infiltration characteristics of crude and diesel oils into undisturbed loessal soil cores, collected in polymethyl methacrylate cylindrical columns, were investigated under a constant fluid head (3 cm) of either crude oil or diesel oil. The infiltration rate of both crude and diesel oils decreased exponentially as wetting depth increased with time. Soil core size and bulk density both had significant effects on NAPL infiltration through the undisturbed soil cores; a smaller core size or a greater bulk density could reduce oil penetration to depth. Compacting soil in areas susceptible to oil spills may be an effective stratage to reduce contamination. The infiltration of NAPL into soil cores was spatially anisotropic and heterogeneous, thus recording the data at four points on the soil core is a good stratage to improve the accuracy of experimental results. Our results revealed that crude and diesel oils, rather than their components, have a practical value for remediation of contaminated loessal soils.

  5. Runoff and soil erosion for an undisturbed tropical woodland in the Brazilian Cerrado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Paulo Tarso S.; Nearing, Mark; Wendland, Edson

    2015-04-01

    The Brazilian Cerrado is a large and important economic and environmental region that is experiencing major loss of its natural landscapes due to pressures of food and energy production, which has caused large increases in soil erosion. However the magnitude of the soil erosion increases in this region is not well understood, in part because scientific studies of surface runoff and soil erosion are scarce or nonexistent in undisturbed Cerrado vegetation. In this study we measured natural rainfall-driven rates of runoff and soil erosion for an undisturbed tropical woodland classified as "cerrado sensu stricto denso" and bare soil to compute the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) cover and management factor (C-factor) to help evaluate the likely effects of land use change on soil erosion rates. Replicated data on precipitation, runoff, and soil loss on plots (5 x 20 m) under bare soil and cerrado were collected for 55 erosive storms occurring in 2012 and 2013. The measured annual precipitation was 1247.4 mm and 1113.0 mm for 2012 and 2013, resulting in a rainfall erosivity index of 4337.1 MJ mm ha-1 h-1 and 3546.2 MJ mm ha-1 h-1, for each year respectively. The erosive rainfall represented 80concentrated in the wet season, which generally runs from October through March. In the plots on bare soil, the runoff coefficient for individual rainfall events (total runoff divided by total rainfall) ranged from 0.003 to 0.860 with an average value and standard deviation of 0.212 ± 0.187. Moreover, the runoff coefficient found for the bare soil plots (~20infiltration capacity. In forest areas the leaf litter and the more porous soil tend to promote the increase of infiltration and water storage, rather than rapid overland flow. Indeed, runoff coefficients ranged from 0.001 to 0.030 with an average of less than 1under undisturbed cerrado. The soil losses measured under bare soil and cerrado were 15.68 t ha-1yr-1 and 0.24 t ha-1 yr-1 in 2012, and 14.82 t ha-1 yr-1, 0.11 t ha-1

  6. Rapid phenotyping of crop root systems in undisturbed field soils using X-ray computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeifer, Johannes; Kirchgessner, Norbert; Colombi, Tino; Walter, Achim

    2015-01-01

    X-ray computed tomography (CT) has become a powerful tool for root phenotyping. Compared to rather classical, destructive methods, CT encompasses various advantages. In pot experiments the growth and development of the same individual root can be followed over time and in addition the unaltered configuration of the 3D root system architecture (RSA) interacting with a real field soil matrix can be studied. Yet, the throughput, which is essential for a more widespread application of CT for basic research or breeding programs, suffers from the bottleneck of rapid and standardized segmentation methods to extract root structures. Using available methods, root segmentation is done to a large extent manually, as it requires a lot of interactive parameter optimization and interpretation and therefore needs a lot of time. Based on commercially available software, this paper presents a protocol that is faster, more standardized and more versatile compared to existing segmentation methods, particularly if used to analyse field samples collected in situ. To the knowledge of the authors this is the first study approaching to develop a comprehensive segmentation method suitable for comparatively large columns sampled in situ which contain complex, not necessarily connected root systems from multiple plants grown in undisturbed field soil. Root systems from several crops were sampled in situ and CT-volumes determined with the presented method were compared to root dry matter of washed root samples. A highly significant (P < 0.01) and strong correlation (R(2) = 0.84) was found, demonstrating the value of the presented method in the context of field research. Subsequent to segmentation, a method for the measurement of root thickness distribution has been used. Root thickness is a central RSA trait for various physiological research questions such as root growth in compacted soil or under oxygen deficient soil conditions, but hardly assessable in high throughput until today, due

  7. Influence of organic amendments on diuron leaching through an acidic and a calcareous vineyard soil using undisturbed lysimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thevenot, M.; Dousset, S.; Rousseaux, S.; Andreux, F.

    2008-01-01

    The influence of different organic amendments on diuron leaching was studied through undisturbed vineyard soil columns. Two composts (A and D), the second at two stages of maturity, and two soils (VR and Bj) were sampled. After 1 year, the amount of residues (diuron + metabolites) in the leachates of the VR soil (0.19-0.71%) was lower than in the Bj soil (4.27-8.23%), which could be explained by stronger diuron adsorption on VR. An increase in the amount of diuron leached through the amended soil columns, compared to the blank, was observed for the Bj soil only. This result may be explained by the formation of mobile complexes between diuron and water-extractable organic matter (WEOM) through the Bj soil, or by competition between diuron and WEOM for the adsorption sites in the soil. For both soils, the nature of the composts and their degree of maturity did not significantly influence diuron leaching. - The application of organic amendments increased diuron leaching through a sandy-loam soil, in contrast to a clay-loam soil

  8. Influence of organic amendments on diuron leaching through an acidic and a calcareous vineyard soil using undisturbed lysimeters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thevenot, M. [UMR 1229 Microbiologie et Geochimie des Sols, CMSE, INRA - Universite de Bourgogne, UFR des Sciences de la Terre et de l' Environnement, 6 Boulevard Gabriel, 21000 Dijon (France)], E-mail: mathieu.thevenot@u-bourgogne.fr; Dousset, S. [UMR 5561 Biogeosciences, CNRS - Universite de Bourgogne, UFR des Sciences de la Terre et de l' Environnement, 6 Boulevard Gabriel, 21000 Dijon (France); Rousseaux, S. [EA 4149 Laboratoire de Recherche en Vigne et Vin, Institut Universitaire de la Vigne et du Vin, rue Claude Ladrey, 21000 Dijon (France); Andreux, F. [UMR 1229 Microbiologie et Geochimie des Sols, CMSE, INRA - Universite de Bourgogne, UFR des Sciences de la Terre et de l' Environnement, 6 Boulevard Gabriel, 21000 Dijon (France)

    2008-05-15

    The influence of different organic amendments on diuron leaching was studied through undisturbed vineyard soil columns. Two composts (A and D), the second at two stages of maturity, and two soils (VR and Bj) were sampled. After 1 year, the amount of residues (diuron + metabolites) in the leachates of the VR soil (0.19-0.71%) was lower than in the Bj soil (4.27-8.23%), which could be explained by stronger diuron adsorption on VR. An increase in the amount of diuron leached through the amended soil columns, compared to the blank, was observed for the Bj soil only. This result may be explained by the formation of mobile complexes between diuron and water-extractable organic matter (WEOM) through the Bj soil, or by competition between diuron and WEOM for the adsorption sites in the soil. For both soils, the nature of the composts and their degree of maturity did not significantly influence diuron leaching. - The application of organic amendments increased diuron leaching through a sandy-loam soil, in contrast to a clay-loam soil.

  9. Small scale temporal distribution of radiocesium in undisturbed coniferous forest soil: Radiocesium depth distribution profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teramage, Mengistu T; Onda, Yuichi; Kato, Hiroaki

    2016-04-01

    The depth distribution of pre-Fukushima and Fukushima-derived (137)Cs in undisturbed coniferous forest soil was investigated at four sampling dates from nine months to 18 months after the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident. The migration rate and short-term temporal variability among the sampling profiles were evaluated. Taking the time elapsed since the peak deposition of pre-Fukushima (137)Cs and the median depth of the peaks, its downward displacement rates ranged from 0.15 to 0.67 mm yr(-1) with a mean of 0.46 ± 0.25 mm yr(-1). On the other hand, in each examined profile considerable amount of the Fukushima-derived (137)Cs was found in the organic layer (51%-92%). At this moment, the effect of time-distance on the downward distribution of Fukushima-derived (137)Cs seems invisible as its large portion is still found in layers where organic matter is maximal. This indicates that organic matter seems the primary and preferential sorbent of radiocesium that could be associated with the physical blockage of the exchanging sites by organic-rich dusts that act as a buffer against downward propagation of radiocesium, implying radiocesium to be remained in the root zone for considerable time period. As a result, this soil section can be a potential source of radiation dose largely due to high radiocesium concentration coupled with its low density. Generally, such kind of information will be useful to establish a dynamic safety-focused decision support system to ease and assist management actions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Acid-base buffering of soils in transitional and transitional-accumulative positions of undisturbed southern-taiga landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusakova, E. S.; Ishkova, I. V.; Tolpeshta, I. I.; Sokolova, T. A.

    2012-05-01

    The method of continuous potentiometric titration (CPT) of soil water suspensions was used to evaluate the acid-base buffering of samples from the major genetic horizons of podzolic soils on a slope and soddy gley soils on the adjacent floodplain of a rivulet. In the soils of the slope, the buffering to acid upon titration from the pH of the initial titration point (ITP) to pH 3 in all the horizons was 1.5-2.0 times lower than that in the podzolic soils of the leveled interfluve, which could be due to the active leaching of exchangeable bases and oxalate-soluble aluminum and iron compounds with the later soil flows. In the soddy gley soils, the buffering to acid in the mineral horizons was 2-10 times higher than that in the podzolic soils. A direct dependence of the soil buffering to acid on the total content of exchangeable bases and on the content of oxalate-soluble aluminum compounds was found. A direct dependence of the buffering to basic upon titration from the ITP to pH 10 on the contents of the oxalate-soluble aluminum and organic matter was observed in the mineral horizons of all the studied soils. The soil treatment with Tamm's reagent resulted in the decrease of the buffering to acid in the soddy gley soils of the floodplain, as well as in the decrease of the buffering to basic in the soils on the slopes and in the soddy gley soils. It was also found that the redistribution of the mobile aluminum compounds between the eluvial, transitional, and transitional-accumulative positions in the undisturbed southern taiga landscapes leads to significant spatial differentiation of the acid-base buffering of the mineral soil horizons with a considerable increase in the buffer capacity of the soils within the transitional-accumulative terrain positions.

  11. Radiocesium storage in soil microbial biomass of undisturbed alpine meadow soils and its relation to 137Cs soil-plant transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stemmer, Michael; Hromatka, Angelika; Lettner, Herbert; Strebl, Friederike

    2005-01-01

    This study focuses on radiocesium storage in soil microbial biomass of undisturbed alpine meadow sites and its relation to the soil-to-plant transfer. Soil and plant samples were taken in August 1999 from an altitude transect (800-1600 m.a.s.l.) at Gastein valley, Austria. Soil samples were subdivided into 3-cm layers for analyses of total, K 2 SO 4 -extractable and microbially stored 137 Cs. Microbial biomass was measured by the fumigation extraction method, and fungal biomass was quantified using ergosterol as biomarker molecule. In general, the quantity of 137 Cs stored in the living soil microbial biomass was relatively small. At the high-altitude meadows, showing high amounts of fungal biomass, microbially stored 137 Cs amounted to 0.64 ± 0.14 kBq m -2 which corresponds to about 1.2-2.7% of the total 137 Cs soil inventory. At lower altitudes, microbial 137 Cs content was distinctly smaller and in most cases not measurable at all using the fumigation extraction method. However, a positive correlation between the observed soil-to-plant aggregated transfer factor, microbially stored 137 Cs and fungal biomass was found, which indicates a possible role of fungal biomass in the storage and turnover of 137 Cs in soils and in the 137 Cs uptake by plants

  12. Soil sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fortunati, G.U.; Banfi, C.; Pasturenzi, M.

    1994-01-01

    This study attempts to survey the problems associated with techniques and strategies of soil sampling. Keeping in mind the well defined objectives of a sampling campaign, the aim was to highlight the most important aspect of representativeness of samples as a function of the available resources. Particular emphasis was given to the techniques and particularly to a description of the many types of samplers which are in use. The procedures and techniques employed during the investigations following the Seveso accident are described. (orig.)

  13. Vertical migration of 85Sr, 137Cs and 131I in various arable and undisturbed soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palagyi, S.; Palagyiova, J.

    2002-01-01

    Vertical migration of 85 Sr, 137 Cs and 131 I in some arable and undisturbed single-contaminated soils was studied by gamma-spectrometry measurements in lysimetric laboratory conditions applying irrigation of the soil profiles with wet atmospheric precipitation for about one year (except radioiodine). A new simple exponential compartment (box) model was derived, allowing us to calculate the migration rate constants and migration rates in the individual soil layers (vertical sections) as well as the total vertical migration rate constants and total vertical migration rates of radionuclides in the bulk soil horizon. The data from the time dependence of the depth activity distribution (radionuclide concentration along the vertical soil profile) were used to test the model. The migration rate constants and migration rates were found to be affected by the contaminating radionuclides as well as by the site, type and depth of the soil. The relaxation times of the radionuclides in the soil horizons were calculated. The effects on the rate parameters of the permanent grass cover and the zeolite applied onto the arable soil surfaces were also investigated

  14. The ecological half-life of 137Cs in undisturbed silt soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drosg, M.

    2012-01-01

    The time necessary to safely cultivate agricultural areas after they have been contaminated by radioactivity (e.g. after the Chernobyl accident) is not determined by the physical half-life of the radioactive isotopes in question but by their (usually much shorter) ecological half-life (). This half-life not only depends on the type of soil but also on whether the soil was fertilized or not. Therefore it is not possible to determine an ecological half-life that is universally valid. However, the value for undisturbed, unfertilized soil should provide a general indication for the duration of ecological half-life. In a silt soil in Vienna, Austria, the ecological half-life of 137 Cs was determined to be 0.8 years, which is much shorter than the physical half-life of 30 years. - Highlights: ► Absolute measurements of 137 Cs radioactivity in leaves of perennial plants. ► The natural 40 K radioactivity served as reference. ► The ecological half-life of 137 Cs in loamy soil was determined.

  15. Gamma ray transmission for hydraulic conductivity measurement of undisturbed soil columns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Camargo Moreira

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available This work had the objective to determine the Hydraulic Conductivity K(theta function for different depth levels z, of columns of undisturbed soil, using the gamma ray transmission technique applied to the Sisson method. The results indicated a growing behavior for K(theta and a homogeneous soil density, both in relation to the increase of the depth. The methodology of gamma ray transmission showed satisfactory results on the determination of the hydraulic conductivity in columns of undisturbed soil, besides being very reliable and a nondestructive method.O estudo da condutividade hidráulica para solos não saturados é essencial quando aplicado às situações relacionadas à irrigação, drenagem e transporte de nutrientes no solo, é uma importante propriedade para desenvolvimentos de culturas agrícolas. Este trabalho tem o objetivo de determinar a função Condutividade Hidráulica K(teta, em diferentes níveis z de profundidade, em colunas de solo indeformado, utilizando a transmissão de raios gama aplicada ao método de Sisson. Os resultados indicam um comportamento crescente para K(teta e uma densidade de solo homogênea, ambos em relação ao aumento da profundidade. A metodologia de transmissão de raios gama mostrou resultados bastante satisfatórios na determinação da condutividade hidráulica em colunas de solo indeformado, além de ser muito confiável e não destrutivo.

  16. A method for measuring element fluxes in an undisturbed soil: nitrogen and carbon from earthworms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouche, M.B.

    1984-01-01

    Data on chemical cycles, as nitrogen or carbon cycles, are extrapolated to the fields or ecosystems without the possibility for checking conclusions; i.e. from scientific knowledge (para-ecology). A new method, by natural introduction of an earthworm compartment into an undisturbed soil, with earthworms labelled both by isotopes ( 15 N, 14 C) and by staining is described. This method allows us to measure fluxes of chemicals. The first results, gathered during the improvement of the method in partly artificial conditions, are cross-checked with other data given by direct observation in the field. Measured flux (2.2 mg N/g fresh mass empty gut/day/15 0 C) is far more important than para-ecological estimations; animal metabolism plays directly an important role in nitrogen and carbon cycles. (author)

  17. The 7Be profiles in the undisturbed soil used for reference site to estimate the soil erosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raksawong, S; Bhongsuwan, T; Krmar, M

    2017-01-01

    The cosmogenic radionuclide 7 Be is increasingly used to obtain information on event-related soil erosion rates within agricultural landscapes. In this study, we select two undisturbed and flat areas to calculate the reference inventory and relaxation mass depth by using 7 Be technique to document short-term erosion. Our results showed that the depth distribution of 7 Be in undisturbed soil profiles was 1.0 cm in sites S02 and S03; the initial activities were 31.6 and 38.8 Bq.kg -1 , respectively. The relaxation mass depths were 5.4 and 7.2 kg.m -2 and the measured reference 7 Be inventories were 71 and 110 Bq.m -2 for sites S02 and S03, respectively. The difference values of the relaxation mass depth and the reference inventory of both sites implied that for determining a short term soil erosion using 7 Be, the reference site was suggested to be selected as close as possible to the study site. (paper)

  18. Migration of 137Cs and 90Sr in undisturbed soil profiles under controlled and close-to-real conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsberg, S.; Rosen, K.; Fernandez, V.; Juhan, H.

    2000-01-01

    Migration of 137 Cs and 90 Sr in undisturbed soil was studied in large lysimeters three and four years after contamination, as part of a larger European project studying radionuclide soil-plant interactions. The lysimeters were installed in greenhouses with climate control and contaminated with radionuclides in an aerosol mixture, simulating fallout from a nuclear accident. The soil types studied were loam, silt loam, sandy loam and loamy sand. The soils were sampled to 30-40 cm depth in 1997 and 1998. The total deposition of 137 Cs ranged from 24 to 45 MBq/m 2 , and of 90 Sr from 23 to 52 MBq/m 2 . It was shown that migration of 137 Cs was fastest in sandy loam, and of 90 Sr fastest in sandy loam and loam. The slowest migration of both nuclides was found in loamy sand. Retention within the upper 5 cm was 60% for both 137 Cs and 90 Sr in sandy loam, while in loamy sand it was 97 and 96%, respectively. In 1998, migration rates, calculated as radionuclide weighted median depth (migration centre) divided by time since deposition were 1.1 cm/year for both 137 Cs and 90 Sr in sandy loam, 0.8 and 1.0 cm/year, respectively, in loam, 0.6 and 0.8 cm/year in silt loam, and 0.4 and 0.6 cm/year for 137 Cs and 90 Sr, respectively, in loamy sand. A distinction is made between short-term migration, caused by events soon after deposition and less affected by soil type, and long-term migration, more affected by e.g. soil texture. Three to four years after deposition, effects of short-term migration is still dominant in the studied soils

  19. Transport and modeling of estrogenic hormones in a dairy farm effluent through undisturbed soil lysimeters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Laure D; Bidwell, Vincent J; Di, Hong J; Cameron, Keith C; Northcott, Grant L

    2010-04-01

    The presence of endocrine-disrupting chemicals, including estrone (E1) and 17beta-estradiol (E2), in surface waters has been associated with physiological dysfunction in a number of aquatic organisms. One source of surface and groundwater contamination with E1 and E2 is the land application of animal wastes. The processes involved in the transport of these hormones in the soil, when applied with animal wastes, are still unclear. Therefore, a field-transport experiment was carried out, where a dairy farm effluent spiked with E1 and E2 was applied on large (50 cm diameter and 70 cm depth) undisturbed soil lysimeters. The concentrations of E1 and E2 in the leachate were monitored over a 3-month period, during which irrigation was applied. The experimental data suggest that E1 and E2 were transported through preferential/macropore flow pathways. The data from the experiment also show that E1 and E2 are leached earlier than the inert tracer (bromide). This observation can be explained either by the presence of antecedent concentrations in the soil or by an enhanced transport of E1 and E2 through the soil. A state-space mixing-cell model was further developed in order to describe the transport of E1 and E2 by three transport processes in parallel. The inverse modeling of the leaching data did not support the hypothesis that antecedent concentrations of estrogens could be responsible for the observed breakthrough curves but confirmed that estrogens were transported mainly via preferential/macropore flow and also via an enhanced transport. The parameter values that characterized this enhanced transport strongly suggest that this enhanced transport is mediated by colloids. For the first time, the simultaneous transport of E1 and E2 was modeled under transient conditions, taking into account the advection-dispersion, preferential/macropore flow, and colloidal-enhanced transport processes as well as E1 and E2 dissipation in the soil. These findings have major implications in

  20. Nitrate Leaching from Winter Cereal Cover Crops Using Undisturbed Soil-Column Lysimeters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisinger, John J; Ricigliano, Kristin A

    2017-05-01

    Cover crops are important management practices for reducing nitrogen (N) leaching, especially in the Chesapeake Bay watershed, which is under total maximum daily load (TMDL) restraints. Winter cereals are common cool-season crops in the Bay watershed, but studies have not directly compared nitrate-N (NO-N) leaching losses from these species. A 3-yr cover crop lysimeter study was conducted in Beltsville, MD, to directly compare NO-N leaching from a commonly grown cultivar of barley ( L.), rye ( L.), and wheat ( L.), along with a no-cover control, using eight tension-drained undisturbed soil column lysimeters in a completely randomized design with two replicates. The lysimeters were configured to exclude runoff and to estimate NO-N leaching and flow-weighted NO-N concentration (FWNC). The temporal pattern of NO-N leaching showed a consistent highly significant ( leaching with cover crops compared with no cover but showed only small and periodically significant ( leaching was more affected by the quantity of establishment-season (mid-October to mid-December) precipitation than by cover crop species. For example, compared with no cover, winter cereal covers reduced NO-N leaching 95% in a dry year and 50% in wet years, with corresponding reductions in FWNC of 92 and 43%, respectively. These results are important for scientists, nutrient managers, and policymakers because they directly compare NO-N leaching from winter cereal covers and expand knowledge for developing management practices for winter cereals that can improve water quality and increase N efficiency in cropping systems. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  1. Mobility of radionuclides and trace elements in soil from legacy NORM and undisturbed naturally 232Th-rich sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrdakovic Popic, Jelena; Meland, Sondre; Salbu, Brit; Skipperud, Lindis

    2014-05-01

    Investigation of radionuclides (232Th and 238U) and trace elements (Cr, As and Pb) in soil from two legacy NORM (former mining sites) and one undisturbed naturally 232Th-rich site was conducted as a part of the ongoing environmental impact assessment in the Fen Complex area (Norway). The major objectives were to determine the radionuclide and trace element distribution and mobility in soils as well as to analyze possible differences between legacy NORM and surrounding undisturbed naturally 232Th-rich soils. Inhomogeneous soil distribution of radionuclides and trace elements was observed for each of the investigated sites. The concentration of 232Th was high (up to 1685 mg kg(-1), i.e., ∼7000 Bq kg(-1)) and exceeded the screening value for the radioactive waste material in Norway (1 Bq g(-1)). Based on the sequential extraction results, the majority of 232Th and trace elements were rather inert, irreversibly bound to soil. Uranium was found to be potentially more mobile, as it was associated with pH-sensitive soil phases, redox-sensitive amorphous soil phases and soil organic compounds. Comparison of the sequential extraction datasets from the three investigated sites revealed increased mobility of all analyzed elements at the legacy NORM sites in comparison with the undisturbed 232Th-rich site. Similarly, the distribution coefficients Kd (232Th) and Kd (238U) suggested elevated dissolution, mobility and transportation at the legacy NORM sites, especially at the decommissioned Nb-mining site (346 and 100 L kg(-1) for 232Th and 238U, respectively), while the higher sorption of radionuclides was demonstrated at the undisturbed 232Th-rich site (10,672 and 506 L kg(-1) for 232Th and 238U, respectively). In general, although the concentration ranges of radionuclides and trace elements were similarly wide both at the legacy NORM and at the undisturbed 232Th-rich sites, the results of soil sequential extractions together with Kd values supported the expected differences

  2. Surface evolution and carbon sequestration in disturbed and undisturbed wetland soils of the Hunter estuary, southeast Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, A. J.; Rodríguez, J. F.; Saco, P. M.

    2009-08-01

    The aim of this work was to quantify the soil carbon storage and sequestration rates of undisturbed natural wetlands and disturbed wetlands subject to restriction of tidal flow and subsequent rehabilitation in an Australian estuary. Disturbed and undisturbed estuarine wetlands of the Hunter estuary, New South Wales, Australia were selected as the study sites for this research. Vertical accretion rates of estuarine substrates were combined with soil carbon concentrations and bulk densities to determine the carbon store and carbon sequestration rates of the substrates tested. Relationships between estuary water level, soil evolution and vertical accretion were also examined. The carbon sequestration rate of undisturbed wetlands was lower (15% for mangrove and 55% for saltmarsh) than disturbed wetlands, but the carbon store was higher (65% for mangrove and 60% for saltmarsh). The increased carbon sequestration rate of the disturbed wetlands was driven by substantially higher rates of vertical accretion (95% for mangrove and 345% for saltmarsh). Estuarine wetland carbon stores were estimated at 700-1000 Gg C for the Hunter estuary and 3900-5600 Gg C for New South Wales. Vertical accretion and carbon sequestration rates of estuarine wetlands in the Hunter are at the lower end of the range reported in the literature. The comparatively high carbon sequestration rates reported for the disturbed wetlands in this study indicate that wetland rehabilitation has positive benefits for regulation of atmospheric carbon concentrations, in addition to more broadly accepted ecosystem services.

  3. Comparison of absolute biochemical parameters of undisturbed soils in Mediterranean environments (NE Spain) with corresponding parameters relative to soil organic carbon

    OpenAIRE

    Jiménez de Ridder, Patrícia; Marando, Graciela; Josa March, Ramon; Ginovart Gisbert, Marta; Ras Sabido, Antoni; Bonmati Pont, Manuel

    2017-01-01

    The study of soil quality requires the establishment of quality standards. To this end, several authors have highlighted the need to create databases of quality indicators, such as biochemical properties, for different types of undisturbed soils under various climates and to establish standardised methodologies for their development. In Spain, studies of the quality of native soils were initiated > 15 years ago by several groups of authors from differing locations, but little is known regardi...

  4. Vertical migration of some herbicides through undisturbed and homogenized soil columns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Wasim Aktar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A laboratory experiment was conducted by using three herbicides, two from dinitroaniline group and one from thiocarbamate group to know their degree of downward movement (leachability through soil columns and their contribution in ground water contamination. Soil columns were loaded with Pendimethalin, Benthiocarb and Oryzalin @ 10.0, 10.0 and 7.7 kg a.i. ha-1, respectively. After 30 days soil samples were analyzed from each segments (i.e. 0-6, 6-12, 12-18, and 18-24 and 24-30 cm for Benthiocarb and Pendimethalin by GLC equipped with Ni63 electron capture detector (ECD and for Oryzalin by HPLC coupled with UV-VIS detector. The results obtained in the present study reveal that the residues of the three herbicides under investigation were predominantly confined to the upper soil layer (0-6 cm. Comparatively, low mobility of these herbicides in soils could be due to strong adsorption of these chemical to soil colloids.

  5. Vertical migration of some herbicides through undisturbed and homogenized soil columns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktar, Md. Wasim; Sengupta, Dwaipayan; Purkait, Swarnali; Chowdhury, Ashim

    2008-01-01

    A laboratory experiment was conducted by using three herbicides, two from dinitroaniline group and one from thiocarbamate group to know their degree of downward movement (leachability) through soil columns and their contribution in ground water contamination. Soil columns were loaded with Pendimethalin, Benthiocarb and Oryzalin at doses of 10.0, 10.0 and 7.7 kg/ha, respectively. After 30 days soil samples were analyzed from each segments (i.e. 0–6, 6–12, 12–18, 18–24 and 24–30 cm) for Benthiocarb and Pendimethalin by GLC equipped with Ni63 electron capture detector (ECD) and for Oryzalin by HPLC coupled with UV-VIS detector. The results obtained in the present study reveal that the residues of the three herbicides under investigation were predominantly confined to the upper soil layer (0–6 cm). Comparatively, low mobility of these herbicides in soils could be due to strong adsorption of these chemical to soil colloids. PMID:21218121

  6. Vertical migration of some herbicides through undisturbed and homogenized soil columns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Wasim Aktar

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A laboratory experiment was conducted by using three herbicides, two from dinitroaniline group and one from thiocarbamate group to know their degree of downward movement (leachability through soil columns and their contribution in ground water contamination. Soil columns were loaded with Pendimethalin, Benthiocarb and Oryzalin @ 10.0, 10.0 and 7.7 kg a.i. ha-1, respectively. After 30 days soil samples were analyzed from each segments (i.e. 0-6, 6-12, 12-18, and 18-24 and 24-30 cm for Benthiocarb and Pendimethalin by GLC equipped with Ni63 electron capture detector (ECD and for Oryzalin by HPLC coupled with UV-VIS detector. The results obtained in the present study reveal that the residues of the three herbicides under investigation were predominantly confined to the upper soil layer (0-6 cm. Comparatively, low mobility of these herbicides in soils could be due to strong adsorption of these chemical to soil colloids.

  7. Using boosted regression trees to predict the near-saturated hydraulic conductivity of undisturbed soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koestel, John; Bechtold, Michel; Jorda, Helena; Jarvis, Nicholas

    2015-04-01

    The saturated and near-saturated hydraulic conductivity of soil is of key importance for modelling water and solute fluxes in the vadose zone. Hydraulic conductivity measurements are cumbersome at the Darcy scale and practically impossible at larger scales where water and solute transport models are mostly applied. Hydraulic conductivity must therefore be estimated from proxy variables. Such pedotransfer functions are known to work decently well for e.g. water retention curves but rather poorly for near-saturated and saturated hydraulic conductivities. Recently, Weynants et al. (2009, Revisiting Vereecken pedotransfer functions: Introducing a closed-form hydraulic model. Vadose Zone Journal, 8, 86-95) reported a coefficients of determination of 0.25 (validation with an independent data set) for the saturated hydraulic conductivity from lab-measurements of Belgian soil samples. In our study, we trained boosted regression trees on a global meta-database containing tension-disk infiltrometer data (see Jarvis et al. 2013. Influence of soil, land use and climatic factors on the hydraulic conductivity of soil. Hydrology & Earth System Sciences, 17, 5185-5195) to predict the saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks) and the conductivity at a tension of 10 cm (K10). We found coefficients of determination of 0.39 and 0.62 under a simple 10-fold cross-validation for Ks and K10. When carrying out the validation folded over the data-sources, i.e. the source publications, we found that the corresponding coefficients of determination reduced to 0.15 and 0.36, respectively. We conclude that the stricter source-wise cross-validation should be applied in future pedotransfer studies to prevent overly optimistic validation results. The boosted regression trees also allowed for an investigation of relevant predictors for estimating the near-saturated hydraulic conductivity. We found that land use and bulk density were most important to predict Ks. We also observed that Ks is large in fine

  8. Effect of grass cover on water and pesticide transport through undisturbed soil columns, comparison with field study (Morcille watershed, Beaujolais)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dousset, S., E-mail: sylvie.dousset@limos.uhp-nancy.f [Nancy-Universite, CNRS, LIMOS, BP 70239, 54506 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); Thevenot, M. [Universite de Lille 1, CNRS, Geosystemes, 59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Schrack, D. [INRA-SAD ASTER, 88500 Mirecourt (France); AFSSA, Laboratoire d' Etudes et de Recherches en Hydrologie, 54000 Nancy (France); Gouy, V.; Carluer, N. [UR Milieux Aquatiques, Ecologie et Pollution, Cemagref, 69336 Lyon Cedex (France)

    2010-07-15

    The purpose of this work is to assess the effectiveness of two grass covers (buffer zone and grass-covered inter-row), to reduce pesticide leaching, and subsequently to preserve groundwater quality. Lower amounts of pesticides leached through grass-cover soil columns (2.7-24.3% of the initial amount) than the bare soil columns (8.0-55.1%), in correspondence with their sorption coefficients. Diuron was recovered in higher amounts in leachates (8.9-32.2%) than tebuconazole (2.7-12.9%), in agreement with their sorption coefficients. However, despite having a sorption coefficient similar to that of diuron, more procymidone was recovered in the leachates (10.2-55.1%), probably due to its facilitated transport by dissolved organic matter. Thus even in this very permeable soil, higher organic matter contents associated with grass-cover reduce the amount of pesticide leaching and limit the risk of groundwater contamination by the pesticides. The results of diuron and tebuconazole transfer through undisturbed buffer zone soil columns are in agreement with field observations on the buffer zone. - Grass-covered soils reduce the amount of pesticide leaching, due mainly to their higher organic matter contents, thereby reducing the risk of groundwater contamination.

  9. Effect of grass cover on water and pesticide transport through undisturbed soil columns, comparison with field study (Morcille watershed, Beaujolais)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dousset, S.; Thevenot, M.; Schrack, D.; Gouy, V.; Carluer, N.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to assess the effectiveness of two grass covers (buffer zone and grass-covered inter-row), to reduce pesticide leaching, and subsequently to preserve groundwater quality. Lower amounts of pesticides leached through grass-cover soil columns (2.7-24.3% of the initial amount) than the bare soil columns (8.0-55.1%), in correspondence with their sorption coefficients. Diuron was recovered in higher amounts in leachates (8.9-32.2%) than tebuconazole (2.7-12.9%), in agreement with their sorption coefficients. However, despite having a sorption coefficient similar to that of diuron, more procymidone was recovered in the leachates (10.2-55.1%), probably due to its facilitated transport by dissolved organic matter. Thus even in this very permeable soil, higher organic matter contents associated with grass-cover reduce the amount of pesticide leaching and limit the risk of groundwater contamination by the pesticides. The results of diuron and tebuconazole transfer through undisturbed buffer zone soil columns are in agreement with field observations on the buffer zone. - Grass-covered soils reduce the amount of pesticide leaching, due mainly to their higher organic matter contents, thereby reducing the risk of groundwater contamination.

  10. The transport of fallout 137Cs within undisturbed soils in Nigeria based on measured soil concentration profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajayi, I.R.

    2007-12-01

    The transport of fallout 137 Cs within the Nigerian soil has been studied in this paper by the compartment and the diffusion-convection models. The measured concentrations of the radionuclide in the soil layers were examined by the models in order to estimate the transport parameters of residence half-time, migration velocity, diffusion coefficient and the convective velocities of the radionuclide within the soils. The residence half-times were observed to be short and decreased with soil depth with a mean ranging from 0.3 years at 0 - 2cm soil depth in the Akure site to 1.4 years at 10-15cm depth in the Igbeti site. The migration velocity ν, calculated from the residence times with the consideration of the different thicknesses of layers were observed to decrease slowly with depth at all the sampling sites with a range from 3.62 cm y -1 at the Igbeti site to 8.21 cm.y -1 at the Ikogosi site. The migration velocities obtained are quite higher than those reported in literature for global fallout. The range of the diffusion coefficient was 0.72 - 1.02 cm 2 per year while that of the convective velocity was from 0.07 to 0.16 cm per year. Diffusion coefficients were observed to be higher than the convective velocities at all sampling points. (author)

  11. Effect of grass cover on water and pesticide transport through undisturbed soil columns, comparison with field study (Morcille watershed, Beaujolais).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dousset, S; Thévenot, M; Schrack, D; Gouy, V; Carluer, N

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of this work is to assess the effectiveness of two grass covers (buffer zone and grass-covered inter-row), to reduce pesticide leaching, and subsequently to preserve groundwater quality. Lower amounts of pesticides leached through grass-cover soil columns (2.7-24.3% of the initial amount) than the bare soil columns (8.0-55.1%), in correspondence with their sorption coefficients. Diuron was recovered in higher amounts in leachates (8.9-32.2%) than tebuconazole (2.7-12.9%), in agreement with their sorption coefficients. However, despite having a sorption coefficient similar to that of diuron, more procymidone was recovered in the leachates (10.2-55.1%), probably due to its facilitated transport by dissolved organic matter. Thus even in this very permeable soil, higher organic matter contents associated with grass-cover reduce the amount of pesticide leaching and limit the risk of groundwater contamination by the pesticides. The results of diuron and tebuconazole transfer through undisturbed buffer zone soil columns are in agreement with field observations on the buffer zone. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Examination of the soil redistribution through the vertical distribution of the radionuclide-content of undisturbed soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bihari, A.; Dezsoe, Z.; Szabo, Sz.

    2006-01-01

    total inventories only. Major experimental work has been carried out for the examination of the vertical and horizontal distribution of 137 Cs. From 31 locations of the studied area, covering approximately 2 ha, soil samples have been collected. The total sampling depth has been 40 cm; in 26 cases these have been taken in three sections (0-20 cm, 20-30 cm, 30-40 cm), while in the remaining 5 cases the upper 30 cm has been sectioned with a 5 cm increment. The majority of the sampling have been performed along the thalweg of the dell, while the remaining sampling points can be found on the two valley sides. Standard preparation procedures have been applied to the collected samples and the activity concentration and inventory of 137 Cs, as well as the mass density of every layer have been determined. The results show a great variety throughout the studied area. In the upper 20 cm the average AC Cs is 11.3 ± 3.1 Bq/kg, with a minimum of 6.2 Bq/kg and a maximum of 19.2 Bq/kg. Within the next layer (20-30 cm) the average AC Cs is 4.4 ± 3.4 Bq/kg, with a minimum of 0.2 Bq/kg and a maximum of 11.1 Bq/kg. In the last sampled layer (30-40 cm), we have found an average AC Cs of 1.1 ± 1.6 Bq/kg, with a minimum of 0.0 Bq/kg and a maximum of 5.5 Bq/kg. The decrease of AC Cs with depth is valid for most samples but there are exceptions, especially when it is examined with higher resolution (see later). As a more detailed example, the depth distribution of AC Cs of a landscape point with equilibrium-state (Fig1. a), with net erosion (Fig1. b) and with net accumulation (Fig1. c) are presented here. There is a common feature in the deeper region of each depth distribution: a large difference between the AC Cs of two neighboring layers can be seen, but the position of this breakpoint and the magnitude of the breakdown is different in each case. The ratios of AC Cs s are 11 to 1, 7 to 1 and 22 to 1, respectively. The presence of the breakpoint is caused by the phenomena that under

  13. Soil Gas Sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field Branches Quality System and Technical Procedures: This document describes general and specific procedures, methods and considerations to be used and observed when collecting soil gas samples for field screening or laboratory analysis.

  14. Soil Sampling Operating Procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA Region 4 Science and Ecosystem Support Division (SESD) document that describes general and specific procedures, methods, and considerations when collecting soil samples for field screening or laboratory analysis.

  15. Misrepresentation of hydro-erosional processes in rainfall simulations using disturbed soil samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomaz, Edivaldo L.; Pereira, Adalberto A.

    2017-06-01

    Interrill erosion is a primary soil erosion process which consists of soil detachment by raindrop impact and particle transport by shallow flow. Interill erosion affects other soil erosion sub-processes, e.g., water infiltration, sealing, crusting, and rill initiation. Interrill erosion has been widely studied in laboratories, and the use of a sieved soil, i.e., disturbed soil, has become a standard method in laboratory experiments. The aims of our study are to evaluate the hydro-erosional response of undisturbed and disturbed soils in a laboratory experiment, and to quantify the extent to which hydraulic variables change during a rainstorm. We used a splash pan of 0.3 m width, 0.45 m length, and 0.1 m depth. A rainfall simulation of 58 mm h- 1 lasting for 30 min was conducted on seven replicates of undisturbed and disturbed soils. During the experiment, several hydro-physical parameters were measured, including splashed sediment, mean particle size, runoff, water infiltration, and soil moisture. We conclude that use of disturbed soil samples results in overestimation of interrill processes. Of the nine assessed parameters, four displayed greater responses in the undisturbed soil: infiltration, topsoil shear strength, mean particle size of eroded particles, and soil moisture. In the disturbed soil, five assessed parameters displayed greater responses: wash sediment, final runoff coefficient, runoff, splash, and sediment yield. Therefore, contextual soil properties are most suitable for understanding soil erosion, as well as for defining soil erodibility.

  16. Soil sampling in emergency situations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, Zenildo Lara de; Ramos Junior, Anthenor Costa

    1997-01-01

    The soil sampling methods used in Goiania's accident (1987) by the environmental team of Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN) are described. The development of this method of soil sampling to a emergency sampling method used in a Nuclear Emergency Exercise in Angra dos Reis Reactor Site (1991) is presented. A new method for soil sampling based on a Chernobyl environmental monitoring experience (1995) is suggested. (author)

  17. Indirect estimation of the Convective Lognormal Transfer function model parameters for describing solute transport in unsaturated and undisturbed soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Mohammad Hossein; Vanclooster, Marnik

    2012-05-01

    Solute transport in partially saturated soils is largely affected by fluid velocity distribution and pore size distribution within the solute transport domain. Hence, it is possible to describe the solute transport process in terms of the pore size distribution of the soil, and indirectly in terms of the soil hydraulic properties. In this paper, we present a conceptual approach that allows predicting the parameters of the Convective Lognormal Transfer model from knowledge of soil moisture and the Soil Moisture Characteristic (SMC), parameterized by means of the closed-form model of Kosugi (1996). It is assumed that in partially saturated conditions, the air filled pore volume act as an inert solid phase, allowing the use of the Arya et al. (1999) pragmatic approach to estimate solute travel time statistics from the saturation degree and SMC parameters. The approach is evaluated using a set of partially saturated transport experiments as presented by Mohammadi and Vanclooster (2011). Experimental results showed that the mean solute travel time, μ(t), increases proportionally with the depth (travel distance) and decreases with flow rate. The variance of solute travel time σ²(t) first decreases with flow rate up to 0.4-0.6 Ks and subsequently increases. For all tested BTCs predicted solute transport with μ(t) estimated from the conceptual model performed much better as compared to predictions with μ(t) and σ²(t) estimated from calibration of solute transport at shallow soil depths. The use of μ(t) estimated from the conceptual model therefore increases the robustness of the CLT model in predicting solute transport in heterogeneous soils at larger depths. In view of the fact that reasonable indirect estimates of the SMC can be made from basic soil properties using pedotransfer functions, the presented approach may be useful for predicting solute transport at field or watershed scales. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Soil sampling for environmental contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-10-01

    The Consultants Meeting on Sampling Strategies, Sampling and Storage of Soil for Environmental Monitoring of Contaminants was organized by the International Atomic Energy Agency to evaluate methods for soil sampling in radionuclide monitoring and heavy metal surveys for identification of punctual contamination (hot particles) in large area surveys and screening experiments. A group of experts was invited by the IAEA to discuss and recommend methods for representative soil sampling for different kinds of environmental issues. The ultimate sinks for all kinds of contaminants dispersed within the natural environment through human activities are sediment and soil. Soil is a particularly difficult matrix for environmental pollution studies as it is generally composed of a multitude of geological and biological materials resulting from weathering and degradation, including particles of different sizes with varying surface and chemical properties. There are so many different soil types categorized according to their content of biological matter, from sandy soils to loam and peat soils, which make analytical characterization even more complicated. Soil sampling for environmental monitoring of pollutants, therefore, is still a matter of debate in the community of soil, environmental and analytical sciences. The scope of the consultants meeting included evaluating existing techniques with regard to their practicability, reliability and applicability to different purposes, developing strategies of representative soil sampling for cases not yet considered by current techniques and recommending validated techniques applicable to laboratories in developing Member States. This TECDOC includes a critical survey of existing approaches and their feasibility to be applied in developing countries. The report is valuable for radioanalytical laboratories in Member States. It would assist them in quality control and accreditation process

  19. Soil Gas Sampling Operating Procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA Region 4 Science and Ecosystem Support Division (SESD) document that describes general and specific procedures, methods, and considerations when collecting soil gas samples for field screening or laboratory analysis.

  20. Leaching of radiostrontium in undisturbed columns of calcareous alluvial soil as affected by level of activity applied and rate of high calcium water of Tigris river

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fahad, A.A.; Razaq, I.B.; Ali, A.W.

    1986-01-01

    Leaching of 85 Sr in calcareous alluvial medium textured soil was undertaken for 126 days. Radiostrontium in three levels of 4.62(L1), 9.25(L2), and 18.50(L3) MBq column -1 was applied to undisturbed soil columns, 110cm long and 12cm inner diameter. Irrigation water of Tigris river was used as a leaching solution supplied automatically in 1.4, 2.0, and 3.0cm day -1 by rain simulator systems. Gamma radiation along the soil columns was scanned periodically during the course of leaching. Leaching of Sr from the surface layer was in two stages. The first stage covered the first 22 days and the second included the following 104 days. Strontium retained (y) as a function of time (x) fitted reasonably well (r>0.96) to the equations y=a+mlnx and lny=a+mx for the first and the second stage, respectively. Tigris river irrigation water was found as effective as the dilute Ca solution (proposed by some investigators) in displacing Sr. The leaching with 3.0cm day -1 for 126 days resulted in 23, 23, and 21 per cent of total Sr remaining in the upper 5 cm of soil columns under L1, L2 and L3, respectively. However, the area under the distribution curves followed the ratio 1.0:2.4:3.7 under L1, L2, and L3, respectively. The pattern of Sr distribution in calcareous alluvial soil depended not only on the rate and amount of water application but also on the level of Sr applied. Although the soil columns were leached with 378 cm of water for 126 days, the Sr front did not pass the 30 cm depth. This finding indicates the high retention of this soil for Sr and the potential hazard of radiostrontium arising from its existence in the layer of maximum root density. (author). 18 refs., 2 figures, 2 tables

  1. Degradation and leaching behaviour of 14C-glufosinate in a silty sand soil. Experiments in outdoor lysimeters with undisturbed soil cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubiak, R.

    1996-12-01

    Degradation and leaching behaviour of 14 C-labelled glufosinate in a silty sand soil was investigated in two outdoor lysimeters after repeated application of 12.5 litres/hectare (1/ha) Basta (divided in 7.5 and 5 l/ha respectively). The 14 C-loss during application was 4.8-8.2%. The 14 C-content in the plants (vines and weeds) was 0.3% of that applied at the most. After 130 days, 25.9 and 25.5% of the applied material was found in the soil up to a depth of 40 cm. One year after the first application, this amount was still 18.5 and 18.6%. As a consequence of the renewed spraying, the detected amounts of 14 C were 44.3 and 43.1% some 107 days after the first application in the second experimental year. The additional investigation in lysimeter 2 after 373 days showed a decrease to 33.9%. Most of the detected radioactivity remained in the 0-10 cm soil layer. At the end of the experiment, the amount of 14 C in the 30-40 cm layer was 0.5%. The total residues in the 0-10 cm soil layer were less than 1 mg/kg at all dates of sampling, and only a small amount still represented the free acid of the active ingredient. The average values were 0.05 mg/kg after 130 days, 0.01 mg/kg after 363 days and 0.09 mg/kg at the following date of sampling. In the spring of the following year, no residues of the free acid were detectable. The radioactivity in the percolate amounted to a maximum of 0.11% of that applied and in no case represented the free acid of the ammonium salt. (author)

  2. Degradation and leaching behaviour of {sup 14}C-glufosinate in a silty sand soil. Experiments in outdoor lysimeters with undisturbed soil cores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubiak, R

    1996-12-01

    Degradation and leaching behaviour of {sup 14}C-labelled glufosinate in a silty sand soil was investigated in two outdoor lysimeters after repeated application of 12.5 litres/hectare (1/ha) Basta (divided in 7.5 and 5 l/ha respectively). The {sup 14}C-loss during application was 4.8-8.2%. The {sup 14}C-content in the plants (vines and weeds) was 0.3% of that applied at the most. After 130 days, 25.9 and 25.5% of the applied material was found in the soil up to a depth of 40 cm. One year after the first application, this amount was still 18.5 and 18.6%. As a consequence of the renewed spraying, the detected amounts of {sup 14}C were 44.3 and 43.1% some 107 days after the first application in the second experimental year. The additional investigation in lysimeter 2 after 373 days showed a decrease to 33.9%. Most of the detected radioactivity remained in the 0-10 cm soil layer. At the end of the experiment, the amount of {sup 14}C in the 30-40 cm layer was 0.5%. The total residues in the 0-10 cm soil layer were less than 1 mg/kg at all dates of sampling, and only a small amount still represented the free acid of the active ingredient. The average values were 0.05 mg/kg after 130 days, 0.01 mg/kg after 363 days and 0.09 mg/kg at the following date of sampling. In the spring of the following year, no residues of the free acid were detectable. The radioactivity in the percolate amounted to a maximum of 0.11% of that applied and in no case represented the free acid of the ammonium salt. (author)

  3. Curiosity analyzes Martian soil samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy; Balcerak, Ernie

    2012-12-01

    NASA's Mars Curiosity rover has conducted its first analysis of Martian soil samples using multiple instruments, the agency announced at a 3 December news briefing at the AGU Fall Meeting in San Francisco. "These results are an unprecedented look at the chemical diversity in the area," said NASA's Michael Meyer, program scientist for Curiosity.

  4. Comparison of Shear Strength Properties for Undisturbed and Reconstituted Parit Nipah Peat, Johor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azhar, A. T. S.; Norhaliza, W.; Ismail, B.; Abdullah, M. E.; Zakaria, M. N.

    2016-11-01

    Shear strength of soil is required to determine the soil stability and design the foundations. Peat is known as a soil with complex natural formations which also contributes problems to the researchers, developers, engineers and contractors in constructions and infrastructures. Most researchers conducted experiment and investigation of shear strength on peat using shear box test and simple shear test, but only a few had discovered the behavior of peat using triaxial consolidated undrained test. The aim of this paper is to determine the undrained shear strength properties of reconstituted peat and undisturbed peat of Parit Nipah, Johor for comparison purposes. All the reconstituted peat samples were formed with the size that passed opening sieve 3.35 mm and preconsolidation pressure at 100 kPa. The result of undrained shear strength of reconstituted peat was 21kPa for cohesion with the angle of friction, 41° compare to the undisturbed peat with cohesion 10 kPa and angle of friction, 16°. The undrained shear strength properties result obtained shows that the reconstituted peat has higher strength than undisturbed peat. For relationship deviator stress-strain, σd max and excess pore pressure, Δu, it shows that both of undisturbed and reconstituted gradually increased when σ’ increased, but at the end of the test, the values are slightly dropped. The physical properties of undisturbed and reconstituted peat were also investigated to correlate with the undrained shear strength results.

  5. Sampling soils for transuranic nuclides: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, E.B.; Essington, E.H.

    1976-01-01

    A review of the literature pertinent to the sampling of soils for radionuclides is presented; emphasis is placed on transuranic nuclides. Sampling of soils is discussed relative to systems of heterogeneous distributions and varied particle sizes encountered in certain environments. Sampling methods that have been used for two different sources of contamination, global fallout, and accidental or operational releases, are included

  6. Normalized Rotational Multiple Yield Surface Framework (NRMYSF) stress-strain curve prediction method based on small strain triaxial test data on undisturbed Auckland residual clay soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor, M. J. Md; Ibrahim, A.; Rahman, A. S. A.

    2018-04-01

    Small strain triaxial test measurement is considered to be significantly accurate compared to the external strain measurement using conventional method due to systematic errors normally associated with the test. Three submersible miniature linear variable differential transducer (LVDT) mounted on yokes which clamped directly onto the soil sample at equally 120° from the others. The device setup using 0.4 N resolution load cell and 16 bit AD converter was capable of consistently resolving displacement of less than 1µm and measuring axial strains ranging from less than 0.001% to 2.5%. Further analysis of small strain local measurement data was performed using new Normalized Multiple Yield Surface Framework (NRMYSF) method and compared with existing Rotational Multiple Yield Surface Framework (RMYSF) prediction method. The prediction of shear strength based on combined intrinsic curvilinear shear strength envelope using small strain triaxial test data confirmed the significant improvement and reliability of the measurement and analysis methods. Moreover, the NRMYSF method shows an excellent data prediction and significant improvement toward more reliable prediction of soil strength that can reduce the cost and time of experimental laboratory test.

  7. Prompt Gamma Ray Analysis of Soil Samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naqvi, A.A.; Khiari, F.Z.; Haseeb, S.M.A.; Hussein, Tanvir; Khateeb-ur-Rehman [Department of Physics, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia); Isab, A.H. [Department of Chemistry, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)

    2015-07-01

    Neutron moderation effects were measured in bulk soil samples through prompt gamma ray measurements from water and benzene contaminated soil samples using 14 MeV neutron inelastic scattering. The prompt gamma rays were measured using a cylindrical 76 mm x 76 mm (diameter x height) LaBr{sub 3}:Ce detector. Since neutron moderation effects strongly depend upon hydrogen concentration of the sample, for comparison purposes, moderation effects were studied from samples containing different hydrogen concentrations. The soil samples with different hydrogen concentration were prepared by mixing soil with water as well as benzene in different weight proportions. Then, the effects of increasing water and benzene concentrations on the yields of hydrogen, carbon and silicon prompt gamma rays were measured. Moderation effects are more pronounced in soil samples mixed with water as compared to those from soil samples mixed with benzene. This is due to the fact that benzene contaminated soil samples have about 30% less hydrogen concentration by weight than the water contaminated soil samples. Results of the study will be presented. (authors)

  8. Sampling for validation of digital soil maps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brus, D.J.; Kempen, B.; Heuvelink, G.B.M.

    2011-01-01

    The increase in digital soil mapping around the world means that appropriate and efficient sampling strategies are needed for validation. Data used for calibrating a digital soil mapping model typically are non-random samples. In such a case we recommend collection of additional independent data and

  9. Sampling depth confounds soil acidification outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the northern Great Plains (NGP) of North America, surface sampling depths of 0-15 or 0-20 cm are suggested for testing soil characteristics such as pH. However, acidification is often most pronounced near the soil surface. Thus, sampling deeper can potentially dilute (increase) pH measurements an...

  10. Soil sampling strategies: Evaluation of different approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Zorzi, Paolo; Barbizzi, Sabrina; Belli, Maria; Mufato, Renzo; Sartori, Giuseppe; Stocchero, Giulia

    2008-01-01

    The National Environmental Protection Agency of Italy (APAT) performed a soil sampling intercomparison, inviting 14 regional agencies to test their own soil sampling strategies. The intercomparison was carried out at a reference site, previously characterised for metal mass fraction distribution. A wide range of sampling strategies, in terms of sampling patterns, type and number of samples collected, were used to assess the mean mass fraction values of some selected elements. The different strategies led in general to acceptable bias values (D) less than 2σ, calculated according to ISO 13258. Sampling on arable land was relatively easy, with comparable results between different sampling strategies

  11. Soil sampling strategies: Evaluation of different approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Zorzi, Paolo [Agenzia per la Protezione dell' Ambiente e per i Servizi Tecnici (APAT), Servizio Metrologia Ambientale, Via di Castel Romano, 100-00128 Roma (Italy)], E-mail: paolo.dezorzi@apat.it; Barbizzi, Sabrina; Belli, Maria [Agenzia per la Protezione dell' Ambiente e per i Servizi Tecnici (APAT), Servizio Metrologia Ambientale, Via di Castel Romano, 100-00128 Roma (Italy); Mufato, Renzo; Sartori, Giuseppe; Stocchero, Giulia [Agenzia Regionale per la Prevenzione e Protezione dell' Ambiente del Veneto, ARPA Veneto, U.O. Centro Qualita Dati, Via Spalato, 14-36045 Vicenza (Italy)

    2008-11-15

    The National Environmental Protection Agency of Italy (APAT) performed a soil sampling intercomparison, inviting 14 regional agencies to test their own soil sampling strategies. The intercomparison was carried out at a reference site, previously characterised for metal mass fraction distribution. A wide range of sampling strategies, in terms of sampling patterns, type and number of samples collected, were used to assess the mean mass fraction values of some selected elements. The different strategies led in general to acceptable bias values (D) less than 2{sigma}, calculated according to ISO 13258. Sampling on arable land was relatively easy, with comparable results between different sampling strategies.

  12. Soil sampling strategies: evaluation of different approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Zorzi, Paolo; Barbizzi, Sabrina; Belli, Maria; Mufato, Renzo; Sartori, Giuseppe; Stocchero, Giulia

    2008-11-01

    The National Environmental Protection Agency of Italy (APAT) performed a soil sampling intercomparison, inviting 14 regional agencies to test their own soil sampling strategies. The intercomparison was carried out at a reference site, previously characterised for metal mass fraction distribution. A wide range of sampling strategies, in terms of sampling patterns, type and number of samples collected, were used to assess the mean mass fraction values of some selected elements. The different strategies led in general to acceptable bias values (D) less than 2sigma, calculated according to ISO 13258. Sampling on arable land was relatively easy, with comparable results between different sampling strategies.

  13. Performance evaluation soil samples utilizing encapsulation technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlgran, James R.

    1999-01-01

    Performance evaluation soil samples and method of their preparation using encapsulation technology to encapsulate analytes which are introduced into a soil matrix for analysis and evaluation by analytical laboratories. Target analytes are mixed in an appropriate solvent at predetermined concentrations. The mixture is emulsified in a solution of polymeric film forming material. The emulsified solution is polymerized to form microcapsules. The microcapsules are recovered, quantitated and introduced into a soil matrix in a predetermined ratio to form soil samples with the desired analyte concentration.

  14. Explaining Air and Water Transport in Undisturbed Soils By X-Ray CT Derived Macroporosity and CT- Number-Derived Matrix Density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paradelo Pérez, Marcos; Katuwal, Sheela; Møldrup, Per

    The characterization of soil pore space geometry is important to predict the fluxes of air, water and solutes through soil and understand soil hydrogeochemical functions. X-ray computed tomography (CT) -derived parameters were evaluated as predictors of water, air and solute transport through soil....... Forty five soil columns (20-cm × 20-cm) were collected at an agricultural field in Estrup, Denmark. The soil columns were scanned in a medical CT-scanner. Subsequent to this, non-reactive tracer leaching experiments were performed in the laboratory together with measurements of air permeability (Ka...... is considered a robust indicator of preferential flow. Meanwhile, CT-derived limiting macro-porosity was the best predictor for Ka and log10Ksat. A best subsets regression analysis was performed combining macroporosity, limiting macroporosity and CTmatrix. The predictions of water and air flow improved using...

  15. Procedures for sampling radium-contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleischhauer, H.L.

    1985-10-01

    Two procedures for sampling the surface layer (0 to 15 centimeters) of radium-contaminated soil are recommended for use in remedial action projects. Both procedures adhere to the philosophy that soil samples should have constant geometry and constant volume in order to ensure uniformity. In the first procedure, a ''cookie cutter'' fashioned from pipe or steel plate, is driven to the desired depth by means of a slide hammer, and the sample extracted as a core or plug. The second procedure requires use of a template to outline the sampling area, from which the sample is obtained using a trowel or spoon. Sampling to the desired depth must then be performed incrementally. Selection of one procedure over the other is governed primarily by soil conditions, the cookie cutter being effective in nongravelly soils, and the template procedure appropriate for use in both gravelly and nongravelly soils. In any event, a minimum sample volume of 1000 cubic centimeters is recommended. The step-by-step procedures are accompanied by a description of the minimum requirements for sample documentation. Transport of the soil samples from the field is then addressed in a discussion of the federal regulations for shipping radioactive materials. Interpretation of those regulations, particularly in light of their application to remedial action soil-sampling programs, is provided in the form of guidance and suggested procedures. Due to the complex nature of the regulations, however, there is no guarantee that our interpretations of them are complete or entirely accurate. Preparation of soil samples for radium-226 analysis by means of gamma-ray spectroscopy is described

  16. Analysis of large soil samples for actinides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, III; Sherrod, L [Aiken, SC

    2009-03-24

    A method of analyzing relatively large soil samples for actinides by employing a separation process that includes cerium fluoride precipitation for removing the soil matrix and precipitates plutonium, americium, and curium with cerium and hydrofluoric acid followed by separating these actinides using chromatography cartridges.

  17. Assessment the effect of homogenized soil on soil hydraulic properties and soil water transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohawesh, O.; Janssen, M.; Maaitah, O.; Lennartz, B.

    2017-09-01

    Soil hydraulic properties play a crucial role in simulating water flow and contaminant transport. Soil hydraulic properties are commonly measured using homogenized soil samples. However, soil structure has a significant effect on the soil ability to retain and to conduct water, particularly in aggregated soils. In order to determine the effect of soil homogenization on soil hydraulic properties and soil water transport, undisturbed soil samples were carefully collected. Five different soil structures were identified: Angular-blocky, Crumble, Angular-blocky (different soil texture), Granular, and subangular-blocky. The soil hydraulic properties were determined for undisturbed and homogenized soil samples for each soil structure. The soil hydraulic properties were used to model soil water transport using HYDRUS-1D.The homogenized soil samples showed a significant increase in wide pores (wCP) and a decrease in narrow pores (nCP). The wCP increased by 95.6, 141.2, 391.6, 3.9, 261.3%, and nCP decreased by 69.5, 10.5, 33.8, 72.7, and 39.3% for homogenized soil samples compared to undisturbed soil samples. The soil water retention curves exhibited a significant decrease in water holding capacity for homogenized soil samples compared with the undisturbed soil samples. The homogenized soil samples showed also a decrease in soil hydraulic conductivity. The simulated results showed that water movement and distribution were affected by soil homogenizing. Moreover, soil homogenizing affected soil hydraulic properties and soil water transport. However, field studies are being needed to find the effect of these differences on water, chemical, and pollutant transport under several scenarios.

  18. Determination of strontium-90 in soil samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, C C

    1976-06-01

    The determination of /sup 90/Sr in soil by tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) is often interfered with iron which is always present in soil sample. Based on the method given by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, HClO/sub 4/ is added to remove iron ions while the soil sample is analyzed with TBP. The effect of different concentrations of HClO/sub 4/ on extraction yield of iron and chemical yield of yttrium is investigated. The experimental results show that 2N HClO/sub 4/ is the optimum concentration. The chemical yield of yttrium can reach about 60 percent, and all iron ions can be removed. This method has successfully been applied to analyze the soil samples taken from the site of the nuclear power plant in North Taiwan.

  19. Bioremediation of PAH contaminated soil samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, M.M.; Lee, S.

    1994-01-01

    Soils contaminated with polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) pose a hazard to life. The remediation of such sites can be done using physical, chemical, and biological treatment methods or a combination of them. It is of interest to study the decontamination of soil using bioremediation. The experiments were conducted using Acinetobacter (ATCC 31012) at room temperature without pH or temperature control. In the first series of experiments, contaminated soil samples obtained from Alberta Research Council were analyzed to determine the toxic contaminant and their composition in the soil. These samples were then treated using aerobic fermentation and removal efficiency for each contaminant was determined. In the second series of experiments, a single contaminant was used to prepare a synthetic soil sample. This sample of known composition was then treated using aerobic fermentation in continuously stirred flasks. In one set of flasks, contaminant was the only carbon source and in the other set, starch was an additional carbon source. In the third series of experiments, the synthetic contaminated soil sample was treated in continuously stirred flasks in the first set and in fixed bed in the second set and the removal efficiencies were compared. The removal efficiencies obtained indicated the extent of biodegradation for various contaminants, the effect of additional carbon source, and performance in fixed bed without external aeration

  20. LBA-ECO TG-07 Trace Gas Fluxes, Undisturbed and Logged Sites, Para, Brazil: 2000-2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.M. Keller; R.K. Varner; J.D. Dias; H.S. Silva; P.M. Crill; Jr. de Oliveira; G.P. Asner

    2009-01-01

    Trace gas fluxes of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and nitric oxide were measured manually at undisturbed and logged forest sites in the Tapajos National Forest, near Santarem, Para, Brazil. Manual measurements were made approximately weekly at both the undisturbed and logged sites. Fluxes from clay and sand soils were completed at the undisturbed sites....

  1. Evapotranspiration and soil water relationships in a range of disturbed and undisturbed ecosystems in the semi-arid Inner Mongolia, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nan Lu; Shiping Chen; Burkhard Wilske; Ge Sun; Jiquan Chen

    2011-01-01

    Aims: Evapotranspiration (ET) is a key component of water balance and is closely linked to ecosystem productivity. In arid regions, large proportion of precipitation (PPT) is returned to the atmosphere through ET, with only a small amount available to plants. Our objective was to examine the variability in ET–soil water relationship based on a set of ecosystems that...

  2. Determination of Pu in soil samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres C, C. O.; Hernandez M, H.; Romero G, E. T.; Vega C, H. R.

    2016-10-01

    The irreversible consequences of accidents occurring in nuclear plants and in nuclear fuel reprocessing sites are mainly the distribution of different radionuclides in different matrices such as the soil. The distribution in the superficial soil is related to the internal and external exposure to the radiation of the affected population. The internal contamination with radionuclides such as Pu is of great relevance to the nuclear forensic science, where is important to know the chemical and isotopic compositions of nuclear materials. The objective of this work is to optimize the radiochemical separation of plutonium (Pu) from soil samples and to determine their concentration. The soil samples were prepared using acid digestion assisted by microwave; purification of Pu was carried out with AG1X8 resin using ion exchange chromatography. Pu isotopes were measured using ICP-SFMS. In order to reduce the interference due to the presence of "2"3"8UH "+ in the samples, a solvent removal system (Apex) was used. In addition, the limit of detection and quantification of Pu was determined. It was found that the recovery efficiency of Pu in soil samples ranges from 70 to 93%. (Author)

  3. Instrumental neutron activation analysis of soil sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Khalik Haji Wood.

    1983-01-01

    This paper describes the analysis of soil samples collected from 5 different location around Sungai Lui, Kajang, Selangor, Malaysia. These sample were taken at 22-24 cm from the top of the ground and were analysed using the techniques of Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). The analysis on soil sample taken above 22-24 cm level were done in order to determine if there is any variation in elemental contents at different sampling levels. The results indicate a wide variation in the contents of the samples. About 30 elements have been analysed. The major ones are Na, I, Cl, Mg, Al, K, Ti, Ca and Fe. Trace elements analysed were Ba, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Ga, As, Zn, Br, Rb, Co, Hf, Zr, Th, U, Sb, Cs, Ce, Sm, Eu, Tb, Dy, Yb, Lu and La. (author)

  4. Statistical sampling approaches for soil monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brus, D.J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes three statistical sampling approaches for regional soil monitoring, a design-based, a model-based and a hybrid approach. In the model-based approach a space-time model is exploited to predict global statistical parameters of interest such as the space-time mean. In the hybrid

  5. Aparecimento de plantas espontâneas com e sem perturbação do solo em condições mediterrânicas Appearance of spontaneous plants from disturbed and undisturbed soil under mediterranean conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel Godinho Calado

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A diminuição da perturbação do solo é de extrema importância para a manutenção e preservação dos sistemas agrícolas. Por isso, o estudo realizado neste trabalho tinha como objectivo verificar o aparecimento das plantas espontâneas a partir do solo com e sem perturbação. A população de plantas emergidas inicialmente, no Outono, foi controlada com perturbação do solo através da simulação da mobilização realizada pelo escarificador e sem perturbação do solo em que se aplicou um herbicida total e não residual. A experimentação foi efectuada em solos Mediterrâneos durante quatro anos, com um delineamento experimental em blocos casualizados e oito repetições. De acordo com os resultados, verifica-se que a perturbação do solo efectuada para controlar a flora espontânea no Outono influencia significativamente o aparecimento das plantas em condições mediterrânicas e permite obter maior densidade populacional, que aumenta com o acréscimo da precipitação acumulada. Daqui conclui-se que em sistemas com diminuição da perturbação do solo, como por exemplo, de sementeira directa, é possível decrescer a infestação nas culturas de Outono-Inverno.The reduction of soil disturbance is extremely important for the conservation of soil and thus for the sustainability of agricultural systems. Soil disturbance interferes with a number of soil parameters including its fauna and flora. This paper deals with the comparison of the appearance of spontaneous plants from disturbed and undisturbed soil. A study was conducted to compare the appearance of spontaneous flora in autumn after the simulation of soil tillage by a tine cultivator with the control of the already emerged plants through the application of a total herbicide and without any soil disturbance. The trials were realized on typical Mediterranean soils (Luvisol over a period of four years in a completely randomized block design and with eight replications. The

  6. Sampling for Soil Carbon Stock Assessment in Rocky Agricultural Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beem-Miller, Jeffrey P.; Kong, Angela Y. Y.; Ogle, Stephen; Wolfe, David

    2016-01-01

    Coring methods commonly employed in soil organic C (SOC) stock assessment may not accurately capture soil rock fragment (RF) content or soil bulk density (rho (sub b)) in rocky agricultural soils, potentially biasing SOC stock estimates. Quantitative pits are considered less biased than coring methods but are invasive and often cost-prohibitive. We compared fixed-depth and mass-based estimates of SOC stocks (0.3-meters depth) for hammer, hydraulic push, and rotary coring methods relative to quantitative pits at four agricultural sites ranging in RF content from less than 0.01 to 0.24 cubic meters per cubic meter. Sampling costs were also compared. Coring methods significantly underestimated RF content at all rocky sites, but significant differences (p is less than 0.05) in SOC stocks between pits and corers were only found with the hammer method using the fixed-depth approach at the less than 0.01 cubic meters per cubic meter RF site (pit, 5.80 kilograms C per square meter; hammer, 4.74 kilograms C per square meter) and at the 0.14 cubic meters per cubic meter RF site (pit, 8.81 kilograms C per square meter; hammer, 6.71 kilograms C per square meter). The hammer corer also underestimated rho (sub b) at all sites as did the hydraulic push corer at the 0.21 cubic meters per cubic meter RF site. No significant differences in mass-based SOC stock estimates were observed between pits and corers. Our results indicate that (i) calculating SOC stocks on a mass basis can overcome biases in RF and rho (sub b) estimates introduced by sampling equipment and (ii) a quantitative pit is the optimal sampling method for establishing reference soil masses, followed by rotary and then hydraulic push corers.

  7. Analysis of PAH in soil samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haeufel, J.; Weisweiler, W.

    1994-01-01

    The supercritical fluid extraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) from soil samples is described. Carbon dioxide mixed with a small amount of methanol is used for solvent. The results are compared with those obtained by a classical extraction method (that means with the use of organic liquids). The extracted PAH from both procedures can be separated by HPLC and analyzed with UV- and fluorescence detection. (orig.) [de

  8. Quality evaluation of processed clay soil samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner-Asiedu, Matilda; Harrison, Obed Akwaa; Vuvor, Frederick; Tano-Debrah, Kwaku

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the microbial quality of clay samples sold on two of the major Ghanaian markets. The study was a cross-sectional assessing the evaluation of processed clay and effects it has on the nutrition of the consumers in the political capital town of Ghana. The items for the examination was processed clay soil samples. Staphylococcus spp and fecal coliforms including Klebsiella, Escherichia, and Shigella and Enterobacterspp were isolated from the clay samples. Samples from the Kaneshie market in Accra recorded the highest total viable counts 6.5 Log cfu/g and Staphylococcal count 5.8 Log cfu/g. For fecal coliforms, Madina market samples had the highest count 6.5 Log cfu/g and also recorded the highest levels of yeast and mould. For Koforidua, total viable count was highest in the samples from the Zongo market 6.3 Log cfu/g. Central market samples had the highest count of fecal coliforms 4.6 Log cfu/g and yeasts and moulds 6.5 Log cfu/g. "Small" market recorded the highest staphylococcal count 6.2 Log cfu/g. The water activity of the clay samples were low, and ranged between 0.65±0.01 and 0.66±0.00 for samples collected from Koforidua and Accra respectively. The clay samples were found to contain Klebsiella spp. Escherichia, Enterobacter, Shigella spp. staphylococcus spp., yeast and mould. These have health implications when consumed.

  9. Specification for soil multisensor and soil sampling cone penetrometer probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwatate, D.F.

    1997-01-01

    Specification requirements for engineering, fabrication, and performance of cone penetrometer (CP) soil multisensor and sampling probes (CP-probes) which are required to support contract procurement for services are presented. The specification provides a documented technical basis of quality assurance that is required to use the probes in an operating Hanford tank farm. The documentation cited in this specification will be incorporated into an operational fielding plan that will address all activities associated with the use of the CP-probes. The probes discussed in this specification support the Hanford Tanks Initiative AX-104 Tank Plume Characterization Sub-task. The probes will be used to interrogate soils and vadose zone surrounding tank AX-104

  10. Historical review of long-term soil sampling for environmental surveillance at the Hanford Site and vicinity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, K.R.; Rickard, W.H.

    1997-08-01

    Soil samples have been collected routinely from the environs of the Hanford Site and analyzed since 1971. Correct interpretation of results depends on samples being collected from the same locations, the locations remaining relatively undisturbed, and collection and analytical procedures remaining the same or being equivalent. Historical files, documents, and annual environmental reports were reviewed to evaluate these factors. It was determined that 20 soil sampling locations, 11 onsite and 9 offsite, were established between 1971 and 1977 and represent long-term sampling locations. Sample collection and analytical procedures have remained essentially the same since 1971. The physical ecological attributes of each long-term soil sampling location were evaluated. During the review of historical records, a few results for 1970, 1971, and 1972 were noted as previously unreported in annual or special reports. These results are included in Appendix A. To complete the record, results previously reported in annual environmental reports are given in Appendix B. Global Positioning System (GPS) reading for 20 long-term soil sampling locations are provided in Appendix C.

  11. Historical review of long-term soil sampling for environmental surveillance at the Hanford Site and vicinity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, K.R.; Rickard, W.H.

    1997-08-01

    Soil samples have been collected routinely from the environs of the Hanford Site and analyzed since 1971. Correct interpretation of results depends on samples being collected from the same locations, the locations remaining relatively undisturbed, and collection and analytical procedures remaining the same or being equivalent. Historical files, documents, and annual environmental reports were reviewed to evaluate these factors. It was determined that 20 soil sampling locations, 11 onsite and 9 offsite, were established between 1971 and 1977 and represent long-term sampling locations. Sample collection and analytical procedures have remained essentially the same since 1971. The physical ecological attributes of each long-term soil sampling location were evaluated. During the review of historical records, a few results for 1970, 1971, and 1972 were noted as previously unreported in annual or special reports. These results are included in Appendix A. To complete the record, results previously reported in annual environmental reports are given in Appendix B. Global Positioning System (GPS) reading for 20 long-term soil sampling locations are provided in Appendix C

  12. Sample sizes to control error estimates in determining soil bulk density in California forest soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youzhi Han; Jianwei Zhang; Kim G. Mattson; Weidong Zhang; Thomas A. Weber

    2016-01-01

    Characterizing forest soil properties with high variability is challenging, sometimes requiring large numbers of soil samples. Soil bulk density is a standard variable needed along with element concentrations to calculate nutrient pools. This study aimed to determine the optimal sample size, the number of observation (n), for predicting the soil bulk density with a...

  13. Degradation of aldrin im samples of 'cerrado' Brazilian soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musumeci, M.R.; Ruegg, E.F.

    1981-01-01

    14 C-aldrin degradation was studied in the laboratory, in samples of 'cerrado' Brazilian soils, during a period of 240 days. Recovery of radiocarbon decreased with time, although radiocarbon was not incorporated to the soil organic matter as show by soil combustion. In both soils 14 C-aldrin degraded to dieldrin and another compound that showed caracteristics of a hydrosoluble derivative of aldrin 14 C-aldrin was more persistent in sandy soil but amendment of this soil with nutrients or fertilizers did not enhanced aldrin degradation in this soil. (Author) [pt

  14. Validated sampling strategy for assessing contaminants in soil stockpiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lame, Frank; Honders, Ton; Derksen, Giljam; Gadella, Michiel

    2005-01-01

    Dutch legislation on the reuse of soil requires a sampling strategy to determine the degree of contamination. This sampling strategy was developed in three stages. Its main aim is to obtain a single analytical result, representative of the true mean concentration of the soil stockpile. The development process started with an investigation into how sample pre-treatment could be used to obtain representative results from composite samples of heterogeneous soil stockpiles. Combining a large number of random increments allows stockpile heterogeneity to be fully represented in the sample. The resulting pre-treatment method was then combined with a theoretical approach to determine the necessary number of increments per composite sample. At the second stage, the sampling strategy was evaluated using computerised models of contaminant heterogeneity in soil stockpiles. The now theoretically based sampling strategy was implemented by the Netherlands Centre for Soil Treatment in 1995. It was applied to all types of soil stockpiles, ranging from clean to heavily contaminated, over a period of four years. This resulted in a database containing the analytical results of 2570 soil stockpiles. At the final stage these results were used for a thorough validation of the sampling strategy. It was concluded that the model approach has indeed resulted in a sampling strategy that achieves analytical results representative of the mean concentration of soil stockpiles. - A sampling strategy that ensures analytical results representative of the mean concentration in soil stockpiles is presented and validated

  15. Shrinkage Module of Soil Samples with Different Cement Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohannad Sabry

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The differences in soil's body mass during shrinkage over time have changes in soil physical properties which provide an important reason to check the design of underground foundations in expansive soils. In this paper, a state-of-art of the soil heat stress-strain relationship prediction methods is checked using soil engineering laboratory experiments and Matlab R2013b numerical modelling. The shrinkage of soils with different cement content of (0%, 2%, 4%, 6% and 8% with the same water content of 20 percent in room temperature for 24 hours, are critically reviewed in terms of their predictive shrinkage along with their strengths and flexural behaviour. The review highlights the prediction methods present to determine the effect of heat stress on the shrinkage of soil samples with different cement content after classifying the soils into clay, silt and sand depending on their particle size using sieve and hydrometer experiments. The results of the soil engineering laboratory experiments showed that as the cement content increases, the shrinkage of soil decreases as a result of increased elasticity in soil. The numerical analysis using finite element method in Matlab R2013b shows that as the cement content increases the displacement in the soil sample decreases and that the soil sample with 8% cement content has more resistance to shrinkage and less displacement than the soil with 6% cement, which has less resistance to heat stresses and more displacement.

  16. Sampling of soils for transuranic nuclides: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, E.B.; Essington, E.H.

    1977-01-01

    A review of the literature pertinent to the sampling of soils for radionuclides is presented; emphasis is placed on transuranic nuclides. Sampling of soils is discussed relative to systems of heterogeneous distributions and varied particle sizes encountered in certain environments. Sampling methods that have been used for two different sources of contamination, global fallout, and accidental or operational releases, are included

  17. Soil separator and sampler and method of sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Barry H [Idaho Falls, ID; Ritter, Paul D [Idaho Falls, ID

    2010-02-16

    A soil sampler includes a fluidized bed for receiving a soil sample. The fluidized bed may be in communication with a vacuum for drawing air through the fluidized bed and suspending particulate matter of the soil sample in the air. In a method of sampling, the air may be drawn across a filter, separating the particulate matter. Optionally, a baffle or a cyclone may be included within the fluidized bed for disentrainment, or dedusting, so only the finest particulate matter, including asbestos, will be trapped on the filter. The filter may be removable, and may be tested to determine the content of asbestos and other hazardous particulate matter in the soil sample.

  18. A Comparison of Soil-Water Sampling Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tindall, J. A.; Figueroa-Johnson, M.; Friedel, M. J.

    2007-12-01

    The representativeness of soil pore water extracted by suction lysimeters in ground-water monitoring studies is a problem that often confounds interpretation of measured data. Current soil water sampling techniques cannot identify the soil volume from which a pore water sample is extracted, neither macroscopic, microscopic, or preferential flowpath. This research was undertaken to compare values of extracted suction lysimeters samples from intact soil cores with samples obtained by the direct extraction methods to determine what portion of soil pore water is sampled by each method. Intact soil cores (30 centimeter (cm) diameter by 40 cm height) were extracted from two different sites - a sandy soil near Altamonte Springs, Florida and a clayey soil near Centralia in Boone County, Missouri. Isotopically labeled water (O18? - analyzed by mass spectrometry) and bromide concentrations (KBr- - measured using ion chromatography) from water samples taken by suction lysimeters was compared with samples obtained by direct extraction methods of centrifugation and azeotropic distillation. Water samples collected by direct extraction were about 0.25 ? more negative (depleted) than that collected by suction lysimeter values from a sandy soil and about 2-7 ? more negative from a well structured clayey soil. Results indicate that the majority of soil water in well-structured soil is strongly bound to soil grain surfaces and is not easily sampled by suction lysimeters. In cases where a sufficient volume of water has passed through the soil profile and displaced previous pore water, suction lysimeters will collect a representative sample of soil pore water from the sampled depth interval. It is suggested that for stable isotope studies monitoring precipitation and soil water, suction lysimeter should be installed at shallow depths (10 cm). Samples should also be coordinated with precipitation events. The data also indicate that each extraction method be use to sample a different

  19. Soils element history, sampling, analyses, and recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, E.B.; Essington, E.H.

    1976-01-01

    A five year history of the Soils Element of the Nevada Applied Ecology Group (NAEG) is presented. Major projects are reviewed. Emphasis is placed on mound studies and profile studies for the period March 1, 1975, through February 1, 1976. A series of recommendations is made relative to extensions of past efforts of the Soils Element of the NAEG

  20. Soil classification basing on the spectral characteristics of topsoil samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huanjun; Zhang, Xiaokang; Zhang, Xinle

    2016-04-01

    Soil taxonomy plays an important role in soil utility and management, but China has only course soil map created based on 1980s data. New technology, e.g. spectroscopy, could simplify soil classification. The study try to classify soils basing on the spectral characteristics of topsoil samples. 148 topsoil samples of typical soils, including Black soil, Chernozem, Blown soil and Meadow soil, were collected from Songnen plain, Northeast China, and the room spectral reflectance in the visible and near infrared region (400-2500 nm) were processed with weighted moving average, resampling technique, and continuum removal. Spectral indices were extracted from soil spectral characteristics, including the second absorption positions of spectral curve, the first absorption vale's area, and slope of spectral curve at 500-600 nm and 1340-1360 nm. Then K-means clustering and decision tree were used respectively to build soil classification model. The results indicated that 1) the second absorption positions of Black soil and Chernozem were located at 610 nm and 650 nm respectively; 2) the spectral curve of the meadow is similar to its adjacent soil, which could be due to soil erosion; 3) decision tree model showed higher classification accuracy, and accuracy of Black soil, Chernozem, Blown soil and Meadow are 100%, 88%, 97%, 50% respectively, and the accuracy of Blown soil could be increased to 100% by adding one more spectral index (the first two vole's area) to the model, which showed that the model could be used for soil classification and soil map in near future.

  1. Method for spiking soil samples with organic compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinch, Ulla C; Ekelund, Flemming; Jacobsen, Carsten S

    2002-01-01

    We examined the harmful side effects on indigenous soil microorganisms of two organic solvents, acetone and dichloromethane, that are normally used for spiking of soil with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons for experimental purposes. The solvents were applied in two contamination protocols to either...... higher than in control soil, probably due mainly to release of predation from indigenous protozoa. In order to minimize solvent effects on indigenous soil microorganisms when spiking native soil samples with compounds having a low water solubility, we propose a common protocol in which the contaminant...... tagged with luxAB::Tn5. For both solvents, application to the whole sample resulted in severe side effects on both indigenous protozoa and bacteria. Application of dichloromethane to the whole soil volume immediately reduced the number of protozoa to below the detection limit. In one of the soils...

  2. Analysis on soil compressibility changes of samples stabilized with lime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena-Andreea CALARASU

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to manage and control the stability of buildings located on difficult foundation soils, several techniques of soil stabilization were developed and applied worldwide. Taking into account the major significance of soil compressibility on construction durability and safety, the soil stabilization with a binder like lime is considered one of the most used and traditional methods. The present paper aims to assess the effect of lime content on soil geotechnical parameters, especially on compressibility ones, based on laboratory experimental tests, for several soil categories in admixture with different lime dosages. The results of this study indicate a significant improvement of stabilized soil parameters, such as compressibility and plasticity, in comparison with natural samples. The effect of lime stabilization is related to an increase of soil structure stability by increasing the bearing capacity.

  3. SEAMIST trademark soil sampling for tritiated water: First year's results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallon, B.; Martins, S.A.; Houpis, J.L.; Lowry, W.; Cremer, C.D.

    1992-01-01

    SEAMIST trademark is a recently developed sampling system that enables one to measure various soil parameters by means of an inverted, removable, impermeable membrane tube inserted in a borehole. This membrane tube can have various measuring devices installed on it, such as gas ports, adsorbent pads, and electrical sensors. These membrane tubes are made of a laminated polymer. The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in Livermore, California, has installed two of these systems to monitor tritium in soil resulting from a leak in an underground storage tank. One tube is equipped with gas ports to sample soil vapor and the other with adsorbent pads to sample soil moisture. Borehole stability was maintained using either sand-filled or air-inflated tubes. Both system implementations yielded concentrations or activities that compared well with the measured concentrations of tritium in the soil taken during borehole construction. In addition, an analysis of the data suggest that both systems prevented the vertical migration of tritium in the boreholes. Also, a neutron probe was successfully used in a blank membrane inserted in one of the boreholes to monitor the moisture in the soil without exposing the probe to the tritium. The neutron log showed excellent agreement with the soil moisture content measured in soil samples taken during borehole construction. This paper describes the two SEAMIST trademark systems used and presents sampling results and comparisons

  4. Sampling design for use by the soil decontamination project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutherford, D.W.; Stevens, J.R.

    1981-01-01

    This report proposes a general approach to the problem and discusses sampling of soil to map the contaminated area and to provide samples for characterizaton of soil components and contamination. Basic concepts in sample design are reviewed with reference to environmental transuranic studies. Common designs are reviewed and evaluated for use with specific objectives that might be required by the soil decontamination project. Examples of a hierarchial design pilot study and a combined hierarchial and grid study are proposed for the Rocky Flats 903 pad area

  5. Basin F Overburden and Soil Sampling and Analysis Study, Rocky Mountain Arsenal

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-05-01

    and the material lodged in the shoe of the sampler z•s pressed out and placed in the bottom of the sleeve. In tnis tray, an undisturbed sample of the...b):______ A. Szandard dev--aciol of lowiest stanidard (S): _____ jmmzltnof lzw.sz standard (c): _______ i~veraq* &ýs-: banca cý lovesc standard

  6. Exchangeable phosphorus and others parameters in soil samples from Sapucai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Facetti, J F; Zanotti, J F [Asuncion Nacional Univ. (Paraguay). Inst. de Ciencias

    1972-01-01

    Soils samples from the alkaline rocks area at Sapucai were studied. The total amount of P in the soils shows to be high, as well as the E value for the 32 P exclangeable phosphorus. Other parameters like V values, TEC, etc., and their relationschip also were analyzed.

  7. Exchangeable phosphorus and others parameters in soil samples from Sapucai

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Facetti, J.F.; Zanotti, J.F.

    1972-01-01

    Soils samples from the alkaline rocks area at Sapucai were studied. The total amount of P in the soils shows to be high, as well as the E value for the 32 P exclangeable phosphorus. Other parameters like V values, TEC, etc., and their relationschip also were analyzed

  8. Statistical sampling strategies for survey of soil contamination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brus, D.J.

    2011-01-01

    This chapter reviews methods for selecting sampling locations in contaminated soils for three situations. In the first situation a global estimate of the soil contamination in an area is required. The result of the surey is a number or a series of numbers per contaminant, e.g. the estimated mean

  9. Distribution of pesticide residues in soil and uncertainty of sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suszter, Gabriela K; Ambrus, Árpád

    2017-08-03

    Pesticide residues were determined in about 120 soil cores taken randomly from the top 15 cm layer of two sunflower fields about 30 days after preemergence herbicide treatments. Samples were extracted with acetone-ethyl acetate mixture and the residues were determined with GC-TSD. Residues of dimethenamid, pendimethalin, and prometryn ranged from 0.005 to 2.97 mg/kg. Their relative standard deviations (CV) were between 0.66 and 1.13. The relative frequency distributions of residues in soil cores were very similar to those observed in root and tuber vegetables grown in pesticide treated soils. Based on all available information, a typical CV of 1.00 was estimated for pesticide residues in primary soil samples (soil cores). The corresponding expectable relative uncertainty of sampling is 20% when composite samples of size 25 are taken. To obtain a reliable estimate of the average residues in the top 15 cm layer of soil of a field up to 8 independent replicate random samples should be taken. To obtain better estimate of the actual residue level of the sampled filed would be marginal if larger number of samples were taken.

  10. Soil Gas Sample Handling: Evaluation of Water Removal and Sample Ganging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritz, Brad G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Abrecht, David G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hayes, James C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Mendoza, Donaldo P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-10-31

    Soil gas sampling is currently conducted in support of Nuclear Test Ban treaty verification. Soil gas samples are collected and analyzed for isotopes of interest. Some issues that can impact sampling and analysis of these samples are excess moisture and sample processing time. Here we discuss three potential improvements to the current sampling protocol; a desiccant for water removal, use of molecular sieve to remove CO2 from the sample during collection, and a ganging manifold to allow composite analysis of multiple samples.

  11. Distribuição mensal da emergência de seis ervas daninhas em solos com e sem cultivos Monthly emergence of six weeds in cultived and undisturbed soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélio G. Blanco

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram realizados no período de 14 meses, com início em outubro de 1988, levantamentos demográficos mensais para registro da dinâmica de emergência de seis espécies de ervas daninhas anuais, submetidas mensalmente a um dos seguintes sistemas de manejo da população: grade de disco, grade de disco seguida de rolo compactador do solo, enxada rotativa, e herbicida de contato. Os resultados mostraram que a distribuição mensal da emergência de Digitaria horizontalis Willd. (capim-colchão, Brachiaria plantaginea (Link Hitch. (capim-marmelada, Bidens pilosa L. (picão-preto, e Amaranthus viridis L. (caruru-de-mancha, se configurou com um pico de emergência muito alto em outubro (acima de 80% do total emergido no período, com reinfestações pouco significativas nos meses seguintes, e que o manejo através do cultivo do solo favoreceu a emergência dessas espécies. O modelo de emergência de Eleusine indica (L. Gaertn. (capim-pé-de-galinha, e Eragrostis pilosa (L. Beauv. (capim-barba-de-alemão, por outro lado, apresentou um grau de emergência baixo em outubro, elevando-se até janeiro quando ocorreu o fluxo de maior pico. O manejo sem revolvimento do solo dessas duas espécies incrementou a geminação dos propágulos do banco de sementes. De um modo geral, quando não se permitiu a multiplicação sexuada, a taxa de população foi extremamente reduzida no ciclo seguinte.In lhe period of October/l988 to December/1989 a research was carried out to study lhe emergence dynamics of six weeds through monthly samplings under four weed managements: destruction of lhe former flora by cultivation with harrow, harrow following compaction by soil roller, rotary harrow and use of a contact herbicide without soil disturbance. The results showed that lhe initial emergence in October is very high for Digitaria horizontalis, Brachiaria plantaginea, Bidens pilosa and Amaranthus viridis compared with lhe emergence in lhe following months and that

  12. Natural radioactivity in soil samples of Kocaeli basin, Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karakelle, B.; Oeztuerk, N.; Erkol, A.Y.; Koese, A.; Varinlioglu, A.; Yilmaz, F.

    2002-01-01

    The city of Kocaeli is in the western part of Anatolia in Turkey and has a population of approximately 1.000.000. There is no information about radioactivity in the Kocaeli soils samples so far. For this reason, the concentrations of the natural radionuclides in soil samples from 27 different sampling stations in Kocaeli Basin and its surroundings have been determined. The results have been compared with other radioactivity measurements in different country's soils. The typical concentrations of 137 Cs, 238 U, 40 K, 226 Ra, 232 Th found in surface soil samples ranged from 2 ± 0.6 to 25 ± 6 Bq/kg, from 11 ± 4 to 49 ± 10 Bq/kg, from 161 ± 30 to 964 ± 127 Bq/kg, from 10 ± 4 to 58 ± 11 Bq/kg, and from 11 ± 3 to 65 ± 13 Bq/kg, respectively. (author)

  13. Statistical sampling methods for soils monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ann M. Abbott

    2010-01-01

    Development of the best sampling design to answer a research question should be an interactive venture between the land manager or researcher and statisticians, and is the result of answering various questions. A series of questions that can be asked to guide the researcher in making decisions that will arrive at an effective sampling plan are described, and a case...

  14. A soil sampling intercomparison exercise for the ALMERA network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belli, Maria; Zorzi, Paolo de; Sansone, Umberto; Shakhashiro, Abduhlghani; Gondin da Fonseca, Adelaide; Trinkl, Alexander; Benesch, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Soil sampling and analysis for radionuclides after an accidental or routine release is a key factor for the dose calculation to members of the public, and for the establishment of possible countermeasures. The IAEA organized for selected laboratories of the ALMERA (Analytical Laboratories for the Measurement of Environmental Radioactivity) network a Soil Sampling Intercomparison Exercise (IAEA/SIE/01) with the objective of comparing soil sampling procedures used by different laboratories. The ALMERA network is a world-wide network of analytical laboratories located in IAEA member states capable of providing reliable and timely analysis of environmental samples in the event of an accidental or intentional release of radioactivity. Ten ALMERA laboratories were selected to participate in the sampling exercise. The soil sampling intercomparison exercise took place in November 2005 in an agricultural area qualified as a 'reference site', aimed at assessing the uncertainties associated with soil sampling in agricultural, semi-natural, urban and contaminated environments and suitable for performing sampling intercomparison. In this paper, the laboratories sampling performance were evaluated.

  15. A soil sampling intercomparison exercise for the ALMERA network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belli, Maria [Istituto Superiore per la Protezione e la Ricerca Ambientale (ISPRA), Via di Castel Romano 100, I-00128 Roma (Italy)], E-mail: maria.belli@apat.it; Zorzi, Paolo de [Istituto Superiore per la Protezione e la Ricerca Ambientale (ISPRA), Via di Castel Romano 100, I-00128 Roma (Italy)], E-mail: paolo.dezorzi@isprambiente.it; Sansone, Umberto [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Agency' s Laboratories Seibersdorf, A-2444 Seibersdorf (Austria)], E-mail: u.sansone@iaea.org; Shakhashiro, Abduhlghani [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Agency' s Laboratories Seibersdorf, A-2444 Seibersdorf (Austria)], E-mail: a.shakhashiro@iaea.org; Gondin da Fonseca, Adelaide [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Agency' s Laboratories Seibersdorf, A-2444 Seibersdorf (Austria)], E-mail: a.gondin-da-fonseca-azeredo@iaea.org; Trinkl, Alexander [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Agency' s Laboratories Seibersdorf, A-2444 Seibersdorf (Austria)], E-mail: a.trinkl@iaea.org; Benesch, Thomas [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Agency' s Laboratories Seibersdorf, A-2444 Seibersdorf (Austria)], E-mail: t.benesch@iaea.org

    2009-11-15

    Soil sampling and analysis for radionuclides after an accidental or routine release is a key factor for the dose calculation to members of the public, and for the establishment of possible countermeasures. The IAEA organized for selected laboratories of the ALMERA (Analytical Laboratories for the Measurement of Environmental Radioactivity) network a Soil Sampling Intercomparison Exercise (IAEA/SIE/01) with the objective of comparing soil sampling procedures used by different laboratories. The ALMERA network is a world-wide network of analytical laboratories located in IAEA member states capable of providing reliable and timely analysis of environmental samples in the event of an accidental or intentional release of radioactivity. Ten ALMERA laboratories were selected to participate in the sampling exercise. The soil sampling intercomparison exercise took place in November 2005 in an agricultural area qualified as a 'reference site', aimed at assessing the uncertainties associated with soil sampling in agricultural, semi-natural, urban and contaminated environments and suitable for performing sampling intercomparison. In this paper, the laboratories sampling performance were evaluated.

  16. Determining photon energy absorption parameters for different soil samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kucuk, Nil; Cakir, Merve; Tumsavas, Zeynal

    2013-01-01

    The mass attenuation coefficients (μ s ) for five different soil samples were measured at 661.6, 1173.2 and 1332.5 keV photon energies. The soil samples were separately irradiated with 137 Cs and 60 Co (370 kBq) radioactive point gamma sources. The measurements were made by performing transmission experiments with a 2″ x 2″ NaI(Tl) scintillation detector, which had an energy resolution of 7% at 0.662 MeV for the gamma-rays from the decay of 137 Cs. The effective atomic numbers (Z eff ) and the effective electron densities (N eff ) were determined experimentally and theoretically using the obtained μ s values for the soil samples. Furthermore, the Z eff and N eff values of the soil samples were computed for the total photon interaction cross-sections using theoretical data over a wide energy region ranging from 1 keV to 15 MeV. The experimental values of the soils were found to be in good agreement with the theoretical values. Sandy loam and sandy clay loam soils demonstrated poor photon energy absorption characteristics. However, clay loam and clay soils had good photon energy absorption characteristics. (author)

  17. Aluminium, extractable from soil samples by the acid ammonium acetate soil-testing method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osmo Mäkitie

    1968-05-01

    Full Text Available The extractant, 0.5 M acetic acid –0.5 M ammonium acetate at pH 4.65, which is used in soil-testing, extracts relatively high amounts of aluminium from acid soils. The mean values of acetate-extractable aluminium at pH 4.65, 1.75 meq Al/100 g of soil, and of exchangeable aluminium (M KCI extraction, 0.41 meq Al were obtained from a material of 30 samples of acid soils (Table 2. Several other acetic acid ammonium acetate extractants, from M acetic acid to M ammonium acetate solution were also used for studying the extractability of soil aluminium. The soil-testing extractant can be used for the estimation of the soluble amounts of aluminium in acid soils, however, further studies are needed for a better interpretation of the ammonium acetate extractable (at pH 4.65 aluminium in our soils.

  18. Analysis of soil samples from OMRE decommissioning project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, O.D.; Chapin, J.A.; Hine, R.E.; Mandler, J.W.; Orme, M.P.; Soli, G.A.

    1979-01-01

    In order to establish that the present Organic Moderated Reactor Experiment (OMRE) site does not exceed the criteria for radioactive contamination, samples obtained from the remainder of the facility that was not removed such as soil, concrete pads, various structural materials, and the leach pond area were analyzed to determine their radioactive content. The results of the analyses performed on soil samples are presented. Results of this study indicate that the activity at the OMRE decommissioned area is confined to localized areas (i.e., the leach pond area and reactor area). Comparisons of radionuclide concentrations measured in soil taken from the lip of the leach pond with concentrations in soil obtained outside the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) site boundaries indicate that the concentration in the soil at the edge of the leach pond is at background levels. The vertical augering technique was determined to be the best approach for obtaining shallow soil samples at the INEL. Selection of this technique was based on ease of operation and analytical results. Less area is disturbed per sample than with the horizontal trenching and coring techniques. The radionuclide analysis of the samples shows the existence of a few regions in the reactor and leach pond areas that were still above INEL release criteria. These regions have been or are being further decontaminated

  19. PCR detection of Burkholderia multivorans in water and soil samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeters, Charlotte; Daenekindt, Stijn; Vandamme, Peter

    2016-08-12

    Although semi-selective growth media have been developed for the isolation of Burkholderia cepacia complex bacteria from the environment, thus far Burkholderia multivorans has rarely been isolated from such samples. Because environmental B. multivorans isolates mainly originate from water samples, we hypothesized that water rather than soil is its most likely environmental niche. The aim of the present study was to assess the occurrence of B. multivorans in water samples from Flanders (Belgium) using a fast, culture-independent PCR assay. A nested PCR approach was used to achieve high sensitivity, and specificity was confirmed by sequencing the resulting amplicons. B. multivorans was detected in 11 % of the water samples (n = 112) and 92 % of the soil samples (n = 25) tested. The percentage of false positives was higher for water samples compared to soil samples, showing that the presently available B. multivorans recA primers lack specificity when applied to the analysis of water samples. The results of the present study demonstrate that B. multivorans DNA is commonly present in soil samples and to a lesser extent in water samples in Flanders (Belgium).

  20. Optimizing Soil Moisture Sampling Locations for Validation Networks for SMAP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roshani, E.; Berg, A. A.; Lindsay, J.

    2013-12-01

    Soil Moisture Active Passive satellite (SMAP) is scheduled for launch on Oct 2014. Global efforts are underway for establishment of soil moisture monitoring networks for both the pre- and post-launch validation and calibration of the SMAP products. In 2012 the SMAP Validation Experiment, SMAPVEX12, took place near Carman Manitoba, Canada where nearly 60 fields were sampled continuously over a 6 week period for soil moisture and several other parameters simultaneous to remotely sensed images of the sampling region. The locations of these sampling sites were mainly selected on the basis of accessibility, soil texture, and vegetation cover. Although these criteria are necessary to consider during sampling site selection, they do not guarantee optimal site placement to provide the most efficient representation of the studied area. In this analysis a method for optimization of sampling locations is presented which combines the state-of-art multi-objective optimization engine (non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm, NSGA-II), with the kriging interpolation technique to minimize the number of sampling sites while simultaneously minimizing the differences between the soil moisture map resulted from the kriging interpolation and soil moisture map from radar imaging. The algorithm is implemented in Whitebox Geospatial Analysis Tools, which is a multi-platform open-source GIS. The optimization framework is subject to the following three constraints:. A) sampling sites should be accessible to the crew on the ground, B) the number of sites located in a specific soil texture should be greater than or equal to a minimum value, and finally C) the number of sampling sites with a specific vegetation cover should be greater than or equal to a minimum constraint. The first constraint is implemented into the proposed model to keep the practicality of the approach. The second and third constraints are considered to guarantee that the collected samples from each soil texture categories

  1. Results of analyses of fur samples from the San Joaquin Kit Fox and associated soil and water samples from the Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1, Tupman, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suter, G.W. II; Rosen, A.E.; Beauchamp, J.J. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Kato, T.T. (EG and G Energy Measurements, Inc., Tupman, CA (United States))

    1992-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether analysis of the elemental content of fur from San Joaquin kit foxes (Vulpes macrotis mutica) and of water and soil from kit fox habitats could be used to make inferences concerning the cause of an observed decline in the kit fox population on Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1 (NPR-1). Fur samples that had been collected previously from NPR-1, another oil field (NPR-2), and two sites with no oil development were subjected to neutron activation analysis. In addition, soil samples were collected from the home ranges of individual foxes from undisturbed portions of major soil types on NPR-1 and from wastewater samples were collected from tanks and sumps and subjected to neutron activation analysis. Most elemental concentrations in fur were highest at Camp Roberts and lowest on the undeveloped portions of NPR-I. Fur concentrations were intermediate on the developed oil fields but were correlated with percent disturbance and with number of wells on NPR-1 and NPR-2. The fact that most elements covaried across the range of sites suggests that some pervasive source such as soil was responsible. However, fur concentrations were not correlated with soft concentrations. The kit foxes on the developed portion of NPR-1 did not have concentrations of elements in fur relative to other sites that would account for the population decline in the early 1980s. The oil-related elements As, Ba, and V were elevated in fox fur from oil fields, but only As was sufficiently elevated to suggest a risk of toxicity in individual foxes. However, arsenic concentrations suggestive of sublethal toxicity were found in only 0.56% of foxes from developed oil fields, too few to account for a population decline.

  2. Composite Sampling Approaches for Bacillus anthracis Surrogate Extracted from Soil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian France

    Full Text Available Any release of anthrax spores in the U.S. would require action to decontaminate the site and restore its use and operations as rapidly as possible. The remediation activity would require environmental sampling, both initially to determine the extent of contamination (hazard mapping and post-decon to determine that the site is free of contamination (clearance sampling. Whether the spore contamination is within a building or outdoors, collecting and analyzing what could be thousands of samples can become the factor that limits the pace of restoring operations. To address this sampling and analysis bottleneck and decrease the time needed to recover from an anthrax contamination event, this study investigates the use of composite sampling. Pooling or compositing of samples is an established technique to reduce the number of analyses required, and its use for anthrax spore sampling has recently been investigated. However, use of composite sampling in an anthrax spore remediation event will require well-documented and accepted methods. In particular, previous composite sampling studies have focused on sampling from hard surfaces; data on soil sampling are required to extend the procedure to outdoor use. Further, we must consider whether combining liquid samples, thus increasing the volume, lowers the sensitivity of detection and produces false negatives. In this study, methods to composite bacterial spore samples from soil are demonstrated. B. subtilis spore suspensions were used as a surrogate for anthrax spores. Two soils (Arizona Test Dust and sterilized potting soil were contaminated and spore recovery with composites was shown to match individual sample performance. Results show that dilution can be overcome by concentrating bacterial spores using standard filtration methods. This study shows that composite sampling can be a viable method of pooling samples to reduce the number of analysis that must be performed during anthrax spore remediation.

  3. Sample collection and sample analysis plan in support of the 105-C/190-C concrete and soil sampling activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marske, S.G.

    1996-07-01

    This sampling and analysis plan describes the sample collection and sample analysis in support of the 105-C water tunnels and 190-C main pumphouse concrete and soil sampling activities. These analytical data will be used to identify the radiological contamination and presence of hazardous materials to support the decontamination and disposal activities

  4. Stability of volatile organics in environmental soil samples. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maskarinec, M.P.; Bayne, C.K.; Jenkins, R.A.; Johnson, L.H.; Holladay, S.K.

    1992-11-01

    This report focuses on data generated for the purpose of establishing the stability of 19 volatile organic compounds in environmental soil samples. The study was carried out over a 56 day (for two soils) and a 111 day (for one reference soil) time frame and took into account as many variables as possible within the constraints of budget and time. The objectives of the study were: 1) to provide a data base which could be used to provide guidance on pre-analytical holding times for regulatory purposes; and 2) to provide a basis for the evaluation of data which is generated outside of the currently allowable holding times.

  5. Stability of volatile organics in environmental soil samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maskarinec, M.P.; Bayne, C.K.; Jenkins, R.A.; Johnson, L.H.; Holladay, S.K.

    1992-11-01

    This report focuses on data generated for the purpose of establishing the stability of 19 volatile organic compounds in environmental soil samples. The study was carried out over a 56 day (for two soils) and a 111 day (for one reference soil) time frame and took into account as many variables as possible within the constraints of budget and time. The objectives of the study were: 1) to provide a data base which could be used to provide guidance on pre-analytical holding times for regulatory purposes; and 2) to provide a basis for the evaluation of data which is generated outside of the currently allowable holding times.

  6. Use of passive sampling devices to determine soil contaminant concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, K.A. [Clemson Univ., Pendleton, SC (United States)]|[Washington State Univ., Richland, WA (United States); Hooper, M.J. [Clemson Univ., Pendleton, SC (United States); Weisskopf, C.P. [Washington State Univ., Richland, WA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The effective remediation of contaminated sites requires accurate identification of chemical distributions. A rapid sampling method using passive sampling devices (PSDs) can provide a thorough site assessment. We have been pursuing their application in terrestrial systems and have found that they increase the ease and speed of analysis, decrease solvent usage and overall cost, and minimize the transport of contaminated soils. Time and cost savings allow a higher sampling frequency than is generally the case using traditional methods. PSDs have been used in the field in soils of varying physical properties and have been successful in estimating soil concentrations ranging from 1 {mu}g/kg (parts per billion) to greater than 200 mg/kg (parts per million). They were also helpful in identifying hot spots within the sites. Passive sampling devices show extreme promise as an analytical tool to rapidly characterize contaminant distributions in soil. There are substantial time and cost savings in laboratory personnel and supplies. By selectively excluding common interferences that require sample cleanup, PSDs can be retrieved from the field and processed rapidly (one technician can process approximately 90 PSDs in an 8-h work day). The results of our studies indicate that PSDs can be used to accurately estimate soil contaminant concentrations and provide lower detection limits. Further, time and cost savings will allow a more thorough and detailed characterization of contaminant distributions. 13 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Uranium determination in soil samples using Eichrom resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marabini, S.; Serdeiro, Nelidad H.

    2003-01-01

    Traditionally, the radiochemical methods for uranium activity determination in soil samples by alpha spectrometry, use some techniques like solvent extraction, precipitation and ion exchange in the separation and purification stages. In the last years, some new materials have been developed for using in extraction chromatography, specific for actinides determinations. In the present method the long and tedious stages were eliminated, and the reagents consumption and concentration were minimised. This new procedure was applied to soils since it is one of the most complex matrices. In order to reduce time and chemical reagents, the soil samples up to 0,5 g were leached with nitric, hydrofluoric and perchloric acids in hermetic sealed recipients of Teflon at 150 C degrees during 5 hours. UTEVA Eichrom resin was used for uranium separation and purification. The uranium activity concentration was determined by alpha spectrometry. Several standard samples were analysed and the results are presented. (author)

  8. A soil sampling reference site: The challenge in defining reference material for sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Zorzi, Paolo; Barbizzi, Sabrina; Belli, Maria; Fajgelj, Ales; Jacimovic, Radojko; Jeran, Zvonka; Sansone, Umberto; Perk, Marcel van der

    2008-01-01

    In the frame of the international SOILSAMP project, funded and coordinated by the Italian Environmental Protection Agency, an agricultural area was established as a reference site suitable for performing soil sampling inter-comparison exercises. The reference site was characterized for trace element content in soil, in terms of the spatial and temporal variability of their mass fraction. Considering that the behaviour of long-lived radionuclides in soil can be expected to be similar to that of some stable trace elements and that the distribution of these trace elements in soil can simulate the distribution of radionuclides, the reference site characterised in term of trace elements, can be also used to compare the soil sampling strategies developed for radionuclide investigations

  9. A soil sampling reference site: The challenge in defining reference material for sampling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Zorzi, Paolo [Agenzia per la Protezione dell' Ambiente e per i Servizi Tecnici (APAT), Servizio Metrologia Ambientale, Via di Castel Romano, Rome 100-00128 (Italy)], E-mail: paolo.dezorzi@apat.it; Barbizzi, Sabrina; Belli, Maria [Agenzia per la Protezione dell' Ambiente e per i Servizi Tecnici (APAT), Servizio Metrologia Ambientale, Via di Castel Romano, Rome 100-00128 (Italy); Fajgelj, Ales [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Agency' s Laboratories Seibersdorf, Vienna A-1400 (Austria); Jacimovic, Radojko; Jeran, Zvonka; Sansone, Umberto [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, Ljubljana 1000 (Slovenia); Perk, Marcel van der [Department of Physical Geography, Utrecht University, P.O. Box 80115, TC Utrecht 3508 (Netherlands)

    2008-11-15

    In the frame of the international SOILSAMP project, funded and coordinated by the Italian Environmental Protection Agency, an agricultural area was established as a reference site suitable for performing soil sampling inter-comparison exercises. The reference site was characterized for trace element content in soil, in terms of the spatial and temporal variability of their mass fraction. Considering that the behaviour of long-lived radionuclides in soil can be expected to be similar to that of some stable trace elements and that the distribution of these trace elements in soil can simulate the distribution of radionuclides, the reference site characterised in term of trace elements, can be also used to compare the soil sampling strategies developed for radionuclide investigations.

  10. A soil sampling reference site: the challenge in defining reference material for sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Zorzi, Paolo; Barbizzi, Sabrina; Belli, Maria; Fajgelj, Ales; Jacimovic, Radojko; Jeran, Zvonka; Sansone, Umberto; van der Perk, Marcel

    2008-11-01

    In the frame of the international SOILSAMP project, funded and coordinated by the Italian Environmental Protection Agency, an agricultural area was established as a reference site suitable for performing soil sampling inter-comparison exercises. The reference site was characterized for trace element content in soil, in terms of the spatial and temporal variability of their mass fraction. Considering that the behaviour of long-lived radionuclides in soil can be expected to be similar to that of some stable trace elements and that the distribution of these trace elements in soil can simulate the distribution of radionuclides, the reference site characterised in term of trace elements, can be also used to compare the soil sampling strategies developed for radionuclide investigations.

  11. Sampling and analysis of alien materials in soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liphard, K G

    1987-02-01

    For the determination of alien materials in soil, sampling is the decisive step. After minute planning, samples can be obtained by probing, boring or abrasion. Some types of substances can be verified by advance sampling, partly already in the field. Inorganic substances present as anions or cations are eluted and determined with water, heavy metals are determined after preparing a number of solutions by spectroscopic methods. Organic alien substances are extracted with solvents and, as a rule, analysed by chromatography.

  12. Forensic Comparison of Soil Samples Using Nondestructive Elemental Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uitdehaag, Stefan; Wiarda, Wim; Donders, Timme; Kuiper, Irene

    2017-07-01

    Soil can play an important role in forensic cases in linking suspects or objects to a crime scene by comparing samples from the crime scene with samples derived from items. This study uses an adapted ED-XRF analysis (sieving instead of grinding to prevent destruction of microfossils) to produce elemental composition data of 20 elements. Different data processing techniques and statistical distances were evaluated using data from 50 samples and the log-LR cost (C llr ). The best performing combination, Canberra distance, relative data, and square root values, is used to construct a discriminative model. Examples of the spatial resolution of the method in crime scenes are shown for three locations, and sampling strategy is discussed. Twelve test cases were analyzed, and results showed that the method is applicable. The study shows how the combination of an analysis technique, a database, and a discriminative model can be used to compare multiple soil samples quickly. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  13. Preparation and application of radioactive soil samples for intercomparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Zequan; Li Zhou; Li Pengxiang; Wang Ruijun; Ren Xiaona

    2014-01-01

    This article summarized the preparation process and intercomparison results of the simulated environmental radioactive soil samples. The components of the matrix were: SiO 2 , Al 2 O 3 , Fe 2 O 3 , MgO, CaO, NaCl, KCl and TiO 2 . All of the components were milled, oven-dried, sieved and then blended together. The homogeneity test was according to GB 15000. 5-1994, and no significant differences were observed. The 3 H analysis soils were spiked natural soils with the moisture content of 15%. Eight laboratories attended this intercomparison. The results proves that the preparation of the simulated soils were suitable for the inter-laboratories comparison. (authors)

  14. Using Environmental Variables for Studying of the Quality of Sampling in Soil Mapping

    OpenAIRE

    A. Jafari; Norair Toomanian; R. Taghizadeh Mehrjerdi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Methods of soil survey are generally empirical and based on the mental development of the surveyor, correlating soil with underlying geology, landforms, vegetation and air-photo interpretation. Since there are no statistical criteria for traditional soil sampling; this may lead to bias in the areas being sampled. In digital soil mapping, soil samples may be used to elaborate quantitative relationships or models between soil attributes and soil covariates. Because the relationshi...

  15. Response of soil aggregate stability to storage time of soil samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerzabek, M.H.; Roessner, H.

    1993-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the well known phenomenon of changing aggregate stability values as result of soil sample storage. In order to evaluate the impact of soil microbial activity, the soil sample was split into three subsamples. Two samples were sterilized by means of chloroform fumigation and gamma irradiation, respectively. However, the aggregate stability measurements at three different dates were not correlated with the microbial activity (dehydrogenase activity). The moisture content of the aggregate samples seems to be of higher significance. Samples with lower moisture content (range: 0.4 to 1.9%) exhibited higher aggregate stabilities. Thus, airdried aggregate samples without further treatment don't seem to be suitable for standardized stability measurements. (authors)

  16. MMRP Guidance Document for Soil Sampling of Energetics and Metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    studies have measured the persistence of HE in the field. Radtke et al. (2002) sampled surface soils at an explosives testing area that had not been...Munitions Residues. CRREL Report CR-92-5. Radtke C. W., D. Gianotto, and F. F. Roberto. 2002. Effects of particulate explosives on estimating

  17. Guidance for Soil Sampling for Energetics and Metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    studies have measured the persistence of HE in the field. Radtke et al. (2002) sampled surface soils at an explosives testing area that had not been...in Eagle River Flats, Alaska: The Role of Munitions Residues. CRREL Report CR-92-5. Radtke C. W., D. Gianotto, and F. F. Roberto. 2002. Effects of

  18. Determination of thorium and uranium contents in soil samples ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    using CR-39 and LR-115-II solid-state nuclear track detectors (SSNTDs). ... standard soil samples have been determined and compared with its known values. ... measure α-tracks activity [1], where SSNTDs have been used in geology [2–6] ...

  19. Mobility, bioavailability, and toxic effects of cadmium in soil samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prokop, Z.; Cupr, P.; Zlevorova-Zlamalikova V.; Komarek, J.; Dusek, L.; Holoubek, I.

    2003-01-01

    Total concentration is not a reliable indicator of metal mobility or bioavailability in soils. The physicochemical form determines the behavior of metals in soils and hence the toxicity toward terrestrial biota. The main objectives of this study were the application and comparison of three approaches for the evaluation of cadmium behavior in soil samples. The mobility and bioavailability of cadmium in five selected soil samples were evaluated using equilibrium speciation (Windermere humic aqueous mode (WHAM)), extraction procedures (Milli-Q water, DMSO, and DTPA), and a number of bioassays (Microtox, growth inhibition test, contact toxicity test, and respiration). The mobility, represented by the water-extractable fraction corresponded well with the amount of cadmium in the soil solution, calculate using the WHAM (r 2 =0.96, P<0.001). The results of the ecotoxicologica evaluation, which represent the bioavailable fraction of cadmium, correlated well with DTPA extractability and also with the concentration of free cadmium ion, which is recognized as the most bioavailable metal form. The results of the WHAM as well as the results of extraction experiments showed a strong binding of cadmium to organic matter and a weak sorption of cadmium to clay minerals

  20. Analysis of soil samples from Gebeng area using NAA technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, Md Suhaimi; Wo, Yii Mei; Hamzah, Mohd Suhaimi; Shukor, Shakirah Abd; Rahman, Shamsiah Ab; Salim, Nazaratul Ashifa Abdullah; Azman, Muhamad Azfar; Hashim, Azian

    2017-01-01

    Rapid development and urbanization will increase number of residence and industrial area. Without proper management and control of pollution, these will give an adverse effect to environment and human life. The objective of this study to identify and quantify key contaminants into the environment of the Gebeng area as a result of industrial and human activities. Gebeng area was gazetted as one of the industrial estate in Pahang state. Assessment of elemental pollution in soil of Gebeng area base on level of concentration, enrichment factor and geo-accumulation index. The enrichment factors (EFs) were determined by the elemental rationing method, whilst the geo-accumulation index (Igeo) by comparing of current to continental crustal average concentration of element. Twenty-seven of soil samples were collected from Gebeng area. Soil samples were analysed by using Neutron Activation Analyses (NAA) technique. The obtained data showed higher concentration of iron (Fe) due to abundance in soil compared to other elements. The results of enrichment factor showed that Gebeng area have enrich with elements of As, Br, Hf, Sb, Th and U. Base on the geo-accumulation index (Igeo) classification, the soil quality of Gebeng area can be classified as class 0, (uncontaminated) to Class 3, (moderately to heavily contaminated).

  1. How to Perform Precise Soil and Sediment Sampling? One solution: The Fine Increment Soil Collector (FISC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mabit, L.; Toloza, A.; Meusburger, K.; Alewell, C.; Iurian, A-R.; Owens, P.N.

    2014-01-01

    Soil and sediment related research for terrestrial agrienvironmental assessments requires accurate depth incremental sampling to perform detailed analysis of physical, geochemical and biological properties of soil and exposed sediment profiles. Existing equipment does not allow collecting soil/sediment increments at millimetre resolution. The Fine Increment Soil Collector (FISC), developed by the SWMCN Laboratory, allows much greater precision in incremental soil/sediment sampling. It facilitates the easy recovery of collected material by using a simple screw-thread extraction system (see Figure 1). The FISC has been designed specifically to enable standardized scientific investigation of shallow soil/sediment samples. In particular, applications have been developed in two IAEA Coordinated Research Projects (CRPs): CRP D1.20.11 on “Integrated Isotopic Approaches for an Area-wide Precision Conservation to Control the Impacts of Agricultural Practices on Land Degradation and Soil Erosion” and CRP D1.50.15 on “Response to Nuclear Emergencies Affecting Food and Agriculture.”

  2. How to Perform Precise Soil and Sediment Sampling? One solution: The Fine Increment Soil Collector (FISC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mabit, L.; Toloza, A. [Soil and Water Management and Crop Nutrition Laboratory, IAEA, Seibersdorf (Austria); Meusburger, K.; Alewell, C. [Environmental Geosciences, Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Basel, Basel (Switzerland); Iurian, A-R. [Babes-Bolyai University, Faculty of Environmental Science and Engineering, Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Owens, P. N. [Environmental Science Program and Quesnel River Research Centre, University of Northern British Columbia, Prince George, British Columbia (Canada)

    2014-07-15

    Soil and sediment related research for terrestrial agrienvironmental assessments requires accurate depth incremental sampling to perform detailed analysis of physical, geochemical and biological properties of soil and exposed sediment profiles. Existing equipment does not allow collecting soil/sediment increments at millimetre resolution. The Fine Increment Soil Collector (FISC), developed by the SWMCN Laboratory, allows much greater precision in incremental soil/sediment sampling. It facilitates the easy recovery of collected material by using a simple screw-thread extraction system (see Figure 1). The FISC has been designed specifically to enable standardized scientific investigation of shallow soil/sediment samples. In particular, applications have been developed in two IAEA Coordinated Research Projects (CRPs): CRP D1.20.11 on “Integrated Isotopic Approaches for an Area-wide Precision Conservation to Control the Impacts of Agricultural Practices on Land Degradation and Soil Erosion” and CRP D1.50.15 on “Response to Nuclear Emergencies Affecting Food and Agriculture.”.

  3. Including Below Detection Limit Samples in Post Decommissioning Soil Sample Analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jung Hwan; Yim, Man Sung [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    To meet the required standards the site owner has to show that the soil at the facility has been sufficiently cleaned up. To do this one must know the contamination of the soil at the site prior to clean up. This involves sampling that soil to identify the degree of contamination. However there is a technical difficulty in determining how much decontamination should be done. The problem arises when measured samples are below the detection limit. Regulatory guidelines for site reuse after decommissioning are commonly challenged because the majority of the activity in the soil at or below the limit of detection. Using additional statistical analyses of contaminated soil after decommissioning is expected to have the following advantages: a better and more reliable probabilistic exposure assessment, better economics (lower project costs) and improved communication with the public. This research will develop an approach that defines an acceptable method for demonstrating compliance of decommissioned NPP sites and validates that compliance. Soil samples from NPP often contain censored data. Conventional methods for dealing with censored data sets are statistically biased and limited in their usefulness.

  4. The Impact of Including Below Detection Limit Samples in Post Decommissioning Soil Sample Analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jung Hwan; Yim, Man-Sung [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    To meet the required standards the site owner has to show that the soil at the facility has been sufficiently cleaned up. To do this one must know the contamination of the soil at the site prior to clean up. This involves sampling that soil to identify the degree of contamination. However there is a technical difficulty in determining how much decontamination should be done. The problem arises when measured samples are below the detection limit. Regulatory guidelines for site reuse after decommissioning are commonly challenged because the majority of the activity in the soil at or below the limit of detection. Using additional statistical analyses of contaminated soil after decommissioning is expected to have the following advantages: a better and more reliable probabilistic exposure assessment, better economics (lower project costs) and improved communication with the public. This research will develop an approach that defines an acceptable method for demonstrating compliance of decommissioned NPP sites and validates that compliance. Soil samples from NPP often contain censored data. Conventional methods for dealing with censored data sets are statistically biased and limited in their usefulness. In this research, additional methods are performed using real data from a monazite manufacturing factory.

  5. The Impact of Soil Sampling Errors on Variable Rate Fertilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. L. Hoskinson; R C. Rope; L G. Blackwood; R D. Lee; R K. Fink

    2004-07-01

    Variable rate fertilization of an agricultural field is done taking into account spatial variability in the soil’s characteristics. Most often, spatial variability in the soil’s fertility is the primary characteristic used to determine the differences in fertilizers applied from one point to the next. For several years the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) has been developing a Decision Support System for Agriculture (DSS4Ag) to determine the economically optimum recipe of various fertilizers to apply at each site in a field, based on existing soil fertility at the site, predicted yield of the crop that would result (and a predicted harvest-time market price), and the current costs and compositions of the fertilizers to be applied. Typically, soil is sampled at selected points within a field, the soil samples are analyzed in a lab, and the lab-measured soil fertility of the point samples is used for spatial interpolation, in some statistical manner, to determine the soil fertility at all other points in the field. Then a decision tool determines the fertilizers to apply at each point. Our research was conducted to measure the impact on the variable rate fertilization recipe caused by variability in the measurement of the soil’s fertility at the sampling points. The variability could be laboratory analytical errors or errors from variation in the sample collection method. The results show that for many of the fertility parameters, laboratory measurement error variance exceeds the estimated variability of the fertility measure across grid locations. These errors resulted in DSS4Ag fertilizer recipe recommended application rates that differed by up to 138 pounds of urea per acre, with half the field differing by more than 57 pounds of urea per acre. For potash the difference in application rate was up to 895 pounds per acre and over half the field differed by more than 242 pounds of potash per acre. Urea and potash differences

  6. Latin Hypercube Sampling (LHS) at variable resolutions for enhanced watershed scale Soil Sampling and Digital Soil Mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamalainen, Sampsa; Geng, Xiaoyuan; He, Juanxia

    2017-04-01

    Latin Hypercube Sampling (LHS) at variable resolutions for enhanced watershed scale Soil Sampling and Digital Soil Mapping. Sampsa Hamalainen, Xiaoyuan Geng, and Juanxia, He. AAFC - Agriculture and Agr-Food Canada, Ottawa, Canada. The Latin Hypercube Sampling (LHS) approach to assist with Digital Soil Mapping has been developed for some time now, however the purpose of this work was to complement LHS with use of multiple spatial resolutions of covariate datasets and variability in the range of sampling points produced. This allowed for specific sets of LHS points to be produced to fulfil the needs of various partners from multiple projects working in the Ontario and Prince Edward Island provinces of Canada. Secondary soil and environmental attributes are critical inputs that are required in the development of sampling points by LHS. These include a required Digital Elevation Model (DEM) and subsequent covariate datasets produced as a result of a Digital Terrain Analysis performed on the DEM. These additional covariates often include but are not limited to Topographic Wetness Index (TWI), Length-Slope (LS) Factor, and Slope which are continuous data. The range of specific points created in LHS included 50 - 200 depending on the size of the watershed and more importantly the number of soil types found within. The spatial resolution of covariates included within the work ranged from 5 - 30 m. The iterations within the LHS sampling were run at an optimal level so the LHS model provided a good spatial representation of the environmental attributes within the watershed. Also, additional covariates were included in the Latin Hypercube Sampling approach which is categorical in nature such as external Surficial Geology data. Some initial results of the work include using a 1000 iteration variable within the LHS model. 1000 iterations was consistently a reasonable value used to produce sampling points that provided a good spatial representation of the environmental

  7. Sampling soils for 137Cs using various field-sampling volumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyhan, J.W.; Schofield, T.G.; White, G.C.; Trujillo, G.

    1981-10-01

    The sediments from a liquid effluent receiving area at the Los Alamos National Laboratory and soils from intensive study area in the fallout pathway of Trinity were sampled for 137 Cs using 25-, 500-, 2500-, and 12 500-cm 3 field sampling volumes. A highly replicated sampling program was used to determine mean concentrations and inventories of 137 Cs at each site, as well as estimates of spatial, aliquoting, and counting variance components of the radionuclide data. The sampling methods were also analyzed as a function of soil size fractions collected in each field sampling volume and of the total cost of the program for a given variation in the radionuclide survey results. Coefficients of variation (CV) of 137 Cs inventory estimates ranged from 0.063 to 0.14 for Mortandad Canyon sediments, where CV values for Trinity soils were observed from 0.38 to 0.57. Spatial variance components of 137 Cs concentration data were usually found to be larger than either the aliquoting or counting variance estimates and were inversely related to field sampling volume at the Trinity intensive site. Subsequent optimization studies of the sampling schemes demonstrated that each aliquot should be counted once, and that only 2 to 4 aliquots out of an many as 30 collected need be assayed for 137 Cs. The optimization studies showed that as sample costs increased to 45 man-hours of labor per sample, the variance of the mean 137 Cs concentration decreased dramatically, but decreased very little with additional labor

  8. Radioactivity in Soil Samples Collected in Southern Serbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jankovic, M.; Nikolic, J.; Pantelic, G.; Rajacic, M.; Sarap, N.; Todorovic, D.

    2013-01-01

    In the attack on the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (the focus effect was of Kosovo and Metohija and southern Serbia) in 1999, NATO forces used ammunition containing depleted uranium. Cleaning action of depleted uranium was performed by Radiation and Environmental Protection Department of the Vinca Institute of Nuclear Science, during 2002?2007 at locations: Pljackovica, Bratoselce, Borovac and Reljan. At all locations underwent detailed dosimetric screening and decontamination was performed. Because of the loose soil, DU projectils were found to a depth of 1 m. Found missiles, contaminated soil and radioactive material has been collected and stored on radioactive waste. After cleaning the ground is leveled and another dosimetric prospecting was performed. Monitoring of radioactivity in southern Serbia included determination of gamma emitters as well as determination of gross alpha and beta activities in soil, water and plant. Sampling was carried out at Pljackovica, Borovac, Bratoselce and Reljan in July 2011. This paper presents only the results of measurement of gamma emitters in soil samples and showed the presence of natural radionuclides: 226Ra, 232Th, 40K, 235U, 238U and the produced radionuclide 137Cs (from the Chernobyl accident). Also, the ratio between the 235U and 238U is given. In order to evaluate the radiological hazard of the natural radioactivity, the radium equivalent activity, the gamma-absorbed dose rate and the external hazard index have been calculated. (author)

  9. 105-DR Large sodium fire facility soil sampling data evaluation report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adler, J.G.

    1996-01-01

    This report evaluates the soil sampling activities, soil sample analysis, and soil sample data associated with the closure activities at the 105-DR Large Sodium Fire Facility. The evaluation compares these activities to the regulatory requirements for meeting clean closure. The report concludes that there is no soil contamination from the waste treatment activities

  10. Isolation of antimicrobial producing Actinobacteria from soil samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbendary, Afaf Ahmed; Hessain, Ashgan Mohamed; El-Hariri, Mahmoud Darderi; Seida, Ahmed Adel; Moussa, Ihab Mohamed; Mubarak, Ayman Salem; Kabli, Saleh A; Hemeg, Hassan A; El Jakee, Jakeen Kamal

    2018-01-01

    Emergence of multidrug resistant bacteria has made the search for novel bioactive compounds from natural and unexplored habitats a necessity. Actinobacteria have important bioactive substances. The present study investigated antimicrobial activity of Actinobacteria isolated from soil samples of Egypt. One hundred samples were collected from agricultural farming soil of different governorates. Twelve isolates have produced activity against the tested microorganisms ( S. aureus , Bacillus cereus , E. coli , K. pneumoniae , P. aeruginosa , S. Typhi, C. albicans , A. niger and A. flavus ). By VITEK 2 system version: 07.01 the 12 isolates were identified as Kocuria kristinae , Kocuria rosea , Streptomyces griseus , Streptomyces flaveolus and Actinobacteria . Using ethyl acetate extraction method the isolates culture's supernatants were tested by diffusion method against indicator microorganisms. These results indicate that Actinobacteria isolated from Egypt farms could be sources of antimicrobial bioactive substances.

  11. Isolation of antimicrobial producing Actinobacteria from soil samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afaf Ahmed Elbendary

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Emergence of multidrug resistant bacteria has made the search for novel bioactive compounds from natural and unexplored habitats a necessity. Actinobacteria have important bioactive substances. The present study investigated antimicrobial activity of Actinobacteria isolated from soil samples of Egypt. One hundred samples were collected from agricultural farming soil of different governorates. Twelve isolates have produced activity against the tested microorganisms (S. aureus, Bacillus cereus, E. coli, K. pneumoniae, P. aeruginosa, S. Typhi, C. albicans, A. niger and A. flavus. By VITEK 2 system version: 07.01 the 12 isolates were identified as Kocuria kristinae, Kocuria rosea, Streptomyces griseus, Streptomyces flaveolus and Actinobacteria. Using ethyl acetate extraction method the isolates culture’s supernatants were tested by diffusion method against indicator microorganisms. These results indicate that Actinobacteria isolated from Egypt farms could be sources of antimicrobial bioactive substances.

  12. Molecular identification of Coccidioides spp. in soil samples from Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    de Macêdo, Regina CL; Rosado, Alexandre S; da Mota, Fabio F; Cavalcante, Maria AS; Eulálio, Kelsen D; Filho, Antônio D; Martins, Liline MS; Lazéra, Márcia S; Wanke, Bodo

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Since 1991 several outbreaks of acute coccidioidomycosis (CM) were diagnosed in the semi-arid Northeast of Brazil, mainly related to disturbance of armadillo burrows caused by hunters while digging them for the capture of these animals. This activity causes dust contaminated with arthroconidia of Coccidioides posadasii, which, once inhaled, cause the mycosis. We report on the identification of C. posadasii in soil samples related to outbreaks of CM. Results Twenty four soi...

  13. Gamma spectroscopy analysis of archived Marshall Island soil samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herman, S.; Hoffman, K.; Lavelle, K.; Trauth, A.; Glover, S.E.; Connick, W.; Spitz, H.; LaMont, S.P.; Hamilton, T.

    2016-01-01

    Four samples of archival Marshall Islands soil were subjected to non-destructive, broad energy (17 keV-2.61 MeV) gamma-ray spectrometry analysis using a series of different high-resolution germanium detectors. These archival samples were collected in 1967 from different locations on Bikini Atoll and were contaminated with a range of fission and activation products, and other nuclear material from multiple weapons tests. Unlike samples collected recently, these samples have been stored in sealed containers and have been unaffected by approximately 50 years of weathering. Initial results show that the samples contained measurable but proportionally different concentrations of plutonium, 241 Am, and 137 Cs, and 60 Co. (author)

  14. Molecular identification of Coccidioides spp. in soil samples from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Macêdo, Regina C L; Rosado, Alexandre S; da Mota, Fabio F; Cavalcante, Maria A S; Eulálio, Kelsen D; Filho, Antônio D; Martins, Liline M S; Lazéra, Márcia S; Wanke, Bodo

    2011-05-16

    Since 1991 several outbreaks of acute coccidioidomycosis (CM) were diagnosed in the semi-arid Northeast of Brazil, mainly related to disturbance of armadillo burrows caused by hunters while digging them for the capture of these animals. This activity causes dust contaminated with arthroconidia of Coccidioides posadasii, which, once inhaled, cause the mycosis. We report on the identification of C. posadasii in soil samples related to outbreaks of CM. Twenty four soil samples had their DNA extracted and subsequently submitted to a semi-nested PCR technique using specific primers. While only 6 (25%) soil samples were positive for C. posadasii by mice inoculation, all (100%) were positive by the molecular tool. This methodology represents a simple, sensitive and specific molecular technique to determine the environmental distribution of Coccidioides spp. in endemic areas, but cannot distinguish the species. Moreover, it may be useful to identify culture isolates. Key-words: 1. Coccidioidomycosis. 2. Coccidioides spp. 3. C. posadasii. 4. Semi-arid. 5. Semi-nested PCR.

  15. Molecular identification of Coccidioides spp. in soil samples from Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filho Antônio D

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since 1991 several outbreaks of acute coccidioidomycosis (CM were diagnosed in the semi-arid Northeast of Brazil, mainly related to disturbance of armadillo burrows caused by hunters while digging them for the capture of these animals. This activity causes dust contaminated with arthroconidia of Coccidioides posadasii, which, once inhaled, cause the mycosis. We report on the identification of C. posadasii in soil samples related to outbreaks of CM. Results Twenty four soil samples had their DNA extracted and subsequently submitted to a semi-nested PCR technique using specific primers. While only 6 (25% soil samples were positive for C. posadasii by mice inoculation, all (100% were positive by the molecular tool. Conclusion This methodology represents a simple, sensitive and specific molecular technique to determine the environmental distribution of Coccidioides spp. in endemic areas, but cannot distinguish the species. Moreover, it may be useful to identify culture isolates. Key-words: 1. Coccidioidomycosis. 2. Coccidioides spp. 3. C. posadasii. 4. Semi-arid. 5. Semi-nested PCR

  16. Sr-90 determination in aqueous and soils samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez Sintas, Maria F.; Cerchietti, Maria L.; Arguelles, Maria G.

    2009-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to evaluate the method for Sr-90 determination in aqueous sample and soils. Area and Personal Dosimetry laboratory (DPA) determines the presence of Sr-90 by Liquid Scintillation (LSC) by applying method of the double window and corresponding adjustments. Calibration is performed by standard solutions of 90 Sr/ 90 Y, where spectral 90 Sr and 90 Y zones are optimized. The initial treatment of the liquid samples includes the concentration for evaporation, while the solid ones dissolve for microwave and acidic digestion. The separation of the analyte involves a selective chromatographic extraction. An average efficiency for 90 Sr of 77 ± 1 % was obtained; the factor a/b was 0,85 ± 0,01 and recovery of 82 ± 8 %. The resultant MAD was 0,10 Bq/L in aqueous samples and 0,10 Bq/g in solid samples. (author)

  17. Soil sample preparation using microwave digestion for uranium analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohagheghi, Amir H.; Preston, Rose; Akbarzadeh, Mansoor; Bakthiar, Steven

    2000-01-01

    A new sample preparation procedure has been developed for digestion of soil samples for uranium analysis. The technique employs a microwave oven digestion system to digest the sample and to prepare it for separation chemistry and analysis. The method significantly reduces the volume of acids used, eliminates a large fraction of acid vapor emissions, and speeds up the analysis time. The samples are analyzed by four separate techniques: Gamma Spectrometry, Alpha Spectroscopy using the open digestion method, Kinetic Phosphorescence Analysis (KPA) using open digestion, and KPA by Microwave digestion technique. The results for various analytical methods are compared and used to confirm the validity of the new procedure. The details of the preparation technique along with its benefits are discussed

  18. Physico-empirical approach for mapping soil hydraulic behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. D'Urso

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Pedo-transfer functions are largely used in soil hydraulic characterisation of large areas. The use of physico-empirical approaches for the derivation of soil hydraulic parameters from disturbed samples data can be greatly enhanced if a characterisation performed on undisturbed cores of the same type of soil is available. In this study, an experimental procedure for deriving maps of soil hydraulic behaviour is discussed with reference to its application in an irrigation district (30 km2 in southern Italy. The main steps of the proposed procedure are: i the precise identification of soil hydraulic functions from undisturbed sampling of main horizons in representative profiles for each soil map unit; ii the determination of pore-size distribution curves from larger disturbed sampling data sets within the same soil map unit. iii the calibration of physical-empirical methods for retrieving soil hydraulic parameters from particle-size data and undisturbed soil sample analysis; iv the definition of functional hydraulic properties from water balance output; and v the delimitation of soil hydraulic map units based on functional properties.

  19. Estimation of radioactivity in some sand and soil samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Monika; Chauhan, R.P.; Garg, Ajay; Kumar, Sushil; Sonkawade, R.G.

    2010-01-01

    Natural radioactivity is composed of the cosmogenic and primordial radionuclides. It is common in the rocks and soil that make up our planet, water and oceans, and in our building materials and homes. Natural radioactivity in sand and soils comes from 238 U and 232 Th series and natural 40 K. Radon is formed from the decay of radium which in turn is formed from uranium. The gaseous radioactive isotope of radon from natural sources has a significant share in the total quantum of natural sources exposure to the human bwings. Gamma radiation from 238 U, 232 Th and 40 K represents the main external source of irradiation of the human body. In the present study, the activity for 238 U, 232 Th and 40 K is found to vary from 45 ± 1.2 to 97 ± 4.9 Bq/kg, 63 ± 2.0 to 132 ± 3.2 Bq/kg and 492 ± 5.9 to 1110 ± 10.5 Bq/kg, respectively in the soil samples while the variations have been observed from 63 ± 3.8 to 65 ± 3.7 Bq/kg, 86 ±2.5 to 96 ± 2.6 Bq/kg and 751 ± 7.7 to 824 ± 8.2 Bq/kg, respectively in the sand samples. (author)

  20. Determination of radiostrontium in soil samples using a crown ether

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vajda, N; Ghods-Esphahani, A; Danesi, P R [International Atomic Energy Agency, Agency' s Laboratories, Chemistry Unit, PCI Laboratory, Seibersdorf (Austria)

    1995-07-01

    A simple and rapid method has been developed for the separation and successive determination of total radiostrontium in soil. The method consists of three basic steps: oxalate precipitation to remove bulk potassium, chromatographic separation of strontium from most inactive and radioactive interferences utilizing a crown ether (Sr. Spec, EIChroM Industries, II. USA), oxalate precipitation of strontium to evaluate the chemical yield. Radiostrontium is then determined by liquid scintillation counting of the dissolved precipitate. When 10 g samples of soil are used the sensitivity of the method is about 10 Bq/kg. The chemical yield is about 80%. The separation and determination of radiostrontium can be carried out in about 8 hours. (author)

  1. Determination of radiostrontium in soil samples using a crown ether

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vajda, N.; Ghods-Esphahani, A.; Danesi, P.R.

    1995-01-01

    A simple and rapid method has been developed for the separation and successive determination of total radiostrontium in soil. The method consists of three basic steps: oxalate precipitation to remove bulk potassium, chromatographic separation of strontium from most inactive and radioactive interferences utilizing a crown ether (Sr. Spec, EIChroM Industries, II. USA), oxalate precipitation of strontium to evaluate the chemical yield. Radiostrontium is then determined by liquid scintillation counting of the dissolved precipitate. When 10 g samples of soil are used the sensitivity of the method is about 10 Bq/kg. The chemical yield is about 80%. The separation and determination of radiostrontium can be carried out in about 8 hours. (author)

  2. Dynamics of mineral N, water-soluble carbon and potential nitrification in band-steamed arable soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elsgaard, Lars

    2010-01-01

    the effect of band-steaming on N and C dynamics in a sandy loam soil that was steamed in situ to maximal temperatures of 70-90°C using a prototype band-steamer. Soil samples (0-5 cm depth) were collected during 90 days from band-steamed soil, undisturbed control soil, and control soil treated just...

  3. An evaluation of soil sampling for 137Cs using various field-sampling volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyhan, J W; White, G C; Schofield, T G; Trujillo, G

    1983-05-01

    The sediments from a liquid effluent receiving area at the Los Alamos National Laboratory and soils from an intensive study area in the fallout pathway of Trinity were sampled for 137Cs using 25-, 500-, 2500- and 12,500-cm3 field sampling volumes. A highly replicated sampling program was used to determine mean concentrations and inventories of 137Cs at each site, as well as estimates of spatial, aliquoting, and counting variance components of the radionuclide data. The sampling methods were also analyzed as a function of soil size fractions collected in each field sampling volume and of the total cost of the program for a given variation in the radionuclide survey results. Coefficients of variation (CV) of 137Cs inventory estimates ranged from 0.063 to 0.14 for Mortandad Canyon sediments, whereas CV values for Trinity soils were observed from 0.38 to 0.57. Spatial variance components of 137Cs concentration data were usually found to be larger than either the aliquoting or counting variance estimates and were inversely related to field sampling volume at the Trinity intensive site. Subsequent optimization studies of the sampling schemes demonstrated that each aliquot should be counted once, and that only 2-4 aliquots out of as many as 30 collected need be assayed for 137Cs. The optimization studies showed that as sample costs increased to 45 man-hours of labor per sample, the variance of the mean 137Cs concentration decreased dramatically, but decreased very little with additional labor.

  4. Determination of total organic phosphorus in samples of mineral soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armi Kaila

    1962-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper some observations on the estimation of organic phosphorus in mineral soils are reported. The fact is emphasized that the accuracy of all the methods available is relatively poor. Usually, there are no reasons to pay attention to differences less than about 20 ppm. of organic P. Analyses performed on 345 samples of Finnish mineral soils by the extraction method of MEHTA et. al. (10 and by a simple procedure adopted by the author (successive extractions with 4 N H2SO4 and 0.5 N NaOH at room temperature in the ratio of 1 to 100 gave, on the average, equal results. It seemed to be likely that the MEHTA method removed the organic phosphorus more completely than did the less vigorous method, but in the former the partial hydrolysis of organic phosphorus compounds tends to be higher than in the latter. An attempt was made to find out whether the differences between the respective values for organic phosphorus obtained by an ignition method and the simple extraction method could be connected with any characteristics of the soil. No correlation or only a low correlation coefficient could be calculated between the difference in the results of these two methods and e. g. the pH-value, the content of clay, organic carbon, aluminium and iron soluble in Tamm’s acid oxalate, the indicator of the phosphate sorption capacity, or the »Fe-bound» inorganic phosphorus, respectively. The absolute difference tended to increase with an increase in the content of organic phosphorus. For the 250 samples of surface soils analyzed, the ignition method gave values which were, on the average, about 50 ppm. higher than the results obtained by the extraction procedure. The corresponding difference for the 120 samples from deeper layers was about 20 ppm of organic P. The author recommends, for the present, the determination of the total soil organic phosphorus as an average of the results obtained by the ignition method and the extraction method.

  5. Field sampling of residual aviation gasoline in sandy soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostendorf, D.W.; Hinlein, E.S.; Yuefeng, Xie; Leach, L.E.

    1991-01-01

    Two complementary field sampling methods for the determination of residual aviation gasoline content in the contaminated capillary fringe of a fine, uniform, sandy soil were investigated. The first method featured field extrusion of core barrels into pint-size Mason jars, while the second consisted of laboratory partitioning of intact stainless steel core sleeves. Soil samples removed from the Mason jars (in the field) and sleeve segments (in the laboratory) were subjected to methylene chloride extraction and gas chromatographic analysis to compare their aviation gasoline content. The barrel extrusion sampling method yielded a vertical profile with 0.10m resolution over an essentially continuous 5.0m interval from the ground surface to the water table. The sleeve segment alternative yielded a more resolved 0.03m vertical profile over a shorter 0.8m interval through the capillary fringe. The two methods delivered precise estimates of the vertically integrated mass of aviation gasoline at a given horizontal location, and a consistent view of the vertical profile as well. In the latter regard, a 0.2m thick lens of maximum contamination was found in the center of the capillary fringe, where moisture filled all voids smaller than the mean pore size. The maximum peak was resolved by the core sleeve data, but was partially obscured by the barrel extrusion observations, so that replicate barrels or a half-pint Mason jar size should be considered for data supporting vertical transport analyses in the absence of sleeve partitions

  6. Results of Soil Vapor Sampling at SA 6, McClellan Air Force Base, California

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1998-01-01

    ...) and total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) contamination in site soil. The soil vapor sampling event was performed in accordance with the Final Sampling and Analysis Plan to Support Recommendation for No Further Investigation at SA 6 (Parsons ES, 1998...

  7. Comparison of soil solution sampling techniques to assess metal fluxes from contaminated soil to groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutelot, F; Sappin-Didier, V; Keller, C; Atteia, O

    2014-12-01

    The unsaturated zone plays a major role in elemental fluxes in terrestrial ecosystems. A representative chemical analysis of soil pore water is required for the interpretation of soil chemical phenomena and particularly to assess Trace Elements (TEs) mobility. This requires an optimal sampling system to avoid modification of the extracted soil water chemistry and allow for an accurate estimation of solute fluxes. In this paper, the chemical composition of soil solutions sampled by Rhizon® samplers connected to a standard syringe was compared to two other types of suction probes (Rhizon® + vacuum tube and Rhizon® + diverted flow system). We investigated the effects of different vacuum application procedures on concentrations of spiked elements (Cr, As, Zn) mixed as powder into the first 20 cm of 100-cm columns and non-spiked elements (Ca, Na, Mg) concentrations in two types of columns (SiO2 sand and a mixture of kaolinite + SiO2 sand substrates). Rhizon® was installed at different depths. The metals concentrations showed that (i) in sand, peak concentrations cannot be correctly sampled, thus the flux cannot be estimated, and the errors can easily reach a factor 2; (ii) in sand + clay columns, peak concentrations were larger, indicating that they could be sampled but, due to sorption on clay, it was not possible to compare fluxes at different depths. The different samplers tested were not able to reflect the elemental flux to groundwater and, although the Rhizon® + syringe device was more accurate, the best solution remains to be the use of a lysimeter, whose bottom is kept continuously at a suction close to the one existing in the soil.

  8. Chemical and geotechnical analyses of soil samples from Olkiluoto for studies on sorption in soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lusa, M.; Aemmaelae, K.; Hakanen, M.; Lehto, J.; Lahdenperae, A.-M.

    2009-05-01

    The safety assessment of disposal of spent nuclear fuel will include an estimate on the behavior of nuclear waste nuclides in the biosphere. As a part of this estimate also the transfer of nuclear waste nuclides in the soil and sediments is to be considered. In this study soil samples were collected from three excavator pits in Olkiluoto and the geotechnical and chemical characteristics of the samples were determined. In later stage these results will be used in sorption tests. Aim of these tests is to determine the Kd-values for Cs, Tc and I and later for Mo, Nb and Cl. Results of these sorption tests will be reported later. The geotechnical characteristics studied included dry weight and organic matter content as well as grain size distribution and mineralogy analyses. Selective extractions were carried out to study the sorption of cations into different mineral types. The extractions included five steps in which the cations bound to exchangeable, carbonate, oxides of Fe and Mn, organic matter and residual fractions were determined. For all fractions ICPMS analyses were carried out. In these analyses Li, Na, Mg, K, Ca, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Sr, Mo, Cd, Cs and Pb were determined. In addition six profiles were taken from the surroundings of two excavator pits for the 137 Cs determination. Besides the samples taken for the characterization of soil, supplement samples were taken from the same layers for the separation of soil water. From the soil water pH, DOC, anions (F, Cl, NO 3 , SO 4 ) and cations (Na, Mg, K, Ca, Al, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, S, Cd, Cs, Pb, U) were determined. (orig.)

  9. Saturation and porosity measurements of different soil samples by gamma ray transmission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akbal, S.; Filiz Baytas, A.

    2000-01-01

    Gamma-ray transmission methods have been used accurately for the study of the properties of soil samples. In this study, the soil samples were collected from various regions of Turkey and a Nal (TI) detector measured the attenuation of strongly collimated monoenergetic gamma beam (from Cs-137) through soil samples. The water saturation and porosity were therefore calculated from the transmission measurements for each soil sample. (authors)

  10. Soil Microbial Functional and Fungal Diversity as Influenced by Municipal Sewage Sludge Accumulation

    OpenAIRE

    Frąc, Magdalena; Oszust, Karolina; Lipiec, Jerzy; Jezierska-Tys, Stefania; Nwaichi, Eucharia Oluchi

    2014-01-01

    Safe disposal of municipal sewage sludge is a challenging global environmental concern. The aim of this study was to assess the response of soil microbial functional diversity to the accumulation of municipal sewage sludge during landfill storage. Soil samples of a municipal sewage sludge (SS) and from a sewage sludge landfill that was 3 m from a SS landfill (SS3) were analyzed relative to an undisturbed reference soil. Biolog EcoPlatesTM were inoculated with a soil suspension, and the Avera...

  11. Photoacoustic FTIR spectroscopic study of undisturbed nacre from red abalone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Devendra; Katti, Kalpana; Katti, Dinesh

    2006-07-01

    In this work, photoacoustic Fourier transform infrared (PA-FTIR) spectroscopy has been utilized to study interfacial interactions of undisturbed nacre and nacre powder from red abalone shell. The spectra of both undisturbed nacre and nacre powder showed characteristic bands of aragonite and proteins. Although nacre powder and undisturbed nacre are chemically identical, PA-FTIR spectrum of undisturbed nacre is found to be significantly different from that of nacre powder. A broad and strong band is observed at around 1485 cm -1 in nacre powder. The intensity of this band is notably reduced in undisturbed nacre. This result is explained on the basis of interfacial interactions between aragonite platelets and acidic proteins. It is also observed that band at around 1788 cm -1 originates from three overlapping bands 1797, 1787 and 1778 cm -1. The band at around 1787 cm -1 is assigned to C dbnd O stretching of carboxylate groups of acidic proteins. The other two bands at 1797 and 1778 cm -1, originate from aragonite and have been assigned to combination bands, ν 3 + ν 4a and ν 3 + ν 4b, respectively. For the study of stratification in undisturbed nacre, PA-FTIR spectra have been collected in step scan mode. The variation in spectra with depth can be attributed to changes in conformation of proteins as well as interfacial interactions.

  12. Estimates of soil erosion using cesium-137 tracer models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saç, M M; Uğur, A; Yener, G; Ozden, B

    2008-01-01

    The soil erosion was studied by 137Cs technique in Yatagan basin in Western Turkey, where there exist intensive agricultural activities. This region is subject to serious soil loss problems and yet there is not any erosion data towards soil management and control guidelines. During the soil survey studies, the soil profiles were examined carefully to select the reference points. The soil samples were collected from the slope facets in three different study areas (Kirtas, Peynirli and Kayisalan Hills). Three different models were applied for erosion rate calculations in undisturbed and cultivated sites. The profile distribution model (PDM) was used for undisturbed soils, while proportional model (PM) and simplified mass balance model (SMBM) were used for cultivated soils. The mean annual erosion rates found using PDM in undisturbed soils were 15 t ha(-1) year(-1) at the Peynirli Hill and 27 t ha(-1) year(-1) at the Kirtas Hill. With the PM and SMBM in cultivated soils at Kayişalan, the mean annual erosion rates were obtained to be 65 and 116 t ha(-1) year(-1), respectively. The results of 137Cs technique were compared with the results of the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE).

  13. 14CO2 analysis of soil gas: Evaluation of sample size limits and sampling devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wotte, Anja; Wischhöfer, Philipp; Wacker, Lukas; Rethemeyer, Janet

    2017-12-01

    Radiocarbon (14C) analysis of CO2 respired from soils or sediments is a valuable tool to identify different carbon sources. The collection and processing of the CO2, however, is challenging and prone to contamination. We thus continuously improve our handling procedures and present a refined method for the collection of even small amounts of CO2 in molecular sieve cartridges (MSCs) for accelerator mass spectrometry 14C analysis. Using a modified vacuum rig and an improved desorption procedure, we were able to increase the CO2 recovery from the MSC (95%) as well as the sample throughput compared to our previous study. By processing series of different sample size, we show that our MSCs can be used for CO2 samples of as small as 50 μg C. The contamination by exogenous carbon determined in these laboratory tests, was less than 2.0 μg C from fossil and less than 3.0 μg C from modern sources. Additionally, we tested two sampling devices for the collection of CO2 samples released from soils or sediments, including a respiration chamber and a depth sampler, which are connected to the MSC. We obtained a very promising, low process blank for the entire CO2 sampling and purification procedure of ∼0.004 F14C (equal to 44,000 yrs BP) and ∼0.003 F14C (equal to 47,000 yrs BP). In contrast to previous studies, we observed no isotopic fractionation towards lighter δ13C values during the passive sampling with the depth samplers.

  14. Analysis of core samples from jet grouted soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allan, M.L.; Kukacka, L.E.

    1995-10-01

    Superplasticized cementitious grouts were tested for constructing subsurface containment barriers using jet grouting in July, 1994. The grouts were developed in the Department of Applied Science at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The test site was located close to the Chemical Waste Landfill at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM. Sandia was responsible for the placement contract. The jet grouted soil was exposed to the service environment for one year and core samples were extracted to evaluate selected properties. The cores were tested for strength, density, permeability (hydraulic conductivity) and cementitious content. The tests provided an opportunity to determine the performance of the grouts and grout-treated soil. Several recommendations arise from the results of the core tests. These are: (1) grout of the same mix proportions as the final grout should be used as a drilling fluid in order to preserve the original mix design and utilize the benefits of superplasticizers; (2) a high shear mixer should be used for preparation of the grout; (3) the permeability under unsaturated conditions requires consideration when subsurface barriers are used in the vadose zone; and (4) suitable methods for characterizing the permeability of barriers in-situ should be applied

  15. Behaviour of long-lived radionuclides in soil-plant systems of the Mediterranean region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apostolakis, C.; Papanicolaou, E.

    1993-01-01

    The objectives of the project are the selection of regions in Greece with high degree of contamination and sampling of the main soil types - in various depths - and of the cultivated or indigenous plants grown on them; determination of the physicochemical parameters of the soil samples and the radionuclide concentration, especially of 137 Cs, in the soil and plant samples; greenhouse experimentation with selected soil types and main agricultural crops to establish uptake rates, and laboratory studies to investigate translocation of radionuclides within undisturbed soil columns; correlation of analytical and experimental data and calculation of transfer factors from soil to plants and various products. (R.P.) 12 refs

  16. Heavy metal levels in soil samples from highly industrialized Lagos ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anyakora

    2013-09-05

    Sep 5, 2013 ... The effect of heavy metals on the environment is of serious concern and threatens life in all forms. Environmental ... have affected the quality of soil due to contamination of soil with heavy metals and the consequent effects on the ..... tested for remediation of chromium-contaminated soils. (Collen, 2003).

  17. Soil sampling in emergency situations; Amostragem de solos em situacoes de emergencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Zenildo Lara de [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Ramos Junior, Anthenor Costa [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Superintendencia de Licenciamento e Controle

    1997-12-31

    The soil sampling methods used in Goiania`s accident (1987) by the environmental team of Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN) are described. The development of this method of soil sampling to a emergency sampling method used in a Nuclear Emergency Exercise in Angra dos Reis Reactor Site (1991) is presented. A new method for soil sampling based on a Chernobyl environmental monitoring experience (1995) is suggested. (author) 15 refs.

  18. Effects of soil water saturation on sampling equilibrium and kinetics of selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Pil-Gon; Roh, Ji-Yeon; Hong, Yongseok; Kwon, Jung-Hwan

    2017-10-01

    Passive sampling can be applied for measuring the freely dissolved concentration of hydrophobic organic chemicals (HOCs) in soil pore water. When using passive samplers under field conditions, however, there are factors that might affect passive sampling equilibrium and kinetics, such as soil water saturation. To determine the effects of soil water saturation on passive sampling, the equilibrium and kinetics of passive sampling were evaluated by observing changes in the distribution coefficient between sampler and soil (K sampler/soil ) and the uptake rate constant (k u ) at various soil water saturations. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) passive samplers were deployed into artificial soils spiked with seven selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). In dry soil (0% water saturation), both K sampler/soil and k u values were much lower than those in wet soils likely due to the contribution of adsorption of PAHs onto soil mineral surfaces and the conformational changes in soil organic matter. For high molecular weight PAHs (chrysene, benzo[a]pyrene, and dibenzo[a,h]anthracene), both K sampler/soil and k u values increased with increasing soil water saturation, whereas they decreased with increasing soil water saturation for low molecular weight PAHs (phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, and pyrene). Changes in the sorption capacity of soil organic matter with soil water content would be the main cause of the changes in passive sampling equilibrium. Henry's law constant could explain the different behaviors in uptake kinetics of the selected PAHs. The results of this study would be helpful when passive samplers are deployed under various soil water saturations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Soil Sampling Plan for the transuranic storage area soil overburden and final report: Soil overburden sampling at the RWMC transuranic storage area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanisich, S.N.

    1994-12-01

    This Soil Sampling Plan (SSP) has been developed to provide detailed procedural guidance for field sampling and chemical and radionuclide analysis of selected areas of soil covering waste stored at the Transuranic Storage Area (TSA) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory's (INEL) Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). The format and content of this SSP represents a complimentary hybrid of INEL Waste Management--Environmental Restoration Program, and Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) sampling guidance documentation. This sampling plan also functions as a Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPP). The QAPP as a controlling mechanism during sampling to ensure that all data collected are valid, reliabile, and defensible. This document outlines organization, objectives and quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) activities to achieve the desired data quality goals. The QA/QC requirements for this project are outlined in the Data Collection Quality Assurance Plan (DCQAP) for the Buried Waste Program. The DCQAP is a program plan and does not outline the site specific requirements for the scope of work covered by this SSP

  20. Changes in soil hydraulic properties caused by construction of a simulated waste trench at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shakofsky, S.

    1995-03-01

    In order to assess the effect of filled waste disposal trenches on transport-governing soil properties, comparisons were made between profiles of undisturbed soil and disturbed soil in a simulated waste trench. The changes in soil properties induced by the construction of a simulated waste trench were measured near the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) in the semiarid southeast region of Idaho. The soil samples were collected, using a hydraulically-driven sampler to minimize sample disruption, from both a simulated waste trench and an undisturbed area nearby. Results show that the undisturbed profile has distinct layers whose properties differ significantly, whereas the soil profile in the simulated waste trench is, by comparison, homogeneous. Porosity was increased in the disturbed cores, and, correspondingly, saturated hydraulic conductivities were on average three times higher. With higher soil-moisture contents (greater than 0.32), unsaturated hydraulic conductivities for the undisturbed cores were typically greater than those for the disturbed cores. With lower moisture contents, most of the disturbed cores had greater hydraulic conductivities. The observed differences in hydraulic conductivities are interpreted and discussed as changes in the soil pore geometry

  1. Soil-gas phase transport and structure parameters for soils under different management regimes and at two moisture levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eden, Marie; Møldrup, Per; Schjønning, Per

    2012-01-01

    Measurements of diffusive and convective gas transport parameters can be used to describe soil functional architecture and reveal key factors for soil structure development. Undisturbed 100-cm(3) soil samples were sampled at the Long-term Research on Agricultural Systems experiment located...... displayed markedly lower D-P/D-0 values at similar air-filled porosity, illustrating soil structure effects on D-P/D-0. The Currie tortuosity-connectivity parameter, X=Log(D-P/D-0)/Log(epsilon), decreased with increasing bulk density in the intact samples at both moisture conditions, suggesting less...

  2. Soil map disaggregation improved by soil-landscape relationships, area-proportional sampling and random forest implementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Anders Bjørn; Malone, Brendan P.; Odgers, Nathan

    implementation generally improved the algorithm’s ability to predict the correct soil class. The implementation of soil-landscape relationships and area-proportional sampling generally increased the calculation time, while the random forest implementation reduced the calculation time. In the most successful......Detailed soil information is often needed to support agricultural practices, environmental protection and policy decisions. Several digital approaches can be used to map soil properties based on field observations. When soil observations are sparse or missing, an alternative approach...... is to disaggregate existing conventional soil maps. At present, the DSMART algorithm represents the most sophisticated approach for disaggregating conventional soil maps (Odgers et al., 2014). The algorithm relies on classification trees trained from resampled points, which are assigned classes according...

  3. Assessment of soil sample quality used for density evaluations through computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pires, Luiz F.; Arthur, Robson C.J.; Bacchi, Osny O.S.

    2005-01-01

    There are several methods to measure soil bulk density (ρ s ) like the paraffin sealed clod (PS), the volumetric ring (VR), the computed tomography (CT), and the neutron-gamma surface gauge (SG). In order to evaluate by a non-destructive way the possible modifications in soil structure caused by sampling for the PS and VR methods of ρ s evaluation we proposed to use the gamma ray CT method. A first generation tomograph was used having a 241 Am source and a 3 in x 3 in NaI(Tl) scintillation crystal detector coupled to a photomultiplier tube. Results confirm the effect of soil sampler devices on the structure of soil samples, and that the compaction caused during sampling causes significant alterations of soil bulk density. Through the use of CT it was possible to determine the level of compaction and to make a detailed analysis of the soil bulk density distribution within the soil sample. (author)

  4. Isotope determination of sulfur by mass spectrometry in soil samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexssandra Luiza Rodrigues Molina Rossete

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Sulphur plays an essential role in plants and is one of the main nutrients in several metabolic processes. It has four stable isotopes (32S, 33S, 34S, and 36S with a natural abundance of 95.00, 0.76, 4.22, and 0.014 in atom %, respectively. A method for isotopic determination of S by isotope-ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS in soil samples is proposed. The procedure involves the oxidation of organic S to sulphate (S-SO4(2-, which was determined by dry combustion with alkaline oxidizing agents. The total S-SO4(2- concentration was determined by turbidimetry and the results showed that the conversion process was adequate. To produce gaseous SO2 gas, BaSO4 was thermally decomposed in a vacuum system at 900 ºC in the presence of NaPO3. The isotope determination of S (atom % 34S atoms was carried out by isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS. In this work, the labeled material (K2(34SO4 was used to validate the method of isotopic determination of S; the results were precise and accurate, showing the viability of the proposed method.

  5. The behavior of radioactive 137Cs and stable Cs at the isolated undisturbed mountain pond in Fukui, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwamoto, Kazumi; Kimura, Makio; Ando, Kenji; Amano, Hikaru

    2003-01-01

    The behavior of radioactive 137 Cs and stable Cs at the isolated undisturbed mountain pond in Fukui, Japan was studied for the pond water, the sedimentary grains and the soil near the pond. The concentrations of 137 Cs and stable Cs in the pond water ranged from 0.23 to 0.85 Bq/m 3 and from 0.005 to 0.018 mg/m 3 , respectively. The sedimentary grains were sorted by sieving into fractions with diameter from 2 mm to less than 38 μm. The concentrations of 137 Cs and stable Cs in the sorted grains were measured, and those of the adsorbed state were determined by subtracting the concentration of the grain matrix. The adsorbed concentrations increased with decrease in particle diameter and depended less on the kind of samples. The in-situ distribution coefficient Kd depended largely on particle diameter and increased with the decrease in diameter. The values of Kd ranged from about 20 to 1200 m 3 /kg for stable Cs and about 15 to 1000 m 3 /kg for 137 Cs, and the Kd of 137 Cs seemed to be slightly smaller than that of stable Cs. The concentration of stable Cs in the sedimentary mud was found to be close to that of the fine grains. The concentrations of stable Cs in the soil near the pond was about 7.7 mg/kg, and that of 137 Cs was about 0.6 kBq/kg for the surface layer soil and decreased with increase in soil depth. (author)

  6. Comparison of in situ gamma soil analysis and soil sampling data for mapping 241Am and 239Pu soil concentrations at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirby, J.A.; Anspaugh, L.R.; Phelps, P.L.; Huckabay, G.W.; Markwell, F.; Barnes, M.

    1976-01-01

    Soil sampling and in situ 241 Am-gamma counting with an array of four high purity, planar, Ge detectors are compared as means of determining soil concentration contours of plutonium and their associated uncertainties. Results of this survey, which covered an area of approximately 300,000 m 2 , indicate that with one-third the number of sampling locations, the in situ gamma survey provided soil concentration contours with confidence intervals that were about one-third as wide as those obtained with soil sampling. The methods of the survey are described and a discussion of advantages and limitations of both methods is given

  7. Comparison of in situ gamma soil analysis and soil sampling data for mapping 241Am and 239Pu soil concentrations at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirby, J.A.; Anspaugh, L.R.; Phelps, P.L.; Huckabay, G.W.; Markwell, F.R.; Barnes, M.G.

    1977-01-01

    Soil sampling and in situ 241 Am-gamma counting with an array of four high-purity, planar, Ge detectors are compared as means of determining soil concentration contours of plutonium and their associated uncertainties. Results of this survey, which covered an area of approximately 300,000 m 2 , indicate that with one-third the number of sampling locations, the in situ gamma survey provided soil concentration contours with confidence intervals that were about one-third as wide as those obtained with soil sampling. The methods of the survey are described and a discussion of advantages and limitations of both methods is given

  8. Characterisation of a reference site for quantifying uncertainties related to soil sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbizzi, Sabrina; Zorzi, Paolo de; Belli, Maria; Pati, Alessandra; Sansone, Umberto; Stellato, Luisa; Barbina, Maria; Deluisa, Andrea; Menegon, Sandro; Coletti, Valter

    2004-01-01

    An integrated approach to quality assurance in soil sampling remains to be accomplished. - The paper reports a methodology adopted to face problems related to quality assurance in soil sampling. The SOILSAMP project, funded by the Environmental Protection Agency of Italy (APAT), is aimed at (i) establishing protocols for soil sampling in different environments; (ii) assessing uncertainties associated with different soil sampling methods in order to select the 'fit-for-purpose' method; (iii) qualifying, in term of trace elements spatial variability, a reference site for national and international inter-comparison exercises. Preliminary results and considerations are illustrated

  9. Kinetics of exchange of a tracer in soil and clay samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zanotti, J.C.; Facetti, J.F.

    1971-01-01

    The kinetics of exchange of a Na tracer in soil and clay samples, provides with a reliable and convenient method for the determination of the different soil fraction ahd their CEC values, In addition, the analysis of the exchanges curves can be used for the identification of the clay present in the soil

  10. Kinetics of exchange of a tracer in soil and clay samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zanotti, J C; Facetti, J F [Asuncion Nacional Univ. (Paraguay). Inst. de Ciencias

    1971-01-01

    The kinetics of exchange of a Na tracer in soil and clay samples, provides with a reliable and convenient method for the determination of the different soil fraction ahd their CEC values, In addition, the analysis of the exchanges curves can be used for the identification of the clay present in the soil.

  11. Measuring environmental change in forest ecosystems by repeated soil sampling: A North American perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory B. Lawrence; Ivan J. Fernandez; Daniel D. Richter; Donald S. Ross; Paul W. Hazlett; Scott W. Bailey; Rock Ouimet; Richard A. F. Warby; Arthur H. Johnson; Henry Lin; James M. Kaste; Andrew G. Lapenis; Timothy J. Sullivan

    2013-01-01

    Environmental change is monitored in North America through repeated measurements of weather, stream and river flow, air and water quality, and most recently, soil properties. Some skepticism remains, however, about whether repeated soil sampling can effectively distinguish between temporal and spatial variability, and efforts to document soil change in forest...

  12. Extraction and analysis of 14C-carbofuran radioactivity in soil sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maizatul Akmam Mhd Nasir; Nashriyah Mat

    2005-01-01

    Carbofuran insecticide or nematicide sprayed onto soil in the agroecosystem will be taken up by plant. Carbofuran residue will pollute the environment and organisms in the food chain. Extraction and analysis of 14 C-carbofuran in soil from lysimeter were carried out. The Liquid Scintillation Counter (LSC) was used to measure radioactivity of 14 C-carbofuran in soil sample. (Author)

  13. Elemental contents in soil samples in Wad Hamid, River Nile State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammed, Khansaa Elawad Elhag

    2016-03-01

    In the present study a total of 30 samples were collected from Wad Hamid River Nile State. Sampling area of (two feddan) of agricultural soil. The sampling area was divided in two locations (fertile and non fertile soil). The samples were analyzed for their content of 13 elements (K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, and Np). 10 samples from location 1 (non-fertile soil) and 20 samples from location 2 (fertile soil). X-ray fluorescence (X RF) Spectrometer (system used based on 1"0"9"Cd excitation 1"0"9"Cd source which has an average energy of 22.6 kev and able to excite the elements from Z = 13 to 92 using K and L lines) used to identify the elemental concentration in soil samples. The reliability of X RF technique as multi elements detecting method for measuring elements concentration in soil sample , (IAEA-SOIL-7) standard reference material was used. Measured values found in agreement with the certified values. The average elemental concentration of K,Ca, Ti, Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb, Sr, Y, Zr, and Np in location 1 were 878, 29690, 13400, 983, 70380, 10.07, 19.07, 40.92,261.4, 23.59,294.8, 47.82, while the average elemental concentration in location 2 were 9848, 27780, 13076,13076,989, 68135, 9.6, 96.3 19.86, 43.7, 225.5, 22.49, 284.75, 46.15, respectively. comparison between the average elemental concentration in fertile soil and non-fertile was done correlations between element were performed Cluster analyses of element in soil samples were obtained comparison between this study and data from literature were done. The elemental concentration in location 1 (non- fertile soil) are higher than location 2 ( fertile soil) because the plant absorbed fertilizer of soil and transfer most elements in soil to plant. (Author)

  14. Measurement of radioactivity in the environment - Soil - Part 2: Guidance for the selection of the sampling strategy, sampling and pre-treatment of samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    This part of ISO 18589 specifies the general requirements, based on ISO 11074 and ISO/IEC 17025, for all steps in the planning (desk study and area reconnaissance) of the sampling and the preparation of samples for testing. It includes the selection of the sampling strategy, the outline of the sampling plan, the presentation of general sampling methods and equipment, as well as the methodology of the pre-treatment of samples adapted to the measurements of the activity of radionuclides in soil. This part of ISO 18589 is addressed to the people responsible for determining the radioactivity present in soil for the purpose of radiation protection. It is applicable to soil from gardens, farmland, urban or industrial sites, as well as soil not affected by human activities. This part of ISO 18589 is applicable to all laboratories regardless of the number of personnel or the range of the testing performed. When a laboratory does not undertake one or more of the activities covered by this part of ISO 18589, such as planning, sampling or testing, the corresponding requirements do not apply. Information is provided on scope, normative references, terms and definitions and symbols, principle, sampling strategy, sampling plan, sampling process, pre-treatment of samples and recorded information. Five annexes inform about selection of the sampling strategy according to the objectives and the radiological characterization of the site and sampling areas, diagram of the evolution of the sample characteristics from the sampling site to the laboratory, example of sampling plan for a site divided in three sampling areas, example of a sampling record for a single/composite sample and example for a sample record for a soil profile with soil description. A bibliography is provided

  15. Random sampling or geostatistical modelling? Choosing between design-based and model-based sampling strategies for soil (with discussion)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brus, D.J.; Gruijter, de J.J.

    1997-01-01

    Classical sampling theory has been repeatedly identified with classical statistics which assumes that data are identically and independently distributed. This explains the switch of many soil scientists from design-based sampling strategies, based on classical sampling theory, to the model-based

  16. Rapid separation method for {sup 237}Np and Pu isotopes in large soil samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maxwell, Sherrod L., E-mail: sherrod.maxwell@srs.go [Savannah River Nuclear Solutions, LLC, Building 735-B, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States); Culligan, Brian K.; Noyes, Gary W. [Savannah River Nuclear Solutions, LLC, Building 735-B, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)

    2011-07-15

    A new rapid method for the determination of {sup 237}Np and Pu isotopes in soil and sediment samples has been developed at the Savannah River Site Environmental Lab (Aiken, SC, USA) that can be used for large soil samples. The new soil method utilizes an acid leaching method, iron/titanium hydroxide precipitation, a lanthanum fluoride soil matrix removal step, and a rapid column separation process with TEVA Resin. The large soil matrix is removed easily and rapidly using these two simple precipitations with high chemical recoveries and effective removal of interferences. Vacuum box technology and rapid flow rates are used to reduce analytical time.

  17. Towards quantitative laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy analysis of soil samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bousquet, B.; Sirven, J.-B.; Canioni, L.

    2007-01-01

    A quantitative analysis of chromium in soil samples is presented. Different emission lines related to chromium are studied in order to select the best one for quantitative features. Important matrix effects are demonstrated from one soil to the other, preventing any prediction of concentration in different soils on the basis of a univariate calibration curve. Finally, a classification of the LIBS data based on a series of Principal Component Analyses (PCA) is applied to a reduced dataset of selected spectral lines related to the major chemical elements in the soils. LIBS data of heterogeneous soils appear to be widely dispersed, which leads to a reconsideration of the sampling step in the analysis process

  18. Study on a pattern classification method of soil quality based on simplified learning sample dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiahua; Liu, S.; Hu, Y.; Tian, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Based on the massive soil information in current soil quality grade evaluation, this paper constructed an intelligent classification approach of soil quality grade depending on classical sampling techniques and disordered multiclassification Logistic regression model. As a case study to determine the learning sample capacity under certain confidence level and estimation accuracy, and use c-means algorithm to automatically extract the simplified learning sample dataset from the cultivated soil quality grade evaluation database for the study area, Long chuan county in Guangdong province, a disordered Logistic classifier model was then built and the calculation analysis steps of soil quality grade intelligent classification were given. The result indicated that the soil quality grade can be effectively learned and predicted by the extracted simplified dataset through this method, which changed the traditional method for soil quality grade evaluation. ?? 2011 IEEE.

  19. Inter comparison of 90Sr and 137Cs contents in biologic samples and natural U in soil samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jianfen; Zeng Guangjian; Lu Xuequan

    2001-01-01

    The results of the 90 Sr and 137 Cs contents in biologic samples and the natural U in soil samples obtained in a joint effort by fourteen environmental radiation laboratories in the Chinese environmental protection system were analyzed and compared. Two kinds of biologic samples and one kind of soil samples were used for inter comparison. Of which, one kind of biologic samples (biologic powder samples) and the soil samples came from the IAEA samples were environmental and the reference values were known. The another kind of biologic samples were environmental tea-leaf that were taken from a tea garden near Hangzhou. The mean values obtained by all the joined laboratories was used as the reference. The inter comparison results were expressed in terms of the deviation from the reference value. It was found that the deviation of the 90 Sr and 137 Cs contents of biologic powder samples ranged from -15.4% to 26.5% and -15.0% to 0.4%, respectively. The deviation of the natural U content ranged from -25.5% to 7.3% for the soil samples. For the tea-leaf, the 90 Sr deviation was -22.7% to 19.1%, and the 137 Cs data had a relative large scatter with a ratio of the maximum and the minimum values being about 7. It was pointed out that the analysis results offered by different laboratories might have involved system errors

  20. How much will afforestation of former cropland influence soil C stocks? A synthesis of paired sampling, chronosequence sampling and repeated sampling studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesterdal, Lars; Hansen, K.; Stupak, I.; Don, Axel; Poeplau, C.; Leifeld, Jens; van Wesemael, Bas

    2010-05-01

    The need for documentation of land-use change effects on soil C is high on the agenda in most signatory countries to the Kyoto Protocol. Large land areas in Europe have experienced land-use change from cropland to forest since 1990 by direct afforestation as well as abandonment and regrowth of marginally productive cropland. Soil C dynamics following land-use change remain highly uncertain due to a limited number of available studies and due to influence of interacting factors such as land use history, soil type, and climate. Common approaches for estimation of potential soil C changes following land-use change are i) paired sampling of plots with a long legacy of different land uses, ii) chronosequence studies of land-use change, and lastly iii) repeated sampling of plots subject to changed land use. This paper will synthesize the quantitative effects of cropland afforestation on soil C sequestration based on all three approaches and will report on related work within Cost 639. Paired plots of forest and cropland were used to study the general differences between soil C stocks in the two land uses. At 27 sites in Denmark distributed among different regions and soil types forest floor and mineral soil were sampled in and around soil pits. Soil C stocks were higher in forest than cropland (mean difference 22 Mg C ha-1 to 1 m depth). This difference was caused solely by the presence of a forest floor in forests; mineral soil C stocks were similar (108 vs. 109 Mg C ha-1) in the two land uses regardless of soil type and the soil layers considered. The chronosequence approach was employed in the AFFOREST project for evaluation of C sequestration in biomass and soils following afforestation of cropland. Two oak (Quercus robur) and four Norway spruce (Picea abies) afforestation chronosequences (age range 1 to 90 years) were studied in Denmark, Sweden and the Netherlands. Forest floor and mineral soil (0-25 cm) C contents were as a minimum unchanged and in most cases there

  1. Cesium-137 and natural radionuclides in soils from southern Brazil and soils and others environmental samples from Antarctic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuch, L.A.

    1993-04-01

    This work presents a study of environmental artificial and natural radioactivity levels in soil samples from the Southern Brazil and in soils and other environmental samples form Antarctica. Artificial radioactivity was determined by measuring Cs-137 which is a 30.1 year half-life man-made radionuclide produced in the past by atmospheric tests of nuclear weapons. Natural radioactivity was determined by measuring some radionuclides belonging to Th-232 and U-238 natural radioactive families, and of K-40 concentrations. Several types of soils from Southern Brazil; and soil samples, marine sediments, lichens, mosses and algae collected at King George and other nearby islands (South Shetland Archipelago, Antarctica) were analyzed. A gamma-ray spectrometer was used to measure radioactivity levels of the collected samples and its overall characteristics are analyzed in this work. (author)

  2. Laboratory analysis of soil hydraulic properties of TA-49 soil samples. Volume I: Report summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-04-01

    The Hydrologic Testing Laboratory at Daniel B. Stephens ampersand Associates, Inc. (DBS ampersand A) has completed laboratory tests on TA-49 soil samples as specified by Mr. Daniel A. James and summarized in Table 1. Tables 2 through 12 give the results of the specified analyses. Raw laboratory data and graphical plots of data (where appropriate) are contained in Appendices A through K. Appendix L lists the methods used in these analyses. A detailed description of each method is available upon request. Thermal properties were calculated using methods reviewed by Campbell and covered in more detail in Appendix K. Typically, soil thermal conductivities are determined using empirical fitting parameters (five in this case), Some assumptions are also made in the equations used to reduce the raw data. In addition to the requested thermal property measurements, calculated values are also presented as the best available internal check on data quality. For both thermal conductivities and specific heats, calculated and measured values are consistent and the functions often cross. Interestingly, measured thermal conductivities tend to be higher than calculated thermal conductivities around typically encountered in situ moisture contents (±5 percent). While we do not venture an explanation of the difference, sensitivity testing of any problem requiring nonisothermal modeling across this range is in order

  3. Fluoride concentrations in soils, vegetation samples and soil fauna in the direct vicinity of a pollution source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogel, J.; Ottow, J.C.G.; Breimer, R.F.

    1989-01-01

    Fluoride analyses CF t = total F; F w = water soluble F and F HCI HCI-extractable F) of different soils, vegetation samples and soil fauna (Helix pomatia, Lumbricus spp., arthropodes) in a locally polluted area (for nearly 65 years) clearly revealed an F-accumulation in top soil, vegetation and animals. Based on 1N HCI-extractable fluoride, two contamination zones around the emitting industry could be identified. In the calcareous soils, leaching of fluoride seems to be insignificant because of a strong immobilization as CaF 2 . A highly significant correlation between the F HCI content of soils and Lumbricus spp. (with and without gut content) or Helix pomatia shells was found. Fluoride concentrations in washed leaves of Hedera helix and in decaying grass reached levels of 306 and 997 μgF/g respectively. Saprophagous soil arthropods contained high fluoride levels, up to 732 μgF/g in Armadillidium vulgare. (orig.)

  4. Decomposition of 14C - malathion in three Brazilian soil samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helene, C.G.; Ruegg, E.F.

    1982-01-01

    The degradation of 14 C-malathion in soil was examined using gas chromatography and radiotracer techniques. About half of the malathion added was degraded within a day in soil from three regions of Brazil. Almost all the radiolabelled material extracted from the Red Latosol (Londrina, PR) was malathion, but metabolites were extracted from the 'Sandy' cerrado soil (Planaltina, DF) and Dark-Red Latosol (Passo Fundo, RS). The proportion of metabolites in the extracts increased until most of the malathion was degraded, after four days. Radiocarbon dioxide was liberated from all three soils at similar rates. When about half of the label had been recovered as carbon dioxide after eight weeks, the rate of evolution diminished. (Author) [pt

  5. The use of gamma ray computed tomography to investigate soil compaction due to core sampling devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pires, Luiz F.; Arthur, Robson C.J.; Correchel, Vladia; Bacchi, Osny O.S.; Reichardt, Klaus; Brasil, Rene P. Camponez do

    2004-01-01

    Compaction processes can influence soil physical properties such as soil density, porosity, pore size distribution, and processes like soil water and nutrient movements, root system distribution, and others. Soil porosity modification has important consequences like alterations in results of soil water retention curves. These alterations may cause differences in soil water storage calculations and matrix potential values, which are utilized in irrigation management systems. Because of this, soil-sampling techniques should avoid alterations of sample structure. In this work soil sample compaction caused by core sampling devices was investigated using the gamma ray computed tomography technique. A first generation tomograph with fixed source-detector arrangement and translation/rotational movements of the sample was utilized to obtain the images. The radioactive source is 241 Am, with an activity of 3.7 GBq, and the detector consists of a 3 in. x 3 in. NaI(Tl) scintillation crystal coupled to a photomultiplier tube. Soil samples were taken from an experimental field utilizing cylinders 4.0 cm high and 2.6 cm in diameter. Based on image analyses it was possible to detect compacted regions in all samples next to the cylinder wall due to the sampling system. Tomographic unit profiles of the sample permitted to identify higher values of soil density for deeper regions of the sample, and it was possible to determine the average densities and thickness of these layers. Tomographic analyses showed to be a very useful tool for soil compaction characterization and presented many advantages in relation to traditional methods. (author)

  6. Planning Considerations Related to Collecting and Analyzing Samples of the Martian Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Mellon, Mike T.; Ming, Douglas W.; Morris, Richard V.; Noble, Sarah K.; Sullivan, Robert J.; Taylor, Lawrence A.; Beaty, David W.

    2014-01-01

    The Mars Sample Return (MSR) End-to-End International Science Analysis Group (E2E-iSAG [1]) established scientific objectives associ-ated with Mars returned-sample science that require the return and investigation of one or more soil samples. Soil is defined here as loose, unconsolidated materials with no implication for the presence or absence of or-ganic components. The proposed Mars 2020 (M-2020) rover is likely to collect and cache soil in addition to rock samples [2], which could be followed by future sample retrieval and return missions. Here we discuss key scientific consid-erations for sampling and caching soil samples on the proposed M-2020 rover, as well as the state in which samples would need to be preserved when received by analysts on Earth. We are seeking feedback on these draft plans as input to mission requirement formulation. A related planning exercise on rocks is reported in an accompanying abstract [3].

  7. The standardization of an apparatus for the mixing of soil samples ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Quantitative determination of nematode populations in soils frequently necessitates the mixing of representative soil samples to form a homogeneous, compound sample from which the nematodes are extracted. A mixing apparatus was developed and standardized with the aid of a spectrophotometric technique by which ...

  8. Measurements of Plutonium and Americium in Soil Samples from Project 57 using the Suspended Soil Particle Sizing System (SSPSS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    John L. Bowen; Rowena Gonzalez; David S. Shafer

    2001-01-01

    As part of the preliminary site characterization conducted for Project 57, soils samples were collected for separation into several size-fractions using the Suspended Soil Particle Sizing System (SSPSS). Soil samples were collected specifically for separation by the SSPSS at three general locations in the deposited Project 57 plume, the projected radioactivity of which ranged from 100 to 600 pCi/g. The primary purpose in focusing on samples with this level of activity is that it would represent anticipated residual soil contamination levels at the site after corrective actions are completed. Consequently, the results of the SSPSS analysis can contribute to dose calculation and corrective action-level determinations for future land-use scenarios at the site

  9. Landscape variation in species diversity and succession as related to topography, soils and human disturbance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffery N. Pearcy; David M. Hix; Stacy A. Drury

    1995-01-01

    Three hundred and thirty-two plots have been sampled on the Wayne National Forest of southeastern Ohio, for the purpose of developing an ecological classification system (ECS). The ECS will be based on the herbaceous and woody vegetation, soils and topography of mature (80-140 year-old), relatively-undisturbed forests. Species diversity changes little across this...

  10. Hydrogeologic Characterization Data from the Area 5 Shallow Soil Trenches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bechtel Nevada Geotechnical Sciences

    2005-01-01

    Four shallow soil trenches excavated in the vicinity of the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site at the Nevada Test Site were sampled in 1994 to characterize important physical and hydrologic parameters which can affect the movement of water in the upper few meters of undisturbed alluvium. This report describes the field collection of geologic samples and the results of laboratory analyses made on these samples. This report provides only qualitative analyses and preliminary interpretations

  11. Cesium-137 inventories in undisturbed areas in different regions of Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrello, Avacir C.; Appoloni, Carlos R., E-mail: acandrello@uel.b [Universidade Estadual de Londrina, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica; Araujo, Ednaldo S. [EMBRAPA Agrobiologia, Seropedica, RJ (Brazil); Thomaz, Edivaldo L. [Universidade Estadual do Centro-Oeste - UNICENTRO, Guarapuava, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Geografia; Medeiros, Pedro Henrique Augusto [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Agricola; Macedo, Iris L. [Universidade de Brasilia (UnB), DF (Brazil). Faculdade de Tecnologia. Dept. de Engenharia Civil e Ambiental

    2009-07-01

    Cesium-137 is an anthropogenic radionuclide introduced in the environment in the early of 1960s to the end of 1970s. The Cesium-137 has very used to assess soil redistribution in the landscape because this is very tight in the fine soil particles and its movement in the landscape is due to soil redistribution. To use Cesium-137 to assess soil redistribution is need to known the Cesium-137 inventory in an area that not has experimented soil erosion neither soil deposition. So, this work present Cesium-137 inventories in undisturbed areas in different regions of Brazil, from South to Northeast of Brazil. The inventories in these areas represent the variational deposition of Cesium-137 in the whole national territory of Brazil. The inventories of Cesium-137 varied from 200 +- 15 Bq.m{sup -2} for South region to 15 +- 2 Bq.m{sup -2} for Northeast region. Moreover, was verified that the Cesium- 137 inventories depend on latitude and altitude of the area. (author)

  12. Cesium-137 inventories in undisturbed areas in different regions of Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrello, Avacir C.; Appoloni, Carlos R.; Thomaz, Edivaldo L.; Medeiros, Pedro Henrique Augusto; Macedo, Iris L.

    2009-01-01

    Cesium-137 is an anthropogenic radionuclide introduced in the environment in the early of 1960s to the end of 1970s. The Cesium-137 has very used to assess soil redistribution in the landscape because this is very tight in the fine soil particles and its movement in the landscape is due to soil redistribution. To use Cesium-137 to assess soil redistribution is need to known the Cesium-137 inventory in an area that not has experimented soil erosion neither soil deposition. So, this work present Cesium-137 inventories in undisturbed areas in different regions of Brazil, from South to Northeast of Brazil. The inventories in these areas represent the variational deposition of Cesium-137 in the whole national territory of Brazil. The inventories of Cesium-137 varied from 200 ± 15 Bq.m -2 for South region to 15 ± 2 Bq.m -2 for Northeast region. Moreover, was verified that the Cesium- 137 inventories depend on latitude and altitude of the area. (author)

  13. Studies and further needed investigations on radioactive contaminants in soil samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belivermis, M.; Kilic, O.; Topcuoglu, S.; Cotuk, Y.; Kalayci, G.; Pestreli, D.

    2009-01-01

    Following the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident, the radionuclides were deposited on the marine and terrestrial environments of Turkey and other countries as wet and / or dry fallout. It is well known that, the soil is the main reservoir at the terrestrial environment. The geographic distribution of the Chernobyl radionuclides per unit area is significantly different. Many countries have drawn radiation maps using the radionuclide data of the soil samples. The radioecological monitoring study in the soil samples are also investigated in the our country. However, the exist data is limited for whole region of Turkey. In general, the type study, that make, in uncultivated soil sample use of different soil layers (0-5, 5-10, 10-20, 20-30 cm). In our previous studies, the activity concentration of gamma emitting radionuclides were determined in soil samples (0-5 cm) from the Thrace (73 sites) and East and South Marmara (100 sites) regions. Moreover, the mean values of the annual effective dose equivalent were also calculated. In literature, numerous studies have been published concerning vertical migration of 1 37Cs in uncultivated soil samples use of different soil types. However, we have not enough data on this subject. On the other hand, we want to present a previously published data on the vertical distribution of 1 37Cs radionuclide in an uncultivated site in the eastern Black Sea region. It is well known that the determination of soil to plant transfer factors of radiocesium that take account all economically crops on the soil varieties is a need to support dose assessment or countermeasure studies. Previously published IAEA reports, we determined transfer factors for some crops of 1 37Cs radionuclides in cultivated soil samples (0-20 cm depth) in the eastern Black Sea region. At the same time, we have given a new project to IAEA for the determination of transfer factor of radiocesium from soil to some crops for Akkuyu Nuclear Power Plant site.

  14. Micro-PIXE evaluation of radioactive cesium transfer in contaminated soil samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujishiro, F.; Ishii, K.; Matsuyama, S.; Arai, H.; Ishizaki, A.; Osada, N.; Sugai, H.; Kusano, K.; Nozawa, Y.; Yamauchi, S.; Karahashi, M.; Oshikawa, S.; Kikuchi, K.; Koshio, S.; Watanabe, K.; Suzuki, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Micro-PIXE analysis has been performed on two soil samples with high cesium activity concentrations. These soil samples were contaminated by fallout from the accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. One exhibits a radioactive cesium transfer of ˜0.01, and the other shows a radioactive cesium transfer of less than 0.001, even though both samples have high cesium activity concentrations exceeding 10,000 Bq/kg. X-ray spectra and elemental images of the soil samples revealed the presence of chlorine, which can react with cesium to produce an inorganic soluble compound, and phosphorus-containing cesium-capturable organic compounds.

  15. A generalized transmission method for gamma-efficiency determinations in soil samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolivar, J.P.; Garcia-Tenorio, R.; Garcia-Leon, M.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, a generalization of the γ-ray transmission method which is useful for measurements on soil samples, for example, is presented. The correction factor, f, is given, which is a function of the apparent density of the soil and the γ-ray energy. With this method, the need for individual determinations of f, for each energy and apparent soil density is avoided. Although the method has been developed for soils, the general philosophy can be applied to other sample matrices, such as water or vegetables for example. (author)

  16. Prevalence of parasites in soil samples in Tehran public places ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results of our findings provide evidence that soil may play an important role in transmission of zoonotic parasite diseases to human. In addition, control of high population of animals such as stray dogs and cats is necessary to reduce the distribution of parasites. Key words: Prevalence, parasites, flotation method, Tehran.

  17. Demonstration of Incremental Sampling Methodology for Soil Containing Metallic Residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    with a three-year rotation schedule. This rotation schedule enabled train- ing areas to be reseeded and rehabilitated prior to continued use. The only...berm was destroyed with the construction of Landfill 7 though some of its soil appears to have been stockpiled nearby. A description of the northern

  18. Stability of mercury concentration measurements in archived soil and peat samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navrátil, Tomáš; Burns, Douglas; Nováková, Tereza; Kaňa, Jiří; Rohovec, Jan; Roll, Michal; Ettler, Vojtěch

    2018-01-01

    Archived soil samples can provide important information on the history of environmental contamination and by comparison with recently collected samples, temporal trends can be inferred. Little previous work has addressed whether mercury (Hg) concentrations in soil samples are stable with long-term storage under standard laboratory conditions. In this study, we have re-analyzed using cold vapor atomic adsorption spectroscopy a set of archived soil samples that ranged from relatively pristine mountainous sites to a polluted site near a non-ferrous metal smelter with a wide range of Hg concentrations (6 - 6485 µg kg-1). Samples included organic and mineral soils and peats with a carbon content that ranged from 0.2 to 47.7%. Soil samples were stored in polyethylene bags or bottles and held in laboratory rooms where temperature was not kept to a constant value. Mercury concentrations in four subsets of samples were originally measured in 2000, 2005, 2006 and 2007, and re-analyzed in 2017, i.e. after 17, 12, 11 and 10 years of storage. Statistical analyses of either separated or lumped data yielded no significant differences between the original and current Hg concentrations. Based on these analyses, we show that archived soil and peat samples can be used to evaluate historical soil mercury contamination.

  19. Field sampling of soil pore water to evaluate trace element mobility and associated environmental risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno-Jimenez, Eduardo, E-mail: eduardo.moreno@uam.es [Departamento de Quimica Agricola, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Beesley, Luke [James Hutton Institute, Craigiebuckler, Aberdeen AB15 8QH (United Kingdom); Lepp, Nicholas W. [35, Victoria Road, Formby, Liverpool L37 7DH (United Kingdom); Dickinson, Nicholas M. [Department of Ecology, Lincoln University, Lincoln 7647, PO Box 84 (New Zealand); Hartley, William [School of Computing, Science and Engineering, University of Salford, Cockcroft Building, Salford, M5 4WT (United Kingdom); Clemente, Rafael [Dep. of Soil and Water Conservation and Organic Waste Management, CEBAS-CSIC, Campus Universitario de Espinardo, PO Box 164, 30100 Espinardo, Murcia (Spain)

    2011-10-15

    Monitoring soil pollution is a key aspect in sustainable management of contaminated land but there is often debate over what should be monitored to assess ecological risk. Soil pore water, containing the most labile pollutant fraction in soils, can be easily collected in situ offering a routine way to monitor this risk. We present a compilation of data on concentration of trace elements (As, Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn) in soil pore water collected in field conditions from a range of polluted and non-polluted soils in Spain and the UK during single and repeated monitoring, and propose a simple eco-toxicity test using this media. Sufficient pore water could be extracted for analysis both under semi-arid and temperate conditions, and eco-toxicity comparisons could be effectively made between polluted and non-polluted soils. We propose that in-situ pore water extraction could enhance the realism of risk assessment at some contaminated sites. - Highlights: > In situ pore water sampling successfully evaluates trace elements mobility in soils. > Field sampling proved robust for different soils, sites and climatic regimes. > Measurements may be directly related to ecotoxicological assays. > Both short and long-term monitoring of polluted lands may be achieved. > This method complements other widely used assays for environmental risk assessment. - In situ pore water sampling from a wide variety of soils proves to be a beneficial application to monitor the stability of pollutants in soils and subsequent risk through mobility.

  20. Micro-PIXE evaluation of radioactive cesium transfer in contaminated soil samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujishiro, F.; Ishii, K.; Matsuyama, S.; Arai, H.; Ishizaki, A.; Osada, N.; Sugai, H.; Kusano, K.; Nozawa, Y.; Yamauchi, S.; Karahashi, M.; Oshikawa, S.; Kikuchi, K.; Koshio, S.; Watanabe, K.; Suzuki, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • There are radioactively contaminated soils having a radioactive cesium transfer of 0.01. • Micro-PIXE analysis has revealed an existence of phosphorus in a contaminated soil. • Radioactive cesium captured by phosphorus compound would be due to radioactive transfer. -- Abstract: Micro-PIXE analysis has been performed on two soil samples with high cesium activity concentrations. These soil samples were contaminated by fallout from the accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. One exhibits a radioactive cesium transfer of ∼0.01, and the other shows a radioactive cesium transfer of less than 0.001, even though both samples have high cesium activity concentrations exceeding 10,000 Bq/kg. X-ray spectra and elemental images of the soil samples revealed the presence of chlorine, which can react with cesium to produce an inorganic soluble compound, and phosphorus-containing cesium-capturable organic compounds

  1. Microbiological evaluation on toxicity amelioration of soil samples contaminated with petroleum-based products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khairuddin Abdul Rahim; Pauline Liew Woan Ying; Ahmad Nazrul Abd Wahid; Shamsiah Abdul Rahman; Mohd Suhaimi Hamzah; Abdul Khalik Wood; Muhamat Omar

    2004-01-01

    Samples of soil materials from oil sludge landfarm in Melaka and petroleum sludge ready for disposal were analysed on their potentially toxic elements and compounds and their microbial population. These were compared against uncontaminated soil samples from agricultural plots and fresh crude petroleum samples obtained from an oil refinery in Kerteh, Terengganu. Enumeration and isolation of culturable microbial populations in the above samples were conducted using standard plate counts and screening methods. Populations of microorganisms from uncontaminated soils were tested on its potential to degrade petroleum derived products on contaminated soil samples and crude petroleum samples in a laboratory experiment. Microorganisms with great potential to degrade petroleum sludge will be further screened in further bioremediation studies in the field. (Author)

  2. Sampling season affects conclusions on soil arthropod community structure responses to metal pollution in Mediterranean urban soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santorufo, L.; van Gestel, C.A.M.; Maisto, G.

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to assess if the period of sampling affected conclusions on the responses of arthropod community structure to metal pollution in urban soils in the Mediterranean area. Higher temperature and lower precipitation were detected in autumn than in spring. In both samplings, the most

  3. Optimization of sampling for the determination of the mean Radium-226 concentration in surface soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, L.R.; Leggett, R.W.; Espegren, M.L.; Little, C.A.

    1987-08-01

    This report describes a field experiment that identifies an optimal method for determination of compliance with the US Environmental Protection Agency's Ra-226 guidelines for soil. The primary goals were to establish practical levels of accuracy and precision in estimating the mean Ra-226 concentration of surface soil in a small contaminated region; to obtain empirical information on composite vs. individual soil sampling and on random vs. uniformly spaced sampling; and to examine the practicality of using gamma measurements in predicting the average surface radium concentration and in estimating the number of soil samples required to obtain a given level of accuracy and precision. Numerous soil samples were collected on each six sites known to be contaminated with uranium mill tailings. Three types of samples were collected on each site: 10-composite samples, 20-composite samples, and individual or post hole samples; 10-composite sampling is the method of choice because it yields a given level of accuracy and precision for the least cost. Gamma measurements can be used to reduce surface soil sampling on some sites. 2 refs., 5 figs., 7 tabs

  4. X-ray spectrometry and X-ray microtomography techniques for soil and geological samples analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubala-Kukuś, A.; Banaś, D.; Braziewicz, J. [Institute of Physics, Jan Kochanowski University, ul. Świetokrzyska 15, 25-406 Kielce (Poland); Holycross Cancer Center, ul. Artwińskiego 3, 25-734 Kielce (Poland); Dziadowicz, M.; Kopeć, E. [Institute of Physics, Jan Kochanowski University, ul. Świetokrzyska 15, 25-406 Kielce (Poland); Majewska, U. [Institute of Physics, Jan Kochanowski University, ul. Świetokrzyska 15, 25-406 Kielce (Poland); Holycross Cancer Center, ul. Artwińskiego 3, 25-734 Kielce (Poland); Mazurek, M.; Pajek, M.; Sobisz, M.; Stabrawa, I. [Institute of Physics, Jan Kochanowski University, ul. Świetokrzyska 15, 25-406 Kielce (Poland); Wudarczyk-Moćko, J. [Holycross Cancer Center, ul. Artwińskiego 3, 25-734 Kielce (Poland); Góźdź, S. [Holycross Cancer Center, ul. Artwińskiego 3, 25-734 Kielce (Poland); Institute of Public Health, Jan Kochanowski University, IX Wieków Kielc 19, 25-317 Kielce (Poland)

    2015-12-01

    A particular subject of X-ray fluorescence analysis is its application in studies of the multielemental sample of composition in a wide range of concentrations, samples with different matrices, also inhomogeneous ones and those characterized with different grain size. Typical examples of these kinds of samples are soil or geological samples for which XRF elemental analysis may be difficult due to XRF disturbing effects. In this paper the WDXRF technique was applied in elemental analysis concerning different soil and geological samples (therapeutic mud, floral soil, brown soil, sandy soil, calcium aluminum cement). The sample morphology was analyzed using X-ray microtomography technique. The paper discusses the differences between the composition of samples, the influence of procedures with respect to the preparation of samples as regards their morphology and, finally, a quantitative analysis. The results of the studies were statistically tested (one-way ANOVA and correlation coefficients). For lead concentration determination in samples of sandy soil and cement-like matrix, the WDXRF spectrometer calibration was performed. The elemental analysis of the samples was complemented with knowledge of chemical composition obtained by X-ray powder diffraction.

  5. X-ray spectrometry and X-ray microtomography techniques for soil and geological samples analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubala-Kukuś, A.; Banaś, D.; Braziewicz, J.; Dziadowicz, M.; Kopeć, E.; Majewska, U.; Mazurek, M.; Pajek, M.; Sobisz, M.; Stabrawa, I.; Wudarczyk-Moćko, J.; Góźdź, S.

    2015-01-01

    A particular subject of X-ray fluorescence analysis is its application in studies of the multielemental sample of composition in a wide range of concentrations, samples with different matrices, also inhomogeneous ones and those characterized with different grain size. Typical examples of these kinds of samples are soil or geological samples for which XRF elemental analysis may be difficult due to XRF disturbing effects. In this paper the WDXRF technique was applied in elemental analysis concerning different soil and geological samples (therapeutic mud, floral soil, brown soil, sandy soil, calcium aluminum cement). The sample morphology was analyzed using X-ray microtomography technique. The paper discusses the differences between the composition of samples, the influence of procedures with respect to the preparation of samples as regards their morphology and, finally, a quantitative analysis. The results of the studies were statistically tested (one-way ANOVA and correlation coefficients). For lead concentration determination in samples of sandy soil and cement-like matrix, the WDXRF spectrometer calibration was performed. The elemental analysis of the samples was complemented with knowledge of chemical composition obtained by X-ray powder diffraction.

  6. Necromass in undisturbed and logged forests in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael Palace; Michael Keller; Gregory P. Asner; Jose Natalino M. Silva; Carlos. Passos

    2007-01-01

    Necromass is an important stock of carbon in tropical forests. We estimated volume, density, and mass of fallen and standing necromass in undisturbed and selectively logged forests at Juruena, Mato Grosso, Brazil (10.488S, 58.478W). We also measured standing dead trees at the Tapajos National Forest, Para, Brazil (3.088S, 54.948W) complementing our earlier study there...

  7. Necromass production: studies in undisturbed and logged Amazon Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    MICHAEL PALACE; MICHAEL KELLER; HUDSON SILVA

    2008-01-01

    Necromass stocks account for up to 20% of carbon stored in tropical forests and have been estimated to be 14–19% of the annual aboveground carbon flux. Both stocks and fluxes of necromass are infrequently measured. In this study, we directly measured the production of fallen coarse necromass (>2 cm diameter) during 4.5 years using repeated surveys in undisturbed...

  8. Removal of fission products from waste solutions using 16 different soil samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bangash, M.A.; Hanif, J.

    1997-01-01

    Most of the nuclear sites use pits in the surrounding soils for the storage/disposal of low active waste (LAW) solutions. The characteristics of the soil if not suitable for the fixation or adsorption of the radioactive nuclides, may cause migration of these nuclides to hydrosphere. The phenomenon has the risk of radio toxic pollution for the living bodies therefore minerals composing the soil and their adsorption properties need to be investigated. For this purpose 16 different soil samples were collected from all over Pakistan. Mineralogical composition of the soils was determined by X-ray diffraction analysis. It was found that most of the samples contained clay minerals, illite, kaolinite and montmorillonite. Studies for the removal of fission products like, /sup 137/Cs. /sup 60/Sr and activation product /sup 60/CO from solution were carried out on these samples. The sorption experiments were performed by batch technique using radioactive as tracers. Distribution co-efficient were determined by mixing he element solution at pH 3 with the soil at soil solution ratios of 1 to 20. It is revealed from the experimental data that efficient removal of fission products from solutions is achieved by soil samples containing clay mineral montmorillonite, followed by little and kaolinite. These soils thus can be effectively used for the disposal of low level radioactive waste solutions without causing any environmental hazard. (author)

  9. Colloid mobilization and heavy metal transport in the sampling of soil solution from Duckum soil in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seyong; Ko, Il-Won; Yoon, In-Ho; Kim, Dong-Wook; Kim, Kyoung-Woong

    2018-03-24

    Colloid mobilization is a significant process governing colloid-associated transport of heavy metals in subsurface environments. It has been studied for the last three decades to understand this process. However, colloid mobilization and heavy metal transport in soil solutions have rarely been studied using soils in South Korea. We investigated the colloid mobilization in a variety of flow rates during sampling soil solutions in sand columns. The colloid concentrations were increased at low flow rates and in saturated regimes. Colloid concentrations increased 1000-fold higher at pH 9.2 than at pH 7.3 in the absence of 10 mM NaCl solution. In addition, those were fourfold higher in the absence than in the presence of the NaCl solution at pH 9.2. It was suggested that the mobility of colloids should be enhanced in porous media under the basic conditions and the low ionic strength. In real field soils, the concentrations of As, Cr, and Pb in soil solutions increased with the increase in colloid concentrations at initial momentarily changed soil water pressure, whereas the concentrations of Cd, Cu, Fe, Ni, Al, and Co lagged behind the colloid release. Therefore, physicochemical changes and heavy metal characteristics have important implications for colloid-facilitated transport during sampling soil solutions.

  10. A sampling strategy for estimating plot average annual fluxes of chemical elements from forest soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brus, D.J.; Gruijter, de J.J.; Vries, de W.

    2010-01-01

    A sampling strategy for estimating spatially averaged annual element leaching fluxes from forest soils is presented and tested in three Dutch forest monitoring plots. In this method sampling locations and times (days) are selected by probability sampling. Sampling locations were selected by

  11. Sampling Design of Soil Physical Properties in a Conilon Coffee Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Oliveira de Jesus Santos

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Establishing the number of samples required to determine values of soil physical properties ultimately results in optimization of labor and allows better representation of such attributes. The objective of this study was to analyze the spatial variability of soil physical properties in a Conilon coffee field and propose a soil sampling method better attuned to conditions of the management system. The experiment was performed in a Conilon coffee field in Espírito Santo state, Brazil, under a 3.0 × 2.0 × 1.0 m (4,000 plants ha-1 double spacing design. An irregular grid, with dimensions of 107 × 95.7 m and 65 sampling points, was set up. Soil samples were collected from the 0.00-0.20 m depth from each sampling point. Data were analyzed under descriptive statistical and geostatistical methods. Using statistical parameters, the adequate number of samples for analyzing the attributes under study was established, which ranged from 1 to 11 sampling points. With the exception of particle density, all soil physical properties showed a spatial dependence structure best fitted to the spherical model. Establishment of the number of samples and spatial variability for the physical properties of soils may be useful in developing sampling strategies that minimize costs for farmers within a tolerable and predictable level of error.

  12. Genotyping of Toxoplasma Gondii Isolates from Soil Samples in Tehran, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Tavalla

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii can infect any warm blooded nucleated cells. One of the ways for human infection is ingestion of oocysts directly from soil or via infected fruits or vegetables. To survey the potential role of T. gondii oocyst in soil samples, the present study was conducted in Tehran City, Iran.Methods: A total of 150 soil samples were collected around rubbish dumps, children's play ground, parks and public places. Oocysts recovery was performed by sodium nitrate flotation method on soil samples. For molecular detection, PCR reaction targeting B1 gene was performed and then, the posi­tive results were confirmed using repetitive 529 bp DNA fragment in other PCR reaction. Finally, the positive samples were genotyped at the SAG2 locus.Results: Toxoplasma DNA was found in 13 soil samples. After genotyping and RFLP analysis in SAG2 locus, nine positive samples were revealed type III, one positive sample was type I whereas three samples revealed mixed infection (type, I & III.Conclusion: The predominant genotype in Tehran soil samples is type III.

  13. Preliminary characterizations study on three soil samples from the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory warm waste pond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burchett, R.T.; Richardson, W.S.; Hay, S.

    1994-01-01

    Three soil samples (Soil 1,2,and 3) from the Warm Waste Pond (WWP) system at the Test Reactor Area (TRA) of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) were sent to the National Air and Radiation Environmental Laboratory (NAREL) in Montgomery, Alabama, for soil characterization and analysis. Each sample was vigorously washed and separated by particle size using wet sieving and vertical-column hydroclassification. The resulting fractions were analyzed for radioactivity by gamma spectroscopy. The following conclusions are based on the results of these analyses: (1) The three samples examined are dissimilar in many characteristics examined in the study. (2) The optimal parameters for vigorously washing the soil samples are a washing time of 30 min 350 rpm using a liquid-to-solid ratio of 4/1 (volume of water/volume of soil). (3) The only size fraction from Soil 1 that is below the 690 picocuries per gram (pCi/g) cesium-137 Record of Division (ROD) criterion is the +25.4-mm(+1-in) fraction, which represents 17 percent of the total soil. (4) There is no size fraction from Soil 2 that is below the 690 pCi/g cesium-137 criterion. (5) At optimal conditions, at least 66 percent of Soil 3 can be recovered with a cesium-137 activity level below the 690 pCi/g criterion. (6) For Soil 3, lowering the liquid-to-solid ratio from 4/1 to 2/1 during vigorous washing produces a higher weight-percent recovery of soil below the 690 pCi/g criterion. At a liquid-to-solid ratio of 2/1, 76 percent of the soil can be recovered with a concentration below the removal criterion, indicating that attrition followed by particle-size separation represents a potential method for remediation

  14. Quantitative Field Testing Rotylenchulus reniformis DNA from Metagenomic Samples Isolated Directly from Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showmaker, Kurt; Lawrence, Gary W.; Lu, Shien; Balbalian, Clarissa; Klink, Vincent P.

    2011-01-01

    A quantitative PCR procedure targeting the β-tubulin gene determined the number of Rotylenchulus reniformis Linford & Oliveira 1940 in metagenomic DNA samples isolated from soil. Of note, this outcome was in the presence of other soil-dwelling plant parasitic nematodes including its sister genus Helicotylenchus Steiner, 1945. The methodology provides a framework for molecular diagnostics of nematodes from metagenomic DNA isolated directly from soil. PMID:22194958

  15. Soil Characterization by Large Scale Sampling of Soil Mixed with Buried Construction Debris at a Former Uranium Fuel Fabrication Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nardi, A.J.; Lamantia, L.

    2009-01-01

    Recent soil excavation activities on a site identified the presence of buried uranium contaminated building construction debris. The site previously was the location of a low enriched uranium fuel fabrication facility. This resulted in the collection of excavated materials from the two locations where contaminated subsurface debris was identified. The excavated material was temporarily stored in two piles on the site until a determination could be made as to the appropriate disposition of the material. Characterization of the excavated material was undertaken in a manner that involved the collection of large scale samples of the excavated material in 1 cubic meter Super Sacks. Twenty bags were filled with excavated material that consisted of the mixture of both the construction debris and the associated soil. In order to obtain information on the level of activity associated with the construction debris, ten additional bags were filled with construction debris that had been separated, to the extent possible, from the associated soil. Radiological surveys were conducted of the resulting bags of collected materials and the soil associated with the waste mixture. The 30 large samples, collected as bags, were counted using an In-Situ Object Counting System (ISOCS) unit to determine the average concentration of U-235 present in each bag. The soil fraction was sampled by the collection of 40 samples of soil for analysis in an on-site laboratory. A fraction of these samples were also sent to an off-site laboratory for additional analysis. This project provided the necessary soil characterization information to allow consideration of alternate options for disposition of the material. The identified contaminant was verified to be low enriched uranium. Concentrations of uranium in the waste were found to be lower than the calculated site specific derived concentration guideline levels (DCGLs) but higher than the NRC's screening values. The methods and results are presented

  16. Modeling long-term suspended-sediment export from an undisturbed forest catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Alexander; Francke, Till; Elsenbeer, Helmut

    2013-04-01

    events, annual suspended-sediment yield varies between 74 - 416 t km-2 a-1. Third, the estimated sediment yields exceed former benchmark values by an order of magnitude and provide evidence that the erosion footprint of undisturbed, forested catchments can be undistinguishable from that of sustainably managed, but hydrologically less responsive areas. Because of the susceptibility to soil loss we argue that any land use should be avoided in natural erosion hotspots.

  17. Estimate of biomass and carbon pools in disturbed and undisturbed oak forests in Tunisia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zribi, L.; Chaar, H.; Khaldi, A.; Henchi, B.; Mouillot, F.; Gharbi, F.

    2016-07-01

    Aim of the study. To estimate biomass and carbon accumulation in a young and disturbed forest (regenerated after a tornado) and an aged cork oak forest (undisturbed forest) as well as its distribution among the different pools (tree, litter and soil). Area of study. The north west of Tunisia. Material and methods. Carbon stocks were evaluated in the above and belowground cork oak trees, the litter and the 150 cm of the soil. Tree biomass was estimated in both young and aged forests using allometric biomass equations developed for wood stem, cork stem, wood branch, cork branch, leaves, roots and total tree biomass based on combinations of diameter at breast height, total height and crown length as independent variables. Main results. Total tree biomass in forests was 240.58 Mg ha-1 in the young forest and 411.30 Mg ha-1 in the aged forest with a low root/shoot ratio (0.41 for young forest and 0.31 for aged forest). Total stored carbon was 419.46 Mg C ha-1 in the young forest and 658.09 Mg C ha-1 in the aged forest. Carbon stock (Mg C ha-1) was estimated to be113.61(27.08%) and 194.08 (29.49%) in trees, 3.55 (0.85%) and 5.73 (0.87%) in litter and 302.30 (72.07%) and 458.27 (69.64%) in soil in the young and aged forests, respectively. Research highlights. Aged undisturbed forest had the largest tree biomass but a lower potential for accumulation of carbon in the future; in contrast, young disturbed forest had both higher growth and carbon storage potential. (Author)

  18. Measurement of undisturbed di-nitrogen emissions from aquatic ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Shuping, Clough, Timothy, Lou, Jiafa; Hu, Chunsheng; Oenema, Oene; Wrage-Mönnig, Nicole; Zhang, Yuming

    2016-04-01

    Increased production of reactive nitrogen (Nr) from atmospheric di-nitrogen (N2) during the last century has greatly contributed to increased food production1-4. However, enriching the biosphere with Nr through N fertilizer production, combustion, and biological N2 fixation has also caused a series of negative effects on global ecosystems 5,6, especially aquatic ecosystems7. The main pathway converting Nr back into the atmospheric N2 pool is the last step of the denitrification process, i.e., the reduction of nitrous oxide (N2O) into N2 by micro-organisms7,8. Despite several attempts9,10, there is not yet an accurate, fast and direct method for measuring undisturbed N2 fluxes from denitrification in aquatic sediments at the field scale11-14. Such a method is essential to study the feedback of aquatic ecosystems to Nr inputs1,2,7. Here we show that the measurement of both N2O emission and its isotope signature can be used to infer the undisturbed N2 fluxes from aquatic ecosystems. The microbial reduction of N2O increases the natural abundance of 15N-N2O relative to 14N-N2O (δ15N-N2O). We observed linear relationships between δ15N-N2O and the logarithmic transformed N2O/(N2+N2O) emission ratios. Through independent measurements, we verified that the undisturbed N2 flux from aquatic ecosystems can be inferred from measurements of N2O emissions and the δ15N-N2O signature. Our method allows the determination of field-scale N2 fluxes from undisturbed aquatic ecosystems, and thereby allows model predictions of denitrification rates to be tested. The undisturbed N2 fluxes observed are almost one order of magnitude higher than those estimated by the traditional method, where perturbation of the system occurs, indicating that the ability of aquatic ecosystems to remove Nr may have been severely underestimated.

  19. Levels of Cadmium in Soil, Sediment and Water Samples from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cce

    The agricultural application of phosphate fertilizers represents a direct ... The samples were put into clean plastic containers and sealed. The plastic ... dried samples were ground and homogenized in a porcelain mortar, sieved to 40 mesh size.

  20. Analysis of arsenic and calcium in soil samples by laser ablation mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beccaglia, Ana M.; Rinaldi, Carlos A.; Ferrero, Juan C.

    2006-01-01

    We present an analytical procedure based on laser ablation mass spectrometry (LAMS) in order to detect and quantify arsenic and calcium in soil samples and we analyze the diverse factors that influence the precision of LAMS, such as laser fluence and matrix effect. The results indicate that a Zn matrix is a good choice for the analysis of those metals in soil samples. This work also provides a method for the direct determination of As in soil samples whose concentrations are lower than 100 ppm with a 70 ppm minimum detection limits (MDL)

  1. Study on natural radioactive elements in soil and rock samples around Mandya district, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shivakumara, B.C.; Paramesh, L.; Shashikumar, T.S.; Chandrashekara, M.S.

    2012-01-01

    The soil is a complex mixture of different compounds and rocks. In the natural environment, it is an important source of exposure to radiation due to naturally occurring, gamma emitting radionuclides which include 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K present in the soil. The study of distribution of these radionuclides in soil and rock is of great importance for radiation protection and measurements. The activity concentrations of 226 Ra, 232 Th, and 40 K in soil and rock samples collected in Mandya District, Karnataka state, India have been measured by gamma ray spectrometry. The average activity concentrations of 226 Ra, 232 Th, and 40 K (Bq/kg) are found to be 40.2, 62.3, and 317.5 Bq/kg, respectively, in soil samples and 30.5, 34.4, and 700.2 Bq/kg, respectively, in rock samples. The concentrations of radionuclides in soil samples are found to higher than in rock samples. The concentrations of radionuclides in soil and rock samples in the study area are slightly higher than Indian average and world average values. (author)

  2. Quality control for measurement of soil samples containing 237Np and 241Am as radiotracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sha Lianmao; Zhang Caihong; Song Hailong; Ren Xiaona; Han Yuhu; Zhang Aiming; Chu Taiwei

    2003-01-01

    This paper reports quality control (QC) for the measurement of soil samples containing 237 Np and 241 Am as radiotracers in migration test of transuranic nuclides. All of the QC were done independently by the QA members of analytical work. It mainly included checking 5%-10% of the total analyzed samples; preparing blank samples, blind replicate sample and spiked samples used as quality control samples to check the quality of analytical work

  3. Decision support tool for soil sampling of heterogeneous pesticide (chlordecone) pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clostre, Florence; Lesueur-Jannoyer, Magalie; Achard, Raphaël; Letourmy, Philippe; Cabidoche, Yves-Marie; Cattan, Philippe

    2014-02-01

    When field pollution is heterogeneous due to localized pesticide application, as is the case of chlordecone (CLD), the mean level of pollution is difficult to assess. Our objective was to design a decision support tool to optimize soil sampling. We analyzed the CLD heterogeneity of soil content at 0-30- and 30-60-cm depth. This was done within and between nine plots (0.4 to 1.8 ha) on andosol and ferralsol. We determined that 20 pooled subsamples per plot were a satisfactory compromise with respect to both cost and accuracy. Globally, CLD content was greater for andosols and the upper soil horizon (0-30 cm). Soil organic carbon cannot account for CLD intra-field variability. Cropping systems and tillage practices influence the CLD content and distribution; that is CLD pollution was higher under intensive banana cropping systems and, while upper soil horizon was more polluted than the lower one with shallow tillage (pollution in the soil profile. The decision tool we proposed compiles and organizes these results to better assess CLD soil pollution in terms of sampling depth, distance, and unit at field scale. It accounts for sampling objectives, farming practices (cropping system, tillage), type of soil, and topographical characteristics (slope) to design a relevant sampling plan. This decision support tool is also adaptable to other types of heterogeneous agricultural pollution at field level.

  4. Hay-bait traps are a useful tool for sampling of soil dwelling millipedes and centipedes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tuf, I. H.; Chmelík, V.; Dobroruka, I.; Habová, L.; Hudcová, P.; Šipoš, Jan; Stašiov, S.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 2015, č. 510 (2015), s. 197-207 ISSN 1313-2989 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0073 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : chilopoda * populations * diplopoda * Diplopoda * Chilopoda * soil sampling * agroecosystem * soil fauna Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.938, year: 2015

  5. Soil sampling and extraction methods with possible application to pear thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    John E. Bater

    1991-01-01

    Techniques are described for the sampling and extraction of microarthropods from soil and the potential of these methods to extract the larval stages of the pear thrips, Taeniothrips inconsequens (Uzel), from soil cores taken in sugar maple stands. Also described is a design for an emergence trap that could be used to estimate adult thrips...

  6. ANALYSIS OF SOIL AND DUST SAMPLES FOR POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS BY ENZYME LINKED IMMUNOSORBENT ASSAY (ELISA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    An inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to determine polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in house dust and soil. Soil and house dust samples were analyzed for PCB by both gas chromatography/electron capture detection (GC/ECD) and ELISA methods. A correlati...

  7. Characterization of Volatiles Loss from Soil Samples at Lunar Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinhenz, Julie; Smith, Jim; Roush, Ted; Colaprete, Anthony; Zacny, Kris; Paulsen, Gale; Wang, Alex; Paz, Aaron

    2017-01-01

    Resource Prospector Integrated Thermal Vacuum Test Program A series of ground based dirty thermal vacuum tests are being conducted to better understand the subsurface sampling operations for RP Volatiles loss during sampling operations Hardware performance Sample removal and transfer Concept of operationsInstrumentation5 test campaigns over 5 years have been conducted with RP hardware with advancing hardware designs and additional RP subsystems Volatiles sampling 4 years Using flight-forward regolith sampling hardware, empirically determine volatile retention at lunar-relevant conditions Use data to improve theoretical predictions Determine driving variables for retention Bound water loss potential to define measurement uncertainties. The main goal of this talk is to introduce you to our approach to characterizing volatiles loss for RP. Introduce the facility and its capabilities Overview of the RP hardware used in integrated testing (most recent iteration) Summarize the test variables used thus farReview a sample of the results.

  8. Determination of pyridine in soil and water samples of a polluted area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, R.J.B.; Renesse van Duivenbode, J.A.D. van

    1994-01-01

    A method for the analyses of pyridine in environmental samples is described. For soil samples a distillation procedure followed by an extraction, an acidic extraction or a Soxhlet extraction can be used. For water samples a distillation procedure followed by extraction can be employed. Deuterated pyridine is used as an internal standard and the extracts are analyzed by GC-MS. The recoveries of the methods are higher than 80%; the detection limits for pyridine are 0.01 mg/kg for soil samples and 0.2 μg/l for water samples. (orig.)

  9. Operable Unit 3-13, Group 3, Other Surface Soils (Phase II) Field Sampling Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. L. Schwendiman

    2006-07-27

    This Field Sampling Plan describes the Operable Unit 3-13, Group 3, Other Surface Soils, Phase II remediation field sampling activities to be performed at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center located within the Idaho National Laboratory Site. Sampling activities described in this plan support characterization sampling of new sites, real-time soil spectroscopy during excavation, and confirmation sampling that verifies that the remedial action objectives and remediation goals presented in the Final Record of Decision for Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center, Operable Unit 3-13 have been met.

  10. A study for natural radioactivity levels in some soil samples using gamma spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, Yousif Hassab El Rasoul

    1997-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate a few selected soil samples and to study their natural radioactivity using gamma spectrometry. The first sample was a rock phosphate from Nuba mountains region which is being considered as a low cost fertilizer. Another sample came from Miri lake area (Nuba mountains) which is known to have elevated natural radioactivity level. The other four samples came from different other regions in Sudan for comparison. The idea was to identify the radioactive nuclides present in these soil samples, to trace their sources and to determine the activity present in them. (Author)

  11. Determination of metals in scots pine (Pinus Sylvestris) needles and soil samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludborzs, A.; Viksna, A.

    2000-01-01

    Current report is the finding to apply two modern and powerful methods of microanalysis - Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry (TXRF) and Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrometry - for the analysis of biological and geological materials. For some of the measurements Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) has been used as an arbitrary method. The goal of the research project is to find possible relationships between metals content in the Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) needles and the soil samples, which have been taken under the trees. The objectives of the work are analysis of both needles and soils, pH measurements of the soil samples, and handling of a simplified metal speciation analysis in the soil samples. For statistical reliability of the project, seven pine trees from different locations in Latvia have been chosen as the analysis objects. Samples of 20 different age class needles have been collected from the trees and 21 soil sample has been sampled under the trees. K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Zn, Rb, Sr, Pb, and Cd content have been analysed in both samples of the needles and the soils. The obtained measurement data have been processed according to the aim of the project. Relevant questions about causal differences of metal concentrations in different age classes of needles, about subtle working principles of the plant's root system, about the role of some elements in the plant's living processes still remain unanswered. (author)

  12. Contamination and migration of Chernobyl radiocaesium in upland soils of NE Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giovani, C.; Padovani, R.; Fadone, A.; Scruzzi, E.

    1994-01-01

    The behaviour of radiocaesium from Chernobyl fallout undisturbed soils of the mountain areas of Friuli-Venezia Giulia region (NE Italy) has been monitored by sampling surveys carried out in 1987, 1988 and 1990. About 800 soil samples were collected in 55 sites to estimate radiocaesium inventories the upper 10 cm layer of soil. Vertical profiles consisting of 4 to 7 samples were also collected to detect downward migration of radiocaesium. Surface activities are presented and discussed with regard to different ecosystems. The main features of the pattern of deposition on undisturbed fields and forests are outlined. The behaviour of radiocaesium in the environment is interpreted on the basis of results from the comparison of the three sets of samples

  13. Determination of radioactivity concentrations in soil samples and dose assessment for Rize Province, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşe Durusoy

    2017-10-01

    The activity concentrations of radionuclides in soil samples were compared to the international values reported by United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR, 2000 and previous studies on the area.

  14. Potential denitrification in arable soil samples at winter temperatures - measurements by 15N gas analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lippold, H.; Foerster, I.; Matzel, W.

    1989-01-01

    In samples from the plough horizon of five soils taken after cereal harvest, denitrification was measured as volatilization of N 2 and N 2 O from 15 N nitrate in the absence of O 2 . Nitrate contents lower than 50 ppm N (related to soil dry matter) had only a small effect on denitrification velocity in four of the five soils. In a clay soil dependence on nitrate concentration corresponded to a first-order reaction. Available C was no limiting factor. Even at zero temperatures remarkable N amounts (on average 0.2 ppm N per day) were still denitrified. The addition of daily turnover rates in relation to soil temperatures prevailing from December to March revealed potential turnovers in the 0-to-30-cm layer of the soils to average 28 ± 5 ppm N. (author)

  15. Analysis of medicinal plants and soil sample from Haridwar region by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maharia, R.S.; Dutta, R.K.; Acharya, R.; Reddy, A.V.R.

    2009-01-01

    Samples of leaves and stems of four medicinal plants namely Kalmegh, Amaltas, Moalshri, and Arusa were analysed by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis. Soil from same location was analyzed. Though concentrations of many elements were determined in the plant samples, results of selected elements namely Na, K, Mn, Fe, Co, Cr, Zn and As are discussed in this paper. The results show that all medicinal plants analyzed have lower elemental contents except Zn compared to the soil. (author)

  16. 76 FR 11334 - Safety Zone; Soil Sampling; Chicago River, Chicago, IL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-02

    ...The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone on the North Branch of the Chicago River near Chicago, Illinois. This zone is intended to restrict vessels from a portion of the North Branch of the Chicago River due to soil sampling in this area. This temporary safety zone is necessary to protect the surrounding public and vessels from the hazards associated with the soil sampling efforts.

  17. Procedure for plutonium analysis of large (100g) soil and sediment samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meadows, J.W.T.; Schweiger, J.S.; Mendoza, B.; Stone, R.

    1975-01-01

    A method for the complete dissolution of large soil or sediment samples is described. This method is in routine usage at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory for the analysis of fall-out levels of Pu in soils and sediments. Intercomparison with partial dissolution (leach) techniques shows the complete dissolution method to be superior for the determination of plutonium in a wide variety of environmental samples. (author)

  18. EG ampersand G Mount Plant, December 1990 and January 1991, D ampersand D soil box sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-04-01

    Six hundred eighty-two (682) containers of soil were generated at Mound Plant between April 1 and October 31, 1990 as a result of the excavation of soils containing plutonium-238 at two ongoing Decontamination and Decommissioning (D ampersand D) Program sites; these areas are known as Area 14, the waste transfer system (WTS) hillside, and Area 17, the Special Metallurgical (SM) Building Area. The soils from these areas are part of the Mound Plant waste stream number AMDM-000000010, Contaminated Soil, and are proposed for shipment to the Nevada Test Site (NTS) for disposal as low-level radioactive waste. These containers of soil are currently in storage at Mound Plant. The purpose of this sampling and analysis was to demonstrate that the D ampersand D soils comply with the waste acceptance requirements of the NTS, as presented In Nevada Test Site Defense Waste Acceptance Criteria, Certification, and Transfer Requirements (DOE 1988). The sealed waste packages, constructed of wood or metal, are currently being stored In Building 31 and at other locations throughout the Mound Plant. For additional historical information concerning the D ampersand D soils, Including waste stream evaluations and past sampling data see the Sampling and Analysis Plan for Mound Plant D ampersand D Soils Packages (EG ampersand G 1991)

  19. Representing major soil variability at regional scale by constrained Latin Hypercube Sampling of remote sensing data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, V.L.; Bruin, de S.; Schaepman, M.E.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a sparse, remote sensing-based sampling approach making use of conditioned Latin Hypercube Sampling (cLHS) to assess variability in soil properties at regional scale. The method optimizes the sampling scheme for a defined spatial population based on selected covariates, which are

  20. Measurement of thermal properties of soil and concrete samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pagola, Maria Alberdi; Jensen, Rasmus Lund; Madsen, Søren

    February 2016 and February 2017. The presented work mainly consists of thermal property measurements. They become important as they form the basis for dimensioning a planned ground source heat pump installation based on closed loop vertical ground heat exchangers. This report complements the report......, the measurements of the properties of the concrete are treated. The work is extended in appendixes.......This document aims to present the laboratory work undertaken to analyse the thermal properties of the soil at two test sites in Denmark and the concrete produced by Centrum Pæle A/S, used to produce the pile heat exchangers studied in the present PhD project. The tasks have been carried out between...

  1. Sample size choices for XRCT scanning of highly unsaturated soil mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Jonathan C.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Highly unsaturated soil mixtures (clay, sand and gravel are used as building materials in many parts of the world, and there is increasing interest in understanding their mechanical and hydraulic behaviour. In the laboratory, x-ray computed tomography (XRCT is becoming more widely used to investigate the microstructures of soils, however a crucial issue for such investigations is the choice of sample size, especially concerning the scanning of soil mixtures where there will be a range of particle and void sizes. In this paper we present a discussion (centred around a new set of XRCT scans on sample sizing for scanning of samples comprising soil mixtures, where a balance has to be made between realistic representation of the soil components and the desire for high resolution scanning, We also comment on the appropriateness of differing sample sizes in comparison to sample sizes used for other geotechnical testing. Void size distributions for the samples are presented and from these some hypotheses are made as to the roles of inter- and intra-aggregate voids in the mechanical behaviour of highly unsaturated soils.

  2. Search for Extralunar Materials in Apollo Soil Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucey, P. G.; Honniball, C.; Crites, S.; Taylor, G. J.; Martel, L.

    2017-12-01

    It has long been proposed that the lunar surface is a pristine collector of material from across the solar system. The Moon is exposed to the same meteorite flux as the Earth, but because its surface is unaltered by processes such as plate tectonics, aqueous alteration, or recent volcanism, the Moon may have recorded a much longer meteoritic history than the chemically and physically active Earth. By studying lunar soils at the individual grain level, we have the potential to identify and study material from across the inner solar system. We have developed three hyperspectral imaging microscopes to search a large quantity of lunar soil grains for rare lunar, and extra-lunar minerals. We are using lunar-exotic mineralogy as a tracer to detect extralunar candidates. One hyperspectral microscope covers the 1-2.5 micron region for detection of water and hydroxyl overtones in alteration minerals such as phyllosilicates. The second instrument covers the 2.5 to 5 micron region to characterize the 3 micron water region, and for detection of organics and carbonates. The third covers the thermal infrared for detection of phosphates and zeolites as well as the major lunar silicates. We are examining 1 million grains of varying sizes from Apollo 11 ,12, 14 and 16 landing sites. Using the USGS spectral library and the Tetracorder mineral mapping algorithm, we are matching library mineral spectra with the grain spectra we acquire. To validate our ability to detect and match mineral spectra, we are conducting scans of relevent mineral seperates and mixtures at the individual grain level. Results of this mineral inventory will provide contraints on various models and estimates for material transfer between the terrestrial planets.

  3. Geotechnical properties of Egyptian collapsible soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled E. Gaaver

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The risk of constructing structures on collapsible soils presents significant challenges to geotechnical engineers due to sudden reduction in volume upon wetting. Identifying collapsible soils when encountered in the field and taking the needed precautions should substantially reduce the risk of such problems usually reported in buildings and highways. Collapsible soils are those unsaturated soils that can withstand relatively high pressure without showing significant change in volume, however upon wetting; they are susceptible to a large and sudden reduction in volume. Collapsible soils cover significant areas around the world. In Egypt, collapsible soils were observed within the northern portion of the western desert including Borg El-Arab region, and around the city of Cairo in Six-of-October plateau, and Tenth-of-Ramadan city. Settlements associated with development on untreated collapsible soils usually lead to expensive repairs. One method for treating collapsible soils is to densify their structure by compaction. The ongoing study presents the effect of compaction on the geotechnical properties of the collapsible soils. Undisturbed block samples were recovered from test pits at four sites in Borg El-Arab district, located at about 20 km west of the city of Alexandria, Egypt. The samples were tested in both unsoaked and soaked conditions. Influence of water inundation on the geotechnical properties of collapsible soils was demonstrated. A comparative study between natural undisturbed and compacted samples of collapsible soils was performed. An attempt was made to relate the collapse potential to the initial moisture content. An empirical correlation between California Bearing Ratio of the compacted collapsible soils and liquid limit was adopted. The presented simple relationships should enable the geotechnical engineers to estimate the complex parameters of collapsible soils using simple laboratory tests with a reasonable accuracy.

  4. Contamination of apple orchard soils and fruit trees with copper-based fungicides: sampling aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Quanying; Liu, Jingshuang; Liu, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Accumulations of copper in orchard soils and fruit trees due to the application of Cu-based fungicides have become research hotspots. However, information about the sampling strategies, which can affect the accuracy of the following research results, is lacking. This study aimed to determine some sampling considerations when Cu accumulations in the soils and fruit trees of apple orchards are studied. The study was conducted in three apple orchards from different sites. Each orchard included two different histories of Cu-based fungicides usage, varying from 3 to 28 years. Soil samples were collected from different locations varying with the distances from tree trunk to the canopy drip line. Fruits and leaves from the middle heights of tree canopy at two locations (outer canopy and inner canopy) were collected. The variation in total soil Cu concentrations between orchards was much greater than the variation within orchards. Total soil Cu concentrations had a tendency to increase with the increasing history of Cu-based fungicides usage. Moreover, total soil Cu concentrations had the lowest values at the canopy drip line, while the highest values were found at the half distances between the trunk and the canopy drip line. Additionally, Cu concentrations of leaves and fruits from the outer parts of the canopy were significantly higher than from the inner parts. Depending on the findings of this study, not only the between-orchard variation but also the within-orchard variation should be taken into consideration when conducting future soil and tree samplings in apple orchards.

  5. Radionuclides and heavy metal contents in phosphogypsum samples in comparison to cerrado soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacomino, Vanusa Maria Feliciano; Oliveira, Kerley Alberto Pereira de, E-mail: vmfj@cdtn.b, E-mail: kapo@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Taddei, Maria Helena Tirollo; Nascimento, Marcos Roberto Lopes, E-mail: mhtaddei@cnen.gov.b, E-mail: pmarcos@cnen.gov.b [Laboratorio de Pocos de Caldas (LAPOC/CNEN-MG), MG (Brazil); Siqueira, Maria Celia, E-mail: mc.ufscar@gmail.co [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCar), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Carneiro, Maria Eleonora Deschamps Pires, E-mail: eleonora.deschamps@meioambiente.mg.gov.b [Fundacao Estadual do Meio Ambiente (FEAM), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Gestao de Residuos Solidos; Silva, David Faria da; Mello, Jaime Wilson Vargas de, E-mail: davidf.agro@hotmail.co, E-mail: jwvmello@ufv.b [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Solos

    2009-09-15

    Phosphogypsum (PG) or agricultural gypsum, a solid waste from the phosphate fertilizer industry, is used as soil amendment, especially on soils in the Cerrado region, in Brazil. This material may however contain natural radionuclides and metals which can be transferred to soils, plants and water sources. This paper presents and discusses the results of physical and chemical analyses that characterized samples of PG and compares them to the results found in two typical soils of the Cerrado, a clayey and sandy one. These analyses included: solid waste classification, evaluation of organic matter content and of P, K, Ca, Mg, and Al concentrations and of the mineralogical composition. Natural radionuclides and metal concentrations in PG and soil samples were also measured. Phosphogypsum was classified as Class II A - not dangerous, not inert, not corrosive and not reactive. The organic matter content in the soil samples was low and potential acidity high. In the mean, the specific {sup 226}Ra activity in the phosphogypsum samples (252 Bq kg{sup -1}) was below the maximum level recommended by USEPA, which is 370 Bq kg{sup -1} for agricultural use. In addition, this study verified that natural radionuclides and metals concentrations in PG were lower than in the clayey Oxisol of Sete Lagoas, Minas Gerais, Brazil. These results indicated that the application of phosphogypsum as soil amendment in agriculture would not cause a significant impact on the environment. (author)

  6. Radionuclides and heavy metal contents in phosphogypsum samples in comparison to cerrado soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacomino, Vanusa Maria Feliciano; Oliveira, Kerley Alberto Pereira de; Taddei, Maria Helena Tirollo; Nascimento, Marcos Roberto Lopes; Siqueira, Maria Celia; Carneiro, Maria Eleonora Deschamps Pires; Silva, David Faria da; Mello, Jaime Wilson Vargas de

    2009-01-01

    Phosphogypsum (PG) or agricultural gypsum, a solid waste from the phosphate fertilizer industry, is used as soil amendment, especially on soils in the Cerrado region, in Brazil. This material may however contain natural radionuclides and metals which can be transferred to soils, plants and water sources. This paper presents and discusses the results of physical and chemical analyses that characterized samples of PG and compares them to the results found in two typical soils of the Cerrado, a clayey and sandy one. These analyses included: solid waste classification, evaluation of organic matter content and of P, K, Ca, Mg, and Al concentrations and of the mineralogical composition. Natural radionuclides and metal concentrations in PG and soil samples were also measured. Phosphogypsum was classified as Class II A - not dangerous, not inert, not corrosive and not reactive. The organic matter content in the soil samples was low and potential acidity high. In the mean, the specific 226 Ra activity in the phosphogypsum samples (252 Bq kg -1 ) was below the maximum level recommended by USEPA, which is 370 Bq kg -1 for agricultural use. In addition, this study verified that natural radionuclides and metals concentrations in PG were lower than in the clayey Oxisol of Sete Lagoas, Minas Gerais, Brazil. These results indicated that the application of phosphogypsum as soil amendment in agriculture would not cause a significant impact on the environment. (author)

  7. Occurrence and species distribution of pathogenic Mucorales in unselected soil samples from France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousavi, B; Costa, J M; Arné, P; Guillot, J; Chermette, R; Botterel, F; Dannaoui, E

    2018-04-01

    Mucormycosis is a life-threatening invasive fungal disease that affects a variety of patient groups. Although Mucorales are mostly opportunistic pathogens originating from soil or decaying vegetation, there are currently few data on prevalence of this group of fungi in the environment. The aim of the present study was to assess the prevalence and diversity of species of Mucorales from soil samples collected in France. Two grams of soil were homogenized in sterile saline and plated on Sabouraud dextrose agar and RPMI agar supplemented with itraconazole or voriconazole. Both media contained chloramphenicol and gentamicin. The plates were incubated at 35 ± 2 °C and checked daily for fungal growth for a maximum of 7 d. Mucorales were subcultured for purity. Each isolate was identified phenotypically and molecular identification was performed by ITS sequencing. A total of 170 soil samples were analyzed. Forty-one isolates of Mucorales were retrieved from 38 culture-positive samples. Among the recovered isolates, 27 Rhizopus arrhizus, 11 Mucor circinelloides, one Lichtheimia corymbifera, one Rhizopus microsporus and one Cunninghamella bertholletiae were found. Positive soil samples came from cultivated fields but also from other types of soil such as flower beds. Mucorales were retrieved from samples obtained in different geographical regions of France. Voriconazole-containing medium improved the recovery of Mucorales compared with other media. The present study showed that pathogenic Mucorales are frequently recovered from soil samples in France. Species diversity should be further analyzed on a larger number of soil samples from different geographic areas in France and in other countries.

  8. Research on self-absorption corrections for laboratory γ spectral analysis of soil samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Zining; Jia Mingyan; Li Huibin; Cheng Ziwei; Ju Lingjun; Shen Maoquan; Yang Xiaoyan; Yan Ling; Fen Tiancheng

    2010-01-01

    Based on the calibration results of the point sources,dimensions of HPGe crystal were characterized.Linear attenuation coefficients and detection efficiencies of all kinds of samples were calculated,and the function F(μ) of φ75 mm x 25 mm sample was established. Standard surface source was used to simulate the source of different heights in the soil sample. And the function ε(h) which reflect the relationship between detection efficiencies and heights of the surface sources was determined. The detection efficiency of calibration source can be obtained by integration, F(μ) functions of soil samples established is consistent with the result of MCNP calculation code. Several φ75 mm x 25 mm soil samples were measured by the HPGe spectrometer,and the function F(μ) was used to correct the self absorption. F(μ) functions of soil samples of various dimensions can be calculated by MCNP calculation code established, and self absorption correction can be done. To verify the efficiency of calculation results, φ75 mm x 75 mm soil samples were measured. Several φ75 mm x 25 mm soil samples from aerosphere nuclear testing field was measured by the HPGe spectrometer,and the function F(μ) was used to correct the self absorption. The function F(m) was established, and the technical method which is used to correct the soil samples of unknown area is also given. The correction method of surface source greatly improves the gamma spectrum's metrical accuracy, and it will be widely applied to environmental radioactive investigation. (authors)

  9. Modifier free supercritical fluid extraction of uranium from sintered UO2, soil and ore samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanekar, A.S.; Pathak, P.N.; Acharya, R.; Mohapatra, P.K.; Manchanda, V.K.

    2011-01-01

    Direct extraction of uranium from different samples viz. sintered UO 2 , soil and ores was carried out by modifier free supercritical fluid using tri-n-butyl phosphate-nitric acid (TBP-HNO 3 ) adduct as extractant. These studies showed that pre-equilibration with more concentrated nitric acid helps in better dissolution and extraction of uranium from sintered UO 2 samples. Modifier free supercritical fluid extraction appears attractive with respect to minimization of secondary wastes. This method resulted 80-100% extraction of uranium from different soil/ore samples. The results were confirmed by performing neutron activation analysis of original (before extraction) and residue (after extraction) samples. (author)

  10. Using Environmental Variables for Studying of the Quality of Sampling in Soil Mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Jafari

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Methods of soil survey are generally empirical and based on the mental development of the surveyor, correlating soil with underlying geology, landforms, vegetation and air-photo interpretation. Since there are no statistical criteria for traditional soil sampling; this may lead to bias in the areas being sampled. In digital soil mapping, soil samples may be used to elaborate quantitative relationships or models between soil attributes and soil covariates. Because the relationships are based on the soil observations, the quality of the resulting soil map depends also on the soil observation quality. An appropriate sampling design for digital soil mapping depends on how much data is available and where the data is located. Some statistical methods have been developed for optimizing data sampling for soil surveys. Some of these methods deal with the use of ancillary information. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the quality of sampling of existing data. Materials and Methods: The study area is located in the central basin of the Iranian plateau (Figure 1. The geologic infrastructure of the area is mainly Cretaceous limestone, Mesozoic shale and sandstone. Air photo interpretation (API was used to differentiate geomorphic patterns based on their formation processes, general structure and morphometry. The patterns were differentiated through a nested geomorphic hierarchy (Fig. 2. A four-level geomorphic hierarchy is used to breakdown the complexity of different landscapes of the study area. In the lower level of the hierarchy, the geomorphic surfaces, which were formed by a unique process during a specific geologic time, were defined. A stratified sampling scheme was designed based on geomorphic mapping. In the stratified simple random sampling, the area was divided into sub-areas referred to as strata based on geomorphic surfaces, and within each stratum, sampling locations were randomly selected (Figure 2. This resulted in 191

  11. The feasible research with measuring radon for taking the soils sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng Bing, Ge Liangquan; Liu Hefan; Li Yeqiang; Zhang Jinzhao; Song Xiao'an

    2010-01-01

    It explains the mechanism of the separation of soil's radon. Through the designed experiment, it confirms the feasibility of measuring radon for taking the soil's sample. It determines the content of the radon and its sub field with indoor and outside through ways of the activated charcoal adsorption, the initiative suction and the diameter mark etching, also the 226 Ra. The paper indicates: it is feasible with measuring radon for taking the soil's sample, and the stability of data is that indoor data are better than outside's. The temperature, the humidity, the rainfall amount, the intensity and so on are the serious influence of the data. If you want to take a soil's sample, you must avoid the rain as far as possible, and avoid the fault zone, the belt of folded strata and complex geologic structure region, and so on. (authors)

  12. Measurement of technetium-99 in Marshall Islands soil samples by ICP-MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagami; Uchida; Hamilton; Robison

    2000-07-01

    Extraction techniques for recovery of technetium-99 (99Tc) for Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) measurements were evaluated using soil samples collected from the Marshall Islands. The results of three different extraction techniques were compared: (MI) acid leaching of Tc from ashed soil; (M2) acid leaching of Tc from raw dry soil; and (M3) Tc volatilization from ashed soil using a combustion apparatus. Total Tc recoveries varied considerably between the extraction techniques but each method yielded similar analytical results for 99Tc. Applications of these extraction techniques to a series of environmental samples and ICP-MS measurements have yielded first data on the 99Tc content of Marshall Islands soil samples contaminated with close-in radioactive fallout from nuclear weapons testing. The 99Tc activity concentration in the soil samples ranged between 0.1 and 1.1 mBq g(-1) dry weight (dw). The limit of detection for 99Tc by ICP-MS was 0.17 mBq per sample or 0.014 mBq g(-1) dw under standard operating conditions.

  13. Measurement of technetium-99 in Marshall Islands soil samples by ICP-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tagami, K.; Uchida, S.; Hamilton, T.; Robison, W.

    2000-01-01

    Extraction techniques for recovery of technetium-99 ( 99 Tc) for Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) measurements were evaluated using soil samples collected from the Marshall Islands. The results of three different extraction techniques were compared: (M1) acid leaching of Tc from ashed soil; (M2) acid leaching of Tc from raw dry soil; and (M3) Tc volatilization from ashed soil using a combustion apparatus. Total Tc recoveries varied considerably between the extraction techniques but each method yielded similar analytical results for 99 Tc. Applications of these extraction techniques to a series of environmental samples and ICP-MS measurements have yielded first data on the 99 Tc content of Marshall Islands soil samples contaminated with close-in radioactive fallout from nuclear weapons testing. The 99 Tc activity concentration in the soil samples ranged between 0.1 and 1.1 mBq g -1 dry weight (dw). The limit of detection for 99 Tc by ICP-MS was 0.17 mBq per sample or 0.014 mBq g -1 dw under standard operating conditions

  14. Measurement of technetium-99 in soil samples collected in Marshall Islands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tagami, K.; Uchida, S. [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Environmental and Toxicological Sciences Research Group, Chiba (Japan)

    2000-07-01

    Extraction techniques for recovery of technetium-99 ({sup 99}Tc) for ICP-MS measurements were evaluated using soil samples collected from the Marshall Islands. The results of three different extraction techniques were compared: (M1) acid leaching of Tc from ashed soil; (M2) acid leaching of Tc from raw dry soil; and (M3) Tc volatilization from ashed soil using a combustion apparatus. Total Tc recoveries varied considerably between the extraction techniques but each method yielded similar analytical results for {sup 99}Tc. Applications of these extraction techniques to a series of environmental samples and ICP-MS measurements have yielded first data on the {sup 99}Tc content of Marshall Islands soil samples contaminated with close-in radioactive fallout from nuclear weapons testing. The {sup 99}Tc activity concentration in the soil samples ranged between 0.1 and 1.1 mBq/g-dw. The limit of detection for {sup 99}Tc by ICP-MS was 0.17 mBq per sample or 0.014 mBq/g-dw under standard operating conditions. (author)

  15. Measurement of technetium-99 in Marshall Islands soil samples by ICP-MS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tagami, K. E-mail: k_tagami@nirs.go.jp; Uchida, S.; Hamilton, T.; Robison, W

    2000-07-15

    Extraction techniques for recovery of technetium-99 ({sup 99}Tc) for Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) measurements were evaluated using soil samples collected from the Marshall Islands. The results of three different extraction techniques were compared: (M1) acid leaching of Tc from ashed soil; (M2) acid leaching of Tc from raw dry soil; and (M3) Tc volatilization from ashed soil using a combustion apparatus. Total Tc recoveries varied considerably between the extraction techniques but each method yielded similar analytical results for {sup 99}Tc. Applications of these extraction techniques to a series of environmental samples and ICP-MS measurements have yielded first data on the {sup 99}Tc content of Marshall Islands soil samples contaminated with close-in radioactive fallout from nuclear weapons testing. The {sup 99}Tc activity concentration in the soil samples ranged between 0.1 and 1.1 mBq g{sup -1} dry weight (dw). The limit of detection for {sup 99}Tc by ICP-MS was 0.17 mBq per sample or 0.014 mBq g{sup -1} dw under standard operating conditions.

  16. Measurement of technetium-99 in soil samples collected in Marshall Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tagami, K.; Uchida, S.

    2000-01-01

    Extraction techniques for recovery of technetium-99 ( 99 Tc) for ICP-MS measurements were evaluated using soil samples collected from the Marshall Islands. The results of three different extraction techniques were compared: (M1) acid leaching of Tc from ashed soil; (M2) acid leaching of Tc from raw dry soil; and (M3) Tc volatilization from ashed soil using a combustion apparatus. Total Tc recoveries varied considerably between the extraction techniques but each method yielded similar analytical results for 99 Tc. Applications of these extraction techniques to a series of environmental samples and ICP-MS measurements have yielded first data on the 99 Tc content of Marshall Islands soil samples contaminated with close-in radioactive fallout from nuclear weapons testing. The 99 Tc activity concentration in the soil samples ranged between 0.1 and 1.1 mBq/g-dw. The limit of detection for 99 Tc by ICP-MS was 0.17 mBq per sample or 0.014 mBq/g-dw under standard operating conditions. (author)

  17. Rapid assessment of soil and groundwater tritium by vegetation sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, C.E. Jr.

    1995-01-01

    A rapid and relatively inexpensive technique for defining the extent of groundwater contamination by tritium has been investigated. The technique uses existing vegetation to sample the groundwater. Water taken up by deep rooted trees is collected by enclosing tree branches in clear plastic bags. Water evaporated from the leaves condenses on the inner surface of the bag. The water is removed from the bag with a syringe. The bags can be sampled many times. Tritium in the water is detected by liquid scintillation counting. The water collected in the bags has no color and counts as well as distilled water reference samples. The technique was used in an area of known tritium contamination and proved to be useful in defining the extent of tritium contamination

  18. Laboratory and Airborne BRDF Analysis of Vegetation Leaves and Soil Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiev, Georgi T.; Gatebe, Charles K.; Butler, James J.; King, Michael D.

    2008-01-01

    Laboratory-based Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) analysis of vegetation leaves, soil, and leaf litter samples is presented. The leaf litter and soil samples, numbered 1 and 2, were obtained from a site located in the savanna biome of South Africa (Skukuza: 25.0degS, 31.5degE). A third soil sample, number 3, was obtained from Etosha Pan, Namibia (19.20degS, 15.93degE, alt. 1100 m). In addition, BRDF of local fresh and dry leaves from tulip tree (Liriodendron tulipifera) and acacia tree (Acacia greggii) were studied. It is shown how the BRDF depends on the incident and scatter angles, sample size (i.e. crushed versus whole leaf,) soil samples fraction size, sample status (i.e. fresh versus dry leaves), vegetation species (poplar versus acacia), and vegetation s biochemical composition. As a demonstration of the application of the results of this study, airborne BRDF measurements acquired with NASA's Cloud Absorption Radiometer (CAR) over the same general site where the soil and leaf litter samples were obtained are compared to the laboratory results. Good agreement between laboratory and airborne measured BRDF is reported.

  19. Spatial Variation of Soil Lead in an Urban Community Garden: Implications for Risk-Based Sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugdalski, Lauren; Lemke, Lawrence D; McElmurry, Shawn P

    2014-01-01

    Soil lead pollution is a recalcitrant problem in urban areas resulting from a combination of historical residential, industrial, and transportation practices. The emergence of urban gardening movements in postindustrial cities necessitates accurate assessment of soil lead levels to ensure safe gardening. In this study, we examined small-scale spatial variability of soil lead within a 15 × 30 m urban garden plot established on two adjacent residential lots located in Detroit, Michigan, USA. Eighty samples collected using a variably spaced sampling grid were analyzed for total, fine fraction (less than 250 μm), and bioaccessible soil lead. Measured concentrations varied at sampling scales of 1-10 m and a hot spot exceeding 400 ppm total soil lead was identified in the northwest portion of the site. An interpolated map of total lead was treated as an exhaustive data set, and random sampling was simulated to generate Monte Carlo distributions and evaluate alternative sampling strategies intended to estimate the average soil lead concentration or detect hot spots. Increasing the number of individual samples decreases the probability of overlooking the hot spot (type II error). However, the practice of compositing and averaging samples decreased the probability of overestimating the mean concentration (type I error) at the expense of increasing the chance for type II error. The results reported here suggest a need to reconsider U.S. Environmental Protection Agency sampling objectives and consequent guidelines for reclaimed city lots where soil lead distributions are expected to be nonuniform. © 2013 Society for Risk Analysis.

  20. Sampling and analysis plan for Mount Plant D ampersand D soils packages, Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-02-01

    There are currently 682 containers of soils in storage at Mound Plant, generated between April 1 and October 31, 1990 as a result of excavation of soils containing plutonium-238 at two ongoing Decontamination and Decommissioning (D ampersand D) Program sites. These areas are known as Area 14, the waste transfer system (WTS) hillside, and Area 17, the Special Metallurgical (SM) Building area. The soils from these areas are part of Mound Plant waste stream number AMDM-000000010, Contaminated Soil, and are proposed for shipment to the Nevada Test Site (NTS) for disposal as low-level radioactive waste. The sealed waste packages, constructed of either wood or metal, are currently being stored in Building 31 and at other locations throughout the Mound facility. At a meeting in Las Vegas, Nevada on October, 26, 1990, DOE Nevada Operations Office (DOE-NV) and NTS representatives requested that the Mound Plant D ampersand D soils proposed for shipment to NTS be sampled for Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) constituents. On December 14, 1990, DOE-NV also requested that additional analyses be performed on the soils from one of the soils boxes for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), particle size distribution, and free liquids. The purpose of this plan is to document the proposed sampling and analyses of the packages of D ampersand D soils produced prior to October 31, 1990. In order to provide a thorough description of the soils excavated from the WTS and SM areas, sections 1.1 and 1.2 provide historical Information concerning the D ampersand D soils, including waste stream evaluations and past sampling data

  1. Measuring environmental change in forest ecosystems by repeated soil sampling: a North American perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Gregory B.; Fernandez, Ivan J.; Richter, Daniel D.; Ross, Donald S.; Hazlett, Paul W.; Bailey, Scott W.; Oiumet, Rock; Warby, Richard A.F.; Johnson, Arthur H.; Lin, Henry; Kaste, James M.; Lapenis, Andrew G.; Sullivan, Timothy J.

    2013-01-01

    Environmental change is monitored in North America through repeated measurements of weather, stream and river flow, air and water quality, and most recently, soil properties. Some skepticism remains, however, about whether repeated soil sampling can effectively distinguish between temporal and spatial variability, and efforts to document soil change in forest ecosystems through repeated measurements are largely nascent and uncoordinated. In eastern North America, repeated soil sampling has begun to provide valuable information on environmental problems such as air pollution. This review synthesizes the current state of the science to further the development and use of soil resampling as an integral method for recording and understanding environmental change in forested settings. The origins of soil resampling reach back to the 19th century in England and Russia. The concepts and methodologies involved in forest soil resampling are reviewed and evaluated through a discussion of how temporal and spatial variability can be addressed with a variety of sampling approaches. Key resampling studies demonstrate the type of results that can be obtained through differing approaches. Ongoing, large-scale issues such as recovery from acidification, long-term N deposition, C sequestration, effects of climate change, impacts from invasive species, and the increasing intensification of soil management all warrant the use of soil resampling as an essential tool for environmental monitoring and assessment. Furthermore, with better awareness of the value of soil resampling, studies can be designed with a long-term perspective so that information can be efficiently obtained well into the future to address problems that have not yet surfaced.

  2. Quality evaluation of processed clay soil samples | Steiner-Asiedu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: This study assessed the microbial quality of clay samples sold on two of the major Ghanaian markets. Methods: The study was a cross-sectional assessing the evaluation of processed clay and effects it has on the nutrition of the consumers in the political capital town of Ghana. The items for the examination was ...

  3. Relationship between soil cellulolytic activity and suppression of seedling blight of barley in arable soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Peter Have; Knudsen, I.; Elmholt, S.

    2002-01-01

    the Hanes-Wolf transformation of the Michaelis-Menten equation. Soil samples from 6 to 13 cm depth were collected in the early spring as undisturbed blocks from 10 arable soils with different physico-chemical properties and cultivation history. Significant correlations were found between soil suppresiveness......The objective was to investigate the relationship between soil suppression of seedling blight of barley caused by Fusarium culmorum (W.G. Smith) Sacc. and the soil cellulolytic activity of beta-glucosidase, cellobiohydrolase and endocellulase. Disease suppression was investigated in bioassays...... with test soils mixed with sand, and barley seeds inoculated with F. culmorum. After 19 days, disease severity was evaluated on the barley seedlings. Soil cellulolytic activities were measured using 4-methylumbelliferyl-labelled fluorogenic substrates, and were expressed as V-max values obtained by using...

  4. Degradation of hydrocarbons in soil samples analyzed within accepted analytical holding times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, J.; Thomey, N.; Dietlein, L.F.

    1992-01-01

    Samples which are collected in conjunction with subsurface investigations at leaking petroleum storage tank sites and petroleum refineries are routinely analyzed for benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes (BTEX), and total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH). Water samples are preserved by the addition of hydrochloric acid and maintained at four degrees centigrade prior to analysis. This is done to prevent bacterial degradation of hydrocarbons. Chemical preservation is not presently performed on soil samples. Instead, the samples are cooled and maintained at four degrees centigrade. This study was done to measure the degree of degradation of hydrocarbons in soil samples which are analyzed within accepted holding times. Soil samples were collected and representative subsamples were prepared from the initial sample. Subsamples were analyzed in triplicate for BTEX and TPH throughout the length of the approved holding times to measure the extent of sample constituent degradation prior to analysis. Findings imply that for sandy soils, BTEX and TPH concentrations can be highly dependent upon the length of time which elapses between sample collection and analysis

  5. Taxonomic and functional profiles of soil samples from Atlantic forest and Caatinga biomes in northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacchioni, Ralfo G; Carvalho, Fabíola M; Thompson, Claudia E; Faustino, André L F; Nicolini, Fernanda; Pereira, Tatiana S; Silva, Rita C B; Cantão, Mauricio E; Gerber, Alexandra; Vasconcelos, Ana T R; Agnez-Lima, Lucymara F

    2014-06-01

    Although microorganisms play crucial roles in ecosystems, metagenomic analyses of soil samples are quite scarce, especially in the Southern Hemisphere. In this work, the microbial diversity of soil samples from an Atlantic Forest and Caatinga was analyzed using a metagenomic approach. Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria were the dominant phyla in both samples. Among which, a significant proportion of stress-resistant bacteria associated to organic matter degradation was found. Sequences related to metabolism of amino acids, nitrogen, and DNA and stress resistance were more frequent in Caatinga soil, while the forest sample showed the highest occurrence of hits annotated in phosphorous metabolism, defense mechanisms, and aromatic compound degradation subsystems. The principal component analysis (PCA) showed that our samples are close to the desert metagenomes in relation to taxonomy, but are more similar to rhizosphere microbiota in relation to the functional profiles. The data indicate that soil characteristics affect the taxonomic and functional distribution; these characteristics include low nutrient content, high drainage (both are sandy soils), vegetation, and exposure to stress. In both samples, a rapid turnover of organic matter with low greenhouse gas emission was suggested by the functional profiles obtained, reinforcing the importance of preserving natural areas. © 2014 The Authors. MicrobiologyOpen published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Regional soil erosion assessment based on a sample survey and geostatistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Yin

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Soil erosion is one of the most significant environmental problems in China. From 2010 to 2012, the fourth national census for soil erosion sampled 32 364 PSUs (Primary Sampling Units, small watersheds with the areas of 0.2–3 km2. Land use and soil erosion controlling factors including rainfall erosivity, soil erodibility, slope length, slope steepness, biological practice, engineering practice, and tillage practice for the PSUs were surveyed, and the soil loss rate for each land use in the PSUs was estimated using an empirical model, the Chinese Soil Loss Equation (CSLE. Though the information collected from the sample units can be aggregated to estimate soil erosion conditions on a large scale; the problem of estimating soil erosion condition on a regional scale has not been addressed well. The aim of this study is to introduce a new model-based regional soil erosion assessment method combining a sample survey and geostatistics. We compared seven spatial interpolation models based on the bivariate penalized spline over triangulation (BPST method to generate a regional soil erosion assessment from the PSUs. Shaanxi Province (3116 PSUs in China was selected for the comparison and assessment as it is one of the areas with the most serious erosion problem. Ten-fold cross-validation based on the PSU data showed the model assisted by the land use, rainfall erosivity factor (R, soil erodibility factor (K, slope steepness factor (S, and slope length factor (L derived from a 1 : 10 000 topography map is the best one, with the model efficiency coefficient (ME being 0.75 and the MSE being 55.8 % of that for the model assisted by the land use alone. Among four erosion factors as the covariates, the S factor contributed the most information, followed by K and L factors, and R factor made almost no contribution to the spatial estimation of soil loss. The LS factor derived from 30 or 90 m Shuttle Radar Topography Mission

  7. Regional soil erosion assessment based on a sample survey and geostatistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Shuiqing; Zhu, Zhengyuan; Wang, Li; Liu, Baoyuan; Xie, Yun; Wang, Guannan; Li, Yishan

    2018-03-01

    Soil erosion is one of the most significant environmental problems in China. From 2010 to 2012, the fourth national census for soil erosion sampled 32 364 PSUs (Primary Sampling Units, small watersheds) with the areas of 0.2-3 km2. Land use and soil erosion controlling factors including rainfall erosivity, soil erodibility, slope length, slope steepness, biological practice, engineering practice, and tillage practice for the PSUs were surveyed, and the soil loss rate for each land use in the PSUs was estimated using an empirical model, the Chinese Soil Loss Equation (CSLE). Though the information collected from the sample units can be aggregated to estimate soil erosion conditions on a large scale; the problem of estimating soil erosion condition on a regional scale has not been addressed well. The aim of this study is to introduce a new model-based regional soil erosion assessment method combining a sample survey and geostatistics. We compared seven spatial interpolation models based on the bivariate penalized spline over triangulation (BPST) method to generate a regional soil erosion assessment from the PSUs. Shaanxi Province (3116 PSUs) in China was selected for the comparison and assessment as it is one of the areas with the most serious erosion problem. Ten-fold cross-validation based on the PSU data showed the model assisted by the land use, rainfall erosivity factor (R), soil erodibility factor (K), slope steepness factor (S), and slope length factor (L) derived from a 1 : 10 000 topography map is the best one, with the model efficiency coefficient (ME) being 0.75 and the MSE being 55.8 % of that for the model assisted by the land use alone. Among four erosion factors as the covariates, the S factor contributed the most information, followed by K and L factors, and R factor made almost no contribution to the spatial estimation of soil loss. The LS factor derived from 30 or 90 m Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) digital elevation model (DEM) data

  8. Online recovery of radiocesium from soil, tissue paper and plant samples by supercritical fluid extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanekar, A.S.; Pathak, P.N.; Mohapatra, P.K.

    2014-01-01

    The feasibility of recovery of radio-cesium from soil, tissue papers, and plant samples has been evaluated by supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) route employing calix(4)arene-mono(crown-6) (CC) dissolved in acetonitrile. These studies showed that quantitative recovery of 137 Cs from soil samples was difficult under the conditions of these studies. However, experiments performed on tissue papers (cellulose matrix) showed quantitative recovery of 137 Cs. On the other hand, 137 Cs recovery from plant samples varied between ∼50 % (for stems) and ∼67.2 % (for leaves) employing 1x10 -3 M CC + 4 M HNO 3 dissolved in acetonitrile. (author)

  9. Quantification of bitumen particles in aerosol and soil samples using HP-GPC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fauser, Patrik; Tjell, Jens Christian; Mosbæk, Hans

    2000-01-01

    A method for identifying and quantifying bitumen particles, generated from the wear of roadway asphalts, in aerosol and soil samples has been developed. Bitumen is found to be the only contributor to airborne particles containing organic molecules with molecular weights larger than 2000 g pr. mol....... These are separated and identified using High Performance Gel Permeation Chromatography (HP-GPC) with fluorescence detection. As an additional detection method Infra Red spectrometry (IR) is employed for selected samples. The methods have been used on aerosol, soil and other samples....

  10. Soil compaction during harvest operations in five tropical soils with different textures under eucalyptus forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Cristina Caruana Martins

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Traffic of farm machinery during harvest and logging operations has been identified as the main source of soil structure degradation in forestry activity. Soil susceptibility to compaction and the amount of compaction caused by each forest harvest operation differs according to a number of factors (such as soil strength, soil texture, kind of equipment, traffic intensity, among many others, what requires the adequate assessment of soil compaction under different traffic conditions. The objectives of this study were to determine the susceptibility to compaction of five soil classes with different textures under eucalyptus forests based on their load bearing capacity models; and to determine, from these models and the precompression stresses obtained after harvest operations, the effect of traffic intensity with different equipment in the occurrence of soil compaction. Undisturbed soil samples were collected before and after harvest operations, being then subjected to uniaxial compression tests to determine their precompression stress. The coarse-textured soils were less resistant and endured greater soil compaction. In the clayey LVd2, traffic intensity below four Forwarder passes limited compaction to a third of the samples, whereas in the sandy loam PVd all samples from the 0-3 cm layer were compacted regardless of traffic intensity. The Feller Buncher and the Clambunk presented a high potential to cause soil compaction even with only one or two passes. The use of soil load bearing capacity models and precompression stress determined after harvest and logging operations allowed insight into the soil compaction process in forestry soils.

  11. Radon exhalation rates from soil and sand samples collected from the vicinity of Yamuna river

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garg, A.K.; Sushil Kumar; Chauhan, Pooja; Chauhan, R.P.

    2011-01-01

    Soil, sand and stones are the most popular building materials for Indian dwellings. Radon is released into ambient air from these materials due to ubiquitous uranium and radium in them, thus increasing the airborne radon concentration. The radioactivity in sand and soils is related to radioactivity in the rocks from which they are formed. These materials contain varying amount of uranium. In the present investigation, the radon emanated from soil and sand samples from different locations in the vicinity of Yamuna river has been estimated. The samples have been collected from different locations near the Yamuna river. The samples collecting sites are from Yamunanagar in Haryana to Delhi. The radon concentration in different samples has been calculated, based upon the data, the mass and the surface exhalation rates of radon emanated from them have also been calculated

  12. Radioactivity measurements of soil samples from Raichur of Karnataka, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajesh, S.; Kerur, B.R.; Anilkumar, S.

    2016-01-01

    Radiations present in environment comprise the terrestrial and extraterrestrial radiations. Natural radioactivity measurement, radiation monitoring of the region, dose assessment and interpretation of radiological related parameters are crucial aspects from the public awareness and environmental safety point of view. It is found that values of the radiological parameters obtained for samples in the study area were found within acceptable or permissible limits. The estimated gamma absorbed dose rate was found to be in the range 32 - 162 nGy h -1 . Higher dose rate than that of the normal dose rate were observed in the regions where granitic, granitic gneiss and schist outcrops were prominent area

  13. Determination of natural uranium, thorium and radium isotopes in water and soil samples by alpha spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hao, Le Cong; Tao, Chau Van; Thong, Luong Van; Linh, Duong Mong [University of Science Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam). Faculty of Physics and Engineering Physics; Dong, Nguyen Van [University of Science Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam). Faculty of Chemistry

    2011-08-15

    In this study, a simple procedure for the determination of natural uranium, thorium and radium isotopes in water and soil samples by alpha spectroscopy is described. This procedure allows a sequential extraction polonium, uranium, thorium and radium radionuclides from the same sample in two to three days. It was tested and validated with the analysis of certified reference materials from the IAEA. (orig.)

  14. Soil sample collection and analysis for the Fugitive Dust Characterization Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashbaugh, Lowell L.; Carvacho, Omar F.; Brown, Michael S.; Chow, Judith C.; Watson, John G.; Magliano, Karen C.

    A unique set of soil samples was collected as part of the Fugitive Dust Characterization Study. The study was carried out to establish whether or not source profiles could be constructed using novel analytical methods that could distinguish soil dust sources from each other. The soil sources sampled included fields planted in cotton, almond, tomato, grape, and safflower, dairy and feedlot facilities, paved and unpaved roads (both urban and rural), an agricultural staging area, disturbed land with salt buildup, and construction areas where the topsoil had been removed. The samples were collected using a systematic procedure designed to reduce sampling bias, and were stored frozen to preserve possible organic signatures. For this paper the samples were characterized by particle size (percent sand, silt, and clay), dry silt content (used in EPA-recommended fugitive dust emission factors), carbon and nitrogen content, and potential to emit both PM 10 and PM 2.5. These are not the "novel analytical methods" referred to above; rather, it was the basic characterization of the samples to use in comparing analytical methods by other scientists contracted to the California Air Resources Board. The purpose of this paper is to document the methods used to collect the samples, the collection locations, the analysis of soil type and potential to emit PM 10, and the sample variability, both within field and between fields of the same crop type.

  15. Study of Organochlorinated Pesticide Residues and Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Soil Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MSc. Vlora Gashi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents and discusses the data obtained for organochlorinated pesticides and their residues in the soil samples of agricultural areas. Soil contamination is one of most important factors influencing the quality of agricultural products. Usage of heavy farm equipment, the land drainage, an exces­sive application of agrochemicals, emissions originating from mining, metallurgical, and chemical and coal power plants and transport, all generate a number of undesired substances (nitric and sulphur oxides, PAHs, heavy metals, pesticides, which after deposition in soil may influence crop quality. Thus, input of these contaminants into the environment should be carefully monitored. Levels of organochlorinated pesticides contamination were evaluated in agriculture areas that are in use. 10 soil samples were taken in agricultural areas  Plane of  Dugagjini , Kosovo. Representa­tive soil samples were collected from 0-30 cm top layer of the soil. In the analytical method we combined ultrasonic bath extraction and a Florisil column for samples clean-up. The analysis of the organochlorinated pesticides in soil samples was performed by gas chromatography technique using electron capture detector (GC/ECD. Optima-5 (low/mid polarity, 5% phenyl methyl siloxane 60 m x 0.33 mm x 0.25μm film capillary column was used for isolation and determination of organochlorinated pesticides. Low concentrations of organochlorinated pesticide and their metabolites were found in the studied samples. The presence of organochlorinated pesticides and their residues is probably resulting of their previous uses for agricultural purposes.

  16. Estimation of radon concentration in soil and groundwater samples of Northern Rajasthan, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mittal, Sudhir; Asha Rani; Mehra, Rohit

    2015-01-01

    In the present investigation, analysis of radon concentration in 20 water and soil samples collected from different locations of Bikaner and Jhunjhunu districts of Rajasthan, India has been carried out by using RAD7 an electronic Radon detector. The water samples are taken from hand pumps and tube wells having depths ranging from 50 to 600 feet. All the soil gas measurements have been carried out at 100 cm depth. The measured radon concentration in water samples lies in the range from 0.50 to 22 Bq l -1 with the mean value of 4.42 Bq l -1 . Only in one water sample radon concentration is found to be higher than the safe limit of 11 Bq l -1 recommended US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA, 1991). The measured value of radon concentration in all ground water samples is within the safe limit from 4 to 40 Bq l -1 recommended by United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR, 2008). The total annual effective dose estimated due to radon concentration in water ranges from 1.37 to 60 μSV y -1 with the mean value of 12.08 μSV y -1 . The total annual effective dose from all locations of our studied area is found to be well within the safe limit 0.1 mSv y -1 recommended by World Health Organization (WHO, 2004) and European Council (ED, 1998). Radon measurement in soil samples varies from 941 to 10050 Bq m -3 with the mean value of 4561 Bq m -3 , The radon concentration observed from the soil samples from our study area lies within the range reported by other investigators. Moreover a positive correlation of radon concentration in water with soil samples has been observed. It was observed that the soil and water of Bikaner and Jhunjhunu districts are suitable for drinking and construction purpose without posing any health hazard. (author)

  17. CTEPP STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR COLLECTION OF SOIL SAMPLES FOR PERSISTENT ORGANIC POLLUTANTS (SOP-2.20)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This SOP describes the method for collecting soil samples from the child's outdoor play area to measure for persistent organic pollutants. Soil samples are collected by scraping up the top 0.5 cm of soil in a 0.095 m2 (1 ft2) area in the middle of the child's play area.

  18. Atomic absorption determination of metals in soils using ultrasonic sample preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chmilenko, F.A.; Smityuk, N.M.; Baklanov, A.N.

    2002-01-01

    It was shown that ultrasonic treatment accelerates sample preparation of soil extracts from chernozem into different solvents by a factor of 6 to 60. These extracts are used for the atomic absorption determination of soluble species of Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn. The optimum ultrasound parameters (frequency, intensity, and treatment time) were found for preparing soil extracts containing analytes in concentrations required in agrochemical procedures. Different extractants used to extract soluble heavy metals from soils of an ordinary chernozem type in agrochemical procedures using ultrasonic treatment were classified in accordance with the element nature [ru

  19. A method for assessing residual NAPL based on organic chemical concentrations in soil samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feenstra, S.; Mackay, D.M.; Cherry, J.A.

    1991-01-01

    Ground water contamination by non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) chemicals is a serious concern at many industrial facilities and waste disposal sites. NAPL in the form of immobile residual contamination, or pools of mobile or potentially mobile NAPL, can represent continuing sources of ground water contamination. In order to develop rational and cost-effective plans for remediation of soil and ground water contamination at such sites, it is essential to determine if non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) chemicals are present in the subsurface and delineate the zones of NAPL contamination. Qualitatively, soil analyses that exhibit chemical concentrations in the percent range or >10,000 mg/kg would generally be considered to indicate the presence of NAPL. However, the results of soil analyses are seldom used in a quantitative manner to assess the possible presence of residual NAPL contamination when chemical concentrations are lower and the presence of NAPL is not obvious. The assessment of the presence of NAPL in soil samples is possible using the results of chemical and physical analyses of the soil, and the fundamental principles of chemical partitioning in unsaturated or saturated soil. The method requires information on the soil of the type typically considered in ground water contamination studies and provides a simple tool for the investigators of chemical spill and waste disposal sites to assess whether soil chemical analyses indicate the presence of residual NAPL in the subsurface

  20. Optimal sample size of signs for classification of radiational and oily soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babayev, M.P.; Iskenderov, S.M.; Aghayev, R.A.

    2012-01-01

    Full text : This article tells about classification of radiational and oily soils that should be in essence a compact intelligence system which contains maximum information on classes of soil objects in the accepted feature space. The stored experience shows that the volume of the most informative soil signs can make up maximum 7-8 indexes. More correct approach to our opinion for a sample of the most informative (most important) indexes is the method of testing and mistakes, that is the experimental method, allowing to make use a wide experience and intuition of the researcher, or group of the researchers, engaged for many years in the field of soil science. At this operational stage of the formal device of soils classification, to say more concrete, the assessment section of selfdescriptiveness of soil signs of this formal device, in our opinion, is purely mathematized and in some cases even not reflect the true picture. In this case it will be calculated 21 pair of correlative elements between the selected soil signs as a measure of the linear communication. The volume of the correlative row will be equal to 6, as the increase in volume of the correlative row can sharply increase the volume calculation. Pertinently to note that, it is the first time an attempt is made to create correlative matrixes of the most important signs of radiation and oily soils

  1. Activity Concentration for Surface Soil Samples Collected from Arrant, Qena, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harb, S.; Salahel Din, K.; Abbady, A.; Moustafa, M.

    2010-01-01

    Soil samples were collected from four regions from Armant area. Qena, Upper Egypt for measure their natural radioactivity concentrations due to Ra-226, Th-232 and K-40 radionuclides. Thirty-Four surface soil samples were analyzed by using low-level gamma-spectrometric analysis. The average activity concentration for Ra-226 in (Bq/kg) in the collected soil samples were found to be 27.3 ±3.2, 11.4±1.09, 10.6±1.2, and 11.4±1.02 while the average value for Th-232 were 15.1±1.4, 11.1±0.77, 10.8 ± 0.72 and 11.1 ± 0.8 (Bq/kg) for soil samples from North, South, West and East. The corresponding average values for K-40 were 521.4±16.8, 463±14.8, 488.9±15.6 and 344.5±10.7 (Bq/kg), respectively. Based on radionuclides concentration in surface soil samples the radiological effects can be assessed

  2. PIXE Analysis of Aerosol and Soil Samples Collected in the Adirondack Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoskowitz, Joshua; Ali, Salina; Nadareski, Benjamin; Labrake, Scott; Vineyard, Michael

    2014-09-01

    We have performed an elemental analysis of aerosol and soil samples collected at Piseco Lake in Upstate New York using proton induced X-ray emission spectroscopy (PIXE). This work is part of a systematic study of airborne pollution in the Adirondack Mountains. Of particular interest is the sulfur content that can contribute to acid rain, a well-documented problem in the Adirondacks. We used a nine-stage cascade impactor to collect the aerosol samples near Piseco Lake and distribute the particulate matter onto Kapton foils by particle size. The soil samples were also collected at Piseco Lake and pressed into cylindrical pellets for experimentation. PIXE analysis of the aerosol and soil samples were performed with 2.2-MeV proton beams from the 1.1-MV Pelletron accelerator in the Union College Ion-Beam Analysis Laboratory. There are higher concentrations of sulfur at smaller particle sizes (0.25-1 μm), suggesting that it could be suspended in the air for days and originate from sources very far away. Other elements with significant concentrations peak at larger particle sizes (1-4 μm) and are found in the soil samples, suggesting that these elements could originate in the soil. The PIXE analysis will be described and the resulting data will be presented.

  3. Critical evaluation of distillation procedure for the determination of methylmercury in soil samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Pablo A; Hintelman, Holger; Quiroz, Waldo; Bravo, Manuel A

    2017-11-01

    In the present work, the efficiency of distillation process for extracting monomethylmercury (MMHg) from soil samples was studied and optimized using an experimental design methodology. The influence of soil composition on MMHg extraction was evaluated by testing of four soil samples with different geochemical characteristics. Optimization suggested that the acid concentration and the duration of the distillation process were most significant and the most favorable conditions, established as a compromise for the studied soils, were determined to be a 70 min distillation using an 0.2 M acid. Corresponding limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) were 0.21 and 0.7 pg absolute, respectively. The optimized methodology was applied with satisfactory results to soil samples and was compared to a reference methodology based on isotopic dilution analysis followed by gas chromatography-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (IDA-GC-ICP-MS). Using the optimized conditions, recoveries ranged from 82 to 98%, which is an increase of 9-34% relative to the previously used standard operating procedure. Finally, the validated methodology was applied to quantify MMHg in soils collected from different sites impacted by coal fired power plants in the north-central zone of Chile, measuring MMHg concentrations ranging from 0.091 to 2.8 ng g -1 . These data are to the best of our knowledge the first MMHg measurements reported for Chile. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Spatial distribution of metals in soil samples from Zona da Mata, Pernambuco, Brazil using XRF technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, Zahily Herrero; Santos Junior, Jose Araujo dos; Amaral, Romilton dos Santos; Menezes, Romulo Simoes Cezar; Santos, Josineide Marques do Nascimento; Bezerra, Jairo Dias; Damascena, Kennedy Francys Rodrigues; Silva, Edvane Borges da; Silva, Alberto Antonio da

    2015-01-01

    Soil contamination is today one of the most important environmental issues for society. In the past, soil pollution was not considered as important as air and water contamination, because this was more difficult to be controlled, becoming an important topic in studies of environmental protection worldwide. Based on this, this paper provides information on the determination of metals in soil samples collected in Zona da Mata, Pernambuco, Brazil, where normally the application of pesticides, insecticides and other agricultural additives are used in a disorderly manner and without control. A total of 24 sampling points were monitored. The analysis of Mn, Fe, Ni, Zn, Br, Rb, Sr, Pb, Ti, La, Al, Si and P were performed using Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence. In order to assess the development of analytical method, inorganic Certified Reference Materials (IAEA-SOIL-7 and SRM 2709) were analyzed. In each sampling site, the geoaccumulation index were calculated to estimate the level of metal contamination in the soil, this was made taking into account the resolution 460 of the National Environmental Council (CONAMA in Portuguese). The elemental distribution patterns obtained for each metal were associated with different pollution sources. This assessment provides an initial description of pollution levels presented by metals in soils from several areas of Zona da Mata, providing quantitative evidence and demonstrating the need to improve the regulation of agricultural and industrial activities. (author)

  5. Spatial distribution of metals in soil samples from Zona da Mata, Pernambuco, Brazil using XRF technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, Zahily Herrero; Santos Junior, Jose Araujo dos; Amaral, Romilton dos Santos; Menezes, Romulo Simoes Cezar; Santos, Josineide Marques do Nascimento; Bezerra, Jairo Dias; Damascena, Kennedy Francys Rodrigues, E-mail: zahily1985@gmail.com, E-mail: jaraujo@ufpe.br, E-mail: romilton@ufpe.br, E-mail: rmenezes@ufpe.br, E-mail: neideden@hotmail.com, E-mail: jairo.dias@ufpe.br, E-mail: kennedy.eng.ambiental@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia e Geociencias. Departamento de Energia Nuclear; Alvarez, Juan Reinaldo Estevez, E-mail: jestevez@ceaden.cu [Centro de Aplicaciones Tecnologicas y Desarrollo Nuclear (CEADEN), Havana (Cuba); Silva, Edvane Borges da, E-mail: edvane.borges@pq.cnpq.br [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Vitoria de Santo Antao, PE (Brazil). Nucleo de Biologia; Franca, Elvis Joacir de; Farias, Emerson Emiliano Gualberto de, E-mail: ejfranca@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: emersonemiliano@yahoo.com.br [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Silva, Alberto Antonio da, E-mail: alberto.silva@barreiros.ifpe.edu.br [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia de Pernambuco (IFPE), Barreiros, PE (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Soil contamination is today one of the most important environmental issues for society. In the past, soil pollution was not considered as important as air and water contamination, because this was more difficult to be controlled, becoming an important topic in studies of environmental protection worldwide. Based on this, this paper provides information on the determination of metals in soil samples collected in Zona da Mata, Pernambuco, Brazil, where normally the application of pesticides, insecticides and other agricultural additives are used in a disorderly manner and without control. A total of 24 sampling points were monitored. The analysis of Mn, Fe, Ni, Zn, Br, Rb, Sr, Pb, Ti, La, Al, Si and P were performed using Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence. In order to assess the development of analytical method, inorganic Certified Reference Materials (IAEA-SOIL-7 and SRM 2709) were analyzed. In each sampling site, the geoaccumulation index were calculated to estimate the level of metal contamination in the soil, this was made taking into account the resolution 460 of the National Environmental Council (CONAMA in Portuguese). The elemental distribution patterns obtained for each metal were associated with different pollution sources. This assessment provides an initial description of pollution levels presented by metals in soils from several areas of Zona da Mata, providing quantitative evidence and demonstrating the need to improve the regulation of agricultural and industrial activities. (author)

  6. Two media method for linear attenuation coefficient determination of irregular soil samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vici, Carlos Henrique Georges

    2004-01-01

    In several situations of nuclear applications, the knowledge of gamma-ray linear attenuation coefficient for irregular samples is necessary, such as in soil physics and geology. This work presents the validation of a methodology for the determination of the linear attenuation coefficient (μ) of irregular shape samples, in such a way that it is not necessary to know the thickness of the considered sample. With this methodology irregular soil samples (undeformed field samples) from Londrina region, north of Parana were studied. It was employed the two media method for the μ determination. It consists of the μ determination through the measurement of a gamma-ray beam attenuation by the sample sequentially immersed in two different media, with known and appropriately chosen attenuation coefficients. For comparison, the theoretical value of μ was calculated by the product of the mass attenuation coefficient, obtained by the WinXcom code, and the measured value of the density sample. This software employs the chemical composition of the samples and supplies a table of the mass attenuation coefficients versus the photon energy. To verify the validity of the two media method, compared with the simple gamma ray transmission method, regular pome stone samples were used. With these results for the attenuation coefficients and their respective deviations, it was possible to compare the two methods. In this way we concluded that the two media method is a good tool for the determination of the linear attenuation coefficient of irregular materials, particularly in the study of soils samples. (author)

  7. Determination of 137Cs activities in soil samples from east and south Marmara region, Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilic, Oe.; Belivermis, M.; Cotuk, Y.; Coskun, M.; Cayir, A.; Kuecer, R.

    2006-01-01

    Activity concentrations of 1 37Cs, 4 0K and physico-chemical parameters of soil samples collected from 99 sampling stations in the east and south of Marmara Region of Turkey were determined. The study region was divided into 20 x 20 km grids and soil samples collected randomly in each square from 0-5 cm surface layer. Activities were measured by means of multichannel gamma analyser provided with high purity germanium detector. Relations among 1 37Cs concentrations and physico-chemical parameters of soils and climatic factors of the region were evaluated. Arc View GIS version 3.1 was used mapping of study area. Distribution of radionuclide concentrations in the region illustrated with contour maps using Surfer 8.0 for Windows. The range of activity concentrations of 1 37Cs and 4 0K were measured to be 0.92-153.72 and 69.24-1085.57 Bq/kg respectively

  8. Determination of Pu in soil samples; Determinacion de Pu en muestras de suelo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres C, C. O.; Hernandez M, H.; Romero G, E. T. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Vega C, H. R., E-mail: carioli_32907@hotmail.com [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas, Zac. (Mexico)

    2016-10-15

    The irreversible consequences of accidents occurring in nuclear plants and in nuclear fuel reprocessing sites are mainly the distribution of different radionuclides in different matrices such as the soil. The distribution in the superficial soil is related to the internal and external exposure to the radiation of the affected population. The internal contamination with radionuclides such as Pu is of great relevance to the nuclear forensic science, where is important to know the chemical and isotopic compositions of nuclear materials. The objective of this work is to optimize the radiochemical separation of plutonium (Pu) from soil samples and to determine their concentration. The soil samples were prepared using acid digestion assisted by microwave; purification of Pu was carried out with AG1X8 resin using ion exchange chromatography. Pu isotopes were measured using ICP-SFMS. In order to reduce the interference due to the presence of {sup 238}UH {sup +} in the samples, a solvent removal system (Apex) was used. In addition, the limit of detection and quantification of Pu was determined. It was found that the recovery efficiency of Pu in soil samples ranges from 70 to 93%. (Author)

  9. Optimization of deconvolution software used in the study of spectra of soil samples from Madagascar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ANDRIAMADY NARIMANANA, S.F.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this work is to perform the deconvolution of gamma spectra by using the deconvolution peak program. Synthetic spectra, reference materials and ten soil samples with various U-238 activities from three regions of Madagascar were used. This work concerns : soil sample spectra with low activities of about (47±2) Bq.kg -1 from Ankatso, soil sample spectra with average activities of about (125±2)Bq.kg -1 from Antsirabe and soil sample spectra with high activities of about (21100± 120) Bq.kg -1 from Vinaninkarena. Singlet and multiplet peaks with various intensities were found in each soil spectrum. Interactive Peak Fit (IPF) program in Genie-PC from Canberra Industries allows to deconvoluate many multiplet regions : quartet within 235 keV-242 keV, Pb-214 and Pb-212 within 294 keV -301 keV; Th-232 daughters within 582 keV - 584 keV; Ac-228 within 904 keV -911 keV and within 964 keV-970 keV and Bi-214 within 1401 keV - 1408 keV. Those peaks were used to quantify considered radionuclides. However, IPF cannot resolve Ra-226 peak at 186,1 keV. [fr

  10. High-throughput diagnosis of potato cyst nematodes in soil samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Alex; Evans, Fiona; Mulholland, Vincent; Cole, Yvonne; Pickup, Jon

    2015-01-01

    Potato cyst nematode (PCN) is a damaging soilborne pest of potatoes which can cause major crop losses. In 2010, a new European Union directive (2007/33/EC) on the control of PCN came into force. Under the new directive, seed potatoes can only be planted on land which has been found to be free from PCN infestation following an official soil test. A major consequence of the new directive was the introduction of a new harmonized soil sampling rate resulting in a threefold increase in the number of samples requiring testing. To manage this increase with the same staffing resources, we have replaced the traditional diagnostic methods. A system has been developed for the processing of soil samples, extraction of DNA from float material, and detection of PCN by high-throughput real-time PCR. Approximately 17,000 samples are analyzed each year using this method. This chapter describes the high-throughput processes for the production of float material from soil samples, DNA extraction from the entire float, and subsequent detection and identification of PCN within these samples.

  11. Characterization and forensic analysis of soil samples using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jantzi, Sarah C; Almirall, José R

    2011-07-01

    A method for the quantitative elemental analysis of surface soil samples using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) was developed and applied to the analysis of bulk soil samples for discrimination between specimens. The use of a 266 nm laser for LIBS analysis is reported for the first time in forensic soil analysis. Optimization of the LIBS method is discussed, and the results compared favorably to a laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) method previously developed. Precision for both methods was LIBS limits of detection were LIBS method successfully discriminated samples from two different sites in Dade County, FL. Analysis of variance, Tukey's post hoc test and Student's t test resulted in 100% discrimination with no type I or type II errors. Principal components analysis (PCA) resulted in clear groupings of the two sites. A correct classification rate of 99.4% was obtained with linear discriminant analysis using leave-one-out validation. Similar results were obtained when the same samples were analyzed by LA-ICP-MS, showing that LIBS can provide similar information to LA-ICP-MS. In a forensic sampling/spatial heterogeneity study, the variation between sites, between sub-plots, between samples and within samples was examined on three similar Dade sites. The closer the sampling locations, the closer the grouping on a PCA plot and the higher the misclassification rate. These results underscore the importance of careful sampling for geographic site characterization.

  12. Effects of Spatial Sampling Interval on Roughness Parameters and Microwave Backscatter over Agricultural Soil Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matías Ernesto Barber

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The spatial sampling interval, as related to the ability to digitize a soil profile with a certain number of features per unit length, depends on the profiling technique itself. From a variety of profiling techniques, roughness parameters are estimated at different sampling intervals. Since soil profiles have continuous spectral components, it is clear that roughness parameters are influenced by the sampling interval of the measurement device employed. In this work, we contributed to answer which sampling interval the profiles needed to be measured at to accurately account for the microwave response of agricultural surfaces. For this purpose, a 2-D laser profiler was built and used to measure surface soil roughness at field scale over agricultural sites in Argentina. Sampling intervals ranged from large (50 mm to small ones (1 mm, with several intermediate values. Large- and intermediate-sampling-interval profiles were synthetically derived from nominal, 1 mm ones. With these data, the effect of sampling-interval-dependent roughness parameters on backscatter response was assessed using the theoretical backscatter model IEM2M. Simulations demonstrated that variations of roughness parameters depended on the working wavelength and was less important at L-band than at C- or X-band. In any case, an underestimation of the backscattering coefficient of about 1-4 dB was observed at larger sampling intervals. As a general rule a sampling interval of 15 mm can be recommended for L-band and 5 mm for C-band.

  13. EDRXF measurements of heavy elements in soil samples from some potentially polluted sites in zambia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayumbu, P.; Phiri, L.K.; Mambo, A.; Sokotela, S.B.

    2001-01-01

    A survey of heavy element levels in top soils collected around four industrial plants and along four highway stretches demonstrated that there was significant pollution only around an abandoned Pb/Zn mine. Sample collection in a rectangular grid encompassing each source sought to depict the spatial extent of pollution. Ascertaining levels of heavy elements in potentially polluted soils in urban areas of Zambia and along major highways was deemed desirable because it is common practice to grow maize and vegetables in lots adjacent to accessible industrial sites and highways. Pb is a heavy element of interest for all sampled sites whose distribution at the abandoned mine ranged from 13 to 2028 ppm

  14. Determination of naturally occurring radionuclides in soil samples of Ayranci, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agar, Osman; Eke, Canel; Boztosun, Ismail; Emin Korkmaz, M.

    2015-04-01

    The specific activity, radiation hazard index and the annual effective dose of the naturally occurring radioactive elements (238U, 232Th and 40K) were determined in soil samples collected from 12 different locations in Ayranci region by using a NaI(Tl) gamma-ray spectrometer. The measured activity concentrations of the natural radionuclides in studied soil samples were compared with the corresponding results of different countries and the internationally reported values. From the analysis, it is found that these materials may be safely used as construction materials and do not pose significant radiation hazards.

  15. Radon mass exhalation rate in soil samples at South Bengaluru city, Karnataka, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poojitha, C.G.; Pranesha, T.S.; Ganesh, K.E.; Sahoo, B.K.; Sapra, B.K.

    2017-01-01

    Radon mass exhalation rate in soil samples collected from different locations of South Bengaluru city were measured using scintillation based Smart radon thoron monitor (RnDuo). It has been observed that the mass exhalation rate estimated due to presence of radon concentration in soil samples ranges from 39.18 - 265.58 mBq/kg/h with an average value of 115.64 mBq/kg/h. Finally we compare our results with similar investigation from different parts of India. (author)

  16. Application of instrument neutron-activation analysis in a comparative investigation of soil samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dimitrov, D. (Institute po Kriminalistika i Kriminologiya, Sofia (Bulgaria))

    1983-01-01

    A quantitative measurement of the contents of 17 chemical elements in soil samples, collected using the existing network from the surface of five cultivated areas in Bulgaria has been carried out. The values obtained have been used to calculate the evaluations psub(i) of the dispersions and for the ordering of the chemical elements according to their importance in criminology. The possibility for criminological comparison of single soil samples using the contents of the five most important elements - Th, Fe, Sc, Ce and Mn has been shown.

  17. Application of instrument neutron-activation analysis in a comparative investigation of soil samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimitrov, D.

    1983-01-01

    A quantitative measurement of the contents of 17 chemical elements in soil samples, collected using the existing network from the surface of five cultivated areas in Bulgaria has been carried out. The values obtained have been used to calculate the evaluations psub(i) of the dispersions and for the ordering of the chemical elements according to their importance in criminology. The possibility for criminological comparison of single soil samples using the contents of the five most important elements - Th, Fe, Sc, Ce and Mn has been shown. (author)

  18. Mapping of depleted uranium with in situ spectrometry and soil samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shebell, P.; Reginatto, M.; Monetti, M.; Faller, S.; Davis, L.

    1999-01-01

    Depleted uranium (DU) has been developed in the past two decades as a highly effective material for armor penetrating rounds and vehicle shielding. There is now a growing interest in the defense community to determine the presence and extent of DU contamination quickly and with a minimum amount of intrusive sampling. We report on a new approach using deconvolution techniques to quantitatively map DU contamination in surface soil. This approach combines data from soil samples with data from in situ gamma-ray spectrometry measurements to produce an accurate and detailed map of DU contamination. Results of a field survey at the Aberdeen Proving Ground are presented. (author)

  19. Optimization of a sample processing protocol for recovery of Bacillus anthracis spores from soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestri, Erin E.; Feldhake, David; Griffin, Dale; Lisle, John T.; Nichols, Tonya L.; Shah, Sanjiv; Pemberton, A; Schaefer III, Frank W

    2016-01-01

    Following a release of Bacillus anthracis spores into the environment, there is a potential for lasting environmental contamination in soils. There is a need for detection protocols for B. anthracis in environmental matrices. However, identification of B. anthracis within a soil is a difficult task. Processing soil samples helps to remove debris, chemical components, and biological impurities that can interfere with microbiological detection. This study aimed to optimize a previously used indirect processing protocol, which included a series of washing and centrifugation steps. Optimization of the protocol included: identifying an ideal extraction diluent, variation in the number of wash steps, variation in the initial centrifugation speed, sonication and shaking mechanisms. The optimized protocol was demonstrated at two laboratories in order to evaluate the recovery of spores from loamy and sandy soils. The new protocol demonstrated an improved limit of detection for loamy and sandy soils over the non-optimized protocol with an approximate matrix limit of detection at 14 spores/g of soil. There were no significant differences overall between the two laboratories for either soil type, suggesting that the processing protocol will be robust enough to use at multiple laboratories while achieving comparable recoveries.

  20. Antimicrobial resistance among Pseudomonas spp. and the Bacillus cereus group isolated from Danish agricultural soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars Bogø; Baloda, S.; Boye, Mette

    2001-01-01

    From four Danish pig farms, bacteria of Pseudomonas spp. and the Bacillus cereus group were isolated from soil and susceptibility towards selected antimicrobials was tested. From each farm, soil samples representing soil just before and after spread of animal waste and undisturbed agricultural so...... spp., and for bacitracin, erythromycin, penicillin and streptomycin for the B. cereus group. Variations in resistance levels were observed when soil before and after spread of animal waste was compared, indicating an effect from spread of animal waste.......From four Danish pig farms, bacteria of Pseudomonas spp. and the Bacillus cereus group were isolated from soil and susceptibility towards selected antimicrobials was tested. From each farm, soil samples representing soil just before and after spread of animal waste and undisturbed agricultural soil......, when possible, were collected. Soil from a well-characterized Danish farm soil (Hojbakkegaard) was collected for comparison. The Psudomonas spp. and B. cereus were chosen as representative for Gram-negative and Gram-positive indigenous soil bacteria to test the effect of spread of animal waste...

  1. Sampling methods for pasture, soil and deposition for radioactivity emergency preparedness in the Nordic countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaksson, M.

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this work was to compare sampling techniques for pasture, soil and deposition, planned for radioactivity surveillance in emergency situations in the Nordic countries. The basis of the survey was a questionnaire, sent to radiation protection authorities and laboratories. Sampling of pasture is performed with a cutting height between 1 and 5 cm above the ground from an area of about 1 m 2 . The sampling plots are usually randomly positioned. Soil samples, 3 to 20 cores in various patterns, are generally taken by a corer of varying diameter. For deposition sampling, precipitation collectors of different sizes are used. When comparing results, the differences between laboratories should be borne in mind so that proper corrections can be made. It is, however, important to consider that, especially in an emergency situation, the use of standardised methods may worsen the results if these methods are not part of the daily work. (orig.)

  2. Uranium, radium and radon exhalation study in some soil samples using track etch technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harmanjit, Singh; Joga, Singh; Surinder, Singh; Bajwa, B.S.

    2006-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Uranium, radium concentration and radon exhalation rates have been determined in the soil samples collected from some areas of Punjab using the L.R.-115 nuclear track detectors. Radium concentration in these samples has been found to be varying from 0.80 to 5.34 Bq Kg-1. The radon exhalation rate in these samples has been found to be varying from 0.99 to 6.60 mBq Kg -1 h -1 (32.82 to 218.49 mBqm -2 h -1 ). A good correlation has been observed between radon exhalation rate and radium concentration observed in the soil samples. The uranium concentration in all these samples is being carried out and the other correlations will also be established. (authors)

  3. Spatial heavy metals Zn and Cr distribution in soil samples taken from Tatra Mountains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stobinski, M.; Misiak, R.; Kubica, B.

    2008-03-01

    The basic issue of presented report is showing the spatial heavy metals (Zn and Cr) distribution in soil samples taken from High Mts area. The expertise was done using two analytical techniques: AAS (atomic absorption spectroscopy) and micro-PIXIE (proton induced X-ray emission).Given heavy metals concentration were originated either from soil surface (10 cm depth) or from the whole soil profile. Our evaluation indicates that the Zn and Cr levels measured for mountains region were comparable to the data presented by other authors. Furthermore, the amount of heavy metals is strongly correlated with its natural concentration in parental rock.We also observed that zinc was prone to accumulate in surface, rich in organic matter, soil levels. (author)

  4. Prediction of the soil water retention curve for structured soil from saturation to oven-dryness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karup, Dan; Møldrup, Per; Tuller, Markus

    2017-01-01

    . Independently measured SWRCs for 171 undisturbed soil samples with organic matter contents that ranged from 3 to 14% were used for model validation. The results indicate that consideration of the silt and organic matter fractions, in addition to the clay fraction, improved predictions for the dry-end SWRC......The soil water retention curve (SWRC) is the most fundamental soil hydraulic function required for modelling soil–plant–atmospheric water flow and transport processes. The SWRC is intimately linked to the distribution of the size of pores, the composition of the solid phase and the soil specific...... surface area. Detailed measurement of the SWRC is impractical in many cases because of the excessively long equilibration times inherent to most standard methods, especially for fine textured soil. Consequently, it is more efficient to predict the SWRCbased on easy-to-measure basic soil properties...

  5. The Viking X ray fluorescence experiment - Sampling strategies and laboratory simulations. [Mars soil sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, A. K.; Castro, A. J.; Clark, B. C.; Toulmin, P., III; Rose, H., Jr.; Keil, K.; Gooding, J. L.

    1977-01-01

    Ten samples of Mars regolith material (six on Viking Lander 1 and four on Viking Lander 2) have been delivered to the X ray fluorescence spectrometers as of March 31, 1977. An additional six samples at least are planned for acquisition in the remaining Extended Mission (to January 1979) for each lander. All samples acquired are Martian fines from the near surface (less than 6-cm depth) of the landing sites except the latest on Viking Lander 1, which is fine material from the bottom of a trench dug to a depth of 25 cm. Several attempts on each lander to acquire fresh rock material (in pebble sizes) for analysis have yielded only cemented surface crustal material (duricrust). Laboratory simulation and experimentation are required both for mission planning of sampling and for interpretation of data returned from Mars. This paper is concerned with the rationale for sample site selections, surface sampler operations, and the supportive laboratory studies needed to interpret X ray results from Mars.

  6. Norm in soil and sludge samples in Dukhan oil Field, Qatar state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Kinani, A.T.; Hushari, M.; Al-Sulaiti, Huda; Alsadig, I.A., E-mail: mmhushari@moe.gov.qa [Radiation and Chemical Protection Department, Ministry of Environment, Doha (Qatar)

    2015-07-01

    The main objective of this work is to measure the activity concentrations of Naturally Occurring radioactive Materials (NORM) produced as a buy products in oil production. The analyses of NORM give available information for guidelines concerning radiation protection. Recently NORM subjected to restricted regulation issued by high legal authority at Qatar state. Twenty five samples of soil from Dukhan onshore oil field and 10 sludge samples collected from 2 offshore fields at Qatar state. High resolution low-level gamma-ray spectrometry used to measure gamma emitters of NORM. The activity concentrations of natural radionuclide in 22 samples from Dukhan oil field, were with average worldwide values . Only three soil samples have high activity concentration of Ra-226 which is more than 185 Bq/kg the exempted level for NORM in the Quatrain regulation. The natural radionuclide activity concentrations of 10 sludge samples from offshore oil fields was greater than 1100Bq/kg the exempted values of NORM set by Quatrain regulation so the sludge need special treatments. The average hazards indices (H{sub ex} , D , and Ra{sub eq}), for the 22 samples were below the word permissible values .This means that the human exposure to such material not impose any radiation risk. The average hazards indices (H{sub ex} , D , and Ra{sub eq}), for 3 soil samples and sludge samples are higher than the published maximal permissible. Thus human exposure to such material impose radiation risk. (author)

  7. Norm in soil and sludge samples in Dukhan oil Field, Qatar state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Kinani, A.T.; Hushari, M.; Al-Sulaiti, Huda; Alsadig, I.A.

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of this work is to measure the activity concentrations of Naturally Occurring radioactive Materials (NORM) produced as a buy products in oil production. The analyses of NORM give available information for guidelines concerning radiation protection. Recently NORM subjected to restricted regulation issued by high legal authority at Qatar state. Twenty five samples of soil from Dukhan onshore oil field and 10 sludge samples collected from 2 offshore fields at Qatar state. High resolution low-level gamma-ray spectrometry used to measure gamma emitters of NORM. The activity concentrations of natural radionuclide in 22 samples from Dukhan oil field, were with average worldwide values . Only three soil samples have high activity concentration of Ra-226 which is more than 185 Bq/kg the exempted level for NORM in the Quatrain regulation. The natural radionuclide activity concentrations of 10 sludge samples from offshore oil fields was greater than 1100Bq/kg the exempted values of NORM set by Quatrain regulation so the sludge need special treatments. The average hazards indices (H ex , D , and Ra eq ), for the 22 samples were below the word permissible values .This means that the human exposure to such material not impose any radiation risk. The average hazards indices (H ex , D , and Ra eq ), for 3 soil samples and sludge samples are higher than the published maximal permissible. Thus human exposure to such material impose radiation risk. (author)

  8. Behaviour of cesium in contaminated soils with and without agricultural practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arapis, G.; Martinez, A.; Millan, R.; Gutierrez, J.

    1992-01-01

    The migration of cesium into affected agricultural soils, five years after the Chernobyl accident, is examined in this study. Samples of soil were taken from an undisturbed non-cultivated rural area in the north of Greece, where an important contamination has been detected. The migration of 137 Cs into these soils was measured by γ spectrometry. Slight movement of 137 Cs was observed during the five year period following the accident. The agricultural practices, used in this area from 1986 up to now, have diluted the contamination into the 0-40 cm horizon and thus only low concentration of cesium in the cultivated soils was detected. (orig.)

  9. Measurement of activity concentration of primordial radionuclides in the soil samples of Tiruchirappalli, Tamil Nadu, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadiq Bukhari, A.; Saiyad Musthafa, M.; Syed Mohamed, H.E.; Krishnamoorthy, R.; Shahul Hameed, M.M.; Shahul Hameed, P.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Radioactive minerals such as uranium ( 238 U), thorium ( 232 Th) and potassium ( 40 K) are considered to be Primordial radionuclides which are widely distributed in the earth's crust. Gamma-radiation from these radionuclides represents the main external source of irradiation for the human body. Human beings are exposed outdoors to the natural terrestrial radiation that originates predominantly from the upper 30 cm of the soil. A pilot project was therefore initiated aiming at systematically measuring the terrestrial gamma radiation in Tiruchirappalli city, Tamil Nadu, South India and to establish baseline data on the terrestrial background radiation level determining its contribution to the annual effective dose equivalent to the human population. The natural radioactivity concentrations were studied in soil samples collected from 50 locations in Tiruchirappalli city. The concentration varies significantly over different soil types and the highest radioactivity was measured over soil types of granite origin followed by red soil and alluvial loam. The mean activity concentrations of 232 Th, 238 U and 40 K in soil samples are found to be 81.78 Bq.kg -1 , 32.62 Bq.kg -1 , and 551.35 Bq.kg -1 respectively. The calculated gamma dose from the soil is in the range between 38.86nGy.h -1 and 240.59 nGy.h -1 with a mean value of 89.76 nGy.h -1 . The mean annual effective dose to the population from outdoor terrestrial gamma radiation was estimated to be 0.11mSv.y -1 which is low as compared with the maximum permissible effective dose equivalent of 1mSv.y -1 (ICRP,1991). In the present study it is observed that the major sources of gamma radiation in soils are mainly derived from rocky area with granite basement. (author)

  10. Dielectrophoretic sample preparation for environmental monitoring of microorganisms: Soil particle removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatoyinbo, Henry O; McDonnell, Martin C; Hughes, Michael P

    2014-07-01

    Detection of pathogens from environmental samples is often hampered by sensors interacting with environmental particles such as soot, pollen, or environmental dust such as soil or clay. These particles may be of similar size to the target bacterium, preventing removal by filtration, but may non-specifically bind to sensor surfaces, fouling them and causing artefactual results. In this paper, we report the selective manipulation of soil particles using an AC electrokinetic microfluidic system. Four heterogeneous soil samples (smectic clay, kaolinitic clay, peaty loam, and sandy loam) were characterised using dielectrophoresis to identify the electrical difference to a target organism. A flow-cell device was then constructed to evaluate dielectrophoretic separation of bacteria and clay in a continous flow through mode. The average separation efficiency of the system across all soil types was found to be 68.7% with a maximal separation efficiency for kaolinitic clay at 87.6%. This represents the first attempt to separate soil particles from bacteria using dielectrophoresis and indicate that the technique shows significant promise; with appropriate system optimisation, we believe that this preliminary study represents an opportunity to develop a simple yet highly effective sample processing system.

  11. GEMAS: Colours of dry and moist agricultural soil samples of Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klug, Martin; Fabian, Karl; Reimann, Clemens

    2016-04-01

    High resolution HDR colour images of all Ap samples from the GEMAS survey were acquired using a GeoTek Linescan camera. Three measurements of dry and wet samples with increasing exposure time and increasing illumination settings produced a set of colour images at 50μm resolution. Automated image processing was used to calibrate the six images per sample with respect to the synchronously measured X-Rite colorchecker chart. The calibrated images were then fit to Munsell soil colours that were measured in the same way. The results provide overview maps of dry and moist European soil colours. Because colour is closely linked to iron mineralogy, carbonate, silicate and organic carbon content the results can be correlated to magnetic, mineralogical, and geochemical properties. In combination with the full GEMAS chemical and physical measurements, this yields a valuable data set for calibration and interpretation of visible satellite colour data with respect to chemical composition and geological background, soil moisture, and soil degradation. This data set will help to develop new methods for world-wide characterization and monitoring of agricultural soils which is essential for quantifying geologic and human impact on the critical zone environment. It furthermore enables the scientific community and governmental authorities to monitor consequences of climatic change, to plan and administrate economic and ecological land use, and to use the data set for forensic applications.

  12. Analysis of natural radionuclides in soil samples of Purola area of Garhwal Himalaya, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Manjulata; Rawat, Mukesh; Dangwal, Anoop; Prasad, Mukesh; Gusain, G S; Ramola, R C

    2015-11-01

    Naturally occurring radioactive materials are widely spread in the earth's environment, being distributed in soil, rocks, water, air, plants and even within the human body. All of these sources have contributed to an increase in the levels of environmental radioactivity and population radiation doses. This paper presents the activity level due to the presence of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in soil samples of Purola area in Garhwal Himalaya region. The measured activity of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in collected soil samples of Purola was found to vary from 13±10 to 55±10 Bq kg(-1) with an average of 31±2 Bq kg(-1), 13±10 to 101±13 Bq kg(-1) with an average 30±3 Bq kg(-1) and 150±81 to 1310±154 Bq kg(-1) with an average 583±30 Bq kg(-1), respectively. The radium equivalent activity in collected soil samples was found to vary from 47 to 221 Bq kg(-1) with an average of 115 Bq kg(-1). The total absorbed gamma dose rate in this area was found to vary from 22 to 93 nGy h(-1) with an average of 55 nGy h(-1). The distribution of these radionuclides in the soil of study area is discussed in details. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. A New Approach To Soil Sampling For Risk Assessment Of Nutrient Mobilisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonczyk, J. C.; Owen, G. J.; Snell, M. A.; Barber, N.; Benskin, C.; Reaney, S. M.; Haygarth, P.; Quinn, P. F.; Barker, P. A.; Aftab, A.; Burke, S.; Cleasby, W.; Surridge, B.; Perks, M. T.

    2016-12-01

    Traditionally, risks of nutrient and sediment losses from soils are assessed through a combination of field soil nutrient values on soil samples taken over the whole field and the proximity of the field to water courses. The field average nutrient concentration of the soil is used by farmers to determine fertiliser needs. These data are often used by scientists to assess the risk of nutrient losses to water course, though are not really `fit' for this purpose. The Eden Demonstration Test Catchment (http://www.edendtc.org.uk/) is a research project based in the River Eden catchment, NW UK, with the aim of cost effectively mitigating diffuse pollution from agriculture whilst maintaining agricultural productivity. Three instrumented focus catchments have been monitored since 2011, providing high resolution in-stream chemistry and ecological data, alongside some spatial data on soils, land use and nutrient inputs. An approach to mitigation was demonstrated in a small sub-catchment, where surface runoff was identified as the key drivers of nutrient losses, using a suite of runoff attenuation features. Other issues identified were management of hard- standings and soil compaction. A new approach for evaluating nutrient losses from soils is assessed in the Eden DTC project. The Sensitive Catchment Integrated Modelling and Prediction (SCIMAP) model is a risk-mapping framework designed to identify where in the landscape diffuse pollution is most likely to be originating (http://www.scimap.org.uk) and was used to look at the spatial pattern of erosion potential. The aim of this work was to assess if erosion potential identified through the model could be used to inform a new soil sampling strategy, to better assess risk of erosion and risk of transport of sediment-bound phosphorus. Soil samples were taken from areas with different erosion potential. The chemical analysis of these targeted samples are compared to those obtained using more traditional sampling approaches

  14. Heavy metal accumulation in soils, plants, and hair samples: an assessment of heavy metal exposure risks from the consumption of vegetables grown on soils previously irrigated with wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massaquoi, Lamin Daddy; Ma, Hui; Liu, Xue Hui; Han, Peng Yu; Zuo, Shu-Mei; Hua, Zhong-Xian; Liu, Dian-Wu

    2015-12-01

    It is common knowledge that soils irrigated with wastewater accumulate heavy metals more than those irrigated with cleaner water sources. However, little is known on metal concentrations in soils and cultivars after the cessation of wastewater use. This study assessed the accumulation and health risk of heavy metals 3 years post-wastewater irrigation in soils, vegetables, and farmers' hair. Soils, vegetables, and hair samples were collected from villages previously irrigating with wastewater (experimental villages) and villages with no history of wastewater irrigation (control villages). Soil samples were digested in a mixture of HCL/HNO3/HCLO4/HF. Plants and hair samples were digested in HNO3/HCLO4 mixture. Inductive coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES) was used to determine metal concentrations of digested extracts. Study results indicate a persistence of heavy metal concentration in soils and plants from farms previously irrigated with wastewater. In addition, soils previously irrigated with wastewater were severely contaminated with cadmium. Hair metal concentrations of farmers previously irrigating with wastewater were significantly higher (P metal concentrations in hair samples of farmers previously irrigating with wastewater were not associated with current soil metal concentrations. The study concludes that there is a persistence of heavy metals in soils and plants previously irrigated with wastewater, but high metal concentrations in hair samples of farmers cannot be associated with current soil metal concentrations.

  15. An Open-source Low-cost Portable Apparatus for Soil Fauna Sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daliakopoulos, Ioannis; Wagner, Karl; Grillakis, Manolis; Apostolakis, Antonios; Tsanis, Ioannis

    2016-04-01

    A low-cost apparatus for the extraction of living soil animals from soil or litter samples is presented. The main unit consists of a modular bank system with three horizontal shelves designed to accommodate lamps and soil samples over funnel and jar systems for animal collection, thus serving as a practical and standardized modification of the well-documented Berlese-Tullgren funnel. Shelves are vertically adjustable, sliding on 5 mm threaded rods and securing with wing nuts for easy assembly/disassembly and stability. Shelf material is 4 mm plywood (or similar), laser-cut (or similar) to accommodate lamp sockets, tubes and funnels at respective levels. Soil samples are inserted in 10 cm tubes from standard Ø50 mm PVC piping that can also function as direct collection corers for softer soils. Tubes are fitted in the tube bank shelf, each directly under a 25 W reflector lamp and over a funnel and jar system. Lamps are located 25 mm over the tubes' top creating a relatively constant 10 oC temperature gradient that drives soil animals away from heat and light, and towards the bottom end of the tube which is fitted with a suitable fabric mesh. Standard 106 ml panelled jars, filled with a safe-to-handle preservative (e.g. propylene glycol) to the lower end of the funnel fitted in them, trap and preserve soil organisms until identification. The apparatus offers flat-pack portability and scalability using low-cost standard material. Design specifications and Drawing eXchange Format (dxf) files for apparatus reproduction are provided.

  16. Differences on soil organic carbon stock estimation according to sampling type in Mediterranean areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parras-Alcántara, Luis; Lozano-García, Beatriz

    2016-04-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) is an important part of the global carbon (C) cycle. In addition, SOC is a soil property subject to changes and highly variable in space and time. Consequently, the scientific community is researching the fate of the organic carbon in the ecosystems. In this line, soil organic matter configuration plays an important role in the Soil System (Parras-Alcántara and Lozano García, 2014). Internationally it is known that soil C sequestration is a strategy to mitigate climate change. In this sense, many soil researchers have studied this parameter (SOC). However, many of these studies were carried out arbitrarily using entire soil profiles (ESP) by pedogenetic horizons or soil control sections (SCS) (edaphic controls to different thickness). As a result, the indiscriminate use of both methodologies implies differences with respect to SOC stock (SOCS) quantification. This scenario has been indicated and warned for different researchers (Parras-Alcántara et al., 2015a; Parras-Alcántara et al., 2015b). This research sought to analyze the SOC stock (SOCS) variability using both methods (ESP and SCS) in the Cardeña and Montoro Natural Park (Spain). This nature reserve is a forested area with 385 km2 in southern Spain. Thirty-seven sampling points were selected in the study zone. Each sampling point was analyzed in two different ways, as ESP (by horizons) and as SCS with different depth increments (0-25, 25-50, 50-75 and 75-100 cm). The major goal of this research was to study the SOCS variability at regional scale. The studied soils were classified as Phaeozems, Cambisols, Regosols and Leptosols. The results obtained show an overestimation of SOCS when SCS sampling approach is used compared to ESP. This supports that methodology selection is very important to SOCS quantification. This research is an assessment for modeling SOCS at the regional level in Mediterranean natural areas. References Parras-Alcántara, L., Lozano-García, B., 2014

  17. Contamination of Soil Samples of Public Parks with Toxocara spp. Eggs in Kermanshah, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid GHASHGHAEI

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Toxocariasis is a zoonotic helminth infection, occurring in humans by the accidental ingestion of embryonated eggs of Toxocara canis and less frequently Toxocara cati. The present study was conducted to determine the existence of Toxocara spp. eggs by using the sucrose flotation method. A total of 150 soil samples were collected randomly from 7 public parks in Kermanshah city between September and December 2014 for investigating the presence of infective stages of parasites and to determine the prevalence of helminth eggs. Of the 150 soil samples examined, 27 (18% were infected with eggs of Toxocara spp. eggs. The present investigation showed that humans (especially children from urban areas are at risk of acquiring helminth infection from contaminated soil. Since this host species is capable of transmitting zoonotic agents to both animals and humans, animal populations, including stray dogs and cats, have to be controlled to minimize the distribution of parasites.

  18. Solid Phase Microextraction (SPME in Determination of Pesticide Residues in Soil Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rada Đurović

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The basic principles and application possibilities of the methods based on solid phase microextraction (SPME in the analysis of pesticide residues in soil samples are presented in the paper. The most important experimental parameters which affect SPME efficacy inpesticide determination (type and thickness of microextraction fiber, duration of microextraction,temperature at which it is conducted, effect of addition of salts (the effect of efflorescence,temperature and time of desorption, the choice of optimal solvent for pesticide exctraction from the soil and the optimal number of extraction steps, as well as general guidelines for their optimization are also shown. In the end, current applications of SPMEmethods in the analysis of pesticide residues in soil samples are presented.

  19. Assessment of natural radioactivity and radiation hazard indices in different soil samples from Assiut governorate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Issa, S.A.M.; Uosif, M.A.M.; Hefni, M.A.; El-Kamel, A.H; Nesreen, A.A.

    2013-01-01

    Natural radioactive materials under certain conditions can reach hazard radiological levels. So, it becomes necessary to study the natural radioactivity levels in soil to assess the dose for the population in order to know the health risks and to have a baseline for future changes in the environmental radioactivity due to human activities. Determine the radioactivity concentration of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K in surface and 20 cm soil samples collected beside Assiut fertilizer plant, Assiut government in south Upper Egypt, to assess their contribution to the external dose exposure. The contents of natural radionuclides 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K were measured in investigated samples by using gamma spectrometry [NaI (Tl) 3”x 3”]. The total absorbed dose rate, annual effective dose rate, radium equivalent, excess lifetime cancer risk and the external hazard index, which resulted from the natural radionuclides in soil, were calculated

  20. Natural radioactivity measurements in soil samples from Hamirpur district, Himachal Pradesh, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Surinder; Singh, Baldev; Kumar, Ajay

    2003-01-01

    Radium, thorium and potassium analysis have been made in soil samples collected from some villages of Hamirpur district, Himachal Pradesh, India using gamma ray spectrometry. The work has been undertaken keeping in view the health hazard effects of these radioelements in the environment. The results for radium activity are also compared using track etch technique employing radon alpha method developed by Somogyi (Technical reports series no. 310, vol. 1, IAEA, Vienna, 1990, p. 229). The measurements have been taken using 5''x4'' NaI(Tl) detector. The gamma ray lines of 1.46, 1.76 and 2.62 MeV were employed for potassium, radium and thorium analysis. The results for radium content in soil obtained by gamma ray spectrometry agrees with that determined by the track etch technique. The radium activity in soil samples of Hamirpur district is found to be within the safe limits

  1. Classification of Surface and Deep Soil Samples Using Linear Discriminant Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wasim, M.; Ali, M.; Daud, M.

    2015-01-01

    A statistical analysis was made of the activity concentrations measured in surface and deep soil samples for natural and anthropogenic gamma-emitting radionuclides. Soil samples were obtained from 48 different locations in Gilgit, Pakistan covering about 50 km/sup 2/ areas at an average altitude of 1550 m above sea level. From each location two samples were collected: one from the top soil (2-6 cm) and another from a depth of 6-10 cm. Four radionuclides including /sup 226/Ra, /sup 232/Th, /sup 40/K and /sup 137/Cs were quantified. The data was analyzed using t-test to find out activity concentration difference between the surface and depth samples. At the surface, the median activity concentrations were 23.7, 29.1, 4.6 and 115 Bq kg/sup -1/ for 226Ra, 232Th, 137Cs and 40K respectively. For the same radionuclides, the activity concentrations were respectively 25.5, 26.2, 2.9 and 191 Bq kg/sup -1/ for the depth samples. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to explore patterns within the data. A positive significant correlation was observed between the radionuclides /sup 226/Ra and /sup 232/Th. The data from PCA was further utilized in linear discriminant analysis (LDA) for the classification of surface and depth samples. LDA classified surface and depth samples with good predictability. (author)

  2. Naturally Occurring Radionuclides and Rare Earth Elements Pattern in Weathered Japanese Soil Samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahoo, S.K.; Hosoda, M.; Takahashi, H.; Sorimachi, A.; Ishikawa, T.; Tokonami, S.; Uchida, S.

    2011-01-01

    From the viewpoint of radiation protection, determination of natural radionuclides e.g. thorium and uranium in soil samples are important. Accurate methods for determination of Th and U is gaining importance. The geochemical behavior of Th, U and rare earth elements (REEs) are relatively close to one another while compared to other elements in geological environment. Radioactive elements like 232 Th and 238 U along with their decay products (e.g. 226 Ra) are present in most of the environmental matrices and can be transferred to living bodies by different pathways that can lead to sources of exposure of man. Therefore, it is necessary to monitor these natural radionuclides in weathered soil samples to assess the possible hazards. The activity concentrations of 226 Ra, 228 Th, and 40 K in soils have been measured using a g γ-ray spectroscopy system with high purity germanium detector. The thorium, uranium and REEs were determined from the same sample using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Granitic rocks contain higher amounts of Th, U and light REEs compared to other igneous rocks such as basalt and andesites. Therefore, it is necessary to understand the interaction between REEs and nature of soils, as soils are complex heterogeneous mixture of organic and inorganic solids, water and gases. In this paper, we have discussed about distribution pattern of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 238 U along with REEs in soil samples of weathered acid rock (granite and ryolite) collected from two prefectures in Japan: 1. Gifu and 2. Okinawa. (author)

  3. Integration of electromagnetic induction sensor data in soil sampling scheme optimization using simulated annealing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barca, E; Castrignanò, A; Buttafuoco, G; De Benedetto, D; Passarella, G

    2015-07-01

    Soil survey is generally time-consuming, labor-intensive, and costly. Optimization of sampling scheme allows one to reduce the number of sampling points without decreasing or even increasing the accuracy of investigated attribute. Maps of bulk soil electrical conductivity (EC a ) recorded with electromagnetic induction (EMI) sensors could be effectively used to direct soil sampling design for assessing spatial variability of soil moisture. A protocol, using a field-scale bulk EC a survey, has been applied in an agricultural field in Apulia region (southeastern Italy). Spatial simulated annealing was used as a method to optimize spatial soil sampling scheme taking into account sampling constraints, field boundaries, and preliminary observations. Three optimization criteria were used. the first criterion (minimization of mean of the shortest distances, MMSD) optimizes the spreading of the point observations over the entire field by minimizing the expectation of the distance between an arbitrarily chosen point and its nearest observation; the second criterion (minimization of weighted mean of the shortest distances, MWMSD) is a weighted version of the MMSD, which uses the digital gradient of the grid EC a data as weighting function; and the third criterion (mean of average ordinary kriging variance, MAOKV) minimizes mean kriging estimation variance of the target variable. The last criterion utilizes the variogram model of soil water content estimated in a previous trial. The procedures, or a combination of them, were tested and compared in a real case. Simulated annealing was implemented by the software MSANOS able to define or redesign any sampling scheme by increasing or decreasing the original sampling locations. The output consists of the computed sampling scheme, the convergence time, and the cooling law, which can be an invaluable support to the process of sampling design. The proposed approach has found the optimal solution in a reasonable computation time. The

  4. Determination of 129I in large soil samples after alkaline wet disintegration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunzl, K.; Kracke, W.

    1992-01-01

    Large soil samples (up to 500 g) can conveniently be disintegrated by hydrogen peroxide in an utility tank under alkaline conditions to determine subsequently 129 I by neutron activation analysis. Interfering elements such as Br are removed already before neutron irradiation to reduce the radiation exposure of the personnel. The precision of the method is 129 I also by the combustion method. (orig.)

  5. Soil and Water – What is Detectable through Microbiological Sample Preparation Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    The concerns of a potential terrorist’s use of biological agents in soil and ground water are articulated by comparisons to major illnesses in this Country involving contaminated drinking water sources. Objectives are focused on the importance of sample preparation in the rapid, ...

  6. New technologies to detect and monitor Phytophthora ramorum in plant, soil, and water samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul Russell; Nathan McOwen; Robert Bohannon

    2013-01-01

    The focus of our research efforts has been to develop methods to quickly identify plants, soil, and water samples infested with Phytophthora spp., and to rapidly confirm the findings using novel isothermal DNA technologies suitable for field use. These efforts have led to the development of a rapid Immunostrip® that reliably detects...

  7. Portable automation of static chamber sample collection for quantifying soil gas flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    The collection of soil gas flux using the static chamber method is labor intensive. The number of chambers that can be sampled in a given time period is limited by the spacing between chambers and the availability of trained research technicians. However, the static chamber method can limit spatial ...

  8. USE OF SCALED SEMIVARIOGRAMS IN THE PLANNING SAMPLE OF SOIL CHEMICAL PROPERTIES IN SOUTHERN AMAZONAS, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanildo Amorim de Oliveira

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The lack of information concerning the variability of soil properties has been a major concern of researchers in the Amazon region. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the spatial variability of soil chemical properties and determine minimal sampling density to characterize the variability of these properties in five environments located in the south of the State of Amazonas, Brazil. The five environments were archaeological dark earth (ADE, forest, pasture land, agroforestry operation, and sugarcane crop. Regular 70 × 70 m mesh grids were set up in these areas, with 64 sample points spaced at 10 m distance. Soil samples were collected at the 0.0-0.1 m depth. The chemical properties of pH in water, OM, P, K, Ca, Mg, H+Al, SB, CEC, and V were determined at these points. Data were analyzed by descriptive and geostatistical analyses. A large part of the data analyzed showed spatial dependence. Chemical properties were best fitted to the spherical model in almost all the environments evaluated, except for the sugarcane field with a better fit to the exponential model. ADE and sugarcane areas had greater heterogeneity of soil chemical properties, showing a greater range and higher sampling density; however, forest and agroforestry areas had less variability of chemical properties.

  9. Isolation and identification of phytase-producing strains from soil samples and optimization of production parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Mohammadi

    2017-09-01

    Discussion and conclusion: Penicillium sp. isolated from a soil sample near Qazvin, was able to produce highly active phytase in optimized environmental conditions, which could be a suitable candidate for commercial production of phytase to be used as complement in poultry feeding industries.

  10. Diversity of microorganisms isolated from the soil sample surround Chroogomphus rutilus in the Beijing region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, P; Liu, Y; Yin, Y

    2011-01-01

    to isolate and classify beneficial microorganisms that could affect its growth, which could be used in future research on artificial cultivation. In total, 342 isolates were isolated from soil samples collected around a C. rutilus colony in the Beijing region. Of these, 22 bacterial and 14 fungal isolates...

  11. In situ sampling of small volumes of soil solution using modified micro-suction cups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shen, Jianbo; Hoffland, E.

    2007-01-01

    Two modified designs of micro-pore-water samplers were tested for their capacity to collect unbiased soil solution samples containing zinc and citrate. The samplers had either ceramic or polyethersulfone (PES) suction cups. Laboratory tests of the micro-samplers were conducted using (a) standard

  12. Pore water sampling in acid sulfate soils: a new peeper method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Scott G; Burton, Edward D; Keene, Annabelle F; Bush, Richard T; Sullivan, Leigh A; Isaacson, Lloyd

    2009-01-01

    This study describes the design, deployment, and application of a modified equilibration dialysis device (peeper) optimized for sampling pore waters in acid sulfate soils (ASS). The modified design overcomes the limitations of traditional-style peepers, when sampling firm ASS materials over relatively large depth intervals. The new peeper device uses removable, individual cells of 25 mL volume housed in a 1.5 m long rigid, high-density polyethylene rod. The rigid housing structure allows the device to be inserted directly into relatively firm soils without requiring a supporting frame. The use of removable cells eliminates the need for a large glove-box after peeper retrieval, thus simplifying physical handling. Removable cells are easily maintained in an inert atmosphere during sample processing and the 25-mL sample volume is sufficient for undertaking multiple analyses. A field evaluation of equilibration times indicates that 32 to 38 d of deployment was necessary. Overall, the modified method is simple and effective and well suited to acquisition and processing of redox-sensitive pore water profiles>1 m deep in acid sulfate soil or any other firm wetland soils.

  13. Study of Cs/sup 137/ contamination in soil and food samples of Jhangar valley, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhry, Z.S.; Khan, H.M.; Aslam, M.; Iqbal, S.; Orfi, S.D.

    2001-01-01

    Chernobyl accident has been the main source of artificial radioactive contamination throughout the world and its effects have been found in Pakistan as well. In the present study, activities of an important anthropogenic radionuclide, Cs/sup 137/ in soil and food samples of Jhangar Valley of Pakistan have been determined using PC based gamma spectrometer. Soil-375 from IAEA was used as reference material. The soil samples were collected from the agricultural fields of the selected area while food samples, grown in the selected area, were collected from the fields or from local market. After proper treatment, the samples were analyzed using a high purity germanium (HPGe) detector. The following values for average specific activity of Cs/sup 137/ were found: soil (range 1.3-46.8 Bq/kg) (12.0 Bq/kg), wheat (0.9 +- 0.05 Bq/kg), millet (1.5 +- 0.06 Bq/kg), lentils (2.0 +- 0.1 Bq/kg), potato (0.6 +- 0.03 Bq/kg) and cauliflower (0.6 +- 0.03 Bq/kg). The results have been discussed and compared with other data available in the literature. (author)

  14. The effect of short-range spatial variability on soil sampling uncertainty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perk, Marcel van der [Department of Physical Geography, Utrecht University, P.O. Box 80115, 3508 TC Utrecht (Netherlands)], E-mail: m.vanderperk@geo.uu.nl; De Zorzi, Paolo; Barbizzi, Sabrina; Belli, Maria [Agenzia per la Protezione dell' Ambiente e per i Servizi Tecnici (APAT), Servizio Laboratori, Misure ed Attivita di Campo, Via di Castel Romano, 100-00128 Roma (Italy); Fajgelj, Ales; Sansone, Umberto [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Agency' s Laboratories Seibersdorf, A-1400 Vienna (Austria); Jeran, Zvonka; Jacimovic, Radojko [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2008-11-15

    This paper aims to quantify the soil sampling uncertainty arising from the short-range spatial variability of elemental concentrations in the topsoils of agricultural, semi-natural, and contaminated environments. For the agricultural site, the relative standard sampling uncertainty ranges between 1% and 5.5%. For the semi-natural area, the sampling uncertainties are 2-4 times larger than in the agricultural area. The contaminated site exhibited significant short-range spatial variability in elemental composition, which resulted in sampling uncertainties of 20-30%.

  15. The effect of short-range spatial variability on soil sampling uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Perk, Marcel; de Zorzi, Paolo; Barbizzi, Sabrina; Belli, Maria; Fajgelj, Ales; Sansone, Umberto; Jeran, Zvonka; Jaćimović, Radojko

    2008-11-01

    This paper aims to quantify the soil sampling uncertainty arising from the short-range spatial variability of elemental concentrations in the topsoils of agricultural, semi-natural, and contaminated environments. For the agricultural site, the relative standard sampling uncertainty ranges between 1% and 5.5%. For the semi-natural area, the sampling uncertainties are 2-4 times larger than in the agricultural area. The contaminated site exhibited significant short-range spatial variability in elemental composition, which resulted in sampling uncertainties of 20-30%.

  16. Procedure for intercomparison study for trace elements determination in soil samples by absorption spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez P, L.A.; Benavides M, A.M.

    1996-01-01

    In the environmental sampling analysis there is very important to establish an adequate methodologies on the laboratories for improvement the quality of the results obtained, so the establishment of a qualified laboratories network for environmental analysis. The objective of this work is to show the working plan for the analysis of eight elements on a Russian soil sample for an interlaboratory comparison with IAEA, by the Absorption spectroscopy technique using flame. (Author)

  17. Portable Automation of Static Chamber Sample Collection for Quantifying Soil Gas Flux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Morgan P.; Groh, Tyler A.; Parkin, Timothy B.; Williams, Ryan J.; Isenhart, Thomas M.; Hofmockel, Kirsten S.

    2018-01-01

    Quantification of soil gas flux using the static chamber method is labor intensive. The number of chambers that can be sampled is limited by the spacing between chambers and the availability of trained research technicians. An automated system for collecting gas samples from chambers in the field would eliminate the need for personnel to return to the chamber during a flux measurement period and would allow a single technician to sample multiple chambers simultaneously. This study describes Chamber Automated Sampling Equipment (FluxCASE) to collect and store chamber headspace gas samples at assigned time points for the measurement of soil gas flux. The FluxCASE design and operation is described, and the accuracy and precision of the FluxCASE system is evaluated. In laboratory measurements of nitrous oxide (N2O), carbon dioxide (CO2), and methane (CH4) concentrations of a standardized gas mixture, coefficients of variation associated with automated and manual sample collection were comparable, indicating no loss of precision. In the field, soil gas fluxes measured from FluxCASEs were in agreement with manual sampling for both N2O and CO2. Slopes of regression equations were 1.01 for CO2 and 0.97 for N2O. The 95% confidence limits of the slopes of the regression lines included the value of one, indicating no bias. Additionally, an expense analysis found a cost recovery ranging from 0.6 to 2.2 yr. Implementing the FluxCASE system is an alternative to improve the efficiency of the static chamber method for measuring soil gas flux while maintaining the accuracy and precision of manual sampling.

  18. Planning spatial sampling of the soil from an uncertain reconnaissance variogram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lark, R. Murray; Hamilton, Elliott M.; Kaninga, Belinda; Maseka, Kakoma K.; Mutondo, Moola; Sakala, Godfrey M.; Watts, Michael J.

    2017-12-01

    An estimated variogram of a soil property can be used to support a rational choice of sampling intensity for geostatistical mapping. However, it is known that estimated variograms are subject to uncertainty. In this paper we address two practical questions. First, how can we make a robust decision on sampling intensity, given the uncertainty in the variogram? Second, what are the costs incurred in terms of oversampling because of uncertainty in the variogram model used to plan sampling? To achieve this we show how samples of the posterior distribution of variogram parameters, from a computational Bayesian analysis, can be used to characterize the effects of variogram parameter uncertainty on sampling decisions. We show how one can select a sample intensity so that a target value of the kriging variance is not exceeded with some specified probability. This will lead to oversampling, relative to the sampling intensity that would be specified if there were no uncertainty in the variogram parameters. One can estimate the magnitude of this oversampling by treating the tolerable grid spacing for the final sample as a random variable, given the target kriging variance and the posterior sample values. We illustrate these concepts with some data on total uranium content in a relatively sparse sample of soil from agricultural land near mine tailings in the Copperbelt Province of Zambia.

  19. Determination of elemental in soil samples from Gebeng area using NAA technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Md Suhaimi Elias; Wo, Y.M.; Mohd Suhaimi Hamzah

    2016-01-01

    Rapid development and urbanization will increase number of residence and industrial area. Without proper management and control of pollution, these will give an adverse effect to environment and human life. The objective of this study to identify and quantify key contaminants into the environment of the Gebeng area as a result of industrial and human activities. Gebeng area was gazetted as one of the industrial estate in Pahang state. Assessment of elemental pollution in soil of Gebeng area base on level of concentration, enrichment factor and geo-accumulation index. The enrichment factors (EFs) were determined by the elemental rationing method, whilst the geo-accumulation index (I_g_e_o) by comparing of current to continental crustal average concentration of element. Twenty-seven of soil samples were collected from Gebeng area. Soil samples were analysed by using Neutron Activation Analyses (NAA) technique. The obtained data showed higher concentration of iron (Fe) due to abundance in soil compared to other elements. The results of enrichment factor showed that Gebeng area have enrich with elements of As, Br, Hf, Sb, Th and U. Base on the geo-accumulation index (I_g_e_o) classification, the soil quality of Gebeng area can be classified as class 0, (uncontaminated) to Class 3, (moderately to heavily contaminated). (author)

  20. Sampling and analysis plan for assessment of beryllium in soils surrounding TA-40 building 15

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruedig, Elizabeth [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-12-19

    Technical Area (TA) 40 Building 15 (40-15) is an active firing site at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The weapons facility operations (WFO) group plans to build an enclosure over the site in 2017, so that test shots may be conducted year-round. The enclosure project is described in PRID 16P-0209. 40-15 is listed on LANL OSH-ISH’s beryllium inventory, which reflects the potential for beryllium in/on soils and building surfaces at 40-15. Some areas in and around 40-15 have previously been sampled for beryllium, but past sampling efforts did not achieve complete spatial coverage of the area. This Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) investigates the area surrounding 40-15 via 9 deep (≥1-ft.) soil samples and 11 shallow (6-in.) soil samples. These samples will fill the spatial data gaps for beryllium at 40-15, and will be used to support OSH-ISH’s final determination of 40-15’s beryllium registry status. This SAP has been prepared by the Environmental Health Physics program in consultation with the Industrial Hygiene program. Industrial Hygiene is the owner of LANL’s beryllium program, and will make a final determination with regard to the regulatory status of beryllium at 40-15.

  1. Some mechanical properties of aggregates of top soils from the IJsselmeerpolders. 1. Undisturbed soil aggregates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dexter, A.R.; Kroesbergen, B.; Kuipers, H.

    1984-01-01

    De samenstelling en de mechanische eigenschappen, poreusheid, kruimeligheid, trekspanning en de waterstabiliteit van ongestoorde bodems in de IJsselmeerpolders en de samenstelling ervan zijn onderzocht

  2. Study of lead pollution in air, soil and water samples of Quetta city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.; Khan, G.M.; Akbar, S.; Panezai, M.A.; Haq, Z.U.

    2011-01-01

    This study briefly presents the collected data of lead pollution in the environment of Quetta City in Balochistan, Pakistan. The samples were collected from different sites. The analysis of lead was carried out in underground water samples, the exhaust of different vehicles, roadside and sewage soils from selected points of Quetta City. The average discharge resulted in deposition by motorcycles (29.12 g/h), cars (44.47 g/h), wagons (176.54 g/h) and buses (141.52 g/h). The maximum deposition was 222.96 g/h from auto-rickshaws. The value for lead in smoke of different vehicles seems quite high when extrapolated to the large number of such vehicles for a longer time. The concentration of lead in roadside soil varied from 73.3 mg/kg (T and T closed colony) to 731.9 mg/kg (Sirki road bus-stop). The average content of lead in sewage soil of City Nala is 1250.6 mg/kg. The level of lead was more than WHO standards for such soils. The lead quantity in all 24 tube- well water samples, was slightly above the WHO standards (10 macro g/L).The results of this study were comparable to similar study in twin cities of Rawalpindi and islamabad. (author)

  3. 1996 Phase 2 soil sampling at the 183-H Solar Evaporation Basin site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, C.D.

    1996-10-01

    This report consolidates 1996 soil sampling data collected from the 183-H Solar Evaporation Basin Site. This report is intended to be a data reference and does not make comparisons or conclusions regarding specific regulatory criteria. Chemical and radiological data were collected to support cleanup activities at the Hanford Site; soil sampling occurred beneath and next to the former basin structures. The 183-H Solar Evaporation Basins, which consisted of four adjoining concrete basins, were located in the 100 Area of the Hanford Site, north of the retired 105-H Reactor. Originally, the basins were built as part of the 100-H water treatment structures. The four basins were inactive from the mid-1960's until 1973 when radioactive and dangerous (mixed) waste from the 300 Area Fuel Fabrication Facility was shipped to the basins for storage and treatment. The basins were used for solar evaporation of the waste. The last shipment of waste to the 183-H Basins took place in November 1985. Decontamination of the cement structure took place in 1995. The structure has subsequently been dismantled and disposed. Chapters 2.0 through 4.0 present summary information about sampling (1) beneath the loading ramp and berm piles, (2) in shallow soils beneath the former basin floor, and (3) deep vadose soils. Detailed data are provided in the appendices

  4. Multiresidual determination of pesticides in agricultural soil sample using Quechers extraction methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro Garcia, Consuelo del Pilar

    2011-01-01

    To achieve a sustainable agricultural production there are used different organic and inorganic products, among them we found the fertilizers and pesticides. When they are applied most of the product falls to the ground, generating significant sources of pollution in the areas near the application and depending on the mobility of the pesticide, it can reach more remote areas. That is why it is important to determine the pesticide residues in soil after their application, being the selection of the extraction method crucial for the subsequent traces detection. In the present work there was evaluated the QUECHERS extraction technique, a method used in food but modified for a different and complex matrix like soil in order to achieve acceptable efficiencies multi-residue extraction of 20 pesticides and their subsequent determination by gas chromatography with electron capture and mass detection. The method was applied for the determination of pesticides in three soil samples from an agricultural site with different slopes between them. The Results indicated that 75% of the pesticides tested had acceptable efficiencies, thus meeting the objective of achieving multiresidue determination of pesticides in agricultural soil samples by extraction methodology QUECHERS. Besides, the presence of the fungicide penconazole was only detected in the three samples, being the highest concentration of pesticide found in the area with less slope (V_A_B_A_J_O) (author)

  5. Determination method for 129I in soil samples by MIP-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uezu, Yasuhiro; Nakano, Masanao; Fujita, Hiroki; Watanabe, Hitoshi; Maruo, Yoshihiro

    2001-01-01

    The radioactive iodine-129 ( 129 I) is an important radionuclide for environmental assessment because it has a long half-life and is accumulated in the thyroid gland in humans. A new analytical technique by Microwave Induced Plasma Mass Spectrometer (MIP-MS) was applied to the determination of 129 I in soil samples. In environmental samples, a large amount of matrix elements are present. Therefore, the matrix elements were eliminated by ashing at 1000degC, and iodine isotopes were trapped by an activated charcoal and finally extracted by 10% tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH). The concentration of 129 I in a soil samples were compared between results of neutron activation analysis and MIP-MS method. The results showed an excellent agreement. (author)

  6. Environmental monitoring of fluoride emissions using precipitation, dust, plant and soil samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franzaring, J.; Hrenn, H.; Schumm, C.; Klumpp, A.; Fangmeier, A.

    2006-01-01

    A pollution gradient was observed in precipitation, plants and soils sampled at different locations around a fluoride producing chemical plant in Germany. In all samples the influence of emissions was discernible up to a distance of 500 m from the plant. However, fluoride concentrations in plant bioindicators (leaves of birch and black berry) and in bulk precipitation showed a more pronounced relationship with the distance from the source than fluoride concentrations in soil. Vegetables sampled in the vicinity of the plant also had elevated concentrations of fluoride, but only the consumption of larger quantities of this material would lead to exceedances of recommended daily F-intake. The present study did not indicate the existence of low phytotoxicity thresholds for fluoride in the plant species used in the study. Even at very high fluoride concentrations in leaf tissue (963 ppm) plants did not show injury due to HF. Dust sampling downwind of the chemical plant confirmed that particulate fluoride was of minor importance in the study area. - A pronounced pollution gradient was observed in precipitation, plants and soils sampled at different locations around a fluoride emitting chemical plant in Germany

  7. Miniaturized Sample Preparation and Rapid Detection of Arsenite in Contaminated Soil Using a Smartphone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Farhan Siddiqui

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Conventional methods for analyzing heavy metal contamination in soil and water generally require laboratory equipped instruments, complex procedures, skilled personnel and a significant amount of time. With the advancement in computing and multitasking performances, smartphone-based sensors potentially allow the transition of the laboratory-based analytical processes to field applicable, simple methods. In the present work, we demonstrate the novel miniaturized setup for simultaneous sample preparation and smartphone-based optical sensing of arsenic As(III in the contaminated soil. Colorimetric detection protocol utilizing aptamers, gold nanoparticles and NaCl have been optimized and tested on the PDMS-chip to obtain the high sensitivity with the limit of detection of 0.71 ppm (in the sample and a correlation coefficient of 0.98. The performance of the device is further demonstrated through the comparative analysis of arsenic-spiked soil samples with standard laboratory method, and a good agreement with a correlation coefficient of 0.9917 and the average difference of 0.37 ppm, are experimentally achieved. With the android application on the device to run the experiment, the whole process from sample preparation to detection is completed within 3 hours without the necessity of skilled personnel. The approximate cost of setup is estimated around 1 USD, weight 55 g. Therefore, the presented method offers the simple, rapid, portable and cost-effective means for onsite sensing of arsenic in soil. Combined with the geometric information inside the smartphones, the system will allow the monitoring of the contamination status of soils in a nation-wide manner.

  8. Miniaturized Sample Preparation and Rapid Detection of Arsenite in Contaminated Soil Using a Smartphone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Mohd Farhan; Kim, Soocheol; Jeon, Hyoil; Kim, Taeho; Joo, Chulmin; Park, Seungkyung

    2018-03-04

    Conventional methods for analyzing heavy metal contamination in soil and water generally require laboratory equipped instruments, complex procedures, skilled personnel and a significant amount of time. With the advancement in computing and multitasking performances, smartphone-based sensors potentially allow the transition of the laboratory-based analytical processes to field applicable, simple methods. In the present work, we demonstrate the novel miniaturized setup for simultaneous sample preparation and smartphone-based optical sensing of arsenic As(III) in the contaminated soil. Colorimetric detection protocol utilizing aptamers, gold nanoparticles and NaCl have been optimized and tested on the PDMS-chip to obtain the high sensitivity with the limit of detection of 0.71 ppm (in the sample) and a correlation coefficient of 0.98. The performance of the device is further demonstrated through the comparative analysis of arsenic-spiked soil samples with standard laboratory method, and a good agreement with a correlation coefficient of 0.9917 and the average difference of 0.37 ppm, are experimentally achieved. With the android application on the device to run the experiment, the whole process from sample preparation to detection is completed within 3 hours without the necessity of skilled personnel. The approximate cost of setup is estimated around 1 USD, weight 55 g. Therefore, the presented method offers the simple, rapid, portable and cost-effective means for onsite sensing of arsenic in soil. Combined with the geometric information inside the smartphones, the system will allow the monitoring of the contamination status of soils in a nation-wide manner.

  9. Radioactivity Levels And Gamma Dose Rate In Soil Samples From Federation Of Bosnia And Herzegovina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deljkic, D.; Kadic, I.; Ilic, Z.; Vidic, A.

    2015-01-01

    Activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th, 40K and 137Cs in soil samples collected from different regions of Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina have been measured by gamma-ray spectrometry. The measured activity concentrations for these radionuclides are compared with the reported data from different other countries and it is found that measured activity concentrations are comparable with the worldwide measured average values reported by the UNSCEAR. Experimental results were obtained by using a high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector and gamma - ray spectrometry analysis system at Institute for Public Health FBiH (Radiation Protection Center). The measuring time of all soil samples was 86000 seconds. It was found that the soil specific activity ranges from 24.59 to 161.20 Bq/kg for 226Ra, from 17.60 to 66.45 Bq/kg for 232Th, from 179.50 to 598.04 Bq kg-1 for 40K and from 11.13 to 108.69 Bq/kg for 137Cs with the mean values of 62.34; 46.97; 392.76 and 51.49 Bq/kg, respectively. The radium equivalent activity in all the soil samples is lower than the safe limit (370 Bq/kg), ranges from 63.58 to 287.03 Bq/kg with the mean value of 159.71 Bq/kg. Man-made radionuclide 137Cs is also present in detectable amount in all soil samples. Presence of 137Cs indicates that the samples in this area also receive some fallout from nuclear accident in Chernobyl power plant in 1986. The value of external radiation hazard indices is found to be less than unity (mean value of 0.43). Absorbed dose rates and effective dose equivalents are also determined for the samples. The concentration of radionuclides found in the soil samples during the present study does not pose any potential health hazard to the general public. (author).

  10. Analysis of ground water and soil samples from severely arsenic affected blocks of Murshidabad district

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manali Biswas

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Contamination of groundwater and soil by arsenic is a serious threat to existence of mankind on the globe. Arsenic contaminates soil and groundwater by natural biogeochemical cycles. However, due to anthropogenic activities like indiscriminant use of arsenic in disinfectants, weedicides, medicines and fertilizers, arsenic toxicity is a severe environmental issue, both at national and global level. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and World Health Organization prescribed the permissible limit of arsenic in drinking water to be 10 µg/l. Exposure to arsenic at higher levels over a considerable period of time leads to skin lesions and cancer, disorders of cardiovascular, respiratory, gastrointestinal, hepatic and renal systems. Murshidabad is one of the severely arsenic affected districts of West Bengal. We have analyzed soil and groundwater samples from some of the highly arsenic affected blocks of Murshidabad district. Both the soil and groundwater samples have an alkaline pH, a characteristic of the presence of arsenic in the tested samples. Unfortunately, the socio-economic conditions of these villages force the residents to use groundwater as the source of drinking water. Presence of considerably high amount of total dissolved solids in water samples make them further unfit for consumption. High amount of phosphate and iron present in some of the water samples takes a toll on the detoxification and excretory system of the body, if those water samples are consumed on a regular manner. Contamination of soil by the aforesaid contaminants results in biomagnification of these pollutants in the food chain. We could also isolate certain potentially arsenic resistant bacteria from the contaminated soil and water samples. At the next level we have surveyed an arsenic affected village to analyze the clinical manifestation of arsenic poisoning. In this village subjects developed rampant skin lesions throughout the body due to exposure to arsenic

  11. Radiation hazard indices of soil and water samples in Northern Malaysian Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almayahi, B A; Tajuddin, A A; Jaafar, M S

    2012-11-01

    The radioactivity quantity and quality were determined in soil and water samples in Northern Malaysian Peninsula (NMP) using HPGe spectroscopy and GR-135 spectrometer. The (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K concentrations in soil samples are 57±2, 68±4 and 427±17 Bq kg(-1), respectively, whereas in water samples were found to be 2.86±0.79, 3.78±1.73 and 152±12 Bq l(-1), respectively. These concentrations are within those reported from literature in other countries in the world. The radiological hazard indices of the samples were also calculated. The mean values obtained from soil samples are 186 Bq kg(-1), 88 nGy h(-1), 108 μSv y(-1), 0.50 and 0.65 for Radium Equivalent Activity (Ra(eq)), Absorbed Dose Rates (D(R)), Annual Effective Dose Rates (ED), External Hazard Index (H(ex)) and Internal Hazard Index (H(in)) respectively, whereas, for water samples were found to be 20, 10, 13, 0.05 and 0.06, respectively. All the health hazard indices are well below their recommended limits, except in two soil sampling sites which were found to be (*)025 (1.1 H(ex)) and (*)026 (1.1 H(ex), 1.6 H(in)). The calculated and the measured gamma dose rates had a good correlation coefficient, R=0.88. Moreover, the average value radon is 20 (in the range of 7-64) Bq m(-3), a positive correlation (R=0.81) was observed between the (222)Rn and (226)Ra concentrations in samples measured by the SNC continuous radon monitor (model 1029, Sun Nuclear Corporation) and HPGe detector, respectively. Some soils in this study with H(in) and H(ex)samples, therefore, water after processing and filtration is safe and suitable for use in household and industrial purposes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Environmental radiation in coal and soil samples from Savannah area (Chatham County, GA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hongo, D.; Ghuman, G.S.; Chandra, K.

    1997-01-01

    Radiation measurements were made in coal and fly ash samples from Savannah Electric ampersand Power Company (SEPCO) plant on the Savannah River and the soil core samples from three sites along the flow gradient of Savannah State University Campus Creek. The objective of this study was to determine the magnitude of natural radiation due to radon and potassium in the Savannah area and possible effect of external factors such as the operations at Savannah River Site (SRS). The instrument used for this purpose was Geiger Counter Model 500 (Tennelec/Nucleus, Inc.) which was standardized with known samples of Sr-90 (0.1 μCi t 1/2 = 28.6 yrs., beta radiation) and Co-60 (1.0 μCi t 1/2 = 5.27 yrs., gamma radiation). Beta and gamma radiations in the samples were differentiated with the help of polyethylene and lead absorbers. Results showed quite low radioactivity in bituminous coal from SEPCO plant and it reduced by a factor of 0.5 and 0.25 in fly ash and weathered fly ash, respectively. Radioactivity of soil samples was slightly greater in the top soil (0-3 cm) of two sites and it decreased markedly with depth (20 cm). Site III soil samples containing lime shells had a negligible radioactivity because carbonate rocks developed from calcareous skeletal matter have low radioactivity from their beginning. Radioactivity appeared to be mainly associated with the fine textured top soil of two sites (high clay content) and it exhibited very little leaching downward into lower layers. Clay particles with greater radioactivity, are formed from the decomposition of feldspars and micas which contain a large fraction of earth's potassium fraction. Measurements with the use of absorbers indicated that the observed radiation in all the samples was mainly due to the gamma rays. A comparison with the radioactivity in coal dust and fly ash samples from SRS revealed that the Savannah samples contained extremely low radiation, which may be due only to the natural sources

  13. Comparison of Soxhlet and Shake Extraction of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons from Coal Tar Polluted Soils Sampled in the Field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindhardt, Bo; Holst, Helle; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    1994-01-01

    This study compares three extraction methods for PAHs in coal tar polluted soil: 3-times repeated shaking of the soil with dichloromethane-methanol (1:1), Soxhlet extraction with dichloromethane, and Soxhlet extraction with dichloromethane followed by Soxhlet extraction with methanol....... The extraction efficiencies were determined for ten selected PAHs in triplicate samples of six soils sampled at former gasworks sites. The samples covered a wide range of PAH concentrations, from 0.6 to 397 mg/kg soil. Soxhlet extraction with dichloromethane followed by Soxhlet extraction with methanol...

  14. Vertical profile of 137Cs in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krstić, D; Nikezić, D; Stevanović, N; Jelić, M

    2004-12-01

    In this paper, a vertical distribution of 137Cs in undisturbed soil was investigated experimentally and theoretically. Soil samples were taken from the surroundings of the city of Kragujevac in central Serbia during spring-summer of 2001. The sampling locations were chosen in such a way that the influence of soil characteristics on depth distribution of 137Cs in soil could be investigated. Activity of 137Cs in soil samples was measured using a HpGe detector and multi-channel analyzer. Based on vertical distribution of 137Cs in soil which was measured for each of 10 locations, the diffusion coefficient of 137Cs in soil was determined. In the next half-century, 137Cs will remain as the source of the exposure. Fifteen years after the Chernobyl accident, and more than 30 years after nuclear probes, the largest activity of 137Cs is still within 10 cm of the upper layer of the soil. This result confirms that the penetration of 137Cs in soil is a very slow process. Experimental results were compared with two different Green functions and no major differences were found between them. While both functions fit experimental data well in the upper layer of soil, the fitting is not so good in deeper layers. Although the curves obtained by these two functions are very close to each other, there are some differences in the values of parameters acquired by them.

  15. Elemental analysis of soil and hair sample by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Yong Sam; Quraishi, Shamshad Begum; Moon, Jong Hwa; Kim, Sun Ha; Baek, Sung Yeoil; Kang, Sang Hoon; Lim, Jong Myoung; Cho, Hyun Je; Kim, Young Jin

    2004-03-01

    Myanmar soil sample was analyzed by using the instrumental neutron activation analysis. The elemental concentrations in the sample, altogether 34 elements, Al As, Ba, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Ga, Gd, Hf, Ir, K, La, Lu, Mn, Na, Nd, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, Th, Ti, V, Yb, Zn and Zr were determined. The concentration of 17 elements (Al, Au, Br, Ca, Cl, Cr, Cu, Co, Fe, Hg, K, Na, Mn, Mg, Sb, Se, Zn) in human hair samples were determined by INAA For quality control of analytical method, certified reference material was used

  16. Elemental analysis of soil and hair sample by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Yong Sam; Quraishi, Shamshad Begum; Moon, Jong Hwa; Kim, Sun Ha; Baek, Sung Yeoil; Kang, Sang Hoon; Lim, Jong Myoung; Cho, Hyun Je; Kim, Young Jin

    2004-03-01

    Myanmar soil sample was analyzed by using the instrumental neutron activation analysis. The elemental concentrations in the sample, altogether 34 elements, Al As, Ba, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Ga, Gd, Hf, Ir, K, La, Lu, Mn, Na, Nd, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, Th, Ti, V, Yb, Zn and Zr were determined. The concentration of 17 elements (Al, Au, Br, Ca, Cl, Cr, Cu, Co, Fe, Hg, K, Na, Mn, Mg, Sb, Se, Zn) in human hair samples were determined by INAA For quality control of analytical method, certified reference material was used.

  17. Tank farms backlog soil sample and analysis results supporting a contained-in determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, C.L., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-02-27

    Soil waste is generated from Tank Farms and associated Tank Farms facilities operations. The soil is a mixed waste because it is an environmental media which contains tank waste, a listed mixed waste. The soil is designated with the listed waste codes (FOO1 through F005) which have been applied to all tank wastes. The scope of this report includes Tank Farms soil managed under the Backlog program. The Backlog Tank Farm soil in storage consists of drums and 5 boxes (originally 828 drums). The Backlog Waste Program dealt with 2276 containers of solid waste generated by Tank Farms operations during the time period from 1989 through early 1993. The containers were mismanaged by being left in the field for an extended period of time without being placed into permitted storage. As a corrective action for this situation, these containers were placed in interim storage at the Central Waste Complex (CWC) pending additional characterization. The Backlog Waste Analysis Plan (BWAP) (RL 1993) was written to define how Backlog wastes would be evaluated for proper designation and storage. The BWAP was approved in August 1993 and all work required by the BWAP was completed by July 1994. This document presents results of testing performed in 1992 & 1996 that supports the attainment of a Contained-In Determination for Tank Farm Backlog soils. The analytical data contained in this report is evaluated against a prescribed decision rule. If the decision rule is satisfied then the Washington State Department of ecology (Ecology) may grant a Contained-In Determination. A Contained-In Determination for disposal to an unlined burial trench will be requested from Ecology . The decision rule and testing requirements provided by Ecology are described in the Tank Farms Backlog Soil Sample Analysis Plan (SAP) (WHC 1996).

  18. Pyrosequencing of environmental soil samples reveals biodiversity of the Phytophthora resident community in chestnut forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannini, Andrea; Bruni, Natalia; Tomassini, Alessia; Franceschini, Selma; Vettraino, Anna Maria

    2013-09-01

    Pyrosequencing analysis was performed on soils from Italian chestnut groves to evaluate the diversity of the resident Phytophthora community. Sequences analysed with a custom database discriminated 15 pathogenic Phytophthoras including species common to chestnut soils, while a total of nine species were detected with baiting. The two sites studied differed in Phytophthora diversity and the presence of specific taxa responded to specific ecological traits of the sites. Furthermore, some species not previously recorded were represented by a discrete number of reads; among these species, Phytophthora ramorum was detected at both sites. Pyrosequencing was demonstrated to be a very sensitive technique to describe the Phytophthora community in soil and was able to detect species not easy to be isolated from soil with standard baiting techniques. In particular, pyrosequencing is an highly efficient tool for investigating the colonization of new environments by alien species, and for ecological and adaptive studies coupled with biological detection methods. This study represents the first application of pyrosequencing for describing Phytophthoras in environmental soil samples. © 2013 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Radiometric assessment of natural radioactivity levels of agricultural soil samples collected in Dakahlia, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issa, Shams A M

    2013-01-01

    Determination of the natural radioactivity has been carried out, by using a gamma-ray spectrometry [NaI (Tl) 3″ × 3″] system, in surface soil samples collected from various locations in Dakahlia governorate, Egypt. These locations form the agriculturally important regions of Egypt. The study area has many industries such as chemical, paper, organic fertilisers and construction materials, and the soils of the study region are used as a construction material. Therefore, it becomes necessary to study the natural radioactivity levels in soil to assess the dose for the population in order to know the health risks. The activity concentrations of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in the soil ranged from 5.7 ± 0.3 to 140 ± 7, from 9.0 ± 0.4 to 139 ± 7 and from 22 ± 1 to 319 ± 16 Bq kg(-1), respectively. The absorbed dose rate, annual effective dose rate, radium equivalent (Req), excess lifetime cancer risk, hazard indices (Hex and Hin) and annual gonadal dose equivalent, which resulted from the natural radionuclides in the soil were calculated.

  20. Can The Pore Scale Geometry Explain Soil Sample Scale Hydrodynamic Properties?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Smet

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available For decades, the development of new visualization techniques has brought incredible insights into our understanding of how soil structure affects soil function. X-ray microtomography is a technique often used by soil scientists but challenges remain with the implementation of the procedure, including how well the samples represent the uniqueness of the pore network and structure and the systemic compromise between sample size and resolution. We, therefore, chose to study soil samples from two perspectives: a macroscopic scale with hydrodynamic characterization and a microscopic scale with structural characterization through the use of X-ray microtomography (X-ray μCT at a voxel size of 21.53 μm3 (resampled at 433 μm3. The objective of this paper is to unravel the relationships between macroscopic soil properties and microscopic soil structure. The 24 samples came from an agricultural field (Cutanic Luvisol and the macroscopic hydrodynamic properties were determined using laboratory measurements of the saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks, air permeability (ka, and retention curves (SWRC. The X-ray μCT images were segmented using a global method and multiple microscopic measurements were calculated. We used Bayesian statistics to report the credible correlation coefficients and linear regressions models between macro- and microscopic measurements. Due to the small voxel size, we observed unprecedented relationships, such as positive correlations between log(Ks and a μCT global connectivity indicator, the fractal dimension of the μCT images or the μCT degree of anisotropy. The air permeability measured at a water matric potential of −70 kPa was correlated to the average coordination number and the X-ray μCT porosity, but was best explained by the average pore volume of the smallest pores. Continuous SWRC were better predicted near saturation when the pore-size distributions calculated on the X-ray μCT images were used as model input. We

  1. A QUANTITATIVE EVALUATION OF THE WATER DISTRIBUTION IN A SOIL SAMPLE USING NEUTRON IMAGING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Šácha

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical method by Kang et al. recently proposed for correcting two-dimensional neutron radiography for water quantification in soil. The method was tested on data from neutron imaging of the water infiltration in a soil sample. The raw data were affected by neutron scattering and by beam hardening artefacts. Two strategies for identifying the correction parameters are proposed in this paper. The method has been further developed for the case of three-dimensional neutron tomography. In a related experiment, neutron imaging is used to record ponded-infiltration experiments in two artificial soil samples. Radiograms, i.e., two-dimensional projections of the sample, were acquired during infiltration. A calculation was made of the amount of water and its distribution within the radiograms, in the form of two-dimensional water thickness maps. Tomograms were reconstructed from the corrected and uncorrected water thickness maps to obtain the 3D spatial distribution of the water content within the sample. Without the correction, the beam hardening and the scattering effects overestimated the water content values close to the perimeter of the sample, and at the same time underestimated the values close to the centre of the sample. The total water content of the entire sample was the same in both cases. The empirical correction method presented in this study is a relatively accurate, rapid and simple way to obtain the quantitatively determined water content from two-dimensional and three-dimensional neutron images. However, an independent method for measuring the total water volume in the sample is needed in order to identify the correction parameters.

  2. Vital soil; function, value and properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doelman, P.; Eijsackers, H.J.P.

    2004-01-01

    Healthy soil, with active soil life, deters long-term soil degradation and ensures that geo-physical processes are undisturbed. Is the vitality of soil under threat due to human civilization? Or is it due to contamination, intensification, and deforestation? Vital Soil aims to look at the effects

  3. Determination of uranium and thorium isotopes in soil samples by coprecipitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngo Quang Huy; Trinh Thi Bich; Nguyen Van Suc

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents a procedure to prepare soil samples for U and Th isotope measurement by alpha-spectrometry after coprecipitation with LaF 3 . In this procedure the reduction of U(VI) to U(IV) was performed by Zn metal in 4M HCl solution. The recoveries of chemical separation equal to ε U-chemistry = 78±4% for uranium and ε Th-chemistry = 82±4% for thorium. Canberra alpha-spectrometer was used with PIPS detectors of A-1200-37-AM Model of 1200 mm 2 active area. The counting efficiency of the measuring system equals to ε counting = 18% and the total efficiencies were ε U = ε counting - ε U-chemistry = 14.0 ± 0.7% for uranium and ε Th = ε counting - ε Th-chemistry = 14.7 ± 0.7% for thorium. The recoveries of chemical separation were rather high (about 80%), that leads to the use of a small weight of soil sample (about 0.5 g). The efficiencies were also stable, that allows analyzing the soil sample without using radiotracers. They are advantages of the sample preparation procedure of this work. (author)

  4. Review of sample preparation techniques for the analysis of pesticide residues in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadeo, José L; Pérez, Rosa Ana; Albero, Beatriz; García-Valcárcel, Ana I; Sánchez-Brunete, Consuelo

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews the sample preparation techniques used for the analysis of pesticides in soil. The present status and recent advances made during the last 5 years in these methods are discussed. The analysis of pesticide residues in soil requires the extraction of analytes from this matrix, followed by a cleanup procedure, when necessary, prior to their instrumental determination. The optimization of sample preparation is a very important part of the method development that can reduce the analysis time, the amount of solvent, and the size of samples. This review considers all aspects of sample preparation, including extraction and cleanup. Classical extraction techniques, such as shaking, Soxhlet, and ultrasonic-assisted extraction, and modern techniques like pressurized liquid extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, solid-phase microextraction and QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe) are reviewed. The different cleanup strategies applied for the purification of soil extracts are also discussed. In addition, the application of these techniques to environmental studies is considered.

  5. Isotope ratios of 240Pu/239Pu in soil samples from different areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muramatsu, Yasuyuki; Yoshida, Satoshi; Yamazaki, Shinnosuke

    2003-01-01

    Plutonium concentrations and 240 Pu/ 239 Pu atom ratios in soil samples from Japan and other areas in the world (including IAEA standard reference materials) were determined by ICP-MS. The range of 240 Pu/ 239 Pu atom ratios observed in 21 Japanese soil samples was 0.155 - 0.194 and the average was 0.180 ± 0.011, which is comparable to the global fallout value. A low ratio of about 0.05, which is derived from Pu-bomb, was found in samples from Nishiyama (Nagasaki) and Mururoa Atoll (IAEA-368), while a high ratio of about 0.31 was found in a sample from Bikini Atoll (Marshall Islands). The ratio for Irish Sea sediment (IAEA-135) was 0.21, which was higher than the global fallout value, suggesting the influence by the contamination from the Sellafield facility. The 240 Pu/ 239 Pu atom ratios in soils from the Chernobyl area were determined, and the ratio was found to be very high (about 0.4), indicating the high burn-up grade of the reactor fuel. These results show that the 240 Pu/ 239 Pu ratio can be used as a finger print to identify the source of the contamination. (author)

  6. LEAK AND GAS PERMEABILITY TESTING DURING SOIL-GAS SAMPLING AT HAL'S CHEVRON LUST SITE IN GREEN RIVER, UTAH

    Science.gov (United States)

    The results of gas permeability and leak testing during active soil-gas sampling at Hal’s Chevron LUST Site in Green River, Utah are presented. This study was conducted to support development of a passive soil-gas sampling method. Gas mixtures containing helium and methane were...

  7. Thorium, uranium and rare earth elements concentration in weathered Japanese soil samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahoo, Sarata Kumar; Hosoda, Masahiro; Kamagata, Sadatoshi; Sorimachi, Atsuyuki; Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Tokonami, Shinji; Uchida, Shigeo

    2011-01-01

    The geochemical behavior of thorium, uranium and rare earth elements (REEs) are relatively close to one another while compared to other elements in a geological environment. Radioactive elements like 232 Th and 238 U along with their decay products (e.g. 226 Ra) are present in most environmental matrices and can be transferred to living bodies by different pathways which can lead to the sources of exposure to man. For these reasons, it has been necessary to monitor those natural radionuclides in weathered soil samples to assess the possible hazards. It has been observed that granitic rocks contain higher amounts of U, Th and light REEs compared to other igneous rocks such as basalt and andesites. To better understand the interaction between REEs and soils, the nature of soils must be considered. In this paper, we discussed the distribution pattern of 232 Th and 238 U along with REEs in soil samples of weathered acid rock (granite and ryolite) collected from two prefectures of Japan: (1) Kobe city in Hyogo prefecture and (2) Mutsu city and Higashidori village in Aomori prefecture. (author)

  8. Estimation of radioecological parameters of soil samples from a phosphatic area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harb Shaaban

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The activity concentrations of natural radionuclides (226Ra, 232Th, and 40K for a set of 31 agricultural soil samples from the Nile River banks in the area of El-Sebaiya city, Aswan Governorate, Egypt were measured by gamma-spectrometry. The study revealed that the average activity concentrations of natural radionuclides 226Ra, 232Th, and 40K were 23.2 ± 2.8Bq/kg, 21.1 ± 2.8 Bq/kg, and 218.6 ± 3.7 Bq/kg, respectively. The obtained results of the activity concentrations are within the range of values reported for neighbouring areas in Egypt. The values obtained for the hazard indices and the representative level index in all sampling sites were lower than unity, showing that there is no significant risk arising from the exposure to the soil in the studied area. The absorbed dose rate and annual effective dose in air outdoors and indoors were calculated from 226Ra, 232Th, and 40K in soil, the average values being 32.64 nGy/h, 40.06 µSv, and 160.25 µSv, respectively. The absorbed dose rate at the eastof El-Sebaiya city is higher than that obtained for the west because of higher concentrations of tri-calcium phosphate in the soil. The studied area is not significantly affected by the industrial activities, except for a few isolated spots.

  9. Solving mercury (Hg) speciation in soil samples by synchrotron X-ray microspectroscopic techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzano, Roberto; Santoro, Anna; Spagnuolo, Matteo; Vekemans, Bart; Medici, Luca; Janssens, Koen; Göttlicher, Jörg; Denecke, Melissa A; Mangold, Stefan; Ruggiero, Pacifico

    2010-08-01

    Direct mercury (Hg) speciation was assessed for soil samples with a Hg concentration ranging from 7 up to 240 mg kg(-1). Hg chemical forms were identified and quantified by sequential extractions and bulk- and micro-analytical techniques exploiting synchrotron generated X-rays. In particular, microspectroscopic techniques such as mu-XRF, mu-XRD and mu-XANES were necessary to solve bulk Hg speciation, in both soil fractions soil samples were metacinnabar (beta-HgS), cinnabar (alpha-HgS), corderoite (Hg(3)S(2)Cl(2)), and an amorphous phase containing Hg bound to chlorine and sulfur. The amount of metacinnabar and amorphous phases increased in the fraction soil components was observed. All the observed Hg-species originated from the slow weathering of an inert Hg-containing waste material (K106, U.S. EPA) dumped in the area several years ago, which is changing into a relatively more dangerous source of pollution. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Phosphatase activity in Antarctica soil samples as a biosignature of extant life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Shuji; Itoh, Yuki; Takano, Yoshinori; Fukui, Manabu; Kaneko, Takeo; Kobayashi, Kensei

    Microbial activities have been detected in such extreme terrestrial environments as deep lithosphere, a submarine hydrothermal systems, stratosphere, and Antarctica. Microorganisms have adapted to such harsh environments by evolving their biomolecules. Some of these biomolecules such as enzymes might have different characteristics from those of organisms in ordinary environments. Many biosignatures (or biomarkers) have been proposed to detect microbial activities in such extreme environments. A number of techniques are proposed to evaluate biological activities in extreme environments including cultivation methods, assay of metabolism, and analysis of bioorganic compounds like amino acids and DNA. Enzyme activities are useful signature of extant life in extreme environments. Among many enzymes, phosphatase could be a good indicator of biological activities, since phosphate esters are essential for all the living terrestrial organisms. In addition, alkaline phosphatase is known as a typical zinc-containing metalloenzyme and quite stable in environments. We analyzed phosphatase activities in Antarctica soil samples to see whether they can be used as biosignatures for extant life. In addition, we characterized phosphatases extracted from the Antarctica soil samples, and compared with those obtained from other types of environments. Antarctica surface environments are quite severe environments for life since it is extremely cold and dry and exposed to strong UV and cosmic rays. We tried to evaluate biological activities in Antarctica by measuring phosphatase activities. Surface soil samples are obtained at the Sites 1-8 near Showa Base in Antarctica during the 47th Japan Antarctic exploration mission in 2005-6. Activities of acid phosphatase (ACP) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) are measured spectrophotometrically after mixing the powdered sample and p-nitrophenyl phosphate solution (pH 6.5 for ACP, pH 8.0 for ALP). ALP was characterized after extraction from soils with

  11. Poly-use multi-level sampling system for soil-gas transport analysis in the vadose zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nauer, Philipp A; Chiri, Eleonora; Schroth, Martin H

    2013-10-01

    Soil-gas turnover is important in the global cycling of greenhouse gases. The analysis of soil-gas profiles provides quantitative information on below-ground turnover and fluxes. We developed a poly-use multi-level sampling system (PMLS) for soil-gas sampling, water-content and temperature measurement with high depth resolution and minimal soil disturbance. It is based on perforated access tubes (ATs) permanently installed in the soil. A multi-level sampler allows extraction of soil-gas samples from 20 locations within 1 m depth, while a capacitance probe is used to measure volumetric water contents. During idle times, the ATs are sealed and can be equipped with temperature sensors. Proof-of-concept experiments in a field lysimeter showed good agreement of soil-gas samples and water-content measurements compared with conventional techniques, while a successfully performed gas-tracer test demonstrated the feasibility of the PMLS to determine soil-gas diffusion coefficients in situ. A field application of the PMLS to quantify oxidation of atmospheric CH4 in a field lysimeter and in the forefield of a receding glacier yielded activity coefficients and soil-atmosphere fluxes well in agreement with previous studies. With numerous options for customization, the presented tool extends the methodological choices to investigate soil-gas transport in the vadose zone.

  12. Comparison of tree coring and soil gas sampling for screening of contaminated sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mette Algreen; Stalder, Marcel; Riis, Charlotte

    and then identify high risk areas. The uptake of BTEX into trees varies to a greater extent with the tree species and the site conditions than chlorinated solvents, which lead to greater uncertainty. Both methods have their advantages and disadvantages. Hence, the methods supplement each other. Based on results......Site characterization is often time consuming and a financial burden for the site owners, which raises a demand for rapid and inexpensive (pre)screening methods. Phytoscreening by tree coring has shown to be a useful tool to detect subsurface contamination, especially of chlorinated solvents...... suitable as initial screening methods for site characterization. The aim of this study is to compare tree coring and soil gas sampling to evaluate to which extent tree coring may supplement or substitute soil gas sampling as a site contaminant screening tool. And where both methods are feasible, evaluate...

  13. Gamma Radiation Dose from Radionuclides in Soil Samples of Udagamandalam (Ooty) in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selvasekarapandian, S.; Muguntha Manikandan, N.; Sivakumar, R.; Balasubramanian, S.; Venkatesan, T.; Meenakshisundram, V.; Ragunath, V.M.; Gajendran, V.

    1999-01-01

    The systematic study of background radiation and the distribution of radionuclides in the environment of Udagamandalam in Nilgiri District of Tamil Nadu has been made. Gamma spectrometric analysis of the soil samples of this area has been carried out. The measured gamma dose in air is in the range 31.6 nGy.h -1 - 221.1 nGy.h -1 with a mean value 121.8 nGy.h -1 . The average activities of the 232 Th series, 238 U series and 40 K in soil samples are 114.6 ± 52.5 Bq.kg -1 , 43.2 ± 23.2 Bq.kg -1 and 274.6 ± 86.7 Bq.kg -1 respectively. (author)

  14. Radioactivity measurements and risk assessments in soil samples at south and middle of Qatar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Kinani, A.; Al Dosari, M.; Amr, M.A.; Al-Saad, K.A.; Helal, A.I.

    2012-01-01

    Health risks associated with the exposure to the natural radioactivity present in soil materials has great concern all over the world. Thus soil samples collected from an urban area at south and middle of Qatar in order to measure natural radioactivity, 40 K, 226 Ra and 232 Th and the artificial 137 Cs using gamma-ray spectrometry method.The soil activity concentrations ranges from 25.01- 40.31 for 226 Ra, 12.37- 4.99 for 232 Th and 133.8 - 250.1 for 40 K with mean values of 57, 87 and 207 Bq/ kg, respectively. The concentrations of these radionuclides are compared with the available data from other countries. The average and ranges of activity concentration of 226 Ra in Qatar soil areas are very much comparable to the world Figures. However, the concentration for 232 Th is comparable to other Gulf area and lower than that for Egypt and the world figures.The concentration for 40 K is lower as compared with Egypt, world, and Kuwait figures but comparable to Oman figures.The radium equivalent activity (Ra eq) in these soil samples ranges from 74.45 Bq/ kg to 41.21 Bq/ kg) with mean value of 57.4 Bq/ kg which is far below the safe limit (permissible) limit (370 Bq/ kg). The calculated values for external hazard index Hex for the soil samples range from 0.102 - 0.21 and average concentration of 0.164 which is lower than other values reported .However these values are lower than unity; therefore, the soil from these regions is safe and can be used as a construction material without posing any significant radiological threat to population.The absorbed dose rate calculated from activity concentration of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K ranges between 11.529 - 21.446, 2.383 - 11.744, and 5.304 -10.357 n Gy/ h, respectively and the total average absorbed dose rate 28.915 n Gy/ h which are lower than the world wide average absorbed dose rate 51 n Gy/ h. The total absorbed dose in the study area ranges from 20.146 - 40.389 n Gy/ h with an average value of 28.915 n Gy/ h .The

  15. A novel method for estimating soil precompression stress from uniaxial confined compression tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lamandé, Mathieu; Schjønning, Per; Labouriau, Rodrigo

    2017-01-01

    . Stress-strain curves were obtained by performing uniaxial, confined compression tests on undisturbed soil cores for three soil types at three soil water potentials. The new method performed better than the Gompertz fitting method in estimating precompression stress. The values of precompression stress...... obtained from the new method were linearly related to the maximum stress experienced by the soil samples prior to the uniaxial, confined compression test at each soil condition with a slope close to 1. Precompression stress determined with the new method was not related to soil type or dry bulk density......The concept of precompression stress is used for estimating soil strength of relevance to fieldtraffic. It represents the maximum stress experienced by the soil. The most recently developed fitting method to estimate precompression stress (Gompertz) is based on the assumption of an S-shape stress...

  16. Assessing NIR & MIR Spectral Analysis as a Method for Soil C Estimation Across a Network of Sampling Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, S.; Ogle, S.; Borch, T.; Rock, B.

    2008-12-01

    Monitoring soil C stocks is critical to assess the impact of future climate and land use change on carbon sinks and sources in agricultural lands. A benchmark network for soil carbon monitoring of stock changes is being designed for US agricultural lands with 3000-5000 sites anticipated and re-sampling on a 5- to10-year basis. Approximately 1000 sites would be sampled per year producing around 15,000 soil samples to be processed for total, organic, and inorganic carbon, as well as bulk density and nitrogen. Laboratory processing of soil samples is cost and time intensive, therefore we are testing the efficacy of using near-infrared (NIR) and mid-infrared (MIR) spectral methods for estimating soil carbon. As part of an initial implementation of national soil carbon monitoring, we collected over 1800 soil samples from 45 cropland sites in the mid-continental region of the U.S. Samples were processed using standard laboratory methods to determine the variables above. Carbon and nitrogen were determined by dry combustion and inorganic carbon was estimated with an acid-pressure test. 600 samples are being scanned using a bench- top NIR reflectance spectrometer (30 g of 2 mm oven-dried soil and 30 g of 8 mm air-dried soil) and 500 samples using a MIR Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectrometer (FTIR) with a DRIFT reflectance accessory (0.2 g oven-dried ground soil). Lab-measured carbon will be compared to spectrally-estimated carbon contents using Partial Least Squares (PLS) multivariate statistical approach. PLS attempts to develop a soil C predictive model that can then be used to estimate C in soil samples not lab-processed. The spectral analysis of soil samples either whole or partially processed can potentially save both funding resources and time to process samples. This is particularly relevant for the implementation of a national monitoring network for soil carbon. This poster will discuss our methods, initial results and potential for using NIR and MIR spectral

  17. Mobility of arsenic, cadmium and zinc in a multi-element contaminated soil profile assessed by in-situ soil pore water sampling, column leaching and sequential extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beesley, Luke; Moreno-Jimenez, Eduardo; Clemente, Rafael; Lepp, Nicholas; Dickinson, Nicholas

    2010-01-01

    Three methods for predicting element mobility in soils have been applied to an iron-rich soil, contaminated with arsenic, cadmium and zinc. Soils were collected from 0 to 30 cm, 30 to 70 cm and 70 to 100 cm depths in the field and soil pore water was collected at different depths from an adjacent 100 cm deep trench. Sequential extraction and a column leaching test in the laboratory were compared to element concentrations in pore water sampled directly from the field. Arsenic showed low extractability, low leachability and occurred at low concentrations in pore water samples. Cadmium and zinc were more labile and present in higher concentrations in pore water, increasing with soil depth. Pore water sampling gave the best indication of short term element mobility when field conditions were taken into account, but further extraction and leaching procedures produced a fuller picture of element dynamics, revealing highly labile Cd deep in the soil profile. - Mobility of arsenic, cadmium and zinc in a polluted soil can be realistically interpreted by in-situ soil pore water sampling.

  18. Multielemental analysis of soil samples from the Assin District of Central Region in Ghana using nuclear and related techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agyemang, O.

    2008-06-01

    Macronutrients, micronutrients, pH, salinity and moisture content were determined in soil samples from six farms in two farming towns in Assin North District in the Central Region of Ghana namely Assin Akonfudi and Assin Bereku. Soil samples were taken from cocoa farms, orange farms and palm oil plantations at three different depths. The nutrients determined were Primary macronutrients that was K, Secondary macronutrients that were Ca, Mg and Micronutrients that were, Cl, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Zn, Na and Se and Neutron Activation method and Atomic Absorption Spectrometry were used for the elemental analysis. The pHs were within the acidic range, ranging from 4.50-6.44. The top soil (0-5cm) had the higher pH followed by soil at the depth of 5-30cm and then soil at the depth of 30-40cm that is the pH decreased with depth. The salinity rather increased with depth ranging from 0.3l-2.98dS/m and the moisture content also ranged from 0.5-2.04%. For the soil samples taken from the cocoa farms, K recorded the highest concentration and Mo recorded the lowest concentration in the soil. For soil samples taken from orange farms, Ca recorded the highest concentration and Se recorded the lowest concentration in the soil and for soil samples taken from the palm oil plantations, Fe recorded the highest concentration and Mo recorded the lowest concentration in soil. The macronutrients ranged from 28591.19-6.49 mg/kg and the micronutrients ranged from <0.0004-20344.50 mg/kg. Soils in the cocoa farms were found to be more rich in nutrients and the soils in the palm oil plantations were found to be least rich in nutrients

  19. Geochemical soil sampling for deeply-buried mineralized breccia pipes, northwestern Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenrich, K.J.; Aumente-Modreski, R. M.

    1994-01-01

    Thousands of solution-collapse breccia pipes crop out in the canyons and on the plateaus of northwestern Arizona; some host high-grade uranium deposits. The mineralized pipes are enriched in Ag, As, Ba, Co, Cu, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, V and Zn. These breccia pipes formed as sedimentary strata collapsed into solution caverns within the underlying Mississippian Redwall Limestone. A typical pipe is approximately 100 m (300 ft) in diameter and extends upward from the Redwall Limestone as much as 1000 m (3000 ft). Unmineralized gypsum and limestone collapses rooted in the Lower Permian Kaibab Limestone or Toroweap Formation also occur throughout this area. Hence, development of geochemical tools that can distinguish these unmineralized collapse structures, as well as unmineralized breccia pipes, from mineralized breccia pipes could significantly reduce drilling costs for these orebodies commonly buried 300-360 m (1000-1200 ft) below the plateau surface. Design and interpretation of soil sampling surveys over breccia pipes are plagued with several complications. (1) The plateau-capping Kaibab Limestone and Moenkopi Formation are made up of diverse lithologies. Thus, because different breccia pipes are capped by different lithologies, each pipe needs to be treated as a separate geochemical survey with its own background samples. (2) Ascertaining true background is difficult because of uncertainties in locations of poorly-exposed collapse cones and ring fracture zones that surround the pipes. Soil geochemical surveys were completed on 50 collapse structures, three of which are known mineralized breccia pipes. Each collapse structure was treated as an independent geochemical survey. Geochemical data from each collapse feature were plotted on single-element geochemical maps and processed by multivariate factor analysis. To contrast the results between geochemical surveys (collapse structures), a means of quantifying the anomalousness of elements at each site was developed. This

  20. Analysis of techniques of sample attack for soil and mineral analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dean, J.R.; Chiu, N.W.

    1985-05-01

    Four methods of sample attack were evaluated in the laboratory for use in the determination of uranium, radium-226, thorium-232, thorium-230, thorium-228, and lead-210. The methods evaluated were (1) KF/pyrosulfate fusion; (2) Sodium carbonate fusion; (3) Nitric, perchloric, hydrofluoric acid digestion; and, (4) combination nitric, perchloric, hydrofluoric acid/pyrosulfate fusion. Five samples were chosen for evaluation; two were mine tailings from Bancroft, Ontario and Beaverlodge, Saskatchewan, one was a synthetic uranium ore-silica mixture and two were soil samples supplied by AECB. The KF/pyrosulfate dissolution procedure was found to be the fastest and, overall, most accurate dissolution method for the analysis of 1-20 samples. For larger numbers of samples the three acid/pyrosulfate fusion combination was shown to have some merit

  1. Automated facility for analysis of soil samples by neutron activation, counting, and data control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voegele, A.L.; Jesse, R.H.; Russell, W.L.; Baker, J.

    1978-01-01

    An automated facility remotely and automatically analyzes soil, water, and sediment samples for uranium. The samples travel through pneumatic tubes and switches to be first irradiated by neutrons and then counted for resulting neutron and gamma emission. Samples are loaded into special carriers, or rabbits, which are then automatically loaded into the pneumatic transfer system. The sample carriers have been previously coded with an identification number, which can be automatically read in the system. This number is used for correlating and filing data about the samples. The transfer system, counters, and identification system are controlled by a network of microprocessors. A master microprocessor initiates routines in other microprocessors assigned to specific tasks. The software in the microprocessors is unique for this type of application and lends flexibility to the system

  2. Migration of radionuclides in sub-surface soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bachhuber, H.; Bunzl, K.; Dietl, F.; Kretner, R.; Schimmack, W.; Schultz, W.

    1981-08-01

    The object of the investigations was to draw the most realistic conclusions about the spreading rate of the radionuclides Sr, I, Cs and Ce in a model accident contaminating the earth surface for various subsurface soils taken from the environment of the Gorleben salt done. The retardation factors were hence determined for these radionuclides in columntests in undisturbed soil samples and the distribution coefficients determined in disturbed soil samples by shaking tests (batch method). The following mobility series can be given very globally for the examined soil profiles where especially columnar-results had been used: Ranker (Trebel) J > Sr > Ce > Cs, Podsol (Gorleben) J > Cs > Sr > Ce, Braunerde (Bruenkendorf) J approx. >= Sr > Ce approx. >= Cs. Arable Soils: Podsol (Gorleben) J > Sr > Cs > Ce, Parabraunerde (Eschweiler) J > Sr > Ce approx. >= Cs. (orig./HP) [de

  3. Measurement of radon exhalation rate in various building materials and soil samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bala, Pankaj; Kumar, Vinod; Mehra, Rohit

    2017-03-01

    Indoor radon is considered as one of the potential dangerous radioactive elements. Common building materials and soil are the major source of this radon gas in the indoor environment. In the present study, the measurement of radon exhalation rate in the soil and building material samples of Una and Hamirpur districts of Himachal Pradesh has been done with solid state alpha track detectors, LR-115 type-II plastic track detectors. The radon exhalation rate for the soil samples varies from 39.1 to 91.2 mBq kg-1 h-1 with a mean value 59.7 mBq kg-1 h-1. Also the radium concentration of the studied area is found and it varies from 30.6 to 51.9 Bq kg-1 with a mean value 41.6 Bq kg-1. The exhalation rate for the building material samples varies from 40.72 (sandstone) to 81.40 mBq kg-1 h-1 (granite) with a mean value of 59.94 mBq kg-1 h-1.

  4. Radium and radon exhalation rate in soil samples of Hassan district of South Karnataka, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jagadeesha, B.G.; Narayana, Y.

    2016-01-01

    The radon exhalation rate was measured in 32 soil samples collected from Hassan district of South Karnataka. Radon exhalation rate of soil samples was measured using can technique. The results show variation of radon exhalation rate with radium content of the soil samples. A strong correlation was observed between effective radium content and radon exhalation rate. In the present work, an attempt was made to assess the levels of radon in the environment of Hassan. Radon activities were found to vary from 2.25±0.55 to 270.85±19.16 Bq m"-"3 and effective radium contents vary from 12.06±2.98 to 1449.56±102.58 mBq kg"-"1. Surface exhalation rates of radon vary from 1.55±0.47 to 186.43±18.57 mBq m"-"2 h"-"1, and mass exhalation rates of radon vary from 0.312±0.07 to 37.46±2.65 mBq kg"-"1 h"-"1. (authors)

  5. Estimation of radon concentration in soil and groundwater samples of Northern Rajasthan, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhir Mittal

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present investigation, analysis of radon concentration in 20 water and soil samples collected from different locations of Bikaner and Jhunjhunu districts of Rajasthan, India has been carried out by using RAD7 an electronic Radon detector. The measured radon concentration in water samples lies in the range from 0.50 to 22 Bq l−1 with the mean value of 4.42 Bq l−1, which lies within the safe limit from 4 to 40 Bq l−1 recommended by United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR, 2008. The total annual effective dose estimated due to radon concentration in water ranges from 1.37 to 60.06 μSV y−1 with the mean value of 12.08 μSV y−1, which is lower than the safe limit 0.1 mSv y−1 as set by World Health Organization (WHO, 2004 and European Council (EU, 1998. Radon measurement in soil samples varies from 941 to 10,050 Bq m−3 with the mean value of 4561 Bq m−3, which lies within the range reported by other investigators. It was observed that the soil and water of Bikaner and Jhunjhunu districts are suitable for drinking and construction purpose without posing any health hazard.

  6. The Benefits of Sample Return: Connecting Apollo Soils and Diviner Lunar Radiometer Remote Sensing Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhagen, B. T.; Donaldson-Hanna, K. L.; Thomas, I. R.; Bowles, N. E.; Allen, C. C.; Pieters, C. M.; Paige, D. A.

    2014-01-01

    The Diviner Lunar Radiometer, onboard NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, has produced the first global, high resolution, thermal infrared observations of an airless body. The Moon, which is the most accessible member of this most abundant class of solar system objects, is also the only body for which we have extraterrestrial samples with known spatial context. Here we present the results of a comprehensive study to reproduce an accurate simulated lunar environment, evaluate the most appropriate sample and measurement conditions, collect thermal infrared spectra of a representative suite of Apollo soils, and correlate them with Diviner observations of the lunar surface. We find that analyses of Diviner observations of individual sampling stations and SLE measurements of returned Apollo soils show good agreement, while comparisons to thermal infrared reflectance under terrestrial conditions do not agree well, which underscores the need for SLE measurements and validates the Diviner compositional dataset. Future work includes measurement of additional soils in SLE and cross comparisons with measurements in JPL Simulated Airless Body Emission Laboratory (SABEL).

  7. Concrete - Opalinus clay interaction: in-situ experiment and technique for coring undisturbed interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeder, U.; Dolder, F.; Jenni, A.; Schwyn, B.; Frieg, B.; Eul, A.

    2012-01-01

    undisturbed samples of the different interfaces with concrete. A first sampling campaign in 2009 used a simple stabilisation technique with a central anchor rod that was glued in before coring. It was impossible to retrieve completely undisturbed samples. A new technique was developed for the drilling campaign during February 2012, and it was successfully applied in all four sampling boreholes carried out, retrieving a total of 150 kg of core and 10 physically and chemically undisturbed interface samples. The technique comprised intersection drilling at 45 deg. inclination and 220 mm OD to within 50 cm of the vertical concrete pile. The base was reamed planar, and templates were installed to drill a circular arrangement of 6 boreholes with 46 mm OD, three at a time. These small boreholes extended across the entire pile (1.4-1.6 m), and anchor rods made of fibre glass and filled with cement were embedded with epoxy resin. A different template was subsequently used to over-core (131 mm OD / 101 mm core DM, double-barrel, acrylic liner) cutting through the reinforcements. Stabilized composite cores of 1.4-1.6 m length could be retrieved in this manner. (authors)

  8. A stratified two-stage sampling design for digital soil mapping in a Mediterranean basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaschek, Michael; Duttmann, Rainer

    2015-04-01

    The quality of environmental modelling results often depends on reliable soil information. In order to obtain soil data in an efficient manner, several sampling strategies are at hand depending on the level of prior knowledge and the overall objective of the planned survey. This study focuses on the collection of soil samples considering available continuous secondary information in an undulating, 16 km²-sized river catchment near Ussana in southern Sardinia (Italy). A design-based, stratified, two-stage sampling design has been applied aiming at the spatial prediction of soil property values at individual locations. The stratification based on quantiles from density functions of two land-surface parameters - topographic wetness index and potential incoming solar radiation - derived from a digital elevation model. Combined with four main geological units, the applied procedure led to 30 different classes in the given test site. Up to six polygons of each available class were selected randomly excluding those areas smaller than 1ha to avoid incorrect location of the points in the field. Further exclusion rules were applied before polygon selection masking out roads and buildings using a 20m buffer. The selection procedure was repeated ten times and the set of polygons with the best geographical spread were chosen. Finally, exact point locations were selected randomly from inside the chosen polygon features. A second selection based on the same stratification and following the same methodology (selecting one polygon instead of six) was made in order to create an appropriate validation set. Supplementary samples were obtained during a second survey focusing on polygons that have either not been considered during the first phase at all or were not adequately represented with respect to feature size. In total, both field campaigns produced an interpolation set of 156 samples and a validation set of 41 points. The selection of sample point locations has been done using

  9. A quantitative method to detect explosives and selected semivolatiles in soil samples by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clapper-Gowdy, M.; Dermirgian, J.; Robitaille, G.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes a novel Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic method that can be used to rapidly screen soil samples from potentially hazardous waste sites. Samples are heated in a thermal desorption unit and the resultant vapors are collected and analyzed in a long-path gas cell mounted in a FTIR. Laboratory analysis of a soil sample by FTIR takes approximately 10 minutes. This method has been developed to identify and quantify microgram concentrations of explosives in soil samples and is directly applicable to the detection of selected volatile organics, semivolatile organics, and pesticides

  10. Radioactivity measurements of soil samples in the Region Vranje (Bratoselce Village) for the period 2001-2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eremic-savkovic, M.; Pantelic, G.; Tanaskovic, I.; Vuletic, V.; Javorina, L.

    2006-01-01

    Systematic examination of radioactive contamination of soil samples was established at the Institute for Occupational and Radiological Health. With the bombing of our country (Spring 1999) the monitoring of radioactivity has changed. We also measured the activities of uranium and it descendants. This paper presents the results of radioactivity monitoring of the soil in small area 700 m near village Bratoselce in region Vranje during the period 2001 - 2004. From 2001 to 2004, we collected different samples from this fenced area as well as outside this area assuming not to be contaminated, before, during and after decontamination. Some soil samples were made as a mix of small samples from a large area of location. Other samples were taken at the points formerly designated as contaminated or from shell-craters seen on the fenced area surface. All samples were analyzed by gamma spectrometry and measurements of alpha and beta activity. On the basis of measurements of soil activities, analysis of 238 U and 235 U, as well as in comparison with natural activity ratio being 21.4, it may be concluded that depleted uranium contamination was present both in the fenced area and outside it, because this ratio in the samples of soil was found to be 34 to 73. Natural activity in soil samples was slightly higher in relation to mean soil activity in Serbia. (authors)

  11. Calculation of coincidence summing corrections for a specific small soil sample geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helmer, R.G.; Gehrke, R.J.

    1996-10-01

    Previously, a system was developed at the INEL for measuring the {gamma}-ray emitting nuclides in small soil samples for the purpose of environmental monitoring. These samples were counted close to a {approx}20% Ge detector and, therefore, it was necessary to take into account the coincidence summing that occurs for some nuclides. In order to improve the technical basis for the coincidence summing corrections, the authors have carried out a study of the variation in the coincidence summing probability with position within the sample volume. A Monte Carlo electron and photon transport code (CYLTRAN) was used to compute peak and total efficiencies for various photon energies from 30 to 2,000 keV at 30 points throughout the sample volume. The geometry for these calculations included the various components of the detector and source along with the shielding. The associated coincidence summing corrections were computed at these 30 positions in the sample volume and then averaged for the whole source. The influence of the soil and the detector shielding on the efficiencies was investigated.

  12. Report on the NAT-9 quality control exercise on uranium isotopes in two soil samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bleise, Andreas

    2001-04-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) section of Nutritional and Health related Environmental Studies (NAHRES) organized a quality control study for laboratories analysing samples from the UNEP field mission to Kosovo. Quality control was the major responsibility of the IAEA in the UN field assessment team. The NAT-9 quality control study consists of two soil materials from the IAEA Laboratories in Seibersdorf. The scope of this exercise was to determine the content of the uranium isotopes U-234, U-235 and U-238. The IAEA did not provide specific instructions, the participants were encouraged to apply their established analytical procedures to the samples. Five laboratories were invited to participate, four laboratories submitted results. For each soil sample 10 laboratory mean values were reported, using ICP-MS (3 laboratories) and α-spectrometry (1 laboratory). The participating laboratories were capable to distinguish the different uranium isotopes. All laboratories obtained the natural uranium ratio between U-235 and U-238. However, the results highlight a particular analytical weak spot. Although the methods of measuring the analytical signals are highly dependable, the sample preparation steps, in particular the sample dissolution procedure, appears to be lacking total quality control and has contributed to the deviations from the reported target values. One laboratory has documented evidence that extensive and well-controlled digestion methods can yield measurement results close to the target values. (author)

  13. Levels and effects of natural radionuclides in soil samples of Garhwal Himalaya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manjulata Yadav; Mukesh Rawat; Anoop Dangwal; Mukesh Prasad; Gusain, G.S.; Ramola, R.C.

    2014-01-01

    Distribution of natural radionuclide gives significant parameter to assess the presence of gamma radioactivity and its radiological effect in our environment. Natural radionuclides are present in the form of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K in soil, rocks, water, air, and building materials. Distribution of natural radionuclides depends on the type of minerals present in the soil and rocks. For this purpose gamma spectrometer is used as tool for finding the concentration of these radionuclides. The activity concentration of naturally occurring radionuclides 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K in these soil samples were found to vary from of 8 ± 1 Bq/kg to 50 ± 10 Bq/kg with an average 20 Bq/kg, 7 ± 1-88 ± 16 Bq/kg with an Average 26 Bq/kg and 115 ± 18-885 ± 132 Bq/kg with an average 329 Bq/kg, respectively. In this paper, we are presenting the radiological effect due to distribution of natural radionuclide present in soil of Garhwal Himalaya. (author)

  14. Natural radioactivity in soil samples of Yelagiri Hills, Tamil Nadu, India and the associated radiation hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravisankar, R.; Chandrasekaran, A.; Vijayagopal, P.; Venkatraman, B.; Senthilkumar, G.; Eswaran, P.; Rajalakshmi, A.

    2012-01-01

    The natural radioactivity of soils at Yelagiri hills has been studied in this paper. The radioactivities of 25 samples have been measured with a NaI(Tl) detector. The radioactivity concentrations of 238 U, 232 Th and 40 K ranged from ≤2.17 to 53.23, 13.54 to 89.89 and from 625.09 to 2207.3 Bq kg −1 , respectively. The measured activity concentrations for these radionuclides were compared with world average activity of soil. The average activity concentration of 232 Th in the present study is 1.19 times higher than world median value while the activity of 238 U and 40 K is found to be lower. In order to evaluate the radiological hazard of the natural radioactivity, the radium equivalent activity Ra eq , the absorbed dose rate D R , the annual effective dose rate and the external hazard index (H ex ) have been calculated and compared with the internationally approved values. The study provides background radioactivity concentrations in Yelagiri hills. - Highlights: ► Soil radioactivity is used for base line data in future impact assessment. ► We report the results of radiation hazard parameters in soils of Yelagiri hills. ► The level of the natural radiation in the studied area does not exceed the norm.

  15. [Physical and chemical methods for eliminating propagules of indigenous mycorrhizal fungi from soil samples].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covacevich, Fernanda; Castellari, Claudia C; Echeverría, Hernán E

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate methods to eliminate or reduce the number of indigenous arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) from soil samples without affecting their edaphic or microbiological properties. At an early trial we evaluated moist heat (autoclaving), dry heat (oven), sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) and formaldehyde at a range of 100.0-3.3μl/g and 16.7-3.3μl/g respectively. There was no germination in plants of ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) sown on substrates receiving NaClO (100.0-33.3μl/g), whereas autoclaving significantly increased the available soil phosphorous content. Both treatments failed to eradicate AMF colonization at 9 weeks; therefore, they were discarded. In a second trial, oven and formaldehyde (10.0μl/g) treatments were analyzed to assess the effects of seed decontamination and AMF reinoculation. Both procedures were effective in reducing or eliminating indigenous AMF at a range of soil P availability of 12-29mg/kg. However, the time between soil treatment and AMF multiplication and safety requirements were greater in the case of formaldehyde application. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  16. Solving mercury (Hg) speciation in soil samples by synchrotron X-ray microspectroscopic techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terzano, Roberto; Santoro, Anna; Spagnuolo, Matteo; Vekemans, Bart; Medici, Luca; Janssens, Koen; Goettlicher, Joerg; Denecke, Melissa A.; Mangold, Stefan; Ruggiero, Pacifico

    2010-01-01

    Direct mercury (Hg) speciation was assessed for soil samples with a Hg concentration ranging from 7 up to 240 mg kg -1 . Hg chemical forms were identified and quantified by sequential extractions and bulk- and micro-analytical techniques exploiting synchrotron generated X-rays. In particular, microspectroscopic techniques such as μ-XRF, μ-XRD and μ-XANES were necessary to solve bulk Hg speciation, in both soil fractions 3 S 2 Cl 2 ), and an amorphous phase containing Hg bound to chlorine and sulfur. The amount of metacinnabar and amorphous phases increased in the fraction <2 μm. No interaction among Hg-species and soil components was observed. All the observed Hg-species originated from the slow weathering of an inert Hg-containing waste material (K106, U.S. EPA) dumped in the area several years ago, which is changing into a relatively more dangerous source of pollution. - Direct mercury (Hg) speciation in chlor-alkali plant contaminated soils enabled the identification of potentially dangerous Hg-S/Cl amorphous species.

  17. Low level measurements of natural radionuclides in soil samples around a coal-fired power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosner, G.; Bunzl, K.; Hoetzl, H.; Winkler, R.

    1984-01-01

    To detect a possible contribution of airborne radioactivity from stack effluents to the soil radioactivity, several radionuclides in the soil around a coal-fired power plant have been determined. A plant situated in a rural region of Bavaria was selected to minimize contributions from other civilisatory sources. The soil sampling network consisted of 5 concentric circles with diameters between 0.4 and 5.2 km around the plant, 16 sampling points being distributed regularly on each circle. Radiochemical analysis techniques for 210 Pb and 210 Po in soil samples of several grams has to be developed. They include a wet dissolution procedure, simultaneous precipitation of lead and polonium as the sulfides, purification via lead sulfate, counting of the lead as the chromate in a low-level beta counter and alpha spectrometric determination of the 210 Po in a gridded ionization chamber. The 238 U, 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K were counted by low level gamma spectrometry. Specific activities found were in the range of 0.7 to 2.0 pCi g -1 for 210 Pb and 0.3 to 1.6 pCi g -1 for 226 Ra. The distribution patterns of 210 Po and 210 Pb around the plant were found to be similar. They were different, however, from that of 226 Ra. The highest 210 Pb/ 226 Ra activity ratio was 3.9 at a distance of 0.76 km SSE from the plant. Nevertheless, the evidence is not considered to be sufficient to attribute these observations unambiguously to plant release. (orig.)

  18. Low level measurements of natural radionuclides in soil samples around a coal-fired power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosner, G.; Bunzl, K.; Hoetzl, H.; Winkler, R. (Gesellschaft fuer Strahlen- und Umweltforschung m.b.H. Muenchen, Neuherberg (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Strahlenschutz)

    1984-06-15

    To detect a possible contribution of airborne radioactivity from stack effluents to the soil radioactivity, several radionuclides in the soil around a coal-fired power plant have been determined. A plant situated in a rural region of Bavaria was selected to minimize contributions from other civilisatory sources. The soil sampling network consisted of 5 concentric circles with diameters between 0.4 and 5.2 km around the plant, 16 sampling points being distributed regularly on each circle. Radiochemical analysis techniques for /sup 210/Pb and /sup 210/Po in soil samples of several grams has to be developed. They include a wet dissolution procedure, simultaneous precipitation of lead and polonium as the sulfides, purification via lead sulfate, counting of the lead as the chromate in a low-level beta counter and alpha spectrometric determination of the /sup 210/Po in a gridded ionization chamber. The /sup 238/U, /sup 226/Ra, /sup 232/Th and /sup 40/K were counted by low level gamma spectrometry. Specific activities found were in the range of 0.7 to 2.0 pCi g/sup -1/ for /sup 210/Pb and 0.3 to 1.6 pCi g/sup -1/ for /sup 226/Ra. The distribution patterns of /sup 210/Po and /sup 210/Pb around the plant were found to be similar. They were different, however, from that of /sup 226/Ra. The highest /sup 210/Pb//sup 226/Ra activity ratio was 3.9 at a distance of 0.76 km SSE from the plant. Nevertheless, the evidence is not considered to be sufficient to attribute these observations unambiguously to plant release.

  19. Experimental research on the structural characteristics of high organic soft soil in different deposition ages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fei; Lin, Guo-he

    2018-03-01

    High organic soft soil, which is distributed at Ji Lin province in China, has been studied by a lot of scholars. In the paper, structural characteristics with different deposition ages have been researched by experimental tests. Firstly, the characteristics of deposition age, degree of decompositon, high-pressure consolidation and microstructure have been measured by a series of tests. Secondly, structural strengths which were deposited in different ages, have been carried out to test the significant differences of stress-strain relations between remoulded and undisturbed high organic soft soil samples. Results showed that high organic soft soil which is deposited at different ages will influence its structural characteristics.

  20. Area G perimeter surface-soil and single-stage water sampling. Environmental surveillance for fiscal year 95. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Childs, M.; Conrad, R.

    1997-09-01

    ESH-19 personnel collected soil and single-stage water samples around the perimeter of Area G at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) during FY 95 to characterize possible radionuclide movement out of Area G through surface water and entrained sediment runoff. Soil samples were analyzed for tritium, total uranium, isotopic plutonium, americium-241, and cesium-137. The single-stage water samples were analyzed for tritium and plutonium isotopes. All radiochemical data was compared with analogous samples collected during FY 93 and 94 and reported in LA-12986 and LA-13165-PR. Six surface soils were also submitted for metal analyses. These data were included with similar data generated for soil samples collected during FY 94 and compared with metals in background samples collected at the Area G expansion area

  1. Soil sample moisture content as a function of time during oven drying for gamma-ray spectroscopic measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benke, R.R.; Kearfott, K.J.

    1999-01-01

    In routine gamma-ray spectroscopic analysis of collected soil samples, procedure often calls to remove soil moisture by oven drying overnight at a temperature of 100 deg. C . Oven drying not only minimizes the gamma-ray self-attenuation of soil samples due to the absence of water during the gamma-ray spectroscopic analysis, but also allows for a straightforward calculation of the specific activity of radionuclides in soil, historically based on the sample dry weight. Because radon exhalation is strongly dependent on moisture , knowledge of the oven-drying time dependence of the soil moisture content, combined with radon exhalation measurements during oven drying and at room temperature for varying soil moisture contents, would allow conclusions to be made on how the oven-drying radon exhalation rate depends on soil moisture content. Determinations of the oven-drying radon exhalation from soil samples allow corrections to be made for the immediate laboratory gamma-ray spectroscopy of radionuclides in the natural uranium decay chain. This paper presents the results of soil moisture content measurements during oven drying and suggests useful empirical fits to the moisture data

  2. Amostragem de solo para estudos de fertilidade Sampling soils for fertility studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Catani

    1955-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho foi realizado com a finalidade de estabelecer um sistema e técnica mais adequados de se coletar amostras de terra, para fins de estudo de fertilidade. Foram escolhidas duas áreas de solos diferentes. Uma delas com seis hectares, situada na Estação Experimental de Ribeirão Prêto, em solo tipo terra roxa legítima ; a outra com quatro hectares e localizada na Fazenda Santa Maria, em Pindorama, em solo do tipo arenito Bauru. A retirada das amostras de cada área foi feita com tubos especialmente construídos para esse fim e obedeceu ao seguinte critério: 1 30 amostras simples, cobrindo tôda a área ; 2 10 amostras compostas, formadas de cinco amostras simples, cobrindo tôda a área. 3 5 amostras compostas, formadas de 20 amostras simples, cobrindo tôda a área. Nessas amostras foram determinados : pH, carbono total, potássio "trocável" e cálcio "trocável". Diante dos dados obtidos e levando-se em conta o trabalho exigido no laboratório, aconselha-se a retirada de três amostras compostas formadas de 20 simples cada uma, em glebas uniformes, de cinco hectares aproximadamente.The following methods of collecting soil samples for fertility studies were compared : 1 thirty individual samples covering the whole area ; 2 ten composite samples, each consisting of five individual samples, covering the whole area ; 3 five composite samples, each consisting of 20 individual samples, covering the whole area. The three types of samples were collected in each of two plots : 1 a six-hectare plot in the Estação Experimental de Ribeirão Prêto, representing the "terra roxa" soil; 2 a four-hectare plot in the Santa Maria Farm, Pindorama, where the soil is of the "arenito de Bauru" type. The pH, total carbon, and exchangeable potassium and calcium were determined in the samples. Based on data obtained in the present investigation and considering the amount of work involved in the routine laboratory tests, it is suggested that

  3. Determination of 7BE in soil sample by gamma spectrometry for erosion researchs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esquivel, Alexander D.; Kastner, Geraldo F.; Amaral, Angela M.; Monteiro, Roberto Pellacani G.; Moreira, Rubens M.

    2015-01-01

    Cosmogenic 7 Be is a natural radiotracer produced in the stratosphere and troposphere and reached to the Earth surface via wet and dry fallout and hence its measurement for research of erosion in soils is very significant. The 7 Be radio analyse based on gamma spectrometry technique has been a routine methodology for decades and although is the reference procedure is not free of analytical interference. 7 Be is a β-γ emitting radionuclide (Eγ = 477.59 keV, T½ = 53.12d) and depending on the chemical profile of the soil its determination is susceptible to 228 Ac (E γ = 478.40 keV, T½ = 6.15h) interference. The aim of this work was to establish an analytical protocol for the 7 Be determination in soil samples from Juatuba-Mg region in different sampling periods of dry and rainy seasons for erosion studies and to establish some methodologies for evaluating and correcting the interference level of 228 Ac in the 7 Be activity measurements by gamma spectrometry. (author)

  4. Measurement of 222Rn and 220Rn exhalation rate from soil samples of Kumaun Hills, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semwal, Poonam; Singh, Kuldeep; Agarwal, T. K.; Joshi, Manish; Pant, Preeti; Kandari, Tushar; Ramola, R. C.

    2018-03-01

    The source terms, i.e., exhalation and emanation from soil and building materials are the primary contributors to the radon (222Rn)/thoron (220Rn) concentration levels in the dwellings, while the ecological constraints like ventilation rate, temperature, pressure, humidity, etc., are the influencing factors. The present study is focused on Almora District of Kumaun, located in Himalayan belt of Uttarakhand, India. For the measurement of 222Rn and 220Rn exhalation rates, 24 soil samples were collected from different locations. Gamma radiation level was measured at each of these locations. Chamber technique associated with Smart Rn Duo portable monitor was employed for the estimation of 222Rn and 220Rn exhalation rates. Radionuclides (226Ra, 232Th and 40K) concentrations were also measured in soil samples using NaI(Tl) scintillation based gamma ray spectrometry. The mass exhalation rate for 222Rn was varying between 16 and 54 mBq/kg/h, while the 220Rn surface exhalation rate was in the range of 0.65-6.43 Bq/m2/s. Measured gamma dose rate for the same region varied from 0.10 to 0.31 µSv/h. Inter-correlation of exhalation rates and intra-correlation with background gamma levels were studied.

  5. Sorption and desorption studies of some radionuclides by soil samples. Vol. 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Naggar, H A; Ezz El-Din, M R; Abd El-Gawad, A S [Hot Laborities Center, National Center for Nuclear Safety and Radiation control, Authority, Cairo (Egypt)

    1996-03-01

    The different factors influencing the sorption/desorption of {sup 137} Cs, {sup 60} Co, {sup 241} Am and {sup (152+154)}Eu by soil samples of Inshas area were investigated. Mineralogical analysis of the soil samples were carried out. The amount sorbed per gram soil (X/m) increased as the carrier concentration [C] increased from (10{sup -9} to 10{sup -}1 mol) following a freundlich type isotherm. The distribution coefficient [K d] of the radionuclides was found to be affected by pH. The presence of K{sup +}, Ca{sup 2+}, and Fe{sup 3+} as competing ions decreases the sorption capacity of the radioisotopes studied. The presence of complexing agents has a significant effect on the mobility of these radioisotopes. On the basis of the results obtained an attempt is being carried out to calculate different transport rates of the relevant isotopes in the investigated media. The mathematical model for the dispersion of the radioisotopes investigated in the groundwater environment was also elucidated. 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Extraction of Plutonium From Spiked INEEL Soil Samples Using the Ligand-Assisted Supercritical Fluid Extraction (LA-SFE) Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, R.V.; Mincher, B.J.; Holmes, R.G.G.

    1999-01-01

    In order to investigate the effectiveness of ligand-assisted supercritical fluid extraction for the removal of transuranic contaminations from soils an Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) silty-clay soil sample was obtained from near the Radioactive Waste Management Complex area and subjected to three different chemical preparations before being spiked with plutonium. The spiked INEEL soil samples were subjected to a sequential aqueous extraction procedure to determine radionuclide portioning in each sample. Results from those extractions demonstrate that plutonium consistently partitioned into the residual fraction across all three INEEL soil preparations whereas americium partitioned 73% into the iron/manganese fraction for soil preparation A, with the balance partitioning into the residual fraction. Plutonium and americium were extracted from the INEEL soil samples using a ligand-assisted supercritical fluid extraction technique. Initial supercritical fluid extraction runs produced plutonium extraction technique. Initial supercritical fluid extraction runs produced plutonium extraction efficiencies ranging from 14% to 19%. After a second round wherein the initial extraction parameters were changed, the plutonium extraction efficiencies increased to 60% and as high as 80% with the americium level in the post-extracted soil samples dropping near to the detection limits. The third round of experiments are currently underway. These results demonstrate that the ligand-assisted supercritical fluid extraction technique can effectively extract plutonium from the spiked INEEL soil preparations

  7. Effect of the grain size of the soil on the measured activity and variation in activity in surface and subsurface soil samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulaiti, H.A.; Rega, P.H.; Bradley, D.; Dahan, N.A.; Mugren, K.A.; Dosari, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    Correlation between grain size and activity concentrations of soils and concentrations of various radionuclides in surface and subsurface soils has been measured for samples taken in the State of Qatar by gamma-spectroscopy using a high purity germanium detector. From the obtained gamma-ray spectra, the activity concentrations of the 238U (226Ra) and /sup 232/ Th (/sup 228/ Ac) natural decay series, the long-lived naturally occurring radionuclide 40 K and the fission product radionuclide 137CS have been determined. Gamma dose rate, radium equivalent, radiation hazard index and annual effective dose rates have also been estimated from these data. In order to observe the effect of grain size on the radioactivity of soil, three grain sizes were used i.e., smaller than 0.5 mm; smaller than 1 mm and greater than 0.5 mm; and smaller than 2 mm and greater than 1 mm. The weighted activity concentrations of the 238U series nuclides in 0.5-2 mm grain size of sample numbers was found to vary from 2.5:f:0.2 to 28.5+-0.5 Bq/kg, whereas, the weighted activity concentration of 4 degree K varied from 21+-4 to 188+-10 Bq/kg. The weighted activity concentrations of 238U series and 4 degree K have been found to be higher in the finest grain size. However, for the 232Th series, the activity concentrations in the 1-2 mm grain size of one sample were found to be higher than in the 0.5-1 mm grain size. In the study of surface and subsurface soil samples, the activity concentration levels of 238 U series have been found to range from 15.9+-0.3 to 24.1+-0.9 Bq/kg, in the surface soil samples (0-5 cm) and 14.5+-0.3 to 23.6+-0.5 Bq/kg in the subsurface soil samples (5-25 cm). The activity concentrations of 232Th series have been found to lie in the range 5.7+-0.2 to 13.7+-0.5 Bq/kg, in the surface soil samples (0-5 cm)and 4.1+-0.2 to 15.6+-0.3 Bq/kg in the subsurface soil samples (5-25 cm). The activity concentrations of 4 degree K were in the range 150+-8 to 290+-17 Bq/kg, in the surface

  8. Microbial diversity in firework chemical exposed soil and water samples collected in Virudhunagar district, Tamil Nadu, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhasarathan, P; Theriappan, P; Ashokraja, C

    2010-03-01

    Microbial diversity of soil and water samples collected from pyrochemicals exposed areas of Virdhunagar district (Tamil Nadu, India) was studied. Soil and water samples from cultivable area, waste land and city area of the same region were also studied for a comparative acount. There is a remarkable reduction in total heterotrophic bacterial population (THB) in pyrochemicals exposed soil and water samples (42 × 10(4) CFU/g and 5.6 × 10(4) CFU/ml respectively), compared to the THB of cultivable area soil and water samples (98 × 10(7) CFU/g and 38.6 × 10(7) CFU/ml). The generic composition the THB of the pyrochemicals exposed samples too exhibited considerable change compared to other samples. Pseudomonas sp. was the predominant one (41.6%) followed by Achromobacter sp. (25%) in pyrochemical exposed soil and Pseudomonas sp. was the predominant one (25%) in pyrochemical exposed water samples followed by Bacillus sp. (25%) and Micrococcus sp. (16.6%). It was observed that Cornybacterium sp. and Micrococcus sp. were absent completely in pyrochemical exposed soil and Achromobacter sp. was missing in the pyrochemical exposed water samples, which were present in the other samples. The outcome of this study clearly demonstrates that pollutants such as chemicals used in pyrotechniques affect the microbial biodiversity and suitable measures have to be taken to control the pollution level and to save biodiversity.

  9. Soil characteristics of landslides on Mount Elgon (Uganda): implications for estimating their age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Eynde, Elise; Dondeyne, Stefaan; Isabirye, Moses; Deckers, Jozef; Poesen, Jean

    2017-04-01

    The slopes of Mount Elgon, a complex volcano at the border between Uganda and Kenya, are frequently affected by landslides with disastrous effects on the livelihood of its population. Since local people greatly depend on the land for crop production, we examined if and how fast physico-chemical characteristics in landslide scars recover. A chronosequence of 18 landslides covering a period of 103 years was sampled in order to explore differences between topsoil within and outside landslide scars. For each landslide, two topsoil samples were taken within the landslide and two in nearby undisturbed soils to compare their physico-chemical characteristics. No differences were found for available P, Ca2+, Mg2+ content or for the fine earth texture. Recent landslides had however lower content of soil organic carbon (OC) and K+, and higher content of rock fragments and Na+ than the adjacent soils. Soil OC content increased significantly with age and reached levels of the corresponding undisturbed soils after ca. 60 years. Older landslides had even higher OC contents than soils adjacent to the landslide. Hence landslide scars act as local carbon sink. We suggest that the occurrence of rock fragments in the topsoil is a useful indicator for mapping past landslides. Moreover, the difference in soil OC content between landslide scars and adjacent soil could be used for estimating the age of landslides in data-poor regions.

  10. An intercomparison of sampling techniques among five European laboratories for measurements of radiocaesium in upland pasture and soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, S.P.; Aarkrog, A.; Colgan, P.A.; McGee, E.; Synnott, H.J.; Johansson, K.J.; Horrill, A.D.; Kennedy, V.H.; Barbayiannis, N.

    1992-02-01

    An intercomparison of sampling procedures used by five European laboratories for the determination of radiocaesium in vegetation and peaty soil was carried out at two locations in Cumbria. The soil sampling procedures included th ecollection of depth profiles in order to obtain information on the vertical distribution of radiocaesium in addition to the total deposition. The number of samples taken by each laboratory varied from one to five. The multiple sampling has given information on the homogeneity of the parameters studied at each location. The parameters comprise soil bulk densities, total deposition of 137 Cs, deposition of 137 Cs in three soil layers, biomass densities, concentrations of 137 Cs in pasture, and activity ratios ( 134 Cs/ 137 Cs) in soil and vegetation. The determination of total deposition of 137 Cs gave no indication of differences between the laboratories. The total depositions of 134 Cs and 137 Cs observed at one site were compared with levels obtained from another study and the two sets of data were found to be in good agreement. The results from the soil profiles do indicate significant differences between laboratories. This covers the vertical distributions of 137 Cs deposition including the 134 Cs/ 137 Cs-activity ratios as well as the soil bulk densities. One laboratory using a coring technique observed difficulties during sampling due to compression of the soil. The coring technique should thus be avoided or applied with extreme care for the sampling of depth profiles in peaty soil. The results from the sampling of pasture show no indication of differences between the laboratories. For the parameters studied the observed variabilities across soil depths and locations range from 10% to 82% in terms of relative standard deviations. A comparison across all results at the two locations indicate a 50% higher field variability at one of the sites relative to the other. (au) (24 tabs., 9 ills., 3 refs.)

  11. Determination of Boron in soils and plants samples using spectrophotometric method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stas, J.; Hariri, Z.

    2011-10-01

    In this work, the concentration of boron in soil and plant samples was determined with UV-vis spectrophotometer by using azomethine-H as a complex reagent. The calibration curve for boron determination in the range of (0μ3 g.mL - 1) was constructed by plotting the measured absorption of the yellow azomethine-H-B complex at λmax = 412.6 nm against boron concentration in the aqueous phase. The detection limit, repeatability limit, intermediate precision, accuracy, and recovery coefficient of this method were calculated and found to be 0.021 μg.mL - 1, 0.335% , 0.81%, 2.93%, (98.4-101.5)% respectively. The influence of some foreign ions on the determination of boron were also investigated in detail, most of the studied ions, like iron, iodide, and calcium can be tolerated within the ranges of (20-35μg.mL-1), (3000-5000μg.mL - 1) , (15000-30000μg.mL - 1) respectively. This is due to the fact, that ascorbic acid and EDTA in the buffer masking reagent reaction system can be very effective in masking these ions. This method was found to be economic and suitable for boron determination in standard and local samples (soil, plant) and requires small amount of sample (1g). This method can also be applied for boron determination in water samples (drinking and industrial waste water).(author)

  12. Radon exhalation and its dependence on moisture content from samples of soil and building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faheem, Munazza; Matiullah

    2008-01-01

    Indoor radon has long been recognized as a potential health hazard for mankind. Building materials are considered as one of the major sources of radon in the indoor environment. To study radon exhalation rate and its dependence on moisture content, samples of soil and some common types of building materials (sand, cement, bricks and marble) were collected from Gujranwala, Gujrat, Hafizabad, Sialkot, Mandibahauddin and Narowal districts of the Punjab province (Pakistan). After processing, samples of 200 g each were placed in plastic vessels. CR-39 based NRPB detector were placed at the top of these vessels and were then hermetically sealed. After exposing to radon for 30 days within the closed vessels, the CR-39 detectors were processed. Radon exhalation rate was found to vary from 122±19 to 681±10mBqm -2 h -1 with an average of 376±147mBqm -2 h -1 in the soil samples whereas an average of 212±34, 195±25, 231±30 and 292±35mBqm -2 h -1 was observed in bricks, sand, cement and marble samples, respectively. Dependence of exhalation on moisture content has also been studied. Radon exhalation rate was found to increase with an increase in moisture, reached its maximum value and then decreased with further increase in the water content

  13. Natural Radioactivity Measurements in Soil and Phosphate Samples from El-Sabaea, Aswan, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harb, S.; Abbady, A.; El-Kamel, A.H.; Abd El-Mageed, A.I.; Negm, H.H.

    2009-01-01

    The knowledge on radioactivity content of the various radionuclides in the soil and rocks play an important role in health physics. The main aim of this work is to estimate the concentrations of natural radionuclides 226 Ra, 228 Ra, 228 Th, 232 Th and 40 k in soil and phosphate samples and, impact of the El-Sabaea phosphate factory on the human health. This can be investigated via gamma-ray spectroscopy by 2 x 2 inch NaI(Tl) scintillation detector. The range of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40k were from 59.7±6.7 to 638.3±31.0, from 9.4±1.4 to 40.6±6.3, from 213.1±9.5 to 798.9±30.6 in Bq/kg respectively

  14. A simple high performance liquid chromatography method for analyzing paraquat in soil solution samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Ying; Mansell, Robert S; Nkedi-Kizza, Peter

    2004-01-01

    A high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method with UV detection was developed to analyze paraquat (1,1'-dimethyl-4,4'-dipyridinium dichloride) herbicide content in soil solution samples. The analytical method was compared with the liquid scintillation counting (LSC) method using 14C-paraquat. Agreement obtained between the two methods was reasonable. However, the detection limit for paraquat analysis was 0.5 mg L(-1) by the HPLC method and 0.05 mg L(-1) by the LSC method. The LSC method was, therefore, 10 times more precise than the HPLC method for solution concentrations less than 1 mg L(-1). In spite of the high detection limit, the UC (nonradioactive) HPLC method provides an inexpensive and environmentally safe means for determining paraquat concentration in soil solution compared with the 14C-LSC method.

  15. Sampling and analysis of soil from the old F-Area effluent ditch and its surrounding wetlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, K.L.

    1994-06-01

    Four surface soil samples were collected from the wetlands at the old F-Area effluent ditch. All samples were collected near shallow well point locations except FHB012, which was collected from the effluent ditch stream sediment. Samples were analyzed for metals, Target Compound List volatile organic compounds, and gross radiological indicators. Barium, beryllium, and zinc were detected in all four samples and antimony was detected in three of four samples. These metals occur naturally in the wetland soils at the SRS. Comparisons of metals concentrations were male to concentration ranges taken from background wetland soil samples. These comparison, showed that barium and beryllium concentrations were within expected ranges while zinc and antimony concentrations were elevated above expected concentration ranges. Volatile organic compounds were detected in all four samples. Detected compounds included acetone, 2-butanone, chloromethane, cis-1,2-dichloroethene, and toluene. The only radionuclide detected in a significant quantities was tritium which was detected in all four samples

  16. [PHAHs levels in soil samples from the E-waste disassembly sites and their sources allocation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Gao-Feng; Wang, Zi-Jian

    2009-06-15

    Soil samples (each with 3 replicates of - 1 kg, at the top 0-5 cm layer) were collected from each of the e-waste disassembly sites and the control site. Also obtained from each disassembly site were samples (each weighing - 0.2 kg) of cable coating,stuffing powder, and circuit boards chipping. The contents of 23 PBB congeners, 12 PBDE congeners, and 27 PCB congeners in soil and in their potential sources, including e-waste residues, were measured using the GC-MS5975B technique. The highest level of PBBs was found in the cable coating among the three e-waste residues, with a concentration of 35.25 ng x g(-1). The contents of low-brominated PBBs (including monobromobiphenyls and dibromobiphenyls) accounted for 38% of the total PBBs concentration observed in cable coating sample. The highest levels of PBDEs and PBDE209 were found in the stuffing powder for electronic component among the collected e-waste residues, with a concentration of 29.71 and 4.19 x 10(3) ng x g(-1). PBDE153 and PBDE183 were the most predominant PBDE congeners, with their concentration accounting for 43% and 24% of the total PBDEs concentration observed in the stuffing powder sample, respectively. Levels of PCBs in cable coating were the highest in these e-waste residues, with a concentration of 680.02 ngx g(-1). The observed values of the three PHAHs in soils from the disassembly site were considerably higher than their corresponding values observed in the control site (p < 0.05), which indicates that these PHAHs from e-waste is the pollution source of local environment.

  17. An approach to determine multiple enzyme activities in the same soil sample for soil health-biogeochemical indexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enzyme activities (EAs) are soil health indicators of changes in decomposition processes due to management and the crop(s) affecting the quantity and quality of plant residues and nutrients entering the soil. More commonly assessed soil EAs can provide information of reactions where plant available ...

  18. Vertical distribution of Pu radionuclides, 241Am and 99Sr in soil Samples from Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breban, D.; Mocanu, N.; Moreno-Bermudez, J.

    2002-01-01

    The investigated area is a natural alpine pasture located in the South chain of the Carpathian Mountains, which was found as one of the most contaminated areas in Romania after the Chernobyl accident.Radioactive concentrations of Pu radioisotopes, 2 41Am and 9 0Sr were determined in successive layers from 4 soil sections downward a depth of 6-8 cm, providing for the first time information on the effect of fallout acumulation of these radionuclides in soil samples from Romania. Pu and Am were separated by using a combined sequential procedure based on anion exchange and extraction chromatography. The measurements of 241Pu were performed by Liquid Scintillation Counting. 9 0Sr was determined by chemical separation of Sr using the classical precipitation method and Cerenkov counting of 9 0Y. For Quality Control IAEA reference materials were analyzed along with the samples. In a soil section of 8 cm depth radioactive inventories were approximately 500 Bq/m 2 for 2 41Pu, 115 Bq/m 2 for 2 39 +2 40Pu, 8 Bq/m 2 for 2 38Pu, 50 Bq/m2 for 2 41Am and 2500 Bq/m 2 for 9 0Sr. The data on each of the radioisotopes vertical distribution profile are compared between themselves and give an idea for their migration. On the basis of activity isotopic ratios in the soil depth profile, the origin of the contamination (Chernobyl accident and nuclear weapon test fallout) is discussed. The results are also compared to previous data on Cs-137

  19. A review of metal (Pb and Zn) sensitive and pH tolerant bioassay organisms for risk screening of metal-contaminated acidic soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, E.Emily V.; Dave, Göran; Murimboh, John D.

    2013-01-01

    To improve risk estimates at the screening stage of Ecological Risk Assessment (ERA), short duration bioassays tailored to undisturbed soil cores from the contaminated site could be useful. However, existing standardized bioassays use disturbed soil samples and often pH sensitive organisms. This is a problem as naturally acidic soils are widespread. Changing soil properties to suit the test organism may change metal bioavailability, leading to erroneous risk estimates. For bioassays in undisturbed soil cores to be effective, species able to withstand natural soil properties must be identified. This review presents a critical examination of bioassay species' tolerance of acidic soils and sensitivity to metal contaminants such as Pb and Zn. Promising organisms include; Dendrobaena octaedra, Folsomia candida, Caenorhabditis elegans, Oppia nitens, Brassica rapa, Trifolium pratense, Allium cepa, Quercus rubra and Acer rubrum. The MetSTICK test and the Bait lamina test were also identified as suitable microorganism tests. -- Highlights: •Risk screening of metal contaminated soils should consider metal bioavailability. •Metal bioavailability is dependent on soil properties such as pH. •Many standardized bioassay organisms are sensitive to acidic soils. •This review identifies acid tolerant and metal sensitive bioassays and species. •The identified tests can improve risk screening of acidic metal contaminated soil. -- This review identifies bioassay species able to withstand naturally acidic soils while being sensitive to metal contaminants

  20. Bio indication of soil samples from contaminated military sites in Georgia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakariadze, N.; Gagelidze, N.; Amiranashvili, L.; Nabakhtiani, G.; Tsigroshvili, Z.

    2005-01-01

    State of environment in Georgia is influenced significantly by political and economic situation of the last several years.The consequences of these conditions are pollution of water, air, and soil with health-hazardous emissions, dissemination of uncontrolled waste, highly toxic substances and unfit military and industrial materials in civil, agricultural, and military sites and respective facilities. In Georgia the specific problems of soil contamination are: spot type distribution of contaminants; simultaneous (synergetic) impacts of various pollutants; chronic and enduring impacts; pollution of moderate or low intensity. Pollutants, at low doses, may not cause immediate changes; however in some time they can create danger and become the risk factors for acquired lethal diseases developed in living organisms and accumulated in environment. Several cases of contamination with radionuclide substances distribution have been detected on in a number of regions in Georgia, which became the range for investigation of specific, spot type of pollution. The soil samples contaminated with following nuclides were studied: Single sources 226 Ra, Dust 226 Ra, Single sources 90 Sr, Single sources 137 Cs. The main goal of the team is complex study of contaminated territories. In parallel with polluted spots' indication, the investigation of ecological systems' reactions to diverse impacts is carried out. Bioassays application significantly increases quality and reliability of: assessment of contaminated territories; selection of optimal and available technologies for sanation and remediation; recommendations on urgent measures. As bio-indicators the main groups of microorganisms were studied: Bacteria, Actinomycetes and Microphyte fungi. The primary results showed that behaviour of observed microorganisms colonies could be satisfactorily described with the following parameters: CCU; Meeting factor; Diameter of colonies; Morphological similarity and difference. Simultaneous study

  1. An inter-lab comparison determination of radionuclides in soil samples by γ-apectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Jingquan; Zhang Shurong; Xu Cuihua

    1986-01-01

    The results of an inter-lab comparison of quantitative determination of radionuclides in two soil samples and in an imitated one used as standard reference material by direct γ-spectrometry are presented and discussed. The methods of preparation of the three samples, its homogeneity and the procedures used in this inter-lab comparison are also described. Fifteen laboratories in China participated in this program. The contents of main radionuclides in the samples were estimated by statistical treatment of the reproted data. More than 91% of these laboratories obtained mean values with relative standard deviation below 20%, and in 88% of them the average values we e within the range of the standard reference values with deviation less than 10%. Statistical analysis showed that random error might be underestimated or systematic error might exist in a few laboratories

  2. Nonlinear binding of phenanthrene to the extracted fulvic acid fraction in soil in comparison with other organic matter fractions and to the whole soil sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Wenxin; Xu, Shanshan; Xing, Baoshan; Pan, Bo; Tao, Shu

    2010-01-01

    Fractions of soil organic matter in a natural soil were extracted and sorption (or binding) characteristics of phenanthrene on each fraction and to the whole sample were investigated. The organic carbon normalized single point sorption (or binding) coefficient followed lipid > humin (HM) > humic acid (HA) > fulvic acid (FA) > whole soil sample, while the nonlinear exponent exhibited lipid > FA > HA > whole soil sample > HM. FA showed nonlinear binding of phenanthrene as it often does with other fractions. HM and HA contributed the majority of organic carbon in the soil. The calculated sorption coefficients of the whole soil were about two times greater than the measured values at different equilibrium phenanthrene concentrations. As for phenanthrene, the sorption capacity and nonlinearity of the physically mixed HA-HM mixtures were stronger as compared to the chemically reconstituted HA-HM composite. This was attributed to (besides the conditioning effect of the organic solvents) interactions between HA and HM and acid-base additions during fractionation. - Nonlinear binding of phenanthrene to fulvic acid extracted from soil organic matter was found.

  3. IN SITU NON-INVASIVE SOIL CARBON ANALYSIS: SAMPLE SIZE AND GEOSTATISTICAL CONSIDERATIONS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WIELOPOLSKI, L.

    2005-04-01

    I discuss a new approach for quantitative carbon analysis in soil based on INS. Although this INS method is not simple, it offers critical advantages not available with other newly emerging modalities. The key advantages of the INS system include the following: (1) It is a non-destructive method, i.e., no samples of any kind are taken. A neutron generator placed above the ground irradiates the soil, stimulating carbon characteristic gamma-ray emission that is counted by a detection system also placed above the ground. (2) The INS system can undertake multielemental analysis, so expanding its usefulness. (3) It can be used either in static or scanning modes. (4) The volume sampled by the INS method is large with a large footprint; when operating in a scanning mode, the sampled volume is continuous. (5) Except for a moderate initial cost of about $100,000 for the system, no additional expenses are required for its operation over two to three years after which a NG has to be replenished with a new tube at an approximate cost of $10,000, this regardless of the number of sites analyzed. In light of these characteristics, the INS system appears invaluable for monitoring changes in the carbon content in the field. For this purpose no calibration is required; by establishing a carbon index, changes in carbon yield can be followed with time in exactly the same location, thus giving a percent change. On the other hand, with calibration, it can be used to determine the carbon stock in the ground, thus estimating the soil's carbon inventory. However, this requires revising the standard practices for deciding upon the number of sites required to attain a given confidence level, in particular for the purposes of upward scaling. Then, geostatistical considerations should be incorporated in considering properly the averaging effects of the large volumes sampled by the INS system that would require revising standard practices in the field for determining the number of spots to

  4. Comparison Of Selected Pedotransfer Functions For The Determination Of Soil Water Retention Curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kupec Michal

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Soil water retention curves were measured using a sandbox and the pressure plate extractor method on undisturbed soil samples from the Borská Lowland. The basic soil properties (e.g. soil texture, dry bulk density of the samples were determined. The soil water retention curve was described using the van Genuchten model (Van Genuchten, 1980. The parameters of the model were obtained using the RETC program (Van Genuchten et al., 1991. For the determination of the soil water retention curve parameters, two pedotransfer functions (PTF were also used that were derived for this area by Skalová (2003 and the Rosetta computer program (Schaap et al., 2001. The performance of the PTFs was characterized using the mean difference and root mean square error.

  5. Investigation of soil erosion in arable land in Hungary using radiotracer technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dezsoe, Z.; Szabo, Sz.

    2004-01-01

    Quantitative data on long-term soil erosion rates on agricultural land are an essential requirement for the development of effective soil management and conservation strategies. Although several methods to estimate soil erosion exist, the use of 137 Cs and/or 210 Pb as fallout radionuclides for tracing soil movement overcomes many of the limitations of the traditional methods. Recently, the 137 Cs-technique has been widely accepted and is now commonly used for estimating the magnitude of soil loss. Long-term migration of 137 Cs in the Buekkzserc-Cserepfalu-Bogacs triangle area, at the foot of Buekk mountain (NE Hungary) was studied. The samples were analysed for 137 Cs by gamma spectrometry, using a calibrated high-resolution, low background HPGe coaxial detector. Migration of fallout nuclides in an undisturbed stable soil reflects the influence of a range of physico-chemical and biological processes operating in the soil system. (N.T.)

  6. Standard guide for high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry of soil samples

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2004-01-01

    1.1 This guide covers the identification and quantitative determination of gamma-ray emitting radionuclides in soil samples by means of gamma-ray spectrometry. It is applicable to nuclides emitting gamma rays with an approximate energy range of 20 to 2000 keV. For typical gamma-ray spectrometry systems and sample types, activity levels of about 5 Bq (135 pCi) are measured easily for most nuclides, and activity levels as low as 0.1 Bq (2.7 pCi) can be measured for many nuclides. It is not applicable to radionuclides that emit no gamma rays such as the pure beta-emitting radionuclides hydrogen-3, carbon-14, strontium-90, and becquerel quantities of most transuranics. This guide does not address the in situ measurement techniques, where soil is analyzed in place without sampling. Guidance for in situ techniques can be found in Ref (1) and (2). This guide also does not discuss methods for determining lower limits of detection. Such discussions can be found in Refs (3), (4), (5), and (6). 1.2 This guide can be us...

  7. The speciation and determination of 210Pb and 210Po in soil samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia Guogang; Liu Senlin; Xu Changheng; Xiao Xuefu; Chen Ling; Yang Hetao; Maria Belli; Umberto Sansone; Silvia Rosamilia; Stefania Gaudino

    2005-01-01

    A method for speciation and determination of 21 0Pb and 210 Po in soil samples was developed. The speciation was carried out by fractionating the soil samples into 5 fractions which are water soluble or exchangeable, bound to carbonates, bound to Fe-Mn oxides, bound to organic matter and bound to residue. After mineralisation, 10% solution of each fraction was used to spontaneously deposit polonium on a silver disk at 85-90 degree C and pH 1.5 and 210 Po was measured by α-spectrometry; the remain solution was used to separate lead by anion-exchange resin and purified by precipitation as PbS and PbSO 4 , and 210 Pb was determined by a low background β-counter. IAEA-327 reference material (soil) has been studied for 210 Pb and 210 Po speciation. The results show that: (1) the average yields are 88.7±6.4% for 210 Pb and 93.8±8.2% for 210 Po; (2) if compared to the total 210 Pb activity in the sample, 210 Pb fractions are 0.95% in exchangeable form, 10.6% bound to carbonates, 14.3% bound to Fe-Mn oxides, 7.00% bound to organic matter, and 67.2% bound to residue or acid soluble, and the corresponding values for 210 Po are 0.17%, 0.97%, 21.0%, 0.47% and 77.4%, respectively; and (3) the obtained 210 Pb concentration is in good agreement with the recommended value given by IAEA.

  8. Combining X-ray computed tomography and visible near-infrared spectroscopy for prediction of soil structural properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katuwal, Sheela; Hermansen, Cecilie; Knadel, Maria

    2018-01-01

    agricultural fields within Denmark with a wide range of textural properties and organic C (OC) contents were studied. Macroporosity (>1.2 mm in diameter) and CTmatrix (the density of the field-moist soil matrix devoid of large macropores and stones) were determined from X-ray CT scans of undisturbed soil cores...... (19 by 20 cm). Both macroporosity and CTmatix are soil structural properties that affect the degree of preferential transport. Bulk soils from the 127 sampling locations were scanned with a vis-NIR spectrometer (400–2500 nm). Macroporosity and CTmatrix were statistically predicted with partial least......Soil structure is a key soil property affecting a soil’s flow and transport behavior. X-ray computed tomography (CT) is increasingly used to quantify soil structure. However, the availability, cost, time, and skills required for processing are still limiting the number of soils studied. Visible...

  9. Genetic and epigenetic divergence between disturbed and undisturbed subpopulations of a Mediterranean shrub: a 20-year field experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Carlos M; Bazaga, Pilar

    2016-06-01

    Little is known on the potential of ecological disturbance to cause genetic and epigenetic changes in plant populations. We take advantage of a long-term field experiment initiated in 1986 to study the demography of the shrub Lavandula latifolia , and compare genetic and epigenetic characteristics of plants in two adjacent subplots, one experimentally disturbed and one left undisturbed, 20 years after disturbance. Experimental setup was comparable to an unreplicated 'Before-After-Control-Impact' (BACI) design where a single pair of perturbed and control areas were compared. When sampled in 2005, plants in the two subplots had roughly similar ages, but they had established in contrasting environments: dense conspecific population ('Undisturbed' subpopulation) versus open area with all conspecifics removed ('Disturbed' subpopulation). Plants were characterized genetically and epigenetically using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and two classes of methylation-sensitive AFLP (MSAP) markers. Subpopulations were similar in genetic diversity but differed in epigenetic diversity and multilocus genetic and epigenetic characteristics. Epigenetic divergence between subpopulations was statistically unrelated to genetic divergence. Bayesian clustering revealed an abrupt linear boundary between subpopulations closely coincident with the arbitrary demarcation line between subplots drawn 20 years back, which supports that genetic and epigenetic divergence between subpopulations was caused by artificial disturbance. There was significant fine-scale spatial structuring of MSAP markers in both subpopulations, which in the Undisturbed one was indistinguishable from that of AFLP markers. Genetic differences between subpopulations could be explained by divergent selection alone, while the concerted action of divergent selection and disturbance-driven appearance of new methylation variants in the Disturbed subpopulation is proposed to explain epigenetic differences. This

  10. δ(15) N from soil to wine in bulk samples and proline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paolini, Mauro; Ziller, Luca; Bertoldi, Daniela; Bontempo, Luana; Larcher, Roberto; Nicolini, Giorgio; Camin, Federica

    2016-09-01

    The feasibility of using δ(15) N as an additional isotopic marker able to link wine to its area of origin was investigated. The whole production chain (soil-leaves-grape-wine) was considered. Moreover, the research included evaluation of the effect of the fermentation process, the use of different types of yeast and white and red vinification, the addition of nitrogen adjuvants and ultrasound lysis simulating wine ageing. The δ(15) N of grapes and wine was measured in bulk samples and compounds, specifically in proline, for the first time. Despite isotopic fractionation from soil to wine, the δ(15) N values of leaves, grapes, wine and particularly must and wine proline conserved the variability of δ(15) N in the growing soil. Fermentation and ultrasound treatment did not affect the δ(15) N values of grape must, which was therefore conserved in wine. The addition of inorganic or organic adjuvants was able to influence the δ(15) N of bulk wine, depending on the amount and the difference between the δ(15) N of must and that of the adjuvant. The δ(15) N of wine proline was not influenced by adjuvant addition and is therefore the best marker for tracing the geographical origin of wine. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Sampling and Mapping Soil Erosion Cover Factor for Fort Richardson, Alaska. Integrating Stratification and an Up-Scaling Method

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wang, Guangxing; Gertner, George; Anderson, Alan B; Howard, Heidi

    2006-01-01

    When a ground and vegetation cover factor related to soil erosion is mapped with the aid of remotely sensed data, a cost-efficient sample design to collect ground data and obtain an accurate map is required...

  12. Central Colorado Assessment Project (CCAP)-Geochemical data for rock, sediment, soil, and concentrate sample media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granitto, Matthew; DeWitt, Ed H.; Klein, Terry L.

    2010-01-01

    This database was initiated, designed, and populated to collect and integrate geochemical data from central Colorado in order to facilitate geologic mapping, petrologic studies, mineral resource assessment, definition of geochemical baseline values and statistics, environmental impact assessment, and medical geology. The Microsoft Access database serves as a geochemical data warehouse in support of the Central Colorado Assessment Project (CCAP) and contains data tables describing historical and new quantitative and qualitative geochemical analyses determined by 70 analytical laboratory and field methods for 47,478 rock, sediment, soil, and heavy-mineral concentrate samples. Most samples were collected by U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) personnel and analyzed either in the analytical laboratories of the USGS or by contract with commercial analytical laboratories. These data represent analyses of samples collected as part of various USGS programs and projects. In addition, geochemical data from 7,470 sediment and soil samples collected and analyzed under the Atomic Energy Commission National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance (HSSR) program (henceforth called NURE) have been included in this database. In addition to data from 2,377 samples collected and analyzed under CCAP, this dataset includes archived geochemical data originally entered into the in-house Rock Analysis Storage System (RASS) database (used by the USGS from the mid-1960s through the late 1980s) and the in-house PLUTO database (used by the USGS from the mid-1970s through the mid-1990s). All of these data are maintained in the Oracle-based National Geochemical Database (NGDB). Retrievals from the NGDB and from the NURE database were used to generate most of this dataset. In addition, USGS data that have been excluded previously from the NGDB because the data predate earliest USGS geochemical databases, or were once excluded for programmatic reasons

  13. Highly efficient detection of paclobutrazol in environmental water and soil samples by time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Zhenjiang, E-mail: lzj1984@ujs.edu.cn [School of the Environment and Safety Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Wei, Xi [School of the Environment and Safety Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); The Affiliated First People' s Hospital of Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212002 (China); Ren, Kewei; Zhu, Gangbing; Zhang, Zhen; Wang, Jiagao; Du, Daolin [School of the Environment and Safety Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China)

    2016-11-01

    A fast and ultrasensitive indirect competitive time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay (TRFIA) was developed for the analysis of paclobutrazol in environmental water and soil samples. Paclobutrazol hapten was synthesized and conjugated to bovine serum albumin (BSA) for producing polyclonal antibodies. Under optimal conditions, the 50% inhibitory concentration (IC{sub 50} value) and limit of detection (LOD, IC{sub 20} value) were 1.09 μg L{sup −} {sup 1} and 0.067 μg L{sup −} {sup 1}, respectively. The LOD of TRFIA was improved 30-fold compared to the already reported ELISA. There was almost no cross-reactivity of the antibody with the other structural analogues of triazole compounds, indicating that the antibody had high specificity. The average recoveries from spiked samples were in the range from 80.2% to 104.7% with a relative standard deviation of 1.0–9.5%. The TRFIA results for the real samples were in good agreement with that obtained by high-performance liquid chromatography analyses. The results indicate that the established TRFIA has potential application for screening paclobutrazol in environmental samples. - Highlights: • The approach to design and synthesize the PBZ hapten was more straightforward. • A rapid and ultrasensitive TRFIA was developed and applied to the screening of PBZ. • The TRFIA for real soil samples showed reliability and high correlation with HPLC. • The PBZ TRFIA showed high sensitivity, simple operation, a wide range of quantitative analyses and no radioactive hazards.

  14. Development of an automated method for determination of thorium in soil samples and aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuart, J.E.; Robertson, R.

    1986-09-01

    Methodology for determining trace thorium levels in a variety of sample types was further developed. Thorium in filtered water samples is concentrated by ferric hydroxide precipitation followed by dissolution and co-precipitation with lanthanum fluoride. Aerosols on glass fibre, cellulose ester, or teflon filters and solid soil and sediment samples are acid digested. Subsequently thorium is concentrated by lanthanum fluoride co-precipitation. Chemical separation and measurement is then done on a Technicon AA11-C autoanalyzer, using solvent extraction into thenoyltrifuoroacetone in kerosene followed by back extraction into 2 N H NO 3 , and colourometric measurement of the thorium arsenazo III complex. Chemical yields are determined by the addition of thorium-234 tracer using gamma-ray spectrometry. The sensitivities of the methods for water, aerosol and solid samples are approximately 1.0 μg/L, 0.5 μg/g and 1.0 μg/g respectively. At thorium levels about ten times the detection limit, accuracy is estimated to be ± 10% for liquids and aerosols and ± 15% for solid samples, and precision ± 5% for all samples

  15. Phyto extraction of 99Tc on soil cores with aged contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massoura, S.T.; Echevarria, G.; Morel, J.L.; Massoura, S.T.; Leclerc-Cessac, E.; Denys, D.

    2004-01-01

    99 Tc is an artificial radionuclide which is found in high-activity and long-lived nuclear waste. This work was designed to study the phyto-extraction of 99 Tc in soils that had received aged contamination and to monitor the resulting 99 Tc concentrations in the soil solution of undisturbed soil cores in a greenhouse. Undisturbed soil cores had been sampled previously from a Rendzic Leptosol (R), a Fluvic cambisol (F) and a Dystric cambisol (D), using 0.5-m diameter PVC tubing (3 samples/soil type) without disturbing soil structure (1). Each core was equipped with two nylon porous cups (respectively 20 and 35 cm deep) and a final leachate collector. A 99 TcNO 3 solution had been supplied at the soil surface of each core during the two previous years (4200 kBq in total) in which maize and wheat had been successively cropped. These two crops had already removed 30-65% of total contamination before the present study. After the second year no more 99 Tc was added to the cores. Thereafter, Lolium perenne was cultivated for 20 successive months. 99 Tc was determined in both plant aerial parts and water samples (from both cups and collectors), and the balance of 99 Tc in the system was established after phyto-extraction. Results showed that transfer of 99 Tc to plants vary among soils: 7% on soil R to 11% on soil D. Concentration of 99 Tc in the porous cups dramatically decreased in all soils. The plants maintained low and stable concentration levels of 99 Tc in the soil solution which decreased the potential migration of the radionuclide through the cores: The leaching of 99 Tc in the final collectors of the R soil cores decreased from 18 to 1.7 Bq mL -1 . (author)

  16. New approach to measure soil particulate organic matter in intact samples using X-ray computed micro-tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravchenko, Alexandra; Negassa, Wakene; Guber, Andrey; Schmidt, Sonja

    2014-05-01

    Particulate soil organic matter (POM) is biologically and chemically active fraction of soil organic matter. It is a source of many agricultural and ecological benefits, among which are POM's contribution to C sequestration. Most of conventional research methods for studying organic matter dynamics involve measurements conducted on pre-processed i.e., ground and sieved soil samples. Unfortunately, grinding and sieving completely destroys soil structure, the component crucial for soil functioning and C protection. Importance of a better understanding of the role of soil structure and of the physical protection that it provides to soil C cannot be overstated; and analysis of quantities, characteristics, and decomposition rates of POM in soil samples with intact structure is among the key elements of gaining such understanding. However, a marked difficulty hindering the progress in such analyses is a lack of tools for identification and quantitative analysis of POM in intact soil samples. Recent advancement in applications of X-ray computed micro-tomography (μ-CT) to soil science has given an opportunity to conduct such analyses. The objective of the current study is to develop a procedure for identification and quantitative characterization of POM within intact soil samples using X-ray μ-CT images and to test performance of the proposed procedure on a set of multiple intact soil macro-aggregates. We used 16 4-6 mm soil aggregates collected at 0-15 cm depth from a Typic Hapludalf soil at multiple field sites with diverse agricultural management history. The aggregates have been scanned at SIMBIOS Centre, Dundee, Scotland at 10 micron resolution. POM was determined from the aggregate images using the developed procedure. The procedure was based on combining image pre-processing steps with discriminant analysis classification. The first component of the procedure consisted of image pre-processing steps based on the range of gray values (GV) along with shape and size

  17. Changes According to Incubation Periods in Some Microbiological Characteristics at Soil Samples of Some Soil Series from the Gelemen Agricultural Administration

    OpenAIRE

    KARA, Emine Erman

    1998-01-01

    Changes according to incubation periods in some microbiological characteristics at soil samples of soil series from Gelemen Agricultural Administraction were investigated in this study. The results show that bacteria, actinomycet had values in the first periods of incubation (30ºC and field capacity) and in the following periods increased. However, fungus population changed depending upon series properties and reached maximum values 24th and 32th days after the beginning of incubation. During...

  18. Classification of soil samples according to their geographic origin using gamma-ray spectrometry and principal component analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dragovic, Snezana; Onjia, Antonije

    2006-01-01

    A principal component analysis (PCA) was used for classification of soil samples from different locations in Serbia and Montenegro. Based on activities of radionuclides ( 226 Ra, 238 U, 235 U, 4 K, 134 Cs, 137 Cs, 232 Th and 7 Be) detected by gamma-ray spectrometry, the classification of soils according to their geographical origin was performed. Application of PCA to our experimental data resulted in satisfactory classification rate (86.0% correctly classified samples). The obtained results indicate that gamma-ray spectrometry in conjunction with PCA is a viable tool for soil classification

  19. Nuclear-physical methods of investigation of an element composition in samples of soils and plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hushmurodov, Sh.; Botaev, N.

    2002-01-01

    Soil (ground) and vegetative covers of the Earth are one of the most responsive and specific parts of the biosphere with respect to pollution. A proper control after them is of fundamental importance in creating and protecting optical surrounding. Analysis of soils and plants is a necessary and important stage in the process of investigation of microelements' migration in biogeochemical cycles. For this purpose we studied some reserved terrains of Uzbekistan to reveal a level of their contamination by heavy metals, as well as to find out typical and territorial singularities in accumulation of a number of elements by soils and plants. In order to decrease an influence of systematic errors, and to obtain more precise and reliable data, we carried out the element analysis of the samples by different methods, such as gamma-activation analysis, neutron-activation analysis, X-ray spectral analysis, and X-ray fluorescent analysis. As a result of our investigations we have obtained rather great information, which can be used in future to estimate the conditions of the surrounding nature. The investigations allowed us to determine the content of about 40 elements, as well as to show that the data, obtained by different nuclear-physical methods, are in rather good agreement. A reproducibility of the results of the methods, determined in control measurements, depends on the concentration of the analyzed elements, and is equal to 10-35 %. A comparison of the obtained data allowed us to reveal some singularities in element composition of the investigated samples depending on their type and territorial factor. It has been revealed that the data, obtained by different methods, are in rather good agreement. Our investigations allowed us to find out a series of regularities and singularities in accumulation of elements in plants, as well as to show the possibility of using nuclear-physical methods in such investigations

  20. Degradation of 14C-ETU in a soil profile investigated by means of incubation in two different incubation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bech, A.; Johannesen, H.

    1994-07-01

    The purpose of the paper is to elucidate the mechanism of biodegradation of ethylenethiourea (ETU) in arable soils, both on the surface and in the deeper layers. The effect of incubation system upon the ETU biodegradation was studied by incubation of undisturbed and mixed soil cores in tubes or flasks respectively. The total mineralization of ETU to CO2 in the ploughed layer and in the deeper layers is investigated by means of biodegradation tests with 14 C-ETU in soil samples collected from 15, 60 and 100 cm depth. ETU microbial biodegradation was studied in a series of tests covering conversion and isolation of ETU degrading microorganisms. (EG) 86 refs

  1. NEXAFS spectroscopy with a laser plasma x-ray source on soil samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sedlmair, J; Geber, S-C; Thieme, J; Peth, C; Mann, K

    2009-01-01

    Humic substances are post-mortal organic substances without an exact chemical structure. Their large specific surface is important for transport processes, especially in soils. We analyzed the NEXAFS spectra of humic substances, from which the amount of certain chemical compounds such as aromatic and aliphatic groups can be verified by the resonances of their binding energy. For the experiments, a compact table-top setup working with a laser plasma source was used. NEXAFS makes it possible to distinguish between samples, even if they contain the same composits, because information about the specific functional groups in the sample is supplied. The evaluation was carried out using the program SpecFit. It was developed on IDL within our group and allows to fit the NEXAFS-data with a combination of arctangent, Gaussian and Lorentzian curves.

  2. NEXAFS spectroscopy with a laser plasma x-ray source on soil samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sedlmair, J; Geber, S-C; Thieme, J [Institute for X-Ray Physics, Georg-August-University Goettingen, Friedrich-Hund-Platz 1, D-37077 (Germany); Peth, C; Mann, K, E-mail: jsedlma@gwdg.d [Laser-Laboratorium Goettingen e.V., Hans-Adolf-Krebs-Weg 1, D-37077 (Germany)

    2009-09-01

    Humic substances are post-mortal organic substances without an exact chemical structure. Their large specific surface is important for transport processes, especially in soils. We analyzed the NEXAFS spectra of humic substances, from which the amount of certain chemical compounds such as aromatic and aliphatic groups can be verified by the resonances of their binding energy. For the experiments, a compact table-top setup working with a laser plasma source was used. NEXAFS makes it possible to distinguish between samples, even if they contain the same composits, because information about the specific functional groups in the sample is supplied. The evaluation was carried out using the program SpecFit. It was developed on IDL within our group and allows to fit the NEXAFS-data with a combination of arctangent, Gaussian and Lorentzian curves.

  3. [Methods for the detection of Agrobacterium from plant, soil and water samples].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alippi, Adriana M; López, Ana C; Balatti, Pedro A

    2011-01-01

    The genus Agrobacterium includes phytopathogenic bacteria that induce the development of root crown galls and/or aerial galls at the base of the stem or hairy roots on more than 600 species of plants belonging to 90 dicotyledonous families and non-pathogenic species. These bacteria being natural soil inhabitants are particularly difficult to eradicate, which is a problem in nurseries where more than 80% of infections occur. Since early detection is crucial to avoid the inadvertent spread of the disease, the aim of this work was to develop sensitive and precise identification techniques by using a set of semi-selective and differential culture media in combination with a specific PCR to amplify a partial sequence derived from the virC operon, as well as a multiplex PCR on the basis of 23SrDNA sequences, and biological assays to identify and differentiate species and biovars of Agrobacterium obtained either from soil, water or plant samples. The combination of the different assays allowed us to reduce the number of false positive and negative results from bacteria isolated from any of the three types of samples. Therefore, the combination of multiplex PCR, specific PCR, isolations in semi-selective D1, D1-M and YEM-RCT media combined with bioassays on cut leaves of Kalanchoe and seedlings of California Wonder pepper cultivar constitute an accurate tool to detect species and biovars of Agrobacterium for diagnostic purposes.

  4. Predicting Soil-Air and Soil-Water Transport Properties During Soil Vapor Extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Tjalfe

    Increased application of in-situ technology for control and removal of volatile organic compounds (VOC) in the subsurface has made the understanding of soil physical properties and their impact upon contaminant transport even more important. Knowledge of contaminant transport is important when...... properties of undisturbed soil from more easily measurable soil properties are developed. The importance of soil properties with respect to contaminant migration during remediation by soil vapor extraction (SVE) in the unsaturated zone was investigated using numerical simulations....

  5. Effect of soil type and soil management on soil physical, chemical and biological properties in commercial organic olive orchards in Southern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Jose Alfonso; Auxiliadora Soriano, Maria; Montes-Borrego, Miguel; Navas, Juan Antonio; Landa, Blanca B.

    2014-05-01

    One of the objectives of organic agriculture is to maintain and improve soil quality, while simultaneously producing an adequate yield. A key element in organic olive production is soil management, which properly implemented can optimize the use of rainfall water enhancing infiltration rates and controlling competition for soil water by weeds. There are different soil management strategies: eg. weed mowing (M), green manure with surface tillage in spring (T), or combination with animal grazing among the trees (G). That variability in soil management combined with the large variability in soil types on which organic olive trees are grown in Southern Spain, difficult the evaluation of the impact of different soil management on soil properties, and yield as well as its interpretation in terms of improvement of soil quality. This communications presents the results and analysis of soil physical, chemical and biological properties on 58 soils in Southern Spain during 2005 and 2006, and analyzed and evaluated in different studies since them. Those 58 soils were sampled in 46 certified commercial organic olive orchards with four soil types as well as 12 undisturbed areas with natural vegetation near the olive orchards. The four soil types considered were Eutric Regosol (RGeu, n= 16), Eutric Cambisol (CMeu, n=16), Calcaric Regosol (RGca, n=13 soils sampled) and Calcic Cambisol (CMcc), and the soil management systems (SMS) include were 10 light tillage (LT), 16 sheep grazing (G), 10 tillage (T), 10 mechanical mowing (M), and 12 undisturbed areas covered by natural vegetation (NV-C and NV-S). Our results indicate that soil management had a significant effect on olive yield as well as on key soil properties. Among these soil properties are physical ones, such as infiltration rate or bulk density, chemical ones, especially organic carbon concentration, and biological ones such as soil microbial respiration and bacterial community composition. Superimpose to that soil

  6. Assessment of natural radioactivity levels in soil samples from some areas in Assiut, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Gamal, Hany; Farid, M El-Azab; Abdel Mageed, A I; Hasabelnaby, M; Hassanien, Hassanien M

    2013-12-01

    The natural radioactivity of soil samples from Assiut city, Egypt, was studied. The activity concentrations of 28 samples were measured with a NaI(Tl) detector. The radioactivity concentrations of (226)Ra, (232)Th, and (40)K showed large variations, so the results were classified into two groups (A and B) to facilitate the interpretation of the results. Group A represents samples collected from different locations in Assiut and characterized by low activity concentrations with average values of 46.15 ± 9.69, 30.57 ± 4.90, and 553.14 ± 23.19 for (226)Ra, (232)Th, and (40)K, respectively. Group B represents samples mainly collected from the area around Assiut Thermal Power Plant and characterized by very high activity concentrations with average values of 3,803 ± 145, 1,782 ± 98, and 1,377 ± 78 for (226)Ra, (232)Th, and (40)K, respectively. In order to evaluate the radiological hazard of the natural radioactivity, the radium equivalent activity (Raeq), the absorbed dose rate (D), the annual effective dose rate (E), the external hazard index (H ex), and the annual gonadal dose equivalent (AGDE) have been calculated and compared with the internationally approved values. For group A, the calculated averages of these parameters are in good agreement with the international recommended values except for the absorbed dose rate and the AGDE values which are slightly higher than the international recommended values. However, for group B, all obtained averages of these parameters are much higher by several orders of magnitude than the international recommended values. The present work provides a background of radioactivity concentrations in the soil of Assiut.

  7. Determination of 210Pb and 210Po in soil or rock samples containing refractory matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia Guogang; Torri, Giancarlo

    2007-01-01

    A new method has been developed for determination of 21 Pb and 21 Po in soil or rock samples containing refractory matrices. The samples were first fused with Na 2 CO 3 and Na 2 O 2 at 600 o C for pre-treatment and then 210 Pb and 210 Po were sequentially leached out at 200-250 o C with HNO 3 +HF, HClO 4 and HCl. About 10% of the leaching solution was used for 21 Po determination, carried out by spontaneous deposition of polonium on a silver disc from a weakly acidic solution that contained hydroxylamine hydrochloride, sodium citrate and 209 Po tracer, measurement being made by α-spectrometry. The remains of the leaching solution were used for determination of 21 Pb, conducted by precipitation as sulphate, purification with Na 2 S as PbS in 6 M ammonium acetate, separation from α-emitters by an anion-exchange resin column, source preparation as PbSO 4 , and measurement with a β-counter. The procedure has been checked with two certified IAEA reference materials, showing good agreement with the recommended values. The lower limits of detection for 1 g of analysed soil or rock samples were found to be 0.75 Bq kg -1 for 210 Po and 2.2 Bq kg -1 for 210 Pb. A variety of solid sample species analysed through use of the procedure gave average yields of 90.0±9.8% for 210 Po and 88.4±7.1% for 210 Pb

  8. Direct determination of uranium in soil, rock, ore and biological samples by laser-induced fluorometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Qingzhen; Zhang Yanan

    1993-03-01

    A laser-induced fluorometric method with modified J-22 anti-interferent fluorescent reagent for directly determining the uranium in soil, rock, ore, geochemical, biological and other samples has been studied. The effects of external ions and dilution law of sample are examined in detail. A method for correcting inner effect is proposed. A mixed solution of 0.25% NaOH-10% J-22 is prepared which can be added to the sample cuvette for direct measurement without any pre-adjustment of acidity. Therefore, it is much simpler for operation and reduces the loss and contamination of uranium. By changing the laser fluorometer sensitivity (400 ∼ 200), up to 3000 ng uranium in the cuvette can be detected. Thus, both analytical accuracy and detectable range are improved. This method is simple, rapid, accurate and applicable to various uranium-bearing samples. The detection limit is better than 0.05 μgU/g. The relative standard deviation is ≤+-5% for the rock reference samples of 0.95, 84.8, 669 and 7240 μgU/g

  9. Identification of hydrologic and geochemical pathways using high frequency sampling, REE aqueous sampling and soil characterization at Koiliaris Critical Zone Observatory, Crete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moraetis, Daniel, E-mail: moraetis@mred.tuc.gr [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Crete, 73100 Chania (Greece); Stamati, Fotini; Kotronakis, Manolis; Fragia, Tasoula; Paranychnianakis, Nikolaos; Nikolaidis, Nikolaos P. [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Crete, 73100 Chania (Greece)

    2011-06-15

    Highlights: > Identification of hydrological and geochemical pathways within a complex watershed. > Water increased N-NO{sub 3} concentration and E.C. values during flash flood events. > Soil degradation and impact on water infiltration within the Koiliaris watershed. > Analysis of Rare Earth Elements in water bodies for identification of karstic water. - Abstract: Koiliaris River watershed is a Critical Zone Observatory that represents severely degraded soils due to intensive agricultural activities and biophysical factors. It has typical Mediterranean soils under the imminent threat of desertification which is expected to intensify due to projected climate change. High frequency hydro-chemical monitoring with targeted sampling for Rare Earth Elements (REE) analysis of different water bodies and geochemical characterization of soils were used for the identification of hydrologic and geochemical pathways. The high frequency monitoring of water chemical data highlighted the chemical alterations of water in Koiliaris River during flash flood events. Soil physical and chemical characterization surveys were used to identify erodibility patterns within the watershed and the influence of soils on surface and ground water chemistry. The methodology presented can be used to identify the impacts of degraded soils to surface and ground water quality as well as in the design of methods to minimize the impacts of land use practices.

  10. Correlation of PCDD/F and PCB concentrations in soil samples from the Swiss Soil Monitoring Network (NABO) to specific parameters of the observation sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmid, P.; Gujer, E.; Zennegg, M. [Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Testing and Research (EMPA), Duebendorf (Switzerland); Bucheli, T. [Agroscope FAL Reckenholz, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2004-09-15

    Soils are natural sinks for persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as polychlorinated dibenzo-pdioxins (PCDD/F) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB). Being lipophilic compounds, these contaminants adsorb to the organic carbon of the soil, and due to the low mobility and high persistence, they accumulate in the soil. Soil therefore represents rather a long-term archive for the atmospheric deposition than an indicator for the actual input of these compounds. In 1986, on demand of the Swiss ordinance of 9 June 1986 relating to hazardous substances in the soil, a national soil monitoring network (NABO) was set up in Switzerland aiming at monitoring the soil pollution. Sites were selected to reflect typical land use, vegetation, land management, air quality, and soil conditions in Switzerland. 50% of the sites are located on agricultural land, 30% in forests, and 20% on open land with extensive farming (alpine pastures, etc.); two sites are situated in urban parks. The sites are distributed throughout Switzerland including rural/remote areas as well as urban, urban fringe and industrial regions. Soil samples are taken every 5 years and are analysed for eight heavy metals (lead, copper, cadmium, zinc, nickel, chromium, cobalt, and mercury) as well as fluorine. So far, organic pollutants (PAH and PCB) have been determined in isolated samples only, and there is no data on PCDD/F concentrations so far. The present program was set up to fill this knowledge gap. A subset of 23 sites representing locations where contaminant immissions above average were expected was selected for PCDD/F and PCB analysis.

  11. Measurement of radioactive nuclides present in soil samples of district Ganderbal of Kashmir Province for radiation safety purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feroz A. Mir

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of radioactive elements in the residential area is very important from different points of view especially for human health. The aim of present survey was focused on determining the current radon exhalation rate and radium concentration in soil samples collected from some areas of the Ganderbal district, Jammu and Kashmir, India. “Can technique” has been employed for the measurement of radon exhalation rate and radium concentration in soil samples collected from under study areas. The Uranium concentration in these soil samples where estimated by using the fission track registration technique (using LR-115 plastic track detectors.The uranium concentration was found to varies between 2.03 and 3.52 ppm. The radon exhalation rate in these samples has been found to vary from 5.05 to 21.89 m Bq kg−1 h−1. Radium concentration in soil samples varies from 6.43 to 18.89 Bq kg−1. The calculated values of Uranium concentration in these soil/rock samples are quite lower than the risk level. Radon and radium values found in these samples are also lower than that of optimum value. Hence these areas can be considered as risk free zones from human health point of view.

  12. Estimating the spatial scale of herbicide and soil interactions by nested sampling, hierarchical analysis of variance and residual maximum likelihood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, Oliver R., E-mail: oliver.price@unilever.co [Warwick-HRI, University of Warwick, Wellesbourne, Warwick, CV32 6EF (United Kingdom); University of Reading, Soil Science Department, Whiteknights, Reading, RG6 6UR (United Kingdom); Oliver, Margaret A. [University of Reading, Soil Science Department, Whiteknights, Reading, RG6 6UR (United Kingdom); Walker, Allan [Warwick-HRI, University of Warwick, Wellesbourne, Warwick, CV32 6EF (United Kingdom); Wood, Martin [University of Reading, Soil Science Department, Whiteknights, Reading, RG6 6UR (United Kingdom)

    2009-05-15

    An unbalanced nested sampling design was used to investigate the spatial scale of soil and herbicide interactions at the field scale. A hierarchical analysis of variance based on residual maximum likelihood (REML) was used to analyse the data and provide a first estimate of the variogram. Soil samples were taken at 108 locations at a range of separating distances in a 9 ha field to explore small and medium scale spatial variation. Soil organic matter content, pH, particle size distribution, microbial biomass and the degradation and sorption of the herbicide, isoproturon, were determined for each soil sample. A large proportion of the spatial variation in isoproturon degradation and sorption occurred at sampling intervals less than 60 m, however, the sampling design did not resolve the variation present at scales greater than this. A sampling interval of 20-25 m should ensure that the main spatial structures are identified for isoproturon degradation rate and sorption without too great a loss of information in this field. - Estimating the spatial scale of herbicide and soil interactions by nested sampling.

  13. Estimating the spatial scale of herbicide and soil interactions by nested sampling, hierarchical analysis of variance and residual maximum likelihood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, Oliver R.; Oliver, Margaret A.; Walker, Allan; Wood, Martin

    2009-01-01

    An unbalanced nested sampling design was used to investigate the spatial scale of soil and herbicide interactions at the field scale. A hierarchical analysis of variance based on residual maximum likelihood (REML) was used to analyse the data and provide a first estimate of the variogram. Soil samples were taken at 108 locations at a range of separating distances in a 9 ha field to explore small and medium scale spatial variation. Soil organic matter content, pH, particle size distribution, microbial biomass and the degradation and sorption of the herbicide, isoproturon, were determined for each soil sample. A large proportion of the spatial variation in isoproturon degradation and sorption occurred at sampling intervals less than 60 m, however, the sampling design did not resolve the variation present at scales greater than this. A sampling interval of 20-25 m should ensure that the main spatial structures are identified for isoproturon degradation rate and sorption without too great a loss of information in this field. - Estimating the spatial scale of herbicide and soil interactions by nested sampling.

  14. [Application of simulated annealing method and neural network on optimizing soil sampling schemes based on road distribution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Zong-wei; Huang, Wei; Luo, Yun; Zhang, Chun-di; Qi, Da-cheng

    2015-03-01

    Taking the soil organic matter in eastern Zhongxiang County, Hubei Province, as a research object, thirteen sample sets from different regions were arranged surrounding the road network, the spatial configuration of which was optimized by the simulated annealing approach. The topographic factors of these thirteen sample sets, including slope, plane curvature, profile curvature, topographic wetness index, stream power index and sediment transport index, were extracted by the terrain analysis. Based on the results of optimization, a multiple linear regression model with topographic factors as independent variables was built. At the same time, a multilayer perception model on the basis of neural network approach was implemented. The comparison between these two models was carried out then. The results revealed that the proposed approach was practicable in optimizing soil sampling scheme. The optimal configuration was capable of gaining soil-landscape knowledge exactly, and the accuracy of optimal configuration was better than that of original samples. This study designed a sampling configuration to study the soil attribute distribution by referring to the spatial layout of road network, historical samples, and digital elevation data, which provided an effective means as well as a theoretical basis for determining the sampling configuration and displaying spatial distribution of soil organic matter with low cost and high efficiency.

  15. Analysis of Mars Analogue Soil Samples Using Solid-Phase Microextraction, Organic Solvent Extraction and Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orzechowska, G. E.; Kidd, R. D.; Foing, B. H.; Kanik, I.; Stoker, C.; Ehrenfreund, P.

    2011-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are robust and abundant molecules in extraterrestrial environments. They are found ubiquitously in the interstellar medium and have been identified in extracts of meteorites collected on Earth. PAHs are important target molecules for planetary exploration missions that investigate the organic inventory of planets, moons and small bodies. This study is part of an interdisciplinary preparation phase to search for organic molecules and life on Mars. We have investigated PAH compounds in desert soils to determine their composition, distribution and stability. Soil samples (Mars analogue soils) were collected at desert areas of Utah in the vicinity of the Mars Desert Research Station (MDRS), in the Arequipa region in Peru and from the Jutland region of Denmark. The aim of this study was to optimize the solid-phase microextraction (SPME) method for fast screening and determination of PAHs in soil samples. This method minimizes sample handling and preserves the chemical integrity of the sample. Complementary liquid extraction was used to obtain information on five- and six-ring PAH compounds. The measured concentrations of PAHs are, in general, very low, ranging from 1 to 60 ng g(sup -1). The texture of soils is mostly sandy loam with few samples being 100% silt. Collected soils are moderately basic with pH values of 8-9 except for the Salten Skov soil, which is slightly acidic. Although the diverse and variable microbial populations of the samples at the sample sites might have affected the levels and variety of PAHs detected, SPME appears to be a rapid, viable field sampling technique with implications for use on planetary missions.

  16. Radionuclide diffusion into undisturbed and altered crystalline rocks

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Havlová, V.; Večerník, P.; Najser, J.; Sosna, K.; Breiter, Karel

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 76, Dec. 2012 (2012), s. 3191-3201 ISSN 0026-461X Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : disposal * granite * radionuclide diffus * ion * sampling protocols Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 2.212, year: 2012

  17. The density of feral honey bee (Apis mellifera) colonies in South East Australia is greater in undisturbed than in disturbed habitats

    OpenAIRE

    Hinson , Eloise M.; Duncan , Michael; Lim , Julianne; Arundel , Jonathan; Oldroyd , Benjamin P.

    2015-01-01

    International audience; AbstractApis mellifera is an important pollinator but is sometimes associated with adverse effects on natural ecosystems. We surveyed pairs of disturbed and undisturbed sites across three biomes in South East Australia. We used pheromone lures to trap drones, genotyped the drones to infer the number of colonies within flight range and then estimated colony densities using synthetic sampling distributions. Estimated colony densities ranged from 0.1 to 1.5 colonies km−2 ...

  18. Assessment of Sampling Error Associated with Collection and Analysis of Soil Samples at a Firing Range Contaminated with HMX

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jenkins, Thomas F

    1997-01-01

    Short-range and mid-range (grid size) spatial heterogeneity in explosives concentrations within surface soils was studied at an active antitank firing range at the Canadian Force Base-Valcartier, Val-Belair, Quebec...

  19. Redistribution of soil nitrogen, carbon and organic matter by mechanical disturbance during whole-tree harvesting in northern hardwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, D.F.; Huntington, T.G.; Wayne, Martin C.

    1992-01-01

    To investigate whether mechanical mixing during harvesting could account for losses observed from forest floor, we measured surface disturbance on a 22 ha watershed that was whole-tree harvested. Surface soil on each 10 cm interval along 81, randomly placed transects was classified immediately after harvesting as mineral or organic, and as undisturbed, depressed, rutted, mounded, scarified, or scalped (forest floor scraped away). We quantitatively sampled these surface categories to collect soil in which preharvest forest floor might reside after harvest. Mechanically mixed mineral and organic soil horizons were readily identified. Buried forest floor under mixed mineral soil occurred in 57% of mounds with mineral surface soil. Harvesting disturbed 65% of the watershed surface and removed forest floor from 25% of the area. Mechanically mixed soil under ruts with organic or mineral surface soil, and mounds with mineral surface soil contained organic carbon and nitrogen pools significantly greater than undisturbed forest floor. Mechanical mixing into underlying mineral soil could account for the loss of forest floor observed between the preharvest condition and the second growing season after whole-tree harvesting. ?? 1992.

  20. Hydrological controls on heterotrophic soil respiration across an agricultural landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water availability is an important determinant of variation in soil respiration, but a consistent relationship between soil water and the relative flux rate of carbon dioxide across different soil types remains elusive. Using large undisturbed soil columns (N = 12), we evaluated soil water controls...

  1. Soil sampling intercomparison exercise by selected laboratories of the ALMERA Network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The IAEA's Seibersdorf Laboratories in Austria have the programmatic responsibility to provide assistance to Member State laboratories in maintaining and improving the reliability of analytical measurement results, both in radionuclide and trace element determinations. This is accomplished through the provision of reference materials of terrestrial origin, validated analytical procedures, training in the implementation of internal quality control, and through the evaluation of measurement performance by the organization of worldwide and regional interlaboratory comparison exercises. The IAEA is mandated to support global radionuclide measurement systems related to accidental or intentional releases of radioactivity in the environment. To fulfil this obligation and ensure a reliable, worldwide, rapid and consistent response, the IAEA coordinates an international network of analytical laboratories for the measurement of environmental radioactivity (ALMERA). The network was established by the IAEA in 1995 and makes available to Member States a world-wide network of analytical laboratories capable of providing reliable and timely analysis of environmental samples in the event of an accidental or intentional release of radioactivity. A primary requirement for the ALMERA members is participation in the IAEA interlaboratory comparison exercises, which are specifically organized for ALMERA on a regular basis. These exercises are designed to monitor and demonstrate the performance and analytical capabilities of the network members, and to identify gaps and problem areas where further development is needed. In this framework, the IAEA organized a soil sampling intercomparison exercise (IAEA/SIE/01) for selected laboratories of the ALMERA network. The main objective of this exercise was to compare soil sampling procedures used by different participating laboratories. The performance evaluation results of the interlaboratory comparison exercises performed in the framework of

  2. Species richness in soil bacterial communities: a proposed approach to overcome sample size bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, Noha H; Elshahed, Mostafa S

    2008-09-01

    Estimates of species richness based on 16S rRNA gene clone libraries are increasingly utilized to gauge the level of bacterial diversity within various ecosystems. However, previous studies have indicated that regardless of the utilized approach, species richness estimates obtained are dependent on the size of the analyzed clone libraries. We here propose an approach to overcome sample size bias in species richness estimates in complex microbial communities. Parametric (Maximum likelihood-based and rarefaction curve-based) and non-parametric approaches were used to estimate species richness in a library of 13,001 near full-length 16S rRNA clones derived from soil, as well as in multiple subsets of the original library. Species richness estimates obtained increased with the increase in library size. To obtain a sample size-unbiased estimate of species richness, we calculated the theoretical clone library sizes required to encounter the estimated species richness at various clone library sizes, used curve fitting to determine the theoretical clone library size required to encounter the "true" species richness, and subsequently determined the corresponding sample size-unbiased species richness value. Using this approach, sample size-unbiased estimates of 17,230, 15,571, and 33,912 were obtained for the ML-based, rarefaction curve-based, and ACE-1 estimators, respectively, compared to bias-uncorrected values of 15,009, 11,913, and 20,909.

  3. Natural radioactivity measurements and dosimetric evaluations in soil samples with a high content of NORM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caridi, F.; Marguccio, S.; Durante, G.; Trozzo, R.; Fullone, F.; Belvedere, A.; D'Agostino, M.; Belmusto, G.

    2017-01-01

    In this article natural radioactivity measurements and dosimetric evaluations in soil samples contaminated by Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM) are made, in order to assess any possible radiological hazard for the population and for workers professionally exposed to ionizing radiations. Investigated samples came from the district of Crotone, Calabria region, South of Italy. The natural radioactivity investigation was performed by high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry. From the measured gamma spectra, activity concentrations were determined for 226Ra , 234-mPa , 224Ra , 228Ac and 40K and compared with their clearance levels for NORM. The total effective dose was calculated for each sample as due to the committed effective dose for inhalation and to the effective dose from external irradiation. The sum of the total effective doses estimated for all investigated samples was compared to the action levels provided by the Italian legislation (D.Lgs.230/95 and subsequent modifications) for the population members (0.3mSv/y) and for professionally exposed workers (1mSv/y). It was found to be less than the limit of no radiological significance (10μSv/y).

  4. Effects of Fuel Oil on the Geotechnical Properties of Clay Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Obaid Karkush

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study highlights the effects of medium fuel oil (MFO on the chemical, physical and mechanical properties of clay soil samples (disturbed and undisturbed obtained from the site of the electrical power plant in the campus of the University of Baghdad at Al-Jadriah district in Baghdad/Iraq. The soil sample was classified according to the unified soil classification system (USCS as CL and described as lean clay of low plasticity. The medium fuel oil is an industrial wastewater disposed as a byproduct from the fuel used in the electricity power plant. The soil samples are artif