WorldWideScience

Sample records for undisturbed indigenous forest

  1. Necromass in undisturbed and logged forests in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael Palace; Michael Keller; Gregory P. Asner; Jose Natalino M. Silva; Carlos. Passos

    2007-01-01

    Necromass is an important stock of carbon in tropical forests. We estimated volume, density, and mass of fallen and standing necromass in undisturbed and selectively logged forests at Juruena, Mato Grosso, Brazil (10.488S, 58.478W). We also measured standing dead trees at the Tapajos National Forest, Para, Brazil (3.088S, 54.948W) complementing our earlier study there...

  2. Necromass production: studies in undisturbed and logged Amazon Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    MICHAEL PALACE; MICHAEL KELLER; HUDSON SILVA

    2008-01-01

    Necromass stocks account for up to 20% of carbon stored in tropical forests and have been estimated to be 14–19% of the annual aboveground carbon flux. Both stocks and fluxes of necromass are infrequently measured. In this study, we directly measured the production of fallen coarse necromass (>2 cm diameter) during 4.5 years using repeated surveys in undisturbed...

  3. Coarse woody debris in undisturbed and logged forests in the eastern Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael Keller; Michael Palace; Gregory P. Asner; Rodrigo Jr. Pereira; Jose Natalino M. Silva

    2004-01-01

    Coarse woody debris (CWD) is an important component of the carbon cycle in tropical forests. We measured the volume and density of fallen CWD at two sites, Cauaxi and Tapajós in the Eastern Amazon. At both sites we studied undisturbed forests (UFs) and logged forests 1 year after harvest. Conventional logging (CL) and reduced impact logging (RIL) were...

  4. Estimate of biomass and carbon pools in disturbed and undisturbed oak forests in Tunisia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zribi, L.; Chaar, H.; Khaldi, A.; Henchi, B.; Mouillot, F.; Gharbi, F.

    2016-07-01

    Aim of the study. To estimate biomass and carbon accumulation in a young and disturbed forest (regenerated after a tornado) and an aged cork oak forest (undisturbed forest) as well as its distribution among the different pools (tree, litter and soil). Area of study. The north west of Tunisia. Material and methods. Carbon stocks were evaluated in the above and belowground cork oak trees, the litter and the 150 cm of the soil. Tree biomass was estimated in both young and aged forests using allometric biomass equations developed for wood stem, cork stem, wood branch, cork branch, leaves, roots and total tree biomass based on combinations of diameter at breast height, total height and crown length as independent variables. Main results. Total tree biomass in forests was 240.58 Mg ha-1 in the young forest and 411.30 Mg ha-1 in the aged forest with a low root/shoot ratio (0.41 for young forest and 0.31 for aged forest). Total stored carbon was 419.46 Mg C ha-1 in the young forest and 658.09 Mg C ha-1 in the aged forest. Carbon stock (Mg C ha-1) was estimated to be113.61(27.08%) and 194.08 (29.49%) in trees, 3.55 (0.85%) and 5.73 (0.87%) in litter and 302.30 (72.07%) and 458.27 (69.64%) in soil in the young and aged forests, respectively. Research highlights. Aged undisturbed forest had the largest tree biomass but a lower potential for accumulation of carbon in the future; in contrast, young disturbed forest had both higher growth and carbon storage potential. (Author)

  5. Modeling long-term suspended-sediment export from an undisturbed forest catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Alexander; Francke, Till; Elsenbeer, Helmut

    2013-04-01

    Most estimates of suspended sediment yields from humid, undisturbed, and geologically stable forest environments fall within a range of 5 - 30 t km-2 a-1. These low natural erosion rates in small headwater catchments (≤ 1 km2) support the common impression that a well-developed forest cover prevents surface erosion. Interestingly, those estimates originate exclusively from areas with prevailing vertical hydrological flow paths. Forest environments dominated by (near-) surface flow paths (overland flow, pipe flow, and return flow) and a fast response to rainfall, however, are not an exceptional phenomenon, yet only very few sediment yields have been estimated for these areas. Not surprisingly, even fewer long-term (≥ 10 years) records exist. In this contribution we present our latest research which aims at quantifying long-term suspended-sediment export from an undisturbed rainforest catchment prone to frequent overland flow. A key aspect of our approach is the application of machine-learning techniques (Random Forest, Quantile Regression Forest) which allows not only the handling of non-Gaussian data, non-linear relations between predictors and response, and correlations between predictors, but also the assessment of prediction uncertainty. For the current study we provided the machine-learning algorithms exclusively with information from a high-resolution rainfall time series to reconstruct discharge and suspended sediment dynamics for a 21-year period. The significance of our results is threefold. First, our estimates clearly show that forest cover does not necessarily prevent erosion if wet antecedent conditions and large rainfalls coincide. During these situations, overland flow is widespread and sediment fluxes increase in a non-linear fashion due to the mobilization of new sediment sources. Second, our estimates indicate that annual suspended sediment yields of the undisturbed forest catchment show large fluctuations. Depending on the frequency of large

  6. Reverting urban exotic pine forests to Macchia and indigenous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reverting urban exotic pine forests to Macchia and indigenous forest ... Harvesting operations were planned to make the transition from high open ... Key words: Strip-cutting, Cable yarding, Participatory planning, Shelterwood, Urban forests ...

  7. Small scale temporal distribution of radiocesium in undisturbed coniferous forest soil: Radiocesium depth distribution profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teramage, Mengistu T; Onda, Yuichi; Kato, Hiroaki

    2016-04-01

    The depth distribution of pre-Fukushima and Fukushima-derived (137)Cs in undisturbed coniferous forest soil was investigated at four sampling dates from nine months to 18 months after the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident. The migration rate and short-term temporal variability among the sampling profiles were evaluated. Taking the time elapsed since the peak deposition of pre-Fukushima (137)Cs and the median depth of the peaks, its downward displacement rates ranged from 0.15 to 0.67 mm yr(-1) with a mean of 0.46 ± 0.25 mm yr(-1). On the other hand, in each examined profile considerable amount of the Fukushima-derived (137)Cs was found in the organic layer (51%-92%). At this moment, the effect of time-distance on the downward distribution of Fukushima-derived (137)Cs seems invisible as its large portion is still found in layers where organic matter is maximal. This indicates that organic matter seems the primary and preferential sorbent of radiocesium that could be associated with the physical blockage of the exchanging sites by organic-rich dusts that act as a buffer against downward propagation of radiocesium, implying radiocesium to be remained in the root zone for considerable time period. As a result, this soil section can be a potential source of radiation dose largely due to high radiocesium concentration coupled with its low density. Generally, such kind of information will be useful to establish a dynamic safety-focused decision support system to ease and assist management actions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Indigenous land tenure and tropical forest management in Latin America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, S.H. (The World Bank, Environment Department, Washington DC (United States)); Wali, A. (University of Maryland, College of Behavioral and Social Sciences, Department of Anthropology, College Park, MD (United States))

    1994-12-01

    Indigenous peoples have received much attention as potential resource managers of threatened tropical forest ecosystems. Using data from Latin America, this article argues that fundamental changes need to take place in the legal recognition and demarcation of indigenous territories in order for this potential to be fulfilled. A comparison is made between different national land-tenure models for forest-dwelling indigenous peoples and a new model proposed by Latin American indigenous organizations. This comparison suggests that not only do indigenous peoples need to be provided with some degree of control over their territories and resources, but there needs to be a new type of partnership among indigenous peoples, the scientific community, national governments and international development agencies for the management of tropical forests. 37 refs, 3 tabs

  9. Contrasting colonist and indigenous impacts on amazonian forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Flora; Gray, Clark; Bilsborrow, Richard E; Mena, Carlos F; Erlien, Christine M; Bremner, Jason; Barbieri, Alisson; Walsh, Stephen J

    2010-06-01

    To examine differences in land use and environmental impacts between colonist and indigenous populations in the northern Ecuadorian Amazon, we combined data from household surveys and remotely sensed imagery that was collected from 778 colonist households in 64 colonization sectors, and 499 households from five indigenous groups in 36 communities. Overall, measures of deforestation and forest fragmentation were significantly greater for colonists than indigenous peoples. On average, colonist households had approximately double the area in agriculture and cash crops and 5.5 times the area in pasture as indigenous households. Nevertheless, substantial variation in land-use patterns existed among the five indigenous groups in measures such as cattle ownership and use of hired agricultural labor. These findings support the potential conservation value of indigenous lands while cautioning against uniform policies that homogenize indigenous ethnic groups.

  10. Observations of climate, albedo, and surface radiation over cleared and undisturbed Amazonian forest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastable, H.G.; Shuttleworth, W.J.; Dallarosa, R.L.G.; Fisch, G.; Nobre, C.A.

    1993-01-01

    Measurements from the first comparative study of climate over Amazonian tropical forest and an embedded deforested clearing are presented. Observations comprise a continuous 60-day run of data from mid-October to mid-December 1990, covering the end of the dry season and the beginning of the wet season. Mean hourly observations are calculated for the whole period; and for two 10-day periods, one in the dry season and one at the start of the wet season. Much greater variation in weather variables was observed at the clearing compared with over the forest. While the mean values of temperature and specific humidity deficit differed by less than 1°C and 1 g kg −1 respectively, their daily ranges at the clearing were twice those at the forest. Mean daily albedo of the forest was 13.1 per cent, agreeing well with other tropical forest measurements, and of the clearing was 16.3 per cent, somewhat lower than the values currently being used in GCMs. The surface energy balance was investigated and mean available energy calculated for each site. The significant difference in the daily pattern of net radiation between the sites was found to be at least as much due to differences in the longwave radiation balance as to differences in albedo. The diurnal pattern of net radiation therefore changed between dry and wet periods as the higher plant water stress experienced by clearing vegetation altered the daily temperature cycle

  11. Variation in indigenous forest resource use in central Guyana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire M P Ozanne

    Full Text Available Sustainable forest conservation strategies should be based on local as well as landscape-scale forest resource use data. Using ecological and sociological techniques, we test the hypotheses that (1 forest resource use differs between ethnic and socioeconomic indigenous groups and (2 that this difference results in differing spatial patterns of resource use, with implications for forest diversity and for conservation planning. In the North Rupununi Guyana, three adjacent indigenous communities (differing in their indigenous/immigrant balance were recorded using 73 animal and 164 plant species (plus several unidentified ethno-species. Farm sites formed important foci for most forest based activities and ex-farm sites supported similar floristic diversity to surrounding forest. Resource usage differences between communities could be attributed to socio-cultural drivers, e.g. mammal meat consumption and the use of the fruits from the palm tree A. maripa were higher in more traditional households. When extracting household construction timber, lower income groups created small scattered felling sites akin to tree fall gaps whereas higher income groups created larger gaps. Lower income (indigenous households tended to clear larger but more contained sites for farming while mixed or non-Amerindian household tended to clear smaller but more widely dispersed farm sites. These variations resulted in different patterns of forest disturbance originating from agriculture and timber extraction.

  12. Potential utility of SumbandilaSat imagery for monitoring indigenous forest health

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cho, Moses A

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous forest degradation is regarded as one of the most important environmental issues facing sub-Saharan Africa and South Africa in particular. Indigenous forest degradation is characterised by habitat fragmentation stemming from logging...

  13. Tree species diversity in a seasonally-dry forest: the case of the Pinkaití site, in the Kayapó Indigenous Area, Southeastern limits of the Amazon

    OpenAIRE

    Salm,Rodolfo

    2004-01-01

    This study investigates patterns of forest structure and tree species diversity in an anthropogenic palm grove and undisturbed areas at the seasonally-dry Pinkaití research station, in the Kayapó Indigenous Area. This site, managed by the Conservation International do Brasil, is the most southeastern site floristically surveyed in the Amazon until now. The secondary and a nearby undisturbed forest were sampled in a group of 52 floristic plots of 0.0625-ha (25x25-m) where all trees with DBH > ...

  14. Sacred Forests : Indigenous Knowledge and Cultural Beliefs for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was designed to assess the use of indigenous knowledge in forest conservation by the local people of Ifo Local Government Area (LGA) of Ogun State. Purposeful sampling technique was used to select two villages: Balogun and Ososun in Oke-pata community, Ifo LGA. The communities were selected based on ...

  15. Harnessing indigenous knowledge for sustainable forest management in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Sraku-Lartey

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper makes a case for harnessing indigenous knowledge (IK for sustainable national development in Ghana. IK according to the World Bank is the basic component of any country’s knowledge system and it is upon this knowledge that scientific research builds. In Ghana the Government has recognized the need to harness IK for sustainable national development and has therefore incorporated it into the National Science, Technology and Innovation Development Programme. But there is no evidence however that scientific research in Ghana actually takes IK into consideration during the research process. This paper discusses the concept of indigenous knowledge, its relevance in scientific discourse and the need for harnessing it for national development in Ghana. A desk study was conducted using journal publications, research and technical reports, online databases and the internet. About sixty articles were analysed using the thematic synthesis method under the following broad headings: Importance of Indigenous knowledge, Indigenous forest foods, Indigenous medicines, IK and food security, the management and processing of IK and the protection of Indigenous Knowledge.The results of the study established the need to document the local knowledge using appropriate procedures and strategies. It also concludes by suggesting that IK in Ghana must be protected by law and integrated into formal science.

  16. Fire regime in a Mexican forest under indigenous resource management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulé, Peter Z; Ramos-Gómez, Mauro; Cortés-Montaño, Citlali; Miller, Andrew M

    2011-04-01

    The Rarámuri (Tarahumara) people live in the mountains and canyons of the Sierra Madre Occidental of Chihuahua, Mexico. They base their subsistence on multiple-use strategies of their natural resources, including agriculture, pastoralism, and harvesting of native plants and wildlife. Pino Gordo is a Rarámuri settlement in a remote location where the forest has not been commercially logged. We reconstructed the forest fire regime from fire-scarred trees, measured the structure of the never-logged forest, and interviewed community members about fire use. Fire occurrence was consistent throughout the 19th and 20th centuries up to our fire scar collection in 2004. This is the least interrupted surface-fire regime reported to date in North America. Studies from other relict sites such as nature reserves in Mexico or the USA have all shown some recent alterations associated with industrialized society. At Pino Gordo, fires recurred frequently at the three study sites, with a composite mean fire interval of 1.9 years (all fires) to 7.6 years (fires scarring 25% or more of samples). Per-sample fire intervals averaged 10-14 years at the three sites. Approximately two-thirds of fires burned in the season of cambial dormancy, probably during the pre-monsoonal drought. Forests were dominated by pines and contained many large living trees and snags, in contrast to two nearby similar forests that have been logged. Community residents reported using fire for many purposes, consistent with previous literature on fire use by indigenous people. Pino Gordo is a valuable example of a continuing frequent-fire regime in a never-harvested forest. The Rarámuri people have actively conserved this forest through their traditional livelihood and management techniques, as opposed to logging the forest, and have also facilitated the fire regime by burning. The data contribute to a better understanding of the interactions of humans who live in pine forests and the fire regimes of these

  17. Profiling climate change vulnerability of forest indigenous communities in the Congo Basin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nkem, J.N.; Somorin, O.A.; Jum, C.; Idinoba, M.E.; Bele, Y.M.; Sonwa, D.J.

    2013-01-01

    The livelihood strategies of indigenous communities in the Congo Basin are inseparable from the forests, following their use of forest ecosystem goods and services (FEGS). Climate change is expected to exert impacts on the forest and its ability to provide FEGS. Thus, human livelihoods that depend

  18. Ethnobotanical Study of Plants Used by People in Hiang Indigenous Forest Kerinci, Jambi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evan Vria Andesmora

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia is a high-abundance tropical forests country. It plays a very important role for world life because of its species richness than others. One of the forest resources in Indonesia is indigenous forests. Indonesia is rich of local wisdom such as that possessed by indigenous peoples. Indigenous peoples have a potential of the biological resources conservation. As a sustainable management tradition, communities around indigenous forest also have the efforts to preserve the forest.  The data collection of community knowledge about plants was conducted by interviews and direct-field observation. Data were analyzed using index of cultural significance. The results showed that there are 48 species of plants utilized by communities in Hiang Indigenous Forest, 27 species are used as firewoods, 15 species as building materials, 7 species as medicinal plants, 6 species as traditional handicraft ingredients and 4 species as secondary foods and traditional ritual materials. Most of widely-used plants by the community are Altingia excels, and Styrax benzoin is used as incense in a traditional ritual.

  19. Economic value of non-timber forest products among Paser Indigenous People of East Kalimantan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saragih, Bernaulus

    2011-01-01

    Tropical forestry in Indonesia is facing challenges in terms of sustainability and the survival of its inhabitant, indigenous people, not least because the perception of policymakers is that, since the 1970s, forests have provided a major solution to economic development by producing timber,

  20. Annotated bibliography of South African indigenous evergreen forest ecology

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Geldenhuys, CJ

    1985-01-01

    Full Text Available Annotated references to 519 publications are presented, together with keyword listings and keyword, regional, place name and taxonomic indices. This bibliography forms part of the first phase of the activities of the Forest Biome Task Group....

  1. Importance of woodlots to local communities, small scale entrepreneurs and indigenous forest conservation – A case study

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ham, C

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available forestry, South Africa The Importance of Woodlots to Local Communities, Small-scale Entrepreneurs and Indigenous Forest Conservation A case study Cori Ham ii The Importance of Woodlots to Local Communities, Small Scale Entrepreneurs... by the financial support of the UK Department for International Development and the European Commission iii Citation: Ham, C. 2000. The importance of woodlots to local communities, small scale entrepreneurs and indigenous forest conservation– A case study...

  2. The Multiple Use of Tropical Forests by Indigenous Peoples in Mexico: a Case of Adaptive Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor M. Toledo

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The quest for an appropriate system of management for tropical ecosystems necessitates that ecologists consider the accumulated experiences of indigenous peoples in their long-term management of local resources, a subject of current ethnoecology. This paper provides data and empirical evidence of an indigenous multiple-use strategy (MUS of tropical forest management existing in Mexico, that can be considered a case of adaptive management. This conclusion is based on the observation that some indigenous communities avoid common modernization routes toward specialized, unsustainable, and ecologically disruptive systems of production, and yet probably achieve the most successful tropical forest utilization design, in terms of biodiversity conservation, resilience, and sustainability. This analysis relies on an exhaustive review of the literature and the authors' field research. Apparently, this MUS represents an endogenous reaction of indigenous communities to the intensification of natural resource use, responding to technological, demographic, cultural, and economic changes in the contemporary world. This transforms traditional shifting cultivators into multiple-use strategists. Based on a case study, three main features (biodiversity, resilience, and permanence considered relevant to achieving adaptive and sustainable management of tropical ecosystems are discussed.

  3. LBA-ECO TG-07 Trace Gas Fluxes, Undisturbed and Logged Sites, Para, Brazil: 2000-2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.M. Keller; R.K. Varner; J.D. Dias; H.S. Silva; P.M. Crill; Jr. de Oliveira; G.P. Asner

    2009-01-01

    Trace gas fluxes of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and nitric oxide were measured manually at undisturbed and logged forest sites in the Tapajos National Forest, near Santarem, Para, Brazil. Manual measurements were made approximately weekly at both the undisturbed and logged sites. Fluxes from clay and sand soils were completed at the undisturbed sites....

  4. Application of Land Administration Domain Model to Recognition of Indigenous Community Rights in Indian Forests : Indian Forest Rights Act, 2006, examined with its Spatial Dimension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghawana, Tarun; Hespanha, João Paulo; Zevenbergen, Jaap

    2012-01-01

    Recognizing the importance of protecting indigenous property rights, as acknowledged by worldwide organizations such as the United Nations, and specifically the poor and badly governed forested communities, this paper elected as its Use Case the implementation of the Indian Forest Rights Act from

  5. Prevalence of pterygium and cataract in indigenous populations of the Brazilian Amazon rain forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paula, J S; Thorn, F; Cruz, A A V

    2006-05-01

    To compare the prevalence of pterygium and cataract in four indigenous populations of the Brazilian Amazonian rain forest (Arawak, Tukano, Maku, and Yanomami) with different ethnic and social behaviour backgrounds. A cross-sectional pterygium and cataract survey was performed in 624 adult Indians of the Brazilian rain forest belonging to four different ethnic groups. The Indians were classified according to their social behaviour in two groups: Arawak and Tukano (group 1) and Maku and Yanomami (group 2). Slit-lamp biomicroscopy was employed to examine the entire sample. All subjects were classified as 1 or 0 according to the presence or absence pterygium and cataract. Sex and age were also recorded. chi(2)-tests revealed that the prevalence of pterygium and cataract differed significantly between groups 1 and 2. For pterygia: 36.6% (97/265) and 5.0% (18/359), respectively (chi(2)=101.2, P<0.0001), and for cataracts: 24.5% (65/265) and 13.7% (49/359) respectively (chi(2)=12.09, P=0.0005). Gender was not associated with pterygium (P=0.1326) and cataract (P=0.2263) in both groups. Elderly subjects showed a significantly higher prevalence of cataract (P<0.0001). The prevalence of pterygia did not increase with age (P=0.8079) in both groups. Indians of group 1 have higher prevalence of pterygia and cataract than Indians of group 2. Social behaviour, especially the rate of sun exposure, appears to be the main factor for the different rates of pterygium and cataract displayed by these indigenous people of the Brazilian rain forest.

  6. Non-indigenous plant species and their ecological range in Central European pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) forests

    OpenAIRE

    Zerbe , Stefan; Wirth , Petra

    2006-01-01

    International audience; In this study, forest ecosystems were analysed with regard to the occurrence and ecological range of non-indigenous plant species. Pine forests in the NE German lowland, which naturally and anthropogenically occur on a broad range of different sites, were taken as an example. The analysis is based on a data set of about 2 300 vegetation plots. The ecological range was assessed applying Ellenberg's ecological indicator values. Out of a total of 362 taxa recorded in the ...

  7. Indigenous exploitation and management of tropical forest resources: an evolutionary continuum in forest-people interactions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiersum, K.F.

    1997-01-01

    Since the early 1980s several new approaches towards forest management, which include active participation of local communities, have been tried out in many tropical regions. As a result of these efforts recognition has increased about the various ways in which many local communities are already

  8. Shifts in indigenous culture relate to forest tree diversity: a case study from the Tsimane’, Bolivian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guèze, Maximilien; Luz, Ana Catarina; Paneque-Gálvez, Jaime; Macía, Manuel J.; Orta-Martínez, Martí; Pino, Joan; Reyes-García, Victoria

    2015-01-01

    Understanding how indigenous peoples’ management practices relate to biological diversity requires addressing contemporary changes in indigenous peoples’ way of life. This study explores the association between cultural change among a Bolivian Amazonian indigenous group, the Tsimane’, and tree diversity in forests surrounding their villages. We interviewed 86 informants in six villages about their level of attachment to traditional Tsimane’ values, our proxy for cultural change. We estimated tree diversity (Fisher’s Alpha index) by inventorying trees in 48 0.1-ha plots in old-growth forests distributed in the territory of the same villages. We used multivariate models to assess the relation between cultural change and alpha tree diversity. Cultural change was associated with alpha tree diversity and the relation showed an inverted U-shape, thus suggesting that tree alpha diversity peaked in villages undergoing intermediate cultural change. Although the results do not allow for testing the direction of the relation, we propose that cultural change relates to tree diversity through the changes in practices and behaviors that affect the traditional ecological knowledge of Tsimane’ communities; further research is needed to determine the causality. Our results also find support in the intermediate disturbance hypothesis, and suggest that indigenous management can be seen as an intermediate form of anthropogenic disturbance affecting forest communities in a subtle, non-destructive way. PMID:26097240

  9. Shifts in indigenous culture relate to forest tree diversity: a case study from the Tsimane', Bolivian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guèze, Maximilien; Luz, Ana Catarina; Paneque-Gálvez, Jaime; Macía, Manuel J; Orta-Martínez, Martí; Pino, Joan; Reyes-García, Victoria

    2015-06-01

    Understanding how indigenous peoples' management practices relate to biological diversity requires addressing contemporary changes in indigenous peoples' way of life. This study explores the association between cultural change among a Bolivian Amazonian indigenous group, the Tsimane', and tree diversity in forests surrounding their villages. We interviewed 86 informants in six villages about their level of attachment to traditional Tsimane' values, our proxy for cultural change. We estimated tree diversity (Fisher's Alpha index) by inventorying trees in 48 0.1-ha plots in old-growth forests distributed in the territory of the same villages. We used multivariate models to assess the relation between cultural change and alpha tree diversity. Cultural change was associated with alpha tree diversity and the relation showed an inverted U-shape, thus suggesting that tree alpha diversity peaked in villages undergoing intermediate cultural change. Although the results do not allow for testing the direction of the relation, we propose that cultural change relates to tree diversity through the changes in practices and behaviors that affect the traditional ecological knowledge of Tsimane' communities; further research is needed to determine the causality. Our results also find support in the intermediate disturbance hypothesis, and suggest that indigenous management can be seen as an intermediate form of anthropogenic disturbance affecting forest communities in a subtle, non-destructive way.

  10. Preliminary inventory and classification of indigenous afromontane forests on the Blyde River Canyon Nature Reserve, Mpumalanga, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beck Hans T

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mixed evergreen forests form the smallest, most widely distributed and fragmented biome in southern Africa. Within South Africa, 44% of this vegetation type has been transformed. Afromontane forest only covers 0.56 % of South Africa, yet it contains 5.35% of South Africa's plant species. Prior to this investigation of the indigenous forests on the Blyde River Canyon Nature Reserve (BRCNR, very little was known about the size, floristic composition and conservation status of the forest biome conserved within the reserve. We report here an inventory of the forest size, fragmentation, species composition and the basic floristic communities along environmental gradients. Results A total of 2111 ha of forest occurs on Blyde River Canyon Nature Reserve. The forest is fragmented, with a total of 60 forest patches recorded, varying from 0.21 ha to 567 ha in size. On average, patch size was 23 ha. Two forest communities – high altitude moist afromontane forest and low altitude dry afromontane forest – are identified. Sub-communities are recognized based on canopy development and slope, respectively. An altitudinal gradient accounts for most of the variation within the forest communities. Conclusion BRCNR has a fragmented network of small forest patches that together make up 7.3% of the reserve's surface area. These forest patches host a variety of forest-dependent trees, including some species considered rare, insufficiently known, or listed under the Red Data List of South African Plants. The fragmented nature of the relatively small forest patches accentuates the need for careful fire management and stringent alien plant control.

  11. Biodiversity conservation values of fragmented communally reserved forests, managed by indigenous people, in a human-modified landscape in Borneo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Yayoi; Soda, Ryoji; Diway, Bibian; Kuda, Tinjan Ak; Nakagawa, Michiko; Nagamasu, Hidetoshi; Nakashizuka, Tohru

    2017-01-01

    This study explored the conservation values of communally reserved forests (CRFs), which local indigenous communities deliberately preserve within their area of shifting cultivation. In the current landscape of rural Borneo, CRFs are the only option for conservation because other forested areas have already been logged or transformed into plantations. By analyzing their alpha and beta diversity, we investigated how these forests can contribute to restore regional biodiversity. Although CRFs were fragmented and some had been disturbed in the past, their tree species diversity was high and equivalent to that of primary forests. The species composition of intact forests and forests disturbed in the past did not differ clearly, which indicates that past logging was not intensive. All CRFs contained unique and endangered species, which are on the IUCN Red List, Sarawak protected plants, or both. On the other hand, the forest size structure differed between disturbed and intact CRFs, with the disturbed CRFs consisting of relatively smaller trees. Although the beta diversity among CRFs was also high, we found a high contribution of species replacement (turnover), but not of richness difference, in the total beta diversity. This suggests that all CRFs have a conservation value for restoring the overall regional biodiversity. Therefore, for maintaining the regional species diversity and endangered species, it would be suitable to design a conservation target into all CRFs.

  12. Hematozoa of forest birds in American Samoa - Evidence for a diverse, indigenous parasite fauna from the South Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, C.T.; Utzurrum, R.C.; Seamon, J.O.; Savage, Amy F.; Lapointe, D.A.

    2006-01-01

    Introduced avian diseases pose a significant threat to forest birds on isolated island archipelagos, especially where most passerines are endemic and many groups of blood-sucking arthropods are either absent or only recently introduced. We conducted a blood parasite survey of forest birds from the main islands of American Samoa to obtain baseline information about the identity, distribution and prevalence of hematozoan parasites in this island group. We examined Giemsa-stained blood smears from 857 individual birds representing 20 species on Tutuila, Ofu, Olosega, and Ta'u islands. Four hematozoan parasites were identified - Plasmodium circumflexum (1%, 12/857), Trypanosoma avium (4%, 32/857), microfilaria (9%, 76/857), and an Atoxoplasma sp. (parasite infections. Given the central location of American Samoa in the South Pacific, it is likely that avian malaria and other hematozoan parasites are indigenous and widespread at least as far as the central South Pacific. Their natural occurrence may provide some immunological protection to indigenous birds in the event that other closely related parasites are accidentally introduced to the region.

  13. Occurrence of an exotic earthworm (Amynthas agrestis) in undisturbed soils of the southern Appalachian Mountains, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mac. A. Callaham; Paul F. Hendrix; Ross J. Phillips

    2003-01-01

    This study documents the occurrence of an aggressive invasive earthworm species in undisturbed forest soils of the southern Appalachian Mountains of northern Georgia, USA. Earthworms were sorted from samples collected in pitfall traps that had been set in mature, mesic oak-hickory forests in remote, high elevation, locations across northern Georgia. Specimens were...

  14. Descriptions of a Tree outside the Forest: An Indigenous Woman's Experiences in the Academy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacourt, Jeanne A.

    2003-01-01

    This article is a piece of the author's story. It offers examples of both difficult and inspiring moments that she has encountered as an Indigenous woman graduate student and as an assistant professor in a predominantly white institution. The first part of this article depicts overt acts of discrimination that occurred when she was a graduate…

  15. The Protection of Forest Biodiversity can Conflict with Food Access for Indigenous People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivia Sylvester

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available International protected area (PA management policies recognise the importance of respecting Indigenous rights. However, little research has been conducted to evaluate how these policies are being enforced. We evaluated whether Indigenous rights to access traditional food were being respected in La Amistad Biosphere Reserve, Costa Rica. By examining land management documents, we found that PA regulations have the potential to restrict traditional food access because these regulations ban shifting agriculture and heavily restrict hunting; these regulations do not address the harvest of edible plants. By working with Bribri people, we found multiple negative impacts that PAs had on: health, nutrition, passing on cultural teachings to youth, quality of life, cultural identity, social cohesion and bonding, as well as on the land and non-human beings. We propose three steps to better support food access in PAs in Costa Rica and elsewhere. First, a right to food framework should inform PA management regarding traditional food harvesting. Second, people require opportunities to define what harvesting activities are traditional and sustainable and these activities should be respected in PA management. Third, harvesting regulations need to be clearly communicated by land managers to resource users so people have the necessary information to exercise their rights to access food.

  16. Indigenous uses of ethnomedicinal plants among forest-dependent communities of Northern Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, Antony Joseph; Biswakarma, Saroj; Pala, Nazir A; Shukla, Gopal; Vineeta; Kumar, Munesh; Chakravarty, Sumit; Bussmann, Rainer W

    2018-01-26

    Traditional knowledge on ethnomedicinal plant is slowly eroding. The exploration, identification and documentation on utilization of ethnobotanic resources are essential for restoration and preservation of ethnomedicinal knowledge about the plants and conservation of these species for greater interest of human society. The study was conducted at fringe areas of Chilapatta Reserve Forest in the foothills of the eastern sub-Himalayan mountain belts of West Bengal, India, from December 2014 to May 2016. Purposive sampling method was used for selection of area. From this area which is inhabited by aboriginal community of Indo-Mongoloid origin, 400 respondents including traditional medicinal practitioners were selected randomly for personal interview schedule through open-ended questionnaire. The questionnaire covered aspects like plant species used as ethnomedicines, plant parts used, procedure for dosage and therapy. A total number of 140 ethnomedicinal species was documented, in which the tree species (55) dominated the lists followed by herbs (39) and shrubs (30). Among these total planted species used for ethnomedicinal purposes, 52 species were planted, 62 species growing wild or collected from the forest for use and 26 species were both wild and planted. The present study documented 61 more planted species as compared to 17 planted species documented in an ethnomedicinal study a decade ago. The documented species were used to treat 58 human diseases/ailments including nine species used to eight diseases/ailments of domestic animals. Stomach-related problems were treated by maximum number of plants (40 species) followed by cuts and wounds with 27 plant species and least with one species each for 17 diseases or ailments. Maximum number of 12 diseases/ailments was cured by Melia azedarach followed by Centella asiatica and Rauvolfia serpentina which were used to cure 11 diseases/ailments each. The list of 140 plant species indicates that the Chilapatta Reserve Forest

  17. Using indigenous knowledge to link hyper-temporal land cover mapping with land use in the Venezuelan Amazon: "The Forest Pulse".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivero, Jesús; Ferri, Francisco; Acevedo, Pelayo; Lobo, Jorge M; Fa, John E; Farfán, Miguel Á; Romero, David; Real, Raimundo

    2016-12-01

    Remote sensing and traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) can be combined to advance conservation of remote tropical regions, e.g. Amazonia, where intensive in situ surveys are often not possible. Integrating TEK into monitoring and management of these areas allows for community participation, as well as for offering novel insights into sustainable resource use. In this study, we developed a 250 m resolution land-cover map of the Western Guyana Shield (Venezuela) based on remote sensing, and used TEK to validate its relevance for indigenous livelihoods and land uses. We first employed a hyper-temporal remotely sensed vegetation index to derive a land classification system. During a 1 300 km, eight day fluvial expedition in roadless areas in the Amazonas State (Venezuela), we visited six indigenous communities who provided geo-referenced data on hunting, fishing and farming activities. We overlaid these TEK data onto the land classification map, to link land classes with indigenous use. We characterized land classes using patterns of greenness temporal change and topo-hydrological information, and proposed 12 land-cover types, grouped into five main landscapes: 1) water bodies; 2) open lands/forest edges; 3) evergreen forests; 4) submontane semideciduous forests, and 5) cloud forests. Each land cover class was identified with a pulsating profile describing temporal changes in greenness, hence we labelled our map as "The Forest Pulse". These greenness profiles showed a slightly increasing trend, for the period 2000 to 2009, in the land classes representing grassland and scrubland, and a slightly decreasing trend in the classes representing forests. This finding is consistent with a gain in carbon in grassland as a consequence of climate warming, and also with some loss of vegetation in the forests. Thus, our classification shows potential to assess future effects of climate change on landscape. Several classes were significantly connected with agriculture, fishing

  18. Monitoring of Gasoline-ethanol Degradation In Undisturbed Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Österreicher-Cunha, P.; Nunes, C. M. F.; Vargas, E. A.; Guimarães, J. R. D.; Costa, A.

    Environmental contamination problems are greatly emphasised nowadays because of the direct threat they represent for human health. Traditional remediation methods fre- quently present low efficiency and high costs; therefore, biological treatment is being considered as an accessible and efficient alternative for soil and water remediation. Bioventing, commonly used to remediate petroleum hydrocarbon spills, stimulates the degradation capacity of indigenous microorganisms by providing better subsur- face oxygenation. In Brazil, gasoline and ethanol are mixed (78:22 v/v); some authors indicate that despite gasoline high degradability, its degradation in subsurface is hin- dered by the presence of much more rapidly degrading ethanol. Contaminant distribu- tion and degradation in the subsurface can be monitored by several physical, chemical and microbiological methodologies. This study aims to evaluate and follow the degra- dation of a gasoline-ethanol mixture in a residual undisturbed tropical soil from Rio de Janeiro. Bioventing was used to enhance microbial degradation. Shifts in bacte- rial culturable populations due to contamination and treatment effects were followed by conventional microbiology methods. Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) measure- ments, which consist of the emission of electro-magnetic waves into the soil, yield a visualisation of contaminant degradation because of changes in soil conductivity due to microbial action on the pollutants. Chemical analyses will measure contaminant residue in soil. Our results disclosed contamination impact as well as bioventing stim- ulation on soil culturable heterotrophic bacterial populations. This multidisciplinary approach allows for a wider evaluation of processes occurring in soil.

  19. Forest Dependent Indigenous Communities’ Perception and Adaptation to Climate Change through Local Knowledge in the Protected Area—A Bangladesh Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habibur Rahman

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Forest-dependent indigenous communities rely on natural resources for their livelihoods, but those are currently under threat due to many factors, including the adverse impact of climate change. The present study looks into climate change-related perception and adaptation strategies of three forest-dependent indigenous communities, namely, Khasia, Tripura and Garo in the Lawachara National Park of Northeastern Bangladesh. Household surveys, focus group discussions, key informant interviews, and observation methods were used to unveil the climatic events, impacts and related adaptations. The events include the change in temperature and rainfall patterns, landslide, soil erosion and flash flood, heavy cold and fog, and natural calamities. Moreover, livelihood problems emanating from these events are the drying up of streams and wells, irregular rainfall, increased dieback and mortality of seedlings, pests, diseases, and the attack of crops by wild animals. Likewise, the reduction of soil moisture content, growing season and crop productivity, landslides, damage of roads and culverts, and increased human diseases are common. This study recognized 29 adaptation strategies and divided them into six management categories, drawing on their local knowledge of the natural resources and other technologies. The study reveals that, although adaptation strategies through land use and land cover changes are not enough to sustain their livelihoods, the tactics help them to reduce the risk of, and increase food security and community resilience against, climate change.

  20. Challenges of Opportunity Cost Analysis in Planning REDD+: A Honduran Case Study of Social and Cultural Values Associated with Indigenous Forest Uses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spencer T. Plumb

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The REDD Programme is predicated on the assumption that developed countries will provide sufficient funds to offset opportunity costs associated with avoiding deforestation. The role of non-market values in indigenous land management may challenge the efficacy of compensation schemes targeted at meeting opportunity costs as calculated in traditional opportunity cost analysis (OCA. Furthermore it is unclear how these economic incentives might affect social and cultural values linked to land-use norms, livelihoods, and local governance. This study explores the economic, social and cultural values of forest uses for a Miskito community in the Rio Plátano Biosphere Reserve in Honduras. Data were collected using household surveys, farm visits, and community workshops. OCA indicates potential for successful REDD+ payment schemes; however it is an inadequate method to account for subsistence and cultural opportunity costs associated with avoided deforestation. Compensation to change land-use practices may undermine governance institutions necessary to address deforestation in the region. Our results indicate that small-scale agriculture and other forest-based subsistence activities are important cultural practices for maintaining Miskito identity and forest management institutions. Recommendations are offered for using OCA to develop REDD+ projects that recognize the linkages between social and cultural values and forest management by focusing on approaches that consider a full range of economic, social and cultural opportunity costs.

  1. Local indigenous knowledge about some medicinal plants in and around Kakamega forest in western Kenya [v2; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/UDNyBK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nickson Erick Otieno

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Kakamega forest is Kenya’s only rainforest and is distinguishably rich in biodiversity but threatened by agricultural encroachment and other forms of human activity. It is also one of Kenya’s Important Bird Areas and a significant source of natural products to neighboring rural communities, such as medicinal plants, food, wood and other fibers. By using structured questionnaires for direct interviews, local indigenous knowledge was tapped through involvement of a focal group of elderly key informants in three blocks of the forest. Forty key species of medicinal plants used by local people were identified and recorded. Fifty-five percent of these were shrubs, thirty-two percent trees, seven-and-a-half percent lower plants such as herbs or forbs while five percent were climbers. About seventy percent of the medicinal plants occurred inside the forest itself and thirty percent around the edge and the immediate surroundings outside the forest. Thirty-eight (95% of the plants were indigenous to Kenya and two (5% exotic. Such extensive indigenous knowledge of the medicinal uses of the plants, including their distribution trends in the forest, may be tapped for decision support in rural health service planning, policy formulation for conserving the forest, tracking and mitigation of climate change impacts.

  2. Radionuclide migration test using undisturbed aerated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Tadatoshi; Ohtsuka, Yoshiro; Ogawa, Hiromichi; Wadachi, Yoshiki

    1988-01-01

    As one of the most important part of safety assessment on the shallow land disposal of lowlevel radioactive waste, the radionuclide migration was studied using undisturbed soil samples, in order to evaluate an exact radionuclide migration in an aerated soil layer. Soil samples used in the migration test were coastal sand and loamy soil which form typical surface soil layers in Japan. The aqueous solution containing 60 CoCl 2 , 85 SrCl 2 and 137 CsCl was fed into the soil column and concentration of each radionuclide both in effluent and in soil was measured. Large amount of radionuclides was adsorbed on the surface of soil column and small amount of radionuclides moved deep into the soil column. Difference in the radionuclide profile was observed in the low concentration portion particularly. It is that some fractions of 60 Co and 137 Cs are stable in non-ionic form and move downward through the soil column together with water. The radionuclide distribution in the surface of soil column can be fairly predicted with a conventional migration equation for ionic radionuclides. As a result of radionuclide adsorption, both aerated soil layers of coastal sand and loamy soil have large barrier ability on the radionuclide migration through the ground. (author)

  3. Dominance of the multicoloured Asian lady beetle Harmonia axyridis in an undisturbed wild meadow ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Élise Bélanger

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Fifteen years after its arrival in Quebec (Canada, the multicoloured Asian lady beetle Harmonia axyridis (Pallas 1773 (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae has become one of the dominant coccinellid species in agricultural, forested and urban areas. Several studies conducted in North American agricultural ecosystems show that the arrival of H. axyridis and other exotic coccinellid species was followed by decreases in the populations of native coccinellid species. In this study, the abundances of H. axyridis and other native and exotic species were determined in an undisturbed wild meadow located in a protected area. In 2009 and 2010, mainly Solidago canadensis L. (Asteraceae and Asclepias syriaca L. (Asclepiadaceae infested with aphids were surveyed. A total of 1522 individuals, belonging to seven different species, were recorded. In 2009, on all the plants monitored, H. axyridis was clearly the dominant species (69% of the coccinellid assemblage. In addition, this exotic species constituted 84% of the coccinellid assemblage, including Propylea quatuordecimpunctata (L. and Coccinella septempunctata (L. It is likely the dominance of the eurytopic Asian lady beetle in agricultural, forested, urban and undisturbed open ecosystems, poses a threat to native lady beetles. These results also provide evidence that undisturbed wild meadow ecosystems will not constitute a natural refuge from Harmonia axyridis for native species of lady beetles.

  4. Tree species diversity in a seasonally-dry forest: the case of the Pinkaití site, in the Kayapó Indigenous Area, Southeastern limits of the Amazon Diversidade de espécies arbóreas em uma floresta sazonalmente seca: o caso da base de pesquisas do Pinkaití (PA, na Terra Indígena Kayapó, limite sudoeste da Amazônia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Salm

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates patterns of forest structure and tree species diversity in an anthropogenic palm grove and undisturbed areas at the seasonally-dry Pinkaití research station, in the Kayapó Indigenous Area. This site, managed by the Conservation International do Brasil, is the most southeastern site floristically surveyed in the Amazon until now. The secondary and a nearby undisturbed forest were sampled in a group of 52 floristic plots of 0.0625-ha (25x25-m where all trees with DBH > 10 cm were measured and identified. The analyses were complemented with other two floristic plots of 1-ha (10x1000-m. The present study has shown that the Pinkaití, like other seasonally-dry forests, have great heterogeneity in forest structure and composition, associated with biotic characteristics of the most important tree species, natural disturbance and history of land-use. The palm grove, moderately dominated by the arborescent palm Attalea maripa (Aubl. Mart., presented high tree species diversity and was floristically similar to undisturbed forests at the study site. It is discussed the importance of large arborescent palms for the seasonally-dry Amazon forests regeneration.Este estudo compara a florística e estrutura e a diversidade de espécies arbóreas de um palmeiral antropogênico e áreas não perturbadas na floresta sazonalmente seca da base de pesquisas ecológicas do Pinkaití, na Terra Indígena Kayapó. Esta base de estudos, administrada pela Conservation International do Brasil, é a área mais ao sudoeste até o momento floristicamente amostrada na Amazônia. Uma mancha de floresta secundária e uma floresta não perturbada adjacente foram amostradas com um grupo de 52 parcelas de 0,0625-ha (25x25-m onde todas as árvores com DAP > 10 cm foram medidas e identificadas. As análises foram complementadas com outras duas parcelas de 1-ha (10x1000-m. Este estudo mostrou que o Pinkaití, como outras florestas sazonalmente secas, tem grande

  5. Indigenous homelessness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Being homeless in one’s homeland is a colonial legacy for many Indigenous people in settler societies. The construction of Commonwealth nation-states from colonial settler societies depended on the dispossession of Indigenous peoples from their lands. The legacy of that dispossession and related...... attempts at assimilation that disrupted Indigenous practices, languages, and cultures—including patterns of housing and land use—can be seen today in the disproportionate number of Indigenous people affected by homelessness in both rural and urban settings. Essays in this collection explore the meaning...... and scope of Indigenous homelessness in the Canada, Australia, and New Zealand. They argue that effective policy and support programs aimed at relieving Indigenous homelessness must be rooted in Indigenous conceptions of home, land, and kinship, and cannot ignore the context of systemic inequality...

  6. Indigenous systems of forest classification: understanding land use patterns and the role of NTFPs in shifting cultivators' subsistence economies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delang, Claudio O

    2006-04-01

    This article discusses the system of classification of forest types used by the Pwo Karen in Thung Yai Naresuan Wildlife Sanctuary in western Thailand and the role of nontimber forest products (NTFPs), focusing on wild food plants, in Karen livelihoods. The article argues that the Pwo Karen have two methods of forest classification, closely related to their swidden farming practices. The first is used for forest land that has been, or can be, swiddened, and classifies forest types according to growth conditions. The second system is used for land that is not suitable for cultivation and looks at soil properties and slope. The article estimates the relative importance of each forest type in what concerns the collection of wild food plants. A total of 134 wild food plant species were recorded in December 2004. They account for some 80-90% of the amount of edible plants consumed by the Pwo Karen, and have a base value of Baht 11,505 per year, comparable to the cash incomes of many households. The article argues that the Pwo Karen reliance on NTFPs has influenced their land-use and forest management practices. However, by restricting the length of the fallow period, the Thai government has caused ecological changes that are challenging the ability of the Karen to remain subsistence oriented. By ignoring shifting cultivators' dependence on such products, the involvement of governments in forest management, especially through restrictions imposed on swidden farming practices, is likely to have a considerable impact on the livelihood strategies of these communities.

  7. Photoacoustic FTIR spectroscopic study of undisturbed nacre from red abalone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Devendra; Katti, Kalpana; Katti, Dinesh

    2006-07-01

    In this work, photoacoustic Fourier transform infrared (PA-FTIR) spectroscopy has been utilized to study interfacial interactions of undisturbed nacre and nacre powder from red abalone shell. The spectra of both undisturbed nacre and nacre powder showed characteristic bands of aragonite and proteins. Although nacre powder and undisturbed nacre are chemically identical, PA-FTIR spectrum of undisturbed nacre is found to be significantly different from that of nacre powder. A broad and strong band is observed at around 1485 cm -1 in nacre powder. The intensity of this band is notably reduced in undisturbed nacre. This result is explained on the basis of interfacial interactions between aragonite platelets and acidic proteins. It is also observed that band at around 1788 cm -1 originates from three overlapping bands 1797, 1787 and 1778 cm -1. The band at around 1787 cm -1 is assigned to C dbnd O stretching of carboxylate groups of acidic proteins. The other two bands at 1797 and 1778 cm -1, originate from aragonite and have been assigned to combination bands, ν 3 + ν 4a and ν 3 + ν 4b, respectively. For the study of stratification in undisturbed nacre, PA-FTIR spectra have been collected in step scan mode. The variation in spectra with depth can be attributed to changes in conformation of proteins as well as interfacial interactions.

  8. Antioxidant activity in medicinal plants associated with the symptoms of diabetes mellitus used by the indigenous peoples of the North American boreal forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCune, Letitia M; Johns, Timothy

    2002-10-01

    Thirty-five plant species were selected from the published literature as traditionally used by the Indigenous Peoples of the boreal forest in Canada for three or more symptoms of diabetes or its complications. Antioxidant activities in methanolic extracts support the contribution of these traditional medicines in a lifestyle historically low in the incidence of diabetes. In a DPPH assay of free radical scavenging activity 89% of the methanol extracts had activity significantly greater than common modern dietary components, 14% were statistically equal to ascorbic acid and 23% had activities similar to green tea and a Trolox positive control. Superoxides produced with an NBT/xanthine oxidase assay found scavenging was significantly higher in 29% of the species as compared with the modern dietary components and Trolox. The methanol extracts of Rhus hirta, Quercus alba and Cornus stolonifera performed similarly to green tea's in this assay. Assessment of peroxyl radical scavenging using a DCF/AAPH assay showed 60% of the plant extracts statistically similar to Trolox while R. hirta and Solidago canadensis extracts were greater than green tea, ascorbic acid and Trolox. The majority of the species (63 and 97%, respectively) had scavenging activities similar to ascorbic acid in the superoxide and peroxyl radical scavenging assays.

  9. Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis R. Iverson; Mark W. Schwartz

    1994-01-01

    Originally diminished by development, forests are coming back: forest biomass is accumulating. Forests are repositories for many threatened species. Even with increased standing timber, however, biodiversity is threatened by increased forest fragmentation and by exotic species.

  10. Conventional and Indigenous Biodiversity Conservation Approach: A Comparative Study of Jachie Sacred Grove and Nkrabea Forest Reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Boadi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Conventional managed forests and sacred groves are seldom assessed to determine their effectiveness in biodiversity conservation strategies. This study investigated tree and insect diversity in Jachie sacred grove (JSG and Nkrabea forest reserve (NFR in Ashanti region, Ghana. The study area constituted eight plots of 50 × 50 m along two 300 m long transects. Insects were sampled in eight pitfall traps, diagonally between the transects. Out of 150 individuals, 13 species in NFR and 15 species from JSG were registered. Celtis mildbraedii was the most dominant species in NFR = 43.18% and JSG = 23.58%. Mean DBH showed a significant relationship with basal area in NFR and JSG. Tree diversity and richness were higher in JSG (H′ = 1.43–2.3 ± 0.10; D = 1.8–3.69 ± 0.30 compared to NFR (H′ = 0.86–1.56 ± 0.09; D = 1.1–2.3 ± 0.57. However, insect diversity was higher in NFR (H′ = 1.34 ± 0.10 than in JSG (H′ = 0.5 ± 0.005. Camponotus furvus and Pachycondyla tarsata were most abundant in JSG and NFR, respectively. These findings will help conservationists work closely with traditional authorities in protecting sacred groves as key biodiversity hotspots.

  11. The Mapuche People's Battle for Indigenous Land. Litigation as a Strategy to Defend Indigenous Land Rights

    OpenAIRE

    Skjævestad, Anne

    2008-01-01

    Land is the foundation for the economic sustenance of indigenous peoples and for the continued survival of their cultures. One of the major problems faced by indigenous peoples is the dispossession of their traditional lands and territories. The activities of business interests and economic development projects in indigenous territories – such as forest logging and infrastructure projects - and the environmental implications of such activities, often constitute a great threat to the livelihoo...

  12. Factors Influencing And Alternative Policies Offered Of Social Conflicts Indigenous Peoples Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saiful Deni

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a review of the social conflicts of indigenous peoples especially in North Maluku. The purpose of this review is to find out some factors causing indigenous peoples social conflicts in North Maluku and to produce alternative solutions as a policy to develop indigenous peoples livelihoods. The review resulted in several factors causing social conflicts of indigenous peoples such as the unclear boundary between the two parties the customary violations by the forest businessmen the injustice of the law enforcement officers in solving the problems the destruction of the indigenous people and the forest community narrow forest the lack positive contribution of forest management so far to indigenous peoples and forest communities companies do not involve indigenous peoples andor forest communities in forest exploitation destruction of customary buildings as places of worship deforestation timber exploitation while timber by indigenous peoples is sacred wood or abstinence to be felled. Alternative solutions are required by local government such as policy on legal recognition of indigenous peoples indigenous peoples empowerment implementation of indigenous peoples aspirations indigenous peoples economic development based on local wisdom and dispute resolution of indigenous peoples through special courts of a holistic nature.

  13. Runoff and soil erosion for an undisturbed tropical woodland in the Brazilian Cerrado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Paulo Tarso S.; Nearing, Mark; Wendland, Edson

    2015-04-01

    The Brazilian Cerrado is a large and important economic and environmental region that is experiencing major loss of its natural landscapes due to pressures of food and energy production, which has caused large increases in soil erosion. However the magnitude of the soil erosion increases in this region is not well understood, in part because scientific studies of surface runoff and soil erosion are scarce or nonexistent in undisturbed Cerrado vegetation. In this study we measured natural rainfall-driven rates of runoff and soil erosion for an undisturbed tropical woodland classified as "cerrado sensu stricto denso" and bare soil to compute the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) cover and management factor (C-factor) to help evaluate the likely effects of land use change on soil erosion rates. Replicated data on precipitation, runoff, and soil loss on plots (5 x 20 m) under bare soil and cerrado were collected for 55 erosive storms occurring in 2012 and 2013. The measured annual precipitation was 1247.4 mm and 1113.0 mm for 2012 and 2013, resulting in a rainfall erosivity index of 4337.1 MJ mm ha-1 h-1 and 3546.2 MJ mm ha-1 h-1, for each year respectively. The erosive rainfall represented 80concentrated in the wet season, which generally runs from October through March. In the plots on bare soil, the runoff coefficient for individual rainfall events (total runoff divided by total rainfall) ranged from 0.003 to 0.860 with an average value and standard deviation of 0.212 ± 0.187. Moreover, the runoff coefficient found for the bare soil plots (~20infiltration capacity. In forest areas the leaf litter and the more porous soil tend to promote the increase of infiltration and water storage, rather than rapid overland flow. Indeed, runoff coefficients ranged from 0.001 to 0.030 with an average of less than 1under undisturbed cerrado. The soil losses measured under bare soil and cerrado were 15.68 t ha-1yr-1 and 0.24 t ha-1 yr-1 in 2012, and 14.82 t ha-1 yr-1, 0.11 t ha-1

  14. Measurement of undisturbed di-nitrogen emissions from aquatic ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Shuping, Clough, Timothy, Lou, Jiafa; Hu, Chunsheng; Oenema, Oene; Wrage-Mönnig, Nicole; Zhang, Yuming

    2016-04-01

    Increased production of reactive nitrogen (Nr) from atmospheric di-nitrogen (N2) during the last century has greatly contributed to increased food production1-4. However, enriching the biosphere with Nr through N fertilizer production, combustion, and biological N2 fixation has also caused a series of negative effects on global ecosystems 5,6, especially aquatic ecosystems7. The main pathway converting Nr back into the atmospheric N2 pool is the last step of the denitrification process, i.e., the reduction of nitrous oxide (N2O) into N2 by micro-organisms7,8. Despite several attempts9,10, there is not yet an accurate, fast and direct method for measuring undisturbed N2 fluxes from denitrification in aquatic sediments at the field scale11-14. Such a method is essential to study the feedback of aquatic ecosystems to Nr inputs1,2,7. Here we show that the measurement of both N2O emission and its isotope signature can be used to infer the undisturbed N2 fluxes from aquatic ecosystems. The microbial reduction of N2O increases the natural abundance of 15N-N2O relative to 14N-N2O (δ15N-N2O). We observed linear relationships between δ15N-N2O and the logarithmic transformed N2O/(N2+N2O) emission ratios. Through independent measurements, we verified that the undisturbed N2 flux from aquatic ecosystems can be inferred from measurements of N2O emissions and the δ15N-N2O signature. Our method allows the determination of field-scale N2 fluxes from undisturbed aquatic ecosystems, and thereby allows model predictions of denitrification rates to be tested. The undisturbed N2 fluxes observed are almost one order of magnitude higher than those estimated by the traditional method, where perturbation of the system occurs, indicating that the ability of aquatic ecosystems to remove Nr may have been severely underestimated.

  15. Indigenous religions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geertz, Armin W.

    2009-01-01

    Dette essay diskuterer en publikation af James L. Cox med titlen From Primitive to Indigenous (2007). Bogen analyserer forskellige forfatteres holdninger til studiet af indfødte kulturers religioner. Cox's analyser tages op i dette essay og de problematiseres i forhold til mit eget arbejde....

  16. Where are the forests in the United States "not disturbed" over a quarter century?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, C.; Zhao, F. A.; Goward, S. N.; Schleeweis, K.; Michaelis, A.; Masek, J. G.; Dungan, J. L.; Cohen, W. B.; Moisen, G.; Rishmawi, K.

    2015-12-01

    Forests provide many important ecosystem services. Logging, fire, and other disturbances can disrupt or even diminish the provision of these services. Although many map products and inventory data can be used to estimate the total forested area in the United States, it is not clear how much of the country's forest remained undisturbed in recent decades. Through the North American Forest Dynamics (NAFD) study, we have mapped both disturbed and undisturbed forests over the conterminous United States (CONUS) using sub-annual time series of Landsat observations. The results revealed that 33.6% of the land area of CONUS had forest cover during some or all of the years between 1986 and 2010. About two thirds of the nation's forests remained undisturbed during the 25-year period. Most of these undisturbed forests were distributed in western and northern parts of the eastern US. The percentage of undisturbed forest in the southeastern states were lower, about 50% or less. In these states, much of the undisturbed forest was distributed along riparian zones or in protected areas, including national parks and national forests. In the northeastern and western US, riparian zones did not have a significantly higher proportion of undisturbed forests than non-riparian areas. While most protected areas had a high percentage of undisturbed forests, some of them had lower percentages than the average values of their surrounding regions. Topography may also have played a role in keeping forests "undisturbed". Many ecoregions in the western and northern US had a substantially higher percentage of undisturbed forests at high elevations than at low elevations.

  17. Analytical description of transfer of Pu-239 in undisturbed soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tianshan, Ren; Linsalata, P; Cohen, N

    1986-04-01

    The paper reports on an analytical model for describing the horizontal and down-ward transfer of /sup 239/Pu in undisturbed soil based on observed data. The model has been developed to predict how the depth distribution of /sup 239/Pu in soil would change with time. This information is essential for estimation of the quantities of /sup 239/Pu that have entered surface water body via erosion and runoff processes and for estimation of the long-term impact of /sup 239/Pu isice the commencement of nuclear fallout deposition.

  18. Forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melin, J.

    1997-01-01

    Forests have the capacity to trap and retain radionuclides for a substantial period of time. The dynamic behaviour of nutrients, pollution and radionuclides in forests is complex. The rotation period of a forest stand in the Nordic countries is about 100 years, whilst the time for decomposition of organic material in a forest environment can be several hundred years. This means that any countermeasure applied in the forest environment must have an effect for several decades, or be reapplied continuously for long periods of time. To mitigate the detrimental effect of a contaminated forest environment on man, and to minimise the economic loss in trade of contaminated forest products, it is necessary to understand the mechanisms of transfer of radionuclides through the forest environment. It must also be stressed that any countermeasure applied in the forest environment must be evaluated with respect to long, as well as short term, negative effects, before any decision about remedial action is taken. Of the radionuclides studied in forests in the past, radiocaesium has been the main contributor to dose to man. In this document, only radiocaesium will be discussed since data on the impact of other radionuclides on man are too scarce for a proper evaluation. (EG)

  19. Whole-tree sap flow responses to soil water and weather variables for Pinus radiata and three indigenous species in a southern afrotemperate forest region

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mapeto, T

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available –plant–atmosphere continuum and facilitate the development of rapid estimation techniques through extrapolation. To quantify and characterise the influence of local environmental conditions on single-tree water use, whole-tree daily sap flow for three indigenous afrotemperate...

  20. Availability of {sup 99}Tc in undisturbed soil cores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denys, Sebastien; Echevarria, Guillaume E-mail: guillaume.echevarria@ensaia.inpl-nancy.fr; Florentin, Louis; Leclerc-Cessac, Elisabeth; Morel, Jean-Louis

    2003-07-01

    Models for safety assessment of radioactive waste repositories need accurate values of the soil-to-plant transfer of radionuclides. In oxidizing environments, {sup 99}Tc is expected to occur as pertechnetate ({sup 99}TcO{sub 4}{sup -}). Due to its high mobility, leaching of this element in the field might be important, potentially affecting the reliability of estimated transfer parameters of {sup 99}Tc as measured in closed experimental systems such as hydroponics or pot experiments. The aim of this experiment was to measure the leaching of {sup 99}Tc in undisturbed irrigated soil cores under cultivation as well as plant uptake and to study the possible competition between the two transfer pathways. Undisturbed soil cores (50x50 cm) were sampled from a Rendzic Leptosol (R), a colluvial Fluvic Cambisol (F) and a Dystric Cambisol (D) using PVC tubes (three cores sampled per soil type). Each core was equipped with a leachate collector at the bottom, allowing the monitoring of {sup 99}Tc leaching through the cores. Cores were placed in a greenhouse and maize (Zea mays L., cv. DEA, Pioneer[reg]) was sown. After 135 d, maize was harvested and radioactivity determined in both plant and water samples. Results showed that during the growing period, leaching of {sup 99}Tc was limited, due to the high evapotranspiration rate of maize. After harvest, leaching of {sup 99}Tc went on because of the absence of evapotranspiration. Effective uptake (EU) of {sup 99}Tc in leaves and grains was calculated. EU reached 70% of the input in the leaves and was not significantly different among soils. These results confirmed those obtained from pot experiments, even though leaching was allowed to occur in close-to-reality hydraulical conditions. As a consequence, it was concluded that pot experiments are an adequate surrogate for more complex 'close-to-reality' experimental systems for measuring transfer factors.

  1. Availability of 99Tc in undisturbed soil cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denys, Sebastien; Echevarria, Guillaume; Florentin, Louis; Leclerc-Cessac, Elisabeth; Morel, Jean-Louis

    2003-01-01

    Models for safety assessment of radioactive waste repositories need accurate values of the soil-to-plant transfer of radionuclides. In oxidizing environments, 99 Tc is expected to occur as pertechnetate ( 99 TcO 4 - ). Due to its high mobility, leaching of this element in the field might be important, potentially affecting the reliability of estimated transfer parameters of 99 Tc as measured in closed experimental systems such as hydroponics or pot experiments. The aim of this experiment was to measure the leaching of 99 Tc in undisturbed irrigated soil cores under cultivation as well as plant uptake and to study the possible competition between the two transfer pathways. Undisturbed soil cores (50x50 cm) were sampled from a Rendzic Leptosol (R), a colluvial Fluvic Cambisol (F) and a Dystric Cambisol (D) using PVC tubes (three cores sampled per soil type). Each core was equipped with a leachate collector at the bottom, allowing the monitoring of 99 Tc leaching through the cores. Cores were placed in a greenhouse and maize (Zea mays L., cv. DEA, Pioneer[reg]) was sown. After 135 d, maize was harvested and radioactivity determined in both plant and water samples. Results showed that during the growing period, leaching of 99 Tc was limited, due to the high evapotranspiration rate of maize. After harvest, leaching of 99 Tc went on because of the absence of evapotranspiration. Effective uptake (EU) of 99 Tc in leaves and grains was calculated. EU reached 70% of the input in the leaves and was not significantly different among soils. These results confirmed those obtained from pot experiments, even though leaching was allowed to occur in close-to-reality hydraulical conditions. As a consequence, it was concluded that pot experiments are an adequate surrogate for more complex 'close-to-reality' experimental systems for measuring transfer factors

  2. Quantitative imaging of cation adsorption site densities in undisturbed soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keck, Hannes; Strobel, Bjarne W.; Gustafsson, Jon-Petter; Koestel, John

    2017-04-01

    The vast majority of present soil system models assume a homogeneous distribution and accessibility of cation adsorption sites (CAS) within soil structural units like e.g. soil horizons. This is however in conflict with several recent studies finding that CAS in soils are not uniformly but patchily distributed at and below the cm-scale. It is likely that the small-scale distribution of CAS has significant impact on the performance of these models. However, systematic approaches to map CAS densities in undisturbed soil with 3-D resolution that could lead to respective model improvements are still lacking. We therefore investigated the 3-D distribution of the CAS in undisturbed soils using X-ray scanning and barium ions as a contrast agent. We appraised the validity of the approach by comparing X-ray image-derived cation exchange coefficients (CEC) with ones obtained using the ammonium acetate method. In the process, we evaluated whether there were larger CAS concentrations at aggregate and biopore boundaries as it is often hypothesized. We sampled eight small soil cores (approx. 10 ccm) from different locations with contrasting soil texture and organic matter contents. The samples were first saturated with a potassium chloride solution (0.1 mol per liter), whereupon a 3-D X-ray image was taken. Then, the potassium chloride solution was flushed out with a barium chloride solution (0.3 mol per liter) with barium replacing the potassium from the CAS due to its larger exchange affinity. After X-ray images as well as electrical conductivity in the effluent indicated that the entire sample had been saturated with the barium chloride, the sample was again rinsed using the potassium chloride solution. When the rinsing was complete a final 3-D X-ray image was acquired. The difference images between final and initial 3-D X-ray images were interpreted as depicting the adsorbed barium as the density of barium exceeds the one of potassium by more than 2 times. The X-ray image

  3. Unsaturated transport of inorganic cations in undisturbed soil columns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jardine, P.M.; Jacobs, G.K.

    1990-01-01

    The unsaturated transport of Sr, Co, and Ca were studied in undisturbed soil columns (14 x 40 cm) of saprolitic shale to evaluate the significance of time dependent mass transfer and multispecies competitive exchange during transport. Observed breakthrough curves (BTCs) for Sr and Co were delayed relative to nonreactive Br BTC indicating that the former tracers were adsorbed by the soil. Effluent concentrations of Sr and Co were modeled with the classical convective dispersive (CD) equation and nonequilibrium mass transfer considerations did not appear necessary. Cation exchange equilibria relationships obtained from both shake batch and miscible displacement methods adequately described the thermodynamic processes which were prevalent during transport. These results suggest that the preferential transport of a reactive tracer is negligible for the realistic unsaturated conditions used in the study, and that the massive saprolite within the soil is a chemically active constituent during transport of reactive solutes. The implications of these findings for modeling in-situ subsurface contaminant transport are discussed. 7 refs., 9 figs

  4. Factors Influencing And Alternative Policies Offered Of Social Conflicts Indigenous Peoples Rights

    OpenAIRE

    Saiful Deni

    2017-01-01

    This paper is a review of the social conflicts of indigenous peoples especially in North Maluku. The purpose of this review is to find out some factors causing indigenous peoples social conflicts in North Maluku and to produce alternative solutions as a policy to develop indigenous peoples livelihoods. The review resulted in several factors causing social conflicts of indigenous peoples such as the unclear boundary between the two parties the customary violations by the forest businessmen the...

  5. REDD+ and the Indigenous Question: A Case Study from Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Reed

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the main issues regarding the implementation of REDD+ in Latin America has been the growing concern that such projects may infringe upon the rights and negatively affect the livelihoods of forest-dependent communities. Various indigenous and civil society organizations are ardently opposed to the initiative. Such is the case in Ecuador, where indigenous opposition to REDD+ represents a considerable obstacle in the creation of a national strategy since more than 60% of the country’s remaining forest cover is on indigenous land or under indigenous occupation. Thus one of the most critical challenges remaining for Ecuador will be the construction of a strong legal, financial, and institutional framework—one that the greater indigenous community might be willing to accept. Closer examination of this topic however, reveals just how difficult this may become. Lack of information, a recent political split between national authorities and the indigenous sector, and the dissimilar organizational capacity levels of indigenous communities make the feasibility of carrying out REDD+ projects on these lands extremely complex. However, the biggest obstacle may be ideological. Many indigenous groups view REDD+, with its possible emphasis on international markets and neoliberal mechanisms, as a continuation of the type of policies that have impeded their quest for sovereignty and self determination. As such, indigenous people are only willing to consider such projects if they clearly see preconditions in place that would safeguard their cultures, territories, and autonomy.

  6. Restoration of Degraded Soil in the Nanmangalam Reserve Forest with Native Tree Species: Effect of Indigenous Plant Growth-Promoting Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Andimuthu; Radhapriya, Parthasarathy

    Restoration of a highly degraded forest, which had lost its natural capacity for regeneration, was attempted in the Nanmangalam Reserve Forest in Eastern Ghats of India. In field experiment, 12 native tree species were planted. The restoration included inoculation with a consortium of 5 native plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB), with the addition of small amounts of compost and a chemical fertilizer (NPK). The experimental fields were maintained for 1080 days. The growth and biomass varied depending on the plant species. All native plants responded well to the supplementation with the native PGPB. The plants such as Pongamia pinnata, Tamarindus indica, Gmelina arborea, Wrightia tinctoria, Syzygium cumini, Albizia lebbeck, Terminalia bellirica, and Azadirachta indica performed well in the native soil. This study demonstrated, by using native trees and PGPB, a possibility to restore the degraded forest.

  7. Restoration of Degraded Soil in the Nanmangalam Reserve Forest with Native Tree Species: Effect of Indigenous Plant Growth-Promoting Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andimuthu Ramachandran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Restoration of a highly degraded forest, which had lost its natural capacity for regeneration, was attempted in the Nanmangalam Reserve Forest in Eastern Ghats of India. In field experiment, 12 native tree species were planted. The restoration included inoculation with a consortium of 5 native plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB, with the addition of small amounts of compost and a chemical fertilizer (NPK. The experimental fields were maintained for 1080 days. The growth and biomass varied depending on the plant species. All native plants responded well to the supplementation with the native PGPB. The plants such as Pongamia pinnata, Tamarindus indica, Gmelina arborea, Wrightia tinctoria, Syzygium cumini, Albizia lebbeck, Terminalia bellirica, and Azadirachta indica performed well in the native soil. This study demonstrated, by using native trees and PGPB, a possibility to restore the degraded forest.

  8. Potential utility of the spectral red-edge region of SumbandilaSat imagery for assessing indigenous forest structure and health

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cho, Moses A

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available , SumbandilaSat in characterising forest fragmentation in a fragile rural landscape in Dukuduku, northern KwaZulu-Natal. The AISA Eagle hyperspectral image was resampled to the band settings of SumbandilaSat and SPOT 5 (green, red and near infrared bands only...

  9. Indigenous Storytelling in Namibia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodil, Kasper; Winschiers-Theophilus, Heike

    2016-01-01

    to understand indigenous youths’ own conception of storytelling the paper presents empirical data from a study with indigenous Khoisan children in Namibia. This is followed by a discussion of an effort of digitizing indigenous intangible cultural heritage in relation to technologies’ embodied bias...

  10. Why Indigenous Nations Studies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Robert; Yellow Bird, Michael

    2000-01-01

    The development of a new Indigenous Nations Studies program at the University of Kansas is described. Success depended on a critical mass of Indigenous and non-Indigenous faculty and students that had a sense of political and social justice and understood the need for institutional change. The biggest challenge was countering the entrenched…

  11. Approaches Towards Valuing Local and Indigenous Peoples’ Use of ‘Non-Timber Forest Products’ in the Context of Land Acquisition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Morten Haugen

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The undervaluation of traditional harvesting from forest and other lands is a common pattern. This has made many persons claim that certain lands singled out for biofuels projects is ‘not in use’. Such erroneous statements can easily be challenged, but it is considerably more demanding to calculate the overall value of harvesting for local communities. The term ‘ecosystem services’ has gained increased attention, primarily by emphasising the carbon capture capacity of both forests and other lands. This approach has enhanced the motivation for conserving the land. By acknowledging the need not only to conserve the land, but also allow sustainable harvesting from the land, in accordance with the governing the commons framework, the article identifies the most central human rights provisions and analyse their relevance in order to better acknowledge the importance of non-timber forest products. The emphasis will be on identifying the content and scope of the substantive human rights as they apply to control over and use of natural resources. The relevance of the article is evidenced by FAO’s initiative to adopt Voluntary Guidelines on Responsible Governance of Tenure of Land and other Natural Resources, scheduled to be adopted in 2011. FAO itself says that the Voluntary Guidelines-initiative seeks to build on a human rights approach, which makes the present analysis most pertinent.

  12. Use of indigenous technology in processing and utilization of non ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Information used for this paper came from both primary and secondary sources. Ten (10) respondents were interviewed from each secondary source of information. The use of indigenous technology to process these forest products to forest foods is currently limited by use of crude methods, inability to expand production ...

  13. Cesium-137 inventory of the undisturbed soil areas in the Londrina Region, Parana, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrello, Avacir C.; Appoloni, Carlos Roberto

    2005-01-01

    Cesium-137 is an artificial radionuclide introduced in the environment through the radioactive fallout of the superficial tests of nuclear weapons. The cesium-137 deposition occurred to middles of the 1980-decade and, due to the Chernobyl accident, great part of Europe had a additional fallout of cesium-137. The contaminations of this accident do not have reached Southern Hemisphere. Cesium-137 is an alkaline metal, high electropositive, that in contact with the soil is strongly adsorbed to the clay in the FES (Frayed Edge Sites) and RES (Regular Edge Sites) positions, and it movement by chemical processes in the soil is insignificant. Because of this, cesium-137 became a good soil marker, and its movement is related to the soil movement particles, so that the cesium-137 have been used in the study of the soil redistribution processes, as a tool of quantifying the rates of soil losses and gain. To use this methodology, it is necessary the knowledge of the reference inventory of cesium-137, that is given as function of the total concentration of cesium-137 deposited in an area by the radioactive fallout. If a sampling point presents less cesium-137 than the reference inventory, this point is considered a point with soil loss; otherwise, the point is considered a point with soil deposition. To evaluate the cesium-137 inventory in the Londrina region, four areas of the undisturbed soil were sampling in grid of 3x3, with a distance of 9 meters among the points. Of these four sampling areas, three areas were of native forest (labeled Mata1, Mata2 and Mata UEL), and one was a pasture area. Cesium-137 inventory was 223 ± 41 Bq m -2 , 240 ± 65 Bq m -2 and 305 ± 36 Bq m -2 for Mata UEL, Mata1 and Mata2, respectively, and of 211 ± 28 Bq m -2 for the native pasture. Considering the deviation in each value, it is not possible to conclude that there are differences among the values of cesium-137 inventory, so that the average reference inventory of cesium-137 for the

  14. Indigeneity: global and local.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlan, Francesca

    2009-06-01

    The term indigenous, long used to distinguish between those who are "native" and their "others" in specific locales, has also become a term for a geocultural category, presupposing a world collectivity of "indigenous peoples" in contrast to their various "others." Many observers have noted that the stimuli for internationalization of the indigenous category originated principally from particular nation-states-Anglo-American settler colonies and Scandinavia. All, I argue, are relevantly political cultures of liberal democracy and weighty (in different ways) in international institutional affairs. However, international indigeneity has not been supported in any unqualified way by actions taken in the name of several nation-states that were among its main points of origin. In fact, staunch resistance to the international indigenous project has recently come from four of them. In 2007, the only four voting countries to reject the main product of international indigenist activity over the past 30 years, the Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, were Australia, the United States, Canada, and New Zealand. In these locations, forms of "indigenous relationship" emerged that launched international indigeneity and that strongly influenced international perceptions of what "indigeneity" is and who "indigenous peoples" may be. Some other countries say the model of indigenous relationship that they see represented by the "establishing" set is inapplicable to themselves (but have nonetheless had to take notice of expanding internationalist indigenism). The apparently paradoxical rejection of the draft declaration by the establishing countries is consistent with the combination of enabling and constraining forces that liberal democratic political cultures offer.

  15. Body adiposity and nutritional status among indigenous children in villages of Kaxinawá tribe in Southwest Amazon rain forest, State of Acre, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orivaldo Florêncio de Souza

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to investigate body adiposity and nutritional status among indigenous children from Kaxinawá Tribe by using anthropometry. The sample was composed by 93 children aged 6 to 10 years and of both sexes, living at the villages Kaxinawá do Caucho e Paroá, in the state of Acre, Brazil. Body adiposity was estimated by skinfold thickness at triceps and subscapular sites and by the sum of these two skinfolds. Nutritional status was identified by the indicators weight-for age (w/a, stature-for-age (s/a and weight-for-stature (w/s using z-score cut-off points suggested by the World Health Organization. For comparison between sexes, the Student’s t-test was used. Low body fat prevalence was observed in 83.7% of boys and 62% of girls. There were significant differences between sexes at 8 and 10 years of age for the triceps skinfolds and the sum of skinfolds. For the subscapular skinfold, the difference was observed only at 8 years of age. Chronic malnutrition was detected in both sexes and the prevalence depended upon the applied criteria. The prevalence was 76.3% for s/a and 47.3% for w/a. Acute malnutrition was present among 12.9% of children when using w/s. Boys tended to have higher prevalence for chronic malnutrition (s/a and w/a, while the girls for acute malnutrition (w/s. It was concluded that there is a high prevalence of malnutrition and low body adiposity among indigenous Kaxinawá children in the state of Acre, Brazil. RESUMO O presente estudo foi realizado com o objetivo de investigar a adiposidade corporal e o estado nutricional de crianças indígenas da Tribo Kaxinawá, através do método antropométrico. A amostra constitui-se de 93 crianças, de ambos os sexos, na faixa etária de 06 a 10 anos de idade das aldeias indígenas Kaxinawá do Caucho e Paroá, no estado do Acre. Na adiposidade corporal, verificou-se as dobras cutâneas tricipital, subescapular e somatório de dobras cutâneas (tríceps mais

  16. Comparison of Shear Strength Properties for Undisturbed and Reconstituted Parit Nipah Peat, Johor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azhar, A. T. S.; Norhaliza, W.; Ismail, B.; Abdullah, M. E.; Zakaria, M. N.

    2016-11-01

    Shear strength of soil is required to determine the soil stability and design the foundations. Peat is known as a soil with complex natural formations which also contributes problems to the researchers, developers, engineers and contractors in constructions and infrastructures. Most researchers conducted experiment and investigation of shear strength on peat using shear box test and simple shear test, but only a few had discovered the behavior of peat using triaxial consolidated undrained test. The aim of this paper is to determine the undrained shear strength properties of reconstituted peat and undisturbed peat of Parit Nipah, Johor for comparison purposes. All the reconstituted peat samples were formed with the size that passed opening sieve 3.35 mm and preconsolidation pressure at 100 kPa. The result of undrained shear strength of reconstituted peat was 21kPa for cohesion with the angle of friction, 41° compare to the undisturbed peat with cohesion 10 kPa and angle of friction, 16°. The undrained shear strength properties result obtained shows that the reconstituted peat has higher strength than undisturbed peat. For relationship deviator stress-strain, σd max and excess pore pressure, Δu, it shows that both of undisturbed and reconstituted gradually increased when σ’ increased, but at the end of the test, the values are slightly dropped. The physical properties of undisturbed and reconstituted peat were also investigated to correlate with the undrained shear strength results.

  17. Indigenous Territories and REDD in Latin America: Opportunity or Threat?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris van Dam

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available An important proportion of Latin America’s forests are located in indigenous territories, and indigenous peoples are the beneficiaries of about 85% of the area for which local rights to land and forest have been recognized in Latin America since the 1980s. Nevertheless, many of these areas, whether or not rights have been recognized, are subject to threats from colonists, illegal loggers, mining and oil interests and others, whose practices endanger not only the forests but also indigenous people’s territory as a whole. In this context, REDD could constitute a new threat or intensify others, particularly in places where indigenous tenure rights have not been recognized, but REDD could also offer new opportunities. This article describes the limitations of thinking only in terms of communities, rather than territories, and examines the extent to which REDD has been conceived considering the characteristics of this new territorial configuration. It also identifies the challenges that REDD may face with this new ‘stakeholder’, such as numerous specific characteristics of territories, given their heterogeneity, in the context of past experiences regarding ‘forest options’. This paper analyses the situation in already-titled indigenous territories in particular, and also discusses problems facing territories in the titling process.

  18. THE TRAJECTORY OF INDIGENEITY POLITICS AGAINST LAND DISPOSSESSION IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noer Fauzi Rachman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Under the New Order authoritarian regime, the state endorsed terra-nullification of the customary territories had been the basis for the stipulation of state forest (hutan negara.After the fall of the General Suharto led regime in 1998 generated a new phase for the struggles of the customary groups in different parts of the archipelago. This article examines the rise of indigeneity and counter-hegemonic indigenous legal maneuvering spearheaded by Aliansi Masyarakat Adat Nusantara (AMAN against ongoing land dispossession in Indonesia since the fall of New Order authoritarian regime which includes the indigenous mobilizations (strategy, organization and tactics in the post-authoritarian country, including the avenue of new types of legal activism when it comes to the creative destruction of global capitalism today. It focuses on two modes of policy advocacy and campaign against land dispossession: (a the production of the Constitutional Court Ruling No. 35/PUU-X/2012, a new legal landmark that establishes the constitutional norm of the citizenship status of Indonesian indigenous peoples (masyarakat hukum adat as rights bearing subjects, and the owners of their customary territory; and (b the National Inquiry on Indigenous Peoples’ Rights held by the Indonesian National Human Rights Commission (Komnas HAM. The discussion describes The Colonialism of ‘State-Izing’ Customary Communities’ Territory, Contemporary Indigeneity Politics in Indonesia, Counter-Hegemonic Indigenous Legal Maneuvering, Judicial Review against The1999 Law No. 41on Forestry, National Inquiry on Indigenous Peoples’ Rights, and Connecting Counter-Hegemonic Indigenous Legal Maneuvering with the Grassroots Struggles which focuses on Mobilizing at Multiple Scales. It is concluded from this article that the efficacy of legal struggles is very much depend on the capacity to connect  with the grassroots mobilization by continuously promulgating the resurgence of indigeneity

  19. Invertebrate populations of the deciduous forest: fluctuations and relations to weather

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kendeigh, S. Charles

    1979-01-01

    The major objectives of the present study are to analyze (a) the composition and relative population sizes of the larger invertebrate fauna of relatively undisturbed, near-virgin, stands of deciduous forest, (b...

  20. impact of small scale gold mining on soils of the wetland forests in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mgina

    Carbon:Nitrogen ratios were significantly higher in the undisturbed forests suggesting greater capacity in ..... being lost through oxidation to carbon dioxide. In actual practice the problem of nitrogen ... would readily absorb the nitrate in lower.

  1. Community structure of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in undisturbed vegetation revealed by analyses of LSU rdna sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendahl, Søren; Holtgrewe-Stukenbrock, Eva

    2004-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) form a mutualistic symbiosis with plant roots and are found in most ecosystems. In this study the community structure of AMF in a clade of the genus Glomus was examined in undisturbed costal grassland using LSU rDNA sequences amplified from roots of Hieracium...

  2. Soils, water and nutrients in a forest ecosystem in Suriname

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poels, R.L.H.

    1987-01-01

    Water and nutrient flows were measured in catchments on strongly weathered loamy sediments of the Zanderij formation in Suriname under undisturbed forest and forest silviculturally treated whereby 40 % of the biomass was killed. The topography of the two catchment areas studied (each of

  3. Southern Forests: a Journal of Forest Science - Vol 198 (2003)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reverting urban exotic pine forests to Macchia and indigenous forest vegetation, using cable-yarders on the slopes of Table Mountain, South Africa: management paper · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Pierre Ackerman, Bruce Talbot, 35-44 ...

  4. Ecological species group—Environmental factors relationships in unharvested beech forests in the north of Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad Naghi Adel; Hassan Pourbabaei; Daniel C. Dey

    2014-01-01

    Beech forests are the richest forest community in Iran because they are both economically and environmentally valuable. The greatest forest volume occurs in Iran's beech forests. Forests dominated by oriental beech (Fagus orientalis Lipskey) cover about 565,000 ha and represent the total area of indigenous forests in Guilan Province. A system for classifying beech...

  5. Water-use efficiency within a selection of indigenous and exotic tree species in South Africa as determined using sap flow and biomass measurements

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gush, Mark B

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available South Africa has limited indigenous timber-producing forests. Recognition early in the 20th century that demand for timber had exceeded the supply available from indigenous forests forced South Africa to accelerate the expansion of its own exotic...

  6. Elsaesser variable analysis of fluctuations in the ion foreshock and undisturbed solar wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labelle, James; Treumann, Rudolf A.; Marsch, Eckart

    1994-01-01

    Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) fluctuations in the solar wind have been investigated previously by use of Elsaesser variables. In this paper, we present a comparison of the spectra of Elsaesser variables in the undisturbed solar wind at 1 AU and in the ion foreshock in front of the Earth. Both observations take place under relatively strong solar wind flow speed conditions (approximately equal 600 km/s). In the undisturbed solar wind we find that outward propagating Alfven waves dominate, as reported by other observers. In the ion foreshock the situation is more complex, with neither outward nor inward propagation dominating over the entire range investigated (1-10 mHz). Measurements of the Poynting vectors associated with the fluctuations are consistent with the Elsaesser variable analysis. These results generally support interpretations of the Elsaesser variables which have been made based strictly on solar wind data and provide additional insight into the nature of the ion foreshock turbulence.

  7. Large zero-tension plate lysimeters for soil water and solute collection in undisturbed soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Peters

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Water collection from undisturbed unsaturated soils to estimate in situ water and solute fluxes in the field is a challenge, in particular if soils are heterogeneous. Large sampling devices are required if preferential flow paths are present. We present a modular plate system that allows installation of large zero-tension lysimeter plates under undisturbed soils in the field. To investigate the influence of the lysimeter on the water flow field in the soil, a numerical 2-D simulation study was conducted for homogeneous soils with uni- and bimodal pore-size distributions and stochastic Miller-Miller heterogeneity. The collection efficiency was found to be highly dependent on the hydraulic functions, infiltration rate, and lysimeter size, and was furthermore affected by the degree of heterogeneity. In homogeneous soils with high saturated conductivities the devices perform poorly and even large lysimeters (width 250 cm can be bypassed by the soil water. Heterogeneities of soil hydraulic properties result into a network of flow channels that enhance the sampling efficiency of the lysimeter plates. Solute breakthrough into zero-tension lysimeter occurs slightly retarded as compared to the free soil, but concentrations in the collected water are similar to the mean flux concentration in the undisturbed soil. To validate the results from the numerical study, a dual tracer study with seven lysimeters of 1.25×1.25 m area was conducted in the field. Three lysimeters were installed underneath a 1.2 m filling of contaminated silty sand, the others deeper in the undisturbed soil. The lysimeters directly underneath the filled soil material collected water with a collection efficiency of 45%. The deeper lysimeters did not collect any water. The arrival of the tracers showed that almost all collected water came from preferential flow paths.

  8. DETERMINING UNDISTURBED GROUND TEMPERATURE AS PART OF SHALLOW GEOTHERMAL RESOURCES ASSESSMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Kurevija

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The undisturbed ground temperature is one of the key thermogeological parameters for the assessment and utilization of shallow geothermal resources. Geothermal energy is the type of energy which is stored in the ground where solar radiation has no effect. The depth at which the undisturbed ground temperature occurs, independent of seasonal changes in the surface air temperature, is functionally determined by climate parameters and thermogeological properties. In deeper layers, the increase of ground temperature depends solely on geothermal gradient. Determining accurate values of undisturbed ground temperature and depth of occurrence is crucial for the correct sizing of a borehole heat exchanger as part of the ground-source heat pump system, which is considered the most efficient technology for utilising shallow geothermal resources. The purpose of this paper is to define three specific temperature regions, based on the measured ground temperature data collected from the main meteorological stations in Croatia. The three regions are: Northern Croatia, Adriatic region, and the regions of Lika and Gorski Kotar.

  9. Evaluating equilibrium and non-equilibrium transport of bromide and isoproturon in disturbed and undisturbed soil columns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dousset, S.; Thevenot, M.; Pot, V.; Šimunek, J.; Andreux, F.

    2007-12-01

    In this study, displacement experiments of isoproturon were conducted in disturbed and undisturbed columns of a silty clay loam soil under similar rainfall intensities. Solute transport occurred under saturated conditions in the undisturbed soil and under unsaturated conditions in the sieved soil because of a greater bulk density of the compacted undisturbed soil compared to the sieved soil. The objective of this work was to determine transport characteristics of isoproturon relative to bromide tracer. Triplicate column experiments were performed with sieved (structure partially destroyed to simulate conventional tillage) and undisturbed (structure preserved) soils. Bromide experimental breakthrough curves were analyzed using convective-dispersive and dual-permeability (DP) models (HYDRUS-1D). Isoproturon breakthrough curves (BTCs) were analyzed using the DP model that considered either chemical equilibrium or non-equilibrium transport. The DP model described the bromide elution curves of the sieved soil columns well, whereas it overestimated the tailing of the bromide BTCs of the undisturbed soil columns. A higher degree of physical non-equilibrium was found in the undisturbed soil, where 56% of total water was contained in the slow-flow matrix, compared to 26% in the sieved soil. Isoproturon BTCs were best described in both sieved and undisturbed soil columns using the DP model combined with the chemical non-equilibrium. Higher degradation rates were obtained in the transport experiments than in batch studies, for both soils. This was likely caused by hysteresis in sorption of isoproturon. However, it cannot be ruled out that higher degradation rates were due, at least in part, to the adopted first-order model. Results showed that for similar rainfall intensity, physical and chemical non-equilibrium were greater in the saturated undisturbed soil than in the unsaturated sieved soil. Results also suggested faster transport of isoproturon in the undisturbed soil due

  10. Detecção de cicatrizes de incêndios florestais utilizando a técnica de análise por vetor de mudança na terra indígena sete de setembro - Rondônia / Forest fire scars detection using change-vector analysis in the sete de setembro indigenous land - Rondonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Martin Fearnside

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A Terra Indígena Sete de Setembro (TISS localiza-se no arco do desmatamento, caracterizada por ser uma região de grande pressão antrópica. Esta condição a torna susceptível às ameaças da degradação florestal por incêndios, exploração madeireira ilegal e corte raso para uso agropecuário. Assim, esse estudo teve por finalidade mapear áreas de floresta afetadas pela ação do fogo no período de 2010 a 2011, utilizando imagens TM/Landsat e a técnica de detecção por análise de vetor de mudança. Os resultados mostraram uma área total de 4.187 hectares de florestas afetadas pelo fogo no interior da TISS, correspondendo a cerca de 1,7 % da área total da terra indígena. O monitoramento de terras indígenas por técnicas de sensoriamento remoto é fundamental para avaliar a vulnerabilidade dessas áreas às pressões humanas.AbstractThe Sete de Setembro Indigenous Land is situated in Brazil’s “arc of deforestation,” which is a region characterized by high anthropic pressure. This makes the reserve susceptible to forest degradation by fires, illegal logging and clearcutting for agriculture and ranching. The purpose of the present study was to map forest areas affected by fire from 2010 to 2011 using TM/Landsat images and the changevector analysis detection technique. The results showed a total area of 4187 hectares of forest affected by fire in the indigenous reserve, or about 1.7% of the total reserve area. Monitoring of indigenous lands by remote sensing techniques is essential in order to evaluate the vulnerability of these areas to pressures from human activities.

  11. Indigenous Methodology in Understanding Indigenous Nurse Graduate Transition to Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna L. M. Kurtz

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Increasing Indigenous health care professional presence in health care aims to reduce health inequities of Indigenous Peoples in Canada. Nurses are the largest health professional group and nurse graduates the main source of recruitment. The quality of graduate transition to practice is evident in the literature; however, little is reported about Indigenous new graduates. We describe using Indigenous methodology and two-eyed seeing (Indigenous and Western perspectives in exploring Indigenous transition experiences. Talking circles provided a safe environment for nurses, nurse educators and students, health managers, and policy makers to discuss Indigenous new graduate case scenarios. The methodology was critical in identifying challenges faced, recommendations for change, and a new collective commitment for cultural safety education, and ethical and respectful relationships within education, practice, and policy.

  12. Floristic and structural status of forests in permanent preservation areas of Moju river basin, Amazon region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, J C; Vieira, I C G; Almeida, A S; Silva, C A

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study is to analyze the floristic patterns and the structure of disturbed and undisturbed upland forests, in Permanent Preservation Areas (PPAs) along the Moju river, in the Brazilian state of Pará. Trees with a diameter equal to or larger than 10cm at 1.30m from the ground (DBH) ≥10cm were analyzed for the upper stratum. For the middle stratum, individuals with DBH between 4.99 and 9.99cm were sampled. Forty-five families and 221 species were found in disturbed forests, and 43 families and 208 species in undisturbed forests. Floristic similarity was high between strata and between forest types, with values above 50%. Similarity was highest between middle strata. The most species-abundant families in undisturbed forests were Fabaceae, Sapotaceae, Chrysobalanaceae and Myrtaceae; the species with the highest density there were Eschweilera grandiflora, Licania sclerophylla and Zygia cauliflora. In disturbed forests, the dominant families were Fabaceae, Sapotaceae, Lecythidaceae and Melastomataceae. The Shannon-Wiener diversity index was 3.21 for undisturbed forests and 2.85 for disturbed forests. Non-metric multidimensional scaling (MDS) analysis did not group the forests by their floristic composition in both upper and middle strata. Overall, the PPA forests along the Moju river, even if disturbed, did not show major floristic changes but substantially change their structural characteristics.

  13. Floristic and structural status of forests in permanent preservation areas of Moju river basin, Amazon region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Oliveira

    Full Text Available Abstract The goal of this study is to analyze the floristic patterns and the structure of disturbed and undisturbed upland forests, in Permanent Preservation Areas (PPAs along the Moju river, in the Brazilian state of Pará. Trees with a diameter equal to or larger than 10cm at 1.30m from the ground (DBH ≥10cm were analyzed for the upper stratum. For the middle stratum, individuals with DBH between 4.99 and 9.99cm were sampled. Forty-five families and 221 species were found in disturbed forests, and 43 families and 208 species in undisturbed forests. Floristic similarity was high between strata and between forest types, with values above 50%. Similarity was highest between middle strata. The most species-abundant families in undisturbed forests were Fabaceae, Sapotaceae, Chrysobalanaceae and Myrtaceae; the species with the highest density there were Eschweilera grandiflora, Licania sclerophylla and Zygia cauliflora. In disturbed forests, the dominant families were Fabaceae, Sapotaceae, Lecythidaceae and Melastomataceae. The Shannon-Wiener diversity index was 3.21 for undisturbed forests and 2.85 for disturbed forests. Non-metric multidimensional scaling (MDS analysis did not group the forests by their floristic composition in both upper and middle strata. Overall, the PPA forests along the Moju river, even if disturbed, did not show major floristic changes but substantially change their structural characteristics.

  14. indigenous cattle breeds

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Received 31 August 1996; accepted 20 March /998. Mitochondrial DNA cleavage patterns from representative animals of the Afrikaner and Nguni sanga cattle breeds, indigenous to Southern Africa, were compared to the mitochondrial DNA cleavage patterns of the Brahman (zebu) and the Jersey. (taurine) cattle breeds.

  15. Impact of Forest Harvesting and Forest Regeneration on Runoff Dynamics at Watersheds of Central Siberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Onuchin

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In the paper disturbance of Angara river region forests were estimated and peculiarities of forest regeneration after logging and wild fires were analyzed. According to the landscape classification of the regional study, three groups of landscapes differencing on types of forest successions were developed. It was shown that water protective and water regulate functions of the Angara river region forests change under commercial forest harvesting. Comparisons of the inventory and hydrological data detected that hydrological consequences of commercial forest harvesting are dependent on climatic parameters and forest regeneration peculiarities. In the continental climate conditions, when forest regeneration is delayed, snow storms are more active, snow evaporation increases and runoff reduces. In the process of logging sites overgrown with secondary small-leaved forest, snow accumulation increases and runoff increases, exceeding the value of annual runoff at undisturbed watersheds.

  16. Self-identification of indigenous people in post-independence Indonesia: a historical analysis in the context of REDD+

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Royer, De S.; Visser, L.E.; Galudra, G.; Pradhan, U.; Noordwijk, van M.

    2015-01-01

    The reform era around the turn of the century in Indonesia has been followed by a revitalization of local claims to political authority and natural resources on the basis of adat and indigeneity. In May of 2013, the Constitutional Court acknowledged indigenous ownership of forest territories and

  17. Ecological species group—Environmental factors relationships in unharvested beech forests in the north of Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad Naghi Adel; Hassan Pourbabaei; Daniel C. Dey

    2014-01-01

    Beech forests are the richest forest community in Iran because they are both economically and environmentally valuable. The greatest forest volume occurs in Iran's beech forests. Forests dominated by oriental beech (Fagus orientalis Lipskey) cover about 565,000 ha and represent the total area of indigenous forests in Guilan Province. A system...

  18. Vertical migration of 85Sr, 137Cs and 131I in various arable and undisturbed soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palagyi, S.; Palagyiova, J.

    2003-01-01

    The vertical migration of 85 Sr, 137 Cs and 131 I in some arable and undisturbed single-contaminated soils was studied by gamma-spectrometry measurements under lysimetric laboratory conditions during irrigation of the soil profiles with wet atmospheric precipitation for about one year, except 131 I. A new simple exponential compartment (box) model was derived, which makes it possible to calculate the migration rate constants and migration rates in the individual soil layers (vertical sections) as well as the total vertical migration rate constants and total vertical migration rates of radionuclides in the bulk soil horizon. The relaxation times of radionuclides in respective soil horizons can also be evaluated. (author)

  19. A simplified 137Cs transport model for estimating erosion rates in undisturbed soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xinbao; Long Yi; He Xiubin; Fu Jiexiong; Zhang Yunqi

    2008-01-01

    137 Cs is an artificial radionuclide with a half-life of 30.12 years which released into the environment as a result of atmospheric testing of thermo-nuclear weapons primarily during the period of 1950s-1970s with the maximum rate of 137 Cs fallout from atmosphere in 1963. 137 Cs fallout is strongly and rapidly adsorbed by fine particles in the surface horizons of the soil, when it falls down on the ground mostly with precipitation. Its subsequent redistribution is associated with movements of the soil or sediment particles. The 137 Cs nuclide tracing technique has been used for assessment of soil losses for both undisturbed and cultivated soils. For undisturbed soils, a simple profile-shape model was developed in 1990 to describe the 137 Cs depth distribution in profile, where the maximum 137 Cs occurs in the surface horizon and it exponentially decreases with depth. The model implied that the total 137 Cs fallout amount deposited on the earth surface in 1963 and the 137 Cs profile shape has not changed with time. The model has been widely used for assessment of soil losses on undisturbed land. However, temporal variations of 137 Cs depth distribution in undisturbed soils after its deposition on the ground due to downward transport processes are not considered in the previous simple profile-shape model. Thus, the soil losses are overestimated by the model. On the base of the erosion assessment model developed by Walling, D.E., He, Q. [1999. Improved models for estimating soil erosion rates from cesium-137 measurements. Journal of Environmental Quality 28, 611-622], we discuss the 137 Cs transport process in the eroded soil profile and make some simplification to the model, develop a method to estimate the soil erosion rate more expediently. To compare the soil erosion rates calculated by the simple profile-shape model and the simple transport model, the soil losses related to different 137 Cs loss proportions of the reference inventory at the Kaixian site of the

  20. Measuring cancer in indigenous populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarfati, Diana; Garvey, Gail; Robson, Bridget; Moore, Suzanne; Cunningham, Ruth; Withrow, Diana; Griffiths, Kalinda; Caron, Nadine R; Bray, Freddie

    2018-05-01

    It is estimated that there are 370 million indigenous peoples in 90 countries globally. Indigenous peoples generally face substantial disadvantage and poorer health status compared with nonindigenous peoples. Population-level cancer surveillance provides data to set priorities, inform policies, and monitor progress over time. Measuring the cancer burden of vulnerable subpopulations, particularly indigenous peoples, is problematic. There are a number of practical and methodological issues potentially resulting in substantial underestimation of cancer incidence and mortality rates, and biased survival rates, among indigenous peoples. This, in turn, may result in a deprioritization of cancer-related programs and policies among these populations. This commentary describes key issues relating to cancer surveillance among indigenous populations including 1) suboptimal identification of indigenous populations, 2) numerator-denominator bias, 3) problems with data linkage in survival analysis, and 4) statistical analytic considerations. We suggest solutions that can be implemented to strengthen the visibility of indigenous peoples around the world. These include acknowledgment of the central importance of full engagement of indigenous peoples with all data-related processes, encouraging the use of indigenous identifiers in national and regional data sets and mitigation and/or careful assessment of biases inherent in cancer surveillance methods for indigenous peoples. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Infiltration characteristics of non-aqueous phase liquids in undisturbed loessal soil cores

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yunqiang; SHAO Ming'an

    2009-01-01

    The widespread contamination of soils and aquifers by non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPL), such as crude oil, poses serious environmental and health hazards globally. Understanding the infiltration characteristics of NAPL in soil is crucial in mitigating or remediating soil contamination. The infiltration characteristics of crude and diesel oils into undisturbed loessal soil cores, collected in polymethyl methacrylate cylindrical columns, were investigated under a constant fluid head (3 cm) of either crude oil or diesel oil. The infiltration rate of both crude and diesel oils decreased exponentially as wetting depth increased with time. Soil core size and bulk density both had a significant effect on NAPL infiltration through the undisturbed soil cores; a smaller core size or a greater bulk density both reduced oil penetration to depth. Compacting soil in areas susceptible to oil spills may be an effective way to reduce contamination. The infiltration of NAPL into soil cores was spatially anisotropic and heterogeneous, thus recording the data at four points on the soil core is a good way to improve the accuracy of experimental results. Our results provided information about crude and diesel oils, rather than their components, and may have practical value for remediation of contaminated loessal soils.

  2. Infiltration characteristics of non-aqueous phase liquids in undisturbed loessal soil cores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yunqiang; Shao, Ming'an

    2009-01-01

    The widespread contamination of soils and aquifers by non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPL), such as crude oil, poses serious environmental and health hazards globally. Understanding the infiltration characteristics of NAPL in soil is crucial in mitigating or remediating soil contamination. The infiltration characteristics of crude and diesel oils into undisturbed loessal soil cores, collected in polymethyl methacrylate cylindrical columns, were investigated under a constant fluid head (3 cm) of either crude oil or diesel oil. The infiltration rate of both crude and diesel oils decreased exponentially as wetting depth increased with time. Soil core size and bulk density both had significant effects on NAPL infiltration through the undisturbed soil cores; a smaller core size or a greater bulk density could reduce oil penetration to depth. Compacting soil in areas susceptible to oil spills may be an effective stratage to reduce contamination. The infiltration of NAPL into soil cores was spatially anisotropic and heterogeneous, thus recording the data at four points on the soil core is a good stratage to improve the accuracy of experimental results. Our results revealed that crude and diesel oils, rather than their components, have a practical value for remediation of contaminated loessal soils.

  3. Temporal comparison and predictors of fish species abundance and richness on undisturbed coral reef patches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena L.E.S. Wagner

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Large disturbances can cause rapid degradation of coral reef communities, but what baseline changes in species assemblages occur on undisturbed reefs through time? We surveyed live coral cover, reef fish abundance and fish species richness in 1997 and again in 2007 on 47 fringing patch reefs of varying size and depth at Mersa Bareika, Ras Mohammed National Park, Egypt. No major human or natural disturbance event occurred between these two survey periods in this remote protected area. In the absence of large disturbances, we found that live coral cover, reef fish abundance and fish species richness did not differ in 1997 compared to 2007. Fish abundance and species richness on patches was largely related to the presence of shelters (caves and/or holes, live coral cover and patch size (volume. The presence of the ectoparasite-eating cleaner wrasse, Labroides dimidiatus, was also positively related to fish species richness. Our results underscore the importance of physical reef characteristics, such as patch size and shelter availability, in addition to biotic characteristics, such as live coral cover and cleaner wrasse abundance, in supporting reef fish species richness and abundance through time in a relatively undisturbed and understudied region.

  4. Indigenous Australian Education and Globalisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Wendy

    1997-09-01

    This article focuses on the impact of colonisation and its associated impact on Indigenous teaching and learning. Western European institutions have dominated Indigenous ways of knowing and in Australia this has led to barriers which restrict the participation of Aboriginal people in education systems. Globally Indigenous people are attempting to bring into the introduced educational systems culturally appropriate teaching and learning practices so that a more holistic approach to education can become the norm rather than the exception. The relationship between Indigenous knowledge and western European concepts of knowledge and knowing need to placed in a framework of mutual interaction so that not only do Indigenous people benefit, but so do non-Indigenous educators and students.

  5. Status of the undisturbed mangroves at Brunei Bay, East Malaysia: a preliminary assessment based on remote sensing and ground-truth observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behara Satyanarayana

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Brunei Bay, which receives freshwater discharge from four major rivers, namely Limbang, Sundar, Weston and Menumbok, hosts a luxuriant mangrove cover in East Malaysia. However, this relatively undisturbed mangrove forest has been less scientifically explored, especially in terms of vegetation structure, ecosystem services and functioning, and land-use/cover changes. In the present study, mangrove areal extent together with species composition and distribution at the four notified estuaries was evaluated through remote sensing (Advanced Land Observation Satellite—ALOS and ground-truth (Point-Centred Quarter Method—PCQM observations. As of 2010, the total mangrove cover was found to be ca. 35,183.74 ha, of which Weston and Menumbok occupied more than two-folds (58%, followed by Sundar (27% and Limbang (15%. The medium resolution ALOS data were efficient for mapping dominant mangrove species such as Nypa fruticans, Rhizophora apiculata, Sonneratia caseolaris, S. alba and Xylocarpus granatum in the vicinity (accuracy: 80%. The PCQM estimates found a higher basal area at Limbang and Menumbok—suggestive of more mature vegetation, compared to Sundar and Weston. Mangrove stand structural complexity (derived from the complexity index was also high in the order of Limbang > Menumbok > Sundar > Weston and supporting the perspective of less/undisturbed vegetation at two former locations. Both remote sensing and ground-truth observations have complementarily represented the distribution of Sonneratia spp. as pioneer vegetation at shallow river mouths, N. fruticans in the areas of strong freshwater discharge, R. apiculata in the areas of strong neritic incursion and X. granatum at interior/elevated grounds. The results from this study would be able to serve as strong baseline data for future mangrove investigations at Brunei Bay, including for monitoring and management purposes locally at present.

  6. Status of the undisturbed mangroves at Brunei Bay, East Malaysia: a preliminary assessment based on remote sensing and ground-truth observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izzaty Horsali, Nurul Amira; Mat Zauki, Nurul Ashikin; Otero, Viviana; Nadzri, Muhammad Izuan; Ibrahim, Sulong; Husain, Mohd-Lokman; Dahdouh-Guebas, Farid

    2018-01-01

    Brunei Bay, which receives freshwater discharge from four major rivers, namely Limbang, Sundar, Weston and Menumbok, hosts a luxuriant mangrove cover in East Malaysia. However, this relatively undisturbed mangrove forest has been less scientifically explored, especially in terms of vegetation structure, ecosystem services and functioning, and land-use/cover changes. In the present study, mangrove areal extent together with species composition and distribution at the four notified estuaries was evaluated through remote sensing (Advanced Land Observation Satellite—ALOS) and ground-truth (Point-Centred Quarter Method—PCQM) observations. As of 2010, the total mangrove cover was found to be ca. 35,183.74 ha, of which Weston and Menumbok occupied more than two-folds (58%), followed by Sundar (27%) and Limbang (15%). The medium resolution ALOS data were efficient for mapping dominant mangrove species such as Nypa fruticans, Rhizophora apiculata, Sonneratia caseolaris, S. alba and Xylocarpus granatum in the vicinity (accuracy: 80%). The PCQM estimates found a higher basal area at Limbang and Menumbok—suggestive of more mature vegetation, compared to Sundar and Weston. Mangrove stand structural complexity (derived from the complexity index) was also high in the order of Limbang > Menumbok > Sundar > Weston and supporting the perspective of less/undisturbed vegetation at two former locations. Both remote sensing and ground-truth observations have complementarily represented the distribution of Sonneratia spp. as pioneer vegetation at shallow river mouths, N. fruticans in the areas of strong freshwater discharge, R. apiculata in the areas of strong neritic incursion and X. granatum at interior/elevated grounds. The results from this study would be able to serve as strong baseline data for future mangrove investigations at Brunei Bay, including for monitoring and management purposes locally at present. PMID:29479500

  7. Status of the undisturbed mangroves at Brunei Bay, East Malaysia: a preliminary assessment based on remote sensing and ground-truth observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satyanarayana, Behara; M Muslim, Aidy; Izzaty Horsali, Nurul Amira; Mat Zauki, Nurul Ashikin; Otero, Viviana; Nadzri, Muhammad Izuan; Ibrahim, Sulong; Husain, Mohd-Lokman; Dahdouh-Guebas, Farid

    2018-01-01

    Brunei Bay, which receives freshwater discharge from four major rivers, namely Limbang, Sundar, Weston and Menumbok, hosts a luxuriant mangrove cover in East Malaysia. However, this relatively undisturbed mangrove forest has been less scientifically explored, especially in terms of vegetation structure, ecosystem services and functioning, and land-use/cover changes. In the present study, mangrove areal extent together with species composition and distribution at the four notified estuaries was evaluated through remote sensing (Advanced Land Observation Satellite-ALOS) and ground-truth (Point-Centred Quarter Method-PCQM) observations. As of 2010, the total mangrove cover was found to be ca. 35,183.74 ha, of which Weston and Menumbok occupied more than two-folds (58%), followed by Sundar (27%) and Limbang (15%). The medium resolution ALOS data were efficient for mapping dominant mangrove species such as Nypa fruticans , Rhizophora apiculata , Sonneratia caseolaris , S. alba and Xylocarpus granatum in the vicinity (accuracy: 80%). The PCQM estimates found a higher basal area at Limbang and Menumbok-suggestive of more mature vegetation, compared to Sundar and Weston. Mangrove stand structural complexity (derived from the complexity index) was also high in the order of Limbang > Menumbok > Sundar > Weston and supporting the perspective of less/undisturbed vegetation at two former locations. Both remote sensing and ground-truth observations have complementarily represented the distribution of Sonneratia spp. as pioneer vegetation at shallow river mouths, N. fruticans in the areas of strong freshwater discharge, R. apiculata in the areas of strong neritic incursion and X. granatum at interior/elevated grounds. The results from this study would be able to serve as strong baseline data for future mangrove investigations at Brunei Bay, including for monitoring and management purposes locally at present.

  8. A report on the indigenous peoples, gender and natural resource management

    OpenAIRE

    Sherpa, L.

    2004-01-01

    Although indigenous people in Nepal play a significant role in biodiversity, most programs failed to address their needs. The majority of the indigenous populations live in remote mountain areas; this along with the political unrest in the country is the reason why programs do not target these communities. Women, on the other hand, also play a significant and important role in agriculture labor, forest resource management, and environmental sustainability, but still continue to have very litt...

  9. The Double Binds of Indigeneity and Indigenous Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis Ludlow

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available During the twentieth century, indigenous peoples have often embraced the category of indigenous while also having to face the ambiguities and limitations of this concept. Indigeneity, whether represented by indigenous people themselves or others, tends to face a “double bind”, as defined by Gregory Bateson, in which “no matter what a person does, he can’t win.” One exit strategy suggested by Bateson is meta-communication—communication about communication—in which new solutions emerge from a questioning of system-internal assumptions. We offer case studies from Ecuador, Peru and Alaska that chart some recent indigenous experiences and strategies for such scenarios.

  10. Colloid and phosphorus leaching from undisturbed soil cores sampled along a natural clay gradient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vendelboe, Anders Lindblad; Møldrup, Per; Heckrath, Goswin Johann

    2011-01-01

    correlated to the accumulated outflow and was described as a diffusion controlled process, using ¾(accumulated outflow). The mass of leached particles was positively correlated to the clay content as well as to water-dispersible colloids. Particulate phosphorus (P) was linearly correlated to concentration......The presence of strongly sorbing compounds in groundwater and tile drains can be a result of colloid-facilitated transport. Colloid and phosphorus leaching from macropores in undisturbed soil cores sampled across a natural clay gradient at Aarup, Denmark, were studied. The aim of the study...... was to correlate easily measurable soil properties, such as clay content and water-dispersible colloids, to colloid and phosphorus leaching. The clay contents across the gradient ranged from 0.11 to 0.23 kg kgj1. Irrigating with artificial rainwater, all samples showed a high first flush of colloids and phosphorus...

  11. Derivation of 137Cs deposition density from measurement of 137Cs inventories in undisturbed soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hien, P.D.; Hiep, H.T.; Quang, N.H.; Huy, N.Q.; Binh, N.T.; Hai, P.S.; Long, N.Q.; Bac, V.T

    2012-01-01

    The 137 Cs inventories in undisturbed soils were measured for 292 locations across the territory of Vietnam. the logarithmic inventory values were regressed against characteristics of sampling sites, such as geographical coordinates, annual rainfall and physico-chemical parameters of soil. The regression model containing latitude and annual rainfall as determinants could explain 76% of the variations in logarithmic inventory values across the territory. The model part was interpreted as the logarithmic 137 Cs deposition density. At the 95% confidence level, 137 Cs deposition density could be predicted be the model ± 7% relative uncertainty. the latitude mean 137 Cs deposition density increases northward from 237 Bq m -2 to 1097 Bq m -2 , while the corresponding values derived from the UNSCEAR (1969) global pattern are 300 Bq m -2 and 600 Bq m -2 . High 137 Cs inputs were found in high-rainfall areas in northern and central parts of the territory. (author)

  12. A method for measuring element fluxes in an undisturbed soil: nitrogen and carbon from earthworms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouche, M.B.

    1984-01-01

    Data on chemical cycles, as nitrogen or carbon cycles, are extrapolated to the fields or ecosystems without the possibility for checking conclusions; i.e. from scientific knowledge (para-ecology). A new method, by natural introduction of an earthworm compartment into an undisturbed soil, with earthworms labelled both by isotopes ( 15 N, 14 C) and by staining is described. This method allows us to measure fluxes of chemicals. The first results, gathered during the improvement of the method in partly artificial conditions, are cross-checked with other data given by direct observation in the field. Measured flux (2.2 mg N/g fresh mass empty gut/day/15 0 C) is far more important than para-ecological estimations; animal metabolism plays directly an important role in nitrogen and carbon cycles. (author)

  13. Indigenous Empowerment through Collective Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enn, Rosa

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to draw attention to an indigenous community that lives in the periphery of Taiwan. The Dao on Orchid Island have had to face serious abuse of their human rights in terms of ecological exploitation and environmental injustice. The article highlights the empowerment of the indigenous group through collective…

  14. Indigenous rights, performativity and protest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hanna, Philippe; Langdon, Esther Jean; Vanclay, Frank

    Protests to claim rights are a common practice among Indigenous peoples of the world, especially when their interests conflict with those of nation states and/or multinational corporations regarding the use of their lands and resources. Drawing on a case study of the National Indigenous Mobilization

  15. Indigenous education and heritage revitalization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ke, Wen-Li

    2011-01-01

    The thesis (working title: 'Indigenous Education and Heritage Revitalization') focuses on the (possible) roles of tangible and intangible cultural heritage in the education of indigenous peoples in Taiwan, against the background of worldwide discussions and studies of the possibilities to create and

  16. Indigenous knowledges driving technological innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilian Alessa; Carlos Andrade; Phil Cash Cash; Christian P. Giardina; Matt Hamabata; Craig Hammer; Kai Henifin; Lee Joachim; Jay T. Johnson; Kekuhi Kealiikanakaoleohaililani; Deanna Kingston; Andrew Kliskey; Renee Pualani Louis; Amanda Lynch; Daryn McKenny; Chels Marshall; Mere Roberts; Taupouri Tangaro; Jyl Wheaton-Abraham; Everett. Wingert

    2011-01-01

    This policy brief explores the use and expands the conversation on the ability of geospatial technologies to represent Indigenous cultural knowledge. Indigenous peoples' use of geospatial technologies has already proven to be a critical step for protecting tribal self-determination. However, the ontological frameworks and techniques of Western geospatial...

  17. The Indigenous Old World Passifloras

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilde, de W.J.J.O.

    1972-01-01

    A short revision of the indigenous Old World taxa in Passifiora in the form of a key, the enumeration of synonyms, descriptions, and an index accounting for all names proposed for the area. Examined specimens, distributional areas, and some notes are given. In the Old World 20 indigenous species are

  18. Protecting indigenous land from mining

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borde, Radhika

    2017-01-01

    Support for indigenous peoples has been increasing over the last few decades. This can be seen internationally, as well as in several domestic contexts. The support for indigenous people has been linked to the increasingly prominent impetus to conserve the Earth’s biodiversity and environment.

  19. Continuous arterial PO2 profiles in unrestrained, undisturbed aquatic turtles during routine behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, James W.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Mammals and birds maintain high arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PO2) values in order to preserve near-complete hemoglobin (Hb) oxygen (O2) saturation. In diving mammals and birds, arterial O2 follows a primarily monotonic decline and then recovers quickly after dives. In laboratory studies of submerged freshwater turtles, arterial O2 depletion typically follows a similar pattern. However, in these studies, turtles were disturbed, frequently tethered to external equipment and confined either to small tanks or breathing holes. Aquatic turtles can alter cardiac shunting patterns, which will affect arterial PO2 values. Consequently, little is known about arterial O2 regulation and use in undisturbed turtles. We conducted the first study to continuously measure arterial PO2 using implanted microelectrodes and a backpack logger in undisturbed red-eared sliders during routine activities. Arterial PO2 profiles during submergences varied dramatically, with no consistent patterns. Arterial PO2 was also lower than previously reported during all activities, with values rarely above 50 mmHg (85% Hb saturation). There was no difference in mean PO2 between five different activities: submerged resting, swimming, basking, resting at the surface and when a person was present. These results suggest significant cardiac shunting occurs during routine activities as well as submergences. However, the lack of relationship between PO2 and any activity suggests that cardiac shunts are not regulated to maintain high arterial PO2 values. These data support the idea that cardiac shunting is the passive by-product of regulation of vascular resistances by the autonomic nervous system. PMID:27618860

  20. Continuous arterial PO2 profiles in unrestrained, undisturbed aquatic turtles during routine behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Cassondra L; Hicks, James W

    2016-11-15

    Mammals and birds maintain high arterial partial pressure of oxygen (P O 2 ) values in order to preserve near-complete hemoglobin (Hb) oxygen (O 2 ) saturation. In diving mammals and birds, arterial O 2 follows a primarily monotonic decline and then recovers quickly after dives. In laboratory studies of submerged freshwater turtles, arterial O 2 depletion typically follows a similar pattern. However, in these studies, turtles were disturbed, frequently tethered to external equipment and confined either to small tanks or breathing holes. Aquatic turtles can alter cardiac shunting patterns, which will affect arterial P O 2  values. Consequently, little is known about arterial O 2 regulation and use in undisturbed turtles. We conducted the first study to continuously measure arterial P O 2  using implanted microelectrodes and a backpack logger in undisturbed red-eared sliders during routine activities. Arterial P O 2  profiles during submergences varied dramatically, with no consistent patterns. Arterial P O 2  was also lower than previously reported during all activities, with values rarely above 50 mmHg (85% Hb saturation). There was no difference in mean P O 2  between five different activities: submerged resting, swimming, basking, resting at the surface and when a person was present. These results suggest significant cardiac shunting occurs during routine activities as well as submergences. However, the lack of relationship between P O 2  and any activity suggests that cardiac shunts are not regulated to maintain high arterial P O 2  values. These data support the idea that cardiac shunting is the passive by-product of regulation of vascular resistances by the autonomic nervous system. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  1. Gamma ray transmission for hydraulic conductivity measurement of undisturbed soil columns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Camargo Moreira

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available This work had the objective to determine the Hydraulic Conductivity K(theta function for different depth levels z, of columns of undisturbed soil, using the gamma ray transmission technique applied to the Sisson method. The results indicated a growing behavior for K(theta and a homogeneous soil density, both in relation to the increase of the depth. The methodology of gamma ray transmission showed satisfactory results on the determination of the hydraulic conductivity in columns of undisturbed soil, besides being very reliable and a nondestructive method.O estudo da condutividade hidráulica para solos não saturados é essencial quando aplicado às situações relacionadas à irrigação, drenagem e transporte de nutrientes no solo, é uma importante propriedade para desenvolvimentos de culturas agrícolas. Este trabalho tem o objetivo de determinar a função Condutividade Hidráulica K(teta, em diferentes níveis z de profundidade, em colunas de solo indeformado, utilizando a transmissão de raios gama aplicada ao método de Sisson. Os resultados indicam um comportamento crescente para K(teta e uma densidade de solo homogênea, ambos em relação ao aumento da profundidade. A metodologia de transmissão de raios gama mostrou resultados bastante satisfatórios na determinação da condutividade hidráulica em colunas de solo indeformado, além de ser muito confiável e não destrutivo.

  2. Ant species richness of fynbos and forest ecosystems in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ant fauna in fynbos and forest habitats in the southern Cape are compared. There is no significant difference in ant species richness between the two undisturbed habitat types, and the only two species common to both are Acantholepis capensis and Camponotus maculatus. The degree of Hakea sericea infestation in ...

  3. Water budgets of two forested watersheds in South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge Sun; Jianbiao Lu; David L. Gartner; Masato Miwa; Carl C. Trettin

    2000-01-01

    Wetland protection, restoration and management require detail information of the water budgets for a particular system. Relatively undisturbed systems with long-term hydrologic records are extremely valuable for developing reference wetlands and detecting effects of management. Two forested flatwoods watersheds in the lower coastal plain of South Carolina have been...

  4. Prior indigenous technological species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Jason T.

    2018-01-01

    One of the primary open questions of astrobiology is whether there is extant or extinct life elsewhere the solar system. Implicit in much of this work is that we are looking for microbial or, at best, unintelligent life, even though technological artefacts might be much easier to find. Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI) work on searches for alien artefacts in the solar system typically presumes that such artefacts would be of extrasolar origin, even though life is known to have existed in the solar system, on Earth, for eons. But if a prior technological, perhaps spacefaring, species ever arose in the solar system, it might have produced artefacts or other technosignatures that have survived to present day, meaning solar system artefact SETI provides a potential path to resolving astrobiology's question. Here, I discuss the origins and possible locations for technosignatures of such a prior indigenous technological species, which might have arisen on ancient Earth or another body, such as a pre-greenhouse Venus or a wet Mars. In the case of Venus, the arrival of its global greenhouse and potential resurfacing might have erased all evidence of its existence on the Venusian surface. In the case of Earth, erosion and, ultimately, plate tectonics may have erased most such evidence if the species lived Gyr ago. Remaining indigenous technosignatures might be expected to be extremely old, limiting the places they might still be found to beneath the surfaces of Mars and the Moon, or in the outer solar system.

  5. A Special Issue of the Journal of Forestry—Tribal Forest Management: Innovations for Sustainable Forest Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael J. Dockry; Serra J. Hoagland

    2017-01-01

    Native American forests and tribal forest management practices have sustained indigenous communities, economies, and resources for millennia. These systems provide a wealth of knowledge and successful applications of long-term environmental stewardship and integrated, sustainable forest management. Tribal forestry has received an increasing amount of attention from...

  6. Human Rights and Indigenous Peoples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garth Nettheim

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper begins by noting the low level of reference to Indigenous Australians in the Commonwealth Constitution at the start of Federation, and goes on to discuss the limits to what was achieved by the 1967 amendments. The situation represents a marked contrast with the USA and Canada in terms of treaties and constitutional recognition. In Australia, particularly during the period of the ‘Reconciliation’ process in the 1990s, important steps were taken by Indigenous Australians to identify items of ‘unfinished business’ in a ‘Statement of Indigenous Rights’. But there has been limited progress to meet these aspirations. And Australian law still lacks a tradition of recognition of human rights generally, let alone Indigenous rights. International law, too, largely lacked recognition of human rights, generally prior to the adoption in 1945 of the Charter of the United Nations. The brief references in the Charter were subsequently developed in a range of declarations and of treaties. These applied to people generally, with scant reference to Indigenous peoples. But, since the 1970s, there has been growing international recognition of the rights of Indigenous peoples under existing declarations and treaties. Since the 1990s, in particular, the UN system has established specific mechanisms for addressing such issues. On 13 September 2007, the General Assembly finally adopted a Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples.

  7. Indigenous Educational Attainment in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine E. Gordon

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the educational attainment of Indigenous peoples of working age (25 to 64 years in Canada is examined. This diverse population has typically had lower educational levels than the general population in Canada. Results indicate that, while on the positive side there are a greater number of highly educated Indigenous peoples, there is also a continuing gap between Indigenous and non-Indigenous peoples. Data also indicate that the proportion with less than high school education declined, which corresponds with a rise of those with a PSE; the reverse was true in 1996. Despite these gains, however, the large and increasing absolute numbers of those without a high school education is alarming. There are intra-Indigenous differences: First Nations with Indian Status and the Inuit are not doing as well as non-Status and Métis peoples. Comparisons between the Indigenous and non-Indigenous populations reveal that the documented gap in post-secondary educational attainment is at best stagnant. Out of the data analysis, and based on the history of educational policy, we comment on the current reform proposed by the Government of Canada, announced in February of 2014, and propose several policy recommendations to move educational attainment forward.

  8. Indigenous innovation in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jin, Jun; Slepniov, Dmitrij

    2012-01-01

    champions. However, recently growing number of Chinese companies are seeking to create a foundation for growth and development based on innovation. As a result of this, many of them spread their operations to the countries of the traditional industrial ‘triad’ of North America, Europe and Japan to capture...... a foothold in these markets and to tap into the advanced technologies and concepts originating from this developed context. Another category of Chinese companies includes those who seek to move from routine transactional tasks to more innovation-intensive concepts while remaining in China and relying...... on their own in-house resources. The development and implementation of indigenous innovation solutions for these companies is an imperative which has not been adequately addressed in the literature. Therefore, by employing an explorative case of a Chinese company behind an innovative logistics concept...

  9. Concrete - Opalinus clay interaction: in-situ experiment and technique for coring undisturbed interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeder, U.; Dolder, F.; Jenni, A.; Schwyn, B.; Frieg, B.; Eul, A.

    2012-01-01

    undisturbed samples of the different interfaces with concrete. A first sampling campaign in 2009 used a simple stabilisation technique with a central anchor rod that was glued in before coring. It was impossible to retrieve completely undisturbed samples. A new technique was developed for the drilling campaign during February 2012, and it was successfully applied in all four sampling boreholes carried out, retrieving a total of 150 kg of core and 10 physically and chemically undisturbed interface samples. The technique comprised intersection drilling at 45 deg. inclination and 220 mm OD to within 50 cm of the vertical concrete pile. The base was reamed planar, and templates were installed to drill a circular arrangement of 6 boreholes with 46 mm OD, three at a time. These small boreholes extended across the entire pile (1.4-1.6 m), and anchor rods made of fibre glass and filled with cement were embedded with epoxy resin. A different template was subsequently used to over-core (131 mm OD / 101 mm core DM, double-barrel, acrylic liner) cutting through the reinforcements. Stabilized composite cores of 1.4-1.6 m length could be retrieved in this manner. (authors)

  10. Indigenous Research on Chinese Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Peter Ping; Leung, Kwok; Chen, Chao C.

    2012-01-01

    We attempt to provide a definition and a typology of indigenous research on Chinese management as well as outline the general methodological approaches for this type of research. We also present an integrative summary of the four articles included in this special issue and show how they illustrate...... our definition and typology of indigenous research on Chinese management, as well as the various methodological approaches we advocate. Further, we introduce a commentary on the four articles from the perspective of engaged scholarship, and also three additional articles included in this issue....... Finally, we conclude with our suggestions for future indigenous research....

  11. Nitrogen transformations and greenhouse gas emissions from a riparian wetland soil: An undisturbed soil column study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munoz-Leoz, Borja [Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, University of the Basque Country, UPV/EHU, E-48013 Bilbao (Spain); Antigueedad, Inaki [Department of Geodynamic, University of the Basque Country, UPV/EHU, E-48940 Leioa (Spain); Garbisu, Carlos [Department of Ecosystems, NEIKER-Tecnalia, E-48160 Derio (Spain); Ruiz-Romera, Estilita, E-mail: estilita.ruiz@ehu.es [Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, University of the Basque Country, UPV/EHU, E-48013 Bilbao (Spain)

    2011-01-15

    Riparian wetlands bordering intensively managed agricultural fields can act as biological filters that retain and transform agrochemicals such as nitrate and pesticides. Nitrate removal in wetlands has usually been attributed to denitrification processes which in turn imply the production of greenhouse gases (CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}O). Denitrification processes were studied in the Salburua wetland (northern Spain) by using undisturbed soil columns which were subsequently divided into three sections corresponding to A-, Bg- and B2g-soil horizons. Soil horizons were subjected to leaching with a 200 mg NO{sub 3}{sup -} L{sup -1} solution (rate: 90 mL day{sup -1}) for 125 days at two different temperatures (10 and 20 {sup o}C), using a new experimental design for leaching assays which enabled not only to evaluate leachate composition but also to measure gas emissions during the leaching process. Column leachate samples were analyzed for NO{sub 3}{sup -} concentration, NH{sub 4}{sup +} concentration, and dissolved organic carbon. Emissions of greenhouse gases (CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}O) were determined in the undisturbed soil columns. The A horizon at 20 {sup o}C showed the highest rates of NO{sub 3}{sup -} removal (1.56 mg N-NO{sub 3}{sup -} kg{sup -1} DW soil day{sup -1}) and CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}O production (5.89 mg CO{sub 2} kg{sup -1} DW soil day{sup -1} and 55.71 {mu}g N-N{sub 2}O kg{sup -1} DW soil day{sup -1}). For the Salburua wetland riparian soil, we estimated a potential nitrate removal capacity of 1012 kg N-NO{sub 3}{sup -} ha{sup -1} year{sup -1}, and potential greenhouse gas emissions of 5620 kg CO{sub 2} ha{sup -1} year{sup -1} and 240 kg N-N{sub 2}O ha{sup -1} year{sup -1}. - Research Highlights: {yields}A new experimental design is proposed for leaching assays to simulate nitrogen transformations in riparian wetland soil. {yields}Denitrification is the main process responsible for nitrate removal in the riparian zone of Salburua wetland. {yields

  12. 3D-printing of undisturbed soil imaged by X-ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacher, Matthias; Koestel, John; Schwen, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    The unique pore structures in Soils are altered easily by water flow. Each sample has a different morphology and the results of repetitions vary as well. Soil macropores in 3D-printed durable material avoid erosion and have a known morphology. Therefore potential and limitations of reproducing an undisturbed soil sample by 3D-printing was evaluated. We scanned an undisturbed soil column of Ultuna clay soil with a diameter of 7 cm by micro X-ray computer tomography at a resolution of 51 micron. A subsample cube of 2.03 cm length with connected macropores was cut out from this 3D-image and printed in five different materials by a 3D-printing service provider. The materials were ABS, Alumide, High Detail Resin, Polyamide and Prime Grey. The five print-outs of the subsample were tested on their hydraulic conductivity by using the falling head method. The hydrophobicity was tested by an adapted sessile drop method. To determine the morphology of the print-outs and compare it to the real soil also the print-outs were scanned by X-ray. The images were analysed with the open source program ImageJ. The five 3D-image print-outs copied from the subsample of the soil column were compared by means of their macropore network connectivity, porosity, surface volume, tortuosity and skeleton. The comparison of pore morphology between the real soil and the print-outs showed that Polyamide reproduced the soil macropore structure best while Alumide print-out was the least detailed. Only the largest macropore was represented in all five print-outs. Printing residual material or printing aid material remained in and clogged the pores of all print-out materials apart from Prime Grey. Therefore infiltration was blocked in these print-outs and the materials are not suitable even though the 3D-printed pore shapes were well reproduced. All of the investigated materials were insoluble. The sessile drop method showed angles between 53 and 85 degrees. Prime Grey had the fastest flow rate; the

  13. Forest nutrient and carbon pools at Walker Branch watershed: changes during a 21-year period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl C. Trettin; D.W. Johnson; D.E. Todd

    1999-01-01

    A 21-yr perspective on changes in nutrient and C pools on undisturbed upland forest sites is provided. Plots originally representing four cover types have been sampled three times. On each plot, forest biomass, forest floor, and soil, to a depth of 60 cm, were measured, sampled, and analyzed for Ca, Mg, C, N, and P. Exchangeable soil Ca and Mg have declined in most...

  14. The gambling behavior of indigenous Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hing, Nerilee; Breen, Helen; Gordon, Ashley; Russell, Alex

    2014-06-01

    The gambling activities of minority groups such as Indigenous peoples are usually culturally complex and poorly understood. To redress the scarcity of information and contribute to a better understanding of gambling by Indigenous people, this paper presents quantitative evidence gathered at three Australian Indigenous festivals, online and in several Indigenous communities. With support from Indigenous communities, the study collected and analyzed surveys from 1,259 self-selected Indigenous adults. Approximately 33 % of respondents gambled on card games while 80 % gambled on commercial gambling forms in the previous year. Gambling participation and involvement are high, particularly on electronic gaming machines (EGMs), the favorite and most regular form of gambling. Men are significantly more likely to participate in gambling and to gamble more frequently on EGMs, horse/dog races, sports betting and instant scratch tickets. This elevated participation and frequency of gambling on continuous forms would appear to heighten gambling risks for Indigenous men. This is particularly the case for younger Indigenous men, who are more likely than their older counterparts to gamble on EGMs, table games and poker. While distinct differences between the gambling behaviors of our Indigenous sample and non-Indigenous Australians are apparent, Australian Indigenous behavior appears similar to that of some Indigenous and First Nations populations in other countries. Although this study represents the largest survey of Indigenous Australian gambling ever conducted in New South Wales and Queensland, further research is needed to extend our knowledge of Indigenous gambling and to limit the risks from gambling for Indigenous peoples.

  15. Drug Policy and Indigenous Peoples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Julian; Kapron, Mary

    2017-06-01

    This paper identifies the principal concerns of indigenous peoples with regard to current international treaties on certain psychoactive substances and policies to control and eradicate their production, trafficking, and sale. Indigenous peoples have a specific interest in the issue since their traditional lands have become integrated over time into the large-scale production of coca, opium poppy, and cannabis crops, in response to high demand from the American and European markets, among others. As a consequence, indigenous peoples are persecuted because of their traditional use of these and other plant-based narcotics and hallucinogens. They are also victims of the drug producers who remove them from their lands or forcibly recruit them into the production process. As indigenous peoples are caught in the violent world of illicit drug production, law enforcement often targets them first, resulting in disproportionate rates of criminalization and incarceration.

  16. Indigenous Technological Innovation : Capability and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Indigenous Technological Innovation : Capability and Competitiveness in China's ... IDRC and key partners will showcase critical work on adaptation and ... Call for new OWSD Fellowships for Early Career Women Scientists now open.

  17. Comparison of diffusion from a small island and an undisturbed ocean site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raynor, G.S.; Brown, R.M.; SethuRaman, S.

    1978-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to investigate the differences in diffusion from an obstacle to free air flow in the ocean and from an undisturbed ocean site. A small island was used as the obstacle and simultaneous releases of oil-fog smoke were made from the island and from a nearby boat. The widths of the plumes and their concentrations distributions were measured quantitatively during traverses across the plumes by a second boat. Extensive series of photographs were taken of the plumes from the surface and from the air. Meteorological measurements were made at two locations on the island, from the boats and from an aircraft. One test series was conducted during unstable conditions and a second series with neutral and stable conditions.Width of the island plume over short periods was from 1.5 to 4 times that of the boat plume with the greatest difference during stable periods. Over longer periods, the differences were somewhat greater and much of the dispersion was caused by plume meander. Height of the island plume averaged about twice that of the boat plume. Normalized maximum centerline concentrations from the boat plume were 1.4 times those of the island plume during unstable periods but about twice during stable and neutral conditions. Averaged over all tests, dispersion from the island was about twice as great as from the boat

  18. Vertical migration of 85Sr, 137Cs and 131I in various arable and undisturbed soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palagyi, S.; Palagyiova, J.

    2002-01-01

    Vertical migration of 85 Sr, 137 Cs and 131 I in some arable and undisturbed single-contaminated soils was studied by gamma-spectrometry measurements in lysimetric laboratory conditions applying irrigation of the soil profiles with wet atmospheric precipitation for about one year (except radioiodine). A new simple exponential compartment (box) model was derived, allowing us to calculate the migration rate constants and migration rates in the individual soil layers (vertical sections) as well as the total vertical migration rate constants and total vertical migration rates of radionuclides in the bulk soil horizon. The data from the time dependence of the depth activity distribution (radionuclide concentration along the vertical soil profile) were used to test the model. The migration rate constants and migration rates were found to be affected by the contaminating radionuclides as well as by the site, type and depth of the soil. The relaxation times of the radionuclides in the soil horizons were calculated. The effects on the rate parameters of the permanent grass cover and the zeolite applied onto the arable soil surfaces were also investigated

  19. Cesium-137 inventories in undisturbed areas in different regions of Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrello, Avacir C.; Appoloni, Carlos R., E-mail: acandrello@uel.b [Universidade Estadual de Londrina, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica; Araujo, Ednaldo S. [EMBRAPA Agrobiologia, Seropedica, RJ (Brazil); Thomaz, Edivaldo L. [Universidade Estadual do Centro-Oeste - UNICENTRO, Guarapuava, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Geografia; Medeiros, Pedro Henrique Augusto [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Agricola; Macedo, Iris L. [Universidade de Brasilia (UnB), DF (Brazil). Faculdade de Tecnologia. Dept. de Engenharia Civil e Ambiental

    2009-07-01

    Cesium-137 is an anthropogenic radionuclide introduced in the environment in the early of 1960s to the end of 1970s. The Cesium-137 has very used to assess soil redistribution in the landscape because this is very tight in the fine soil particles and its movement in the landscape is due to soil redistribution. To use Cesium-137 to assess soil redistribution is need to known the Cesium-137 inventory in an area that not has experimented soil erosion neither soil deposition. So, this work present Cesium-137 inventories in undisturbed areas in different regions of Brazil, from South to Northeast of Brazil. The inventories in these areas represent the variational deposition of Cesium-137 in the whole national territory of Brazil. The inventories of Cesium-137 varied from 200 +- 15 Bq.m{sup -2} for South region to 15 +- 2 Bq.m{sup -2} for Northeast region. Moreover, was verified that the Cesium- 137 inventories depend on latitude and altitude of the area. (author)

  20. Cesium-137 inventories in undisturbed areas in different regions of Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrello, Avacir C.; Appoloni, Carlos R.; Thomaz, Edivaldo L.; Medeiros, Pedro Henrique Augusto; Macedo, Iris L.

    2009-01-01

    Cesium-137 is an anthropogenic radionuclide introduced in the environment in the early of 1960s to the end of 1970s. The Cesium-137 has very used to assess soil redistribution in the landscape because this is very tight in the fine soil particles and its movement in the landscape is due to soil redistribution. To use Cesium-137 to assess soil redistribution is need to known the Cesium-137 inventory in an area that not has experimented soil erosion neither soil deposition. So, this work present Cesium-137 inventories in undisturbed areas in different regions of Brazil, from South to Northeast of Brazil. The inventories in these areas represent the variational deposition of Cesium-137 in the whole national territory of Brazil. The inventories of Cesium-137 varied from 200 ± 15 Bq.m -2 for South region to 15 ± 2 Bq.m -2 for Northeast region. Moreover, was verified that the Cesium- 137 inventories depend on latitude and altitude of the area. (author)

  1. The ecological half-life of 137Cs in undisturbed silt soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drosg, M.

    2012-01-01

    The time necessary to safely cultivate agricultural areas after they have been contaminated by radioactivity (e.g. after the Chernobyl accident) is not determined by the physical half-life of the radioactive isotopes in question but by their (usually much shorter) ecological half-life (). This half-life not only depends on the type of soil but also on whether the soil was fertilized or not. Therefore it is not possible to determine an ecological half-life that is universally valid. However, the value for undisturbed, unfertilized soil should provide a general indication for the duration of ecological half-life. In a silt soil in Vienna, Austria, the ecological half-life of 137 Cs was determined to be 0.8 years, which is much shorter than the physical half-life of 30 years. - Highlights: ► Absolute measurements of 137 Cs radioactivity in leaves of perennial plants. ► The natural 40 K radioactivity served as reference. ► The ecological half-life of 137 Cs in loamy soil was determined.

  2. Comparative study of methods to estimate hydraulic parameters in the hydraulically undisturbed Opalinus Clay (Switzerland)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, C.; Matray, J.-M. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire, Fontenay-aux-Roses, (France); Yu, C.; Gonçalvès, J. [Aix Marseille Université UMR 6635 CEREGE Technopôle Environnement Arbois-Méditerranée Aix-en-Provence, Cedex 4 (France); and others

    2017-04-15

    The deep borehole (DB) experiment gave the opportunity to acquire hydraulic parameters in a hydraulically undisturbed zone of the Opalinus Clay at the Mont Terri rock laboratory (Switzerland). Three methods were used to estimate hydraulic conductivity and specific storage values of the Opalinus Clay formation and its bounding formations through the 248 m deep borehole BDB-1: application of a Poiseuille-type law involving petrophysical measurements, spectral analysis of pressure time series and in situ hydraulic tests. The hydraulic conductivity range in the Opalinus Clay given by the first method is 2 × 10{sup -14}-6 × 10{sup -13} m s{sup -1} for a cementation factor ranging between 2 and 3. These results show low vertical variability whereas in situ hydraulic tests suggest higher values up to 7 × 10{sup -12} m s{sup -1}. Core analysis provides economical estimates of the homogeneous matrix hydraulic properties but do not account for heterogeneities at larger scale such as potential tectonic conductive features. Specific storage values obtained by spectral analysis are consistent and in the order of 10{sup -6} m{sup -1}, while formulations using phase shift and gain between pore pressure signals were found to be inappropriate to evaluate hydraulic conductivity in the Opalinus Clay. The values obtained are globally in good agreement with the ones obtained previously at the rock laboratory. (authors)

  3. Indigenous Rights in the Making: The United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples

    OpenAIRE

    Gilbert, Jérémie

    2007-01-01

    This article examines to what extent the recently adopted United Nations Declarations on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples participate to the development of indigenous peoples' international human rights.

  4. Extreme late-summer drought causes neutral annual carbon balance in southwestern ponderosa pine forests and grasslands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolb, Thomas; Dore, Sabina; Montes-Helu, Mario

    2013-01-01

    We assessed the impacts of extreme late-summer drought on carbon balance in a semi-arid forest region in Arizona. To understand drought impacts over extremes of forest cover, we measured net ecosystem production (NEP), gross primary production (GPP), and total ecosystem respiration (TER) with eddy covariance over five years (2006–10) at an undisturbed ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forest and at a former forest converted to grassland by intense burning. Drought shifted annual NEP from a weak source of carbon to the atmosphere to a neutral carbon balance at the burned site and from a carbon sink to neutral at the undisturbed site. Carbon fluxes were particularly sensitive to drought in August. Drought shifted August NEP at the undisturbed site from sink to source because the reduction of GPP (70%) exceeded the reduction of TER (35%). At the burned site drought shifted August NEP from weak source to neutral because the reduction of TER (40%) exceeded the reduction of GPP (20%). These results show that the lack of forest recovery after burning and the exposure of undisturbed forests to late-summer drought reduce carbon sink strength and illustrate the high vulnerability of forest carbon sink strength in the southwest US to predicted increases in intense burning and precipitation variability. (letter)

  5. Extreme late-summer drought causes neutral annual carbon balance in southwestern ponderosa pine forests and grasslands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, Thomas; Dore, Sabina; Montes-Helu, Mario

    2013-03-01

    We assessed the impacts of extreme late-summer drought on carbon balance in a semi-arid forest region in Arizona. To understand drought impacts over extremes of forest cover, we measured net ecosystem production (NEP), gross primary production (GPP), and total ecosystem respiration (TER) with eddy covariance over five years (2006-10) at an undisturbed ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forest and at a former forest converted to grassland by intense burning. Drought shifted annual NEP from a weak source of carbon to the atmosphere to a neutral carbon balance at the burned site and from a carbon sink to neutral at the undisturbed site. Carbon fluxes were particularly sensitive to drought in August. Drought shifted August NEP at the undisturbed site from sink to source because the reduction of GPP (70%) exceeded the reduction of TER (35%). At the burned site drought shifted August NEP from weak source to neutral because the reduction of TER (40%) exceeded the reduction of GPP (20%). These results show that the lack of forest recovery after burning and the exposure of undisturbed forests to late-summer drought reduce carbon sink strength and illustrate the high vulnerability of forest carbon sink strength in the southwest US to predicted increases in intense burning and precipitation variability.

  6. Diversity of governance arrangements for indigenous natural products in communal areas of Namibia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ndeinoma, A.; Wiersum, K.F.

    2017-01-01

    In several countries, it has been observed that development of policies and regulations for non-timber forest products (NTFPs) rarely follows a systematic approach. This paper characterises the diversity of governance arrangements for accessing and marketing indigenous natural products in communal

  7. Participatory mapping to identify indigenous community use zones : Implications for conservation planning in southern Suriname

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramirez-Gomez, Sara O I; Brown, Greg; Verweij, Pita A.; Boot, René

    2016-01-01

    Large-scale development projects often overlap forest areas that support the livelihoods of indigenous peoples, threatening in situ conservation strategies for the protection of biological and cultural diversity. To address this problem, there is a need to integrate spatially-explicit information on

  8. Nitrate Leaching from Winter Cereal Cover Crops Using Undisturbed Soil-Column Lysimeters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisinger, John J; Ricigliano, Kristin A

    2017-05-01

    Cover crops are important management practices for reducing nitrogen (N) leaching, especially in the Chesapeake Bay watershed, which is under total maximum daily load (TMDL) restraints. Winter cereals are common cool-season crops in the Bay watershed, but studies have not directly compared nitrate-N (NO-N) leaching losses from these species. A 3-yr cover crop lysimeter study was conducted in Beltsville, MD, to directly compare NO-N leaching from a commonly grown cultivar of barley ( L.), rye ( L.), and wheat ( L.), along with a no-cover control, using eight tension-drained undisturbed soil column lysimeters in a completely randomized design with two replicates. The lysimeters were configured to exclude runoff and to estimate NO-N leaching and flow-weighted NO-N concentration (FWNC). The temporal pattern of NO-N leaching showed a consistent highly significant ( leaching with cover crops compared with no cover but showed only small and periodically significant ( leaching was more affected by the quantity of establishment-season (mid-October to mid-December) precipitation than by cover crop species. For example, compared with no cover, winter cereal covers reduced NO-N leaching 95% in a dry year and 50% in wet years, with corresponding reductions in FWNC of 92 and 43%, respectively. These results are important for scientists, nutrient managers, and policymakers because they directly compare NO-N leaching from winter cereal covers and expand knowledge for developing management practices for winter cereals that can improve water quality and increase N efficiency in cropping systems. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  9. A Visual Profile of Queensland Indigenous Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Shelley; Sampson, Geoff P; Hendicott, Peter L; Wood, Joanne M

    2016-03-01

    Little is known about the prevalence of refractive error, binocular vision, and other visual conditions in Australian Indigenous children. This is important given the association of these visual conditions with reduced reading performance in the wider population, which may also contribute to the suboptimal reading performance reported in this population. The aim of this study was to develop a visual profile of Queensland Indigenous children. Vision testing was performed on 595 primary schoolchildren in Queensland, Australia. Vision parameters measured included visual acuity, refractive error, color vision, nearpoint of convergence, horizontal heterophoria, fusional vergence range, accommodative facility, AC/A ratio, visual motor integration, and rapid automatized naming. Near heterophoria, nearpoint of convergence, and near fusional vergence range were used to classify convergence insufficiency (CI). Although refractive error (Indigenous, 10%; non-Indigenous, 16%; p = 0.04) and strabismus (Indigenous, 0%; non-Indigenous, 3%; p = 0.03) were significantly less common in Indigenous children, CI was twice as prevalent (Indigenous, 10%; non-Indigenous, 5%; p = 0.04). Reduced visual information processing skills were more common in Indigenous children (reduced visual motor integration [Indigenous, 28%; non-Indigenous, 16%; p < 0.01] and slower rapid automatized naming [Indigenous, 67%; non-Indigenous, 59%; p = 0.04]). The prevalence of visual impairment (reduced visual acuity) and color vision deficiency was similar between groups. Indigenous children have less refractive error and strabismus than their non-Indigenous peers. However, CI and reduced visual information processing skills were more common in this group. Given that vision screenings primarily target visual acuity assessment and strabismus detection, this is an important finding as many Indigenous children with CI and reduced visual information processing may be missed. Emphasis should be placed on identifying

  10. Surface evolution and carbon sequestration in disturbed and undisturbed wetland soils of the Hunter estuary, southeast Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, A. J.; Rodríguez, J. F.; Saco, P. M.

    2009-08-01

    The aim of this work was to quantify the soil carbon storage and sequestration rates of undisturbed natural wetlands and disturbed wetlands subject to restriction of tidal flow and subsequent rehabilitation in an Australian estuary. Disturbed and undisturbed estuarine wetlands of the Hunter estuary, New South Wales, Australia were selected as the study sites for this research. Vertical accretion rates of estuarine substrates were combined with soil carbon concentrations and bulk densities to determine the carbon store and carbon sequestration rates of the substrates tested. Relationships between estuary water level, soil evolution and vertical accretion were also examined. The carbon sequestration rate of undisturbed wetlands was lower (15% for mangrove and 55% for saltmarsh) than disturbed wetlands, but the carbon store was higher (65% for mangrove and 60% for saltmarsh). The increased carbon sequestration rate of the disturbed wetlands was driven by substantially higher rates of vertical accretion (95% for mangrove and 345% for saltmarsh). Estuarine wetland carbon stores were estimated at 700-1000 Gg C for the Hunter estuary and 3900-5600 Gg C for New South Wales. Vertical accretion and carbon sequestration rates of estuarine wetlands in the Hunter are at the lower end of the range reported in the literature. The comparatively high carbon sequestration rates reported for the disturbed wetlands in this study indicate that wetland rehabilitation has positive benefits for regulation of atmospheric carbon concentrations, in addition to more broadly accepted ecosystem services.

  11. Community owned solutions for fire management in tropical ecosystems: case studies from Indigenous communities of South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mistry, Jayalaxshmi; Bilbao, Bibiana A; Berardi, Andrea

    2016-06-05

    Fire plays an increasingly significant role in tropical forest and savanna ecosystems, contributing to greenhouse gas emissions and impacting on biodiversity. Emerging research shows the potential role of Indigenous land-use practices for controlling deforestation and reducing CO2 emissions. Analysis of satellite imagery suggests that Indigenous lands have the lowest incidence of wildfires, significantly contributing to maintaining carbon stocks and enhancing biodiversity. Yet acknowledgement of Indigenous peoples' role in fire management and control is limited, and in many cases dismissed, especially in policy-making circles. In this paper, we review existing data on Indigenous fire management and impact, focusing on examples from tropical forest and savanna ecosystems in Venezuela, Brazil and Guyana. We highlight how the complexities of community owned solutions for fire management are being lost as well as undermined by continued efforts on fire suppression and firefighting, and emerging approaches to incorporate Indigenous fire management into market- and incentive-based mechanisms for climate change mitigation. Our aim is to build a case for supporting Indigenous fire practices within all scales of decision-making by strengthening Indigenous knowledge systems to ensure more effective and sustainable fire management.This article is part of the themed issue 'The interaction of fire and mankind'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  12. Reassembling the Indigenous Public Sphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack Latimore

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to provide an initial theoretical grounding to assess a practical project: a new software application that attempts to be a beneficial resource in the field of Indigenous representation. As a starting point, we are concerned to provide a theoretical ground for considering the inherited and shifting spaces of Indigenous media representation. To this end, this paper reconsiders the strengths and weaknesses of debates surrounding the ‘Indigenous public sphere’. This is used as grounds for critically understanding the relations that constitute this field. Following this, we consider how a more materialist approach to publics might enable a productive reconceptualization, and in particular how digital media initiatives and shifting news markets may be contributing to change. Finally, drawing on this model, we outline both the ‘Wakul app’ project, and how this framework might inform an assessment of its impact.

  13. Phenomenology, Hermeneutics and the study of indigenous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Indilinga: African Journal of Indigenous Knowledge Systems ... Yet in Africa, where traditional religions and thought systems of the indigenous people of Africa were formerly ... and the active participation of respondents in the research process.

  14. Research methods in indigenous mathematical Knowledge: An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Indigenous games are an integral component of indigenous knowledge systems. ... and national activities; mathematical concepts associated with the games; possibilities and implications for general classroom ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  15. Emancipatory Indigenous Knowledge Systems: implications for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erna Kinsey

    Faculty of Education, University of South Africa, P.O. Box 392, Unisa, 0003 South Africa ... Indigenous Knowledge also termed Traditional, Endogenous or Classical .... its civilisation, carries both its indigenous and modern knowledge systems.

  16. Adult Learning, Transformative Education, and Indigenous Epistemology

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEachern, Diane

    2016-01-01

    This chapter describes an innovative program that weaves together adult learning, transformative education, and indigenous epistemology in order to prepare Alaskan rural indigenous social service providers to better serve their communities.

  17. Curriculum enrichment through indigenous Zulu games | Roux ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Curriculum enrichment through indigenous Zulu games. ... 1997). The aim of the study was to document and analyze indigenous Zulu games for possible curriculum enrichment of physical ... AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL.

  18. Traditional uses of indigenous tree species

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mo

    Cordia millenii, Ficus spp, Markhamia lutea and Albizia spp are the most commonly used indigenous ... activities like construction of roads and expansion of ranches and ... impact of traditional uses of indigenous tress on the sustainability.

  19. The World Indigenous Research Alliance (WIRA): Mediating and Mobilizing Indigenous Peoples' Educational Knowledge and Aspirations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitinui, Paul; McIvor, Onowa; Robertson, Boni; Morcom, Lindsay; Cashman, Kimo; Arbon, Veronica

    2015-01-01

    There is an Indigenous resurgence in education occurring globally. For more than a century Euro-western approaches have controlled the provision and quality of education to, and for Indigenous peoples. The World Indigenous Research Alliance (WIRA) established in 2012, is a grass-roots movement of Indigenous scholars passionate about making a…

  20. Mobility of radionuclides and trace elements in soil from legacy NORM and undisturbed naturally 232Th-rich sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrdakovic Popic, Jelena; Meland, Sondre; Salbu, Brit; Skipperud, Lindis

    2014-05-01

    Investigation of radionuclides (232Th and 238U) and trace elements (Cr, As and Pb) in soil from two legacy NORM (former mining sites) and one undisturbed naturally 232Th-rich site was conducted as a part of the ongoing environmental impact assessment in the Fen Complex area (Norway). The major objectives were to determine the radionuclide and trace element distribution and mobility in soils as well as to analyze possible differences between legacy NORM and surrounding undisturbed naturally 232Th-rich soils. Inhomogeneous soil distribution of radionuclides and trace elements was observed for each of the investigated sites. The concentration of 232Th was high (up to 1685 mg kg(-1), i.e., ∼7000 Bq kg(-1)) and exceeded the screening value for the radioactive waste material in Norway (1 Bq g(-1)). Based on the sequential extraction results, the majority of 232Th and trace elements were rather inert, irreversibly bound to soil. Uranium was found to be potentially more mobile, as it was associated with pH-sensitive soil phases, redox-sensitive amorphous soil phases and soil organic compounds. Comparison of the sequential extraction datasets from the three investigated sites revealed increased mobility of all analyzed elements at the legacy NORM sites in comparison with the undisturbed 232Th-rich site. Similarly, the distribution coefficients Kd (232Th) and Kd (238U) suggested elevated dissolution, mobility and transportation at the legacy NORM sites, especially at the decommissioned Nb-mining site (346 and 100 L kg(-1) for 232Th and 238U, respectively), while the higher sorption of radionuclides was demonstrated at the undisturbed 232Th-rich site (10,672 and 506 L kg(-1) for 232Th and 238U, respectively). In general, although the concentration ranges of radionuclides and trace elements were similarly wide both at the legacy NORM and at the undisturbed 232Th-rich sites, the results of soil sequential extractions together with Kd values supported the expected differences

  1. Toward an Integrative Framework of Indigenous Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Peter Ping

    2012-01-01

    It has long been recognized that indigenous research should be helpful, if not essential, for an adequate understanding of local phenomena. The indigenous approach is consistent with, but extends beyond, the repeated calls for contextualizing management and organization research. However, the cha......It has long been recognized that indigenous research should be helpful, if not essential, for an adequate understanding of local phenomena. The indigenous approach is consistent with, but extends beyond, the repeated calls for contextualizing management and organization research. However...

  2. Indigenous lunar construction materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Wayne P.; Sture, Stein

    1991-01-01

    The utilization of local resources for the construction and operation of a lunar base can significantly reduce the cost of transporting materials and supplies from Earth. The feasibility of processing lunar regolith to form construction materials and structural components is investigated. A preliminary review of potential processing methods such as sintering, hot-pressing, liquification, and cast basalt techniques, was completed. The processing method proposed is a variation on the cast basalt technique. It involves liquification of the regolith at 1200-1300 C, casting the liquid into a form, and controlled cooling. While the process temperature is higher than that for sintering or hot-pressing (1000-1100 C), this method is expected to yield a true engineering material with low variability in properties, high strength, and the potential to form large structural components. A scenario for this processing method was integrated with a design for a representative lunar base structure and potential construction techniques. The lunar shelter design is for a modular, segmented, pressurized, hemispherical dome which could serve as habitation and laboratory space. Based on this design, estimates of requirements for power, processing equipment, and construction equipment were made. This proposed combination of material processing method, structural design, and support requirements will help to establish the feasibility of lunar base construction using indigenous materials. Future work will refine the steps of the processing method. Specific areas where more information is needed are: furnace characteristics in vacuum; heat transfer during liquification; viscosity, pouring and forming behavior of molten regolith; design of high temperature forms; heat transfer during cooling; recrystallization of basalt; and refinement of estimates of elastic moduli, compressive and tensile strength, thermal expansion coefficient, thermal conductivity, and heat capacity. The preliminary

  3. Quantitative imaging of the 3-D distribution of cation adsorption sites in undisturbed soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keck, Hannes; Strobel, Bjarne W.; Petter Gustafsson, Jon; Koestel, John

    2017-10-01

    Several studies have shown that the distribution of cation adsorption sites (CASs) is patchy at a millimetre to centimetre scale. Often, larger concentrations of CASs in biopores or aggregate coatings have been reported in the literature. This heterogeneity has implications on the accessibility of CASs and may influence the performance of soil system models that assume a spatially homogeneous distribution of CASs. In this study, we present a new method to quantify the abundance and 3-D distribution of CASs in undisturbed soil that allows for investigating CAS densities with distance to the soil macropores. We used X-ray imaging with Ba2+ as a contrast agent. Ba2+ has a high adsorption affinity to CASs and is widely used as an index cation to measure the cation exchange capacity (CEC). Eight soil cores (approx. 10 cm3) were sampled from three locations with contrasting texture and organic matter contents. The CASs of our samples were saturated with Ba2+ in the laboratory using BaCl2 (0.3 mol L-1). Afterwards, KCl (0.1 mol L-1) was used to rinse out Ba2+ ions that were not bound to CASs. Before and after this process the samples were scanned using an industrial X-ray scanner. Ba2+ bound to CASs was then visualized in 3-D by the difference image technique. The resulting difference images were interpreted as depicting the Ba2+ bound to CASs only. The X-ray image-derived CEC correlated significantly with results of the commonly used ammonium acetate method to determine CEC in well-mixed samples. The CEC of organic-matter-rich samples seemed to be systematically overestimated and in the case of the clay-rich samples with less organic matter the CEC seemed to be systematically underestimated. The results showed that the distribution of the CASs varied spatially within most of our samples down to a millimetre scale. There was no systematic relation between the location of CASs and the soil macropore structure. We are convinced that the approach proposed here will strongly

  4. Rapid phenotyping of crop root systems in undisturbed field soils using X-ray computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeifer, Johannes; Kirchgessner, Norbert; Colombi, Tino; Walter, Achim

    2015-01-01

    X-ray computed tomography (CT) has become a powerful tool for root phenotyping. Compared to rather classical, destructive methods, CT encompasses various advantages. In pot experiments the growth and development of the same individual root can be followed over time and in addition the unaltered configuration of the 3D root system architecture (RSA) interacting with a real field soil matrix can be studied. Yet, the throughput, which is essential for a more widespread application of CT for basic research or breeding programs, suffers from the bottleneck of rapid and standardized segmentation methods to extract root structures. Using available methods, root segmentation is done to a large extent manually, as it requires a lot of interactive parameter optimization and interpretation and therefore needs a lot of time. Based on commercially available software, this paper presents a protocol that is faster, more standardized and more versatile compared to existing segmentation methods, particularly if used to analyse field samples collected in situ. To the knowledge of the authors this is the first study approaching to develop a comprehensive segmentation method suitable for comparatively large columns sampled in situ which contain complex, not necessarily connected root systems from multiple plants grown in undisturbed field soil. Root systems from several crops were sampled in situ and CT-volumes determined with the presented method were compared to root dry matter of washed root samples. A highly significant (P < 0.01) and strong correlation (R(2) = 0.84) was found, demonstrating the value of the presented method in the context of field research. Subsequent to segmentation, a method for the measurement of root thickness distribution has been used. Root thickness is a central RSA trait for various physiological research questions such as root growth in compacted soil or under oxygen deficient soil conditions, but hardly assessable in high throughput until today, due

  5. Transport and modeling of estrogenic hormones in a dairy farm effluent through undisturbed soil lysimeters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Laure D; Bidwell, Vincent J; Di, Hong J; Cameron, Keith C; Northcott, Grant L

    2010-04-01

    The presence of endocrine-disrupting chemicals, including estrone (E1) and 17beta-estradiol (E2), in surface waters has been associated with physiological dysfunction in a number of aquatic organisms. One source of surface and groundwater contamination with E1 and E2 is the land application of animal wastes. The processes involved in the transport of these hormones in the soil, when applied with animal wastes, are still unclear. Therefore, a field-transport experiment was carried out, where a dairy farm effluent spiked with E1 and E2 was applied on large (50 cm diameter and 70 cm depth) undisturbed soil lysimeters. The concentrations of E1 and E2 in the leachate were monitored over a 3-month period, during which irrigation was applied. The experimental data suggest that E1 and E2 were transported through preferential/macropore flow pathways. The data from the experiment also show that E1 and E2 are leached earlier than the inert tracer (bromide). This observation can be explained either by the presence of antecedent concentrations in the soil or by an enhanced transport of E1 and E2 through the soil. A state-space mixing-cell model was further developed in order to describe the transport of E1 and E2 by three transport processes in parallel. The inverse modeling of the leaching data did not support the hypothesis that antecedent concentrations of estrogens could be responsible for the observed breakthrough curves but confirmed that estrogens were transported mainly via preferential/macropore flow and also via an enhanced transport. The parameter values that characterized this enhanced transport strongly suggest that this enhanced transport is mediated by colloids. For the first time, the simultaneous transport of E1 and E2 was modeled under transient conditions, taking into account the advection-dispersion, preferential/macropore flow, and colloidal-enhanced transport processes as well as E1 and E2 dissipation in the soil. These findings have major implications in

  6. More Like Ourselves: Indigenous Capitalism through Tourism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunten, Alexis Celeste

    2010-01-01

    Through a comparison of Indigenous-owned cultural tourism businesses in southeastern Alaska and New Zealand as well as secondary data examining Indigenous tourism across the Pacific, this article introduces the concept of "Indigenous capitalism" as a distinct strategy to achieve ethical, culturally appropriate, and successful Indigenous…

  7. The Making of Indigeneity: a Study of Indigenous Representation in Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Gandrup, Tobias; Jespersgaard Jakobsen, Line

    2013-01-01

    This project is set out to analyse the negotiation of indigeneity. This will be done by unfolding the semiotic practices of two organisations that represents indigenous interests in contemporary Peruvian politics. It examines the rise of the term indigeneity in international politics through the emergence of an international framework and asks to how this has shaped political possibilities for the local indigenous organisations to represent the indigenous interests. The analysis shows that th...

  8. Effectiveness of REDD programs in the protection of sui generis indigenous rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paloma Infante M.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the implementation of the United Nations Reducing Emission from Deforestation and Forest Degradation Program, hereinafter UN REDD and its effectiveness in the protection of sui generis indigenous rights, meaning those different from the property right but derived from it, especially, the rights over the territories, natural resources and environmental services. The paper will cover the interconnection between sui generis indigenous rights and REDD programs including the relevance of land tenure and the sui generis rights derived from it. As we will emphasize, REDD programs are not only focused in the reduction of carbon emissions. In fact, REDD plus programs include as a main objective the sustainable management of forests and the protection to forest dependent communities.

  9. Bird species richness and abundance in different forest types at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The avifauna of differently disturbed forest types of Kakamega Afrotropical forest were compared from December 2004 to May 2005. A total of 11 220 individual birds comprising of 129 bird species were recorded. Significant differences in abundance of birds among Psidium guajava, Bischoffia javanica, mixed indigenous, ...

  10. Confronting challenges to economic analysis of biological invasions in forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas P Holmes

    2010-01-01

    Biological invasions of forests by non-indigenous organisms present a complex, persistent, and largely irreversible threat to forest ecosystems around the globe. Rigorous assessments of the economic impacts of introduced species, at a national scale, are needed to provide credible information to policy makers. It is proposed here that microeconomic models of damage due...

  11. Traditional forest-related knowledge and climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    John A. Parrotta; Mauro Agnoletti

    2012-01-01

    The holders and users of traditional forest-related knowledge are on the front lines of global efforts to deal with climate change and its impacts. Because of their close connection with, and high dependence on, forest ecosystems and landscapes, indigenous and local communities are among the fi rst to witness, understand, and experience the impacts of climate change on...

  12. Stand, species, and individual traits impact transpiration in historically disturbed forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakely, B.; Rocha, A. V.; McLachlan, J. S.

    2017-12-01

    Historic logging disturbances have changed the structure and species composition of most Northern temperate forests. These changes impact the process of transpiration - which in turn impacts canopy surface temperature - but the links among structure, composition, and transpiration remain unclear. For this reason, ecosystem models typically use simplified structure and composition to simulate the impact of disturbances on forest transpiration. However, such simplifications ignore real variability among stands, species, and individual trees that may strongly influence transpiration across spatial and temporal scales. To capture this variability, we monitored transpiration in 48 individual trees of multiple species in both undisturbed (400+ yr) and historically logged (80 - 120 yr) forests. Using modern and historic forest surveys, we upscaled our observations to stand and regional scales to identify the key changes impacting transpiration. We extended these inferences by establishing a relationship between transpiration and measured surface temperature, linking disturbance-induced changes in structure and composition to local and regional climate. Despite greater potential evapotranspiration and basal area, undisturbed forest transpired less than disturbed (logged) forest. Transpiration was a strong predictor of surface temperature, and the canopy surface was warmer in undisturbed forest. Transpiration differences among disturbed and undisturbed forests resulted from (1) lesser transpiration and dampened seasonality in evergreen species (2) greater transpiration in younger individuals within a species, and (3) strong transpiration by large individuals. When transpiration was scaled to the stand or regional level in a simplified manner (e.g. a single transpiration rate for all deciduous individuals), the resulting estimates differed markedly from the original. Stand- species- and individual-level traits are therefore essential for understanding how transpiration and

  13. Indigenous actinorhizal plants of Australia

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Indigenous species of actinorhizal plants of Casuarinaceae, Elaeagnaceae and Rhamnaceae are found in specific regions of Australia. Most of these plants belong to Casuarinaceae, the dominant actinorhizal family in Australia. Many of them have significant environmental and economical value. The other two families with ...

  14. Indigenous Technological Innovation : Capability and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... as determined by a Steering Committee of experts drawn from government agencies, universities and research institutions all over the country. It is expected to generate a body of evidence that will aid Chinese policymakers to develop and implement effective policies for enhancing indigenous innovations in the west.

  15. Ethnopharmacology, indigenous collection and preservation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An ethnomedicinal study was conducted in the remote Hindukush-Himalayan valleys of Utror and Gabral, during which 36 common folk medicinal recipes of the area were documented. The indigenous methods of medicinal plants collection and their further processing were also explored. It was also observed that huge ...

  16. A Digital Indigenous Knowledge Preservation Framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maasz, Donovan; Winschiers-Theophilus, Heike; Stanley, Colin

    2018-01-01

    Indigenous Knowledge (IK) preservation and management has been taken up as a serious endeavor by various governments who have realized the value of IK as well as the opportunities given by emerging technologies. Considering the various phases and activities of indigenous knowledge management which...... the indigenous knowledge digitization process, namely, codesign, conceptualization, collection, correction, curation, circulation, and creation of knowledge. We exemplify the application of the model with technologies currently developed under an indigenous knowledge holder’s toolkit promoting the agency...... of digitalizing indigenous knowledge across the phases....

  17. The pristine rain forest? Remnants of historical human impacts on current tree species composition and diversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gemerden, van B.S.; Olff, H.; Parren, M.P.E.; Bongers, F.J.J.M.

    2003-01-01

    Aim Tropical rain forests are often regarded as pristine and undisturbed by humans. In Central Africa, community-wide disturbances by natural causes are rare and therefore current theory predicts that natural gap phase dynamics structure tree species composition and diversity. However, the dominant

  18. The pristine rain forest? Remnants of historical human impacts on current tree species composition and diversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gemerden, Barend S. van; Olff, Han; Parren, Marc P.E.; Bongers, Frans

    2003-01-01

    Aim: Tropical rain forests are often regarded as pristine and undisturbed by humans. In Central Africa, community-wide disturbances by natural causes are rare and therefore current theory predicts that natural gap phase dynamics structure tree species composition and diversity. However, the dominant

  19. Development of remote sensing technology in New Zealand, part 1. Seismotectonic, structural, volcanologic and geomorphic study of New Zealand, part 2. Indigenous forest assessment, part 3. Mapping land use and environmental studies in New Zealand, part 4. New Zealand forest service LANDSAT projects, part 5. Vegetation map and landform map of Aupouri Peninsula, Northland, part 6. Geographical applications of LANDSAT mapping, part 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Probine, M. C.; Suggate, R. P.; Mcgreevy, M. G.; Stirling, I. F. (Principal Investigator)

    1977-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Inspection of pixels obtained from LANDSAT of New Zealand revealed that not only can ships and their wakes be detected, but that information on the size, state of motion, and direction of movement was inferred by calculating the total number of pixels occupied by the vessel and wake, the orientation of these pixels, and the sum of their radiance values above the background level. Computer enhanced images showing the Waimihia State Forest and much of Kaingaroa State Forest on 22 December 1975 were examined. Most major forest categories were distinguished on LANDSAT imagery. However, the LANDSAT imagery seemed to be most useful for updating and checking existing forest maps, rather than making new maps with many forest categories. Snow studies were performed using two basins: Six Mile Creek and Mt. Robert. The differences in radiance levels indicated that a greater areal snow cover in Six Mile Creek Basin with the effect of lower radiance values from vegetation/snow regions. A comparison of the two visible bands (MSS 4 and 5) demonstrate this difference for the two basins.

  20. Genetic and epigenetic divergence between disturbed and undisturbed subpopulations of a Mediterranean shrub: a 20-year field experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Carlos M; Bazaga, Pilar

    2016-06-01

    Little is known on the potential of ecological disturbance to cause genetic and epigenetic changes in plant populations. We take advantage of a long-term field experiment initiated in 1986 to study the demography of the shrub Lavandula latifolia , and compare genetic and epigenetic characteristics of plants in two adjacent subplots, one experimentally disturbed and one left undisturbed, 20 years after disturbance. Experimental setup was comparable to an unreplicated 'Before-After-Control-Impact' (BACI) design where a single pair of perturbed and control areas were compared. When sampled in 2005, plants in the two subplots had roughly similar ages, but they had established in contrasting environments: dense conspecific population ('Undisturbed' subpopulation) versus open area with all conspecifics removed ('Disturbed' subpopulation). Plants were characterized genetically and epigenetically using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and two classes of methylation-sensitive AFLP (MSAP) markers. Subpopulations were similar in genetic diversity but differed in epigenetic diversity and multilocus genetic and epigenetic characteristics. Epigenetic divergence between subpopulations was statistically unrelated to genetic divergence. Bayesian clustering revealed an abrupt linear boundary between subpopulations closely coincident with the arbitrary demarcation line between subplots drawn 20 years back, which supports that genetic and epigenetic divergence between subpopulations was caused by artificial disturbance. There was significant fine-scale spatial structuring of MSAP markers in both subpopulations, which in the Undisturbed one was indistinguishable from that of AFLP markers. Genetic differences between subpopulations could be explained by divergent selection alone, while the concerted action of divergent selection and disturbance-driven appearance of new methylation variants in the Disturbed subpopulation is proposed to explain epigenetic differences. This

  1. Revegetation of coal mine soil with forest litter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Day, A.D.; Ludeke, K.L.; Thames, J.L.

    1986-11-01

    Forest litter, a good source of organic matter and seeds, was applied on undisturbed soil and on coal mine (spoils) in experiments conducted on the Black Mesa Coal Mine near Kayenta, Arizona over a 2-year period (1977-1978). Germination, seedling establishment, plant height and ground cover were evaluated for two seeding treatments (forest litter and no forest litter) and two soil moisture treatments (natural rainfall and natural rainfall plus irrigation). The forest litter was obtained at random from the Coconino National Forest, broadcast over the surface of the soil materials and incorporated into the surface 5 cm of each soil material. Germination, seedling establishment, plant height and ground cover on undisturbed soil and coal mine soil were higher when forest litter was applied than when it was not applied and when natural rainfall was supplemented with sprinkler irrigation than when rainfall was not supplemented with irrigation. Applications of forest litter and supplemental irrigation may ensure successful establishment of vegetation on areas disturbed by open-pit coal mining.

  2. Towards an integrated approach to modelling the risks and impacts of invasive forest species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denys Yemshanov; Daniel McKenney; John Pedlar; Frank Koch; David Cook

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we provide an overview of an integrated approach to modelling the risks and impacts associated with non-indigenous forest pest species. This is a broad and important topic given the scale of ecological and economic consequences associated with non-indigenous species in north america and elsewhere. Assessments of risk and impacts remain difficult due to...

  3. The leaf-litter earthworm fauna (Annelida: Oligochaeta) of forests in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A qualitative survey of the leaf-litter earthworm fauna of 11 selected indigenous forests in Limpopo Province, South Africa, was conducted to identify the species present, to describe the communities and to assess the relationship between indigenous and exotic species. A total of 8185 individuals from 17 species (five ...

  4. Assessing changes to in-stream turbidity following construction of a forest road in West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jingxin Wang; Pamela J. Edwards; William A. Goff

    2011-01-01

    Two forested headwater watersheds were monitored to examine changes to in-stream turbidity following the construction of a forest haul road. One watershed was used as an undisturbed reference, while the other had a 0.92-km (0.57-mi) haul road constructed in it. The channels in both are intermittent tributaries of the Left Fork of Clover Run in the Cheat River watershed...

  5. Climate change and forest resilience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacQueen, Duncan; Vermeulen, Sonja

    2006-10-15

    Significant global climate change is inevitable. Tree species have a limited capacity to tolerate climate change or migrate through natural or artificial means. We do not know enough about the comparative resilience of forest-based, agricultural, marine or fresh water ecosystems. But it is clear that biodiverse forest ecosystems are under threat. And the threat extends beyond forests themselves. An estimated 60 million indigenous people are heavily dependent on the world's rainforests. Some 350 million people live in or close to dense forests and rely on them for subsistence or income. A further 1.2 billion people in developing countries depend on trees on farm to generate food or cash.

  6. Methyl mercury concentrations in macroinvertebrates and fish from burned and undisturbed lakes on the Boreal Plain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, E.W. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Biological Sciences; Prepas, E.E. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Biological Sciences; Lakehead Univ., Thunder Bay, ON (Canada). Faculty of Forest and the Forest Environment; Gabos, S.; Zhang, W. [Alberta Health and Wellness, Edmonton, AB (Canada); Strachan, W.M.J. [Environment Canada, Burlington, ON (Canada). National Water Research Inst.

    2005-09-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations in macroinvertebrates and fish from 5 lakes in burned catchments in Alberta's Swan Hills region were compared with those from 5 reference lakes on the western Canadian Boreal Plain. The objective was to determine the effect of forest fire on the bioaccumulation of MeHg, a toxic pollutant. It was noted that lakes near the Alberta Special Waste Treatment Centre (ASWTC) have fish consumption advisories due to high mercury concentrations. In a separate comparison, MeHg concentrations in biota from a single lake were compared before and after a forest fire interrupted a prescribed timber harvest experiment. The affect of lake water chemistry, watershed characteristics, and trophic ecology on the bioaccumulation and biomagnification of MeHg in littoral food webs was also examined. The study area covered 2 ecoregions, the Boreal Foothills and the Boreal Mixedwood. Two years after the fire, MeHg concentrations in 5 of 6 aquatic taxa did not differ between burned and reference drainage basins in the Swan Hills. These results were in agreement with previous studies. Biomagnification of MeHg was negatively correlated with lake water chlorophyll 'a' concentration. Ecoregional variation in water chemistry seemed to influence MeHg concentrations in aquatic biota, which eluded comparisons of MeHg bioaccumulation between burned and reference drainage basins. MeHg concentrations in biota were negatively correlated with lake water pH, as well as with total phosphorous and dominant cation concentrations, all of which were higher in Mixedwood than in Foothills lakes. It was concluded that in the short-term, fire may lower MeHg concentrations in aquatic biota in a nutrient-rich setting by inducing an increase in lake productivity that dilutes MeHg at the base of the food web. 42 refs., 5 tabs., 7 figs.

  7. Indigenous Geographies: Research as Reconciliation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cindy Smithers Graeme

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Employing a reflexive and co-constructed narrative analysis, this article explores our experiences as a non-Indigenous doctoral student and a First Nations research assistant working together within the context of a community-based participatory Indigenous geography research project. Our findings revealed that within the research process there were experiences of conflict, and opportunities to reflect upon our identity and create meaningful relationships. While these experiences contributed to an improved research process, at a broader level, we suggest that they also represented our personal stories of reconciliation. In this article, we share these stories, specifically as they relate to reconciliatory processes of re-education and cultural regeneration. We conclude by proposing several policy recommendations to support research as a pathway to reconciliation in Canada.

  8. The 7Be profiles in the undisturbed soil used for reference site to estimate the soil erosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raksawong, S; Bhongsuwan, T; Krmar, M

    2017-01-01

    The cosmogenic radionuclide 7 Be is increasingly used to obtain information on event-related soil erosion rates within agricultural landscapes. In this study, we select two undisturbed and flat areas to calculate the reference inventory and relaxation mass depth by using 7 Be technique to document short-term erosion. Our results showed that the depth distribution of 7 Be in undisturbed soil profiles was 1.0 cm in sites S02 and S03; the initial activities were 31.6 and 38.8 Bq.kg -1 , respectively. The relaxation mass depths were 5.4 and 7.2 kg.m -2 and the measured reference 7 Be inventories were 71 and 110 Bq.m -2 for sites S02 and S03, respectively. The difference values of the relaxation mass depth and the reference inventory of both sites implied that for determining a short term soil erosion using 7 Be, the reference site was suggested to be selected as close as possible to the study site. (paper)

  9. Perspectives on Reconciliation & Indigenous Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Burridge

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an overview of discourses of the movement for national reconciliation prevailing within the Australian socio-political context since the inception of the Council for Aboriginal Reconciliation in 1991, to the national apology delivered by the Prime Minister Kevin Rudd on 13th February 2008. It provides an framework for the various discourses of reconciliation, by exploring and analysing the accrued meanings to such terms such as ‘genuine’, substantive or ‘true’ reconciliation; the Howard’s Government’s ‘practical reconciliation’ and the Rudd government’s great attempt at ‘symbolic’ reconciliation in the national apology to Indigenous Australians. In the changing political context in Australia today this paper revisits the debates on reconciliation, and endeavours to locate the movement solidly within a human rights framework that includes first nation rights. This requires an examination of the roots of the reconciliation movement including community attitudes to reconciliation and the nature of the peoples’ movement as well as the differing perspectives of policy makers, politicians and of course, Indigenous peoples. It asks crucial questions about the progress of reconciliation and the type of reconciliation mainstream Australians will accept. In truth therefore, was the ‘National Apology’ a grand symbolic gesture by mainstream Australia to maintain the status quo and divert our eyes from the more searching questions of the ‘unfinished business’ of ‘substantive’ reconciliation which encompasses first nations rights for Indigenous peoples.

  10. Circle of Courage Infusion into the Alberta Indigenous Games 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchand, Dawn Marie

    2011-01-01

    Thousands of indigenous people from across North America came to the Enoch Cree Nation for the Alberta Indigenous Games, six days of sport, education, and cultural awakening. The vision of the Alberta Indigenous Games is to recognize the value and potential of Indigenous culture and the young people. Activities include sports, indigenous arts,…

  11. Preliminary exploration and thought of promoting library science Indigenization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Wenping; Du Jingling

    2014-01-01

    The article explains the significance of Library Science Indigenization, Answer some misunderstanding of Library Science Indigenization,reveals express form of Library Science Indigenization, Discusses criteria of Library Science Indigenization, finally give some suggestions and methods of Library Science Indigenization. (authors)

  12. Responding to Indigenous Australian Sexual Assault

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janya McCalman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous Australians experience a high prevalence of sexual assault, yet a regional sexual assault service found few Indigenous Australians accessed their services. This prompted exploration of how its services might be improved. A resultant systematic search of the literature is reported in this article. Seven electronic databases and seven websites were systematically searched for peer reviewed and gray literature documenting responses to the sexual assault of Indigenous Australians. These publications were then classified by response type and study type. Twenty-three publications met the inclusion criteria. They included studies of legal justice, media, and community-based and mainstream service responses for Indigenous survivors and perpetrators. We located program descriptions, measurement, and descriptive research, but no intervention studies. There is currently insufficient evidence to confidently prescribe what works to effectively respond to Indigenous Australian sexual assault. The study revealed an urgent need for researchers, Indigenous communities, and services to work together to develop the evidence base.

  13. China's Indigenous IP Policies -- Here to Stay?

    OpenAIRE

    Prud'homme, Dan

    2013-01-01

    In 2010 and 2011, foreign businesses and governments welcomed measures believed to dramatically reform a highly controversial branch of China’s indigenous innovation policy which provided government procurement preferences to applicants who can meet restrictive indigenous intellectual property (IP) rights requirements. However, this article describes specific examples of (what can be labeled) China’s “indigenous IP policy” that are still very much in force, in particular several programs link...

  14. Emerging Ideas for Innovation in Indigenous Education: A Research Synthesis of Indigenous Educative Roles in Mainstream and Flexi Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shay, Marnee

    2017-01-01

    The Indigenous education agenda in Australia remains focused on mainstream schooling contexts. Although overlooked in Indigenous education discourse, flexi schools appear to be engaging with disproportionately high numbers of Indigenous students and staff. The educative roles of Indigenous peoples in broader Indigenous education discourse are…

  15. Beyond Good Governances: Lesson from Forest and Cultural Governance in Pelalawan, Pangkalan Kerinci, Riau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novi Paramita Dewi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The shift in government concept into governance takes the consequence of changes in public governance including in the forestry sector. Good forest governance becomes a great hope for managing the forest condition so that sustainable forest management can be realized. However, in its implementation, it contains a big challenge for the forest in Indonesia which is mostly identical with indigenous people. Meanwhile, the development becomes a necessity that cannot be inhibited in which business corporation as the actor who plays in the forest governance is considered as a major threat to the environment and indigenous people. To achieve good forest governance, it is necessary to have a synergy with cultural governance that is hoped to be able to accommodate the indigenous people interests. This paper is a case study related to the practice as an effort to achieve good forest governance in the indigenous people of Pelalawan that are followed by the cultural governance effort so that the indigenous people culture of Pelalawan that is closely related to the forest can still be maintained.

  16. Plant Provocations: Botanical Indigeneity and (Decolonial Imaginations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narendran Kumarakulasingam

    Full Text Available Abstract Abstract: This paper examines the possibilities and limitations of an emergent global discourse of indigeneity to offer an oppositional praxis in the face of the depredations of settler colonialism in post-apartheid South Africa. Self-conscious articulations of indigeneity, we argue, reveal the fraught relationship between increasingly hegemonic and narrow understandings of the indigenous and the carceral logic of apartheid. We examine this by focusing on the meanings and attachments forged through indigenous plants in two realms: the world of indigenous gardening practised by white suburban dwellers and that of subsistence farming undertaken by rural black women. This juxtaposition reveals that in contrast to the pervasive resurrection of colonial time that defines metropolitan indigenous gardening, the social relations of a subsistence cultivator challenge the confines of colonial temporality, revealing a creative mode of dissent structured around dreams, ancestral knowledge, and the commons. Our exploration of struggles around botanical indigeneity suggests that anticolonial modes of indigeneity do not necessarily inhere in recognisable forms and that studies of the indigenous need to proceed beyond those that bear familial resemblance to emergent global understandings.

  17. An Indigenous Academic Perspective to Preserving and Promoting Indigenous Knowledge and Traditions: A Fiji Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Wahab

    2017-01-01

    Indigenous knowledge is multidimensional encompassing the beliefs, practices, arts, spirituality and other forms of traditional and cultural experiences that belong to Indigenous communities globally. In order to protect, preserve and recognize the knowledge of the Indigenous people of Fiji, known as the iTaukei, the University of Fiji has…

  18. Stimulating Parenting Practices in Indigenous and Non-Indigenous Mexican Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather A. Knauer

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Parenting may be influenced by ethnicity; marginalization; education; and poverty. A critical but unexamined question is how these factors may interact to compromise or support parenting practices in ethnic minority communities. This analysis examined associations between mothers’ stimulating parenting practices and a range of child-level (age; sex; and cognitive and socio-emotional development; household-level (indigenous ethnicity; poverty; and parental education; and community-level (economic marginalization and majority indigenous population variables among 1893 children ages 4–18 months in poor; rural communities in Mexico. We also explored modifiers of associations between living in an indigenous community and parenting. Key findings were that stimulating parenting was negatively associated with living in an indigenous community or family self-identification as indigenous (β = −4.25; SE (Standard Error = 0.98; β = −1.58; SE = 0.83 respectively. However; living in an indigenous community was associated with significantly more stimulating parenting among indigenous families than living in a non-indigenous community (β = 2.96; SE = 1.25. Maternal education was positively associated with stimulating parenting only in indigenous communities; and household crowding was negatively associated with stimulating parenting only in non-indigenous communities. Mothers’ parenting practices were not associated with child sex; father’s residential status; education; or community marginalization. Our findings demonstrate that despite greater community marginalization; living in an indigenous community is protective for stimulating parenting practices of indigenous mothers.

  19. Motivation Matters: Profiling Indigenous and Non-Indigenous Students' Motivational Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magson, Natasha R.; Craven, Rhonda G.; Nelson, Genevieve F.; Yeung, Alexander S.; Bodkin-Andrews, Gawaian H.; McInerney, Dennis M.

    2014-01-01

    This research explored gender and cross-cultural similarities and differences in the motivational profiles of Indigenous Papua New Guinean (PNG) and Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians. Secondary students (N = 1,792) completed self-report motivational measures. Invariance testing demonstrated that the Inventory of School Motivation…

  20. A Comparative Analysis of Indigenous Research Guidelines to Inform Genomic Research in Indigenous Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Maddock

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Genetic research has potential benefits for improving health, such as identifying molecular characteristics of a disease, understanding disease prevalence and treatment, and developing treatments tailored to patients based on individual genetic characteristics of their disease. Indigenous people are often targeted for genetic research because genes are easier to study in communities that practice endogamy. Therefore, populations perceived to be more homogenous, such as Indigenous peoples, are ideal for genetic studies. While Indigenous communities remain the focal point of many genomic studies, some result in harm and unethical practice. Unfortunately, the harms of poorly formulated and unethical research involving Indigenous people have created barriers to participation that prevent critical and lifesaving research. These harms have led a number of Indigenous communities to develop guidelines for engaging with researchers to assist in safely bridging the gap between genetic research and Indigenous peoples.SPECIFIC AIMS: The specific aims of this study were: (1 to conduct an international review and comparison of Indigenous research guidelines that highlight topics regarding genetics and use of biological samples and identify commonalities and differences among ethical principles of concern to Indigenous peoples; and (2 develop policy recommendations for Indigenous populations interested in creating formal policies around the use of genetic information and protection of biological samples using data from specific aim 1.METHODS: A comparative analysis was performed to identify best research practices and recommendations for Indigenous groups from four countries: Canada, New Zealand, Australia, and the United States. The analysis examined commonalities in political relationships, which support self-determination among these Indigenous communities to control their data. Current international Indigenous guidelines were analyzed to review

  1. Two-stage recovery of amphibian assemblages following selective logging of tropical forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adum, Gilbert Baase; Eichhorn, Markus Peter; Oduro, William; Ofori-Boateng, Caleb; Rödel, Mark-Oliver

    2013-04-01

    There is a lack of quantitative information on the effectiveness of selective-logging practices in ameliorating effects of logging on faunal communities. We conducted a large-scale replicated field study in 3 selectively logged moist semideciduous forests in West Africa at varying times after timber extraction to assess post logging effects on amphibian assemblages. Specifically, we assessed whether the diversity, abundance, and assemblage composition of amphibians changed over time for forest-dependent species and those tolerant of forest disturbance. In 2009, we sampled amphibians in 3 forests (total of 48 study plots, each 2 ha) in southwestern Ghana. In each forest, we established plots in undisturbed forest, recently logged forest, and forest logged 10 and 20 years previously. Logging intensity was constant across sites with 3 trees/ha removed. Recently logged forests supported substantially more species than unlogged forests. This was due to an influx of disturbance-tolerant species after logging. Simultaneously Simpson's index decreased, with increased in dominance of a few species. As time since logging increased richness of disturbance-tolerant species decreased until 10 years after logging when their composition was indistinguishable from unlogged forests. Simpson's index increased with time since logging and was indistinguishable from unlogged forest 20 years after logging. Forest specialists decreased after logging and recovered slowly. However, after 20 years amphibian assemblages had returned to a state indistinguishable from that of undisturbed forest in both abundance and composition. These results demonstrate that even with low-intensity logging (≤3 trees/ha) a minimum 20-year rotation of logging is required for effective conservation of amphibian assemblages in moist semideciduous forests. Furthermore, remnant patches of intact forests retained in the landscape and the presence of permanent brooks may aid in the effective recovery of amphibian

  2. The importance of indigenous games: The selected cases of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The importance of indigenous games: The selected cases of Indigenous games in South Africa. ... do not have enough time to transfer their skills and knowledge of indigenous games to the younger generation. ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  3. Integrating indigenous games and knowledge into Physical Education

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Integrating indigenous games and knowledge into Physical Education: Implications for ... The aim of this study was to analyse indigenous Zulu games towards integrating indigenous game skill and knowledge ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  4. Impact of forest disturbance on the structure and composition of vegetation in tropical rainforest of Central Sulawesi, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAMADHANIL PITOPANG

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available We presented the structure and composition of vegetation in four (4 different land use types namely undisturbed primary forest, lightly disturbed primary forest, selectively logged forest, and cacao forest garden in tropical rainforest margin of the Lore Lindu National Park, Central Sulawesi Indonesia. Individually all big trees (dbh > 10 cm was numbered with tree tags and their position in the plot mapped, crown diameter and dbh measured, whereas trunk as well as total height measured by Vertex. Additionally, overstorey plants (dbh 2- 9.9 cm were also surveyed in all land use types. Identification of vouchers and additional herbarium specimens was done in the field as well as at Herbarium Celebense (CEB, Tadulako University, and Nationaal Herbarium of Netherland (L Leiden branch, the Netherland. The result showed that the structure and composition of vegetation in studied are was different. Tree species richness was decreased from primary undisturbed forest to cacao plantation, whereas tree diversity and its composition were significantly different among four (4 land use types. Palaquium obovatum, Chionanthus laxiflorus, Castanopsis acuminatissima, Lithocarpus celebicus, Canarium hirsutum, Eonymus acuminifolius and Sarcosperma paniculata being predominant in land use type A, B and C and Coffea robusta, Theobroma cacao, Erythrina subumbrans, Glyricidia sepium, Arenga pinnata, and Syzygium aromaticum in the cacao plantation. At the family level, undisturbed natural forest was dominated by Fagaceae and Sapotaceae disturbed forest by Moraceae, Sapotaceae, Rubiaceae, and agroforestry systems by Sterculiaceae and Fabaceae.

  5. Diversity and spation distribution of vectors and hosts of T. brucei gambiense in forest zones of Southern Cameroon: Epidemiological implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Massussi, J.A.; Mbida Mbida, J.A.; Djieto-Lordon, C.; Njiokou, F.; Laveissière, C.; Ploeg, van der J.D.

    2010-01-01

    Host and vector distribution of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense was studied in relation to habitat types and seasons. Six (19.35%) of the 31 mammal species recorded in Bipindi were reservoir hosts. Cercopithecus nictitans was confined to the undisturbed forest and the low intensive shifting cultivation

  6. Airborne laser scanner-assisted estimation of aboveground biomass change in a temperate oak-pine forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas S. Skowronski; Kenneth L. Clark; Michael Gallagher; Richard A. Birdsey; John L. Hom

    2014-01-01

    We estimated aboveground tree biomass and change in aboveground tree biomass using repeated airborne laser scanner (ALS) acquisitions and temporally coincident ground observations of forest biomass, for a relatively undisturbed period (2004-2007; ∇07-04), a contrasting period of disturbance (2007-2009; ∇09-07...

  7. Stream channel responses and soil loss at off-highway vehicle stream crossings in the Ouachita National Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel A. Marion; Jonathan D. Phillips; Chad Yocum; Stephanie H. Mehlhope

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the geomorphic effects of ford-type stream crossings in an off-highway vehicle (OHV) trail complex in the Ouachita National Forest, Arkansas. At a total of 15 crossing sites, we used a disturbed vs. undisturbed study design to assess soil truncation and an upstream vs. downstream design to assess in-channel effects. The 15 sites ranged from OHV...

  8. Ethnobotanical study and nutrient content of indigenous vegetables consumed in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    SUSI KRESNATITA; YULA MIRANDA; HASTIN E.N.C. CHOTIMAH

    2013-01-01

    Abstract. Chotimah HENC, Kresnatita S, Miranda Y. 2013. Ethnobotanical study and nutrient content of indigenous vegetables consumed in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia. Biodiversitas 14: 106-111. People in Central Kalimantan consume vegetables that collected from the wild or traditionally cultivated. Documentation effort of them is very important because of the diversity of local vegetable are threatened with extinction due to the conversion of peat land and forest fires. This study aims to dete...

  9. A Sustainable and Resilient Housing Model for Indigenous Populations of the Mosquitia Region (Honduras)

    OpenAIRE

    Gambino, Valeria; Micangeli, Andrea; Naso, Vincenzo; Michelangeli, Emanuele; Mario, Luca

    2014-01-01

    This study develops a sustainable housing model for the Mosquitia region of Honduras, aimed at improving the living conditions of indigenous communities and reducing their vulnerability to the effects of climate change. The improved housing efficiency and resilience will contribute to strengthen sanitation and hygiene, improve the living comfort and reduce environmental impact, particularly focusing on preserving the forest biodiversity. The project was developed following the criteria of env...

  10. Non-timber forest products of the North-West District of Guyana

    OpenAIRE

    Andel, T.R. van

    2000-01-01

    This thesis describes the use of non-timber forest products (NTFPs) by indigenous peoples of northwest Guyana. Part I contains a general analysis of NTFP harvesting in northwest Guyana Part II is an illustrated field guide of the useful plants encountered. Chapter 1: introduction Chapter 2: floristic composition and vegetation structure of well-drained mixed forest and 20- and 60-year old secondary forests. Previous forest inventories predicted a general low diversity for the North-West Distr...

  11. Urban Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Nowak

    2016-01-01

    Urban forests (and trees) constitute the second forest resource considered in this report. We specifically emphasize the fact that agricultural and urban forests exist on a continuum defined by their relationship (and interrelationship) with a given landscape. These two forest types generally serve different purposes, however. Whereas agricultural forests are...

  12. Forests and competing land uses in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allaway, James; Cox, Pamela M. J.

    1989-03-01

    Indigenous forests in Kenya, as in other developing countries, are under heavy pressure from competing agricultural land uses and from unsustainable cutting. The problem in Kenya is compounded by high population growth rates and an agriculturally based economy, which, even with efforts to control birth rates and industrialize, will persist into the next century. Both ecological and economic consequences of these pressures need to be considered in land-use decision making for land and forest management to be effective. This paper presents one way to combine ecological and economic considerations. The status of principal forest areas in Kenya is summarized and competing land uses compared on the basis of ecological functions and economic analysis. Replacement uses do not match the ecological functions of forest, although established stands of tree crops (forest plantations, fuel wood, tea) can have roughly comparable effects on soil and water resources. Indigenous forests have high, although difficult to estimate, economic benefits from tourism and protection of downstream agricultural productivity. Economic returns from competing land uses range widely, with tea having the highest and fuel wood plantations having returns comparable to some annual crops and dairying. Consideration of ecological and economic factors together suggests some trade-offs for improving land allocation decisions and several management opportunities for increasing benefits or reducing costs from particular land uses. The evaluation also suggests a general strategy for forest land management in Kenya.

  13. Mobilising indigenous resources for anthropologically designed HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose was to discover what aspects of indigenous leadership and cultural resources might be accessed and developed to influence individual behaviour as well as the prevailing community norms, values, sanctions and social controls that are related to sexual behaviour. The indigenous leaders participating in the ...

  14. Gambling: A Poison Chalice for Indigenous Peoples'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyall, Lorna

    2010-01-01

    Indigenous populations are now being encouraged to be involved in the business of gambling as an operator or if not given that status, are actively encouraged to participate in gambling activities. Research both published and unpublished show that different indigenous populations often have a higher prevalence of problem and pathological gambling…

  15. Reframing Evaluation: Defining an Indigenous Evaluation Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaFrance, Joan; Nichols, Richard

    2008-01-01

    The American Indian Higher Education Consortium (AIHEC), comprising 34 American Indian tribally controlled colleges and universities, has undertaken a comprehensive effort to develop an "Indigenous Framework for Evaluation" that synthesizes Indigenous ways of knowing and Western evaluation practice. To ground the framework, AIHEC engaged…

  16. Race, Racialization and Indigeneity in Canadian Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Frances; Dua, Enakshi; Kobayashi, Audrey; James, Carl; Li, Peter; Ramos, Howard; Smith, Malinda S.

    2017-01-01

    This article is based on data from a four-year national study of racialization and Indigeneity at Canadian universities. Its main conclusion is that whether one examines representation in terms of numbers of racialized and Indigenous faculty members and their positioning within the system, their earned income as compared to white faculty, their…

  17. Rowing upstream: Contextualising indigenous research processes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of indigenous research ethics has a possibility of contextualising indigenous research. Orthodox research is guided by ethical principles which are meant to protect the institution or researcher and the participants. Despite the existence of the ethical pronouncements, literature has shown that research has proven to ...

  18. Sonographic measurements of ocular biometry of indigenous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was aimed at conducting ophthalmic sonographic examination of Nigerian indigenous dogs to provide baseline information on some major ocular parameters. Healthy eyes of eighty (80) indigenous dogs were used for the study. The dogs were adequately restrained physically and the structure of the ocular ...

  19. Bolivian Currents: Popular Participation and Indigenous Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, Mary Jo

    1997-01-01

    Describes the effects on indigenous communities of Bolivia's recent Popular Participation Laws, which relocated political and financial decision making to the municipal level; community efforts toward cultural maintenance and nonformal agricultural education; the activism of indigenous university students; and the dual discrimination suffered by…

  20. Knowledge, indigenous knowledge, peace and development ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper seeks to understand the nature of knowledge, introduce the concept of indigenous knowledge, provide some idea of the status of Indigenous ... African professionals, scholars, researchers, policy makers and activists attempting to understand or promote IK run the risk of a cool reception, ridicule or even outright ...

  1. Indilinga: African Journal of Indigenous Knowledge Systems ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Focus and Scope. Welcome to Indilinga: African Journal of Indigenous Knowledge Systems (IAJIKS). The name Indilinga: stands for the "circular orientation" of indigenous African communities which is exhibited in their material culture and behaviour. The journal has been motivated by the need for a dependable expression ...

  2. Otosclerosis among South African indigenous blacks | Tshifularo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To report cases of clinical otosclerosis histologically confirmed among indigenous South African blacks. Design: A retrospective study. Setting: Referral tertiary center, MEDUNSA, Garankuwa Hospital, South Africa. Subjects: All fifteen indigenous South African blacks diagnosed with clinical otosclerosis at ...

  3. Breeding program for indigenous chicken in Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ngeno, K.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract

    Ngeno, K. (2015). Breeding program for indigenous chicken in Kenya. Analysis of diversity in indigenous chicken populations. PhD thesis, Wageningen University, the Netherlands

    The objective of this research was to generate knowledge required for the

  4. Embedding Indigenous Perspectives in Teaching School Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appanna, Subhashni Devi

    2011-01-01

    Some Indigenous students are at risk of academic failure and science teachers have a role in salvaging these equally able students. This article firstly elucidates the research entailed in Indigenous science education in Australia and beyond. Secondly, it reviews the cultural and language barriers when learning science, faced by middle and senior…

  5. Haptoglobin Phenotypes and Hypertension in Indigenous Zambians ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Haptoglobin Phenotypes and Hypertension in Indigenous Zambians at the University Teaching Hospital, Lusaka, Zambia. MM Phiri, T Kaile, FM Goma. Abstract. Objectives: The aim of the study was to investigate the association between presence of haptoglobin phenotypes and hypertension in indigenous Zambian patients ...

  6. Documenting indigenous knowledge about Africa's traditional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article examines the global debates about indigenous knowledge and Africa's traditional medicine. It explores whether it is possible to document all the elements of indigenous knowledge about Africa's traditional medicine that is used for the treatment of diverse forms of sickness. Certain types of Africa's traditional ...

  7. Indigenous Students in the Tertiary Education Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandias, Susan; Fuller, Don; Larkin, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Important recent objectives of indigenous education policy in Australia have been aimed at redressing indigenous economic and social disadvantage through increasing student retention, progression and completion rates in both compulsory and post-compulsory education. The two sectors of the tertiary education system, vocational education and…

  8. Including People with Disabilities: An Indigenous Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevan-Brown, Jill

    2013-01-01

    Being victims of racial prejudice, religious intolerance, poverty, disempowerment and language loss it could be expected that indigenous people would be supportive of the Inclusion Movement with its philosophy of valuing and acceptance of all people. This supposition is examined for Maori, the indigenous people of Aotearoa/New Zealand. In…

  9. Indigenous Angiosperm biodiversity of Olabisi Onabanjo University ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The conservation of the genetic variability of the indigenous angiosperm community is a sine qua non. A survey of indigenous angiosperm biodiversity of the Olabisi Onabanjo University permanent site was undertaken. Plants collected were dried, poisoned and mounted on herbarium sheets, proper identification and ...

  10. Indigenous Ecological Knowledge and Modern Western Ecological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Indigenous knowledge is often dismissed as 'traditional and outdated', and hence irrelevant to modern ecological assessment. This theoretical paper critically examines the arguments advanced to elevate modern western ecological knowledge over indigenous ecological knowledge, as well as the sources and uses of ...

  11. Decolonizing Methodologies: Research and Indigenous Peoples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Linda Tuhiwai

    From the vantage point of indigenous peoples, the term "research" is inextricably linked to European imperialism and colonialism. In this book, an indigenous researcher calls for the decolonization of research methods. The first part of the book critically examines the historical and philosophical bases of Western research; Western…

  12. INDIGENOUS KNOWLEDGE IN THE MANAGEMENT OF A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Apusigah

    the attention of decision-makers yet it forms part of discussions in such fora as the Convention .... neem tree under the millet heads when they lay them on the ground to dry. .... There is a close competition between the conventional and indigenous practices, .... Figure 3: Most Effective Indigenous Management Practices.

  13. Water use of grasslands, agroforestry systems and indigenous forests

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Everson, CS

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available of daily total evaporation rates during December to February (summer) on clear hot days ranged between 3 mm·d-1 to 4 mm·d-1. However, due to the deciduous nature of the species, water use was negligible (< 1 mm·d-1) during winter (May to August). At a...

  14. Exploring discourses of indigeneity and rurality in Mikea Forest ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ments, scholarship, and media productions, Mikea people are represented as a ... local history, cultural norms, and social - environmental realities. While the intent of .... and resource management practices from an anthropological perspective. ..... the impression that this area is either sparsely populated or unpopulated ...

  15. Water use of grasslands, agroforestry systems and indigenous forests

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ) during winter (May to August). At a catch- ment scale ... of the system in one or other of its equilibrium or stable states. .... and not soil moisture is the main factor limiting evaporation. ..... solution to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions in.

  16. A protocol for a systematic literature review: comparing the impact of seasonal and meteorological parameters on acute respiratory infections in Indigenous and non-Indigenous peoples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop-Williams, Katherine E; Sargeant, Jan M; Berrang-Ford, Lea; Edge, Victoria L; Cunsolo, Ashlee; Harper, Sherilee L

    2017-01-26

    Acute respiratory infections (ARI) are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality globally, and are often linked to seasonal and/or meteorological conditions. Globally, Indigenous peoples may experience a different burden of ARI compared to non-Indigenous peoples. This protocol outlines our process for conducting a systematic review to investigate whether associations between ARI and seasonal or meteorological parameters differ between Indigenous and non-Indigenous groups residing in the same geographical region. A search string will be used to search PubMed ® , CAB Abstracts/CAB Direct © , and Science Citation Index ® aggregator databases. Articles will be screened using inclusion/exclusion criteria applied first at the title and abstract level, and then at the full article level by two independent reviewers. Articles maintained after full article screening will undergo risk of bias assessment and data will be extracted. Heterogeneity tests, meta-analysis, and forest and funnel plots will be used to synthesize the results of eligible studies. This protocol paper describes our systematic review methods to identify and analyze relevant ARI, season, and meteorological literature with robust reporting. The results are intended to improve our understanding of potential associations between seasonal and meteorological parameters and ARI and, if identified, whether this association varies by place, population, or other characteristics. The protocol is registered in the PROSPERO database (#38051).

  17. The contribution of geography to disparities in preventable hospitalisations between indigenous and non-indigenous Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrold, Timothy C; Randall, Deborah A; Falster, Michael O; Lujic, Sanja; Jorm, Louisa R

    2014-01-01

    To quantify the independent roles of geography and Indigenous status in explaining disparities in Potentially Preventable Hospital (PPH) admissions between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians. Analysis of linked hospital admission data for New South Wales (NSW), Australia, for the period July 1 2003 to June 30 2008. Age-standardised admission rates, and rate ratios adjusted for age, sex and Statistical Local Area (SLA) of residence using multilevel models. PPH diagnoses accounted for 987,604 admissions in NSW over the study period, of which 3.7% were for Indigenous people. The age-standardised PPH admission rate was 76.5 and 27.3 per 1,000 for Indigenous and non-Indigenous people respectively. PPH admission rates in Indigenous people were 2.16 times higher than in non-Indigenous people of the same age group and sex who lived in the same SLA. The largest disparities in PPH admission rates were seen for diabetes complications, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and rheumatic heart disease. Both rates of PPH admission in Indigenous people, and the disparity in rates between Indigenous than non-Indigenous people, varied significantly by SLA, with greater disparities seen in regional and remote areas than in major cities. Higher rates of PPH admission among Indigenous people are not simply a function of their greater likelihood of living in rural and remote areas. The very considerable geographic variation in the disparity in rates of PPH admission between Indigenous and non-Indigenous people indicates that there is potential to reduce unwarranted variation by characterising outlying areas which contribute the most to this disparity.

  18. Re-vitalizing an indigenous language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Annette Skovsted

    2014-01-01

    The re-vitalization of indigenous languages depend on political and legal support and the imple-mentation of language rights depend on knowledge of vocabulary and grammar structures of the individual languages. Throughout the nineteenth century world, compilers of dictionaries adapted indigenous...... languages to match standards defined in nation-building and, thereby, enabled latent possibilities for indigenous populations to re-vitalize their languages in connection with the United Nations Year for Indigenous Peoples in 1993, and the first United Nations Decade for Indigenous Peoples, 1995......–2004. This article focuses on dictionaries of the languages of the Ainu populations in the borderlands between the nation-states Japan and Russia. The main argument is that the Ainu Cultural Promotion Act promulgated in 1997 had a significant impact on the production and purpose of Ainu dictionaries...

  19. Injury prevention in Australian Indigenous communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivers, Rebecca; Clapham, Kathleen; Senserrick, Teresa; Lyford, Marilyn; Stevenson, Mark

    2008-12-01

    Injury prevention in Indigenous communities in Australia is a continuing national challenge, with Indigenous fatality rates due to injury three times higher than the general population. Suicide and transport are the leading causes of injury mortality, and assault, transport and falls the primary causes of injury morbidity. Addressing the complex range of injury problems in disadvantaged Indigenous communities requires considerable work in building or enhancing existing capacity of communities to address local safety issues. Poor data, lack of funding and absence of targeted programs are some of the issues that impede injury prevention activities. Traditional approaches to injury prevention can be used to highlight key areas of need, however adaptations are needed in keeping with Indigenous peoples' holistic approach to health, linked to land and linked to community in order to address the complex spiritual, emotional and social determinants of Indigenous injury.

  20. Environmental education and indigenous approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babar, S.M.; Hussain, M.; Mahmood, T.

    2005-01-01

    Environmental pollution control is the most important and highly discussed issue at the international level. Our and our's next generation survival highly depends on environment. Environmental security is not less important than territorial security. Living in the Competitive trade, Business and Commerce era. WTO threats of globalization to countries like Pakistan require sharp and immediate actions. SOS(Save our Sole) steps should be taken in Environmental Education in order to reorganizing values and clarifying Concepts to develop the necessary skills and attitude necessary to understand and appreciate the interrelatidness among masses, the Cultures and Ecosystem. Historical backgrounds along with different approaches were discussed particularly reference to Pakistan. In this presentation a new but indigenous idea is flashed to improve the environment education system in poor third world countries including Pakistan. Instead of imported ideas, previous implemented as such, indigenous approach highly Perfumed with Islamic, Ideological and cultural blends will do the right job in right direction if employed with true sense of commitment. (author)

  1. Forest rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balooni, Kulbhushan; Lund, Jens Friis

    2014-01-01

    One of the proposed strategies for implementation of reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation plus (REDD+) is to incentivize conservation of forests managed by communities under decentralized forest management. Yet, we argue that this is a challenging road to REDD+ because...... conservation of forests under existing decentralized management arrangements toward a push for extending the coverage of forests under decentralized management, making forest rights the hard currency of REDD+....

  2. Evidence of discontinuous and continuous gas migration through undisturbed and self-sealed Cox clay-stone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davy, C. A.; M'Jahad, S.; Skoczylas, F.; Talandier, J.; Ghayaza, M.

    2012-01-01

    it is a long-lasting procedure, it allows to assess both gas migration modes at the sample outlet (i.e. discontinuous or continuous). In our laboratory, by using the step-by-step method under in situ confining stresses (5 to 12 MPa), and argon as gas, former studies have mainly investigated discontinuous gas passage for vertical, horizontal or inclined cores from the Bure site. A number of samples was self-sealed, mainly those from horizontal or inclined cores. Variations by one order of magnitude have been recorded between results on horizontal and inclined cores or vertical cores. While GBP values range from 1.26 MPa and up to 3 MPa for the first test series on vertical cores, it is almost an order of magnitude lower for the second test series (horizontal or inclined cores), with values ranging from 0.2 to 1.3 MPa. This difference is mainly associated to gas passage through self-sealed fractures, in relation with clay transverse anisotropy. Indeed, COx clay-stone is a sedimentary indurated clay, composed of sub-horizontal diagenetic bedding planes: whenever GBP tests are performed along the bedding planes, lower values may be expected (due to a greater number of sealed cracks, created during sample preparation) rather than when performing GBP experiments perpendicularly to the bedding planes. Despite this extensive research, which was backed by numerical simulations of homogeneous media with LML and EDF-ASTER codes, several scientific questions remain. In particular, argillite self-sealing or undisturbed states may display different gas migration properties: it is expected that undisturbed matter will let gas pass at higher pressure than if self-sealed. Also, the discontinuous gas migration mode may be related to diffusion or capillary snap off, or to both phenomena. And discontinuous breakthrough does not suffice to describe fully the gas migration phenomena through undisturbed or self-sealed argillite, for it occurs distinctly from continuous passage and gas

  3. On the potential of long wavelength imaging radars for mapping vegetation types and woody biomass in tropical rain forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rignot, Eric J.; Zimmermann, Reiner; Oren, Ram

    1995-01-01

    In the tropical rain forests of Manu, in Peru, where forest biomass ranges from 4 kg/sq m in young forest succession up to 100 kg/sq m in old, undisturbed floodplain stands, the P-band polarimetric radar data gathered in June of 1993 by the AIRSAR (Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar) instrument separate most major vegetation formations and also perform better than expected in estimating woody biomass. The worldwide need for large scale, updated biomass estimates, achieved with a uniformly applied method, as well as reliable maps of land cover, justifies a more in-depth exploration of long wavelength imaging radar applications for tropical forests inventories.

  4. Conservation of the Ethiopian church forests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aerts, Raf; Ortveld, Koev van; November, Eva

    2016-01-01

    communities and related these to environmental variables and potential natural vegetation, (3) identified the main challenges to biodiversity conservation in view of plant population dynamics and anthropogenic disturbances, and (4) present guidelines for management and policy. The 394 forests identified...... in satellite images were on average ~2ha in size and generally separated by ~2km from the nearest neighboring forest. Shape complexity, not size, decreased from the northern to the central highlands. Overall, 148 indigenous tree, shrub and liana species were recorded across the 78 surveyed forests. Patch α......-diversity increased with mean annual precipitation, but typically only 25 woody species occurred per patch. The combined results showed that >50% of tree species present in tropical northeast Africa were still present in the 78 studied church forests, even though individual forests were small and relatively species...

  5. Remote sensing and conservation of isolated indigenous villages in Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Robert S; Hamilton, Marcus J; Groth, Aaron A

    2014-11-01

    The vast forests on the border between Brazil and Peru harbour a number of indigenous groups that have limited contact with the outside world. Accurate estimates of population sizes and village areas are essential to begin assessing the immediate conservation needs of such isolated groups. In contrast to overflights and encounters on the ground, remote sensing with satellite imagery offers a safe, inexpensive, non-invasive and systematic approach to provide demographic and land-use information for isolated peoples. Satellite imagery can also be used to understand the growth of isolated villages over time. There are five isolated villages in the headwaters of the Envira River confirmed by overflights that are visible with recent satellite imagery further confirming their locations and allowing measurement of their cleared gardens, village areas and thatch roofed houses. These isolated villages appear to have population densities that are an order of magnitude higher than averages for other Brazilian indigenous villages. Here, we report on initial results of a remote surveillance programme designed to monitor movements and assess the demographic health of isolated peoples as a means to better mitigate against external threats to their long-term survival.

  6. Recommendations for computer code selection of a flow and transport code to be used in undisturbed vadose zone calculations for TWRS immobilized wastes environmental analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    VOOGD, J.A.

    1999-01-01

    An analysis of three software proposals is performed to recommend a computer code for immobilized low activity waste flow and transport modeling. The document uses criteria restablished in HNF-1839, ''Computer Code Selection Criteria for Flow and Transport Codes to be Used in Undisturbed Vadose Zone Calculation for TWRS Environmental Analyses'' as the basis for this analysis

  7. Longitudinal variation in suspended sediment and turbidity of two undisturbed streams in northwestern California in relation to the monitoring of water quality above and below a land disturbance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steve G. Markman

    1990-01-01

    Abstract - In-stream water quality regulations of California state that silvicultural disturbances must not increase turbidity levels more than 20 percent above naturally occurring background levels. These regulations fail to take into account the natural variation of turbidity and suspended sediment concentration along a short stretch of an undisturbed stream. At...

  8. Developing an indigenous surgical workforce for Australasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aramoana, Jaclyn; Alley, Patrick; Koea, Jonathan B

    2013-12-01

    Progress has been made in Australia and New Zealand to increase the numbers of indigenous students (Aboriginal, Torres Strait Islander and Maori) entering primary medical qualification courses. In New Zealand, up to 20 Maori are graduating annually, with similar numbers possible in Australia, creating a potential opportunity to develop an indigenous surgical workforce. A literature review identified factors utilized by medical schools to attract indigenous students into medical careers and the interventions necessary to ensure successful graduation. A further search identified those factors important in encouraging indigenous medical graduates to enter specialist training programmes and achieve faculty appointments. All medical schools have utilized elements of a 'pipeline approach' encompassing contact with students at secondary school level to encourage aspirational goals and assist with suitable subject selection. Bridging courses can ensure students leaving school have appropriate skill sets before entering medical degree courses. Extensive practical help is available during primary medical qualification study. The elements necessary for primary medical qualification success - dedicated and focused study, developing appropriate skill sets, mentoring, support, and an institutional and collegial commitment to success - are also the elements required for postgraduate achievement. The Royal Australasian College of Surgeons (RACS) is primarily involved in training rather than service provision. The increasing numbers of indigenous medical graduates in both Australia and New Zealand represent an opportunity for the College to contribute to improving indigenous health status by implementing specific measures to increase numbers of indigenous surgeons. © 2013 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  9. Indigenous Australians and Preschool Education: Who Is Attending?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biddle, Nicholas

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses the individual, family, household and area level characteristics associated with preschool attendance for Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians (aged three to five years who are not at school). Controlling for these factors explains all of the difference between Indigenous and non-Indigenous attendance rates for…

  10. Revolutionizing Environmental Education through Indigenous Hip Hop Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorlewski, Julie; Porfilio, Brad J.

    2012-01-01

    Based upon the life histories of six Indigenous hip hop artists of the Beat Nation artist collective, this essay captures how Indigenous hip hop has the potential to revolutionize environmental education. Hip hop provides Indigenous youth an emancipatory space to raise their opposition to neocolonial controls of Indigenous territories that…

  11. Effects of Introduced and Indigenous Viruses on Native Plants: Exploring Their Disease Causing Potential at the Agro-Ecological Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Stuart J.; Coutts, Brenda A.; Jones, Roger A. C.

    2014-01-01

    The ever increasing movement of viruses around the world poses a major threat to plants growing in cultivated and natural ecosystems. Both generalist and specialist viruses move via trade in plants and plant products. Their potential to damage cultivated plants is well understood, but little attention has been given to the threat such viruses pose to plant biodiversity. To address this, we studied their impact, and that of indigenous viruses, on native plants from a global biodiversity hot spot in an isolated region where agriculture is very recent (plant species, we used introduced generalist and specialist viruses, and indigenous viruses, to inoculate plants of 15 native species belonging to eight families. We also measured resulting losses in biomass and reproductive ability for some host–virus combinations. In addition, we sampled native plants growing over a wide area to increase knowledge of natural infection with introduced viruses. The results suggest that generalist introduced viruses and indigenous viruses from other hosts pose a greater potential threat than introduced specialist viruses to populations of native plants encountered for the first time. Some introduced generalist viruses infected plants in more families than others and so pose a greater potential threat to biodiversity. The indigenous viruses tested were often surprisingly virulent when they infected native plant species they were not adapted to. These results are relevant to managing virus disease in new encounter scenarios at the agro-ecological interface between managed and natural vegetation, and within other disturbed natural vegetation situations. They are also relevant for establishing conservation policies for endangered plant species and avoiding spread of damaging viruses to undisturbed natural vegetation beyond the agro-ecological interface. PMID:24621926

  12. Effects of introduced and indigenous viruses on native plants: exploring their disease causing potential at the agro-ecological interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Stuart J; Coutts, Brenda A; Jones, Roger A C

    2014-01-01

    The ever increasing movement of viruses around the world poses a major threat to plants growing in cultivated and natural ecosystems. Both generalist and specialist viruses move via trade in plants and plant products. Their potential to damage cultivated plants is well understood, but little attention has been given to the threat such viruses pose to plant biodiversity. To address this, we studied their impact, and that of indigenous viruses, on native plants from a global biodiversity hot spot in an isolated region where agriculture is very recent (viruses readily. To establish their potential to cause severe or mild systemic symptoms in different native plant species, we used introduced generalist and specialist viruses, and indigenous viruses, to inoculate plants of 15 native species belonging to eight families. We also measured resulting losses in biomass and reproductive ability for some host-virus combinations. In addition, we sampled native plants growing over a wide area to increase knowledge of natural infection with introduced viruses. The results suggest that generalist introduced viruses and indigenous viruses from other hosts pose a greater potential threat than introduced specialist viruses to populations of native plants encountered for the first time. Some introduced generalist viruses infected plants in more families than others and so pose a greater potential threat to biodiversity. The indigenous viruses tested were often surprisingly virulent when they infected native plant species they were not adapted to. These results are relevant to managing virus disease in new encounter scenarios at the agro-ecological interface between managed and natural vegetation, and within other disturbed natural vegetation situations. They are also relevant for establishing conservation policies for endangered plant species and avoiding spread of damaging viruses to undisturbed natural vegetation beyond the agro-ecological interface.

  13. Doing Climate Science in Indigenous Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandya, R. E.; Bennett, B.

    2009-12-01

    Historically, the goal of broadening participation in the geosciences has been expressed and approached from the viewpoint of the majority-dominated geoscience community. The need for more students who are American Indian, Native Hawaiian, or Alaska Native is expressed in terms of the need to diversify the research community, and strategies to engage more students are often posed around the question “what can we do to get more indigenous students interested in coming to our institutions to do geosciences?” This approach can lead to neglecting indigenous ways of knowing, inadvertently prioritizes western values over traditional ones, and doesn’t necessarily honor tribal community’s desire to hold on to their talented youth. Further, while this approach has resulted in some modest success, the overall participation in geoscience by students from indigenous backgrounds remains low. Many successful programs, however, have tried an alternate approach; they begin by approaching the geosciences from the viewpoint of indigenous communities. The questions they ask center around how geosciences can advance the priorities of indigenous communities, and their approaches focus on building capacity for the geosciences within indigenous communities. Most importantly, perhaps, these efforts originate in Tribal communities themselves, and invite the geoscience research community to partner in projects that are rooted in indigenous culture and values. Finally, these programs recognize that scientific expertise is only one among many skills indigenous peoples employ in their relation with their homelands. Climate change, like all things related to the landscape, is intimately connected to the core of indigenous cultures. Thus, emerging concerns about climate change provide a venue for developing new, indigenous-centered, approaches to the persistent problem of broadening participation in the geoscience. This presentation will highlight three indigenous-led efforts in to

  14. [The contribution of indigenous community health workers to special healthcare for Brazilian indigenous peoples].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, Eliana Elisabeth; Langdon, Esther Jean; Dias-Scopel, Raquel Paiva

    2012-05-01

    Indigenous community health workers are part of a strategy developed by Brazil in the last two decades to promote a special healthcare model for indigenous peoples. Their role is designed to deal with various aspects of the special health policy, including the link between the heath team and the community and mediation between scientific and indigenous medical knowledge. Despite a significant increase in the number of indigenous community health workers in recent years, an evaluation of their responsibilities and contributions to the success of special care had not been conducted previously. This article, based on a literature review and original research by the authors, analyzes the role of the indigenous community health workers vis-à-vis their training and participation in health teams in different contexts in Brazil. Considering the importance assigned to the role of indigenous community health workers, this analysis reveals various ambiguities and contradictions that hinder both their performance and their potential contribution to the special health services.

  15. The importance of the riparian zone and in-stream processes in nitrate attenuation in undisturbed and agricultural watersheds – a review of the scientific literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranalli, Anthony J.; Macalady, Donald L.

    2010-01-01

    We reviewed published studies from primarily glaciated regions in the United States, Canada, and Europe of the (1) transport of nitrate from terrestrial ecosystems to aquatic ecosystems, (2) attenuation of nitrate in the riparian zone of undisturbed and agricultural watersheds, (3) processes contributing to nitrate attenuation in riparian zones, (4) variation in the attenuation of nitrate in the riparian zone, and (5) importance of in-stream and hyporheic processes for nitrate attenuation in the stream channel. Our objectives were to synthesize the results of these studies and suggest methodologies to (1) monitor regional trends in nitrate concentration in undisturbed 1st order watersheds and (2) reduce nitrate loads in streams draining agricultural watersheds. Our review reveals that undisturbed headwater watersheds have been shown to be very retentive of nitrogen, but the importance of biogeochemical and hydrological riparian zone processes in retaining nitrogen in these watersheds has not been demonstrated as it has for agricultural watersheds. An understanding of the role of the riparian zone in nitrate attenuation in undisturbed watersheds is crucial because these watersheds are increasingly subject to stressors, such as changes in land use and climate, wildfire, and increases in atmospheric nitrogen deposition. In general, understanding processes controlling the concentration and flux of nitrate is critical to identifying and mapping the vulnerability of watersheds to water quality changes due to a variety of stressors. In undisturbed and agricultural watersheds we propose that understanding the importance of riparian zone processes in 2nd order and larger watersheds is critical. Research is needed that addresses the relative importance of how the following sources of nitrate along any given stream reach might change as watersheds increase in size and with flow: (1) inputs upstream from the reach, (2) tributary inflow, (3) water derived from the riparian zone

  16. Wildlife in Chernobyl forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mary Mycio

    2007-01-01

    The article is a review of a book addressed Wormwood Forest: a natural history of Chernobyl which describes life in Europe's largest wildlife sanctuary in the region surrounding the Chernobyl station. Since the accident, the area has largely been a safe haven from hunters and farmers, allowing the wildlife to live in an undisturbed environment. Against this backdrop, the book describes in detail, a highly controversial programme that released an endangered species of horse into the zone. Lack of funding for such programmes makes it nearly impossible to administer them. The book blends reportage, popular science and encounters with the zone's few residents. The result is an account of a remarkable land, its people and animals seen through the eyes of the locals, the author and the zoologists, botanists and radiologists who travelled with her around the zone. The radiation is the book's ever-present protagonist, as the author describes in detail how it works itself through the entire food chain and environment. Along the author's journey through the affected regions of Belarus and Ukraine she debunks several myths surrounding Chernobyl and the nuclear industry in general. In fact, while there have been a small number of cases of mutations observed in some species, these are not as dramatic as the Chernobyl mythology.

  17. Forest soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles H. (Hobie) Perry; Michael C. Amacher

    2009-01-01

    Productive soils are the foundation of sustainable forests throughout the United States. Forest soils are generally subjected to fewer disturbances than agricultural soils, particularly those that are tilled, so forest soils tend to have better preserved A-horizons than agricultural soils. Another major contrast between forest and agricultural soils is the addition of...

  18. Forest hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge Sun; Devendra Amatya; Steve McNulty

    2016-01-01

    Forest hydrology studies the distribution, storage, movement, and quality of water and the hydrological processes in forest-dominated ecosystems. Forest hydrological science is regarded as the foundation of modern integrated water¬shed management. This chapter provides an overview of the history of forest hydrology and basic principles of this unique branch of...

  19. Forest Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. Hummel; K. L. O' Hara

    2008-01-01

    Global variation in forests and in human cultures means that a single method for managing forests is not possible. However, forest management everywhere shares some common principles because it is rooted in physical and biological sciences like chemistry and genetics. Ecological forest management is an approach that combines an understanding of universal processes with...

  20. The politics of indigeneity: Indigenous strategies for inclusion in climate change negotiations

    OpenAIRE

    Doolittle Amity

    2010-01-01

    Indigenous environmental activists have clearly articulated their views on global climate change policy. The content of these views was explored during the 10-day 2008 World Conservation Congress (WCC) in Barcelona. Data were primarily collected through interviews and participant observation. In addition, policy statements and declarations made by indigenous environmental activists from 2000 to 2009 were analysed to place the perspectives of indigenous leaders and environmental activists in t...

  1. Lava, VOG, and tropical forests: working with the FIA program in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas McGinley; Ashley. Lehman

    2015-01-01

    In the winter of 2009, the Pacific Northwest Research Station initiated the ground implementation of their Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program on the Hawaiian Islands. In the Pacific, people from the indigenous to the transplanted, hold intrinsic and utilitarian values of their forests that often differ considerably from values of mainstream mainland USA. These...

  2. Mapuche Institutions in Chile: from sovereign rights to indigenous consultation

    OpenAIRE

    Ronny Alejandro Leiva

    2014-01-01

    Chilean indigenous institutions recently joined the Convention concerning Indigenous and Tribal Peoples Convention, 1989 (no. 169) of the International Labor Organization (ILO) to its administrative structure. Prior to this, indigenous law 19.253 indigenous organizations were created in order to foster the participation of these peoples. Convention No. 169 and other international instruments on indigenous rights enshrine the right to participation through their own representative institut...

  3. Urinary angiotensinogen excretion in Australian Indigenous and non-Indigenous pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pringle, Kirsty G; de Meaultsart, Celine Corbisier; Sykes, Shane D; Weatherall, Loretta J; Keogh, Lyniece; Clausen, Don C; Dekker, Gus A; Smith, Roger; Roberts, Claire T; Rae, Kym M; Lumbers, Eugenie R

    2018-04-11

    The intrarenal renin-angiotensin system (iRAS) is implicated in the pathogenesis of hypertension, chronic kidney disease and diabetic nephropathy. Urinary angiotensinogen (uAGT) levels reflect the activity of the iRAS and are altered in women with preeclampsia. Since Indigenous Australians suffer high rates and early onset of renal disease, we hypothesised that Indigenous Australian pregnant women, like non-Indigenous women with pregnancy complications, would have altered uAGT levels. The excretion of RAS proteins was measured in non-Indigenous and Indigenous Australian women with uncomplicated or complicated pregnancies (preeclampsia, diabetes/gestational diabetes, proteinuria/albuminuria, hypertension, small/large for gestational age, preterm birth), and in non-pregnant non-Indigenous women. Non-Indigenous pregnant women with uncomplicated pregnancies, had higher uAGT/creatinine levels than non-Indigenous non-pregnant women (P pregnant women with pregnancy complications, uAGT/creatinine was suppressed in the third trimester (P pregnant women with uncomplicated pregnancies, there was no change in uAGT/creatinine with gestational age and uAGT/creatinine was lower in the 2nd and 3rd trimesters than in non-Indigenous pregnant women with uncomplicated pregnancies (P pregnant women may reflect subclinical renal dysfunction which limits the ability of the kidney to maintain sodium balance and could indicate an increased risk of pregnancy complications and/or future renal disease. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Effect of grass cover on water and pesticide transport through undisturbed soil columns, comparison with field study (Morcille watershed, Beaujolais)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dousset, S., E-mail: sylvie.dousset@limos.uhp-nancy.f [Nancy-Universite, CNRS, LIMOS, BP 70239, 54506 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); Thevenot, M. [Universite de Lille 1, CNRS, Geosystemes, 59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Schrack, D. [INRA-SAD ASTER, 88500 Mirecourt (France); AFSSA, Laboratoire d' Etudes et de Recherches en Hydrologie, 54000 Nancy (France); Gouy, V.; Carluer, N. [UR Milieux Aquatiques, Ecologie et Pollution, Cemagref, 69336 Lyon Cedex (France)

    2010-07-15

    The purpose of this work is to assess the effectiveness of two grass covers (buffer zone and grass-covered inter-row), to reduce pesticide leaching, and subsequently to preserve groundwater quality. Lower amounts of pesticides leached through grass-cover soil columns (2.7-24.3% of the initial amount) than the bare soil columns (8.0-55.1%), in correspondence with their sorption coefficients. Diuron was recovered in higher amounts in leachates (8.9-32.2%) than tebuconazole (2.7-12.9%), in agreement with their sorption coefficients. However, despite having a sorption coefficient similar to that of diuron, more procymidone was recovered in the leachates (10.2-55.1%), probably due to its facilitated transport by dissolved organic matter. Thus even in this very permeable soil, higher organic matter contents associated with grass-cover reduce the amount of pesticide leaching and limit the risk of groundwater contamination by the pesticides. The results of diuron and tebuconazole transfer through undisturbed buffer zone soil columns are in agreement with field observations on the buffer zone. - Grass-covered soils reduce the amount of pesticide leaching, due mainly to their higher organic matter contents, thereby reducing the risk of groundwater contamination.

  5. Influence of organic amendments on diuron leaching through an acidic and a calcareous vineyard soil using undisturbed lysimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thevenot, M.; Dousset, S.; Rousseaux, S.; Andreux, F.

    2008-01-01

    The influence of different organic amendments on diuron leaching was studied through undisturbed vineyard soil columns. Two composts (A and D), the second at two stages of maturity, and two soils (VR and Bj) were sampled. After 1 year, the amount of residues (diuron + metabolites) in the leachates of the VR soil (0.19-0.71%) was lower than in the Bj soil (4.27-8.23%), which could be explained by stronger diuron adsorption on VR. An increase in the amount of diuron leached through the amended soil columns, compared to the blank, was observed for the Bj soil only. This result may be explained by the formation of mobile complexes between diuron and water-extractable organic matter (WEOM) through the Bj soil, or by competition between diuron and WEOM for the adsorption sites in the soil. For both soils, the nature of the composts and their degree of maturity did not significantly influence diuron leaching. - The application of organic amendments increased diuron leaching through a sandy-loam soil, in contrast to a clay-loam soil

  6. Influence of organic amendments on diuron leaching through an acidic and a calcareous vineyard soil using undisturbed lysimeters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thevenot, M. [UMR 1229 Microbiologie et Geochimie des Sols, CMSE, INRA - Universite de Bourgogne, UFR des Sciences de la Terre et de l' Environnement, 6 Boulevard Gabriel, 21000 Dijon (France)], E-mail: mathieu.thevenot@u-bourgogne.fr; Dousset, S. [UMR 5561 Biogeosciences, CNRS - Universite de Bourgogne, UFR des Sciences de la Terre et de l' Environnement, 6 Boulevard Gabriel, 21000 Dijon (France); Rousseaux, S. [EA 4149 Laboratoire de Recherche en Vigne et Vin, Institut Universitaire de la Vigne et du Vin, rue Claude Ladrey, 21000 Dijon (France); Andreux, F. [UMR 1229 Microbiologie et Geochimie des Sols, CMSE, INRA - Universite de Bourgogne, UFR des Sciences de la Terre et de l' Environnement, 6 Boulevard Gabriel, 21000 Dijon (France)

    2008-05-15

    The influence of different organic amendments on diuron leaching was studied through undisturbed vineyard soil columns. Two composts (A and D), the second at two stages of maturity, and two soils (VR and Bj) were sampled. After 1 year, the amount of residues (diuron + metabolites) in the leachates of the VR soil (0.19-0.71%) was lower than in the Bj soil (4.27-8.23%), which could be explained by stronger diuron adsorption on VR. An increase in the amount of diuron leached through the amended soil columns, compared to the blank, was observed for the Bj soil only. This result may be explained by the formation of mobile complexes between diuron and water-extractable organic matter (WEOM) through the Bj soil, or by competition between diuron and WEOM for the adsorption sites in the soil. For both soils, the nature of the composts and their degree of maturity did not significantly influence diuron leaching. - The application of organic amendments increased diuron leaching through a sandy-loam soil, in contrast to a clay-loam soil.

  7. Effect of grass cover on water and pesticide transport through undisturbed soil columns, comparison with field study (Morcille watershed, Beaujolais).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dousset, S; Thévenot, M; Schrack, D; Gouy, V; Carluer, N

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of this work is to assess the effectiveness of two grass covers (buffer zone and grass-covered inter-row), to reduce pesticide leaching, and subsequently to preserve groundwater quality. Lower amounts of pesticides leached through grass-cover soil columns (2.7-24.3% of the initial amount) than the bare soil columns (8.0-55.1%), in correspondence with their sorption coefficients. Diuron was recovered in higher amounts in leachates (8.9-32.2%) than tebuconazole (2.7-12.9%), in agreement with their sorption coefficients. However, despite having a sorption coefficient similar to that of diuron, more procymidone was recovered in the leachates (10.2-55.1%), probably due to its facilitated transport by dissolved organic matter. Thus even in this very permeable soil, higher organic matter contents associated with grass-cover reduce the amount of pesticide leaching and limit the risk of groundwater contamination by the pesticides. The results of diuron and tebuconazole transfer through undisturbed buffer zone soil columns are in agreement with field observations on the buffer zone. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of grass cover on water and pesticide transport through undisturbed soil columns, comparison with field study (Morcille watershed, Beaujolais)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dousset, S.; Thevenot, M.; Schrack, D.; Gouy, V.; Carluer, N.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to assess the effectiveness of two grass covers (buffer zone and grass-covered inter-row), to reduce pesticide leaching, and subsequently to preserve groundwater quality. Lower amounts of pesticides leached through grass-cover soil columns (2.7-24.3% of the initial amount) than the bare soil columns (8.0-55.1%), in correspondence with their sorption coefficients. Diuron was recovered in higher amounts in leachates (8.9-32.2%) than tebuconazole (2.7-12.9%), in agreement with their sorption coefficients. However, despite having a sorption coefficient similar to that of diuron, more procymidone was recovered in the leachates (10.2-55.1%), probably due to its facilitated transport by dissolved organic matter. Thus even in this very permeable soil, higher organic matter contents associated with grass-cover reduce the amount of pesticide leaching and limit the risk of groundwater contamination by the pesticides. The results of diuron and tebuconazole transfer through undisturbed buffer zone soil columns are in agreement with field observations on the buffer zone. - Grass-covered soils reduce the amount of pesticide leaching, due mainly to their higher organic matter contents, thereby reducing the risk of groundwater contamination.

  9. Indigenous algae: Potential factories for biodiesel production

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Maharajh, Dheepak M

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available advantages. Approximately 30% of South African environments favourable for isolating algae have been sampled. Samples were enriched, purified and assessed for lipid content, resulting in a database of indigenous algae. Positive isolates were grown under...

  10. African indigenous plants with chemotherapeutic potentials and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Herbal-based and plant-derived products can be exploited with sustainable comparative and competitive advantage. This review presents some indigenous African plants with chemotherapeutic properties and possible ways of developing them into potent pharmacological agents using biotechnological approaches.

  11. Documenting and disseminating agricultural indigenous knowledge ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Documenting and disseminating agricultural indigenous knowledge for sustainable food security in Uganda. ... University of Dar es Salaam Library Journal ... Moreover, small-scale farmers should be involved in agricultural extension services ...

  12. Masihambisane, lessons learnt using participatory indigenous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    knowledge research approaches in a school-based collaborative project of the .... ticipate in informal employment; however, they manage to provide for their families. ... Entitled “Promoting and learning from Cofimvaba community's indigenous.

  13. Documenting and disseminating agricultural indigenous knowledge

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eric

    harvesting and storage of indigenous root crops and animals. .... sample of 351 informants who were selected using random, purposive and snowball sampling ... The farmers in Soroti also spray crops with human and animal urine, dust.

  14. African indigenous and traditional vegetables in Tanzania ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Indigenous and traditional African vegetables (AITVs) are important sources of ... and (iii) marketing: retail markup, price variation by season, year and region, ... size and cost, retailer storage, remainders, processing and less common AITVs.

  15. Indigenous Control Methods for Parasites among Pastoralists ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RLG

    Indigenous knowledge system should ... Therefore, ignoring these local knowledge practices by the ..... International Journal of Science and Rural Development. ... Ethno-medicine: Its potential in the health care system, Canoe Press.

  16. Indigenous Knowledge And Sustainable Development: Investigating ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    challenges) in society, sometimes it is marginalized in education because it is seen as non-scientific and non-engaging in formal education. Using the capability approach to human development, this paper investigates the link between indigenous ...

  17. Supporting indigenous women in science, technology, engineering ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Supporting indigenous women in science, technology, engineering and mathematics careers in Mexico and Central ... ROSSA's latest bulletin puts a focus on women. ... IDRC invites applications for the IDRC Doctoral Research Awards.

  18. SEMIOTICS IN INDIGENOUS DANCE PERFORMANCES: EKELEKE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dean SPGS NAU

    dance performance presents Ekwe people; situated in Isu local government ... Indigenous dance is not a luxury… it is part of each .... symbols for certain brand products in adverts. ... music, costumes, make-up, set lights and any other effects.

  19. (indigenous) education ensure effective gender mainstreaming in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Leaving no one behind: can (indigenous) education ensure effective gender ... in the distribution of socio-economic and political benefits, depict that additional ... of gender equality and equity and explores in different ways the relationships ...

  20. The fate of the tropical forest. Carbon or cattle?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coomes, Oliver T.; Grimard, Franque; Potvin, Catherin; Sima, Philip

    2008-01-01

    Small-scale afforestation/reforestation projects under the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) of the Kyoto Protocol will sequester atmospheric carbon and facilitate carbon trading but they face significant implementation challenges among the rural poor households and communities that are meant to adopt and benefit from them. Avoiding deforestation - a controversial carbon reduction option now under climate policy discussion - shows promise though for both forest conservation and poverty alleviation among indigenous forest peoples. (author)

  1. Human Influences on Tree Diversity and Composition of a Coastal Forest Ecosystem: The Case of Ngumburuni Forest Reserve, Rufiji, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kimaro

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on the findings of an ecological survey conducted in Ngumburuni Forest Reserve, a biodiversity rich forest reserve within the coastal forests of Tanzania. The main goal of this study was to determine the influence of uncontrolled anthropogenic activities on tree species diversity and composition within the forest ecosystem. It was revealed that economic activities including logging, charcoaling, and shifting cultivation were the most important disturbing activities affecting ecological functioning and biodiversity integrity of the forest. Further to this, we noted that the values of species diversity, composition, and regeneration potential within the undisturbed forest areas were significantly different from those in heavily disturbed areas. These observations confirm that the ongoing human activities have already caused size quality degradation of useful plants, enhanced species diversification impacts to the forest ecosystem, and possibly negatively affected the livelihoods of the adjacent local communities. Despite these disturbances, Ngumburuni forest reserve still holds important proportions of both endemic and threatened animal and plant species. The study suggests urgent implementation of several conservation measures in order to limit accessibility to the forest resources so as to safeguard the richness and abundance of useful biodiversity stocks in the reserve.

  2. Natural forest expansion on reclaimed coal mines in Northern Spain: the role of native shrubs as suitable microsites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alday, Josu G; Zaldívar, Pilar; Torroba-Balmori, Paloma; Fernández-Santos, Belén; Martínez-Ruiz, Carolina

    2016-07-01

    The characterization of suitable microsites for tree seedling establishment and growth is one of the most important tasks to achieve the restoration of native forest using natural processes in disturbed sites. For that, we assessed the natural Quercus petraea forest expansion in a 20-year-old reclaimed open-cast mine under sub-Mediterranean climate in northern Spain, monitoring seedling survival, growth, and recruitment during 5 years in three contrasting environments (undisturbed forest, mine edge, and mine center). Seedling density and proportion of dead branches decreased greatly from undisturbed forest towards the center of the mine. There was a positive effect of shrubs on Q. petraea seedling establishment in both mine environments, which increase as the environment undergoes more stress (from the mine edge to the center of the mine), and it was produced by different shrub structural features in each mine environment. Seedling survival reduction through time in three environments did not lead to a density reduction because there was a yearly recruitment of new seedlings. Seedling survival, annual growth, and height through time were greater in mine sites than in the undisturbed forest. The successful colonization patterns and positive neighbor effect of shrubs on natural seedlings establishment found in this study during the first years support the use of shrubs as ecosystem engineers to increase heterogeneity in micro-environmental conditions on reclaimed mine sites, which improves late-successional Quercus species establishment.

  3. Resilience of ponderosa and lodgepole pine forests to mountain pine beetle disturbance and limited regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Jenny S.; Hawbaker, Todd J.; Vandendriesche, Don

    2015-01-01

    After causing widespread mortality in lodgepole pine forests in North America, the mountain pine beetle (MPB) has recently also affected ponderosa pine, an alternate host species that may have different levels of resilience to this disturbance. We collected field data in ponderosa pine- and lodgepole pine-dominated forests attacked by MPB in Colorado and then simulated stand growth over 200 years using the Forest Vegetation Simulator. We compared scenarios of no disturbance with scenarios of MPB-caused mortality, both with and without regeneration. Results indicated that basal area and tree density recovered to predisturbance levels relatively rapidly (within 1‐8 decades) in both forest types. However, convergence of the disturbed conditions with simulated undisturbed conditions took longer (12‐20+ decades) and was delayed by the absence of regeneration. In MPB-affected ponderosa pine forests without regeneration, basal area did not converge with undisturbed conditions within 200 years, implying lower resilience in this ecosystem. Surface fuels accumulated rapidly in both forest types after MPB-induced mortality, remaining high for 3‐6 decades in simulations. Our results suggest that future patterns of succession, regeneration, fuel loading, climate, and disturbance interactions over long time periods should be considered in management strategies addressing MPB effects in either forest type, but particularly in ponderosa pine.

  4. Gamebird responses to anthropogenic forest fragmentation and degradation in a southern Amazonian landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Michalski

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Although large-bodied tropical forest birds are impacted by both habitat loss and fragmentation, their patterns of habitat occupancy will also depend on the degree of forest habitat disturbance, which may interact synergistically or additively with fragmentation effects. Here, we examine the effects of forest patch and landscape metrics, and levels of forest disturbance on the patterns of persistence of six gamebird taxa in the southern Brazilian Amazon. We use both interview data conducted with long-term residents and/or landowners from 129 remnant forest patches and 15 continuous forest sites and line-transect census data from a subset of 21 forest patches and two continuous forests. Forest patch area was the strongest predictor of species persistence, explaining as much as 46% of the overall variation in gamebird species richness. Logistic regression models showed that anthropogenic disturbance—including surface wildfires, selective logging and hunting pressure—had a variety of effects on species persistence. Most large-bodied gamebird species were sensitive to forest fragmentation, occupying primarily large, high-quality forest patches in higher abundances, and were typically absent from patches 10,000 ha, relatively undisturbed forest patches to both maximize persistence and maintain baseline abundances of large neotropical forest birds.

  5. A large-scale field assessment of carbon stocks in human-modified tropical forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berenguer, Erika; Ferreira, Joice; Gardner, Toby Alan; Aragão, Luiz Eduardo Oliveira Cruz; De Camargo, Plínio Barbosa; Cerri, Carlos Eduardo; Durigan, Mariana; Cosme De Oliveira Junior, Raimundo; Vieira, Ima Célia Guimarães; Barlow, Jos

    2014-12-01

    Tropical rainforests store enormous amounts of carbon, the protection of which represents a vital component of efforts to mitigate global climate change. Currently, tropical forest conservation, science, policies, and climate mitigation actions focus predominantly on reducing carbon emissions from deforestation alone. However, every year vast areas of the humid tropics are disturbed by selective logging, understory fires, and habitat fragmentation. There is an urgent need to understand the effect of such disturbances on carbon stocks, and how stocks in disturbed forests compare to those found in undisturbed primary forests as well as in regenerating secondary forests. Here, we present the results of the largest field study to date on the impacts of human disturbances on above and belowground carbon stocks in tropical forests. Live vegetation, the largest carbon pool, was extremely sensitive to disturbance: forests that experienced both selective logging and understory fires stored, on average, 40% less aboveground carbon than undisturbed forests and were structurally similar to secondary forests. Edge effects also played an important role in explaining variability in aboveground carbon stocks of disturbed forests. Results indicate a potential rapid recovery of the dead wood and litter carbon pools, while soil stocks (0-30 cm) appeared to be resistant to the effects of logging and fire. Carbon loss and subsequent emissions due to human disturbances remain largely unaccounted for in greenhouse gas inventories, but by comparing our estimates of depleted carbon stocks in disturbed forests with Brazilian government assessments of the total forest area annually disturbed in the Amazon, we show that these emissions could represent up to 40% of the carbon loss from deforestation in the region. We conclude that conservation programs aiming to ensure the long-term permanence of forest carbon stocks, such as REDD+, will remain limited in their success unless they effectively

  6. Introduction: The Growing Importance of Traditional Forest-Related Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald L. Trosper; John A. Parrotta

    2012-01-01

    The knowledge, innovations, and practices of local and indigenous communities have supported their forest-based livelihoods for countless generations. The role of traditional knowledge—and the bio-cultural diversity it sustains—is increasingly recognized as important by decision makers, conservation and development organizations, and the scientifi c community. However...

  7. Leadership as a Personal Journey: An Indigenous Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Kerrie; Hungerford, Catherine

    2015-05-01

    Indigenous Australians have higher levels of mental illness, self-harm, suicide and substance abuse than non-Indigenous Australians, as well as more frequent contact with the criminal justice system. These indices point to the need for strong leadership to support Close the Gap programmes that have now been implemented across Australia. This article considers leadership as a journey of learning for Australian Indigenous leaders. Through the use of story, it is suggested that a situational leadership approach, incorporating the principles of mindfulness, provides the most appropriate framework for Indigenous leaders who work with Indigenous communities. Flexible approaches are needed to meet the needs of diverse Indigenous populations, and address the complex challenges involved, including lateral violence. Such flexibility will enable Indigenous leaders and communities to work together to achieve improvements in the health outcomes, not only for Indigenous Australians, but also for Indigenous populations worldwide.

  8. Indigenous values and water markets: Survey insights from northern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolakis, William D.; Grafton, R. Quentin; To, Hang

    2013-09-01

    Drawing upon on the literature on Indigenous values to water, water markets and the empirical findings from a survey of 120 Indigenous and non-Indigenous respondents across northern Australia, the paper makes important qualitative and statistical comparisons between Indigenous and non-Indigenous values to water markets. The study is the first comparison of Indigenous and non-Indigenous values to water markets based on the same survey instrument. Key results from Indigenous respondents include: (1) water markets are held to be an acceptable approach to managing water; (2) markets must be carefully designed to protect customary and ecological values; (3) the allocation of water rights need to encompass equity considerations; and (4) water and land rights should not be separated even if this enhances efficiency, as it runs counter to Indigenous holistic values. Overall, the survey results provide the basis for a proposed adaptive decision loop, which allows decision makers to incorporate stakeholder values in water markets.

  9. Bioethanol Production from Indigenous Algae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhuka Roy

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Enhanced rate of fossil fuel extraction is likely to deplete limited natural resources over short period of time. So search for alternative fuel is only the way to overcome this problem of upcoming energy crisis. In this aspect biofuel is a sustainable option. Agricultural lands cannot be compromised for biofuel production due to the requirement of food for the increasing population. Certain species of algae can produce ethanol during anaerobic fermentation and thus serve as a direct source for bioethanol production. The high content of complex carbohydrates entrapped in the cell wall of the microalgae makes it essential to incorporate a pre-treatment stage to release and convert these complex carbohydrates into simple sugars prior to the fermentation process. There have been researches on production of bioethanol from a particular species of algae, but this work was an attempt to produce bioethanol from easily available indigenous algae. Acid hydrolysis was carried out as pre-treatment. Gas Chromatographic analysis showed that 5 days’ fermentation by baker’s yeast had yielded 93% pure bioethanol. The fuel characterization of the bioethanol with respect to gasoline showed comparable and quite satisfactory results for its use as an alternative fuel.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v4i1.12182International Journal of Environment Volume-4, Issue-1, Dec-Feb 2014/15, page: 112-120  

  10. Non-Indigenous Women Teaching Indigenous Education: A Duoethnographic Exploration of Untold Stories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burm, Sarah; Burleigh, Dawn

    2017-01-01

    Identifying as non-Indigenous, we are often left considering our positionality and identity in Indigenous education, how we have come to be invested in this area of research, and what we see as our contribution. In conversation with one another, we realized we choose to share certain stories and not others about our experiences working in…

  11. [Eating characteristics of Chilean indigenous and non-indigenous adolescent girls].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araneda, Jacqueline; Amigo, Hugo; Bustos, Patricia

    2010-03-01

    During childhood and adolescence, eating habits become established which are instrumental in determining eating behavior later in life. Various authors have described the acculturation of the Mapuche people toward Western culture. The objective of this study was to analyze the eating characteristics of indigenous and non-indigenous adolescent girls in the Araucania Region of Chile. A cross-sectional design was used with a probabilistic sample of 281 adolescents comprised of 139 indigenous and 142 non-indigenous girls attending 168 elementary schools. A modified food frequency questionnaire was applied, designed to obtain information about eating habits and consumption of Mapuche foods. The eating schedules are similar in both ethnic groups, with dinner being the meal that is least consumed. Total snack consumption per week has a mean of 7 with an interquartile range (IQR) of 5 to 10 without any differences between ethnic groups; of these snacks, only 2 were healthy (IQR = 1 to 3). The indigenous girls had a higher probability of consumption of native foods including mote (boiled wheat) (OR = 2.00; IC = 0.93-4.29), muday (fermented cereal alcohol) (OR = 3.45; IC = 1.90-6.27), and yuyo (field mustard) (OR = 4.40; IC = 2.06-9.39). The study's conclusion is that the the eating habits and behavior of indigenous adolescents are similar to those of non-indigenous girls, though the former still consume more indigenous foods.

  12. What Is Indigenous Research in Philosophy of Education? And What Is PESA, from an Indigenous Perspective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mika, Carl; Stewart, Georgina; Watson, Ka'imi; Silva, Keola; Martin, Brian; Matapo, Jacoba; Galuvao, Akata

    2018-01-01

    In this commentary, various expert authors offer their ideas on indigenous research in the philosophy of education and PESA's role from an indigenous perspective. Georgiana Stewart is the first author to step forward and explain that education is based on knowledge, and so education is centrally concerned with literacy and identity. Stewart goes…

  13. The behavior of radioactive 137Cs and stable Cs at the isolated undisturbed mountain pond in Fukui, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwamoto, Kazumi; Kimura, Makio; Ando, Kenji; Amano, Hikaru

    2003-01-01

    The behavior of radioactive 137 Cs and stable Cs at the isolated undisturbed mountain pond in Fukui, Japan was studied for the pond water, the sedimentary grains and the soil near the pond. The concentrations of 137 Cs and stable Cs in the pond water ranged from 0.23 to 0.85 Bq/m 3 and from 0.005 to 0.018 mg/m 3 , respectively. The sedimentary grains were sorted by sieving into fractions with diameter from 2 mm to less than 38 μm. The concentrations of 137 Cs and stable Cs in the sorted grains were measured, and those of the adsorbed state were determined by subtracting the concentration of the grain matrix. The adsorbed concentrations increased with decrease in particle diameter and depended less on the kind of samples. The in-situ distribution coefficient Kd depended largely on particle diameter and increased with the decrease in diameter. The values of Kd ranged from about 20 to 1200 m 3 /kg for stable Cs and about 15 to 1000 m 3 /kg for 137 Cs, and the Kd of 137 Cs seemed to be slightly smaller than that of stable Cs. The concentration of stable Cs in the sedimentary mud was found to be close to that of the fine grains. The concentrations of stable Cs in the soil near the pond was about 7.7 mg/kg, and that of 137 Cs was about 0.6 kBq/kg for the surface layer soil and decreased with increase in soil depth. (author)

  14. Migration of 137Cs and 90Sr in undisturbed soil profiles under controlled and close-to-real conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsberg, S.; Rosen, K.; Fernandez, V.; Juhan, H.

    2000-01-01

    Migration of 137 Cs and 90 Sr in undisturbed soil was studied in large lysimeters three and four years after contamination, as part of a larger European project studying radionuclide soil-plant interactions. The lysimeters were installed in greenhouses with climate control and contaminated with radionuclides in an aerosol mixture, simulating fallout from a nuclear accident. The soil types studied were loam, silt loam, sandy loam and loamy sand. The soils were sampled to 30-40 cm depth in 1997 and 1998. The total deposition of 137 Cs ranged from 24 to 45 MBq/m 2 , and of 90 Sr from 23 to 52 MBq/m 2 . It was shown that migration of 137 Cs was fastest in sandy loam, and of 90 Sr fastest in sandy loam and loam. The slowest migration of both nuclides was found in loamy sand. Retention within the upper 5 cm was 60% for both 137 Cs and 90 Sr in sandy loam, while in loamy sand it was 97 and 96%, respectively. In 1998, migration rates, calculated as radionuclide weighted median depth (migration centre) divided by time since deposition were 1.1 cm/year for both 137 Cs and 90 Sr in sandy loam, 0.8 and 1.0 cm/year, respectively, in loam, 0.6 and 0.8 cm/year in silt loam, and 0.4 and 0.6 cm/year for 137 Cs and 90 Sr, respectively, in loamy sand. A distinction is made between short-term migration, caused by events soon after deposition and less affected by soil type, and long-term migration, more affected by e.g. soil texture. Three to four years after deposition, effects of short-term migration is still dominant in the studied soils

  15. Acid-base buffering of soils in transitional and transitional-accumulative positions of undisturbed southern-taiga landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusakova, E. S.; Ishkova, I. V.; Tolpeshta, I. I.; Sokolova, T. A.

    2012-05-01

    The method of continuous potentiometric titration (CPT) of soil water suspensions was used to evaluate the acid-base buffering of samples from the major genetic horizons of podzolic soils on a slope and soddy gley soils on the adjacent floodplain of a rivulet. In the soils of the slope, the buffering to acid upon titration from the pH of the initial titration point (ITP) to pH 3 in all the horizons was 1.5-2.0 times lower than that in the podzolic soils of the leveled interfluve, which could be due to the active leaching of exchangeable bases and oxalate-soluble aluminum and iron compounds with the later soil flows. In the soddy gley soils, the buffering to acid in the mineral horizons was 2-10 times higher than that in the podzolic soils. A direct dependence of the soil buffering to acid on the total content of exchangeable bases and on the content of oxalate-soluble aluminum compounds was found. A direct dependence of the buffering to basic upon titration from the ITP to pH 10 on the contents of the oxalate-soluble aluminum and organic matter was observed in the mineral horizons of all the studied soils. The soil treatment with Tamm's reagent resulted in the decrease of the buffering to acid in the soddy gley soils of the floodplain, as well as in the decrease of the buffering to basic in the soils on the slopes and in the soddy gley soils. It was also found that the redistribution of the mobile aluminum compounds between the eluvial, transitional, and transitional-accumulative positions in the undisturbed southern taiga landscapes leads to significant spatial differentiation of the acid-base buffering of the mineral soil horizons with a considerable increase in the buffer capacity of the soils within the transitional-accumulative terrain positions.

  16. SCHOOL, INDIGENOUS AND WESTERN CULTURES: REFLEXIONS TO THINK THE EDUCATION IN THE INDIGENOUS SCHOOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Pereira Antunes

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The education in the indigenous schools, even though it is build within the legal framework of the State and a modern concept of education, demands new comprehensions from the western society not only in its relation with the indigenous education, but also in its relation with the indigenous people. Because of its condition as a mediator between two different forms of thinking, the indigenous school also represents a fertile ground to think about the western conceptions of education. This article is dedicated to a deeper reflection about some aspects of the relation between the western society, based on rationality and science, and the indian people in the construction of the indigenous schools.

  17. Effects of tropical montane forest disturbance on epiphytic macrolichens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benitez, Angel [Instituto de Ecologia, Herbario HUTPL, Universidad Tecnica Particular de Loja, San Cayetano s/n, Loja (Ecuador); Prieto, Maria, E-mail: maria.prieto@urjc.es [Area de Biodiversidad y Conservacion, ESCET, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Mostoles, E-28933, Madrid (Spain); Gonzalez, Yadira [Instituto de Ecologia, Herbario HUTPL, Universidad Tecnica Particular de Loja, San Cayetano s/n, Loja (Ecuador); Aragon, Gregorio [Area de Biodiversidad y Conservacion, ESCET, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Mostoles, E-28933, Madrid (Spain)

    2012-12-15

    The high diversity of epiphytes typical of undisturbed montane tropical forests has been negatively affected by continuous deforestation and forest conversion to secondary vegetation. Macrolichens are an important component of these epiphytes. Because their physiology is strongly coupled to humidity and solar radiation, we hypothesized that microclimatic changes derived from forest clearing and logging can affect the diversity of these poikilohydric organisms. In southern Ecuador, we examined three types of forests according to a disturbance gradient (primary forests, secondary forests, and monospecific forests of Alnus acuminata) for the presence/absence and coverage of epiphytic macrolichens that we identified on 240 trees. We found that total richness tended to decrease when the range of the disturbance increased. The impoverishment was particularly drastic for 'shade-adapted lichens', while the richness of 'heliophytic lichens' increased in the drier conditions of secondary growth. Epiphytic composition also differed significantly among the three types of forests, and the similarity decreased when the range of the disturbance was greater. We concluded that a span of 40 years of recovery by secondary vegetation was not enough to regenerate the diversity of epiphytic macrolichens that was lost due to forest disturbances. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Tropical montane forest disturbance drastically reduced macrolichen diversity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Species loss was most severe for the 'shade-adapted lichens' because high radiation is harmful to them. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In secondary forests lichen diversity of native forests was not regenerated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The protection of remnants of primary tropical forest might help to preserve a diverse community of epiphytic macrolichens.

  18. Effects of tropical montane forest disturbance on epiphytic macrolichens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benítez, Ángel; Prieto, María; González, Yadira; Aragón, Gregorio

    2012-01-01

    The high diversity of epiphytes typical of undisturbed montane tropical forests has been negatively affected by continuous deforestation and forest conversion to secondary vegetation. Macrolichens are an important component of these epiphytes. Because their physiology is strongly coupled to humidity and solar radiation, we hypothesized that microclimatic changes derived from forest clearing and logging can affect the diversity of these poikilohydric organisms. In southern Ecuador, we examined three types of forests according to a disturbance gradient (primary forests, secondary forests, and monospecific forests of Alnus acuminata) for the presence/absence and coverage of epiphytic macrolichens that we identified on 240 trees. We found that total richness tended to decrease when the range of the disturbance increased. The impoverishment was particularly drastic for “shade-adapted lichens”, while the richness of “heliophytic lichens” increased in the drier conditions of secondary growth. Epiphytic composition also differed significantly among the three types of forests, and the similarity decreased when the range of the disturbance was greater. We concluded that a span of 40 years of recovery by secondary vegetation was not enough to regenerate the diversity of epiphytic macrolichens that was lost due to forest disturbances. -- Highlights: ► Tropical montane forest disturbance drastically reduced macrolichen diversity. ► Species loss was most severe for the “shade-adapted lichens” because high radiation is harmful to them. ► In secondary forests lichen diversity of native forests was not regenerated. ► The protection of remnants of primary tropical forest might help to preserve a diverse community of epiphytic macrolichens.

  19. A source of methane from upland forests in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janaina Braga do Carmo; Michael Keller; Jadson Dezincourt Dias; Plinio Barbosa de Camargo; Patrick Crill

    2006-01-01

    We sampled air in the canopy layer of undisturbed upland forests during wet and dry seasons at three sites in the Brazilian Amazon region and found that both methane(CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) mixing ratios increased at night. Such increases were consistent across sites and seasons. A canopy layer budget model based on measured soil-atmosphere fluxes of CO2 was...

  20. Why the World Bank is Neither Monitoring, Nor Complying with the FAO Guidelines on Responsible Tenure of Land, Fisheries and Forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monsalve Suárez, S.; Z.W. Brent (Zoe)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Around the world, peasants, pastoralists, indigenous peoples and fisher folk are facing increasing increased threats of displacement and dispossession. The confluence of the food, financial and climate crises has further exaggerated pressures on land and forests,

  1. Single-tree water use and water-use efficiencies of selected indigenous and introduced species in the Southern Cape region of South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mapeto, P

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In South Africa, the development of a plantation tree industry using fast-growing introduced species was accelerated by the limited extent of indigenous forests. However, concerns about the impacts of plantations on the country’s limited water...

  2. A collaborative research process studying fruit availibility and seed dispersal within an indigenous community in the Middle Caquetá River region, Colombian Amazon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parrado-Rosselli, A.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to present a collaborative research process between the Nonuya indigenous community and western scientists whilst studying fruit production patterns and the role of animals in the spatial distribution patterns of terra firme rain forest tree species in the Colombian

  3. Cardiovascular dynamics of Canadian Indigenous peoples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foulds, Heather J A; Bredin, Shannon S D; Warburton, Darren E R

    2018-12-01

    Limited understanding of Indigenous adults' cardiovascular structure and function exists despite high rates of cardiovascular disease. This investigation characterised cardiovascular structure and function among young Indigenous adults and compared to age- and sex-matched European descendants. Echocardiographic assessments included apical two- and four-chamber images, parasternal short-axis images and Doppler. Analyses included cardiac volumes, dimensions, velocities and strains. Cardiovascular structure and function were similar between Indigenous (n=10, 25 ± 3 years, 4 women) and European-descendant (n=10, 24 ± 4 years, 4 women,) adults, though European descendants demonstrated greater systemic vascular resistance (18.19 ± 3.94 mmHg∙min -1 ∙L -1 vs. 15.36 ± 2.97 mmHg∙min -1 ∙L -1 , p=0.03). Among Indigenous adults, women demonstrated greater arterial elastance (0.80 ± 0.15 mmHg·mL -1 ·m -2 vs. 0.55 ± 0.17 mmHg·mL -1 ·m -2 , p=0.02) and possibly greater systemic vascular resistance (17.51 ± 2.20 mmHg∙min -1 ∙L -1 vs. 13.93 ± 2.61 mmHg∙min -1 ∙L -1 , p=0.07). Indigenous men had greater cardiac size, dimensions and output, though body size differences accounted for cardiac size differences. Similar cardiac rotation and strains were observed across sexes. Arterial elastance and cardiac size were different between Indigenous men and women while cardiovascular structure and function may be similar between Indigenous and European descendants.

  4. The politics of indigeneity: Indigenous strategies for inclusion in climate change negotiations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doolittle Amity

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous environmental activists have clearly articulated their views on global climate change policy. The content of these views was explored during the 10-day 2008 World Conservation Congress (WCC in Barcelona. Data were primarily collected through interviews and participant observation. In addition, policy statements and declarations made by indigenous environmental activists from 2000 to 2009 were analysed to place the perspectives of indigenous leaders and environmental activists in the context of their decade-long struggle to gain negotiating power at the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. This study examines the rhetorical strategies indigenous leaders from around the world use to gain political recognition and legitimacy in climate change negotiations. Two core principles, relating to a particular representation of indigenous environmental knowledge are identified as fundamental rhetorical tools. These are a belief that the earth is a living being with rights and the conviction that it is the responsibility of indigenous peoples to protect the earth from over-exploitation. However, reference to indigenous environmental knowledge is not the only rhetorical mechanism used by indigenous leaders in the climate debates. When faced with specific United Nations policies to combat climate change that could have a profound impact on their land rights, some indigenous leaders adopt a more confrontational response. Fearing that new polices would reinforce historical trends of marginalisation, indigenous leaders seeking recognition in climate change debates speak less about their ecological knowledge and responsibility to the earth and more about their shared histories of political and economic marginalisation and land dispossession, experienced first through colonialism and more recently through globalisation.

  5. The density of feral honey bee (Apis mellifera) colonies in South East Australia is greater in undisturbed than in disturbed habitats

    OpenAIRE

    Hinson , Eloise M.; Duncan , Michael; Lim , Julianne; Arundel , Jonathan; Oldroyd , Benjamin P.

    2015-01-01

    International audience; AbstractApis mellifera is an important pollinator but is sometimes associated with adverse effects on natural ecosystems. We surveyed pairs of disturbed and undisturbed sites across three biomes in South East Australia. We used pheromone lures to trap drones, genotyped the drones to infer the number of colonies within flight range and then estimated colony densities using synthetic sampling distributions. Estimated colony densities ranged from 0.1 to 1.5 colonies km−2 ...

  6. Comparison of absolute biochemical parameters of undisturbed soils in Mediterranean environments (NE Spain) with corresponding parameters relative to soil organic carbon

    OpenAIRE

    Jiménez de Ridder, Patrícia; Marando, Graciela; Josa March, Ramon; Ginovart Gisbert, Marta; Ras Sabido, Antoni; Bonmati Pont, Manuel

    2017-01-01

    The study of soil quality requires the establishment of quality standards. To this end, several authors have highlighted the need to create databases of quality indicators, such as biochemical properties, for different types of undisturbed soils under various climates and to establish standardised methodologies for their development. In Spain, studies of the quality of native soils were initiated > 15 years ago by several groups of authors from differing locations, but little is known regardi...

  7. Forest Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-01

    Forest biomass is an abundant biomass feedstock that complements the conventional forest use of wood for paper and wood materials. It may be utilized for bioenergy production, such as heat and electricity, as well as for biofuels and a variety of bioproducts, such as industrial chemicals, textiles, and other renewable materials. The resources within the 2016 Billion-Ton Report include primary forest resources, which are taken directly from timberland-only forests, removed from the land, and taken to the roadside.

  8. Indigenous Policy Conference Summary Report: Beyond Reconciliation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Lorefice

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The School of Public Policy (SPP at the University of Calgary organized a conference to announce the establishment of its Indigenous Policy program and to share knowledge and stories about policy issues critical to Indigenous Peoples in Canada. The conference, titled “Beyond Reconciliation,” was held at the University of Calgary Downtown Campus on Nov. 21, 2016 and was attended by 73 participants. This included Indigenous elders, chiefs and leaders, and members of Indigenous organizations, including a women’s group. Also included were members of universities and academic institutions, including students; industry representatives from the oil and gas, pipeline, forestry, electricity, legal and financial sectors; as well as representatives from government and regulatory agencies. The purpose of the conference was established with the following abstract, which was circulated to speakers and participants: The School of Public Policy is establishing a new Indigenous Policy program in order to produce widely disseminated research and engage in outreach that covers an array of policy areas, such as health, education, self-government, and natural resource development. The program will directly engage Indigenous communities in the search for original, long-term, and evidence-based solutions, as part of an effort to improve our national capacity in problem-solving and policy development. The conference will provide a platform to launch the program, showcasing preliminary research and providing a venue for discussion of policy solutions. The conference included three moderated panel sessions and a keynote speaker.1 The first panel considered business and entrepreneurship in Indigenous communities; the second panel showcased case studies that are examining the experiences of Indigenous communities with natural resource development projects, and particularly their experiences with consultation and engagement. The final panel focused on ways of

  9. Celebrating indigenous communities compassionate traditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, Holly

    2018-01-01

    Living in a compassionate community is not a new practice in First Nations communities; they have always recognized dying as a social experience. First Nations hold extensive traditional knowledge and have community-based practices to support the personal, familial, and community experiences surrounding end-of-life. However, western health systems were imposed and typically did not support these social and cultural practices at end of life. In fact, the different expectations of western medicine and the community related to end of life care has created stress and misunderstanding for both. One solution is for First Nations communities to develop palliative care programs so that people can receive care at home amongst their family, community and culture. Our research project "Improving End-of-Life Care in First Nations Communities" (EOLFN) was funded by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research [2010-2015] and was conducted in partnership with four First Nations communities in Canada (see www.eolfn.lakeheadu.ca). Results included a community capacity development approach to support Indigenous models of care at end-of-life. The workshop will describe the community capacity development process used to develop palliative care programs in First Nations communities. It will highlight the foundation to this approach, namely, grounding the program in community values and principles, rooted in individual, family, community and culture. Two First Nations communities will share stories about their experiences developing their own palliative care programs, which celebrated cultural capacity in their communities while enhancing medical palliative care services in a way that respected and integrated with their community cultural practices. This workshop shares the experiences of two First Nations communities who developed palliative care programs by building upon community culture, values and principles. The underlying model guiding development is shared.

  10. The brazilian indigenous planetary-observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afonso, G. B.

    2003-08-01

    We have performed observations of the sky alongside with the Indians of all Brazilian regions that made it possible localize many indigenous constellations. Some of these constellations are the same as the other South American Indians and Australian aborigines constellations. The scientific community does not have much of this information, which may be lost in one or two generations. In this work, we present a planetary-observatory that we have made in the Park of Science Newton Freire-Maia of Paraná State, in order to popularize the astronomical knowledge of the Brazilian Indians. The planetary consists, essentially, of a sphere of six meters in diameter and a projection cylinder of indigenous constellations. In this planetary we can identify a lot of constellations that we have gotten from the Brazilian Indians; for instance, the four seasonal constellations: the Tapir (spring), the Old Man (summer), the Deer (autumn) and the Rhea (winter). A two-meter height wooden staff that is posted vertically on the horizontal ground similar to a Gnomon and stones aligned with the cardinal points and the soltices directions constitutes the observatory. A stone circle of ten meters in diameter surrounds the staff and the aligned stones. During the day we observe the Sun apparent motions and at night the indigenous constellations. Due to the great community interest in our work, we are designing an itinerant indigenous planetary-observatory to be used in other cities mainly by indigenous and primary schools teachers.

  11. Reduced nephron endowment in the neonates of Indigenous Australian peoples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandasamy, Y; Smith, R; Wright, I M R; Lumbers, E R

    2014-02-01

    Rates of chronic kidney disease (CKD) among Indigenous groups in Australia exceed non-Indigenous rates eight-fold. Using kidney volume as a surrogate for nephron number, we carried out a study to determine if Indigenous neonates have a smaller kidney volume (and thus a reduced nephron number) from birth compared with non-Indigenous neonates. We recruited term and preterm neonates (Indigenous) and 39 term (13 Indigenous) neonates. TKV of Indigenous neonates was significantly lower at 32 weeks [12.0 (2.0) v. 15.4 (5.1) ml; P=0.03] and 38 weeks CA [18.6 (4.0) v. 22.6 (5.9) ml; P=0.04] respectively. Term Indigenous neonates also had smaller kidney volumes compared with non-Indigenous neonates. Despite a smaller kidney volume (and reduced nephron number), Indigenous neonates did not have a significantly lower eGFR. Indigenous neonates achieve similar eGFRs to Non-Indigenous neonates, presumably through a higher single nephron filtration rate. This places Indigenous neonates at a greater risk of long-term kidney damage later in life.

  12. A participatory approach to elucidate the consequences of land invasions on REDD+ initiatives: A case study with Indigenous communities in Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergara-Asenjo, Gerardo; Mateo-Vega, Javier; Alvarado, Alexis; Potvin, Catherine

    2017-01-01

    Land tenure and tenure security are among the most important factors determining the viability and success of Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD+) initiatives. The premise of the present paper is that territorial conflicts lead to forest loss and compromise the successful implementation of REDD+. Within this context, the main objectives of this paper are to (i) document, relying on participatory methods, the extent to which land conflicts drive deforestation and (ii) reflect on the legal context of REDD+ examining if, from an Indigenous perspective, it offers tools to resolve such conflicts. We used the Upper Bayano Watershed in eastern Panama as a case study of complex land tenure dynamics, and their effects on forest conservation in the context of REDD+. Combining a range of participatory methods including participatory mapping and forest carbon stock assessment, we estimated the consequences of land invasions on forest carbon stocks. Our analysis shows that invasions of Indigenous territories amounted to 27.6% of the total deforestation for the period of 2001-2014. The situation is of paramount concern in the Embera territory of Majé where 95.4% of total deforestation was caused by colonist invaders. Using and validating the maps made freely available by the Global Forest Change initiative of the University of Maryland, we then developed a reference level for the watershed and carried out a back of the envelop estimation of likely REDD+ revenue, showing its potential to bring much needed income to Indigenous communities striving to protect their forest estate. Our analysis of current legislation in Panama highlights confusion and important legal voids and emphasizes the strong links between land tenure, carbon ownership, and territorial invasions. The options and shortcoming of implementing REDD+ in Indigenous territories is discussed in the conclusion taking our legal review into account.

  13. Distribution of cesium-137 in Japanese forest soils. Correlation with the contents of organic carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takenaka, Chisato; Onda, Yuichi; Hamajima, Yasunori

    1998-01-01

    The spatial and vertical distributions of 137 Cs in surface soils were surveyed and analyzed then correlated with the contents of organic carbon in the hinoki (Chamaecyparis obtusa Sieb. et Zucc.) plantation forest and secondary forest dominated by red pine (Pinus densiflora Sieb. et Zucc.) in Japan. The spatial variation of 137 Cs activity was observed in the surface soil around the red pine. The average activity of 16 samples around the tree is 42.4 Bq/kg and the standard deviation is 25.9 Bq/kg. This finding indicates the importance in the selection of a sampling site and the number of samples from the surface soils especially around a tree. For the vertical distribution of 137 Cs activity, it was found that the concentration in the surface soil is highest, 149 Bq/kg in the hinoki stand and 101 Bq/kg in the red pine stand, and decreases with depth. The relationship between 137 Cs activity and carbon content in the forest soil was investigated in two undisturbed forest stands. The relations were more precisely expressed using an exponential equation than by a linear equation. From the same forest, similar regression equations were obtained. This indicates that the distribution of 137 Cs could be characterized by the organic carbon content in an undisturbed forest. It is also suggested that the coefficient values in the regression equation help to define the movement of 137 Cs accompanying the decomposition of organic matter

  14. Exporting by Migrants and Indigenous Entrepreneurs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashourizadeh, Shayegheh; Schøtt, Thomas; Pişkinsüt Şengüler, Ece

    2016-01-01

    Migrants may become entrepreneurs in their host countries. They may utilize their dual embeddedness in both the home country and the host country, and also use transnational links to gain a competitive advantage in exporting compared to indigenous entrepreneurs. Migrant entrepreneurs’ advantage may......, however, be contingent on attributes such as gender and education, especially among the first generation of migrants, in that being male and educated is more advantageous for migrants than for indigenous entrepreneurs. A representative sample of 50,371 entrepreneurs establishing or operating enterprises...... around the world was surveyed in the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor, which reports on migration and exporting. Hierarchical linear modeling shows that migrant entrepreneurs export more than indigenous entrepreneurs, especially in the first generation, and especially among educated and male migrants...

  15. Indigenous Storytelling and Participatory Action Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Storytelling, in its various forms, has often been described as a practice with great emancipatory potential. In turn, Indigenous knowledge shows great promise in guiding a participatory action research (PAR) methodology. Yet these two approaches are rarely discussed in relation to one another, nor, has much been written in terms of how these two approaches may work synergistically toward a decolonizing research approach. In this article, I report on a community-driven knowledge translation activity, the Peoples’ International Health Tribunal, as an exemplar of how narrative and PAR approaches, guided by local Indigenous knowledge, have great potential to build methodologically and ethically robust research processes. Implications for building globally relevant research alliances and scholarship are further discussed, particularly in relation to working with Indigenous communities. PMID:28462305

  16. Indilinga: African Journal of Indigenous Knowledge Systems - Vol 4 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Indilinga: African Journal of Indigenous Knowledge Systems. ... Resource conservation and utilisation through indigenous knowledge in a tribal community of Orissa, ... \\'The snake will swallow you': supernatural snakes and the creation of the ...

  17. Nigerian women reap benefits from indigenous vegetables | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-06-06

    Jun 6, 2016 ... Demand for fresh indigenous vegetables in Nigeria has increased ... greater returns from indigenous vegetables compared to conventional vegetables. ... In Kolli Hills, Tamil Nadu, monocropping of a single, non-edible variety ...

  18. Working with Indigenous Knowledge: A Guide for Researchers ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    In the 1990s, indigenous knowledge has been fertile ground for research, and ... research and will appeal to both seasoned development professional as well as ... indigenous-knowledge issues with the University of Indonesia, the Institute of ...

  19. Walking the Path Together: Indigenous Health Data at ICES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyper, Evelyn; Henry, David; Yates, Erika A; Mecredy, Graham; Ratnasingham, Sujitha; Slegers, Brian; Walker, Jennifer D

    2018-01-01

    Indigenous data governance principles assert that Indigenous communities have a right to data that identifies their people or communities, and a right to determine the use of that data in ways that support Indigenous health and self-determination. Indigenous-driven use of the databases held at the Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences (ICES) has resulted in ongoing partnerships between ICES and diverse Indigenous organizations and communities. To respond to this emerging and complex landscape, ICES has established a team whose goal is to support the infrastructure for responding to community-initiated research priorities. ICES works closely with Indigenous partners to develop unique data governance agreements and supports processes, which ensure that ICES scientists must work with Indigenous organizations when conducting research that involves Indigenous peoples. © 2018 Longwoods Publishing.

  20. CASE STUDY: Chile — Health, environment, and indigenous culture ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-01-06

    Jan 6, 2011 ... CASE STUDY: Chile — Health, environment, and indigenous culture .... For example, the National Corporation for Indigenous Development (CONADI) ... Institute for Agriculture Development (INDAP), and applied research on ...

  1. The Kenyan indigenous languages and the mass media ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    vernacular mass media and the Kenyan indigenous languages. ... African indigenous languages had, "against all odds", survived as media of communication ..... regulations should, of course, primarily ensure quality and ethical journalism.

  2. Indilinga: African Journal of Indigenous Knowledge Systems - Vol 11 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Indilinga: African Journal of Indigenous Knowledge Systems. ... halting the spread of HIV and AIDS in South Africa: The case of Soshanguve township in the ... Tourism policies and management practices as perceived by indigenous people in ...

  3. A Physical Education Curriculum Enriched With Indigenous Zulu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A Physical Education Curriculum Enriched With Indigenous Zulu Games For Improved Social Development ... Therefore, it was necessary to assess these indigenous Zulu games' potential in obtaining overt ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  4. Several required OWL features for indigenous knowledge management systems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Alberts, R

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the features required of OWL (Web Ontology Language) to realise and enhance Indigenous Knowledge (IK) digital repositories. Several needs for Indigenous Knowledge management systems (IKMSs) are articulated, based on extensive...

  5. Assessing the utility WorldView-2 imagery for tree species mapping in a South African subtropical forest patch and the conservation implications: Dukuduku forest patch as case study

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cho, Moses A

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous forest biome in South Africa is highly fragmented into patches of various sizes (most patches < 1 km (sup20). The utilization of timber and non-timber resources by poor rural communities living around protected forest patches produce...

  6. Global climate change adaptation: examples from Russian boreal forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krankina, O.N.; Dixon, R.K.; Kirilenko, A.P.; Kobak, K.I.

    1997-01-01

    The Russian Federation contains approximately 20% of the world's timber resources and more than half of all boreal forests. These forests play a prominent role in environmental protection and economic development at global, national, and local levels, as well as, provide commodities for indigenous people and habitat for a variety of plant and animal species. The response and feedbacks of Russian boreal forests to projected global climate change are expected to be profound. Current understanding of the vulnerability of Russian forest resources to projected climate change is discussed and examples of possible adaptation measures for Russian forests are presented including: (1) artificial forestation techniques that can be applied with the advent of failed natural regeneration and to facilitate forest migration northward; (2) silvicultural measures that can influence the species mix to maintain productivity under future climates; (3) identifying forests at risk and developing special management adaption measures for them: (4) alternative processing and uses of wood and non-wood products from future forests; and (5) potential future infrastructure and transport systems that can be employed as boreal forests shift northward into melting permafrost zones. Current infrastructure and technology can be employed to help Russian boreal forests adapt to projected global environmental change, however many current forest management practices may have to be modified. Application of this technical knowledge can help policymakers identify priorities for climate change adaptation

  7. Land rights of indigenous peoples in Southeast Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Xanthaki, A

    2003-01-01

    Very little has been written on indigenous rights in South-East Asia. This article attempts to address issues concerning indigenous land rights in the region, arguing that there is a clear gap between the existing situation and the relevant standards of the international human rights system. After a short overview of the international human rights framework currently binding South-East Asian states, the article analyses issues of indigenous land ownership and control by indigenous peoples ove...

  8. GLOBAL CATEGORIZATION OF THE WORLD'S INDIGENOUS LAND AND RESOURCES RIGHTS

    OpenAIRE

    Dubertret , Fabrice

    2014-01-01

    This document is a draft. It aims at providing a basis for discussion between the different organizations and indigenous land and resources rights experts involved in the wider project of building a world atlas of indigenous territories.; This working paper describes the process of establishing a global categorization of indigenous land and resources rights. From the analysis of a great variability of legislations regarding indigenous territories, common considered topics are identified, such...

  9. Indigenously built resonance ionization mass spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Razvi, M.A.N.; Jayasekharan, T.; Thankarajan, K.; Guhagarkar, M.B.; Dixit, M.N.; Bhale, G.L.

    2000-04-01

    Design, fabrication and performance testing of an indigenously built Resonance Ionization Mass Spectrometer (RIMS) is presented in this report. The instrument is totally indigenous, but for the laser components consisting of the excimer laser and tunable dye lasers. Constructional details of atomic beam source and linear time-of-flight mass spectrometer are included. Finally, commissioning and performance testing of the instrument is described. Mass resolving power of 400 and a detection limit of 100 atoms has been achieved using this RIMS set-up. (author)

  10. Indigenous women's voices: marginalization and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodgson, Joan E; Struthers, Roxanne

    2005-10-01

    Marginalization may affect health care delivery. Ways in which indigenous women experienced marginalization were examined. Data from 57 indigenous women (18 to 65 years) were analyzed for themes. Three themes emerged: historical trauma as lived marginalization, biculturalism experienced as marginalization, and interacting within a complex health care system. Experienced marginalization reflected participants' unique perspective and were congruent with previous research. It is necessary for health care providers to assess the detrimental impact of marginalization on the health status of individuals and/or communities.

  11. Teaching Indigenous Geography in a Neo-Colonial World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Jennifer; Hollinsworth, David

    2017-01-01

    Australian universities are increasingly embedding Indigenous content and perspectives within curriculum to promote Indigenous cultural competency. We present teaching challenges in an Indigenous geography course designed to present an engaged, intercultural learning experience. We critically reflect on student evaluations, informal discussions…

  12. Indigeneity and Homeland: Land, History, Ceremony, and Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerma, Michael

    2012-01-01

    What is the relationship between Indigenous peoples and violent reactions to contemporary states? This research explores differing, culturally informed notions of attachment to land or place territory. Mechanistic ties and organic ties to land are linked to a key distinction between Indigenous peoples and non-Indigenous peoples. Utilizing the…

  13. Indigenous Rights and the 1991-2000 Australian Reconciliation Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Gunstone

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The formal reconciliation process in Australia was conducted between 1991 and 2000 and aimed to reconcile Indigenous and non-Indigenous peoples by 2001. In this paper, I detail the failure of both this reconciliation process and governments, in particular the Howard Government, to recognise Indigenous rights, such as sovereignty, a treaty, self-determination and land rights.

  14. Indigenous counseling: A needed area in school counseling in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Indigenous counselling has not been given attention in Nigeria's school counselling programme. This counselling gap was created by European colonialism, which succeeded in developing in the minds of the African that anything indigenous is local, unscientific and unorthodox. Indigenous counselling is one of the ...

  15. Educational Leadership and Indigeneity: Doing Things the Same, Differently

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohepa, Margie Kahukura (Ngapuhi)

    2013-01-01

    Educational leadership, it is argued, must play a critical role in improving student outcomes, especially those of minoritized and Indigenous students. In the process of improving education and schooling for Indigenous students, Indigenous educational leadership needs to be considered alongside educational leadership more generally. This article…

  16. Changes to the N cycle following bark beetle outbreaks in two contrasting conifer forest types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Jacob M; Turner, Monica G

    2012-10-01

    Outbreaks of Dendroctonus beetles are causing extensive mortality in conifer forests throughout North America. However, nitrogen (N) cycling impacts among forest types are not well known. We quantified beetle-induced changes in forest structure, soil temperature, and N cycling in Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) forests of Greater Yellowstone (WY, USA), and compared them to published lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia) data. Five undisturbed stands were compared to five beetle-killed stands (4-5 years post-outbreak). We hypothesized greater N cycling responses in Douglas-fir due to higher overall N stocks. Undisturbed Douglas-fir stands had greater litter N pools, soil N, and net N mineralization than lodgepole pine. Several responses to disturbance were similar between forest types, including a pulse of N-enriched litter, doubling of soil N availability, 30-50 % increase in understory cover, and 20 % increase in foliar N concentration of unattacked trees. However, the response of some ecosystem properties notably varied by host forest type. Soil temperature was unaffected in Douglas-fir, but lowered in lodgepole pine. Fresh foliar %N was uncorrelated with net N mineralization in Douglas-fir, but positively correlated in lodgepole pine. Though soil ammonium and nitrate, net N mineralization, and net nitrification all doubled, they remained low in both forest types (mineralization; litter and soil N cycling similarly in each forest type, despite substantial differences in pre-disturbance biogeochemistry. In contrast, soil temperature and soil N-foliar N linkages differed between host forest types. This result suggests that disturbance type may be a better predictor of litter and soil N responses than forest type due to similar disturbance mechanisms and disturbance legacies across both host-beetle systems.

  17. Spaceborne Applications of P Band Imaging Radars for Measuring Forest Biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rignot, Eric J.; Zimmermann, Reiner; vanZyl, Jakob J.

    1995-01-01

    In three sites of boreal and temperate forests, P band HH, HV, and VV polarization data combined estimate total aboveground dry woody biomass within 12 to 27% of the values derived from allometric equations, depending on forest complexity. Biomass estimates derived from HV-polarization data only are 2 to 14% less accurate. When the radar operates at circular polarization, the errors exceed 100% over flooded forests, wet or damaged trees and sparse open tall forests because double-bounce reflections of the radar signals yield radar signatures similar to that of tall and massive forests. Circular polarizations, which minimize the effect of Faraday rotation in spaceborne applications, are therefore of limited use for measuring forest biomass. In the tropical rain forest of Manu, in Peru, where forest biomass ranges from 4 kg/sq m in young forest succession up to 50 kg/sq m in old, undisturbed floodplain stands, the P band horizontal and vertical polarization data combined separate biomass classes in good agreement with forest inventory estimates. The worldwide need for large scale, updated, biomass estimates, achieved with a uniformly applied method, justifies a more in-depth exploration of multi-polarization long wavelength imaging radar applications for tropical forests inventories.

  18. Comparison the biodiversity of hardwood floodplain forests and black locust forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazalova, D.

    2015-01-01

    The introduction of non-native species starts in the context of global changes in the world. These nonnative species, that have come to our country, whether intentionally or unintentionally, are responsible for the loss of biodiversity, changes in trophic levels and in nutrient cycle, hydrology, hybridizations, and at last could have an impact on the economy. The species black locust (Robinia pseudoaccacia) was introduced to Europe in 1601, first for horticultural purposes, and later broke into forestry. However, due to its ability to effectively spread the vegetative and generative root sprouts seeds and without the presence of natural pest may be occurrence of black locust in European forests highly questionable. Primarily we tried to identify differences in species composition and biodiversity among indigenous hardwood floodplain forest and non-native black locust forest based on numerical methods. In the results we were able to demonstrate more biodiversity in hardwood floodplain forests. (authors)

  19. Animal-habitat relationships in the Knysna Forest, South Africa: discrimination between forest types by birds and invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koen, J H; Crowe, T M

    1987-06-01

    Effects of forest plant species composition and physiognomy on bird and invertebrate communities were investigated in three discrete, relatively undisturbed forest types along a dry-wet soil moisture gradient. Using discriminant function analysis, a 100% floristic and a 78% vegetation structural discrimination were obtained between the three forest types. However, the bird communities of these different forest types were very similar in species composition, and had much lower densities than those normally encountered in other, superficially similar forests. Although an 81% discrimination between forest types was attained through analysis of ground surface invertebrates, measures of litter and aerial invertebrate abundance were also of limited use as discriminators. Historical and biogeographic factors, as well as the low nutritional levels in the soil and vegetation may be the causes of low bird and invertebrate density and diversity. It is concluded that floristics and vegetation structure have, at best, a minor influence on bird community structure, and possibly also on invertebrate community structure in the Knysna Forest.

  20. Working Together: Strategies That Support Cross-Cultural Engagement of Indigenous Teacher Assistants Working in Indigenous Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, Danielle; Warren, Elizabeth; Miller, Jodie

    2016-01-01

    Indigenous teacher assistants (ITAs) are often employed in schools to assist in addressing educational issues relating to Indigenous students. While, this practice has occurred for over 40 years in most Australian states, little has been written about their contribution in assisting Indigenous students to learn. This paper explores the influence…

  1. A Comparative Analysis of Indigenous Research Guidelines to Inform Genomic Research in Indigenous Communities

    OpenAIRE

    Jay Maddock; Nicole K. Taniguchi

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Genetic research has potential benefits for improving health, such as identifying molecular characteristics of a disease, understanding disease prevalence and treatment, and developing treatments tailored to patients based on individual genetic characteristics of their disease. Indigenous people are often targeted for genetic research because genes are easier to study in communities that practice endogamy. Therefore, populations perceived to be more homogenous, such as Indigenous ...

  2. Absence of disparities in anthropometric measures among Chilean indigenous and non-indigenous newborns

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Studies throughout North America and Europe have documented adverse perinatal outcomes for racial/ethnic minorities. Nonetheless, the contrast in newborn characteristics between indigenous and non-indigenous populations in Latin America has been poorly characterized. This is due to many challenges, including a lack of vital registration information on ethnicity. The objective of this study was to analyze trends in anthropometric measures at birth in Chilean indigenous (Mapuche) and non-indigenous children over a 5-year period. Methods We examined weight and length at birth using information available through a national data base of all birth records for the years 2000 through 2004 (n = 1,166.513). Newborns were classified ethnically according to the origins of the parents' last names. Result The average birthweight was stable over the 5 year period with variations of less than 20 g in each group, and with mean values trivially higher in indigenous newborns. The proportion weighing less than 2500 g at birth increased modestly from 5.2% to 5.6% in non-indigenous newborns whereas the indigenous births remained constant at 5.2%. In multiple regression analyses, adjusting flexibly for gestational age and maternal characteristics, the occurrence of an indigenous surname added only 14 g to an average infant's birthweight while holding other factors constant. Results for length at birth were similar, and adjusted time trend variation in both outcomes was trivially small after adjustment. Anthropometric indexes at birth in Chile are quite favorable by international standards. Conclusion There is only a trivial degree of ethnic disparity in these values, in contrast to conditions for ethnic minorities in other countries. Moreover, these values remained roughly constant over the 5 years of observation in this study. PMID:20598150

  3. Indigenous knowledge and communal conflict resolution: Evidence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper discusses an experience of relying on indigenous knowledge to resolve a communal conflict between two Nigerian local communities. The authors were working in one of the communities when conflict erupted, and had to initiate moves to restore peace and normality. They relied largely on information on the ...

  4. Understanding the relationship between indigenous (traditional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    With the advancement of modern scientific methods and technology, most of these indigenous biological resources are being developed into commercial products, largely without benefiting the very communities that have sustainably managed them over many generations. This paper examines current regulatory ...

  5. Ectoparasites and Haemoparasites of Indigenous Chicken ( Gallus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research undertook the study of ectoparasites and haemoparasites found on and in the body of indigenous chicken (Gallus domesticus). Six hundred and nineteen ectoparasites were collected from 375 chicken from 28 households in and around Ibadan city between February and November, 1999. Of these, 455 ...

  6. Biochemical characterization of indigenous Fulani and Yoruba ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was carried out to characterize two indigenous chickens of Nigeria using protein markers; haemolglobin (HB) and carbonic anhydrase (CA). Separation of the two proteins was achieved by cellulose acetate electrophoresis and direct gene counting method was employed to interpret the result. Palentological ...

  7. Production Performance of Indigenous Chicken under Semi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study to evaluate four indigenous chicken – namely: Horasi, Kuchi, Naked neck and Frizzled in order to obtain grand-parent and parent stocks was carried out at Tanzania Livestock Research Institute, Mpwapwa district of Dodoma, Tanzania. The perfomance of the ecotypes were compared so as to come out with the best ...

  8. Chemical composition of Ricinodendron heudelotii : An indigenous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An ethnobotanical survey and germplasm collection of Ricinodendron heudelotii (Bail.) (an indigenous fruit tree) were carried out in six provinces of the humid rainforest zone in southern Cameroon. Fruit samples were collected at 40-50 km intervals along the main road network of the zone, from homegardens, food crop as ...

  9. Risk Management Practices of Multinational and indigenous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Construction projects' high uncertainty rates make them unattractive to non-risk takers. Construction companies are therefore necessarily risk takers, albeit, to varying degrees. This study made an inquiry into the risk management (RM) practices of multinational and indigenous construction companies (MCCs and ICCs, ...

  10. Emancipatory Indigenous Knowledge Systems: implications for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erna Kinsey

    A child inherits from his or family those sets of meaning, quali- ties of style, modes of ... of experience and trial-and-error problem solving by groups of people working to .... indigenous capitals of the past and relinquishes all that is de- skilling or ...

  11. Desiderata: Towards Indigenous Models of Vocational Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Frederick T. L.; Pearce, Marina

    2011-01-01

    As a result of a relative lack of cross-cultural validity in most current (Western) psychological models, indigenous models of psychology have recently become a popular approach for understanding behaviour in specific cultures. Such models would be valuable to vocational psychology research with culturally diverse populations. Problems facing…

  12. SPATIAL COMPARISONS OF POPULATIONS OF AN INDIGENOUS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the 1970s, the Mediterranean mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis invaded the South African coast and spread rapidly to dominate much of the West Coast, indicating either the opportunity to occupy a vacant niche or its superior competitive capability over indigenous species. In Namaqualand on the West Coast it appears to ...

  13. Assessment of Indigenous Knowledge Application among Livestock ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the application of indigenous knowledge among livestock farmers in Southern Ijaw Local Government Area of Bayelsa State. A structured questionnaire was administered to one hundred and fifty four respondents in the study area. The data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics.

  14. Indigenous communication, religion and education as determinants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined indigenous communication, religion and education as determinants of attitudes towards STIs/HIV/AIDS education in Igando Community Lagos State, Nigeria. A sample of 195 people was randomly selected from the population. The study used four hypotheses to test the respondents' attitude to the use of ...

  15. Nigerian indigenous yoghurt (kindirmo) production using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-01-24

    Jan 24, 2011 ... The production of Nigerian indigenous yoghurt (kindirmo) using Lactobacillus bulgaricus and. Streptococcus thermophilus mutants as starter culture was investigated. The results of milk fermentations using L. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus mutant isolates when compared with their wild- type strains ...

  16. Control of indigenous pathogenic bacteria in seafood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huss, Hans Henrik

    1997-01-01

    The pathogenic bacteria indigenous to the aquatic and general environment are listed. Their distribution in nature, prevalence in seafood and the possibilities for growth of these organisms in various types of products are outlined These data, combined with what is known regarding the epidemiology...

  17. Ethical dimension of indigenous knowledge systems | Mutula ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Indigenous people around the world both in developed and developing countries have long been marginalized by governments and /or by other privileged social groups from main stream social, political and economic activities. As a result they suffer indignity because their legitimate human rights are violated by way of ...

  18. Indigenous Health, Social Inequity, and Interculturality: Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The implementation of intercultural health programs, often understood as the integration of indigenous and biomedical models of medicine, is a common challenge in many countries. Currently there is great interest in implementing intercultural health programs in Peru and throughout the Latin American region. This project ...

  19. Indigenous environmental values as human values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Gratani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The claim that in natural resource management (NRM a change from anthropocentric values and ethics to eco-centric ones is necessary to achieve sustainability leads to the search for eco-centric models of relationship with the environment. Indigenous cultures can provide such models; hence, there is the need for multicultural societies to further include their values in NRM. In this article, we investigate the environmental values placed on a freshwater environment of the Wet Tropics by a community of indigenous Australians. We discuss their environmental values as human values, and so as beliefs that guide communities’ understanding of how the natural world should be viewed and treated by humans. This perspective represents a step forward in our understanding of indigenous environmental values, and a way to overcome the paradigm of indigenous values as valued biophysical attributes of the environment or processes happening in landscapes. Our results show that the participant community holds biospheric values. Restoring these values in the NRM of the Wet Tropics could contribute to sustainability and environmental justice in the area.

  20. Indigenous Learning Preferences and Interactive Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitchenham, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    This three-year research study examined the influence of interactive technologies on the math achievement of Indigenous students in Years 4, 5, 6 and 7 technology-equipped classrooms in a rural elementary school in British Columbia, Canada. Using a mixed-methods approach, the researcher conducted semistructured interviews and collected math…

  1. Indigenous Fallow Management on Yap Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.V.C. Falanruw; Francis Ruegorong

    2002-01-01

    On Yap Island, indigenous management of the fallow in shifting agriculture has resulted in the development of site-stable taro patch and tree garden agroforestry systems. These systems are relatively sustainable and supportive of household economies , with some surplus for local market sales. however, a broad range of crops whose harvest is complementary to those...

  2. INDIGENOUS COMMUNICATION AS AN ENABLING FACTOR FOR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    multifaceted, multi-sectorial and widely a participatory process in which the .... Important colours used to communicate different meanings among Mbano people are .... of two local government areas – Isiala-Mbano and Ehime-Mbano. ..... view. Again, 190 respondents believed that indigenous communication can assist the.

  3. Nigerian indigenous yoghurt (kindirmo) production using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The production of Nigerian indigenous yoghurt (kindirmo) using Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus mutants as starter culture was investigated. The results of milk fermentations using L. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus mutant isolates when compared with their wildtype strains (control) indicated that the ...

  4. Synergy between indigenous knowledge systems, modern health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the people of this country should harness a synergy between indigenous health care systems, scientific research and modern health care methods. This article attempts to address the historical evolution of health care methods in South Africa, its effect on the community as well as challenges facing the health professions.

  5. Indigenous Australian art in intercultural contact zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonore Wildburger

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This article comments on Indigenous Australian art from an intercultural perspective. The painting Bush Tomato Dreaming (1998, by the Anmatyerre artist Lucy Ngwarai Kunoth serves as model case for my argument that art expresses existential social knowledge. In consequence, I will argue that social theory and art theory together provide tools for intercultural understanding and competence.

  6. Cultural tourism and identity : rethinking indigeneity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tomaselli, K.G.

    2012-01-01

    Studies of cultural tourism and indigenous identity are fraught with questions concerning exploitation, entitlement, ownership and authenticity. Unease with the idea of leveraging a group identity for commercial gain is ever-present. This anthology articulates some of these debates from a multitude

  7. Genetic diversity and relationships among indigenous Mozambican ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three indigenous Mozambican cattle breeds, namely the Angone, Landim and Bovino de Tete were characterized using six proteins, 13 autosomal microsatellite loci and one Y-specific microsatellite locus (INRA124). The Mashona breed from Zimbabwe was also studied to elucidate the origin of the Bovino de Tete cattle.

  8. Case Study: Indigenous Knowledge and Data Sharing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cameron Neylon

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The IDRC-funded project 'Empowering Indigenous Peoples and Knowledge Systems Related to Climate Change and Intellectual Property Rights' is part of the Open and Collaborative Science in Development Network (OCSDNet. The project “examiners processes of open and collaborative science related to indigenous peoples’ knowledge, climate change and intellectual property rights”. Natural Justice, the lead organisation has a strong ethical stance on the agency and control over knowledge being vested with the contributing project participants, communities of the Nama and Griqua peoples of the Western Cape of South Africa. The project focuses on questions of how climate change is affecting these communities, how do they produce and maintain knowledge relating to climate change, how that knowledge is characterised and shared (or not with wider publics, and how legal frameworks promote or hinder the agenda of these indigenous communities and their choices to communicate and collaborate with wider publics. Indigenous Knowledge is an area where ethical issues of informed consent, historical injustice, non-compatible epistemologies and political, legal, and economic issues all collide in ways that challenge western and Anglo-American assumptions about data sharing. The group seeks to strongly model and internally critique their own ethical stance in the process of their research, through for instance, using community contracts and questioning institutional informed consent systems.

  9. Indigenous peoples and the new extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anthias, Penelope Fay

    2016-01-01

    A growing body of literature examines how the rise of “neo-extractivist” states in Latin America is reconfiguring the relationship between resources, nation, territory, and citizenship. However, the implications for indigenous territorial projects remain underexplored. Ethnographic research in th...... challenge resistance narratives and resource-curse theories, revealing how resources act as conduits for deeper postcolonial struggles over territory, sovereignty, and citizenship....

  10. Trace Metals Bioaccumulation Potentials of Three Indigenous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The rapid increase in the number of industries may have increased the levels of trace metals in the soil. Phytoremediation of these polluted soils using indigenous grasses is now considered an alternative method in remediating these polluted soils. The present study investigated and compared the ability of three ...

  11. Toward Conceptualising Cultural Diversity: An Indigenous Critique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manu'atu, Linita; Kepa, Mere

    This paper, written from the perspectives of indigenous Maori and Tongan researchers, critiques the Auckland Secondary Schools Principals Association's (ASSPA) perspective that culture disrupts students' schooling. It discusses the relations of schooling to the cultural and political forces inside and outside of school; the relations of indigenous…

  12. Performance assessment of indigenously developed FBG strain ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Use of FBG sensors for real time health monitoring of various civil engineering structures is well-established in western world since last decade, whereas in the Indian context this technology is still in a nascent stage. In this paper, performance assessment of indigenously developed FBG sensors for the application of health ...

  13. Forward | Castiano | Indilinga: African Journal of Indigenous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Indilinga: African Journal of Indigenous Knowledge Systems. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 12, No 2 (2013) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ...

  14. Forward | Castiano | Indilinga: African Journal of Indigenous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Indilinga: African Journal of Indigenous Knowledge Systems. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 12, No 1 (2013) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ...

  15. Homestead creator: a tool for indigenous designers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodil, Kasper; Winschiers-Theophilus, Heike; Jensen, Kasper L

    2012-01-01

    The article presents in-situ findings of introducing a tablet prototype, with touch interaction and 3D graphical visualizations, to empower knowledgeable village elders in Namibia to locally re-create a 3D graphical context for previously recorded video clips of indigenous practices and narratives...

  16. ASSESSMENT OF METALS IN ROASTED INDIGENOUS COFFEE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    *Corresponding author. E-mail: bscv2006@yahoo.com. This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. ASSESSMENT OF METALS IN ROASTED INDIGENOUS COFFEE VARIETIES OF. ETHIOPIA. Abera Gure1,2, Bhagwan Singh Chandravanshi1* and Taddese Wondimu Godeto1, ...

  17. LIFE AND DEATH AMONGST INDIGENOUS PEOPLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Felipe Beltrão

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Considering the frequent rights violations perpetrated against indigenous peoples, which affect people and territories, compromising their lives and even their right to mourn the dead, it is imperative to understand the care and concerns of the indigenous towards life and death. Thus, we propose to analyze ethnographic narratives about the Apinayé, Ka'apor, Tapirapé, Tembé, Tenetehara, Terena and Asurini, in order to discuss the caring of people, considering the context of funerary rituals. The texts analyzed are able to reveal: (1 the existence (or not of the practice; (2 the specific contexts in which the funeral rites are (or not practiced; and (3 the meanings that the practice gain in ethnically differentiated societies. The narratives of indigenous peoples are included in order to attempt to make the peoples that nowadays find themselves accused by both the media and (reportedly pro-life organizations “be heard”. Therefore, using the classical literature we study the heritage of ritual practices, which besides confering dignity to the dead, indicate that life is the greater good among indigenous peoples.

  18. Age standardisation – an indigenous standard?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simmonds Shirley

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The study of inequities in health is a critical component of monitoring government obligations to uphold the rights of Indigenous Peoples. In Aotearoa/New Zealand the indigenous Māori population has a substantially younger age structure than the non-indigenous population making it necessary to account for age differences when comparing population health outcomes. An age-standardised rate is a summary measure of a rate that a population would have if it had a standard age structure. Changing age standards have stimulated interest in the potential impact of population standards on disparities data and consequently on health policy. This paper compares the age structure of the Māori and non-Māori populations with two standard populations commonly used in New Zealand: Segi's world and WHO world populations. The performance of these standards in Māori and non-Māori mortality data was then measured against the use of the Māori population as a standard. It was found that the choice of population standard affects the magnitude of mortality rates, rate ratios and rate differences, the relative ranking of causes of death, and the relative width of confidence intervals. This in turn will affect the monitoring of trends in health outcomes and health policy decision-making. It is concluded that the choice of age standard has political implications and the development and utilisation of an international indigenous population standard should be considered.

  19. Specific aminopeptidases of indigenous Lactobacillus brevis and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lactic acid bacteria play an important role in milk coagulation and cheese ripening. To select strains showing interesting industrial features, two indigenous lactobacilli (Lactobacillus brevis and Lactobacillus plantarum) were studied for aminopeptidase activity. Cell and cells free extract were tested for leucyl aminopeptidase ...

  20. Indigenous housing and health in the Canadian North

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Julia

    2016-01-01

    In this article, I explore the relationship between housing, home and health amongst Indigenous homeless people living in the Canadian North. In particular, I examine the ways in which Indigenous homemaking practices conflict with housing policy, and exacerbate individual pathways to homelessness....... I argue that integral components in northern Indigenous conceptualizations of home and, in turn, health are not only unrecognized in housing policy, but actively discouraged. The potential for homemaking to inform health and housing policy speaks to the relevance of cultural safety not only...... to Indigenous health services, but also to a comprehensive framing of Indigenous health....

  1. Rehabilitation and indigenous peoples: the Māori experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwood, Matire

    2010-01-01

    Indigenous peoples often have the worst health status in comparison to non-indigenous people in their own nations; urgent action to address the health inequities for indigenous people is required. The role of rehabilitation in addressing health and disability inequities is particularly important due to the health need of indigenous peoples; the unequal distribution of health determinants; and disparities in access to, quality of care through and outcomes following rehabilitation. This article will present a perspective for Māori, the indigenous peoples of New Zealand, on a framework for improving rehabilitation services for Māori and ultimately their health and wellbeing.

  2. Geographic distribution of isolated indigenous societies in Amazonia and the efficacy of indigenous territories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesler, Dylan C; Walker, Robert S

    2015-01-01

    The headwaters of the Amazon Basin harbor most of the world's last indigenous peoples who have limited contact with encroaching colonists. Knowledge of the geographic distribution of these isolated groups is essential to assist with the development of immediate protections for vulnerable indigenous settlements. We used remote sensing to document the locations of 28 isolated villages within the four Brazilian states of Acre, Amazonas, Roraima, and Rondônia. The sites were confirmed during previous over-flights and by image evidence of thatched-roof houses; they are estimated to host over 1,700 individuals. Locational data were used to train maximum entropy models that identified landscape and anthropogenic features associated with the occurrence of isolated indigenous villages, including elevation, proximity to streams of five different orders, proximity to roads and settlements, proximity to recent deforestation, and vegetation cover type. Isolated villages were identified at mid elevations, within 20 km of the tops of watersheds and at greater distances from existing roads and trails. We further used model results, combined with boundaries of the existing indigenous territory system that is designed to protect indigenous lands, to assess the efficacy of the existing protected area network for isolated peoples. Results indicate that existing indigenous territories encompass all of the villages we identified, and 50% of the areas with high predicted probabilities of isolated village occurrence. Our results are intended to help inform policies that can mitigate against future external threats to isolated peoples.

  3. Geographic distribution of isolated indigenous societies in Amazonia and the efficacy of indigenous territories.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dylan C Kesler

    Full Text Available The headwaters of the Amazon Basin harbor most of the world's last indigenous peoples who have limited contact with encroaching colonists. Knowledge of the geographic distribution of these isolated groups is essential to assist with the development of immediate protections for vulnerable indigenous settlements. We used remote sensing to document the locations of 28 isolated villages within the four Brazilian states of Acre, Amazonas, Roraima, and Rondônia. The sites were confirmed during previous over-flights and by image evidence of thatched-roof houses; they are estimated to host over 1,700 individuals. Locational data were used to train maximum entropy models that identified landscape and anthropogenic features associated with the occurrence of isolated indigenous villages, including elevation, proximity to streams of five different orders, proximity to roads and settlements, proximity to recent deforestation, and vegetation cover type. Isolated villages were identified at mid elevations, within 20 km of the tops of watersheds and at greater distances from existing roads and trails. We further used model results, combined with boundaries of the existing indigenous territory system that is designed to protect indigenous lands, to assess the efficacy of the existing protected area network for isolated peoples. Results indicate that existing indigenous territories encompass all of the villages we identified, and 50% of the areas with high predicted probabilities of isolated village occurrence. Our results are intended to help inform policies that can mitigate against future external threats to isolated peoples.

  4. Reclaiming Indigenous identities: Culture as strength against suicide among Indigenous youth in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Brittany; Goodman, Ashley; DeBeck, Kora

    2017-06-16

    In Canada, Indigenous youth suicide represents one of several health disparities burdening Indigenous populations, and like many other of these disparities, can be understood as an expression of societal, historical, cultural and familial trauma. As the number of Indigenous youth who take their own lives every year in Canada continues to far exceed national averages, it appears that conventional suicide prevention efforts remain ineffective among this population. A growing body of research argues that conventional interventions, largely rooted in Western individual-level behavioural change frameworks, are culturally discordant with Indigenous paradigms. In response, some Indigenous communities are turning to cultural revitalization as a holistic community-driven response to suicide prevention and treatment. The following commentary explores the emerging evidence base for "culture as treatment" - a novel approach to suicide that emphasizes the significance of interconnectedness in healing, alongside the revitalization of traditional values to reclaim community wellness. In doing so, we seek to contribute to a changing discourse surrounding Indigenous youth suicide by acknowledging culture as strength against this national crisis.

  5. Biomechanical implications of walking with indigenous footwear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willems, Catherine; Stassijns, Gaetane; Cornelis, Wim; D'Août, Kristiaan

    2017-04-01

    This study investigates biomechanical implications of walking with indigenous "Kolhapuri" footwear compared to barefoot walking among a population of South Indians. Ten healthy adults from South India walked barefoot and indigenously shod at voluntary speed on an artificial substrate. The experiment was repeated outside, on a natural substrate. Data were collected from (1) a heel-mounted 3D-accelerometer recording peak impact at heel contact, (2) an ankle-mounted 3D-goniometer (plantar/dorsiflexion and inversion/eversion), and (3) sEMG electrodes at the m. tibialis anterior and the m. gastrocnemius medialis. Data show that the effect of indigenous footwear on the measured variables, compared to barefoot walking, is relatively small and consistent between substrates (even though subjects walked faster on the natural substrate). Walking barefoot, compared to shod walking yields higher impact accelerations, but the differences are small and only significant for the artificial substrate. The main rotations of the ankle joint are mostly similar between conditions. Only the shod condition shows a faster ankle rotation over the rapid eversion motion on the natural substrate. Maximal dorsiflexion in late stance differs between the footwear conditions on an artificial substrate, with the shod condition involving a less dorsiflexed ankle, and the plantar flexion at toe-off is more extreme when shod. Overall the activity pattern of the external foot muscles is similar. The indigenous footwear studied (Kolhapuri) seems to alter foot biomechanics only in a subtle way. While offering some degree of protection, walking in this type of footwear resembles barefoot gait and this type of indigenous footwear might be considered "minimal". © 2017 The Authors American Journal of Physical Anthropology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Deforestation as a result of wildfire incidence in the Worobong Forest Reserve in the Eastern Region of Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danquah, S.

    2009-04-01

    This submission captures report on the perennial occurrence of wildfires and their accompanying effects on the inhabitants and the fringe forest communities in the Worobong Forest Reserve within the Eastern part of Ghana. Wildfire continues to be the single serious threat to the sustainable development and management of forest and wildlife resources in Ghana, thus depriving indigenous fringe forest communities of enormous socio-economic benefit of the forest. Locally, fire is used in the preparation of farm lands, tapping of palm-wine, charcoal production, honey harvesting, etc. This paper identifies some of the effects of wildfires on the indigenous communities and various interventions made to address the wildfire menace in the area of study over the years. Keywords: Wildfire, Fringe Forest Communities, Sustainable Development Resources, Socio-Economic Benefits

  7. Effects of roads on the vertebrates diversity of the Indigenous Territory Paresi and its surrounding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brum, T R; Santos-Filho, M; Canale, G R; Ignácio, A R A

    2018-02-01

    Roadkill impact is still underestimated due to the lack of knowledge of its intensity and effect on animal populations. To assess differences between animal roadkills on roads in distinct landscapes, this study recorded meso- and megavertebrate roadkills along 50 km during a year in two highways in the transitional area of Amazonia/Cerrado in Tangará da Serra, Mato Grosso: MT-358 and MT-235, the latter crossing the Paresi Indigenous Land. We assessed roadkill rates and points with higher rates of roadkills, recording the most impacted species, seasonal effects, biomass loss, activity period of species, and traffic volume. We recorded 178 roadkills in 4,950 km travelled, a rate of 0.035 animal/km-travelled. Mammals were the most impacted with 135 roadkills (75.8%), followed by reptiles (6.2%), amphibians (5.6%) and birds (5.1%). Among mammals 51.1% were Carnivora, and the most impacted species was Cerdocyon thous (n = 42). On highway MT-358 (human-modified landscape), we recorded 155 roadkilled mammals, and the most impacted were C. thous (23.9%) and Euphractus sexcinctus (13.5%). Whilst on highway MT-235 (Paresi Indigenous Land), we recorded 23 roadkilled mammals, and the most impacted were Myrmecophaga tridactyla (26.1%) and C. thous (21.7%). The low roadkill rate in the Paresi Indigenous Land might be related to the presence of fauna pathways along the highway and the availability of a forested landscape.

  8. Effects of roads on the vertebrates diversity of the Indigenous Territory Paresi and its surrounding

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    T. R. Brum

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Roadkill impact is still underestimated due to the lack of knowledge of its intensity and effect on animal populations. To assess differences between animal roadkills on roads in distinct landscapes, this study recorded meso- and megavertebrate roadkills along 50 km during a year in two highways in the transitional area of Amazonia/Cerrado in Tangará da Serra, Mato Grosso: MT-358 and MT-235, the latter crossing the Paresi Indigenous Land. We assessed roadkill rates and points with higher rates of roadkills, recording the most impacted species, seasonal effects, biomass loss, activity period of species, and traffic volume. We recorded 178 roadkills in 4,950 km travelled, a rate of 0.035 animal/km-travelled. Mammals were the most impacted with 135 roadkills (75.8%, followed by reptiles (6.2%, amphibians (5.6% and birds (5.1%. Among mammals 51.1% were Carnivora, and the most impacted species was Cerdocyon thous (n = 42. On highway MT-358 (human-modified landscape, we recorded 155 roadkilled mammals, and the most impacted were C. thous (23.9% and Euphractus sexcinctus (13.5%. Whilst on highway MT-235 (Paresi Indigenous Land, we recorded 23 roadkilled mammals, and the most impacted were Myrmecophaga tridactyla (26.1% and C. thous (21.7%. The low roadkill rate in the Paresi Indigenous Land might be related to the presence of fauna pathways along the highway and the availability of a forested landscape.

  9. The indigenous space and marginalized peoples in the United Nations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Jens

    For more than 20 years, Jens Dahl has observed and now analyzed how a relatively independent space, the Indigenous Space, has been constructed within the confines of the United Nations. In the UN, indigenous peoples have achieved more than any other group of people, minorities included. The book...... traces this to the ability of indigenous peoples to create consensus among themselves; the establishment of an indigenous caucus; and the construction of a global indigenousness in a continuously developing process in which contentious relationships and symbols have been constructed, reformulated......, negotiated and re-negotiated internally and with the states. In this process 'indigenous peoples' developed as a category and an evolving concept. Dahl looks into the ability of different indigenous representatives to make an impact on the UN processes and use achievements for purposes at home. Combining...

  10. Indigenous participation and representation in Venezuelan electoral processes

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    Luis Fernando ANGOSTO FERRÁNDEZ

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the Venezuelan regional elections of 2008 as a contextual event for the analysis of electoral strategies and results associated with the indigenous representation. Three factors intertwined in the electoral moment are analyzed: 1. the existence of minimum guaranteed representation for indigenous population in legislative organs; 2. the participation of indigenous candidates and electors; 3. the maneuvers of political parties and civil organizations that attempt to channel and/or benefit from such indigenous representation and participation. The description of the electoral context facilitates the identification of factors that, beyond the normative structure of the State, condition the agency of individuals and parties involved in electoral processes. Among those factors are the symbolic value of indigeneity in the current process of national identity re-definition, the interest of political parties in controlling the vote of the indigenous representation and the tendency towards the consolidation of professionalized elites within the indigenous activism.

  11. The Portrayal of Indigenous Health in Selected Australian Media

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    Melissa J. Stoneham

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available It is acknowledged that health outcomes for Australian Indigenous peoples are lower than those of non-Indigenous Australians. Research suggests negative media in relation to Indigenous Australians perpetuates racist stereotypes among the wider population and impacts on the health of Indigenous Australians. This study examined the media portrayal of Indigenous Australian public health issues in selected media over a twelve month period and found that, overwhelmingly, the articles were negative in their portrayal of Indigenous health. A total of 74 percent of the coverage of Australian Indigenous related articles were negative, 15 percent were positive, and 11 percent were neutral. The most common negative subject descriptors related to alcohol, child abuse, petrol sniffing, violence, suicide, deaths in custody, and crime.

  12. Birds of a high-altitude cloud forest in Alta Verapaz, Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisermann, Knut; Schulz, Ulrich

    2005-01-01

    The Northern Central American Highlands have been recognized as endemic bird area, but little is known about bird communities in Guatemalan cloud forests. From 1997 to 2001 a total of 142 bird species were recorded between 2000 and 2400 masl in cloud forest and agricultural clearings on Montaña Caquipec (Alta Verapaz, Guatemala). The bird community is described based on line transect counts within the forest. Pooling census data from undisturbed and disturbed forest, the Gray-breasted Wood-Wren (Henicorhina leucophrys) was found to be the most abundant species, followed in descending order by the Common Bush-Tanager (Chlorospingus ophthalmicus), the Paltry Tyrannulet (Zimmerius vilissimus), the Yellowish Flycatcher (Empidonax flavescens), the Ruddy-capped Nightingale-Thrush (Catharus frantzi), and the Amethyst-throated Hummingbird (Lampornis amethystinus). Bird communities in undisturbed and disturbed forest were found to be similar (Serensen similarity index 0.85), indicating low human impact. Of all recorded species, approximately 27% were Nearctic-Neotropical migratory birds. The most abundant one was the Wilson's Warbler (Wilsonia pusilla). The Montaña Caquipec is an important area for bird conservation, which is indicated by the presence of four species listed in the IUCN Red List (Highland Guan Penelopina nigra, Resplendent Quetzal Pharomachrus mocinno, Pink-headed Warbler Ergaticus versicolor, Golden-cheeked Warbler Dendroica chrysoparia), and 42 Mesoamerican endemics, of which 14 species are endemic to the Central American Highlands. The results presented here will be useful as baseline data for a long-term monitoring.

  13. Effects of disturbance and climate change on ecosystem performance in the Yukon River Basin boreal forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wylie, Bruce K.; Rigge, Matthew B.; Brisco, Brian; Mrnaghan, Kevin; Rover, Jennifer R.; Long, Jordan

    2014-01-01

    A warming climate influences boreal forest productivity, dynamics, and disturbance regimes. We used ecosystem models and 250 m satellite Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data averaged over the growing season (GSN) to model current, and estimate future, ecosystem performance. We modeled Expected Ecosystem Performance (EEP), or anticipated productivity, in undisturbed stands over the 2000–2008 period from a variety of abiotic data sources, using a rule-based piecewise regression tree. The EEP model was applied to a future climate ensemble A1B projection to quantify expected changes to mature boreal forest performance. Ecosystem Performance Anomalies (EPA), were identified as the residuals of the EEP and GSN relationship and represent performance departures from expected performance conditions. These performance data were used to monitor successional events following fire. Results suggested that maximum EPA occurs 30–40 years following fire, and deciduous stands generally have higher EPA than coniferous stands. Mean undisturbed EEP is projected to increase 5.6% by 2040 and 8.7% by 2070, suggesting an increased deciduous component in boreal forests. Our results contribute to the understanding of boreal forest successional dynamics and its response to climate change. This information enables informed decisions to prepare for, and adapt to, climate change in the Yukon River Basin forest.

  14. The I.A.G. / A.I.G. SEDIBUD Book Project: Source-to-Sink Fluxes in Undisturbed Cold Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beylich, Achim A.; Dixon, John C.; Zwolinski, Zbigniew

    2015-04-01

    The currently prepared SEDIBUD Book on "Source-to-Sink Fluxes in Undisturbed Cold Environments" (edited by Achim A. Beylich, John C. Dixon and Zbigniew Zwolinski and published by Cambridge University Press) is summarizing and synthesizing the achievements of the International Association of Geomorphologists` (I.A.G./A.I.G.) Working Group SEDIBUD (Sediment Budgets in Cold Environments), which has been active since 2005 (http://www.geomorph.org/wg/wgsb.html). Amplified climate change and ecological sensitivity of largely undisturbed polar and high-altitude cold climate environments have been highlighted as key global environmental issues. The effects of projected climate change will change surface environments in cold regions and will alter the fluxes of sediments, nutrients and solutes, but the absence of quantitative data and coordinated geomorphic process monitoring and analysis to understand the sensitivity of the Earth surface environment in these largely undisturbed environments is acute. Our book addresses this existing key knowledge gap. The applied approach of integrating comparable and longer-term field datasets on contemporary solute and sedimentary fluxes from a number of different defined cold climate catchment geosystems for better understanding (i) the environmental drivers and rates of contemporary denudational surface processes and (ii) possible effects of projected climate change in cold regions is unique in the field of geomorphology. Largely undisturbed cold climate environments can provide baseline data for modeling the effects of environmental change. The book synthesizes work carried out by numerous SEDIBUD Members over the last decade in numerous cold climate catchment geosystems worldwide. For reaching a global cover of different cold climate environments the book is - after providing an introduction part and a basic part on climate change in cold environments and general implications for solute and sedimentary fluxes - dealing in different

  15. Comparison of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae in plants from disturbed and adjacent undisturbed regions of a coastal salt marsh in Clinton, Connecticut, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, John C.; Lefor, Michael W.

    1990-01-01

    Roots of salt marsh plant species Spartina alterniflora, S. patens, Distichlis spicata, and others were examined for the presence of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) fungi. Samples were taken from introduced planted material in a salt marsh restoration project and from native material in adjacent marsh areas along the Indian River, Clinton, Connecticut, USA. After ten years the replanted area still has sites devoid of vegetation. The salt marsh plants introduced there were devoid of VAM fungi, while high marsh species from the adjacent undisturbed region showed consistent infection, leading the authors to suggest that VAM fungal infection of planting stocks may be a factor in the success of marsh restoration.

  16. CONTEMPORARY INDIGENOUS LITERATURE: FORMS AND CONTENTS IN THE POETRY AND PROSE OF THE II LITERARY PARTY OF INDIGENOUS POETICS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Goldemberg

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available By analyzing the forms and contents of the presentations made by indigenous performers and writers at the I Literary Party of Indigenous Poetics, this article exposes the challenges faced by traditional genre theories in tackling indigenous narratives and analyses how this “crisis” contributes to widening hierarchical and Western biased conceptions. On a stage open to contemporary indigenous expression, as is the literary party, the concepts of performance and storytelling, with the social function of maintaining tradition, continuous learning and transformation, better define this indigenous expression.

  17. Derrick Hindery. From Enron to Evo. Pipeline Politics, Global Environmentalism, and Indigenous Rights in Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Arana

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available From Enron to Evo is a long-term study of Enron and Shell’s construction of the Cuiabá pipeline in eastern Bolivia. The pipeline goes through the middle of the Chiquitano forest and affects a population of about 8,000. The project also has a negative impact on four critical ecoregions; the Gran Chaco and Cerrado, which are a mixture of grasslands and scattered trees, the Chiquitano dry forest, and the Pantanal wetlands. The Cuiabá pipeline has been highly contested by the thirty-four Chiquitano and two Ayoreo communities that live in the area. After years of field research, extensive interviews and document analyses, Dr. Hindery manages to expose the murky ways in which the hydrocarbon industry works in Bolivia. This is an industry where the powerful –mainly multinational oil companies and the Bolivian government– abuse the ecoregion and the indigenous populations that live on it.

  18. Soil and soil cover changes in spruce forests after final logging

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    E. M. Lapteva

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Soil cover transformation and changes of morphological and chemical properties of Albeluvisols in clear-cuttings of middle taiga spruce forests were studied. The observed changes in structure and properties of podzolic texturally-differentiated soils at cuttings of spruce forests in the middle taiga subzone do not cause their transition to any other soil type. Soil cover of secondary deciduous-coniferous forests which replace cut forests are characterized with a varied soil contour and a combination of the main type of podzolic soils under undisturbed spruce forests. The increased surface hydromorphism in cut areas causes formation of complicated sub-types of podzolic texturally differentiated soils (podzolic surface-gley soils with microprofile of podzol and enlarges their ratio (up to 35–38 % in soil cover structure. Temporary soil over-wetting at the initial (5–10 years stage of after-cutting self-restoring vegetation succession provides for soil gleyzation, improves yield and segregation of iron compounds, increases the migratory activity of humic substances. Low content and resources of total nitrogen in forest litters mark anthropogenic transformation processes of podzolic soils at this stage. Later (in 30–40 years after logging, soils in cut areas still retain signs of hydromorphism. Forest litters are denser, less acidic and thick with a low weight ratio of organic carbon as compared with Albeluvisols of undisturbed spruce forest. The upper mineral soil horizons under secondary deciduous-coniferous forests contain larger amounts of total iron, its mobile (oxalate-dissolvable components, and Fe-Mn-concretions.

  19. Texas' forests, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    James W. Bentley; Consuelo Brandeis; Jason A. Cooper; Christopher M. Oswalt; Sonja N. Oswalt; KaDonna Randolph

    2014-01-01

    This bulletin describes forest resources of the State of Texas at the time of the 2008 forest inventory. This bulletin addresses forest area, volume, growth, removals, mortality, forest health, timber product output, and the economy of the forest sector.

  20. Forest resources of the Lincoln National Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    John D. Shaw

    2006-01-01

    The Interior West Forest Inventory and Analysis (IWFIA) program of the USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, as part of its national Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) duties, conducted forest resource inventories of the Southwestern Region (Region 3) National Forests. This report presents highlights of the Lincoln National Forest 1997 inventory...

  1. An analysis of two indigenous reproductive health illnesses in a Nahua community in Veracruz, Mexico

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    Smith-Oka Vania

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This article describes the local concepts indigenous Nahua women hold regarding their reproduction. Specifically it provides a description of two indigenous illnesses—isihuayo and necaxantle, it discusses their etiology, symptoms, and treatments, and it analyzes them within the local ethnomedical framework and sociopolitical context. A perception of female vulnerability is shown to be an underlying shaper of women’s experiences of these illnesses. Methods This research took place in a small Nahua village in Mexico. Qualitative data on local perceptions of these illnesses were collected by a combination of participant observation and interviews. Ethnobotanical data was obtained through interviews, and medicinal plants were collected in home gardens, fields, stream banks, and forested areas. The total study population consisted of traditional birth attendants (N = 5, clinicians (N = 8, and laywomen (N = 48. Results Results showed that 20% of the village women had suffered from one or both of these illnesses. The article includes a detailed description of the etiology, symptoms, and treatments of these illnesses. Data shows that they were caused by mechanical, physical, and social factors related to a woman’s weakness and/or lack of support. Traditional birth attendants often treated women’s illnesses. Five medicinal plants were salient in the treatment of these illnesses: Ocimum basilicum L., Mentzelia aspera L., Pedilanthus tithymaloides (L. Poit., and Piper umbellatum L. were used for isihuayo, while Solanum wendlandii Hook f. was used for necaxantle. Conclusions The research on these two ethnomedical conditions is a useful case study to understanding how indigenous women experience reproductive health. Reproductive health is not simply about clinically-based medicine but is also about how biomedicine intersects with the local bodily concepts. By describing and analyzing indigenous women’s ill health, one can focus

  2. Conservation and restoration of indigenous plants to improve community livelihoods: the Useful Plants Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulian, Tiziana; Sacandé, Moctar; Mattana, Efisio

    2014-05-01

    Kew's Millennium Seed Bank partnership (MSBP) is one of the largest ex situ plant conservation initiatives, which is focused on saving plants in and from regions most at risk, particularly in drylands. Seeds are collected and stored in seed banks in the country of origin and duplicated in the Millennium Seed Bank in the UK. The MSBP also strengthens the capacity of local communities to successfully conserve and sustainably use indigenous plants, which are important for their wellbeing. Since 2007, high quality seed collections and research information have been gathered on ca. 700 useful indigenous plant species that were selected by communities in Botswana, Kenya, Mali, Mexico and South Africa through Project MGU - The Useful Plants Project. These communities range from various farmer's groups and organisations to traditional healers, organic cotton/crop producers and primary schools. The information on seed conservation and plant propagation was used to train communities and to propagate ca. 200 species that were then planted in local gardens, and as species reintroduced for reforestation programmes and enriching village forests. Experimental plots have also been established to further investigate the field performance (plant survival and growth rate) of indigenous species, using low cost procedures. In addition, the activities support revenue generation for local communities directly through the sustainable use of plant products or indirectly through wider environmental and cultural services. This project has confirmed the potential of biodiversity conservation to improve food security and human health, enhance community livelihoods and strengthen the resilience of land and people to the changing climate. This approach of using indigenous species and having local communities play a central role from the selection of species to their planting and establishment, supported by complementary research, may represent a model for other regions of the world, where

  3. Ecological legacies of Indigenous fire management in high-latitude coastal temperate rainforests, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, K.; Lertzman, K. P.; Starzomski, B. M.

    2016-12-01

    Anthropogenic burning is considered to have little impact on coastal temperate rainforest fire regimes in the Pacific Northwest (PNW) of North America, yet few long-term fire histories have been reconstructed in these forests. We use a multidisciplinary approach to reconstruct the ecological impact, scale, and legacies of historic fire regime variability in high-latitude coastal temperate rainforests located in British Columbia, Canada. We map seven centuries of fire activity with fire scars and records of stand establishment, and examine patterns in the distribution and composition of vegetation to assess whether fire was historically used as a tool for resource management. We conduct a paired study of 20 former Indigenous habitation and control sites across a 100 km2 island group to relate historic fire activity with long-term patterns of human land use and contemporary lightning strike densities. Fires were significantly associated with the locations of former Indigenous habitation sites, low and mixed in severity, and likely intentionally used to influence the composition and structure of vegetation, thus increasing the productivity of culturally important plants such as western redcedar, berry-producing shrubs, and bracken fern. Centuries of repeated anthropogenic burning have resulted in a mosaic of vegetation types in different stages of succession. These data are directly relevant to the management of contemporary forests as they do not support the widespread contention that old growth coastal temperate rainforests in this region are pristine landscapes where fire is rare, but more likely the result of long-term human land use practices.

  4. Access and Benefit Sharing from the Indigenous Peoples’ Perspective: The TBGRI-Kani ‘Model’

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    C.R. Bijoy

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The ethno-botanical knowledge of the Kani people related to a plant identified as ‘arogyapacha’ was utilised to develop, transfer, produce and internationally market ‘Jeevani’ as an anti-fatigue, adaptogenic and immuno-enhancing formula by the Tropical Botanical Garden Research Institute, India. Showcased and acclaimed internationally as a model benefit-sharing arrangement, various issues have been posed upon deeper analysis relevant to benefits accrued in the context of indigenous peoples with regards to genetic resources associated to traditional knowledge. This model is also placed in the specific context of the non-implementation of the laws on land rights in Kerala and absence of even such a law in Tamil Nadu, and the violations of rights of Kanis to forests as stipulated in the forest laws and the denial of the rights to self-governance under the Constitution to Scheduled Tribes by these two states. The new national legal regimes in compliance with Convention on Biodiversity and TRIPS, rather than recognising the rights of Adivasis or Indigenous Peoples, further infringes their rights accorded in the limited international laws related to territorial rights, rights to resources and self-governance/self-determination.

  5. The coexistence of Baird's tapir (Tapirus bairdii) and indigenous hunters in northeastern Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Marc; Estrada, Nereyda; Smith, Derek A

    2012-12-01

    The Baird's tapir (Tapirus bairdii) is a popular game species throughout Central America, particularly among indigenous populations, and is currently endangered. Research on Miskitu hunting was conducted over 4 months in a remote region in northeastern Honduras that overlaps with the Río Plátano Biosphere Reserve. The hunting zone was mapped together with hunters and interviews were conducted with elders and other community members about tapir hunting. Results show that tapir harvesting is targeted toward specific habitats at specific times of year. Harvest rates for one year suggest that tapir hunting in the area exceeds estimates of maximum sustainable production. Nevertheless, field surveys reveal the presence of tapir within 1 km of the community, and its harvest tends to be nearby, in both forested and agricultural landscapes, suggesting that the animal has not been depleted in the area. It appears that the existence of forest areas adjacent to the hunting zone that do not experience hunting, together with the anthropogenic habitats created through shifting cultivation, are factors that help explain the presence of tapirs in the area. The article concludes with a discussion regarding the potential positive role of indigenous hunters in tapir conservation throughout its distribution range. © 2012 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd, ISZS and IOZ/CAS.

  6. Analysis of morphological variability and heritability in the head of the Argentine Black and White Tegu (Salvator merianae): undisturbed vs. disturbed environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imhoff, Carolina; Giri, Federico; Siroski, Pablo; Amavet, Patricia

    2018-04-01

    The heterogeneity of biotic and abiotic factors influencing fitness produce selective pressures that promote local adaptation and divergence among different populations of the same species. In order for adaptations to be maintained through evolutionary time, heritable genetic variation controlling the expression of the morphological features under selection is necessary. Here we compare morphological shape variability and size of the cephalic region of Salvator merianae specimens from undisturbed environments to those of individuals from disturbed environments, and estimated heritability for shape and size using geometric morphometric and quantitative genetics tools. The results of these analyzes indicated that there are statistically significant differences in shape and size between populations from the two environments. Possibly, one of the main determinants of cephalic shape and size is adaptation to the characteristics of the environment and to the trophic niche. Individuals from disturbed environments have a cephalic region with less shape variation and also have a larger centroid size when compared to individuals from undisturbed environments. The high heritability values obtained for shape and size in dorsal view and right side view indicate that these phenotypic characters have a great capacity to respond to the selection pressures to which they are subjected. Data obtained here could be used as an important tool when establishing guidelines for plans for the sustainable use and conservation of S. merianae and other species living in disturbed areas. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Contribution of Forest Restoration to Rural Livelihoods and Household Income in Indonesia

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    Nayu Nuringdati Widianingsih

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Forest resources remain vital to the survival of many rural communities, though the level of forest reliance varies across a range of sites and socio-economic settings. This article investigates variation in forest utilization across households in three ethnic groups living near a forest restoration area in Sumatra, Indonesia. Survey data were collected on 268 households, with a four-month recall period and three repeat visits to each selected household within a year. Random sampling was applied to select households in five villages and five Batin Sembilan (indigenous semi-nomadic groups. Sampled households belonged to three ethnic groups: 15% were Batin Sembilan, 40% Local Malayan, and 45% Immigrant households. Indigenous households displayed the highest reliance on forests: 36% of their annual total income came from this source, as compared with 10% and 8% for Local and Immigrant households, respectively. Our findings showed that the livelihoods of indigenous groups were still intricately linked with forest resources, despite a rapid landscape-wide transition from natural forest to oil palm and timber plantations.

  8. Burden of tuberculosis in indigenous peoples globally: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tollefson, D; Bloss, E; Fanning, A; Redd, J T; Barker, K; McCray, E

    2013-09-01

    The burden of tuberculosis (TB) in the estimated 370 million indigenous peoples worldwide is unknown. To conduct a literature review to summarize the TB burden in indigenous peoples, identify gaps in current knowledge, and provide the foundation for a research agenda prioritizing indigenous health within TB control. A systematic literature review identified articles published between January 1990 and November 2011 quantifying TB disease burden in indigenous populations worldwide. Among the 91 articles from 19 countries included in the review, only 56 were from outside Australia, Canada, New Zealand and the United States. The majority of the studies showed higher TB rates among indigenous groups than non-indigenous groups. Studies from the Amazon generally reported the highest TB prevalence and incidence, but select populations from South-East Asia and Africa were found to have similarly high rates of TB. In North America, the Inuit had the highest reported TB incidence (156/100000), whereas the Metis of Canada and American Indians/Alaska Natives experienced rates of indigenous groups. Where data exist, indigenous peoples were generally found to have higher rates of TB disease than non-indigenous peoples; however, this burden varied greatly. The paucity of published information on TB burden among indigenous peoples highlights the need to implement and improve TB surveillance to better measure and understand global disparities in TB rates.

  9. Tuberculosis in indigenous children in the Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Gava

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Assess the epidemiological aspects of tuberculosis in Brazilian indigenous children and actions to control it. METHODS: An epidemiological study was performed with 356 children from 0 to 14 years of age in Rondônia State, Amazon, Brazil, during the period 1997-2006. Cases of TB reported to the Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System were divided into indigenous and non-indigenous categories and analyzed according to sex, age group, place of residence, clinical form, diagnostic tests and treatment outcome. A descriptive analysis of cases and hypothesis test (χ² was carried out to verify if there were differences in the proportions of illness between the groups investigated. RESULTS: A total of 356 TB cases were identified (125 indigenous, 231 non-indigenous of which 51.4% of the cases were in males. In the indigenous group, 60.8% of the cases presented in children aged 0-4 years old. The incidence mean was much higher among indigenous; in 2001, 1,047.9 cases/100,000 inhabitants were reported in children aged < 5 years. Pulmonary TB was reported in more than 80% of the cases, and in both groups over 70% of the cases were cured. Cultures and histopathological exams were performed on only 10% of the patients. There were 3 cases of TB/HIV co-infection in the non-indigenous group and none in the indigenous group. The case detection rate was classified as insufficient or fair in more than 80% of the indigenous population notifications, revealing that most of the diagnoses were performed based on chest x-ray. CONCLUSIONS: The approach used in this study proved useful in demonstrating inequalities in health between indigenous and non-indigenous populations and was superior to the conventional analyses performed by the surveillance services, drawing attention to the need to improve childhood TB diagnosis among the indigenous population.

  10. INDIGENOUS HOUSEHOLDS, REMITTANCES AND LIFE QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio César Cruz Islas

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Mexican migration to other countries, primarily United States, is a phenomenon that has been studied from different approaches. It is an important flow of people who, for decades, has left Mexico in search of employment opportunities and higher income. This is due to the weakness of opportunities structure present in Mexico, predominantly in rural areas, as well as budget constraints that prevent households to improve their living conditions. Remittances from other countries, in turn, are an alternative for families to address the lack of employment opportunities and income in their homeland, as well as life-deficit conditions. To see how remittances impact on living conditions of indigenous population, in this paper we analyze living conditions of indigenous households.

  11. THE REPRESENTATION INDIGENOUS GUARANI MEMOIR IN BOOKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Hermínio Maldonado

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The works of authors memoir, researched this, depict the lifestyles Guarani and conflicts involving territorial disputes between the eighteenth and mid-twentieth century. They report experiences and seek their opinion about the relationship between indigenous people and migrants, as the authors themselves, who came to southern Ontario then on business and looking for productive land. From these works it is understood as the Indians managed to hide the regional history and justify their judgments about this population without considering the culture and without social organization. The research is to understand the phenomenon of invisibility to which they are subject, not only the Guarani, but the other indigenous peoples today the state of Mato Grosso do Sul.

  12. Occurrence of Endoparasites in Indigenous Zambian Dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce-Miller M.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted in the country of Zambia, Southern Africa, to investigate the occurrence of endo-parasites in indigenous Zambian dogs. Faecal samples were collected from 41 indigenous Zambian dogs from different areas of the Mbabala region in the Southern province of Zambia during the “hot wet” season, although at the time that the samples were collected, the country was experiencing a drought. Faecal samples were analysed using the concentration flotation method with zinc sulphate for the determination of the presence of gastrointestinal parasites. The most prevalent parasites were species from the family Ancylostomatidae (65.0 % infection rate which followed by: Isospora canis (9.8 %, Dipylidium caninum (4.8 %, and Toxascaris leonina (2.4 %. There were in addition, two cases of co-infections with the family Ancylostomatidae and D. caninum, as well as the family Ancylostomatidae and I. canis.

  13. Globalisation And Local Indigenous Education In Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinke, Leanne

    2004-11-01

    Globalisation is often viewed as a threat to cultural and linguistic diversity and therefore is a central concern of educational practices and policy. The present study challenges this common view by demonstrating that local communities can use global means to support and enhance their specific practices and policies. An historical exploration of education policy in Mexico reveals that there has been a continuing struggle by indigenous peoples to maintain locally relevant modes of teaching. Indigenous peoples have increasingly used technology to maintain their languages and local cultural practices. Such accentuation of the local in a global context is exemplified by the people of Chiapas: They live in subsistence-type communities, yet their recent education movements and appeals to international solidarity (such as in the Zapatista rebellion) have employed computer-aided technologies.

  14. Critical Indigenous Studies: From Difference to Density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Andersen

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Proponents of the discipline of Native Studies (in its various guises have attempted to produce a methodologically and theoretically distinctive body of scholarship to justify its existence in the field of academia. Critiquing Duane Champagne’s recent article published in a flagship journal for North American Native Studies, I argue that while establishing Native Studies as a discipline has little or nothing to do with securing Native Studies departments on university campuses, a place nonetheless exists for these departments. Marrying Native Studies literature on the importance of producing tribally specific knowledge with Australian-based Whiteness Studies literature focusing on the utility of indigeneity for denaturalising white privilege, I argue that the discipline of Native Studies should justify itself departmentally by teaching about the complex forms of local indigeneity upon which white privilege is reproduced.

  15. Nuclear thermal rockets using indigenous Martian propellants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zubrin, R.M.

    1989-01-01

    This paper considers a novel concept for a Martian descent and ascent vehicle, called NIMF (for nuclear rocket using indigenous Martian fuel), the propulsion for which will be provided by a nuclear thermal reactor which will heat an indigenous Martian propellant gas to form a high-thrust rocket exhaust. The performance of each of the candidate Martian propellants, which include CO2, H2O, CH4, N2, CO, and Ar, is assessed, and the methods of propellant acquisition are examined. Attention is also given to the issues of chemical compatibility between candidate propellants and reactor fuel and cladding materials, and the potential of winged Mars supersonic aircraft driven by this type of engine. It is shown that, by utilizing the nuclear landing craft in combination with a hydrogen-fueled nuclear thermal interplanetary vehicle and a heavy lift booster, it is possible to achieve a manned Mars mission in one launch. 6 refs

  16. INDIGENOUS LANGUAGES & PORTUGUESE LANGUAGE IN INDIGENOUS COMMUNITIES IN THE SOUTHERN OF MATO GROSSO DO SUL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilze Tavares

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Most part of indigenous adults in the Guarani communities of Mato Grosso do Sul is bilingual and has one of the indigenous languages, Guarani Kaiowá or Guarani Ñandeva, as their mother tongue and Portuguese as a second language; only a few elderly and young children still who do not go to school speak only the mother tongue. In this paper, we try to verify which impression the speakers have for each of these languages and the importance they attribute to each one of them. Data analysis showed that the mother tongue is closely related to the expression of their traditional culture; in general, the indigenous claim their languages are being transmitted to new generations, and therefore preserved in an appropriate manner in the two communities. The Portuguese is also considered very important by all informants and the main motivation for its teaching/learning is the need to contact with the non-indigenous population. These results may help us understand issues related to the future of these indigenous languages and Portuguese language in the investigated communities.

  17. Plant diversity and regeneration in a disturbed isolated dry Afromontane forest in northern Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aynekulu, Ermias; Aerts, Raf; Denich, Manfred

    2016-01-01

    We studied the diversity, community composition and natural regeneration of woody species in an isolated but relatively large (> 1,000 ha) dry Afromontane forest in northern Ethiopia to assess its importance for regional forest biodiversity conservation. The principal human-induced disturbance...... in biodiversity through local extinction of indigenous tree species. Despite the problems associated with conserving plant species diversity in small and isolated populations, this relic forest is of particular importance for regional conservation of forest biodiversity, as species with high conservation value...

  18. Technology development for indigenous water lubricated bearings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Limaye, P.K.; Soni, N.L.; Agrawal, R.G.

    2010-01-01

    Water Lubricated Bearings (WLB) are used in various mechanisms of fuel handling systems of PHWRs and AHWR. Availability and random failures of these bearings was a major factor in refuelling operations. Indigenous development of these bearings was taken up and 7 types of antifriction bearings in various sizes (totaling 37 variants) for PHWR, AHWR and Dhruva applications were successfully developed. This paper deals with various aspects of WLB development. (author)

  19. Nutritional composition of minor indigenous fruits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shajib, Md. Tariqul Islam; Kawser, Mahbuba; Miah, Md. Nuruddin

    2013-01-01

    In line of the development of a food composition database for Bangladesh, 10 minor indigenous fruits were analysed for their nutrient composition comprising ascorbic acid, carotenoids and mineral values. Nutrient data obtained have been compared with published data reported in different literatur...... values of these minor fruits would make awareness among the people for their mass consumption for healthy life and to grow more minor fruit trees from extinction in order to maintain biodiversity....

  20. Innovative MIOR Process Utilizing Indigenous Reservoir Constituents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hitzman, D.O.; Stepp, A.K.; Dennis, D.M.; Graumann, L.R.

    2003-02-11

    This research program was directed at improving the knowledge of reservoir ecology and developing practical microbial solutions for improving oil production. The goal was to identify indigenous microbial populations which can produce beneficial metabolic products and develop a methodology to stimulate those select microbes with inorganic nutrient amendments to increase oil recovery. This microbial technology has the capability of producing multiple oil-releasing agents.

  1. Innovative MIOR Process Utilizing Indigenous Reservoir Constituents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hitzman, D.O.; Bailey, S.A.; Stepp, A.K.

    2003-02-11

    This research program was directed at improving the knowledge of reservoir ecology and developing practical microbial solutions for improving oil production. The goal was to identify indigenous microbial populations which can produce beneficial metabolic products and develop a methodology to stimulate those select microbes with inorganic nutrient amendments to increase oil recovery. This microbial technology has the capability of producing multiple oil releasing agents. The potential of the system will be illustrated and demonstrated by the example of biopolymer production on oil recovery.

  2. Locally Situated Digital Representation of Indigenous Knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winschiers-Theophilus, Heike; Jensen, Kasper Løvborg; Rodil, Kasper

    2012-01-01

    Digital re-presentation of indigenous knowledge remains an absurdity as long as we fail to deconstruct the prevalent design paradigm and techniques continuously re-framing technology within a western epistemology. This paper discusses key challenges in attempts of co-constructing a digital......’s views are brought to light within the design interactions. A new digital reality is created at the periphery of the situated knowledge through continuous negotiations and joint meaning making....

  3. Indigenous Elementary Students' Science Instruction in Taiwan: Indigenous Knowledge and Western Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Huei; Yen, Chiung-Fen; Aikenhead, Glen S.

    2012-12-01

    This preliminary ethnographic investigation focused on how Indigenous traditional wisdom can be incorporated into school science and what students learned as a result. Participants included community elders and knowledge keepers, as well as 4th grade (10-year-old) students, all of Amis ancestry, an Indigenous tribe in Taiwan. The students' non-Indigenous teacher played a central role in developing a science module `Measuring Time' that combined Amis knowledge and Western science knowledge. The study identified two cultural worldview perspectives on time; for example, the place-based cyclical time held by the Amis, and the universal rectilinear time presupposed by scientists. Students' pre-instructional fragmented concepts from both knowledge systems became more informed and refined through their engagement in `Measuring Time'. Students' increased interest and pride in their Amis culture were noted.

  4. The indigenous ethos in the literary memoirs of Daniel Munduruku

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waniamara de Jesus dos Santos

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Adopting the theories postulated by Classical Rhetoric and Argumentation Discourse, this paper comes up with a reflection about the identity built by Daniel Munduruku in his memories ‘Meu vô Apolinário: um mergulho no rio da (minha memória’ The indigenous writer assumes the world of classical rhetorical tradition and expose his ideas in order to change preconceived concepts about the visibility of indigenous people by non-indigenous brazilian society. Munduruku shows a new indigenous appearence resulting from the performance between previosly and shown ethos, working both: his ‘fame’ and a new person built in his book and captured by the reader. Adopting gender epidictic, the construction of the indigenous ethos is done in a apparently harmless way, lying hidden the purpose to recreate new values about the world’s indigenous peoples in Brazil.

  5. Crash and rebound of indigenous populations in lowland South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Marcus J.; Walker, Robert S.; Kesler, Dylan C.

    2014-04-01

    Lowland South America has long been a battle-ground between European colonization and indigenous survival. Initial waves of European colonization brought disease epidemics, slavery, and violence that had catastrophic impacts on indigenous cultures. In this paper we focus on the demography of 238 surviving populations in Brazil. We use longitudinal censuses from all known indigenous Brazilian societies to quantify three demographic metrics: 1) effects of European contact on indigenous populations; 2) empirical estimates of minimum viable population sizes; and 3) estimates of post-contact population growth rates. We use this information to conduct population viability analysis (PVA). Our results show that all surviving populations suffered extensive mortality during, and shortly after, contact. However, most surviving populations exhibit positive growth rates within the first decade post-contact. Our findings paint a positive demographic outlook for these indigenous populations, though long-term survival remains subject to powerful externalities, including politics, economics, and the pervasive illegal exploitation of indigenous lands.

  6. Being Indigenous in the Bureaucracy: Narratives of Work and Exit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Lahn

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Australia’s civil service has had some success in attracting substantial numbers of Indigenous employees. But significant numbers also regularly exit the bureaucracy. Retaining Indigenous employees is recognised as an ongoing difficulty for government. This research with former and current Indigenous civil servants outlines factors they identify as contributing to decisions to leave the bureaucracy. A key finding involves their general sense of being underutilised and undervalued— that forms of experience and understanding as Indigenous people go largely unrecognised within government, which in turn constrains their potential to meaningfully contribute to improving government relations with Indigenous Australians or to enhancing the effectiveness of the bureaucracy more broadly. Work as an Indigenous civil servant emerges as a space of contestation with the possibilities and limits of statecraft.

  7. Early Vocabulary Development of Australian Indigenous Children: Identifying Strengths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brad M. Farrant

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The current study sought to increase our understanding of the factors involved in the early vocabulary development of Australian Indigenous children. Data from the Longitudinal Study of Indigenous Children were available for 573 Indigenous children (291 boys who spoke English (M=37.0 months, SD=5.4 months, at wave 3. Data were also available for 86 children (51 boys who spoke an Indigenous language (M=37.1 months, SD=6.0 months, at wave 3. As hypothesised, higher levels of parent-child book reading and having more children’s books in the home were associated with better English vocabulary development. Oral storytelling in Indigenous language was a significant predictor of the size of children’s Indigenous vocabulary.

  8. A Comparison between Australian Football League (AFL Injuries in Australian Indigenous versus Non-indigenous Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Orchard

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available It has previously been shown that being of aboriginal descent is a risk factor for hamstring injuries in Australian football. The aim of this study was to review the Australian Football League (AFL injury database to determine whether there were any injuries where indigenous players had different relative risks to non-indigenous players. Analysis was conducted using data from the AFL injury database, which included data from 4,492 players over 21 years (1992–2012, covering 162,683 player-matches at AFL level, 91,098 matches at lower levels and 328,181 weeks (possible matches of exposure. Compared to non-indigenous players, indigenous players had a significantly higher risk of hamstring injuries (RR 1.52, 95% CI 1.32–1.73 and calf strains (RR 1.30, 95% CI 1.00–1.69. Conversely, indigenous players had a significantly lower risk of lumbar/thoracic spine injuries (RR 0.61, 95% CI 0.41–0.91, groin strains/osteitis pubis (RR 0.75, 95% CI 0.58–0.96 and Achilles tendon injuries (RR 0.32, 95% CI 0.12–0.86. The results for the above injuries were also significant in terms of games missed. There was no difference between overall risk of injury (RR 1.03, 95% CI 0.96–1.10 or missed games (RR 1.00, 95% CI 0.97–1.04. This suggests that indigenous AFL players have the same overall number of injuries and missed games, but a slightly different injury profile.

  9. Characterizing Tropical Forest Structure using Field-based Measurements and a Terrestrial Lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palace, M. W.; Sullivan, F.; Ducey, M. J.; Herrick, C.

    2015-12-01

    Forest structure comprises numerous quantifiable components of forest biometric characteristics, one of which is tree architecture. This structural component is important in the understanding of the past and future trajectories of these biomes. Tropical forests are often considered the most structurally complex and yet least understood of forested ecosystems. New technologies have provided novel avenues for quantifying properties of forested ecosystems, one of which is LIght Detection And Ranging (lidar). This sensor can be deployed on satellite, aircraft, unmanned aerial vehicles, and terrestrial platforms. In this study we examined the efficacy of a terrestrial lidar scanner (TLS) system in a tropical forest to estimate forest structure. Our study was conducted in January 2012 at La Selva, Costa Rica at twenty locations in predominantly undisturbed forest. At these locations we collected field measured biometric attributes using a variable plot design. We also collected TLS data from the center of each plot. Using this data we developed relative vegetation profiles (RVPs) and calculated a series of parameters including entropy, FFT, number of layers and plant area index to develop statistical relationships with field data. We developed statistical models using multiple linear regressions, all of which converged on statistically significant relationships with the strongest relationship being for mean crown depth (r2 = 0.87, p information on tropical forest structure.

  10. Forest succession in the Upper Rio Negro of Colombia and Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saldarriaga, J.G.; West, D.C.; Tharp, M.L.

    1986-11-01

    Woody vegetation from 23 forest stands along the Upper Rio Negro of Venezuela and Colombia was sampled in 1982 to examine the hypothesis that the Amazon forest has been largely undisturbed since the Pleistocene, to quantify vegetation development during different stages of succession following agricultural development, and to determine the time required for a successional stand to become a mature forest. The ubiquitousness of charcoal in the tierra firme forest indicated the presence of fire associated with extreme dry periods and human disturbances. Changes in species composition, vegetation structure, and woody biomass were studied on 19 abandoned farms and four mature forest stands. Living and dead biomass for the tress and their components was determined by regression equations developed from measurements of harvested trees. The rate of recovery of floristic composition, structure, and biomass following disturbance is relatively slow. Aboveground dead biomass remained high 14 years after the forest was disturbed by the agricultural practices. The lowest dead biomass is reached 20 years after abandonment, and the largest values are found in mature forests. Data analysis of 80-year-old stands showed that the species composition approached that of a mature forest. Approximately 140 to 200 years was required for an abandoned farm to attain the basal area and biomass values comparable to those of a mature forest. The results of this study indicate that recovery is five to seven times longer in the Upper Rio Negro than it is in other tropical areas in South America

  11. Forest succession in the Upper Rio Negro of Colombia and Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saldarriaga, J.G.; West, D.C.; Tharp, M.L.

    1986-11-01

    Woody vegetation from 23 forest stands along the Upper Rio Negro of Venezuela and Colombia was sampled in 1982 to examine the hypothesis that the Amazon forest has been largely undisturbed since the Pleistocene, to quantify vegetation development during different stages of succession following agricultural development, and to determine the time required for a successional stand to become a mature forest. The ubiquitousness of charcoal in the tierra firme forest indicated the presence of fire associated with extreme dry periods and human disturbances. Changes in species composition, vegetation structure, and woody biomass were studied on 19 abandoned farms and four mature forest stands. Living and dead biomass for the tress and their components was determined by regression equations developed from measurements of harvested trees. The rate of recovery of floristic composition, structure, and biomass following disturbance is relatively slow. Aboveground dead biomass remained high 14 years after the forest was disturbed by the agricultural practices. The lowest dead biomass is reached 20 years after abandonment, and the largest values are found in mature forests. Data analysis of 80-year-old stands showed that the species composition approached that of a mature forest. Approximately 140 to 200 years was required for an abandoned farm to attain the basal area and biomass values comparable to those of a mature forest. The results of this study indicate that recovery is five to seven times longer in the Upper Rio Negro than it is in other tropical areas in South America.

  12. New strategies by indigenous movements against extractivism in Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Ximena Cuadra Montoya

    2014-01-01

    This article analyses the emergence of transnational activism in the context of collective action organised around socio-environmental conflicts in Chile’s indigenous areas. It details the main events in the process of indigenous mobilisation in the form of three emblematic cases carried out on an interna­tional scale, together with their implications for the national political arena. The author explains how, after the indigenous people’s demands were blocked at home, they then mobilised abro...

  13. Constraints in the adoption of Indigenous farming practices

    OpenAIRE

    K Kanagasabapathi; V Sakthivel

    2017-01-01

    Indigenous farming is a production system, based on renewal of ecological processes and strengthening of ecological functions of farm ecosystem to produce safe, healthy and sustainable food. Indigenous agriculture is being adopted by the farmers of Kolli Hills in centre Tamil Nadu for different reasons. However, a lot of constraints prevent the farmers in adopting indigenous farming practices, that include poor yield, poor marketing facilities, higher production cost and urbanization

  14. Policy Inputs to Honduran Government, Indigenous Federations, and NGOs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-09

    Meeting, June 8, 2015: met with representatives of Honduran Land Management Program (PATH II), indigenous Miskitu leaders from MASTA, and...Granados of Honduran Land Management Program (PATH II), Norvin Goff (President of MASTA indigenous federation), and Darío Cruz (Vice Rector at UPNFM). ...Government, Indigenous Federations, and NGOs Our cartographic research results on the CA Indígena website are used by Honduran government agencies

  15. Engagement with indigenous peoples and honoring traditional knowledge systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, Julie; Bennett, Bull; Chief, Karletta; Cochran, Patricia; Cozetto, Karen; Gough, Bob; Hiza-Redsteer, Margaret M.; Lynn, Kathy; Maynard, Nancy; Voggesser, Garrit

    2016-01-01

    The organizers of the 2014 US National Climate Assessment (NCA) made a concerted effort to reach out to and collaborate with Indigenous peoples, resulting in the most comprehensive information to date on climate change impacts to Indigenous peoples in a US national assessment. Yet, there is still much room for improvement in assessment processes to ensure adequate recognition of Indigenous perspectives and Indigenous knowledge systems. This article discusses the process used in creating the Indigenous Peoples, Land, and Resources NCA chapter by a team comprised of tribal members, agencies, academics, and non-governmental organizations, who worked together to solicit, collect, and synthesize traditional knowledges and data from a diverse array of Indigenous communities across the US. It also discusses the synergy and discord between traditional knowledge systems and science and the emergence of cross-cutting issues and vulnerabilities for Indigenous peoples. The challenges of coalescing information about climate change and its impacts on Indigenous communities are outlined along with recommendations on the types of information to include in future assessment outputs. We recommend that future assessments – not only NCA, but other relevant local, regional, national, and international efforts aimed at the translation of climate information and assessments into meaningful actions – should support integration of Indigenous perspectives in a sustained way that builds respectful relationships and effectively engages Indigenous communities. Given the large number of tribes in the US and the current challenges and unique vulnerabilities of Indigenous communities, a special report focusing solely on climate change and Indigenous peoples is warranted.This article is part of a special issue on “The National Climate Assessment: Innovations in Science and Engagement” edited by Katharine Jacobs, Susanne Moser, and James Buizer.

  16. Lost in Maps: Regionalization and Indigenous Health Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavoie, Josée G; Kornelsen, Derek; Boyer, Yvonne; Wylie, Lloy

    The settlement of the land now known as Canada meant the erasure - sometimes from ignorance, often purposeful - of Indigenous place-names, and understandings of territory and associated obligations. The Canadian map with its three territories and ten provinces, electoral boundaries and districts, reflects boundaries that continue to fragment Indigenous nations and traditional lands. Each fragment adds institutional requirements and organizational complexities that Indigenous nations must engage with when attempting to realize the benefits taken for granted under the Canadian social contract.

  17. Constraints in the adoption of Indigenous farming practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Kanagasabapathi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous farming is a production system, based on renewal of ecological processes and strengthening of ecological functions of farm ecosystem to produce safe, healthy and sustainable food. Indigenous agriculture is being adopted by the farmers of Kolli Hills in centre Tamil Nadu for different reasons. However, a lot of constraints prevent the farmers in adopting indigenous farming practices, that include poor yield, poor marketing facilities, higher production cost and urbanization

  18. Discriminating Natural Variation from Legacies of Disturbance in Semi-Arid Forests, Southwestern USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swetnam, T. L.; Lynch, A. M.; Falk, D. A.; Yool, S. R.; Guertin, D. P.

    2014-12-01

    Characterizing differences in existing vegetation driven by natural variation versus disturbance legacies could become a critical component of applied forest management practice with important implications for monitoring ecologic succession and eco-hydrological interactions within the critical zone. Here we characterize variations in aerial LiDAR derived forest structure at individual tree scale in Arizona and New Mexico. Differences in structure result from both topographic and climatological variations and from natural and human related disturbances. We chose a priori undisturbed and disturbed sites that included preservation, development, logging and wildfire as exemplars. We compare two topographic indices, the topographic position index (TPI) and topographic wetness index (TWI), to two local indicators of spatial association (LISA): the Getis-Ord Gi and Anselin's Moran I. We found TPI and TWI correlate well to positive z-scores (tall trees in tall neighborhoods) in undisturbed areas and that disturbed areas are clearly defined by negative z-scores, in some cases better than what is visible from traditional orthophotography and existing GIS maps. These LISA methods also serve as a robust technique for creating like-clustered stands, i.e. common stands used in forest inventory monitoring. This research provides a significant advancement in the ability to (1) quantity variation in forest structure across topographically complex landscapes, (2) identify and map previously unrecorded disturbance locations, and (3) quantify the different impacts of disturbance within the perimeter of a stand or event at ecologically relevant scale.

  19. Effects of understory vegetation and litter on plant nitrogen (N, phosphorus (P, N:P ratio and their relationships with growth rate of indigenous seedlings in subtropical plantations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Wang

    Full Text Available Establishing seedlings in subtropical plantations is very important for forest health, succession and management. Information on seedling nutrient concentrations is essential for both the selection of suitable indigenous tree species to accelerate succession of the established plantation and sustainable forest management. In this study, we investigated the concentrations of nitrogen ([N], phosphorus ([P], and N:P ratio in leaves, stems and roots of seedlings of three indigenous tree species (Castanopsis chinensis, Michelia chapensis and Psychotria rubra transplanted with removing or retaining understory vegetation and litter at two typical subtropical forest plantations (Eucalyptus plantation and native species plantation. We also measured the relative growth rate (RGR of seedling height, and developed the relationships between RGR and leaf [N], [P] and N:P ratio. Results showed that treatments of understory vegetation and associated litter (i.e. removal or retained generally had no significant effects on leaf [N], [P], N:P ratio and RGR of the transplanted tree seedlings for the experimental period. But among different species, there were significant differences in nutrient concentrations. M. chapensis and P. rubra had higher [N] and [P] compared to C. chinensis. [N] and [P] also varied among different plant tissues with much higher values in leaves than in roots for all indigenous species. RGR of indigenous tree seedlings was mostly positively correlated with leaf [N] and [P], but negatively correlated with leaf N:P ratio. Considering the low [P] and high N:P ratio observed in the introduced indigenous tree seedlings, we propose that the current experimental plantations might be P limited for plant growth.

  20. Boreal forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Essen, P.A.; Ericson, L.; Ehnstroem, B.; Sjoeberg, K.

    1997-01-01

    We review patterns and processes important for biodiversity in the Fennoscandian boreal forest, describe man's past and present impact and outline a strategy for conservation. Natural disturbances, particularly forest fire and gap formation, create much of the structural and functional diversity in forest ecosystems. Several boreal plants and animals are adapted to fire regimes. In contrast, many organisms (epiphytic lichens, fungi, invertebrates) require stable conditions with long continuity in canopy cover. The highly mechanized and efficient Fennoscandian forest industry has developed during the last century. The result is that most natural forest has been lost and that several hundreds of species, mainly cryptograms and invertebrates, are threatened. The forestry is now in a transition from exploitation to sustainable production and has recently incorporated some measures to protect the environment. Programmes for maintaining biodiversity in the boreal forest should include at least three parts. First, the system of forest reserves must be significantly improved through protection of large representative ecosystems and key biotopes that host threatened species. Second, we must restore ecosystem properties that have been lost or altered. Natural disturbance regimes must be allowed to operate or be imitated, for example by artificial fire management. Stand-level management should particularly increase the amount of coarse woody debris, the number of old deciduous trees and large, old conifers, by using partial cutting. Third, natural variation should also be mimicked at the landscape level, for example, by reducing fragmentation and increasing links between landscape elements. Long-term experiments are required to evaluate the success of different management methods in maintaining biodiversity in the boreal forest. (au) 260 refs

  1. Integrating the avoidance of forest degradation into systematic conservation planning in the Eastern Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, J.; Barlow, J.; Thompson, J.; Berenguer, E.; Aragão, L. E.; Lees, A.; Lennox, G.; Brancalion, P.; Ferraz, S.; Moura, N.; Oliveira, V. H.; Louzada, J.; Solar, R.; Nunes, S.; Parry, L.; Fonseca, T.; Garrett, R.; Vieira, I.; MacNally, R.; Gardner, T.

    2017-12-01

    Undisturbed forests are becoming increasingly rare in the tropics. The area of forest degraded by some form of disturbance, such as logging or fire, in the Brazilian Amazon now greatly exceeds that which had been deforested. Yet forest policy in the Amazon, as elsewhere in the tropics, remains overwhelmingly focused curbing the rate of forest loss without considering impacts on forest quality. We use a unique data set from the Sustainable Amazon Network (RAS), in the eastern Brazilian Amazon to assess the impacts of forest disturbance on biodiversity and assess the benefits of including avoided degradation measures in conservation planning. Biodiversity data on trees and fauna from two large regions, Santarém and Paragominas, were combined with remote sensing data to model biodiversity patterns as well as estimates of above-ground carbon stocks across a range of land-use types and forest conditions. We found that impact of forest disturbance on biodiversity loss in the state of Pará equates to double that lost from deforestation alone, -the equivalent of losing 92,000-139,000 km2 of primary forest. We found a strong positive relationship between increasing carbon stocks and higher biodiversity in varyingly disturbed forests. Simulations demonstrated that a carbon-focused conservation strategy is least effective at conserving biodiversity in the least disturbed forests, highlighting the importance of on-the-ground biodiversity surveys to prioritise conservation investments in the most species rich forests. We explored trade-offs among management actions to guide priorities for habitat protection, avoided degradation and restoration and found that where restoration imposes significant opportunity and implementation costs, efforts to avoid and reverse the degradation of existing forests can deliver greater returns on investment for biodiversity conservation. Systemic planning of forest management options at regional scales can substantially improve biodiversity

  2. The Vertical Village: indigenous mixture in Rio de Janeiro city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Bevilaqua

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses upon a place called the Vertical Village, a building in the center of Rio de Janeiro inhabited exclusively by indigenous peoples from different ethnic groups belonging to different parts of the country. In this paper, we discuss questions related to the experience of being indigenous in a city, the construction of a residential space as a village, and the constitution of indigenous identity in the urban context. Following the paths of three inhabitants of the building, the questions considered emerge from their transiting between cities and villages, frontiers either real or imaginary, prejudices and expectations of indigenous identity.

  3. The management of diabetes in indigenous Australians from primary care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Merlin C

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Indigenous Australians have high rates of diabetes and its complications. This study examines ethnic differences in the management of patients with type 2 diabetes in Australian primary care. Methods Diabetes management and outcomes in Indigenous patients enrolled in the NEFRON study (n = 144 was systematically compared with that in non-Indigenous patients presenting consecutively to the same practitioner (n = 449, and the NEFRON cohort as a whole (n = 3893. Results Indigenous Australians with diabetes had high rates of micro- and macrovascular disease. 60% of Indigenous patients had an abnormal albumin to creatinine ratio compared to 33% of non-Indigenous patients (p 1c ≥ 8.0%, observed in 55% of all Indigenous patients, despite the similar frequency use of oral antidiabetic agents and insulin. Smoking was also more common in Indigenous patients (38%vs 10%, p Conclusion Although seeing the same doctors and receiving the same medications, glycaemic and smoking cessation targets remain unfulfilled in Indigenous patients. This cross-sectional study confirms Aboriginal ethnicity as a powerful risk factor for microvascular and macrovascular disease, which practitioners should use to identify candidates for intensive multifactorial intervention.

  4. Sporting Chance: Indigenous Participation in Australian Sport History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean Gorman

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available For many non-Indigenous Australians the only time they have any engagement with Indigenous peoples, history or issues is through watching sport on television or being at a football match at the MCG. This general myopia and indifference by settler Australians with Indigenous Australians manifests itself in many ways but perhaps most obscenely in the simple fact that Indigenous Australians die nearly 20 years younger than the rest of Australias citizens. Many non-Indigenous Australians do not know this. Sport in many ways has offered Indigenous Australians a platform from which to begin the slow, hard process for social justice and equity to be actualised. This paper will discuss the participation of Indigenous Australians in sport and show how sport has enabled Indigenous Australians to create a space so that they can speak out against the injustices they have experienced and to further improve on relations going into the future. The central contention is that through sport all Australians can begin a process of engaging with Indigenous history as a means to improve race relations between the two groups.

  5. INDIGENOUS PEOPLES, MODERN SOCIETY AND PROJECTS (SAYINGS NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Alvarenga Caldeira

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to present a reflection about the processes of environmental licensing of enterprises located in internal or near areas to indigenous lands in Brazil. The analysis is based on work experiences, bibliographic research and subject tracking with the indigenous communities and the government. The article analyzes the environmental licencing process current in Brazil; the common practice of granting environmental licenses without previous studies of the indigenous component and the Brazilian government and enterpreneurs reluctance in hearing the indigenous peoples in these processes.

  6. The Forgotten ‘Coastal Forests' of Mtwara, Tanzania: A Biologically Impoverished and Yet Important Ecosystem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wegner, Guilia; Howell, Kim M.; Davenport, Tim R.

    2009-01-01

    Biodiversity surveys and the compilation of indigenous knowledge were conducted in eight previously unstudied proposed and already gazetted Forest Reserves of Mtwara Region, south-eastern Tanzania, from April to August of 2005. The results indicate relatively low biodiversity and endemism values ......-term availability of timber and non-timber resources and water and soil regulation services from these forests. The development and implementation of effective natural resource management is therefore urgently needed in this area....

  7. FCJ-209 Indigenous Knowledge Systems and Pattern Thinking: An Expanded Analysis of the First Indigenous Robotics Prototype Workshop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angie Abdilla

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In November 2014, the lead researcher’s interest in the conceptual development of digital technology and her cultural connection to Indigenous Knowledge Systems created an opportunity to explore a culturally relevant use of technology with urban Indigenous youth: the Indigenous Robotics Prototype Workshop. The workshop achieved a sense of cultural pride and confidence in Indigenous traditional knowledge while inspiring the youth to continue with their engagement in coding and programming through building robots. Yet, the outcomes from the prototype workshop further revealed a need to investigate how Indigenous Knowledge Systems, and particularly Pattern Thinking, might hint toward a possible paradigm shift for the ethical and advanced design of new technologies. This article examines the implications of such a hypothetical shift in autonomous systems in robotics and artificial intelligence (AI, using the Indigenous Robotics Prototype Workshop as a case study and springboard.

  8. Kahwà:tsire: Indigenous Families in a Family Therapy Practice with the Indigenous Worldview as the Foundation

    OpenAIRE

    Derrick, J.M.

    2017-01-01

    This study creates new knowledge regarding the impact of European colonization on Indigenous (Aboriginal, First Nations, Inuit, Metis) families in Canada. It particularly focuses on the issues in families whose children were forcibly removed by the government to institutions called residential schools. Members of Indigenous families voluntarily attended a family therapy practice which utilized a family systems approach and was uniquely based in the Indigenous worldview. This worldview is spir...

  9. Patterns of drug dependence in a Queensland (Australia) sample of Indigenous and non-Indigenous people who inject drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, Andrew; Kemp, Robert; Ward, James; Henderson, Suzanna; Williams, Sidney; Dev, Abhilash; Najman, Jake M

    2016-09-01

    Despite over-representation of Indigenous Australians in sentinel studies of injecting drug use, little is known about relevant patterns of drug use and dependence. This study compares drug dependence and possible contributing factors in Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians who inject drugs. Respondent-driven sampling was used in major cities and 'peer recruitment' in regional towns of Queensland to obtain a community sample of Indigenous (n = 282) and non-Indigenous (n = 267) injectors. Data are cross sectional. Multinomial models were developed for each group to examine types of dependence on injected drugs (no dependence, methamphetamine-dependent only, opioid-dependent only, dependent on methamphetamine and opioids). Around one-fifth of Indigenous and non-Indigenous injectors were dependent on both methamphetamine and opioids in the previous 12 months. Psychological distress was associated with dual dependence on these drugs for Indigenous [adjusted relative risk (ARR) 4.86, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.08-11.34] and non-Indigenous (ARR 4.14, 95% CI 1.59-10.78) participants. Unemployment (ARR 8.98, 95% CI 2.25-35.82) and repeated (> once) incarceration as an adult (ARR 3.78, 95% CI 1.43-9.97) were associated with dual dependence for Indigenous participants only. Indigenous participants had high rates of alcohol dependence, except for those dependent on opioids only. The drug dependence patterns of Indigenous and non-Indigenous people who inject drugs were similar, including the proportions dependent on both methamphetamine and opioids. However, for Indigenous injectors, there was a stronger association between drug dependence and contextual factors such as unemployment and incarceration. Expansion of treatment options and community-level programs may be required. [Smirnov A, Kemp R, Ward J, Henderson S, Williams S, Dev A, Najman J M. Patterns of drug dependence in a Queensland (Australia) sample of Indigenous and non-Indigenous people who

  10. A forest map of Southern Africa with the aid of LANDSAT imagery

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van der Zel, DW

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available Even after 300 years of indigenous forest protection as well as 100 years of plantation forestry, no forestry map of South Africa was available. The development and availability of LANDSAT images in the early 1970s opened possibility to use...

  11. Non-timber forest products of the North-West District of Guyana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andel, T.R. van

    2000-01-01

    This thesis describes the use of non-timber forest products (NTFPs) by indigenous peoples of northwest Guyana. Part I contains a general analysis of NTFP harvesting in northwest Guyana Part II is an illustrated field guide of the useful plants encountered. Chapter 1: introduction Chapter

  12. Preliminary performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, December 1992. Volume 5, Uncertainty and sensitivity analyses of gas and brine migration for undisturbed performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-01

    Before disposing of transuranic radioactive waste in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), the United States Department of Energy (DOE) must evaluate compliance with applicable long-term regulations of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Sandia National Laboratories is conducting iterative performance assessments (PAs) of the WIPP for the DOE to provide interim guidance while preparing for a final compliance evaluation. This volume of the 1992 PA contains results of uncertainty and sensitivity analyses with respect to migration of gas and brine from the undisturbed repository. Additional information about the 1992 PA is provided in other volumes. Volume 1 contains an overview of WIPP PA and results of a preliminary comparison with 40 CFR 191, Subpart B. Volume 2 describes the technical basis for the performance assessment, including descriptions of the linked computational models used in the Monte Carlo analyses. Volume 3 contains the reference data base and values for input parameters used in consequence and probability modeling. Volume 4 contains uncertainty and sensitivity analyses with respect to the EPA`s Environmental Standards for the Management and Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel, High-Level and Transuranic Radioactive Wastes (40 CFR 191, Subpart B). Finally, guidance derived from the entire 1992 PA is presented in Volume 6. Results of the 1992 uncertainty and sensitivity analyses indicate that, conditional on the modeling assumptions and the assigned parameter-value distributions, the most important parameters for which uncertainty has the potential to affect gas and brine migration from the undisturbed repository are: initial liquid saturation in the waste, anhydrite permeability, biodegradation-reaction stoichiometry, gas-generation rates for both corrosion and biodegradation under inundated conditions, and the permeability of the long-term shaft seal.

  13. Indigenous Students' Voices: Monitoring Indigenous Student Satisfaction and Retention in a Large Australian University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Mahsood; Widin, Jacquie

    2010-01-01

    Indigenous student satisfaction with the university learning and teaching experience matters. From a student perspective, retention matters as successful completion of tertiary education improves the life chances of students in relation to employment opportunities, being able to support themselves financially and contributing to the society in…

  14. Indigenizing Student-Centred Learning: A Western Approach in an Indigenous Educational Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Chona Pineda

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the alignment of the teaching and learning practices with a student-centred learning approach in an indigenous educational institution. The findings indicated that when a western concept is applied in the classroom, it is vital for it to be culturally relevant and appropriate to the cultural beliefs and values of the…

  15. INDIGENOUS KNOWLEDGE IN THE MANAGEMENT OF A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Apusigah

    rural communities to accomplish the goals of nature conservation using local experiences ..... Local knowledge has proved useful for forest restoration and ..... The Regional Tourism Board should collaborate with the community to market the.

  16. Indigenous Manufacturing realization of TWIN Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, R.; Bandyopadhyay, M.; Parmar, D.; Yadav, R.; Tyagi, H.; Soni, J.; Shishangiya, H.; Sudhir Kumar, D.; Shah, S.; Bansal, G.; Pandya, K.; Parmar, K.; Vuppugalla, M.; Gahlaut, A.; Chakraborty, A.

    2017-04-01

    TWIN source is two RF driver based negative ion source that has been planned to bridge the gap between single driver based ROBIN source (currently operational) and eight river based DNB source (to be operated under IN-TF test facility). TWIN source experiments have been planned at IPR keeping the objective of long term domestic fusion programme to gain operational experiences on vacuum immersed multi driver RF based negative ion source. High vacuum compatible components of twin source are designed at IPR keeping an aim on indigenous built in attempt. These components of TWIN source are mainly stainless steel and OFC-Cu. Being high heat flux receiving components, one of the major functional requirements is continuous heat removal via water as cooling medium. Hence for the purpose stainless steel parts are provided with externally milled cooling lines and that shall be covered with a layer of OFC-cu which would be on the receiving side of high heat flux. Manufacturability of twin source components requires joining of these dissimilar materials via process like electrode position, electron beam welding and vacuum brazing. Any of these manufacturing processes shall give a vacuum tight joint having proper joint strength at operating temperature and pressure. Taking the indigenous development effort vacuum brazing (in non-nuclear environment) has been opted for joining of dissimilar materials of twin source being one of the most reliable joining techniques and commercially feasible across the suppliers of country. Manufacturing design improvisation for the components has been done to suit the vacuum brazing process requirement and to ease some of the machining without comprising over the functional and operational requirements. This paper illustrates the details on the indigenous development effort, design improvisation to suits manufacturability, vacuum brazing basics and its procedures for twin source components.

  17. Create a new vision for indigenous development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chavez Alba, Rafael; Sanchez Arancibia, Oscar Armando [TRANSIERRA S.A., Santa Cruz (Bolivia)

    2009-07-01

    Transierra is a Bolivian company created in the year 2000 with the goal of transporting natural gas from the fields of San Alberto and San Antonio, in Tarija, to the Rio Grande Gas Compression Plant in Santa Cruz, for export to Brazil. Transierra has implemented a Social Action Plan, which allowed it to execute more than 800 community projects for the benefit of over 40 thousand families living in it's area of influence, with the presence of 146 indigenous communities, generally lagging behind in economic and productive life in the region and country. The Support Program to Guarani Development Plans (PA-PDG) is part of the Social Plan and is part of a long-term agreement signed between Transierra and indigenous organizations. The program has implemented more than one hundred projects for productive development, health, education, cultural revaluation, and strengthening organizational infrastructure, generating huge benefits in improving the living conditions of thousands of families of the Guarani people. This year a unique initiative was created with 4 Indigenous Captains and with the support of the International Finance Corporation (World Bank Group), including Business Plans to promote sustainable economic growth, created productive economic cycles involving improvements to the production and productivity to enter the commercial distribution of local and national markets. These four initiatives have meant a shift in the implementation and is helping to generate new dynamics in production, in addition to capturing significant resources from public and private investment, laying the groundwork for the improvement of the incomes and quality of life of its beneficiaries. (author)

  18. Indigenous development of scanning electron microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambastha, K.P.; Chaudhari, Y.V.; Pal, Suvadip; Tikaria, Amit; Pious, Lizy; Dubey, B.P.; Chadda, V.K.

    2009-01-01

    Scanning electron microscope (SEM) is a precision instrument and plays very important role in scientific studies. Bhabha Atomic Research Centre has taken up the job of development of SEM indigenously. Standard and commercially available components like computer, high voltage power supply, detectors etc. shall be procured from market. Focusing and scanning coils, vacuum chamber, specimen stage, control hardware and software etc. shall be developed at BARC with the help of Indian industry. Procurement, design and fabrication of various parts of SEM are in progress. (author)

  19. Innovative MIOR Process Utilizing Indigenous Reservoir Constituents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hitzman, D.O.; Stepp, A.K.

    2003-02-11

    This research program was directed at improving the knowledge of reservoir ecology and developing practical microbial solutions for improving oil production. The goal was to identify indigenous microbial populations which can produce beneficial metabolic products and develop a methodology to stimulate those select microbes with inorganic nutrient amendments to increase oil recovery. This microbial technology has the capability of producing multiple oil-releasing agents. The potential of the system will be illustrated and demonstrated by the example of biopolymer production on oil recovery.

  20. Interpreting indigenous art in university collections

    OpenAIRE

    Tyler, Linda

    2012-01-01

    Debates on the representation of indigenous cultures in museums have come to the fore in the past thirty years. This paper examines the context for the opening of Waipapa Marae at the University of Auckland in 1988. It outlines a history of Māori meeting houses used for teaching and learning in a specifically Māori context in the New Zealand tertiary sector. The challenge for the university curator with a marae as part of the collection is how to interpret it for the 21st century. Facilitatin...

  1. Quantifying small-scale spatio-temporal variability of snow stratigraphy in forests based on high-resolution snow penetrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teich, M.; Hagenmuller, P.; Bebi, P.; Jenkins, M. J.; Giunta, A. D.; Schneebeli, M.

    2017-12-01

    Snow stratigraphy, the characteristic layering within a seasonal snowpack, has important implications for snow remote sensing, hydrology and avalanches. Forests modify snowpack properties through interception, wind speed reduction, and changes to the energy balance. The lack of snowpack observations in forests limits our ability to understand the evolution of snow stratigraphy and its spatio-temporal variability as a function of forest structure and to observe snowpack response to changes in forest cover. We examined the snowpack under canopies of a spruce forest in the central Rocky Mountains, USA, using the SnowMicroPen (SMP), a high resolution digital penetrometer. Weekly-repeated penetration force measurements were recorded along 10 m transects every 0.3 m in winter 2015 and bi-weekly along 20 m transects every 0.5 m in 2016 in three study plots beneath canopies of undisturbed, bark beetle-disturbed and harvested forest stands, and an open meadow. To disentangle information about layer hardness and depth variabilities, and to quantitatively compare the different SMP profiles, we applied a matching algorithm to our dataset, which combines several profiles by automatically adjusting their layer thicknesses. We linked spatial and temporal variabilities of penetration force and depth, and thus snow stratigraphy to forest and meteorological conditions. Throughout the season, snow stratigraphy was more heterogeneous in undisturbed but also beneath bark beetle-disturbed forests. In contrast, and despite remaining small diameter trees and woody debris, snow stratigraphy was rather homogenous at the harvested plot. As expected, layering at the non-forested plot varied only slightly over the small spatial extent sampled. At the open and harvested plots, persistent crusts and ice lenses were clearly present in the snowpack, while such hard layers barely occurred beneath undisturbed and disturbed canopies. Due to settling, hardness significantly increased with depth at

  2. Indigenous Knowledge and Sea Ice Science: What Can We Learn from Indigenous Ice Users?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eicken, H.

    2010-12-01

    Drawing on examples mostly from Iñupiaq and Yup’ik sea-ice expertise in coastal Alaska, this contribution examines how local, indigenous knowledge (LIK) can inform and guide geophysical and biological sea-ice research. Part of the relevance of LIK derives from its linkage to sea-ice use and the services coastal communities derive from the ice cover. As a result, indigenous experts keep track of a broad range of sea-ice variables at a particular location. These observations are embedded into a broader worldview that speaks to both long-term variability or change and to the system of values associated with ice use. The contribution examines eight different contexts in which LIK in study site selection and assessment of a sampling campaign in the context of inter annual variability, the identification of rare or inconspicuous phenomena or events, the contribution by indigenous experts to hazard assessment and emergency response, the record of past and present climate embedded in LIK, and the value of holistic sea-ice knowledge in detecting subtle, intertwined patterns of environmental change. The relevance of local, indigenous sea-ice expertise in helping advance adaptation and responses to climate change as well as its potential role in guiding research questions and hypotheses are also examined. The challenges that may have to be overcome in creating an interface for exchange between indigenous experts and seaice researchers are considered. Promising approaches to overcome these challenges include cross-cultural, interdisciplinary education, and the fostering of Communities of Practice.

  3. Indigenous Young People Transitioning from Out-of-Home Care (OOHC in Victoria, Australia: The Perspectives of Workers in Indigenous-Specific and Non-Indigenous Non-Government Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Mendes

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous children and young people are overrepresented in the Australian out-of-home care (OOHC system. To date, specific research has not been undertaken on workers' perspectives regarding the Indigenous-specific and non-Indigenous supports and services available to Indigenous young people exiting the system. This exploratory research involved focus group consultations with workers from seven child and family welfare agencies to examine the current support services available to Indigenous young people who are in or will be leaving out-of-home care in the State of Victoria. Findings suggest that Aboriginal Community Controlled Organisations (ACCOs play a positive role in working with non-Indigenous agencies to assist Indigenous care leavers. Participants identified some key strategies to improve outcomes, such as facilitating stronger relationships between Indigenous and non-Indigenous services, and improving the resourcing of ACCOs.

  4. Status of Indigenous Chicken Farming in Dhemaji District of Assam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey was conducted in Dhemaji district of Assam, India comprising 15 villages and 300 households. Both purposive and random sampling methods were used to evaluate the socio-economic status of the farmers involved in rearing of indigenous chicken, systems of management of indigenous chicken, their ...

  5. Matching Linguistic Training with Individual Indigenous Community's Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffery, Jo

    2016-01-01

    Australia is rapidly losing its Indigenous multicultural and multilingual identity. This vast continent has lost 90 per cent of its Indigenous languages and cultures, without adequate documentation, and risks losing the rest by 2050 if action is not taken. There are formal, accredited linguistics courses designed specifically for Indigenous…

  6. Uranium mining and indigenous social impact issues - Kakadu Region, Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wellings, P.

    2002-01-01

    This paper reports on indigenous social impact issues in the Kakadu/Alligators Rivers region of Australia. It briefly outlines the social history of the region, reflects on local, national and international attention being given to the impact of regional development on local indigenous (bininj) people, notes how social impact issues are being addressed and suggests some lessons learnt. (author)

  7. Indigenous Knowledge and Implications for the Sustainable Development Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magni, Giorgia

    2017-01-01

    With the adoption of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, the international community committed to address a great number of challenges. Among those emphasised by the SDGs, some are highly relevant for indigenous groups. Education, poverty, access to justice and climate change are only a few of the issues affecting indigenous people's…

  8. The Case for Indigenous Knowledge in Sustainable Development

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    conservation rather than exploitation. On this note, Ajibade .... money carelessly at the problems of local small holder agricultural farmers, it is pertinent to ... establishing the basis for the utility of indigenous knowledge in agricultural .... so that indigenous capabilities play only a marginal role in effecting technical change.

  9. Towards an indigenous African bioethics | Behrens | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One way is for African bioethicists to begin to apply indigenous African philosophy, thought and values to ethical issues. This project is important (i) to restore dignity; (ii) because a bioethics grounded in indigenous ideas is more likely to be accepted by Africans; and (iii) because such ideas can enrich bioethical discourse.

  10. Alternative Education Engaging Indigenous Young People: Flexi Schooling in Queensland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shay, Marnee; Heck, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    This article will discuss some of the findings from a qualitative research project that explored the connections between alternative education and Indigenous learners. This study investigated how flexi school leaders reported they were supporting Indigenous young people to remain engaged in education. The results of the survey provide demographic…

  11. Adult Education and Indigenous Peoples in Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmelkes, Sylvia

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the educational situation of indigenous peoples in Latin America, and in particular their scant participation in adult education activities. It analyses the historical, structural and institutional barriers to their greater involvement in adult education. The article proposes to look at indigenous demands on education as a…

  12. Extractive Industries and Indigenous Peoples: A Changing Dynamic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Faircheallaigh, Ciaran

    2013-01-01

    Indigenous peoples and other rural or remote populations often bear the social and environmental cost of extractive industries while obtaining little of the wealth they generate. Recent developments including national and international recognition of Indigenous rights, and the growth of "corporate social responsibility" initiatives among…

  13. Conversations on Indigenous Education, Progress, and Social Justice in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huaman, Elizabeth Alva Sumida

    2013-01-01

    This article attempts to contribute to our expanding definitions of Indigenous education within a globalized world. Additionally, the article critiques notions of progress modeled by powerful nation-states due to their histories based on the intended consequences of marginalizing Indigenous populations for the purposes of material gain. Last,…

  14. Using Indigenous Knowledge in Traditional Agricultural Systems for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article discusses the role of indigenous knowledge in traditional agriculture and its potential in contributing to food security, poverty and hunger eradication, and increased employment in South Africa. It is noted that indigenous knowledge can inform rural agricultural production, storage, processing, marketing, and food

  15. Utilising PEARL to Teach Indigenous Art History: A Canadian Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Carmen

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the concepts advanced from the Australian Learning and Teaching Council (ALTC)-funded project, "Exploring Problem-Based Learning pedagogy as transformative education in Indigenous Australian Studies". As an Indigenous art historian teaching at a mainstream university in Canada, I am constantly reflecting on how to…

  16. Indigenous Knowledge and Education: Sites of Struggle, Strength, and Survivance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villegas, Malia, Ed.; Neugebauer, Sabina Rak, Ed.; Venegas, Kerry R., Ed.

    2008-01-01

    This book brings together essays that explore Indigenous ways of knowing and that consider how such knowledge can inform educational practices and institutions. Indigenous Knowledge is resiliently local in character and thus poses a distinct contrast to the international, more impersonal system of knowledge prevalent in Western educational…

  17. Mobile technologies for preservation of indigenous knowledge in rural communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winschiers-Theophilus, Heike; Rodil, Kasper; Zaman, Tariq

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we explore the opportunities of mobile technologies in three of our own development endeavors with rural communities, promoting the preservation of indigenous knowledge. We reflect upon and recognize the fact that the representation of indigenous knowledge will be transformed within...

  18. For a Sustainable Future: Indigenous Transborder Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quijada, Adrian; Cassadore, Edison; Perry, Gaye Bumsted; Geronimo, Ronald; Lund, Kimberley; Miguel, Phillip; Montes-Helu, Mario; Newberry, Teresa; Robertson, Paul; Thornbrugh, Casey

    2015-01-01

    The U.S.-Mexico border region of the Sonoran Desert is home to 30 Native nations in the United States, and about 15 Indigenous communities in Mexico. Imposed on Indigenous peoples' ancestral lands, the border is an artificial line created in 1848, following the war between the U.S. and Mexico. Tohono O'odham Community College (TOCC) seeks to…

  19. Presidential Address: Education and Indigenous Slavery in New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallegos, Bernardo P.

    2016-01-01

    Indigenous slavery was a critical aspect of New Mexican life and culture during the Spanish, Mexican, and early American (Territorial) periods. Aside from the labor and military support provided by indigenous slaves for the expansion of the province, the genetic contribution to the population growth was enormous. Ramón Gutiérrez (1991) speculates…

  20. Climate Change and the Health of Indigenous Communities | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Indigenous people are among the most directly affected by climate change. Yet, there is limited understanding of the health dimensions of climate change and opportunities for adaptation among indigenous populations. Researchers have tended to focus on other vulnerable regions or on populations as a whole.

  1. Incorporating the indigenous game of morabaraba in the learning of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This may well have contributed to the high failure rate amongst mathematics learners as well as the perceived difficulty of mathematics. It is believed that indigenous knowledge, in general, can be used to promote the teaching of mathematics in multicultural classes. We report on an enquiry into the use of the indigenous ...

  2. Potential Factors Influencing Indigenous Education Participation and Achievement. Research Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biddle, Nicholas; Cameron, Timothy

    2012-01-01

    This report examines two sets of issues, the first being whether Indigenous Australians obtain a lower return on investment in education and training than other Australians. If they do, then this would partly explain why, in general, Indigenous participation in education and training is relatively low. The second issue is whether Indigenous…

  3. Genetic and nutrition development of indigenous chicken in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khobondo, J O; Muasya, T K; Miyumo, S

    2015-01-01

    This review gives insights into genetic and feeding regime development for indigenous chicken genetic resources. We highlight and combine confirming evidence of genetic diversity and variability using morphological and molecular techniques. We further discuss previous past and current genetic...... requirement for indigenous chicken and report nutritive contents of various local feedstuffs under various production systems. Various conservation strategies for sustainable utilization are hereby reviewed...

  4. Documenting and validating the indigenous knowledge on the use ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article is based on research that focussed on the documentation and the validation of indigenous knowledge on the use of the Dwarf Sage plant in Namibia. The purpose of the study was four-fold: (a) to conduct a systematic recording of the body of indigenous knowledge of the Dwarf Sage; (b) to record and document ...

  5. Awareness of climate change and indigenous coping strategies of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study assessed the awareness and indigenous coping mechanism employed by women crop farmers to cope with climate change in Kogi State, Nigeria. Respondents' socioeconomic characteristic, level of awareness about climate change, and indigenous coping strategies to climate change as well as activities of ...

  6. Phytochemical Analysis of Some Indigenous Plants Potent Against Endoparasite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant Yadav

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available A study has been done with indigenous plants to explore their phytochemcial constituents. About 7 indigenous plants collected from Agra–Mathura Region. The collected plants under gone extraction followed by evaporation. The prepared plant extract goes through phytochemical investigation to explore active constituents which are very significant drug development.

  7. Integrating Indigenous Knowledge in Climate Risk Management in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    27 mars 2008 ... Integrating Indigenous Knowledge in Climate Risk Management in support of Community Based Adaptation. Traditionally, African farmers have used indigenous knowledge to understand weather and climate patterns and make decisions about crop and irrigation cycles. However, increased variability ...

  8. Effective Practices in Teaching Indigenous Students with Conductive Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partington, Gary; Galloway, Ann

    2005-01-01

    Hearing impairment due to conductive hearing loss can have a devastating effect on children's language development, and consequently educational outcomes, especially for Indigenous students, for whom there may be the additional issue of being educated in their second or third language. With appropriate interventions, however, Indigenous students…

  9. Indilinga: African Journal of Indigenous Knowledge Systems - Vol 3 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ENSHRINING INDIGENOUS KNOWLEDGE AS A PUBLIC GOOD: INDIGENOUS EDUCATION AND THE MAORI SENSE OF PLACE · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Michael E. Jones, Joshua Hunter, 103-111. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/indilinga.v3i2.26358 ...

  10. Maori University Graduates: Indigenous Participation in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodore, Reremoana; Tustin, Karen; Kiro, Cynthia; Gollop, Megan; Taumoepeau, Mele; Taylor, Nicola; Chee, Kaa-Sandra; Hunter, Jackie; Poulton, Richie

    2016-01-01

    Maori, the indigenous population of New Zealand, are gaining university qualifications in greater numbers. This article describes the history of Maori university graduates, their current situation and the implications for indigenous futures. Section one provides a brief overview of historical policies and practices that, similar to those used on…

  11. The consumption of indigenous fruits and vegetables and health risk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Indigenous foods contain phytochemicals that are linked to protection against the development of diseases such as cancer, diabetes and hypertension. Some of these indigenous foods have been chemically analysed and contain active compounds such as organic sulphur, hypoglycaemic alkaloids, flavonoids, phytosterin ...

  12. An assessment of the relationship between indigenous information ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the relationship between indigenous information channels and rural communication development in Okuku community in Nigeria. It sought to find out the extent to which indigenous information channels correlate to rural community development. The research design is a correlation survey. A total of ...

  13. Implications of land rights reform for Indigenous health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Nicole L

    2007-05-21

    In August 2006, the Aboriginal Land Rights (Northern Territory) Amendment Bill 2006 (Cwlth) was passed into law, introducing, among other things, a system of 99-year leases over Indigenous townships. The leasing scheme will diminish the control that traditional owners previously exercised over their lands. This is at odds with research indicating that control over land is a positive influence on Indigenous health.

  14. Indigenous Language Revitalization, Promotion, and Education: Function of Digital Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galla, Candace Kaleimamoowahinekapu

    2016-01-01

    Within the last two decades, there has been increased interest in how technology supports Indigenous language revitalization and reclamation efforts. This paper considers the effect technology has on Indigenous language learning and teaching, while conceptualizing how language educators, speakers, learners, and technology users holistically…

  15. Sex identification of Nigerian indigenous chicks using Auto-sexing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sexing has been a challenging task in Nigerian indigenous chickens due to the monomorphism of chicks which makes it impossible to distinguish the male from the female until eight weeks. . Therefore, this study was carried out to determine the sex of Nigerian indigenous chicks using the common auto-sexing methods.

  16. Gender issues in urban indigenous communities in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper therefore attempts to examine gender issues in five indigenous communities in Port Harcourt. The communities are: Abuloma, Oroazi, Rumuadaolu, Elekahia and Ogbuna-abali. The key questions explored in the study are: how are urban indigenous women been marginalized in the process of urban growth and ...

  17. Effect of ascorbic acid supplementation level to diets of indigenous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    All the birds were offered the same grower feed and fresh water ad libitum. Indigenous Venda hens supplemented with ascorbic acid produced chicks with improved (P<0.05) feed intake, feed conversion ratio, growth rate and live weight at 7 weeks of age. However, ascorbic acid supplementation to the diets of indigenous ...

  18. Indigenous Teachers and Learners: Higher Education and Social Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumida Huaman, Elizabeth; Abeita, Shawn

    2018-01-01

    Reflecting on our experiences within a program of graduate education in Justice Studies, we offer a discussion of how building and maintaining an iterative teacher-learner stance results in strengthening practices of Indigenous education toward social justice. Through this reflection, we discuss the tenets in Indigenous higher education practices…

  19. Indigenous Environmental Education: The Case of Renewable Energy Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowan-Trudeau, Gregory

    2017-01-01

    This article presents insights from an inquiry into renewable energy development by Indigenous communities across Canada. The focus is on Indigenous leadership in developing renewable energy projects that align with traditional ecological philosophies while also providing increased economic and energy security, sovereignty, and educational…

  20. 168 Indigenous Language Implementation and Nation Building: The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of Nigerian indigenous language implementation and use in the ... Nigeria, it will become obvious that language is central to ... major indigenous languages. .... personality and thought pattern would be given as credit to the ... (13) The purpose of pre-primary education shall be to: .... Ado-Ekiti and sampled the five of them.