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Sample records for undissociated acid concentration

  1. A comparison of three pH control methods for revealing effects of undissociated butyric acid on specific butanol production rate in batch fermentation of Clostridium acetobutylicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xuepeng; Tu, Maobing; Xie, Rui; Adhikari, Sushil; Tong, Zhaohui

    2013-01-07

    pH control has been essential for butanol production with Clostridium acetobutylicum. However, it is not very clear at what pH level the acid crash will occur, at what pH level butanol production will be dominant, and at what pH level butyric acid production will be prevailing. Furthermore, contradictory results have been reported about required acidic conditions for initiation of solventogenesis. In this study, with the aim of further understanding the role of undissociated butyric acid in butanol production, we investigated the correlation between undissociated butyric acid concentration and specific butanol production rate in batch fermentation of Clostridium acetobutylicum by comparing three pH control approaches: NaOH neutralization (at 12, 24 or 36 h), CaCO3 supplementation (2, 5, or 8 g/l) and NaOAc buffering (pH 4.6, 5.0 or 5.6). By neutralizing the fermentation pH to ~5.0 at different time, we observed that neutralization should take place at the beginning of exponential phase (12 h), and otherwise resulting in lower concentrations of undissociated butyric acid, cell biomass and final butanol. CaCO3 supplementation extended cell growth to 36 h and resulted in higher butyrate yield under 8 g/L of CaCO3. In the NaOAc buffering, the highest specific butanol rate (0.58 h-1) was associated with the highest undissociated butyric acid (1.92 g/L). The linear correlation of the undissociated butyric acid with the specific butanol production rates suggested the undissociated butyric acid could be the major driving force for butanol production.

  2. Factors that inhibit growth of Listeria monocytogenes in nature-ripened Gouda cheese: A major role for undissociated lactic acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wemmenhove, E.; Valenberg, van H.J.F.; Hooijdonk, van A.C.M.; Wells-Bennik, M.H.J.; Zwietering, M.H.

    2018-01-01

    In this study, factors relevant to nature-ripened Gouda cheese were evaluated for their potential to inhibit growth of Listeria monocytogenes. Factors included water activity, pH, undissociated acetic and lactic acid, diacetyl, free fatty acids, lactoferrin, nitrate, nitrite and nisin. In addition,

  3. A comparison of three pH control methods for revealing effects of undissociated butyric acid on specific butanol production rate in batch fermentation of Clostridium acetobutylicum

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Xuepeng; Tu, Maobing; Xie, Rui; Adhikari, Sushil; Tong, Zhaohui

    2013-01-01

    pH control has been essential for butanol production with Clostridium acetobutylicum. However, it is not very clear at what pH level the acid crash will occur, at what pH level butanol production will be dominant, and at what pH level butyric acid production will be prevailing. Furthermore, contradictory results have been reported about required acidic conditions for initiation of solventogenesis. In this study, with the aim of further understanding the role of undissociated butyric acid in b...

  4. Boric acid concentration monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kysela, J.; Mickal, V.; Racek, J.

    1978-01-01

    Boric acid concentration was measured by thermal neutron absorption in the study of the boric acid sorption and desorption curves on an anion exchange resin. Ra-Be 18.5 GBq and Am-Be 111 GBq sources and water as a moderator were used. The SNM 12 cylindrical corona detector with 10 B placed in the middle of the measuring cell was used for neutron flux measurement. The HP 9600 E computer system was used for measured data collection and evaluation. (Ha)

  5. Individual cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Zygosaccharomyces bailii exhibit different short-term intracellular pH responses to acetic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arneborg, N; Jespersen, L; Jakobsen, M

    2000-01-01

    The effects of perfusion with 2.7 and 26 mM undissociated acetic acid in the absence or presence of glucose on short-term intracellular pH (pH(i)) changes in individual Saccharormyces cerevisiae and Zygosaccharomyces bailii cells were studied using fluorescence-ratio-imaging microscopy and a perfusion system. In the S. cerevisiae cells, perfusion with acetic acid induced strong short-term pH(i) responses, which were dependent on the undissociated acetic acid concentration and the presence of glucose in the perfusion solutions. In the Z. bailii cells, perfusion with acetic acid induced only very weak short-term pH(i) responses, which were neither dependent on the undissociated acetic acid concentration nor on the presence of glucose in the perfusion solutions. These results clearly show that Z. bailii is more resistant than S. cerevisiae to short-term pH(i) changes caused by acetic acid.

  6. Microculture model studies on the effect of sorbic acid on Penicillium chrysogenum, Cladosporium cladosporioides and Ulocladium atrum at different pH levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skirdal, I M; Eklund, T

    1993-02-01

    The minimum growth-inhibitory concentration of sorbic acid has been determined for Penicillium chrysogenum, Cladosporium cladosporioides and Ulocladium atrum at pH 4.1-7.6 by using a microculture technique. This technique had earlier been applied to bacteria and Candida albicans and gave very reliable minimum inhibitory values. This investigation has shown that it is suitable also for determination of mould growth. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of sorbic acid were at the tested pH levels 1-230 mmol l-1 for P. chrysogenum, 0.3-18.0 mmol l-1 for C. cladosporioides and 0.2-33.0 mmol l-1 for U. atrum. A mathematical model for combined inhibition by dissociated and undissociated acid, which gave a good description of the minimum inhibitory concentration data earlier obtained for bacteria and Candida albicans, was suitable also for moulds. Both dissociated and undissociated acid contributed to growth inhibition.

  7. Hyaluronic acid concentration in liver diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudowska, Monika; Gruszewska, Ewa; Panasiuk, Anatol; Cylwik, Bogdan; Flisiak, Robert; Świderska, Magdalena; Szmitkowski, Maciej; Chrostek, Lech

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of liver diseases of different etiologies and clinical severity of liver cirrhosis on the serum level of hyaluronic acid. The results were compared with noninvasive markers of liver fibrosis: APRI, GAPRI, HAPRI, FIB-4 and Forn's index. Serum samples were obtained from 20 healthy volunteers and patients suffering from alcoholic cirrhosis (AC)-57 patients, non-alcoholic cirrhosis (NAC)-30 and toxic hepatitis (HT)-22. Cirrhotic patients were classified according to Child-Pugh score. Hyaluronic acid concentration was measured by the immunochemical method. Non-patented indicators were calculated using special formulas. The mean serum hyaluronic acid concentration was significantly higher in AC, NAC and HT group in comparison with the control group. There were significant differences in the serum hyaluronic acid levels between liver diseases, and in AC they were significantly higher than those in NAC and HT group. The serum hyaluronic acid level differs significantly due to the severity of cirrhosis and was the highest in Child-Pugh class C. The sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive and negative predictive values and the area under the ROC curve for hyaluronic acid and all non-patented algorithms were high and similar to each other. We conclude that the concentration of hyaluronic acid changes in liver diseases and is affected by the severity of liver cirrhosis. Serum hyaluronic acid should be considered as a good marker for noninvasive diagnosis of liver damage, but the combination of markers is more useful.

  8. Plasma Ascorbic Acid Concentration and some Haematological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: To determine the plasma ascorbic acid concentration, haematocrit, reticulocyte count and blood cell morphology in homozygous sickle cell disease in Enugu metropolis. Materals and Methods: Forty known sickle cell anaemia patients (HbSS) and ten non-sicklers (HbAA) were used as tests and controls respectively.

  9. Gastric Acid Secretion, Mucus Concentration and Ulceration ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of consumption (ingestion) of Cannabis sativa on the gastrointestinal tract using mucus concentration, acid secretion and ulceration in animal (rats) model as indices. Three groups of six (6) rats each were used. The control group were fed on rat chow only while another group ...

  10. [Plasma amino acid concentrations in aggressive dogs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhr, Norbert-Christian; Brand, Ulrike; Riedel, Eberhard

    2005-01-01

    Following the hypothesis that metabolic screens may be useful tools in the diagnosis of canine aggression we have investigated the blood plasma amino acid levels of dogs which have been found aggressive (N = 10) against dogs or men in comparison to non-aggressive dogs (N = 10). In summary, the aggressive dogs showed elevated plasma concentrations of the neurophysiological active aromatic amino acids tryptophan (46/171 micromol/l, p urea-cycle in the conversion of ornithine (17/34 micromol/l, p < 0.01) to citrulline (64/47 micromol/l). Higher levels of branched chain amino acids, especially leucine (122/150 micromol/l, p < 0.01), mainly metabolized in muscles, and isoleucin (60/71 micromol/l, p < 0.05) show a high energy potential. The acidose-stimulator methionine (48/78 micromol/l, p < 0.01) proved elevated. The results show that the changed behavior in the aggressive dogs is also reflected in their free amino acid plasma concentrations, independent of the question whether these data are the cause or the result of the aggressivity.

  11. NORMAL FATTY ACID CONCENTRATIONS IN YOUNG CHILDREN WITH PHENYLKETONURIA (PKU).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavoie, Stacey M; Harding, Cary O; Gillingham, Melanie B

    2009-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if children with phenylketonuria (PKU) have lower fatty acid concentrations in total erythrocyte lipid due to the phenylalanine restricted diet therapy compared to healthy control subjects. Dietary intake and fatty acid concentrations in total erythrocyte lipid were measured in twenty-one subjects (PKU and twenty-three control children. Subjects with PKU had significantly lower protein and significantly higher polyunsaturated fat intake compared to controls. Subjects with PKU had significantly lower concentrations in total erythrocyte lipid of the sum of the omega-3,omega-6, saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Concentrations of fatty acids among subjects with PKU were lower than control subjects but no subject with PKU exhibited any signs or symptoms suggestive of essential fatty acid deficiency, thereby suggesting that subjects with PKU in this cohort have normal and adequate essential fatty acid concentrations in total erythrocyte lipid.

  12. Unstructured Models for Lactic Acid Fermentation – A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdallah Bouguettoucha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available To describe a microbial process, two kinds of models can be developed, structured and unstructured models. Contrary to structured models, which take into account some basic aspects of cell structure, their function and composition, no physiological characterization of cells is considered in unstructured models, which only consider total cellular concentration. However, in spite of their simplicity, unstructured models have proven to accurately describe lactic acid fermentation in a wide range of experimental conditions and media. A partial link between cell growth and production, namely the Luedeking and Piret model, is mostly considered by the authors. Culture pH is the main parameter to be considered for model development. Acidic pH leads to inhibitory concentrations of undissociated lactic acid, the main inhibitory component, which causes cessation of growth and then production. On the other hand, pH control at optimal value for LAB growth allows to overcome product inhibition (by the total lactic acid produced or its undissociated part; hence nutritional limitations have to be considered for model development. Nitrogen is mainly involved in cessation of growth, owing to the fastidious nutritional requirements of LAB, while lactic acid production ceased when carbon was exhausted from the medium. The lack of substrate inhibition when usual concentrations of carbon substrate are used should be noted.

  13. THE ACTIVATION OF STARFISH EGGS BY ACIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillie, Ralph S.

    1926-01-01

    1. Exposure of unfertilized starfish eggs to dilute solutions of weak acids (fatty acids, benzoic and carbonic acids) in isotonic balanced salt solution causes complete activation with the proper durations of exposure. For each acid the rate of activation (reciprocal of optimum duration) varies with concentration and temperature; at a given temperature and within a considerable range of concentrations (e.g. 0.00075 to 0.004 M for butyric acid), this rate is approximately proportional to concentration. We may thus speak of a molecular rate of action characteristic of each acid. 2. In general the molecular rate of action increases with the dissociation constant and surface activity of the acids. In the fatty acid series (up to caproic), formic acid has the most rapid effect, acting about four times as rapidly as acetic; for the other acids the order is: acetic = propionic ≦ butyric Carbonic acid acts qualitatively like the fatty acids, but its molecular rate of action is only about one-fourteenth that of acetic acid. 3. Hydrochloric and lactic acids are relatively ineffective as activating agents, apparently because of difficulty of penetration. Lactic acid is decidedly the more effective. The action of both acids is only slightly modified by dissolving in pure (isotonic NaCl and CaCl2) instead of in balanced salt solution. 4. The rate of action of acetic acid, in concentrations of 0.002 M to 0.004 M is increased (by 10 to 20 per cent) by adding Na-acetate (0.002 to 0.016) to the solution. The degree of acceleration is closely proportional to the estimated increase in undissociated acetic acid molecules. Activation thus appears to be an effect of the undissociated acid molecules in the external solution and not of the ions. Acetate anions and H ions acting by themselves, in concentrations much higher than those of the solutions used, have no activating effect. The indications are that the undissociated molecules penetrate rapidly, the ions slowly. Having penetrated

  14. The effect of lamotrigine on valproic acid concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Andrew C; Besag, Frank M C; Berry, David J; Besag, Frank P

    2011-02-01

    To determine whether lamotrigine affects serum concentrations of valproic acid. Pre-morning-dose serum valproic acid concentrations were measured in 76 subjects with epilepsy (48 M, 28 F, age range 6-20 years, mean age 14 years) in whom lamotrigine was added while the dose of valproate and other medication remained unchanged. In a comparison group, either acetazolamide or gabapentin was added to sodium valproate. Far more subjects (26/76 = 34%) had an increase of >25% in valproic acid concentration with lamotrigine than those who had a decrease of >25% (4/76 = 5.3%). The mean valproic acid concentration before starting lamotrigine was 61.0 mg/L and on lamotrigine was 67.1 mg/L; the difference in means was 6.1 mg/L (standard error 2.1, 95% confidence limits 2.0, 10.2, p=0.004, highly significant, paired sample t-test, two-tailed), a rise of 10%. The change in valproic acid concentration appeared to depend on the initial valproic acid concentration (Pearson r=-0.405, pvalproate concentration was >50%, which could lead to toxicity, although the increase tended to occur with lower or intermediate initial valproic acid concentrations whereas a small overall decrease in valproic acid concentrations with lamotrigine was found with the higher initial valproic acid concentrations. One subject had abnormal bruising with the increased valproate level after lamotrigine was added, which resolved on decreasing the valproate dose. The changes in valproic acid concentrations in the comparison group were small (mean increase 2.6%) and were not statistically significant. Although there is a wide variation in the changes of valproic acid concentrations when lamotrigine is added, the concentrations tend to increase rather than decrease, especially with low or intermediate initial valproic acid concentrations. In some cases valproate toxicity, manifested by abnormal bruising, may result, although at higher initial valproic acid concentrations the valproic acid concentration usually

  15. Effect of acid and alkaline hydrolysis on the concentrations of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thevetia peruviana seeds cake were defatted and then treated with varying concentrations each of hydrochloric acid, sodium hydroxide and calcium hydroxide solutions. Each product of hydrolysis was extracted with chloroform to isolate aglycones, the toxins of the seed. Various concentrations of hydrochloric acid and ...

  16. Retention of Ascorbic Acid and Solid Concentration via Centrifugal Freeze Concentration of Orange Juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Orellana-Palma

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Freeze concentration of liquid foods produces high-quality concentrates while retaining the heat-labile compounds found in fresh samples. Centrifugal freeze concentration is a cryoconcentration method assisted by an external force, centrifugation, to enhance the separation of concentrate from the ice. When applying centrifugal freeze concentration to orange juice, after the third cryoconcentration cycle, the ascorbic acid content in the concentrate showed retention close to 70% of the initial value. After the third cycle, the solutes in the concentrate increased 4 times the initial value of the fresh sample with 70% efficiency. The color evaluation showed that the final concentrated fraction was darker than the fresh juice. The centrifugal freeze concentration in orange juice was effective for obtaining a high-quality concentrate with a higher concentration of solids and ascorbic acid retention.

  17. ORGANIC ACIDS CONCENTRATION IN WINE STOCKS AFTER Saccharomyces cerevisiae FERMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Bayraktar

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The biochemical constituents in wine stocks that influence the flavor and quality of wine are investigated in the paper. The tested parameters consist of volume fraction of ethanol, residual sugar, phenolic compounds, tartaric, malic, citric, lactic, acetic acids, titratable acidity and volatile acids. The wine stocks that were received from white and red grape varieties Tairov`s selection were tested. There was a correlation between titratable acidity and volatile acids in the wine stocks from white and red grape varieties. High correlation was also found between lactic and acetic acids, between volatile acids, acetic acid and sugar. It was determined that wine stocks with a high concentration of ethanol originated from those yeast strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, in a fermented grape must of high speed of enzyme activity. The taste of wine stocks correlated with the ratio of tartaric to malic acid. Analysis showed significant differences between the varieties of white and red wine stocks in concentrations of organic acids, phenolic compounds, residual sugar, and volume fraction of ethanol. Positive correlation was indicated for both studied groups for volatile acids and acetic acid, tartaric, malic, lactic acids and total sugar. Prospective yeast cultures with high productivity of alcohol (ethanol were selected for winemaking biotechnology.

  18. Plasma Concentration of Ascorbic Acid and Some Hematological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hanumantp

    acid, which is a vital antioxidant, and blood cell production or morphology may be affected. Objective: To investigate the ... not adversely affect plasma ascorbic acid concentration and hematological parameters in adult humans. The study, however .... peroxidase/H202 halide system in vitro and in vivo. Am J Clin. Nutr 1995 ...

  19. Effect of propionic acid on citric acid fermentation in an integrated citric acid-methane fermentation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jian; Bao, Jia-Wei; Su, Xian-Feng; Zhang, Hong-Jian; Zeng, Xin; Tang, Lei; Wang, Ke; Zhang, Jian-Hua; Chen, Xu-Sheng; Mao, Zhong-Gui

    2016-03-01

    In this study, an integrated citric acid-methane fermentation process was established to solve the problem of wastewater treatment in citric acid production. Citric acid wastewater was treated through anaerobic digestion and then the anaerobic digestion effluent (ADE) was further treated and recycled for the next batch citric acid fermentation. This process could eliminate wastewater discharge and reduce water resource consumption. Propionic acid was found in the ADE and its concentration continually increased in recycling. Effect of propionic acid on citric acid fermentation was investigated, and results indicated that influence of propionic acid on citric acid fermentation was contributed to the undissociated form. Citric acid fermentation was inhibited when the concentration of propionic acid was above 2, 4, and 6 mM in initial pH 4.0, 4.5 and, 5.0, respectively. However, low concentration of propionic acid could promote isomaltase activity which converted more isomaltose to available sugar, thereby increasing citric acid production. High concentration of propionic acid could influence the vitality of cell and prolong the lag phase, causing large amount of glucose still remaining in medium at the end of fermentation and decreasing citric acid production.

  20. Dissociation of strong acid revisited: X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and molecular dynamics simulations of HNO3 in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, Tanza; Winter, Berndt; Stern, Abraham C.; Baer, Marcel D.; Mundy, Christopher J.; Tobias, Douglas J.; Hemminger, J. C.

    2011-08-04

    Molecular-level insight into the dissociation of nitric acid in water is obtained from photoelectron X-ray spectroscopy and first-principles molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Our combined studies reveal surprisingly abrupt changes in solvation configurations of undissociated nitric acid at approximately 4 M concentration. Experimentally, this is inferred from N1s binding energy shifts of HNO3(aq) as a function of concentration, and is associated with variations in the local electronic structure of the nitrogen atom. It also shows up as a discontinuity in the degree of dissociation as a function of concentration, determined here from the N1s photoelectron signal intensity, which can be separately quantified for undissociated HNO3(aq) and dissociated NO3-(aq). Intermolecular interactions within the nitric acid solution are discussed on the basis of MD simulations, which reveal that molecular HNO3 interacts remarkably weakly with solvating water molecules at low concentration; around 4 M there is a turnover to a more structured solvation shell, accompanied by an increase in hydrogen bonding between HNO3 and water. We suggest that the driving force behind the more structured solvent configuration of HNO3 is the overlap of nitric acid solvent shells that sets in around 4 M concentration. This work was supported by the US Department of Energy Basic Energy Sciences' Chemical Sciences, Geosciences & Biosciences Division. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the US Department of Energy.

  1. Concentration-Purification of Uranium from an Acid Leaching Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guettaf, H.; Becis, A.; Ferhat, K.; Hanou, K.; Bouchiha, D.; Yakoubi, K.; Ferrad, F.

    2009-11-01

    Chemical processes for the elaboration of uranium concentrate from uranium ore have been studied. This process is composed of successive units operations: crushing, milling, acid conventional leaching, filtration-washing, purification-concentration by ion exchange resins and uranium precipitation. The acid leaching operating conditions allow us to obtain a recovery uranium rate of 93%. The uranium concentration of the pregnant solution is approximately of 1.2 g/l. This value justifies the use of ion exchange resins to the concentration-purification of our pregnant solution. We have noticed that the pregnant solution contains a relatively high phosphate concentration which causes a premature uranium precipitation at pH=1.8. This pH value is in general, considered optimal to obtain the highest amount of fixed uranium by the anionic resin. To avoid the precipitation of uranium, the pH=1.5 has been fixed. We have obtained at this condition a good adsorption capacity. A 75% uranium concentrate have been elaborated, but the filtration of this concentrate has been very difficult. We have also noticed an excessive sulphate concentration. In order to improve this process, we have tested nitrates as eluant at different operating conditions.

  2. gastric acid secretion, mucus concentration and ulceration following ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physiology

    This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of consumption (ingestion) of Cannabis sativa on the gastrointestinal tract using mucus concentration, acid secretion and ulceration in animal (rats) model as indices. Three groups of six (6) rats each were used. The control group were fed on rat chow only while another group ...

  3. Fully automated concentration control of the acidic texturisation process

    OpenAIRE

    Dannenberg, T.; Zimmer, M.; Rentsch, J.

    2012-01-01

    To enable a concentration control in the acidic texturing process we have closed the feedback loop from analytical data to the dosing mechanism of the used process tool. In order to analyze the process bath we used near-infrared spectroscopy in an online setup as well as ion chromatography as an inline method in a second approach. Using the developed dosing algorithm allows a concentration optimization of HF and HNO3 in dependence of the Si concentrations. This allows a further optimization o...

  4. Effect of Volatile Fatty Acids and Trimethylamine on Denitrification in Activated Sludge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eilersen, Ann Marie; Henze, Mogens; Kløft, Lene

    1995-01-01

    with the strongest effect, n-butyric acid has a moderate effect, while TMA only have a small effect in stimulating the rates. Propionic, isobutyric, n-valeric, isovaleric and caproic acid inhibit denitrification, nitrate reduction being more inhibited than nitrite reduction. The inhibitor concentration, KI, at which...... mM for isovaleric and 105 mM for caproic acid. KI values for nitrite reduction were found to be 196 mM for propionic, 32 mM for isobutyric, 57 mM for n-valeric, 18 mM for isovaleric and 110 mM for caproic acid. Inhibition of the rate of hydrolysis could not be determined. Anaerobically treated....... For propionic acid it could not be assessed whether the degree of inhibition were determined by the undissociated or the total concentration of the inhibitor....

  5. CaCO3supplementation alleviates the inhibition of formic acid on acetone/butanol/ethanol fermentation by Clostridium acetobutylicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Gaoxiang; Xiong, Lian; Lin, Xiaoqing; Huang, Chao; Li, Hailong; Chen, Xuefang; Chen, Xinde

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the inhibiting effect of formic acid on acetone/butanol/ethanol (ABE) fermentation and explain the mechanism of the alleviation in the inhibiting effect under CaCO 3 supplementation condition. From the medium containing 50 g sugars l -1 and 0.5 g formic acid l -1 , only 0.75 g ABE l -1 was produced when pH was adjusted by KOH and fermentation ended prematurely before the transformation from acidogenesis to solventogenesis. In contrast, 11.4 g ABE l -1 was produced when pH was adjusted by 4 g CaCO 3 l -1 . The beneficial effect can be ascribed to the buffering capacity of CaCO 3 . Comparative analysis results showed that the undissociated formic acid concentration and acid production coupled with ATP and NADH was affected by the pH buffering capacity of CaCO 3 . Four millimole undissociated formic acid was the threshold at which the transformation to solventogenesis occurred. The inhibiting effect of formic acid on ABE fermentation can be alleviated by CaCO 3 supplementation due to its buffering capacity.

  6. Effect of Hydrochloric Acid Concentration on the Conversion of Sugarcane Bagasse to Levulinic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anggorowati, Heni; Jamilatun, Siti; Cahyono, Rochim B.; Budiman, Arief

    2018-01-01

    Levulinic acid is a new green platform chemical used to the synthesis of a variety of materials for numerous applications such as fuel additives, polymers and resins. It can be produced using renewable resources such as biomass like sugarcane bagasse which are cheap and widely available as waste in Indonesia. In this study, sugarcane bagasse was hydrolyzed using hydrochloric acid with a solid liquid ratio 1:10. The effects of hydrochloric acid concentration at temperature of 180 °C and reaction time of 30 min were studied. The presence of levulinic acid in product of hydrolysis was measured with gas chromatography (GC). It was found that the highest concentration of levulinic acid was obtained at 1 M hydrochloric acid in 25.56 yield%.

  7. Pretreatment on corn stover with low concentration of formic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jian; Thomsen, Mette Hedegaard; Thomsen, Anne Belinda

    2009-08-01

    Bioethanol derived from lignocellulosic biomass has the potential to replace gasoline. Cellulose is naturally recalcitrant to enzymatic attack, and it also surrounded by the matrix of xylan and lignin, which enhances the recalcitrance. Therefore, lignocellulosic materials must be pretreated to make the cellulose easily degraded into sugars and further fermented to ethanol. In this work, hydrothermal pretreatment on corn stover at 195 degrees for 15 min with and without lower concentration of formic acid was compared in terms of sugar recoveries and ethanol fermentation. For pretreatment with formic acid, the overall glucan recovery was 89% and pretreatment without formic acid yielded the recovery of 94%. Compared with glucan, xylan was more sensitive to the pretreatment condition. The lowest xylan recovery of 55% was obtained after pretreatment with formic acid and the highest of 75% found following pretreatment without formic acid. Toxicity tests of liquor parts showed that there were no inhibitions found for both pretreatment conditions. After simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of the pretreated corn stover with Baker's yeast, the highest ethanol yield of 76.5% of the theoretical was observed from corn stover pretreated at 195 degrees for 15 min with formic acid.

  8. Highly Concentrated Acetic Acid Poisoning: 400 Cases Reviewed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin Brusin

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Caustic substance ingestion is known for causing a wide array of gastrointestinal and systemic complications. In Russia, ingestion of acetic acid is a major problem which annually affects 11.2 per 100,000 individuals. The objective of this study was to report and analyze main complications and outcomes of patients with 70% concentrated acetic acid poisoning. Methods: This was a retrospective study of patients with acetic acid ingestion who were treated at Sverdlovsk Regional Poisoning Treatment Center during 2006 to 2012. GI mucosal injury of each patient was assessed with endoscopy according to Zargar’s scale. Data analysis was performed to analyze the predictors of stricture formation and mortality. Results: A total of 400 patients with median age of 47 yr were included. GI injury grade I was found in 66 cases (16.5%, IIa in 117 (29.3%, IIb in 120 (30%, IIIa in 27 (16.7% and IIIb in 70 (17.5%. 11% of patients developed strictures and overall mortality rate was 21%. Main complications were hemolysis (55%, renal injury (35%, pneumonia (27% and bleeding during the first 3 days (27%. Predictors of mortality were age 60 to 79 years, grade IIIa and IIIb of GI injury, pneumonia, stages “I”, “F” and “L” of kidney damage according to the RIFLE scale and administration of prednisolone. Predictors of stricture formation were ingestion of over 100 mL of acetic acid and grade IIb and IIIa of GI injury. Conclusion: Highly concentrated acetic acid is still frequently ingested in Russia with a high mortality rate. Patients with higher grades of GI injury, pneumonia, renal injury and higher amount of acid ingested should be more carefully monitored as they are more susceptible to develop fatal consequences.          

  9. Use of extractive distillation to produce concentrated nitric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, P.C.; Griffin, T.P.; Irwin, C.F.

    1981-04-01

    Concentrated nitric acid (> 95 wt %) is needed for the treatment of off-gases from a fuels-reprocessing plant. The production of concentrated nitric acid by means of extractive distillation in the two-pot apparatus was studied to determine the steady-state behavior of the system. Four parameters, EDP volume (V/sub EDP/) and temperature (T/sub EDP/), acid feed rate, and solvent recycle, were independently varied. The major response factors were percent recovery (CPRR) and product purity (CCP). Stage efficiencies also provided information about the system response. Correlations developed for the response parameters are: CPRR = 0.02(V/sub EDP/ - 800 cc) + 53.5; CCP = -0.87 (T/sub EDP/ - 140 0 C) + 81; eta/sub V,EDP/ = 9.1(F/sub feed/ - 11.5 cc/min) - 0.047(V/sub EDP/ - 800 cc) - 2.8(F/sub Mg(NO 3 ) 2 / - 50 cc/min) + 390; and eta/sub L,EDP/ = 1.9(T/sub EDP/ - 140 0 C) + 79. A computer simulation of the process capable of predicting steady-state conditions was developed, but it requires further work

  10. Adipic acid tolerance screening for potential adipic acid production hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Emma; Mapelli, Valeria; Olsson, Lisbeth

    2017-02-01

    Biobased processes for the production of adipic acid are of great interest to replace the current environmentally detrimental petrochemical production route. No efficient natural producer of adipic acid has yet been identified, but several approaches for pathway engineering have been established. Research has demonstrated that the microbial production of adipic acid is possible, but the yields and titres achieved so far are inadequate for commercialisation. A plausible explanation may be intolerance to adipic acid. Therefore, in this study, selected microorganisms, including yeasts, filamentous fungi and bacteria, typically used in microbial cell factories were considered to evaluate their tolerance to adipic acid. Screening of yeasts and bacteria for tolerance to adipic acid was performed in microtitre plates, and in agar plates for A. niger in the presence of adipic acid over a broad range of concentration (0-684 mM). As the different dissociation state(s) of adipic acid may influence cells differently, cultivations were performed with at least two pH values. Yeasts and A. niger were found to tolerate substantially higher concentrations of adipic acid than bacteria, and were less affected by the undissociated form of adipic acid than bacteria. The yeast exhibiting the highest tolerance to adipic acid was Candida viswanathii, showing a reduction in maximum specific growth rate of no more than 10-15% at the highest concentration of adipic acid tested and the tolerance was not dependent on the dissociation state of the adipic acid. Tolerance to adipic acid was found to be substantially higher among yeasts and A. niger than bacteria. The explanation of the differences in adipic acid tolerance between the microorganisms investigated are likely related to fundamental differences in their physiology and metabolism. Among the yeasts investigated, C. viswanathii showed the highest tolerance and could be a potential host for a future microbial cell factory for adipic acid.

  11. LC/ESI-MS/MS method for determination of salivary eicosapentaenoic acid concentration to arachidonic acid concentration ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Shoujiro; Tomaru, Koki; Matsumoto, Nagisa; Watanabe, Shui; Higashi, Tatsuya

    2016-01-01

    A simple liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/ESI-MS/MS) method for determination of the eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) concentration to arachidonic acid (AA) concentration ratio in human saliva has been developed. The EPA/AA ratio in serum or plasma is widely recognized as a useful indicator in identifying the risk of cardiovascular disease, especially atherosclerosis. The salivary EPA/AA ratio is expected to be a convenient alternative to the serum or plasma EPA/AA ratio, because saliva offers the advantages of easy and noninvasive sampling. The saliva was deproteinized with acetonitrile, purified using an Oasis HLB cartridge, and derivatized with 1-[(4-dimethylaminophenyl)carbonyl]piperazine (DAPPZ). The derivatized EPA and AA were subjected to LC/ESI-MS/MS, and the EPA/AA ratio was determined using the selected reaction monitoring mode. The DAPPZ-derivatization increased the ESI sensitivity by 100- and 300-fold for EPA and AA, respectively, and enabled the detection of trace fatty acids in saliva using a 200 μL sample. The assay reproducibility was satisfactory (relative standard deviation, <5.0%). The method was successfully applied to the measurement of the salivary EPA/AA ratios of healthy Japanese subjects and their changes owing to the supplementation of EPA. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Dietary Sodium Modifies Serum Uric Acid Concentrations in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Alwyn S; Walker, Robert J; MacGinley, Robert J; Kelly, Jaimon; Merriman, Tony R; Major, Tanya J; Johnson, Richard J

    2017-11-06

    Subjects with hypertension are frequently obese or insulin resistant, both conditions in which hyperuricemia is common. Obese and insulin-resistant subjects are also known to have blood pressure that is more sensitive to changes in dietary sodium intake. Whether hyperuricemia is a resulting consequence, moderating or contributing factor to the development of hypertension has not been fully evaluated and very few studies have reported interactions between sodium intake and serum uric acid. We performed further analysis of our randomized controlled clinical trials (Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry #12609000161224 and #12609000292279) designed to assess the effects of modifying sodium intake on concentrations of serum markers, including uric acid. Uric acid and other variables (including blood pressure, renin, and aldosterone) were measured at baseline and 4 weeks following the commencement of low (60 mmol/day), moderate (150 mmol/day), and high (200-250 mmol/day) dietary sodium intake. The median aldosterone-to-renin ratio was 1.90 [pg/ml]/[pg/ml] (range 0.10-11.04). Serum uric acid fell significantly in both the moderate and high interventions compared to the low sodium intervention. This pattern of response occurred when all subjects were analyzed, and when normotensive or hypertensive subjects were analyzed alone. Although previously reported in hypertensive subjects, these data provide evidence in normotensive subjects of an interaction between dietary sodium intake and serum uric acid. As this interaction is present in the absence of hypertension, it is possible it could play a role in hypertension development, and will need to be considered in future trials of dietary sodium intake. The trials were registered with the Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry as ACTRN12609000161224 and ACTRN1260. © American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd 2017. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  13. Transport and metabolism of fumaric acid in Saccharomyces cerevisiae in aerobic glucose-limited chemostat culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Mihir V; van Mastrigt, Oscar; Heijnen, Joseph J; van Gulik, Walter M

    2016-04-01

    Currently, research is being focused on the industrial-scale production of fumaric acid and other relevant organic acids from renewable feedstocks via fermentation, preferably at low pH for better product recovery. However, at low pH a large fraction of the extracellular acid is present in the undissociated form, which is lipophilic and can diffuse into the cell. There have been no studies done on the impact of high extracellular concentrations of fumaric acid under aerobic conditions in S. cerevisiae, which is a relevant issue to study for industrial-scale production. In this work we studied the uptake and metabolism of fumaric acid in S. cerevisiae in glucose-limited chemostat cultures at a cultivation pH of 3.0 (pH medium. The experiments were carried out with the wild-type S. cerevisiae CEN.PK 113-7D and an engineered S. cerevisiae ADIS 244 expressing a heterologous dicarboxylic acid transporter (DCT-02) from Aspergillus niger, to examine whether it would be capable of exporting fumaric acid. We observed that fumaric acid entered the cells most likely via passive diffusion of the undissociated form. Approximately two-thirds of the fumaric acid in the feed was metabolized together with glucose. From metabolic flux analysis, an increased ATP dissipation was observed only at high intracellular concentrations of fumarate, possibly due to the export of fumarate via an ABC transporter. The implications of our results for the industrial-scale production of fumaric acid are discussed. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Porcine milk oligosaccharides and sialic acid concentrations vary throughout lactation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Austin T Mudd

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Milk oligosaccharides (OS are bioactive components known to influence neonatal development. These compounds have specific physiological functions acting as prebiotics, immune system modulators, and enhancing intestine and brain development. Objectives: The pig is a commonly used model for studying human nutrition, and there is interest in characterizing and quantifying OS composition of porcine milk across lactation. In this study, we hypothesized that OS and sialic acid (SA composition of porcine milk would be influenced by stage of lactation. Methods: Up to 250 ml of milk was collected from 7 sows at each of three time points: d 0 (colostrum, d 7-9 (mature, and d 17-19 (weaning. Colostrum was collected within 6 h of farrowing and three-day intervals were used for mature and weaning milk to ensure representative sampling. Milk samples were analyzed for OS profiles by Nano LC Chip QTOF MS, OS concentrations via HPAEC-PAD, and SA (total and free was assessed by enzymatic reaction fluorescence detection.Results: Sixty unique OS were identified in porcine milk. Neutral OS were the most abundant at each lactation stage (69-81%, followed by acidic-sialylated OS (16-29% and neutral-fucosylated OS (2-4%. As lactation progressed, acidic OS decreased (P < 0.05, whereas neutral-fucosylated and neutral OS increased (P < 0.05 throughout lactation. Six OS were present in all samples analyzed across lactation (LDFH-I, 2´-FL, LNFP-I, LNnH, 3-Hex, 3´-SL, while LDFT was present only in colostrum samples. Analysis of individual OS concentrations indicated differences (P < 0.05 between days 0 and 7. Conversely, between days 7 and 18, OS concentrations remained stable with only LNnH and LNDFH-I decreasing (P < 0.05 over this period. Analysis of free SA indicated a decrease (P < 0.05 as lactation progressed, while bound and total SA increased (P < 0.05 across lactation. Conclusions: The present data suggest that while porcine milk OS profiles and

  15. The Effect of Temperature and Acid Concentration on Corrosion of Low Carbon Steel in Hydrochloric Acid Media

    OpenAIRE

    Anees A. Khadom; Aprael S. Yaro; Abdul A.H. Kadum; Ahmed S. AlTaie; Ahmed Y. Musa

    2009-01-01

    Problem statement: The effect of different temperatures and acid concentrations on the corrosion of low carbon steel in hydrochloric acid were addressed in this study. Approach: The effect of temperature was explained by application of Arrhenius equation and transition state theory, while the acid concentration effect was explained using reaction kinetic equations. The combined effect of temperature and acid concentration then modeled using a nonlinear regression method. Results: A detail of ...

  16. Polyaspartic Acid Concentration Controls the Rate of Calcium Phosphate Nanorod Formation in High Concentration Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krogstad, Daniel V. [Biosystems and; Wang, Dongbo [Biosystems and; Lin-Gibson, Sheng [Biosystems and

    2017-08-31

    Polyelectrolytes are known to greatly affect calcium phosphate (CaP) mineralization. The reaction kinetics as well as the CaP phase, morphology and aggregation state depend on the relative concentrations of the polyelectrolyte and the inorganic ions in a complex, nonlinear manner. This study examines the structural evolution and kinetics of polyaspartic acid (pAsp) directed CaP mineralization at high concentrations of polyelectrolytes, calcium, and total phosphate (19–30 mg/mL pAsp, 50–100 mM Ca2+, Ca/P = 2). Using a novel combination of characterization techniques including cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM), spectrophotometry, X-ray total scattering pair distribution function analysis, and attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), it was determined that the CaP mineralization occurred over four transition steps. The steps include the formation of aggregates of pAsp stabilized CaP spherical nanoparticles (sNP), crystallization of sNP, oriented attachment of the sNP into nanorods, and further crystallization of the nanorods. The intermediate aggregate sizes and the reaction kinetics were found to be highly polymer concentration dependent while the sizes of the particles were not concentration dependent. This study demonstrates the complex role of pAsp in controlling the mechanism as well as the kinetics of CaP mineralization.

  17. 21 CFR 146.148 - Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.148 Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice. (a) Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice is the food that complies with the requirements for composition...

  18. Color Change of Sudan III against Concentrated Sulfuric Acid in Acetonitrile and Quantification for a Small Amount of Concentrated Sulfuric Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Takao; Kurata, Shoji; Ogino, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    The color-changing phenomenon of hydrophobic bisazo dye, Sudan III in an acetonitrile solution against the addition of concentrated sulfuric acid has been discovered and the chromic properties investigated. Based on observations, a novel quantification method of concentrated sulfuric acid has been developed. Sudan III changes its color from orange to blue against a small volume of sulfuric acid, and the acetonitrile solution of Sudan III is the most suitable for observing the color-change phenomenon. (1)H-NMR and UV-Vis spectroscopic studies showed that the color-change mechanism of Sudan III against sulfuric acid is due to the protonation of the dye by sulfuric acid. This phenomenon is applicable to the quantification of concentrated sulfuric acid by introducing the Hammett acidity function. The proposed method requires only a small amount of the sample, 0.04 mL, and enables rapid quantification.

  19. Metabolic Syndrome, Alcohol Consumption and Genetic Factors Are Associated with Serum Uric Acid Concentration

    OpenAIRE

    Stibůrková, Blanka; Pavlíková, Markéta; Sokolová, Jitka; Kožich, Viktor

    2014-01-01

    Objective Uric acid is the end product of purine metabolism in humans, and increased serum uric acid concentrations lead to gout. The objective of the current study was to identify factors that are independently associated with serum uric acid concentrations in a cohort of Czech control individuals. Methods The cohort consisted of 589 healthy subjects aged 18–65 years. We studied the associations between the serum uric acid concentration and the following: (i) demographic, anthropometric and ...

  20. Effect of omega-3 fatty acids on serum concentrations of adipokines in healthy cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazaki-Tovi, Michal; Abood, Sarah K; Schenck, Patricia A

    2011-09-01

    To determine associations between serum concentrations of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and concentrations of adiponectin, leptin, and insulin in healthy cats. 56 healthy adult client-owned cats. Body condition score (BCS) was determined, and blood samples were collected after food was withheld for 12 hours. Serum was harvested for fatty acid analysis and measurement of serum concentrations of adiponectin, leptin, insulin, glucose, triglyceride, and cholesterol. 1 cat was removed because of hyperglycemia. Significant interaction effects between BCS and serum concentrations of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) were detected for the analyses of associations between EPA and serum concentrations of adiponectin, insulin, and triglyceride. Cats were categorized into nonobese (BCS, 4 to 6 [n = 34 cats]) and obese (BCS, 7 to 8 [21]) groups; serum concentrations of EPA were directly associated with concentrations of adiponectin and inversely associated with concentrations of insulin and triglyceride in obese cats and were directly associated with concentrations of leptin and inversely associated with concentrations of adiponectin in nonobese cats. Additionally, serum concentrations of docosahexaenoic acid were directly associated with concentrations of adiponectin in obese cats. No significant associations between serum concentrations of docosahexaenoic acid or α-linolenic acid were detected in the analyses for all cats. Female cats had higher serum concentrations of adiponectin and lower concentrations of glucose than did male cats. Increased age was associated with a small increase in serum concentrations of leptin. EPA may ameliorate the decrease in adiponectin and the increase in insulin and triglyceride concentrations in obese cats.

  1. Amino Acid Composition of an Organic Brown Rice Protein Concentrate and Isolate Compared to Soy and Whey Concentrates and Isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalman, Douglas S

    2014-06-30

    A protein concentrate (Oryzatein-80™) and a protein isolate (Oryzatein-90™) from organic whole-grain brown rice were analyzed for their amino acid composition. Two samples from different batches of Oryzatein-90™ and one sample of Oryzatein-80™ were provided by Axiom Foods (Los Angeles, CA, USA). Preparation and analysis was carried out by Covance Laboratories (Madison, WI, USA). After hydrolysis in 6-N hydrochloric acid for 24 h at approximately 110 °C and further chemical stabilization, samples were analyzed by HPLC after pre-injection derivitization. Total amino acid content of both the isolate and the concentrate was approximately 78% by weight with 36% essential amino acids and 18% branched-chain amino acids. These results are similar to the profiles of raw and cooked brown rice except in the case of glutamic acid which was 3% lower in the isolate and concentrate. The amino acid content and profile of the Oryzatein-90™ isolate was similar to published values for soy protein isolate but the total, essential, and branched-chain amino acid content of whey protein isolate was 20%, 39% and 33% greater, respectively, than that of Oryzatein-90™. These results provide a valuable addition to the nutrient database of protein isolates and concentrates from cereal grains.

  2. Transport of acetic acid in Zygosaccharomyces bailii: effects of ethanol and their implications on the resistance of the yeast to acidic environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, M J; Miranda, L; Côrte-Real, M; Leão, C

    1996-01-01

    Cells of Zygosaccharomyces bailii ISA 1307 grown in a medium with acetic acid, ethanol, or glycerol as the sole carbon and energy source transported acetic acid by a saturable transport system. This system accepted propionic and formic acids but not lactic, sorbic, and benzoic acids. When the carbon source was glucose or fructose, the cells displayed activity of a mediated transport system specific for acetic acid, apparently not being able to recognize other monocarboxylic acids. In both types of cells, ethanol inhibited the transport of labelled acetic acid. The inhibition was noncompetitive, and the dependence of the maximum transport rate on the ethanol concentration was found to be exponential. These results reinforced the belief that, under the referenced growth conditions, the acid entered the cells mainly through a transporter protein. The simple diffusion of the undissociated acid appeared to contribute, with a relatively low weight, to the overall acid uptake. It was concluded that in Z. bailii, ethanol plays a protective role against the possible negative effects of acetic acid by inhibiting its transport and accumulation. Thus, the intracellular concentration of the acid could be maintained at levels lower than those expected if the acid entered the cells only by simple diffusion. PMID:8795203

  3. Effects of running the Bostom Marathon on plasma concentrations of large neutral amino acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conlay, L. A.; Wurtman, R. J.; Lopez G-Coviella, I.; Blusztajn, J. K.; Vacanti, C. A.; Logue, M.; During, M.; Caballero, B.; Maher, T. J.; Evoniuk, G.

    1989-01-01

    Plasma large neutral amino acid concentrations were measured in thirty-seven subjects before and after completing the Boston Marathon. Concentrations of tyrosine, phenylalanine, and methionine increased, as did their 'plasma ratios' (i.e., the ratio of each amino acid's concentration to the summed plasma concentrations of the other large neutral amino acids which compete with it for brain uptake). No changes were noted in the plasma concentrations of tryptophan, leucine, isoleucine, nor valine; however, the 'plasma ratios' of valine, leucine, and isoleucine all decreased. These changes in plasma amino acid patterns may influence neurotransmitter synthesis.

  4. Cadmium Alters the Concentration of Fatty Acids in THP-1 Macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olszowski, Tomasz; Gutowska, Izabela; Baranowska-Bosiacka, Irena; Łukomska, Agnieszka; Drozd, Arleta; Chlubek, Dariusz

    2018-03-01

    Fatty acid composition of human immune cells influences their function. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of known toxicant and immunomodulator, cadmium, at low concentrations on levels of selected fatty acids (FAs) in THP-1 macrophages. The differentiation of THP-1 monocytes into macrophages was achieved by administration of phorbol myristate acetate. Macrophages were incubated with various cadmium chloride (CdCl 2 ) solutions for 48 h at final concentrations of 5 nM, 20 nM, 200 nM, and 2 μM CdCl 2 . Fatty acids were extracted from samples according to the Folch method. The fatty acid levels were determined using gas chromatography. The following fatty acids were analyzed: long-chain saturated fatty acids (SFAs) palmitic acid and stearic acid, very long-chain saturated fatty acid (VLSFA) arachidic acid, monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) palmitoleic acid, oleic acid and vaccenic acid, and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) linoleic acid and arachidonic acid. Treatment of macrophages with very low concentrations of cadmium (5-200 nM) resulted in significant reduction in the levels of arachidic, palmitoleic, oleic, vaccenic, and linoleic acids and significant increase in arachidonic acid levels (following exposure to 5 nM Cd), without significant reduction of palmitic and stearic acid levels. Treatment of macrophages with the highest tested cadmium concentration (2 μM) produced significant reduction in the levels of all examined FAs: SFAs, VLSFA, MUFAs, and PUFAs. In conclusion, cadmium at tested concentrations caused significant alterations in THP-1 macrophage fatty acid levels, disrupting their composition, which might dysregulate fatty acid/lipid metabolism thus affecting macrophage behavior and inflammatory state.

  5. Process for recovering a uranium containing concentrate and purified phosphoric acid from a wet process phosphoric acid containing uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weterings, C.A.M.; Janssen, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    A process is claimed for recovering from a wet process phosphoric acid which contains uranium, a uranium containing concentrate and a purified phosphoric acid. The wet process phosphoric acid is treated with a precipitant in the presence of a reducing agent and an aliphatic ketone

  6. Process for recovering a uranium containing concentrate and purified phosphoric acid from a wet process phosphoric acid containing uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weterings, C.A.M.; Janssen, J.A.

    1985-04-30

    A process is claimed for recovering from a wet process phosphoric acid which contains uranium, a uranium containing concentrate and a purified phosphoric acid. The wet process phosphoric acid is treated with a precipitant in the presence of a reducing agent and an aliphatic ketone.

  7. Influence of Bleaching on Flavor of 34% Whey Protein Concentrate and Residual Benzoic Acid Concentration in Dried Whey Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous studies have shown that bleaching negatively affects the flavor of 70% whey protein concentrate (WPC70), but bleaching effects on lower-protein products have not been established. Benzoyl peroxide (BP), a whey bleaching agent, degrades to benzoic acid (BA) and may elevate BA concentrations...

  8. Influence of bleaching on flavor of 34% whey protein concentrate and residual benzoic acid concentration in dried whey products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous studies have shown that bleaching negatively affects the flavor of 70% whey protein concentrate (WPC70), but bleaching effects on lower-protein products have not been established. Benzoyl peroxide (BP), a whey bleaching agent, degrades to benzoic acid (BA) and may elevate BA concentrations...

  9. Genetic polymorphisms and valproic acid plasma concentration in children with epilepsy on valproic acid monotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Shenghui; Feng, Weixing; Zhu, Leting; Yu, Yazhen; Yang, Weili; Gao, Baoqin; Wu, Xiaojuan; Zhao, Zhigang; Fang, Fang

    2017-10-01

    The aim of the study is to evaluate the association between genetic polymorphisms and valproic acid (VPA) concentration to dose ratio in children with epilepsy on VPA monotherapy. A total of 137 children, aged 3.5-18 years, (89 males and 48 females) with epilepsy on sustained-release VPA monotherapy were enrolled. Trough plasma concentrations of VPA at steady-state were measured using an AXSYM automatic immunity analyzer. The values were divided by body weight and total daily dose to calculate concentration to dose ratio of VPA (CDRV). Forty-eight single nucleotide polymorphisms involved in the pharmacokinetics of VPA were identified by MassARRAY system. The logarithmic transformed CDRV (lnCDRV) was normally distributed, and PLINK software was used to evaluate the association between genetic polymorphisms and lnCDRV using linear regression adjusted for gender and seizure type. rs28898617 (UGT1A3/4/5/6/7/8/9/10, BETA=0.32, P=0.0089) was significantly associated with higher lnCDRV. No other associations were found. In pediatric patients taking VPA monotherapy, rs28898617 was associated with a higher normalized VPA plasma concentration. Further studies are warranted to confirm the results. Copyright © 2017 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The diurnal variation in urine acidification differs between normal individuals and uric acid stone formers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Mary Ann; Maalouf, Naim M.; Poindexter, John; Adams-Huet, Beverley; Sakhaee, Khashayar; Moe, Orson W.

    2012-01-01

    Many biologic functions follow circadian rhythms driven by internal and external cues that synchronize and coordinate organ physiology to diurnal changes in the environment and behavior. Urinary acid-base parameters follow diurnal patterns and it is thought these changes are due to periodic surges in gastric acid secretion. Abnormal urine pH is a risk factor for specific types of nephrolithiasis and uric acid stones are typical of excessively low urine pH. Here we placed 9 healthy volunteers and 10 uric acid stone formers on fixed metabolic diets to study the diurnal pattern of urinary acidification. All showed clear diurnal trends in urinary acidification but none of the patterns were affected by inhibitors of the gastric proton pump. Uric acid stone formers had similar patterns of change through the day but their urine pH was always lower compared to healthy volunteers. Uric acid stone formers excreted more acid (normalized to acid ingestion) with the excess excreted primarily as titratable acid rather than ammonium. Urine base excretion was also lower in uric acid stone formers (normalized to base ingestion) along with lower plasma bicarbonate concentrations during part of the day. Thus, increased net acid presentation to the kidney and the preferential use of buffers, other than ammonium, result in much higher concentrations of un-dissociated uric acid throughout the day and consequently an increased risk of uric acid stones. PMID:22297671

  11. Relationship between abscisic acid (ABA) concentration and some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    saeed

    2011-11-16

    Nov 16, 2011 ... This work investigated the effects of endogenous abscisic acid (ABA) and physiologic parameters related to yield in two ... levels of endogenous ABA contribute to reduced grain growth. Key words: Abscisic acid, ..... Craterostigma plantagineum displays no defined three dimensional structure in its native ...

  12. EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE AND CONCENTRATION ON THE VISCOSITY OF AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS OF 3-AMINOPROPANOIC ACID, 4-AMINOBUTANOIC ACID, 5-AMINOPENTANOIC ACID, 6-AMINOHEXANOIC ACID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen María Romero

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work we present the effect of temperatureon the viscosities of aqueous solutionsof 3-aminopropanoic acid, 4-aminobutanoicacid, 5-aminopentanoic acidand 6-aminohexanoic acid as a functionof concentration. The experimental measurementswere done from 293.15 K to308.15 K. At each temperature the experimentaldata were fi tted to the Tsangaris-Martin equation and the B viscosity coefficient was determined. The dependenceof the B coeffi cients on the number ofcarbon atoms of the amino acids is linear,so the contribution of polar and apolargroups was established. The results areinterpreted in terms of amino acid hydration.

  13. Effects of volatile fatty acid concentrations on methane yield and methanogenic bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Yanlin; Wang, Jianbo; Meng, Liang [Engineering Technology Academy, Huazhong Agriculture University, Wuhan 430070 (China)

    2009-05-15

    Volatile fatty acids (VFAs) are important mid-products in the production of methane, and their concentrations affect the efficiency of fermentation. However, their effects on methane yield and methanogenic bacteria growth have been less extensively studied. To address these effects, acetic acid, propionic acid, butyric acid and ethanol were used as substrates and an L{sub 9}(3{sup 4}) orthogonal table was adopted to design anaerobic digestion tests. When the highest concentrations of ethanol, acetic acid and butyric acid were 2400, 2400 and 1800 mg L{sup -1}, respectively, there was no significant inhibition of the activity of methanogenic bacteria. However, when the propionic acid concentration was increased to 900 mg L{sup -1}, significant inhibition appeared, the bacteria concentration decreased from 6 x 10{sup 7} to 0.6-1 x 10{sup 7} ml{sup -1} and their activity would not reconvert. These effects resulted in the accumulation of ethanol and VFAs, and the total methane yield consequently became very low (<321 ml). The original propionic acid concentration had a significant inhibitory effect on methanogenic bacteria growth (P < 0.01). An optimization analysis showed that ethanol, acetic acid, propionic acid and butyric acid at concentrations of 1600, 1600, 300 and 1800 mg L{sup -1}, respectively, led to the maximum accumulative methane yield of 1620 ml and the maximum methanogenic bacteria concentration of 7.3 x 10{sup 8} ml{sup -1}. (author)

  14. Elevational Variation in Soil Amino Acid and Inorganic Nitrogen Concentrations in Taibai Mountain, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaochuang Cao

    Full Text Available Amino acids are important sources of soil organic nitrogen (N, which is essential for plant nutrition, but detailed information about which amino acids predominant and whether amino acid composition varies with elevation is lacking. In this study, we hypothesized that the concentrations of amino acids in soil would increase and their composition would vary along the elevational gradient of Taibai Mountain, as plant-derived organic matter accumulated and N mineralization and microbial immobilization of amino acids slowed with reduced soil temperature. Results showed that the concentrations of soil extractable total N, extractable organic N and amino acids significantly increased with elevation due to the accumulation of soil organic matter and the greater N content. Soil extractable organic N concentration was significantly greater than that of the extractable inorganic N (NO3--N + NH4+-N. On average, soil adsorbed amino acid concentration was approximately 5-fold greater than that of the free amino acids, which indicates that adsorbed amino acids extracted with the strong salt solution likely represent a potential source for the replenishment of free amino acids. We found no appreciable evidence to suggest that amino acids with simple molecular structure were dominant at low elevations, whereas amino acids with high molecular weight and complex aromatic structure dominated the high elevations. Across the elevational gradient, the amino acid pool was dominated by alanine, aspartic acid, glycine, glutamic acid, histidine, serine and threonine. These seven amino acids accounted for approximately 68.9% of the total hydrolyzable amino acid pool. The proportions of isoleucine, tyrosine and methionine varied with elevation, while soil major amino acid composition (including alanine, arginine, aspartic acid, glycine, histidine, leucine, phenylalanine, serine, threonine and valine did not vary appreciably with elevation (p>0.10. The compositional

  15. Determination of concentration and molar absorptivity of hypochlorous acid and hypobromous acid species by hydrogen peroxide titration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uehara, H.; Arakaki, T.

    2017-12-01

    Hypochlorous acid and hypobromous acid (abbreviated as "HypoX acids") are the main ingredients of bleaching and bactericides. The HypoX acids change their chemical forms depending on environmental factors such as pH and various chemical reactions. For example, it has been reported that hypobromite ion in water changes to carcinogenic bromate by photochemical reaction with ultraviolet light. In this study, concentrations of HypoX acids were determined by UV-VIS absorbance measurement utilizing the fact that HypoX acids react with hydrogen peroxide and do not co-exist in the solution. The method for determining the concentration by titration with hydrogen peroxide can be carried out simpler and more efficiently than the DPD method or the current titration method generally used for chlorine concentration measurement. Molar absorptivity between 250 - 500 nm of HypoX acids, including their conjugate base species, was determined by solving theoretical acid-base formula including molar fraction of each chemical species at various pHs. Molar absorptivity of OCl- and OBr- between 250 - 500 nm was determined based on the concentrations obtained from titration with hydrogen peroxide and absorbance at pH > 10, where OCl- and OBr- dominate. Furthermore, the HypoX acids solutions were irradiated with a solar simulator, and the photolysis rate constants were obtained. Based on those values, the half-lives were calculated and the behavior of HypoX acids in the environment was elucidated.

  16. Serum uric acid concentration in patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus during diet or glibenclamide therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmood, I.H.

    2007-01-01

    To investigate serum uric acid concentration in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. This is a case control study conducted in Al-Wafa Diabetic Center in Mosul over a period of one year starting from January 1, 2005 to January 1, 2006. Serum glucose concentration and uric acid concentration were measured in both control and patient's groups (group 1 patients on diet therapy, group 2 patients on glibenclamide therapy and group 3 involve naturopathic patients). Serum glucose concentration was high in the diabetic groups as compared with the control group (P 0.2) except in group-3 (P<0.05). A negative correlation was reported between hyperglycemia and uric acid concentration of the different groups. Serum uric acid concentration is slightly reduced in type 2 diabetic patients particularly in the complicated patients with peripheral neuropathy and this may be due to the oxidative stress that decreases the antioxidant capacity of the body involving uric acid. (author)

  17. High serum uric acid concentration predicts poor survival in patients with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Cai-Feng; Feng, Pin-Ning; Yao, Zhen-Rong; Yu, Xue-Gao; Lin, Wen-Bin; Qian, Yuan-Min; Guo, Yun-Miao; Li, Lai-Sheng; Liu, Min

    2017-10-01

    Uric acid is a product of purine metabolism. Recently, uric acid has gained much attraction in cancer. In this study, we aim to investigate the clinicopathological and prognostic significance of serum uric acid concentration in breast cancer patients. A total of 443 female patients with histopathologically diagnosed breast cancer were included. After a mean follow-up time of 56months, survival was analysed using the Kaplan-Meier method. To further evaluate the prognostic significance of uric acid concentrations, univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses were applied. Of the clinicopathological parameters, uric acid concentration was associated with age, body mass index, ER status and PR status. Univariate analysis identified that patients with increased uric acid concentration had a significantly inferior overall survival (HR 2.13, 95% CI 1.15-3.94, p=0.016). In multivariate analysis, we found that high uric acid concentration is an independent prognostic factor predicting death, but insufficient to predict local relapse or distant metastasis. Kaplan-Meier analysis indicated that high uric acid concentration is related to the poor overall survival (p=0.013). High uric acid concentration predicts poor survival in patients with breast cancer, and might serve as a potential marker for appropriate management of breast cancer patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Plasma Concentration of Ascorbic Acid and Some Hematological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Tobacco snuffing, like cigarette smoking, is known to be a common habit among the adults of Igbo communities in Nigeria. In view of the various pharmacological actions of nicotine and other additive constituents of tobacco snuff, there is growing concern that ascorbic acid, which is a vital antioxidant, and blood ...

  19. Urinary ascorbic acid and serum concentrations of circulating ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the present study was to determine the presence or absence of ascorbic acid in urine and serum levels of circulating immune complexes (CIC) and albumin in HIV infected subjects. A total of 90 participants (30 Symptomatic HIV infected subjects on antiretroviral therapy (ART), 30 Symptomatic HIV infected ...

  20. Relationship between abscisic acid (ABA) concentration and some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work investigated the effects of endogenous abscisic acid (ABA) and physiologic parameters related to yield in two wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum L.), Marvdasht and Zagros (sensitive and tolerant to terminal season drought, respectively) grown in pots under well watered and water-stressed starting from anthesis ...

  1. Using Conductivity Measurements to Determine the Identities and Concentrations of Unknown Acids: An Inquiry Laboratory Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, K. Christopher; Garza, Ariana

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a student designed experiment using titrations involving conductivity measurements to identify unknown acids as being either HCl or H[subscript 2]SO[subscript 4], and to determine the concentrations of the acids, thereby improving the utility of standard acid-base titrations. Using an inquiry context, students gain experience…

  2. Cheese intake lowers plasma cholesterol concentrations without increasing bile acid excretion

    OpenAIRE

    Hjerpsted, Julie Bousgaard; Dragsted, Lars Ove; Tholstrup, Tine

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Cheese is a dairy product with high calcium content. It has been suggested that calcium intake may increase fecal excretion of bile acids that would cause a regeneration of bile acids from hepatic cholesterol and thereby result in a lowering of plasma cholesterol concentrations. We aimed to test this hypothesis by assessing bile acid and calcium concentrations in fecal samples from humans after intake of cheese and butter. Methods The study was a randomized, 2 × 6 weeks crossover, die...

  3. Metabolic syndrome, alcohol consumption and genetic factors are associated with serum uric acid concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stibůrková, Blanka; Pavlíková, Markéta; Sokolová, Jitka; Kožich, Viktor

    2014-01-01

    Uric acid is the end product of purine metabolism in humans, and increased serum uric acid concentrations lead to gout. The objective of the current study was to identify factors that are independently associated with serum uric acid concentrations in a cohort of Czech control individuals. The cohort consisted of 589 healthy subjects aged 18-65 years. We studied the associations between the serum uric acid concentration and the following: (i) demographic, anthropometric and other variables previously reported to be associated with serum uric acid concentrations; (ii) the presence of metabolic syndrome and the levels of metabolic syndrome components; and (iii) selected genetic variants of the MTHFR (c.665C>T, c.1286A>C), SLC2A9 (c.844G>A, c.881G>A) and ABCG2 genes (c.421C>A). A backward model selection procedure was used to build two multiple linear regression models; in the second model, the number of metabolic syndrome criteria that were met replaced the metabolic syndrome-related variables. The models had coefficients of determination of 0.59 and 0.53. The serum uric acid concentration strongly correlated with conventional determinants including male sex, and with metabolic syndrome-related variables. In the simplified second model, the serum uric acid concentration positively correlated with the number of metabolic syndrome criteria that were met, and this model retained the explanatory power of the first model. Moderate wine drinking did not increase serum uric acid concentrations, and the urate transporter ABCG2, unlike MTHFR, was a genetic determinant of serum uric acid concentrations. Metabolic syndrome, moderate wine drinking and the c.421C>A variant in the ABCG gene are independently associated with the serum uric acid concentration. Our model indicates that uric acid should be clinically monitored in persons with metabolic syndrome.

  4. Metabolic syndrome, alcohol consumption and genetic factors are associated with serum uric acid concentration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanka Stibůrková

    Full Text Available Uric acid is the end product of purine metabolism in humans, and increased serum uric acid concentrations lead to gout. The objective of the current study was to identify factors that are independently associated with serum uric acid concentrations in a cohort of Czech control individuals.The cohort consisted of 589 healthy subjects aged 18-65 years. We studied the associations between the serum uric acid concentration and the following: (i demographic, anthropometric and other variables previously reported to be associated with serum uric acid concentrations; (ii the presence of metabolic syndrome and the levels of metabolic syndrome components; and (iii selected genetic variants of the MTHFR (c.665C>T, c.1286A>C, SLC2A9 (c.844G>A, c.881G>A and ABCG2 genes (c.421C>A. A backward model selection procedure was used to build two multiple linear regression models; in the second model, the number of metabolic syndrome criteria that were met replaced the metabolic syndrome-related variables.The models had coefficients of determination of 0.59 and 0.53. The serum uric acid concentration strongly correlated with conventional determinants including male sex, and with metabolic syndrome-related variables. In the simplified second model, the serum uric acid concentration positively correlated with the number of metabolic syndrome criteria that were met, and this model retained the explanatory power of the first model. Moderate wine drinking did not increase serum uric acid concentrations, and the urate transporter ABCG2, unlike MTHFR, was a genetic determinant of serum uric acid concentrations.Metabolic syndrome, moderate wine drinking and the c.421C>A variant in the ABCG gene are independently associated with the serum uric acid concentration. Our model indicates that uric acid should be clinically monitored in persons with metabolic syndrome.

  5. Evaluation of ultrasonic technique to characterize the concentration of boric acid in liquid medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohara, Richard Yuzo Ramida

    2015-01-01

    This dissertation is to analyze the viability of using ultrasonic technique to characterize the concentration of boric acid in liquid medium non-invasively, therefore, ultrasonic tests were performed relating different boric acid concentrations with the travel time of the ultrasonic wave, also were evaluated factors able to mask the characterization of these concentrations by ultrasonic technique. The results showed that the ultrasonic technique allows the characterization of boric acid concentrations in liquid medium in very simple terms by the ultrasonic wave travel time, requiring further studies in complex conditions. (author)

  6. Preparative concentration of nucleic acids fragments by capillary isotachophoretic analyzer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Datinská, Vladimíra; Voráčová, Ivona; Berka, J.; Foret, František

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 1548 (2018), s. 100-103 ISSN 0021-9673 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LQ1601; GA ČR(CZ) GBP206/12/G014; GA MŠk(CZ) 8F17003 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : DNA * isotachophoresis * nucleic acids * sample preparation Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation OBOR OECD: Analytical chemistry Impact factor: 3.981, year: 2016

  7. High plasma uric acid concentration: causes and consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Oliveira Erick

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract High plasma uric acid (UA is a precipitating factor for gout and renal calculi as well as a strong risk factor for Metabolic Syndrome and cardiovascular disease. The main causes for higher plasma UA are either lower excretion, higher synthesis or both. Higher waist circumference and the BMI are associated with higher insulin resistance and leptin production, and both reduce uric acid excretion. The synthesis of fatty acids (tryglicerides in the liver is associated with the de novo synthesis of purine, accelerating UA production. The role played by diet on hyperuricemia has not yet been fully clarified, but high intake of fructose-rich industrialized food and high alcohol intake (particularly beer seem to influence uricemia. It is not known whether UA would be a causal factor or an antioxidant protective response. Most authors do not consider the UA as a risk factor, but presenting antioxidant function. UA contributes to > 50% of the antioxidant capacity of the blood. There is still no consensus if UA is a protective or a risk factor, however, it seems that acute elevation is a protective factor, whereas chronic elevation a risk for disease.

  8. Transport properties and association behaviour of the zwitterionic drug 5-aminolevulinic acid in water. A precision conductometric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merclin, Nadia; Beronius, Per

    2004-02-01

    The behavior of the hydrochloride salt of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA-HCl) with respect to transport properties and dissociation in aqueous solution at 25 degrees C has been studied using precision conductometry within the concentration range 0.24-5.17mM. The conductivity data are interpreted according to elaborated conductance theory. The carboxyl group appears to be, in practice, undissociated. The dissociation constant, K(a), of the NH(3)(+) form of the amino acid molecules is determined to 6.78x10(-5) (molarity scale); pK(a)=4.17. The limiting molar conductivity of the ALA-H(+) ion, lambda(0)=33.5cm(2)Omega(-1)mol(-1); electric mobility u=3.47x10(-4)cm(2)V(-1)s(-1), is close to the electric mobilites of the acetate and benzoic ions.

  9. Process for the winning of a concentrate containing uranium and purified phosphoric acid, as well as the concentrate containing uranium and purified phosphoric acid obtained by this process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The uranium containing concentrate and purified phosphoric acid are obtained by treating wet phosphoric acid with an inorganic fluorine compound (ammonium fluoride) and an aliphatic ketone (acetone) in the presence of a reducing agent (finely divided iron). The ketone is added first and the formed uranium precipitate is separated from the solution. If the fluorine compound is added first, the yield is lowered by a factor of 2. (Th.P.)

  10. Organosulfates and organic acids in Arctic aerosols: speciation, annual variation and concentration levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, A. M. K.; Kristensen, K.; Nguyen, Q. T.; Zare, A.; Cozzi, F.; Nøjgaard, J. K.; Skov, H.; Brandt, J.; Christensen, J. H.; Ström, J.; Tunved, P.; Krejci, R.; Glasius, M.

    2014-08-01

    Sources, composition and occurrence of secondary organic aerosols in the Arctic were investigated at Zeppelin Mountain, Svalbard, and Station Nord, northeastern Greenland, during the full annual cycle of 2008 and 2010, respectively. Speciation of organic acids, organosulfates and nitrooxy organosulfates - from both anthropogenic and biogenic precursors were in focus. A total of 11 organic acids (terpenylic acid, benzoic acid, phthalic acid, pinic acid, suberic acid, azelaic acid, adipic acid, pimelic acid, pinonic acid, diaterpenylic acid acetate and 3-methyl-1,2,3-butanetricarboxylic acid), 12 organosulfates and 1 nitrooxy organosulfate were identified in aerosol samples from the two sites using a high-performance liquid chromatograph (HPLC) coupled to a quadrupole Time-of-Flight mass spectrometer. At Station Nord, compound concentrations followed a distinct annual pattern, where high mean concentrations of organosulfates (47 ± 14 ng m-3) and organic acids (11.5 ± 4 ng m-3) were observed in January, February and March, contrary to considerably lower mean concentrations of organosulfates (2 ± 3 ng m-3) and organic acids (2.2 ± 1 ng m-3) observed during the rest of the year. At Zeppelin Mountain, organosulfate and organic acid concentrations remained relatively constant during most of the year at a mean concentration of 15 ± 4 ng m-3 and 3.9 ± 1 ng m-3, respectively. However during four weeks of spring, remarkably higher concentrations of total organosulfates (23-36 ng m-3) and total organic acids (7-10 ng m-3) were observed. Elevated organosulfate and organic acid concentrations coincided with the Arctic haze period at both stations, where northern Eurasia was identified as the main source region. Air mass transport from northern Eurasia to Zeppelin Mountain was associated with a 100% increase in the number of detected organosulfate species compared with periods of air mass transport from the Arctic Ocean, Scandinavia and Greenland. The results from this

  11. Rheology of dilute acid hydrolyzed corn stover at high solids concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrhardt, M R; Monz, T O; Root, T W; Connelly, R K; Scott, C T; Klingenberg, D J

    2010-02-01

    The rheological properties of acid hydrolyzed corn stover at high solids concentration (20-35 wt.%) were investigated using torque rheometry. These materials are yield stress fluids whose rheological properties can be well represented by the Bingham model. Yield stresses increase with increasing solids concentration and decrease with increasing hydrolysis reaction temperature, acid concentration, and rheometer temperature. Plastic viscosities increase with increasing solids concentration and tend to decrease with increasing reaction temperature and acid concentration. The solids concentration dependence of the yield stress is consistent with that reported for other fibrous systems. The changes in yield stress with reaction conditions are consistent with observed changes in particle size. This study illustrates that torque rheometry can be used effectively to measure rheological properties of concentrated biomass.

  12. Study of the interaction metallic cation - ligand in concentrated phosphorus acid media; Etude de l'interaction cation metallique - ligand en milieu acide phosphorique concentre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sefiani, N.; Azzi, M.; Hlaibi, M. [Faculte des Sciences Ain Chock, Laboratoire d' Electrochimie et Chimie de l' Environnement (LECE), Casablanca (Morocco); Kossair, A. [Centre de Recherche des Phosphates Mineraux (CERPHOS), Casablanca (Morocco)

    2005-07-01

    The phosphoric acid is more and more used with a high purity. The recovery of recycling element (uranium, vanadium, rare earth...) and the elimination of toxic element (cadmium, molybdenum, lead...) contained in the phosphoric acid are generally realized by extraction or precipitation. It is then very important to understand these impurities behavior in the phosphoric media in order to control their elimination. In this work, the authors considered the presence of some metallic cations (V, Al, fe, U) and fluorides ions as impurity in concentrated phosphoric acid media. (A.L.B.)

  13. Effect of strenuous exercise on urine concentrations of homovanillic acid, cortisol, and vanillylmandelic acid in sled dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durocher, Lawren L; Hinchcliff, Kenneth W; Williamson, Kathy K; McKenzie, Erica C; Holbrook, Todd C; Willard, Michael; Royer, Chris M; Davis, Michael S

    2007-01-01

    To determine whether prolonged exercise by conditioned sled dogs affects urine concentrations of homovanillic acid (a metabolite of dopamine), vanillylmandelic acid (a metabolite of norepinephrine and epinephrine), and cortisol. 24 conditioned Alaskan sled dogs (2 to 8.5 years old) that were in training for a multiday endurance race. Voided urine samples were collected from 4 groups of dogs (randomly selected from 54 dogs) after no exercise (control group; n = 6 dogs), completion of a 160km run (group A; 3), completion of a 420-km run (group B; 7), and completion of a 560-km run (group C; 6). Urine cortisol concentrations were determined by use of an immunoassay technique; urine vanillylmandelic acid and homovanillic acid concentrations were measured via high-performance liquid chromatography. Compared with the control group, urine cortisol concentration in groups A, B, and C was significantly different (5.33 x 10(4) +/- 2.62 x 10(4) microg/dL vs 1.04 x 10(4) +/- 2.31 x 10(5) microg/dL, 8.88 x 10(4) +/- 5.49 x 10(4) microg/dL, and 6.31 x 10(4) +/- 5.09 x 10(4) microg/dL, respectively). Urine homovanillic acid concentration did not differ among the 4 groups. Vanillylmandelic acid was not detected in any urine samples. Results indicated that prolonged exercise by sled dogs did not affect urine homovanillic acid concentration but did increase urinary cortisol secretion, which is indicative of adrenocortical stimulation. The apparent lack of vanillylmandelic acid in voided urine samples requires further investigation.

  14. Recovery of uranium in the production of concentrated phosphoric acid by a hemihydrate process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, S.; Miyamoto, M.

    1983-01-01

    Nissan Chemical Industries as manufacturers of phosphoric acid have studied the recovery of uranium, based on a concentrated phosphoric acid production process. The process consists of two stages, a hemihydrate stage with a formation of hemihydrate and a filtration section, followed by a dihydrate stage with hydration and a filtration section. In the hemihydrate stage, phosphate is treated with a mixture of phosphoric acid and sulphuric acid to produce phosphoric acid and hydrous calcium sulphate; the product is recovered in the filtration section and its concentration is 40-50% P 2 O 3 . In the dihydrate stage, the hemihydrate is transformed by re-dissolution and hydration, producing hydrous calcium sulphate, i.e. gypsum. This process therefore comprises two parts, each with different acid concentrations. As the extraction of uranium is easier in the case of a low concentration of phosphoric acid, the process consists of the recovery of uranium starting from the filtrate of the hydration section. The tests have shown that the yield of recovery of uranium was of the order of 80% disregarding the handling losses and no disadvantageous effect has been found in the combination of the process of uranium extraction with the process of concentrated phosphoric acid production. Compared with the classical process where uranium is recovered from acid with 30% P 2 O 5 , the process of producing high-concentration phosphoric acid such as the Nissan process, in which the uranium recovery is effected from acid with 15% P 2 O 5 from the hydration section, presents many advantages [fr

  15. Relationship between adipic acid concentration and the core symptoms of autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig-Alcaraz, Carmen; Fuentes-Albero, Milagros; Cauli, Omar

    2016-08-30

    Dicarboxylic acids are an important source of information about metabolism and potential physiopathological alterations in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). We measured the concentration between dicarboxylic adipic and suberic acids in children with an ASD and typically-developing (TD) children and analyzed any relationships between the severity of the core symptoms of ASDs and other clinical features (drugs, supplements, drugs, or diet). The core symptoms of autism were evaluated using the DSM-IV criteria, and adipic acid and suberic acid were measured in urine samples. Overall, no increase in the concentration of adipic acid in children with ASDs compared to TD children, however when considering vitamin B supplementation in ASD there were significantly increased level of urinary adipic acid in children with an ASD not taking vitamin B supplementation compared to supplemented children or to TD children. No significant difference were observed in suberic acid. Interestingly, the increase in adipic acid concentration was significantly and indirectly correlated with the severity of the deficit in socialization and communication skills in children with an ASD. Therefore, therapeutic treatments aimed at decreasing adipic acid concentration might not be beneficial for treating the core symptoms of ASDs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Cheese intake lowers plasma cholesterol concentrations without increasing bile acid excretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie B. Hjerpsted

    2016-03-01

    Conclusion: We were not able to confirm the hypothesis that calcium from cheese increases the excretion of fecal bile acids. Therefore, the mechanisms responsible for the lowering of cholesterol concentrations with cheese compared to butter intake remains unresolved.

  17. Using Simple Quadratic Equations to Estimate Equilibrium Concentrations of an Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brilleslyper, Michael A.

    2004-01-01

    Application of quadratic equations to standard problem in chemistry like finding equilibrium concentrations of ions in an acid solution is explained. This clearly shows that pure mathematical analysis has meaningful applications in other areas as well.

  18. ATP requirements for benzoic acid tolerance in Zygosaccharomyces bailii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyva, J S; Peinado, J M

    2005-01-01

    To calculate the energetic requirements for benzoic acid tolerance in Zygosaccharomyces bailii in chemostat experiments. A 5.6-l stirred-tank chemostat was used. The yield of ATP (Y(ATP)) was calculated under nitrogen atmosphere, assuming equimolar ATP and ethanol production. Under these conditions Y(ATP), equal to 20 g mol(-1) of ATP, was not affected by the acid, whereas the maintenance coefficient (m(ATP)) increased from 1.0 mmol of ATP g(-1) h(-1) in the absence of the acid to 4.8 in the presence of 0.67 mmol l(-1) undissociated benzoic acid. These ATP requirements were similar to those found in Saccharomyces cerevisiae with other weak acids. No significant differences have been found in the energy expended to cope with the acid between sensitive and tolerant species. Therefore, the main difference between tolerant and sensitive species could rely on cellular features that would not need extra energy in terms of ATP. The potential mechanisms involved in the tolerance to weak acids in yeasts have been extensively studied but their actual relevance has not been assessed. Our results suggest that future efforts should concentrate on nonexpending energy features as membrane permeability and metabolic tolerance in the cytoplasm.

  19. Organosulfates and organic acids in Arctic aerosols: speciation, annual variation and concentration levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, A. M. K.; Kristensen, K.; Nguyen, Q. T.; Zare, A.; Cozzi, F.; Nøjgaard, J. K.; Skov, H.; Brandt, J.; Christensen, J. H.; Ström, J.; Tunved, P.; Krejci, R.; Glasius, M.

    2014-02-01

    Sources, composition and occurrence of secondary organic aerosols (SOA) in the Arctic were investigated at Zeppelin Mountain, Svalbard, and Station Nord, northeast Greenland, during the full annual cycle of 2008 and 2010 respectively. We focused on the speciation of three types of SOA tracers: organic acids, organosulfates and nitrooxy organosulfates from both anthropogenic and biogenic precursors, here presenting organosulfate concentrations and compositions during a full annual cycle and chemical speciation of organosulfates in Arctic aerosols for the first time. Aerosol samples were analysed using High Performance Liquid Chromatography coupled to a quadrupole Time-of-Flight mass spectrometer (HPLC-q-TOF-MS). A total of 11 organic acids (terpenylic acid, benzoic acid, phthalic acid, pinic acid, suberic acid, azelaic acid, adipic acid, pimelic acid, pinonic acid, diaterpenylic acid acetate (DTAA) and 3-methyl-1,2,3-butanetricarboxylic acid (MBTCA)), 12 organosulfates and one nitrooxy organosulfate were identified at the two sites. Six out of the 12 organosulfates are reported for the first time. Concentrations of organosulfates follow a distinct annual pattern at Station Nord, where high concentration were observed in late winter and early spring, with a mean total concentration of 47 (±14) ng m-3, accounting for 7 (±2)% of total organic matter, contrary to a considerably lower organosulfate mean concentration of 2 (±3) ng m-3 (accounting for 1 (±1)% of total organic matter) observed during the rest of the year. The organic acids followed the same temporal trend as the organosulfates at Station Nord; however the variations in organic acid concentrations were less pronounced, with a total mean organic acid concentration of 11.5 (±4) ng m-3 (accounting for 1.7 (±0.6)% of total organic matter) in late winter and early spring, and 2.2 (±1) ng m-3 (accounting for 0.9 (±0.4)% of total organic matter) during the rest of the year. At Zeppelin Mountain

  20. Nitrogen balance, plasma free amino acid concentrations and urinary orotic acid excretion during long-term fasting in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biourge, V; Groff, J M; Fisher, C; Bee, D; Morris, J G; Rogers, Q R

    1994-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to ascertain the changes in nitrogen balance, plasma free amino acid concentrations, urinary orotic acid excretion and body weight during long-term fasting in adult obese cats. Results from eight cats that fasted rather than eat an unpalatable diet are reported. After 5 to 6 wk of weight loss, six of the eight cats developed signs of hepatic lipidosis, and the livers of all cats were severely infiltrated with lipids. Cats lost (mean +/- SE) 33.2 +/- 1.4% of their pre-fasting body weight. Mean nitrogen balance (+/- SE) was -547 +/- 54 mg.d-1.kg-2/3 for the first week, and then the net nitrogen losses decreased to a plateau (-303 +/- 52 mg.d-1.kg-2/3) after 4 wk. Fasting was associated with a decrease in plasma concentration of essential amino acids. When plasma amino acid concentrations were considered individually, concentrations of alanine, methionine, taurine, citrulline, arginine and tryptophan decreased the most (> or = 50%), whereas concentrations of glutamine, glutamate and ornithine significantly increased. Orotic acid was not detected in the urine during the fast. After 1 wk of fasting, obese cats had reduced nitrogen excretion, but not to the same extent as has been shown in obese humans or obese rats. It is suggested that the availability of several amino acids may become limiting for liver protein synthesis during fasting and that these deficiencies may contribute to the development of hepatic lipidosis. Orotic acid was not linked to hepatic lipidosis caused by fasting in cats.

  1. Peripartum cardiomyopathy is associated with increased uric acid concentrations: A population based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagy, Iftach; Salman, Amjad Abu; Kezerle, Louise; Erez, Offer; Yoel, Idan; Barski, Leonid

    Peri-partum cardiomyopathy (PPCM) is a clinical heart failure that usually develops during the final stage of pregnancy or the first months following delivery. High maternal serum uric acid concentrations have been previous associated with heart failure and preeclampsia. 1) To explored the clinical characteristics of PPCM patients; and 2) to determine the association between maternal serum uric acid concentrations and PPCM. This is a retrospective population based case control study. Cases and controls were matched 1:4 (for gestational age, medical history of cardiac conditions and creatinine); conditional logistic regression was used to identify clinical parameters that were associated with PPCM. The prevalence of peripartum cardiomyopathy at our institution was 1-3832 deliveries (42/160,964). In a matched multivariate analysis high maternal serum uric acid concentrations were associated with PPCM (O.R 1.336, 95% C.I 1.003-1.778). Uric acid concentrations were higher within the Non-Jewish patients and mothers of male infant with PPCM in compare to those without PPCM (p value 0.003 and 0.01 respectively). PPCM patients had increased maternal serum uric acid concentrations. This observation aligns with previous report regarding the increased uric acid concentration in women with preeclampsia and congestive heart failure, suggestive of a common underlying mechanism that mediates the myocardial damage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of Oral Glucosamine Hydrochloride Administration on Plasma Free Amino Acid Concentrations in Dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saburo Minami

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available We examined the effects of oral glucosamine hydrochloride (GlcN, N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (GlcNAc and D-glucose (Glc administration on plasma total free amino acid (PFAA concentrations in dogs. The PFAA concentrations increased in the control group and the GlcNAc group at one hour after feeding, and each amino acid concentration increased. On the other hand, in the GlcN group and the Glc group PFAA concentrations decreased at one hour after feeding. A significant decrease in amino acid concentration was observed for glutamate, glycine and alanine. Our results suggest the existence of differences in PFAA dynamics after oral administration of GlcN and GlcNAc in dogs.

  3. Dissolution behaviour of freibergite-tetrahedrite concentrate in acidic dichromate solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh Nyamdelger

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Asgat ore sample with estimated content of 431g/t silver was concentrated by using floatation method and obtained freibergite-tetrahedrite concentrate with 9050g/t Ag, 35.75% Cu, 28.5% Sb and 10.6% Fe, respectively. The dissolution of concentrate in acidic potassium dichromate solution has been investigated with respect to the sulfuric acid and potassium dichromate concentrations and by changing leaching temperature and time. Leaching freibergitetetrahedrite concentrate in dichromate acidic solution (K2Cr2O7-0.1M, H2SO4-0.4M leaching time 4h, leaching temperature 95°С resulted total amount of leaching of 95.65 % silver, 93.85% copper, 99.86 % antimony and 30.18% iron. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5564/mjc.v14i0.196 Mongolian Journal of Chemistry 14 (40, 2013, p36-40

  4. Effect of citric acid concentration and hydrolysis time on physicochemical properties of sweet potato starches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surendra Babu, Ayenampudi; Parimalavalli, Ramanathan; Rudra, Shalini Gaur

    2015-09-01

    Physicochemical properties of citric acid treated sweet potato starches were investigated in the present study. Sweet potato starch was hydrolyzed using citric acid with different concentrations (1 and 5%) and time periods (1 and 11 h) at 45 °C and was denoted as citric acid treated starch (CTS1 to CTS4) based on their experimental conditions. The recovery yield of acid treated starches was above 85%. The CTS4 sample displayed the highest amylose (around 31%) and water holding capacity its melting temperature was 47.66 °C. The digestibility rate was slightly increased for 78.58% for the CTS3 and CTS4. The gel strength of acid modified starches ranged from 0.27 kg to 1.11 kg. RVA results of acid thinned starches confirmed a low viscosity profile. CTS3 starch illustrated lower enthalpy compared to all other modified starches. All starch samples exhibited a shear-thinning behavior. SEM analysis revealed that the extent of visible degradation was increased at higher hydrolysis time and acid concentration. The CTS3 satisfied the criteria required for starch to act as a fat mimetic. Overall results conveyed that the citric acid treatment of sweet potato starch with 5% acid concentration and 11h period was an ideal condition for the preparation of a fat replacer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Does Nitric Acid Dissociate at the Aqueous Solution Surface?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, Tanza; Winter, Berndt; Stern, Abraham C.; Baer, Marcel D.; Mundy, Christopher J.; Tobias, Douglas J.; Hemminger, J. C.

    2011-11-03

    Nitric acid is a prevalent component of atmospheric aerosols, and the extent of nitric acid dissociation at aqueous interfaces is relevant to its role in heterogeneous atmospheric chemistry. Several experimental and theoretical studies have suggested that the extent of dissociation of nitric acid near aqueous interfaces is less than in bulk solution. Here, dissociation of HNO3 at the surface of aqueous nitric acid is quantified using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of the nitrogen local electronic structure. The relative amounts of undissociated HNO3(aq) and dissociated NO3-(aq) are identified by the distinguishable N1s core-level photoelectron spectra of the two species, and we determine the degree of dissociation, αint, in the interface (the first ~3 layers of solution) as a function of HNO3 concentration. Our measurements show that dissociation is decreased by approximately 20% near the solution interface compared with bulk, and furthermore that dissociation occurs even in the top-most solution layer. The experimental results are supported by first-principles MD simulations, which show that hydrogen-bonds between HNO3 and water molecules at the solution surface stabilize the molecular form at low concentration, in analogy to the stabilization of molecular HNO3 that occurs in bulk solution at high concentration. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Chemical Sciences program. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for DOE.

  6. Association between the blood concentrations of ammonia and carnitine/amino acid of schizophrenic patients treated with valproic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Masazumi; Amayasu, Hideaki; Itai, Takahiro; Yoshida, Hisahiro

    2017-01-01

    Administration of valproic acid (VPA) is complicated with approximately 0.9% of patients developing hyperammonemia, but the pathogenesis of this adverse effect remains to be clarified. The aim of the present study was to search for mechanisms associated with VPA-induced hyperammonemia in the light of changes in serum amino acids concentrations associated with the urea cycle of schizophrenic patients. Blood samples (10 mL) were obtained from 37 schizophrenic patients receiving VPA for the prevention of violent behaviors in the morning after overnight fast. Blood concentrations of ammonia, VPA, free carnitine, acyl-carnitine, and 40 amino acids including glutamate and citrulline were measured for each patient. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were performed to identify amino acids or concomitantly administered drugs that were associated with variability in the blood concentrations of ammonia. The blood ammonia level was positively correlated with the serum glutamate concentration ( r  = 0.44, p  blonanserin ( p  < 0.01) was positively associated with the elevation of the blood ammonia level. We hypothisized that VPA would elevate the blood ammonia level of schizophrenic patients. The observed changes in serum amino acids are compatible with urea cycle dysfunction, possibly due to reduced carbamoyl-phosphate synthase 1 (CPS1) activity. We conclude that VPA should be prudently prescribed to schizophrenic patients, particularly those receiving mood stabilizers or certain antipsychotics.

  7. Green biorefinery: separation of lactic acid from grass silage juice by chromatography using neutral polymeric resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thang, Vu Hong; Novalin, Senad

    2008-07-01

    The aim of this work was to recover lactic acid in undissociated form from grass silage juice. For this aim, chromatographic separation using neutral polymeric resin Amberlite XAD1600 was investigated. Up to now, there is no hint in the literatures about using neutral polymeric resin for lactic acid separation from a mixture. Important factors (flow-rate, concentration of feed and loaded volume) that affect separation performance were firstly investigated with model solutions. The obtained results showed that lactic acid solutions with the purity varying from 93.2% to 99.9% could be obtained at the recovery yields over 99.4%. After that, trials with silage juice were carried out. Due to the complex composition of the feed, the purity of products decreased to 94% at a recovery yield of 97%. Although 99% of inorganic salts and sugars were separated from lactic acid organic acids in general and acetic acid in particular caused a purity problem. It seems that organic acids could not be separated from lactic acid by neutral resin Amberlite XAD1600. Besides the organic acid problem, some amino acids were remained in the products as impurities.

  8. Time-dependent changes in the plasma amino acid concentration in diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochida, Taiga; Tanaka, Takayuki; Shiraki, Yasuko; Tajiri, Hiroko; Matsumoto, Shirou; Shimbo, Kazutaka; Ando, Toshihiko; Nakamura, Kimitoshi; Okamoto, Masahiro; Endo, Fumio

    2011-08-01

    We investigated longitudinal change in the amino acid (AA) profile in type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM) using AKITA mice, which develop DM as a result of insulin deficiency. The plasma concentrations of valine, leucine, isoleucine, as well as the total branched chain amino acids, alanine, citrulline and proline, were significantly higher in the diabetic mice. We show that the degree and timing of the changes were different among the plasma amino acid concentrations (pAAs) during the development of type 1 DM. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Electrophysiological studies of salty taste modification by organic acids in the labellar taste cell of the blowfly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Yoshihiro; Kataoka-Shirasugi, Naoko; Amakawa, Taisaku

    2002-01-01

    Using the labellar salt receptor cells of the blowfly, Phormia regina, we electrophysiologically showed that the response to NaCl and KCl aqueous solutions was enhanced and depressed by acetic, succinic and citric acids. The organic acid concentrations at which the most enhanced salt response (MESR) was obtained were found to be different: 0.05-1 mM citric acid, 0.5-2 mM succinic acid and 5-50 mM acetic acid. Moreover, the degree of the salt response was not always dependent on the pH values of the stimulating solutions. The salt response was also enhanced by HCl (pH 3.5-3.0) only when the NaCl concentration was greater than the threshold, indicating that the salty taste would be enhanced by the comparatively lower concentrations of hydrogen ions. Another explanation for the enhancement is that the salty taste may also be enhanced by undissociated molecules of the organic acids, because the MESRs were obtained at the pH values lower than the pKa(1) or pKa(2) values of these organic acids. On the other hand, the salty taste could be depressed by both the lower pH range (pH 2.5-2.0) and the dissociated organic anions from organic acid molecules with at least two carboxyl groups.

  10. Rheology of dilute acid hydrolyzed corn stover at high solids concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.R. Ehrhardt; T.O. Monz; T.W. Root; R.K. Connelly; Tim Scott; D.J. Klingenberg

    2010-01-01

    The rheological properties of acid hydrolyzed corn stover at high solids concentration (20–35 wt.%) were investigated using torque rheometry. These materials are yield stress fluids whose rheological properties can be well represented by the Bingham model. Yield stresses increase with increasing solids concentration and decrease with increasing hydrolysis reaction...

  11. Relationships between fruit nutrients and concentrations of flavonoids and chlorogenic acid in 'Elstar' apple skin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Awad, M.A.; Jager, de A.

    2002-01-01

    The relationships between fruit N, P, K, Mg and Ca concentrations during the season and flavonoid and chlorogenic acid concentrations in skin of `Elstar¿ apples at maturity have been studied during three seasons in a nutrition experiment (with the mutant `Elshof¿), and in a separate experiment with

  12. Critical phenomena in ethylbenzene oxidation in acetic acid solution at high cobalt(II) concentrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gavrichkov, AA; Zakharov, [No Value

    Critical phenomena in ethylbenzene oxidation in an acetic acid solution at high cobalt(ill) concentrations (from 0.01 to 0.2 mol L-1) were studied at 60-90 degrees C by the gasometric (O-2 absorption), spectrophotometric (Co-III accumulation), and chemiluminescence (relative concentration of radical

  13. Influence of zirconium ion concentration in model extraction systems TBP - diluents - Zr+4 - nitric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogoz, F.; Tlalka, M.

    1987-07-01

    In systems containing TBP, MBP, DBP and 1-butanol stable emulsions and precipitates are formed which separation is difficult in certain domain of concentration in zirconium ions. MPB and DBP increase stability of primary emulsion in kerosen and carbon tetrachloride but for different concentrations of nitric acid. Addition of 1-butanol decreases slightly the stability of primary emulsion [fr

  14. Serum uric acid concentrations are directly associated with the presence of benign multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simental-Mendía, Esteban; Simental-Mendía, Luis E; Guerrero-Romero, Fernando

    2017-09-01

    It has been reported that patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) exhibit lower serum uric acid levels; however, the association between uric acid concentrations and benign MS (BMS) has not been assessed. Hence, the objective of the present study was to determine whether the serum concentrations of uric acid are associated with the presence of BMS. Men and non-pregnant women over 16 years of age with diagnosis of MS were enrolled in a cross-sectional study. Expanded Disability Status Scale score acid were exclusion criteria. According to subtype of disease, the eligible patients were allocated into groups with BMS and other varieties of MS. A logistic regression analysis was conducted in order to evaluate the association between serum concentrations of uric acid and BMS. A total of 106 patients were included, 39 in the group with BMS and 67 in the group with other varieties of MS. The logistic regression analysis adjusted by age, sex, and disease duration showed that increased concentrations of uric acid, indeed within the physiological levels, are significantly associated with the presence of BMS (OR = 2.60; 95% CI: 1.55-4.38, p uric acid, indeed within the physiological range, are likely linked to the presence of BMS.

  15. Influence of phytic acid concentration on performance of phytic acid conversion coatings on the AZ91D magnesium alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui Xiufang [School of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, Harbin Engineering University, 145 Nantong Street, Harbin 150001 (China); State Key Laboratory for Corrosion and Protection, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 62 Wencui Road, Shenyang 110016 (China)], E-mail: cuixf97721@yahoo.com.cn; Li Ying [State Key Laboratory for Corrosion and Protection, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 62 Wencui Road, Shenyang 110016 (China); Li Qingfen; Jin Guo; Ding Minghui [School of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, Harbin Engineering University, 145 Nantong Street, Harbin 150001 (China); Wang Fuhui [School of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, Harbin Engineering University, 145 Nantong Street, Harbin 150001 (China); State Key Laboratory for Corrosion and Protection, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 62 Wencui Road, Shenyang 110016 (China)

    2008-10-15

    In this study, the phytic acid conversion coating, a new environmentally friendly chemical protective coating for magnesium alloys, was prepared. The influences of phytic acid concentration on the formation process, microstructure, chemical state and corrosion resistance of the conversion coatings on AZ91D magnesium alloy were investigated by means of weight gain measurement, field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, potentiodynamic polarization method and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), respectively. And the depth profile of all elements in the optimal conversion coatings was analyzed by auger electron spectroscopy (AES). The results show that the growth, microstructure, chemical state and corrosion resistance of the conversion coatings are all obviously affected by the phytic acid concentration. The concentration of 5 g l{sup -1} corresponds to the maximum weight gain. The main elements of the coating are Mg, Al, O, P, and C, which are distributed gradually in depth. The functional groups of conversion coatings formed in higher concentration phytic acid solution are closer to the constituent of phytic acid than those formed in lower concentration phytic acid solution. The coatings formed in 1-5 g l{sup -1} are integrated and uniform. However, those formed in 20-50 g l{sup -1} have some micro-cracks on the {alpha} phase. The coating formed in 5 g l{sup -1} has the best corrosion resistance, whose open circuit current density decreases about six orders than that of the untreated sample, although the coatings deposited in 1-20 g l{sup -1} can all improve the corrosion resistance of AZ91D.

  16. EFFECT OF ETCHING TIME AND ACID CONCENTRATION ON MICROMORPHOLOGICAL CHANGES IN DENTIN OF BOTH DENTITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Gateva

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to compare micro morphological changes in primary and permanent dentin after etching with phosphoric acid (20% and 37,5% for 7 and 15 sec. by SEM. Material and methods: The study included 42 primary and permanent teeth, divided into 8 groups by etching time and acid concentration. Enamel and dentin were removed from the vestibular area and after the expiration of etching time samples were washed with water-air stream and dried with light airflow. From each sample 10 magnified images were made from central vestibular area. The cleaning effect was measured in percentage, as a ratio between the numbers of uncleaned tubules to the total tubules. Results were analyzed with One-way and MANOVA. Post hoc Multiple Comparisons test – SPSS 19 was applied. Results: The proportion of uncleaned tubules in primary teeth was higher than that of permanent teeth at acid concentration of 20%. At a concentration of 37.5% this relationship is reversed. At 7 sec there was a bigger difference between the share of uncleaned tubules for primary and permanent teeth, while at 15 sec this difference virtually disappears. The difference in the proportion of uncleaned tubules between the two acid concentrations at 7 seconds etching is significantly greater compared to the same difference between the two acid concentrations by etching for 15 sec. Conclusion: Effectively removed smear layer and no precipitate was observed in primary teeth even at 7 seconds etching with 37.5% acid.

  17. Alterations in serum amino acid concentrations in dogs with protein-losing enteropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathrani, Aarti; Allenspach, Karin; Fascetti, Andrea J; Larsen, Jennifer A; Hall, Edward J

    2018-03-31

    Certain amino acids are decreased in humans with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and supplementation with the same amino acids has shown beneficial effects in animal models of IBD. Currently, the amino acid status of dogs with protein-losing enteropathy (PLE) is unknown. To determine if serum amino acid concentrations are abnormal in dogs with PLE and correlated with clinical and laboratory variables and outcome. Thirty client-owned dogs diagnosed with PLE and 12 apparently healthy dogs seen at Bristol Veterinary School. Retrospective study using stored residual serum from fasted dogs with PLE, collected at the time of diagnostic investigation and from apparently healthy dogs. Serum was analyzed for 30 amino acids using an automated high-performance liquid chromatography amino acid analyzer. Serum tryptophan concentrations were significantly decreased in dogs with PLE (median, 22 nmol/mL; range, 1-80 nmol/mL) compared with apparently healthy control dogs (median, 77.5 nmol/mL; range, 42-135 nmol/mL, P PLE and apparently healthy. Serum tryptophan concentrations were also significantly correlated with serum albumin concentrations in dogs with PLE (P = .001, R 2 = 0.506). Decreased serum tryptophan concentration might play a role in the pathogenesis of canine PLE or be a consequence of the disease. © 2018 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  18. THE EFFECTS OF ANIMAL AGE AND ACETIC ACID CONCENTRATION ON PIGSKIN GELATIN CHARACTERISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Pranoto

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This research was aimed to study the influence of animal age and concentration of the acetic acid solution on physical and chemical properties of pigskin gelatin. The experiment used Completely Randomized Design (CRD with two factors. The first factor was animal age consisted of 3 levels (5, 7 and 9 months. The second factor was concentration of acetic acid solution consisted of 3 levels (2, 4 and 6 percents. The result showed that animal age had significant effect (P0.05 on the yields, gel strength, viscosity, protein content and pH value. It was concluded that pigskin gelatin from ages of 5, 7 and 9 months and acetic acid concentration of 2, 4 and 6% had similar characteristics to the commercial gelatin, but the optimum production of gelatin was combination of pigskin gelatin from 7 months and of 2% acetic acid.

  19. Cheese intake lowers plasma cholesterol concentrations without increasing bile acid excretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjerpsted, Julie Bousgaard; Dragsted, Lars Ove; Tholstrup, Tine

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Cheese is a dairy product with high calcium content. It has been suggested that calcium intake may increase fecal excretion of bile acids that would cause a regeneration of bile acids from hepatic cholesterol and thereby result in a lowering of plasma cholesterol concentrations. We aimed...... with 13% energy from cheese or butter. Results After 6 weeks of intervention cheese resulted in higher amounts of calcium excreted in feces compared to butter. However, no difference was observed in fecal bile acid output despite lower serum total, LDL and HDL cholesterol concentrations observed...... with cheese intake. Conclusion We were not able to confirm the hypothesis that calcium from cheese increases the excretion of fecal bile acids. Therefore, the mechanisms responsible for the lowering of cholesterol concentrations with cheese compared to butter intake remains unresolved....

  20. Influence of concentration in phosphoric acid treatment of titanium oxide and their powder properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroaki Onoda

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Titanium oxide that has the photocatalytic activity is used as a white pigment for cosmetics. A certain degree of sebum on the skin is decomposed by the ultraviolet radiation in sunlight. In this work, titanium oxide was shaken with various concentrations of phosphoric acid to synthesize a novel white pigment for cosmetics. Their chemical composition, powder properties, photocatalytic activity, color phase, and smoothness were studied. The obtained materials indicated XRD peaks of titanium oxide; however, these peak intensities became weak by phosphoric acid treatment. The photocatalytic activity of the obtained powders became weak by phosphoric acid treatment to protect the sebum on the skin. The high concentration of phosphoric acid was suitable to obtain a novel white pigment in the phosphoric acid treatment of titanium oxide.

  1. Secular trend of serum docosahexaenoic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, and arachidonic acid concentrations among Japanese-a 4- and 13-year descriptive epidemiologic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuka, Rei; Kato, Yuki; Imai, Tomoko; Ando, Fujiko; Shimokata, Hiroshi

    2015-03-01

    Cross-sectional studies have shown age-related increases in blood docosahexaenoic and eicosapentaenoic acid and decreases in arachidonic acid. We describe serum docosahexaenoic, eicosapentaenoic, and arachidonic acid concentrations over 13 years (1997-2012) across four study waves and serum fatty acid composition over 4 years (2006-2012) between two study waves according to age groups by sex in the same subjects. We included 443 men and 435 women aged 40-79 years at baseline. Serum arachidonic acid concentrations increased in all sex and age groups over 13 years, and eicosapentaenoic or docosahexaenoic acid concentrations increased in males and females who were younger and middle-aged at baseline. Only serum arachidonic acid composition increased over 4 years in men and women who were 40-69 years at baseline, even after adjustment for arachidonic acid intake. These findings suggest a secular increase trend in serum arachidonic acid levels over 13 years among randomly selected community-dwelling middle-aged and elderly Japanese. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Comparison of XAD macroporous resins for the concentration of fulvic acid from aqueous solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiken, G.R.

    1979-01-01

    Five macroreticular, nonlonlc AmberlHe XAD resins were evaluated for concentration and Isolation of fulvlc acid from aqueous solution. The capacity of each resin for fulvlc acid was measured by both batch and column techniques. Elution efficiencies were determined by desorptlon with 0.1 N NaOH. Highest recoveries were obtained with the acrylic ester resins which proved to be most efficient for both adsorption and elution of fulvlc acid. Compared to the acrylic ester resins, usefulness of the styrene dvlnybenzene resins to remove fulvlc acid is limited because of slow diffusion-controlled adsorption and formation of charge-transfer complexes, which hinders elution. ?? 1979 American Chemical Society.

  3. Microarray-based transcriptome of Listeria monocytogenes adapted to sublethal concentrations of acetic acid, lactic acid, and hydrochloric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessema, Girum Tadesse; Møretrø, Trond; Snipen, Lars; Heir, Even; Holck, Askild; Naterstad, Kristine; Axelsson, Lars

    2012-09-01

    Listeria monocytogenes , an important foodborne pathogen, commonly encounters organic acids in food-related environments. The transcriptome of L. monocytogenes L502 was analyzed after adaptation to pH 5 in the presence of acetic acid, lactic acid, or hydrochloric acid (HCl) at 25 °C, representing a condition encountered in mildly acidic ready-to-eat food kept at room temperature. The acid-treated cells were compared with a reference culture with a pH of 6.7 at the time of RNA harvesting. The number of genes and magnitude of transcriptional responses were higher for the organic acids than for HCl. Protein coding genes described for low pH stress, energy transport and metabolism, virulence determinates, and acid tolerance response were commonly regulated in the 3 acid-stressed cultures. Interestingly, the transcriptional levels of histidine and cell wall biosynthetic operons were upregulated, indicating possible universal response against low pH stress in L. monocytogenes. The opuCABCD operon, coding proteins for compatible solutes transport, and the transcriptional regulator sigL were significantly induced in the organic acids, strongly suggesting key roles during organic acid stress. The present study revealed the complex transcriptional responses of L. monocytogenes towards food-related acidulants and opens the roadmap for more specific and in-depth future studies.

  4. Engineering of E. coli for increased production of L- lactic acid

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-09-15

    Sep 15, 2009 ... Russel (1992) and Diez-Gonzalez and Russel (1997) as the medium pH was farther away from the internal pH maintained by the bacteria, inhibition effect increased regardless of whether the lactic acid was in the dissociated or undissociated form. Tang et al. (1989) have shown that both dissociated and ...

  5. Root colonization by symbiotic arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi increases sesquiterpenic acid concentrations in Valeriana officinalis L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nell, Monika; Wawrosch, Christoph; Steinkellner, Siegrid; Vierheilig, Horst; Kopp, Brigitte; Lössl, Andreas; Franz, Chlodwig; Novak, Johannes; Zitterl-Eglseer, Karin

    2010-03-01

    In some medicinal plants a specific plant-fungus association, known as arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis, increases the levels of secondary plant metabolites and/or plant growth. In this study, the effects of three different AM treatments on biomass and sesquiterpenic acid concentrations in two IN VITRO propagated genotypes of valerian ( VALERIANA OFFICINALIS L., Valerianaceae) were investigated. Valerenic, acetoxyvalerenic and hydroxyvalerenic acid levels were analyzed in the rhizome and in two root fractions. Two of the AM treatments significantly increased the levels of sesquiterpenic acids in the underground parts of valerian. These treatments, however, influenced the biomass of rhizomes and roots negatively. Therefore this observed increase was not accompanied by an increase in yield of sesquiterpenic acids per plant. Furthermore, one of the two genotypes had remarkably high hydroxyvalerenic acid contents and can be regarded as a hydroxyvalerenic acid chemotype. Copyright Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart New York.

  6. Wolframite Conversion in Treating a Mixed Wolframite-Scheelite Concentrate by Sulfuric Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Leiting; Li, Xiaobin; Zhou, Qiusheng; Peng, Zhihong; Liu, Guihua; Qi, Tiangui; Taskinen, Pekka

    2018-02-01

    Complete wolframite conversion in sulfuric acid is significant for expanding the applicability of the sulfuric acid method for producing ammonium paratungstate. In this paper, the conversion of wolframite in treating a mixed wolframite-scheelite concentrate by sulfuric acid was studied systematically. The results show that the conversion of wolframite in sulfuric acid is more difficult than that of scheelite, requiring rigorous reaction conditions. A solid H2WO4 layer forms on the surfaces of the wolframite particles and becomes denser with increasing H2SO4 concentration, thus hindering the conversion. Furthermore, the difficulty in wolframite conversion can be mainly attributed to the accumulation of Fe2+ (and/or Mn2+) in the H2SO4 solution, which can be solved by reducing Fe2+ (and/or Mn2+) concentration through oxidization and/or a two-stage process. Additionally, the solid converted product of the mixed wolframite-scheelite concentrate has an excellent leachability of tungsten in an aqueous ammonium carbonate solution at ambient temperature, with approximately 99% WO3 recovery. This work presents a route for manufacturing ammonium paratungstate by treating the mixed concentrate in sulfuric acid followed by leaching in ammonium carbonate solution.

  7. The concentration of free amino acids in blood serum of dairy cows with primary ketosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marczuk, J; Brodzki, P; Brodzki, A; Kurek, Ł

    2018-03-01

    Ketosis is a common condition found in the initial stages of lactation in high-yielding dairy cows. The major cause of ketosis is a negative energy balance. During the energy deficiency, proteolysis processes develop parallel to lipolysis. During proteolysis, muscle tissue can be used as a source of amino acid. To date, the participation of amino acids in gluconeogenesis (glucogenic amino acids) and ketogenesis (ketogenic amino acids) has not been determined in detail. This paper presents the study on determination of the parameters of protein and free amino acid metabolism in blood serum of dairy cows with primary ketosis compared to healthy cows. This study contributes to better understanding of the role of amino acids in pathogenesis of ketosis. A total of 30 cows, divided into two groups: experimental (15 cows with ketosis) and control (15 healthy cows), were included in the study. The concentrations of glucose, β-hydroxybutyrate, total protein, albumin, urea, and free amino acids were determined in peripheral blood. Statistically significantly higher concentrations of glutamine, glutamic acid, isoleucine (p≤0.001), and tyrosine (p≤0.05) were found in cows with primary ketosis compared to healthy cows. Significant decrease in the concentrations of asparagine, histidine, methionine, and serine (p≤0.001), alanine, leucine, lysine and proline (p≤0.05) was observed. Significant increase of total ketogenic and glucogenic amino acids (p≤0.05), and an increased ratio of total ketogenic and glucogenic amino acids to total amino acids (p≤0.001) were noted in cows with ketosis. In our study, the changes, in particular observed in amino acid concentration in cows with primary ketosis, indicate its intensive use in both ketogenesis and gluconeogenesis processes. Therefore, a detailed understanding of the role that amino acids play in gluconeogenesis and ketogenesis will improve ketosis diagnostics and monitoring the course of a ketosis episode. Perhaps, the

  8. Decreased sugar concentration in vegetable and fruit juices by growth of functional lactic acid bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Masaki; Matsumoto, Yasuhiko; Nishida, Satoshi; Sekimizu, Kazuhisa

    2017-03-22

    Leuconostoc carnosum #7-2, L. gelidum #4-2, and L. mesenteroides 8/11-3, which were isolated from fermented plant foods, are lactic acid bacteria. We previously reported that these bacteria are functional lactic acid bacteria whose innate immunity-stimulating activities are high based on a silkworm muscle contraction assay. The concentrations of these three lactic acid bacteria increased to more than 1 × 10 6 colony forming units (cfu)/mL in various vegetable and fruit juices when the pH values were appropriately adjusted. As the bacteria grew in the vegetable and fruit juices, the pH decreased and the concentrations of total sugars and glucose also decreased. These findings suggest that these functional lactic acid bacteria can be used to produce vegetable and fruit juices with reduced sugar levels, which is expected to be beneficial for human health.

  9. Effects of different sulfuric acid etching concentrations on PEEK surface bonding to resin composite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaijareenont, Pisaisit; Prakhamsai, Sasiprapha; Silthampitag, Patcharawan; Takahashi, Hidekazu; Arksornnukit, Mansuang

    2018-01-26

    This study evaluated the effects of surface pretreatment with different concentrations of sulfuric acid etching on surface properties and bonding between Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) and a resin composite. Six groups of surface pretreatment (no pretreatment, etched with 70, 80, 85, 90, and 98% sulfuric acid for 60 s) were treated on PEEK. Surface roughness, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) analyses were examined. Shear bond strength (SBS) and cross-sectional observations of the interfaces were performed. One-way ANOVA analysis revealed differences in surface roughness and SBS between groups. The 90 and 98% sulfuric acid etching significantly achieved the highest SBS (psulfuric acid etching were suggested to be the optimal concentration to improve adhesion between PEEK and the resin composite.

  10. Concentrating versus non-concentrating reactors for solar photocatalytic degradation of p-nitrotoluene-o-sulfonic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, S; Malato, S; Blanco, J; Péringer, P; Pulgari, C

    2001-01-01

    The photocatalytic oxidation of the non-biodegradable p-nitrotoluene-o-sulfonic acid (p-NTS) in homogeneous (photo-Fenton reactions) and heterogeneous (with TiO2) solutions has been studied at a pilot-scale under solar irradiation at the Plataforma Solar de Almeria (PSA). In this study two different reactors were tested: a medium concentrating radiation system (Heliomans, HM) and a non-concentrating radiation system (CPC). Their advantages and disadvantages for p-NTS degradation have been compared and discussed. The degradation rates obtained in the CPC collector are around three times more efficient than in the HM collectors. However, in both systems, 100% of the initial concentration of p-NTS was removed. Kinetic experiments were performed in both systems using TiO2 suspensions. During the photodegradation, the disappearance of p-NTS was followed by HPLC, the mineralization of the solution by the TOC technique, the evolution of NO3-, NO2-, and SO4(2-) concentration by ionic chromatography, the toxicity by the standard Microtox test, and the biodegradability by BOD5 and COD measurements. The obtained results demonstrated the utility of the heterogeneous catalysis (using TiO2 as catalyst) as a pretreatment method that can be followed by a biological process.

  11. Device for regulating light water nuclear reactors by changing the boric acid concentration in the cooling water circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, W.W.; Van der Schoot, M.R.

    1980-01-01

    Small changes in boric acid concentration can be carried out quickly by a combination of an ion exchanger with temperature-dependent capacity and an evaporator. No boric acid need be extracted from the circuit or added to it. However, if large changes of concentration are required, boric acid has to be added. The evaporator is then used to separate distilled water and concentrated boric acid when the cooling water is diluted. (DG) [de

  12. EFFECT OF ACID CONCENTRATION ON CHARACTERS OF SILICA GEL SYNTHESIZED FROM SODIUM SILICATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuryono Nuryono

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In this research, synthesis and characterization of silica gel from sodium silicate through sol-gel process using H2SO4, HCl, and citric acid have been investigated. Synthesis was carried out by mixing and stirring  20 mL of H2SO4, HCl or citric acid  at certain concentration with 50 mL of sodium silicate solution (Na2O 0.17 M and SiO2 0.61 M for one hour and let to form gel.  The gel was washed with distillated water, and dried in an oven at 100 oC. Characterization of silica gel was carried out by determination of acidity, water adsorption capacity, and water content. Identification of functional group and structure were identified using x-ray diffractometer (XRD and infrared (IR spectrophotometer, respectively.  Results showed that at a range of investigated concentration (0.6 - 3.0 M the increase of concentration, formation of gel with H2SO4 tended to be faster, but with HCl and citric acid to be slower. The increase of acid concentration caused water content, water adsorption capacity, and acidity of the silica gel resulted with HCl and citric acid tended to be increased, increased, and increased, but with H2SO4 to be decreased, increased, and decreased, respectively. Based on the IR spectra and XRD data, it could concluded that the synthetic silica gels contained silanol (Si-OH and siloxane (Si-O-Si and were amorphous, showing similar pattern to kieselgel G 60 produced by Merck.   Keywords: silica gel, adsorption capacity, sodium silicate, acidity

  13. Threshold changes in rat brain docosahexaenoic acid incorporation and concentration following graded reductions in dietary alpha-linolenic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Ameer Y.; Chang, Lisa; Chen, Mei

    2016-01-01

    Background This study tested the dietary level of alpha-linolenic acid (α-LNA, 18:3n-3) sufficient to maintain brain 14C-Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) metabolism and concentration following graded α-LNA reduction. Methods 18–21 day male Fischer-344 (CDF) rats were randomized to the AIN-93G diet containing as a % of total fatty acids, 4.6% (“n-3 adequate”), 3.6%, 2.7%, 0.9% or 0.2% (“n-3 deficient”) α-LNA for 15 weeks. Rats were intravenously infused with 14C-DHA to steady state for 5 minutes, serial blood samples collected to obtain plasma and brains excised following microwave fixation. Labeled and unlabeled DHA concentrations were measured in plasma and brain to calculate the incorporation coefficient, k*, and incorporation rate, Jin. Results Compared to 4.6% α-LNA controls, k* was significantly increased in ethanolamine glycerophospholipids in the 0.2% α-LNA group. Circulating unesterified DHA and brain incorporation rates (Jin) were significantly reduced at 0.2% α-LNA. Brain total lipid and phospholipid DHA concentrations were reduced at or below 0.9% α-LNA. Conclusion Threshold changes for brain DHA metabolism and concentration were maintained at or below 0.9% dietary α-LNA, suggesting the presence of homeostatic mechanisms to maintain brain DHA metabolism when dietary α-LNA intake is low. PMID:26869088

  14. Mass transfer during sulfuric acid concentration by evaporation into the air flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. K. Lukashov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article shows the results of the study of mass transfer under periodic concentration of sulfuric acid by evaporation inthe gas flow, neutral with respect to the components of acid.Used mathematical model for mass transferbases on the proposed simplified physical representations.This model has allowed to construct an algorithm for calculation the coefficient of mass transfer from the liquid phase into the gas flow. The algorithm uses the experimental data of change the amount of acid and concentration of the water taken from the laboratory tests. Time-based Nusselt diffusion criterion represent the results of the study at different modes of the evaporation process.It has been found that the character of the influence of temperature and initial acid concentration on Nusselt diffusion criterion depends on the variation range of the mass fraction of water in the acid.It is shown that these dependences are well approximated by an exponential function from the dimensionless parameters of the process. This allows usingthem for calculation the mass transfer coefficient into the gas phase in a batch process of concentrating in the range of investigated modes.

  15. Perfluoroalkyl Acid Concentrations in Blood Samples Subjected to Transportation and Processing Delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, Cathrine Carlsen; Henriksen, Tine Brink; Bossi, Rossana; Bech, Bodil Hammer; Fuglsang, Jens; Olsen, Jørn; Nohr, Ellen Aagaard

    2015-01-01

    In studies of perfluoroalkyl acids, the validity and comparability of measured concentrations may be affected by differences in the handling of biospecimens. We aimed to investigate whether measured plasma levels of perfluoroalkyl acids differed between blood samples subjected to delay and transportation prior to processing and samples with immediate processing and freezing. Pregnant women recruited at Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark, (n = 88) provided paired blood samples. For each pair of samples, one was immediately processed and plasma was frozen, and the other was delayed and transported as whole blood before processing and freezing of plasma (similar to the Danish National Birth Cohort). We measured 12 perfluoroalkyl acids and present results for compounds with more than 50% of samples above the lower limit of quantification. For samples taken in the winter, relative differences between the paired samples ranged between -77 and +38% for individual perfluoroalkyl acids. In most cases concentrations were lower in the delayed and transported samples, e.g. the relative difference was -29% (95% confidence interval -30; -27) for perfluorooctane sulfonate. For perfluorooctanoate there was no difference between the two setups [corresponding estimate 1% (0, 3)]. Differences were negligible in the summer for all compounds. Transport of blood samples and processing delay, similar to conditions applied in some large, population-based studies, may affect measured perfluoroalkyl acid concentrations, mainly when outdoor temperatures are low. Attention to processing conditions is needed in studies of perfluoroalkyl acid exposure in humans.

  16. Serum free amino acid concentration in hepatic lipidosis of dairy cows in the periparturient period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibano, Ken-ichi; Kawamura, Seiichi

    2006-04-01

    Blood samples were taken from eight multiparous cows at a dairy farm on eight occasions between the prepartum period and peak lactation to study the serum concentrations of amino acids and biochemical constituents. The cows were classified as having either severe hepatic lipidosis (HL) or non-hepatic lipidosis (non-HL) according to their clinical condition after calving and changes in serum biochemical parameters. The serum concentrations of beta-hydroxybutyric acid were higher in the HL group than in the non-HL group (ANOVA: plipidosis.

  17. Modelling the unexpected effect of acetic and lactic acid in combination with pH and aw on the growth/no growth interface of Zygosaccharomyces bailii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeulen, A; Dang, T D T; Geeraerd, A H; Bernaerts, K; Debevere, J; Van Impe, J; Devlieghere, F

    2008-05-10

    Microbial spoilage of shelf-stable acidified sauces is predominantly caused by lactic acid bacteria and yeasts. A specific spoilage yeast in these products is Zygosaccharomyces bailii, as this fructophilic, osmotolerant, and weak acid resistant yeast is difficult to control. A growth/no growth model was developed describing the influence of (i) pH in a range from pH 3.0 to pH 5.0 (5 levels), (ii) acetic acid in a range from 0 to 3.5% (w/v), and (iii) lactic acid in a range from 0 to 3.0% (w/v). aw was fixed at a level of 0.95 which is representative for acidified sauces with high sugar content. Modified Sabouraud medium was inoculated at +/- 10(4) CFU/ml, incubated at 30 degrees C and growth was assessed by optical density measurements. All combinations of environmental conditions were tested in at least twelve replicates, yielding precise values for the probability of growth. Results showed that replacing acetic acid by lactic acid, which has a milder taste, may imply some risks on food spoilage because, under some conditions, stimulation of growth by lactic acid was observed. This stimulation had also consequences on the model development: (i) only ordinary logistic regression models were able to describe this phenomenon due to their flexible behaviour, (ii) it was necessary to split up the data set into two subsets to have the best description of the obtained data. Two different ordinary logistic regression models were fitted on these data sets taking either the total acid concentration as one of the explanatory variables or differentiating between the undissociated and dissociated acid concentrations. The obtained models were compared with the CIMSCEE code [CIMSCEE, 1992. Code for the production of microbiologically safe and stable emulsified and non-emulsified sauces containing acetic acid. Comité des Industries des Mayonnaise et Sauces Condimentaires, de la Communauté Economique Européenne, Brussels, Belgium], a formula which is nowadays often used by the

  18. Study of the interaction metallic cation - ligand in concentrated phosphorus acid media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sefiani, N.; Azzi, M.; Hlaibi, M.; Kossair, A.

    2005-01-01

    The phosphoric acid is more and more used with a high purity. The recovery of recycling element (uranium, vanadium, rare earth...) and the elimination of toxic element (cadmium, molybdenum, lead...) contained in the phosphoric acid are generally realized by extraction or precipitation. It is then very important to understand these impurities behavior in the phosphoric media in order to control their elimination. In this work, the authors considered the presence of some metallic cations (V, Al, fe, U) and fluorides ions as impurity in concentrated phosphoric acid media. (A.L.B.)

  19. Profile of organic acid concentrations in the digestive gland and hemolymph of Biomphalaria glabrata under estivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Clecildo Barreto Bezerra

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available Using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC analysis it was possible to determine simultaneously the concentration of organic acids (pyruvate, lactate, succinate, fumarate, malate, acetate, propionate, acetoacetate, and ß-hydroxybutyrate in the digestive gland and the extracellular concentration of these same acids in the hemolymph of estivating Biomphalaria glabrata, the intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni. After a 7 day period of estivation, there was a significant increase in the tissue levels of lactate, succinate, malate and acetate compared to non-estivating snails. After 14 days of estivation, the levels of lactate and acetate were also significantly elevated. The hemolymph concentrations of pyruvate and acetate increased significantly after 7 days and acetate concentrations continued to be significantly increased up to 14 days of estivation. The other organic acids studied, such as ketone body acetoacetate and ß-hydroxybutyrate or the volatile acid propionate, did not accumulate. Their tissue concentrations, however, increased on the 7th day of estivation and reached normal levels within two weeks of estivation for some of them. One should take into consideration how the reduction in metabolism can be handled under aerobic conditions, and what role anaerobic pathways may play in both energy formation and redox balance processes.

  20. Effect of Volatile Fatty Acids and Trimethylamine on Nitrification in Activated Sludge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eilersen, Ann Marie; Henze, Mogens; Kløft, Lene

    1994-01-01

    to be 6 mM for isobutyric, 37 mM for n-valeric, 6 mM for isovaleric 36 mM for n-caproic acid and 3 mM for trimethylamine. IK values for nitrite oxidation were found to be 2 mM for formic, 115 mM for acetic, 68 mM for propionic, 33 mM for n-butyric, 8 mM for isobutyric, 75 mM for n-valeric, 7 m......M for isovaleric and 81 mM for n-caproic acid. For propionic acid and trimethylamine, the undissociated compound appears to act as an inhibitor. For formic, isobutyric and isovaleric acids, the degree of inhibition seems to be determined by the total concentration of acid. Experiments with anaerobically treated......The effect of volatile fatty acids and trimethylamine on the nitrification activity of activated sludge was studied in laboratory batch experiments. The critical concentration of inhibitor IK at which the activity ceases was determined by modelling. IK values for ammonia oxidation were found...

  1. Copper solvent extraction from chalcopyrite concentrate acid leach solutions by LIX 984

    OpenAIRE

    Elamari K.; Jdid E.A.; Blazy P.

    2006-01-01

    Copper production from ores or sulphide concentrates is classically realized by pyrometallurgical route. In this study, hydrometallurgical treatment of a copper sulphide concentrate, provided by Hajar Mine (ONA-Group, Morocco), was tested by using a mixture of nitric and hexafluorosilicic acids. Copper is present in the solid product as chalcopyrite and its amount is 28.1 % by weight. Leaching stage allows to dissolve more than 90% of copper witch is accompanied, in the same averages, by Zn a...

  2. Serum uric acid concentrations in a Xhosa community in the Transkei of Southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beighton, P; Daynes, G; Soskolne, C L

    1976-01-01

    Serum uric acid (SUA) concentrations were measured in specimens obtained from 479 respondents aged 15 and over during an epidemiological survey of bone and joint conditions in a tribal Xhosa community living in the Transkei, Southern Africa. Population SUA levels in the Xhosa were significantly lower than those previously observed in South Africa Negro groups in rural and urban environments. This finding agrees with the observations that population SUA concentrations tend to rise with increasing complexity of life style. PMID:1275585

  3. Effects of Fungicide Treatment on Free Amino Acid Concentration and Acrylamide-Forming Potential in Wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Tanya Y; Powers, Stephen J; Halford, Nigel G

    2016-12-28

    Acrylamide forms from free asparagine and reducing sugars during frying, baking, roasting, or high-temperature processing, and cereal products are major contributors to dietary acrylamide intake. Free asparagine concentration is the determining factor for acrylamide-forming potential in cereals, and this study investigated the effect of fungicide application on free asparagine accumulation in wheat grain. Free amino acid concentrations were measured in flour from 47 varieties of wheat grown in a field trial in 2011-2012. The wheat had been supplied with nitrogen and sulfur and treated with growth regulators and fungicides. Acrylamide formation was measured after the flour had been heated at 180 °C for 20 min. Flour was also analyzed from 24 (of the 47) varieties grown in adjacent plots that were treated in identical fashion except that no fungicide was applied, resulting in visible infection by Septoria tritici, yellow rust, and brown rust. Free asparagine concentration in the fungicide-treated wheat ranged from 1.596 to 3.987 mmol kg -1 , with a significant (p fungicide treatment, the increases in acrylamide ranging from 2.7 to 370%. Free aspartic acid concentration also increased, whereas free glutamic acid concentration increased in some varieties but decreased in others, and free proline concentration decreased. The study showed disease control by fungicide application to be an important crop management measure for mitigating the problem of acrylamide formation in wheat products.

  4. Growing and laying performance of Japanese quail fed diet supplemented with different concentrations of acetic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youssef A. Attia

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the effect of acetic acid on growing and laying performance of Japanese Quail (JQ, 180 15-day-old JQ were divided into 4 groups. During the growing (15-42 days of age and laying (43-84 days of age periods, the groups fed the same basal diets supplemented with 0, 1.5, 3 and 6% of acetic acid. Each diet was fed to five replicates of 9 JQ (3 males:6 females during the growing period. During the laying period, 128 birds were housed in 32 cages (4 birds per cage, 1 male and 3 females, 8 replicates per treatment. Birds were housed in wire cages (46L×43W×20H cm in an open room. Acetic acid supplementation at 3% in the diets significantly increased the growth and laying rate and the Haugh unit score. The liver percentage significantly decreased with acetic acid at 6%. Acetic acid at 3% significantly increased hemoglobin concentrations at 6 weeks of age and increased weight of day old chicks hatched. Acetic acid affected the immune system as manifested by an excess of cellular reactions in the intestine as well as lymphoid hyperplasia in the spleen tissue. Degenerative changes in the covering epithelium of the intestinal villi were noted at the 6% concentration of acetic acid. Hepatocyte vacuolation and fatty changes were also observed at this concentration of treatment. In conclusion, 3% acetic acid may be used as a feed supplement for JQ during the growing and laying period to improve the productive performance.

  5. Differences in surface roughness of nanohybrid composites immersed in varying concentrations of citric acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Kevina Alifen

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The surface roughness of restoration is important in predicting the length of time it might remain in the mouth. Conditions within the oral cavity can affect the surface roughness of a restoration. Nanohybrid composite is widely used in dentistry because it can be applied to restore anterior and posterior teeth. Athletes routinely consume isotonic drinks which are acidic and even more erosive than the carbonated variety because they contain a range of acids; the highest content of which being citric acid. Purpose: The aim of the study was to analyze the surface roughness of nanohybrid composite after having been subjected to immersion in varying concentrations of citric acid. Methods: Two isotonic drinks (Pocari Sweat and Mizone were analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC to quantify the respective concentrations of citric acid which they contained. A total of 27 samples of cylindrical nanohybrid composite were prepared before being divided into three groups. In Group 1, samples were immersed in citric acid solution derived from Pocari Sweat. Those of Group 2 were immersed in citric acid solution derived from Mizone; while Group 3, samples were immersed in distilled water as a control. All samples were immersed for 7 days, before their surface roughness was tested by means of a surface roughness tester (Mitutoyo SJ-201. Data was analyzed using a one-way ANOVA test. Results: The results showed that there was no significant difference in surface roughness between Groups 1, 2 and 3 (p=0.985. Conclusion: No difference in surface roughness of nanohybrid composites results from prolonged immersion in varying concentrations of citric acid.

  6. Identification of quantitative trait loci controlling linolenic acid concentration in PI483463 (Glycine soja).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Bo-Keun; Kim, Hyun-Jee; Velusamy, Vijayanand; Vuong, Tri D; Nguyen, Henry T; Shannon, J Grover; Lee, Jeong-Dong

    2014-07-01

    The QTLs controlling alpha-linolenic acid concentration from wild soybean were mapped on nine soybean chromosomes with various phenotypic variations. New QTLs for alpha-linolenic acid were detected in wild soybean. Alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) is a polyunsaturated fatty acid desired in human and animal diets. Some wild soybean (Glycine soja) genotypes are high in ALA. The objective of this study was to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) controlling ALA concentration in a wild soybean accession, PI483463. In total, 188 recombinant inbred lines of F5:6, F5:7, and F5:8 generations derived from a cross of wild soybean PI483463 (~15 % ALA) and cultivar Hutcheson (~9 % ALA) were planted in four environments. Harvested seeds were used to measure fatty acid concentration. Single nucleotide polymorphism markers of the universal soybean linkage panel (USLP 1.0) and simple sequence repeat markers were used for molecular genotyping. Nine putative QTLs were identified that controlled ALA concentration by model-based composite interval mapping and mapped to different soybean chromosomes. The QTLs detected in four environments explained 2.4-7.9 % of the total phenotypic variation (PV). Five QTLs, qALA5_3, qALA6_1, qALA14_1, qALA15_1, and qALA17_1, located on chromosomes 5, 6, 14, 15, and 17 were identified by model-based composite interval mapping and composite interval mapping in two individual environments. Among them, qALA6_1 showed the highest contribution to the PV with 10.0-10.2 % in two environments. The total detected QTLs for additive and epistatic effects explained 52.4 % of the PV for ALA concentration. These findings will provide useful information for understanding genetic structure and marker-assisted breeding programs to increase ALA concentration in seeds derived from wild soybean PI483463.

  7. Urea, Uric Acid, Prolactin and fT4 Concentrations in Aqueous Humor of Keratoconus Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stachon, Tanja; Stachon, Axel; Hartmann, Ulrike; Seitz, Berthold; Langenbucher, Achim; Szentmáry, Nóra

    2017-06-01

    Keratoconus is a noninflammatory disease of the cornea associated with progressive thinning and conical shape. Metabolic alterations in the urea cycle, with changes in collagen fibril stability, oxidative stress, thyroid hormones and prolactin with regulatory effect on biosynthesis and biomechanical stability of corneal stroma, may all play a role in keratoconus etiology. Our purpose was to determine urea, uric acid, prolactin and free thyroxin (fT4) concentrations in human aqueous humor (hAH) of keratoconus and cataract patients. hAH was collected from 100 keratoconus (penetrating keratoplasty) (41.9 ± 14.9 years, 69 males) and 100 cataract patients (cataract surgery) (71.2 ± 12.4 years, 58 males). Urea, uric acid, prolactin and fT4 concentrations were measured by Siemens clinical chemistry or immunoassay system. For statistical analysis, a generalized linear model (GLM) was used. Urea concentration was 11.88 ± 3.03 mg/dl in keratoconus and 16.44 ± 6.40 mg/dl in cataract patients, uric acid 2.04 ± 0.59 mg/dl in keratoconus and 2.18 ± 0.73 mg/dl in cataract groups. Prolactin concentration was 3.18 ± 0.34 ng/ml in keratoconus and 3.33 ± 0.32 ng/ml in cataract patients, fT4 20.57 ± 4.76 pmol/l in KC and 19.06 ± 3.86 pmol/l in cataract group. Urea concentration was effected through gender (p = 0.039), age (p = 0.001) and diagnosis (p = 0.025). Uric acid concentration was not effected through any of the analyzed parameters (p > 0.056). Prolactin and fT4 concentration were effected only through diagnosis (p = 0.009 and p = 0.006). Urea and prolactin concentrations are decreased, fT4 concentration is increased in aqueous humor of keratoconus patients, and uric acid concentration remains unchanged. Urea concentration in aqueous humor is also increased in older and male patients. Therefore, metabolic disorder and hormonal balance may both have an impact on keratoconus development. Further studies are necessary to assess the specific impact.

  8. Salicylic acid induces apoptosis in colon carcinoma cells grown in-vitro: Influence of oxygen and salicylic acid concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zitta, Karina; Meybohm, Patrick; Bein, Berthold; Huang, Ying; Heinrich, Christin; Scholz, Jens; Steinfath, Markus; Albrecht, Martin

    2012-01-01

    In solid tumors the hypoxic environment can promote tumor progression and resistance to therapy. Recently, acetylsalicylic acid a major component of analgesic drugs and its metabolite salicylic acid (SA) have been shown to reduce the risk of colon cancer, but the mechanisms of action remain still unclear. Here we elucidate the effects of physiologically relevant concentrations of SA on colon carcinoma cells (CaCo-2) grown under normoxic and hypoxic conditions. Western blotting, caspase-3/7 apoptosis assays, MTS cell-proliferation assays, LDH cytotoxicity assays and hydrogen peroxide measurements were performed to investigate the effects of 1 and 10 μM SA on CaCo-2 cells grown under normoxic conditions and cells exposed to hypoxia. Under normoxic conditions, SA did not influence cell proliferation or LDH release of CaCo-2 cells. However, caspase-3/7 activity was significantly increased. Under hypoxia, cell proliferation was reduced and LDH release and caspase-3/7 activities were increased. None of these parameters was altered by the addition of SA under hypoxic conditions. Hypoxia increased hydrogen peroxide concentrations 300-fold and SA significantly augmented the release of hydrogen peroxide under normoxic, but not under hypoxic conditions. Phosphorylation of the pro-survival kinases akt and erk1/2 was not changed by SA under hypoxic conditions, whereas under normoxia SA reduced phosphorylation of erk1/2 after 2 hours. We conclude that in colon carcinoma cells effects of SA on apoptosis and cellular signaling are dependent on the availability of oxygen. -- Highlights: ► Effects of salicylic acid on colon carcinoma cells grown under normoxic and hypoxic conditions ► Salicylic acid increases caspase-3/7 activity and hydrogen peroxide release under normoxia ► Salicylic acid decreases pro-survival erk-1/2 phosphorylation under normoxia ► Salicylic acid does not influence any of the investigated parameters under hypoxia

  9. Salicylic acid induces apoptosis in colon carcinoma cells grown in-vitro: Influence of oxygen and salicylic acid concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zitta, Karina; Meybohm, Patrick; Bein, Berthold; Huang, Ying; Heinrich, Christin; Scholz, Jens; Steinfath, Markus; Albrecht, Martin, E-mail: Albrecht@anaesthesie.uni-kiel.de

    2012-04-15

    In solid tumors the hypoxic environment can promote tumor progression and resistance to therapy. Recently, acetylsalicylic acid a major component of analgesic drugs and its metabolite salicylic acid (SA) have been shown to reduce the risk of colon cancer, but the mechanisms of action remain still unclear. Here we elucidate the effects of physiologically relevant concentrations of SA on colon carcinoma cells (CaCo-2) grown under normoxic and hypoxic conditions. Western blotting, caspase-3/7 apoptosis assays, MTS cell-proliferation assays, LDH cytotoxicity assays and hydrogen peroxide measurements were performed to investigate the effects of 1 and 10 {mu}M SA on CaCo-2 cells grown under normoxic conditions and cells exposed to hypoxia. Under normoxic conditions, SA did not influence cell proliferation or LDH release of CaCo-2 cells. However, caspase-3/7 activity was significantly increased. Under hypoxia, cell proliferation was reduced and LDH release and caspase-3/7 activities were increased. None of these parameters was altered by the addition of SA under hypoxic conditions. Hypoxia increased hydrogen peroxide concentrations 300-fold and SA significantly augmented the release of hydrogen peroxide under normoxic, but not under hypoxic conditions. Phosphorylation of the pro-survival kinases akt and erk1/2 was not changed by SA under hypoxic conditions, whereas under normoxia SA reduced phosphorylation of erk1/2 after 2 hours. We conclude that in colon carcinoma cells effects of SA on apoptosis and cellular signaling are dependent on the availability of oxygen. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Effects of salicylic acid on colon carcinoma cells grown under normoxic and hypoxic conditions Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Salicylic acid increases caspase-3/7 activity and hydrogen peroxide release under normoxia Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Salicylic acid decreases pro-survival erk-1/2 phosphorylation under normoxia Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Salicylic acid does

  10. Dry Matter Production and Leaf Elemental Concentrations of Rambutan Grown on an Acid Ultisol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little is known about the adaptability of rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum) to highly acidic soils rich in aluminum (Al). A 2-yr field study was conducted to determine the effects of various levels of soil Al on dry matter production, plant growth, and nutrient concentration in the leaves of four cult...

  11. Role of lauric acid-potassium hydroxide concentration on bacterial contamination of spray washed broiler carcasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    A series of experiments were conducted to examine reductions in bacterial contamination of broiler carcasses washed in a spray cabinet with various concentrations of lauric acid (LA)-potassium hydroxide (KOH) solutions. Fifty eviscerated carcasses and 5 ceca were obtained from the processing line of...

  12. Body mass index, gestational weight gain and fatty acid concentrations during pregnancy: the Generation R Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J. Vidakovic (Aleksandra Jelena); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent); O. Gishti (Olta); J.F. Felix (Janine); M.A. Williams (Michelle); A. Hofman (Albert); H. Demmelmair (Hans); B. Koletzko (Berthold); H.W. Tiemeier (Henning); R. Gaillard (Romy)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractObesity during pregnancy may be correlated with an adverse nutritional status affecting pregnancy and offspring outcomes. We examined the associations of prepregnancy body mass index and gestational weight gain with plasma fatty acid concentrations in mid-pregnancy. This study was

  13. Ascorbic acid prevents cimetidine-induced decrease of serum hydrocortisone concentrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.P. Boidin (Marinus Pieter); A. Stuurman (Arie); W. Erdmann (Wilhelm)

    1990-01-01

    markdownabstractAbstract A blind, parallel, prospective, clinical study was conducted to investigate the effect of ascorbic acid on human serum hydrocortisone concentrations which were decreased by the administration of cimetidine. The study population included 16 male adults scheduled for major

  14. Concentration of phenolic acids and flavonoids in aronia melanocarpa (choke berry) juice by osmotic membrane distillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjerbæk Søtoft, Lene; Christensen, Knud Villy; Horn, Vibeke G

    2009-01-01

     Membrane distillation (MD) has been tested as a low temperature replacement of traditional falling film evaporators for juice concentration. Compared to other membrane processes, MD is non-pressure driven performing a high degree of concentration in the same versatile installation[1]. Aronia...... melanocarpa is among the red fruits with the highest content of antioxidants [2] and has gained must interest due to the content of phenolic acids, procyanidins and polyphenolic compounds as anthocyanins [3]. In this study, osmotic membrane distillation (OMD) has been tested for the concentration of not only...

  15. Dynamic changes in amino acid concentration profiles in patients with sepsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longxiang Su

    Full Text Available The goal of this work was to explore the dynamic concentration profiles of 42 amino acids and the significance of these profiles in relation to sepsis, with the aim of providing guidance for clinical therapies.Thirty-five critically ill patients with sepsis were included. These patients were further divided into sepsis (12 cases and severe sepsis (23 cases groups or survivor (20 cases and non-survivor (15 cases groups. Serum samples from the patients were collected on days 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, and 14 following intensive care unit (ICU admission, and the serum concentrations of 42 amino acids were measured.The metabolic spectrum of the amino acids changed dramatically in patients with sepsis. As the disease progressed further or with poor prognosis, the levels of the different amino acids gradually increased, decreased, or fluctuated over time. The concentrations of sulfur-containing amino acids (SAAs, especially taurine, decreased significantly as the severity of sepsis worsened or with poor prognosis of the patient. The serum concentrations of SAAs, especially taurine, exhibited weak negative correlations with the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA (r=-0.319 and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE II (r=-0.325 scores. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves of cystine, taurine, and SAA levels and the SOFA and APACHE II scores, which denoted disease prognosis, were 0.623, 0.674, 0.678, 0.86, and 0.857, respectively.Critically ill patients with disorders of amino acid metabolism, especially of SAAs such as cystine and taurine, may provide an indicator of the need for the nutritional support of sepsis in the clinic.ClinicalTrial.gov identifier NCT01818830.

  16. Passive Sampler for Measurements of Atmospheric Nitric Acid Vapor (HNO3 Concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Bytnerowicz

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Nitric acid (HNO3 vapor is an important nitrogenous air pollutant responsible for increasing saturation of forests with nitrogen and direct injury to plants. The USDA Forest Service and University of California researchers have developed a simple and inexpensive passive sampler for monitoring air concentrations of HNO3. Nitric acid is selectively absorbed on 47-mm Nylasorb nylon filters with no interference from particulate NO3-. Concentrations determined with the passive samplers closely corresponded with those measured with the co-located honeycomb annular denuder systems. The PVC protective caps of standardized dimensions protect nylon filters from rain and wind and allow for reliable measurements of ambient HNO3 concentrations. The described samplers have been successfully used in Sequoia National Park, the San Bernardino Mountains, and on Mammoth Mountain in California.

  17. Ionic flotation of uranium and of cadmium in concentrated phosphoric acid media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jdid, E.; Bessiere, J.; Blazy, P.

    1984-01-01

    The ionic flotation technique has been applied to concentrated phosphoric acid media (with 30% P 2 O 5 or H 3 PO 4 5.5 M) as a new process for the recovery of uranium and the elimination of cadmium. The results obtained seem to indicate that in these hyperacid media the anionic collectors are better suited than the cationic collectors and that they then permit the flotation of the uranium and cadmium ions with a very rapid kinetics and the achievement of efficiencies of over 90%. In the case of uranium, the collector used remains efficient up to a temperature of 60 0 C with a satisfactory selectivity in the face of others cations present in the commercial phosphoric acid, and which have a penalizing effect on the uraniferous concentrates, and the floated uranium concentrate assays approximately 10% U on a dry basis [fr

  18. Postprandial Plasma Concentrations of Individual Bile Acids and FGF-19 in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, David P; van Nierop, F Samuel; Kulik, Willem

    2016-01-01

    controls, but differences were not statistically significant due to considerable variation. CONCLUSION: Postprandial plasma patterns of bile acids with FXR agonistic properties (CDCA, DCA, and CA) and FXR antagonistic properties (UDCA) in T2D patients support the notion of a "T2D-bile acid-FGF-19......CONTEXT: Bile acids regulate lipid and carbohydrate metabolism by interaction with membrane or intracellular proteins including the nuclear farnesoid X receptor (FXR). Postprandial activation of ileal FXR leads to secretion of fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF-19), a gut hormone that may...... be implicated in postprandial glucose metabolism. OBJECTIVE: To describe postprandial plasma concentrations of 12 individual bile acids and FGF-19 in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and healthy controls. DESIGN AND SETTING: Descriptive study, performed at the Center for Diabetes Research, Gentofte Hospital...

  19. Dietary supplementation with cholesterol and docosahexaenoic acid affects concentrations of amino acids in tissues of young pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peng; Kim, Sung Woo; Li, Xilong; Datta, Sujay; Pond, Wilson G.

    2013-01-01

    Cholesterol and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are important nutrients for neural development of infants. However, little is known about the effect of cholesterol or DHA on concentrations of amino acids (AA) in neonatal tissues. This study was conducted with the piglet (an established model for studying human infant nutrition) to test the hypothesis that dietary supplementation with the lipids may modulate AA availability in tissues. Sixteen newborn pigs were nursed by sows for 24 h and then assigned to one of four treatment groups, representing supplementation with 0.0% (control), 0.2% cholesterol, 0.2% DHA, or cholesterol plus DHA to the basal milk-formula. All piglets were euthanized at 49 days of age. In brain, cholesterol supplementation reduced (P < 0.05) concentrations of glutamate, serine, glutamine, threonine, β-alanine, alanine, methionine, isoleucine, leucine, and γ-aminobutyrate but increased (P < 0.05) concentrations of glycine and lysine, whereas DHA supplementation similarly affected (P < 0.05) concentrations of the same AA (except for isoleucine and lysine) and taurine. In addition, concentrations of most AA in liver, muscle and plasma were substantially altered by dietary supplementation of cholesterol and DHA in a tissue-dependent manner. Further, DHA reduced concentrations of carnosine in skeletal muscle, as well as ammonia in both plasma and brain. The results reveal that cholesterol and DHA can regulate AA metabolism and availability in various tissues of piglets. These novel findings have important implications for designing the next generation of infant formula to optimize neonatal growth and development. PMID:18972185

  20. Organosulfates and organic acids in Arctic aerosols: speciation, annual variation and concentration levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, A. M. K.; Kristensen, K.; Nguyen, Q. T.

    2014-01-01

    organosulfates - from both anthropogenic and biogenic precursors were in focus. A total of 11 organic acids (terpenylic acid, benzoic acid, phthalic acid, pinic acid, suberic acid, azelaic acid, adipic acid, pimelic acid, pinonic acid, diaterpenylic acid acetate and 3-methyl-1,2,3-butanetricarboxylic acid), 12...

  1. Efficient fermentation of xylose to ethanol at high formic acid concentrations by metabolically engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasunuma, Tomohisa; Yoshimura, Kazuya; Matsuda, Fumio [Kobe Univ., Hyogo (Japan). Organization of Advanced Science and Technology; Sung, Kyung-mo; Sanda, Tomoya; Kondo, Akihiko [Kobe Univ., Hyogo (Japan). Dept. of Chemical Science and Engineering

    2011-05-15

    Recombinant yeast strains highly tolerant to formic acid during xylose fermentation were constructed. Microarray analysis of xylose-fermenting Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain overexpressing endogenous xylulokinase in addition to xylose reductase and xylitol dehydrogenase from Pichia stipitis revealed that upregulation of formate dehydrogenase genes (FDH1 and FDH2) was one of the most prominent transcriptional events against excess formic acid. The quantification of formic acid in medium indicated that the innate activity of FDH was too weak to detoxify formic acid. To reinforce the capability for formic acid breakdown, the FDH1 gene was additionally overexpressed in the xylose-metabolizing recombinant yeast. This modification allowed the yeast to rapidly decompose excess formic acid. The yield and final ethanol concentration in the presence of 20 mM formic acid is as essentially same as that of control. The fermentation profile also indicated that the production of xylitol and glycerol, major by-products in xylose fermentation, was not affected by the upregulation of FDH activity. (orig.)

  2. Postprandial changes in plasma acylcarnitine concentrations as markers of fatty acid flux in overweight and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Roman, Maria A; Sweetman, Lawrence; Valdez, Maressa J; Parks, Elizabeth J

    2012-02-01

    This study determined whether reductions in postprandial plasma nonesterified fatty acid (FFA) flux would lead to reductions in plasma acylcarnitine (AC) concentrations. Plasma AC was measured by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry in the fasting state and over 6 hours after a high-fat (50% energy) meal was fed to 16 overweight and obese subjects with a wide range of insulin sensitivities. Body composition was measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry; insulin sensitivity by insulin-modified, frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test; substrate oxidation by indirect calorimetry; blood metabolite and hormone concentrations biochemically; and fatty acid flux by using stable isotope tracers. Lean body mass and fasting fat oxidation correlated positively (r > 0.522, P 0.515, P Conditions that impact fatty acid flux contribute to the control of postprandial plasma AC concentrations. These data underscore the need for a better understanding of postprandial fatty acid oxidation and dietary fat delivery in the setting of adipose insulin resistance to determine how postprandial lipemia contributes to chronic disease risk. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of dimethylamine on the gas phase sulfuric acid concentration measured by Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    CERN Document Server

    Rondo, L.; Kürten, A.; Adamov, A.; Bianchi, F.; Breitenlechner, M.; Duplissy, J.; Franchin, A.; Dommen, J.; Donahue, N. M.; Dunne, E. M.; Flagan, R. C.; Hakala, J.; Hansel, A.; Keskinen, H.; Kim, J.; Jokinen, T.; Lehtipalo, K.; Leiminger, M.; Praplan, A.; Riccobono, F.; Rissanen, M. P.; Sarnela, N.; Schobesberger, S.; Simon, M.; Sipilä, M.; Smith, J. N.; Tomé, A.; Tröstl, J.; Tsagkogeorgas, G.; Vaattovaara, P.; Winkler, P. M.; Williamson, C.; Wimmer, D.; Baltensperger, U.; Kirkby, J.; Kulmala, M.; Petäjä, T.; Worsnop, D. R.; Curtius, J.

    2016-01-01

    Sulfuric acid is widely recognized as a very important substance driving atmospheric aerosolnucleation. Based on quantum chemical calculations it has been suggested that the quantitative detectionof gas phase sulfuric acid (H2SO4) by use of Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry (CIMS) could be biased inthe presence of gas phase amines such as dimethylamine (DMA). An experiment (CLOUD7 campaign) was setup at the CLOUD (Cosmics Leaving OUtdoor Droplets) chamber to investigate the quantitative detection ofH2SO4in the presence of dimethylamine by CIMS at atmospherically relevant concentrations. For the first time inthe CLOUD experiment, the monomer sulfuric acid concentration was measured by a CIMS and by two CI-APi-TOF(Chemical Ionization-Atmospheric Pressure interface-Time Of Flight) mass spectrometers. In addition, neutralsulfuric acid clusters were measured with the CI-APi-TOFs. The CLOUD7 measurements show that in the presenceof dimethylamine (<5 to 70 pptv) the sulfuric acid monomer measured by the CIMS...

  4. Effect of dimethylamine on the gas phase sulfuric acid concentration measured by Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rondo, L.; Ehrhart, S.; Kürten, A.; Adamov, A.; Bianchi, F.; Breitenlechner, M.; Duplissy, J.; Franchin, A.; Dommen, J.; Donahue, N. M.; Dunne, E. M.; Flagan, R. C.; Hakala, J.; Hansel, A.; Keskinen, H.; Kim, J.; Jokinen, T.; Lehtipalo, K.; Leiminger, M.; Praplan, A.; Riccobono, F.; Rissanen, M. P.; Sarnela, N.; Schobesberger, S.; Simon, M.; Sipilä, M.; Smith, J. N.; Tomé, A.; Tröstl, J.; Tsagkogeorgas, G.; Vaattovaara, P.; Winkler, P. M.; Williamson, C.; Wimmer, D.; Baltensperger, U.; Kirkby, J.; Kulmala, M.; Petäjä, T.; Worsnop, D. R.; Curtius, J.

    2016-03-01

    Sulfuric acid is widely recognized as a very important substance driving atmospheric aerosol nucleation. Based on quantum chemical calculations it has been suggested that the quantitative detection of gas phase sulfuric acid (H2SO4) by use of Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry (CIMS) could be biased in the presence of gas phase amines such as dimethylamine (DMA). An experiment (CLOUD7 campaign) was set up at the CLOUD (Cosmics Leaving OUtdoor Droplets) chamber to investigate the quantitative detection of H2SO4 in the presence of dimethylamine by CIMS at atmospherically relevant concentrations. For the first time in the CLOUD experiment, the monomer sulfuric acid concentration was measured by a CIMS and by two CI-APi-TOF (Chemical Ionization-Atmospheric Pressure interface-Time Of Flight) mass spectrometers. In addition, neutral sulfuric acid clusters were measured with the CI-APi-TOFs. The CLOUD7 measurements show that in the presence of dimethylamine (growth. Although it was found that the addition of dimethylamine dramatically changes the H2SO4 cluster distribution compared to binary (H2SO4-H2O) conditions, the CIMS detection efficiency does not seem to depend substantially on whether an individual H2SO4 monomer is clustered with a DMA molecule. The experimental observations are supported by numerical simulations based on A Self-contained Atmospheric chemistry coDe coupled with a molecular process model (Sulfuric Acid Water NUCleation) operated in the kinetic limit.

  5. Concentration-Discharge Behavior of Contaminants in a Stream Impacted by Acid Mine Drainage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, M. E.; Klein, M.; Herndon, E.

    2017-12-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) has severely degraded streams throughout the Appalachian coal region of the United States. AMD occurs when pyrite contained in coal is exposed to water and air during mining activities and oxidized to release high concentrations of sulfate, metals, and acidity into water bodies. Little is known about the concentration-discharge (CQ) relationships of solutes in AMD-impacted streams due to the complicated nature of acid mine drainage systems. For example, streams may receive inputs from multiple sources that include runoff, constructed treatment systems, and abandoned mines that bypass these systems to continue to contaminate the streams. It is important to understand the CQ relationships of contaminants in AMD-impacted streams in order to elucidate contaminant sources and to predict effects on aquatic ecosystems. Here, we study the CQ behaviors of acid and metals in a contaminated watershed in northeastern Ohio where limestone channels have been installed to remediate water draining from a mine pool into the stream. Stream chemistry was measured in samples collected once per day or once per hour during storm events, and stream flow was measured continuously at the watershed outlet. Increases in stream velocity during storm events resulted in an increase in pH (from 3 to 6) that subsequently decreased back to 3 as flow decreased. Additionally, Fe and Mn concentrations in the stream were high during baseflow (7 and 15 mg/L, respectively) and decreased with increasing discharge during storm events. These results indicate that the treatment system is only effective at neutralizing stream acidity and removing metals when water flow through the limestone channel is continuous. We infer that the acidic and metal-rich baseflow derives from upwelling of contaminated groundwater or subsurface flow from a mine pool. Ongoing studies aim to isolate the source of this baseflow contamination and evaluate the geochemical transformations that occur as it

  6. Serum cholesteryl fatty acid composition and plasma glucose concentrations in Amerindian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindgärde, Folke; Vessby, Bengt; Ahrén, Bo

    2006-11-01

    Diabetes mellitus has reached epidemic proportions in women of Amerindian origin. The risk of developing diabetes has been found to be related to the serum fatty acid composition in whites. We prospectively investigated the relation between the serum cholesteryl fatty acid composition and changes in fasting plasma glucose concentrations in Peruvian Indian women who are characterized by hyperinsulinemia in comparison to white women. A 5-y follow-up study of 73 women with normal fasting plasma glucose values was undertaken by performing a survey in 1999 and a follow-up survey in 2004. The studied variables included anthropometric measurements, plasma insulin and leptin, dietary food consumption from 24-h recall, blood pressure, and serum fatty acid composition. The participants developed significantly higher fasting plasma glucose concentrations in 2004 compared with 1999 (P percentage of body fat, systolic blood pressure, and circulating triacylglycerol, insulin, leptin, and 16:1n-7 as independent determinants, 16:1n-7 and systolic blood pressure were the only significant determinants of plasma glucose concentration 5 y later. A high proportion of 16:1n-7 in serum is an independent predictor of high plasma glucose concentrations in Amerindian women. The reason for this association remains to be elucidated.

  7. Development of ion-exchange properties of bamboo charcoal modified with concentrated nitric acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandaker, S.; Kuba, T.; Toyohara, Y.; Kamida, S.; Uchikawa, Y.

    2017-08-01

    The surface chemistry and the structural properties of activated carbon can be altered by the acidic modification. The objective of this study is to investigate the changes occurring in bamboo charcoal (BC) during activation with concentrated nitric acid. Low temperature (500°C) carbonized BC has been prepared and oxidized with 70% concentrated boiling nitric acid (BC-AC). The porous properties of the BC are analyzed with nitrogen adsorption isotherm at 77 K. The surface structure is observed by Field emission scanning electronic microscope (FESEM) and the surface functional groups are examined by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and the pH of the point of zero charge (pHPZC). The results reveal that severe oxidation with HNO3 considerably decreases the surface area of BC with enhanced pore widening and FESEM observation demonstrates the erosive effect of oxidation. The FTIR analysis detects that some absorption bands are assigned for carboxyl, aldehyde and ketone groups on BC-AC. The XPS analysis also clearly shows that the ratio of oxygen and acidic functional groups has been enriched significantly on the BC-AC. The low pHPZC value of BC-AC confirms that the surface is highly acidic for the fixation of acidic functional groups on surface. In general, the existence of the abundant amount of acidic functional groups on adsorbents enhances the sorption of heavy metals ions in aqueous solution. Therefore, it is strongly expected that the modified BC, activated under the proposed conditions would be a promising ion exchanger in aqueous solution and can be applied for the adsorption of different heavy metal ions and radioactive materials from effluent.

  8. Demographic, reproductive, and dietary determinants of perfluorooctane sulfonic (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) concentrations in human colostrum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jusko, T.A.; Oktapodas, M.; Palkovičová Murinová, L.; Babjaková, J.; Verner, M.A.; DeWitt, J.C.; Babinská, K.; Thevenet-Morrison, K.; Čonka, K.; Drobná, B.; Thurston, S.W.; Lawrence, B.P.; Dozier, A.M.; Jarvinen-Seppo, K.M.; Patayová, H.; Trnovec, T.; Legler, J.; Hertz-Picciotto, I.; Lamoree, M.H.

    2016-01-01

    To determine demographic, reproductive, and maternal dietary factors that predict perfluoroalkyl substance (PFAS) concentrations in breast milk, we measured perfluorooctane sulfonic (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) concentrations, using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, in 184

  9. Transcriptional Response to Lactic Acid Stress in the Hybrid Yeast Zygosaccharomyces parabailii

    OpenAIRE

    Ortiz-Merino, Raúl A.; Kuanyshev, Nurzhan; Byrne, Kevin P.; Varela, Javier A.; Morrissey, John P.; Porro, Danilo; Wolfe, Kenneth H.; Branduardi, Paola

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT Lactic acid has a wide range of applications starting from its undissociated form, and its production using cell factories requires stress-tolerant microbial hosts. The interspecies hybrid yeast Zygosaccharomyces parabailii has great potential to be exploited as a novel host for lactic acid production, due to high organic acid tolerance at low pH and a fermentative metabolism with a high growth rate. Here we used mRNA sequencing (RNA-seq) to analyze Z. parabailii's transcriptional re...

  10. Influence of different concentrations of jasmonic acid on in vitro development of Catasetum fimbriatum Lindl. (Orchidaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Antunes Silva Maia

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In vitro seeding constitutes an indispensable tool for propagation of the main commercial species of orchids. This study aimed to analyze the in vitro development of Catasetum fimbriatum under different concentrations of jasmonic acid in Murashige & Skoog culture medium compound of ½ macronutrients. After 180 days of cultivation, concentration of 0.25 and 0.50 μL • L-1 caused a significant increase in number of roots and leaves. The concentration of 1.00 μL • L-1 showed the best result for the length of longest root and largest leaf, the total length of seedling, and the total fresh and dry masses. Nevertheless, the use of this plant regulator on in vitro culture media still requires further investigations to determine the optimal concentration in order to obtain desirable phytotechnical characteristics in different orchid species.

  11. Lipoic acid effects on glutamate and taurine concentrations in rat hippocampus after pilocarpine-induced seizures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P S Santos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Pilocarpine-induced seizures can be mediated by increases in oxidative stress and by cerebral amino acid changes. The present research suggests that antioxidant compounds may afford some level of neuroprotection against the neurotoxicity of seizures in cellular level. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the lipoic acid (LA effects in glutamate and taurine contents in rat hippocampus after pilocarpine-induced seizures. Wistar rats were treated intraperitoneally (i.p. with 0.9% saline (Control, pilocarpine (400 mg/kg, Pilocarpine, LA (10 mg/kg, LA, and the association of LA (10 mg/kg plus pilocarpine (400 mg/kg, that was injected 30 min before of administration of LA (LA plus pilocarpine. Animals were observed during 24 h. The amino acid concentrations were measured using high-performance liquid chromatograph (HPLC. In pilocarpine group, it was observed a significant increase in glutamate content (37% and a decrease in taurine level (18% in rat hippocampus, when compared to control group. Antioxidant pretreatment significantly reduced the glutamate level (28% and augmented taurine content (32% in rat hippocampus, when compared to pilocarpine group. Our findings strongly support amino acid changes in hippocampus during seizures induced by pilocarpine, and suggest that glutamate-induced brain damage plays a crucial role in pathogenic consequences of seizures, and imply that strong protective effect could be achieved using lipoic acid through the release or decrease in metabolization rate of taurine amino acid during seizures.

  12. General method for calculation of hydrogen-ion concentration in multicomponent acid-base mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, D A; Ando, H Y

    1980-08-01

    A generalized method for the rapid evaluation of complicated ionic equilibria in terms of the hydrogen-ion concentration was developed. The method was based on the derivation of a single general equation that could be used to evaluate any mixture. A tableau method also was developed which allowed calculation of the numerical solution to the general equation without computer analysis or graphical or intuitive approximations. Examples illustrating the utility of the method are presented. These examples include a mixture of barbital, citric acid, boric acid, monobasic sodium phosphate, and sodium hydroxide. Calculated hydrogen-ion concentrations showed good agreement with experimental values for simple and complex solutions. The major advantages of the method are its simplicity and the obtainment of numerical solutions without initial approximations in the calculations. However, activity corrections are not included in the calculations.

  13. A Concentrated Hydrochloric Acid-based Method for Complete Recovery of DNA from Bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynen, Leon; Lambert, David M

    2015-11-01

    The successful extraction of DNA from historical or ancient animal bone is important for the analysis of discriminating genetic markers. Methods used currently rely on the digestion of bone with EDTA and proteinase K, followed by purification with phenol/chloroform and silica bed binding. We have developed a simple concentrated hydrochloric acid-based method that precludes the use of phenol/chloroform purification and can lead to a several-fold increase in DNA yield when compared to other commonly used methods. Concentrated hydrochloric acid was shown to dissolve most of the undigested bone and allowed the efficient recovery of DNA fragments <100 bases in length. This method should prove useful for the recovery of DNAs from highly degraded animal bone, such as that found in historical or ancient samples. © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  14. Effects of salt concentration on the reaction rate of Glc with amino acids, peptides, and proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Keiko; Noumi, Yuri; Nakajima, Katsumi; Nagatsuka, Chiharu; Aizawa, Haruko; Nakawaki, Rie; Mizude, Eri; Otsuka, Yuzuru; Homma, Takeshi; Chuyen, Nguyen Van

    2009-11-01

    The reaction between the amino group and the carbonyl group is important in food quality control. Furthermore, advanced glycation end products from foods are considered to relate to aging and diabetes. Thus, it is important to control this reaction. In this study, we investigated the effects of salt concentration on the rates of browning reaction of amino acid, peptides, and proteins. A high concentration of sodium chloride retarded the reaction rate of Glc with amino acids as measured with the absorbance at 470 nm, but did not change the browning rate of Glc with peptides. On the other hand, sodium chloride retarded the browning reaction rate of proteins as measured with polymerization degree or by the loss of Lys. It is hoped that the results of this study will be applied in the control of amino-carbonyl reaction rates in the food industry.

  15. Effect of polysulfone concentration on the performance of membrane-assisted lead acid battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Fauzi Ismail

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available The application of lead acid battery in tropical countries normally faces the problem of water decomposition. This phenomenon is due to the factor of charge-discharge reaction in the battery and heat accumulation caused by hot tropical climate and heat generated from engine compartment. The objective of this study is to analyze the effect of polysulfone concentration on the performance of membrane-assisted lead-acid battery. Gas separation membranes, prepared through wet-dry phase inversion method and using various polysulfone concentrated formulations, were applied on the battery vent holes, for the purpose of preventing electrolyte from evaporating to the atmosphere. The best membrane, which retains the most electrolyte, will be chosen to be applied on the soon-to-be-developed “membrane-assisted maintenance- free battery”. This maintenance-free battery will need no topping up of deionized water every time the electrolyte level goes low.

  16. EXTRACTION AND SORPTION BENZOIC ACID FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS OF POLYMERS BASED ON N-VINYLAMIDES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Savvina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The widespread use of aromatic acids (benzoic acid, salicylic as preservatives necessitates their qualitative and quantitative determination in food. Effective and common way to separation and concentration of aromatic acids liquid extraction. Biphasic system of water-soluble polymers based on (poly-N-vinyl pyrrolidone, and poly-N-vinylcaprolactam satisfy the requirements of the extraction system. When sorption concentration improved definition of the metrological characteristics, comply with the requirements for sensitivity and selectivity definition appears possible, use of inexpensive and readily available analytical equipment. When studying the adsorption of benzoic acid used as a sorbent crosslinked polymer based on N-vinyl pyrrolidone, obtained by radical polymerisation of a functional monomer and crosslinker. In the extraction of benzoic acid to maximize the allocation of water and the organic phase of the polymer used salt solutions with concentrations close to saturation. Regardless of the nature of the anion salt is used as salting-out agent, aromatic acids sorption increases with the size of the cations. In the experiment the maximum recovery rate (80% benzoic acid obtained in the PVP (0.2 weight%. Ammonium sulphate. The dependence stepepni benzoic acid extraction from time sorption sorbent mass and the pH of the aqueous phase. To establish equilibrium in the system, for 20 minutes. The dependence of the degree of extraction of the acid pH indicates that the acid is extracted into the molecular form. The maximum adsorption is reached at pH 3,5, with its efficiency decreases symbatically reduce the amount of undissociated acid molecules in solution.

  17. Uranium recovery from the concentrated phosphoric acid prepared by the hemi-hydrate process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fouad, E.A.; Mahdy, M.A.; Bakr, M.Y.; Zatout, A.A.

    1995-01-01

    It has been proved that the uranium dissolution from El-sebaiya phosphate ore was possible by using 10 Kg of K Cl O 4 / ton rock during the preparation of high strength phosphoric acid using the hemi hydrate process. In the present work, effective extraction of uranium (about 90%) from the high strength phosphoric acid using a new synergistic solvent mixture of 0.75 M D 2 EHPA/0.1 M TOHPO had been a success. Stripping of uranium from the organic phase was possible by 10 M phosphoric acid while the direct precipitation of uranium concentrate from the later was feasible by using N H 4 F in presence of acetone. 8 figs

  18. Perfluoroalkyl Acid Concentrations in Blood Samples Subjected to Transportation and Processing Delay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach, Cathrine Carlsen; Henriksen, Tine Brink; Bossi, Rossana

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In studies of perfluoroalkyl acids, the validity and comparability of measured concentrations may be affected by differences in the handling of biospecimens. We aimed to investigate whether measured plasma levels of perfluoroalkyl acids differed between blood samples subjected to delay...... and transportation prior to processing and samples with immediate processing and freezing. METHODS: Pregnant women recruited at Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark, (n = 88) provided paired blood samples. For each pair of samples, one was immediately processed and plasma was frozen, and the other was delayed...... and transported as whole blood before processing and freezing of plasma (similar to the Danish National Birth Cohort). We measured 12 perfluoroalkyl acids and present results for compounds with more than 50% of samples above the lower limit of quantification. RESULTS: For samples taken in the winter, relative...

  19. Concentration and separation of trace metals with an arsonic acid resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, J S; Moyers, E M

    1976-08-01

    Macroporeus arsonic acid resins with different pore sizes and surface areas were prepared and the properties compared. One of the resins was used for concentration of trace metal ions from dimineralized water, tap-water, and sea-water. The effect of pH and complexing agents on the recovery of metal ions was studied. A method for separation of uranium(VI) and thorium(IV) from each other and from other metal ions was developed.

  20. Regulation of rat plasma and cerebral cortex oxylipin concentrations with increasing levels of dietary linoleic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Ameer Y; Hennebelle, Marie; Yang, Jun; Zamora, Daisy; Rapoport, Stanley I; Hammock, Bruce D; Ramsden, Christopher E

    2016-05-11

    Linoleic acid (LA, 18:2n-6) is the most abundant polyunsaturated fatty acid in the North American diet and is a precursor to circulating bioactive fatty acid metabolites implicated in brain disorders. This exploratory study tested the effects of increasing dietary LA on plasma and cerebral cortex metabolites derived from LA, its elongation-desaturation products dihomo-gamma linolenic (DGLA, 20:3n-6) acid and arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4n-6), as well as omega-3 alpha-linolenic (α-LNA, 18:3n-3), eicosapentaenoic (EPA, 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3). Plasma and cortex were obtained from rats fed a 0.4%, 5.2% or 10.5% energy LA diet for 15 weeks and subjected to liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry analysis. Total oxylipin concentrations, representing the esterified and unesterified pool, and unesterified oxylipins derived from LA and AA were significantly increased and EPA metabolites decreased in plasma at 5.2% or 10.5% energy LA compared to 0.4% energy LA. Unesterified plasma DHA metabolites also decreased at 10.5% energy LA. In cortex, total and unesterified LA and AA metabolites increased and unesterified EPA metabolites decreased at 5.2% or 10.5% LA. DGLA and α-LNA metabolites did not significantly change in plasma or cortex. Dietary LA lowering represents a feasible approach for targeting plasma and brain LA, AA, EPA or DHA-derived metabolite concentrations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of dimethylamine on the gas phase sulfuric acid concentration measured by Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rondo, L; Ehrhart, S; Kürten, A; Adamov, A; Bianchi, F; Breitenlechner, M; Duplissy, J; Franchin, A; Dommen, J; Donahue, N M; Dunne, E M; Flagan, R C; Hakala, J; Hansel, A; Keskinen, H; Kim, J; Jokinen, T; Lehtipalo, K; Leiminger, M; Praplan, A; Riccobono, F; Rissanen, M P; Sarnela, N; Schobesberger, S; Simon, M; Sipilä, M; Smith, J N; Tomé, A; Tröstl, J; Tsagkogeorgas, G; Vaattovaara, P; Winkler, P M; Williamson, C; Wimmer, D; Baltensperger, U; Kirkby, J; Kulmala, M; Petäjä, T; Worsnop, D R; Curtius, J

    2016-03-27

    Sulfuric acid is widely recognized as a very important substance driving atmospheric aerosol nucleation. Based on quantum chemical calculations it has been suggested that the quantitative detection of gas phase sulfuric acid (H 2 SO 4 ) by use of Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry (CIMS) could be biased in the presence of gas phase amines such as dimethylamine (DMA). An experiment (CLOUD7 campaign) was set up at the CLOUD (Cosmics Leaving OUtdoor Droplets) chamber to investigate the quantitative detection of H 2 SO 4 in the presence of dimethylamine by CIMS at atmospherically relevant concentrations. For the first time in the CLOUD experiment, the monomer sulfuric acid concentration was measured by a CIMS and by two CI-APi-TOF (Chemical Ionization-Atmospheric Pressure interface-Time Of Flight) mass spectrometers. In addition, neutral sulfuric acid clusters were measured with the CI-APi-TOFs. The CLOUD7 measurements show that in the presence of dimethylamine (sulfuric acid monomer measured by the CIMS represents only a fraction of the total H 2 SO 4 , contained in the monomer and the clusters that is available for particle growth. Although it was found that the addition of dimethylamine dramatically changes the H 2 SO 4 cluster distribution compared to binary (H 2 SO 4 -H 2 O) conditions, the CIMS detection efficiency does not seem to depend substantially on whether an individual H 2 SO 4 monomer is clustered with a DMA molecule. The experimental observations are supported by numerical simulations based on A Self-contained Atmospheric chemistry coDe coupled with a molecular process model (Sulfuric Acid Water NUCleation) operated in the kinetic limit.

  2. Trends in Pinus ponderosa foliar pigment concentration due to chronic exposure of ozone and acid rain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuman, L.; Houpis, J.; Anderson, P.

    1991-01-01

    To determine the effects of ozone and acid rain on mature Ponderosa pine trees, Lawrence Livermore National Lab. has collaborated with University of California Berkeley, University of California Davis, California State University Chico, and the US Forest Service at the latter's Chico Tree Improvement Center. Foliar tissue from mature grafted scions of Pinus ponderosa were exposed to two times ambient ozone for ten months and to acid rain (3.0 pH) weekly for 10 weeks using branch exposure chambers. Pigment extracts were analyzed spectrophotometrically for concentrations of chlorophylls a and b, and carotenoid pigments, at 662 nm, 644 nm, and 470 nm, respectively. Pigment concentrations were expressed on a surface area basis. Preliminary results revealed that chlorophyll a showed a downward trend due to the ozone treatment. Acid rain caused no effects on these three pigments, however, chlorophyll b showed an upward trend due to the interaction of ozone and acid rain. The carotenoid pigments showed no changes due to the treatments either singly, or in combination

  3. Influence of nitric acid concentration on the characteristics of active carbons obtained from a mineral coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khelifi, A.; Temdrara, L.; Addoun, A. [Laboratoire d' Etude Physicochimique des Materiaux et Application a l' Environnement, Faculte de Chimie, USTHB, BP. 32 El Alia, Bab Ezzouar 16111, Algiers (Algeria); Almazan-Almazan, M.C.; Perez-Mendoza, M.; Domingo-Garcia, M.; Lopez-Garzon, F.J [Departamento de Quimica Inorganica, Facultad de Ciencias, 18071 Granada (Spain); Lopez-Domingo, F.J. [Departamento de CCIA, ETS de Ingenieria Informatica y Telecomunicacion, Granada, 18071 (Spain)

    2010-10-15

    This paper deals with the effect of the concentration of nitric acid solutions on the properties of activated carbons obtained by the oxidation of a parent activated carbon. For this purpose a mineral coal from Algeria has been used as raw material to prepare the parent active carbon AC. This was further treated with nitric acid solutions. The analysis of the samples includes the chemical and textural characterization. The former was carried out by selective titrations and FTIR spectroscopy. The latter, by nitrogen and carbon dioxide adsorption at 77 and 273 K, respectively, and by adsorption of organic probes (benzene, dichloromethane, cyclohexane and 2,2-dimethyl butane) at 303 K. The nitrogen adsorption isotherms have been analysed by using the BET equation, {alpha}{sub s}-method and molecular simulation. The Dubinin-Radushkevich approach has been applied to the carbon dioxide and vapours adsorption data. The results show that the treatment with 2 N nitric acid solution is very appropriate because it introduces a large amount of oxygen containing groups with a small change of the textural characteristics of the parent AC. More concentrated nitric acid solutions change in large extent the textural properties although they also introduce large amount of chemical groups. (author)

  4. Effect of Drying Temperature on Rosmarinic Acid and Sinensetin Concentration in Orthosiphon stamineus Herbal Leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Sriyana; Razak Shaari, Abdul; Hajar Rukunudin, Ibni; Syarhabil Ahmad, Muhammad

    2018-03-01

    The objective of this work was to investigate the effects of drying temperature on the concentration of O rthosiphon stamineus biomarker compounds which were rosmarinic acid (RA) and sinensetin (SEN). The thin layer drying approach was used to dry O. stamineus leaves at various temperatures of 30, 40 and 50°C using a laboratory scale hot air dryer. The dried leaves were then extracted using 60% aqueous methanol prior to quantification. The RA and SEN concentrations in the dried leaves extracts were quantified by the high performance liquid chromatography. The concentration of RA for the dried leaves at 30 and 40°C were higher as compared to that of the fresh leaves. This may due to the response of the plant cells to abiotic stress. The concentration of RA also showed a significant reduction when the temperature was increased to 50°C. In contrast, the SEN concentration in O. stamineus dried leaf extract was lower than that of the fresh samples. The concentrations of SEN depicted insignificant effects by drying at 30 and 50°C, and the highest value was obtained in the samples dried at 40°C. Results showed that the drying process was found to affect the concentration of both compounds; therefore suitable drying conditions should be adopted to enhance the medicinal values of the plant species.

  5. D-tagatose, a stereoisomer of D-fructose, increases blood uric acid concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buemann, B; Toubro, S; Holst, J J; Rehfeld, J F; Bibby, B M; Astrup, A

    2000-08-01

    D-Fructose has been found to increase uric acid production by accelerating the degradation of purine nucleotides, probably due to hepatocellular depletion of inorganic phosphate (Pi) by an accumulation of ketohexose-1-phosphate. The hyperuricemic effect of D-tagatose, a stereoisomer of D-fructose, may be greater than that of D-fructose, as the subsequent degradation of D-tagatose-1-phosphate is slower than the degradation of D-fructose-1-phosphate. We tested the effect of 30 g oral D-tagatose versus D-fructose on plasma uric acid and other metabolic parameters in 8 male subjects by a double-blind crossover design. Both the peak concentration and 4-hour area under the curve (AUC) of serum uric acid were significantly higher after D-tagatose compared with either 30 g D-fructose or plain water. The decline in serum Pi concentration was greater at 50 minutes after D-tagatose versus D-fructose. The thermogenic and lactacidemic responses to D-tagatose were blunted compared with D-fructose. D-Tagatose attenuated the glycemic and insulinemic responses to a meal that was consumed 255 minutes after its administration. Moreover, both fructose and D-tagatose increased plasma concentrations of cholecystokinin (CCK) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). The metabolic effects of D-tagatose occurred despite its putative poor absorption.

  6. [Post-cholecystectomy condition: duodeno-gastric reflux and bile acid concentration in the gastric juice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koelsch, K A; Kühne, C; Zemlin, C

    1979-07-01

    In cholecystectomized patients highly significantly more frequently a duodenogastric reflux was found than in a group of patients with a healthy abdomen and a group of patients with cholelithiasis. The average concentration of bile acid in the gastric juice was after the removal of the gall-bladder manifoldly higher than in the control groups. The number of patients with concentrated reflux was also highly significantly larger than in patients with cholelithiasis not operated on and in patients with a healthy abdomen. Despite the high reflux rate and the high concentration of the bile acids influencing on the mucous membrane of the stomach the number of patients with ulcera ventriculi was not significantly larger than in a group of not cholecystectomized persons. These observations plead for the fact that the bile acids in the duodenogastric reflux alone are not to be regarded as an ulcerogenic agent, but that perhaps other components of the duodenal juice have to be considered as causes of lesions of the gastric mucous membrane.

  7. Predicted effects of mineral neutralization and bisulfate formation on hydrogen ion concentration for dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Todd A; Wyman, Charles E

    2004-01-01

    Dilute acid and water-only hemicellulose hydrolysis are being examined as part of a multiinstitutional cooperative effort to evaluate the performance of leading cellulosic biomass pretreatment technologies on a common basis. Cellulosic biomass, such as agricultural residues and forest wastes, can have a significant mineral content. It has been shown that these minerals neutralize some of the acid during dilute acid pretreatment, reducing its effectiveness, and the higher solids loadings desired to minimize costs will require increased acid use to compensate. However, for sulfuric acid in particular, an equilibrium shift to formation of bisulfate during neutralization can further reduce hydrogen ion concentrations and compound the effect of neutralization. Because the equilibrium shift has a more pronounced effect at lower acid concentrations, additional acid is needed to compensate. Coupled with the effect of temperature on acid dissociation, these effects increase acid requirements to achieve a particular reaction rate unless minerals are removed prior to hydrolysis.

  8. Inflammatory markers in dependence on the plasma concentration of 37 fatty acids after the coronary stent implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handl, Jiří; Meloun, Milan; Mužáková, Vladimíra

    2018-02-05

    Using the regression model building the relationships between the concentration of 37 fatty acids of blood plasma phospholipids of 41 patients with coronary artery disease after coronary stent implantation, the inflammatory response and oxidative stress markers were estimated. The dynamics of the inflammatory response and the oxidative stress was indicated by measuring plasma concentrations of highly sensitive C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, serum amyloid A and malondialdehyde before, 24h after stent implantation. The multiple linear regression analysis was preceded by an exploratory data analysis, principal component analysis, factor analysis and cluster analysis, which proved a hidden internal relation of 37 fatty acids. The concentration of cerotic acid (C26:0) has been positively associated with an increase of malondialdehyde concentration after stent implantation, while the concentrations of tetracosatetraenoic (C24:4 N6) and nonadecanoic (C19:0) acids were associated with decrease of lipoperoxidation. The increase of interleukin-6 during the 24h after implantation was associated with higher levels of pentadecanoic acid (C15:0) and lower levels of α-linolenic acid (C18:3 N3). Regression models found several significant fatty acids at which the strength of the parameter β for each fatty acid on selected markers of C-reactive protein, malondialdehyde, interleukin-6 and serum amyloid A was estimated. Parameter β testifies to the power of the positive or negative relationship of the fatty acid concentration on the concentration of selected markers. The influencing effect of the cerotic acid (C26:0) concentration in plasma phospholipids exhibiting parameter β=140.4 is, for example, 3.5 times higher than this effect of n-3 tetracosapentaenoic acid (C24:5 N3) with β=40.0. Composition of fatty acids in plasma phospholipids shows spectrum of fatty acids available for intercellular communication in systemic inflammatory response of organism and should affect

  9. Mineral Element Concentrations in Vegetables Cultivated in Acidic Compared to Alkaline Areas of South Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingegerd Rosborg

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A study in 1997, on mineral levels in acidic compared to alkaline well waters, and in women’s hair, revealed higher concentrations of a number of mineral elements like Ca, Mo and Se in alkaline waters and hair. Thus, median Ca levels were six times higher in well water and five times higher in hair from the alkaline area compared to the acidic area. This finding raised the probability of similar differences in vegetables from these areas. Thus, in the year 2006, 60 women who had participated in the study in 1997 were asked to cultivate parsley, lettuce, carrot and chive. During the spring of 2006, the women from the water and hair study of 1997, 30 of them from the acidic area and 30 women from the alkaline district cultivated vegetables: carrot (Daucus carota L, parsley (Petroselinum crispum, chive (Allium schoenoprasum and lettuce (Eruca sativa. The vegetables were harvested, and rinsed in tap water from the kitchens of the participating women in August. The concentrations of about 35 elements and ions were determined by ICP OES and ICP-MS predominantly. In addition, soil samples from the different cultivators were also analyzed for a number of elements. Lettuce and parsley showed the highest concentrations of mineral elements per gram dry weight. Only Mo concentrations were significantly higher in all the different vegetables from the alkaline district compared to vegetables from the acidic areas. On the other hand, the concentrations of Ba, Br, Mn, Rb and Zn were higher in all the different vegetables from the acidic area. In the soil, only pH and exchangeable Ca from the alkaline area were higher than from the acidic area, while exchangeable Fe, Mn and Na concentrations were higher in soils from the acidic area. Soil elements like Al, Fe, Li, Ni, Pb, Si, Ti, V, Zn and Zr were found in higher concentrations in lettuce and parsley, which were attributed to soil particles being splashed on the plants by the rain and absorbed by the leaves

  10. Reduced gamma-aminobutyric acid concentration is associated with physical disability in progressive multiple sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solanky, Bhavana S.; Muhlert, Nils; Tur, Carmen; Edden, Richard A. E.; Wheeler-Kingshott, Claudia A. M.; Miller, David H.; Thompson, Alan J.; Ciccarelli, Olga

    2015-01-01

    Neurodegeneration is thought to be the major cause of ongoing, irreversible disability in progressive stages of multiple sclerosis. Gamma-aminobutyric acid is the principle inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain. The aims of this study were to investigate if gamma-aminobutyric acid levels (i) are abnormal in patients with secondary progressive multiple sclerosis compared with healthy controls; and (ii) correlate with physical and cognitive performance in this patient population. Thirty patients with secondary progressive multiple sclerosis and 17 healthy control subjects underwent single-voxel MEGA-PRESS (MEscher-GArwood Point RESolved Spectroscopy) magnetic resonance spectroscopy at 3 T, to quantify gamma-aminobutyric acid levels in the prefrontal cortex, right hippocampus and left sensorimotor cortex. All subjects were assessed clinically and underwent a cognitive assessment. Multiple linear regression models were used to compare differences in gamma-aminobutyric acid concentrations between patients and controls adjusting for age, gender and tissue fractions within each spectroscopic voxel. Regression was used to examine the relationships between the cognitive function and physical disability scores specific for these regions with gamma-aminobuytric acid levels, adjusting for age, gender, and total N-acetyl-aspartate and glutamine-glutamate complex levels. When compared with controls, patients performed significantly worse on all motor and sensory tests, and were cognitively impaired in processing speed and verbal memory. Patients had significantly lower gamma-aminobutyric acid levels in the hippocampus (adjusted difference = −0.403 mM, 95% confidence intervals −0.792, −0.014, P = 0.043) and sensorimotor cortex (adjusted difference = −0.385 mM, 95% confidence intervals −0.667, −0.104, P = 0.009) compared with controls. In patients, reduced motor function in the right upper and lower limb was associated with lower gamma-aminobutyric acid

  11. The association between concentration of Uric Acid and metabolic syndrome among adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Homeira Rashidi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Metabolic syndromes are known as a set of risk factors for the development of cardio-vascular disease and diabetes in the individual. The association between concentration of uric acid and metabolic syndrome in adolescents has yet to be established thoroughly. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between uric acid and metabolic syndrome in a sample of adolescents. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted from September 23, 2009 to September 22, 2010 in Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran. In this study, 240 individuals aged 10-19 years were randomly selected among participants of the Ahvaz MetS study (120 subjects normal and 120 subjects MetS. The serum levels of UA were measured by a colorimetric method. In the normal group, anyone with abdominal obesity, high systolic or diastolic blood pressure, High-density lipoprotein (HDL≤40 mg/dl, TG≤110 mg/dl, fasting blood sugar (FBS≤100 mg/dl or diabetes was excluded from the study. History of Anticonvulsive drugs or steroids use was the criteria for exclusion for both groups. Results: Of the 240 subjects aged a mean of 14.95±2.64 years, mean of uric acid in metabolic syndrome group was 4.8±1.4 mg/dl and in the control group was 4.18±1.01 mg/d (P=0.001. Participants were divided into three groups based on uric acid levels: ≤4.9 mg/dl, 4.9-5.7 mg/dl and >5.7 mg/dl. The risk of metabolic syndrome was significantly higher in third group of uric acid than the second and first group (odds ratio [OR], 3.7; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.70 - 8.04 and (OR, 5.9; 95% CI, 2.42-14.35, P<0.001. In addition, uric acid level was inversely associated with hyperglycemia. The ORs of hypertriglyceridemia for the second and third group of uric acid were 4.36 (95% CI, 2.01- 9.47 5.75 (95% CI, 2.43-13.61 respectively, compared with lowest group of UA. Conclusion: The results showed that hyperuricemia was significantly linked with increased risk for

  12. Fatty Acid and Cholesterol Concentrations in Usually Consumed Fish in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Scherr

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Several studies have demonstrated clinical benefits of fish consumption for the cardiovascular system. These effects are attributed to the increased amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids in these foods. However, the concentrations of fatty acids may vary according to region. Objective: The goal of this study was to determine the amount of,cholesterol and fatty acids in 10 Brazilian fishes and in a non-native farmed salmon usually consumed in Brazil. Methods: The concentrations of cholesterol and fatty acids, especially omega-3, were determined in grilled fishes. Each fish sample was divided in 3 sub-samples (chops and each one was extracted from the fish to minimize possible differences in muscle and fat contents. Results: The largest cholesterol amount was found in white grouper (107.6 mg/100 g of fish and the smallest in badejo (70 mg/100 g. Omega-3 amount varied from 0.01 g/100 g in badejo to 0.900 g/100 g in weakfish. Saturated fat varied from 0.687 g/100 g in seabass to 4.530 g/100 g in filhote. The salmon had the greatest concentration of polyunsaturated fats (3.29 g/100 g and the highest content of monounsaturated was found in pescadinha (5.98 g/100 g. Whiting and boyfriend had the best omega-6/omega 3 ratios respectively 2.22 and 1.19, however these species showed very little amounts of omega-3. Conclusion: All studied Brazilian fishes and imported salmon have low amounts of saturated fat and most of them also have low amounts of omega-3.

  13. Low plasma eicosapentaenoic acid concentration as a possible risk factor for intracerebral hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeya, Yoshimori; Fukuyama, Naoto; Mori, Hidezo

    2015-03-01

    N-3 fatty acids, including eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), prevent ischemic stroke. The preventive effect has been attributed to an antithrombic effect induced by elevated EPA and reduced arachidonic acid (AA) levels. However, the relationship between intracranial hemorrhage and N-3 fatty acids has not yet been elucidated. In this cross-sectional study, we compared common clinical and lifestyle parameters between 70 patients with intracranial hemorrhages and 66 control subjects. The parameters included blood chemistry data, smoking, alcohol intake, fish consumption, and the incidences of underlying diseases. The comparisons were performed using the Mann-Whitney U test followed by multiple logistic regression analysis. Nonparametric tests revealed that the 70 patients with intracerebral hemorrhages exhibited significantly higher diastolic blood pressures and alcohol intakes and lower body mass indices, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels, EPA concentrations, EPA/AA ratios, and vegetable consumption compared with the 66 control subjects. A multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that higher diastolic blood pressure and alcohol intake and lower body mass index, HDL cholesterol, EPA/AA ratio, and vegetable consumption were relative risk factors for intracerebral hemorrhage. High HDL cholesterol was a common risk factor in both of the sex-segregated subgroups and the Eicosapentaenoic acid was relative risk factor only in the ≥65-year-old subgroup. Rather than higher EPA levels, lower EPA concentrations and EPA/AA ratios were found to be risk factors for intracerebral hemorrhage in addition to previously known risk factors such as blood pressure, alcohol consumption, and lifestyle. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of total gastrectomy on plasma silicon and amino acid concentrations in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatara, Marcin R; Krupski, Witold; Szpetnar, Maria; Dąbrowski, Andrzej; Bury, Paweł; Szabelska, Anna; Charuta, Anna; Boguszewska-Czubara, Anna; Maciejewski, Ryszard; Wallner, Grzegorz

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the study was to determine one-year effects of total gastrectomy on plasma silicon and free amino acid concentrations in patients and evaluate changes of volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) in lumbar spine. Eight patients were enrolled to the control (CTR) group. Six patients subjected to total gastrectomy (GX group) were included to the experimental group. vBMD in trabecular and cortical bone was measured in lumbar vertebrae at baseline (before surgery) and one year later using quantitative computed tomography. Plasma concentrations of silicon and free amino acids were determined at baseline and one year later using photometric method and ion-exchange chromatography. Body weights within CTR and GX groups were not different after one-year follow-up when compared to the baseline values (P > 0.05). An average annual decrease of vBMD in the trabecular bone in the gastrectomized patients reached 15.0% in lumbar spine and was significantly different in comparison to the percentage changes observed in CTR group (P = 0.02). One-year percentage change of vBMD in the cortical bone in L1 and L2 has shown significantly decreased values by 10.5 and 9.1% in the GX group when compared to the percentage change observed in the controls (P silicon was significantly lowered by 26.7% one year after the total gastrectomy when compared to the baseline value (P = 0.009). Total gastrectomy in patients has induced severe osteoporotic changes in lumbar spine within one-year period. The observed osteoporotic changes were associated with decreased plasma concentration of silicon indicating importance of exocrine and endocrine functions of stomach for silicon homeostasis maintenance. Gastrectomy-induced bone loss was not related to decreased amino acid concentration in plasma obtained from overnight fasted patients. © 2015 by the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine.

  15. Associations of fatty acids in cerebrospinal fluid with peripheral glucose concentrations and energy metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reiner Jumpertz

    Full Text Available Rodent experiments have emphasized a role of central fatty acid (FA species, such as oleic acid, in regulating peripheral glucose and energy metabolism. Thus, we hypothesized that central FAs are related to peripheral glucose regulation and energy expenditure in humans. To test this we measured FA species profiles in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF and plasma of 32 individuals who stayed in our clinical inpatient unit for 6 days. Body composition was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry and glucose regulation by an oral glucose test (OGTT followed by measurements of 24 hour (24EE and sleep energy expenditure (SLEEP as well as respiratory quotient (RQ in a respiratory chamber. CSF was obtained via lumbar punctures; FA concentrations were measured by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. As expected, FA concentrations were higher in plasma compared to CSF. Individuals with high concentrations of CSF very-long-chain saturated FAs had lower rates of SLEEP. In the plasma moderate associations of these FAs with higher 24EE were observed. Moreover, CSF monounsaturated long-chain FA (palmitoleic and oleic acid concentrations were associated with lower RQs and lower glucose area under the curve during the OGTT. Thus, FAs in the CSF strongly correlated with peripheral metabolic traits. These physiological parameters were most specific to long-chain monounsaturated (C16:1, C18:1 and very-long-chain saturated (C24:0, C26:0 FAs.Together with previous animal experiments these initial cross-sectional human data indicate that central FA species are linked to peripheral glucose and energy homeostasis.

  16. Variation in the concentration of carminic acid produced by Dactylopius coccus (Hemiptera: Dactylopidae) at various maturation stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Alatorre, H L; Abrego-Reyes, V; Reyes-Esparza, J A; Angeles, E; Alba-Hurtado, F

    2014-08-01

    The concentration of carminic acid was found to vary based on the size and life cycle stage of the cochineal, Dactylopius coccus Costa. The concentration of carminic acid in cochineal eggs, nymph I, nymph II, fertilized adults, ovipositing adults, and sterile adults female was measured using capillary electrophoresis, and the total fluorescence of the carminic acid globules was measured using flow cytometry. The smallest sterile adult females had a greater percentage of carminic acid relative to their weight (26.27%; P acid than the remainder of the females. Nymph II was the phase that had the smallest percentage of carminic acid. Using flow cytometry, it was demonstrated that ovipositing females had a greater total fluorescence than the other sampled groups (P acid and the total fluorescence of the carminic acid globules (r2 = 0.68; P shall allow an improvement of the current classification criteria of the commercial quality of dry cochineal.

  17. Effect of acid concentration and pulp properties on hydrolysis reactions of mercerized sisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacerda, Talita M; Zambon, Márcia D; Frollini, Elisabete

    2013-03-01

    The influence of sulfuric acid concentration (H2SO4 5-25%, 100°C), crystallinity and fibers size on the hydrolysis reaction of sisal pulps were investigated, with the goal of evaluating both the liquor composition, as an important step in the production of bioethanol, and the residual non-hydrolyzed pulp, to determine its potential application as materials. Aliquots were withdrawn from the reaction media, and the liquor composition was analyzed by HPLC. The residual non-hydrolyzed pulps were characterized by SEM, their average molar mass and crystallinity index, and their size distribution was determined using a fiber analyzer. Sulfuric acid 25% led to the highest glucose content (approximately 10gL(-1)), and this acid concentration was chosen to evaluate the influence of both the fiber size and crystallinity of the starting pulp on hydrolysis. The results showed that fibers with higher length and lower crystallinity favored glucose production in approximately 12%, with respect to the highly crystalline shorter fibers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Thermodynamic and kinetic modelling of the reduction of concentrated nitric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sicsic, David

    2011-01-01

    This research thesis aimed at determining and quantifying the different stages of the reduction mechanism in the case of concentrated nitric acid. After having reported the results of a bibliographical study on the chemical and electrochemical behaviour of concentrated nitric media (generalities, chemical equilibriums, NOx reactivity, electrochemical reduction of nitric acid), the author reports the development and discusses the results of a thermodynamic simulation of a nitric environment at 25 C. This allowed the main species to be identified in the liquid and gaseous phases of nitric acid solutions. The author reports an experimental electrochemical investigation coupled with analytic techniques (infrared and UV-visible spectroscopy) and shows that the reduction process depends on the cathodic overvoltage, and identifies three potential areas. A kinetic modelling of the stationary state and of the impedance is then developed in order to better determine, discuss and quantify the reduction process. The application of this kinetic model to the preliminary results of an electrochemical study performed on 304 L steel is then discussed [fr

  19. Separation and concentration of lanthanoids using microcapsules containing acidic organophosphorus compounds as an extractant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamio, Eiji; Kondo, Kazuo [Doshisha Univ., Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Kyoto (Japan)

    2002-06-01

    In this study, we measured the extraction equilibria of lanthanoids with microcapsules containing acidic organophosphorus compound as an extractant and discuss their mutual separation by using a column packed with the microcapsules. The extraction equilibria of lanthanoids into the microcapsules containing 2-ethylhexylphosphonic acid mono-2-ethylhexyl ester (EHPNA) were elucidated and the extraction equilibrium constants were calculated by slope-analysis method. It was suggested that the lanthanoid ions are extracted in the microcapsules in a high loading state. Furthermore, the adsorption behavior of lanthanoids into the column packed with the microcapsules containing EHPNA was observed. It was found that adsorption and elution of lanthanoids are briefly achieved by selecting pH of the feed aqueous solution. However, it was impossible to separate them only in adsorption or elution operation. So, the mutual separation of lanthanoids was investigated using the adsorption column connected to the development column containing microcapsules. By selecting pH of the eluent, each metal was separated mutually in more than 95% of purity. The metal ions in the eluent from the development column could be concentrated by treating it with a column packed with the microcapsules containing di(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid (D2EHPA). Considering these information, it will be possible to design a continuous extracting, separating and concentrating reactor of lanthanoids using a column packed with the microcapsules. (author)

  20. Regulation of dipeptide transport in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by micromolar amino acid concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Island, M.D.; Naider, F.; Becker, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    Prototrophic Saccharomyces cerevisiae X2180, when grown on unsupplemented minimal medium, displayed little sensitivity to ethionine- and m-fluorophenylalanine-containing toxic dipeptides. The authors examined the influence of the 20 naturally occurring amino acids on sensitivity to toxic dipeptides. A number of these amino acids, at concentrations as low as 1 μM (leucine and tryptophan), produced large increases in sensitivity to leucyl-ethionine, alanyl-ethionine, and leucyl-m-fluorophenylalanine. Sensitivity to ethionine and m-fluorophenylalanine remained high under either set of conditions. The addition of 0.15 mM tryptophan to a growing culture resulted in the induction of dipeptide transport, as indicated by a 25-fold increase in the initial rate of L-leucyl-L[ 3 H]leucine accumulation. This increase, which was prevented by the addition of cycloheximide, began within 30 min and peaked approximately 240 min after a shift to medium containing tryptophan. Comparable increases in peptidase activity were not apparent in crude cell extracts form tryptophan-induced cultures. The authors concluded that S. cerevisiae possesses a specific mechanism for the induction of dipeptidetransport that can respond to very low concentrations of amino acids

  1. Variation of ascorbic acid concentration in fruits of cultivated and wild apples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Ting; Zhen, Qiaoling; Liao, Liao; Owiti, Albert; Zhao, Li; Korban, Schuyler S; Han, Yuepeng

    2017-06-15

    Ascorbic acid (AsA) content in mature fruits of 457 apple accessions were measured, and a great variation in AsA concentration was detected. Wild fruits showed significantly higher level of AsA than cultivated fruits. Fruit AsA content was positively correlated with malic acid content, but negatively correlated with fruit weight and soluble solid content. Thus, the difference in AsA content between the wild and cultivated fruits could be attributed to an indirect consequence of human selection for larger fruit size, less acidity, and increased sweetness during apple domestication. Additionally, AsA concentration was extremely high in fruit at the juvenile stage, but dramatically decreased at the expanding and mature stages. The expression levels of three genes controlling AsA accumulation, MdGGP1, MdDHAR3-3, and MdNAT7-2, were significantly negatively correlated with AsA contents in fruits, suggesting a feedback regulation mechanism in AsA-related gene expression. Our results could be helpful for future apple breeding. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Supplementation of calves with stabilized orthosilicic acid. Effect on the Si, Ca, Mg, and P concentrations in serum and the collagen concentration in skin and cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calomme, M R; Vanden Berghe, D A

    1997-02-01

    The bioavailability of silicon in stabilized orthosilicic acid was investigated in a double blind, placebo controlled supplementation study of calves maintained on a normal diet. The total dietary Si intake was increased by 4.9% in the form of stabilized orthosilicic acid. After 23 wk of Si supplementation, the serum Si concentration increased (p = 0.0001, n = 29) by 70% compared to control animals in spite of the low Si dose administered and the Si adequate diet. The individually administered Si dose was significantly associated with the serum Si concentration (r = 0.44, p = 0.016, n = 29). The collagen concentration in dermis was significantly higher (p = 0.019, n = 4) in the Si group and a positive correlation (r = 0.72, p = 0.018, n = 9) was found between the Si concentration in serum and the collagen concentration in cartilage. The calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) concentrations in serum were marginally higher for animals supplemented with Si compared to control animals. In serum, a significant linear relationship was found between the Si and the Ca concentration (r = 0.31, p = 0.019, n = 59), whereas the magnesium concentration correlated marginally with the Si concentration (r = 0.25, p = 0.068, n = 59). In summary, increasing the total dietary Si intake by 4.9% in the form of stabilized orthosilicic acid resulted in a 70% higher Si concentration in serum indicating a high bioavailability of Si in this supplement. The positive correlation between the serum Si concentration and the collagen concentration in cartilage and the serum Ca concentration, respectively, suggest the involvement of Si both in the formation of extracellular matrix components and in Ca metabolism.

  3. Analysis of Factors Influencing Soil Salinity, Acidity, and Arsenic Concentration in a Polder in Southwest Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayers, J. C.; Patton, B.; Fry, D. C.; Goodbred, S. L., Jr.

    2017-12-01

    Soil samples were collected on Polder 32 in the coastal zone of SW Bangladesh in wet (October) and dry (May) seasons from 2013-2017 and analyzed to characterize the problems of soil salinization and arsenic contamination and identify their causes. Soils are entisols formed from recently deposited, predominantly silt-sized sediments with low carbon concentrations typical of the local mangrove forests. Soluble (DI extract) arsenic concentrations were below the Government of Bangladesh limit of 50 ppb for drinking water. Soil acidity and extract arsenic concentrations exhibit spatial variation but no consistent trends. In October soil extract As is higher and S and pH are lower than in May. These observations suggest that wet season rainwater oxidizes pyrite, reducing soil S and releasing H+, causing pH to decrease. Released iron is oxidized to form Hydrous Ferric Oxyhydroxides (HFOs), which sorb As and increase extractable As in wet season soils. Changes in pH are small due to pH buffering by soil carbonates. Soil and rice paddy water salinities are consistently higher in May than October, reaching levels in May that reduce rice yields. Rice grown in paddies should be unaffected by salt concentrations in the wet season, while arsenic concentrations in soil may be high enough to cause unsafe As levels in produced rice.

  4. Impact of acetic acid concentration of fermented liquid feed on growth performance of piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canibe, Nuria; Pedersen, Anni Øyan; Jensen, Bent Borg

    2010-01-01

    Feeding fermented liquid feed (FLF) to pigs has proven to benefit gastrointestinal health of the animals. However, growth performance data of piglets and growing pigs fed FLF are variable and often a lower feed intake compared to feeding non-FLF or dry feed has been observed. Accumulation...... of microbial metabolites, namely acetic acid, possibly in combination with low feed pH, has been suggested to be determinant in reducing feed intake by impairing palatability. However, this hypothesis has never been investigated. A study was carried out to determine the impact of increasing levels of acetic...... intake and body weight were registered weekly. The results showed that high acetic acid concentration in FLF, accompanied by a slight lower pH level, tended to decrease feed intake without affecting body weight gain. This discrepancy could partly be explained by the difficulty in measuring accurately...

  5. Purification of baddeleyite concentrate by melting with sulfuric acid and its salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebedev, V.N.

    2009-01-01

    Black baddeleyite concentrate of the composition %: 87.4 ZrO 2 , 1.5 SiO 2 , 2.5 TiO 2 , 0.51 Fe 2 O 3 , 1.6 CaO, 3.4 Nb 2 O 5 , 0.59 Ta 2 O 5 has been used for the experiments. Sulfatization was conducted by 93% sulfuric acid with the ammonium, sodium and potassium salts additions. Sulfate mass was leaching at 60 Deg C by water during 1 h. Specific radioactivity of precipitates has been analyzed by radiometric and gamma spectrometric methods. Additions of ammonium, potassium and sodium sulfates increase the degree of decontamination, reduce the consumption of sulfuric acid to 20 %, and the temperature of sulfatization. Degree of decontamination increases with increasing additives in the system Na 2 SO 4 >(NH 4 )SO 4 >K 2 SO 4

  6. Effects of plant proteins on postprandial, free plasma amino acid concentrations in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Bodil Katrine; Dalsgaard, Anne Johanne Tang; Pedersen, Per Bovbjerg

    2012-01-01

    was higher in the VEG diet than in the FM diet (93 versus 92%; t-test, Pb0.05), supporting that protease inhibitors from plant protein ingredients were not the cause of the delay. The apparent digestibility coefficient of carbohydrates (calculated as nitrogen-free extract (NFE)) was much lower in the VEG......Postprandial patterns in plasma free amino acid concentrations were investigated in juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fed either a fish meal based diet (FM) or a diet (VEG) where 59% of fish meal protein (corresponding to 46% of total dietary protein) was replaced by a matrix of plant...... proteins from wheat, peas, field beans, sunflower and soybean. Blood samples were obtained from the caudal vein of 7 fish in each dietary treatment group prior to feeding, as well as: 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 24, 48 and 72 h after feeding (sampling 7 new fish at each time point), and plasma amino acid...

  7. Phytic acid concentration influences iron bioavailability from biofortified beans in Rwandese women with low iron status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petry, Nicolai; Egli, Ines; Gahutu, Jean B; Tugirimana, Pierrot L; Boy, Erick; Hurrell, Richard

    2014-11-01

    The common bean is a staple crop in many African and Latin American countries and is the focus of biofortification initiatives. Bean iron concentration has been doubled by selective plant breeding, but the additional iron is reported to be of low bioavailability, most likely due to high phytic acid (PA) concentrations. The present study evaluated the impact of PA on iron bioavailability from iron-biofortified beans. Iron absorption, based on erythrocyte incorporation of stable iron isotopes, was measured in 22 Rwandese women who consumed multiple, composite bean meals with potatoes or rice in a crossover design. Iron absorption from meals containing biofortified beans (8.8 mg Fe, 1320 mg PA/100 g) and control beans (5.4 mg Fe, 980 mg PA/100 g) was measured with beans containing either their native PA concentration or with beans that were ∼50% dephytinized or >95% dephytinized. The iron concentration of the cooked composite meals with biofortified beans was 54% higher than in the same meals with control beans. With native PA concentrations, fractional iron absorption from the control bean meals was 9.2%, 30% higher than that from the biofortified bean meals (P bean meals (406 μg) was 19% higher (P bean meals. With ∼50% and >95% dephytinization, the quantity of iron absorbed from the biofortified bean meals increased to 599 and 746 μg, respectively, which was 37% (P bean meals. PA strongly decreases iron bioavailability from iron-biofortified beans, and a high PA concentration is an important impediment to the optimal effectiveness of bean iron biofortification. Plant breeders should focus on lowering the PA concentration of high-iron beans. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01521273. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  8. Fogging low concentrated organic acid in a fattening pig unit - Effect on animal health and microclimate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Heiko; Schulz, Jochen; Kemper, Nicole; Tichy, Alexander; Krauss, Ines; Knecht, Christian; Hennig-Pauka, Isabel

    2016-12-23

    In intensive pig production aerial contaminates are potential hazards for the health of animals and humans. In this study, the effect of fogging a low concentrated tartaric acid solution on pigs' health, environmental and hygiene parameters were evaluated in an inhabited fattening unit. Pigs were housed in separate units (control group n=109 and experimental group n=110). During the whole fattening period, twice a week at 48 hour intervals, a 0.1% tartaric acid solution was aerosolized by a cold-fogging system for 20 minutes in the experimental unit. Environmental parameters were spot-checked on days of fogging. Sedimentation dust and surfaces were analysed for bacterial and fungal load. Dust particle size distribution was assessed. Pigs were clinically examined weekly. Standard meat examination at an abattoir was extended by individual quantification of lung alterations. The fogging procedure had no influence on ammonia concentrations. A significant reduction of mould, but not of bacteria, was found in sedimentation dust, and bacterial and mould scores of surface samples were improved. A significant reduction of particle size classes 1.6-2.0 µm, 4.0-5.0 µm, 7.5-10 µm, as well as 10-15 µm was observed. The high sound level of the fogging machine (82-102 dB) led to higher activity and pen-mate directed behaviour. More skin alterations, conjunctivitis and sneezing were recorded in the experimental group. Gross pathological lung alterations did not differ between both groups. Although fogging of tartaric acid is limited to a concentration of 0.1% due to its irritating effect on the respiratory mucosa, reduction of microbial load can be achieved, but it would be enhanced by using more powerful fogging systems.

  9. Low unesterified:esterified eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) plasma concentration ratio is associated with bipolar disorder episodes, and omega-3 plasma concentrations are altered by treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Erika Fh; Reider, Aubrey; Singh, Gagan; Gelenberg, Alan J; Rapoport, Stanley I

    2015-11-01

    Omega (n)-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are molecular modulators of neurotransmission and inflammation. We hypothesized that plasma concentrations of n-3 PUFAs would be lower and those of n-6 PUFAs higher in subjects with bipolar disorder (BD) compared to healthy controls (HCs), and would correlate with symptom severity in subjects with BD, and that effective treatment would correlate with increased n-3 but lower n-6 PUFA levels. Additionally, we explored clinical correlations and group differences in plasma levels of saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids. This observational, parallel group study compared biomarkers between HCs (n = 31) and symptomatic subjects with BD (n = 27) when ill and after symptomatic recovery (follow-up). Plasma concentrations of five PUFAs [linoleic acid (LA), arachidonic acid (AA), alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)], two saturated fatty acids (palmitic acid and stearic acid) and two monounsaturated fatty acids (palmitoleic acid and oleic acid) were measured in esterified (E) and unesterified (UE) forms. Calculated ratios included UE:E for the five PUFAs, ratios of n-3 PUFAs (DHA:ALA, EPA:ALA and EPA:DHA), and the ratio of n-6:n-3 AA:EPA. Comparisons of plasma fatty acid levels and ratios between BD and HC groups were made with Student t-tests, and between the BD group at baseline and follow-up using paired t-tests. Comparison of categorical variables was performed using chi-square tests. Pearson's r was used for bivariate correlations with clinical variables, including depressive and manic symptoms, current panic attacks, and psychosis. UE EPA was lower in subjects with BD than in HCs, with a large effect size (Cohen's d = 0.86, p acid level or ratio correlated with self-reported n-3 PUFA intake or use of medication by class. A large effect size of reduced UE EPA, and a lower plasma UE:E concentration ratio of EPA in the symptomatic BD state may be important factors

  10. Suitable Concentrations of Uric Acid Can Reduce Cell Death in Models of OGD and Cerebral Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bin; Yang, Ning; Lin, Shao-Peng; Zhang, Feng

    2017-07-01

    Cerebral infarction (CI) is a common clinical cerebrovascular disease, and to explore the pathophysiological mechanisms and seek effective treatment means are the hotspot and difficult point in medical research nowadays. Numerous studies have confirmed that uric acid plays an important role in CI, but the mechanism has not yet been clarified. When treating HT22 and BV-2 cells with different concentrations of uric acid, uric acid below 450 μM does not have significant effect on cell viability, but uric acid more than 500 μM can significantly inhibit cell viability. After establishing models of OGD (oxygen-glucose deprivation) with HT22 and BV-2 cells, uric acid at a low concentration (50 μM) cannot improve cell viability and apoptosis, and Reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels during OGD/reoxygenation; a suitable concentration (300 μM) of uric acid can significantly improve cell viability and apoptosis, and reduce ROS production during OGD/reoxygenation; but a high concentration (1000 μM) of uric acid can further reduce cell viability and enhance ROS production. After establishing middle cerebral artery occlusion of male rats with suture method, damage and increase of ROS production in brain tissue could be seen, and after adding suitable concentration of uric acid, the degree of brain damage and ROS production was reduced. Therefore, different concentrations of uric acid should have different effect, and suitable concentrations of uric acid have neuroprotective effect, and this finding may provide guidance for study on the clinical curative effect of uric acid.

  11. Procedure for recovery from an uranium containing concentrate and phosphoric acid, as well as an uranium containing concentrate and phosphoric acid obtained by this procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The phosphate ore is dissolved in sulphuric acid and the formed calcium sulphate is separated from the solution. The uranium is then precipitated by adding ammonium fluoride solution to the remaining phosphoric acid solution. When the phosphate ore is dissolved in sulphuric acid, fluorine gas is liberated and this is then used to produce the ammonium fluoride solution. (Th.P.)

  12. Comparaison structurale des acides humiques et du concentré de ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. De nombreux travaux ont été développés sur l'étude de la matière organique contenue dans le phosphate naturel de Youssoufia. ... Nous avons également étudié la cinétique de dégagement des gaz émanants des acides humiques et du concentré de kérogène, extraits de la matière organique. Nous nous ...

  13. Ions in water: the microscopic structure of a concentrated HCl solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botti, A; Bruni, F; Imberti, S; Ricci, M A; Soper, A K

    2004-10-22

    A neutron diffraction experiment with isotopic H/D substitution on a concentrated HCl/H2O solution is presented. The full set of partial structure factors is extracted, by combining the diffraction data with a Monte Carlo simulation. This allows us to investigate both the changes of the water structure in the presence of ions and their solvation shell, overcoming the limitations of standard diffraction experiments. It is found that the interaction with the solutes affects the tetrahedral network of hydrogen bonded water molecules, in a manner similar to the application of an external pressure to pure water, although HCl seems less effective than other solutes, such as NaOH, at the same concentration. Consistent with experimental and theoretical data, the number of water molecules in the solution is not sufficient to completely dissociate the acid molecule. As a consequence, both dissociated H+ and Cl- ions and undissociated HCl molecules coexist in the sample, and this mixture is correctly reproduced in the simulation box. In particular, the hydrated H+ ions, forming a H3O+ complex, participate in three strong and short hydrogen bonds, while a well-defined hydration shell is found around the chlorine ion. These results are not consistent with the findings of early diffraction experiments on the same system and could only be obtained by combining high quality experimental data with a proper computer simulation. (c) 2004 American Institute of Physics.

  14. Estimation of very low concentrations of Ruthenium by spectrophotometric method using barbituric acid as complexing agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramakrishna Reddy, S.; Srinivasan, R.; Mallika, C.; Kamachi Mudali, U.; Natarajan, R.

    2012-01-01

    Spectrophotometric method employing numerous chromogenic reagents like thiourea, 1,10-phenanthroline, thiocyanate and tropolone is reported in the literature for the estimation of very low concentrations of Ru. A sensitive spectrophotometric method has been developed for the determination of ruthenium in the concentration range 1.5 to 6.5 ppm in the present work. This method is based on the reaction of ruthenium with barbituric acid to produce ruthenium(ll)tris-violurate, (Ru(H 2 Va) 3 ) -1 complex which gives a stable deep-red coloured solution. The maximum absorption of the complex is at 491 nm due to the inverted t 2g → Π(L-L ligand) electron - transfer transition. The molar absorptivity of the coloured species is 9,851 dm 3 mol -1 cm -1

  15. Characterization of linoleic acid (C18:2) concentration in commercial corn silage and grain hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldin, M; Ying, Y; Fan, Y; Roth, G; Casper, D P; Harvatine, K J

    2018-01-01

    Corn silage and high-moisture corn grain are commonly recognized as risk factors for biohydrogenation-induced milk fat depression and may be due to the high concentration of linoleic acid (C18:2) in corn. Corn silage and corn grain have a low concentration of fatty acids (FA), but due to their high inclusion rate in diets they contribute substantially to unsaturated FA intake. The first objective of this study was to characterize the contribution of individual plant parts to total FA in whole-plant chopped corn. The second objective was to characterize the variation in FA profile in commercial silage and grain hybrids and evaluate the relationship between FA profile and other nutrients. To determine the location of FA in the corn plant, 4 stalks from 4 different commercial hybrids were separated into stalk, husk and shank, leaves, cob, and kernels. On a dry matter basis, 80.5% of total FA were in the kernels, 11.8% in the leaves, 5.1% in the stalk, 1.7% in the cob, and 1.0% in the husk and shank. More than 96% of the oleic acid (C18:1) and 92.5% of the C18:2 was in the kernels, whereas 71.0% of the linolenic acid (C18:3) was in the leaves. Next, the FA composition of fresh whole-plant chopped corn from 124 silage hybrids and grain from 72 grain hybrids was determined over 2 yr from test plots in Pennsylvania. Last, to extend the characterization, FA composition of whole-plant corn silage from 45 hybrids grown in test plots in South Dakota were characterized. In the fresh whole-plant chopped corn from PA test plots, C18:2 as a percentage of total FA averaged from 48.7% in 2013 (percentiles: 10th = 45.2, 90th = 52.2) and 48.0% in 2014 (percentiles: 10th = 44.1, 90th = 49.4). Concentration of C18:2 in corn grain averaged 57.5% in the 2013 (percentiles: 10th = 53.4, 90th = 60.8) and 56.1% in 2014 (percentiles: 10th = 53.5, 90th = 59.4). In the corn silage from South Dakota, the concentration of C18:2 as percentage of total FA averaged 45.4% (percentiles: 10th = 39

  16. Concentration Dependent Influence of Lipopolysaccharides on Separation of Hoof Explants and Supernatant Lactic Acid Concentration in an Ex Vivo/In Vitro Laminitis Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Reisinger

    Full Text Available Laminitis is one of the most common diseases in horses. It is not only painful for the animal, but also has a significant financial impact on the equine industry. This multifactorial disease affects the connective tissue of the hoof. However, the pathogenesis of laminitis is still not fully understood. Endotoxins, also known as lipopolysaccharides (LPS, and bacterial exotoxins seem to play an important role during the development of laminitis. The aim of our study was to investigate the effect of increasing LPS concentrations (0, 2.5, 5, 10, and 100 μg/mL on cell viability of isolated epidermal and dermal hoof cells as well as on the tissue integrity of hoof explants. Furthermore, glucose, acetic acid, lactic acid, and propionic acid concentrations in explant supernatants were measured to evaluate the energy metabolism in the hoof tissue. LPS did not exhibit cytotoxic effects on epidermal or dermal cells. Force required to separate LPS treated hoof explants decreased in a concentration dependent manner. Specifically, explants incubated with 10 and 100 μg/mL needed significantly less force to separate compared to control explants. Lactic acid concentrations were significantly decreased in explants incubated with 5, 10, or 100 μg/mL LPS, while glucose, acetic acid and propionic acid concentrations were unaffected by LPS treatment. Our study indicates that LPS has no cytotoxic effect on epidermal and dermal cells isolated from hoof tissue, but impairs integrity of hoof explants. In addition, LPS led to an alteration of the lactic acid production in the lamellar tissue. Since our data highlight that LPS can affect the integrity of the equine hoof tissue in vitro, endotoxins should be further explored for their contribution to facilitate the development of laminitis.

  17. Estimate of serum immunoglobulin G concentration using refractometry with or without caprylic acid fractionation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrill, K M; Polo, J; Lago, A; Campbell, J; Quigley, J; Tyler, H

    2013-07-01

    Objectives of this study were to develop a rapid calf-side test to determine serum IgG concentrations using caprylic acid (CA) fractionation, followed by refractometry of the IgG-rich supernatant and compare the accuracy of this method with results obtained using refractometry using raw serum. Serum samples (n=200) were obtained from 1-d-old calves, frozen (-20°C), and shipped to the laboratory. Samples were allowed to thaw for 1h at room temperature. Fractionation with CA was conducted by adding 1mL of serum to a tube containing 45, 60, or 75µL of CA and 0.5, 1.0, or 1.5mL of 0.06 M acetic acid. The tube contents were mixed well, allowed to react for 1 min, and then centrifuged at 3,300 × g for 0, 10, or 20 min at 25°C. The %Brix and refractive index of the fractionated supernatant were determined using a digital refractometer. Nonfractionated serum was analyzed for %Brix (BRn), refractive index (nDn), and IgG concentration by radial immunodiffusion. The mean serum IgG concentration was 19.0 mg/mL [standard deviation (SD)=9.7], with a range of 3.5 to 47.0 mg/mL. The mean serum BRn was 8.6 (SD=0.91), with a range of 6.8 to 11.0. The mean serum nDn was 1.34566 (SD=0.00140), with a range of 1.34300 to 1.34930. Serum nDn was positively correlated with IgG concentration (correlation coefficient=0.86; n=185). Fractionated samples treated with 1mL 0.6 M acetic acid and 60µL of CA and not centrifuged before analysis resulted in a strong relationship between the refractive index of the fractionated supernatant and IgG (correlation coefficient=0.80; n=45). Regression was used to determine cut points indicative of 10, 12, and 14 mg of IgG/mL to determine the sensitivity and specificity of refractometry to identify failure of passive transfer (serum IgG refractometry of nonfractionated calf serum provides a strong estimate of IgG concentration and 7.8% Brix may be used as the cut point to identify failure of passive transfer in 1-d-old calves. Copyright © 2013 American

  18. Estimating naphthenic acids concentrations in laboratory-exposed fish and in fish from the wild.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Rozlyn F; Wismer, Wendy V; Fedorak, Phillip M

    2008-09-01

    Naphthenic acids (NAs) are the most water-soluble organic components found in the Athabasca oil sands in Alberta, Canada, and these acids are released into aqueous tailing waters as a result of bitumen extraction. Although the toxicity of NAs to fish is well known, there has been no method available to estimate NAs concentrations in fish. This paper describes a newly developed analytical method using single ion monitoring gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to measure NAs in fish, down to concentrations of approximately 0.1mgkg(-1) of fish flesh. This method was used to measure the uptake and depuration of commercial NAs in laboratory experiments. Exposure of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to 3mg NAsl(-1) for 9d gave a bioconcentration factor of approximately 2 at pH 8.2. Within 1d after the fish were transferred to NAs-free water, about 95% of the NAs were depurated. In addition, the analytical method was used to determine if NAs were present in four species of wild fish - northern pike (Esox lucius), lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis), white sucker (Catostomus commersoni), walleye (Sander vitreus) - collected from near the oil sands. Flesh samples from 23 wild fish were analyzed, and 18 of these had no detectable NAs. Four fish (one of each species) contained NAs at concentrations from 0.2 to 2.8mgkg(-1). The GC-MS results from one wild fish presented a unique problem. However, with additional work it was concluded that the NAs concentration in this fish was <0.1mgkg(-1).

  19. Effect of ammonium sulfate addition on decomposition of eudiolitic concentrate of sulphuric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ermakova, E.V.; Kolenkova, M.A.; Egorov, B.L.

    1985-01-01

    Researches on eudiolitic concentrate sulization by the sulfuric acid and ammonnum sulfate mixture are conducted with the purpose of a more complete separation of the rare-earth elements from Nb and Zr. It is shown that the eudiolitic concentrate decomposition degree under similar circumstances does not depend significantly on the amount of the added (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 . Rare-earth element and especially Y 2 O 3 transition into solution reduces sharply. As a result of investigations the following optimal eudiolitic concentrate sulfatization regime is recommended: the process temperature is 230 deg C; the duration is 4 hours; the consumption of 50% H 2 SO 4 -110% of the amount theore,.ically required for the break-down of all the components; the amount of (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 - 60 % of the concentrate weight. This regime allows more or less complete separation of ZrO 2 and Nb 2 O 5 from the rare-earth elements sum

  20. The serum uric acid concentration is not causally linked to diabetic nephropathy in type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahola, Aila J; Sandholm, Niina; Forsblom, Carol; Harjutsalo, Valma; Dahlström, Emma; Groop, Per-Henrik

    2017-05-01

    Previous studies have shown a relationship between uric acid concentration and progression of renal disease. Here we studied causality between the serum uric acid concentration and progression of diabetic nephropathy in 3895 individuals with type 1 diabetes in the FinnDiane Study. The renal status was assessed with the urinary albumin excretion rate and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) at baseline and at the end of the follow-up. Based on previous genomewide association studies on serum uric acid concentration, 23 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with good imputation quality were selected for the SNP score. This score was used to assess the causality between serum uric acid and renal complications using a Mendelian randomization approach. At baseline, the serum uric acid concentration was higher with worsening renal status. In multivariable Cox regression analyses, baseline serum uric acid concentration was not independently associated with progression of diabetic nephropathy over a mean follow-up of 7 years. However, over the same period, baseline serum uric acid was independently associated with the decline in eGFR. In the cross-sectional logistic regression analyses, the SNP score was associated with the serum uric acid concentration. Nevertheless, the Mendelian randomization showed no causality between uric acid and diabetic nephropathy, eGFR categories, or eGFR as a continuous variable. Thus, our results suggest that the serum uric acid concentration is not causally related to diabetic nephropathy but is a downstream marker of kidney damage. Copyright © 2016 International Society of Nephrology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Comparative analysis of transcriptional and physiological responses of Bacillus cereus to organic and inorganic acid shocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mols, Maarten; van Kranenburg, Richard; Tempelaars, Marcel H; van Schaik, Willem; Moezelaar, Roy; Abee, Tjakko

    2010-01-31

    Comparative phenotype and transcriptome analyses were performed with Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579 exposed to pH 5.5 set with different acidulants including hydrochloric acid (HCl), lactic acid (HL) and acetic acid (HAc). Phenotypes observed included a decreased growth rate (with HCl), bacteriostatic and bactericidal conditions, with 2mM undissociated HAc or HL, and 15mM undissociated HAc, respectively. In the latter condition a concomitant decrease in intracellular ATP levels was observed. The transcriptome analyses revealed general and specific responses to the acidulants used. The general acid stress response includes modulation of pyruvate metabolism with activation of the butanediol fermentation pathway, and an oxidative stress response that was, however, more extensive in the bacteriostatic and bactericidal conditions. HL-specific and HAc-specific responses include modulation of metabolic pathways for amino acid metabolism. Activation of lactate, formate, and ethanol fermentation pathways, alternative electron-transport chain components and fatty acid biosynthesis genes was noted in the presence of 15mM undissociated HAc. In conclusion, our study has provided insights in phenotype-associated, and general and acidulant-specific responses in B. cereus. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Influence of lactose hydrolysis and solids concentration on alcohol production by yeast in acid whey ultrafiltrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' leary, V.S.; Sutton, C.; Bencivengo, M.; Sullivan, B.; Holsinger, V.H.

    1977-11-01

    Alcohol yields of 6.5 percent were obtained with Saccharomyces cerevisiae in lactase-hydrolyzed acid whey permeate containing 30 to 35 percent total solids. Maximum alcohol yields obtained with Kluyveromyces fragilis were 4.5 percent in lactase-hydrolyzed acid whey permeate at a solids concentration of 20 percent and 3.7 percent in normal permeate at a solids concentration of 10 percent. Saccharomyces cerevisiae efficiently converted the glucose present in lactase-hydrolyzed whey permeates containing 5 to 30 percent total solids (2 to 13 percent glucose) to alcohol. However, the galactose, which comprised about half the available carbohydrate in lactase-hydrolyzed whey, was not utilized by S. cerevisiae, so that even though alcohol yields were higher when this organism was used, the process was wasteful in that a substantial proportion of the substrate was not fermented. For the process to become commercially feasible, an efficient means of rapidly converting both the galactose and glucose to alcohol must be found.

  3. Copper solvent extraction from chalcopyrite concentrate acid leach solutions by LIX 984

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elamari K.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Copper production from ores or sulphide concentrates is classically realized by pyrometallurgical route. In this study, hydrometallurgical treatment of a copper sulphide concentrate, provided by Hajar Mine (ONA-Group, Morocco, was tested by using a mixture of nitric and hexafluorosilicic acids. Copper is present in the solid product as chalcopyrite and its amount is 28.1 % by weight. Leaching stage allows to dissolve more than 90% of copper witch is accompanied, in the same averages, by Zn and Fe. The leach solution obtained has pH = 0.6 and Eh = 580 mV/ENH and contains 19.3 g/L Cu, 18.1 g/L Fe, 4.5 g/L Zn and 0.03 g/L Pb. The recovery of copper from this leach solution was curried out by solvent extraction using Lix 984, diluted in Escaid 110. McCabe - Thiele distribution isotherms showed that at pH 1.7 total and selective copper extraction can be realized with Øo:Øa =1.5:1 in 3 extraction stages. Stripping of the loaded copper by treating the organic phases was easily obtained by a sulphuric acid solution.

  4. Using Spectrophotometric Titrations To Characterize Humic Acid Reactivity at Environmental Concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janot, N.; Benedetti, M. F.; Janot, N.; Reiller, P. E.; Korshin, G. V.

    2010-01-01

    Potentiometric titration is a common method to characterize dissolved organic matter (DOM) reactivity. Because of the sensitivity of pH electrodes, it is necessary to work with very high DOM (≥1 g/L) concentrations that are unrealistic compared to those found in natural waters (0. 1 to 100 mg/L). To obtain proton binding data for concentrations closer to environmental values, spectroscopic titration methodology is a viable alternative to traditional potentiometric titrations. Spectrophotometric titrations and UV visible spectra of a diluted solution of purified Aldrich humic acid (5 mg(DOC)/L) are used to estimate changes in proton binding moieties as function of pH and ionic strength after calculation of differential absorbance spectra variations. After electrostatic correction of spectrophotometric data, there is a linear operational correlation between spectrophotometric and potentiometric data which can be used as a transfer function between the two properties. Spectrophotometric titrations are then used to determine the changes of humic acid protonation after adsorption onto alpha-alumina. (authors)

  5. Influence of deficit irrigation strategies on fatty acid and tocopherol concentration of almond (Prunus dulcis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ying; Taylor, Cathy; Sommer, Karl; Wilkinson, Kerry; Wirthensohn, Michelle

    2015-04-15

    The effects of deficit irrigation on almond fatty acid and tocopherol levels were studied in a field trial. Mature almond trees were subjected to three levels of deficit irrigation (85%, 70% and 55% of potential crop evapotranspiration (ETo), as well as control (100% ETo) and over-irrigation (120% ETo) treatments. Two deficit irrigation strategies were employed: regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) and sustained deficit irrigation (SDI). Moderate deficit irrigation (85% RDI and 85% SDI) had no detrimental impact on almond kernel lipid content, but severe and extreme deficiencies (70% and 55%) influenced lipid content. Unsaturated fatty acid (USFA) and saturated fatty acid (SFA) contents fluctuated under these treatments, the oleic/linoleic ratio increased under moderate water deficiency, but decreased under severe and extreme water deficiency. Almond tocopherols concentration was relatively stable under deficit irrigation. The variation between years indicated climate has an effect on almond fruit development. In conclusion it is feasible to irrigate almond trees using less water than the normal requirement, without significant loss of kernel quality. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. GLUCOSE, TOTAL PROTEINS, URIC ACID AND TRIGL YCERIDES CONCENTRATIONS IN BLOOD OF ATIVE LAYING HENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bashir Mahmood Bhatti, Tanzeela Talat and Rozina Sardar

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken, to estimate levels of glucose, total proteins, albumins, uric acid and triglycerides in plasma of Desi and Naked Neck laying hens. The experimental birds received ration containing 16 per cent crude protein and were housed in open sheds. The mean values (mg/dL observed in Desi hens were 226.736+15.20 glucose, 1.624+0.224 albumin, 5.203+1.078 total proteins, 4.633+1.875 uric acid and 529.800+554.74 triglycerides. In Naked neck hens, the mean values were found to be 231.818+31.376 glucose, 1.562+0.287 albumins, 4.533+0.797total proteins, 4.157+1.336 uric acid and 791.200+320.474 triglycerides. There was no difference (P<0.05 in mean values of blood parameters between both the native laying hens which suggested that in identical genetical mechanism regulated concentrations of blood chemical constituents under study.

  7. Concentration of fulvic acid in the growth bands of hermatypic corals in relation to local precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Lee-Shing; Chou, Yi-Cheng

    1992-12-01

    Coral growth rate and the concentrations of fulvic acid in the growth bands of the hermatypic coral Porites lutea Edwards & Haime and Favia maxima Veron were investigated in samples taken from 1986 to 1988 in the waters of southern Taiwan (22°05'≈36'N, 120°24'≈50'E). These were analyzed against the local annual precipitation, the locality of the sampling sites, the construction activity on nearby land and coral species. The results showed that the annual growth rate of P. lutea was 1.08±0.12 cm while F. maxima was 0.83±0.09 cm. The amount of fulvic acid incorporated in the growth band was positively correlated with the local annual precipitation. However, the correlation coefficient varied from as high as 0.9519 to as low as 0.0921 due to different topographies of the sampling sites, dilution factors from the ocean and construction activities along the coast. F. maxima was found to be more sensitive than P. lutea in terms of fulvic acid uptake from the surrounding waters. The study of fluorescence in the skeleton of hermatypic corals is a reasonable approach to biomonitor the environment after consideration of local factors.

  8. Water-lactose behavior as a function of concentration and presence of lactic acid in lactose model systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijayasinghe, Rangani; Vasiljevic, Todor; Chandrapala, Jayani

    2015-12-01

    The presence of high amounts of lactic acid in acid whey restricts its ability to be further processed because lactose appears to remain in its amorphous form. A systematic study is lacking in this regard especially during the concentration step. Hence, the main aim of the study was to establish the structure and behavior of water molecules surrounding lactose in the presence of 1% (wt/wt) lactic acid at a concentration up to 50% (wt/wt). Furthermore, the crystallization nature of freeze-dried lactose with or without lactic acid was established using differential scanning calorimetry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Two mechanisms were proposed to describe the behavior of water molecules around lactose molecules during the concentration of pure lactose and lactose solutions with lactic acid. Pure lactose solution exhibited a water evaporation enthalpy of ~679 J·g(-1), whereas lactose+ lactic acid solution resulted in ~965 J·g(-1) at a 50% (wt/wt) concentration. This indicates a greater energy requirement for water removal around lactose in the presence of lactic acid. Higher crystallization temperatures were observed with the presence of lactic acid, indicating a delay in crystallization. Furthermore, less crystalline lactose (~12%) was obtained in the presence of lactic acid, indicating high amorphous nature compared with pure lactose where ~50% crystallinity was obtained. The Fourier transform infrared spectra revealed that the strong hydration layer consisting lactic acid and H3O(+) ions surrounded lactose molecules via strong H bonds, which restricted water mobility, induced a change in structure of lactose, or both, creating unfavorable conditions for lactose crystallization. Thus, partial or complete removal of lactic acid from acid whey may be the first step toward improving the ability of acid whey to be processed. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of Hydrofluoric Acid Concentration on Resin Adhesion to a Feldspathic Ceramic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venturini, Andressa Borin; Prochnow, Catina; Rambo, Dagma; Gundel, Andre; Valandro, Luiz Felipe

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate the effect of different concentrations of hydrofluoric acid (HF) on the contact angle and the resin bond strength durability to feldspathic ceramic. To evaluate the contact angles of distilled water on etched feldspathic ceramic, 25 specimens (12×10×2.4 mm) of VitaBlocks Mark II were used, divided into 5 groups (n=5): one unconditioned control (UC) group with no ceramic surface treatment, and 4 other groups that were etched for 60 s with different concentrations of HF: 1% (HF1), 3% (HF3), 5% (HF5) and 10% (HF10). The bond testing utilized 40 ceramic blocks (12×10×4 mm) that were fabricated and subjected to the same surface treatments as previously mentioned (excluding the control). The etched surfaces were silanized and resin cement was applied. After 24 h, the blocks were sectioned to produce bar specimens that were divided into two groups, non-aged (immediate testing) and aged (storage for 230 days+12,000 thermocycles at 5°C and 55°C), and subjected to microtensile testing (μTBS). Micromorphogical analysis of the treated surfaces was also performed (atomic force and scanning electron microscopy). One-way ANOVA and Tukey's tests were applied for data analysis. UC had the highest contact angle (61.4°), whereas HF10 showed the lowest contact angle (17.5°). In non-aged conditions, different acids promoted statistically similar bond strengths (14.2 to 15.7 MPa) (p>0.05); in terms of bond durability, only the bond strength of the HF1 group presented a statistically significant decrease comparing before and after aging (14.5 to 10.2 MPa). When etched with 3%, 5%, or 10% hydrofluoric acid, the ceramic tested showed stable resin adhesion after long-term aging.

  10. Perfluoroalkyl Acid Concentrations in Livers of Fox (Vulpes vulpes) and Chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra) from Germany and Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riebe, Rika Alessa; Falk, Sandy; Georgii, Sebastian; Brunn, Hubertus; Failing, Klaus; Stahl, Thorsten

    2016-07-01

    The concentrations of 11 perfluorinated alkyl acids (PFAAs) were measured in the livers of foxes (Vulpes vulpes) from Germany, a primarily carnivorous species, and chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra) from Austria, an herbivorous species. Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) at concentrations [all results refer to wet weight (ww)] of 3.2-320 µg/kg were detected in all 40 fox livers tested, yielding an arithmetic mean of 46.6 µg/kg and a median of 29.8 µg/kg. Long-chain PFAAs were detected at concentrations of 1.7 µg/kg perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) to 2.4 µg/kg perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA) and perfluorododecanoic acid (PFDoDA). Of the short-chain PFAAs tested, only perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA) was found in 1 fox liver at a concentration of 1.4 µg/kg, and perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) was found in 2 fox livers at a concentration of 1 µg/kg each. PFOS and PFNA concentrations higher than limit of quantification (LOQ) were detected in 90.9 and 81.8 % of chamois livers, respectively. The arithmetic mean for PFOS concentrations was 2.2 µg/kg (median 2.4 µg/kg), a factor of 21 (median factor of 12) lower than in fox livers. The arithmetic mean for PFNA concentrations was 2.0 µg/kg (median 1.9 µg/kg). Perfluorobutanoic acid, PFHxA, perfluorooctanoic acid, perfluorobutanesulfonate, and PFHxS were not detected at concentrations higher than the LOQ in any of the samples. The various results are compared with one another and with the results of other studies of herbivorous, carnivorous, and omnivorous wild animals. The highest concentrations of PFAA, in particular PFOS, were found in omnivorous animals followed by carnivores. The lowest levels were present in herbivores.

  11. Concentration of gadolinium-diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid in human kidney

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Masayuki; Katayama, Yasushi; Tsutsui, Toshiki; Komeyama, Takeshi; Mizusawa, Takaki; Tanikawa, Toshiki; Sato, Shotaro

    1993-01-01

    Although gadolinium diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA) has been used as a contrast material in magnetic resonance imaging, it is known that contrast enhancement effect disappears if the concentration of Gd-DTPA increases beyond some levels. In this study, to evaluate the proper pulse sequences for dynamic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the human kidney, the concentration of Gd-DTPA was quantitatively measured by inductively coupled plasma (ICP) emission spectrometry in human biological samples after administration of Gd-DTPA, and the signal intensity of MRI is the solution of several concentrations of Gd-DTPA was measured. In using a low magnetic field apparatus, signal intensity linearly correlated with the concentration of Gd-DTPA between 0 and 2.0 μmol/g under saturation recovery sequences (flip angle was 60deg or 90deg). Using a high magnetic field apparatus, signal intensity linearly correlated with the concentration of Gd-DTPA between 0 and 2.0 or 3.0 μmol/g under spin echo or gradient-echo sequences. Gd-DTPA concentration of the renal cortex ranged from 0.132 to 0.152 μmol/g tissue at 5 min after intravenous injection of Gd-DTPA 0.05 mmol/kg body weight in 7 patients with adrenal tumor or renal cell cancer, and 1 patient with both urinary bladder cancer and prostatic cancer. Seven of them showed normal renal function and the other had renal insufficiency (GFR 25 ml/min/1.48 m 2 ). Gd-DTPA concentrations of renal medulla and renal cell cancer tissue were 0.123 and 0.108 μmol/g tissue, respectively, at 5 min after intravenous injection of Gd-DTPA 0.05 mmol/kg body weight. These results suggest that the signal intensity of renal cortex, renal medulla, and renal cell cancer tissue may linearly correlate with Gd-DTPA concentration of tissues at 5 min after intravenous injection of Gd-DTPA 0.5 mmol/kg body weight. (author)

  12. Serum cobalamin, urinary methylmalonic acid and plasma homocysteine concentrations in healthy and cobalamin-deficient Border Collies

    OpenAIRE

    Lutz, S

    2011-01-01

    Hereditary cobalamin deficiency is suspected in the Border Collie breed. Diagnosis is based on hypocobalaminemia, hyperhomocysteinemia and methylmalonic aciduria. Goals of the study were (1) to establish reference values for the blood concentrations of cobalamin and homocysteine and for the concentration of urinary methylmalonic acid and (2) to screen a larger Border Collie population with the aforementioned markers. Cobalamin, homocysteine and methylmalonic acid were measured using an aut...

  13. Lipidomic profiling of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Zygosaccharomyces bailii reveals critical changes in lipid composition in response to acetic acid stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Lindberg

    Full Text Available When using microorganisms as cell factories in the production of bio-based fuels or chemicals from lignocellulosic hydrolysate, inhibitory concentrations of acetic acid, released from the biomass, reduce the production rate. The undissociated form of acetic acid enters the cell by passive diffusion across the lipid bilayer, mediating toxic effects inside the cell. In order to elucidate a possible link between lipid composition and acetic acid stress, the present study presents detailed lipidomic profiling of the major lipid species found in the plasma membrane, including glycerophospholipids, sphingolipids and sterols, in Saccharomyces cerevisiae (CEN.PK 113_7D and Zygosaccharomyces bailii (CBS7555 cultured with acetic acid. Detailed physiological characterization of the response of the two yeasts to acetic acid has also been performed in aerobic batch cultivations using bioreactors. Physiological characterization revealed, as expected, that Z. bailii is more tolerant to acetic acid than S. cerevisiae. Z. bailii grew at acetic acid concentrations above 24 g L(-1, while limited growth of S. cerevisiae was observed after 11 h when cultured with only 12 g L(-1 acetic acid. Detailed lipidomic profiling using electrospray ionization, multiple-reaction-monitoring mass spectrometry (ESI-MRM-MS showed remarkable changes in the glycerophospholipid composition of Z. bailii, including an increase in saturated glycerophospholipids and considerable increases in complex sphingolipids in both S. cerevisiae (IPC 6.2×, MIPC 9.1×, M(IP2C 2.2× and Z. bailii (IPC 4.9×, MIPC 2.7×, M(IP2C 2.7×, when cultured with acetic acid. In addition, the basal level of complex sphingolipids was significantly higher in Z. bailii than in S. cerevisiae, further emphasizing the proposed link between lipid saturation, high sphingolipid levels and acetic acid tolerance. The results also suggest that acetic acid tolerance is associated with the ability of a given strain to

  14. Lipidomic profiling of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Zygosaccharomyces bailii reveals critical changes in lipid composition in response to acetic acid stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg, Lina; Santos, Aline Xs; Riezman, Howard; Olsson, Lisbeth; Bettiga, Maurizio

    2013-01-01

    When using microorganisms as cell factories in the production of bio-based fuels or chemicals from lignocellulosic hydrolysate, inhibitory concentrations of acetic acid, released from the biomass, reduce the production rate. The undissociated form of acetic acid enters the cell by passive diffusion across the lipid bilayer, mediating toxic effects inside the cell. In order to elucidate a possible link between lipid composition and acetic acid stress, the present study presents detailed lipidomic profiling of the major lipid species found in the plasma membrane, including glycerophospholipids, sphingolipids and sterols, in Saccharomyces cerevisiae (CEN.PK 113_7D) and Zygosaccharomyces bailii (CBS7555) cultured with acetic acid. Detailed physiological characterization of the response of the two yeasts to acetic acid has also been performed in aerobic batch cultivations using bioreactors. Physiological characterization revealed, as expected, that Z. bailii is more tolerant to acetic acid than S. cerevisiae. Z. bailii grew at acetic acid concentrations above 24 g L(-1), while limited growth of S. cerevisiae was observed after 11 h when cultured with only 12 g L(-1) acetic acid. Detailed lipidomic profiling using electrospray ionization, multiple-reaction-monitoring mass spectrometry (ESI-MRM-MS) showed remarkable changes in the glycerophospholipid composition of Z. bailii, including an increase in saturated glycerophospholipids and considerable increases in complex sphingolipids in both S. cerevisiae (IPC 6.2×, MIPC 9.1×, M(IP)2C 2.2×) and Z. bailii (IPC 4.9×, MIPC 2.7×, M(IP)2C 2.7×), when cultured with acetic acid. In addition, the basal level of complex sphingolipids was significantly higher in Z. bailii than in S. cerevisiae, further emphasizing the proposed link between lipid saturation, high sphingolipid levels and acetic acid tolerance. The results also suggest that acetic acid tolerance is associated with the ability of a given strain to generate large

  15. Lipidomic Profiling of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Zygosaccharomyces bailii Reveals Critical Changes in Lipid Composition in Response to Acetic Acid Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riezman, Howard; Olsson, Lisbeth; Bettiga, Maurizio

    2013-01-01

    When using microorganisms as cell factories in the production of bio-based fuels or chemicals from lignocellulosic hydrolysate, inhibitory concentrations of acetic acid, released from the biomass, reduce the production rate. The undissociated form of acetic acid enters the cell by passive diffusion across the lipid bilayer, mediating toxic effects inside the cell. In order to elucidate a possible link between lipid composition and acetic acid stress, the present study presents detailed lipidomic profiling of the major lipid species found in the plasma membrane, including glycerophospholipids, sphingolipids and sterols, in Saccharomyces cerevisiae (CEN.PK 113_7D) and Zygosaccharomyces bailii (CBS7555) cultured with acetic acid. Detailed physiological characterization of the response of the two yeasts to acetic acid has also been performed in aerobic batch cultivations using bioreactors. Physiological characterization revealed, as expected, that Z. bailii is more tolerant to acetic acid than S. cerevisiae. Z. bailii grew at acetic acid concentrations above 24 g L−1, while limited growth of S. cerevisiae was observed after 11 h when cultured with only 12 g L−1 acetic acid. Detailed lipidomic profiling using electrospray ionization, multiple-reaction-monitoring mass spectrometry (ESI-MRM-MS) showed remarkable changes in the glycerophospholipid composition of Z. bailii, including an increase in saturated glycerophospholipids and considerable increases in complex sphingolipids in both S. cerevisiae (IPC 6.2×, MIPC 9.1×, M(IP)2C 2.2×) and Z. bailii (IPC 4.9×, MIPC 2.7×, M(IP)2C 2.7×), when cultured with acetic acid. In addition, the basal level of complex sphingolipids was significantly higher in Z. bailii than in S. cerevisiae, further emphasizing the proposed link between lipid saturation, high sphingolipid levels and acetic acid tolerance. The results also suggest that acetic acid tolerance is associated with the ability of a given strain to generate large

  16. [Analyze nanofiltration separation rule of chlorogenic acid from low concentration ethanol by Donnan effect and solution-diffusion effect].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cun-Yu; Liu, Li-Cheng; Jin, Li-Yang; Li, Hong-Yang; Peng, Guo-Ping

    2017-07-01

    To separate chlorogenic acid from low concentration ethanol and explore the influence of Donnan effect and solution-diffusion effect on the nanofiltration separation rule. The experiment showed that solution pH and ethanol volume percent had influences on the separation of chlorogenic acid. Within the pH values from 3 to 7 for chlorogenic acid in 30% ethanol, the rejection rate of chlorogenic acid was changed by 70.27%. Through the response surface method for quadratic regression model, an interaction had been found in molecule weight cut-off, pH and ethanol volume percent. In fixed nanofiltration apparatus, the existence states of chlorogenic acid determinedits separation rules. With the increase of ethanol concentration, the free form chlorogenic acid was easily adsorbed, dissolved on membrane surface and then caused high transmittance due to the solution-diffusion effect. However, at the same time, due to the double effects of Donnan effect and solution-diffusion effect, the ionic state of chlorogenic acid was hard to be adsorbed in membrane surface and thus caused high rejection rate. The combination of Box-Behnken design and response surface analysis can well optimize the concentrate process by nanofiltration, and the results showed that nanofiltration had several big advantages over the traditional vacuum concentrate technology, meanwhile, and solved the problems of low efficiency and serious component lossesin the Chinese medicines separation process for low concentration organic solvent-water solution. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  17. Multistage dilute acid leaching of a medium grade iron ore to super-concentrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeleke A.A.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The phosphorous laden Koton Karfe iron ore is a medium grade iron ore deposit in Nigeria that can be upgraded as a super-concentrate for use at the Aladja Steel Midrex plant. The 75 μm size sample fraction of the ore was preconcentrated with shaking table and leached in the oven at atmospheric pressure with dilute hydrochloric acid in single and multistage leaching sequences of H2O-HCl-H2O and HCl-H2O-H2O. The as-received, as-tabled and asleached samples were then subjected to X-ray fluorescence and microscopic analyses. The results obtained showed that the H2O-HCl-H2O route produced a higher grade concentrate that assayed 68.54% Fe indicating about 58% upgrade in iron content; while the phosphorus and sulphur contents were reduced by about 77 and 99.6% respectively. In addition, the silicon, manganese, and titanium contents were drastically reduced, while potassium was completely eliminated. The upgrade of iron content in the ore to 68.54% and the drastic reduction in phosphorous and sulphur contents has thus rendered the Koton Karfe iron ore suitable for use as a super concentrate for the Aladja steel plant direct reduction iron making process.

  18. Icosapent ethyl: Eicosapentaenoic acid concentration and triglyceride-lowering effects across clinical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bays, Harold E; Ballantyne, Christie M; Doyle, Ralph T; Juliano, Rebecca A; Philip, Sephy

    2016-09-01

    Icosapent ethyl is a high-purity prescription form of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) ethyl ester approved at a dose of 4g/day as an adjunct to diet to reduce triglyceride (TG) levels in adult patients with severe (≥500mg/dL) hypertriglyceridemia. This post-hoc exploratory analysis examined the relationship of icosapent ethyl dose with EPA concentrations in plasma and red blood cells (RBCs) across 3 clinical studies-a phase 1 pharmacokinetic study in healthy adult volunteers and 2 pivotal phase 3 studies (MARINE and ANCHOR) in adult patients with hypertriglyceridemia-and examined the relationship between EPA levels and TG-lowering effects in MARINE and ANCHOR. In all 3 studies, icosapent ethyl produced dose-dependent increases in the concentrations of EPA in plasma and RBCs. In both MARINE and ANCHOR, these dose-dependent EPA increases correlated with the degree of TG level lowering (all P170μg/mL and>70μg/mL, respectively. These studies support icosapent ethyl as producing predictable dose-dependent pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics, with TG level lowering dependent upon icosapent ethyl dose and EPA concentrations in plasma and RBCs. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Serum uric acid concentrations and SLC2A9 genetic variation in Hispanic children: The Viva La Familia Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elevated concentrations of serum uric acid are associated with increased risk of gout and renal and cardiovascular diseases. Genetic studies in adults have consistently identified associations of solute carrier family 2, member 9 (SLC2A9), polymorphisms with variation in serum uric acid. However, it...

  20. Consumption of high doses of chlorogenic acid, present in coffee, or black tea increases plasma total homocysteine concentrations in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olthof, M.R.; Hollman, P.C.; Zock, P.L.; Katan, M.B.

    2001-01-01

    In population studies, high intakes of coffee are associated with raised concentrations of plasma homocysteine, a predictor of risk of cardiovascular disease. Chlorogenic acid is a major polyphenol in coffee; coffee drinkers consume up to 1 g chlorogenic acid/d. OBJECTIVE: We studied whether

  1. Effect of a protein-rich meal on urinary and salivary free amino acid concentrations in human subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand, H. S.; Jörning, G. G.; Chamuleau, R. A.; Abraham-Inpijn, L.

    1997-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether in healthy volunteers acute changes in plasma free amino acid composition after a protein-rich test meal are reflected in the urinary and salivary concentrations of the corresponding amino acids. The ingestion of a protein-rich meal elicited a

  2. Radionuclide concentrations in raw and purified phosphoric acids from Brazil and their processing wastes: implications for radiation exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Conceição, Fabiano Tomazini; Antunes, Maria Lúcia Pereira; Durrant, Steven F

    2012-02-01

    Radionuclides from the U and Th natural series are present in alkaline rocks, which are used as feedstock in Brazil for the production of raw phosphoric acid, which can be considered as a NORM (naturally occurring radioactive material). As a result of the purification of raw phosphoric acid to food-grade phosphoric acid, two by-products are generated, i.e., solid and liquid wastes. Taking this into account, the main aim of this study was to evaluate the fluxes of natural radionuclide in the production of food-grade phosphoric acids in Brazil, to determine the radiological impact caused by ingestion of food-grade phosphoric acid, and to evaluate the solid waste environmental hazards caused by its application in crop soils. Radiological characterization of raw phosphoric acid, food-grade phosphoric acid, solid waste, and liquid waste was performed by alpha and gamma spectrometry. The (238)U, (234)U, (226)Ra, and (232)Th activity concentrations varied depending on the source of raw phosphoric acid. Decreasing radionuclides activity concentrations in raw phosphoric acids used by the producer of the purified phosphoric acid were observed as follows: Tapira (raw phosphoric acid D) > Catalão (raw phosphoric acids B and C) > Cajati (raw phosphoric acid A). The industrial purification process produces a reduction in radionuclide activity concentrations in food-grade phosphoric acid in relation to raw phosphoric acid produced in plant D and single raw phosphoric acid used in recent years. The most common use of food-grade phosphoric acid is in cola soft drinks, with an average consumption in Brazil of 72 l per person per year. Each liter of cola soft drink contains 0.5 ml of food-grade phosphoric acid, which gives an annual average intake of 36 ml of food-grade phosphoric acid per person. Under these conditions, radionuclide intake through consumption of food-grade phosphoric acid per year per person via cola soft drinks is not hazardous to human health in Brazil

  3. Raman study of the interactions between highly ordered pyrolytic graphite (HOPG and polyoxometalates: The effects of acid concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidoeski Bojan A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Heteropoly acids (HPAs found wide applications, such as in catalysis, energy conversion and storage, analytical chemistry, clinical medicine, materials science and others, but because of their low surface area and high solubility in water their use is limited. One of the possible ways to overcome these obstacles is to use height specific surface area support for HPAs, such as carbon nanomaterials. Raman spectroscopy was applied for studying study interaction between HPAs and highly ordered pyrolytic graphite (HOPG as a model of a support. HOPG was exposed to two different HPAs: 12-tungstophosphoric acid and 12-molybodphosphoric acid, at different concentrations. It was noticed that 12-molybodphosphoric acid has stronger effects on HOPG structure causing a weak doping and increase of structural disorder. It is supposed that HOPG interacts with especially external oxygen atoms of 12-molybodphosphoric acid. Atomic force microscopy showed that surface roughness of HOPG treated with 12-molybodphosphoric acid increases with increase of acid concentration, while in the case of HOPG exposed to 12-tungstophosphoric acid the surface roughness is not concentration dependent. The growth trend in measured surface roughness (RMS is in the agreement with the changes in the intensity ratio ID/IG obtained from Raman spectra of HOPG samples treated with 12-molybdophosphoric acid. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172003 i br. 172043

  4. Temporal Relationship Between Uric Acid Concentration and Risk of Diabetes in a Community-based Study Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juraschek, Stephen P.; McAdams-Demarco, Mara; Miller, Edgar R.; Gelber, Allan C.; Maynard, Janet W.; Pankow, James S.; Young, Hunter; Coresh, Josef; Selvin, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Some observational studies have identified elevated uric acid concentration as a risk factor for diabetes, while others have found an inverse relationship. We examined both the association of uric acid level with incident diabetes and the change in uric acid concentration after a diabetes diagnosis. We analyzed data from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study and quantified the independent association between uric acid level and incident diabetes via Cox proportional hazards models. The association between duration of diabetes and change in uric acid level was examined via linear regression. Among 11,134 participants without diagnosed diabetes at baseline (1987–1989), there were 1,294 incident cases of diabetes during a median of 9 years of follow-up (1987–1998). Uric acid level was associated with diabetes even after adjustment for risk factors (per 1 mg/dL, hazard ratio = 1.18, 95% confidence interval: 1.13, 1.23), and the association remained significant after adjustment for fasting glucose and insulin levels. Among participants with diabetes (n = 1,510), every additional 5 years’ duration of diabetes was associated with a 0.10-mg/dL (95% confidence interval: 0.04, 0.15) lower uric acid level after adjustment. We conclude that uric acid concentration rises prior to diagnosis of diabetes and then declines with diabetes duration. Future studies investigating uric acid as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease should adequately account for the impact and timing of diabetes development. PMID:24418684

  5. Selective oxidation of glycerol to formic acid in highly concentrated aqueous solutions with molecular oxygen using V-substituted phosphomolybdic acids

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Jizhe

    2014-01-01

    Formic acid is an important commodity chemical as well as a promising medium for hydrogen storage and hydrogen production. In this paper, we report that formic acid can be produced through selective oxidation of glycerol, a low-cost by-product of biodiesel, by using vanadium-substituted phosphomolybdic acids as catalysts and molecular oxygen as the oxidant. Significantly, this catalytic system allows for high-concentration conversions and thus leads to exceptional efficiency. Specifically, 3.64 g of formic acid was produced from 10 g of glycerol/water (50/50 in weight) solution. © 2014 the Partner Organisations.

  6. Effects of various antipsychotic drugs upon the striatal concentrations of para-hydroxyphenylacetic acid and meta-hydroxyphenylacetic acid in the mouse.

    OpenAIRE

    Juorio, A. V.; McQuade, P. S.

    1983-01-01

    The endogenous concentrations of p- and m-hydroxyphenylacetic acid in the mouse caudate nucleus were determined by a gas chromatographic or a gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric technique and the concentrations were about 30 and 11 ng g-1 respectively. The subcutaneous administration of (+)-butaclamol (1 mg kg-1), haloperidol (5 mg kg-1), molindone (100 mg kg-1), sulpiride (50 mg kg-1) or chlorpromazine (20 mg kg-1) increased the concentration of mouse striatal p- and m-hydroxyphenylacetic...

  7. Serum uric acid concentration and metabolic syndrome among elderly Koreans: The Korean Urban Rural Elderly (KURE) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hansol; Kim, Hyeon Chang; Song, Bo Mi; Park, Ji Hye; Lee, Ju-Mi; Yoon, Da-Lim; Yoon, Young Mi; Rhee, Yumie; Youm, Yousik; Kim, Chang Oh

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies have demonstrated that elevated serum uric acid concentration is an independent risk factor for metabolic syndrome. However, few studies have focused on elderly populations. Thus, we investigated the association of serum uric acid concentration with metabolic syndrome in community-dwelling elderly Koreans. This cross-sectional analysis included 2940 participants (986 men and 1954 women) aged 65 years or older who participated in a baseline health assessment for the Korean Urban Rural Elderly cohort study from 2012 to 2014. Serum uric acid concentration was analyzed using both continuous and dichotomous variables. Hyperuricemia was defined as a uric acid concentration ≥7.0 mg/dL in men and ≥6.0 mg/dL in women. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the 2009 harmonizing definition. Multiple logistic regression models were used to investigate independent association between serum uric acid and metabolic syndrome, after adjusting for age, body mass index, LDL cholesterol, glycated hemoglobin, blood urea nitrogen, estimated glomerular filtration rate health behaviors, and medications. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components increased significantly according to uric acid concentration in both sexes. The adjusted odds ratios for having metabolic syndrome per 1.0mg/dL higher uric acid concentration were 1.16 (95% CI: 1.03-1.31) in men and 1.27 (95% CI: 1.13-1.42) in women. Hyperuricemia was also associated with metabolic syndrome, with adjusted odds ratios of 1.71 (95% CI: 1.11-2.63) in men and 1.55 (95% CI: 1.05-2.29) in women. Elevated serum uric acid concentration was independently associated with an increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome in community-dwelling elderly Koreans. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Influence of ethylenediamine-n,n’-disuccinic acid (EDDS) concentration on the bactericidal activity of fatty acids in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    The antibacterial activity of mixtures of ethylenediamine-N,N’-disuccinic acid (EDDS) and antibacterial fatty acids (FA) was examined using the agar diffusion assay. Solutions of caproic, caprylic, capric, and lauric acids dissolved in potassium hydroxide (KOH) were supplemented with 0, 5, or 10 mM ...

  9. Complex formation of trivalent americium with salicylic acid at very low concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melanie Mueller; Margret Acker; Steffen Taut; Gert Bernhard; Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden

    2010-01-01

    For the first time, the complexation of americium(III) with salicylic acid was studied at trace metal concentrations using a 2.0 m Long Path Flow Cell for UV-vis spectroscopy. The detection limit of Am(III) in aqueous solution at pH 3.0 was found to be 5 x 10 -9 M. Two Am(III)-salicylate complexes were formed at pH 5.0 in 0.1 M NaClO 4 , indicated by a clear red shift of the absorption maximum. The absorption spectra obtained from spectrophotometric titration were analyzed by means of factor analysis and complex stabilities were calculated to be log β 110 = 2.56 ± 0.08 and log β 120 = 3.93 ± 0.19. (author)

  10. Increased concentration of vasopressin in plasma of essential fatty acid-deficient rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Harald S.; Jensen, B.; Warberg, J.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of essential fatty acid deficiency (EFA-D) on the plasma concentration of arginine-vasopressin (AVP) and the urinary AVP excretion was investigated. Weanling rats were fed a fat-free diet (FF-rats). Control rats received the same diet in which 6% by wt. of sucrose was replaced by arachis...... oil. After 4-6 weeks of feeding, urine and plasma were analysed for AVP, osmolality, sodium and potassium. When compared to control rats FF-rats had decreased urine volume (6.0 ± 1.6 ml/24 hr versus 11.7 ± 3.2 ml/24 hr), increased urine osmolality (2409 ± 691 mOsm/kg versus 1260 ± 434 m...

  11. Effect of Phosphoric Acid Concentration on the Optical Properties of Partially Phosphorylated PVA Complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asmalina Mohamed Saat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Partially phosphorylated polyvinyl alcohol (PPVA films were prepared at five mole ratios of phosphoric acid (PA using solution casting technique. The optical properties of the PPVA films were examined using UV-visible (UV and photoluminescence (PL spectroscopy. The UV absorption spectra reveal that the absorption peaks are blue-shifted with an increase in PA concentration added to the pure PVA. The PL spectra show the presence of peaks which are characteristic of isotactic (389–398, 460–462 nm, syndiotactic (418–420 nm, and atactic (440–446 nm configurations of the PPVA. The results also show the peak of O–P–O bonding at a wavelength range of 481–489 nm.

  12. Study on the concentration of unsaturated fatty acid methyl esters by urea complexation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, B.; Liu, Y.

    2014-01-01

    This study was done to obtain concentrated unsaturated fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) by urea complexation from soybean derived FAME. Effects of urea-to-FAME ratio, 95% ethanol-to-FAME ratio, crystallization temperature and time on the purification of unsaturated FAME were investigated through single factor experiments. Optimum conditions to obtain maximum FAME yield of NUCF with the purity of unsaturated FAME greater than 98% were established using Box-Behnken design (BBD) method and response surface methodology (RSM). Under optimal conditions, the FAME yield was 58.08%, and the purity of unsaturated FAME was 98% at a urea-to-FAME ratio of 1.23, 95% ethanol-to-FAME ratio of 7 and crystallization temperature of 0 degree C. Verification results revealed that the predicted values were reasonably close to experimentally observed values of 56.93% and 98.01%. (author)

  13. Effect of N deposition on tree amino acid concentrations in two Sphagnum species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karsisto, M.; Kitunen, V. [Finnish Forest Research Inst., Vantaa (Finland). Vantaa Research Centre; Jauhiainen, J. [Joensuu Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Biology; Vasander, H. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Forest Ecology

    1996-12-31

    Nitrogen saturation of ecosystems occurs when the availability of nitrogen is not a growth limiting factor. This situation can be reached through fertilisation or by nitrogen deposition. Prolonged nitrogen saturation may overload the ecosystem and cause changes in the vigour and eventually in the composition of plant communities. But before this stage is reached, certain changes in nitrogen metabolism occur. These changes can be used as an early warning of nitrogen overload to ecosystems. A change in the amino acid pool of plants has been used as an indication of various kind of stress, including, temperature, nutrient imbalance, shading, drought or excess water. It has been postulated that such stresses have an effect on protein synthesis but not on the nitrogen uptake of plants. The result is an increase in the concentration of NH{sub 4}{sup +} ions in plant cells, which may have toxic effects to the plant and the processes that assimilate the free NH{sub 4}{sup +} ions. One of such process is the synthesis of amino acids, especially those containing a significant proportion of nitrogen, e.g. arginine, glutamine and asparagine. This study about the quantification of amino acids in two species of Sphagnum mosses is part of a larger study, the aim of which is to clarify how a number of Sphagnum species will cope with climatic change and nitrogen deposition. Sphagna are the most important members of the peat forming communities in the boreal zone. Sphagnum communities are formed by species specialised to grow in conditions of low nutrient availability, mainly provided via deposition. The present structure and composition of mire communities may be endangered due to elevated levels of nitrogen deposition that have persisted over the last few decades. (20 refs.)

  14. Catalyst evaluation for oxygen reduction reaction in concentrated phosphoric acid at elevated temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yang; Jiang, Yiliang; Jensen, Jens Oluf; Cleemann, Lars N.; Li, Qingfeng

    2018-01-01

    Phosphoric acid is the common electrolyte for high-temperature polymer electrolyte fuel cells (HT-PEMFCs) that have advantages such as enhanced CO tolerance and simplified heat and water management. The currently used rotating disk electrode technique is limited to tests in dilute solutions at low temperatures and hence is not suitable for catalyst evaluation for HT-PEMFCs. In this study, we have designed and constructed a half-cell setup to measure the intrinsic activities of catalysts towards the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in conditions close to HT-PEMFC cathodes. By optimization of the hydrophobic characteristics of electrodes and the catalyst layer thickness, ORR activities of typical Pt/C catalysts are successfully measured in concentrated phosphoric acid at temperatures above 100 °C. In terms of mass-specific activities, the catalyst exhibits about two times higher activity in the half-cell electrode than that observed in fuel cells, indicating the feasibility of the technique as well as the potential for further improvement of fuel cell electrode performance.

  15. A simple procedure for preparing chitin oligomers through acetone precipitation after hydrolysis in concentrated hydrochloric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazami, Nao; Sakaguchi, Masayoshi; Mizutani, Daisuke; Masuda, Tatsuhiko; Wakita, Satoshi; Oyama, Fumitaka; Kawakita, Masao; Sugahara, Yasusato

    2015-11-05

    Chitin oligomers are of interest because of their numerous biologically relevant properties. To prepare chitin oligomers containing 4-6 GlcNAc units [(GlcNAc)4-6], α- and β-chitin were hydrolyzed with concentrated hydrochloric acid at 40 °C. The reactant was mixed with acetone to recover the acetone-insoluble material, and (GlcNAc)4-6 was efficiently recovered after subsequent water extraction. Composition analysis using gel permeation chromatography and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry indicated that (GlcNAc)4-6 could be isolated from the acetone-insoluble material with recoveries of approximately 17% and 21% from the starting α-chitin and β-chitin, respectively. The acetone precipitation method is highly useful for recovering chitin oligomers from the acid hydrolysate of chitin. The changes in the molecular size and higher-order structure of chitin during the course of hydrolysis were also analyzed, and a model that explains the process of oligomer accumulation is proposed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Highly improved synthesis of gold nanobipyramids by tuning the concentration of hydrochloric acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qi, Ying; Zhu, Jian; Li, Jianjun; Zhao, Junwu, E-mail: nanoptzhao@163.com [Xi’an Jiaotong University, The Key Laboratory of Biomedical Information Engineering of Ministry of Education, School of Life Science and Technology (China)

    2016-07-15

    Fabrication of gold nanobipyramids (Au BPs) has attracted great attention because they exhibit more advantageous plasmonic properties. In this study, Au BPs were synthesized by the well-known seeded growth in the presence of hydrochloric acid (HCl). The effects of the ingredients, including HCl, silver nitrate (AgNO{sub 3}), l-Ascorbic acid (AA), and seeds on the structure and yield of the Au BPs were systemically investigated. The results showed that the abundant HCl could improve the yield of Au BPs and decrease the longitudinal surface plasmon resonance wavelength. Under the circumstance of higher concentration of AA and AgNO{sub 3}, more byproducts were resulted. In addition, the effect of HCl under different ratios of seed solution to AA has also been studied. The results showed that the yield was less sensitive to HCl when the amount of seed solution was small. If substantial AA was added to the system, then abundant HCl should be introduced correspondingly to improve the yield of Au BPs.

  17. Effect of L (+) ascorbic acid and monosodium glutamate concentration on the morphology of calcium carbonate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraya, Mohamed El-shahte Ismaiel

    2015-11-01

    In this study, monosodium glutamate and ascorbic acid were used as crystal and growth modifiers to control the crystallization of CaCO3. Calcium carbonate prepared by reacting a mixed solution of Na2CO3 with CaCl2 at ambient temperature, (25 °C), constant Ca++/ CO3- - molar ratio and pH with stirring. The polymorph and morphology of the crystals were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The results indicate that rhombohedral calcite was only formed in water without organic additives, and both calcite and spherical vaterite with various morphologies were produced in the presence of monosodium glutamate. The content of vaterite increased as the monosodium glutamate increased. In addition, spherical vaterite was obtained in the presence of different concentrations of ascorbic acid. The spherical vaterite posses an aggregate shape composed of nano-particles, ranging from 30 to 50 nm as demonstrated by the SEM and TEM analyses. Therefore, the ascorbic stabilizes vaterite and result in nano-particles compared to monosodium glutamate.

  18. Effect of salicylic acid on Concentration of nutrients, protein and antioxidant enzymes of basil under lead stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Padash

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Today, phenolic compounds and plant growth regulator has been proposed, to reduce the negative effects of stress. Salicylic acid is a substance that causes plant resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses. This experiment was conducted in Zabol University during 2013 as factorial randomized complete block design with 3 replications. Factors included 4 levels of lead nitrate; 0 (control, 100, 200 and 300 mg per kg of soil and foliar application of salicylic acid at 3 levels of 0, 50 and 100 ppm. Addition of lead significantly reduced concentrations of potassium, magnesium, calcium, phosphorous and nitrogen and increased concentrations of sodium, polyphenol oxidase, ascorbate peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and peroxidase. In addition, salicylic acid spraying had a significant influence on all traits, and salicylic acid spraying at 100 mL/L increased concentrations of potassium, magnesium, calcium, phosphorus, nitrogen and decreased concentrations of polyphenol oxidase, ascorbate peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and peroxidase. In this study the interaction between salicylic acid and lead on potassium, magnesium, calcium, phosphorus, nitrogen, sodium and catalase, guaiacol peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase were significant, and salicylic acid play moderating role and reducing the negative effects of lead toxicity. The results suggested salicylic acid application in basil can increase uptake of macro and micro nutrients required for plant growth and reduce the negative effects of stress lead-induced oxidative damage.

  19. Seasonal variations in the concentrations of lipophilic compounds and phenolic acids in the roots of Echinacea purpurea and Echinacea pallida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, Maria O; Fretté, Xavier C; Christensen, Kathrine B; Christensen, Lars P; Grevsen, Kai

    2012-12-12

    Roots of Echinacea purpurea and Echinacea pallida cultivated for 4 years in a North European climate were analyzed for seasonal variations in the concentrations of lipophilic constituents (alkamides, ketoalkenes, and ketoalkynes) and phenolic acids by harvesting five times during 1 year to establish the optimal time for harvest. A total of 16 alkamides, three ketoalkenes, two ketoalkynes, and four phenolic acids (echinacoside, cichoric acid, caftaric acid, and chlorogenic acid) were identified in aqueous ethanolic (70%) extracts by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and quantified by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The major alkamides in the roots of E. purpurea were at their lowest concentration in the middle of autumn and early winter, and the total concentration of lipophilic compounds in E. pallida showed the same pattern. Moreover, all of the major phenolic acids in E. purpurea were at their highest concentrations in spring. The optimal harvest time in spring is in contrast to normal growing guidelines; hence, this specific information of seasonal variations in the concentrations of lipophilic and phenolic compounds in E. purpurea and E. pallida is valuable for research, farmers, and producers of medicinal preparations.

  20. Corn stover saccharification with concentrated sulfuric acid: effects of saccharification conditions on sugar recovery and by-product generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ze-Shen; Wu, Xiao-Lei; Kida, Kenji; Tang, Yue-Qin

    2012-09-01

    Although concentrated sulfuric acid saccharification is not a novel method for breaking down lignocellulosic biomass, the process by which saccharification affects biomass decomposition, sugar recovery, and by-product generation is not well studied. The present study employed Taguchi experimental design to study the effects of seven parameters on corn stover concentrated sulfuric acid saccharification. The concentration of sulfuric acid and the temperature of solubilization significantly affect corn stover decomposition. They also have significant effects on glucose and xylose recoveries. Low generation of furfural and 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfural (5HMF) was noted and organic acids were the main by-products detected in the hydrolysate. Temperature also significantly affected the generation of levulinic acid and formic acid; however, acetic acid generation was not significantly influenced by all seven parameters. The ratio of acid to feedstock significantly affected glucose recovery, but not total sugar recovery. The corn stover hydrolysate was well fermented by both glucose- and xylose-fermenting yeast strains. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Concentration and entry rate of amino acids in buffalo calves fed on two planes of crude protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verma, D.N.; Singh, U.B.; Varma, A.; Ranjhan, S.K.

    1974-01-01

    Amino acid entry rates into the body pool have been estimated in buffalo calves using a single injection isotope dilution technique. The animals received 2 levels of crude protein, 13 percent lower and 19 percent higher than NRC recommendation. The concentrations of free amino acid in plasma were 5.49 and 7.17 mg/100 ml in animals fed on low and high crude protein diet, respectively. There was significant differences in the plasma amino acid concentration and entry rates between the groups. Amino acid entry rates were 79.17 and 117.78 mg per min in groups fed on low and high plane of crude protein respectively, showing that availability of amino acid is better in animals given ratio high in crude protein contents. (author)

  2. Determination of Optimum Duration and Concentration of Stevia (Stevia rebaudiana Bert.) Seed Priming with Boric Acid (H3BO3)

    OpenAIRE

    SHAHVERDI, Mehdi Aghighi; OMIDI, Heshmat; TABATABAEI, Seyed Jalal

    2017-01-01

    In order to determine optimal duration and concentration of Stevia seed priming with boric acid for improving germination, an experimental factorial completely randomized design with three replications was conducted in the laboratory of Seed Science and Technology, Shahed University of Tehran in 2015. The first factor was different concentrations of boric acid (0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 percent) and the second factor was priming duration (0, 8, 16, 24 and 32 hours). Effects of concentration an...

  3. Volatile fatty acids production in the rumen of young heifers given diets containing a large proportion of concentrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oshio, Shuichi; Tahata, Ichiro; Kobayashi, Haruo; Ami, Tsuyako

    1977-01-01

    The rate of production of volatile fatty acids (VFA) in the rumen of animals on high concentrate feeding was studied with eighteen young heifers fitted with a permanent rumen fistula, using a single injection method of 14 C-acetate and polyethylene glycol (PEG) in order to get some basic informations of rumen fermentation on concentrate diets. The results obtained were as follows; 1) The pH value, total VFA concentration, and proportion of each acid on all-concentrate diets showed distinguished differences in comparison with those of the animals fed a large proportion of hay, but varied widely between days and heifers. 2) VFA proportions were significantly correlated with pH. At the pH value of about 5.2, acetic acid was minimum, and propionic acid and valeric acid were maximum in molar proportion. 3) It was suggested that, in the case of all-concentrate feeding for a long period, the VFA production in the rumen was depressed to 33.5-41% of digestible energy. In the animals fed hay and concentrate, the percentage was about 50%. (auth.)

  4. Serum urea and uric acid concentration in pregnant women in sub ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pregnant blackAfrican women. Uric acid levels for the pregnant women were significantly raised, and the relationship between uric acid elevation and gestational proteinuric hypertensionwas discussed. In conclusion, we recommend that uric acid ...

  5. Optical measurement for the concentrations of the pickling acid with near infrared spectroscopy in steel making industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Gumin; Lee, Kwangchil; Park, Haesung; Lee, Jinho; Jung, Youngjean; Kim, Kyoungsik

    2010-08-01

    In the manufacturing process of stainless steel, it is essential to pickle the oxide layer of steel surface for high corrosion resistance and fine surface quality. Pickling liquor of stainless steel is commonly composed of mixed hydrofluoric and nitric acid. Real time monitoring of concentrations of each acid is crucial to optimize pickling process. It also reduces cost of production and decreases the generation of waste acid. We used non-contact near infrared spectroscopy technique and rapid analysis method, for the quantification of each acid in an on-line manner. Multivariate calibration such as partial least square regression method is employed for the better prediction results.

  6. Reactions of iodate with iodine in concentrated sulfuric acid. Formation of I(+3) and I(+1) compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Guy; Noszticzius, Zoltan; Hollo, Gabor; Wittmann, Maria; Furrow, Stanley D.

    2018-01-01

    The absorption spectra in a large range of concentrations show that the reactions of iodate with iodine in 96% sulfuric acid produce (IO)HSO4, I3+ and I5+, just like in the pure 100% acid. We discovered that, in 96% H2SO4, these reactions also produce I2O which is not formed in the pure acid. I2O is an important intermediate of reactions in diluted sulfuric acid, including the Bray-Liebhafsky reaction, but it had never been observed directly because of its very high reactivity. The equilibrium constants of the reactions producing these four compounds were determined.

  7. Study of the acid rain influence on the aluminium soil concentration near a coal fired power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hama, Patricia

    2001-01-01

    Rainwater samples of a rural region around a coal plant in the northeast of Parana State (Brazil) were evaluated. Samples of bulk and wet deposition were analyzed during a one-year period (June 1999 - June 2000). A great number of rain events (70%) presented pH values below 5.6 (volume weight mean - VWM was pH = 4.9 ± 0.7), indicating that the region rainwater was lightly acid. The anions and cations concentrations results in the sampled rainwater showed a high sulphate concentration (69 μeq L -1 ), followed by the cations concentration of sodium, calcium and ammonium (35, 32 and 30 μeq L -1 , respectively). The analysis of different data of the region showed that one probable source of the high sodium concentration could be from adsorbed sodium at the fly ash after the coal burning process. Due to the great contribution of these cations in the sulphate neutralization action, the rainwater of this region had only a lightly acid characteristic, which not caused a significant environmental impact. The study of the local soil showed that the soil characteristic was of an acid soil and bioavailable concentration of the alkaline (calcium, magnesium and potassium) and acid (aluminium) cations presented high calcium concentration [(1001± 357) mg kg -1 ] compared with the other cations. The determination of the soil sensitivity to acid rain was calculated by the ratio BC/Al 3+ (BC is the sum of the alkaline cations) and presented an average value of (5.1 ± 3.3). The preliminary evaluation of the soil susceptibility to acid rain by the ratio BC/Al 3+ , showed that the local soil and type of vegetation (tropical savannah) were sensitive to acid deposition. A long term of this impacting condition (acid rain) could be harmful to the soil and vegetation quality. (author)

  8. Production rates of bacterial tetraether lipids and fatty acids in peatland under varying oxygen concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huguet, Arnaud; Meador, Travis B.; Laggoun-Défarge, Fatima; Könneke, Martin; Wu, Weichao; Derenne, Sylvie; Hinrichs, Kai-Uwe

    2017-04-01

    Interpretations of the abundance and distribution of branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraether (brGDGT) lipids have been increasingly applied to infer changes in paleoenvironment and to estimate terrigenous organic matter inputs into estuarine and marine sediments. However, only preliminary information is known regarding the ecology and physiology of the source organisms of these biomarkers. We assessed the production rates of brGDGTs under different redox conditions in peat, where these lipids are found in high concentrations, particularly at greater depths below the fluctuating water table. The incorporation of hydrogen relative to carbon into lipids observed in our dual stable isotope probing assay indicates that brGDGTs were produced by heterotrophic bacteria. Unexpectedly, incubations with stable isotope tracers of the surface horizon (5-20 cm) initiated under oxic conditions before turning suboxic and eventually anoxic exhibited up to one order of magnitude higher rates of brGDGT production (16-87 ng cm-3 y-1) relative to the deeper, anoxic zone (20-35 cm; ca. 7 ng cm-3 y-1), and anoxic incubations of the surface horizon (Turnover times of brGDGTs in the surface horizon ranged between 8 and 41 years in the incubations initiated under oxic conditions, in contrast to 123-742 years in anoxic incubations. As brGDGTs were actively produced during both anoxic incubations and those exposed to oxygen, we conclude that their source organisms are likely facultative aerobic heterotrophs that are particularly active in the peat acrotelm. Production rates of bacterial fatty acids (ca. 2 μg cm-3 y-1) were roughly two orders of magnitude higher than those of brGDGTs, suggesting that brGDGT producers are a minor constituent of the microbial community or that brGDGTs are a small component of the microbial cell membrane in comparison to fatty acids, despite the typically high brGDGT concentrations observed in peat. Multivariate analysis identified two branched fatty acids

  9. Rapid determination of hyaluronic acid concentration in fermentation broth with near-infrared spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Dong

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Hyaluronic acid (HA concentration is an important parameter in fermentation process. Currently, carbazole assay is widely used for HA content determination in routine analysis. However, this method is time-consuming, environment polluting and has the risk of microbial contamination, as well as the results lag behind fermentation process. This paper attempted the feasibility to predict the concentration of HA in fermentation broth by using near infrared (NIR spectroscopy in transmission mode. In this work, a total of 56 samples of fermentation broth from 7 batches were analyzed, which contained HA in the range of 2.35–9.69 g/L. Different data preprocessing methods were applied to construct calibration models. The final optimal model was obtained with first derivative using Savitzky–Golay smoothing (9 points window, second-order polynomial and partial least squares (PLS regression with leave-one-block-out cross validation. The correlation coefficient and Root Mean Square Error of prediction set is 0.98 and 0.43 g/L, respectively, which show the possibility of NIR as a rapid method for microanalysis and to be a promising tool for a rapid assay in HA fermentation.

  10. Aquatic predicted no-effect-concentration derivation for perfluorooctane sulfonic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Ping; Wang, Ying; Mu, Jingli; Wang, Juying

    2011-04-01

    Perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), a representative perfluorinated surfactant, is an anthropogenic pollutant detected in various environmental and biological matrices. Some laboratory and field work has been conducted to assess the aquatic toxicity of PFOS, but little is known regarding its toxicity threshold to the aquatic ecosystem. In the present study, predicted no-effect concentrations (PNECs) were derived by four different approaches. The interspecies correlation estimation (ICE) program and final acute-to-chronic ratio (FACR) were applied to the development of PNEC based on the toxic mode of action (MOA) of PFOS. By comparison of the different PNECs, the recommended aquatic toxicity thresholds for PFOS are in the range of 0.61 to 6.66 µg/L. Based on comparison of PNEC values, microcosm results, and reported environmental concentrations, PFOS appears not to pose a serious threat to aquatic organisms. The present results demonstrate that MOA is an important consideration for the derivation of reliable PNECs; moreover, the ICE-based species sensitivity distribution (SSD) method can be used to derive PNECs when toxicological data are limited. The application of MOA and ICE for deriving PNEC values in the present study may facilitate studies on using a combination of quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models and ICE to estimate PNECs. Copyright © 2011 SETAC.

  11. Potentiation of vasoconstriction and pressor response by low concentration of monomethylarsonous acid (MMA(III)).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Kyung-Min; Shin, Yoo-Sun; Kang, Seojin; Noh, Ji-Yoon; Kim, Keunyoung; Chung, Seung-Min; Yun, Yeo-Pyo; Chung, Jin-Ho

    2011-09-10

    A close link between arsenic exposure and hypertension has been well-established through many epidemiological reports, yet the mechanism underlying it remains unclear. Here we report that nanomolar concentrations of monomethylarsonous acid (MMA(III)), a toxic trivalent methylated arsenic metabolite, can potentiate agonist-induced vasoconstriction and pressor responses. In freshly isolated rat aortic ring, exposure to nanomolar MMA(III) (100-500 nM) potentiated phenylephrine (PE)-induced vasoconstriction while at higher concentrations (≥2.5 μM), suppression of vasoconstriction and apoptosis of vascular smooth muscle were observed. Potentiation of agonist-induced vasoconstriction was also observed with other contractile agonists and it was retained in endothelium-denuded aortic rings, suggesting that these events are agonist-independent and smooth muscle cell dependent. Interestingly, exposure to MMA(III) resulted in increased myosin light chain phosphorylation while PE-induced Ca2+ influx was not affected, reflecting that Ca2+ sensitization is involved. In line with this, MMA(III) enhanced agonist-induced activation of small GTPase RhoA, a key contributor to Ca2+ sensitization. Of note, treatment of MMA(III) to rats induced significantly higher pressor responses in vivo, demonstrating that this event can occur in vivo indeed. We believe that RhoA-mediated Ca2+ sensitization and the resultant potentiation of vasoconstriction by MMA(III) may shed light on arsenic-associated hypertension. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  12. Comparative study on two-step concentrated acid hydrolysis for the extraction of sugars from lignocellulosic biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijaya, Yanuar Philip; Putra, Robertus Dhimas Dhewangga; Widyaya, Vania Tanda; Ha, Jeong-Myeong; Suh, Dong Jin; Kim, Chang Soo

    2014-07-01

    Among all the feasible thermochemical conversion processes, concentrated acid hydrolysis has been applied to break the crystalline structure of cellulose efficiently and scale up for mass production as lignocellulosic biomass fractionation process. Process conditions are optimized by investigating the effect of decrystallization sulfuric acid concentration (65-80 wt%), hydrolysis temperature (80°C and 100°C), hydrolysis reaction time (during two hours), and biomass species (oak wood, pine wood, and empty fruit bunch (EFB) of palm oil) toward sugar recovery. At the optimum process condition, 78-96% sugars out of theoretically extractable sugars have been fractionated by concentrated sulfuric acid hydrolysis of the three different biomass species with 87-90 g/L sugar concentration in the hydrolyzate and highest recalcitrance of pine (softwood) was determined by the correlation of crystallinity index and sugar yield considering reaction severity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Estimate of colostral immunoglobulin G concentration using refractometry without or with caprylic acid fractionation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrill, K M; Conrad, E; Polo, J; Lago, A; Campbell, J; Quigley, J; Tyler, H

    2012-07-01

    Our objectives were to evaluate the use of refractometry as a means of estimating immunoglobulin G (IgG) concentration of bovine maternal colostrum (MC) and determine if fractionation of MC using caprylic acid (CA) improved estimates of IgG. Samples (n=85) of MC were collected from a single dairy in California and used to determine the method of CA fraction that produced the best prediction of IgG based on CA fractionation followed by refractometry. Subsequently, samples of MC (n=827) were collected from 67 farms in 12 states to compare refractometry with or without CA fractionation as methods to estimate IgG concentration. Samples were collected from the feeding pool and consisted of fresh (n=196), previously frozen (n=479), or refrigerated (n=152) MC. Samples were further classified by the number freeze-thaw cycles before analysis. Fractionation with CA was conducted by adding 1 mL of MC to a tube containing 75 μL of CA and 1 mL of 0.06 M acetic acid. The tube was shaken and allowed to react for 1 min. Refractive index of the IgG-rich supernatant (nDf) was determined using a digital refractometer. Whole, nonfractionated MC was analyzed for IgG by radial immunodiffusion (RID) and refractive index (nDw). The relationship between nDf and IgG (r=0.53; n=805) was weak, whereas that between nDw and IgG was stronger (r=0.73; n=823). Fresh samples analyzed by refractometry that subsequently went through 1 freeze-thaw cycle before RID analysis resulted in the strongest relationship between IgG and nDf or nDw (r=0.93 and 0.90, respectively). The MC samples collected fresh on the farm but frozen 2 or more times before analysis by refractometry or RID had low correlations between IgG and nDf and nDw (r=0.09 and 0.01). Samples refrigerated or frozen on the farm before analysis had weaker relationships between RID and nDf or nDw (r=0.38 to 0.80), regardless of the number of freeze-thaw cycles. Breed and lactation number did not affect the accuracy of either test. These

  14. Radiometric and spectrophotometric studies of the behavior of chromium(VI) oxide in concentrated perchloric acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pezzin, S.H.; Collins, C.H.; Collins, K.E. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica; Archundia, C. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico City (Mexico). Inst. de Ciencias Nucleares

    1997-11-01

    A study of the behavior of {sup 51}CrO{sub 3} in 70% HClO{sub 4} over the temperature range from 20 to 194 C by means of Cr-51 labelling, UV-VIS spectrophotometry and ion exchange chromatography, shows that the solubility of {sup 51}CrO{sub 3} depends on a competition between the dissolution process and the acid reduction of solution phase Cr(VI). These processes occur simultaneously and are dependent on both the temperature and the concentration of Cr(VI), as shown by comparison between radiometric measurements (where total chromium can be accurately determined) and spectrophotometric measurements (where only the Cr(VI) is detectable at the wavelengths studied). These conclusions are confirmed by PbCrO{sub 4} precipitation of {sup 51}Cr(VI), where at 194 C, 97% of the total chromium appears as Pb{sup 51}CrO{sub 4} while at 86 C only 5% does. Cation exchange chromatography of the solution after brief contact of {sup 51}CrO{sub 3} with concentrated HClO{sub 4} at 20 C shows only traces of {sup 51}Cr(VI), most of the radioactivity eluting as {sup 51}Cr(H{sub 2}O){sup 3+}{sub 6}, with smaller amounts of species with +2 and +1 charges. These results imply serious limitations to the spectrophotometric determination of low concentrations of total chromium in alloys or in biological material which use dissolution in 70% HClO{sub 4} as a primary analytical step. (orig.)

  15. Effect of compost and humic acid in mobility and concentration of cadmium and chromium in soil and plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Chaab

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of compost and humic acid in mobility and concentration of cadmium and chromium in contaminated soil were investigated. Experiment was carried out with three levels of soil cadmium and chromium and two organic matters (compost and humic acid. The study was performed in a randomized complete block design with 3 replicates. Results indicated that application of organic substances enhanced movement of cadmium and chromium in soil column. Humic acid is more effective than compost on the mobility of cadmium and chromium in soil. Mobility of cadmium and chromium in the lower depths of soil column were increased. Cadmium and chromium concentration in shoots and roots enhanced due to increasing those concentration in soil and application of organic substances. Increase in cadmium in shoots can be attributed to the high mobility of this element in maize plant. Maize root chromium concentration was greater than shoot chromium concentration. Humic acid was more effective than compost as cadmium and chromium concentration in root and shoot was concerned. Low mobility of chromium in plant and accumulation of chromium in roots can be reasons of decreasing of chromium concentration in shoot of plant and its bioaccumulation.

  16. Effect of cadmium on free amino acid, glutathione and ascorbic acid concentrations in two barley genotypes (Hordeum vulgare L.) differing in cadmium tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fei-Bo; Chen, Fei; Wei, Kang; Zhang, Guo-Ping

    2004-11-01

    Hydroponic experiment was carried out to study the effect of three Cd levels on glutathione (GSH), free amino acids (FAA), and ascorbic acid (ASA) concentration in the different tissues of 2 barley cultivars with different Cd tolerance. Cadmium concentration in both roots and shoots increased with external Cd level, while biomass and ASA concentration declined, and Wumaoliuling, a Cd-sensitive genotype was more affected than ZAU 3, a Cd-tolerant genotype. The effect of Cd on GSH concentration was dose- and time-dependent. In the 5 d exposure, root GSH concentration increased in 0.5 microM Cd treatment compared with control, but decreased significantly in 5 microM Cd treatment, irrespective of genotypes. However, in the 10 d exposure, GSH concentration in all plant tissues decreased with increasing Cd levels in the culture medium, and Wumaoliuling was much more affected than ZAU 3. Cadmium treatment greatly altered FAA concentration and composition in plants. The effect of Cd on glutathione (Glu) concentration in roots varied with genotypes. ZAU 3 showed a steady increase in root Glu concentration in both 0.5 and 5 microM Cd treatments, while Wumaoliuling was decreased by 38.0% in 5 microM Cd treatment, compared with the control. The results indicate that GSH and ASA are attributed to Cd tolerance in barley plants, and the relative less reduction in GSH concentration in ZAU 3 under Cd stress relative to the control may account for its higher Cd tolerance.

  17. A Nitrogen-concentrated Phase in IA Iron Meteorite Acid Residue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashizume, K.; Sugiura, N.

    1993-07-01

    portion of nitrogen is released at 500 degrees C and 600 degrees C temperature fractions. Total nitrogen amounts and average delta^l5N values of the two acid residues are described in Table 1. Discussion and Summary: Sample "Can-1bn" is 3-4 times concentrated in nitrogen than "Call-2b," although its delta^15N value is within terrestrial range (0 < delta^15N < +20 per mil). Presently, we cannot deny the possibility that nitrogen in "Can-1bn" is dominated by terrestrial nitrogen, which may have been acquired during the acid treatment. Nevertheless, nitrogen isotope data of "Can-2b" suggests that indigenous nitrogen is indeed concentrated in the acid residue of Canyon Diablo. Bulk nitrogen isotope data of Canyon Diablo is reported to be delta^15N= -61.8 +- 10.4 per mil, N= 38.0 +- 155 ppm [2]. Therefore, delta^15N values of "Can-2b" can be resulted by a mixing of indigenous nitrogen and contaminating nitrogen. However, distinct delta^15N values of these two samples may indicate, in turn, that nitrogen isotopes in inclusions of Canyon Diablo are truly heterogeneous because carbon isotopes of graphite inclusions in IA iron meteorites seem to be heterogeneous [7]. Acknowledgments: We thank Dr. J.-I. Matsuda of Osaka University for providing samples and information on these samples. References: [1] Scott E. R. D. and Wasson J. T. (1975) Rev. Geophys. Space Sci., 13, 527-546. [2] Prombo C. A. and Clayton R. N. (1983) Meteoritics, 18, 377-379. [3] Franchi I. A. et al. (1988) Meteoritics, 22, 379-380. [4] Hashizume K. (1993) Doctor Thesis. [5] Murty S. V. S. et al. (1983) GCA, 47, 1061-1068. [6] Ogata Y. et al. (1990) In Abstract of the 1990 Annual Meeting of the Geochemical Society of Japan, 57. [7] Deines P. and Wickman F. E. (1973) GCA, 37, 1295-1319. Table 1 appears here in the hard copy.

  18. Concentration of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in marine species of fish from brazilian coast

    OpenAIRE

    VISENTAINER, Jesuí Vergilio; CARVALHO, Patrícia de Oliveira; IKEGAKI, Masaharu; PARK, Yong Kum

    2000-01-01

    Quantitative compositions of two unsaturated fatty acids such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) were examined in fish oil from orbital cavity and fillets of fishes which captured from Brazilian coast. The experimental results demonstrated that quantities of DHA were extremely higher in oil from orbital cavity of Atum and Bonito as compared with fillet oil, whereas orbital cavity oil from Olho de Boi, Cavalinha, Sardinha, and Serra contained slightly higher DHA than...

  19. Association of Serum Uric Acid Concentration with Diabetic Retinopathy and Albuminuria in Taiwanese Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Ching-Chao; Lin, Pi-Chen; Lee, Mei-Yueh; Chen, Szu-Chia; Shin, Shyi-Jang; Hsiao, Pi-Jung; Lin, Kun-Der; Hsu, Wei-Hao

    2016-08-02

    Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) may experience chronic microvascular complications such as diabetic retinopathy (DR) and diabetic nephropathy (DN) during their lifetime. In clinical studies, serum uric acid concentration has been found to be associated with DR and DN. The goal of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the increases in serum uric acid level and the severity of DR and albuminuria in Taiwanese patients with type 2 DM. We recorded serum uric acid concentration, the severity of DR, and the severity of albuminuria by calculating urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR) in 385 patients with type 2 DM. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, a high uric acid concentration was a risk factor for albuminuria (odds ratio (OR), 1.227; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.015-1.482; p = 0.034) and DR (OR, 1.264; 95% CI = 1.084-1.473; p = 0.003). We also demonstrated that there was a higher concentration of serum uric acid in the patients with more severe albuminuria and DR. In conclusion, an increased serum uric acid level was significantly correlated with the severity of albuminuria and DR in Taiwanese patients with type 2 DM.

  20. Breast milk fat concentration and fatty acid pattern during the first six months in exclusively breastfeeding Greek women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonakou, Angeliki; Skenderi, Katerina P; Chiou, Antonia; Anastasiou, Constantinos A; Bakoula, Chryssa; Matalas, Antonia-Leda

    2013-04-01

    To determine fat and fatty acid (FA) profile of Greek mother's milk during the first 6 months of exclusive breastfeeding and to examine their correlation with dietary and other maternal characteristics. Milk samples and dietary records were obtained by mothers at 1st (n = 64), 3rd (n = 39), and 6th (n = 24) month postpartum. Fatty acid methylesters were separated and quantified by gas chromatography (GC/FID) and fat concentration by the creamatocrit method. At the 3 time points, milk fat concentration ranged between 26.3 and 30.2 g/l (p > 0.05). Milk's FA composition was expressed as weight percentage (% wt/wt of all FAs detected with a C6 to C22 chain length). Maternal macronutrient and FA dietary intake, as well as the FAs' profile in maternal milk, remained constant over the 6 months. Saturated fatty acids (SFA), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) represented approx. 46, 35, and 18 % of all FAs, while ω6 and ω3 PUFA were 17.4 and 0.8 %, respectively. Body weight gain during pregnancy was positively related to breast milk's concentration in SFA (p maternal milk. A strong positive effect was found during the first month postpartum, between mother's PUFA intake and the concentration of PUFA, ω3 fatty acids, docosahexaenoic and linoleic acid (LA) in the milk, while MUFA intake was strongly correlated with the concentration of PUFA, ω6 fatty acids, and LA. This study is among few in literature to determine FA profile of breast milk in European populations and verified certain dietary factors that influence this profile. Maternal PUFA and MUFA intake were found to be important factors affecting breast milk's FA profile.

  1. A specific protein-enriched enteral formula decreases cortisolemia and improves plasma albumin and amino acid concentrations in elderly patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pérez de la Cruz Antonio

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Old age is associated with an involuntary and progressive but physiological loss of muscle mass. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of exclusive consumption for 6 months of a protein-enriched enteral diet with a relatively high content of branched-chain amino acids on albuminemia, cortisolemia, plasma amino acids, insulin resistance, and inflammation biomarkers in elderly patients. Methods Thirty-two patients from the Clinical Nutrition Outpatient Unit at our hospital exclusively consumed a protein-enriched enteral diet for 6 months. Data were collected at baseline and at 3 and 6 months on anthropometric and biochemical parameters and on plasma concentrations of amino acids, cortisol, adrenocorticotropic hormone, urea, creatinine, insulin resistance, and inflammation biomarkers. Results The percentage of patients with albumin concentration below normal cut-off values decreased from 18% to 0% by the end of the study. At 6 months, concentrations of total plasma (p = 0.008 and essential amino acids (p = 0.011, especially branched-chain amino acids (p = 0.031, were higher versus baseline values, whereas 3-methylhistidine (p = 0.001, cortisol (p = 0.001 and adrenocorticotropic hormone (p = 0.004 levels were lower. Conclusions Regular intake of specific protein-enriched enteral formula increases plasma essential amino acids, especially branched-chain amino acids, and decreases cortisol and 3-methylhistidine, while plasma urea and creatinine remain unchanged.

  2. Effect of various concentration of sulfuric acid for Nafion membrane activation on the performance of fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujiastuti, Sri; Onggo, Holia

    2016-02-01

    This work proposes an activation treatment to Nafion 117 membrane with sulfuric acid in various concentrations. The main goal of this study is to increase the Nafion 117 membrane performance, which is determined by proton number in the membrane and membrane performance in Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC). This work was developed using sulfuric acids in four different concentrations: 1, 2, 3, and 4 M. The surface morphology and functional groups of activated membranes were studied using Scanning Electron Microscope and Fourier Transform Infrared, respectively. The proton number absorbed in membranes was observed by gravimetric measurements. The performances of activated membranes in PEMFC were studied by single cell measurements with H2/O2 operation. The experimental results showed that activation of Nafion membrane did not change its surface morphology and functional groups. The proton number increased when the concentration of sulfuric acid is increased from 1 to 3 M and from 1 to 4 M. On the other hand, there is no significant increase when the concentration of sulfuric acid was increased from 1 to 2 M. Similar trends were observed when testing activated membrane performance in PEMFC, especially for current density at 0.6 V and maximum power. It is assumed that there is a correlation between the increase of sulfuric acid concentration in activation process with the increase of proton number in the membrane that are available for facilitating of transfer protons from the anode to the cathode.

  3. Tryptophan hydroxylase gene 1 (TPH1) variants associated with cerebrospinal fluid 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid and homovanillic acid concentrations in healthy volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreou, Dimitrios; Saetre, Peter; Werge, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) is the rate-limiting enzyme in serotonin synthesis. We investigated possible relationships between five TPH1 gene polymorphisms and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations of the major serotonin metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), the major dopamine...... metabolite homovanillic acid (HVA), and the major norepinephrine metabolite 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG) in healthy volunteers (n=132). The G-allele of the TPH1 rs4537731 (A-6526G) polymorphism was associated with 5-HIAA and HVA, but not MHPG concentrations. None of the other four TPH1...

  4. Effects of total replacement of soybean meal and corn on ruminal fermentation, volatile fatty acids, protozoa concentration, and gas production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bahri

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of total replacement of soybean meal and corn with triticale and faba bean or field pea on rumen fermentation, protozoa counts, and gas production of lactating ewes. A total of 30 Sicilo-Sarde ewes were randomly allocated into three groups and were fed 1.8 kg drymatter of oat hay plus 500 g of one of three concentrates: the first concentrate (CS was mainly composed of soybean meal, corn, and barley; the second (TFB was formed by triticale and faba bean; and the third (TFP was composed of triticale and field pea. The type of concentrate did not affect ruminal pH or ammonia nitrogen concentration (P  >  0.05. The individual concentrations of volatile fatty acids showed a significant interaction between the type of concentrate and sampling time (P  <  0.05, except for Butyric and Isobutyric acids. Within a post-feeding time, the pattern of evolution of total volatile fatty, acetic, and propionic acids differed significantly at 2 h post feeding (P  <  0.05, while butyric and valeric acid changed at 0 and 4 h post feeding. The type of concentrate affected the total number of ciliate protozoa and the Isotricha species (P  <  0.05, whereas Entodinium, Ophryoscolex, and Polyplastron were similar among concentrates (P  >  0.05. The cumulative gas production from the in vitro fermentation, the time of incubation, and their interaction was affected by concentrate (P  <  0.001. The substitution of soybean meal and corn in the concentrate with faba bean or field peas and triticale might maintain rumen parameters of dairy ewes.

  5. Evidence for the complex relationship between free amino acid and sugar concentrations and acrylamide-forming potential in potato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muttucumaru, N; Powers, Sj; Elmore, Js; Briddon, A; Mottram, Ds; Halford, Ng

    2014-01-01

    Free amino acids and reducing sugars participate in the Maillard reaction during high-temperature cooking and processing. This results not only in the formation of colour, aroma and flavour compounds, but also undesirable contaminants, including acrylamide, which forms when the amino acid that participates in the reaction is asparagine. In this study, tubers of 13 varieties of potato ( Solanum tuberosum ), which had been produced in a field trial in 2010 and sampled immediately after harvest or after storage for 6 months, were analysed to show the relationship between the concentrations of free asparagine, other free amino acids, sugars and acrylamide-forming potential. The varieties comprised five that are normally used for crisping, seven that are used for French fry production and one that is used for boiling. Acrylamide formation was measured in heated flour, and correlated with glucose and fructose concentration. In French fry varieties, which contain higher concentrations of sugars, acrylamide formation also correlated with free asparagine concentration, demonstrating the complex relationship between precursor concentration and acrylamide-forming potential in potato. Storage of the potatoes for 6 months at 9°C had a significant, variety-dependent impact on sugar and amino acid concentrations and acrylamide-forming potential.

  6. Influence of phytic acid concentration on coating properties obtained by MAO treatment on magnesium alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, R.F., E-mail: rfzhang-10@163.com [Jiangxi Key Laboratory of Surface Engineering, Jiangxi Science and Technology Normal University, Nanchang 330013 (China) and School of Material Science and Engineering, Jiangxi Science and Technology Normal University, Nanchang 330013 (China); Zhang, S.F.; Duo, S.W. [Jiangxi Key Laboratory of Surface Engineering, Jiangxi Science and Technology Normal University, Nanchang 330013 (China); School of Material Science and Engineering, Jiangxi Science and Technology Normal University, Nanchang 330013 (China)

    2009-06-30

    Anodic coatings were prepared by microarc oxidation (MAO) on AZ91HP in a base solution of 10 g/L NaOH with and without the addition of 0-12 g/L phytic acid (C{sub 6}H{sub 18}O{sub 24}P{sub 6}). The influences of C{sub 6}H{sub 18}O{sub 24}P{sub 6} and its concentration on the conductivity and breakdown voltage were studied. The morphologies and compositions of anodic coatings were determined by environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). Potentiodynamic polarization test was performed in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution to evaluate the corrosion resistance of anodic coatings. The results showed that with the increase of C{sub 6}H{sub 18}O{sub 24}P{sub 6} concentration, the solution conductivity decreased while the values of breakdown voltage increased. EDX analysis showed that the coatings formed in solutions with C{sub 6}H{sub 18}O{sub 24}P{sub 6} addition contained Mg, Al, O, C, P and a trance of Na. The addition of C{sub 6}H{sub 18}O{sub 24}P{sub 6} into the base solution was helpful in coating formation and the coatings formed in the solution containing 8 g/L C{sub 6}H{sub 18}O{sub 24}P{sub 6} exhibited the best pore uniformity and corrosion resistance.

  7. Simultaneous determination of nitric acid and uranium concentrations in aqueous solution from measurements of electrical conductivity, density, and temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, B.B.

    1991-01-01

    Nuclear fuel reprocessing plants handle aqueous solutions of nitric acid and uranium in large quantities. Automatic control of process operations requires reliable measurements of these solutes concentration, but this is difficult to directly measure. Physical properties such as solution density and electrical conductivity vary with solute concentration and temperature. Conductivity, density and temperature can be measured accurately with relatively simple and inexpensive devices. These properties can be used to determine solute concentrations will good correlations. This paper provides the appropriate correlations for solutions containing 2 to 6 Molar (M) nitric acid and 0 to 300 g/L uranium metal at temperatures from 25--90 degrees C. The equations are most accurate below 5 M nitric acid, due to a broad maximum in the conductivity curve at 6 M. 12 refs., 9 figs., 6 tabs

  8. Effect of parenteral glutamine supplementation on plasma amino acid concentrations in extremely low-birth-weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poindexter, Brenda B; Ehrenkranz, Richard A; Stoll, Barbara J; Koch, Matthew A; Wright, Linda L; Oh, William; Papile, Lu-Ann; Bauer, Charles R; Carlo, Waldemar A; Donovan, Edward F; Fanaroff, Avroy A; Korones, Sheldon B; Laptook, Abbot R; Shankaran, Seetha; Stevenson, David K; Tyson, Jon E; Lemons, James A

    2003-03-01

    Glutamine is one of the most abundant amino acids in both plasma and human milk and may be conditionally essential in premature infants. However, glutamine is not provided by standard intravenous amino acid solutions. We assessed the effect of parenteral glutamine supplementation on plasma amino acid concentrations in extremely low-birth-weight infants receiving parenteral nutrition (PN). A total of 141 infants with birth weights of 401-1000 g were randomly assigned to receive a standard intravenous amino acid solution that did not contain glutamine or an isonitrogenous amino acid solution with 20% of the total amino acids as glutamine. Blood samples were obtained just before initiation of study PN and again after the infants had received study PN (mean intake: 2.3 +/- 1.0 g amino acids x kg(-1) x d(-1)) for approximately 10 d. Infants randomly assigned to receive glutamine had mean plasma glutamine concentrations that increased significantly and were approximately 30% higher than those in the control group in response to PN (425 +/- 182 and 332 +/- 148 micromol/L for the glutamine and control groups, respectively). There was no significant difference between the 2 groups in the relative change in plasma glutamate concentration between the baseline and PN samples. In both groups, there were significant decreases in plasma phenylalanine and tyrosine between the baseline and PN samples; the decrease in tyrosine was greater in the group that received glutamine. In extremely low-birth-weight infants, parenteral glutamine supplementation can increase plasma glutamine concentrations without apparent biochemical risk. Currently available amino acid solutions are likely to be suboptimal in their supply of phenylalanine, tyrosine, or both for these infants.

  9. The Effect of Time, Roasting Temperature, and Grind Size on Caffeine and Chlorogenic Acid Concentrations in Cold Brew Coffee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Megan; Rao, Niny Z

    2017-12-21

    The extraction kinetics and equilibrium concentrations of caffeine and 3-chlorogenic acid (3-CGA) in cold brew coffee were investigated by brewing four coffee samples (dark roast/medium grind, dark roast/coarse grind, medium roast/medium grind, medium roast/coarse grind) using cold and hot methods. 3-CGA and caffeine were found at higher concentrations in cold brew coffee made with medium roast coffees, rather than dark roast. The grind size did not impact 3-CGA and caffeine concentrations of cold brew samples significantly, indicating that the rate determining step in extraction for these compounds did not depend on surface area. Caffeine concentrations in cold brew coarse grind samples were substantially higher than their hot brew counterparts. 3-CGA concentrations and pH were comparable between cold and hot brews. This work suggests that the difference in acidity of cold brew coffee is likely not due to 3-CGA or caffeine concentrations considering that most acids in coffee are highly soluble and extract quickly. It was determined that caffeine and 3-CGA concentrations reached equilibrium according to first order kinetics between 6 and 7 hours in all cold brew samples instead of 10 to 24 hours outlined in typical cold brew methods.

  10. Indispensable amino acid concentrations decrease in tissues of stomachless fish, common carp in response to free amino acid- or peptide-based diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y; Dabrowski, K; Hliwa, P; Gomulka, P

    2006-09-01

    The premise that free amino acid or dipeptide based diets will resolve the nutritional inadequacy of formulated feeds for larval and juvenile fish and improve utilization of nitrogen in comparison to protein-based diets was tested in stomachless fish, common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) larvae. We examined the postprandial whole body free amino acid (FAA) pool in fish that were offered a FAA mixture based diet for the duration of 2 or 4 weeks. We found that the total amount and all indispensable amino acids concentrations in the whole body decreased after a meal. We then fed juvenile carp with dietary amino acids provided in the FAA, dipeptide (PP), or protein (live feed organisms; brine shrimp Artemia salina nauplii, AS) forms. Histidine concentrations in the whole fish body increased in all dietary groups after feeding whereas all other indispensable amino acids decreased in FAA and PP groups in comparison to the AS group. Taurine appears to be the major osmotic pressure balancing free amino acid in larval freshwater fish which may indicate a conditional requirement. We present the first evidence in larval fish that in response to synthetic FAA and PP diets, the whole body indispensable free AA concentrations decreased after feeding. This study shows that amino acids given entirely as FAA or PP cannot sustain stomachless larval fish growth, and may result in depletion of body indispensable AA and most of dispensable AA. The understanding of these responses will determine necessary changes in diet formulations that prevent accelerated excretion of amino acids without protein synthesis.

  11. Gladiolus development in response to bulb treatment with different concentrations of humic acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marihus Altoé Baldotto

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Gladiolus is an ornamental species produced for cut flowers and propagated by corms. The early flowering and increase in the number of flower buds, besides the production of commercial corms are constant challenges to be addressed in the crop improvement. Commercial production of ornamentals is technologically accelerated by means of growth regulators. Among them, the auxins stand out for their key role in the adventitious rooting and cell elongation. Alternatively, the humic substances present in the organic matter also have biostimulating effect, which is very similar to the auxinic effect. Therefore, this work aimed to study the growth and development of gladiolus in response to application of different concentrations of humic acids (HA isolated from vermicompost. Corms were soaked for 24 hours in solutions containing 0, 10, 20, 30 and 40 mmol L-1 of C from HA. The corms were planted in 10-dm³ plastic bags filled with substrate and kept in a greenhouse. Growth of shoots and roots was evaluated. The results showed that the use of HA accelerates growth, and anticipates and increases flowering of Gladiolus.

  12. Urinary concentration of 3-phenoxybenzoic acid in elementary students in South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye Mi Jo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives Pyrethroid pesticides are among the most commonly using insecticides in South Korean households and have been the subject of considerable interest among public health professionals for their potential health effects. The objective of this study is to examine the level of urinary 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3-PBA among elementary students in South Korea. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study to evaluate pyrethroid pesticide exposure levels by measuring the urinary metabolites of 3-PBA using a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method in March 2011. Study participants were 70 Asan-area and Incheon-area elementary students. Results All respondents had values above the detection limit, and the geometric means of 3-PBA in all children were 1.85 μg/L and 1.46 μg/g creatinine. Children with the top 10% urinary levels of 3-PBA were more likely to be girls, under nine years of age, living in a rural area, and living in a residential type apartment. Conclusions South Korean children have a higher concentration of urinary 3-PBA compared with those of other countries. Further research identifying exposure pathways and intervention efforts to reduce environmental pesticide use are needed in South Korea.

  13. Effect of Digestion and Storage of Human Milk on Free Fatty Acid Concentration and Cytotoxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penn, Alexander H.; Altshuler, Angelina E.; Small, James W.; Taylor, Sharon F.; Dobkins, Karen R.; Schmid-Schönbein, Geert W.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Fat is digested in the intestine into free fatty acids (FFAs), which are detergents and therefore toxic to cells at micromolar concentration. The mucosal barrier protects cells in the adult intestine, but this barrier may not be fully developed in premature infants. Lipase-digested infant formula, but not fresh human milk, has elevated FFAs and is cytotoxic to intestinal cells, and therefore could contribute to intestinal injury in necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). But even infants exclusively fed breast milk may develop NEC. Our objective was to determine if stored milk and milk from donor milk banks (DM) could also become cytotoxic, especially after digestion. Methods We exposed cultured rat intestinal epithelial cells or human neutrophils to DM and milk collected fresh and stored at 4 or −20 °C for up to 12 weeks and then treated for 2 hours (37°C) with 0.1 or 1 mg/ml pancreatic lipase and/or trypsin and chymotrypsin. Results DM and milk stored 3 days (at 4 or −20 °C) and then digested were cytotoxic. Storage at −20 °C for 8 and 12 weeks resulted in an additional increase in cytotoxicity. Protease digestion decreased, but did not eliminate cell death. Conclusions Current storage practices may allow milk to become cytotoxic and contribute to intestinal damage in NEC. PMID:24840512

  14. EFFECT OF NITROGEN SOURCE AND INITIAL SUGAR CONCENTRATION ON LACTIC ACID FERMENTATION OF PINEAPPLE WASTE USING L.DELBRUECKII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Moch Busairi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The liquid pineapple waste contains mainly sucrose, glucose, fructose and other nutrients. It therefore can potentially be used as carbon source for lactic acid fermentation. The lactic acid is utilised in food technology as pH regulator, microbial preservative, buffering agent and in the chemical industry. Recently, lactic acid has been considered to be an important raw material for production of biodegradable lactate polymer. The experiments were carried out in batch fermentation at anaerobic condition with stirring speed: 50 rpm, temperature: 40 oC, pH: 6.0, and inoculum size: 5%. Effect of nitrogen source and initial sugar concentration were studied. The effect of nitrogen source on lactic acid production shows that the yeast extract is highest yield , followed by urea , corn steep liquor, malt sprout and ammonium sulphates with the yield of 78.52; 26.68; 19.14; 14.10 and 5.6 %, respectively. The highest yield of initial sugar concentration on lactic acid production obtained was 78.52 % (54.97 g/l at 70 g/l, if the concentration of sugar was increased to 110 g/l , the lactic acid production or yield decrease to51.53 g/l or 54.24%.

  15. Associations between serum uric acid concentrations and metabolic syndrome and its components in the PREDIMED study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babio, N; Martínez-González, M A; Estruch, R; Wärnberg, J; Recondo, J; Ortega-Calvo, M; Serra-Majem, L; Corella, D; Fitó, M; Ros, E; Becerra-Tomás, N; Basora, J; Salas-Salvadó, J

    2015-02-01

    Several studies have demonstrated a relationship between increased serum uric acid (SUA) concentrations and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in the oriental population. However, to the best of our knowledge, the association between SUA and MetS has never been investigated in elderly European individuals at high cardiovascular risk. The aim of this study was to conduct a cross-sectional and prospective evaluation of the associations between SUA concentrations and the MetS in elderly individuals at high cardiovascular risk. Men and women (55-80 years of age) from different PREDIMED (Prevención con DIeta MEDiterránea) recruiting centers were studied. Baseline cross-sectional (n = 4417) and prospective assessments (n = 1511) were performed. MetS was defined in accordance with the updated harmonized criteria. Anthropometric measurements and biochemical determinations were assessed at baseline and yearly during follow-up. Unadjusted and adjusted regression models were fitted to assess the risk of MetS and its components according to the levels of baseline SUA. Participants in the highest baseline sex-adjusted SUA quartile showed an increased prevalence of MetS than those in the lowest quartile, even after adjusting for potential confounders (odd ratio (OR): 2.3 (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.8-2.8); P < 0.001). Participants in the highest baseline sex-adjusted SUA quartile presented a higher incidence of new-onset MetS than those in the lowest quartile (hazard ratios (HR): 1.4 (95% CI, 1.1-1.9); P < 0.001). Participants initially free at baseline of hypertriglyceridemia (HR: 1.9 (1.6-2.4); P < 0.001), low high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol (HR: 1.4 (1.1-1.7); P = 0.002), and hypertension components of MetS (HR: 2.0 (1.2-3.3); P = 0.008) and who were in the upper quartile of SUA had a significantly higher risk of developing these MetS components during follow-up. Elevated SUA concentrations are significantly associated with the development of Met

  16. Antibacterial activity of sphagnum acid and other phenolic compounds found in Sphagnum papillosum against food-borne bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellegård, H; Stalheim, T; Hormazabal, V; Granum, P E; Hardy, S P

    2009-07-01

    To identify the phenolic compounds in the leaves of Sphagnum papillosum and examine their antibacterial activity at pH appropriate for the undissociated forms. Bacterial counts of overnight cultures showed that whilst growth of Staphylococcus aureus 50084 was impaired in the presence of milled leaves, the phenol-free fraction of holocellulose of S. papillosum had no bacteriostatic effect. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of an acetone-methanol extract of the leaves detected eight phenolic compounds. Antibacterial activity of the four dominating phenols specific to Sphagnum leaves, when assessed in vitro as minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs), were generally >2.5 mg ml(-1). MIC values of the Sphagnum-specific compound 'sphagnum acid' [p-hydroxy-beta-(carboxymethyl)-cinnamic acid] were >5 mg ml(-1). No synergistic or antagonistic effects of the four dominating phenols were detected in plate assays. Sphagnum-derived phenolics exhibit antibacterial activity in vitro only at concentrations far in excess of those found in the leaves. We have both identified the phenolic compounds in S. papillosum and assessed their antibacterial activity. Our data indicate that phenolic compounds in isolation are not potent antibacterial agents and we question their potency against food-borne pathogens.

  17. Concentration Determination of Nucleic Acids and Proteins Using the Micro-volume Bio-spec Nano Spectrophotometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukumaran, Suja

    2011-01-01

    Nucleic Acid quantitation procedures have advanced significantly in the last three decades. More and more, molecular biologists require consistent small-volume analysis of nucleic acid samples for their experiments. The BioSpec-nano provides a potential solution to the problems of inaccurate, non-reproducible results, inherent in current DNA quantitation methods, via specialized optics and a sensitive PDA detector. The BioSpec-nano also has automated functionality such that mounting, measurement, and cleaning are done by the instrument, thereby eliminating tedious, repetitive, and inconsistent placement of the fiber optic element and manual cleaning. In this study, data is presented on the quantification of DNA and protein, as well as on measurement reproducibility and accuracy. Automated sample contact and rapid scanning allows measurement in three seconds, resulting in excellent throughput. Data analysis is carried out using the built-in features of the software. The formula used for calculating DNA concentration is: Sample Concentration = DF · (OD260-OD320)· NACF (1) Where DF = sample dilution factor and NACF = nucleic acid concentration factor. The Nucleic Acid concentration factor is set in accordance with the analyte selected1. Protein concentration results can be expressed as μg/ mL or as moles/L by entering e280 and molecular weight values respectively. When residue values for Tyr, Trp and Cysteine (S-S bond) are entered in the e280Calc tab, the extinction coefficient values are calculated as e280 = 5500 x (Trp residues) + 1490 x (Tyr residues) + 125 x (cysteine S-S bond). The e280 value is used by the software for concentration calculation. In addition to concentration determination of nucleic acids and protein, the BioSpec-nano can be used as an ultra micro-volume spectrophotometer for many other analytes or as a standard spectrophotometer using 5 mm pathlength cells. PMID:21372788

  18. Concentration determination of nucleic acids and proteins using the micro-volume BioSpec-nano-spectrophotometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukumaran, Suja

    2011-02-17

    Nucleic acid quantitation procedures have advanced significantly in the last three decades. More and more, molecular biologists require consistent small-volume analysis of nucleic acid samples for their experiments. The BioSpec-nano provides a potential solution to the problems of inaccurate, non-reproducible results, inherent in current DNA quantitation methods, via specialized optics and a sensitive PDA detector. The BioSpec-nano also has automated functionality such that mounting, measurement, and cleaning are done by the instrument, thereby eliminating tedious, repetitive, and inconsistent placement of the fiber optic element and manual cleaning. In this study, data is presented on the quantification of DNA and protein, as well as on measurement reproducibility and accuracy. Automated sample contact and rapid scanning allows measurement in three seconds, resulting in excellent throughput. Data analysis is carried out using the built-in features of the software. The formula used for calculating DNA concentration is: Sample Concentration = DF · (OD260-OD320)· NACF (1) Where DF = sample dilution factor and NACF = nucleic acid concentration factor. The Nucleic Acid concentration factor is set in accordance with the analyte selected. Protein concentration results can be expressed as μg/mL or as moles/L by entering e280 and molecular weight values respectively. When residue values for Tyr, Trp and Cysteine (S-S bond) are entered in the e280Calc tab, the extinction coefficient values are calculated as e280 = 5500 x (Trp residues) + 1490 x (Tyr residues) + 125 x (cysteine S-S bond). The e280 value is used by the software for concentration calculation. In addition to concentration determination of nucleic acids and protein, the BioSpec-nano can be used as an ultra micro-volume spectrophotometer for many other analytes or as a standard spectrophotometer using 5 mm pathlength cells.

  19. The effect of different concentrations of citric acid on motility patterns of bovine epididymal sperms in Hams F10 milieu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Abdy

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of three concentration of citric acid on motility patterns of bovine epididymal sperms. For this purpose, 50 pairs of bovine testicles were collected immediately after slaughter form urmia abattoir and transferred to the laboratory alongside 5oc ice pack. Epididymal tail sperms were collected with a few incisions in vascular areas and transferred to hams f10 milieu with 10% fetal calf serum and counted after 15 minutes of incubation at 37oc in Co2 incubator. Concentrations of 50 million sperms per ml were proposal and in the normal sperm pH rang of 6.7-7.4, 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 normal concentration of citric acid were added to sperm continuity micro tubes (normal concentration of acid equals 7 mg/ml of bovine serum and at 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, 180, 240 and 360 minutes the motility patterns of epididymal sperms were evaluated using the computer assisted sperms analyzing (CASA method. Data were analyzed with one-way ANOVA using the SPSS 15 software. The results indicated significant differences in various indices of sperm motility patterns (Curvilinear   Velocity, Straight-line Velocity, Average Path Velocity, Mean Angel Degree, Amplitude of Lateral Head Displacement, Beat-Cross Frequency, Linearity, Wobble particularly at 0.3 normal concentration of citric acid compared with the control.

  20. Determination of free acid in highly concentrated organic and aqueous solutions of plutonium (IV) and uranium (VI) nitrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, J.F.; Lacour, J.L.

    1989-01-01

    Free acidity is an important parameter in the nuclear reprocessing control. The accuracy on the determination of free acidity is not really required in the nuclear reprocessing control itself but is necessary for certain types of analysis such as spectrophotometry (Pu (VI), Am (III),...), density determinations. A new titripotentiometric method for free acidity determination in concentrated U(VI) and Pu(IV) solutions is presented. This method is based on the complexing properties of dipicolinic acid (pyridine 2.6 dicarboxylic acid) and medium effect with H 2 O/DMSO mixture. This method can be used either in organic or aqueous phases with ratio /H + I/ metal ≥ 5.10 -2 and a relative standard deviation of 1%

  1. Increased dietary long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids alter serum fatty acid concentrations and lower risk of urine stone formation in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Jean A; Brockman, Jeff A; Davidson, Stephen J; MacLeay, Jen M; Jewell, Dennis E

    2017-01-01

    The lifespan of cats with non-obstructive kidney stones is shortened compared with healthy cats indicating a need to reduce stone formation and minimize chronic kidney disease. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of increasing dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on urine characteristics. Domestic-short-hair cats (n = 12; mean age 5.6 years) were randomized into two groups and fed one of two dry-cat foods in a cross-over study design. For one week before study initiation, all cats consumed control food that contained 0.07% arachidonic acid (AA), but no eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) or docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Group 1 continued eating control food for 56 days. Group 2 was fed test food for 56 days, which was control food plus fish oil and high-AA oil. Test food contained 0.17% AA, 0.09% EPA and 0.18% DHA. After 56 days, cats were fed the opposite food for another 56 days. At baseline and after each feeding period, serum was analyzed for fatty acid concentrations, and urine for specific gravity, calcium concentration, relative-super-saturation for struvite crystals, and a calcium-oxalate-titrimetric test was performed. After consuming test food, cats had increased (all Pcats consuming control food. Oxalate crystal formation was correlated with serum calcium concentration (r = 0.41; Pcats by increasing dietary PUFA.

  2. Short Communication: Elevated Concentrations of Oleic Acid and Long-Chain Fatty Acids in Milk Fat of Multiparous Subclinical Ketotic Cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haelst, van Y.N.T.; Beeckman, A.; Knegsel, van A.T.M.; Fievez, V.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether concentrations of specific fatty acids in milk fat are a candidate for the early detection of subclinical ketosis. The case study included multiparous cows fed a lipogenic diet or a mixed glucogenic:lipogenic diet during the first 9 wk of

  3. Tryptophan hydroxylase gene 1 (TPH1) variants associated with cerebrospinal fluid 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid and homovanillic acid concentrations in healthy volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreou, Dimitrios; Saetre, Peter; Werge, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) is the rate-limiting enzyme in serotonin synthesis. We investigated possible relationships between five TPH1 gene polymorphisms and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations of the major serotonin metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), the major dopamine metab...

  4. Nitrogen dioxide reducing ascorbic acid technologies in the ventilator circuit leads to uniform NO concentration during inspiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezone, Matthew J; Wakim, Matthew G; Denton, Ryan J; Gamero, Lucas G; Roscigno, Robert F; Gilbert, Richard J; Lovich, Mark A

    2016-08-31

    Conventional inhaled NO systems deliver NO by synchronized injection or continuous NO flow in the ventilator circuitry. Such methods can lead to variable concentrations during inspiration that may differ from desired dosing. NO concentrations in these systems are generally monitored through electrochemical methods that are too slow to capture this nuance and potential dosing error. A novel technology that reduces NO2 into NO via low-resistance ascorbic-acid cartridges just prior to inhalation has recently been described. The gas volume of these cartridges may enhance gas mixing and reduce dosing inconsistency throughout inhalation. The impact of the ascorbic-acid cartridge technology on NO concentration during inspiration was characterized through rapid chemiluminescence detection during volume control ventilation, pressure control ventilation, synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation and continuous positive airway pressure using an in vitro lung model configured to simulate the complete uptake of NO. Two ascorbic acid cartridges in series provided uniform and consistent dosing during inspiration during all modes of ventilation. The use of one cartridge showed variable inspiratory concentration of NO at the largest tidal volumes, whereas the use of no ascorbic acid cartridge led to highly inconsistent NO inspiratory waveforms. The use of ascorbic acid cartridges also decreased breath-to-breath variation in SIMV and CPAP ventilation. The ascorbic-acid cartridges, which are designed to convert NO2 (either as substrate or resulting from NO oxidation during injection) into NO, also provide the benefit of minimizing the variation of inhaled NO concentration during inspiration. It is expected that the implementation of this method will lead to more consistent and predictable dosing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Raman spectroscopic study of the aging and nitration of actinide processing anion-exchange resins in concentrated nitric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buscher, C. T.; Donohoe, R. J.; Mecklenburg, S. L.; Berg, J. M.; Tait, C. D.; Huchton, K. M.; Morris, D. E.

    1999-01-01

    Degradation of two types of anion exchange resins, Dowex 11 and Reillex HPQ, from the action of concentrated nitric acid (4 to 12 M) and radiolysis [from depleted uranium as UO 2 2+ nitrate species and 239 Pu as Pu(IV) nitrate species] was followed as a function of time with Raman vibrational spectroscopy. Elevated temperatures (∼50 degree sign C) were used in the absence of actinide metal loading to simulate longer exposures of the resin to a HNO 3 process stream and waste storage conditions. In the absence of actinide loading, only minor changes in the Dowex resin at acid concentrations ≤10 M were observed, while at 12 M acid concentration, the emergence of a Raman peak at 1345 cm-1 indicates the addition of nitro functional groups to the resin. Similar studies with the Reillex resin show it to be more resistant to nitric acid attack at all acid concentrations. Incorporation of weakly radioactive depleted uranium as the UO 2 2+ nitrate species to the ion-exchange sites of Dowex 11 under differing nitric acid concentrations (6 to 12 M) at room temperature showed no Raman evidence of resin degradation or nitration, even after several hundred days of contact. In contrast, Raman spectra for Dowex 11 in the presence of 239 Pu as Pu(IV) nitrate species reveal numerous changes indicating resin alterations, including a new mode at 1345 cm-1 consistent with a Pu(IV)-nitrate catalyzed addition of nitro groups to the resin backbone. (c) 2000 Society for Applied Spectroscopy

  6. Body condition score, nonesterified fatty acids and beta-hydroxybutyrate concentrations in goats with subclinical ketosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Marutsova

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Studies were conducted to establish the influence of the values of β-hydroxybutyric acid (ВНВА and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA in the blood on the assessment of body condition score (BCS of goats with subclinical ketosis (SCK. A total of 113 dairy goats with yearly milk yield of 680 L, in their 2nd to 3rd lactation and average body weight 50-60 кg were included in the study. The goats were divided in three groups: І group (n=27 – pregnant (from pre-partum days 15 to 0; ІІ group (n=28 – recently kidded (from postpartum days 0 to 15 and ІІІ group (n=58 – lactating (from postpartum days 30 to 45. It was established that the quantity of BHBA in goats from control groups I, II and III were between 0.17±0.11 mmol/l and 0.56±0.11 mmol/l. In goats from the three groups with SCK signs, blood BHBA was statistically significantly elevated vs control goats – from 0.88±0.11 mmol/l to 1.2±0.42 mmol/l (р<0.001. Blood ВНВА <0.8 mmol/l in goats are indicative a good transition from pregnancy to lactation, whereas an amount between 0.8 mmol/l and 1.6 mmol /l are indicative of the SCK. Blood BHBA concentrations indicative for clinical ketosis were not established in goats from the three groups (ВНВА <1.6 mmol/l. The body condition scores (BCS of goats from the control groups was within the reference range – 2.45±0.3 – 2.85±0.2, whereas in goats with SCK – declines of varying degrees of reliability. In goats from the three groups with SCK signs, blood NEFA was statistically significantly elevated vs control groups.

  7. Increased dietary long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids alter serum fatty acid concentrations and lower risk of urine stone formation in cats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean A Hall

    Full Text Available The lifespan of cats with non-obstructive kidney stones is shortened compared with healthy cats indicating a need to reduce stone formation and minimize chronic kidney disease. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of increasing dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA on urine characteristics. Domestic-short-hair cats (n = 12; mean age 5.6 years were randomized into two groups and fed one of two dry-cat foods in a cross-over study design. For one week before study initiation, all cats consumed control food that contained 0.07% arachidonic acid (AA, but no eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA or docosahexaenoic acid (DHA. Group 1 continued eating control food for 56 days. Group 2 was fed test food for 56 days, which was control food plus fish oil and high-AA oil. Test food contained 0.17% AA, 0.09% EPA and 0.18% DHA. After 56 days, cats were fed the opposite food for another 56 days. At baseline and after each feeding period, serum was analyzed for fatty acid concentrations, and urine for specific gravity, calcium concentration, relative-super-saturation for struvite crystals, and a calcium-oxalate-titrimetric test was performed. After consuming test food, cats had increased (all P<0.001 serum concentrations of EPA (173%, DHA (61%, and AA (35%; decreased urine specific gravity (P = 0.02; decreased urine calcium concentration (P = 0.06; decreased relative-super-saturation for struvite crystals (P = 0.03; and increased resistance to oxalate crystal formation (P = 0.06 compared with cats consuming control food. Oxalate crystal formation was correlated with serum calcium concentration (r = 0.41; P<0.01. These data show benefits for reducing urine stone formation in cats by increasing dietary PUFA.

  8. Short-term folic acid supplementation induces variable and paradoxical changes in plasma homocyst(e)ine concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinow, M R; Duell, P B; Williams, M A; Kruger, W D; Evans, A A; Anderson, P H; Block, P C; Hess, D L; Upson, B M; Graf, E E; Irvin-Jones, A; Wang, L

    2001-01-01

    Folic acid is presently the mainstay of treatment for most subjects with elevated plasma homocyst(e)ine concentrations [Plasma or serum homocyst(e)ine, or total homocysteine, refers to the sum of the sulfhydryl amino acid homocysteine and the homocysteinyl moieties of the disulfides homocystine and homocystein-cysteine, whether free or bound to plasma proteins.] Changes in homocyst(e)ine in response to folic acid supplementation are characterized by considerable interindividual variation. The purpose of this study was to identify factors that contribute to heterogeneity in short-term responses to folic acid supplementation. The effects of folic acid supplementation (1 or 2 mg per day) for 3 wk on plasma homocyst(e)ine concentrations were assessed in 304 men and women. Overall, folic acid supplementation increased mean plasma folate 31.5 +/- 98.0 nmol/L and decreased mean plasma homocyst(e)ine concentrations 1.2 +/- 2.4 micromol/L. There was evidence of substantial interindividual variation in the homocyst(e)ine response from -18.5 to +7.1 micromol/L, including an increase in homocyst(e)ine in 20% of subjects (mean increase 1.5 +/- 1.4 micromol/L). Basal homocyst(e)ine, age, male gender, cigarette smoking, use of multivitamins, methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase, and cystathionine beta-synthase polymorphisms accounted for 47.6% of the interindividual variability in the change in homocyst(e)ine after folic acid supplementation, but about 50% of variability in response to folic acid was not explained by the variables we studied.

  9. Concentrations of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids in Dutch bovine milk fat and their contribution to human dietary intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Valenberg, H J F; Hettinga, K A; Dijkstra, J; Bovenhuis, H; Feskens, E J M

    2013-07-01

    Weekly samples representative of Dutch milk were analyzed for concentrations of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids (FA). Concentrations of the n-3 FA α-linolenic acid (ALA), eicosatetraenoic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, and docosapentaenoic acid were 0.495±0.027, 0.041±0.004, 0.067±0.005, and 0.086±0.008g per 100g of fat, respectively, whereas docosahexaenoic acid was absent or present in concentrations lower than 0.020g per 100g of fat. Concentrations of the n-6 FA linoleic acid (LeA), γ-linoleic acid, dihomo-γ-linoleic acid, and arachidonic acid were 1.428±0.068, 0.070±0.007, 0.066±0.004, and 0.089±0.004g per 100g of fat, respectively; adrenic acid was present in concentrations lower than 0.020g per 100g of fat, whereas docosapentaenoic acid was absent in all samples. The concentrations of ALA and LeA were significantly higher in spring and summer, compared with autumn and winter. The concentrations of all other ALA- and LeA-derived n-3 and n-6 FA were not significantly different between seasons. The contribution of milk fat to the daily intake of eicosapentaenoic acid, docosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid was calculated for human consumption levels in different countries. Milk fat contributed between 10.7 and 14.1% to the daily intake of eicosapentaenoic acid and between 23.5 and 34.2% to the intake of docosapentaenoic acid; whereas docosahexaenoic acid contribution was marginal. Arachidonic acid from milk fat contributed between 10.5 and 18.8% to the human intake of n-6 FA. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Influence of concentration, time and method of application of citric acid and sodium citrate in root conditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    CAVASSIM, Rodrigo; LEITE, Fábio Renato Manzolli; ZANDIM, Daniela Leal; DANTAS, Andrea Abi Rached; RACHED, Ricardo Samih Georges Abi; SAMPAIO, José Eduardo Cezar

    2012-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to establish the parameters of concentration, time and mode of application of citric acid and sodium citrate in relation to root conditioning. Material and Methods A total of 495 samples were obtained and equally distributed among 11 groups (5 for testing different concentrations of citric acid, 5 for testing different concentrations of sodium citrate and 1 control group). After laboratorial processing, the samples were analyzed under scanning electron microscopy. A previously calibrated and blind examiner evaluated micrographs of the samples. Non-parametric statistical analysis was performed to analyze the data obtained. Results Brushing 25% citric acid for 3 min, promoted greater exposure of collagen fibers in comparison with the brushing of 1% citric acid for 1 minute and its topical application at 1% for 3 min. Sodium citrate exposed collagen fibers in a few number of samples. Conclusion Despite the lack of statistical significance, better results for collagen exposure were obtained with brushing application of 25% citric acid for 3 min than with other application parameter. Sodium citrate produced a few number of samples with collagen exposure, so it is not indicated for root conditioning. PMID:22858707

  11. Influence of concentration, time and method of application of citric acid and sodium citrate in root conditioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Cavassim

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to establish the parameters of concentration, time and mode of application of citric acid and sodium citrate in relation to root conditioning. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 495 samples were obtained and equally distributed among 11 groups (5 for testing different concentrations of citric acid, 5 for testing different concentrations of sodium citrate and 1 control group. After laboratorial processing, the samples were analyzed under scanning electron microscopy. A previously calibrated and blind examiner evaluated micrographs of the samples. Non-parametric statistical analysis was performed to analyze the data obtained. RESULTS: Brushing 25% citric acid for 3 min, promoted greater exposure of collagen fibers in comparison with the brushing of 1% citric acid for 1 minute and its topical application at 1% for 3 min. Sodium citrate exposed collagen fibers in a few number of samples. CONCLUSION: Despite the lack of statistical significance, better results for collagen exposure were obtained with brushing application of 25% citric acid for 3 min than with other application parameter. Sodium citrate produced a few number of samples with collagen exposure, so it is not indicated for root conditioning.

  12. Effect of Phosphoric Acid Concentration on the Characteristics of Sugarcane Bagasse Activated Carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adib, M. R. M.; Suraya, W. M. S. W.; Rafidah, H.; Amirza, A. R. M.; Attahirah, M. H. M. N.; Hani, M. S. N. Q.; Adnan, M. S.

    2016-07-01

    Impregnation method is one of the crucial steps involved in producing activated carbon using chemical activation process. Chemicals employed in this step is effective at decomposing the structure of material and forming micropores that helps in adsorption of contaminants. This paper explains thorough procedures that have been involved in producing sugarcane bagasse activated carbon (SBAC) by using 5%, 10%, 20%, 30% phosphoric acid (H3PO4) during the impregnation step. Concentration of H3PO4 used in the process of producing SBAC was optimized through several tests including bulk density, ash content, iodine adsorption and pore size diameter and the charactesristic of optimum SBAC produced has been compared with commercial activated carbon (CAC). Batch study has been carried out by using the SBAC produced from optimum condition to investigate the performance of SBAC in removal of turbidity and chemical oxygen demand (COD) from textile wastewater. From characteristic study, SBAC with 30% H3PO4 has shown the optimum value of bulk density, ash content, iodine adsorption and pore size diameter of 0.3023 g cm-3, 4.35%, 974.96 mg/g and 0.21-0.41 µm, respectively. These values are comparable to the characteristics of CAC. Experimental result from the batch study has been concluded that the SBAC has a promising potential in removing turbidity and COD of 75.5% and 66.3%, respectively which was a slightly lower than CAC which were able to remove 82.8% of turbidity and 70% of COD. As a conclusion, the SBAC is comparable with CAC in terms of their characteristics and the capability of removing contaminants from textile wastewater. Therefore, it has a commercial value to be used as an alternative of low-cost material in producing CAC.

  13. In vitro effects of hydrochloric acid and various concentrations of acetic, propionic, butyric, or valeric acids on bioelectric properties of equine gastric squamous mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Frank M; Buchanan, Benjamin R; Smith, Sionagh H; Elliott, Sarah B; Saxton, Arnold M

    2006-11-01

    To compare the effects of hydrochloric acid (HCl) and various concentrations of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) on tissue bioelectric properties of equine stomach nonglandular (NG) mucosa. Gastric tissues obtained from 48 adult horses. NG gastric mucosa was studied by use of Ussing chambers. Short-circuit current (Isc) and potential difference (PD) were measured and electrical resistance (R) and conductance calculated for tissues after addition of HCl and VFAs (5, 10, 20, and 40 mM) in normal Ringer's solution (NRS). Mucosa exposed to HCl in NRS (pH of 1.5 and, to a lesser extent, 4.0) had a significant decrease in Isc, PD, and R, whereas tissues exposed to acetic acid at a pH of acids at a pH of acid at a pH of acid at a pH of acid, in the presence of HCl at a pH of

  14. Fogging low concentrated organic acid in a fattening pig unit – Effect on animal health and microclimate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heiko Stein

    2016-09-01

    Although fogging of tartaric acid is limited to a concentration of 0.1% due to its irritating effect on the respiratory mucosa, reduction of microbial load can be achieved, but it would be enhanced by using more powerful fogging systems.

  15. Effects of concentration and propagule age on the efficacy of gibberellic acid for breaking dormancy in potato minitubers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salimi, Kh.; Hosseini, M.B.; Tavakkol-Afshari, R.; Struik, P.C.

    2010-01-01

    The effects of a post-harvest application of gibberellic acid (GA3) at various concentrations (0, 10, 25, 50, or 100 mg l-1) and for different periods of incubation (1, 2, or 3 h) on the breaking of dormancy and on sprouting in potato (Solanum tuberosum L., cv. Marfona) minitubers of two ages

  16. [Effect of reduced oxygen concentrations and hydrogen sulfide on the amino acid metabolism and mesenchymal cells proliferation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotnikova, L N; Berezovskii, V A; Veselskii, S P

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the effect of hydrogen sulfide donor (10(-12) mol/l NaHS--I group) alone and together with the reduced oxygen concentrations (5% O2--II group, 3% O2--III group, 24 h) on the biological processes of human stem cells culture. It was shown that the cells proliferation by the third day of cultivation in I, II and III group decreased 1,7; 2,8 and 4,2 times. On the 4th day of culture proliferation inhibited in I, II and III group by 29; 33 and 54% compared to the control. Thus, adverse effects NaHS enhanced by reducing the oxygen concentration. It was established that in all experimental versions rapidly absorbed from the culture medium amino acids: cysteine and cystine, serine and aspartic acid, valine and tryptophan, proline and hydroxyproline, which are involved in the synthesis of proteins, in particular collagen. In the culture medium increased the concentration of free amino acids of the three factions: arginine, histidine and taurine; glycine and methionine; alanine and glutamine. We believe that in the applied concentration of hydrogen sulfide donor in conditions of low oxygen in a gaseous medium incubation inhibits the proliferation and alters the amino acid metabolism of human cells line 4BL.

  17. Association of Plasma Homocysteine, Serum Folic Acid and Vitamin B12 Concentrations and MTHFR C677T Polymorphism with Preeclampsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Işık Üstüner

    2006-12-01

    CONCLUSION: Elevated third trimester plasma homocysteine concentrations were associated with increased risk of preeclampsia. This association was more pronounced in our study which may also be related to synergistic effect of the coexistent folic acid deficiency. MTHFR C677T polymorphism could not alone explain the hyperhomocysteinemia in patients with preeclampsia

  18. Sacubitril/valsartan reduces serum uric acid concentration, an independent predictor of adverse outcomes in PARADIGM-HF

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Ulrik M.; Køber, Lars; Jhund, Pardeep S.

    2017-01-01

    Aims: Elevated serum uric acid concentration (SUA) has been associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, but this may be due to unmeasured confounders. We examined the association between SUA and outcomes as well as the effect of sacubitril/valsartan on SUA in patients with heart ...

  19. Larval development and metamorphosis in Balanus amphitrite Darwin (Cirripedia; Thoracica): Significance of food concentration, temperature and nucleic acids

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Anil, A.C.; Desai, D.V.; Khandeparker, L.

    The influence of food concentration (Chaetoceros calcitrans at 1 x 10 sup(5) and 2 x 10 sup(5) cells ml sup(-1)) and temperature (20 degrees C and 30 degrees C) on the nucleic acid content of the nauplii and the cyprids of Balanus amphitrite...

  20. Ascorbic acid concentrations in aqueous humor after systemic vitamin C supplementation in patients with cataract: pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hah, Young-Sool; Chung, Hye Jin; Sontakke, Sneha B; Chung, In-Young; Ju, Sunmi; Seo, Seong-Wook; Yoo, Ji-Myong; Kim, Seong-Jae

    2017-07-11

    To measure ascorbic acid concentration in aqueous humor of patients with cataract after oral or intravenous vitamin C supplementation. Forty-two eyes of 42 patients with senile cataract who underwent uncomplicated cataract surgery were enrolled. Patients (n = 14 each) were administered oral vitamin C (2 g), intravenous vitamin C (20 g) or no treatment (control group) on the day before surgery. Samples of aqueous humor (0.1 cm 3 ) were obtained by anterior chamber aspiration at the beginning of surgery and stored at -80 °C. Ascorbic acid concentration in aqueous humor was measured by high-pressure liquid chromatography. The mean age at surgery was 62.5 years, with no difference among the three groups. The mean ± standard deviation concentrations of ascorbic acid in aqueous humor in the control and oral and intravenous vitamin C groups were 1347 ± 331 μmol/L, 1859 ± 408 μmol/L and 2387 ± 445 μmol/L, respectively. Ascorbic acid concentration was significantly lower in the control than in the oral (P humor is increased by systemic vitamin C supplementation, with intravenous administration being more effective than oral administration.

  1. Insight into the evolution of the proton concentration during autohydrolysis and dilute-acid hydrolysis of hemicellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapu, Nuwan Sella; Yuan, Zhaoyang; Chang, Xue Feng; Beatson, Rodger; Martinez, D Mark; Trajano, Heather L

    2016-01-01

    During pretreatment, hemicellulose is removed from biomass via proton-catalyzed hydrolysis to produce soluble poly- and mono-saccharides. Many kinetic models have been proposed but the dependence of rate on proton concentration is not well-defined; autohydrolysis and dilute-acid hydrolysis models apply very different treatments despite having similar chemistries. In this work, evolution of proton concentration is examined during both autohydrolysis and dilute-acid hydrolysis of hemicellulose from green bamboo. An approximate mathematical model, or "toy model", to describe proton concentration based upon conservation of mass and charge during deacetylation and ash neutralization coupled with a number of competing equilibria, was derived. The model was qualitatively compared to experiments where pH was measured as a function of time, temperature, and initial acid level. Proton evolution was also examined at room temperature to decouple the effect of ash neutralization from deacetylation. The toy model predicts the existence of a steady-state proton concentration dictated by equilibrium constants, initial acetyl groups, and initial added acid. At room temperature, it was found that pH remains essentially constant both at low initial pH and autohydrolysis conditions. Acid is likely in excess of the neutralization potential of the ash, in the former case, and the kinetics of neutralization become exceedingly small in the latter case due to the low proton concentration. Finally, when the hydrolysis reaction proceeded at elevated temperatures, one case of non-monotonic behavior in which the pH initially increased, and then decreased at longer times, was found. This is likely due to the difference in rates between neutralization and deacetylation. The model and experimental work demonstrate that the evolution of proton concentration during hydrolysis follows complex behavior that depends upon the acetyl group and ash content of biomass, initial acid levels and temperature

  2. A comparison of oxolinic acid concentrations in farmed and laboratory held rainbow trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss ) following oral therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coyne, R.; Samuelsen, O.; Kongshaug, H.

    2004-01-01

    Plasma oxolinic acid (OXA) concentrations were measured in fish from a cage of farmed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) 1 day after the termination of medication. The fish were experiencing significant mortalities and following a diagnosis of vibriosis, OXA had been orally administered at 50 mg...... laboratory held rainbow trout (O. mykiss) following the administration of OXA under similar conditions of salinity, temperature and dosing regimen. In these laboratory held fish, the mean plasma OXA concentration was 0.133±0.068 mg/l. The major difference between the distributions of OXA concentrations...

  3. Effect of Na2CO3 degumming concentration on LiBr-formic acid-silk fibroin solution properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Zhi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Salt-acid system has been proved to be of high efficiency for silk fibroin dissolution. Using salt-acid system to dissolve silk, native silk fibrils can be preserved in the regenerated solution. Increasing experiments indicate that acquirement of silk fibrils in solution is strongly associated with the degumming process. In this study, the effect of sodium carbonate degumming concentration on solution properties based on lithium bromide-formic acid dissolution system was systematically investigated. Results showed that the morphology transformation of silk fibroin in solution from nanospheres to nanofibrils is determined by sodium carbonate concentration during the degumming process. Solutions containing different silk fibroin structure exhibited different rheological behaviors and different electrospinnability, leading to different electrospun nanofibre properties. The results have guiding significance for preparation and application of silk fibroin solutions.

  4. Associations of dietary intake and plasma concentrations of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid with prenatal depressive symptoms in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraishi, Mie; Matsuzaki, Masayo; Yatsuki, Yuko; Murayama, Ryoko; Severinsson, Elisabeth; Haruna, Megumi

    2015-06-01

    The association between depression and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, including eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid, continues to gain focus. In this study, we examined whether dietary intakes and plasma concentrations of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid were associated with depressive symptoms during pregnancy. Healthy Japanese women with singleton pregnancies were recruited at a university hospital in Tokyo between 2010 and 2012. The depressive-symptom group included participants with Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale scores greater than eight. Of the 329 participants, 19 (5.8%) had depressive symptoms. Lower plasma docosahexaenoic acid concentration was significantly associated with prenatal depressive symptoms. Women with depressive symptoms had a higher rate of pregnancy-associated nausea than those with non-depressive symptoms (52.6% vs 28.7%, respectively). Although we adjusted for the presence of pregnancy-associated nausea, dietary fatty acid intake was not associated with depressive symptoms in the multiple logistic regression analyses. Further large studies would be required to examine any preventive effect of dietary fatty acid intake on depressive symptoms among pregnant women. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  5. Excluded volume effects caused by high concentration addition of acid generators in chemically amplified resists used for extreme ultraviolet lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozawa, Takahiro; Watanabe, Kyoko; Matsuoka, Kyoko; Yamamoto, Hiroki; Komuro, Yoshitaka; Kawana, Daisuke; Yamazaki, Akiyoshi

    2017-08-01

    The resolution of lithography used for the high-volume production of semiconductor devices has been improved to meet the market demands for highly integrated circuits. With the reduction in feature size, the molecular size becomes non-negligible in the resist material design. In this study, the excluded volume effects caused by adding high-concentration acid generators were investigated for triphenylsulfonium nonaflate. The resist film density was measured by X-ray diffractometry. The dependences of absorption coefficient and protected unit concentration on acid generator weight ratio were calculated from the measured film density. Using these values, the effects on the decomposition yield of acid generators, the protected unit fluctuation, and the line edge roughness (LER) were evaluated by simulation on the basis of sensitization and reaction mechanisms of chemically amplified extreme ultraviolet resists. The positive effects of the increase in acid generator weight ratio on LER were predominant below the acid generator weight ratio of 0.3, while the negative effects became equivalent to the positive effects above the acid generator weight ratio of 0.3 owing to the excluded volume effects.

  6. Sulfuric acid doped poly diaminopyridine/graphene composite to remove high concentration of toxic Cr(VI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinda, Diptiman; Kumar Saha, Shyamal

    2015-06-30

    Sulfuric acid doped diaminopyridine polymers are synthesized in situ on graphene oxide surface via mutual oxidation-reduction technique. Exploiting large and highly porous surface, we have used this polymer composite as an adsorbent to remove high concentration of toxic Cr(VI) from water. It shows very high adsorption capacity (609.76 mg g(-1)) during removal process. The composite takes only 100 min to remove high concentration of 500 mg L(-1) Cr(VI) from water. Interesting features for this material is the enhancement of removal efficiency at lower acidic condition due to the formation of acid doped emeraldine salt during polymerization. XPS and AAS measurements reveal that our prepared material mainly follows reduction mechanism at higher acidic condition while anions exchange mechanism at lower acidic condition during the removal experiments. Good recycling ability with ∼ 92% removal efficiency after fifth cycle is also noticed for this material. Easy preparation, superior stability in acidic condition, remarkable removal efficiency and excellent recycling ability make this polymer composite an efficient material for modern filtration units in waste water purification. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Associations between maternal long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid concentrations and child cognition at 7 years of age: The MEFAB birth cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, E.M.; Rest, van de O.; Godschalk, B.; Zeegers, M.P.A.; Gielen, M.; Groot, de R.H.M.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Concentrations of the fish fatty acids EPA and DHA are low among Dutch women of reproductive age. As the human brain incorporates high concentrations of these fatty acids in utero, particularly during third trimester of gestation, these low EPA and DHA concentrations may have adverse

  8. Inhibition of Erwinia chrysanthemi growth to different concentrations of folic acid: possible use of folic acid as bacteriostatic agent and fortifying of Solanum tuberosum potato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Marcelo Correa

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:The enterobacteria of the Erwinia spp genus produce disease in potatoes, which is a tuber of mass consumption. The regulation of DNA methylation can regulate the proliferation of Erwinia in such a way that the concentrations of folic acid may have an effect on the microorganism pathogenic ability. On the other hand, the folic acid prevents the appearance of neural tube defects in humans. Objective: To evaluate folic acid as a bacteriostatic agent of Erwinia and, at the same time, as part of the fortification of mass consumption food such as the potatoes. Materials and methods: The biochemical characterization of the Erwinia chrysanthemi was carried out and its growth compared to different concentrations of folic acid was studied. Results: When increasing the concentrations of the vitamin from 0.3 µg/L up to 6.8 µg/L, the bacterial growth of Erwinia chrysanthemi is inhibited. The vitamin inhibits the growth in cultivation of Erwinia chrysanthemi and acts as a bacteriostatic agent. This aspect is of great importance given that, theoretically, if potatoes were fortified with micro-nutrient, this would act against the infectious agent and, at the same time, contribute to the adequate intake of the vitamin in the general population.

  9. Total volatile fatty acid concentrations are unreliable estimators of treatment effects on ruminal fermentation in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, M B; Nennich, T D; Doane, P H; Brink, G E

    2015-06-01

    Volatile fatty acid concentrations ([VFA], mM) have long been used to assess the effect of dietary treatments on ruminal fermentation in vivo. However, discrepancies in statistical results between [VFA] and VFA pool size (VFAmol) possibly related to ruminal digesta liquid amount (LIQ, kg) indicate potential issues with the use of [VFA]. We investigated relationships among [VFA], VFAmol, and LIQ measured 2 h postfeeding using individual lactating cow data (n=175) from 7 separate feeding studies. Regression analyses were performed using mixed models with "study" as a discrete random variable. The mean across studies and average range of values within studies, respectively, were 151 and 75 for [VFA], 11.2 and 9.8 for VFAmol, 73.3 and 41.0 for LIQ, and 289 and 83 mmol/kg for rumen fluid osmolality. Liquid amount changed with VFAmol (3.76 VFAmol+31.2; average within-study R2=0.69), but the relationship was weak between [VFA] and LIQ (0.524 LIQ+112.8; average within-study R2=0.12). The relationship between LIQ and VFAmol was likely a function of the osmotic gradient between rumen liquid and blood. The VFA are a major ruminal solute; VFAmol amounts can affect water flux in the rumen as similar tonicities of rumen fluid and blood are maintained. This also has a damping effect on ruminal solute concentration, creating the weak relationship between [VFA] and LIQ. Within studies, similar [VFA] were found in LIQ differing by 30 kg or more. The difference between minimum and maximum LIQ within cow within study was 12.7 kg (standard deviation=7.1), so inclusion of "cow" in analyses did not correct for the variation in LIQ. To allow valid comparisons of experimental treatments, responses must be on an equivalent basis; concentrations in different LIQ are not on an equivalent basis and so are not valid to use for comparing treatment effects. The [VFA] changed with VFAmol (5.80 VFAmol+86.3; average within-study R2=0.56). However, the ratio of [VFA] to VFAmol ranged from 9.0 to 24

  10. [Effects of treating with concentrated sulfuric acid on the seed germination of ten Hibiscus hamabo provenance families].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Xue; Sun, Hai-Jing; Liu, Yun; Chen, Yi-Tai; Feng, Da-Lan; Li, Sha

    2012-11-01

    The seeds from ten Hibiscus hamabo provenance families were treated with concentrated sulfuric acid for different durations (0, 10, 15, and 20 min) , and the seed germination rate, germination energy, and germination index, as well as the seed relative water adsorption rate, soluble sugar and starch contents, and alpha-amylase activity during the germination, were determined, aimed to study the effects of treating with concentrated sulfuric acid on the seed germination of H. hamabo and the differences of the seed germination among different H. hamabo provenance families. After treated with concentrated sulfuric acid, the seed germination rate, germination energy, and germination index increased significantly, and the germination time shortened remarkably. Treating with concentrated sulfuric acid for 15 minutes had the best effect, i. e., the germination rate, germination energy, and germination index were up to 95.7%, 91.3%, and 13.28, respectively, and the germination time was the shortest. The seed germination rate, germination energy, and germination index differed significantly with different provenance families, the highest germination index (15.13) being 2.12 times of the lowest germination index (7.15), and the highest germination energy (98.0%) being 1.77 times of the lowest one (55.5%). Treating with concentrated sulfuric acid accelerated the physiological and biochemical processes of seed germination, and the relative water absorption rate, soluble sugar content, and a-amylase activity were decreased after an initial increase, with the maximum at the early stage of germination. There was a significant negative relationship between the seed starch content and the seed germination index.

  11. Serum uric acid concentrations and SLC2A9 genetic variation in Hispanic children: the Viva La Familia Study1234

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voruganti, V Saroja; Laston, Sandra; Haack, Karin; Mehta, Nitesh R; Cole, Shelley A; Butte, Nancy F; Comuzzie, Anthony G

    2015-01-01

    Background: Elevated concentrations of serum uric acid are associated with increased risk of gout and renal and cardiovascular diseases. Genetic studies in adults have consistently identified associations of solute carrier family 2, member 9 (SLC2A9), polymorphisms with variation in serum uric acid. However, it is not known whether the association of serum uric acid with SLC2A9 polymorphisms manifests in children. Objective: The aim was to investigate whether variation in serum uric acid is under genetic influence and whether the association with SLC2A9 polymorphisms generalizes to Hispanic children of the Viva La Familia Study. Design: We conducted a genomewide association study with 1.1 million genetic markers in 815 children. Results: We found serum uric acid to be significantly heritable [h2 ± SD = 0.45 ± 0.08, P = 5.8 × 10−11] and associated with SLC2A9 variants (P values between 10−16 and 10−7). Several of the significantly associated polymorphisms were previously identified in studies in adults. We also found positive genetic correlations between serum uric acid and BMI z score (ρG = 0.45, P = 0.002), percentage of body fat (ρG = 0.28, P = 0.04), fat mass (ρG = 0.34, P = 0.02), waist circumference (ρG = 0.42, P = 0.003), and waist-to-height ratio (ρG = 0.46, P = 0.001). Conclusions: Our results show that variation in serum uric acid in Hispanic children is under considerable genetic influence and is associated with obesity-related phenotypes. As in adults, genetic variation in SLC2A9 is associated with serum uric acid concentrations, an important biomarker of renal and cardiovascular disease risk, in Hispanic children. PMID:25833971

  12. Serum uric acid concentrations and SLC2A9 genetic variation in Hispanic children: the Viva La Familia Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voruganti, V Saroja; Laston, Sandra; Haack, Karin; Mehta, Nitesh R; Cole, Shelley A; Butte, Nancy F; Comuzzie, Anthony G

    2015-04-01

    Elevated concentrations of serum uric acid are associated with increased risk of gout and renal and cardiovascular diseases. Genetic studies in adults have consistently identified associations of solute carrier family 2, member 9 (SLC2A9), polymorphisms with variation in serum uric acid. However, it is not known whether the association of serum uric acid with SLC2A9 polymorphisms manifests in children. The aim was to investigate whether variation in serum uric acid is under genetic influence and whether the association with SLC2A9 polymorphisms generalizes to Hispanic children of the Viva La Familia Study. We conducted a genomewide association study with 1.1 million genetic markers in 815 children. We found serum uric acid to be significantly heritable [h(2) ± SD = 0.45 ± 0.08, P = 5.8 × 10(-11)] and associated with SLC2A9 variants (P values between 10(-16) and 10(-7)). Several of the significantly associated polymorphisms were previously identified in studies in adults. We also found positive genetic correlations between serum uric acid and BMI z score (ρG = 0.45, P = 0.002), percentage of body fat (ρG = 0.28, P = 0.04), fat mass (ρG = 0.34, P = 0.02), waist circumference (ρG = 0.42, P = 0.003), and waist-to-height ratio (ρG = 0.46, P = 0.001). Our results show that variation in serum uric acid in Hispanic children is under considerable genetic influence and is associated with obesity-related phenotypes. As in adults, genetic variation in SLC2A9 is associated with serum uric acid concentrations, an important biomarker of renal and cardiovascular disease risk, in Hispanic children. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  13. Impact of changing DOC concentrations on the potential distribution of acid sensitive biota in a boreal stream network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Laudon

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available DOC concentrations have increased in many surface waters in Europe and North America over the past few decades. As DOC exudes a strong influence on pH this DOC increase could have detrimental effects on acid sensitive biota in many streams and lakes. To investigate the potential implications of changes in the DOC concentration on stream water biota, we have used a mesoscale boreal stream network in northern Sweden as a case study. The network was sampled for stream water chemistry at 60 locations during both winter base flow and spring flood periods, representing the extremes experienced annually in these streams both in terms of discharge and acidity. The effect of changing DOC on pH was modeled for all sampling locations using an organic acid model, with input DOC concentrations for different scenarios adjusted by between −30% and +50% from measured present concentrations. The resulting effect on pH was then used to quantify the proportion of stream length in the catchment with pH below the acid thresholds of pH 5.5 and pH 5.0. The results suggest that a change in stream water DOC during base flow would have only a limited effect on pH and hence on the stream length with pH below the acid thresholds. During the spring flood on the other hand a change in DOC would strongly influence pH and the stream length with pH below the acid thresholds. For example an increase in DOC concentration of 30% at all sites would increase the proportion of stream length with pH below 5.5 from 37% to 65%, and the proportion of stream length with pH below 5.0 would increase from 18% to 27%. The results suggest that in high DOC waters, even a marginal change in the DOC concentration could impact acid sensitive biota in a large portion of the aquatic landscape.

  14. Docosahexaenoic acid concentrations are higher in women than in men through estrogenic effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giltay, E.J.; Gooren, L.J.G.; Toorians, A.W.F.T.; Katan, M.B.; Zock, P.L.

    2004-01-01

    Background: During pregnancy there is a high demand for docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), which is needed for formation of the fetal brain. Women who do not consume marine foods must synthesize DHA from fatty acid precursors in vegetable foods. Objective: We studied sex differences in DHA status and the

  15. Effects of pH, titratable acidity and calcium concentration of non ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Beverage acidity has been measured routinely using the pH value. However, titratable acidity is thought to be a true indicator of beverage erosive potential. It has also been reported that experimental addition of calcium in beverages can reduce the progression of erosion. This study was carried out to investigate ...

  16. Using the Logarithmic Concentration Diagram, Log "C", to Teach Acid-Base Equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovac, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    Acid-base equilibrium is one of the most important and most challenging topics in a typical general chemistry course. This article introduces an alternative to the algebraic approach generally used in textbooks, the graphical log "C" method. Log "C" diagrams provide conceptual insight into the behavior of aqueous acid-base systems and allow…

  17. Arsenic-rich acid mine water with extreme arsenic concentration: mineralogy, geochemistry, microbiology, and environmental implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majzlan, Juraj; Plášil, Jakub; Škoda, Radek; Gescher, Johannes; Kögler, Felix; Rusznyak, Anna; Küsel, Kirsten; Neu, Thomas R; Mangold, Stefan; Rothe, Jörg

    2014-12-02

    Extremely arsenic-rich acid mine waters have developed by weathering of native arsenic in a sulfide-poor environment on the 10th level of the Svornost mine in Jáchymov (Czech Republic). Arsenic rapidly oxidizes to arsenolite (As2O3), and there are droplets of liquid on the arsenolite crust with high As concentration (80,000-130,000 mg·L(-1)), pH close to 0, and density of 1.65 g·cm(-1). According to the X-ray absorption spectroscopy on the frozen droplets, most of the arsenic is As(III) and iron is fully oxidized to Fe(III). The EXAFS spectra on the As K edge can be interpreted in terms of arsenic polymerization in the aqueous solution. The secondary mineral that precipitates in the droplets is kaatialaite [Fe(3+)(H2AsO4)3·5H2O]. Other unusual minerals associated with the arsenic lens are běhounekite [U(4+)(SO4)2·4H2O], štěpite [U(4+)(AsO3OH)2·4H2O], vysokýite [U(4+)[AsO2(OH)2]4·4H2O], and an unnamed phase (H3O)(+)2(UO2)2(AsO4)2·nH2O. The extremely low cell densities and low microbial biomass have led to insufficient amounts of DNA for downstream polymerase chain reaction amplification and clone library construction. We were able to isolate microorganisms on oligotrophic media with pH ∼ 1.5 supplemented with up to 30 mM As(III). These microorganisms were adapted to highly oligotrophic conditions which disabled long-term culturing under laboratory conditions. The extreme conditions make this environment unfavorable for intensive microbial colonization, but our first results show that certain microorganisms can adapt even to these harsh conditions.

  18. Cheddar Cheese Ripening Affects Plasma Nonesterified Fatty Acid and Serum Insulin Concentrations in Growing Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorning, Tanja K; Bendsen, Nathalie T; Jensen, Søren K; Ardö, Ylva; Tholstrup, Tine; Astrup, Arne; Raben, Anne

    2015-07-01

    Meta-analyses of observational studies found cheese consumption to be inversely associated with risk of type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. This may be attributed to the bioactive compounds produced during cheese ripening. The objective of this study was to investigate by means of a porcine model how cheeses with different ripening times affect blood glucose, insulin, and lipid concentrations and fecal-fat excretion. A parallel-arm randomized intervention study with 36 Landrace × Yorkshire × Duroc crossbred 3-mo-old female pigs was conducted. The pigs were fed a 21-d butter-rich run-in diet (143 g of butter/kg diet), followed by a 14-d intervention with 1 of 3 isocaloric diets: 4-mo ripened cheddar (4-MRC) diet, 14-mo ripened cheddar (14-MRC) diet, or 24-mo ripened cheddar (24-MRC) diet (350 g of cheese/kg diet). Serum cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and insulin; plasma nonesterified fatty acids (NEFAs) and glucose; fecal-fat excretion; and body weight were measured. Plasma NEFAs were lower in the 24-MRC (201 ± 26 μEq/L) and in the 14-MRC (171 ± 19 μEq/L) diet groups than in the 4-MRC diet group (260 ± 27 μEq/L; P = 0.044 and P = 0.001). Serum insulin was lower in the 24-MRC diet group (1.04 ± 0.09 mmol/L) than in the 4-MRC diet group (1.44 ± 0.14 mmol/L; P = 0.002), but intermediate and not different from either in the 14-MRC diet group (1.25 ± 0.11 mmol/L). Likewise, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance was lower in the 24-MRC diet group (0.030 ± 0.003) than in the 4-MRC diet group (0.041 ± 0.005; P < 0.01), but intermediate and not different from either in the 14-MRC group (0.036 ± 0.004). Intake of long-term ripened cheddar improved indicators of insulin sensitivity in growing pigs compared with short-term ripened cheddar. This may also be important for human health. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  19. Ileal digestibility of amino acids of unheated and autoclaved pea protein concentrate in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frikha, M; Valencia, D G; de Coca-Sinova, A; Lázaro, R; Mateos, G G

    2013-07-01

    The effects of autoclaving 2 varieties of micronized (fine grinding) pea protein concentrate (PPC) on the ileal digestibility (ID) of CP and amino acids (AA) were studied in broilers. There was a control diet based on fermented soybean meal (FSBM) and 4 extra diets in which the FSBM was substituted on a CP basis by PPC from 2 different pea cultivars (PPC-1 and PPC-2), either unheated or autoclaved. Chicks were fed a common diet from 1 to 17 d of age and, then, their respective experimental diets from 18 to 21 d of age. Each treatment was replicated 6 times. Autoclaving reduced trypsin inhibitor activity (TIA) but had little effect on the saponin content of the PPC. The apparent ID (AID) of CP was similar for the FSBM and the unheated PPC and lower for both than for the autoclaved PPC. Autoclaving improved (P < 0.001) the AID of CP (87.6 vs. 82.2%) and most indispensable AA (e.g., 92.1 vs. 88.8% for Lys and 83.6 vs. 76.5% for Thr) of the PPC. The improvement in CP and AA digestibility with autoclaving varied with the PPC used and was consistent with the reduction in TIA observed (9.4 to 2.8 mg/g for PPC-1 vs. 9.1 to 5.3 mg/g for PPC-2). The standardized ID (SID) of most indispensable AA was similar for the FSBM and the PPC-2 and higher for both than for the PPC-1 (P < 0.05). For Lys, the lowest SID value was observed for the FSBM and the highest for the PPC-2 either unheated or autoclaved. It is concluded that the ID of the AA of the PPC improved with heating and was in general higher for the autoclaved PPC than for the FSBM. Consequently, heat processed PPC is a good alternative to FSBM and unheated PPC in starter diets for broilers.

  20. Lysimeter study with a cambric arenosol exposed to artificial acid rain: I. Concentrations of ions in leachate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sogn, T.A.; Abrahamsen, G.; Stuanes, A.O.

    1993-01-01

    The effects of artificial acid rain on soil leachate composition were studied in a lysimeter experiment. Cambic Arenosol (Typic Udipsamment) in monolith lysimeters was treated for 6 1/2 year with 125 mm yr -1 artificial rain in addition to natural precipitation. Artificial acid rain was produced from groundwater with H 2 SO 4 added. pH levels of 6.1, 4 and 3 were used. Increasing content of H 2 SO 4 in the artificial rain increased the concentration of Ca 2+ and Mg 2+ in the leachate significantly. The pH of the leachate was slightly reduced only by the most acidic treatment (pH 3). The H + retention was not accompanied by a proportionate increase in the Al ion concentration. A slight increase in the Al ion concentration was only observed in the leachate from the pH 3-treated lysimeter. It is concluded that cation exchange and/or weathering were the main buffer mechanisms in the soil. The study supports conclusions from other acidification studies, that acidic precipitation is likely to increase the leaching of Ca 2+ and Mg 2+ from soils. 25 refs., 3 figs., 7 tabs

  1. Maternal plasma n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid concentrations during pregnancy and subcutaneous fat mass in infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelena Vidakovic, Aleksandra; Santos, Susana; Williams, Michelle A; Duijts, Liesbeth; Hofman, Albert; Demmelmair, Hans; Koletzko, Berthold; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Gaillard, Romy

    2016-08-01

    The associations of maternal plasma n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) concentrations during pregnancy with infant subcutaneous fat were examined. In a population-based prospective cohort study among 904 mothers and their infants, maternal plasma n-3 and n-6 PUFA concentrations were measured at midpregnancy. Body mass index, total subcutaneous fat, and central-to-total subcutaneous fat ratio were calculated at 1.5, 6, and 24 months. Maternal n-3 PUFA levels were not consistently associated with infant body mass index or total subcutaneous fat. Higher maternal total n-3 PUFA levels, and specifically eicosapentaenoic acid, docosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid, were associated with higher central-to-total subcutaneous fat ratio at 1.5 months, whereas higher maternal total n-3 PUFA levels were associated with lower central-to-total subcutaneous fat ratio at 6 months (all P values fat. A higher n-6/n-3 ratio was associated with lower central-to-total subcutaneous fat ratio at 1.5 months only (P value fat. Further studies are needed to assess the effects of maternal PUFA concentrations on fat mass development during early infancy. © 2016 The Obesity Society.

  2. Linseed oil supplemented concentrate fed to Brahman crossbred fattening steers on carcass quality traits and intramuscular fatty acid profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pitunart Noosen

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the linseed oil supplemented concentrate fed to Brahman crossbred fattening steers on carcass quality trait and intramuscular fatty acid (FA profiles. All steers were fed 14% CP concentrate. The treatments included: (1 7 kg/d concentrate; (2 4 kg/d concentrate supplemented with 200 g/d palm oil (PO; (3 4 kg/d concentrate supplemented with 100 g/d PO and 100 g/d linseed oil (LSO; and (4 4 kg/d concentrate supplemented with 200 g/d LSO. The animals in the treatment 1 were fed ad libitum rice straw (RS, whereas the animals in other treatments were fed ad libitum fresh grass (FG. Dietary treatments had no effect on nutrient intake while oil supplement decreased dry matter intake (DMI. Inclusion of LSO did not negatively affect carcass quality, but increasing amount of LSO supplement increased the n-3 fatty acids and lowered the n-6/n-3 ratio in beef

  3. Influence of pasture and concentrates in the diet of grazing dairy cows on the fatty acid composition of milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockdale, C Richard; Walker, Glen P; Wales, William J; Dalley, Dawn E; Birkett, Anne; Shen, Zhiping; Doyle, Peter T

    2003-08-01

    In five short-term experiments conducted in Victoria in 1997 and 1998, grazing dairy cows were given either pasture alone or pasture supplemented with high-energy concentrates, and the fatty acid profiles of milk fat were measured. We established the effects of these feeds on some aspects of milk fat of importance for human nutrition, but we specifically focused on the hypothesis that conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) concentrations in milk fat increase as pasture intake increases, and decrease as more concentrates are fed. In agreement with previous research, feeding fresh pasture alone resulted in high concentrations (1.0-1.8 g/100 g milk fat) of CLA. When the effect of level of pasture consumption on CLA content was examined, a significant positive relationship (r2 = 0.35; P milk fat generally declined (P milk fat concentration. The use of cereal grain concentrates also generally resulted in significant (P milk fat, from 4.5 to 3.9 g/100 g milk fat, on average.

  4. Geographic variation in the relationships of temperature, salinity or sigma sub t versus plant nutrient concentrations in the world ocean. [silicic acid, nitrate, and phosphate concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamykowski, D.; Zentara, S. J.

    1985-01-01

    A NODC data set representing all regions of the world ocean was analyzed for temperature and sigma-t relationships with nitrate, phosphate or silicic acid. Six cubic regressions were for each ten degree square of latitude and longitude containing adequate data. World maps display the locations that allow the prediction of plant nutrient concentrations from temperature or sigma-t. Geographic coverage improves along the sequence: nitrate, phosphate, and silicic acid and is better for sigma-t than for temperature. Contour maps of the approximate temperature of sigma-t at which these nitrients are no longer measurable in a parcel of water are generated, based on a percentile analysis of the temperature or sigma-t at which less than a selected amount of plant nutrient occurs. Results are stored on magnetic tape in tabular form. The global potential to predict plant nutrient concentrations from remotely sensed temperature of sigma-t and to emphasize the latitudinally and longitudinally changing phytoplankton growth environment in present and past oceans is demonstrated.

  5. Elevational Trends in Usnic Acid Concentration of Lichen Parmelia flexilis in Relation to Temperature and Precipitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bishnu Prasad Neupane

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Usnic acid contents in acetone extracts of 31 samples of lichen Parmelia flexilis collected from different altitudes were identified using thin layer chromatography (TLC and determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. The usnic acid content varied in between highest 5.13% to lowest 1.66% in oven dried (80 °C lichen samples. The species collected from lower altitudes all show high levels of usnic acid. The negative relationship between usnic acid and altitude was obtained. Statistically, it is revealed that there is a significant difference between average percentages of usnic acid in lichen samples with varying altitudes (p < 0.05. Beside these, the precipitation averages of the regions where the species have been collected were linked with the content of usnic acid. It is clear that lichens from the regions receiving the highest precipitation produced lower amounts of usnic acid. The results suggest that the production of secondary metabolite in lichens is altered due to the climatic variables like temperature and precipitation at different altitude gradients.

  6. Concentration of total protein and degree of acidity (pH of saliva when fasting and after breakfasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemella Nur Illahi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: While fasting, the mouth does not work to eat and drink so that the salivary glands become less active so saliva production decreased and there was a change in eating timewhich is relation to the mastication process that impact on changes in the degree of acidity (pH Objectives: To determine the concentration of total protein and the degree of acidity (pH of saliva when fasting and after breakfasting. Materials and Methods: The study was observational analytic design with longitudinal (follow up study conducted in the Hj. Halima Dg. Sikati Dental Hospital inKandea in July 2015, the sampling method was purposive sampling. Population was 35 clinical students at the Department of Dental Public Health, Faculty of Dentistry Hasanuddin University with a total sample of 16 students who fit the criteria of the study subjects. To calculate the total protein of saliva concentration using Kyltecautoanalyzerand pH meter to measure the acidity of saliva. Data was analyzed was using SPSS version 17.0 (paired t-test, p <0.05. Results: The mean of total protein (% while fasting by 0135% ± 0.026 and the mean total protein (% after breakfasting at 0.179% ± 0.035, while the average degree of acidity (pH during fasting at 7.26 ± 0:24 and the average degree of acidity (pH after breakfasting at 7.66 ± 0.23 with p-value (0.000. Conclusions: An increase in the total protein concentration and acidity (pH after breakfasting.

  7. Effects of Fruit Zone Leaf Removal on the Concentrations of Phenolic and Organic Acids in Istrian Malvasia Grape Juice and Wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marijan Bubola

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic acids, represented by hydroxycinnamic and hydroxybenzoic acids and their derivatives, are the most abundant phenolic compounds in grape juice and wine of white grapevine cultivars. The effects of fruit zone leaf removal on the concentration of hydroxycinnamic, hydroxybenzoic and organic acids of cv. Istrian Malvasia grape juice and wine are investigated in this study. Fruit zone leaf removal was applied at three different phenological stages: before blooming, at berry set and at veraison. Control treatment without leaf removal was also included. At veraison two intensities of leaf removal were applied. Phenolic and organic acids were identified and quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography. Juice samples from the grapes treated at the stages before blooming and berry set had the lowest concentrations of tartaric acid and the highest concentrations of malic acid, while juices from veraison stage treatments had the lowest concentrations of malic acid and the highest concentrations of tartaric acid. Before blooming treatment significantly lowered the concentration of all hydroxycinnamic and hydroxybenzoic acids in grape juice in comparison with other investigated treatments, which did not affect the concentration of total hydroxycinnamic acids considerably. The concentration of hydroxybenzoic acids in grape juice was lower in veraison treatments in comparison with berry set and control treatments. The concentrations of hydroxycinnamic, hydroxybenzoic and organic acids in wine followed the same trends as observed in grape juice. It is concluded that the concentration of phenolic and organic acids in grape juice and wine of white grapevine cultivars can be managed with the timing of fruit zone leaf removal according to the desired wine style.

  8. Population prevalence, attributable risk, and attributable risk percentage for high methylmalonic acid concentrations in the post-folic acid fortification period in the US

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganji Vijay

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Serum methylmalonic acid (MMA is regarded as a sensitive marker of vitamin B-12 status. Elevated circulating MMA is linked to neurological abnormalities. Contribution of age, supplement use, kidney dysfunction, and vitamin B-12 deficiency to high serum MMA in post-folic acid fortification period is unknown. Methods We investigated prevalence, population attributable risk (PAR, and PAR% for high MMA concentrations in the US. Data from 3 cross-sectional National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys conducted in post-folic acid fortification period were used (n = 18569. Results Likelihood of having high serum MMA for white relative to black was 2.5 (P P P P P Conclusions Old age is the strongest determinant of PAR for high MMA. About 5 cases of high serum MMA/1000 people would be reduced if vitamin B-12 deficiency (

  9. The role of cytokines in cervical ripening: correlations between the concentrations of cytokines and hyaluronic acid in cervical mucus and the induction of hyaluronic acid production by inflammatory cytokines by human cervical fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, M; Hirano, H; Tsubaki, H; Kodama, H; Tanaka, T

    1998-07-01

    The purpose of our study was (1) to explain the relationship between levels of inflammatory cytokines and levels of hyaluronic acid in cervical mucus of pregnant women and (2) to investigate whether cytokines promote hyaluronic acid production by human cervical fibroblasts in vitro. The concentration of hyaluronic acid, interleukin-1beta, and interleukin-8 were measured in cervical mucus of pregnant women, and hyaluronic acid production by cytokine-treated (interleukin-1beta and interleukin-8) cultured fibroblasts was measured. Hyaluronic acid concentrations in the mucus of pregnant women with threatened premature labor were higher than in mucus of normal pregnant women (P hyaluronic acid concentrations and interleukin-1beta (P = .018) and interleukin-8 (P = .003) concentrations in cervical mucus. Cytokines (especially interleukin-8) stimulated hyaluronic acid production by cultured cervical fibroblasts. Cytokines induce hyaluronic acid production by human cervical fibroblasts, which may promote cervical ripening.

  10. Exhaled breath concentrations of acetic acid vapour in gastro-esophageal reflux disease

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dryahina, Kseniya; Pospíšilová, Veronika; Sovová, Kristýna; Shestivska, Violetta; Kubišta, Jiří; Spesyvyi, Anatolii; Pehal, F.; Turzíková, J.; Votruba, J.; Španěl, Patrik

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 3 (2014), 037109 ISSN 1752-7155 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : SIFT-MS * gastro-esophageal reflux * acetic acid Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 4.631, year: 2014

  11. Development of oleic acid-functionalized magnetite nanoparticles as hydrophobic probes for concentrating peptides with MALDI-TOF-MS analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hemei; Liu, Shasha; Li, Yan; Deng, Chunhui; Zhang, Xiangmin; Yang, Pengyuan

    2011-03-01

    The oleic acid-functionalized magnetite nanoparticles (OA-Fe(3) O(4) ) with mean diameter of about 15 nm were synthesized through a low-cost, one-pot method and were designed as hydrophobic probes to realize the convenient, efficient and fast concentration of low-concentration peptides followed by MALDI-TOF-MS analysis. The capability of OA-Fe(3) O(4) nanoparticles in concentration of low-abundance peptides from simple and complex solutions were evaluated by comparing them with a sort of C8-modified magnetic microspheres. Samples of standard peptide solution, protein digest solution and human serum were introduced in the evaluating process, and the OA-Fe(3) O(4) nanoparticles exhibited good surface affinity toward low-concentration peptides. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. High concentrations of furan fatty acids in organic butter samples from the German market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendlinger, Christine; Vetter, Walter

    2014-08-27

    Furan fatty acids (F-acids) are valuable antioxidants containing a furan moiety in the central part of the molecule. They occur in the lipids of different foodstuffs and plants, with grass being the main source for their presence in milk fat and butter. Because cows from organic farming receive higher portions of grass-based feed, it was tested whether organic butter samples (n = 26) contain more F-acids than conventional ones (n = 25) in Germany. For this purpose, samples were melted, and the lipid phase was separated and transesterified into methyl esters, which were enriched using silver ion chromatography and analyzed by GC-EI/MS in the selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode. Levels of F-acids in butter were higher in summer than in winter, and in both seasons, organic samples contained significantly higher levels of F-acids than conventional ones (one-way ANOVA: p < 0.001). Furthermore, the daily intake of F-acids via milk fat and other foodstuffs was calculated.

  13. Mass spectrometric detection and formation of D-amino acids in processed plant saps, syrups, and fruit juice concentrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pätzold, Ralf; Brückner, Hans

    2005-12-14

    Liquid and syrupy dietary saps and juices of plant origin, characterized by the presence of large quantities of saccharides (glucose, fructose, or sucrose) and containing amino acids, were analyzed for the presence of D-amino acids using enantioselective gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. D-amino acids were detected in processed saps and juices of trees (maple, palm, birch), fruits (grape, apple, pear, pomegranate, date), and various other plants (agave, beetroot, sugar cane, carob). D-Ala was detected in all plant products and amounted to approximately 34% D-Ala (relative to L-Ala + D-Ala) in Canadian maple syrups, to approximately 13% in palm saps, and to 48 and 13% D-Ala, respectively, in concentrated grape juices (Spanish Arrope and Turkish Pekmez). Varying amounts and kinds of other D-amino acids were also detected. To test the hypothesis that racemization, that is, partial conversion of L-amino acids into their corresponding D-enantiomers, occurs at reversible stages of the Maillard reaction, the Amadori compound fructose-L-phenylalanine was synthesized. On heating at 200 degrees C for 5 (20) min, release of 10.8% (24.2%) D-Phe was detected. From the data it is concluded that the Amadori compounds formed in the course of the Maillard reaction are pecursors of D-amino acids in foodstuffs.

  14. Choline supplementation alters some amino acid concentrations with no change in homocysteine in children with cystic fibrosis and pancreatic insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshaikh, Belal; Schall, Joan I; Maqbool, Asim; Mascarenhas, Maria; Bennett, Michael J; Stallings, Virginia A

    2016-05-01

    The present study determined the plasma amino acid status in children with cystic fibrosis (CF) and pancreatic insufficiency (PI) in the modern medical and nutritional care setting and investigated the effect of choline supplementation on amino acid status. A total of 110 children aged 5 to 18 years with CF and PI were randomized to receive choline-enriched structured lipid (LYM-X-SORB) or placebo with similar energy and fat content. Plasma amino acids were measured at baseline and 3 and 12 months. We hypothesized that choline supplementation would result in lower plasma homocysteine concentrations in children with CF. At baseline, dietary protein intake was high and the amino acid profile was within laboratory reference ranges in most participants. Alanine and cysteine were elevated in 24% and 36% of participants, respectively. Children with baseline alanine above reference range had improved weight, body mass index, and fat-free mass. Low homocysteine was found in 62% of children 11 years and older. After 3 and 12 months, there was no effect of choline supplementation on methionine or homocysteine status. Compared with placebo, choline supplementation resulted in increased glycine and decreased threonine, histidine, valine, and total branch chained amino acids at 12 months. In conclusion, daily choline supplementation with LYM-X-SORB did not alter methionine-homocysteine metabolism but did result in alterations in other amino acids in children with CF and PI. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of uranyl nitrate and free acid concentration in feed solution of gelation on UO2 kernel quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masduki, B.; Wardaya; Widarmoko, A.

    1996-01-01

    An investigation on the effect of uranium and free nitric acid concentration of uranyl nitrate as feed of gelation process on quality of UO 2 kernel was done.The investigation is to look for some concentration of uranyl nitrate solutions those are optimum as feed for preparation of gelled UO 3 . Uranyl nitrate solution of various concentration of uranium (450; 500; 550; 600; 650; 700 g/l) and free nitric acid of (0.9; 1.0; 1.1 N) was made into feed solutions by adding urea and HMTA with mole ratio of urea/uranium and HMTA/uranium 2.1 and 2.0. The feed solutions were changed into spherical gelled UO 3 by dropping was done to get the optimum concentrations of uranyl nitrate solutions. The gelled UO 3 was soaked and washed with 2.5% ammonia solution for 17 hours, dried at 70 o C, calcined at 350 o C for 3 hours then reduced at 850 o C for 3 hours. At every step of the steps process the colour and percentage of well product of gelled UO 3 were noticed. The density and O/U ratio of end product (UO 2 kernel) was determined, the percentage of well product of all steps process was also determined. The three factor were used to chose the optimum concentration of uranyl nitrate solution. From this investigation it was concluded that the optimum concentration of uranyl nitrate was 600 g/l uranium with free nitric acid 0,9 - 1,0 N, the percentage of well product was 97% density of 6.12 - 4.8 g/cc and O/U ratio of 2.15 - 2.06. (author)

  16. Glucose-stimulated insulin response in pregnant sheep following acute suppression of plasma non-esterified fatty acid concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sriskandarajah Nadarajah

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Elevated non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA concentrations in non-pregnant animals have been reported to decrease pancreatic responsiveness. As ovine gestation advances, maternal insulin concentrations fall and NEFA concentrations increase. Experiments were designed to examine if the pregnancy-associated rise in NEFA concentration is associated with a reduced pancreatic sensitivity to glucose in vivo. We investigated the possible relationship of NEFA concentrations in regulating maternal insulin concentrations during ovine pregnancy at three physiological states, non-pregnant, non-lactating (NPNL, 105 and 135 days gestational age (dGA, term 147+/- 3 days. Methods The plasma concentrations of insulin, growth hormone (GH and ovine placental lactogen (oPL were determined by double antibody radioimmunoassay. Insulin responsiveness to glucose was measured using bolus injection and hyperglycaemic clamp techniques in 15 non-pregnant, non-lactating ewes and in nine pregnant ewes at 105 dGA and near term at 135 dGA. Plasma samples were also collected for hormone determination. In addition to bolus injection glucose and insulin Area Under Curve calculations, the Mean Plasma Glucose Increment, Glucose Infusion Rate and Mean Plasma Insulin Increment and Area Under Curve were determined for the hyperglycaemic clamp procedures. Statistical analysis of data was conducted with Students t-tests, repeated measures ANOVA and 2-way ANOVA. Results Maternal growth hormone, placental lactogen and NEFA concentrations increased, while basal glucose and insulin concentrations declined with advancing gestation. At 135 dGA following bolus glucose injections, peak insulin concentrations and insulin area under curve (AUC profiles were significantly reduced in pregnant ewes compared with NPNL control ewes (p Conclusions Results suggest that despite an acute suppression of circulating NEFA concentrations during pregnancy, the associated steroids and hormones

  17. Experimental and modeling investigation on the rheological behavior of collagen solution as a function of acetic acid concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Huan; Duan, Lian; Li, Qian; Tian, Zhenhua; Li, Guoying

    2018-01-01

    Systematic analysis of the rheological behavior of collagen solution (10mg/mL) as a function of acetic acid (AA) concentration (0.1-10M) was performed to achieve a deeper understanding about the interaction between collagen molecules and acidic solvent. Steady shear tests showed that all samples exhibited pseudo-plasticity with shear-thinning behavior. Viscosity decreased from 236.448 to 0.792Pa·s at 0.1s -1 suggesting the flow ability of collagen solution improved with increasing AA concentration. Dynamic frequency sweep analysis revealed that the storage modulus, loss modulus, and complex viscosity decreased with the increased AA concentration due to the disentanglement of collagen molecules, while the loss tangent increased. Hysteresis loop areas of collagen solutions were determined by thixotropic measurement, which demonstrated that weaker thixotropic behavior was associated with higher AA concentrations. Furthermore, the ability to resist deformation and elasticity was lower at higher AA concentration. Maximum compliance values increased from 0.042 to 376.407Pa -1 , and the recovery percentage decreased from 97.670% to 0.315%. Finally, corresponding mathematical models were employed to simulate and quantitatively assess the experimental data. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Comparing oxidative and dilute acid wet explosion pretreatment of Cocksfoot grass at high dry matter concentration for cellulosic ethanol production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Njoku, Stephen Ikechukwu; Uellendahl, Hinrich; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2013-01-01

    was investigated for cellulosic ethanol production. The biomass raw materials were pretreated using wet explosion (WEx) at 25% dry matter concentration with addition of oxygen or dilute sulfuric acid. The enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose was significantly improved after pretreatment. The highest conversion......The choice of a suitable pretreatment method and the adjustment of the pretreatment parameters for efficient conversion of biomass are crucial for a successful biorefinery concept. In this study, cocksfoot grass, a suitable lignocellulosic biomass with a potential for large-scale production...... into cellulose monomeric C6 sugars was achieved for WEx condition AC-E (180°C, 15 min, and 0.2% sulfuric acid). For that condition, the highest ethanol yield of 197 g/kg DM (97% of theoretical maximum value) was achieved for SSF process by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. However, the highest concentration...

  19. Effect of trichloroacetic acid concentration in precipitation of radiopharmaceutical labelled with Tc-99m binding in blood elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freitas, Rosimeire S.; Bernardo-Filho, Mario; Gutfilen, Bianca

    1996-01-01

    Radiopharmaceuticals are widely used in nuclear medicine. The comprehension of their uptake mechanism in target organs, as well as their clarence may depend on the elucidation of their biochemical characteristics, for instance, their binding to blood elements. The reported precipitating studies of blood with radiopharmaceuticals have shown that the results can not be easily compared. Then, we decide to standardize the gold concentration of trichloroacetic acid (TCA) to determine the radioactivity of the dietilene-triamine-pentaacetic acid labeled with technetium-99m ( 99m Tc-DTPA) present in precipitating plasma and blood cells. Depending on the TCA concentration we have determined different values in the insoluble fractions to plasma and blood cells elements. (author)

  20. Characterization of Solid Dispersion of Itraconazole Prepared by Solubilization in Concentrated Aqueous Solutions of Weak Organic Acids and Drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh, Tapan; Sandhu, Harpreet K; Talele, Tanaji T; Serajuddin, Abu T M

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an amorphous solid dispersion (SD) of an extremely water-insoluble and very weakly basic drug, itraconazole (ITZ), by interaction with weak organic acids and then drying that would enhance dissolution rate of drug and physical stability of formulation. Aqueous solubility of ITZ in concentrated solutions of weak organic acids, such as glutaric, tartaric, malic and citric acid, was determined. Solutions with high drug solubility were dried using vacuum oven and the resulting SDs having 2 to 20% drug load were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), powder X-ray diffractometry (PXRD) and attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy. The dissolution of SDs was initially studied in 250 mL of 0.1 N HCl (pH 1.1), and any undissolved solids were collected and analyzed by PXRD. The pH of the dissolution medium was then changed from 1.1 to 5.5, particle size of precipitates were measured, and drug concentrations in solution were determined by filtration through membrane filters of varying pore sizes. The aqueous solubility of ITZ was greatly enhanced in presence of weak acids. While the solubility of ITZ in water was ~4 ng/ mL, it increased to 25-40 mg per g of solution at 25°C and 200 mg per g of solution at 65°C at a high acid concentration leading to extremely high solubilization. PXRD of SDs indicated that ITZ was present in the amorphous form, wherein the acid formed a partially crystalline matrix. ATR-FTIR results showed possible weak interactions, such as hydrogen bonding, between drug and acid but there was no salt formation. SDs formed highly supersaturated solutions at pH 1.1 and had superior dissolution rate as compared to amorphous drug and physical mixtures of drug and acids. Following the change in pH from 1.1 to 5.5, ITZ precipitated as mostly nanoparticles, providing high surface area for relatively rapid redissolution. A method of highly solubilizing an

  1. Effect of pH and chloroauric acid concentration on the geometry of gold nanoparticles obtained by photochemical synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conde Rodríguez, G. R.; Gauthier, G. H.; Ladeira, L. O.; Sanabria Cala, J. A.; Laverde Cataño, D.

    2017-12-01

    Due to their excellent surface properties, gold nanoparticles have been used in a wide range of applications from optics and catalysis to biology and cancer treatment by thermal therapy. Gold nanoparticles can absorb a large amount of radiation according to their geometry, such as nanospheres and nanorods. The importance of gold nanoparticles geometry is based on the electromagnetic spectrum wavelength where exists a greater absorption of radiation, which belongs to the visible region for nanospheres and ranges between visible and near infrared regions for nanorods, conferring greater biomedical applicability to the latter. When using photochemical synthesis method, which consists of reducing gold atoms to their metallic state with UV radiation, the geometry of gold nanoparticles depends on different variables such as: 1) pH, 2) concentration of chloroauric acid, 3) the surfactant, 4) concentration of silver nitrate, 5) temperature and 6) irradiation time. Therefore, in this study the geometry of the gold nanoparticles obtained by photochemical synthesis was determined as a function of solution pH and chloroauric acid concentration, using Spectrophotometry in the Ultraviolet Visible region (UV-vis) as characterization technique. From the analysis of the UV-vis spectra, it was determined that at an acidic pH the particles have two absorption bands corresponding to nanorods geometry, while at a basic pH only nanospheres are found and at a neutral pH the lower relative intensity of the second band indicates the simultaneous existence of the two geometries. The increase in the concentration of chloroauric acid produces a decrease in the amount of synthesized nanorods, seen as a decrease of the relative intensity of the second absorption band. Therefore, obtaining gold nanoparticles with nanorods geometry favours fields such as biomedicine, because they are capable of absorbing infrared radiation and can be used as photosensitive agents in localized thermal therapy

  2. Plasmatrans-fatty acid concentrations in fasting adults declined from NHANES 1999-2000 to 2009-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesper, Hubert W; Caudill, Samuel P; Kuiper, Heather C; Yang, Quanhe; Ahluwalia, Namanjeet; Lacher, David A; Pirkle, James L

    2017-05-01

    Background: The consumption of trans fatty acids (TFAs) is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, and reducing their consumption is a major public health objective. Food intake studies have provided estimates for TFA concentrations in the US population; however, there is a need for data on TFA blood concentrations in the population. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine plasma TFA concentrations in a nationally representative group of fasted adults in the US population in NHANES samples from 1999-2000 and 2009-2010. Design: Four major TFAs [palmitelaidic acid (C16:1n-7t), trans vaccenic acid (C18:1n-7t), elaidic acid (C18:1n-9t), and linoelaidic acid (C18:2n-6t,9t)] were measured in plasma in 1613 subjects from NHANES 1999-2000 and 2462 subjects from NHANES 2009-2010 by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Geometric means and distribution percentiles were calculated for each TFA and their sum by age, sex, and race/ethnicity (non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, Mexican American), and covariate-adjusted geometric means were computed by using a model that included these demographic and other dietary factors, as well as survey year and any significant interaction terms. Results: These nationally representative data for the adult US population show that TFA concentrations were 54% lower in NHANES 2009-2010 than in NHANES 1999-2000. Covariate-adjusted geometric means for the sum of the 4 TFAs were 81.4 μmol/L (95% CI: 77.3, 85.6 μmol/L) and 37.8 μmol/L (95% CI: 36.4, 39.4 μmol/L) in NHANES 1999-2000 and 2009-2010, respectively. Even with the large decline in TFA concentrations, differences between demographic subgroups were comparable in the 2 surveys. Conclusion: The results indicate an overall reduction in TFA concentrations in the US population and provide a valuable baseline to evaluate the impact of the recent regulation categorizing TFAs as food additives. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  3. Effects of dietary protein concentration and specific amino acids on body weight, body composition and feather growth in young turkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wylie, L M; Robertson, G W; Hocking, P M

    2003-03-01

    1. Two randomised block factorial experiments were conducted to investigate the relationships between the effects of dietary crude protein and specific amino acid concentrations on the relative growth of the body and feathers of young turkeys. 2. Decreasing dietary crude protein concentration from 300 to 180 g/kg in experiment 1 reduced the body and breast muscle weights of a large male line of turkeys proportionally by 0.44 and 0.52 compared with 0.19 and 0.24 in a small traditional line. 3. Decreasing dietary crude protein concentration was associated with a maximum reduction in feather weight of 0.18 and 0.24 respectively in male line and traditional turkeys. The length of the feathers in the cranial region of the breast decreased from 26 to 19mm in the traditional line compared with an increase from 14 to 25 mm in male line turkeys. 4. Decreasing dietary crude protein concentration was associated with an increase in the fat content of the feather-free carcase. Male line turkeys had a higher carcase fat and lower feather dry matter content than the traditional turkeys. 5. It was concluded that dietary crude protein was preferentially partitioned to feather rather than muscle growth in the male line in contrast to a traditional line of turkeys in which the growth of feathers and muscle were affected equally. 6. In experiment 2, the amino acids arginine, valine, methionine and tyrosine were added separately to a common basal ration (180g CP/kg) to raise their concentration to that of the control ration (260 g CP/kg). Each ration was fed ad libitum to male line turkeys from 2 to 6 weeks of age. 7. Amino acid supplementation increased body and breast muscle weights. 8. Compared with the basal ration, tyrosine was associated with a reduction in feather weight whereas valine had no effect. Supplementation with arginine and methionine resulted in increased feather weights that were similar to that of the controls. 9. It was concluded that arginine and methionine were

  4. Digestible indispensable amino acid score (DIAAS) and protein digestibility corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS) in oat protein concentrate measured in 20- to 30-kilogram pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abelilla, Jerubella J; Liu, Yanhong; Stein, Hans H

    2018-01-01

    Oat protein concentrate is often used in human food, but the quality of this protein has not been characterized. Therefore, the objectives of this experiment were to determine the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of crude protein (CP) and amino acids (AA) in oat protein concentrate and to determine differences in protein quality estimates between the protein digestibility-corrected AA score (PDCAAS) and the digestible indispensable AA score (DIAAS) when using growing pigs for both measurements. For infants, the most limiting AA in oat protein concentrate was the aromatic AA (Phe + Tyr), for which the DIAAS value was 41 and the PDCAAS was 43. For children (6 months to 3 years) and children older than 3 years, the most limiting AA in oat protein concentrate was Lys, for which the DIAAS was 56 and 67 and the PDCAAS was 58 and 69, respectively. The DIAAS value for oat protein concentrate was close to the calculated value for PDCAAS, but below the recommended intake for protein. Therefore, to satisfy the daily human AA requirement, oat protein needs to be complemented by other proteins of higher quality and specifically with greater lysine concentrations. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Effect of initial total solids concentration on volatile fatty acid production from food waste during anaerobic acidification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Quan; Jiang, Jianguo; Zhang, Yujing; Li, Kaimin

    2015-01-01

    The effect of initial total solids (TS) concentration on volatile fatty acid (VFAs) production from food waste under mesophilic conditions (35 °C) was determined. VFAs concentration and composition, biogas production, soluble chemical oxygen demand concentration, TS and volatile solids (VS) reduction, and ammonia nitrogen [Formula: see text] release were investigated. The VFAs concentrations were 26.10, 39.68, 59.58, and 62.64 g COD/L at TS contents of 40, 70, 100, and 130 g/L, respectively. While the VFAs' yields ranged from 0.467 to 0.799 g COD/g VSfed, decreased as initial TS increased. The percentage of propionate was not affected by TS concentration, accounting for 30.19-34.86% of the total VFAs, while a higher percentage of butyrate and lower percentage of acetate was achieved at a higher TS concentration. Biogas included mainly hydrogen and carbon dioxide and the maximum hydrogen yield of 148.9 ml/g VSfed was obtained at 130 g TS/L. [Formula: see text] concentration, TS and VS reductions increased as initial TS increased. Considering the above variables, we conclude that initial TS of 100 g/L shall be the most appropriate to VFAs production.

  6. The influence of stress conditions on the growth of selected lactic acid bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bok, H.E.

    1985-01-01

    A study was undertaken to determine the effects of certain stress conditions on selected lactic acid bacteria. Where recontamination occurred, lactic acid bacteria was already the dominant bacterial group, with counts of higher than 10 6 /g in vacuum-packaged 'shelf stable' meat products after 1 week storage at 25 and 37 degrees Celsius respectively. Some of the isolates were capable of growing at a pH of 3,9. The minimum pH for growth of a specific culture was dependant on the type of acid that was used to lower the pH. Lactic and acetic acid had the highest inhibitory action. Hydrochloric and citric acid showed similar inhibitory effects, while the effects when using ascorbic acid or gluconic acid for lowering the pH were also fairly similar. Increase in the activity of certain lactic acid bacteria was noticed where the ratio of undissociated to dissociated citric acid in the medium was increased. After exceeding a concentration of 0,048 moles/l undissosiated citric acid in the medium, the activity of the majority of cultures was progressively inhibited. This phenomenon was also found with acetic acid for certain cultures. Selected lactic acid bacteria were resistant to an water activity (a (sub w)) of 0,94 in MRS broth, where NaCl or glycerol was used as a humectant. The minimum a (sub w) for growth was dependent on the type of humectant used. Concentrations of sodium benzoate and potassium sorbate were necessary to inhibit the majority of strains. The % inhibition by sodium benzoate and methyl paraben did not significantly change with a lowering in the pH of the growth medium. Except in the case of lactic acid, the different acids used to lower the pH of the medium did not have a significant effect on the % inhibition by the chemical preservatives. For the cocci, gamma D 10 values of between 0,82 and 1,29 kGy were recorded, whereas the lactobacilli were less resistant to gamma rays, with D 10 values of between 0,21 and 0,54 kGy

  7. Effect of etching with distinct hydrofluoric acid concentrations on the flexural strength of a lithium disilicate-based glass ceramic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochnow, Catina; Venturini, Andressa B; Grasel, Rafaella; Bottino, Marco C; Valandro, Luiz Felipe

    2017-05-01

    This study examined the effects of distinct hydrofluoric acid concentrations on the mechanical behavior of a lithium disilicate-based glass ceramic. Bar-shaped specimens were produced from ceramic blocks (e.max CAD, Ivoclar Vivadent). The specimens were polished, chamfered, and sonically cleaned in distilled water. The specimens were randomly divided into five groups (n = 23). The HF1, HF3, HF5, and HF10 specimens were etched for 20 s with acid concentrations of 1%, 3%, 5%, and 10%, respectively, while the SC (control) sample was untreated. The etched surfaces were evaluated using a scanning electron microscope and an atomic force microscope. Finally, the roughness was measured, and 3-point bending flexural tests were performed. The data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey's test (α = 0.05). The Weibull modulus and characteristic strength were also determined. No statistical difference in the roughness and flexural strength was determined among the groups. The structural reliabilities (Weilbull moduli) were similar for the tested groups; however, the characteristic strength of the HF1 specimen was greater than that of the HF10 specimen. Compared with the untreated ceramic, the surface roughness and flexural strength of the ceramic were unaffected upon etching, regardless of the acid concentration. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 105B: 885-891, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Influence of temperature, time, liquid/solid ratio and sulfuric acid concentration on the hydrolysis of palm empty fruit bunches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, Ana; Requejo, Ana; Rodríguez, Alejandro; Jiménez, Luis

    2013-02-01

    The influence of temperature (150-190 °C), time (0-20 min), liquid/solid ratio (6-8) and sulfuric acid concentration (0.1-0.5%), on the hydrolysis of palm empty fruit bunches (EFBs) was studied and the liquid and solid fractions were analyzed. Polynomial models were found to reproduce the experimental results with errors less than 15% in most of the cases (except for xylose concentration). Operating conditions of 190 °C for 15 min at a liquid/solid ratio of 6 and a sulfuric acid concentration of 0.1% resulted in the production of 3.12, 4.0, 2.35 and 2.28 g/L of glucose, xylose, arabinose and acetic acid, respectively, starting with 1000 g of EFBs. The yield was 67.96%. Soda-anthraquinone, ethanol and ethanolamine pulping of the solid fraction provided pulps with brightness values (63.24%, 28.78%, 48.76%), but with poor resistance properties (6.57-8.54 Nm/g for tensile index, 0.38-0.44 k N/g for burst index and 0.96-1.02 mN m2/g for tear index). Therefore it is advisable to use the pulps for speciality papers or for bioethanol-production. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Variation in concentration of perfluorooctanoic acid in methanol solutions during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanari, Nobuyasu; Itoh, Nobuyasu; Ishikawa, Keiichiro; Yarita, Takashi; Numata, Masahiko

    2014-01-01

    Perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) including perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) have been widely recognized as persistent environmental contaminants. For accurate quantification of PFCAs, their stability in calibration solutions is important because they are criteria of quantification. To examine stability of PFCAs in methanol, we monitored PFOA and its related compounds around 4 years. Interestingly, perfluorooctanoate was varied randomly, and methyl perfluorooctanoate (MePFOA) and methyl formate were observed when perfluorooctanoate decreased. Moreover, no detection of both methyl esters was in methanol solutions immediately after preparation. In each of prepared methanol solution of perfluorohexanoic, perfluoroheptanoic, and perfluorononanoic acids, their corresponding methyl esters and methyl formate were observed. Furthermore, MePFOA was observed even in the solutions stored around 4 months and thereafter MePFOA increased with increase in methyl formate. Therefore, PFCAs including PFOA should be used immediately after preparation when methanol is used as a solvent. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Ala54Thr fatty acid-binding protein 2 (FABP2 polymorphism in recurrent depression: associations with fatty acid concentrations and waist circumference.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roel J T Mocking

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fatty acid (FA-alterations may mediate the mutual association between Major Depressive Disorder (MDD and cardiovascular disease (CVD. However, etiology of observed FA-alterations in MDD and CVD remains largely unclear. An interesting candidate may be a mutation in the fatty acid-binding protein 2 (FABP2-gene, because it regulates dietary FA-uptake. Therefore, we aimed to test the hypotheses that in MDD-patients the FABP2 Ala54Thr-polymorphism would be (I more prevalent than in sex- and age-matched controls, (II associated with observed alterations in FA-metabolism, and (III associated with CVD-risk factor waist circumference. METHODS: We measured concentrations of 29 different erythrocyte FAs, FABP2-genotype, and waist circumference in recurrent MDD-patients and matched never-depressed controls. RESULTS: FABP2-genotype distribution did not significantly differ between the 137 MDD-patients and 73 matched controls. However, patients with the Ala54Thr-polymorphism had (I higher concentrations of especially eicosadienoic acid (C20:2ω6; P=.009 and other 20-carbon FAs, and associated (II lower waist circumference (P=.019. In addition, FABP2-genotype effects on waist circumference in patients seemed (I mediated by its effect on C20:2ω6, and (II different from controls. CONCLUSIONS: Although Ala54Thr-polymorphism distribution was not associated with recurrent MDD, our results indicate that FABP2 may play a role in the explanation of observed FA-alterations in MDD. For Ala54Thr-polymorphism patients, potentially adaptive conversion of increased bioavailable dietary precursors into eicosadienoic acid instead of arachidonic acid might be related to a low waist circumference. Because this is the first investigation of these associations, replication is warranted, preferably by nutrigenetic studies applying lipidomics and detailed dietary assessment.

  11. Ala54Thr fatty acid-binding protein 2 (FABP2) polymorphism in recurrent depression: associations with fatty acid concentrations and waist circumference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocking, Roel J T; Lok, Anja; Assies, Johanna; Koeter, Maarten W J; Visser, Ieke; Ruhé, Henricus G; Bockting, Claudi L H; Schene, Aart H

    2013-01-01

    Fatty acid (FA)-alterations may mediate the mutual association between Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, etiology of observed FA-alterations in MDD and CVD remains largely unclear. An interesting candidate may be a mutation in the fatty acid-binding protein 2 (FABP2)-gene, because it regulates dietary FA-uptake. Therefore, we aimed to test the hypotheses that in MDD-patients the FABP2 Ala54Thr-polymorphism would be (I) more prevalent than in sex- and age-matched controls, (II) associated with observed alterations in FA-metabolism, and (III) associated with CVD-risk factor waist circumference. We measured concentrations of 29 different erythrocyte FAs, FABP2-genotype, and waist circumference in recurrent MDD-patients and matched never-depressed controls. FABP2-genotype distribution did not significantly differ between the 137 MDD-patients and 73 matched controls. However, patients with the Ala54Thr-polymorphism had (I) higher concentrations of especially eicosadienoic acid (C20:2ω6; P=.009) and other 20-carbon FAs, and associated (II) lower waist circumference (P=.019). In addition, FABP2-genotype effects on waist circumference in patients seemed (I) mediated by its effect on C20:2ω6, and (II) different from controls. Although Ala54Thr-polymorphism distribution was not associated with recurrent MDD, our results indicate that FABP2 may play a role in the explanation of observed FA-alterations in MDD. For Ala54Thr-polymorphism patients, potentially adaptive conversion of increased bioavailable dietary precursors into eicosadienoic acid instead of arachidonic acid might be related to a low waist circumference. Because this is the first investigation of these associations, replication is warranted, preferably by nutrigenetic studies applying lipidomics and detailed dietary assessment.

  12. Extractive Fermentation of Lactic Acid in Lactic Acid Bacteria Cultivation: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, Majdiah; Ariff, Arbakariya B.; Rios-Solis, Leonardo; Halim, Murni

    2017-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria are industrially important microorganisms recognized for their fermentative ability mostly in their probiotic benefits as well as lactic acid production for various applications. Nevertheless, lactic acid fermentation often suffers end-product inhibition which decreases the cell growth rate. The inhibition of lactic acid is due to the solubility of the undissociated lactic acid within the cytoplasmic membrane and insolubility of dissociated lactate, which causes acidification of cytoplasm and failure of proton motive forces. This phenomenon influences the transmembrane pH gradient and decreases the amount of energy available for cell growth. In general, the restriction imposed by lactic acid on its fermentation can be avoided by extractive fermentation techniques, which can also be exploited for product recovery. PMID:29209295

  13. Extractive Fermentation of Lactic Acid in Lactic Acid Bacteria Cultivation: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, Majdiah; Ariff, Arbakariya B; Rios-Solis, Leonardo; Halim, Murni

    2017-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria are industrially important microorganisms recognized for their fermentative ability mostly in their probiotic benefits as well as lactic acid production for various applications. Nevertheless, lactic acid fermentation often suffers end-product inhibition which decreases the cell growth rate. The inhibition of lactic acid is due to the solubility of the undissociated lactic acid within the cytoplasmic membrane and insolubility of dissociated lactate, which causes acidification of cytoplasm and failure of proton motive forces. This phenomenon influences the transmembrane pH gradient and decreases the amount of energy available for cell growth. In general, the restriction imposed by lactic acid on its fermentation can be avoided by extractive fermentation techniques, which can also be exploited for product recovery.

  14. Extractive Fermentation of Lactic Acid in Lactic Acid Bacteria Cultivation: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majdiah Othman

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Lactic acid bacteria are industrially important microorganisms recognized for their fermentative ability mostly in their probiotic benefits as well as lactic acid production for various applications. Nevertheless, lactic acid fermentation often suffers end-product inhibition which decreases the cell growth rate. The inhibition of lactic acid is due to the solubility of the undissociated lactic acid within the cytoplasmic membrane and insolubility of dissociated lactate, which causes acidification of cytoplasm and failure of proton motive forces. This phenomenon influences the transmembrane pH gradient and decreases the amount of energy available for cell growth. In general, the restriction imposed by lactic acid on its fermentation can be avoided by extractive fermentation techniques, which can also be exploited for product recovery.

  15. Plasma phospholipid fatty acid concentration and incident coronary heart disease in men and women: the EPIC-Norfolk prospective study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kay-Tee Khaw

    Full Text Available The lack of association found in several cohort studies between dietary saturated fat and coronary heart disease (CHD risk has renewed debate over the link between dietary fats and CHD.We assessed the relationship between plasma phospholipid fatty acid (PFA concentration and incident CHD using a nested case control design within a prospective study (EPIC-Norfolk of 25,639 individuals aged 40-79 years examined in 1993-1997 and followed up to 2009. Plasma PFA concentrations were measured by gas chromatography in baseline samples retrieved from frozen storage. In 2,424 men and women with incident CHD compared with 4,930 controls alive and free of cardiovascular disease, mean follow-up 13 years, saturated PFA (14:0, 16:0,18:0 plasma concentrations were significantly associated with increased CHD risk (odds ratio [OR] 1.75, 95% CI 1.27-2.41, p<0.0001, in top compared to bottom quartiles (Q, and omega-6 polyunsaturated PFA concentrations were inversely related (OR 0.77, 0.60-0.99, p<0.05 after adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, blood pressure, smoking, alcohol intake, plasma vitamin C, social class, education, and other PFAs. Monounsaturated PFA, omega-3 PFA, and trans PFA concentrations were not significantly associated with CHD. Odd chain PFA (15:0, 17:0 concentrations were significantly inversely associated with CHD (OR 0.73, 0.59-0.91, p<0.001, Q4 versus Q1. Within families of saturated PFA or polyunsaturated PFA, significantly heterogeneous relationships with CHD were observed for individual fatty acids.In this study, plasma concentrations of even chain saturated PFA were found to be positively and omega-6 polyunsaturated PFA inversely related to subsequent coronary heart disease risk. These findings are consistent with accumulating evidence suggesting a protective role of omega-6 fats substituting for saturated fats for CHD prevention.

  16. Short communication: Effects of lysolecithin on milk fat synthesis and milk fatty acid profile of cows fed diets differing in fiber and unsaturated fatty acid concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rico, D E; Ying, Y; Harvatine, K J

    2017-11-01

    Thirteen multiparous Holstein cows were used in a crossover design that tested the effect of lysolecithin in diets differing in neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and unsaturated fatty acid (FA) concentrations. Experimental periods were 20 d in length and included two 10-d phases. A standard fiber and lower fat diet was fed the first 10 d (30.5% NDF, no added oil, lower-risk phase) and a lower NDF and higher oil diet was fed during the second 10 d (29.0% NDF and 2% oil from whole soybeans and soybean oil, high-risk phase). Treatments were control and 10 g/d of lysolecithin (LYSO) extended in a ground corn carrier. Milk was sampled on d 0, 5, and 10 of each phase for determination of fat and protein concentration and FA profile. We found no effect of treatment or treatment by time interaction for dry matter intake, milk yield, or milk protein concentration. A treatment by time interaction was observed for milk fat concentration and yield. Milk fat concentration was higher in LYSO on d 5 of the lower-risk phase, but decreased progressively in both treatments during the high-risk phase. Milk fat yield was not different among treatments during the lower-risk phase, but was lower in LYSO on d 15 and tended to be lower on d 20 during the high-risk phase. Concentrations of milk de novo FA decreased and preformed FA increased during the high-risk phase, but we found no effect of treatment or treatment by time interactions. We noted an effect of time, but no treatment or treatment by time interactions for milk trans FA isomers. Briefly, trans-11 C18:1 and cis-9,trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid progressively decreased as trans-10 C18:1 and trans-10,cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid progressively increased during the high-risk phase. The LYSO increased milk fat concentration when feeding a higher fiber and lower unsaturated FA diet, but decreased milk fat yield when feeding a lower fiber and higher unsaturated FA diet, although biohydrogenation pathways and capacity did not appear

  17. Effect of Volatile Fatty Acids and Trimethylamine on Denitrification in Activated Sludge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eilersen, Ann Marie; Henze, Mogens; Kløft, Lene

    1995-01-01

    mM for isovaleric and 105 mM for caproic acid. KI values for nitrite reduction were found to be 196 mM for propionic, 32 mM for isobutyric, 57 mM for n-valeric, 18 mM for isovaleric and 110 mM for caproic acid. Inhibition of the rate of hydrolysis could not be determined. Anaerobically treated...... wastewaters from fish, potato and onion industries all stimulated denitrification. Reject water from anaerobic treatment of excess sludge had no significant effect on the denitrification processes. For isobutyric, isovaleric and n-valeric acid the undissociated compounds appear to act as the inhibitor...

  18. Effect of high oleic acid soybean on seed oil, protein concentration, and yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soybeans with high oleic acid content are desired by oil processors because of their improved oxidative stability for broader use in food, fuel and other products. However, non-GMO high-oleic soybeans have tended to have low seed yield. The objective of this study was to test non-GMO, high-oleic s...

  19. Effect of different concentrations of olive oil and oleic acid on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main objective of this study was to investigate the effect of olive oil and oleic acid addition to albumin (egg white) through emulsification to produce films on mechanical properties. Plasticizer was necessary to maintain film and coating integrity and to avoid pores cracks. Edible composite films were prepared from ...

  20. Breath concentration of acetic acid vapour is elevated in patients with cystic fibrosis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Smith, D.; Sovová, Kristýna; Dryahina, Kseniya; Doušová, T.; Dřevínek, P.; Španěl, Patrik

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 2 (2016), s. 021002 ISSN 1752-7155 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-14534S Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : cystic fibrosis * SIFT-MS * acetic acid Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 4.318, year: 2016

  1. Replication of the five novel loci for uric acid concentrations and potential mediating mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Harst, Pim; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; de Boer, Rudolf A.; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H. R.; Johnson, Toby; Caulfield, Mark J.; Navis, Gerjan

    2010-01-01

    Uric acid (UA) is the final catabolic product of purine metabolism and elevated levels are associated with diabetes and cardiovascular disease. A recent meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies totalling 28 141 participants identified five novel loci associated with serum UA levels. In our

  2. Dietary linseed oil and selenate affect the concentration of fatty acids in selected tissues of sheep

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Czauderna, M.; Kowalczyk, J.; Marounek, Milan

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 9 (2012), s. 389-401 ISSN 1212-1819 Grant - others:State Committee for Scientific Research(PL) 3PO6Z 034 22 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : selenium * linseed oil * fatty acid Subject RIV: GH - Livestock Nutrition Impact factor: 0.922, year: 2012

  3. Plasma intestinal fatty acid binding protein (I-FABP) concentrations increase following intestinal ischemia in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niewold, T.A.; Meinen, M.; Meulen, van der J.

    2004-01-01

    Intestinal fatty acid binding protein (I-FABP) is an intracellular epithelial protein in the intestinal mucosa of many animals. IFABP appears in the circulation following epithelial damage, and in humans, is proven to be a parameter for damage to the mucosa. In this paper, an ELISA test designed for

  4. Maternal Low Quality Protein Diet Alters Plasma Amino Acid Concentrations of Weaning Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arzu Kabasakal Cetin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have indicated the influence of a maternal low protein diet on the fetus. However, the effect of a maternal low quality protein diet on fetal growth and development is largely unknown. Wistar rats (11 weeks old were mated and maintained on either a chow diet with 20% casein (n = 6 as the control group (C, or a low quality protein diet with 20% wheat gluten (n = 7 as the experimental group (WG through gestation and lactation. Maternal body weights were similar in both groups throughout the study. Birth weights were not influenced by maternal diet and offspring body weights during lactation were similar between the groups. Offspring’s plasma amino acid profiles showed that plasma methionine, glutamine and lysine were significantly lower and aspartic acid, ornithine and glycine-proline were significantly higher in the WG. Plant based protein comprises an important part of protein intake in developing countries. It is well-known that these diets can be inadequate in terms of essential amino acids. The current study shows differential effects of a maternal low quality protein diet on the offspring’s plasma amino acids. Future studies will examine further aspects of the influence of maternal low quality protein diets on fetal growth and development.

  5. Polyunsaturated fatty acid consumption, plasma cholesterol concentration and neuroendocrine response to mental and physical task load

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Odink, J.; Kramer, F.M.; Beek, E.J. van der; Thissen, J.T.N.M.; Kempen, H.J.M.; Berg, H. van den; Egger, R.J.; Wientjes, C.J.E.

    1989-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the relation between fatty acid consumption, total plama cholesterol and neuroendocrine response to exposure to stress, factors thought to play a role in the development of coronary heart disease. For this purpose 32 apparently healthy male volunteers were

  6. Protein digestibility-corrected amino acid scores (PDCAAS) for soy protein isolates and concentrate: criteria for evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Glenna J; Ryan, David J; Mukherjea, Ratna; Schasteen, Charles S

    2011-12-14

    Protein quality, as determined by the PDCAAS method, is a measure of a protein's ability to provide adequate levels of essential amino acids for human needs. PDCAAS is calculated using an amino acid profile and true digestibility of a food protein. Soy protein is recognized as a high quality plant protein, but published PDCAAS values may vary based on the soy protein ingredient as well as the reproducibility and accuracy of the testing methods. Comparison of PDCAAS values for four differently processed soy ingredients, including three isolated soy proteins (ISP) and one soy protein concentrate (SPC), was made using two different laboratories with evaluation of the impact of the reproducibility and accuracy of amino acid profiles. PDCAAS calculations, using amino acid values from one laboratory, yielded a truncated PDCAAS of 1.00 for all four ingredients, while a second laboratory provided statistically significantly lower scores (0.95-1.00). We conclude that analytical method error can be a significant contributor to PDCAAS differences and can be mitigated by the application of amino acid nitrogen recovery correction factors.

  7. Alcohol-to-acid ratio and substrate concentration affect product structure in chain elongation reactions initiated by unacclimatized inoculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuhao; Lü, Fan; Shao, Liming; He, Pinjing

    2016-10-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate whether the ratio of ethanol to acetate affects yield and product structure in chain elongation initiated by unacclimatized mixed cultures. The effect of varying the substrate concentration, while maintaining the same ratio of alcohol to acid, was also investigated. With a high substrate concentration, an alcohol to acid ratio >2:1 provided sufficient electron donor capacity for the chain elongation reaction. With an ethanol to acetate ratio of 3:1 (300mM total carbon), the highest n-caproate concentration (3033±98mg/L) was achieved during the stable phase of the reaction. A lower substrate concentration (150mM total carbon) gave a lower yield of products and led to reduced carbon transformation efficiency compared with other reaction conditions. The use of unacclimatized inoculum in chain elongation can produce significant amounts of odd-carbon-number carboxylates as a result of protein hydrolysis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Long-term sub-lethal effects of low concentration commercial herbicide (glyphosate/pelargonic acid) formulation in Bryophyllum pinnatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokhrel, Lok R; Karsai, Istvan

    2015-12-15

    Potential long-term (~7months) sub-lethal impacts of soil-applied low levels of Roundup herbicide formulation were investigated in a greenhouse environment using the vegetative clones of succulent non-crop plant model, Bryophyllum pinnatum (Lam.) Oken. An eleven day LC50 (concentration that killed 50% of the plants) was found to be 6.25% (~1.25mg glyphosate/mL and 1.25mg pelargonic acid/mL combined), and complete mortality occurred at 12.5%, of the field application rate (i.e., ~20mg glyphosate/mL and 20mg pelargonic acid/mL as active ingredients). While sub-lethal Roundup (1-5%) exposures led to hormesis-characterized by a significant increase in biomass and vegetative reproduction, higher concentrations (≥6.25%) were toxic. A significant interaction between Roundup concentrations and leaf biomass was found to influence the F1 plantlets' biomass. Biomass asymmetry generally increased with increasing Roundup concentrations, indicating that plants were more stressed at higher Roundup treatments but within the low-dose regime (≤5% of the as-supplied formulation). While leaf apex region demonstrated higher reproduction with lower biomass increase, leaf basal area showed lower reproduction with greater biomass increase, in plantlets. The results suggest long-term exposures to drifted low levels of Roundup in soil may promote biomass and reproduction in B. pinnatum. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of administration of Lactobacillus crispatus, Clostridium lactatifermentans and dietary lactose on the development of the normal microflora and volatile fatty acids in the caeca of broiler chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Wielen, P W J J; van Knapen, F; Biesterveld, S

    2002-09-01

    1. Lactobacillus crispatus and Clostridium lactatifermentans, both isolated from the caeca of chickens, grown together in an in vitro model system are able to ferment lactose to acetate and propionate. In this study, the capabilities of these organisms were studied in vivo. 2. The effect on concentrations of volatile fatty acids and lactate, together with the development of some bacterial groups in the caeca of chicks, was studied after oral inoculation with L. crispatus and C. lactatifermentans together with dietary lactose. For this purpose, chicks were divided into 4 groups: (i) control group, (ii) dietary lactose, (iii) L. crispatus and C. lactatifermentans, and (iv) dietary lactose together with L. crispitaus and C. lactatifermentans. 3. In general, concentrations of (undissociated) volatile fatty acids in the caeca were not significantly different in broilers receiving both bacteria and dietary lactose compared with control broilers. Concentrations of lactate in the caeca of 14-d-old broilers treated with any of the three treatments were significantly higher than in the caeca of control broilers. 4. This indicates that L. crispatus or other lactate-producing organisms were responsible for the elevated concentrations of lactic acid. Clostridium lactatifermentans has probably not colonised the caeca sufficiently to ferment this lactate further to acetate and propionate. 5. Numbers of Enterobacteriaceae and enterococci in the caeca of broilers receiving both bacteria and dietary lactose were not different from control broilers. 6. We conclude from these results that under the conditions applied in this study a mixture of L. crispatus and C. lactatifermentans with dietary lactose was able to increase lactate concentrations but was unable to increase concentrates of acetate and propionate in the caeca of broiler chicks.

  10. Effects of Gibberellic Acid and Nitrogen on Some Physiology Parameters and Micronutrients Concentration in Pistachio under Salt Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    vahid mozafari

    2017-02-01

    /63, Tissue (Sandy loam, electrical conductivity (ECe (1 dS m-1, Silt (23.1%, Clay (5.5%, Organic matter (0.5%, Olsen phosphorus (P (5.35 mg kg-1, Ammonium acetate-extractable K (100 mg kg-1 were determined. Nitrogen treatments 3 weeks after planting, dissolved in irrigation water was added to pots. Salinity, after the establishment of the plant (5 weeks after planting, divided into two equal parts and one-week interval dissolved with irrigation water was added to the pot. as well acid gibberellic treatments, as spray after salt treatment was applied at three times and at intervals of one week. Results and discussion: The results showed that the salinity content of carotenoid and Chlorophyll fluorescence parameters significantly reduced but with increasing acid gibberellic and nitrogen application, mentioned parameters were significantly increased, compared to controls. The ability of photosynthesis improved and increased productivity. Mozafari et al studied the pistachio, reported that with increasing salinity from zero to 150 and 300 mM NaCl, carotenoids decreased more than 16% and 22% compared to control respectively. Carotenoids play a most important role in light, protecting plants against stress condition. Salinity application increased leaf proline, but with application of 150 mg nitrogen and 500 mg per liter foliar application of acid gibberellics, this parameter increased by 55 and 26 percent, respectively. Also, combined use of these two treatments increased proline content by 79 percent compared to control. The researchers stated that the increasing gibberellin concentration caused leaf proline increased, so spraying 100 and 200 mg per liter gibberellin significantly increased leaf proline compared with the non-application of gibberellin. The results also showed with increasing salinity increased iron, manganese and zinc concentrations shoots and roots and decreased copper concentrations, but using 150 mg of nitrogen and acid gibberellic consumption concentrations

  11. Tangential Flow Ultrafiltration Allows Purification and Concentration of Lauric Acid-/Albumin-Coated Particles for Improved Magnetic Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaloga, Jan; Stapf, Marcus; Nowak, Johannes; Pöttler, Marina; Friedrich, Ralf P; Tietze, Rainer; Lyer, Stefan; Lee, Geoffrey; Odenbach, Stefan; Hilger, Ingrid; Alexiou, Christoph

    2015-08-14

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) are frequently used for drug targeting, hyperthermia and other biomedical purposes. Recently, we have reported the synthesis of lauric acid-/albumin-coated iron oxide nanoparticles SEON(LA-BSA), which were synthesized using excess albumin. For optimization of magnetic treatment applications, SPION suspensions need to be purified of excess surfactant and concentrated. Conventional methods for the purification and concentration of such ferrofluids often involve high shear stress and low purification rates for macromolecules, like albumin. In this work, removal of albumin by low shear stress tangential ultrafiltration and its influence on SEON(LA-BSA) particles was studied. Hydrodynamic size, surface properties and, consequently, colloidal stability of the nanoparticles remained unchanged by filtration or concentration up to four-fold (v/v). Thereby, the saturation magnetization of the suspension can be increased from 446.5 A/m up to 1667.9 A/m. In vitro analysis revealed that cellular uptake of SEON(LA-BSA) changed only marginally. The specific absorption rate (SAR) was not greatly affected by concentration. In contrast, the maximum temperature Tmax in magnetic hyperthermia is greatly enhanced from 44.4 °C up to 64.9 °C by the concentration of the particles up to 16.9 mg/mL total iron. Taken together, tangential ultrafiltration is feasible for purifying and concentrating complex hybrid coated SPION suspensions without negatively influencing specific particle characteristics. This enhances their potential for magnetic treatment.

  12. Minimal concentrations of retinoic acid induce stimulation by retinoic acid 8 and promote entry into meiosis in isolated pregonadal and gonadal mouse primordial germ cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedesco, Marianna; Desimio, Maria Giovanna; Klinger, Francesca Gioia; De Felici, Massimo; Farini, Donatella

    2013-06-01

    In the present study, we demonstrate that minimal concentrations (≤ 1 nM) of retinoic acid (RA), equivalent to the quantity contaminating serum-containing culture medium, are sufficient to promote meiotic entry and progression through meiotic prophase I (MPI) stages in isolated 12.5-days postcoitum (dpc) XX and XY mouse primordial germ cells (PGCs) in culture. Similarly, we found that the same low RA concentration up-regulated or induced stimulation by retinoic acid 8 (Stra8) in such cells, both at mRNA and protein level. In preleptotene/leptotene germ cells, STRA8 was localized in nuclear dots that disappeared at later MPI stages. In addition to Stra8, other meiotic genes such as Dmc1 and Rec8 appeared stimulated by RA directly in PGCs with similar concentration-dependent trends. Finally, we found that RA induced Stra8, Sycp3, Dmc1, and Rec8 transcripts, promoting meiotic entry in culture also in pregonadal 10.5-dpc PGCs of both sexes. When cultured isolated from somatic cells, such PGCs, however, were unable to progress through MPI stages, while after entering meiosis, they progressed through MPI when cultured within aorta/gonad/mesonephros tissues. We conclude that besides RA, germ cell intrinsic factors and other exogenous signals from the surrounding somatic cells are probably necessary for meiotic entry and progression in mouse PGCs.

  13. Evaluation of ultrasonic technique to characterize the concentration of boric acid in liquid medium; Avaliacao de tecnica ultrassonica para medida de concentracao de acido borico em meio liquido

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohara, Richard Yuzo Ramida

    2015-06-01

    This dissertation is to analyze the viability of using ultrasonic technique to characterize the concentration of boric acid in liquid medium non-invasively, therefore, ultrasonic tests were performed relating different boric acid concentrations with the travel time of the ultrasonic wave, also were evaluated factors able to mask the characterization of these concentrations by ultrasonic technique. The results showed that the ultrasonic technique allows the characterization of boric acid concentrations in liquid medium in very simple terms by the ultrasonic wave travel time, requiring further studies in complex conditions. (author)

  14. Copper status, serum cholesterol, and milk fatty acid profile in Holstein cows fed varying concentrations of copper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engle, T E; Fellner, V; Spears, J W

    2001-10-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of dietary copper (Cu) on Cu status and lipid metabolism in Holstein cows. Three primiparous and 21 multiparous Holstein cows were utilized in this experiment. Groups of three cows similar in parity, days in milk, and milk yield were assigned randomly to one of the following three treatments: 1) control (no supplemental Cu), 2) 10 mg of Cu/kg of DM from Cu sulfate (CuSO4), and 3) 40 mg of Cu/kg of DM from CuSO4. Liver Cu concentrations were higher in Cu supplemented cows at the end of the 61-d study. Cows receiving 40 mg of Cu/kg of DM had higher liver Cu concentrations than cows receiving 10 mg of Cu. Plasma Cu concentrations were similar across treatments. Total serum cholesterol concentrations were higher in cows receiving supplemental Cu. Cows receiving 40 mg of Cu/kg of DM had higher serum cholesterol concentrations than cows receiving 10 mg of Cu. Dry matter intake, average daily milk production, and milk lipid, protein, and somatic cell numbers were similar across treatments. On d 61, milk fatty acids C18:1 trans and C18-conjugated dienes were lower in cows receiving supplemental Cu relative to the nonsupplemented controls. Cows receiving 40 mg of Cu/kg of DM had higher C12:0 and lower C18:2 and total polyunsaturated fatty acids in milk than cows receiving 10 mg of Cu/kg of DM. These results indicate that Cu supplementation alters lipid metabolism in high producing dairy cows and that Cu supplementation at 40 mg/kg of DM for 61 d can elevate liver Cu concentrations to levels considered to be marginally toxic in dairy cattle.

  15. Enhancement of gold grade through arsenic removal in the gold concentrate using sulfuric acid baking and hot water leaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    On, Hyun-sung; Lim, Dae-hack; Myung, Eun-ji; Kim, Hyun-soo; Park, Cheon-young

    2017-04-01

    In order to improve gold recovery, in general, the roasting process is carried out on gold concentrate. However in this process, Arsenic(As) is released from the gold concentrate and valuable elements such as Fe, Cu, Zn and Pb are converted into oxides. This causes air pollution through the release of As and loss of valuable elements by discarding the oxide minerals in the tailings. In order to prevent the release of As and the loss of valuable metals, an acid baking experiment was carried out on the gold concentrate with the addition of an H2SO4 solution. The baking effect, H2SO4 concentration effect and the effects of changing the baking time were examined using an electric furnace. In experimental results, soluble metal sulfates such as Rhomboclase and Mikasite were formed in the baked samples as seen through XRD analysis. In hot(70 degree Celsius) water leaching of the roast and baked samples, As the contents leached were 60 times more in the baked sample than the roast sample, and the Fe, Cu, Zn and Pb contents were 17, 10, 14, 13 times in the baked sample than in the roast sample, respectively. In the water leached solid-residues, the maximum gold grade was upgraded by 33% due to the acid baking effect. It is confirmed that acid baking with H2SO4 prevented As release into the air and the recovery of valuable metals through hot water leaching such as Fe, Cu, Zn and Pb which were formerly discarded in the tailings. Acknowledgment : This work was supported by the Energy and Resources Engineering Program Grant funded by the Ministry of Trade, Industry and Energy, Korea

  16. Low serum uric acid concentration augments insulin effects on the prevalence of metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porchia, Leonardo M; Gonzalez-Mejia, M Elba; Torres-Rasgado, Enrique; Ruiz-Vivanco, Guadalupe; Pérez-Fuentes, Ricardo

    2017-12-22

    Insulin and uric acid were shown affect the prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome (MetS), but no studies examine their interaction. Therefore, we conducted this study to determine their biological interaction in subjects from central Mexico. 433 subjects were enrolled for a cross-sectional study. MetS was defined according to the Harmonizing Definition. Hyperuricemia was defined as ≥7.0 mg/dL in males and ≥5.8 mg/dL in females. Hyperinsulinemia was defined as ≥11.0 μU/mL. Pearson correlation coefficient (r) was calculated to determine the association between uric acid or insulin and MetS. Logistic regression was used to determine the risk (odds ratio) of developing MetS. Biological interactions were determined by the PROCESS Macro and Anderson's method. Insulin and uric acid levels were elevated in MetS positive group (p 7.0 mg/dL. When the cohort was separated by hyperinsulinemia and hyperuricemia, there was a significant risk of developing MetS for subjects with hyperuricemia (odds ratio = 2.3; 95%CI: 1.1-4.8, p < .05), hyperinsulinemia (odds ratio = 3.1; 95%CI: 1.9-4.9, p < .05), or both (odds ratio = 7.4; 95%CI: 3.2-17.2, p < .05); however, there was no multiplicative or additive interaction. Here, we show that uric acid and insulin augments the prevalence of MetS; however, no biological interaction was determined for hyperuricemia and hyperinsulinemia. Copyright © 2017 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of ensiling processes and antioxidants on fatty acid concentrations and compositions in corn silages

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Corn silage is the main dietary component used for ruminant breeding in China and is an important dietary source of fatty acids for these animals. However, little is known regarding effective means to protect the fatty acid (FA) contents in silages. In this study, we examined the changes in FA contents and compositions during corn ensiling and screened several antioxidants for their inhibition of lipid oxidation during corn ensiling. Methods We conducted two different experiments. In Experiment 1, corn was ensiled in 30 polyethylene bottles (bottle volume: 1 L, silage density: 600 g/dm3) and three bottles were opened at 0.5 d, 1 d, 1.5 d, 2 d, 2.5 d, 3 d, 5 d, 7 d, 14 d, and 28 d after ensiling. In Experiment 2, corn was treated with various antioxidants: (1) No additives (CK); (2) BHA (Butylated hydroxyanisole); (3) TBHQ (Tertiary butyl hydroquinone); (4) TPP (Tea polyphenols); and (5) VE (Vitamin E). These treatments were applied at 50 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg of fresh weight with each treatment replicated 3 times. Results During ensiling in Experiment 1, saturated fatty acids (SFA; C16:0 and C18:0) and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents tended to increase, whereas unsaturated fatty acids (UFA; C18:1, C18:2 and C18:3) tended to decrease. However, these changes were only significant on the first 2 days of ensiling. In Experiment 2, all of the antioxidants tested affected the total FA contents and those of unsaturated fatty acids (C18:1, C18:2 and C18:3) and MDA. The effects of TBHQ and TPP were greater than those of the other antioxidants. Conclusions The reduced total FA contents in corn silages were due to unsaturated fatty acids’ oxidation during the early stages of ensiling. Adding an antioxidant could prevent fatty acids’ oxidation in corn silages. PMID:24304647

  18. Calculation of HNO2 concentration from redox potential in HNO3-H2O system as an aid to understanding the cathodic reaction of nitric acid corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuchi, Masayuki; Whillock, G.O.H.

    2002-01-01

    Nitrous acid affects the corrosion of metals such as stainless steels in nitric acid. However nitrous acid is not particularly stable in nitric acid and the analytical methods available are quite involved. Accordingly, the calculation of nitrous acid concentration from redox potential was tested in the HNO 3 -H 2 O system as a convenient in situ analysis method. The calculation process is based on Nernst's equation and the required thermodynamic data were obtained from published values. The available thermodynamic data allow calculation of nitrous acid concentration from 273K to 373K for 0%-100% HNO 3 . The redox potential was 8 kmol·m -3 HNO 3 under NO bubbling and the nitrous acid concentration was determined by a Colourimetric method. The calculated data were compared with the measured data and a good agreement was found. It was found that the corrosion potential of stainless steel is influenced by nitrous acid concentration in nitric acid solution. The calculation process is useful for in-situ analysis of nitrous acid species in HNO 3 -H 2 O system and understanding the behavior of the cathodic reaction associated with nitric acid corrosion. (author)

  19. The effects of $\\alpha$-lactalbumin and whey protein concentrate on $\\alpha$-amino acids, calcium and phosphorus levels in blood and gastrointestinal tract of rats

    OpenAIRE

    Pantako, Odile; Amiot, Jean

    2001-01-01

    International audience; The effects of two dietary proteins on $\\alpha$-amino acids, calcium and phosphorus concentrations in plasma, stomach and intestine were investigated in rats trained to consume, in a single two-hour daily meal, diets containing $\\alpha$-lactalbumin ($\\alpha$-la) or whey protein concentrate (WPC) for two weeks. The results indicated that the concentrations of calcium and phosphorus in the gastrointestinal tract and that of $\\alpha$-amino acids in portal vein were not si...

  20. Impacts of phosphorus and zinc levels on phosphorus and zinc nutrition and phytic acid concentration in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xi-wen; Tian, Xiao-hong; Lu, Xin-chun; Cao, Yu-xian; Chen, Zi-hui

    2011-10-01

    Zinc (Zn) and phytic acid content in grain crops are directly related to their nutritional quality and therefore human health. To investigate the nutritional influences of phosphorus (P) and Zn levels on wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), plants were grown hydroponically to maturity in chelator-buffered solutions. Appropriate amounts of P, coupled with sufficient Zn, increased P and Zn concentrations in wheat grain. The Zn supply decreased both phytic acid and the molar ratios of phytic acid to Zn in wheat grain with respect to the Zn(0) treatment. Furthermore, proportions of Zn and P content in the grain relative to that of the whole plant were improved. With increasing P, the proportion of Zn and P content in the grain relative to the whole plant decreased. P and Zn acted antagonistically in roots. Excess P inhibited Zn uptake in roots, while Zn decreased the transfer of P from roots to shoots. For P that had been transported to the shoots, supplemental Zn facilitated its transfer to the grain. Excess P decreased the distribution of Zn in grain, while Zn enhanced the uptake of Zn and P in grain, The combined application of Zn fertilizer with the extensive use of P fertilizer can effectively increase the P and Zn concentration and Zn bioavailability of wheat grain, and hence Zn nutritional quality. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Effect of conjugated linoleic acid supplementation on serum leptin concentration: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghighatdoost, Fahimeh; Hariri, Mitra

    2017-12-07

    There are controversies regarding the effect of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on serum leptin. To conduct a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to assess the effect of CLA on serum leptin concentrations. Databases such as Ovid, PubMed/Medline, SCOPUS, Google Scholar, and ISI databases up to January 2017 were searched. The searches included RCTs conducted among human adults, and studies on the effect of conjugated linoleic acid on serum leptin concentrations as outcome variables. The mean difference and standard deviation of leptin changes in the intervention and control groups were used as effect size measures for the meta-analysis. Eleven trials with thirteen effect sizes were pooled in this meta-analysis. CLA supplementations could not reduce serum leptin levels significantly (-0.12 (ng/ml); 95% CI: -1.29, 1.05; P=0.837). However, the impact of CLA supplementation differed by sex and BMI status. Compared with the control group, CLA administration reduced serum leptin levels significantly in trials conducted among male (-0.86 (ng/ml); 95% CI: -1.11, -0.62; Peffects of conjugated linoleic acid. The protocol was registered as PROSPERO (No. CRD42017059165). Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  2. Effect of pulp preconditioning on acidification, proteolysis, sugars and free fatty acids concentration during fermentation of cocoa (Theobroma cacao) beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afoakwa, Emmanuel Ohene; Quao, Jennifer; Budu, Agnes Simpson; Takrama, Jemmy; Saalia, Firibu Kwesi

    2011-11-01

    Changes in acidification, proteolysis, sugars and free fatty acids (FFAs) concentrations of Ghanaian cocoa beans as affected by pulp preconditioning (pod storage or PS) and fermentation were investigated. Non-volatile acidity, pH, proteolysis, sugars (total, reducing and non-reducing) and FFAs concentrations were analysed using standard methods. Increasing PS consistently decreased the non-volatile acidity with concomitant increase in pH during fermentation of the beans. Fermentation decreased the pH of the unstored beans from 6.7 to 4.9 within the first 4 days and then increased slightly again to 5.3 by the sixth day. Protein, total sugars and non-reducing sugars decreased significantly (p fermentation, whereas reducing sugars and FFA increased. PS increased the FFA levels, reduced the protein content but did not have any effect on the sugars. The rate of total and non-reducing sugars degeneration with concomitant generation of reducing sugars in the cocoa beans was largely affected by fermentation than by PS.

  3. Comparing nonsynergistic gamma models with interaction models to predict growth of emetic Bacillus cereus when using combinations of pH and individual undissociated acids as growth-limiting factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biesta-Peters, E.G.; Reij, M.W.; Gorris, L.G.M.; Zwietering, M.H.

    2010-01-01

    A combination of multiple hurdles to limit microbial growth is frequently applied in foods to achieve an overall level of protection. Quantification of hurdle technology aims at identifying synergistic or multiplicative effects and is still being developed. The gamma hypothesis states that

  4. Formation and degradation kinetics of organic acids during heating and drying of concentrated tomato juice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qiu, Jun; Vuist, Jan Eise; Boom, Remko M.; Schutyser, Maarten A.I.

    2018-01-01

    Tomato products are often thermally processed or concentrated to obtain their desired shelf life and to facilitate transport. However, processing negatively affects the quality of tomato products. This study focused on the influence of processing on the presence of important tomato taste markers,

  5. Concentration of phytic acid in faeces of calves fed starter diets

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dušková, Dagmar; Dvořák, R.; Rada, V.; Doubek, J.; Marounek, Milan

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 70, č. 4 (2001), s. 381-385 ISSN 0001-7213 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/99/0101; GA AV ČR KSK5020115 Keywords : nutrition * concentrated feed * phosphorus Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 0.274, year: 2001

  6. Arsenic-rich acid mine water with extreme arsenic concentration: mineralogy, geochemistry, microbiology, and environmental implications

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Majzlan, J.; Plášil, Jakub; Škoda, R.; Gescher, J.; Kögler, F.; Rusznyak, A.; Küsel, K.; Neu, T.R.; Mangold, S.; Rothe, J.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 23 (2014), s. 13685-13693 ISSN 0013-936X R&D Projects: GA ČR GP13-31276P Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : extreme arsenic concentration Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 5.330, year: 2014

  7. The effects of different indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) concentrations, two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ) concentrations (0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0 and 5.0 mg/l), two light regimes of in vitro rooting and acclimatization on in vitro teak ... those plantlets raised in “jiffy-7” but survival reduced to 40% when grown in the autoclaved soil after one week.

  8. Amino Acid and Mineral Supplementation in Fermentation Process of Concentrate Protein of Jatropha Seed Cake (Jatropha curcas L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titin Widiyastuti

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to assess the optimization of fermentation process by adding a minerals and amino acids so that the potential of protein  of Concentrate Protein-Jatropha seed cake (CP-JSC can be optimally used as a substitute for soybean meal. The method used was completely randomized design. The treatment consisted of F1: Fermentation CP-BBJ + methionine-lysine (0.25%: 0.25%, F2: Fermentation CP-JSC + methionine-lysine (0.5%: 0.5%, F3: F1 + 0.45% Dicalsium Phosphate, F4: F2 + 0.45% Dicalsium Phosphate. Each treatment was repeated four times, When treatment significantly continued by Least Significant Difference (LSD, variables observed are the levels of antinutrients (phorbolester, antitrypsin, the levels of nutrients (fat, protein, crude fiber, Ca, P and gross energy and amino acid. Results of analysis of variance showed that the addition of amino acids and minerals Ca, P in the fermentation process was highly significant effect on the levels of crude fiber and phosphorus (P 0.05. While the levels obtained phorbolester range of 0.055% - 0.08%. It was concluded that the optimization of fermentation can be done without adding the amino acid supplementation of minerals calcium and phosphorus. Supplementation significantly affect a significant increase or decrease in some nutrients (crude fiber, gross energy, phosphor and capable of suppressing a decrease in amino acids. Supplementation of amino acids Lysine and Methionin 0.05% is the best treatment.

  9. Effect of dietary poly unsaturated fatty acids on total brain lipid concentration and anxiety levels of electron beam irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suchetha Kumari; Bekal, Mahesh

    2013-01-01

    The whole brain irradiation causes injury to the nervous system at various levels. Omega-3 poly unsaturated fatty acids are very much essential for the growth and development of nervous system. Dietary supplementation of these nutrients will promote the development of injured neuronal cells. Therefore this study was undertaken to establish the role of Omega-3 poly unsaturated fatty acids on total brain lipid concentration, lipid peroxidation and anxiety levels in the irradiated mice. The effect of Electron Beam Radiation (EBR) on total brain lipid concentration, lipid peroxidation and anxiety level were investigated in male Swiss albino mice. The study groups were subjected to a sub-lethal dose of EBR and also the flax seed extract and fish oil were given orally to the irradiated mice. Irradiated groups show significant elevation in anxiety levels when compared to control group, indicating the acute radiation effects on the central nervous system. But the oral supplementation of dietary PUFA source decrees the anxiety level in the irradiated group. The analysis of lipid peroxidation showed a significant level of changes when compared between control and radiation groups. Dietary PUFA supplementation showed a significant level of decrease in the lipid peroxidation in the irradiated groups. The observation of total lipids in brain shows decrease in concentration in the irradiated groups, the differences in the variables follow the similar patterns as of that the MDA levels. This study suggests that the dietary intake of PUFAs may help in prevention and recovery of the oxidative stress caused by radiation. (author)

  10. Effect of Heat Treatment and Salt Concentration on Free Amino Acids Composition of Sudanese Braided (Muddaffara Cheese during Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed O. E. Altahir

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the effect of heat treatment and salt concentrations (0, 5, and 10% on the free amino acids (FAA composition of Sudanese braided cheese (BC ripened for up to 3 months at 5±2°C. Heat and salt concentration significantly affected the FAA of braided cheese. The free amino acids concentrations of BC ripened in 0%, 5%, and 10% salted whey (SW were significantly fluctuated. Under ripening conditions tested (salt level + time, braided cheese made from pasteurized milk (BCPM had consistently lower values of FAA than braided cheese made from raw milk (BCRM. In fresh cheese, the major FAA in BCRM were Glu (36.12 nmol/ml, Leu (26.77nmol/ml and Lys (14.51 nmol/ml while the major ones in BCPM were Lys (2.94 nmol/ml and Ala (2.45 nmol/ml. BCPM stored in 10% SW had shorter quality life compared to that stored in 5% salted whey.

  11. Serum uric acid concentrations in meat eaters, fish eaters, vegetarians and vegans: a cross-sectional analysis in the EPIC-Oxford cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie A Schmidt

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Circulating concentrations of uric acid may be affected by dietary components such as meat, fish and dairy products, but only a few studies have compared uric acid concentrations among individuals who exclude some or all of these foods from their diet. The aim of this study was to investigate differences in serum uric acid concentrations between meat eaters, fish eaters, vegetarians and vegans. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A sample of 670 men and 1,023 women (424 meat eaters, 425 fish eaters, 422 vegetarians and 422 vegans, matched on age and sex from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition Oxford cohort were included in this cross-sectional analysis. Diet was assessed using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire and serum concentrations of uric acid were measured. Mean concentrations of uric acid by diet group were calculated after adjusting for age, body mass index, calcium and alcohol intake. RESULTS: In both men and women, serum uric acid concentrations differed significantly by diet group (p<0.0001 and p = 0.01, respectively. The differences between diet groups were most pronounced in men; vegans had the highest concentration (340, 95% confidence interval 329-351 µmol/l, followed by meat eaters (315, 306-324 µmol/l, fish eaters (309, 300-318 µmol/l and vegetarians (303, 294-312 µmol/l. In women, serum uric acid concentrations were slightly higher in vegans (241, 234-247 µmol/l than in meat eaters (237, 231-242 µmol/l and lower in vegetarians (230, 224-236 µmol/l and fish eaters (227, 221-233 µmol/l. CONCLUSION: Individuals consuming a vegan diet had the highest serum concentrations of uric acid compared to meat eaters, fish eaters and vegetarians, especially in men. Vegetarians and individuals who eat fish but not meat had the lowest concentrations of serum uric acid.

  12. Serum uric acid concentrations in meat eaters, fish eaters, vegetarians and vegans: a cross-sectional analysis in the EPIC-Oxford cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Julie A; Crowe, Francesca L; Appleby, Paul N; Key, Timothy J; Travis, Ruth C

    2013-01-01

    Circulating concentrations of uric acid may be affected by dietary components such as meat, fish and dairy products, but only a few studies have compared uric acid concentrations among individuals who exclude some or all of these foods from their diet. The aim of this study was to investigate differences in serum uric acid concentrations between meat eaters, fish eaters, vegetarians and vegans. A sample of 670 men and 1,023 women (424 meat eaters, 425 fish eaters, 422 vegetarians and 422 vegans, matched on age and sex) from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition Oxford cohort were included in this cross-sectional analysis. Diet was assessed using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire and serum concentrations of uric acid were measured. Mean concentrations of uric acid by diet group were calculated after adjusting for age, body mass index, calcium and alcohol intake. In both men and women, serum uric acid concentrations differed significantly by diet group (pvegans had the highest concentration (340, 95% confidence interval 329-351 µmol/l), followed by meat eaters (315, 306-324 µmol/l), fish eaters (309, 300-318 µmol/l) and vegetarians (303, 294-312 µmol/l). In women, serum uric acid concentrations were slightly higher in vegans (241, 234-247 µmol/l) than in meat eaters (237, 231-242 µmol/l) and lower in vegetarians (230, 224-236 µmol/l) and fish eaters (227, 221-233 µmol/l). Individuals consuming a vegan diet had the highest serum concentrations of uric acid compared to meat eaters, fish eaters and vegetarians, especially in men. Vegetarians and individuals who eat fish but not meat had the lowest concentrations of serum uric acid.

  13. Lead, zinc, and chromium concentrations in acidic headwater streams in Sweden explained by chemical, climatic, and land-use variations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. J. Huser

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Long-term data series (1996–2009 for eleven acidic headwater streams (< 10 km2 in Sweden were analyzed to determine factors controlling concentrations of trace metals. In-stream chemical data as well climatic, flow, and deposition chemistry data were used to develop models predicting concentrations of chromium (Cr, lead (Pb, and zinc (Zn. Data were initially analyzed using partial least squares to determine a set of variables that could predict metal concentrations across all sites. Organic matter (as absorbance and iron related positively to Pb and Cr, while pH related negatively to Pb and Zn. Other variables such as conductivity, manganese, and temperature were important as well. Multiple linear regression was then used to determine minimally adequate prediction models which explained an average of 35% (Cr, 52% (Zn, and 72% (Pb of metal variation across all sites. While models explained at least 50% of variation in the majority of sites for Pb (10 and Zn (8, only three sites met this criterion for Cr. Investigation of variation between site models for each metal revealed geographical (altitude, chemical (sulfate, and land-use (silvaculture influences on predictive power of the models. Residual analysis revealed seasonal differences in the ability of the models to predict metal concentrations as well. Expected future changes in model variables were applied and results showed the potential for long-term increases (Pb or decreases (Zn for trace metal concentrations at these sites.

  14. BORON CONCENTRATION IN HUMIC AND FULVIC ACID EXTRACTS OF SOIL EPIPEDON IN SAN VITALE PINEWOOD (RAVENNA, ITALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maddalena Pennisi

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Humified Soil Organic Matter (SOM plays a crucial role in the assessment of soil quality since it makes up a significant part of the total organic carbon and nitrogen in soils. High concentrations of humic and fulvic acids may be presents in soils and subordinately in sediments. These substances can potentially act as a significant reservoir of adsorbed boron as well as a source of this element to soil solution, rivers, and lakes. The aim of this study was to investigate boron in humic substances (e.g. humic and fulvic acids of soil epipedon. The San Vitale pinewood was selected as the study site and three samples - classified as Sodic Psammaquents and Typic Psammaquants - of the A1-horizon epipedon were analyzed for humic and fulvic acids and boron contents. The knowledge of the mechanisms of boron interaction with SOM is important for a better understanding of the water/rock interaction in the superficial soil environment, and to envisage the application of the blending of boron into humic acid granules in agricultural practices.

  15. Effects of elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations on water and acid requirements of soybeans grown in a recirculating hydroponic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackowiak, C. L.; Wheeler, R. M.; Lowery, W.; Sager, J. C.

    1990-01-01

    Establishing mass budgets of various crop needs, i.e. water and nutrients, in different environments is essential for the Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS). The effects of CO2 (500 and 1000 umol mol (exp -1)) on water and acid use (for pH control) by soybeans in a recirculating hydroponic system were examined. Plants of cvs. McCall and Pixie were grown for 90 days using the nutrient film technique (NFT) and a nitrate based nutrient solution. System acid use for both CO2 levels peaked near 4 weeks during a phase of rapid vegetative growth, but acid use decreased more rapidly under 500 compared to 1000 umol mol (exp GR) CO2. Total system water use by 500 and 1000 umol mol (exp -1) plants was similar, leaving off at 5 weeks and declining as plants senesced (ca. 9 weeks). However, single leaf transpiration rates were consistently lower at 1000 umol mol (exp -1). The data suggest that high CO2 concentrations increase system acid (and nutrient) use because of increased vegetative growth, which in turn negates the benefit of reduced water use (lower transpiration rates) per unit leaf area.

  16. Energy yields for hydrogen cyanide and formaldehyde syntheses - The HCN and amino acid concentrations in the primitive ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stribling, Roscoe; Miller, Stanley L.

    1987-01-01

    Simulated prebiotic atmospheres containing either CH4, CO, or CO2, in addition to N2, H2O, and variable amounts of H2, were subjected to the spark from a high-frequency Tesla coil, and the energy yields for the syntheses of HCN and H2CO were estimated from periodic (every two days) measurements of the compound concentrations. The mixtures with CH4 were found to yield the highest amounts of HCN, whereas the CO mixtures produced the highest yields of H2CO. These results model atmospheric corona discharges. From the yearly energy yields calculated and the corona discharge available on the earth, the yearly production rate of HCN was estimated; using data on the HCN production rates and the experimental rates of decomposition of amino acids through the submarine vents, the steady state amino acid production rate in the primitive ocean was calculated to be about 10 nmoles/sq cm per year.

  17. Propagation of Chusquea tessellata (Munro culms at different naphthaleneacetic acid concentrations and in different substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennyfer Insuasty-Torres

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Chusquea tessellata is native specie of Colombian wet páramos. Despite the ecological importance of this ecosystem, production activities have altered the structure of the C. tessellata patches. The aim of this study was to evaluate vegetative propagation from sections of culm stimulating their rooting, to have a lot of material for transplantation and with high survival. We tested 56 treatments with three combined factors: phytohormone NAA concentration, type of substrate and type of culm section. After three months we assessed the frequency and number of roots and vegetative shoots. The results suggest that the frequency and quantity of roots and shoots are affected mainly by the type of culm section, the best results is the basal sections, because these sections of culm have the morphological characteristics that allow successful propagation. Shoot production is also affected by interactions between other factors, substrate and NAA concentration

  18. Aloe Vera Effervescent Tablet Formulation: Comparation Study of Acid-Alkali-Aloe Powder and Maltodextrin Concentration

    OpenAIRE

    Kasmawarni, Kasmawarni; Utomo, Pramono Putro

    2010-01-01

    The research on The Application of Effervescent Technology of Aloe vera as Functional Drink has been done. The objectives were to obtain effrvescent tablet prefered by the panelist as well as nutritious as aloe vera-based functional food also to obtain appropriate formula resulting good quality of effervescent tablet. Formulation of effervescent tablet with treatments of maltodextrin concentration were done. The result showed that the best formulas of aloe vera effervescent tablet were aloe v...

  19. Hydrogen evolution activity and electrochemical stability of selected transition metal carbides in concentrated phosphoric acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomás García, Antonio Luis; Jensen, Jens Oluf; Bjerrum, Niels J.

    2014-01-01

    Alternative catalysts based on carbides of Group 5 (niobium and tantalum) and 6 (chromium, molybdenum and tungsten) metals were prepared as films on the metallic substrates. The electrochemical activities of these carbide electrodes towards the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) in concentrated......, attributable to the different electronic structures. Tungsten carbide among the studied electrode samples exhibited the highest HER activity. Upon anodic potential scans in the presence of oxygen, chromium, tantalum and tungsten carbides displayed passivation due to the formation of stable surface layers...

  20. Capillary electrophoresis method for the analysis of organic acids and amino acids in the presence of strongly alternating concentrations of aqueous lactic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laube, Hendrik; Boden, Jana; Schneider, Roland

    2017-07-01

    During the production of bio-based bulk chemicals, such as lactic acid (LA), organic impurities have to be removed to produce a ready-to-market product. A capillary electrophoresis method for the simultaneous detection of LA and organic impurities in less than 10 min was developed. LA and organic impurities were detected using a direct UV detection method with micellar background electrolyte, which consisted of borate and sodium dodecyl sulfate. We investigated the effects of electrolyte composition and temperature on the speed, sensitivity, and robustness of the separation. A few validation parameters, such as linearity, limit of detection, and internal and external standards, were evaluated under optimized conditions. The method was applied for the detection of LA and organic impurities, including tyrosine, phenylalanine, and pyroglutamic acid, in samples from a continuous LA fermentation process from post-extraction tapioca starch and yeast extract.

  1. Single Sodium Pyruvate Ingestion Modifies Blood Acid-Base Status and Post-Exercise Lactate Concentration in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert A. Olek

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the effect of a single sodium pyruvate ingestion on a blood acid-base status and exercise metabolism markers. Nine active, but non-specifically trained, male subjects participated in the double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. One hour prior to the exercise, subjects ingested either 0.1 g·kg−1 of body mass of a sodium pyruvate or placebo. The capillary blood samples were obtained at rest, 60 min after ingestion, and then three and 15 min after completing the workout protocol to analyze acid-base status and lactate, pyruvate, alanine, glucose concentrations. The pulmonary gas exchange, minute ventilation and the heart rate were measured during the exercise at a constant power output, corresponding to ~90% O2max. The blood pH, bicarbonate and the base excess were significantly higher after sodium pyruvate ingestion than in the placebo trial. The blood lactate concentration was not different after the ingestion, but the post-exercise was significantly higher in the pyruvate trial (12.9 ± 0.9 mM than in the placebo trial (10.6 ± 0.3 mM, p < 0.05 and remained elevated (nonsignificant after 15 min of recovery. The blood pyruvate, alanine and glucose concentrations, as well as the overall pulmonary gas exchange during the exercise were not affected by the pyruvate ingestion. In conclusion, the sodium pyruvate ingestion one hour before workout modified the blood acid-base status and the lactate production during the exercise.

  2. Cerebrospinal fluid acid-base status and lactate and pyruvate concentrations after convulsions of varied duration and aetiology in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, H; Habel, A H; George, E L

    1977-01-01

    Twenty-two infants and children were studied after convulsions of varied cause and duration. Arterial and CSF acid-base variables, lactate and pyruvate concentrations, and lactate/pyruvate ratios were measured between 3 and 18 hours after convulsive episodes. Biochemical signs of cerebral hypoxia were found in 7 patients with prolonged (greater than 30 minutes) or recurrent short convulsions. These signs were absent in patients with single short convulsions. These findings indicate that cerebral hypoxia and possible brain damage is a hazard of prolonged or rapidly recurring short convulsions. PMID:23078

  3. Weight gains and increased blood pressure in outpatient hemodialysis patients due to change in acid dialysate concentrate supplier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhu, Eleanor; Crawford, Colley; Davenport, Andrew

    2012-09-01

    Sodium balance during hemodialysis is predominantly achieved by ultrafiltration. The additional effect of diffusional sodium losses and gains remains unclear. We recently changed our dialysate acid concentrate supplier, and although both concentrates were instructed to be diluted 1:44, we audited the practical effects of this change. Review of electronic dialysis and laboratory records of patients attending a satellite dialysis center. 91 adult hemodialysis patients, mean age 61.4 ± 1.7 years, 65% male, 52% diabetic, median dialysate sodium machine setting at 137 mmol/l (137-138), following change in acid dialysate patients dialyzed against a mean measured dialysate sodium of 4.8 (95%cCL 3.6-6.1) mmol/l higher than setting. After six weeks, pre-dialysis weight increased from 75.5 ± 1.9 kg to 76.6 ± 1.9 kg, p<0.001, with increased mean weight loss on dialysis from 2.38 ± 0.1% to 3.28 ± 0.13%, p<0.001, and increase in pre-dialysis mean arterial blood pressure from 91.2 ± 1.5 mmHg to 95.4 ± 1.5 mmHg, p<0.001. Post-dialysis serum sodium increased from 0 (-3 to +3) mmol/l to +3 (1 to 5.5) mmol/l compared to pre-dialysis value, p<0.001. Monthly symptomatic episodes of intradialytic hypotension fell from 69 to 46. After correcting the dialysate sodium setting, blood pressure and weight gains resolved over 4 weeks. Changing dialysate acid concentrates, both labeled 1:44 dilution, led to the delivery of a higher dialysate sodium, resulting in weight gains, increased pre-dialysis blood pressure, but less symptomatic intradialytic hypotension. Following readjustment of volumetric dialysate mixing, excess weight gains and increased blood pressure resolved over 4 weeks, highlighting the importance of checking the delivered dialysate sodium following a change in dialysate acid concentrate.

  4. Concentrations of higher dicarboxylic acids C5–C13 in fresh snow samples collected at the High Alpine Research Station Jungfraujoch during CLACE 5 and 6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Sieg

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Samples of freshly fallen snow were collected at the high alpine research station Jungfraujoch (Switzerland in February and March 2006 and 2007, during the Cloud and Aerosol Characterization Experiments (CLACE 5 and 6. In this study a new technique has been developed and demonstrated for the measurement of organic acids in fresh snow. The melted snow samples were subjected to solid phase extraction and resulting solutions analysed for organic acids by HPLC-MS-TOF using negative electrospray ionization. A series of linear dicarboxylic acids from C5 to C13 and phthalic acid, were identified and quantified. In several samples the biogenic acid pinonic acid was also observed. In fresh snow the median concentration of the most abundant acid, adipic acid, was 0.69 μg L−1 in 2006 and 0.70 μg L−1 in 2007. Glutaric acid was the second most abundant dicarboxylic acid found with median values of 0.46 μg L−1 in 2006 and 0.61 μg L−1 in 2007, while the aromatic acid phthalic acid showed a median concentration of 0.34 μg L−1 in 2006 and 0.45 μg L−1 in 2007. The concentrations in the samples from various snowfall events varied significantly, and were found to be dependent on the back trajectory of the air mass arriving at Jungfraujoch. Air masses of marine origin showed the lowest concentrations of acids whereas the highest concentrations were measured when the air mass was strongly influenced by boundary layer air.

  5. Effects on lactating dairy cows of oscillating dietary concentrations of unsaturated and total long-chain fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, W P; Shoemaker, D E; McBeth, L R; St-Pierre, N R

    2013-01-01

    The nutrient composition of diets can vary from batch to batch because of variation in the nutrient composition of ingredients. The concentration of fat in distillers grains can be highly variable and, coupled with a high dietary inclusion rate, can result in substantial variation in the fat concentration of the total diet. Our hypothesis was that variation in dietary fat concentrations over short periods would have negative effects on production measures of dairy cattle. Twenty-four Holstein cows were used in 8 truncated Latin squares (3 cows × 2 periods). Periods were 16 d long, with a 12-d washout period separating the 2 periods. The 3 treatments were 1) control, 2) moderate variation, and 3) high variation. The control treatment was a consistent diet over the 16 d and contained 5.8% (dry basis) total long-chain fatty acids (LCFA), 23.7% distillers grains, and 1.1% of dry matter as corn oil. The average concentration of LCFA over the 16-d period for the moderate variation and high variation treatments was also 5.9%, but concentrations of LCFA varied over time by the addition or removal of corn oil. The moderate variation treatment had a 4-d phase of 5.4% LCFA, followed by a 4-d phase with 6.4% LCFA to complete the cycle, and then the cycle was repeated. The high variation treatment followed the same cycle pattern, but concentration of LCFA was either 4.8 or 7.0%. Over the 16 d, dry matter intake and milk yield were significantly decreased by the high variation treatment (intake = 21.7, 21.8, and 20.7 kg/d; milk = 36.4, 37.6, and 35.4 kg/d for the control, moderate variation, and high variation treatments). The effect of variation appeared to be cumulative; differences were not significant in the first 8-d cycle but were in the second 8-d cycle. Milk fat concentration was low (2.4%) and was not affected by treatment or cycle × treatment. The concentration of trans-10 C18:1 in milk fat was very high (4.2% of total milk fatty acids) but was not affected by

  6. Concentrated Phosphatidic Acid in Cereal Brans as Potential Protective Agents against Indomethacin-Induced Stomach Ulcer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afroz, Sheuli; Ikoma, Teru; Yagi, Ayano; Kogure, Kentaro; Tokumura, Akira; Tanaka, Tamotsu

    2016-09-21

    One of complications associated with long-term use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) is peptic ulcer. Recently, we found that orally administered phosphatidic acid (PA) ameliorated aspirin-induced stomach lesions in mice. In this study, we identified PA-rich food sources and examined the effects of the food materials on indomethacin-induced stomach ulcer. Among examined, buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) bran contained the highest level of PA (188 mg/100 g). PA was the richest phospholipid (25%) in the lipid fraction of the buckwheat bran. Administration of the lipid extracts of buckwheat bran significantly ameliorated indomethacin-induced stomach lesions in mice. In contrast, wheat (Triticum durum) bran lipids (PA, 4%) and soybean (Glycine max) lipids (PA, 3%) were not associated with ameliorative effects. These results indicated that PA-rich lipids can be used as an effective supplement for prevention of NSAID-induced stomach ulcer.

  7. Demineralization of root canal dentine with EDTA and citric acid in different concentrations, pH and application times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr.Sc. Nexhmije Ajeti

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aims of the study are: 1. Determination of the amount of extracted Ca ions from den-tine using 17% and 10% EDTA, at pH 7 and pH 9. 2. Determination of the amount of extracted Ca ions from  den-tine using citric acid 5% and 1%, at pH 7 and pH 9.  Methodology 30 extracted, single rooted, human teeth were tested. Their crowns were sectioned at CEJ using diamond disks. The root canals were manually prepared with K-files #50-60. After each instrument 2.5 ml of 5.25% NaOCl was used and 0.9 NaCl as final irrigation. All teeth were longitudinally sectioned and 8 samples of dentine taken from each sample. EDTA 10% and 17 % and citric acid 1% and 5% in neutral and alkaline pH were used.  Each sample was immersed in acid and then exposure time was evaluated after 1, 5, 10, 15 and 25 min. The release rate of calcium ions from root dentine was evaluated by atomic absorption spectrometer.  Results There were significant differences in the amount of extracted Ca by citric acid 1% and 5% or EDTA 10% and 17% in human teeth.  Conclusions It may be concluded that EDTA is a better chelating agent than citric acid. The decalcifying activity of these solutions is related to the duration of exposure, pH and their concentrations.

  8. Caffeic Acid Reduces the Viability and Migration Rate of Oral Carcinoma Cells (SCC-25 Exposed to Low Concentrations of Ethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkadiusz Dziedzic

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol increases the risk of carcinoma originated from oral epithelium, but the biological effects of ultra-low doses of ethanol on existing carcinoma cells in combination with natural substances are still unclear. A role for ethanol (EtOH, taken in small amounts as an ingredient of some beverages or mouthwashes to change the growth behavior of established squamous cell carcinoma, has still not been examined sufficiently. We designed an in vitro study to determine the effect of caffeic acid (CFA on viability and migration ability of malignant oral epithelial keratinocytes, exposed to ultra-low concentrations (maximum 100 mmol/L EtOH. MTT (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-dimethyltetrazolium bromide and LDH (lactate dehydrogenase assays were used to assess the cytotoxic effect of EtOH/CFA and the viability of squamous carcinoma SCC-25 cells (ATCC CRL-1628, mobile part of the tongue. Tested EtOH concentrations were: 2.5, 5, 10, 25, 50, and 100 mmol/L, along with an equal CFA concentration of 50 μmol/L. Carcinoma cells’ migration was investigated by monolayer “wound” healing assay. We demonstrated that very low concentrations of EtOH ranging between 2.5 and 10 mmol/L may induce the viability of oral squamous cell carcinoma cells, while the results following addition of CFA reveal an antagonistic effect, attenuating pro-proliferative EtOH activity. The migration rate of oral squamous carcinoma cells can be significantly inhibited by the biological activity of caffeic acid.

  9. THE EFFECT OF SULPHURIC ACID CONCENTRATION ON SOLVENT EXTRACTION OF ReO4 - BY THE LONG-CHAIN ALIPHATIC TERTIARY AMINES AND ALCOHOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksander G. Kasikov

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of sulphuric acid concentration on solvent extraction of ReO4- by the long-chain aliphatic tertiary amines and alcohols in a wide range of H2SO4 concentrations in initial solutions is discussed. It has been established that the influence of the sulphuric acid concentration on rhenium solvent extraction is largely due to the extraction process mechanism. In the case of the anion-exchange mechanism, ReO4- is best extracted from weakly acidic solutions, whereas when the hydrate-solvate mechanism takes place – from solutions containing 4-7 mole/l H2SO4.

  10. [Human milk - variations in lactose, potassium, sodium and total lipid concentrations and in fatty acids composition of lactating women in early puerperium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavric, M; Dolar, J

    1976-01-01

    Some biochemical components were studied in the milk of 16 lactating women during the first six postpartum days. A gradual increase in the lactose and potassium concentration and a decrease in the sodium concentration were observed, as well as an increase in the total lipids concentration and a significant shifting in the fatty acids composition where the biosynthesis of the fatty acids with a lower number of C atoms (C 10:0, C12:0, C 14:0) at the expence of the fatty acids with higher C atoms number was intensified.

  11. Lyophilisation and concentration of chitosan/siRNA polyplexes: Influence of buffer composition, oligonucleotide sequence, and hyaluronic acid coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veilleux, Daniel; Gopalakrishna Panicker, Rajesh Krishnan; Chevrier, Anik; Biniecki, Kristof; Lavertu, Marc; Buschmann, Michael D

    2018-02-15

    Chitosan (CS)/siRNA polyplexes have great therapeutic potential for treating multiple diseases by gene silencing. However, clinical application of this technology requires the development of concentrated, hemocompatible, pH neutral formulations for safe and efficient administration. In this study we evaluate physicochemical properties of chitosan polyplexes in various buffers at increasing ionic strengths, to identify conditions for freeze-drying and rehydration at higher doses of uncoated or hyaluronic acid (HA)-coated polyplexes while maintaining physiological compatibility. Optimized formulations are used to evaluate the impact of the siRNA/oligonucleotide sequence on polyplex physicochemical properties, and to measure their in vitro silencing efficiency, cytotoxicity, and hemocompatibility. Specific oligonucleotide sequences influence polyplex physical properties at low N:P ratios, as well as their stability during freeze-drying. Nanoparticles display greater stability for oligodeoxynucleotides ODN vs siRNA; AT-rich vs GC-rich; and overhangs vs blunt ends. Using this knowledge, various CS/siRNA polyplexes are prepared with and without HA coating, freeze-dried and rehydrated at increased concentrations using reduced rehydration volumes. These polyplexes are non-cytotoxic and preserve silencing activity even after rehydration to 20-fold their initial concentration, while HA-coated polyplexes at pH∼7 also displayed increased hemocompatibility. These concentrated formulations represent a critical step towards clinical development of chitosan-based oligonucleotide intravenous delivery systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Improved glucose metabolism following bariatric surgery is associated with increased circulating bile acid concentrations and remodeling of the gut microbiome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaska, Lukasz; Sledzinski, Tomasz; Chomiczewska, Agnieszka; Dettlaff-Pokora, Agnieszka; Swierczynski, Julian

    2016-01-01

    Clinical studies have indicated that circulating bile acid (BA) concentrations increase following bariatric surgery, especially following malabsorptive procedures such as Roux-en-Y gastric bypasses (RYGB). Moreover, total circulating BA concentrations in patients following RYGB are positively correlated with serum glucagon-like peptide-1 concentrations and inversely correlated with postprandial glucose concentrations. Overall, these data suggest that the increased circulating BA concentrations following bariatric surgery - independently of calorie restriction and body-weight loss - could contribute, at least in part, to improvements in insulin sensitivity, incretin hormone secretion, and postprandial glycemia, leading to the remission of type-2 diabetes (T2DM). In humans, the primary and secondary BA pool size is dependent on the rate of biosynthesis and the enterohepatic circulation of BAs, as well as on the gut microbiota, which play a crucial role in BA biotransformation. Moreover, BAs and gut microbiota are closely integrated and affect each other. Thus, the alterations in bile flow that result from anatomical changes caused by bariatric surgery and changes in gut microbiome may influence circulating BA concentrations and could subsequently contribute to T2DM remission following RYGB. Research data coming largely from animal and cell culture models suggest that BAs can contribute, via nuclear farnezoid X receptor (FXR) and membrane G-protein-receptor (TGR-5), to beneficial effects on glucose metabolism. It is therefore likely that FXR, TGR-5, and BAs play a similar role in glucose metabolism following bariatric surgery in humans. The objective of this review is to discuss in detail the results of published studies that show how bariatric surgery affects glucose metabolism and subsequently T2DM remission. PMID:27818587

  13. Improved glucose metabolism following bariatric surgery is associated with increased circulating bile acid concentrations and remodeling of the gut microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaska, Lukasz; Sledzinski, Tomasz; Chomiczewska, Agnieszka; Dettlaff-Pokora, Agnieszka; Swierczynski, Julian

    2016-10-21

    Clinical studies have indicated that circulating bile acid (BA) concentrations increase following bariatric surgery, especially following malabsorptive procedures such as Roux-en-Y gastric bypasses (RYGB). Moreover, total circulating BA concentrations in patients following RYGB are positively correlated with serum glucagon-like peptide-1 concentrations and inversely correlated with postprandial glucose concentrations. Overall, these data suggest that the increased circulating BA concentrations following bariatric surgery - independently of calorie restriction and body-weight loss - could contribute, at least in part, to improvements in insulin sensitivity, incretin hormone secretion, and postprandial glycemia, leading to the remission of type-2 diabetes (T2DM). In humans, the primary and secondary BA pool size is dependent on the rate of biosynthesis and the enterohepatic circulation of BAs, as well as on the gut microbiota, which play a crucial role in BA biotransformation. Moreover, BAs and gut microbiota are closely integrated and affect each other. Thus, the alterations in bile flow that result from anatomical changes caused by bariatric surgery and changes in gut microbiome may influence circulating BA concentrations and could subsequently contribute to T2DM remission following RYGB. Research data coming largely from animal and cell culture models suggest that BAs can contribute, via nuclear farnezoid X receptor (FXR) and membrane G-protein-receptor (TGR-5), to beneficial effects on glucose metabolism. It is therefore likely that FXR, TGR-5, and BAs play a similar role in glucose metabolism following bariatric surgery in humans. The objective of this review is to discuss in detail the results of published studies that show how bariatric surgery affects glucose metabolism and subsequently T2DM remission.

  14. Meta-analysis of 28,141 individuals identifies common variants within five new loci that influence uric acid concentrations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Kolz

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Elevated serum uric acid levels cause gout and are a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and diabetes. To investigate the polygenetic basis of serum uric acid levels, we conducted a meta-analysis of genome-wide association scans from 14 studies totalling 28,141 participants of European descent, resulting in identification of 954 SNPs distributed across nine loci that exceeded the threshold of genome-wide significance, five of which are novel. Overall, the common variants associated with serum uric acid levels fall in the following nine regions: SLC2A9 (p = 5.2x10(-201, ABCG2 (p = 3.1x10(-26, SLC17A1 (p = 3.0x10(-14, SLC22A11 (p = 6.7x10(-14, SLC22A12 (p = 2.0x10(-9, SLC16A9 (p = 1.1x10(-8, GCKR (p = 1.4x10(-9, LRRC16A (p = 8.5x10(-9, and near PDZK1 (p = 2.7x10(-9. Identified variants were analyzed for gender differences. We found that the minor allele for rs734553 in SLC2A9 has greater influence in lowering uric acid levels in women and the minor allele of rs2231142 in ABCG2 elevates uric acid levels more strongly in men compared to women. To further characterize the identified variants, we analyzed their association with a panel of metabolites. rs12356193 within SLC16A9 was associated with DL-carnitine (p = 4.0x10(-26 and propionyl-L-carnitine (p = 5.0x10(-8 concentrations, which in turn were associated with serum UA levels (p = 1.4x10(-57 and p = 8.1x10(-54, respectively, forming a triangle between SNP, metabolites, and UA levels. Taken together, these associations highlight additional pathways that are important in the regulation of serum uric acid levels and point toward novel potential targets for pharmacological intervention to prevent or treat hyperuricemia. In addition, these findings strongly support the hypothesis that transport proteins are key in regulating serum uric acid levels.

  15. Dynamics in the concentrations of health-promoting compounds: lupeol, mangiferin and different phenolic acids during postharvest ripening of mango fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vithana, Mekhala Dk; Singh, Zora; Johnson, Stuart K

    2018-03-01

    Mango fruit (Mangifera indica L.) is renowned for its pleasant taste and as a rich source of health beneficial compounds. The aim of this study was to investigate the changes in concentrations of health-promoting compounds, namely ascorbic acid, carotenoids, antioxidants, lupeol, mangiferin, total phenols and individual phenolic acids, as well as ethylene production and respiration rates during climacteric ripening in 'Kensington Pride' and 'R2E2' mango fruit. The climacteric ethylene and respiration peaks were noted on the third day of the fruit ripening period. The concentrations of total carotenoids in the pulp, total antioxidants in both pulp and peel, and total phenols of the peel, lupeol and mangiferin were significantly elevated, whereas the concentration of ascorbic acid declined during post-climacteric ripening. Gallic, chlorogenic and vanillic acids were identified as the major phenolic acids in both pulp and peel of 'Kensington Pride' and 'R2E2' mangoes. The concentrations of phenolic acids (gallic, chlorogenic, vanillic, ferulic and caffeic acids) also increased during the post-climacteric phase. The concentrations of all phenolic compounds were several-fold higher in the peel than pulp. Mangoes at post-climacteric ripening phase offer the highest concentrations of health-promoting compounds. Peel, at this stage of fruit ripening, could be exploited as a good source for extraction of these compounds. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Effect of concentration of hyaluronic acid and NaCl on corrosion behavior of 316L austenitic stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansod, Ankur V.; Khobragade, Nilay N.; Giradkar, Karansagar V.; Patil, Awanikumar P.

    2017-11-01

    Due to low cost and easily available material, 316L stainless steel (SS) is used for biomedical implants. The electrochemical corrosion behavior of 316L (SS) was studied as a function of the concentration of simulated biological fluid (hyaluronic acid), the influence of Cl‑ and the combined effect of NaCl and hyaluronic acid (HA). For the electrochemical tests, potentiodynamic polarization test and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) were undertaken. With the increase in HA concentration, corrosion rate increases. Whereas, with the addition of NaCl to HA the solution, the corrosion resistance of the sample was enhanced. Also, in pure NaCl solution, the corrosion current density (i corr) increased as compared to bare HA and HA  +  NaCl. This is due to the adhesion property of the HA on the sample surface. EIS result agrees with the findings of potentiodynamic polarization tests. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was executed to analyze the passive film formed in the solution of HA and NaCl on 316L SS. XPS spectra confirms the formation of the passive film containing chromium oxide and hydroxides. Also, the formation of MoO2 helps in improving better corrosion resistance. The peak of nitrogen was observed in the sample immersed in HA solution. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) was carried out to analyze the surface morphology.

  17. Investigating the formation of acid mine drainage of Toledo pyrite concentrate using column cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguila, Diosa Marie

    2018-01-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) is an inevitable problem in mining and has adverse effects in water quality. Studying AMD formation will be valuable in controlling the composition of mine waters and in planning the rehabilitation method for a mine. In this research, kinetics of AMD formation of Toledo pyrite was studied using two column experiments. The mechanisms of AMD formation and the effects of various factors on pH drop were first studied. Another column test was done for validation and to study the role of Fe2+/Fe3+ ratio in the change of leachate pH. The first experiment revealed that time and particle size are the most significant factors. It was also observed that the sudden pH drop during the starting hours was due to cracks formed from beneficiation, and the formation of Fe(OH)3. The laddered behavior of pH thereafter was due to decrease in formation of Fe(OH)3, and the precipitates in pyrite surface that lowered the surface area available for pyrite oxidation. The results of the second experiment validated the laddered behavior of pH. It was also observed that particle size distribution and pyrite surface were affected by the change in pH. Fe2+/Fe3+ ratio of leachate generally decreased as pH dropped.

  18. Bicarbonate Concentration, Acid-Base Status, and Mortality in the Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Rachel A.; Shlipak, Michael G.; Satterfield, Suzanne; Huston, Hunter K.; Sebastian, Anthony; Sellmeyer, Deborah E.; Patel, Kushang V.; Newman, Anne B.; Sarnak, Mark J.; Ix, Joachim H.; Fried, Linda F.

    2016-01-01

    Background and objectives Low serum bicarbonate associates with mortality in CKD. This study investigated the associations of bicarbonate and acid-base status with mortality in healthy older individuals. Design, setting, participants, & measurements We analyzed data from the Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study, a prospective study of well functioning black and white adults ages 70–79 years old from 1997. Participants with arterialized venous blood gas measurements (n=2287) were grouped into metabolic acidosis, 1.21 (95% CI, 1.01 to 1.46) for respiratory alkalosis, and 1.35 (95% CI, 1.08 to 1.69) for metabolic alkalosis categories. Respiratory acidosis did not associate with mortality. Conclusions In generally healthy older individuals, low serum bicarbonate associated with higher mortality independent of systemic pH and potential confounders. This association seemed to be present regardless of whether the cause of low bicarbonate was metabolic acidosis or respiratory alkalosis. Metabolic alkalosis also associated with higher mortality. PMID:26769766

  19. Combined dietary folate, vitamin B-12, and vitamin B-6 intake influences plasma docosahexaenoic acid concentration in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Wijk Nick

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Folate, vitamin B-12, and vitamin B-6 are essential nutritional components in one-carbon metabolism and are required for methylation capacity. The availability of these vitamins may therefore modify methylation of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE to phosphatidylcholine (PC by PE-N-methyltransferase (PEMT in the liver. It has been suggested that PC synthesis by PEMT plays an important role in the transport of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs like docosahexaenoic acid (DHA from the liver to plasma and possibly other tissues. We hypothesized that if B-vitamin supplementation enhances PEMT activity, then supplementation could also increase the concentration of plasma levels of PUFAs such as DHA. To test this hypothesis, we determined the effect of varying the combined dietary intake of these three B-vitamins on plasma DHA concentration in rats. Methods In a first experiment, plasma DHA and plasma homocysteine concentrations were measured in rats that had consumed a B-vitamin-poor diet for 4 weeks after which they were either continued on the B-vitamin-poor diet or switched to a B-vitamin-enriched diet for another 4 weeks. In a second experiment, plasma DHA and plasma homocysteine concentrations were measured in rats after feeding them one of four diets with varying levels of B-vitamins for 4 weeks. The diets provided 0% (poor, 100% (normal, 400% (enriched, and 1600% (high of the laboratory rodent requirements for each of the three B-vitamins. Results Plasma DHA concentration was higher in rats fed the B-vitamin-enriched diet than in rats that were continued on the B-vitamin-poor diet (P = 0.005; experiment A. Varying dietary B-vitamin intake from deficient to supra-physiologic resulted in a non-linear dose-dependent trend for increasing plasma DHA (P = 0.027; experiment B. Plasma DHA was lowest in rats consuming the B-vitamin-poor diet (P > 0.05 vs. normal, P . enriched and high and highest in rats consuming the

  20. Corrosion behaviour and structure of the surface layer formed on austempered ductile iron in concentrated sulphuric acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krawiec, H. [AGH University of Science and Technology, Department of Foundry Engineering, ul. Reymonta 23, 30-059 Cracow (Poland)]. E-mail: krawiec@uci.agh.edu.pl; Stypula, B. [AGH University of Science and Technology, Department of Foundry Engineering, ul. Reymonta 23, 30-059 Cracow (Poland); Stoch, J. [Institute of Catalysis and Surface Chemistry, Polish Academy of Sciences (PAS), ul. Niezapominajek 8, 30-239 Cracow (Poland); Mikolajczyk, M. [Institute of Catalysis and Surface Chemistry, Polish Academy of Sciences (PAS), ul. Niezapominajek 8, 30-239 Cracow (Poland)

    2006-03-15

    The aim of this paper is to investigate the structure of the surface layer formed on austempered ductile iron (ADI) after exposure to hot concentrated sulphuric acid at the open circuit potential value (OCP). The results derived from polarization measurements carried out in sulphuric acid at a temperature of 90 deg. C show that anodic dissolution of ADI is divided into three stages (corresponding to three anodic dissolution peaks). The structure of the layer formed on alloys at 90 deg. C at OCP was investigated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). SEM analysis shows that the main elements of the surface layer are iron, silicon, oxygen, sulphur, and carbon. The binding energy recorded in individual bands indicates that the surface layer includes mainly SiO{sub 2} and FeOOH. The presence of sulphur at the lower oxidation state (S{sup 2-}) indicates that sulphuric acid undergoes reduction during this process. The corrosion resistance of these alloys is connected with the presence of SiO{sub 2} in the surface layer.

  1. Shifts in production of perfluoroalkyl acids affect emissions and concentrations in the environment of the Xiaoqing River Basin, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Pei; Lu, Yonglong; Wang, Tieyu; Meng, Jing; Li, Qifeng; Zhu, Zhaoyun; Sun, Yajun; Wang, Ruoshi; Giesy, John P.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Mass loads demonstrated a greater pattern of increasing PFAAs emissions. • High levels of PFOA were identified near a fluoropolymer facility. • Production activities that could generate PFOA emissions were analyzed. • Partitioning coefficients decreased with high levels of short-chain PFCAs in water. - Abstract: Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) have been widely used in surfactant applications, especially as processing acids for fluoropolymer production. This study provides an analysis of sources of certain PFAAs emitted from the intensive fluoropolymer facilities in the Xiaoqing River Basin of China. Concentrations of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) as great as 0.97 mg/L in surface water and 10.5 μg/g dry weight in surface sediment have been detected near the effluent of one facility (F1) that produces polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and other fluoropolymers with massive capacity. With the great emission of PFAAs to water in natural conditions, the log K OC values decreased for short-chain PFCAs. Mass loads of PFAAs indicated that emissions of PFAAs from other facilities or sources were much less than those from F1, which emitted 174 kg/d of PFAAs including 159 kg/d of PFOA to the rivers. Even though production and emissions of PFOA have been strictly controlled in other countries since 2006, production of PFOA as well as several other fluoropolymers that use PFOA as processing aids has been increasing at F1 in recent years. We recommended that production shift should be taken into consideration in PFOA elimination actions.

  2. Effect of Safflower Oil on Concentration of Conjugated Linoleic Acid of Kefir Prepared by Low-fat Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farsad-Naeimi, Alireza; Imani, Saeid; Arefhosseini, Seyed R; Alizadeh, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a special fatty acid in dairy products with unique antioxidant and anti-cancerous effects. Kefir, a milk product, comprises normalized homogenized cow's milk, the fructose and lactulose syrup as well as a symbiotic starter which has improved probiotic characteristics. The study was aimed to discuss patents and to examine the effect of different safflower oil concentrations on CLA content of the kefir drink prepared by low-fat milk. Safflower oil was added at 0.1, 0.3 and 0.5% (V/V) to low-fat cow's milk and six formulations of kefir samples were prepared. The CLA content of the kefir products was measured at pH=6.0 and pH=6.8 by gas chromatography. Acid and bile tolerance of bacterial microenvironment in the products were also determined. Substitution of natural fat content of milk with safflower oil resulted in proportional increase in the CLA contents of kefir in a dose dependent manner. The highest concentration of CLA was found under 0.5% (V/V) of safflower oil at pH 6.0 and temperature of 37 °C. Adding the Safflower oil into milk used for kefir production, increased CLA content from 0.123 (g/100 g) in pure safflower free samples to 0.322 (g/100 g) in samples with 0.5% (V/V) of safflower oil. The current study revealed that substitution of safflower oil with natural fat of cow's milk may help the production of kefir samples with remarkable increase in CLA content of final product.

  3. Meal composition and plasma amino acid ratios: Effect of various proteins or carbohydrates, and of various protein concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokogoshi, Hidehiko; Wurtman, Richard J.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of meals containing various proteins and carbohydrates, and of those containing various proportions of protein (0 percent to 20 percent of a meal, by weight) or of carbohydrate (0 percent to 75 percent), on plasma levels of certain large neutral amino acids (LNAA) in rats previously fasted for 19 hours were examined. Also the plasma tryptophan ratios (the ratio of the plasma trytophan concentration to the summed concentrations of the other large neutral amino acids) and other plasma amino acid ratios were calculated. (The plasma tryptophan ratio has been shown to determine brain tryptophan levels and, thereby, to affect the synthesis and release of the neurotransmitter serotonin). A meal containing 70 percent to 75 percent of an insulin-secreting carbohydrate (dextrose or dextrin) increased plasma insulin levels and the tryptophan ratio; those containing 0 percent or 25 percent carbohydrate failed to do so. Addition of as little as 5 percent casein to a 70 percent carbohydrate meal fully blocked the increase in the plasma tryptophan ratio without affecting the secretion of insulin - probably by contributing much larger quantities of the other LNAA than of tryptophan to the blood. Dietary proteins differed in their ability to suppress the carbohydrate-induced rise in the plasma tryptophan ratio. Addition of 10 percent casein, peanut meal, or gelatin fully blocked this increase, but lactalbumin failed to do so, and egg white did so only partially. (Consumption of the 10 percent gelatin meal also produced a major reduction in the plasma tyrosine ratio, and may thereby have affected brain tyrosine levels and catecholamine synthesis.) These observations suggest that serotonin-releasing neurons in brains of fasted rats are capable of distinguishing (by their metabolic effects) between meals poor in protein but rich in carbohydrates that elicit insulin secretion, and all other meals. The changes in brain serotonin caused by carbohydrate-rich, protein

  4. Plasma concentrations of trans fatty acids in persons with type 2 diabetes between September 2002 and April 200412345

    OpenAIRE

    Schwenke, Dawn C; Foreyt, John P; Miller, Edgar R; Reeves, Rebecca S; Vitolins, Mara Z

    2013-01-01

    Background: transFatty acids (TFAs) increase cardiovascular disease risk. TFAs and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in the food supply may be declining with reciprocal increases in cis-monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) and saturated fatty acids (SFAs).

  5. The influence of poly(acrylic) acid number average molecular weight and concentration in solution on the compressive fracture strength and modulus of a glass-ionomer restorative.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dowling, Adam H

    2011-06-01

    The aim was to investigate the influence of number average molecular weight and concentration of the poly(acrylic) acid (PAA) liquid constituent of a GI restorative on the compressive fracture strength (σ) and modulus (E).

  6. Effect of biotin and pantothenic acid on performance and concentrations of avidin-binding substances in blood and milk of lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Gonzalo; Brown, Alston N; Teets, Christy L

    2015-09-01

    We hypothesized that pantothenic acid reduces the absorption of biotin in lactating dairy cows. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the plausible interaction between biotin and pantothenic acid on production performance and concentration of avidin-binding substances (ABS), an indicator of biotin concentration, in blood and milk of lactating dairy cows. Eight primiparous and 16 multiparous Holstein cows were assigned to 1 of 4 diet sequences in a replicated 4×4 Latin square design with 18-d periods. Cows were housed in a freestall barn and fed once daily (0730 h) by means of a Calan gate system (American Calan Inc., Northwood, NH). Treatments consisted of a control diet that contained no B-vitamins, a biotin diet that contained 0.87 mg of biotin per kilogram of dry matter (DM), a pantothenic acid diet that contained 21 mg of pantothenic acid per kilogram of DM, and a biotin plus pantothenic acid diet that contained 0.87 mg of biotin and 21 mg of calcium pantothenic acid per kilogram of DM. Four different concentrates were prepared in a commercial feed mill. These concentrates were mixed with corn silage and grass hay and delivered ad libitum as a total mixed ration. Biotin supplementation did not affect DM intake, milk yield, or milk fat, protein, lactose, and milk-urea-nitrogen concentrations. Fat, protein, and lactose yields were not affected by treatments. The fat-to-protein ratio was Biotin supplementation did not increase the concentration of ABS in plasma. The supplementation of pantothenic acid did not affect the concentration of ABS in plasma when either supplemented alone or in combination with biotin. Biotin supplementation increased the concentration of ABS in milk relative to control. Contrary to our hypothesis, the supplementation of pantothenic acid did not decrease the concentration of ABS in milk relative to the control. When cows were supplemented with both biotin and pantothenic acid, the concentration of ABS in milk was similar

  7. Amino acid fortified diets for weanling pigs replacing fish meal and whey protein concentrate: Effects on growth, immune status, and gut health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yan; Weaver, Alexandra C; Fellner, Vivek; Payne, Robert L; Kim, Sung Woo

    2014-01-01

    Limited availability of fish meal and whey protein concentrate increases overall feed costs. Availability of increased number of supplemental amino acids including Lys, Met, Thr, Trp, Val, and Ile allows replacing expensive protein supplements to reduce feed costs. This study was to evaluate the effect of replacing fish meal and/or whey protein concentrate in nursery diets with 6 supplemental amino acids on growth performance and gut health of post-weaning pigs. Treatments were 1) FM-WPC: diet with fish meal (FM) and whey protein concentrate (WPC); 2) FM-AA: diet with FM and crystalline amino acids (L-Lys, L-Thr, L-Trp, DL-Met, L-Val, and L-Ile); 3) WPC-AA: diet with WPC and crystalline amino acid; and 4) AA: diet with crystalline amino acid. Pigs in FM-AA, WPC-AA, and AA had greater (P replace fish meal and/or whey protein concentrate without adverse effects on growth performance, immune status, and gut health of pigs at d 21 to 49 of age. Positive response with the use of 6 supplemental amino acids in growth during the first week of post-weaning may due to increased plasma insulin potentially improving uptake of nutrients for protein synthesis and energy utilization. The replacement of fish meal and/or whey protein concentrate with 6 supplemental amino acids could decrease the crude protein level in nursery diets, and potentially lead to substantial cost savings in expensive nursery diets.

  8. Transient increase in neuronal chloride concentration by neuroactive amino acids released from glioma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina eBertollini

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Neuronal chloride concentration ([Cl-]i is known to be dynamically modulated and alterations in Cl- homeostasis may occur in the brain at physiological and pathological conditions, being also likely involved in glioma-related seizures. However, the mechanism leading to changes in neuronal [Cl-]i during glioma invasion are still unclear. To characterize the potential effect of glioma released soluble factors on neuronal [Cl-]i, we used genetically encoded CFP/YFP-based ratiometric Cl-Sensor transiently expressed in cultured hippocampal neurons. Exposition of neurons to glioma conditioned medium (GCM caused rapid and transient elevation of [Cl-]i, resulting in the increase of fluorescence ratio, which was strongly reduced by blockers of ionotropic glutamate receptors APV and NBQX. Furthermore, in HEK cells expressing GluR1-AMPA receptors, GCM activated ionic current with efficacy similar to those caused by glutamate, supporting the notion that GCM contains glutamate or glutamatergic agonists, which cause neuronal depolarization, activation of NMDA and AMPA/KA receptors leading to elevation of [Cl-]i. Chromatographic analysis of the GCM showed that it contained several aminoacids, including glutamate, whose release from glioma cells did not occur via the most common glial mechanisms of transport, or in response to hypoosmotic stress. GCM also contained glycine, whose action contrasted the glutamate effect. Indeed, strychnine application significantly increased GCM-induced depolarization and [Cl-]i rise. GCM-evoked [Cl-]i elevation was not inhibited by antagonists of Cl- transporters and significantly reduced in the presence of anion channels blocker NPPB, suggesting that Cl-selective channels are a major route for GCM-induced Cl- influx. Altogether, these data show that glioma released aminoacids may dynamically alter Cl- equilibrium in surrounding neurons, deeply interfering with their inhibitory balance, likely leading to physiological and

  9. Impact of low-concentrated acidic electrolysed water obtained by membrane electrolysis on the decontamination of meat microbiota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brychcy Ewa

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The influence of acidic electrolysed water (AEW treatment on inactivation of pure bacterial cultures inoculated onto the surface of agarised media and surface microbiota of pork meat were examined. Low-concentrated AEW (low concentration of sodium chloride and low current electrolysis was generated by electrolysis (5 or 10 min of 0.001% or 0.01% NaCl solution. The number of viable microorganisms was determined using a plate count method. The effect of AEW on bacterial cell morphology were investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM. After treatment with AEW, a significant, about 3.00 log reduction of Pseudomonas fluorescens, Yersinia enterocolitica, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Listeria monocytogenes, and Micrococcus luteus populations was observed. In the AEW treatment of pork, the highest reduction of total number of microorganisms (2.1 log reduction, yeast and moulds (2.5-2.6 log reduction, and psychrotrophs (more than 1 log reduction was observed after spraying with 0.001% NaCl subjected to 10 min electrolysis. SEM revealed disruption and lysis of E. coli and S. aureus cells treated with AEW, suggesting a bactericidal effect. Higher available chlorine concentration (0.37-8.45 mg/L, redox potential (863.1-1049.8 mV, and lower pH (2.73-3.70 had an influence on the shape of bacteria and the number of breaks in the bacterial membrane.

  10. Critical effect of hydrogen peroxide concentration in photochemical oxidative degradation of C.I. Acid Red 27 (AR27).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daneshvar, N; Rabbani, M; Modirshahla, N; Behnajady, M A

    2004-09-01

    The photochemical decolorization of C.I. Acid Red 27 (AR27), an anionic monoazo dye, was studied in the UV/H2O2 process by using a batch reactor with a UV-C lamp emitting at 254 nm (30 W). The decolorization rate follows pseudo-first order kinetic with respect to the AR27 concentration. The results indicate that the apparent reaction rate constant in the UV/H2O2 process is a function of H2O2 concentration. In this work, a mathematical relation between the apparent reaction rate constant of the AR27 removal and used H2O2 was established. The applied amount of H2O2 was performed in two forms: (i) the light fraction absorbed by H2O2 in 254 nm, (ii) the initial concentration ratio of H2O2 to AR27. The results obtained from this mathematical model are in good agreement with experimental results.

  11. Consumption of high doses of chlorogenic acid, present in coffee, or of black tea increases plasma total homocysteine concentrations in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olthof, M. R.; Hollman, Peter C H; Zock, Peter L; Katan, M. B.

    2001-01-01

    Background: In population studies, high intakes of coffee are associated with raised concentrations of plasma homocysteine, a predictor of risk of cardiovascular disease. Chlorogenic acid is a major polyphenol in coffee; coffee drinkers consume up to I g chlorogenic acid/d. Objective: We studied

  12. Serum concentration comparisons of amino acids, fatty acids, lipoproteins, vitamins A and E, and minerals between zoo and free-ranging giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Debra A; Koutsos, Elizabeth A; Ellersieck, Mark R; Griffin, Mark E

    2009-03-01

    Serum concentrations of amino acids, fatty acids, lipoproteins, vitamins A and E, and minerals in zoo giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis) were compared to values obtained from free-ranging giraffes in an effort to identify potential nutritional differences in the zoo population. Zoo giraffes have a specific set of maladies that may be nutritionally related, including peracute mortality, energy malnutrition, pancreatic disease, urolithiasis, hoof disease, and severe intestinal parasitism. Dietary requirements for giraffes are not known; invasive studies used with domestic animals cannot be performed on zoo animals. Though domestic animal standards are often used to evaluate nutritional health of exotic animals, they may not be the most appropriate standards to use. Serum samples from 20 zoo giraffes at 10 zoological institutions in the United States were compared to previously collected samples from 24 free-ranging giraffes in South Africa. Thirteen of the zoo animal samples were collected from animals trained for blood collection, and seven were banked samples obtained from a previous serum collection. Dietary information was also collected on each zoo giraffe; most zoo giraffe diets consisted of alfalfa-based pellets (acid detergent fiber-16), alfalfa hay, and browse in varying quantities. Differences between zoo and free-ranging giraffes, males and females, and adults and subadults were analyzed with the use of a 2 x 2 x 2 factorial and Fisher's Least Significant Difference (LSD) for mean separation. Of the 84 parameters measured, 54 (60%) were significantly different (P giraffes. Nine (11%) items were significantly different (P giraffe diets is needed to address the differences seen in this study and the potentially related health problems.

  13. Determination of critical pH and Al concentration of acidic Ultisols for wheat and canola crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulaha-Al Baquy, M.; Li, Jiu-Yu; Xu, Chen-Yang; Mehmood, Khalid; Xu, Ren-Kou

    2017-02-01

    Soil acidity has become a principal constraint in dry land crop production systems of acidic Ultisols in tropical and subtropical regions of southern China, where winter wheat and canola are cultivated as important rotational crops. There is little information on the determination of critical soil pH as well as aluminium (Al) concentration for wheat and canola crops. The objective of this study is to determine the critical soil pH and exchangeable aluminium concentration (AlKCl) for wheat and canola production. Two pot cultures with two Ultisols from Hunan and Anhui (SE China) were conducted for wheat and canola crops in a controlled growth chamber. Aluminium sulfate (Al2(SO4)3) and hydrated lime (Ca(OH)2) were used to obtain the target soil pH levels from 3.7 (Hunan) and 3.97 (Anhui) to 6.5. Plant height, shoot dry weight, root dry weight, and chlorophyll content (SPAD value) of wheat and canola were adversely affected by soil acidity in both locations. The critical soil pH and AlKCl of the Ultisol from Hunan for wheat were 5.29 and 0.56 cmol kg-1, respectively. At Anhui, the threshold soil pH and AlKCl for wheat were 4.66 and 1.72 cmol kg-1, respectively. On the other hand, the critical soil pH for canola was 5.65 and 4.87 for the Ultisols from Hunan and Anhui, respectively. The critical soil exchangeable Al for canola cannot be determined from the experiment of this study. The results suggested that the critical soil pH and AlKCl varied between different locations for the same variety of crop, due to the different soil types and their other soil chemical properties. The critical soil pH for canola was higher than that for wheat for both Ultisols, and thus canola was more sensitive to soil acidity. Therefore, we recommend that liming should be undertaken to increase soil pH if it falls below these critical soil pH levels for wheat and canola production.

  14. Propagation of Chusquea tessellata (Munro culms at different naphthalene acetic acid concentrations and in different substrates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Insuasty Torres Jennyfer

    2011-12-01

    mejores resultados se presentan con las secciones basales, aunque la cantidad de raíces se encuentra afectada también por la concentración de ANA. El tipo de sustrato no tiene efecto sobre la propagación de esta especie de bambú. Las características morfológicas y fisiológicas de las secciones basales son recomendables para una exitosa propagación, al igual que el uso de ANA en bajas concentraciones. < >

    Chusquea tessellata is native species of Colombian wet paramos. Despite the ecological importance of this ecosystem, production activities have altered the structure of the C. tessellata patches. The aim of this study was to evaluate vegetative propagation from sections of culm stimulating their rooting, to have a lot of material for transplantation and with high survival. We tested 56 treatments with three combined factors: phytohormone NAA concentration, type of substrate and type of culm section. After three months we assessed the frequency and number of roots and vegetative shoots. The results suggest that the frequency and quantity of roots and shoots are affected mainly by the type of culm section, the best results is the basal sections, because these sections of culm have the morphological characteristics that allow successful propagation. Shoot production is also affected by interactions between other factors, substrate and NAA concentration.

  15. Common variants related to serum uric acid concentrations are associated with glucose metabolism and insulin secretion in a Chinese population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Sun

    Full Text Available Elevated serum uric acid concentration is an independent risk factor and predictor of type 2 diabetes (T2D. Whether the uric acid-associated genes have an impact on T2D remains unclear. We aimed to investigate the effects of the uric acid-associated genes on the risk of T2D as well as glucose metabolism and insulin secretion.We recruited 2,199 normal glucose tolerance subjects from the Shanghai Diabetes Study I and II and 2,999 T2D patients from the inpatient database of Shanghai Diabetes Institute. Fifteen single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs mapped in or near 11 loci (PDZK1, GCKR, LRP2, SLC2A9, ABCG2, LRRC16A, SLC17A1, SLC17A3, SLC22A11, SLC22A12 and SF1 were genotyped and serum biochemical parameters related to uric acid and T2D were determined.SF1 rs606458 showed strong association to T2D in both males and females (p = 0.034 and 0.0008. In the males, LRRC16A was associated with 2-h insulin and insulin secretion (p = 0.009 and 0.009. SLC22A11 was correlated with HOMA-B and insulin secretion (p = 0.048 and 0.029. SLC2A9 rs3775948 was associated with 2-h glucose (p = 0.043. In the females, LRP2 rs2544390 and rs1333049 showed correlations with fasting insulin, HOMA-IR and insulin secretion (p = 0.028, 0.033 and 0.052 and p = 0.034, 0.047 and 0.038, respectively. SLC2A9 rs11722228 was correlated with 2-h glucose, 2-h insulin and insulin secretion (p = 0.024, 0.049 and 0.049, respectively.Our results indicated that the uric acid-associated genes have an impact on the risk of T2D, glucose metabolism and insulin secretion in a Chinese population.

  16. Kinetics of heterogeneous reaction of ozone with linoleic acid and its dependence on temperature, physical state, RH, and ozone concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Guang; Holladay, Sara; Langlois, Danielle; Zhang, Yunhong; Liu, Yong

    2013-03-07

    Heterogeneous reaction between ozone and linoleic acid (LA) thin film was investigated by a flow reactor coupled to attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy (FR-ATR-IR) over wide ranges of temperature, relative humidity (RH), and ozone concentration under atmospheric pressure condition. Pseudo-first-order rate constants kapp and overall reactive uptake coefficients γ were acquired on the basis of changes in absorbance from peaks located near 1743, 1710, 1172, and 1110 cm(-1), which can be assigned to C═O in ester, C═O in acid, and C-C and C-O stretching modes, respectively. Results showed that the kapp and γ increased nearly by a factor of 6 with increasing temperatures from 258 to 314 K. It was noted the temperature effect on the reaction kinetics was much more pronounced at lower temperatures. Such behavior can be explained by a change in the physical state of LA at lower temperatures. In addition, kapp and γ were enhanced by 2-fold as the RH increased from 0 to 80%. Moreover, the effect of ozone concentration on the reaction kinetics was reported for the first time. kapp was found to display a Langmuir-Hinshelwood dependence on ozone concentration with KO3 = (1.146 ± 0.017) × 10(-15) molecules cm(-3) and k[S] = 0.0522 ± 0.0004 s(-1), where KO3 is a parameter that describes the partitioning of ozone to the thin film surface, and k[S] is the maximum pseudo-first-order coefficient at high ozone concentration. Furthermore, yields and hygroscopic properties of reaction products were also investigated by FTIR spectroscopy. The intensity ratio of two C═O stretching bands, A1743/A1710, which was utilized as an indicator of the product yields, increased sharply with increasing temperatures in the lower temperature region (258-284 K), and then remained nearly constant in the higher temperature region (284-314 K). The product yields showed no significant variation with RH, for the intensity ratio of A1743/A1710 barely changed in the wide RH range 0

  17. SLC2A9 Genotype Is Associated with SLC2A9 Gene Expression and Urinary Uric Acid Concentration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin B Ware

    Full Text Available SLC2A9 gene variants have been associated with urinary uric acid (UA concentration, but little is known about the functional mechanism linking these gene variants with UA. SLC2A9 encodes a UA transporter present in the proximal tubule of the kidney, and gene expression levels of SLC2A9 and other genes in the uricosuric pathway (ABCG2, SLC17A1, SLC17A3, and SLC22A12 could potentially mediate the relationship between SLC2A9 gene variants and urinary UA excretion.The association between urinary UA concentrations and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs within the SLC2A9 gene region, expression levels of genes in the uricosuric pathway, and dietary protein intake were analyzed for a sample of non-Hispanic white participants from the Genetic Epidemiology Network of Arteriopathy (GENOA cohort. The SLC2A9 SNP most significantly associated with urinary UA concentration was then tested for associations with gene expression levels from uric acid absorption/secretion associated genes. Models including interactions between dietary protein (total, animal, and vegetable and genetic factors were also assessed.The most significant SLC2A9 SNP associated with urinary UA (rs12509955, corrected p = 0.001 was also associated with SLC2A9 gene expression levels (corrected p = 0.0084; however, SLC2A9 gene expression levels were not significantly associated with urinary UA concentrations (p = 0.509. The interactions between rs12509955 and total dietary protein, and SLC2A9 gene-level gene expression and dietary vegetable protein on the outcome of urinary UA were marginally significant (p = 0.11 and p = 0.07, respectively. Gene expression level of one SLC2A9 transcript had a significant interaction with dietary animal protein (SLC2A9-001 ENST00000506583, p = 0.01 and a marginally significant interaction with total dietary protein (p = 0.07 on urinary UA.Our results illustrate that SNPs in the SLC2A9 gene influence SLC2A9 gene expression as well as urinary UA excretion

  18. Changes in the structure of water in aqueous solutions of acetic acid, depending on concentration and temperature according to densitometry, viscosimetry, and IR spectroscopy data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masimov, E. A.; Khasanov, G. Sh.; Pashaev, B. G.

    2013-06-01

    The structural features of aqueous solutions of acetic acid are studied by means of viscosimetry, densimetry, and IR spectroscopy within the temperature range of 283.15-333.15 K and a concentration range of 0-80%. The results from our experiments are used to calculate the parameters of viscous flow activation, the structural temperature, the partial molar volume of acetic acid in the solution, the thermal expansion coefficient, and the energies and lengths of the hydrogen bonds between water molecules. The concentration dependences of these parameters are analyzed. Based on the obtained results, we conclude that acetic acid disrupts the structure of water.

  19. Importance of temperature, pH, and boric acid concentration on rates of hydrogen production from galvanized steel corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loyola, V.M.

    1982-01-01

    One of the known sources of hydrogen gas within a nuclear plant containment building during a LOCA is the high temperature corrosion of galvanized steel yielding hydrogen gas. The importance of this source of hydrogen will vary depending on the severity of the accident. In an accident which resulted in core degradation, for example, the major source of hydrogen would probably be the metal-water reaction of the zircaloy cladding, and the corrosion of galvanized steel would then become a relatively minor source of hydrogen. However, in an accident in which core degradation is avoided or limited to minor damage, the corrosion of galvanized steel, and presumably of other materials as well, would then become a major contributor to the buildup of hydrogen within containment. The purpose of this paper is to present the overall effects of temperature, pH, and boric acid concentration on the rate of hydrogen generation over a broad range of each parameter

  20. Association between Folic Acid and Zinc Concentration with Incidence of Bacterial Vaginosis in The First Trimester of Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noroyono Wibowo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial vaginosis (BV in pregnancy is associated with the increase of adverse pregnancy outcomes such as premature rupture of membranes and preterm labor. One of the multifactorial causes of BV is thechange in vaginal immunity. Malnutrition, including micronutrient deficiency, increases the vulnerability toinfections. This study aim to investigate the association between folic acid and zinc concentration with theincidence of bacterial vaginosis in the first trimester of pregnancy. This descriptive cross sectional studyinvolved 139 mothers with first trimester pregnancy, aged between 17-39 years old. The study was conductedat dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital from September 2013 until August 2014. Vaginal secretions was sampledto diagnose BV under nugent criteria. Folic acid and zinc in the serum were measured. From 139 subject,18.7% (n=26 were found to be BV positive (nugent score =7. No deficiency of folic acid (<7 ng/mL and40.3% (n=56 of zinc deficiency (<60  µg/dL were found. Bivariate analysis used Kruskal-Wallis test betweenfolic acid and zinc concentration with BV incidence gives p value of 0.668 and 0.478 respectively. Prevalenceof BV in this study was 18.7%. The relation between the maternal statuses of folic acid with BV in the firsttrimester of pregnancy was not found. Keywords: bacterial vaginosis, folic acid, zinc, pregnancy.   Hubungan antara Kadar Asam Folat dan Seng terhadap KejadianVaginosis Bakteri pada Trimester Pertama Kehamilan Abstrak Bakterial vaginosis (BV pada kehamilan dihubungkan dengan meningkatnya luaran maternal yang buruk seperti ketuban pecah dini dan persalinan prematur. Penyebab BV multifaktor salah satunya adalahperubahan imunitas di vagina. Malnutrisi termasuk defisiensi mikronutrien meningkatkan kerentananterhadap infeksi. Studi ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui hubungan antara kadar asam folat dan seng terhadapkejadian vaginosis bakteri pada trimester pertama kehamilan. Penelitian ini merupakan studi

  1. Amino acid profile of metabolisable protein in lactating dairy cows is affected by dry matter concentration in grass-clover silage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Marianne; Lund, Peter; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis

    2018-01-01

    Our previous study showed that supply of metabolisable protein (MP) to lactating dairy cows increased with increasing dry matter (DM) concentration in grass-clover silage. The aim of this study was to examine how amino acid (AA) profile of MP was affected by silage DM concentration. Eight grass-c...

  2. Influence of pH and lactic acid concentration on Clostridium tyrobutyricum during continuous growth in a pH-auxostat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thylin, I; Schuisky, P; Lindgren, S; Gottschal, J.C

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this project was to establish the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of lactic acid for growth of Clostridium tyrobutyricum. A pH-auxostat was used to maintain a constant pH and to allow continuous growth at the highest possible rates at fixed, but adjustable concentrations of

  3. A biological indicator of inorganic arsenic exposure using the sum of urinary inorganic arsenic and monomethylarsonic acid concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hata, Akihisa; Kurosawa, Hidetoshi; Endo, Yoko; Yamanaka, Kenzo; Fujitani, Noboru; Endo, Ginji

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The sum of urinary inorganic arsenic (iAs), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) concentrations is used for the biological monitoring of occupational iAs exposure. Although DMA is a major metabolite of iAs, it is an inadequate index because high DMA levels are present in urine after seafood consumption. We estimated the urinary iAs+MMA concentration corresponding to iAs exposure. Methods: We used data from two arsenic speciation analyses of urine samples from 330 Bangladeshi with oral iAs exposure and 172 Japanese workers without occupational iAs exposure using high-performance liquid chromatography with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Results: iAs, MMA, and DMA, but not arsenobetaine (AsBe), were detected in the urine of the Bangladeshi subjects. The correlation between iAs+MMA+DMA and iAs+MMA was obtained as log (iAs+MMA) = 1.038 log (iAs+MMA+DMA) -0.658. Using the regression formula, the iAs+MMA value was calculated as 2.15 and 7.5 μg As/l, corresponding to 3 and 10 μg As/m3 of exposures, respectively. In the urine of the Japanese workers, arsenic was mostly excreted as AsBe. We used the 95th percentile of iAs+MMA (12.6 μg As/l) as the background value. The sum of the calculated and background values can be used as a biological indicator of iAs exposure. Conclusion: We propose 14.8 and 20.1 μg As/l of urinary iAs+MMA as the biological indicators of 3 and 10 μg As/m3 iAs exposure, respectively. PMID:27010090

  4. Leaching Kinetics of Praseodymium in Sulfuric Acid of Rare Earth Elements (REE) Slag Concentrated by Pyrometallurgy from Magnetite Ore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chul-Joo; Yoon, Ho-Sung; Chung, Kyung Woo; Lee, Jin-Young; Kim, Sung-Don; Shin, Shun Myung [Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyung-Seop; Cho, Jong-Tae; Kim, Ji-Hye; Lee, Eun-Ji; Lee, Se-Il; Yoo, Seung-Joon [Seonam University, Asan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-02-15

    A leaching kinetics was conducted for the purpose of recovery of praseodymium in sulfuric acid (H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) from REE slag concentrated by the smelting reduction process in an arc furnace as a reactant. The concentration of H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} was fixed at an excess ratio under the condition of slurry density of 1.500 g slag/L, 0.3 mol H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, and the effect of temperatures was investigated under the condition of 30 to 80 .deg. C. As a result, praseodymium oxide (Pr{sub 6}O{sub 1}1) existing in the slag was completely converted into praseodymium sulfate (Pr{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3}·8H{sub 2}O) after the leaching of 5 h. On the basis of the shrinking core model with a shape of sphere, the first leaching reaction was determined by chemical reaction mechanism. Generally, the solubility of pure REEs decreases with the increase of leaching temperatures in sulfuric acid, but REE slag was oppositely increased with increasing temperatures. It occurs because the ash layer included in the slag is affected as a resistance against the leaching. By using the Arrhenius expression, the apparent activation energy of the first chemical reaction was determined to be 9.195 kJmol{sup -1}. In the second stage, the leaching rate is determined by the ash layer diffusion mechanism. The apparent activation energy of the second ash layer diffusion was determined to be 19.106 kJmol{sup -1}. These relative low activation energy values were obtained by the existence of unreacted ash layer in the REE slag.

  5. Shifts in production of perfluoroalkyl acids affect emissions and concentrations in the environment of the Xiaoqing River Basin, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Pei [State Key Lab of Urban and Regional Ecology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China); Lu, Yonglong, E-mail: yllu@rcees.ac.cn [State Key Lab of Urban and Regional Ecology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China); Wang, Tieyu [State Key Lab of Urban and Regional Ecology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China); Meng, Jing; Li, Qifeng; Zhu, Zhaoyun [State Key Lab of Urban and Regional Ecology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Sun, Yajun [State Key Lab of Urban and Regional Ecology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China); College of Biological Sciences and Technology, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083 (China); Wang, Ruoshi [State Key Lab of Urban and Regional Ecology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Giesy, John P. [Department of Veterinary Biomedical Sciences and Toxicology Centre, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada)

    2016-04-15

    Highlights: • Mass loads demonstrated a greater pattern of increasing PFAAs emissions. • High levels of PFOA were identified near a fluoropolymer facility. • Production activities that could generate PFOA emissions were analyzed. • Partitioning coefficients decreased with high levels of short-chain PFCAs in water. - Abstract: Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) have been widely used in surfactant applications, especially as processing acids for fluoropolymer production. This study provides an analysis of sources of certain PFAAs emitted from the intensive fluoropolymer facilities in the Xiaoqing River Basin of China. Concentrations of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) as great as 0.97 mg/L in surface water and 10.5 μg/g dry weight in surface sediment have been detected near the effluent of one facility (F1) that produces polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and other fluoropolymers with massive capacity. With the great emission of PFAAs to water in natural conditions, the log K{sub OC} values decreased for short-chain PFCAs. Mass loads of PFAAs indicated that emissions of PFAAs from other facilities or sources were much less than those from F1, which emitted 174 kg/d of PFAAs including 159 kg/d of PFOA to the rivers. Even though production and emissions of PFOA have been strictly controlled in other countries since 2006, production of PFOA as well as several other fluoropolymers that use PFOA as processing aids has been increasing at F1 in recent years. We recommended that production shift should be taken into consideration in PFOA elimination actions.

  6. Vegetative propagation of Plukenetia polyadenia by cuttings: effects of leaf area and indole-3-butyric acid concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Solis

    Full Text Available Abstract The seeds of Plukenetia polyadenia have high levels of unsaturated fatty acids and are used as medicine and food for native people in the Peruvian and Brazilian Amazon. The objective of this study was to develop a method for vegetative propagation of Plukenetia polyadenia by rooting of cuttings. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design with 12 treatments and 3 replications of 8 cuttings, in a 3 × 4 factorial arrangement. The factors were: 3 levels of leaf area (25, 50 and 75% and 3 indole-3-butyric acid - IBA concentrations (9.84, 19.68 and 29.52mM and a control without IBA. Data were submitted to analysis of variance and means were compared by Tukey test at 5% probability. Our results show that the use of cuttings with 50% of leaf area and treatment with 29.52mM of IBA induced high percentages of rooting (93% and the best root formation. Vegetative propagation of Plukenetia polyadenia by cuttings will be used as a tool to conserve and propagate germplasm in breeding programs.

  7. Vegetative propagation of Plukenetia polyadenia by cuttings: effects of leaf area and indole-3-butyric acid concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solis, R; Pezo, M; Diaz, G; Arévalo, L; Cachique, D

    2017-01-01

    The seeds of Plukenetia polyadenia have high levels of unsaturated fatty acids and are used as medicine and food for native people in the Peruvian and Brazilian Amazon. The objective of this study was to develop a method for vegetative propagation of Plukenetia polyadenia by rooting of cuttings. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design with 12 treatments and 3 replications of 8 cuttings, in a 3 × 4 factorial arrangement. The factors were: 3 levels of leaf area (25, 50 and 75%) and 3 indole-3-butyric acid - IBA concentrations (9.84, 19.68 and 29.52mM) and a control without IBA. Data were submitted to analysis of variance and means were compared by Tukey test at 5% probability. Our results show that the use of cuttings with 50% of leaf area and treatment with 29.52mM of IBA induced high percentages of rooting (93%) and the best root formation. Vegetative propagation of Plukenetia polyadenia by cuttings will be used as a tool to conserve and propagate germplasm in breeding programs.

  8. Catalytic activity of acid and base with different concentration on sol-gel kinetics of silica by ultrasonic method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, R K; Das, M

    2015-09-01

    The effects of both acid (acetic acid) and base (ammonia) catalysts in varying on the sol-gel synthesis of SiO2 nanoparticles using tetra ethyl ortho silicate (TEOS) as a precursor was determined by ultrasonic method. The ultrasonic velocity was received by pulsar receiver. The ultrasonic velocity in the sol and the parameter ΔT (time difference between the original pulse and first back wall echo of the sol) was varied with time of gelation. The graphs of ln[ln1/ΔT] vs ln(t), indicate two region - nonlinear region and a linear region. The time corresponds to the point at which the non-linear region change to linear region is considered as gel time for the respective solutions. Gelation time is found to be dependent on the concentration and types of catalyst and is found from the graphs based on Avrami equation. The rate of condensation is found to be faster for base catalyst. The gelation process was also characterized by viscosity measurement. Normal sol-gel process was also carried out along with the ultrasonic one to compare the effectiveness of ultrasonic. The silica gel was calcined and the powdered sample was characterized with scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectra, X-ray diffractogram, and FTIR spectroscopy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Development of novel processes for Cu concentrates without producing sulfuric acid; Hiryusan hasseigata no atarashii doshigen shori gijutsu no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Awakura, Y.; Hirato, T. [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan)

    1997-02-01

    Studies are conducted to develop a new wet method for copper concentrates to replace the conventional dry smelting method for the settlement of problems involving the processing of impurities for environmental protection. A specimen of pyrites polycrystals is subjected to leaching at 80 {degree}C in a strongly acidic cupric solution. Findings are that the element sulfur generated in this process does not impede leaching and only approximately 4% of the sulfur is oxidized into sulfur ions; that the presence of more than 2g/liter of bromide ions produced during bromine-aid leaching of gold changes the structure of sulfur for the inhibition of leaching; that circulation of a bromine-containing leaching liquid is not desired since even a small amount of approximately 0.02mol/liter inhibits the leaching rate. Controlled potential electrolysis is performed for the anode in an acid solution containing CuCl, NaCl, and NaBr, for the observation of oxidation/reduction potentials predicted by Nernst`s equation. It is then disclosed that bromine is more effective than chlorine in gold leaching and that the solution potential during leaching agent regeneration enables the monitoring of solution constitution. 2 refs.

  10. Drastic Attenuation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Pathogenicity in a Holoxenic Mouse Experimental Model Induced by Subinhibitory Concentrations of Phenyllactic acid (PLA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Sasarman

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The discovery of communication systems regulating bacterial virulence hasafforded a novel opportunity to control infectious bacteria without interfering withgrowth. In this paper we describe the effect of subinhibitory concentrations of phenyl-lactic acid (PLA on the pathogenicity of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in mice. The animalswere inoculated by oral (p.o., intranasal (i.n., intravenous (i.v. and intraperitoneal (i.p.routes with P. aeruginoasa wild and PLA-treated cultures. The mice were followed upduring 16 days after infection and the body weight, mortality and morbidity rate weremeasured every day. The microbial charge was studied by viable cell counts in lungs,spleen, intestinal mucosa and blood. The mice batches infected with wild P. aeruginosabacterial cultures exhibited high mortality rates (100 % after i.v. and i.p. route and veryhigh cell counts in blood, lungs, intestine and spleen. In contrast, the animal batchesinfected with PLA treated bacterial cultures exhibited good survival rates (0 % mortality and the viable cell counts in the internal organs revealed with one exception the complete abolition of the invasive capacity of the tested strains. In this study, using a mouse infection model we show that D-3-phenyllactic acid (PLA can act as a potent antagonist of Pseudomonas (P. aeruginosa pathogenicity, without interfering with the bacterial growth, as demonstrated by the improvement of the survival rates as well as the clearance of bacterial strains from the body.

  11. Acid base status in swamp buffaloes (Bubalus Bubalis fed rice straw and concentrate with addition of sodium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Joseph

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to study the addition of NaHCO3 and Na2CO3 on acid-base status in swamp buffaloes, Three fistulated buffaloes were each introduced to dietary treatment control diett (50% rice straw + 50% concentrate, control + \\0% NaHCO3 and diet control + 10% Na2CO3 in two times Latin Square Design. The diets contained 9,7% crude protein and 53% TDN to achieve maintenance requirements of the animals. Parameters measured include (l Fed consumption, water consumption and urine volume. (2 pH in rumen fluid, saliva, bLood and urine, (3 natrium mineral content in rumen fluid, saliva, blood and urine. The results of the experiment showed higher pH in the rumen fluid, saliva, blood and urine of buffaloes due to supplementation of NaHCO3 and Na2CO3, Water consumption and urine volume was significanly increased as the effect of Na supplement. The acid-base status of buffaloes was apparently normal in all animals.

  12. Low Dose Gamma Irradiation Does Not Affect the Quality or Total Ascorbic Acid Concentration of “Sweetheart” Passionfruit (Passiflora edulis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John B. Golding

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Passionfruit (Passiflora edulis, Sims, cultivar “Sweetheart” were subject to gamma irradiation at levels suitable for phytosanitary purposes (0, 150, 400 and 1000 Gy then stored at 8 °C and assessed for fruit quality and total ascorbic acid concentration after one and fourteen days. Irradiation at any dose (≤1000 Gy did not affect passionfruit quality (overall fruit quality, colour, firmness, fruit shrivel, stem condition, weight loss, total soluble solids level (TSS, titratable acidity (TA level, TSS/TA ratio, juice pH and rot development, nor the total ascorbic acid concentration. The length of time in storage affected some fruit quality parameters and total ascorbic acid concentration, with longer storage periods resulting in lower quality fruit and lower total ascorbic acid concentration, irrespective of irradiation. There was no interaction between irradiation treatment and storage time, indicating that irradiation did not influence the effect of storage on passionfruit quality. The results showed that the application of 150, 400 and 1000 Gy gamma irradiation to “Sweetheart” purple passionfruit did not produce any deleterious effects on fruit quality or total ascorbic acid concentration during cold storage, thus supporting the use of low dose irradiation as a phytosanitary treatment against quarantine pests in purple passionfruit.

  13. Effect of protein concentrate supplementation on the composition of amino acids in milk from dairy cows in an organic farming system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Horký

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Our experiment examined the effect of feeding a protein concentrate supplement on the composition of amino acids in milk from dairy cows managed in an organic farming system. The experiment included two groups of cows. Animals in both groups received an identical basic feed ration composed of maize silage, clover-grass haylage from the first cutting, grass haylage from the first cutting, winter wheat and spring barley. The first group of dairy cows (n = 10 served as a control without the addition of protein concentrate to the feed ration. The second experimental group (n = 10 received in addition to the basic feed ration a protein concentrate composed of soybean, sunflower and linseed cakes at rate 1 kg per head per day. The experiment lasted 30 days. Milk analysed for amino acid content was sampled at 10-day intervals. Addition of the protein concentrate significantly increased milk contents of aspartic acid, proline, threonine, glycine, alanine and glutamic acid. A significant decrease of valine also was recorded in milk from the experimental group. The results of our experiment show that a protein concentrate supplement can affect concentrations of some amino acids in milk from dairy cows. 

  14. The effect of hydrogen peroxide concentration and solid loading on the fractionation of biomass in formic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dussan, K; Girisuta, B; Haverty, D; Leahy, J J; Hayes, M H B

    2014-10-13

    This study investigated the fractionation of biomass using a decomposing mixture of hydrogen peroxide-formic acid as a pretreatment for the biorefining of Miscanthus × giganteus and of sugarcane bagasse. The main parameters investigated were the hydrogen peroxide concentration (2.5, 5.0 and 7.5 wt%) and biomass loading (5.0 and 10.0 wt%). At the highest hydrogen peroxide concentration used (7.5 wt%), the energy released by the decomposition of the H2O2 could heat the reaction mixture up to 180 °C in a short time (6-16 min). As a result, highly delignified pulps, with lignin removal as high as 92 wt%, were obtained. This delignification process also solubilised a significant amount of pentosan (82-98 wt%) from the initial biomass feedstock, and the resulting pulp had a high cellulosic content (92 wt%). The biomass loading only affected the reaction rate of hydrogen peroxide decomposition. Various analytical methods, including Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric and elemental analyses, characterized the lignin obtained. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Influence of fish oil in the concentration of conjugated linoleic acid and omega 6 and 3 in buffalo milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.M. Patiño

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research work was to investigate the influence of fish oil supplementation on the concentration of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA and omega 6 and 3 in samples of buffalo milk. A total of 24 female buffaloes separated at random into three groups were fed for 49 days with: natural pasture (group I, supplemented with 70mL of fish oil (group II and 140mL of fish oil (group III. In the experiment the concentration of CLA showed differences (P<0.05 among the three groups, with a maximum of 7.14mg/g fat in group II. No significant differences were found in omega-6 among the three groups. The highest value of 3.82mg/g fat corresponded to group I, whicht had not been supplemented with fish oil. Significant differences were observed in omega 3 (P<0.05 in groups II and III with respect to group I. The highest average value of 2.42mg/g fat was obtained in group III. The closest relationship omega 6/3 (1.37:1 was observed in group III. As a result, the diets of groups II and III, which included fish oil, increased significantly the content of CLA and omega 3 with reductions in levels of omega 6.

  16. Effect of Temperature on the Critical Micelle Concentration and Micellization Thermodynamic of Nonionic Surfactants: Polyoxyethylene Sorbitan Fatty Acid Esters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Mohajeri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, non-ionic surfactants, polyoxyethylene sorbitan fatty acid esters (polysorbate are chosen to examine the temperature effect on the CMC over a wide temperature range. The enthalpy and entropy of micelle formation are evaluated according to the phase separation model. The surface tension of solutions was determined by means of Du Nöuys ring. The CMC values were taken from the sharp breaks in the surface tension vs. logarithms of surfactant concentration plots. As the surfactants' chain length increases the CMC at a constant temperature decreases, which is directly related to the decrease of hydrophilicity of the molecules. For each surfactant, as the system temperature increases, the CMC initially decreases and then increases, owing to the smaller probability of hydrogen bond formation at higher temperatures. The onset of micellization tends to occur at higher concentrations as the temperature increases. To evaluate the enthalpy of micellization, the CMCs are first correlated by a polynomial equation. It is found that ∆Gºm decreases monotonically as the temperature increases over the whole temperature range. Both ∆Hºm and ∆Sºm appear to be decrease monotonically with an increase in temperature. The compensation temperature was found to be 42 ºC by linear regression over the whole temperature range and for all three surfactant systems together.

  17. Formalin pain increases the concentration of serotonin and its 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid metabolite in the CA1 region of hippocampus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Soleimannejad

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground and the purpose of the study: The hippocampal formation is involved in nociception. Prenatal serotonin depletion results in a significant decrease in the concentration of nociceptive sensitivity during the second phase of behavioral response in the formalin test.  "nMethods: A microdialysis probe was inserted via a guide cannula into the right CA1 region of the hippocampus. Extracellular serotonin (5HT and its 5- hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5HIAA metabolite overflow were collected every 10 min during the formalin test and measured by HPLC with electrochemichal detector. "n "nResults: Compared to the sham group, formalin injection in the hind paw of the rat significantly increased 5HT after 10, 30, 40, and 50 min and increased 5HIAA after 10, 30, 40, 50, and 60 min collection time periods in hippocampal dialysate. (n=6 for each group at each sampling time. In the formalin treated rats serotonin and 5HIAA concentrations increased in the biphasic pattern in concert with the first and second phases of formalin pain. "nConclusion: The hippocampal formation might be involved in the processing of nociceptive information and serotonin-related mechanisms in the hippocampus may play a role in the biphasic behavioral responses to formalin noxious stimulation. "n   

  18. Concentrations and nitrogen isotope compositions of free amino acids in Pinus massoniana (Lamb.) needles of different ages as indicators of atmospheric nitrogen pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yu; Xiao, Huayun

    2017-09-01

    Free amino acid δ15N values and concentrations of current-year new (new), current-year mature (middle-age) and previous-year (old) Pinus massoniana (Lamb.) needles were determined for five sites with different distances from a highway in a forest in Guiyang (SW China). Needle free amino acid concentrations decreased with increasing distance from the highway, and only the free amino acid concentrations (total free amino acid, arginine, γ-aminobutyric acid, valine, alanine and proline) in the middle-aged needles demonstrated a strong correlation with distance from the highway, indicating that free amino acid concentrations in middle-aged needles may be a more suitable indicator of nitrogen (N) deposition compared to new and old needles. Needle free amino acid δ15N values were more positive near the highway compared to the more distant sites and increased with increasing needle age, indicating that N deposition in this site may be dominated by isotopically heavy NOx-N from traffic emissions. In sites beyond 400 m from the highway, the δ15N values of total free amino acids, histidine, glutamine, proline, alanine, aspartate, isoleucine, lysine, arginine and serine in each age of needle were noticeably negative compared to their respective δ15N values near the highway. This suggested that needle free amino acid δ15N values from these sites were more affected by 15N-depleted atmospheric NHx-N from soil emissions. This result was further supported by the similarity in the negative moss δ15N values at these sites to the δ15N values of soil-derived NHx-N. Needle free amino acid δ15N values therefore have the potential to provide information about atmospheric N sources. We conclude that needle free amino acid concentrations are sensitive indicators of N deposition and that the age-related free amino acid δ15N values in needles can efficiently reflect atmospheric N sources. This would probably promote the application of the combined plant tissue amino acid

  19. Dissociation and homoconjugation equilibria of some acids and bases in N,N-dimethylformamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roletto, E; Vanni, A

    1977-01-01

    The following monoprotic acids have been studied in N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF): p-toluenesulphonic acid; 2,6-dichlorobenzoic acid; 2,5-dichlorophenol; the anilinium ion; the N-methyl-anilinium ion. The first dissociation step of malonic and succinic acids has also been studied. Dissociation and homoconjugation constants have been determined potentiometrically, at 25 degrees , in buffer solutions containing either the acid and its tetraethylammonium salt or the base and its picrate. Homoconjugation equilibria between unchanged acid and univalent conjugate base have been found not only for benzoic acid and phenol derivatives, but also between undissociated diprotic carboxylic acids and the corresponding monoanions, which are strongly intramolecularly hydrogen-bonded. Results are discussed with reference to previously published values.

  20. [Effect of hydrofluoric acid concentration on the surface morphology and bonding effectiveness of lithium disilicate glass ceramics to resin composites].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hailan, Qian; Lingyan, Ren; Rongrong, Nie; Xiangfeng, Meng

    2017-12-01

    This study aimed at determining the influence of hydrofluoric acid (HF) in varied concentrations on the surface morphology of lithium disilicate glass ceramics and bond durability between resin composites and post-treated lithium disilicate glass ceramics. After being sintered, ground, and washed, 72 as-prepared specimens of lithium disilicate glass ceramics with dimensions of 11 mm×13 mm×2 mm were randomly divided into three groups. Each group was treated with acid solution [32% phosphoric acid (PA) or 4% or 9.5% HF] for 20 s. Then, four acidified specimens from each group were randomly selected. One of the specimens was used to observe the surface morphology using scanning electron microscopy, and the others were used to observe the surface roughness using a surface roughness meter (including Ra, Rz, and Rmax). After treatment with different acid solutions in each group, 20 samples were further treated with silane coupling agent/resin adhesive/resin cement (Monobond S/Multilink Primer A&B/Multilink N), followed by bonding to a composite resin column (Filtek™ Z350) with a diameter of 3 mm. A total of 20 specimens in each group were randomly divided into two subgroups, which were used for measuring the microshear bond strength, with one of them subjected to cool-thermal cycle for 20 000 times. The surface roughness (Ra, Rz, and Rmax) of lithium disilicate glass ceramics treated with 4% or 9.5% HF was significantly higher than that of the ceramic treated with PA (Pglass ceramics treated with 9.5% HF also demonstrated better surface roughness (Rz and Rmax) than that of the ceramics treated with 4% HF. Cool-thermal cycle treatment reduced the bond strength of lithium disilicate glass ceramics in all groups (Pglass ceramics treated with HF had higher bond strength than that of the ceramics treated with PA. The lithium disilicate glass ceramics treated with 4% HF had higher bond strength than that of the ceramics treated with 9.5% HF (Pglass ceramics treated with 4

  1. Assessment of a colorimetric method for the measurement of low concentrations of peracetic acid and hydrogen peroxide in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-Henao, Laura; Turolla, Andrea; Monticelli, Damiano; Antonelli, Manuela

    2018-06-01

    The recent growing interest in peracetic acid (PAA) as disinfectant for wastewater treatment demands reliable and readily-available methods for its measurement. In detail, the monitoring of PAA in wastewater treatment plants requires a simple, accurate, rapid and inexpensive measurement procedure. In the present work, a method for analyzing low concentrations of PAA, adapted from the US EPA colorimetric method for total chlorine, is assessed. This method employs N,N-diethyl-p-phenylelnediamine (DPD) in the presence of an excess of iodide in a phosphate buffer system. Pink colored species are produced proportionally to the concentration of PAA in the sample. Considering that PAA is available commercially as an equilibrium solution of PAA and hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ), a measurement method for H 2 O 2 is also investigated. This method, as the one for the determination of PAA, is also based on the oxidation of iodide to iodine, with the difference that ammonium molybdate Mo(VI) is added to catalyze the oxidation reaction between H 2 O 2 and iodide, quantifying the total peroxides (PAA+ H 2 O 2 ). The two methods are suitable for concentration ranges from about 0.1-1.65 mg L -1 and from about 0.3-3.3 mg L -1 , respectively for PAA and H 2 O 2 . Moreover, the work elucidates some relevant aspects related to the operational conditions, kinetics and the possible interference of H 2 O 2 on PAA measurement. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Deposition and rainwater concentrations of trifluoroacetic acid in the United States from the use of HFO-1234yf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazil, J.; McKeen, S.; Kim, S.-W.; Ahmadov, R.; Grell, G. A.; Talukdar, R. K.; Ravishankara, A. R.

    2014-12-01

    Currently, HFC-134a (1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane) is the most common refrigerant in automobile air conditioners. This high global warming potential substance (100 year GWP of 1370) will likely be phased out and replaced with HFO-1234yf (2,3,3,3-tetrafluoropropene) that has a 100 year GWP of 4. HFO-1234yf will be oxidized to produce trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) in clouds. TFA, a mildly toxic substance with detrimental effects on some aquatic organisms at high concentrations (≥100μgL-1), would be transported by rain to the surface and enter bodies of water. We investigated the dry and wet deposition of TFA from HFO-1234yf over the contiguous USA using the Advanced Research Weather Research and Forecasting model (ARW) with interactive chemical, aerosol, and cloud processes (WRF/Chem) model. Special focus was placed on emissions from three continental USA regions with different meteorological characteristics. WRF/Chem simulated meteorology, cloud processes, gas and aqueous phase chemistry, and dry and wet deposition between May and September 2006. The model reproduced well the multimonth total sulfate wet deposition (4% bias) and its spatial variability (r = 0.86) observed by the National Atmospheric Deposition Program. HFO-1234yf emissions were obtained by assuming the number of automobile air conditioners to remain unchanged, and substituting HFO-1234yf, mole-per-mole for HFC-134a. Our estimates of current HFC-134a emissions were in agreement with field data. Average TFA rainwater concentration was 0.89μgL-1, with peak values of 7.8μgL-1, for the May-September 2006 period over the contiguous USA. TFA rainwater concentrations over the dry western USA were often significantly higher, but wet-deposited TFA amounts remained relatively low at such locations.

  3. Effect of Concentration of Catalyst (BF3-Diethyl Etherate on Synthesis of Polyester From Palm Fatty Acid Distillate (PFAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renita Manurung

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE Palm Fatty Acid Distillate (PFAD can be used as raw material for synthesis polyester. The aim of this research is to synthesis of polyester and to determine the effect of concentration of catalyst on polymerization methyl ester PFAD. The esterification stage was done at temperature 70oC, reaction time 120 minute, reactant ratio 1:8 (PFAD: methanol, concentration of catalyst (H2SO4 1% (w/w PFAD; polymerization stage was done at temperature 126-132°C, polymerization reaction time 4 hours; variation of concentration of catalyst (BF3-diethyl etherate 0%, 6.9%, 9.2%, 11.5% (w/w methyl ester; and polyesterification stage was done at temperature 175-200 oC, reactant ratios (w/w 1:1 (polymerized ME : ethylene glycol, reaction time 4 hours and all of stage was stirred at 150 rpm. The results showed, in the esterification stage was obtained methyl ester with iodine value 77.29 g I2/100 g, viscosity 6.90 cP, density 859.91 kg/m3 and analysis by using GC-MS showed that the purity of methyl ester was 82.23% and molecular weight 267.97 g/mol. Decreasing in iodine value from 77.29 I2 g/100 g to 74.97-59.99 g I2/100 g indicated that the polymerization process had taken place. In polyesterification stage was obtained light brown colored

  4. Influence of pomegranate seed oil and bitter melon aqueous extract on polyunsaturated fatty acids and their lipoxygenase metabolites concentration in serum of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Białek, Agnieszka; Jelińska, Małgorzata; Tokarz, Andrzej; Pergół, Aleksandra; Pinkiewicz, Katarzyna

    2016-11-01

    Competition with polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and an impact on eicosanoid biosynthesis may be one of mechanisms of conjugated linolenic acids (CLnA) action. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of diet supplementation with pomegranate seed oil, containing punicic acid (PA)-one of CLnA isomers, and an aqueous extract of dried bitter melon fruits, administered separately or together, on PUFA and their lipoxygenase metabolites' concentration in serum of rats. Percentage share of fatty acids was diversified in relation to applied supplementation. PA was only detected in serum of pomegranate seed oil supplemented group, where it was about 1%. Cis-9, trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid (rumenic acid, RA) level tended to increase in group supplemented simultaneously with both dietary supplements whereas its highest share in total fatty acids pool was detected in group receiving solely bitter melon dried fruits aqueous extract. This indicates that consumption of bitter melon tea significantly increased RA content in fatty acids pool in serum. However, pomegranate seed oil elevated procarcinogenic 12-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid concentration. Taking into account that pomegranate seed oil and bitter melon dried fruits are dietary supplements accessible worldwide and willingly consumed, the biological significance of this phenomenon should be further investigated. We presume, that there may be a need for some precautions concerning the simultaneous use of these products. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The phytotoxicity to tobacco plants of short-chain carboxylic acids at atmospheric concentration levels in urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirabayashi, M; Ozaki, T; Matsuo, M

    2001-03-01

    In this paper, we describe the influence of monocarboxylic acids (formic acid and acetic acid) and dicarboxylic acids (succinic acid and adipic acid), which are usually contained in aerosol particles and fog water, on the growth of tobacco plant. Their influence was examined by spraying the acid solutions on intact plants and by administering them in a culture medium for suspension-cultured cells. Their growth rates suggest that the influence of short-chain monocarboxylic acids was not significant in both the intact plant experiment and the cell culture experiment. In contrast, dicarboxylic acids exhibited significant influence on the growth of intact plants and no influence on culture cells, indicating that their toxicity is exerted mainly on the tissue of leaf surface. Phytotoxicity of dicarboxylic acids is higher than that of monocarboxylic acids.

  6. The Influence of Lactic Acid Concentration on the Separation of Light Rare Earth Elements by Continuous Liquid-Liquid Extraction with 2-Ethylhexyl Phosphonic Acid Mono-2-ethylhexyl Ester

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho Gomes, Rafael; Seruff, Luciana Amaral; Scal, Maira Labanca Waineraich; Vera, Ysrael Marrero

    2018-02-01

    The separation of rare earth elements (REEs) using solvent extraction adding complexing agents appears to be an alternative to saponification of the extractant. We evaluated the effect of lactic acid concentration on didymium (praseodymium and neodymium) and lanthanum extraction with 2-ethylhexyl phosphonic acid mono-2-ethyl hexyl ester [HEH(EHP)] as extractant. First, we investigated in batch experiments the separation of lanthanum (La) and didymium (Pr and Nd) using McCabe-Thiele diagrams to estimate the number of extraction stages when the feed solution was or was not conditioned with lactic acid. Additionally, we conducted continuous liquid-liquid extraction experiments and evaluated the influence of lactic acid concentration on the REE extraction and separation. The tests showed that the extraction percentage of REEs and the separation factor Pr/La increased when the lactic acid concentration increased, but the didymium purity decreased. Lanthanum, praseodymium, and neodymium extraction rate were 23.0, 89.7, and 99.2 pct, respectively, with 1:1 aqueous/organic volume flow rate and feed solution doped with 0.52 mol L-1 lactic acid. The highest didymium purity reached was 92.0 pct with 0.26 mol L-1 lactic acid concentration.

  7. Nonproteinogenic D-amino acids at millimolar concentrations are a toxin for anaerobic microorganisms relevant to early Earth and other anoxic planets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, Sophie L; Cockell, Charles S

    2015-03-01

    The delivery of extraterrestrial organics to early Earth provided a potentially important source of carbon and energy for microbial life. Optically active organic compounds of extraterrestrial origin exist in racemic form, yet life on Earth has almost exclusively selected for L- over D-enantiomers of amino acids. Although D-enantiomers of proteinogenic amino acids are known to inhibit aerobic microorganisms, the role of concentrated nonproteinogenic meteoritic D-amino acids on anaerobic metabolisms relevant to early Earth and other anoxic planets such as Mars is unknown. Here, we test the inhibitory effect of D-enantiomers of two nonproteinogenic amino acids common to carbonaceous chondrites, norvaline and α-aminobutyric acid, on microbial iron reduction. Three pure strains (Geobacter bemidjiensis, Geobacter metallireducens, Geopsychrobacter electrodiphilus) and an iron-reducing enrichment culture were grown in the presence of 10 mM D-enantiomers of both amino acids. Further tests were conducted to assess the inhibitory effect of these D-amino acids at 1 and 0.1 mM. The presence of 10 mM D-norvaline and D-α-aminobutyric acid inhibited microbial iron reduction by all pure strains and the enrichment. G. bemidjiensis was not inhibited by either amino acid at 0.1 mM, but D-α-aminobutyric acid still inhibited at 1 mM. Calculations using published meteorite accumulation rates to the martian surface indicate D-α-aminobutyric acid may have reached inhibitory concentrations in little over 1000 years during peak infall. These data show that, on a young anoxic planet, the use of one enantiomer over another may render the nonbiological enantiomer an environmental toxin. Processes that generate racemic amino acids in the environment, such as meteoritic infall or impact synthesis, would have been toxic processes and could have been a selection pressure for the evolution of early racemases.

  8. A prospective, randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled evaluation of the effects of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid on the clinical signs and erythrocyte membrane polyunsaturated fatty acid concentrations in dogs with osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehler, Stephen J; May, Lauren R; King, Crystal; Harris, William S; Shah, Zubin

    2016-06-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) in dogs is a prevalent and serious condition. The most common treatment for the clinical signs of OA in dogs is the administration of nonsteroidal antiiflammatory pharmaceuticals. Omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids have been shown to reduce the clinical signs of osteoarthritis in dogs. The primary goals of this study were 1) to determine the effects of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on the clinical signs of OA in dogs, 2) to evaluate the effects of supplementation on the arachadonic acid (ARA)/ (EPA+DHA) algorithm and 3) to correlate alterations in the ARA/(EPA+DHA) with changes in the clinical signs of canine OA. Seventy-eight client owned dogs were enrolled in a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled clinical trial. Dogs were randomized to placebo oil or triglyceride n-3 oil (providing an average dose of 69mg EPA+DHA/kg/day). Orthopedic examinations and blood analyses were performed at baseline, day 42, and day 84. A single investigator confirmed a diagnosis of OA of the coxofemoral joints and/or stifle joints in all dogs. Seventy-four dogs completed the trial. All clinical outcomes for measuring discomfort, lameness, and joint severity at day 84 and all blood metrics at day 42 and day 84 significantly (pacid concentrations correlating to relief of clinical signs associated with OA in dogs. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Variation in reproductive outcomes for captive male rhesus macaques (macaca mulatta) differing in CSF 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerald, Melissa S; Higley, Sue; Lussier, I sabelle D; Westergaard, Greg C; Suomi, Stephen J; Higley, J Dee

    2002-01-01

    In rhesus macaque males, lower than average cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations of the principle metabolite of serotonin, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), have been linked to impulsivity, involvement in escalated aggression, failure to elicit consort relationships, production of fewer sperm plugs, and a relatively early age of mortality. Given these potential fitness costs, we performed two studies aimed at elucidating the effects of CSF 5-HIAA on reproduction. Study 1 retrospectively evaluated over a four-year period, the relative reproductive outcome for pairs of adult male rhesus macaques (n = 15) who lived in social groups and who differed in concentrations of CSF 5-HIAA. Study 2 examined the relationship between CSF 5-HIAA and sperm motility and density (n = 12), as a potential mechanism for maintaining variability in CSF 5-HIAA. For Study 1, an average measure from two CSF 5-HIAA samples was calculated for the two males who were present during the time when conception most likely took place (offspring birth date -165 +/- 14 days). Within-pair comparisons of CSF 5-HIAA concentrations between the sire and the non-successful male were drawn for each of the 72 offspring in the study. We found that while sires were typically the male with relatively higher CSF 5-HIAA within the pair, there were no absolute differences in CSF 5-HIAA between males who sired at least one offspring (sires) and those who failed to reproduce (non-sires). Furthermore, while absolute age was not predictive of reproductive outcome, sires with relatively high CSF 5-HIAA also tended to be also relatively older than their competitors. By contrast, for the males with relatively low CSF 5-HIAA who reproduced, sires were relatively younger than the non-sires. These differences in reproductive outcome for males differing in CSF 5-HIAA could not be explained by variability in sperm quantity or quality as we did not find evidence of a relationship between CSF 5-HIAA and either sperm

  10. Unbiased high-throughput characterization of mussel transcriptomic responses to sublethal concentrations of the biotoxin okadaic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez-Ulloa, Victoria; Fernandez-Tajes, Juan; Aguiar-Pulido, Vanessa; Prego-Faraldo, M. Veronica; Florez-Barros, Fernanda; Sexto-Iglesias, Alexia; Mendez, Josefina

    2015-01-01

    Background. Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs) responsible for Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisoning (DSP) represent a major threat for human consumers of shellfish. The biotoxin Okadaic Acid (OA), a well-known phosphatase inhibitor and tumor promoter, is the primary cause of acute DSP intoxications. Although several studies have described the molecular effects of high OA concentrations on sentinel organisms (e.g., bivalve molluscs), the effect of prolonged exposures to low (sublethal) OA concentrations is still unknown. In order to fill this gap, this work combines Next-Generation sequencing and custom-made microarray technologies to develop an unbiased characterization of the transcriptomic response of mussels during early stages of a DSP bloom. Methods. Mussel specimens were exposed to a HAB episode simulating an early stage DSP bloom (200 cells/L of the dinoflagellate Prorocentrum lima for 24 h). The unbiased characterization of the transcriptomic responses triggered by OA was carried out using two complementary methods of cDNA library preparation: normalized and Suppression Subtractive Hybridization (SSH). Libraries were sequenced and read datasets were mapped to Gene Ontology and KEGG databases. A custom-made oligonucleotide microarray was developed based on these data, completing the expression analysis of digestive gland and gill tissues. Results. Our findings show that exposure to sublethal concentrations of OA is enough to induce gene expression modifications in the mussel Mytilus. Transcriptomic analyses revealed an increase in proteasomal activity, molecular transport, cell cycle regulation, energy production and immune activity in mussels. Oppositely, a number of transcripts hypothesized to be responsive to OA (notably the Serine/Threonine phosphatases PP1 and PP2A) failed to show substantial modifications. Both digestive gland and gill tissues responded similarly to OA, although expression modifications were more dramatic in the former, supporting the choice of

  11. Unbiased high-throughput characterization of mussel transcriptomic responses to sublethal concentrations of the biotoxin okadaic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Suarez-Ulloa

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background. Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs responsible for Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisoning (DSP represent a major threat for human consumers of shellfish. The biotoxin Okadaic Acid (OA, a well-known phosphatase inhibitor and tumor promoter, is the primary cause of acute DSP intoxications. Although several studies have described the molecular effects of high OA concentrations on sentinel organisms (e.g., bivalve molluscs, the effect of prolonged exposures to low (sublethal OA concentrations is still unknown. In order to fill this gap, this work combines Next-Generation sequencing and custom-made microarray technologies to develop an unbiased characterization of the transcriptomic response of mussels during early stages of a DSP bloom.Methods. Mussel specimens were exposed to a HAB episode simulating an early stage DSP bloom (200 cells/L of the dinoflagellate Prorocentrum lima for 24 h. The unbiased characterization of the transcriptomic responses triggered by OA was carried out using two complementary methods of cDNA library preparation: normalized and Suppression Subtractive Hybridization (SSH. Libraries were sequenced and read datasets were mapped to Gene Ontology and KEGG databases. A custom-made oligonucleotide microarray was developed based on these data, completing the expression analysis of digestive gland and gill tissues.Results. Our findings show that exposure to sublethal concentrations of OA is enough to induce gene expression modifications in the mussel Mytilus. Transcriptomic analyses revealed an increase in proteasomal activity, molecular transport, cell cycle regulation, energy production and immune activity in mussels. Oppositely, a number of transcripts hypothesized to be responsive to OA (notably the Serine/Threonine phosphatases PP1 and PP2A failed to show substantial modifications. Both digestive gland and gill tissues responded similarly to OA, although expression modifications were more dramatic in the former, supporting the

  12. Concentration of lymph node aspirate improves the sensitivity of acid fast smear microscopy for the diagnosis of tuberculous lymphadenitis in Jimma, southwest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadesse, Mulualem; Abebe, Gemeda; Abdissa, Ketema; Bekele, Alemayehu; Bezabih, Mesele; Apers, Ludwig; Colebunders, Robert; Rigouts, Leen

    2014-01-01

    Tuberculous lymphadenitis (TBLN) is the most common form of extrapulmonary tuberculosis. The cytomorphological features of lymph node smears have reduced specificity for the diagnosis of tuberculosis. The diagnosis of TBLN with direct smear microscopy lacks sensitivity due to the limited number of bacilli in lymph node aspirate. Therefore, we aimed to assess whether the concentration of lymph node aspirate improves the sensitivity of acid fast smear microscopy for the diagnosis of tuberculous lymphadenitis. A cross-sectional comparative study was conducted on 200 patients clinically suspected for tuberculous lymphadenitis in Jimma, Ethiopia. Lymph node aspirate was collected. The first two drops were used for cytomorphological study and direct acid fast staining. The remaining aspirate was treated with N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NALC) and concentrated by centrifugation at 3000 g for 15 minutes. The sediment was used for acid fast staining and culture. Differentiation of M. tuberculosis complex (MTBC) from non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) was done by para-nitrobenzoic acid susceptibility test. Complete data were available for 187 study subjects. 68% (127/187) were positive for M. tuberculosis on culture. Four isolates, 2.1% (4/187), were identified as NTM. The detection rate of direct smear microscopy was 25.1% and that of the concentration method 49.7%. Cytomorphologically, 79.7% of cases were classified as TBLN. The sensitivity of direct smear microscopy was 34.6%, for concentrated smear microscopy 66.1%, and for cytomorphology 89.8%. Two AFB positive cases on concentration method were non-tuberculosis mycobacteria (NTM). The concentration method yielded a positive result from seven cases diagnosed as suppurative abscess by cytology. Both for the direct and concentration methods the highest rate of AFB positivity was observed in smears showing caseous necrosis alone. Smear positivity rate decreased with the appearance of epithelioid cell aggregates. The concentration

  13. RBC deformability and amino acid concentrations after hypo-osmotic challenge may reflect chronic cell hydration status in healthy young men

    OpenAIRE

    Stookey, Jodi D; Klein, Alexis