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Sample records for undissected outer flank

  1. Flank pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pain - side; Side pain ... Flank pain can be a sign of a kidney problem. But, since many organs are in this area, other causes are possible. If you have flank pain and fever , chills, blood in the urine, or ...

  2. Minilaparoscopic high-ligation with the processus vaginalis undissected and left in situ is a safe, effective, and durable treatment for pediatric hydrocele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Chen-Hsun; Yang, Stephen Shei-Dei; Tsai, Yao-Chou

    2010-07-01

    We report our experience of minilaparoscopy in the treatment of pediatric hydrocele. Between 2003 and 2007, a total of 21 male infants or children with 22 hydroceles underwent minilaparoscopic surgery at our institute. The patent processus vaginalis (PPV) was detached from the adjacent peritoneum by circumferentially incising the peritoneum (opening of PPV) at the internal ring. The opened peritoneum was closed with suture, with the PPV left in situ. Contralateral PPV, if present, was simultaneously treated in the same manner. All received a periodical follow-up with physical examinations and scrotal sonography. The median age was 43 months (13-163 months). The median operative time was 50 minutes (29-105 minutes). On the side of hydrocele, the median length of the PPV was 5.0 cm (2.0-10.0 cm). Contralateral asymptomatic PPV was found in 6 (30.0%) of the 20 patients with unilateral hydrocele, with a median length of 2.0 cm (1.0-4.0 cm). All postoperative courses were uneventful without any complication. After a median follow-up of 46 months (13-59 months), none had ipsilateral recurrence or metachronous contralateral occurrence of hydrocele or hernia, and none suffered from testicular atrophy or chronic wound pain. Based on a long-term follow-up, our data show that minilaparoscopic high-ligation with the PPV undissected and left in situ is a safe, effective, and durable treatment for pediatric hydrocele. The contralateral PPV, if present, can be treated simultaneously to prevent metachronous contralateral occurrence of hydrocele or hernia. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Volcano Flank Terraces on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, P. K.; van Wyk de Vries, B.; Murray, J. B.; Troll, V. R.

    2008-12-01

    Flank terraces are bulge-like structures that occur on the slopes of at least nine large shield volcanoes on Mars, and three on Earth. Terraces have a convex-upward, convex-outward morphology, with an imbricate "fish scale" stacking pattern in plan. They occur at all elevations, are scale-invariant structures, and have similar proportions to thrust faults on Earth. Suggested mechanisms of formation include elastic self-loading, lithospheric flexure, magma chamber tumescence, flank relaxation, and shallow gravitational slumping. Terrace geometries predicted by most of these mechanisms do not agree with our observations, however. Only lithospheric flexure can fully account for terrace geometry on Mars and Earth, and so is the most likely candidate mechanism for flank terrace formation. To verify this hypothesis, we conducted scaled analogue modelling experiments, and investigated the structures formed during flexure. Cones of a sand-gypsum mix were placed upon a deep layer of silicone gel, to simulate volcanic loads upon viscoelastic Martian crust. Key parameters were varied across our experimental program. In all cases convex topographic structures developed on the cones' flanks, arranged in an imbricate, overlapping plan-view pattern. These structures closely resemble flank terraces observed on Mars, and our results provide for a basic kinematic model of terrace formation. Analogue volcanoes experienced a decrease in upper surface area whilst volume was conserved; the contractional surface strain was accommodated by outward verging, circumferentially striking thrusts. The morphology of experimental structures suggests an orientation of the principal stress axes of σ1 = radial, σ2 = concentric, and σ3 = vertical. Elsewhere (J. B. Murray et al., this volume) we detail the relationship between flank terraces and other structures such as pit craters and gräben, using Ascraeus Mons as a case study. We suggest that terraces may influence the distribution and location

  4. Ice burn: protecting the flank during renal cryotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Jennifer L; Sountoulides, Petros; Kolla, Surendra B; Pick, Donald L; Kaufmann, Oskar B; Huynh, Victor B; Kaplan, Adam G; Ortiz, Cervando; Louie, Michael K; Andrade, Lorena A; Osann, Kathryn E; McDougall, Elspeth M; Clayman, Ralph V

    2010-08-01

    Cryoablation is a viable minimally invasive strategy for the treatment of small renal masses. One of the most common postoperative complaints is pain or paresthesia at the cryoprobe insertion site. The use of a 14-gauge angiocatheter to insulate the flank during renal cryotherapy was investigated. Six Yorkshire swine underwent laparoscopy-guided percutaneous cryoablation of the upper and lower poles of both kidneys with a 1.47 mm (17 gauge) cryoneedle. Treatment consisted of a double 10-minute freeze separated by a 5-minute active thaw. Trials were randomized to placement of the cryoneedle directly through the flank or through a 14-gauge angiocatheter as an insulating sheath. Temperatures were recorded adjacent to the cryoneedle at two depths in the flank with a Multi-Point Thermal Sensor. Twelve trials were completed each with a bare and sheathed cryoneedle. The coldest temperature observed was -26 degrees C for the bare cryoneedle and -21 degrees C for the sheathed cryoneedle. At the outer sensor, there was a 4.1 degrees C increase in mean temperature for freeze 1, and 6.2 degrees C increase in mean temperature for freeze 2 with sheath use. At the inner sensor, there was a 3.0 degrees C increase in mean temperature for freeze 1, and 9.4 degrees C increase in mean temperature for freeze 2 with sheath use. There was a trend toward statistical significance of sheath insulation at the outer (p = 0.07) and inner (p = 0.08) temperature sensors. A 14-gauge angiocatheter may provide some insulation and thereby might help protect against "ice burn" during renal cryotherapy.

  5. Understanding Etna flank instability through numerical models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apuani, Tiziana; Corazzato, Claudia; Merri, Andrea; Tibaldi, Alessandro

    2013-02-01

    As many active volcanoes, Mount Etna shows clear evidence of flank instability, and different mechanisms were suggested to explain this flank dynamics, based on the recorded deformation pattern and character. Shallow and deep deformations, mainly associated with both eruptive and seismic events, are concentrated along recognised fracture and fault systems, mobilising the eastern and south-eastern flank of the volcano. Several interacting causes were postulated to control the phenomenon, including gravity force, magma ascent along the feeding system, and a very complex local and/or regional tectonic activity. Nevertheless, the complexity of such dynamics is still an open subject of research and being the volcano flanks heavily urbanised, the comprehension of the gravitative dynamics is a major issue for public safety and civil protection. The present research explores the effects of the main geological features (in particular the role of the subetnean clays, interposed between the Apennine-Maghrebian flysch and the volcanic products) and the role of weakness zones, identified by fracture and fault systems, on the slope instability process. The effects of magma intrusions are also investigated. The problem is addressed by integrating field data, laboratory tests and numerical modelling. A bi- and tri-dimensional stress-strain analysis was performed by a finite difference numerical code (FLAC and FLAC3D), mainly aimed at evaluating the relationship among geological features, volcano-tectonic structures and magmatic activity in controlling the deformation processes. The analyses are well supported by dedicated structural-mechanical field surveys, which allowed to estimate the rock mass strength and deformability parameters. To take into account the uncertainties which inevitably occur in a so complicated model, many efforts were done in performing a sensitivity analysis along a WNW-ESE section crossing the volcano summit and the Valle del Bove depression. This was

  6. Hybridization Capture Using Short PCR Products Enriches Small Genomes by Capturing Flanking Sequences (CapFlank)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsangaras, Kyriakos; Wales, Nathan; Sicheritz-Pontén, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    , a non-negligible fraction of the resulting sequence reads are not homologous to the bait. We demonstrate that during capture, the bait-hybridized library molecules add additional flanking library sequences iteratively, such that baits limited to targeting relatively short regions (e.g. few hundred...... nucleotides) can result in enrichment across entire mitochondrial and bacterial genomes. Our findings suggest that some of the off-target sequences derived in capture experiments are non-randomly enriched, and that CapFlank will facilitate targeted enrichment of large contiguous sequences with minimal prior...

  7. Right psoas abscess following right flank trauma: a case report ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This is a case of 15 year old boy who presented with three weeks history of right flank pain, two weeks history of fever and five days history of inability to walk well. There was history of right flank trauma a week before the onset of right flank pain. He had earlier presented in two different hospitals before he was brought to our ...

  8. Flank pain: is Intravenous Urogram necessary?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teh, H S; Lin, M B; Khoo, T K

    2001-09-01

    To determine the diagnostic yield of Intravenous Urogram (IVU) and the values of plain radiograph of kidney, ureter and bladder (KUB) and urinalysis as screening tests, with the objective to improve the cost effectiveness, in the management of patients presenting with flank pain due to urinary lithiasis. All Intravenous Urogram (IVU) request forms and reports for the month of February 1998 were audited. The case notes, urinalysis, KUB and IVU films were traced and reviewed. There were 110 patients investigated, 61.8% (68) had normal IVU, 38.2% (42) had abnormal IVU. The sensitivity and specificity of KUB alone was 79.4% and 90%. The sensitivity using urinalysis alone was 90.9% and its specificity 33.8%. The sensitivity of combined KUB and urinalysis was 100% and its specificity 26%, with a negative predictive value of 100%. All the patients with both negative KUB and urinalysis in our study were found to have negative IVU. Our study shows that in patients with both negative KUB and urinalysis, the yield of IVU is very low and may not be necessary. This is important, as an IVU examination is not without risk. A combination of KUB with urinary analysis and careful evaluation of clinical symptoms will improve the cost-effectiveness of patient management.

  9. The outer solar system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Encrenaz T.

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The outer solar system extends beyond a heliocentric distance of 5 AU. It contains the giant planets and their systems (rings and satellites, the Kuiper belt, the comets (except those which approach episodically the inner solar system and, at its outer edge, the Oort cloud. The outer solar system physically corresponds to the region located outside the « snow line » which corresponded to the distance of ice condensation in the protodolar disk, and thus made the frontier between the terrestrial and the giant planets at the time of the planets’ formation. The outer solar system is charaterized by a very large variety of ob jects, even within a given class of ob jects. Each of the giant planet has its own properties, as well as each of the outer satellites and the ring systems ; all are the products of specific conditions which determined their formation and evolution processes. The existence of the Kuiper belt, suspected on theoretical bases since the 1940s, has been confirmed since 1992 with the observation of over 1200 trans-neptunian ob jects. Thanks to the the developments of more and more performing groundbased instrumentation and the use of large telescopes, these ob jects are now studies in a statistical way, both dynamically and physically, and these studies are precious for constraining the early formation models of the solar system.

  10. SUPERMAN attenuates positive INNER NO OUTER autoregulation to maintain polar development of Arabidopsis ovule outer integuments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meister, Robert J; Kotow, Louren M; Gasser, Charles S

    2002-09-01

    The outer integument of Arabidopsis ovules exhibits marked polarity in its development, growing extensively from the abaxial side, but only to a very limited extent from the adaxial side of the ovule. Mutations in two genes affect this asymmetric growth. In strong inner no outer (ino) mutants outer integument growth is eliminated, whereas in superman (sup) mutants integument growth on the adaxial side is nearly equal to wild-type growth on the abaxial side. Through complementation and reporter gene analysis, a region of INO 5'-flanking sequences was identified that contains sufficient information for appropriate expression of INO. Using this INO promoter (P-INO) we show that INO acts as a positive regulator of transcription from P-INO, but is not sufficient for de novo initiation of transcription in other plant parts. Protein fusions demonstrate nuclear localization of INO, consistent with a proposed role as a transcription factor for this member of the YABBY protein family. Through its ability to inhibit expression of the endogenous INO gene and transgenes driven by P-INO, SUP is shown to be a negative regulator of INO transcription. Substitution of another YABBY protein coding region (CRABS CLAW) for INO overcomes this negative regulation, indicating that SUP suppresses INO transcription through attenuation of the INO positive autoregulatory loop.

  11. Cluster observations of a field aligned current at the dawn flank of a bursty bulk flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Snekvik

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This article describes observations of a bursty bulk flow (BBF in the outer central plasma sheet. The observations are made with the Cluster satellites, located approximately 19 RE downtail, close to the midnight sector in the Southern Hemisphere. 40–60 s after Cluster first detected the BBF, there was a large bipolar perturbation in the magnetic field. A Grad-Shafranov reconstruction has revealed that this is created by a field-aligned current at the flank of the BBF. Further analysis of the plasma moments has shown that the BBF has the properties of a depleted flux tube. Depleted flux tubes are an important theoretical model for how plasma and magnetic flux can be transported Earthward in the magnetotail as part of the Dungey cycle. The field aligned current is directed Earthward and is located at the dawn side of the BBF. Thus, it is consistent with the magnetic shear at the flank of an Earthward moving BBF. The total current has been estimated to be about 0.1 MA.

  12. Cluster observations of a field aligned current at the dawn flank of a bursty bulk flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Snekvik

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This article describes observations of a bursty bulk flow (BBF in the outer central plasma sheet. The observations are made with the Cluster satellites, located approximately 19 RE downtail, close to the midnight sector in the Southern Hemisphere. 40–60 s after Cluster first detected the BBF, there was a large bipolar perturbation in the magnetic field. A Grad-Shafranov reconstruction has revealed that this is created by a field-aligned current at the flank of the BBF. Further analysis of the plasma moments has shown that the BBF has the properties of a depleted flux tube. Depleted flux tubes are an important theoretical model for how plasma and magnetic flux can be transported Earthward in the magnetotail as part of the Dungey cycle. The field aligned current is directed Earthward and is located at the dawn side of the BBF. Thus, it is consistent with the magnetic shear at the flank of an Earthward moving BBF. The total current has been estimated to be about 0.1 MA.

  13. TPS for Outer Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatapathy, Ethiraj; Ellerby, D.; Gage, P.; Gasch, M.; Hwang, H.; Prabhu, D.; Stackpoole, M.; Wercinski, Paul

    2018-01-01

    This invited talk will provide an assessment of the TPS needs for Outer Planet In-situ missions to destinations with atmosphere. The talk will outline the drivers for TPS from destination, science, mission architecture and entry environment. An assessment of the readiness of the TPS, both currently available and under development, for Saturn, Titan, Uranus and Neptune are provided. The challenges related to sustainability of the TPS for future missions are discussed.

  14. Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data represents geographic terms used within the Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act (OCSLA or Act). The Act defines the United States outer continental shelf...

  15. Flank solar wind interaction. Annual report, June 1991-July 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moses, S.L.; Greenstadt, E.W.

    1992-08-01

    This report summarizes the results of the first 12 months of our program to study the interaction of the Earth's magnetosphere with the solar wind on the far flanks of the bow shock. This study employs data from the ISEE-3 spacecraft during its traversals of the Earth's magnetotail and correlative data from spacecraft monitoring the solar wind upstream. Our main effort to date has involved assembling data sets and developing new plotting programs. Two talks were given at the Spring Meeting of the American Geophysical Union describing our initial results from analyzing data from the far flank foreshock and magnetosheath. The following sections summarize our results

  16. geochemistry of ekenkpon and nkporo shales, calabar flank, se ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    marl unit with thin shale intercalations, overlies the. Ekenpon Shale Formation. The Santonian and Early. Campanian sediments are not encountered in the. Calabar Flank as this period is regarded as a period of non deposition / or erosion. The Late Campanian to. Maastrichtian sediment of the Nkporo Formation. (Reyment ...

  17. Flanking Variation Influences Rates of Stutter in Simple Repeats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    August E. Woerner

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available It has been posited that the longest uninterrupted stretch (LUS of tandem repeats, as defined by the number of exactly matching repeating motif units, is a better predictor of rates of stutter than the parental allele length (PAL. While there are cases where this hypothesis is likely correct, such as the 9.3 allele in the TH01 locus, there can be situations where it may not apply as well. For example, the PAL may capture flanking indel variations while remaining insensitive to polymorphisms in the repeat, and these haplotypic changes may impact the stutter rate. To address this, rates of stutter were contrasted against the LUS as well as the PAL on different flanking haplotypic backgrounds. This study shows that rates of stutter can vary substantially depending on the flanking haplotype, and while there are cases where the LUS is a better predictor of stutter than the PAL, examples to the contrary are apparent in commonly assayed forensic markers. Further, flanking variation that is 7 bp from the repeat region can impact rates of stutter. These findings suggest that non-proximal effects, such as DNA secondary structure, may be impacting the rates of stutter in common forensic short tandem repeat markers.

  18. Red-Flanked Duiker Cephalophus rufilatus found in Bugungu Game ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Red-Flanked Duiker Cephalophus rufilatus found in Bugungu Game Reserve, Uganda. C Allan. Abstract. Journal of East African Natural History Vol. 85 (1&2) 1996: 87-90. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  19. Identification and characterization of variants in the 5' flanking region ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    enoh

    2012-04-05

    Apr 5, 2012 ... important regulatory elements such as TATA box, CRE, NRE3, dPit1 and pPit1 were identified in the 5' flanking in six bovine species. The conservation of regulatory elements may be consistent with functional constraint during the course of evolution. Key words: Bovine species, growth hormone gene, ...

  20. Geochemistry of Ekenkpon and Nkporo shales, Calabar flank, SE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Cretaceous Nkporo and Ekenkpon Shales within the Calabar Flank were investigated using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS) and Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES) to deduce the provenance, transportation history and depositional environment. The results show the dominance of SiO2 ...

  1. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the 5'-flanking region of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prolactin (PRL), a polypeptide hormone synthesized and secreted by the animal's anterior pituitary gland, plays an important role in the regulation of mammalian lactation and avian reproduction. Considering the significant association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the 5'-flanking region of PRL and ...

  2. Unilateral flank ovariohysterectomy in guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozanska, D; Rozanski, P; Orzelski, M; Chlebicka, N; Putowska, K

    2016-11-01

    To describe a simple, minimally invasive method of ovariohysterectomy via a unilateral flank approach in guinea pigs, for use in routine desexing of healthy female guinea pigs or treatment of ovarian cysts. The subjects of this retrospective study were 41 client-owned guinea pigs submitted for routine desexing or treatment of ovarian cysts. They included 16 healthy female guinea pigs aged 8-12 months (Group 1), and 15 females aged from 9 months to 3 years (Group 2), and 10 females aged from 3 to 7 years (Group 3) with different-sized ovarian cysts. Prior to surgery, the animals received clinical examination, blood testing (complete blood count and serum biochemistry profile) and examination of the abdomen using ultrasonography, to assess the condition of the reproductive tract and ensure the guinea pigs were fit for surgery. Ovariohysterectomy was performed via a unilateral flank incision made close to the erector spinae muscle starting approximately 1 cm caudal to the last rib. Both ovaries, uterine horns, and the uterine cervix were localised, ligated, and dissected through this unilateral retroperitoneal incision. Ovariohysterectomy was successfully completed via a single flank incision in 38/41 (93%) guinea pigs. Three guinea pigs with ovarian cysts from Group 3, which were >6 years old died during surgery due to circulatory and respiratory failure under anaesthesia. In the remaining 38 cases, surgery proceeded without complications. A further two guinea pigs from Group 3 were reluctant to move or eat for the first 3 days after surgery but recovered after provision of supportive care. All 38 animals fully recovered and wound healing was normal. This is the first report of ovariohysterectomy via a unilateral flank incision in guinea pigs. This approach is a simple, minimally invasive and safe alternative to the midline or bilateral flank approaches currently used for surgery of the reproductive tract in guinea pigs.

  3. Economic method for helical gear flank surface characterisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koulin, G.; Reavie, T.; Frazer, R. C.; Shaw, B. A.

    2018-03-01

    Typically the quality of a gear pair is assessed based on simplified geometric tolerances which do not always correlate with functional performance. In order to identify and quantify functional performance based parameters, further development of the gear measurement approach is required. Methodology for interpolation of the full active helical gear flank surface, from sparse line measurements, is presented. The method seeks to identify the minimum number of line measurements required to sufficiently characterise an active gear flank. In the form ground gear example presented, a single helix and three profile line measurements was considered to be acceptable. The resulting surfaces can be used to simulate the meshing engagement of a gear pair and therefore provide insight into functional performance based parameters. Therefore the assessment of the quality can be based on the predicted performance in the context of an application.

  4. Force Modelling in Orthogonal Cutting Considering Flank Wear Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathod, Kanti Bhikhubhai; Lalwani, Devdas I.

    2017-05-01

    In the present work, an attempt has been made to provide a predictive cutting force model during orthogonal cutting by combining two different force models, that is, a force model for a perfectly sharp tool plus considering the effect of edge radius and a force model for a worn tool. The first force model is for a perfectly sharp tool that is based on Oxley's predictive machining theory for orthogonal cutting as the Oxley's model is for perfectly sharp tool, the effect of cutting edge radius (hone radius) is added and improve model is presented. The second force model is based on worn tool (flank wear) that was proposed by Waldorf. Further, the developed combined force model is also used to predict flank wear width using inverse approach. The performance of the developed combined total force model is compared with the previously published results for AISI 1045 and AISI 4142 materials and found reasonably good agreement.

  5. Case report: Right flank pain and fever | Stephany | Malawi Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Case report: Right flank pain and fever. P Stephany, L Aaron, PA Buffet. Abstract. No Abstract. Malawi Medical Journal Vol.17(2) 2005: 54-55. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/mmj.v17i2.10881 · AJOL African Journals ...

  6. [Importance of the flank line in the radiologic semiotics of abdominal pathology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minutoli, A; Gaeta, M; Mantineo, G; Bosurgi, G

    1986-04-01

    The authors have analysed the flank stripe in 70 normal subjects and in patients with abdominal disease. The flank stripe has a wide variability and is very useful to detect and locate abdominal pathologic conditions.

  7. File list: InP.Emb.50.AllAg.Embryonic_flank [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Emb.50.AllAg.Embryonic_flank mm9 Input control Embryo Embryonic flank SRX804059... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.Emb.50.AllAg.Embryonic_flank.bed ...

  8. Tsunami deposits related to Fogo flank failure (Cape Verde Islands)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Raphael; Chevalier, Joel; Lavigne, Franck

    2010-05-01

    Oceanic shield volcanoes are prone to massive flank failures involving dozens to hundreds of km³. Fogo active volcano (Cape Verde Islands) is nested in a large horseshoe shaped caldera opened to the east. This volcano-tectonic structure could be the result of past failures of the edifice (Day et al., 1999). Debris avalanche deposits were identified offshore (Masson et al., 2008). The volume of the last collapse (> 62 ka) ranges between 130 and 160 km³, making the hypothesis for a past giant tsunami highly probable. Santiago island is located 50 km east of Fogo island. The west coast of Santiago may have been severely affected by the tsunami. A field survey was carried out in March 2009. Surprisingly, tsunami deposits were found only in Tarrafal, where a large bay may have amplified the wave and provided sediments. Elsewhere, no evidences of tsunami were found. The tsunami deposits appear as marine conglomerate in discontinuity above a reddish to yellowish paleo-soil. Nice cross-sections were found along the coast, in the northern part of the Tarrafal Bay. The thickness apparently increases landward (up to 4 m). The deposits consist in stacked units of pebbles or boulders, with numerous marine bioclasts (shells, corals, coralline algae). The basal contact with the paleo-soil displays scour-and-fill features. These tsunami deposits are similar to those previously described by Pérez-Torrado et al. (2006) in the Canary Islands. References Day, S.J., Heleno da Silva, S.I.N., Fonseca, J.F.B.D., 1999. A past giant lateral collapse and present-day flank instability of Fogo, Cape Verde Islands. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 99, 191-218. Masson, D.G., Le Bas, T.P., Grevemeyer, I., Weinrebe, W., 2008. Flank collapse and large-scale landsliding in the Cape Verde Islands, off West Africa. Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems 9 (7). Pérez Torrado, F.J., Paris, R., Cabrera, M.C., Schneider, J.L., Wassmer, P., Carracedo, J.C., Rodriguez Santana, A., Santana, F

  9. Unenhanced helical CT in the investigation of acute flank pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colistro, Robert; Torreggiani, William C.; Lyburn, Iain D.; Harris, Alison C.; Al-Nakshabandi, Nizar A.; Nicolaou, Savvas; Munk, Peter L.

    2002-01-01

    Unenhanced helical CT has emerged as the imaging technique of choice for the investigation of patients presenting with acute flank pain and suspected nephroureteric stone disease. There are several signs identifiable on unenhanced CT that support a diagnosis of stone disease. However, there are many pitfalls, that may confound a correct diagnosis. Some of the common pitfalls, together with methods to avoid such occurrences, will be discussed. A review of some of the common alternative diagnoses that may mimic the symptoms of nephroureteric stone disease is illustrated. Colistro, R. et al (2002)

  10. Reverse time migration of prism waves for salt flank delineation

    KAUST Repository

    Dai, Wei

    2013-09-22

    In this paper, we present a new reverse time migration method for imaging salt flanks with prism wave reflections. It consists of four steps: (1) migrating the seismic data with conventional RTM to give the RTM image; (2) using the RTM image as a reflectivity model to simulate source-side reflections with the Born approximation; (3) zero-lag correlation of the source-side reflection wavefields and receiver-side wavefields to produce the prism wave migration image; and (4) repeating steps 2 and 3 for the receiver-side reflections. An advantage of this method is that there is no need to pick the horizontal reflectors prior to migration of the prism waves. It also separately images the vertical structures at a different step to reduce crosstalk interference. The disadvantage of prism wave migration algorithm is that its computational cost is twice that of conventional RTM. The empirical results with a salt model suggest that prism wave migration can be an effective method for salt flank delineation in the absence of diving waves.

  11. Plasma Transport at the Magnetospheric Flank Boundary. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otto, Antonius

    2012-01-01

    Progress is highlighted in these areas: 1. Model of magnetic reconnection induced by three-dimensional Kelvin Helmholtz (KH) modes at the magnetospheric flank boundary; 2. Quantitative evaluation of mass transport from the magnetosheath onto closed geomagnetic field for northward IMF; 3. Comparison of mass transfer by cusp reconnection and Flank Kelvin Helmholtz modes; 4. Entropy constraint and plasma transport in the magnetotail - a new mechanism for current sheet thinning; 5. Test particle model for mass transport onto closed geomagnetic field for northward IMF; 6. Influence of density asymmetry and magnetic shear on (a) the linear and nonlinear growth of 3D Kelvin Helmholtz (KH) modes, and (b) three-dimensional KH mediated mass transport; 7. Examination of entropy and plasma transport in the magnetotail; 8. Entropy change and plasma transport by KH mediated reconnection - mixing and heating of plasma; 9. Entropy and plasma transport in the magnetotail - tail reconnection; and, 10. Wave coupling at the magnetospheric boundary and generation of kinetic Alfven waves

  12. Comparative Evaluation of Midventral and Flank Laparotomy Approaches in Goat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Abubakar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to compare two laparotomy approaches (flank and midventral. Ten (n=10 apparently healthy goats of different breeds and sex, average age of 12±2.1 months, and average weight of 13.4±2 kg were used for the investigation. The goats were randomly divided into flank and midventral groups, each group comprising five goats (n=5. Standard aseptic laparotomy was performed under lumbosacral epidural anaesthesia with mild sedation. Postsurgical wound score showed significant difference (P<0.05 in erythema at 18–24 hours and 10–14 days after surgery between the two approaches; significant difference of dehiscence between the two groups was also recorded at 10–14 days after surgery. Total white blood cells (WBC and lymphocytes counts were significantly different (P<0.05 at the first and second week after surgery. There was significant difference of platelets critical value and platelets dimension width at the first and second week after surgery. Significant difference of packed cells volume between the two approaches was also recorded one week after surgery. It was concluded that midventral laparotomy approach can be conveniently and safely performed under aseptic precautions without fear of intra- and postoperative clinical problems.

  13. Southward flow on the western flank of the Florida Current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soloviev, Alexander V.; Hirons, Amy; Maingot, Christopher; Dean, Cayla W.; Dodge, Richard E.; Yankovsky, Alexander E.; Wood, Jon; Weisberg, Robert H.; Luther, Mark E.; McCreary, Julian P.

    2017-07-01

    A suite of long-term in situ measurements in the Straits of Florida, including the ADCP bottom moorings at an 11-m isobath and 244-m isobath (Miami Terrace) and several ADCP ship transects, have revealed a remarkable feature of the ocean circulation - southward flow on the western, coastal flank of the Florida Current. We have observed three forms of the southward flow - a seasonally varying coastal countercurrent, an undercurrent jet attached to the Florida shelf, and an intermittent undercurrent on the Miami Terrace. According to a 13-year monthly climatology obtained from the near-shore mooring, the coastal countercurrent is a persistent feature from October through January. The southward flow in the form of an undercurrent jet attached to the continental slope was observed during five ship transects from April through September but was not observed during three transects in February, March, and November. This undercurrent jet is well mixed due to strong shear at its top associated with the northward direction of the surface flow (Florida Current) and friction at the bottom. At the same time, no statistically significant seasonal cycle has been observed in the undercurrent flow on the Miami Terrace. Theoretical considerations suggest that several processes could drive the southward current, including interaction between the Florida Current and the shelf, as well as forcing that is independent of the Florida Current. The exact nature of the southward flow on the western flank of the Florida Current is, however, unknown.

  14. MICROBIAL COMMUNITIES AT THE BOREHOLE OBSERVATORY ON THE COSTA RICA RIFT FLANK (OCEAN DRILLING PROGRAM HOLE 896A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa eNigro

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The microbiology of subsurface, hydrothermally-influenced basaltic crust flanking mid-ocean ridges has remained understudied, due to the difficulty in accessing the subsurface environment. The instrumented boreholes resulting from scientific ocean drilling offer access to samples of the formation fluids circulating through oceanic crust. We analyzed the phylogenetic diversity of bacterial communities of fluid and microbial mat samples collected in situ from the observatory at Ocean Drilling Program Hole 896A, drilled into ~6.5-million-year-old basaltic crust on the flank of the Costa Rica Rift in the equatorial Pacific Ocean. Bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequences recovered from borehole fluid and from a microbial mat coating the outer surface of the fluid port revealed both unique and shared phylotypes. The dominant bacterial clones from both samples were related to the autotrophic, sulfur-oxidizing genus Thiomicrospira. Both samples yielded diverse gamma- and alphaproteobacterial phylotypes, as well as members of the Bacteroidetes, Planctomycetes, and Verrucomicrobia. Analysis of ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCO genes (cbbL and cbbM from the sampling port mat and from the borehole fluid demonstrated autotrophic carbon assimilation potential for in-situ microbial communities; most cbbL genes were related to those of the sulfur-oxidizing genera Thioalkalivibrio and Thiomicrospira, and cbbM genes were affiliated with uncultured phyloytypes from hydrothermal vent plumes and marine sediments. Several 16S rRNA gene phylotypes from the 896A observatory grouped with phylotypes recovered from seawater-exposed basalts and sulfide deposits at inactive hydrothermal vents, but there is little overlap with hydrothermally-influenced basaltic boreholes 1026B and U1301A on the Juan de Fuca Ridge flank, suggesting that site-specific characteristics of Hole 896A (i.e. seawater mixing into borehole fluids affect the microbial community

  15. Cluster observations of surface waves on the dawn flank magnetopause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. J. Owen

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available On 14 June 2001 the four Cluster spacecraft recorded multiple encounters of the dawn-side flank magnetopause. The characteristics of the observed electron populations varied between a cold, dense magnetosheath population and warmer, more rarified boundary layer population on a quasi-periodic basis. The demarcation between these two populations can be readily identified by gradients in the scalar temperature of the electrons. An analysis of the differences in the observed timings of the boundary at each spacecraft indicates that these magnetopause crossings are consistent with a surface wave moving across the flank magnetopause. When compared to the orientation of the magnetopause expected from models, we find that the leading edges of these waves are approximately 45° steeper than the trailing edges, consistent with the Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH driving mechanism. A stability analysis of this interval suggests that the magnetopause is marginally stable to this mechanism during this event. Periods in which the analysis predicts that the magnetopause is unstable correspond to observations of greater wave steepening. Analysis of the pulses suggests that the waves have an average wavelength of approximately 3.4 RE and move at an average speed of ~65km s-1 in an anti-sunward and northward direction, despite the spacecraft location somewhat south of the GSE Z=0 plane. This wave propagation direction lies close to perpendicular to the average magnetic field direction in the external magnetosheath, suggesting that these waves may preferentially propagate in the direction that requires no bending of these external field lines

    Key words. Magnetospheric physics (magnetospheric configuration and dynamics; MHD waves and unstabilities; solar wind-magnetosphere interactions

  16. Evidence of Multiple Flank Collapse at Volcan Baru, Panama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrick, J. A.; Rose, W. I.

    2009-12-01

    Michigan Tech's Peace Corps Master's International program (PCMI) in Geological Hazards has enabled several long-term investigations of active volcanoes in Latin America. To contribute to volcanic hazard assessments in Panama and achieve the goals defined by the PCMI program, we developed this debris avalanche project to address outstanding questions regarding Volcan Baru's most devastating event - massive slope failure of the western flank. Relying on basic mapping tools as well as the 2007 USGS Open-File Report focusing on hazard assessments of Panama's youngest and potentially active volcano, identification of the debris avalanche deposits (DAD) required detailed field investigations to determine the limits of the units. Extending across an area larger than 600 km2, field strategies were developed based on outcrop exposures within drainages and road-cuts. Aerial photos and DEMs of Baru's nested craters were interpreted by earlier scientists as the remains of two collapsed flanks. The results from in-depth field traverses provide several important discoveries: paleosols and sharp contacts within the stratigraphy indicate multiple DAD, deeply weathered hummocks red-flag the deposits more than 50-km away from Baru's crater, and high-quality radiocarbon samples (up to 45-cm long fragments of entrained wood) lie in the distal reaches of the debris flow area. During the 2008-2009 field seasons, we received assistance from the University of Panama, Civil Protection, and Panama's National Institute of Geography. Support from local experts and feedback from professional scientists of the Smithsonian Institution and Costa Rica's Institute of Electricity were invaluable. The 2-year investment in volcanic hazard studies has brought together resources from several countries as well as fresh data that will benefit the residents and emergency management officials of Panama. Jigsaw fractured clasts lie within Volcan Baru's debris avalanche deposits more than 28 km south of the

  17. The CMS Outer Hadron Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Acharya, Bannaje Sripathi; Banerjee, Sunanda; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beri, Suman Bala; Bhandari, Virender; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Chendvankar, Sanjay; Deshpande, Pandurang Vishnu; Dugad, Shashikant; Ganguli, Som N; Guchait, Monoranjan; Gurtu, Atul; Kalmani, Suresh Devendrappa; Kaur, Manjit; Kohli, Jatinder Mohan; Krishnaswamy, Marthi Ramaswamy; Kumar, Arun; Maity, Manas; Majumder, Gobinda; Mazumdar, Kajari; Mondal, Naba Kumar; Nagaraj, P; Narasimham, Vemuri Syamala; Patil, Mandakini Ravindra; Reddy, L V; Satyanarayana, B; Sharma, Seema; Singh, B; Singh, Jas Bir; Sudhakar, Katta; Tonwar, Suresh C; Verma, Piyush

    2006-01-01

    The CMS hadron calorimeter is a sampling calorimeter with brass absorber and plastic scintillator tiles with wavelength shifting fibres for carrying the light to the readout device. The barrel hadron calorimeter is complemented with a outer calorimeter to ensure high energy shower containment in CMS and thus working as a tail catcher. Fabrication, testing and calibrations of the outer hadron calorimeter are carried out keeping in mind its importance in the energy measurement of jets in view of linearity and resolution. It will provide a net improvement in missing $\\et$ measurements at LHC energies. The outer hadron calorimeter has a very good signal to background ratio even for a minimum ionising particle and can hence be used in coincidence with the Resistive Plate Chambers of the CMS detector for the muon trigger.

  18. Getting Sloshed in Outer Space

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 12; Issue 12. Getting Sloshed in Outer Space - Liquid Behavior in Microgravity. N Ananthkrishnan ... Author Affiliations. N Ananthkrishnan1. C-146, CSRE C-Type Bldg, Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay Campus, Powai Mumbai 400 076, India.

  19. Getting Sloshed in Outer Space

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 12; Issue 12. Getting Sloshed in Outer Space - Liquid Behavior in Microgravity. N Ananthkrishnan. General Article Volume 12 Issue 12 December 2007 pp 40-45. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  20. Outer Texts in Bilingual Dictionaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rufus H. Gouws

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract: Dictionaries often display a central list bias with little or no attention to the use ofouter texts. This article focuses on dictionaries as text compounds and carriers of different texttypes. Utilising either a partial or a complete frame structure, a variety of outer text types can beused to enhance the data distribution structure of a dictionary and to ensure a better informationretrieval by the intended target user. A distinction is made between primary frame structures andsecondary frame structures and attention is drawn to the use of complex outer texts and the need ofan extended complex outer text with its own table of contents to guide the user to the relevant textsin the complex outer text. It is emphasised that outer texts need to be planned in a meticulous wayand that they should participate in the lexicographic functions of the specific dictionary, bothknowledge-orientated and communication-orientated functions, to ensure a transtextual functionalapproach.

    Keywords: BACK MATTER, CENTRAL LIST, COMMUNICATION-ORIENTATED FUNCTIONS,COMPLEX TEXT, CULTURAL DATA, EXTENDED COMPLEX TEXT, EXTENDED TEXTS,FRONT MATTER, FRAME STRUCTURE, KNOWLEDGE-ORIENTATED FUNCTIONS, LEXICOGRAPHICFUNCTIONS, OUTER TEXTS, PRIMARY FRAME, SECONDARY FRAME

    Opsomming: Buitetekste in tweetalige woordeboeke. Woordeboeke vertoondikwels 'n partydigheid ten gunste van die sentrale lys met min of geen aandag aan die buitetekstenie. Hierdie artikel fokus op woordeboeke as tekssamestellings en draers van verskillende tekssoorte.Met die benutting van óf 'n gedeeltelike óf 'n volledige raamstruktuur kan 'n verskeidenheidbuitetekste aangewend word om die dataverspreidingstruktuur van 'n woordeboek te verbeteren om 'n beter herwinning van inligting deur die teikengebruiker te verseker. 'n Onderskeidword gemaak tussen primêre en sekondêre raamstrukture en die aandag word gevestig op kompleksebuitetekste en die behoefte aan 'n uitgebreide komplekse

  1. Transposed genes in Arabidopsis are often associated with flanking repeats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret R Woodhouse

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Much of the eukaryotic genome is known to be mobile, largely due to the movement of transposons and other parasitic elements. Recent work in plants and Drosophila suggests that mobility is also a feature of many nontransposon genes and gene families. Indeed, analysis of the Arabidopsis genome suggested that as many as half of all genes had moved to unlinked positions since Arabidopsis diverged from papaya roughly 72 million years ago, and that these mobile genes tend to fall into distinct gene families. However, the mechanism by which single gene transposition occurred was not deduced. By comparing two closely related species, Arabidopsis thaliana and Arabidopsis lyrata, we sought to determine the nature of gene transposition in Arabidopsis. We found that certain categories of genes are much more likely to have transposed than others, and that many of these transposed genes are flanked by direct repeat sequence that was homologous to sequence within the orthologous target site in A. lyrata and which was predominantly genic in identity. We suggest that intrachromosomal recombination between tandemly duplicated sequences, and subsequent insertion of the circular product, is the predominant mechanism of gene transposition.

  2. Sodium Ion Dynamics in the Magnetospheric Flanks of Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizawa, Sae; Delcourt, Dominique; Terada, Naoki

    2018-01-01

    We investigate the transport of planetary ions in the magnetospheric flanks of Mercury. In situ measurements from the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging spacecraft show evidences of Kelvin-Helmholtz instability development in this region of space, due to the velocity shear between the downtail streaming flow of solar wind originating protons in the magnetosheath and the magnetospheric populations. Ions that originate from the planet exosphere and that gain access to this region of space may be transported across the magnetopause along meandering orbits. We examine this transport using single-particle trajectory calculations in model Magnetohydrodynamics simulations of the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability. We show that heavy ions of planetary origin such as Na+ may experience prominent nonadiabatic energization as they E × B drift across large-scale rolled up vortices. This energization is controlled by the characteristics of the electric field burst encountered along the particle path, the net energy change realized corresponding to the maximum E × B drift energy. This nonadiabatic energization also is responsible for prominent scattering of the particles toward the direction perpendicular to the magnetic field.

  3. Magnocellular facilitation of flanked-letter identification disappears with strong flanker interference

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Omtzigt, D.; Hendriks, A.W.C.J.

    2011-01-01

    Previously, we obtained evidence to suggest that the magnocellular system may reduce interference from flankers during flanked-letter identification. To understand this phenomenon better, we combined the data of our previous experiments, which all used the same flanking letter, and focused on the

  4. Thermal history of volcanic debris flow deposits on the eastern flanks of Mt. Taranaki, New Zealand: Implications for future hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Gillian M.; Alloway, Brent V.; Dixon, Benjamin J.; Atkins, Cliff B.

    2018-03-01

    We use palaeomagnetic methods to decipher the thermal histories of a succession of massive to weakly stratified debris flow deposits (Ngatoro and Te Popo formations) of late Holocene age located on the eastern lower flanks of Mt. Taranaki/Egmont Volcano, western North Island, New Zealand. Results from two sites, Vickers Quarry and Surrey Road Quarry, both c. 9.6 km from the present-day summit, enable us to distinguish between clast incorporation temperatures of about 400 °C and emplacement temperatures between 150 and 200 °C, consistent with observation of superficial charring and desiccation of outer podocarp-hardwood tree trunks at Vickers Quarry. Analysis of palaeomagnetic directions and lithofacies architecture suggest that these deposits were likely initiated as a closely-spaced succession of block-and-ash flows (BAFs) that rapidly cooled as they descended the volcano flanks. Radiocarbon chronology and the widespread occurrence of a palaeosol between the products of the preceding Inglewood eruptive phase, c. 3.4 cal. ka B.P., and the overlying Ngatoro Formation suggest that these two events are temporally unrelated. Certainly, there is no field evidence of contemporaneous explosive volcanic activity that might be related to the emplacement of Ngatoro Formation. However, we suggest that these low-temperature deposits might either relate to collapse of a small emergent lava dome or a cooling dome remnant, possibly emplaced in the aftermath of the Inglewood eruption. How collapse was initiated remains uncertain: the remnant dome may have been rendered unstable by volcano-tectonic or tectonic seismic events and/or by adverse meteorological events. Nevertheless, this study demonstrates that edifice collapse events generating potentially hazardous debris flows can occur independent of specific eruptive activity.

  5. Mitochondrial dysfunction underlying outer retinal diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lefevere, Evy; Toft-Kehler, Anne Katrine; Vohra, Rupali

    2017-01-01

    Dysfunction of photoreceptors, retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) or both contribute to the initiation and progression of several outer retinal disorders. Disrupted Müller glia function might additionally subsidize to these diseases. Mitochondrial malfunctioning is importantly associated with outer...... of mitochondrial dysfunction, indicating that mitochondria represent a weak link in the antioxidant defenses of outer retinal cells....

  6. Wear evaluation of flank in burins of high speed steel modified with titanium ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    E Caballero, J.; V-Niño, E. D.

    2017-12-01

    This report shows the results obtained researching the flank wearing resistance performed by the high-speed steel (HSS) burins without any surface treatment (reference substrate) and others with surface treatment based on Titanium ions. The flank wearing was carried out by means of an industrial process by chip removal with repetitive tests of dry finished turning of AISI/SAE 1045 steel bars. The useful service life of the burins was evaluated according to ISO 3685:1993, and it was found that the burins treated with Titanium ions showed an increase in the flank wearing resistance with respect to the ones used as reference.

  7. Imaging modalities and therapy options in patients with acute flank pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosse, A.; Grosse, C.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this article is the description of imaging techniques for the evaluation of patients with acute flank pain and suspicion of urolithiasis and the impact of these techniques in the therapy management of patients with calculi. (orig.) [de

  8. Magnocellular involvement in flanked-letter identification relates to the allocation of attention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Omtzigt, D.; Hendriks, A.W.C.J.

    2004-01-01

    To verify the hypothesis that the magnocellular system is important to flanked-letter identification [Neuropsychologia 40 (2002) 1881] because it subserves attention allocation, we conducted three letter-naming experiments in which we manipulated magnocellular involvement (colour vs. luminance

  9. Geophysical and geological surveys along the northeastern flank of Mount error, Northwestern Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramana, M.V.; Rajendraprasad, B.; Hansen, R.D.

    Bathymetry, multichannel continuous seismic reflection, magnetic and gravity surveys and sampling were carried out over Mount Error in the northwestern Indian Ocean and along the northeastern flank of the seamount, to study the nature of its...

  10. Chemistry of the outer planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scattergood, Thomas W.

    1992-05-01

    Various aspects were studied of past or present chemistry in the atmospheres of the outer planets and their satellites using lab simulations. Three areas were studied: (1) organic chemistry induced by kinetically hot hydrogen atoms in the region of Jupiter's atmosphere containing the ammonia cirrus clouds; (2) the conversion of NH3 into N2 by plasmas associated with entry of meteors and other objects into the atmosphere of early Titan; and (3) the synthesis of simple hydrocarbons and HCN by lightning in mixtures containing N2, CH4, and NH3 representing the atmospheres of Titan and the outer planets. The results showed that: (1) hot H2 atoms formed from the photodissociation of NH3 in Jupiter's atmosphere could account for some of the atmospheric chemistry in the ammonia cirrus cloud region; (2) the thermalization of hot H2 atoms in atmospheres predominated by molecular H is not as rapid as predicted by elastic collision theory; (3) the net quantum loss of NH3 in the presence of a 200 fold excess of H2 is 0.02, much higher than was expected from the amount of H2 present; (4) the conversion of NH3 into N2 in plasmas associated with infalling meteors is very efficient and rapid, and could account for most of the N2 present on Titan; (5) the yields of C2H2 and HCN from lightning induced chemistry in mixtures of CH4 and N2 is consistent with quenched thermodynamic models of the discharge core; and (6) photolysis induced by the UV light emitted by the gases in the hot plasmas may account for some, if not most, of the excess production of C2H6 and the more complex hydrocarbons.

  11. Carboniferous geology and uranium potential of the northeast flank of the Parana Basin and southwest flank of the Parnaiba Basin, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, S.M. de; Camarco, P.E.N.

    1984-01-01

    The Carboniferous sequences of the northeast flank of the Parana Basin and those of the southwest flank of the Parnaiba Basin have been the subject of discussion and polemics for quite a long time, especially in terms of their stratigraphic relations and depositional environments. Thus, we reinforce our main objective, which is to furnish data for the definition of the uranium potential in these Carboniferous sediments, by adding recently acquired information that should aid in the clarification of the existing controversies. The Carboniferous along the northeast flank of the Parana Basin is represented by the Aquidauana Formation which has been informally divided into three members: lower, middle and upper members. The middle member, of marine origin, constitutes a prospective target for uranium and phosphate associations, in which sandstones interbedded with shales constitute the host rocks. On the other hand, the Carboniferous of the southwest margin of the Parnaiba Basin, which encompasses the Longa, Poti and Piaui Formations has shown very remote possibilities of uranium occurrences. The regional structural framework, as reflected by the Carboniferous rocks along both basin flanks, is characterized by homoclines cut by gravity faults. The faults along these weakness zones were occasionally intruded by basic rocks of Cretaceous age. Superimposed on the regional structure, open folds appear in the form of anticlines and domes. These folds are discontinuous structures resulting from uplift due to vertical stresses or result from differential subsidence along the limbs of the folds. (Author) [pt

  12. Effect of the bases flanking an abasic site on the recognition of nucleobase by amiloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajendran, Arivazhagan; Zhao, Chunxia; Rajendar, Burki; Thiagarajan, Viruthachalam; Sato, Yusuke; Nishizawa, Seiichi; Teramae, Norio

    2010-06-01

    We explain here the various non-covalent interactions which are responsible for the different binding modes of a small ligand with DNA. The combination of experimental and theoretical methods was used. The interaction of amiloride with thymine was found to depend on the bases flanking the AP site and different binding modes were observed for different flanking bases. Molecular modeling, absorption studies and binding constant measurements support for the different binding patterns. The flanking base dependent recognition of AP site phosphates was investigated by (31)P NMR experiments. The thermodynamics of the ligand-nucleotide interaction was demonstrated by isothermal titration calorimetry. The emission behavior of amiloride was found to depend on the bases flanking the AP site. Amiloride photophysics in the context of AP-site containing DNA is investigated by time-dependent density functional theory. Flanking bases affect the ground and excited electronic states of amiloride when binding to AP site, which causes flanking base-dependent fluorescence signaling. The various noncovalent interactions have been well characterized for the determination of nucleic acid structure and dynamics, and protein-DNA interactions. However, these are not clear for the DNA-small molecule interactions and we believe that our studies will bring a new insight into such phenomena. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Outer grid strap protruding spring repair apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widener, W.H.

    1987-01-01

    This patent describes a nuclear fuel assembly grid spring repair apparatus for repairing a spring formed on an outer strap of a fuel assembly grid and having a portion protruding outwardly beyond the strap, the apparatus comprising: (a) a support frame defining an opening and having means defining a guide channel extending along the opening in a first direction; (b) means mounted on the frame and being adjustable for attaching the frame to the outer strap of the support grid so that the frame opening is aligned with the outwardly protruding spring on the outer strap; (c) an outer slide having a passageway defined therethrough and being mounted in the guide channel for reciprocable movement along the frame opening in the first direction for aligning the passageway with the outwardly protruding portion of the spring on the outer strap. The outer slide also has means defining a guide way extending along the passageway in a second direction generally orthogonal to the first direction; (d) a spring reset mechanism being operable for resetting the protruding spring to a nonprotruding position relative to the outer strap when the mechanism is aligned with the protruding portion of the spring; and (e) an inner slide supporting the spring reset mechanism and being mounted to the guide way for reciprocable movement along the passageway of the outer slide in the second direction for aligning the spring reset mechanism with the protruding portion of the spring on the outer strap

  14. Outer membrane protein antigens of Moraxella bovis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostle, A G; Rosenbusch, R F

    1986-07-01

    Outer membranes were isolated from bovine isolates and type strains of Moraxella bovis, M phenylpyruvica, M lacunata, and M ovis by sodium N lauroyl sarcosinate extraction and differential centrifugation. Analysis of outer membranes from these organisms by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis revealed that all M bovis isolates shared a common polypeptide pattern that was readily distinguishable from other Moraxella spp. Nine major outer membrane protein bands were identified by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis analysis of M bovis. Immunoblotting of protein antigens of M bovis revealed several outer membrane proteins that seemed to be common antigens of all M bovis isolates.

  15. Design Of Robots For Outer Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roston, Gerald P.

    1990-01-01

    Report discusses design of robots for use in zero gravity and vacuum, with attention to differences between requirements imposed on designs by outer space and by terrestrial applications. Terrestrial robots designed for multiple purposes and for minimal cost. Outer-space robots designed specialized to one task where cost has relatively low priority. Design optimal in one environment unlikely optimal in another.

  16. Simulation of flanking transmission in super-light structures for airborne and impact sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jacob Ellehauge; Hertz, Kristian Dahl; Brunskog, Jonas

    2012-01-01

    . Previously the airborne and impact sound insulation has been measured for a super-light deck element in a laboratory. This paper presents a flanking transmission analysis based on the measured results and are carried out for the Super-light deck elements by means of the acoustical software Bastian....... In the flanking transmission analysis the influence of a large array of different flanking walls, structural connection details, room size and floor constructions, all typical or desirable for common multi-storey residential constructions, have been investigated. The results form a basis for guidelines on how...... to design buildings with super-light deck elements while achieving a good acoustical environment in the building, fulfilling various acoustical requirements from the building regulations....

  17. Magmatism on rift flanks: Insights from ambient noise phase velocity in Afar region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korostelev, Félicie; Weemstra, Cornelis; Leroy, Sylvie; Boschi, Lapo; Keir, Derek; Ren, Yong; Molinari, Irene; Ahmed, Abdulhakim; Stuart, Graham W.; Rolandone, Frédérique; Khanbari, Khaled; Hammond, James O. S.; Kendall, J. M.; Doubre, Cécile; Ganad, Ismail Al; Goitom, Berhe; Ayele, Atalay

    2015-04-01

    During the breakup of continents in magmatic settings, the extension of the rift valley is commonly assumed to initially occur by border faulting and progressively migrate in space and time toward the spreading axis. Magmatic processes near the rift flanks are commonly ignored. We present phase velocity maps of the crust and uppermost mantle of the conjugate margins of the southern Red Sea (Afar and Yemen) using ambient noise tomography to constrain crustal modification during breakup. Our images show that the low seismic velocities characterize not only the upper crust beneath the axial volcanic systems but also both upper and lower crust beneath the rift flanks where ongoing volcanism and hydrothermal activity occur at the surface. Magmatic modification of the crust beneath rift flanks likely occurs for a protracted period of time during the breakup process and may persist through to early seafloor spreading.

  18. Mathematical description of tooth flank surface of globoidal worm gear with straight axial tooth profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Połowniak, Piotr; Sobolak, Mariusz

    2017-12-01

    In this article, a mathematical description of tooth flank surface of the globoidal worm and worm wheel generated by the hourglass worm hob with straight tooth axial profile is presented. The kinematic system of globoidal worm gear is shown. The equation of globoid helix and tooth axial profile of worm is derived to determine worm tooth surface. Based on the equation of meshing the contact lines are obtained. The mathematical description of globoidal worm wheel tooth flank is performed on the basis of contact lines and generating the tooth side by the extreme cutting edge of worm hob. The presented mathematical model of tooth flank of TA worm and worm wheel can be used e.g. to analyse the contact pattern of the gear.

  19. Mitigation of Flanking Noise Transmission in Periodic Structures of Lightweight Elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domadiya, Parthkumar Gandalal

    through structural junctions and radiates into neighbouring rooms. To diminish the flanking transmission of sound, frames are usually designed with single or double studs or constructed with layers of foam or another viscoelastic material. This thesis is investigating the behaviour of flanking noise...... elements are considered for describing flanking noise transmission through panels. It is assumed that the ribs are fully fixed to the plates in case of various frame designs, and a parametric study is carried out on the centre panel with regard to various spacing between the ribs. Solid finite elements...... characteristics in periodic structures, the structure must be simplified; hence, one dimensional structures such as bars and beams are considered for further investigation. A periodic bar model comprised of systemically placed Plexiglas and steel elements is generated using two methods: an FE method and a Floquet...

  20. Incorporation of squalene into rod outer segments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, R.K.; Fliesler, S.J.

    1990-01-01

    We have reported previously that squalene is the major radiolabeled nonsaponifiable lipid product derived from [ 3 H]acetate in short term incubations of frog retinas. In the present study, we demonstrate that newly synthesized squalene is incorporated into rod outer segments under similar in vitro conditions. We show further that squalene is an endogenous constituent of frog rod outer segment membranes; its concentration is approximately 9.5 nmol/mumol of phospholipid or about 9% of the level of cholesterol. Pulse-chase experiments with radiolabeled precursors revealed no metabolism of outer segment squalene to sterols in up to 20 h of chase. Taken together with our previous absolute rate studies, these results suggest that most, if not all, of the squalene synthesized by the frog retina is transported to rod outer segments. Synthesis of protein is not required for squalene transport since puromycin had no effect on squalene incorporation into outer segments. Conversely, inhibition of isoprenoid synthesis with mevinolin had no effect on the incorporation of opsin into the outer segment. These latter results support the conclusion that the de novo synthesis and subsequent intracellular trafficking of opsin and isoprenoid lipids destined for the outer segment occur via independent mechanisms

  1. Massive Volcanic Flank Failure and Megatsunami Generation Evolve in Response to Quaternary Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMurtry, G. M.; Fryer, G. J.; Tappin, D. R.; Fietzke, J.

    2009-12-01

    It is hard to comprehend the size and destructive power of the ‘megatsunamis’ caused by the rapid failure of island flanks, continental margins, or bolide impacts. Oceanic volcanoes have erupted and created landslides over many millions of years, but within the Quaternary, flank failures appear to have responded to changing climate in the orbitally-forced glacial-interglacial transition period. In the case of very large shield volcanoes like Mauna Loa, Hawaii, failures also appear to correlate with finer abrupt transitions from cooler-dry to warmer-wet climate within interglacial periods: there is evidence that Mauna Loa's south and west flanks failed in marine isotope stages 5 and 7, in a series of sections with a ca. 25,000 year recurrence, similar to Earth’s precession period. Previous paleoclimate work has tied Earth’s precession period to a powerful moisture feedback of temperate-latitude glacial ice, and suggests that precession dominates sea surface temperature variations at lower latitudes. This orbitally-forced climatic effect could increase the likelihood of groundwater saturation inside porous volcanic flanks during more frequent and powerful storms, especially in the subtropics, suggesting a probable mechanism for flank collapse. Mauna Loa's flank failure started soon after its rapid subaerial edifice build-up at 250-300 ka BP, as evidenced by the Punaluu landslide. Two subsequent ‘megatsunamigenic’ landslides at 225 and 200 ka BP were followed by a 65 ka ‘rest period’ associated with the stage 6 glacial. Flank failures resumed at 135 ka BP, followed 25 ka later by the last megatsunamigenic failure at 110 ka BP (the Alika 1 and 2 landslides). The most recent Mauna Loa landslides appear to be the Ka Lae East and West, that likely occurred >32 to 60 ka BP, although no associated tsunami deposits are known. Globally, flank failures of oceanic volcanoes are recognized at the 100-ka eccentricity period of glacial-interglacial transitions back

  2. Mitigation of Flanking Noise in Double-Plate Panel Structures by Periodic Stiffening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domadiya, Parthkumar Gandalal; Dickow, Kristoffer Ahrens; Andersen, Lars

    2011-01-01

    The present analysis focuses on flanking noise transmission within a two-wall structure of finite size. The walls are lightweight panel structures, each consisting of two plates with internal ribs. A finite-element model is utilized, assuming that the studs are fully fixed to the plates. Further...... is important. Hence, analyses are carried out for different positions of the load. It has been found that the ribs have a significant impact, not only on the flanking noise but also on the direct radiation of sound from the wall on which the external force has been placed. Furthermore, the response changes...

  3. Role of tryptophan repeats and flanking amino acids in Myb-DNA interactions.

    OpenAIRE

    Saikumar, P; Murali, R; Reddy, E P

    1990-01-01

    The c-myb protooncogene codes for a sequence-specific DNA-binding protein that appears to act as a transcriptional regulator and is highly conserved through evolution. The DNA-binding domain of Myb has been shown to contain three imperfectly conserved repeats of 52 amino acids that constitute the amino-terminal end. Within each repeat, there are three tryptophans that are separated by 18 or 19 amino acids and are flanked by basic amino acids. To determine the role of tryptophans and the flank...

  4. Proteomics of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans Outer Membrane Vesicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kieselbach, Thomas; Zijnge, Vincent; Granstrom, Elisabeth; Oscarsson, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans is an oral and systemic pathogen associated with aggressive forms of periodontitis and with endocarditis. Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) released by this species have been demonstrated to deliver effector proteins such as cytolethal distending toxin (CDT) and

  5. Outer membrane proteins of pathogenic spirochetes

    OpenAIRE

    Cullen, Paul A.; Haake, David A.; Adler, Ben

    2004-01-01

    Pathogenic spirochetes are the causative agents of several important diseases including syphilis, Lyme disease, leptospirosis, swine dysentery, periodontal disease and some forms of relapsing fever. Spirochetal bacteria possess two membranes and the proteins present in the outer membrane are at the site of interaction with host tissue and the immune system. This review describes the current knowledge in the field of spirochetal outer membrane protein (OMP) biology. What is known concerning bi...

  6. Geologic Mapping of the Summit and Western Flank of Alba Mons, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crown, D. A.; Berman, D. C.; Platz, T.; Scheidt, S. P.; Hauber, E.; Weitz, C. M.

    2017-06-01

    This investigation employs imaging and topographic datasets to produce two 1:1M-scale geologic maps covering the Alba Mons summit (245-255°E, 32.5-47.5°N) and western flank (230-245°E, 37.5-47.5°N).

  7. Cloning flanking sequence by single-primer PCR in transgenic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, J; Wang, Y P; Ren, S; Zhang, Z; Lu, S; Wang, P W

    2014-10-20

    The insertion position of exogenous genes in plant genomes is usually identified by adapter ligation-mediated polymerase chain reaction (PCR), thermal asymmetric interlaced PCR, and restriction site extension PCR in transgenic plant research. However, these methods have various limitations, such as the complexity of designing primers and time-consuming and multiple-step procedures. The goal of this study was to establish an easier, more rapid, and more accurate method to clone flanking sequence using single-primer PCR in transgenic plants. Unknown flanking genome sequences in transgenic plants, including those in tobacco, soybean, rice, and maize, were cloned using the single-primer PCR method established in this study, with the Bar gene as the anchor gene. The primer 1 (P1), P2, and P3 PCRs obtained 4 sequences, and the completely correct flanking sequence of 508 bp that was obtained in the P3 PCR was verified by sequencing analysis. The single-primer PCR is more rapid and accurate than conventional methods, justifying its application widely in cloning flanking sequences in transgenic plants.

  8. Magmatism on rift flanks: insights from Ambient-Noise Phase-velocity in Afar region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korostelev, Félicie; Weemstra, Cornelis; Leroy, Sylvie; Boschi, Lapo; Ren, Yong; Ahmed, Abdulhakim; Keir, Derek; Stuart, Graham W.; Rolandone, Frédérique; Khanbari, Khaled; Hammond, James O. S.; Kendall, J. Michael; Doubre, Cécile; Ganad, Ismail Al

    2015-04-01

    During the breakup of continent in the presence of magma, strain is commonly assumed to initially occur by border faulting, and progressively migrate in space and time towards axial magma intrusion. Magmatic processes near the rift flanks are commonly ignored. We present phase-velocity maps of the crust and uppermost mantle of the conjugate margins of the southern Red Sea (Afar and Yemen) using ambient noise tomography to constrain crustal modification during breakup. Our images show that the low seismic velocities characterize not only upper crust beneath the axial volcanic systems, but also both upper and lower crust beneath rift flanks where ongoing volcanism and hydrothermal activity occurs at the surface. The results show that magmatic modification of the crust beneath rift flanks likely occurs for a protracted period of time during the breakup process, and may persist through to early seafloor spreading. Since ongoing flank magmatism during breakup impacts the thermal evolution of the lithosphere, it has implications for the subsidence history of the rift.

  9. Autoradiographic localization of tritiated dihydrotestosterone in the flank organ of the albino hamster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucky, A.W.; Eisenfeld, A.J.; Visintin, I.

    1985-01-01

    In the hamster flank organ, the growth of hair and growth of sebaceous glands are androgen-dependent functions. Although dihydrotestosterone (DHT) is known to be a potent stimulator of flank organ growth, there is no information about localization of DHT receptor sites in this organ. The purpose of this study was to use steroid autoradiography to localize DHT receptors in the hamster flank organ. Because steroid hormones are functional when translocated to nuclear receptors, nuclear localization by autoradiography defines receptor sites. In order to be able to visualize autoradiographic grains from radiolabeled androgens around hair follicles, albino hamsters were studied to avoid confusion between the grains and pigment granules which are abundant in the more common Golden Syrian hamster. Mature male hamsters castrated 24 hours earlier were given tritium-labeled dihydrotestosterone ( [ 3 H]DHT). Using the technique of thaw-mount steroid autoradiography, 4-micron unfixed frozen sections were mounted in the dark onto emulsion-coated glass slides and allowed to develop for 4-6 months. [ 3 H]DHT was found to be concentrated over sebocyte nuclei. The label was present peripherally as well as in differentiating sebocytes. There was no nuclear localization of [ 3 H]DHT in animals pretreated with excessive quantities of unlabeled DHT. Steroid metabolites of [ 3 H] DHT were assessed by thin-layer chromatography in paired tissue samples. Most of the label remained with DHT. Uptake was inhibited in the flank organ of hamsters pretreated with unlabeled DHT

  10. What is the optimal observation time for a penetrating wound to the flank?

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLeod, Jana; Freiberger, Doug; Lewis, Fran; Feliciano, David

    2007-01-01

    Options for a hemodynamically stable patient with a penetrating wound to the flank or back but no peritonitis, includes serial physical examinations versus a triple-contrast CT scan. There is, however, little consensus on the minimum time for serial examinations to exclude an injury that requires an operation. Therefore, a retrospective review of patients who sustained a penetrating wound to the flank or back and were admitted to a Level I trauma center was performed. Patients were identified through the trauma registry, patient charts, and morbidity/mortality records. From 1995 to 2003, 93 patients undergoing observation for a penetrating flank/back wound subsequently required a therapeutic laparotomy. The time from admission to operation was less than 3 hours for 84 per cent of the patients requiring therapeutic intervention. A further 10 per cent presented with symptoms between 4 to 6 hours, and 6 per cent between 7 to 18 hours. All the injuries caused symptoms within 18 hours of the injury event. The majority of patients (94%) who require a laparotomy after a period of observation for a penetrating flank/back wound will develop signs and symptoms within 6 hours of admission. A period of hospitalization longer than 18 hours did not detect further injuries in the asymptomatic patient.

  11. Heme regulates the expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae of chimaeric genes containing 5'-flanking soybean leghemoglobin sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, E O; Marcker, K A; Villadsen, IS

    1986-01-01

    The TM1 yeast mutant was transformed with a 2 micron-derived plasmid (YEp24) which carries a chimaeric gene containing the Escherichia coli chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT) gene fused to the 5'- and 3'-flanking regions of the soybean leghemoglobin (Lb) c3 gene. Expression of the chimaeric...

  12. An FTIR investigation of flanking sequence effects on the structure and flexibility of DNA binding sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Talia R; Fong, Kimberly K; Jordan, Brian; Lek, Janista C; Levitan, Rachel; Mitchell, Patrick S; Wood, Corrina; Hatcher, Mary E

    2009-02-17

    Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and a library of FTIR marker bands have been used to examine the structure and relative flexibilities conferred by different flanking sequences on the EcoRI binding site. This approach allowed us to examine unique peaks and subtle changes in the spectra of d(AAAGAATTCTTT)(2), d(TTCGAATTCGAA)(2), and d(CGCGAATTCGCG)(2) and thereby identify local changes in base pairing, base stacking, backbone conformation, glycosidic bond rotation, and sugar puckering in the studied sequences. The changes in flanking sequences induce differences in the sugar puckers, glycosidic bond rotation, and backbone conformations. Varying levels of local flexibility are observed within the sequences in agreement with previous biological activity assays. The results also provide supporting evidence for the presence of a splay in the G(4)-C(9) base pair of the EcoRI binding site and a potential pocket of flexibility at the G(4) cleavage site that have been proposed in the literature. In sum, we have demonstrated that FTIR is a powerful methodology for studying the effect of flanking sequences on DNA structure and flexibility, for it can provide information about the local structure of the nucleic acid and the overall relative flexibilities conferred by different flanking sequences.

  13. Effect of Cutting Fluids on the Flank Wear of High Speed and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of some cutting fluids namely: Mentholated spirit, paraffin, and soluble oil on the flank wear of High-speed steel and carbide tipped tools by orthogonal cutting has been studied. Cente lathe was used for cylindrical turning operated at a speed of 370rpm and depth of cut of 1mm to machine aluminum, brass, mild ...

  14. Interphase FISH detection of BCL2 rearrangement in follicular lymphoma using breakpoint-flanking probes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaandrager, J W; Schuuring, E; Raap, T; Philippo, K; Kleiverda, K; Kluin, P

    Rearrangement of the BCL2 gene is an important parameter for the differential diagnosis of non-Hodgkin lymphomas. Although a relatively large proportion of breakpoints is clustered, many are missed by standard PCR. A FISH assay is therefore desired. Up to now, a lack of probes flanking the BCL2 gene

  15. Cloning and analysis of the 5' and 3' flanking regions of the Crinum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-10-20

    Oct 20, 2008 ... Usually, the structures of 5' gene flanking region of eukaryotes comprised four parts: the site of start transcription, TATA box, CAAT box and GC box. TATA boxes were generally located at -32±7 bp positions upstream from the start of transcription. The consensus sequence for the TATA box was [T(CG)TATA ...

  16. Association of the polymorphism in the 5' flanking region of the ovine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-I) gene has been described in several studies as a candidate gene for growth traits in farm animals. The present preliminary study attempts to establish associations between growth traits and genetic polymorphisms at the 5' flanking region s IGF-I in the Baluchi sheep. The DNA of 102 ...

  17. Identification of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii endogenous genic flanking sequences for improved transgene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Paz, Cristina; Liu, Dianyi; Geng, Sa; Umen, James G

    2017-12-01

    Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is a unicellular green alga that has attracted interest due to its potential biotechnological applications, and as a model for algal biofuel and energy metabolism. Despite all the advantages that this unicellular alga offers, poor and inconsistent expression of nuclear transgenes remains an obstacle for basic and applied research. We used a data-mining strategy to identify highly expressed genes in Chlamydomonas whose flanking sequences were tested for the ability to drive heterologous nuclear transgene expression. Candidates identified in this search included two ribosomal protein genes, RPL35a and RPL23, and ferredoxin, FDX1, whose flanking regions including promoters, terminators and untranslated sequences could drive stable luciferase transgene expression to significantly higher levels than the commonly used Hsp70A-RBCS2 (AR) hybrid promoter/terminator sequences. The RPL23 flanking sequences were further tested using the zeocin resistance gene sh-ble as a reporter in monocistronic and dicistronic constructs, and consistently yielded higher numbers of zeocin-resistant transformants and higher levels of resistance than AR- or PSAD-based vectors. Chlamydomonas RPL23 sequences also enabled transgene expression in Volvox carteri. Our study provides an additional benchmark for strong constitutive expression of transgenes in Chlamydomonas, and develops a general approach for identifying flanking sequences that can be used to drive transgene expression for any organism where transcriptome data are available. © 2017 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Investigating the Wave Nature of the Outer Envelope of Halo Coronal Mass Ejections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Ryun-Young [College of Science, George Mason University, 4400 University Drive, Fairfax, VA 22030 (United States); Vourlidas, Angelos, E-mail: rkwon@gmu.edu [The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, Laurel, MD 20723 (United States)

    2017-02-20

    We investigate the nature of the outer envelope of halo coronal mass ejections (H-CMEs) using multi-viewpoint observations from the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory-A , -B , and SOlar and Heliospheric Observatory coronagraphs. The 3D structure and kinematics of the halo envelopes and the driving CMEs are derived separately using a forward modeling method. We analyze three H-CMEs with peak speeds from 1355 to 2157 km s{sup −1}; sufficiently fast to drive shocks in the corona. We find that the angular widths of the halos range from 192° to 252°, while those of the flux ropes range between only 58° and 91°, indicating that the halos are waves propagating away from the CMEs. The halo widths are in agreement with widths of Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) waves in the low corona further demonstrating the common origin of these structures. To further investigate the wave nature of the halos, we model their 3D kinematic properties with a linear fast magnetosonic wave model. The model is able to reproduce the position of the halo flanks with realistic coronal medium assumptions but fails closer to the CME nose. The CME halo envelope seems to arise from a driven wave (or shock) close to the CME nose, but it is gradually becoming a freely propagating fast magnetosonic wave at the flanks. This interpretation provides a simple unifying picture for CME halos, EUV waves, and the large longitudinal spread of solar energetic particles.

  19. Molecular basis for photoreceptor outer segment architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Andrew F X; Moritz, Orson L; Williams, David S

    2016-11-01

    To serve vision, vertebrate rod and cone photoreceptors must detect photons, convert the light stimuli into cellular signals, and then convey the encoded information to downstream neurons. Rods and cones are sensory neurons that each rely on specialized ciliary organelles to detect light. These organelles, called outer segments, possess elaborate architectures that include many hundreds of light-sensitive membranous disks arrayed one atop another in precise register. These stacked disks capture light and initiate the chain of molecular and cellular events that underlie normal vision. Outer segment organization is challenged by an inherently dynamic nature; these organelles are subject to a renewal process that replaces a significant fraction of their disks (up to ∼10%) on a daily basis. In addition, a broad range of environmental and genetic insults can disrupt outer segment morphology to impair photoreceptor function and viability. In this chapter, we survey the major progress that has been made for understanding the molecular basis of outer segment architecture. We also discuss key aspects of organelle lipid and protein composition, and highlight distributions, interactions, and potential structural functions of key OS-resident molecules, including: kinesin-2, actin, RP1, prominin-1, protocadherin 21, peripherin-2/rds, rom-1, glutamic acid-rich proteins, and rhodopsin. Finally, we identify key knowledge gaps and challenges that remain for understanding how normal outer segment architecture is established and maintained. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Flank-marking behavior and the neural distribution of vasopressin innervation in golden hamsters with suprachiasmatic lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delville, Y; De Vries, G J; Schwartz, W J; Ferris, C F

    1998-12-01

    In golden hamsters, microinjections of arginine-vasopressin (AVP) within the anterior hypothalamus trigger a stereotyped scent-marking behavior, flank marking. Our experiment was carried out to test the contribution of AVP neurons within the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) in the control of this behavior. Our results suggest that the SCN does not contribute to flank-marking behavior. Whereas SCN lesions disrupted circadian rhythms of wheel running, the same lesions did not disrupt flank-marking. The results also suggest that neurons located outside the SCN contribute significantly to the vasopressinergic innervation of the brain and the expression of AVP-dependent behaviors, such as flank-marking behavior. Although AVP-immunoreactive fibers were severely (ca. 95%) depleted from several forebrain areas in SCN-lesioned hamsters, the effect of the lesions was much more limited within the forebrain areas involved in flank-marking behavior as well as within the midbrain and hindbrain.

  1. How do volcanic rift zones relate to flank instability? Evidence from collapsing rifts at Etna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepe, Susi; Ruch, Joel; Casu, Francesco; Acocella, Valerio; Neri, Marco; Solaro, Giuseppe; Sansosti, Eugenio

    2013-04-01

    Volcanic rift zones, characterized by repeated dike emplacements, are expected to delimit the upper portion of unstable flanks at basaltic edifices. However, the relationship between flank instability and rift zone behavior, activity, and location on longer, inter-diking timescales is poorly understood. To characterize the relationship between rift kinematics, dike emplacement and flank instability at Etna, we used long-term (1992-2010) InSAR ground deformation time series, giving unprecedented coverage of the volcano's summit. As snow coverage prevents coherence of the backscattered radar signal, long-term InSAR time series on the summit of seasonally snow-capped volcanoes, such as Mount Etna, are affected by decorrelation, which hinders detection of any summit deformation. To increase the summit coverage, we removed from our Etna dataset all the SAR images possibly affected by snow-related decorrelation phenomena. We then jointly processed ERS data between 1992 and 2010 and ENVISAT data between 2003 and 2010, acquired from both ascending and descending orbits, and computed 204 ascending and 194 descending interferograms. These were inverted by applying the Small BAseline Subset (SBAS) technique (e.g., Pepe et al., 2005) to produce combined ERS-ENVISAT velocity maps and deformation time series. Ascending and descending maps and time series were used to separate vertical and East-West components of on-going displacements. This approach greatly improved the spatial coverage of elevated areas. A spatial comparison with a similar dataset used by Solaro et al. (2010), but limited to 1994-2008, shows an increase of the summit coverage of about 14 km2 in our dataset. The results highlight a general eastward shift of the volcano summit, including the northeast and south rifts. This steady-state eastward movement (1-2 cm/yr) is interrupted or even reversed during transient dike injections. Detailed analysis of the northeast rift shows that only during phases of dike

  2. Retroperitoneal space abscess with spontaneous drainage out of the flank: report of a case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Masayuki; Takeda, Masao.

    1983-01-01

    A 59-year-old female, who had an episode of fever and easy-fatiguability for a month prior to her visit to our clinic, was refered for evaluation of left flank pain and tumor. As retroperitoneal space abscess or left renal tumor was suspected by RP, renal scintigram and CT, angiography was scheduled, but spontaneous abscess drainage out of the left flank was seen on May 29, 1982. Immediately after spontaneous drainage the retroperitoneal space was washed out and drained under local anesthesia. After operation, in spite of good general condition, wound healing was delayed because of the large dead space. Discussion was made on the classification, symptoms and CT findings of retroperitoneal space abscess. (author)

  3. Stability analysis of Western flank of Cumbre Vieja volcano (La Palma) using numerical modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bru, Guadalupe; Gonzalez, Pablo J.; Fernandez-Merodo, Jose A.; Fernandez, Jose

    2016-04-01

    La Palma volcanic island is one of the youngest of the Canary archipelago, being a composite volcano formed by three overlapping volcanic centers. There are clear onshore and offshore evidences of past giant landslides that have occurred during its evolution. Currently, the active Cumbre Vieja volcano is in an early development state (Carracedo et al., 2001). The study of flank instability processes aim to assess, among other hazards, catastrophic collapse and potential tsunami generation. Early studies of the potential instability of Cumbre Vieja volcano western flank have focused on the use of sparse geodetic networks (Moss et al. 1999), surface geological mapping techniques (Day et al. 1999) and offshore bathymetry (Urgeles et al. 1999). Recently, a dense GNSS network and satellite radar interferometry results indicate ground motion consistent with deep-seated creeping processes (Prieto et al. 2009, Gonzalez et al. 2010). In this work, we present a geomechanical advanced numerical model that captures the ongoing deformation processes at Cumbre Vieja. We choose the Finite Elements Method (FEM) which is based in continuum mechanics and is the most used for geotechnical applications. FEM has the ability of using arbitrary geometry, heterogeneities, irregular boundaries and different constitutive models representative of the geotechnical units involved. Our main contribution is the introduction of an inverse approach to constrain the geomechanical parameters using satellite radar interferometry displacements. This is the first application of such approach on a large volcano flank study. We suggest that the use of surface displacements and inverse methods to rigorously constrain the geomechanical model parameter space is a powerful tool to understand volcano flank instability. A particular important result of the studied case is the estimation of displaced rock volume, which is a parameter of critical importance for simulations of Cumbre Vieja tsunamigenic hazard

  4. Automatic fitting of conical envelopes to free-form surfaces for flank CNC machining

    OpenAIRE

    Bo P.; Bartoň M.; Pottmann H.

    2017-01-01

    We propose a new algorithm to detect patches of free-form surfaces that can be well approximated by envelopes of a rotational cone under a rigid body motion. These conical envelopes are a preferable choice from the manufacturing point of view as they are, by-definition, manufacturable by computer numerically controlled (CNC) machining using the efficient flank (peripheral) method with standard conical tools. Our geometric approach exploits multi-valued vector fields that consist of vectors in...

  5. Reconstruction of Etna recent flank eruptions for assessing diversion barrier project

    OpenAIRE

    Scifoni, Silvia

    2012-01-01

    The thesis contributed to the volcanic hazard assessment through the reconstruction of some historical flank eruptions of Etna in order to obtain quantitative data (volumes, effusion rates, etc.) for characterizing the recent effusive activity, quantifying the impact on the territory and defining mitigation actions for reducing the volcanic risk as for example containment barriers. The reconstruction was based on a quantitative approach using data extracted from aerial photographs an...

  6. Scarless and sequential gene modification in Pseudomonas using PCR product flanked by short homology regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Rubing

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The lambda Red recombination system has been used to inactivate chromosomal genes in various bacteria and fungi. The procedure consists of electroporating a polymerase chain reaction (PCR fragment containing antibiotic cassette flanked by homology regions to the target locus into a strain that can express the lambda Red proteins (Gam, Bet, Exo. Results Here a scarless gene modification strategy based on the Red recombination system has been developed to modify Pseudomonas genome DNA via sequential deletion of multiple targets. This process was mediated by plasmid pRKaraRed encoding the Red proteins regulated by PBAD promoter, which was functional in P. aeruginosa as well as in other bacteria. First the target gene was substituted for the sacB-bla cassette flanked by short homology regions (50 bp, and then this marker gene cassette could be replaced by the PCR fragment flanking itself, generating target-deleted genome without any remnants and no change happened to the surrounding region. Twenty genes involved in the synthesis and regulation pathways of the phenazine derivate, pyocyanin, were modified, including one single-point mutation and deletion of two large operons. The recombination efficiencies ranged from 88% to 98%. Multiple-gene modification was also achieved, generating a triple-gene deletion strain PCA (PAO1, ΔphzHΔphzMΔphzS, which could produce another phenazine derivate, phenazine-1-carboxylic acid (PCA, efficiently and exclusively. Conclusions This lambda Red-based technique can be used to generate scarless and sequential gene modification mutants of P. aeruginosa efficiently, using one-step PCR product flanked by short homology regions. Single-point mutation, scarless deletion of genes can be achieved easily in less than three days. This method may give a new way to construct genetically modified P. aeruginosa strains more efficiently and advance the regulatory network study of this organism.

  7. Effect of carbamates on mRNA encoding lipid enzymes in hamster flank organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Lezama, Juan C; Cabeza, Marisa; Mayorga, Israel; Soriano, Juan; Sainz, Teresita; Bratoeff, Eugene

    2014-05-01

    Flank organs are an androgen-dependent pilosebaceous complex present in male and female hamsters. These organs have been used for the evaluation of antiandrogenic drugs, which could be used for the treatment of androgen-dependent afflictions. This study demonstrated the role of four different steroidal carbamates 7-10 in the expression of mRNAs coding for different enzymes involved in the lipid metabolism in flank organs. To determine the biological effects of compounds 7-10 on the expression of mRNA coding for lipid enzymes, steroids 7-10, testosterone (T), progesterone (P), and/or 7-10 were applied on the flank organs. Later, the mRNA expression for the enzymes was determined by polymerase chain reaction. The binding of 8 and 9 to the progesterone receptor (PR) as well as their effects on the activity of 5α-reductase were also evaluated. Treatments with T, P, and 7-10 increased the mRNA expression for glycerol 3-phosphate acyl transferase (GPAT), β-hydroxy-β-methylglutaryl-CoA synthase (HMG-CoA-S), β-hydroxy-β-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMG-CoA-R), phosphatidylinositol synthase (PI-S), and squalene-synthase (SQ-S). However, the combined treatments with P + 7-10 decreased the expression of GPAT, HMG-CoA-S, and HMG-CoA-R. Expression of mRNA for all enzymes was variable under treatment with T + 7-10. Data showed that these carbamates did not bind to the PR, but inhibited the activity of 5α-reductase. Carbamates 7-10 changed the mRNA expression model induced by T and P in flank organs. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Germ Cell-Specific Excision of loxP-Flanked Transgenes in Rainbow Trout Oncorhynchus mykiss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, Naoto; Kume, Sachi; Hattori-Ihara, Shoko; Sadaie, Sakiko; Hayashi, Makoto; Yoshizaki, Goro

    2016-04-01

    Cre/loxP-mediated DNA excision in germ cell lineages could contribute substantially to the study of germ cell biology in salmonids, which are emerging as a model species in this field. However, a cell type-specific Cre/loxPsystem has not been successfully developed for any salmonid species. Therefore, we examined the feasibility of Cre/loxP-mediated, germ cell-specific gene excision and transgene activation in rainbow trout. Double-transgenic (wTg) progeny were obtained by mating a transgenic male carryingcrewith a transgenic female carrying thehsc-LRLGgene;crewas driven by rainbow troutvasaregulatory regions and thehsc-LRLGgene was made up of the rainbow troutheat-shock-cognate71promoter, theDsRedgene flanked by twoloxPsites, and theEgfpgene. PCR analysis, fluorescence imaging, and histological analysis revealed that excision of theloxP-flanked sequence and activation ofEgfpoccurred only in germ cells of wTg fish. However, progeny tests revealed that the excision efficiency ofloxP-flanked sequence in germ cells was low (≤3.27%). In contrast, the other wTg fish derived from two differentcre-transgenic males frequently excised theloxP-flanked sequence in germ cells (≤89.25%). Thus, we showed for the first time successful germ cell-specific transgene manipulation via the Cre/loxPsystem in rainbow trout. We anticipate that this technology will be suitable for studies of cell function through cell targeting, cell-linage tracing, and generating cell type-specific conditional gene knockouts and separately for developing sterile rainbow trout in aquaculture. © 2016 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.

  9. Prevention of the Outer Space Weaponization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhukov, Gennady P.

    2002-01-01

    9 states. The satellites of various functions (early warning, communication, data acquisition, reconnaissance and navigation) were actively used and continue to be used with the purposes of raising efficiency of ground armed forces, especially in fight against international terrorism. At the same time such satellites are not a weapon in the sense of that word since they do not create the threats of armed attack in outer space or from outer space. Moreover, they promote maintaining of stability in the international relations. For this reason the reconnaissance and data acquisition satellites used for the verification of observance by States of the arms limitation agreements are under international protection as national technical means of the control. Similar protection is enjoyed by the early warning satellites. With the help of space communication facilities the more reliable operative connection of the statesmen is organized in the strained situations. By this way the probability of making of the incorrect retaliatory decisions in critical political situations is reduced. At the same time it's necessary to take into consideration that the activities of such satellite systems are tightly connected with ground armed forces of the states. the earth, what from the point of view of international law may be qualified as establishing a partial demilitarization regime in outer space. After the prohibition of anti-satellite weapons (ASAT) and anti-satellite (ASAT) weapons it will be possible to speak about establishing of an international legal regime of complete demilitarization in outer space eliminating any kinds of weapon from outer space. in a peaceful time. weaponization.The main task of this paper is to analyze and to discuss the present binding regime of the outer space deweaponization and particular measures on consolidation and strengthening of this regime. agreements of the Russian Federation and the USA into multilateral Treaties. Such "immunity" would cover

  10. Focused seismicity triggered by flank instability on Kīlauea's Southwest Rift Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judson, Josiah; Thelen, Weston A.; Greenfield, Tim; White, Robert S.

    2018-03-01

    Swarms of earthquakes at the head of the Southwest Rift Zone on Kīlauea Volcano, Hawai´i, reveal an interaction of normal and strike-slip faulting associated with movement of Kīlauea's south flank. A relocated subset of earthquakes between January 2012 and August 2014 are highly focused in space and time at depths that are coincident with the south caldera magma reservoir beneath the southern margin of Kīlauea Caldera. Newly calculated focal mechanisms are dominantly dextral shear with a north-south preferred fault orientation. Two earthquakes within this focused area of seismicity have normal faulting mechanisms, indicating two mechanisms of failure in very close proximity (10's of meters to 100 m). We suggest a model where opening along the Southwest Rift Zone caused by seaward motion of the south flank permits injection of magma and subsequent freezing of a plug, which then fails in a right-lateral strike-slip sense, consistent with the direction of movement of the south flank. The seismicity is concentrated in an area where a constriction occurs between a normal fault and the deeper magma transport system into the Southwest Rift Zone. Although in many ways the Southwest Rift Zone appears analogous to the more active East Rift Zone, the localization of the largest seismicity (>M2.5) within the swarms to a small volume necessitates a different model than has been proposed to explain the lineament outlined by earthquakes along the East Rift Zone.

  11. Cloning and characterization of the 5'-flanking region of the Ehox gene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Woon Kyu; Kim, Yong-Man; Malik, Nasir; Ma Chang; Westphal, Heiner

    2006-01-01

    The paired-like homeobox-containing gene Ehox plays a role in embryonic stem cell differentiation and is highly expressed in the developing placenta and thymus. To understand the mechanisms of regulation of Ehox gene expression, the 5'-flanking region of the Ehox gene was isolated from a mouse BAC library. 5'-RACE analysis revealed a single transcriptional start site 130 nucleotides upstream of the translation initiation codon. Transient transfection with a luciferase reporter gene under the control of serially deleted 5'-flanking sequences revealed that the nt -84 to -68 region contained a positive cis-acting element for efficient expression of the Ehox gene. Mutational analysis of this region and oligonucleotide competition in the electrophoretic mobility shift assay revealed the presence of a CCAAT box, which is a target for transcription nuclear factor Y (NFY). NFY is essential for positive gene regulation. No tissue-specific enhancer was identified in the 1.9-kb 5'-flanking region of the Ehox gene. Ehox is expressed during the early stages of embryo development, specifically in Brain at 9.5 dpc, as well as during the late stages of embryo development. These results suggest that NFY is an essential regulatory factor for Ehox transcriptional activity, which is important for the post-implantation stage of the developing embryo

  12. Method for Friction Force Estimation on the Flank of Cutting Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Huerta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Friction forces are present in any machining process. These forces could play an important role in the dynamics of the system. In the cutting process, friction is mainly present in the rake face and the flank of the tool. Although the one that acts on the rake face has a major influence, the other one can become also important and could take part in the stability of the system. In this work, experimental identification of the friction on the flank is presented. The experimental determination was carried out by machining aluminum samples in a CNC lathe. As a result, two friction functions were obtained as a function of the cutting speed and the relative motion of the contact elements. Experiments using a worn and a new insert were carried out. Force and acceleration were recorded simultaneously and, from these results, different friction levels were observed depending on the cutting parameters, such as cutting speed, feed rate, and tool condition. Finally, a friction model for the flank friction is presented.

  13. Antibodies against Shigella flexneri adhesion molecule outer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Milliana et al. Trop J Pharm Res, February 2017; 16(2): 256. Outer membrane proteins (OMPs) include proteins that mediate the attachment of bacteria to the host cell more closely than do pili [6,7]. A 49.8. kDa Shigella dysenteriae hemagglutinin pili protein that serves as an adhesion protein was found previously [8]. Oral.

  14. Outer-2-independent domination in graphs

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    independent dominating set of a graph is a set of vertices of such that every vertex of ()\\ has a neighbor in and the maximum vertex degree of the subgraph induced by ()\\ is at most one. The outer-2-independent domination ...

  15. Role of Outer Membrane Vesicles of Bacteria

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 20; Issue 8. Role of Outer Membrance Vesicles of Bacteria. M V Jagannadham M K Chattopadhyay. General Article Volume 20 Issue 8 August 2015 pp 711-725. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  16. Outer-2-independent domination in graphs

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Outer-2-independent domination in graphs. MARCIN KRZYWKOWSKI1,2,∗, DOOST ALI MOJDEH3 and MARYEM RAOOFI4. 1Department of Pure and Applied Mathematics, University of Johannesburg,. Johannesburg, South Africa. 2Faculty of Electronics, Telecommunications and Informatics, Gdansk University.

  17. Intershell correlations in photoionization of outer shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amusia, M.Ya.; Chernysheva, L.V.; Drukarev, E.G.

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate that the cross sections for photoionization of the outer shells are noticeably modified at the photon energies close to the thresholds of ionization of the inner shells due to correlations with the latter. The correlations may lead to increase or to decrease of the cross sections just above the ionization thresholds.

  18. Intershell correlations in photoionization of outer shells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amusia, M.Ya. [The Racah Institute of Physics, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); A.F. Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute, St. Petersburg 194021 (Russian Federation); Chernysheva, L.V. [A.F. Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute, St. Petersburg 194021 (Russian Federation); Drukarev, E.G. [National Research Center “Kurchatov Institute”, Konstantinov Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, St. Petersburg 188300 (Russian Federation)

    2016-02-15

    We demonstrate that the cross sections for photoionization of the outer shells are noticeably modified at the photon energies close to the thresholds of ionization of the inner shells due to correlations with the latter. The correlations may lead to increase or to decrease of the cross sections just above the ionization thresholds.

  19. Experimental study of the interplay between magmatic rift intrusion and flank instability with application to the 2001 Mount Etna eruption

    KAUST Repository

    Le Corvec, Nicolas

    2014-07-01

    Mount Etna volcano is subject to transient magmatic intrusions and flank movement. The east flank of the edifice, in particular, is moving eastward and is dissected by the Timpe Fault System. The relationship of this eastward motion with intrusions and tectonic fault motion, however, remains poorly constrained. Here we explore this relationship by using analogue experiments that are designed to simulate magmatic rift intrusion, flank movement, and fault activity before, during, and after a magmatic intrusion episode. Using particle image velocimetry allows for a precise temporal and spatial analysis of the development and activity of fault systems. The results show that the occurrence of rift intrusion episodes has a direct effect on fault activity. In such a situation, fault activity may occur or may be hindered, depending on the interplay of fault displacement and flank acceleration in response to dike intrusion. Our results demonstrate that a complex interplay may exist between an active tectonic fault system and magmatically induced flank instability. Episodes of magmatic intrusion change the intensity pattern of horizontal flank displacements and may hinder or activate associated faults. We further compare our results with the GPS data of the Mount Etna 2001 eruption and intrusion. We find that syneruptive displacement rates at the Timpe Fault System have differed from the preeruptive or posteruptive periods, which shows a good agreement of both the experimental and the GPS data. Therefore, understanding the flank instability and flank stability at Mount Etna requires consideration of both tectonic and magmatic forcing. Key Points Analyzing Mount Etna east flank dynamics during the 2001 eruption Good correlation between analogue models and GPS data Understanding the different behavior of faulting before/during/after an eruption © 2014. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.

  20. Can comodulation masking release occur when frequency changes could promote perceptual segregation of the on-frequency and flanking bands?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verhey, Jesko L; Epp, Bastian; Stasiak, Arkadiusz

    2013-01-01

    ) and one or more off-frequency components, commonly referred to as flanking bands (FBs). In general, the threshold of the signal masked by comodulated masker components is lower than when masked by masker components with uncorrelated envelopes or in the presence of the OFM only. This effect is commonly...... bands relative to the inhibitory areas (as seen in physiological recordings using stationary flanking bands). Preliminary physiological results in the cochlear nucleus of the Guinea pig show that a correlate of CMR can also be found at this level of the auditory pathway with sweeping flanking bands....

  1. The outer tracker of HERA-B

    CERN Document Server

    Hohlmann, M

    2001-01-01

    The outer tracker of the HERA-B experiment at DESY is a gaseous detector that provides tracking of charged particles over a large volume in a high-rate, hadronic environment. The radiation load at 40 MHz interaction rate is comparable to what will be encountered by large trackers in future LHC experiments. The outer tracker allows pattern recognition for event reconstruction, momentum measurement, and highly selective triggering on dileptons from J/ psi decays. Its wire-chamber modules comprise 110,000 honeycomb drift cells of up to 4.5 m length operating with an Ar/CF/sub 4//CO/sub 2/ gas mixture. The detector was fully installed in January 2000 and is currently operating in HERA-B's first physics run. During detector development different types of severe aging effects were observed. The solutions to the aging problems, detector construction, and detector performance during the early commissioning phase are discussed. (0 refs).

  2. Boundary layers of the earth's outer magnetosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastman, T. E.; Frank, L. A.

    1984-01-01

    The magnetospheric boundary layer and the plasma-sheet boundary layer are the primary boundary layers of the earth's outer magnetosphere. Recent satellite observations indicate that they provide for more than 50 percent of the plasma and energy transport in the outer magnetosphere although they constitute less than 5 percent by volume. Relative to the energy density in the source regions, plasma in the magnetospheric boundary layer is predominantly deenergized whereas plasma in the plasma-sheet boundary layer has been accelerated. The reconnection hypothesis continues to provide a useful framework for comparing data sampled in the highly dynamic magnetospheric environment. Observations of 'flux transfer events' and other detailed features near the boundaries have been recently interpreted in terms of nonsteady-state reconnection. Alternative hypotheses are also being investigated. More work needs to be done, both in theory and observation, to determine whether reconnection actually occurs in the magnetosphere and, if so, whether it is important for overall magnetospheric dynamics.

  3. Protection of nuclear facilities against outer aggressions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aussourd, P.; Candes, P.; Le Quinio, R.

    1976-01-01

    The various types of outer aggressions envisaged in safety analysis for nuclear facilities are reviewed. These outer aggressions are classified as natural and non-natural phenomena, the latter depending on the human activities in the vicinity of nuclear sites. The principal natural phenomena able to constitute aggressions are atmospheric phenomena (strong winds, snow storms, hail, frosting mists), hydrologie phenomena such as tides, surges, flood, low waters, and geologic phenomena such as earthquakes. Artificial phenomena are concerned with aircraft crashes, projectiles, fire, possible ruptures of dams, and intentional human aggressions. The protection against intentional human aggressions is of two sorts: first, the possibility of access to the installations mostly sensitive to sabotage are to be prevented or reduced, secondly redundant circuits and functions must be separated for preventing their simultaneous destruction in the case when sabotage actors have reach the core of the facility [fr

  4. The Outer Space as an Educational Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Pérez, Melquíades; Hernández-López, Montserrat

    2017-06-01

    STEAM is an educational approach to learning that uses Science, Technology, Engineering, the Arts and Mathematics as access points for guiding student inquiry, dialogue, and critical thinking. The end results are students who take thoughtful risks, engage in experiential learning, persist in problem-solving, embrace collaboration, and work through the creative process. The Outer Space is a window to the past and the future of our travel around the history of the Universe and can be used as a educational tool in primary and secondary education. This paper talks about the integration of the resources of European Space Agency, Space Awareness, Nuclio, Scientix and Schoolnet as motivation to integrate STEAM methodology in secondary education. Keywords: STEAM, outer space, motivation, methodology

  5. Cryovolcanism in the outer solar system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geissler, Paul E.

    2015-01-01

    Cryovolcanism is defined as the extrusion of liquids and vapors of materials that would be frozen solid at the planetary surface temperatures of the icy bodies of the outer solar system. Active cryovolcanism is now known to occur on Saturn's moon Enceladus and on Neptune's moon Triton and is suspected on Jupiter's moon Europa, while evidence for past cryovolcanic activity is widespread throughout the outer solar system. This chapter examines the mechanisms and manifestations of cryovolcanism, beginning with a review of the materials that make up these unusual ‘‘magmas’’ and the means by which they might erupt and concluding with a volcanologist's tour of the farthest reaches of the solar system.

  6. Outer crust of nonaccreting cold neutron stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruester, Stefan B.; Hempel, Matthias; Schaffner-Bielich, Juergen

    2006-01-01

    The properties of the outer crust of nonaccreting cold neutron stars are studied by using modern nuclear data and theoretical mass tables, updating in particular the classic work of Baym, Pethick, and Sutherland. Experimental data from the atomic mass table from Audi, Wapstra, and Thibault of 2003 are used and a thorough comparison of many modern theoretical nuclear models, both relativistic and nonrelativistic, is performed for the first time. In addition, the influences of pairing and deformation are investigated. State-of-the-art theoretical nuclear mass tables are compared to check their differences concerning the neutron drip line, magic neutron numbers, the equation of state, and the sequence of neutron-rich nuclei up to the drip line in the outer crust of nonaccreting cold neutron stars

  7. The Outer Banks of North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, Robert; Lins, Harry F.; Smith, Jodi Jones

    2016-12-27

    The Outer Banks of North Carolina are excellent examples of the nearly 300 barrier islands rimming the Atlantic and Gulf coasts of the United States. These low, sandy islands are among the most dynamic natural landscapes occupied by man. Beach sands move offshore, onshore, and along the shore in the direction of the prevailing longshore currents. In this way, sandy coasts continuously adjust to different tide, wave, and current conditions and to rising sea level that causes the islands to migrate landward.Despite such changes, barrier islands are of considerable environmental importance. The Outer Banks are home to diverse natural ecosystems that are adapted to the harsh coastal environment. Native species tend to be robust and many are specifically adapted to withstand salt spray, periodic saltwater flooding, and the islands’ well-drained sandy soil. The Outer Banks provide an important stopover for birds on the Atlantic flyway, and many species inhabit the islands year round. In addition, Outer Banks beaches provide an important nesting habitat for five endangered or threatened sea turtle species.European explorers discovered North Carolina’s barrier islands in the 16th century, although the islands were not permanently settled until the middle 17th century. By the early 19th century, shipbuilding and lumber industries were among the most successful, until forest resources were depleted. Commercial fishing eventually followed, and it expanded considerably after the Civil War. By the Great Depression, however, little industry existed on the Outer Banks. In response to the effects of a severe hurricane in 1933, the National Park Service and the Civilian Conservation Corps proposed a massive sand-fixation program to stabilize the moving sand and prevent storm waves from sweeping across the entire width of some sections of the islands. Between 1933 and 1940, this program constructed sand fencing on 185 kilometers (115 miles) of beach and planted grass seedlings

  8. Outer Limits of Biotechnologies: A Jewish Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John D. Loike

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A great deal of biomedical research focuses on new biotechnologies such as gene editing, stem cell biology, and reproductive medicine, which have created a scientific revolution. While the potential medical benefits of this research may be far-reaching, ethical issues related to non-medical applications of these technologies are demanding. We analyze, from a Jewish legal perspective, some of the ethical conundrums that society faces in pushing the outer limits in researching these new biotechnologies.

  9. Photopolarimetry team outer planets mission definition phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    The work is reported of the Photopolarimetry Team in identifying scientific objectives for photometer/polarimeter experiments for outer planet flyby missions. A discussion of the scientific objectives which can be attained with a photometer/polarimeter experiment, and summaries of the special studies which were performed for the Photopolarimetry Team are presented along with a description of the photometer/polarimeter design which was developed for the Meteoroid Detection Team.

  10. Turbulence and Heating in the Flank and Wake Regions of a Coronal Mass Ejection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Siteng; He, Jiansen; Yan, Limei; Tomczyk, Steven; Tian, Hui; Song, Hongqiang; Wang, Linghua; Zhang, Lei

    2018-01-01

    As a coronal mass ejection (CME) passes, the flank and wake regions are typically strongly disturbed. Various instruments, including the Large Angle and Spectroscopic Coronagraph (LASCO), the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA), and the Coronal Multi-channel Polarimeter (CoMP), observed a CME close to the east limb on 26 October 2013. A hot ({≈} 10 MK) rising blob was detected on the east limb, with an initial ejection flow speed of {≈} 330 km s^{-1}. The magnetic structures on both sides and in the wake of the CME were strongly distorted, showing initiation of turbulent motions with Doppler-shift oscillations enhanced from {≈} ± 3 km s^{-1} to {≈} ± 15 km s^{-1} and effective thermal velocities from {≈} 30 km s^{-1} to {≈} 60 km s^{-1}, according to the CoMP observations at the Fe xiii line. The CoMP Doppler-shift maps suggest that the turbulence behaved differently at various heights; it showed clear wave-like torsional oscillations at lower altitudes, which are interpreted as the antiphase oscillation of an alternating red/blue Doppler shift across the strands at the flank. The turbulence seems to appear differently in the channels of different temperatures. Its turnover time was {≈} 1000 seconds for the Fe 171 Å channel, while it was {≈} 500 seconds for the Fe 193 Å channel. Mainly horizontal swaying rotations were observed in the Fe 171 Å channel, while more vertical vortices were seen in the Fe 193 Å channel. The differential-emission-measure profiles in the flank and wake regions have two components that evolve differently: the cool component decreased over time, evidently indicating a drop-out of cool materials due to ejection, while the hot component increased dramatically, probably because of the heating process, which is suspected to be a result of magnetic reconnection and turbulence dissipation. These results suggest a new turbulence-heating scenario of the solar corona and solar wind.

  11. Outer membrane proteins of pathogenic spirochetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, Paul A; Haake, David A; Adler, Ben

    2004-06-01

    Pathogenic spirochetes are the causative agents of several important diseases including syphilis, Lyme disease, leptospirosis, swine dysentery, periodontal disease and some forms of relapsing fever. Spirochetal bacteria possess two membranes and the proteins present in the outer membrane are at the site of interaction with host tissue and the immune system. This review describes the current knowledge in the field of spirochetal outer membrane protein (OMP) biology. What is known concerning biogenesis and structure of OMPs, with particular regard to the atypical signal peptide cleavage sites observed amongst the spirochetes, is discussed. We examine the functions that have been determined for several spirochetal OMPs including those that have been demonstrated to function as adhesins, porins or to have roles in complement resistance. A detailed description of the role of spirochetal OMPs in immunity, including those that stimulate protective immunity or that are involved in antigenic variation, is given. A final section is included which covers experimental considerations in spirochetal outer membrane biology. This section covers contentious issues concerning cellular localization of putative OMPs, including determination of surface exposure. A more detailed knowledge of spirochetal OMP biology will hopefully lead to the design of new vaccines and a better understanding of spirochetal pathogenesis.

  12. The Upgrade of the CMS Outer Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2069790

    2016-03-14

    During the high luminosity phase of the LHC starting around 2025 (HL-LHC), the machine is expected to deliver an instantaneous luminosity of $5\\cdot10^{34}$~cm$^{-2}$s$^{-1}$. A total of 3000~fb$^{-1}$ of data is foreseen to be delivered, hereby increasing the physics potential of the LHC experiments significantly. However, this fivefold increase in luminosity compared to the design luminosity of the LHC will lead to a higher track multiplicity in the silicon tracking detectors of the experiments, and to severe radiation levels. In order to maintain physics capability, CMS will build a completely new tracking detector comprising a pixel detector and an outer tracker. Furthermore, information from the outer tracker will be used in the first level trigger of CMS to ensure a sufficient trigger rejection. For this purpose, CMS will use so-called p$_{T}$ modules which will provide a momentum measurement at the module level. These modules consist of two back-to-back strip sensors for the outer layers, and a st...

  13. Flank wears Simulation by using back propagation neural network when cutting hardened H-13 steel in CNC End Milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al Hazza, Muataz Hazza F; Adesta, Erry Y T; Riza, Muhammad

    2013-01-01

    High speed milling has many advantages such as higher removal rate and high productivity. However, higher cutting speed increase the flank wear rate and thus reducing the cutting tool life. Therefore estimating and predicting the flank wear length in early stages reduces the risk of unaccepted tooling cost. This research presents a neural network model for predicting and simulating the flank wear in the CNC end milling process. A set of sparse experimental data for finish end milling on AISI H13 at hardness of 48 HRC have been conducted to measure the flank wear length. Then the measured data have been used to train the developed neural network model. Artificial neural network (ANN) was applied to predict the flank wear length. The neural network contains twenty hidden layer with feed forward back propagation hierarchical. The neural network has been designed with MATLAB Neural Network Toolbox. The results show a high correlation between the predicted and the observed flank wear which indicates the validity of the models

  14. Flank wears Simulation by using back propagation neural network when cutting hardened H-13 steel in CNC End Milling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazza, Muataz Hazza F. Al; Adesta, Erry Y. T.; Riza, Muhammad

    2013-12-01

    High speed milling has many advantages such as higher removal rate and high productivity. However, higher cutting speed increase the flank wear rate and thus reducing the cutting tool life. Therefore estimating and predicting the flank wear length in early stages reduces the risk of unaccepted tooling cost. This research presents a neural network model for predicting and simulating the flank wear in the CNC end milling process. A set of sparse experimental data for finish end milling on AISI H13 at hardness of 48 HRC have been conducted to measure the flank wear length. Then the measured data have been used to train the developed neural network model. Artificial neural network (ANN) was applied to predict the flank wear length. The neural network contains twenty hidden layer with feed forward back propagation hierarchical. The neural network has been designed with MATLAB Neural Network Toolbox. The results show a high correlation between the predicted and the observed flank wear which indicates the validity of the models.

  15. Superficial deposits in northeast flank of Sierras Australes (Provincia de Buenos Aires, Republica Argentina)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gentile, R.; Fucks, E.; De Francesco, F.

    2004-01-01

    Pleistocene and Holocene superficial deposits, which have been recognized in an area of 1500 km2 in the northeast flank of Sierras Australes, are characterized. In divide they are underlain by silts and siltstone which are called Sediments Pampeanas. There, a lower sequence, consisting mainly of aeolian sediments (loess) with scarce fluvial deposits and diamictons, was recognized. In some places an upper sequence that is product of aeolian and anthropogenic activity, was also recognized. In the valley sequences, the loess deposits can not only be underlain by fluvial sediments but can also overlain them. The more recent fluvial deposits which have eroded loess sequences are of the post conquest age [es

  16. Postmortem Evaluation of Left Flank Laparoscopic Access in an Adult Female Giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzi, R.; Cracknell, J.; Dalrymple, L.

    2010-01-01

    There are still few reports of laparoscopy in megavertebrates. The giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis) is the tallest land mammal, and the largest ruminant species. An 18-year-old multiparous female hybrid giraffe, weighing 650 kg, was euthanized for chronic health problems, and left flank laparoscopy was performed less than 30 minutes after death. Safe primary access was achieved under visualisation using an optical bladed trocar (Visiport Plus, Tyco healthcare UK Ltd) without prior abdominal insufflation. A left paralumbar fossa approach allowed access to the spleen, rumen, left kidney, and intestines, but did not allow access to the reproductive tract which in nongravid females is intrapelvic in nature. PMID:20445792

  17. Postmortem Evaluation of Left Flank Laparoscopic Access in an Adult Female Giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Pizzi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available There are still few reports of laparoscopy in megavertebrates. The giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis is the tallest land mammal, and the largest ruminant species. An 18-year-old multiparous female hybrid giraffe, weighing 650 kg, was euthanized for chronic health problems, and left flank laparoscopy was performed less than 30 minutes after death. Safe primary access was achieved under visualisation using an optical bladed trocar (Visiport Plus, Tyco healthcare UK Ltd without prior abdominal insufflation. A left paralumbar fossa approach allowed access to the spleen, rumen, left kidney, and intestines, but did not allow access to the reproductive tract which in nongravid females is intrapelvic in nature.

  18. “Isolated Spontaneous Renal Artery Thrombosis – A Rare Cause of Acute Flank Pain”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Raghavendran

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Many patients present with severe abdominal pain. Renal Artery Thrombosis (RAT is rare, serious and misdiagnosed. RAT has been well described in association with various disorders, but isolated spontaneously occurring RAT is rare and only 2 cases have been described as of date. We present a case of flank pain presenting to emergency for evaluation and discuss the clinical aspects and management. We would like to stress on the important role of serum LDH levels and CT scan in RAT. Early diagnosis may result in salvage of organ by minimally invasive techniques. Late diagnosis will almost always result in nephrectomy.

  19. Thermal projection shielding in teeth flanks of a sugar cane mill drainer of a sugar factory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Segundo M. Espín Lagos

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Shielding was performed on the flanks of teeth of a cane mill by means of the flame thermal projection technique using the Eutalloy 11496 micropulverized alloy. The material of the toner is AISI 1045 steel and the surface of shielding was prepared by the jet process with abrasive material of volcanic nature, in order to achieve an optimum anchorage surface for the alloy. Next, in software, iterations of the thickness of the shield were realized with the purpose of determining its useful life and through the distribution of Weibull we estimated the function of reliability and the function of probability of failure, considering a complete harvest of 240 days.

  20. Geochemistry of summit fumarole vapors and flanking thermal/mineral waters at Popocatepetl Volcano, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werner, C.; Goff, F. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Janik, C.J. [Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (United States)] [and others

    1997-06-01

    Popocatepetl Volcano is potentially devastating to populations living in the greater Mexico City area. Systematic monitoring of fumarole gases and flanking thermal/mineral springs began in early 1994 after increased fumarolic and seismic activity were noticed in 1991. These investigations had two major objectives: (1) to determine if changes in magmatic conditions beneath Popocatepetl might be reflected by chemical changes in fumarolic discharges and (2) to determine if thermal/mineral spring waters in the vicinity of Popocatepetl are geochemically related to or influences by the magmatic system. This report summarizes results from these two discrete studies.

  1. Sequence analysis of flanking regions of the pfoA gene of Clostridium perfringens: beta-galactosidase gene (pbg) is located in the 3'-flanking region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, T; Kobayashi, T; Ba-Thein, W; Ohtani, K; Hayashi, H

    1995-01-01

    The 3'-flanking region of the perfringolysin O (theta-toxin) gene (pfoA) of Clostridium perfringens was analyzed by chromosome walking. A total of 5,363 bp of the downstream region of the pfoA gene was sequenced and four open reading frames were found. ORF54 and ORF80 were found to be homologous to genes coding for membrane-bound transporter proteins of other bacteria and the beta-galactosidase gene (bgaB) of Bacillus stearothermophilus, respectively. ORF80 was named the pbg gene. Clones which showed beta-galactosidase activities were selected from a lambda FIXII genomic library of C. perfringens by blue plaque screening using X-Gal as a substrate. Four clones whose plaques showed blue appearances were obtained. Two of the four clones hybridized with the pbg probe but the others did not, indicating that there are two distinct beta-galactosidase genes in C. perfringens. The pbg gene was subcloned into pBR322 and was successfully expressed in Escherichia coli, suggesting that the pbg gene codes for a beta-galactosidase of C. perfringens.

  2. Detection of outer raceway bearing defects in small induction motors ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    MCSA) for detection of rolling element bearing damage from the outer raceway. In this work, MCSA and vibration analysis are applied to induction motor to detect outer raceway defects in faulty bearings. Data acquisition, recording,and fast ...

  3. 75 FR 1076 - Outer Continental Shelf Civil Penalties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-08

    ... initiate civil penalty proceedings; however, violations that cause injury, death, or environmental damage... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Minerals Management Service Outer Continental Shelf Civil Penalties... daily civil penalty assessment. SUMMARY: The Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act requires the MMS to...

  4. Sistema Faro, Isla de Mona, Puerto Rico: speleogenesis of the worlds largest flank margin cave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lace, M. J.; Kambesis, P. N.; Mylroie, J. E.

    2016-01-01

    Isla de Mona, a small, uplifted carbonate plateau jutting out of the waters of the Mona Passage, is an incredibly fragile and densely karstic environment. Expedition work was conducted by the Isla de Mona Project in cooperation with the Departamento Recursos Naturales y Ambientales de Puerto Rico (DRNA), including contributions from many researchers and cavers volunteering from across the U.S and Puerto Rico in the course of 12 separate expeditions, spanning a 14 year period (1998 to 2013). Over 200 caves have been documented on the island to date, the majority of this inventory is composed of flank margin caves but also includes sea caves, pit caves and talus caves. The most extensive example of cave development on the island is Sistema Faro - a sprawling maze-like series of chambers formed within the eastern point of the island with over 40 cliffside entrances overlooking the Caribbean Sea. Detailed cartography and analysis of the geomorphology and development of the Sistema Faro has helped form a complex model of carbonate island cave development as a function of tectonic uplift, lithology, sea level changes, karst hydrogeology and cliff retreat. This communication examines the roles these controls have played in the genesis of the world's largest flank margin cave. (Author)

  5. Characterization of Bovine 5′-flanking Region during Differentiation of Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye-Jeong Jang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Embryonic stem cells (ESCs have been used as a powerful tool for research including gene manipulated animal models and the study of developmental gene regulation. Among the critical regulatory factors that maintain the pluripotency and self-renewal of undifferentiated ESCs, NANOG plays a very important role. Nevertheless, because pluripotency maintaining factors and specific markers for livestock ESCs have not yet been probed, few studies of the NANOG gene from domestic animals including bovine have been reported. Therefore, we chose mouse ESCs in order to understand and compare NANOG expression between bovine, human, and mouse during ESCs differentiation. We cloned a 600 bp (−420/+181 bovine NANOG 5′-flanking region, and tagged it with humanized recombinant green fluorescent protein (hrGFP as a tracing reporter. Very high GFP expression for bovine NANOG promoter was observed in the mouse ESC line. GFP expression was monitored upon ESC differentiation and was gradually reduced along with differentiation toward neurons and adipocyte cells. Activity of bovine NANOG (−420/+181 promoter was compared with already known mouse and human NANOG promoters in mouse ESC and they were likely to show a similar pattern of regulation. In conclusion, bovine NANOG 5-flanking region functions in mouse ES cells and has characteristics similar to those of mouse and human. These results suggest that bovine gene function studied in mouse ES cells should be evaluated and extrapolated for application to characterization of bovine ES cells.

  6. Determining injuries from posterior and flank stab wounds using computed tomography tractography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Vishal; Reid, Chris M; Fortlage, Dale; Lee, Jeanne; Kobayashi, Leslie; Doucet, Jay; Coimbra, Raul

    2014-04-01

    Unlike anterior stab wounds (SW), in which local exploration may direct management, posterior SW can be challenging to evaluate. Traditional triple contrast computed tomography (CT) imaging is cumbersome and technician-dependent. The present study examines the role of CT tractography as a strategy to manage select patients with back and flank SW. Hemodynamically stable patients with back and flank SW were studied. After resuscitation, Betadine- or Visipaque®-soaked sterile sponges were inserted into each SW for the estimated depth of the wound. Patients underwent abdominal helical CT scanning, including intravenous contrast, as the sole abdominal imaging study. Images were reviewed by an attending radiologist and trauma surgeon. The tractogram was evaluated to determine SW trajectory and injury to intra- or retroperitoneal organs, vascular structures, the diaphragm, and the urinary tract. Complete patient demographics including operative management and injuries were collected. Forty-one patients underwent CT tractography. In 11 patients, tractography detected violation of the intra- or retroperitoneal cavity leading to operative exploration. Injuries detected included: the spleen (two), colon (one), colonic mesentery (one), kidney (kidney), diaphragm (kidney), pneumothorax (seven), hemothorax (two), iliac artery (one), and traumatic abdominal wall hernia (two). In all patients, none had negative CT findings that failed observation. In this series, CT tractography is a safe and effective imaging strategy to evaluate posterior torso SW. It is unknown whether CT tractography is superior to traditional imaging modalities. Other uses for CT tractography may include determining trajectory from missile wounds and tangential penetrating injuries.

  7. The value of HASTE MR urography in the diagnosis of the chronic nephrogenic flank pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werel, D.; Tarasow, E.; Dzienis, W.; Ustymowicz, A.; Orzechowska-Bobkiewicz, A.; Walecki, J.; Darewicz, B.

    2004-01-01

    To asses the usefulness of the projectional HASTE sequence in the diagnosis of chronic flank pain caused by obstructive uropathy in comparison with conventional urography. 28 patients with chronic flank pain and hydronephrosis on ultrasound underwent conventional urography and HASTE sequence of static MR urography. The methods were evaluated for image quality, presence, agree, level and cause of urinary tract dilatation. The image quality of the urinary tract on HASTE was good in 57.1% and satisfactory in 42.9%; in conventional urography - good in 28.6%, satisfactory in 42.8% and poor in 28.6%. HASTE demonstrated hydronephrosis and degree of hydronephrosis in all the cases and conventional urography in 25 (83.3%). HASTE identified correctly the site of obstruction in 29 cases (96.7%), and conventional urography in 21 cases (70%). The sensitivity of HASTE in diagnosis of the intrinsic and extrinsic causes of obstruction was 73.7% and 80%, accuracy 73.3% and that of conventional urography 68.4%, 40% and 56.7%, respectively. HASTE is a valuable method in the diagnostics of chronic obstructive uropathy. It allows to evaluate the degree of hydronephrosis, the level and in many cases the cause of obstruction. When the urinary tract is not visualized in conventional urography, static MR urography is especially useful. (author)

  8. Sediment transport along the Cap de Creus Canyon flank during a mild, wet winter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Martín

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Cap de Creus Canyon (CCC is known as a preferential conduit for particulate matter leaving the Gulf of Lion continental shelf towards the slope and the basin, particularly in winter when storms and dense shelf water cascading coalesce to enhance the seaward export of shelf waters. During the CASCADE (CAscading, Storm, Convection, Advection and Downwelling Events cruise in March 2011, deployments of recording instruments within the canyon and vertical profiling of the water column properties were conducted to study with high spatial-temporal resolution the impact of such processes on particulate matter fluxes. In the context of the mild and wet 2010–2011 winter, no remarkable dense shelf water formation was observed. On the other hand, the experimental setup allowed for the study of the impact of E-SE storms on the hydrographical structure and the particulate matter fluxes in the CCC. The most remarkable feature in terms of sediment transport was a period of dominant E-SE winds from 12 to 16 March, including two moderate storms (maximum significant wave heights = 4.1–4.6 m. During this period, a plume of freshened, relatively cold and turbid water flowed at high speeds along the southern flank of the CCC in an approximate depth range of 150–350 m. The density of this water mass was lighter than the ambient water in the canyon, indicating that it did not cascade off-shelf and that it merely downwelled into the canyon forced by the strong cyclonic circulation induced over the shelf during the storms and by the subsequent accumulation of seawater along the coast. Suspended sediment load in this turbid intrusion recorded along the southern canyon flank oscillated between 10 and 50 mg L−1, and maximum currents speeds reached values up to 90 cm s−1. A rough estimation of 105 tons of sediment was transported through the canyon along its southern wall during a 3-day-long period of storm-induced downwelling. Following the veering of the wind

  9. Outer Rail for Wall Plate Covering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The outer rail retains two lateral screw webs of an intermediate rail to construct a base for wall plate covering. Two retention devices are disposed oppositely on respective inner sides of each retention web for retaining a respective screw web of the intermediate rail. Each retention device...... including an abutment part, which extends inwards from the inner side of the retention web such as to form an abutment surface for the respective screw web when the latter is positioned to be retained in the retention device, and extends from the abutment part into a locking part, which extends at an angle...

  10. The urgency of outer territories anthropology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miloš Milenković

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In the context of transforming a part of Serbian anthropology into social theoretic management of identity, I suggest both comparative historiographic and ethnographic learning from societies with similar post-colonial experience, with the aim to include the discipline into an urgent defense of Serbia and Belgrade from further ethno-profiteering interests of elites in/from outer territories, left over on the ruins of our ill judged, resource incompatible, exaggerated or immoral twentieth century adventures. Serbian anthropology, written by anthropologists to whom Serbia and Belgrade are "homeland" by origin or civilized choice, should play the key role in the defense of Serbian citizens from the interest of elites in/from the outer "homelands", particularly by revealing the processes for which it is, as a discipline, most expert at – the professionalization of ethnicity, interactive and hybrid nature of identity, instrumental nature of tradition and the identity politics in general. Having in mind the latest attempt, a particularly successful one, conducted by the end of the 20th and the beginning of the 21st century that the lives, health, well-being, dignity and future of persons born in and loyal to the interest of Serbia and Belgrade, in large scale, thoroughly and long term be sacrificed and dedicated to the interests of ethno-profiteering elites in/from outer territories, in this article I point to the possibility to, along with the comparative learning from the above mentioned post-colonial experiences, delicate experiences of urgent anthropology be applied as well as the rich tradition of collective research. This text analyzes the results of first such research, that represenst the initial, praiseworthy and a brave step in the wise striving to engage social sciences and humanities in a search of expert and not mythical/daily-political solutions of the key problem of the Serbian nation – that of how to settle the interests of the

  11. The LHCb Outer Tracker Front End Electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Berkien, A; Hommels, B; Knopf, J; Nedos, M; Pellegrino, A; Sluijk, T; Spelt, J; Stange, U; Trunk, U; Uwer, U; Wiedner, D; Zwart, A

    2008-01-01

    This note provides an overview of the front-end electronics used to readout the drift-times of the LHCb Outer Tracker straw tube chambers. The main functional components of the readout are the ASDBLR ASIC for amplification and signal digitization, the OTIS ASIC for the time measurement and for the L0 buffering, and the GOL ASIC to serialize the digital data for the optical data transmission. The L1 buffer board used to receive the data which is sent via the optical link is a common LHCb development and is not described here. This note supersedes an earlier document [1].

  12. Dark matter in the outer solar system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, T.; Cruikshank, D.; De Bergh, C.; Geballe, T.

    1994-01-01

    There are now a large number of small bodies in the outer solar system that are known to be covered with dark material. Attempts to identify that material have been thwarted by the absence of discrete absorption features in the reflection spectra of these planetesimals. An absorption at 2.2 micrometers that appeared to be present in several objects has not been confirmed by new observations. Three absorptions in the spectrum of the unusually red planetesimal 5145 Pholus are well-established, but their identity remains a mystery.

  13. Ecological Resilience and Resistance in the Hyper Diverse Forests on the Eastern Andean Flank (Mera, Ecuador)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keen, H. F.; Gosling, W. D.; Montoya, E.; Sherlock, S.; Mothes, P. A.

    2014-12-01

    Today the Neotropics contain some of the world's most biodiverse and threatened ecosystems. Sediments obtained from two radiocarbon infinite (>48,000 years) stratigraphic sections on the eastern Andean flank, provide new insight into the relationship between biodiversity and disturbance during the Pleistocene (~200,000 years). Pollen analysis of modern and fossil material indicates that hyper diverse forest vegetation has been a feature of the Andean flank landscape for 100,000 years (pollen richness: modern = 44, fossil = 48). Correlation of past vegetation with disturbance events (volcanic and fluvial) indicates the response of hyper-diverse forest to past landscape scale change. Pollen records from near Mera (01°27 S, 78°06 W; 1117 m asl) indicate two major changes in the pollen assemblage, with forest communities dominated by: i) Hedyosmum-Alnus-Ilex, and ii) Combretaceae-Melastomataceae-Myrtaceae. These two pollen assemblages most closely resemble modern vegetation cloud forest (2500-3400m asl) and lower montane rain forest (700-2499 m asl) respectively. Sedimentary evidence suggests that at least 21 volcanic events and three changes in the local fluvial regime perturbed the regional landscape during the period of deposition. However, there is no evidence for volcanic or fluvial disturbance events causing a persistent change in vegetation community. Volcanic events (tephra deposits) are associated with increased fire (charcoal particles), and changes in vegetation (pollen grains); however, within ~50cm of sediment accumulation above each tephra, pollen assemblages revert to pre-deposition compositions. Increased fluvial influence (gravel deposits) is associated with elevated input of pollen from taxa today found at higher elevations (Podocarpus-Celtis). The input of high elevation taxa concomitant with fluvial deposits is most likely indicative of an increase in long-distance transport of pollen along water courses originating in the Andes. Our data indicate

  14. Cosmics in the LHCb Outer Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, Roel

    2010-01-01

    The LHCb experiment at the Large Hadron Collider studies the decay of B mesons to test the description of CP violation in the Standard Model and to search for new physics. The decay $B_s \\to \\mu^+ \\mu^-$ has been identified as very promising in the search for new physics. An excellent invariant mass resolution is required to suppress backgrounds to this decay. This in turn requires a momentum resolution of dp/p = 0.4%. The Outer Tracker is part of the LHCb tracking system and has been commissioned with cosmic muons. The noise in the Outer Tracker is shown to be less than 0.05%. To use drift time information in the reconstruction of cosmic tracks, the event time must be known. Four methods to obtain the event time are studied and compared. It is shown that the event time can be obtained with a resolution better than 2.6 ns. Using drift time information, tracks are reconstructed with a resolution of 344 $\\mu$m. Knowledge of the event time enables the calibration of electronic time offsets and the r(t)– relati...

  15. Analysis of integrated human papillomavirus type 16 DNA in cervical cancers: amplification of viral sequences together with cellular flanking sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagatsuma, M; Hashimoto, K; Matsukura, T

    1990-01-01

    We have isolated four clones of integrated human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) DNA from four different primary cervical cancer specimens. All clones were found to be monomeric or dimeric forms of HPV-16 DNA with cellular flanking sequences at both ends. Analysis of the viral sequences in these clones showed that E6/E7 open reading frames and the long control region were conserved and that no region specific for the integration was detected. Analysis of the cellular flanking sequences revealed no significant homology with any known human DNA sequences, except Alu sequences, and no homology among the clones, indicating no cellular sequence specific for the integration. By probing with single-copy cellular flanking sequences from the clones, it was demonstrated that the integrated HPV-16 DNAs, with different sizes in the same specimens, shared the same cellular flanking sequences at the ends. Furthermore, it was shown that the viral sequences together with cellular flanking sequences were amplified. The possible process of viral integration into cell chromosomes in cervical cancer is discussed. Images PMID:2153245

  16. Restriction fragment length polymorphism in the 3' flanking region of the rabbit beta 1-globin gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masina, P; Rando, A; Cocozza, S

    1984-10-01

    By Southern blot analysis, a restriction fragment length polymorphism in the 3' flanking region of the rabbit beta 1-globin gene was detected. Two alleles, characterized by 9.7- and 12.4-kb BamHI fragments and by 15.3- and 18.0-kb HindIII fragments, have been detected in a small population of White New Zealand rabbits. The long allele is the most frequent (about 70%). The simultaneous changes in the restriction patterns of the two endonucleases and the constant distance between BamHI and HindIII sites in short and long fragments suggest the possibility that the two alleles arise from a rearrangement phenomenon involving a DNA segment 2.7 kb long. In addition, the presence of the two alleles in individuals genetically unrelated to the White New Zealand breed suggests that this polymorphism is widespread.

  17. Territory tenure increases with repertoire size in brownish-flanked bush warbler.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canwei Xia

    Full Text Available Song repertoire size is often cited as a classic example of a secondary sexual trait in birds. Models of sexual selection and empirical tests of their predictions have often related secondary sexual traits to longevity. However, the relationship between repertoire size and longevity is unclear. Using capture-mark-recapture studies in two populations of the brownish-flanked bush warbler Cettia fortipes, we found that males with a repertoire size of three maintained territory tenure for a longer duration than did males with a repertoire size of two. These results provide evidence that even a minimal difference in repertoire size can serve as a potential signal of territory tenure capability.

  18. Sequences Flanking the Gephyrin-Binding Site of GlyRβ Tune Receptor Stabilization at Synapses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grünewald, Nora; Jan, Audric; Salvatico, Charlotte; Kress, Vanessa; Renner, Marianne; Triller, Antoine; Specht, Christian G; Schwarz, Guenter

    2018-01-01

    The efficacy of synaptic transmission is determined by the number of neurotransmitter receptors at synapses. Their recruitment depends upon the availability of postsynaptic scaffolding molecules that interact with specific binding sequences of the receptor. At inhibitory synapses, gephyrin is the major scaffold protein that mediates the accumulation of heteromeric glycine receptors (GlyRs) via the cytoplasmic loop in the β-subunit (β-loop). This binding involves high- and low-affinity interactions, but the molecular mechanism of this bimodal binding and its implication in GlyR stabilization at synapses remain unknown. We have approached this question using a combination of quantitative biochemical tools and high-density single molecule tracking in cultured rat spinal cord neurons. The high-affinity binding site could be identified and was shown to rely on the formation of a 3 10 -helix C-terminal to the β-loop core gephyrin-binding motif. This site plays a structural role in shaping the core motif and represents the major contributor to the synaptic confinement of GlyRs by gephyrin. The N-terminal flanking sequence promotes lower affinity interactions by occupying newly identified binding sites on gephyrin. Despite its low affinity, this binding site plays a modulatory role in tuning the mobility of the receptor. Together, the GlyR β-loop sequences flanking the core-binding site differentially regulate the affinity of the receptor for gephyrin and its trapping at synapses. Our experimental approach thus bridges the gap between thermodynamic aspects of receptor-scaffold interactions and functional receptor stabilization at synapses in living cells.

  19. Simultaneous Double Star and Cluster FTEs observations on the dawnside flank of the magnetosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Marchaudon

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available We present Cluster and Double Star-1 (TC-1 observations from a close magnetic conjunction on 8 May 2004. The five spacecraft were on the dawnside flank of the magnetosphere, with TC-1 located near the equatorial plane and Cluster at higher geographic latitudes in the Southern Hemisphere. TC-1, at its apogee, skimmed the magnetopause for almost 8h (between 08:00-16:00 UT. Flux Transfer Events (FTEs, moving southward/tailward from the reconnection site, were observed by TC-1 throughout almost all of the period. Cluster, travelling on a mainly dawn-dusk trajectory, crossed the magnetopause at around 10:30 UT in the same Magnetic Local Time (MLT sector as TC-1 and remained close to the magnetopause boundary layer in the Southern Hemisphere. The four Cluster spacecraft observed FTEs for a period of 6.5h between 07:30 and 14:00 UT.

    The very clear signatures and the finite transverse sizes of the FTEs observed by TC-1 and Cluster imply that, during this event, sporadic reconnection occurred. From the properties of these FTEs, the reconnection site was located northward of both TC-1 and Cluster on the dawn flank of the magnetosphere. Reconnection occurred between draped magnetosheath and closed magnetospheric field lines. Despite variable interplanetary magnetic field (IMF conditions and IMF-Bz turnings, the IMF clock angle remained greater than 70° and the location site appeared to remain relatively stable in position during the whole period. This result is in agreement with previous studies which reported that the dayside reconnection remained active for an IMF clock angle greater than 70°. The simultaneous observation of FTEs at both Cluster and TC-1, separated by 2h in MLT, implies that the reconnection site on the magnetopause must have been extended over several hours in MLT.

  20. Simultaneous Double Star and Cluster FTEs observations on the dawnside flank of the magnetosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Marchaudon

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available We present Cluster and Double Star-1 (TC-1 observations from a close magnetic conjunction on 8 May 2004. The five spacecraft were on the dawnside flank of the magnetosphere, with TC-1 located near the equatorial plane and Cluster at higher geographic latitudes in the Southern Hemisphere. TC-1, at its apogee, skimmed the magnetopause for almost 8h (between 08:00-16:00 UT. Flux Transfer Events (FTEs, moving southward/tailward from the reconnection site, were observed by TC-1 throughout almost all of the period. Cluster, travelling on a mainly dawn-dusk trajectory, crossed the magnetopause at around 10:30 UT in the same Magnetic Local Time (MLT sector as TC-1 and remained close to the magnetopause boundary layer in the Southern Hemisphere. The four Cluster spacecraft observed FTEs for a period of 6.5h between 07:30 and 14:00 UT. The very clear signatures and the finite transverse sizes of the FTEs observed by TC-1 and Cluster imply that, during this event, sporadic reconnection occurred. From the properties of these FTEs, the reconnection site was located northward of both TC-1 and Cluster on the dawn flank of the magnetosphere. Reconnection occurred between draped magnetosheath and closed magnetospheric field lines. Despite variable interplanetary magnetic field (IMF conditions and IMF-Bz turnings, the IMF clock angle remained greater than 70° and the location site appeared to remain relatively stable in position during the whole period. This result is in agreement with previous studies which reported that the dayside reconnection remained active for an IMF clock angle greater than 70°. The simultaneous observation of FTEs at both Cluster and TC-1, separated by 2h in MLT, implies that the reconnection site on the magnetopause must have been extended over several hours in MLT.

  1. Airborne sound insulation evaluation and flanking path prediction of coupled room

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tassia, R. D.; Asmoro, W. A.; Arifianto, D.

    2016-11-01

    One of the parameters to review the acoustic comfort is based on the value of the insulation partition in the classroom. The insulation value can be expressed by the sound transmission loss which converted into a single value as weighted sound reduction index (Rw, DnTw) and also have an additional sound correction factor in low frequency (C, Ctr) .In this study, the measurements were performed in two positions at each point using BSWA microphone and dodecahedron speaker as the sound source. The results of field measurements indicate the acoustic insulation values (DnT w + C) is 19.6 dB. It is noted that the partition wall not according to the standard which the DnTw + C> 51 dB. Hence the partition wall need to be redesign to improve acoustic insulation in the classroom. The design used gypsum board, plasterboard, cement board, and PVC as the replacement material. Based on the results, all the material is simulated in accordance with established standards. Best insulation is cement board with the insulation value is 69dB, the thickness of 12.5 mm on each side and the absorber material is 50 mm. Many factors lead to increase the value of acoustic insulation, such as the thickness of the panel, the addition of absorber material, density, and Poisson's ratio of a material. The prediction of flanking path can be estimated from noise reduction values at each measurement point in the class room. Based on data obtained, there is no significant change in noise reduction from each point so that the pathway of flanking is not affect the sound transmission in the classroom.

  2. Late Pleistocene flank collapse of Zempoala volcano (Central Mexico) and the role of fault reactivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arce, José Luis; Macías, Rodolfo; García Palomo, Armando; Capra, Lucia; Macías, José Luis; Layer, Paul; Rueda, Hernando

    2008-11-01

    Zempoala is an extinct Pleistocene (˜ 0.7-0.8 Ma) stratovolcano that together with La Corona volcano (˜ 0.9 Ma) forms the southern end of the Sierra de las Cruces volcanic range, Central Mexico. The volcano consists of andesitic and dacitic lava flows and domes, as well as pyroclastic and epiclastic sequences, and has had a complex history with several flank collapses. One of these collapses occurred during the late Pleistocene on the S-SE flank of the volcano and produced the Zempoala debris avalanche deposit. This collapse could have been triggered by the reactivation of two normal fault systems (E-W and NE-SW), although magmatic activity cannot be absolutely excluded. The debris avalanche traveled 60 km to the south, covers an area of 600 km 2 and has a total volume of 6 km 3, with a calculated Heim coefficient (H/L) of 0.03. Based on the textural characteristics of the deposit we recognized three zones: proximal, axial, and lateral distal zone. The proximal zone consists of debris avalanche blocks that develop a hummocky topography; the axial zone corresponds with the main debris avalanche deposit made of large clasts set in a sandy matrix, which transformed to a debris flow in the lateral distal portion. The deposit is heterolithologic in composition, with dacitic and andesitic fragments from the old edifice that decrease in volume as bulking of exotic clasts from the substratum increase. Several cities (Cuernavaca, Jojutla de Juárez, Alpuyeca) with associated industrial, agricultural, and tourism activities have been built on the deposit, which pose in evidence the possible impact in case of a new event with such characteristics, since the area is still tectonically active.

  3. Subseafloor seawater-basalt-microbe reactions: Continuous sampling of borehole fluids in a ridge flank environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheat, C. Geoffrey; Jannasch, Hans W.; Fisher, Andrew T.; Becker, Keir; Sharkey, Jessica; Hulme, Samuel

    2010-07-01

    Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Hole 1301A was drilled, cased, and instrumented with a long-term, subseafloor observatory (CORK) on the eastern flank of the Juan de Fuca Ridge in summer 2004. This borehole is located 1 km south of ODP Hole 1026B and 5 km north of Baby Bare outcrop. Hole 1301A penetrates 262 m of sediment and 108 m of the uppermost 3.5 Ma basaltic basement in an area of warm (64°C) hydrothermal circulation. The borehole was instrumented, and those instruments were recovered 4 years later. Here we report chemical data from two continuous fluid samplers (OsmoSamplers) and temperature recording tools that monitored changes in the state of borehole (formation) fluids. These changes document the effects of drilling, fluid overpressure and flow, seawater-basalt interactions, and microbial metababolic activity. Initially, bottom seawater flowed into the borehole through a leak between concentric CORK casing strings. Eventually, the direction of flow reversed, and warm, altered formation fluid flowed into the borehole and discharged at the seafloor. This reversal occurred during 1 week in September 2007, 3 years after drilling operations ceased. The composition of the formation fluid around Hole 1301A generally lies within bounds defined by springs on Baby Bare outcrop (to the south) and fluids that discharged from Hole 1026B (to the north); deviations likely result from reactions with drilling products. Simple conservative mixing of two end-member fluids reveals reactions occurring within the crust, including nitrate reduction presumably by denitrifying microbes. The observed changes in borehole fluid composition provide the foundation for a conceptual model of chemical and microbial change during recharge of a warm ridge-flank hydrothermal system. This model can be tested through future scientific ocean drilling experiments.

  4. Replication origin-flanking roadblocks reveal origin-licensing dynamics and altered sequence dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Megan D; Azmi, Ishara F; Kang, Sukhyun; Zhao, Yanding; Bell, Stephen P

    2017-12-29

    In eukaryotes, DNA replication initiates from multiple origins of replication for timely genome duplication. These sites are selected by origin licensing, during which the core enzyme of the eukaryotic DNA replicative helicase, the Mcm2-7 (minichromosome maintenance) complex, is loaded at each origin. This origin licensing requires loading two Mcm2-7 helicases around origin DNA in a head-to-head orientation. Current models suggest that the origin-recognition complex (ORC) and cell-division cycle 6 (Cdc6) proteins recognize and encircle origin DNA and assemble an Mcm2-7 double-hexamer around adjacent double-stranded DNA. To test this model and assess the location of Mcm2-7 initial loading, we placed DNA-protein roadblocks at defined positions adjacent to the essential ORC-binding site within Saccharomyces cerevisiae origin DNA. Roadblocks were made either by covalent cross-linking of the HpaII methyltransferase to DNA or through binding of a transcription activator-like effector (TALE) protein. Contrary to the sites of Mcm2-7 recruitment being precisely defined, only single roadblocks that inhibited ORC-DNA binding showed helicase loading defects. We observed inhibition of helicase loading without inhibition of ORC-DNA binding only when roadblocks were placed on both sides of the origin to restrict sliding of a helicase-loading intermediate. Consistent with a sliding helicase-loading intermediate, when either one of the flanking roadblocks was eliminated, the remaining roadblock had no effect on helicase loading. Interestingly, either origin-flanking nucleosomes or roadblocks resulted in helicase loading being dependent on an additional origin sequence known to be a weaker ORC-DNA-binding site. Together, our findings support a model in which sliding helicase-loading intermediates increase the flexibility of the DNA sequence requirements for origin licensing. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  5. Soil gases and SAR measurements reveal hidden faults on the sliding flank of Mt. Etna (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonforte, Alessandro; Federico, Cinzia; Giammanco, Salvatore; Guglielmino, Francesco; Liuzzo, Marco; Neri, Marco

    2013-02-01

    From October 2008 to November 2009, soil CO2, radon and structural field surveys were performed on Mt. Etna, in order to acquire insights into active tectonic structures in a densely populated sector of the south-eastern flank of the volcano, which is involved in the flank dynamics, as highlighted by satellite data (InSAR). The studied area extends about 150 km2, in a sector of the volcano where InSAR results detected several lineaments that were not well-defined from previous geological surveys. In order to validate and better constrain these features with ground data evidences, soil CO2 and soil radon measurements were performed along transects roughly orthogonal to the newly detected faults, with measurement points spaced about 100 m. In each transect, the highest CO2 values were found very close to the lineaments evidenced by InSAR observations. Anomalous soil CO2 and radon values were also measured at old eruptive fractures. In some portions of the investigated area soil gas anomalies were rather broad over transects, probably suggesting a complex structural framework consisting of several parallel volcano-tectonic structures, instead of a single one. Soil gas measurements proved particularly useful in areas at higher altitude on Mt. Etna (i.e. above 900 m asl), where InSAR results are not very informative/are fairly limited, and allowed recognizing the prolongation of some tectonic lineaments towards the summit of the volcano. At a lower altitude on the volcanic edifice, soil gas anomalies define the active structures indicated by InSAR results prominently, down to almost the coastline and through the northern periphery of the city of Catania. Coupling InSAR with soil gas prospecting methods has thus proved to be a powerful tool in detecting hidden active structures that do not show significant field evidences.

  6. An experimental study of flank wear in the end milling of AISI 316 stainless steel with coated carbide inserts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odedeyi, P. B.; Abou-El-Hossein, K.; Liman, M.

    2017-05-01

    Stainless steel 316 is a difficult-to-machine iron-based alloys that contain minimum of about 12% of chromium commonly used in marine and aerospace industry. This paper presents an experimental study of the tool wear propagation variations in the end milling of stainless steel 316 with coated carbide inserts. The milling tests were conducted at three different cutting speeds while feed rate and depth of cut were at (0.02, 0.06 and 01) mm/rev and (1, 2 and 3) mm, respectively. The cutting tool used was TiAlN-PVD-multi-layered coated carbides. The effects of cutting speed, cutting tool coating top layer and workpiece material were investigated on the tool life. The results showed that cutting speed significantly affected the machined flank wears values. With increasing cutting speed, the flank wear values decreased. The experimental results showed that significant flank wear was the major and predominant failure mode affecting the tool life.

  7. Optimization of MQL Parameters During Turning for the Minimization of Flank Wear using DoE, PSO and SAA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnabas, J. K.; Tamizharasan, T.

    2012-06-01

    The concept of minimum quantity lubrication (MQL) has come into practice since a decade ago in order to overcome the disadvantages of flood cooling. This experimental investigation deals with the effects of MQL parameters during turning for the minimization of flank wear with surface roughness as constraint. The parameters of MQL selected are density of coolant, mass flow rate of coolant and pressure of air. The selected MQL parameters are varied through four levels. The flank wear values of the cutting inserts after machining are observed and recorded. The best levels of MQL parameters are identified by using Taguchi's design of experiments. A validation experiment is conducted with the identified best levels of parameters and the corresponding flank wear value is recorded. This analysis further inter-relates the performances of particle swarm optimization and simulated annealing algorithm (SAA). The result obtained from SAA is comparatively better than that of the results obtained from other techniques.

  8. Laser clad NiCrBSi alloy wear-resistance coating with RE addition on heavy duty spur gear flank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, N.; Tao, L.; Guo, H.; Zhang, M. Q.

    2017-10-01

    In this research the wear-resistance composite coating successfully produced on heavy duty gear work surface by laser was reported. The coating containing 99 wt.% NiCrBSi alloy and 1 wt.% RE (rare earth element) oxidation powder. The RE addition coupled with laser operating parameters optimization caused elimination of both cracks and pores meanwhile further enhanced comprehensive properties of the laser layer. The coating microhardness, microstructure, phase construction and wear behaviors were tested by hardness tester, SEM equipped with EDS, XRD and tribometer, respectively. The results reflected the fact that the RE addition enhanced the coating ability of wear resistance and laser clad layer properly bonded with the gear flank. The wear volume loss rate of coating was half of that of the gear flank metal the COF curve of coating kept bellow that of the gear flank steel.

  9. Flanking region variation of ForenSeq™ DNA Signature Prep Kit STR and SNP loci in Yavapai Native Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendt, Frank R; King, Jonathan L; Novroski, Nicole M M; Churchill, Jennifer D; Ng, Jillian; Oldt, Robert F; McCulloh, Kelly L; Weise, Jessica A; Smith, David Glenn; Kanthaswamy, Sreetharan; Budowle, Bruce

    2017-05-01

    Massively parallel sequencing (MPS) offers advantages over current capillary electrophoresis-based analysis of short tandem repeat (STR) loci for human identification testing. In particular STR repeat motif sequence information can be obtained, thereby increasing the discrimination power of some loci. While sequence variation within the repeat region is observed relatively frequently in some of the commonly used STRs, there is an additional degree of variation found in the flanking regions adjacent to the repeat motif. Repeat motif and flanking region sequence variation have been described for major population groups, however, not for more isolated populations. Flanking region sequence variation in STR and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) loci in the Yavapai population was analyzed using the ForenSeq™ DNA Signature Prep Kit and STRait Razor v2s. Seven and 14 autosomal STRs and identity-informative single nucleotide polymorphisms (iiSNPs), respectively, had some degree of flanking region variation. Three and four of these identity-informative loci, respectively, showed ≥5% increase in expected heterozygosity. The combined length- and sequence-based random match probabilities (RMPs) for 27 autosomal STRs were 6.11×10 -26 and 2.79×10 -29 , respectively. When combined with 94 iiSNPs (a subset of which became microhaplotypes) the combined RMP was 5.49×10 -63 . Analysis of length-based and sequence-based autosomal STRs in STRUCTURE indicated that the Yavapai are most similar to the Hispanic population. While producing minimal increase in X- and Y-STR discrimination potential, access to flanking region data enabled identification of one novel X-STR and three Y-STR alleles relative to previous reports. Five ancestry-informative SNPs (aiSNPs) and two phenotype-informative SNPs (piSNPs) exhibited notable flanking region variation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Inner and Outer Life at Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgaard Andersen, Linda

    2012-01-01

    The modern labour market has increasingly put the inner working life on the agenda. This stems from a number of societal changes: the knowledge society and its need of personalised competences and work investments in welfare services, the transformation from subject-object relationships to subject......-subject relationships and the emergence of the "learning organisations" and reflexive leadership. All of this has been the subject of critical analyses tracing modern work life identities, conflicts, organisational and societal structuration. Against this background the accounts and conceptualisations of work life...... development and interaction situated in a societal context. Based on this substantial work I draw upon two influential psychoanalytical positions—the British Tavistock position and German psychoanalytic social psychology in order to situate and identify how to understand the inner and outer life at work...

  11. Ageing of the LHCb outer tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Blom, M R; Tuning, N

    2009-01-01

    The modules of the LHCb outer tracker have shown to suffer severe gain loss under moderate irradiation. This process is called ageing. Ageing of the modules results from contamination of the gas system by glue, araldite AY 103-1, used in their construction. In this thesis the ageing process will be shown. The schemes known to reduce, reverse, or prevent ageing have been investigated to determine their effect on the detector performance. The addition of O2 to the gas mixture lowers the detector response by an acceptable amount and does not affect the gas transport properties significantly. The ageing rate is decreased after extensive flushing and HV training could eventually repair the irradiation damage. The risks of HV training have been assessed. Furthermore, several gaseous and aquatic additions have been tested for their capability to prevent, or moderate ageing, but none showed significant improvement.

  12. Radiation hardness of the LHCb Outer Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    van Eijk, D; Bauer, T; Färber, C; Bien, A; Coco, V; Deckenhoff, M; Dettori, F; Ekelhof, R; Gersabeck, E; Karbach, T M; Koopman, R; Kozlinskiy, A; Langenbruch, C; Linn, C; Merk, M; Meissner, M; Morawski, P; Pellegrino, A; Serra, N; Seyfert, P; Spaan, B; Swientek, S; Storaci, B; Tuning, N; Szczekowski, M; Uwer, U; Visser, E; Wiedner, D; Witek, M

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents results on the radiation hardness of the LHCb Outer Tracker (OT) during LHC operation in 2010 and 2011. Modules of the OT have shown to suffer from ageing effects that lead to gain loss, after irradiation in the laboratory. Under irradiation at moderate intensities an insulating layer is formed on the anode wire of the OT straw cells. This ageing effect is caused by contamination of the counting gas due to outgassing of the glue used in the construction of the OT modules. Two methods to monitor gain stability in the OT are presented: module scans with radioactive sources and the study of hit efficiency as a function of amplifier threshold. No gain loss is observed after receiving 1.3 fb−1 of integrated luminosity corresponding to an integrated charge of 0.055 C/cm in the hottest spot of the detector.

  13. Recurrent Neural Network for Computing Outer Inverse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Živković, Ivan S; Stanimirović, Predrag S; Wei, Yimin

    2016-05-01

    Two linear recurrent neural networks for generating outer inverses with prescribed range and null space are defined. Each of the proposed recurrent neural networks is based on the matrix-valued differential equation, a generalization of dynamic equations proposed earlier for the nonsingular matrix inversion, the Moore-Penrose inversion, as well as the Drazin inversion, under the condition of zero initial state. The application of the first approach is conditioned by the properties of the spectrum of a certain matrix; the second approach eliminates this drawback, though at the cost of increasing the number of matrix operations. The cases corresponding to the most common generalized inverses are defined. The conditions that ensure stability of the proposed neural network are presented. Illustrative examples present the results of numerical simulations.

  14. Drop dispensing in a viscous outer liquid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudiu PATRASCU

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The formation and detachment of Newtonian drops in viscous external liquids is investigated. A global analysis of two necking processes is presented in order to highlight the behavior of such thinning phenomena, when controlled either by inertia or by viscous effects. Moving detached droplets in an immiscible outer liquid were studied in terms of velocity and drop-travel distance. Theoretical predictions are proposed and compared with experimental data for the volume of the drop and for the subsequent dynamics that follow after detachment. Our investigations point out that the drop rapidly achieves constant velocity, the value of it being in a satisfactory agreement with the model. Both the influence of the flow rate and that of the material properties on drop volume are pursued.

  15. Lateral interactions in the outer retina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoreson, Wallace B.; Mangel, Stuart C.

    2012-01-01

    Lateral interactions in the outer retina, particularly negative feedback from horizontal cells to cones and direct feed-forward input from horizontal cells to bipolar cells, play a number of important roles in early visual processing, such as generating center-surround receptive fields that enhance spatial discrimination. These circuits may also contribute to post-receptoral light adaptation and the generation of color opponency. In this review, we examine the contributions of horizontal cell feedback and feed-forward pathways to early visual processing. We begin by reviewing the properties of bipolar cell receptive fields, especially with respect to modulation of the bipolar receptive field surround by the ambient light level and to the contribution of horizontal cells to the surround. We then review evidence for and against three proposed mechanisms for negative feedback from horizontal cells to cones: 1) GABA release by horizontal cells, 2) ephaptic modulation of the cone pedicle membrane potential generated by currents flowing through hemigap junctions in horizontal cell dendrites, and 3) modulation of cone calcium currents (ICa) by changes in synaptic cleft proton levels. We also consider evidence for the presence of direct horizontal cell feed-forward input to bipolar cells and discuss a possible role for GABA at this synapse. We summarize proposed functions of horizontal cell feedback and feed-forward pathways. Finally, we examine the mechanisms and functions of two other forms of lateral interaction in the outer retina: negative feedback from horizontal cells to rods and positive feedback from horizontal cells to cones. PMID:22580106

  16. Nuclear Electric Propulsion for Outer Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barret, Chris

    2003-01-01

    Today we know of 66 moons in our very own Solar System, and many of these have atmospheres and oceans. In addition, the Hubble (optical) Space Telescope has helped us to discover a total of 100 extra-solar planets, i.e., planets going around other suns, including several solar systems. The Chandra (X-ray) Space Telescope has helped us to discover 33 Black Holes. There are some extremely fascinating things out there in our Universe to explore. In order to travel greater distances into our Universe, and to reach planetary bodies in our Solar System in much less time, new and innovative space propulsion systems must be developed. To this end NASA has created the Prometheus Program. When one considers space missions to the outer edges of our Solar System and far beyond, our Sun cannot be relied on to produce the required spacecraft (s/c) power. Solar energy diminishes as the square of the distance from the Sun. At Mars it is only 43% of that at Earth. At Jupiter, it falls off to only 3.6% of Earth's. By the time we get out to Pluto, solar energy is only .066% what it is on Earth. Therefore, beyond the orbit of Mars, it is not practical to depend on solar power for a s/c. However, the farther out we go the more power we need to heat the s/c and to transmit data back to Earth over the long distances. On Earth, knowledge is power. In the outer Solar System, power is knowledge. It is important that the public be made aware of the tremendous space benefits offered by Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) and the minimal risk it poses to our environment. This paper presents an overview of the reasons for NEP systems, along with their basic components including the reactor, power conversion units (both static and dynamic), electric thrusters, and the launch safety of the NEP system.

  17. Relevance of lysine snorkeling in the outer transmembrane domain of small viral potassium ion channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebhardt, Manuela; Henkes, Leonhard M; Tayefeh, Sascha; Hertel, Brigitte; Greiner, Timo; Van Etten, James L; Baumeister, Dirk; Cosentino, Cristian; Moroni, Anna; Kast, Stefan M; Thiel, Gerhard

    2012-07-17

    Transmembrane domains (TMDs) are often flanked by Lys or Arg because they keep their aliphatic parts in the bilayer and their charged groups in the polar interface. Here we examine the relevance of this so-called "snorkeling" of a cationic amino acid, which is conserved in the outer TMD of small viral K(+) channels. Experimentally, snorkeling activity is not mandatory for Kcv(PBCV-1) because K29 can be replaced by most of the natural amino acids without any corruption of function. Two similar channels, Kcv(ATCV-1) and Kcv(MT325), lack a cytosolic N-terminus, and neutralization of their equivalent cationic amino acids inhibits their function. To understand the variable importance of the cationic amino acids, we reanalyzed molecular dynamics simulations of Kcv(PBCV-1) and N-terminally truncated mutants; the truncated mutants mimic Kcv(ATCV-1) and Kcv(MT325). Structures were analyzed with respect to membrane positioning in relation to the orientation of K29. The results indicate that the architecture of the protein (including the selectivity filter) is only weakly dependent on TMD length and protonation of K29. The penetration depth of Lys in a given protonation state is independent of the TMD architecture, which leads to a distortion of shorter proteins. The data imply that snorkeling can be important for K(+) channels; however, its significance depends on the architecture of the entire TMD. The observation that the most severe N-terminal truncation causes the outer TMD to move toward the cytosolic side suggests that snorkeling becomes more relevant if TMDs are not stabilized in the membrane by other domains.

  18. Efficient gusA transient expression in Porphyra yezoensis protoplasts mediated by endogenous beta-tubulin flanking sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Qianhong; Yu, Wengong; Dai, Jixun; Liu, Hongquan; Xu, Rifu; Guan, Huashi; Pan, Kehou

    2007-01-01

    Endogenous tubulin promoter has been widely used for expressing foreign genes in green algae, but the efficiency and feasibility of endogenous tubulin promoter in the economically important Porphyra yezoensis (Rhodophyta) are unknown. In this study, the flanking sequences of beta-tubulin gene from P. yezoensis were amplified and two transient expression vectors were constructed to determine their transcription promoting feasibility for foreign gene gusA. The testing vector pATubGUS was constructed by inserting 5'-and 3'-flanking regions ( Tub5' and Tub3') up-and down-stream of β-glucuronidase (GUS) gene ( gusA), respectively, into pA, a derivative of pCAT®3-enhancer vector. The control construct, pAGUSTub3, contains only gusA and Tub3'. These constructs were electroporated into P. yezoensis protoplasts and the GUS activities were quantitatively analyzed by spectrometry. The results demonstrated that gusA gene was efficiently expressed in P. yezoensis protoplasts under the regulation of 5'-flanking sequence of the beta-tubulin gene. More interestingly, the pATubGUS produced stronger GUS activity in P. yezoensis protoplasts when compared to the result from pBI221, in which the gusA gene was directed by a constitutive CaMV 35S promoter. The data suggest that the integration of P. yezoensis protoplast and its endogenous beta-tubulin flanking sequences is a potential novel system for foreign gene expression.

  19. Rare case of a strangulated intercostal flank hernia following open nephrectomy: A case report and review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinduro, Oluwaseun O; Jones, Frank; Turner, Jacquelyn; Cason, Frederick; Clark, Clarence

    2015-01-01

    Flank incisions may be associated with incisional flank hernias, which may progress to incarceration and strangulation. Compromised integrity of the abdominal and intercostal musculature due to previous surgery may be associated with herniation of abdominal contents into the intercostal space. There have been six previously reported cases of herniation into the intercostal space after a flank incision for a surgical procedure. This case highlights the clinical picture associated with an emergent strangulated hernia and highlights the critical steps in its management. We present a case of a 79-year-old adult man with multiple comorbidities presenting with a strangulated flank hernia secondary to an intercostal incision for a right-sided open nephrectomy. The strangulated hernia required emergent intervention including right-sided hemi-colectomy with ileostomy and mucous fistula. Abdominal incisional hernias are rare and therefore easily overlooked, but may result in significant morbidity or even death in the patient.. The diagnosis can be made with a thorough clinical examination and ultrasound or computed topographical investigation. Once a hernia has become incarcerated, emergent surgical management is necessary to avoid strangulation and small bowel obstruction. Urgent diagnosis and treatment of this extremely rare hernia is paramount especially in the setting of strangulation. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Rare case of a strangulated intercostal flank hernia following open nephrectomy: A case report and review of literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinduro, Oluwaseun O.; Jones, Frank; Turner, Jacquelyn; Cason, Frederick; Clark, Clarence

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Flank incisions may be associated with incisional flank hernias, which may progress to incarceration and strangulation. Compromised integrity of the abdominal and intercostal musculature due to previous surgery may be associated with herniation of abdominal contents into the intercostal space. There have been six previously reported cases of herniation into the intercostal space after a flank incision for a surgical procedure. This case highlights the clinical picture associated with an emergent strangulated hernia and highlights the critical steps in its management. Presentation of case We present a case of a 79-year-old adult man with multiple comorbidities presenting with a strangulated flank hernia secondary to an intercostal incision for a right-sided open nephrectomy. The strangulated hernia required emergent intervention including right-sided hemi-colectomy with ileostomy and mucous fistula. Discussion Abdominal incisional hernias are rare and therefore easily overlooked, but may result in significant morbidity or even death in the patient.. The diagnosis can be made with a thorough clinical examination and ultrasound or computed topographical investigation. Once a hernia has become incarcerated, emergent surgical management is necessary to avoid strangulation and small bowel obstruction. Conclusion Urgent diagnosis and treatment of this extremely rare hernia is paramount especially in the setting of strangulation. PMID:26629848

  1. Contrasting neogene denudation histories of different structural regions in the transantarctic mountains rift flank constrained by cosmogenic isotope measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wateren, F.M. van der; Dunai, T.J.; Balen, R.T. van; Klas, W.; Verbers, A.L.L.M.; Passchier, S.; Herpers, U.

    1999-01-01

    Separate regions within the Transantarctic Mountains, the uplifted flank of the West Antarctic rift system, appear to have distinct Neogene histories of glaciation and valley downcutting. Incision of deep glacial outlet valleys occurred at different times throughout central and northern Victoria

  2. Equivalent pore radius and velocity of elastic waves in shale. Skjold Flank-1 Well, Danish North Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mbia, Ernest Ncha; Fabricius, Ida Lykke; Oji, Collins O.

    2013-01-01

    logging data.We used cuttings samples and available well logs to characterize Cenozoic, Cretaceous and Jurassic shale sections in the Skjold Flank-1 well of Danish North Sea. Logging data and well reports were used to select 31 shale cuttings samples and experimental data for porosity, grain density...

  3. Application of artificial neural networks to segmentation and classification of topographic profiles of ridge-flank seafloor

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chakraborty, B.; Lourenco, E.; Kodagali, V.N.; Baracho, J.

    profiles from three directions: central (beam 30), port side (beam 10) and starboard side (beam 50), were acquired from the ridge flank and rift valley areas of the Carlsberg Ridge and plain areas of the Central Indian Basin. Self-Organizing Map (SOM...

  4. The role of viscous magma mush spreading in volcanic flank motion at Kīlauea Volcano, Hawai‘i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plattner, C.; Amelung, F.; Baker, S.; Govers, R.; Poland, M.

    2013-01-01

    Multiple mechanisms have been suggested to explain seaward motion of the south flank of Kīlauea Volcano, Hawai‘i. The consistency of flank motion during both waxing and waning magmatic activity at Kīlauea suggests that a continuously acting force, like gravity body force, plays a substantial role. Using finite element models, we test whether gravity is the principal driver of long-term motion of Kīlauea's flank. We compare our model results to geodetic data from Global Positioning System and interferometric synthetic aperture radar during a time period with few magmatic and tectonic events (2000-2003), when deformation of Kīlauea was dominated by summit subsidence and seaward motion of the south flank. We find that gravity-only models can reproduce the horizontal surface velocities if we incorporate a regional décollement fault and a deep, low-viscosity magma mush zone. To obtain quasi steady state horizontal surface velocities that explain the long-term seaward motion of the flank, we find that an additional weak zone is needed, which is an extensional rift zone above the magma mush. The spreading rate in our model is mainly controlled by the magma mush viscosity, while its density plays a less significant role. We find that a viscosity of 2.5 × 1017–2.5 × 1019 Pa s for the magma mush provides an acceptable fit to the observed horizontal surface deformation. Using high magma mush viscosities, such as 2.5 × 1019 Pa s, the deformation rates remain more steady state over longer time scales. These models explain a significant amount of the observed subsidence at Kīlauea's summit. Some of the remaining subsidence is probably a result of magma withdrawal from subsurface reservoirs

  5. Morphology and Doping Level of Electropolymerized Biselenophene-Flanked 3,4- Ethylenedioxythiophene Polymer: Effect of Solvents and Electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agrawal, Vikash; Shahjad; Bhardwaj, Dinesh; Bhargav, Ranoo; Sharma, Gauri Datt; Bhardwaj, Ramil Kumar; Patra, Asit; Chand, Suresh

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Biselenophene-flanked 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene polymer films were obtained by electrochemical polymerization. • Supporting electrolyte has significant effect on the doping level, whereas electropolymerized solvent has a major effect on morphology of the polymer films. • Optoelectronic properties and morphology of the electropolymerized films were studied. • Density functional theory (DFT) calculation has been made for optoelectronic properties. - Abstract: Biselenophene-flanked 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (EDOT) based polymer films were obtained by electrochemical polymerization. The effects of polymerization conditions such as supporting electrolytes and solvents on doping level, optical property and morphology of the polymer films were systematically studied. Interestingly, we found that polymer prepared by using different supporting electrolytes (TBAPF 6 , TBABF 4 and TBAClO 4 ) has significant effects on the doping level of the polymer films, whereas electropolymerized solvents (acetonitrile and dichloromethane) has no such effects on doping level. The polymer films show reversible dedoping and doping behavior upon treatment with hydrazine hydrate and iodine respectively. Biselenophene-flanked EDOT polymer shows a band gap of about 1.6 eV which is comparable to poly(3,4- ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) and parent polyselenophene, whereas fine-tuning of HOMO and LUMO energy levels has been found. In contrast, we observed that electropolymerized solvent has a major effect on morphology of the polymer films, while supporting electrolyte has very minor effects on the morphology. The surface morphologies of the polymer films were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and atomic force microscope (AFM) techniques. We also present an efficient synthesis of bisthiophene-flanked bridged EDOT (ETTE), and biselenophene-flanked bridged EDOT (ESeSeE), and their electrochemical polymerization, characterizations and throughout comparison

  6. BACTERIAL OUTER MEMBRANE VESICLES AND VACCINE APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinaldo eAcevedo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Vaccines based on outer membrane vesicles (OMV were developed more than 20 years ago against Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B. These nano-sized structures exhibit remarkable potential for immunomodulation of immune responses and delivery of self meningococcal antigens or unrelated antigens incorporated into the vesicle structure. This paper reviews different applications in OMV Research and Development (R&D and provides examples of OMV developed and evaluated at the Finlay Institute in Cuba. A Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP process was developed at the Finlay Institute to produce OMV from N. meningitidis serogroup B (dOMVB using detergent extraction. Subsequently, OMV from N. meningitidis, serogroup A (dOMVA, serogroup W (dOMVW and serogroup X (dOMVX were obtained using this process. More recently, the extraction process has also been applied effectively for obtaining OMV on a research scale from Vibrio cholerae (dOMVC, Bordetella pertussis (dOMVBP, Mycobacterium smegmatis (dOMVSM and BCG (dOMVBCG. The immunogenicity of the OMV have been evaluated for specific antibody induction, and together with functional bactericidal and challenge assays in mice have shown their protective potential. dOMVB has been evaluated with non-self neisserial antigens, including with a herpes virus type 2 glycoprotein, ovalbumin and allergens. In conclusion, OMV are proving to be more versatile than first conceived and remain an important technology for development of vaccine candidates.

  7. Unenhanced helical computed tomography in the evaluation of acute flank pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, N.A.; Ather, M.H.; Rees, J.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the value of unenhanced helical computed tomography (UHCT) in the diagnosis of acute flank pain at our institution. Two hundred and thirty-three consecutive UHCT examinations, performed for suspected renal/ureteral colic between July 2000 and August 2001 were reviewed, along with pertinent medical records. Ureteral calculi were identified in 148 (64%) examinations, evidence of recent passage of calculi was found in 10 (4%) and no calculi were found in 75 (32%). Thirty-two of the conservatively managed patients were excluded for inadequate follow-up. In the remaining 201 patients, sensitivity of UHCT in diagnosing calculi was 99% and specificity was 98%, while the positive predictive value was 99% and negative positive predictive value was 98%. Overall, an alternative or additional diagnosis was established in 28 (12%) patients. Upon diagnosis of ureterolithiasis on UHCT, none of the patients required additional imaging studies for confirmation. UHCT is a highly sensitive imaging modality for the detection of urinary tract calculi and obstruction. (author)

  8. Spatial distribution of rolled up Kelvin-Helmholtz vortices at Earth's dayside and flank magnetopause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. G. G. T. Taylor

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The Kelvin-Helmholtz Instability (KHI can drive waves at the magnetopause. These waves can grow to form rolled-up vortices and facilitate transfer of plasma into the magnetosphere. To investigate the persistence and frequency of such waves at the magnetopause we have carried out a survey of all Double Star 1 magnetopause crossings, using a combination of ion and magnetic field measurements. Using criteria originally used in a Geotail study made by Hasegawa et al. (2006 (forthwith referred to as H2006, 17 candidate events were identified from the entire TC-1 mission (covering ~623 orbits where the magnetopause was sampled, a majority of which were on the dayside of the terminator. The relationship between density and shear velocity was then investigated, to identify the predicted signature of a rolled up vortex from H2006 and all 17 events exhibited some level of rolled up behavior. The location of the events had a clear dawn-dusk asymmetry, with 12 (71% on the post noon, dusk flank suggesting preferential growth in this region.

  9. Influence of PAS domain flanking regions on oligomerisation and redox signalling by NifL.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Little

    Full Text Available Per-ARNT-Sim (PAS domains constitute a typically dimeric, conserved α/β tertiary fold of approximately 110 amino acids that perform signalling roles in diverse proteins from all kingdoms of life. The amino terminal PAS1 domain of NifL from Azotobacter vinelandii accommodates a redox-active FAD group; elevation of cytosolic oxygen concentrations result in FAD oxidation and a concomitant conformational re-arrangement that is relayed via a short downstream linker to a second PAS domain, PAS2. At PAS2, the signal is amplified and passed on to effector domains generating the 'on' (inhibitory state of the protein. Although the crystal structure of oxidised PAS1 reveals regions that contribute to the dimerisation interface, 21 amino acids at the extreme N-terminus of NifL, are unresolved. Furthermore, the structure and function of the linker between the two PAS domains has not been determined. In this study we have investigated the importance to signalling of residues extending beyond the core PAS fold. Our results implicate the N-terminus of PAS1 and the helical linker connecting the two PAS domains in redox signal transduction and demonstrate a role for these flanking regions in controlling the oligomerisation state of PAS1 in solution.

  10. A rhodanine flanked nonfullerene acceptor for solution-processed organic photovoltaics

    KAUST Repository

    Holliday, Sarah

    2015-01-21

    A novel small molecule, FBR, bearing 3-ethylrhodanine flanking groups was synthesized as a nonfullerene electron acceptor for solution-processed bulk heterojunction organic photovoltaics (OPV). A straightforward synthesis route was employed, offering the potential for large scale preparation of this material. Inverted OPV devices employing poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) as the donor polymer and FBR as the acceptor gave power conversion efficiencies (PCE) up to 4.1%. Transient and steady state optical spectroscopies indicated efficient, ultrafast charge generation and efficient photocurrent generation from both donor and acceptor. Ultrafast transient absorption spectroscopy was used to investigate polaron generation efficiency as well as recombination dynamics. It was determined that the P3HT:FBR blend is highly intermixed, leading to increased charge generation relative to comparative devices with P3HT:PC60BM, but also faster recombination due to a nonideal morphology in which, in contrast to P3HT:PC60BM devices, the acceptor does not aggregate enough to create appropriate percolation pathways that prevent fast nongeminate recombination. Despite this nonoptimal morphology the P3HT:FBR devices exhibit better performance than P3HT:PC60BM devices, used as control, demonstrating that this acceptor shows great promise for further optimization.

  11. Spatial Distribution of Rolled up Kelvin-Helmholtz Vortices at Earth's Dayside and Flank Magnetopause

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, M. G. G. T.; Hasegawa, H.; Lavraud, B.; Phan, T.; Escoubet, C. P.; Dunlop, M. W.; Bogdanova, Y. V.; Borg, A. L.; Volwerk, M.; Berchem, J.; hide

    2012-01-01

    The Kelvin-Helmholtz Instability (KHI) can drive waves at the magnetopause. These waves can grow to form rolled-up vortices and facilitate transfer of plasma into the magnetosphere. To investigate the persistence and frequency of such waves at the magnetopause we have carried out a survey of all Double Star 1 magnetopause crossings, using a combination of ion and magnetic field measurements. Using criteria originally used in a Geotail study made by Hasegawa et al. (2006) (forthwith referred to as H2006), 17 candidate events were identified from the entire TC-1 mission (covering 623 orbits where the magnetopause was sampled), a majority of which were on the dayside of the terminator. The relationship between density and shear velocity was then investigated, to identify the predicted signature of a rolled up vortex from H2006 and all 17 events exhibited some level of rolled up behavior. The location of the events had a clear dawn-dusk asymmetry, with 12 (71 %) on the post noon, dusk flank suggesting preferential growth in this region.

  12. Geologic map of the northeast flank of Mauna Loa volcano, Island of Hawai'i, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trusdell, Frank A.; Lockwood, John P.

    2017-05-01

    SummaryMauna Loa, the largest volcano on Earth, has erupted 33 times since written descriptions became available in 1832. Some eruptions were preceded by only brief seismic unrest, while others followed several months to a year of increased seismicity.The majority of the eruptions of Mauna Loa began in the summit area (>12,000-ft elevation; Lockwood and Lipman, 1987); yet the Northeast Rift Zone (NERZ) was the source of eight flank eruptions since 1843 (table 1). This zone extends from the 13,680-ft-high summit towards Hilo (population ~60,000), the second largest city in the State of Hawaii. Although most of the source vents are farther than 30 km away, the 1880 flow from one of the vents extends into Hilo, nearly reaching Hilo Bay. The city is built entirely on flows erupted from the NERZ, most older than that erupted in 1843.Once underway, Mauna Loa's eruptions can produce lava flows that reach the sea in less than 24 hours, severing roads and utilities in their path. For example, lava flows erupted from the Southwest Rift Zone (SWRZ) in 1950 advanced at an average rate of 9.3 km per hour, and all three lobes reached the ocean within approximately 24 hours (Finch and Macdonald, 1953). The flows near the eruptive vents must have traveled even faster.In terms of eruption frequency, pre-eruption warning, and rapid flow emplacement, Mauna Loa poses an enormous volcanic-hazard threat to the Island of Hawai‘i. By documenting past activity and by alerting the public and local government officials of our findings, we can anticipate the volcanic hazards and substantially mitigate the risks associated with an eruption of this massive edifice.From the geologic record, we can deduce several generalized facts about the geologic history of the NERZ. The middle to the uppermost section of the rift zone were more active in the past 4,000 years than the lower part, perhaps due to buttressing of the lower east rift zone by Mauna Kea and Kīlauea volcanoes. The historical flows

  13. Unusual presentation of cactus spines in the flank of an elderly man: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freeman Scott

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Splinters and spines of plant matter are common foreign bodies in skin wounds of the extremities, and often present embedded in the dermis or subcutaneous tissue. Vegetative foreign bodies are highly inflammatory and, if not completely removed, can cause infection, toxic reactions, or granuloma formation. Older patients are at increased risk for infection from untreated plant foreign bodies. The most common error in plant splinter and spine management is failure to detect their presence. Case presentation Here we report a case of cactus spines in an 84-year-old Caucasian man presenting on the right flank as multiple, red papules with spiny extensions. This presentation was unusual both in location and the spinous character of the lesions, and only after punch biopsy analysis was a diagnosis of cactus matter spines made. Conclusions Our patient presented with an unusual case of cactus spines that required histopathology for identification. Skin lesions with neglected foreign bodies are a common cause of malpractice claims. If not removed, foreign bodies of the skin, particularly in elderly individuals, can result in inflammatory and infectious sequela. This report underscores the importance of thoroughly evaluating penetrating skin lesions for the presence of foreign bodies, such as splinters and spines.

  14. Gene conversion of two functional goat alpha-globin genes preserves only minimal flanking sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schon, E A; Wernke, S M; Lingrel, J B

    1982-06-25

    We have determined the complete nucleotide sequence of the nonallelic adult goat I alpha- and II alpha-globin genes and, as is the case with the duplicated human alpha-to each other. Such high homology (99%) has most likely been preserved via a gene conversion mechanism. The conversion unit in goats is only about 9000 base pairs in length, and contained within this short region are all the known signals required for accurate and efficient transcription, with the CCAAT box adjacent to the 5'-boundary of the conversion unit and the poly(A) addition site adjacent to the 3' end. This conversion unit is also flanked by a 23-base-pair direct repeat "boundary sequence," vestiges of which are also observable in the human and mouse alpha-globin genes and pseudogenes. These direct repeats imply that a transposition-like event may have been responsible for the insertion of an ancestral alpha-like sequence into a new chromosomal locus, and that this insertion event and subsequent gene duplication may have predated the mammalian radiation.

  15. The Radical Flank Effect and Cross-occupational Collaboration for Technology Development during a Power Shift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truelove, Emily; Kellogg, Katherine C

    2016-12-01

    This 12-month ethnographic study of an early entrant into the U.S. car-sharing industry demonstrates that when an organization shifts its focus from developing radical new technology to incrementally improving this technology, the shift may spark an internal power struggle between the dominant engineering group and a challenger occupational group such as the marketing group. Analyzing 42 projects in two time periods that required collaboration between engineering and marketing during such a shift, we show how cross-occupational collaboration under these conditions can be facilitated by a radical flank threat, through which the bargaining power of moderates is strengthened by the presence of a more-radical group. In the face of a strong threat by radical members of a challenger occupational group, moderate members of the dominant engineering group may change their perceptions of their power to resist challengers' demands and begin to distinguish between the goals of radical versus more-moderate challengers. To maintain as much power as possible and prevent the more-dramatic change in engineering occupational goals demanded by radical challengers, moderate engineers may build a coalition with moderate challengers and collaborate for incremental technology development.

  16. Elderly patient with atypical leiomyoma of the bladder presenting as flank pain: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Ameli

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Atypical leiomyoma is a rare tumor of the bladder whose correct diagnosis with imaging techniques and cystoscopy is difficult. This tumor is prevalent in females and more common in middle age. In the present study we report a rare case of atypical leiomyoma presenting as flank pain and history of recurrent urinary tract infections in an elderly female. Ultrasound (US showed that the wall of bladder was thickening and irregular, especially in the lower part of the bladder. US revealed hypoechoic solid mass with dimensions of 37 x 26 mm in the posterior bladder wall protruding into the bladder. Computed Tomography scan of the patient showed a mass with dimensions of 29 x 38 mm in the posterior wall of the bladder that infiltrated the mesenteric fat and also seemed to be invading the intestinal wall. According to the general condition and age of our patient, we removed all of the mass under spinal anesthesia by transurethral bladder resection (TURBT. Biopsy results showed atypical leiomyoma. About 6 months after the patient follow-up, no recurrence was observed and symptoms had completely resolved. According to the non-specificity of the imaging, of the age of presentation and of clinical manifestations of atypical leiomyoma differential diagnosis for bladder cancer it is recommended. Only with histopathologic findings, the diagnosis can be confirmed.

  17. Detection of outer raceway bearing defects in small induction motors ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We investigate the application of induction motor stator current spec- tral analysis (MCSA) for detection of rolling element bearing damage from the outer raceway. In this work, MCSA and vibration analysis are applied to induction motor to detect outer raceway defects in faulty bearings. Data acquisition, record-.

  18. Page | 1 ISSUES CONCERNING OUTER SPACE INVESTMENTS IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fr. Ikenga

    1998-01-29

    Jan 29, 1998 ... outer space investments dissolved if the hope of profitable investments in outer space will ever be actualized. Countries participating in these potential future ventures may look to the. International Space Station and its constitutive document as a model for international cooperation, but should also consider ...

  19. Outer membranes of environmental isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    OpenAIRE

    Hancock, R E; Chan, L

    1988-01-01

    The outer membrane composition of 30 environmental isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa was examined. Other than variations in the amounts of lipoprotein H2, there were no major differences in the outer membrane protein or lipopolysaccharide patterns when compared with those of previously studied clinical isolates.

  20. Tool flank wear model and parametric optimization in end milling of metal matrix composite using carbide tool: Response surface methodology approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Arokiadass

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Highly automated CNC end milling machines in manufacturing industry requires reliable model for prediction of tool flank wear. This model later can be used to predict the tool flank wear (VBmax according to the process parameters. In this investigation an attempt was made to develop an empirical relationship to predict the tool flank wear (VBmax of carbide tools while machining LM25 Al/SiCp incorporating the process parameters such as spindle speed (N, feed rate (f, depth of cut (d and various % wt. of silicon carbide (S. Response surface methodology (RSM was applied to optimizing the end milling process parameters to attain the minimum tool flank wear. Predicted values obtained from the developed model and experimental results are compared, and error <5 percent is observed. In addition, it is concluded that the flank wear increases with the increase of SiCp percentage weight in the MMC.

  1. Flank Deformation Recorded during Cotopaxís Awakening in 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mothes, Patricia A.; Nocquet, Jean-Mathieu; Yépez, Marco A.; Jarrín, Paúl A.; Ruiz, Mario C.; Gaunt, Elizabeth

    2016-04-01

    Cotopaxi, a large glacier-topped stratocone in the Ecuadorian Andes begin to display anomalous seismic activity in April, 2015 when the IGEPŃs 15 station seismic network registered an increase in long period seismic events which were located 3-12 km below the crater. Several weeks later a distinct inflationary pattern was observed at the VC1 tilt station, 6 km NE of the crater, where we recorded a steady ascent of 150 urads (daily rate 3.2 urads) through 01 June. The tilt rate tended to slow and displayed a start & stop tilt pattern through 01 August, when a strong positive trend again resumed. Subsequently, a strong positive tilt pattern was predominante and briefly stalled after the occurrence of 5 small explosions/strong emissions on 14 August, 2015. About September 1st and prior to the onset of a high-energy VT seismic swarm, a rapid onset of strong positive tilt is observed. Subsequently, even though 30-100 VT events were registered daily, the tilt pattern leveled off in November to December, presumably because the events were with magnitudes <1 and that the magma supply was waning? Five other tilt stations on the volcano are much less sensitive than the VC1 station and this probably reflects the ideal coupling of the VC1 tiltmeter to a thick lava flow, which descends from the summit. The seven station GPS network displayed a strong displacement to the NW-SW for the stations on the W-SW flanks and had accumulative horizontal changes of 1 cm with a maximum vertical displacement of 1 cm at stations on the S and E. The trends of stations on the NE flank, with their movement purely to the north and east are difficult to interpret, but may be related to a preferential movement upon an old avalanche scar surface and water lubrication. While the changes detected by GPS are small, they did increase through time and finally, like the tilt, leveled off in November, 2015. We believe that these pattern are the result of small batches of magma ascending up the conduit and

  2. Temperature and Redox Effect on Mineral Colonization in Juan de Fuca Ridge Flank Subsurface Crustal Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baquiran, Jean-Paul M.; Ramírez, Gustavo A.; Haddad, Amanda G.; Toner, Brandy M.; Hulme, Samuel; Wheat, Charles G.; Edwards, Katrina J.; Orcutt, Beth N.

    2016-01-01

    To examine microbe-mineral interactions in subsurface oceanic crust, we evaluated microbial colonization on crustal minerals that were incubated in borehole fluids for 1 year at the seafloor wellhead of a crustal borehole observatory (IODP Hole U1301A, Juan de Fuca Ridge flank) as compared to an experiment that was not exposed to subsurface crustal fluids (at nearby IODP Hole U1301B). In comparison to previous studies at these same sites, this approach allowed assessment of the effects of temperature, fluid chemistry, and/or mineralogy on colonization patterns of different mineral substrates, and an opportunity to verify the approach of deploying colonization experiments at an observatory wellhead at the seafloor instead of within the borehole. The Hole U1301B deployment did not have biofilm growth, based on microscopy and DNA extraction, thereby confirming the integrity of the colonization design against bottom seawater intrusion. In contrast, the Hole U1301A deployment supported biofilms dominated by Epsilonproteobacteria (43.5% of 370 16S rRNA gene clone sequences) and Gammaproteobacteria (29.3%). Sequence analysis revealed overlap in microbial communities between different minerals incubated at the Hole U1301A wellhead, indicating that mineralogy did not separate biofilm structure within the 1-year colonization experiment. Differences in the Hole U1301A wellhead biofilm community composition relative to previous studies from within the borehole using similar mineral substrates suggest that temperature and the diffusion of dissolved oxygen through plastic components influenced the mineral colonization experiments positioned at the wellhead. This highlights the capacity of low abundance crustal fluid taxa to rapidly establish communities on diverse mineral substrates under changing environmental conditions such as from temperature and oxygen. PMID:27064928

  3. Seismic Anisotropy Beneath the Eastern Flank of the Rio Grande Rift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benton, N. W.; Pulliam, J.

    2015-12-01

    Shear wave splitting was measured across the eastern flank of the Rio Grande Rift (RGR) to investigate mechanisms of upper mantle anisotropy. Earthquakes recorded at epicentral distances of 90°-130° from EarthScope Transportable Array (TA) and SIEDCAR (SC) broadband seismic stations were examined comprehensively, via the Matlab program "Splitlab", to determine whether SKS and SKKS phases indicated anisotropic properties. Splitlab allows waveforms to be rotated, filtered, and windowed interactively and splitting measurements are made on a user-specified waveform segment via three independent methods simultaneously. To improve signal-to-noise and improve reliability, we stacked the error surfaces that resulted from grid searches in the measurements for each station location. Fast polarization directions near the Rio Grande Rift tend to be sub-parallel to the RGR but then change to angles that are consistent with North America's average plate motion, to the east. The surface erosional depression of the Pecos Valley coincides with fast polarization directions that are aligned in a more northerly direction than their neighbors, whereas the topographic high to the east coincides with an easterly change of the fast axis.The area above a mantle high velocity anomaly discovered separately via seismic tomography which may indicate thickened lithosphere, corresponds to unusually large delay times and fast polarization directions that are more closely aligned to a north-south orientation. The area of southeastern New Mexico that falls between the mantle fast anomaly and the Great Plains craton displays dramatically smaller delay times, as well as changes in fast axis directions toward the northeast. Changes in fast axis directions may indicate flow around the mantle anomaly; small delay times could indicate vertical or attenuated flow.

  4. Temperature and redox effect on mineral colonization in Juan de Fuca Ridge flank subsurface crustal fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Paul eBaquiran

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available To examine microbe-mineral interactions in subsurface oceanic crust, we evaluated microbial colonization on crustal minerals that were incubated in borehole fluids for one year at the seafloor wellhead of a crustal borehole observatory (IODP Hole U1301A, Juan de Fuca Ridge flank as compared to an experiment that was not exposed to subsurface crustal fluids (at nearby IODP Hole U1301B. In comparison to previous studies at these same sites, this approach allowed assessment of the effects of temperature, fluid chemistry, and/or mineralogy on colonization patterns of different mineral substrates, and an opportunity to verify the approach of deploying colonization experiments at an observatory wellhead at the seafloor instead of within the borehole. The Hole U1301B deployment did not have biofilm growth, based on microscopy and DNA extraction, thereby confirming the integrity of the colonization design against bottom seawater intrusion. In contrast, the Hole U1301A deployment supported biofilms dominated by Epsilonproteobacteria (43.5% of 370 16S rRNA gene clone sequences and Gammaproteobacteria (29.3%. Sequence analysis revealed overlap in microbial communities between different minerals incubated at the Hole U1301A wellhead, indicating that mineralogy did not separate biofilm structure within the one-year colonization experiment. Differences in the Hole U1301A wellhead biofilm community composition relative to previous studies from within the borehole using similar mineral substrates suggest that temperature and the diffusion of dissolved oxygen through plastic components influenced the mineral colonization experiments positioned at the wellhead. This highlights the capacity of low abundance crustal fluid taxa to rapidly establish communities on diverse mineral substrates under changing environmental conditions such as from temperature and oxygen.

  5. Integrated geophysical and hydrothermal models of flank degassing and fluid flow at Masaya Volcano, Nicaragua

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanford, Ward E.; Pearson, S.C.P.; Kiyosugi, K.; Lehto, H.L.; Saballos, J.A.; Connor, C.B.

    2012-01-01

    We investigate geologic controls on circulation in the shallow hydrothermal system of Masaya volcano, Nicaragua, and their relationship to surface diffuse degassing. On a local scale (~250 m), relatively impermeable normal faults dipping at ~60° control the flowpath of water vapor and other gases in the vadose zone. These shallow normal faults are identified by modeling of a NE-SW trending magnetic anomaly of up to 2300 nT that corresponds to a topographic offset. Elevated SP and CO2 to the NW of the faults and an absence of CO2 to the SE suggest that these faults are barriers to flow. TOUGH2 numerical models of fluid circulation show enhanced flow through the footwalls of the faults, and corresponding increased mass flow and temperature at the surface (diffuse degassing zones). On a larger scale, TOUGH2 modeling suggests that groundwater convection may be occurring in a 3-4 km radial fracture zone transecting the entire flank of the volcano. Hot water rising uniformly into the base of the model at 1 x 10-5 kg/m2s results in convection that focuses heat and fluid and can explain the three distinct diffuse degassing zones distributed along the fracture. Our data and models suggest that the unusually active surface degassing zones at Masaya volcano can result purely from uniform heat and fluid flux at depth that is complicated by groundwater convection and permeability variations in the upper few km. Therefore isolating the effects of subsurface geology is vital when trying to interpret diffuse degassing in light of volcanic activity.

  6. Naturally occurring hydrogen gas from a borehole on the western flank of Nemaha anticline in Kansas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goebel, E.D.; Coveney, R.M. Jr.; Angino, E.E.; Zeller, E.

    1983-08-01

    Since August 1982, the CFA 1 Scott well in Sec. 20, T14S, R6E, Morris County, Kansas, located about 14 mi (23 km) south of Junction City, has yielded a gas composed of 50 +/- 10% free hydrogen, 50 +/- 10% nitrogen, and only traces of hydrocarbons. This analysis has been ascertained by gas chromatography and mass spectrography of samples taken over a period of 6 months. The reservoir rock is a Kinderhook sand from 2176 to 2196 ft (663 to 669m) depth. The gas samples analyzed are accumulating in the head space above a fluid level (salt water) of 1805 ft (550m) from a botton-hole depth of 2197 ft (670m). The Scott well is located on the western flank of the complexly faulted Nemaha anticline, updip from the central North American rift system and 30 mi (48 km) south of Riley County where serpentinized kimberlites occur. The geothermal gradient is 30/sup 0/C/km (87/sup 0/F/mi). Basement rock beneath the well is granite, probably overlying deeply buried magnetic rocks. No single mechanism is responsible solely for generating this H/sub 2/-rich gas from the Scott well; rather, a combination of fortuitous geologic and possibly biologic processes are contributing in various proportions to the production of the H/sub 2/ and N/sub 2/. Conceivably, the local geologic setting merely is circumstantial and unrelated to the genesis of the gases. However, in view of its spatial association with the central North American rift Zone, a major geologic feature with similarity to the East Pacific Rise, the Kansas gas occurrence warrants additional study.

  7. Mapping of the quasi-periodic oscillations at the flank magnetopause into the ionosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. R. Dougal

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available We have estimated the ionospheric location, area, and travel time of quasi-periodic oscillations originating from the magnetospheric flanks. This was accomplished by utilizing global and local MHD models and Tsyganenko semi-empirical magnetic field model on multiple published and four new cases believed to be caused by the Kelvin–Helmholtz Instability. Finally, we used auroral, magnetometer, and radar instruments to observe the ionospheric signatures. The ionospheric magnetic latitude determined using global MHD and Tsyganenko models ranged from 58.3–80.2 degrees in the Northern Hemisphere and −59.6 degrees to −83.4 degrees in the Southern Hemisphere. The ionospheric magnetic local time ranged between 5.0–13.8 h in the Northern Hemisphere and 1.3–11.9 h in the Southern Hemisphere. Typical Alfvén wave travel time from spacecraft location to the closest ionosphere ranged between 0.6–3.6 min. The projected ionospheric size calculated at an altitude of 100 km ranged from 47–606 km, the same order of magnitude as previously determined ionospheric signature sizes. Stationary and traveling convection vortices were observed in SuperDARN radar data in both hemispheres. The vortices were between 1000–1800 km in size. Some events were located within the ionospheric footprint ranges. Pc5 magnetic oscillations were observed in SuperMAG magnetometer data in both hemispheres. The oscillations had periods between 4–10 min with amplitudes of 3–25 nT. They were located within the ionospheric footprint ranges. Some ground magnetometer data power spectral density peaked at frequencies within one tenth of a mHz of the peaks found in the corresponding Cluster data. These magnetometer observations were consistent with previously published results.

  8. Human terminal deoxyribonucleotidyltransferase: molecular cloning and structural analysis of the gene and 5' flanking region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riley, L.K.; Morrow, J.K.; Danton, M.J.; Coleman, M.S.

    1988-01-01

    Human terminal deoxyribonucleotidyltransferase cDNA contains an open reading frame of 1530 base pairs (bp) corresponding to a protein containing 510 amino acids. The encoded protein is a template-independent DNA polymerase found only in a restricted population of normal and malignant prelymphocytes. To begin to investigate the genetic elements responsible for the tissue-specific expression of terminal deoxyribonucleotidyltransferase, genomic clones, containing the entire human gene were isolated and characterized. Initially, cDNA clones were isolated from a library generated from the human lymphoblastoid cell line, MOLT-4R. A cDNA clone containing the entire coding region of the protein was used to isolate a series of overlapping clones from two human genomic libraries. The gene comprises 11 exons and 10 introns and spans 49.4 kilobases. The 5' flanking region (709 bp) including exon 1 was sequenced. Several putative transcription initiation sites were mapped. Within 500 nucleotides of the translation start site, a series of promoter elements was detected. TATA and CAAT sequences, respectively, were found to start at nucleotides -185 and -204, -328 and -370, and -465 and -505. Start sites were found for a cyclic AMP-dependent promoter analog at nucleotide -121, an eight-base sequence corresponding to the IgG promoter enhancer (cd) at nucleotide -455, and an analog of the IgG promoter (pd) at nucleotide -159. These findings suggest that transcripts coding for terminal deoxyribonucleotidyltransferase may be variable in length and that transcription may be influenced by a variety of genetic elements

  9. OPTIMIZATION OF SURFACE ROUGHNESS AND TOOL FLANK WEAR IN TURNING OF AISI 304 AUSTENITIC STAINLESS STEEL WITH CVD COATED TOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. KALADHAR

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available AISI 304 austenitic stainless steel is a popularly used grade in the various fields of manufacturing because of its high ductility, high durability and excellent corrosion resistance. High work hardening, low heat conductivity and high built up edge (BUE formation made this as difficult-to- machine material. Poor surface quality and rapid tool wear are the common problems encountered while machining it. In the present work, an attempt has been made to explore the influence of machining parameters on the performance measures, surface roughness and flank wear in turning of AISI 304 austenitic stainless steel with a two layer Chemical vapour deposition(CVD coated tool. In order to achieve this, Taguchi approach has been employed. The results revealed that the cutting speed most significantly, influences both surface roughness and flank wear. In addition to this the optimal setting of process parameters and optimal ranges of performance measures are predicted.

  10. The spectrum of persistent volcanic flank instability: A review and proposed framework based on Kīlauea, Piton de la Fournaise, and Etna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poland, Michael P.; Peltier, Aline; Bonforte, Alessandro; Puglisi, Giuseppe

    2017-06-01

    Persistent motion of the south flank of Kīlauea Volcano, Hawai'i, has been known for several decades, but has only recently been identified at other large basaltic volcanoes-namely Piton de la Fournaise (La Réunion) and Etna (Sicily)-thanks to the advent of space geodetic techniques. Nevertheless, understanding of long-term flank instability is based largely on the example of Kīlauea, despite the large differences in the manifestations and mechanisms of the process when viewed through a comparative lens. For example, the rate of flank motion at Kīlauea is several times that of Etna and Piton de la Fournaise and is accommodated on a slip plane several km deeper than is probably present at the other two volcanoes. Gravitational spreading also appears to be the dominant driving force at Kīlauea, given the long-term steady motion of the volcano's south flank regardless of eruptive/intrusive activity, whereas magmatic activity plays a larger role in flank deformation at Etna and Piton de la Fournaise. Kīlauea and Etna, however, are both characterized by heavily faulted flanks, while Piton de la Fournaise shows little evidence for flank faulting. A helpful means of understanding the spectrum of persistent flank motion at large basaltic edifices may be through a framework defined on one hand by magmatic activity (which encompasses both magma supply and edifice size), and on the other hand by the structural setting of the volcano (especially the characteristics of the subvolcanic basement or subhorizontal intravolcanic weak zones). A volcano's size and magmatic activity will dictate the extent to which gravitational and magmatic forces can drive motion of an unstable flank (and possibly the level of faulting of that flank), while the volcano's structural setting governs whether or not a plane of weakness exists beneath or within the edifice and can facilitate flank slip. Considering persistent flank instability using this conceptual model is an alternative to using a

  11. Imaging modalities and therapy options in patients with acute flank pain; Bildgebungsmodalitaeten und Therapieoptionen bei Patienten mit akutem Flankenschmerz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grosse, A.; Grosse, C. [Universitaet Bern, Bern (Switzerland)

    2014-07-15

    The objective of this article is the description of imaging techniques for the evaluation of patients with acute flank pain and suspicion of urolithiasis and the impact of these techniques in the therapy management of patients with calculi. (orig.) [German] Ziel der Arbeit ist die Eroerterung der bildgebenden Verfahren zur Abklaerung von Patienten mit akutem Flankenschmerz und Verdacht auf Urolithiasis und die Rolle dieser Verfahren im Therapiemanagement von Steinpatienten. (orig.)

  12. Point mutation flanking a CTL epitope ablates in vitro and in vivo recognition of a full-length viral protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yellen-Shaw, A J; Wherry, E J; Dubois, G C; Eisenlohr, L C

    1997-04-01

    CD8+ T cells (T(CD8+)) recognize viral Ags as short peptides (epitopes) displayed at the cell surface by MHC class I molecules. Using a panel of recombinant vaccinia viruses, we show that single-point mutations flanking either side of an H-2Kd-restricted epitope, residues 147-155, within full-length influenza nucleoprotein (NP) can impact, even ablate, presentation of that epitope, while having no effect on presentation of distal epitopes. The most severe blocking mutation (Ala to Pro at position 146) did not inhibit NP(147-155) presentation in the context of a truncated minigene, implying that this peptide is not a functional processing intermediate. An amino-terminal proline replacement also significantly reduced presentation of NP(50-57) (H-2Kk restricted), while the same mutation did not affect a third NP epitope. Thus, while trends in processing specificity may exist, the epitope itself contributes to flanking sequence effects. These findings were paralleled by in vivo priming experiments in which, depending on viral dose, subtle in vitro blocking effects were absolute. Proteasome/synthetic peptide coincubation studies support a role for enhanced epitope destruction in preventing presentation, as did the effect of the peptide aldehyde, LLnL, which restored presentation of NP(147-155) from the mutated constructs. This reagent did not inhibit epitope presentation, even from wild-type NP, suggesting that its production may be proteasome independent. These results support the notion that point mutation of epitope flanking sequence can serve as a mechanism for viral immune evasion, shed light on the mechanisms involved, and suggest that in vitro assays may not be sensitive indicators of flanking sequence effects.

  13. Structural Aspects of Bacterial Outer Membrane Protein Assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calmettes, Charles; Judd, Andrew; Moraes, Trevor F

    2015-01-01

    The outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria is predominantly populated by β-Barrel proteins and lipid anchored proteins that serve a variety of biological functions. The proper folding and assembly of these proteins is essential for bacterial viability and often plays a critical role in virulence and pathogenesis. The β-barrel assembly machinery (Bam) complex is responsible for the proper assembly of β-barrels into the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria, whereas the localization of lipoproteins (Lol) system is required for proper targeting of lipoproteins to the outer membrane.

  14. Ultrasonic examination of defects close to the outer surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benoist, P.; Serre, M.; Champigny, F.

    1986-11-01

    During the examination of a pressurized water reactor vessel with an in Service Inspection Machine (MIS), various welds are scanned with immersion ultrasonic focused transducers from the inside of the vessel. Defects close to the outer surface are sometimes detected, and sizing with the successive 6 dB drop method leads to oversize some indications; this is caused by various reflections on the outer wall; the corner echo is of particular importance here. CEA and EDF have started an experimental program in order to study the response of volumetric and planar defects located near the outer surface. We present here the first results obtained with artificial defects. 2 refs

  15. Outer packet sets and feature prediction of computer virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ling

    2014-10-01

    The packet sets model was proposed by Prof. Shi in 2008. A packet sets is a set pair composed of internal and outer packet sets, and it has dynamic characteristic. Using packet sets theory, this paper gives the feature prediction of computer virus based on outer packet sets. The concept of virus screening-filtering is given, furthermore, the virus screening-filtering order theorem, composite virus screening-filtering theorem and virus screening-filtering rule are presented. A prediction method of computer virus feature is given based on the results. The outer packet sets is a new tool in the research of the prediction of dynamic virus feature.

  16. Compartmentalization of the Coso East Flank geothermal field imaged by 3-D full-tensor MT inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, Nathaniel J.; Kaven, Joern; Davatzes, Nicholas C.; Newman, Gregory A.

    2017-01-01

    Previous magnetotelluric (MT) studies of the high-temperature Coso geothermal system in California identified a subvertical feature of low resistivity (2–5 Ohm m) and appreciable lateral extent (>1 km) in the producing zone of the East Flank field. However, these models could not reproduce gross 3-D effects in the recorded data. We perform 3-D full-tensor inversion and retrieve a resistivity model that out-performs previous 2-D and 3-D off-diagonal models in terms of its fit to the complete 3-D MT data set as well as the degree of modelling bias. Inclusion of secondary Zxx and Zyy data components leads to a robust east-dip (60†) to the previously identified conductive East Flank reservoir feature, which correlates strongly with recently mapped surface faults, downhole well temperatures, 3-D seismic reflection data, and local microseismicity. We perform synthetic forward modelling to test the best-fit dip of this conductor using the response at a nearby MT station. We interpret the dipping conductor as a fractured and fluidized compartment, which is structurally controlled by an unmapped blind East Flank fault zone.

  17. Comparative analysis and interobserver variation of unenhanced computed tomography and intravenous urography in the diagnosis of acute flank pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Nakhi, Abdelmohsen; Gupta, Renu; Al-Hunayan, Adel; Muttikkal, Thomas; Chavan, Venu; Mohammed, Ahmed; Ali, Yusuf

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare unenhanced computed tomography (UECT) to intravenous urography (IVU) for detecting urinary tract calculi, signs of obstruction and non-renal causes in the assessment of acute flank pain, and in their interobserver agreement. In this prospective study, carried out at a university hospital over a period of 1 year, 36 patients (27 males and 9 females) participated. Mean age was 44 +/- 15 years (range: 14-73 years). The patients presented with acute flank pain and underwent UECT and IVU. The images were blindly evaluated by 2 experienced radiologists and the two techniques compared using the two-tailed McNemar's test for matched pairs; p values IVU found them in only 8 (22.2%). The increased detection by UECT was due to its ability to detect smaller stones (IVU in determining calculus position, in detecting primary or secondary signs of obstruction and in identifying non-urinary causes of flank pain. The overall average of agreement, as indicated by kappa values, was 0.88 for UECT and 0.61 for IVU. UECT showed better detectability and interobserver agreement tan IVU, suggesting that UECT could replace IVU as the first imaging modality in the evaluation of acute renal colic. Copyright 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Compartmentalization of the Coso East Flank geothermal field imaged by 3-D full-tensor MT inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, Nathaniel J.; Kaven, Joern Ole; Davatzes, Nicholas; Newman, Gregory A.

    2017-02-01

    Previous magnetotelluric (MT) studies of the high-temperature Coso geothermal system in California identified a subvertical feature of low resistivity (2-5 Ohm m) and appreciable lateral extent (>1 km) in the producing zone of the East Flank field. However, these models could not reproduce gross 3-D effects in the recorded data. We perform 3-D full-tensor inversion and retrieve a resistivity model that out-performs previous 2-D and 3-D off-diagonal models in terms of its fit to the complete 3-D MT data set as well as the degree of modelling bias. Inclusion of secondary Zxx and Zyy data components leads to a robust east-dip (60†) to the previously identified conductive East Flank reservoir feature, which correlates strongly with recently mapped surface faults, downhole well temperatures, 3-D seismic reflection data, and local microseismicity. We perform synthetic forward modelling to test the best-fit dip of this conductor using the response at a nearby MT station. We interpret the dipping conductor as a fractured and fluidized compartment, which is structurally controlled by an unmapped blind East Flank fault zone.

  19. Scanning mutagenesis of the amino acid sequences flanking phosphorylation site 1 of the mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagib eAhsan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase complex is regulated by reversible seryl-phosphorylation of the E1α subunit by a dedicated, intrinsic kinase. The phospho-complex is reactivated when dephosphorylated by an intrinsic PP2C-type protein phosphatase. Both the position of the phosphorylated Ser-residue and the sequences of the flanking amino acids are highly conserved. We have used the synthetic peptide-based kinase client assay plus recombinant pyruvate dehydrogenase E1α and E1α-kinase to perform scanning mutagenesis of the residues flanking the site of phosphorylation. Consistent with the results from phylogenetic analysis of the flanking sequences, the direct peptide-based kinase assays tolerated very few changes. Even conservative changes such as Leu, Ile, or Val for Met, or Glu for Asp, gave very marked reductions in phosphorylation. Overall the results indicate that regulation of the mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase complex by reversible phosphorylation is an extreme example of multiple, interdependent instances of co-evolution.

  20. Mutation of the Sp1 binding site in the 5' flanking region of SRY causes sex reversal in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yuning; Liu, Tingjun; Wang, Yong; Deng, Jichao; Chen, Mao; Yuan, Lin; Lu, Yi; Xu, Yuxin; Yao, Haobin; Li, Zhanjun; Lai, Liangxue

    2017-06-13

    Sex-determining region Y is a crucial gene that initiates male sex determination in mammals. Mutations of the Sp1-binding site in the 5' flanking region of SRY are associated with clinical male-to-female sex reversal syndrome, although such occurrences are rare and, until now, have not been reported in animal models. In this study, we mutated Sp1-binding sites in the 5' flanking region of the rabbit SRY gene using the CRISPR/Cas9 system. As expected, the SRY-Sp1 knockout rabbits had female external and internal genitalia and exhibited normal female copulatory behaviors, but they were infertile, and the adults displayed reduced follicles. Interestingly, we successfully obtained offspring from sex-reversed SRY-Sp1 knockout rabbits using embryo transfer. In summary, our study demonstrates that Sp1 is a major regulator in SRY gene transcription, and mutations of the Sp1 binding sites (Sp1-B and Sp1-C) in the 5' flanking region of SRY induce sex reversal in rabbits, which can be used as targets for clinical research of male-to-female sex reversal syndrome. Additionally, we provide the first evidence that sex reversal syndrome patients have the potential to become pregnant with the use of embryo transfer.

  1. Mutation of the Sp1 binding site in the 5′ flanking region of SRY causes sex reversal in rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong; Deng, Jichao; Chen, Mao; Yuan, Lin; Lu, Yi; Xu, Yuxin; Yao, Haobin; Li, Zhanjun; Lai, Liangxue

    2017-01-01

    Sex-determining region Y is a crucial gene that initiates male sex determination in mammals. Mutations of the Sp1-binding site in the 5′ flanking region of SRY are associated with clinical male-to-female sex reversal syndrome, although such occurrences are rare and, until now, have not been reported in animal models. In this study, we mutated Sp1-binding sites in the 5′ flanking region of the rabbit SRY gene using the CRISPR/Cas9 system. As expected, the SRY-Sp1 knockout rabbits had female external and internal genitalia and exhibited normal female copulatory behaviors, but they were infertile, and the adults displayed reduced follicles. Interestingly, we successfully obtained offspring from sex-reversed SRY-Sp1 knockout rabbits using embryo transfer. In summary, our study demonstrates that Sp1 is a major regulator in SRY gene transcription, and mutations of the Sp1 binding sites (Sp1-B and Sp1-C) in the 5′ flanking region of SRY induce sex reversal in rabbits, which can be used as targets for clinical research of male-to-female sex reversal syndrome. Additionally, we provide the first evidence that sex reversal syndrome patients have the potential to become pregnant with the use of embryo transfer. PMID:28445127

  2. Adhesive and migratory effects of phosphophoryn are modulated by flanking peptides of the integrin binding motif.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigeki Suzuki

    Full Text Available Phosphophoryn (PP is generated from the proteolytic cleavage of dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP. Gene duplications in the ancestor dentin matrix protein-1 (DMP-1 genomic sequence created the DSPP gene in toothed animals. PP and DMP-1 are phosphorylated extracellular matrix proteins that belong to the family of small integrin-binding ligand N-linked glycoproteins (SIBLINGs. Many SIBLING members have been shown to evoke various cell responses through the integrin-binding Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD domain; however, the RGD-dependent function of PP is not yet fully understood. We demonstrated that recombinant PP did not exhibit any obvious cell adhesion ability, whereas the simultaneously purified recombinant DMP-1 did. A cell adhesion inhibitory analysis was performed by pre-incubating human osteosarcoma MG63 cells with various PP peptides before seeding onto vitronectin. The results obtained revealed that the incorporation of more than one amino acid on both sides of the PP-RGD domain was unable to inhibit the adhesion of MG63 cells onto vitronectin. Furthermore, the inhibitory activity of a peptide containing the PP-RGD domain with an open carboxyl-terminal side (H-463SDESDTNSESANESGSRGDA482-OH was more potent than that of a peptide containing the RGD domain with an open amino-terminal side (H-478SRGDASYTSDESSDDDNDSDSH499-OH. This phenomenon was supported by the potent cell adhesion and migration abilities of the recombinant truncated PP, which terminated with Ala482. Furthermore, various point mutations in Ala482 and/or Ser483 converted recombinant PP into cell-adhesive proteins. Therefore, we concluded that the Ala482-Ser483 flanking sequence, which was detected in primates and mice, was the key peptide bond that allowed the PP-RGD domain to be sequestered. The differential abilities of PP and DMP-1 to act on integrin imply that DSPP was duplicated from DMP-1 to serve as a crucial extracellular protein for tooth development rather than as an integrin

  3. Identification and functional analysis of variant haplotypes in the 5'-flanking region of protein phosphatase 2A-Bδ gene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Feng Chen

    Full Text Available Serine-threonine protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A is a trimeric holoenzyme that plays an integral role in the regulation of cell growth, differentiation, and apoptosis. The substrate specificity and (subcellular localization of the PP2A holoenzymes are highly regulated by interaction with a family of regulatory B subunits (PP2A-Bs. The regulatory subunit PP2A-B/PR55δ (PP2A-Bδ is involving in the dephosphorylation of PP2A substrates and is crucial for controlling entry into and exit from mitosis. The molecular mechanisms involved in the regulation of expression of PP2A-Bδ gene (PPP2R2D remain largely unknown. To explore genetic variations in the 5'-flanking region of PPP2R2D gene as well as their frequent haplotypes in the Han Chinese population and determine whether such variations have an impact on transcriptional activity, DNA samples were collected from 70 healthy Chinese donors and sequenced for identifying genetic variants in the 5'-flanking region of PPP2R2D. Four genetic variants were identified in the 1836 bp 5'-flanking region of PPP2R2D. Linkage disequilibrium (LD patterns and haplotype profiles were constructed for the genetic variants. Using serially truncated human PPP2R2D promoter luciferase constructs, we found that a 601 bp (-540 nt to +61 nt fragment constitutes the core promoter region. The subcloning of individual 5'-flanking fragment revealed the existence of three haplotypes in the distal promoter of PPP2R2D. The luciferase reporter assay showed that different haplotypes exhibited distinct promoter activities. The EMSA revealed that the -462 G>A variant influences DNA-protein interactions involving the nuclear factor 1 (NF1. In vitro reporter gene assay indicated that cotransfection of NF1/B expression plasmid could positively regulate the activity of PPP2R2D proximal promoter. Introduction of exogenous NF1/B expression plasmid further confirmed that the NF1 involves in the regulation of PPP2R2D gene expression. Our findings

  4. Heat flow, morphology, pore fluids and hydrothermal circulation in a typical Mid-Atlantic Ridge flank near Oceanographer Fracture Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Gal, V.; Lucazeau, F.; Cannat, M.; Poort, J.; Monnin, C.; Battani, A.; Fontaine, F.; Goutorbe, B.; Rolandone, F.; Poitou, C.; Blanc-Valleron, M.-M.; Piedade, A.; Hipólito, A.

    2018-01-01

    Hydrothermal circulation affects heat and mass transfers in the oceanic lithosphere, not only at the ridge axis but also on their flanks, where the magnitude of this process has been related to sediment blanket and seamounts density. This was documented in several areas of the Pacific Ocean by heat flow measurements and pore water analysis. However, as the morphology of Atlantic and Indian ridge flanks is generally rougher than in the Pacific, these regions of slow and ultra-slow accretion may be affected by hydrothermal processes of different regimes. We carried out a survey of two regions on the eastern and western flanks of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge between Oceanographer and Hayes fracture zones. Two hundred and eight new heat flow measurements were obtained along six seismic profiles, on 5 to 14 Ma old seafloor. Thirty sediment cores (from which porewaters have been extracted) have been collected with a Kullenberg corer equipped with thermistors thus allowing simultaneous heat flow measurement. Most heat flow values are lower than those predicted by purely conductive cooling models, with some local variations and exceptions: heat flow values on the eastern flank of the study area are more variable than on the western flank, where they tend to increase westward as the sedimentary cover in the basins becomes thicker and more continuous. Heat flow is also higher, on average, on the northern sides of both the western and eastern field regions and includes values close to conductive predictions near the Oceanographer Fracture Zone. All the sediment porewaters have a chemical composition similar to that of bottom seawater (no anomaly linked to fluid circulation has been detected). Heat flow values and pore fluid compositions are consistent with fluid circulation in volcanic rocks below the sediment. The short distances between seamounts and short fluid pathways explain that fluids flowing in the basaltic aquifer below the sediment have remained cool and unaltered

  5. Investigating the potential for volcano flank instability triggered by recent dike intrusions at Fogo volcano, Cape Verde

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagnardi, Marco; González, Pablo; Hooper, Andrew; Wright, Tim

    2015-04-01

    Gravitational flank-collapses at volcanoes are rare but catastrophic events that have rarely been witnessed by humans (e.g., Mount St. Helens in 1980). It has been proposed that gravitationally unstable volcanic flanks can be classified in two different types based on the flanks slope: volcanoes characterized by gentle slopes (Hawaiian-like) and that have very dynamic flanks exhibiting high rates of deformation and, conversely, steep-sided volcanoes (Macaronesian-like) showing minimal ground deformation. The two types of volcanoes could therefore reach the stable-state through different mechanisms and experience different mass-wasting processes. Numerous giant debris-avalanche deposits have been identified offshore the volcanoes of the Canary Islands and Cape Verde. Given the steep slopes of these volcanoes, the mass-wasting events may have occurred suddenly and with minimal precursory signals. Several mechanisms have been proposed as potential triggers and among these the intrusion of shallow dikes feeding fissure eruptions is one of the best candidates. In this work, we investigate this hypothesis in the light of new and revised results derived from the analysis of geodetic observations at Fogo volcano (Cape Verde). Fogo has erupted twice in the last 20 years (1995 and 2014-2015) and in both occasions the volcano erupted along fissures that seem to be fed by dykes intruding the shallow crust and the volcanic edifice. We re-process radar data from the ERS satellite to obtain state-of-the-art deformation maps spanning the 1995 eruption and revisit previously proposed models of the magmatic system. Our results indicate that both eruptions were fed by sub-vertical dikes, steeply dipping to the SE, and radiating from the Pico do Fogo volcanic cone to the SW. We also study the effect of such magmatic intrusions in terms of the stress regime that they generate and analyze whether the 1995 and 2014 intrusions could potentially destabilize the structures along which a

  6. Outer hair cell piezoelectricity: frequency response enhancement and resonance behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitzel, Erik K; Tasker, Ron; Brownell, William E

    2003-09-01

    Stretching or compressing an outer hair cell alters its membrane potential and, conversely, changing the electrical potential alters its length. This bi-directional energy conversion takes place in the cell's lateral wall and resembles the direct and converse piezoelectric effects both qualitatively and quantitatively. A piezoelectric model of the lateral wall has been developed that is based on the electrical and material parameters of the lateral wall. An equivalent circuit for the outer hair cell that includes piezoelectricity shows a greater admittance at high frequencies than one containing only membrane resistance and capacitance. The model also predicts resonance at ultrasonic frequencies that is inversely proportional to cell length. These features suggest all mammals use outer hair cell piezoelectricity to support the high-frequency receptor potentials that drive electromotility. It is also possible that members of some mammalian orders use outer hair cell piezoelectric resonance in detecting species-specific vocalizations.

  7. Inner and Outer Recursive Neural Networks for Chemoinformatics Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Gregor; Subrahmanya, Niranjan; Baldi, Pierre

    2018-02-26

    Deep learning methods applied to problems in chemoinformatics often require the use of recursive neural networks to handle data with graphical structure and variable size. We present a useful classification of recursive neural network approaches into two classes, the inner and outer approach. The inner approach uses recursion inside the underlying graph, to essentially "crawl" the edges of the graph, while the outer approach uses recursion outside the underlying graph, to aggregate information over progressively longer distances in an orthogonal direction. We illustrate the inner and outer approaches on several examples. More importantly, we provide open-source implementations [available at www.github.com/Chemoinformatics/InnerOuterRNN and cdb.ics.uci.edu ] for both approaches in Tensorflow which can be used in combination with training data to produce efficient models for predicting the physical, chemical, and biological properties of small molecules.

  8. Atmospheric Mining in the Outer Solar System: Outer Planet Orbital Transfer and Lander Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palaszewski, Bryan

    2016-01-01

    Atmospheric mining in the outer solar system has been investigated as a means of fuel production for high energy propulsion and power. Fusion fuels such as Helium 3 (3He) and deuterium can be wrested from the atmospheres of Uranus and Neptune and either returned to Earth or used in-situ for energy production. Helium 3 and deuterium were the primary gases of interest with hydrogen being the primary propellant for nuclear thermal solid core and gas core rocket-based atmospheric flight. A series of analyses were undertaken to investigate resource capturing aspects of atmospheric mining in the outer solar system. This included the gas capturing rate, storage options, and different methods of direct use of the captured gases. While capturing 3He, large amounts of hydrogen and 4He are produced. Analyses of orbital transfer vehicles (OTVs), landers, and the issues with in-situ resource utilization (ISRU) mining factories are included. Preliminary observations are presented on near-optimal selections of moon base orbital locations, OTV power levels, and OTV and lander rendezvous points. For analyses of round trip OTV flights from Uranus to Miranda or Titania, a 10- Megawatt electric (MWe) OTV power level and a 200 metricton (MT) lander payload were selected based on a relative short OTV trip time and minimization of the number of lander flights. A similar optimum power level is suggested for OTVs flying from low orbit around Neptune to Thalassa or Triton. Several moon base sites at Uranus and Neptune and the OTV requirements to support them are also addressed.

  9. Inner and outer cylinders of the CMS vacuum tank.

    CERN Document Server

    Patrice Loïez

    2002-01-01

    The vacuum tank of the CMS magnet system consists of inner and outer stainless-steel cylinders and houses the superconducting coil. The inner cylinder contains all the barrel sub-detectors, which it supports via a system of horizontal rails. The cylinder is pictured here in the vertical position on a yellow platform mounted on the ferris-wheel support structure. This will allow it to be pivoted and inserted into the already installed outer cylinder, through which this photo was taken.

  10. Star laws: legal controls on armed conflict in outer space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephens, Dale

    2016-01-01

    An undeclared military space race is unfolding yet there is no clear understanding of how international las operates in the field of armed conflict in outer space. In conjunction with McGill University Law School, Montreal, Canada, a 'Manual on international law applicable to military uses of outer space' has been drafted. This article looks at types of space weapons, previous space treaties and discusses humanitarian law.

  11. Dissecting Escherichia coli outer membrane biogenesis using differential proteomics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra M Martorana

    Full Text Available The cell envelope of Gram-negative bacteria is a complex multi-layered structure comprising an inner cytoplasmic membrane and an additional asymmetric lipid bilayer, the outer membrane, which functions as a selective permeability barrier and is essential for viability. Lipopolysaccharide, an essential glycolipid located in the outer leaflet of the outer membrane, greatly contributes to the peculiar properties exhibited by the outer membrane. This complex molecule is transported to the cell surface by a molecular machine composed of seven essential proteins LptABCDEFG that form a transenvelope complex and function as a single device. While advances in understanding the mechanisms that govern the biogenesis of the cell envelope have been recently made, only few studies are available on how bacterial cells respond to severe envelope biogenesis defects on a global scale. Here we report the use of differential proteomics based on Multidimensional Protein Identification Technology (MudPIT to investigate how Escherichia coli cells respond to a block of lipopolysaccharide transport to the outer membrane. We analysed the envelope proteome of a lptC conditional mutant grown under permissive and non permissive conditions and identified 123 proteins whose level is modulated upon LptC depletion. Most such proteins belong to pathways implicated in cell envelope biogenesis, peptidoglycan remodelling, cell division and protein folding. Overall these data contribute to our understanding on how E. coli cells respond to LPS transport defects to restore outer membrane functionality.

  12. The Role of Borrelia burgdorferi Outer Surface Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenedy, Melisha R.; Lenhart, Tiffany R.; Akins, Darrin R.

    2012-01-01

    Human pathogenic spirochetes causing Lyme disease belong to the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex. B. burgdorferi organisms are extracellular pathogens transmitted to humans through the bite of Ixodes spp. ticks. These spirochetes are unique in that they can cause chronic infection and persist in the infected human, even though a robust humoral and cellular immune response is produced by the infected host. How this extracellular pathogen is able to evade the host immune response for such long periods of time is currently unclear. To gain a better understanding of how this organism persists in the infected human, many laboratories have focused on identifying and characterizing outer surface proteins of B. burgdorferi. Since the interface between B. burgdorferi and its human host is its outer surface, proteins localized to the outer membrane must play an important role in dissemination, virulence, tissue tropism, and, immune evasion. Over the last two decades numerous outer surface proteins from B. burgdorferi have been identified and more recent studies have begun to elucidate the functional role(s) of many borrelial outer surface proteins. This review summarizes the outer surface proteins identified in B. burgdorferi to date and provides detailed insight into the functions of many of these proteins as they relate to the unique parasitic strategy of this spirochetal pathogen. PMID:22540535

  13. Early Tertiary exhumation of the flank of a forearc basin, southwest Talkeetna Mountains, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleick, Heather A.; Till, Alison B.; Bradley, Dwight C.; O’Sullivan, Paul; Wooden, Joe L.; Bradley, Dan B.; Taylor, Theresa A.; Friedman, Sam B.; Hults, Chad P.

    2012-01-01

    New geochronologic and thermochronologic data from rocks near Hatcher Pass, southwest Talkeetna Mountains, Alaska, record earliest Paleocene erosional and structural exhumation on the flank of the active Cook Inlet forearc basin. Cretaceous plutons shed sediments to the south, forming the Paleocene Arkose Ridge Formation. A Paleocene(?)-Eocene detachment fault juxtaposed ~60 Ma metamorphic rocks with the base of the Arkose Ridge Formation. U-Pb (analyzed by Sensitive High Resolution Ion Micro Probe Reverse Geometry (SHRIMP-RG)) zircon ages of the Cretaceous plutons, more diverse than previously documented, are 90.3±0.3 (previously considered a Jurassic unit), 79.1±1.0, 76.1±0.9, 75.8±0.7, 72.5±0.4, 71.9±0.3, 70.5±0.2, and 67.3±0.2 Ma. The cooling of these plutons occurred between 72 and 66 Ma (zircon fission track (FT) closure ~225°C). 40Ar/39Ar analyses of hornblende, white mica, and biotite fall into this range (Harlan and others, 2003). New apatite FT data collected on a west-to-east transect reveal sequential exhumation of fault blocks at 62.8±2.9, 54±2.5, 52.6±2.8, and 44.4±2.2 Ma. Plutonic clasts accumulated in the Paleocene Arkose Ridge Formation to the south. Detrital zircon (DZ) ages from the formation reflect this provenance: a new sample yielded one grain at 61 Ma, a dominant peak at 76 Ma, and minor peaks at 70, 80, 88, and 92 Ma. The oldest zircon is 181 Ma. Our apatite FT ages range from 35.1 to 50.9 Ma. Greenschist facies rocks now sit structurally between the plutonic rocks and the Arkose Ridge Formation. They are separated from plutonic rocks by the vertical Hatcher Pass fault and from the sedimentary rocks by a detachment fault. Ar cooling ages (Harlan and others, 2003) and new zircon FT ages for these rocks are concordant at 61-57 Ma, synchronous with deposition of the Arkose Ridge Formation. A cooling age of ~46 Ma came from one apatite FT sample. The metamorphic protolith (previously considered Jurassic) was deposited at or after

  14. Soil salinity data from Grand Liard Bayou and flanking marshes, New Orleans, LA, 2015-12-01 to 2016-03-30 (NCEI Accession 0151634)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The project restored both structural and habitat functions of Grand Liard Bayou and flanking marshes. The project created and nourished marsh and restored a ridge on...

  15. Soil salinity data from Bayou Dupont and flanking marshes, New Orleans, LA, 2015-09-16 to 2016-03-30 (NCEI Accession 0151633)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The project restored both structural and habitat functions of Bayou Dupont and flanking marshes. The project created and nourished marsh and restored a ridge on the...

  16. KINETIC ASSESSMENT OF GOLF SHOE OUTER SOLE DESIGN FEATURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemary J. Dyson

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed human kinetics in relation to golf shoe outer sole design features during the golf swing using a driver club by measuring both within the shoe, and beneath the shoe at the natural grass interface. Three different shoes were assessed: metal 7- spike shoe, alternative 7-spike shoe, and a flat soled shoe. In-shoe plantar pressure data were recorded using Footscan RS International pressure insoles and sampling at 500 Hz. Simultaneously ground reaction force at the shoe outer sole was measured using 2 natural grass covered Kistler force platforms and 1000 Hz data acquisition. Video recording of the 18 right-handed golfers at 200 Hz was undertaken while the golfer performed 5 golf shots with his own driver in each type of shoe. Front foot (nearest to shot direction maximum vertical force and torque were greater than at the back foot, and there was no significant difference related to the shoe type. Wearing the metal spike shoe when using a driver was associated with more torque generation at the back foot (p < 0. 05 than when the flat soled shoe was worn. Within shoe regional pressures differed significantly with golf shoe outer sole design features (p < 0.05. Comparison of the metal spike and alternative spike shoe results provided indications of the quality of regional traction on the outer sole. Potential golf shoe outer sole design features and traction were presented in relation to phases of the golf swing movement. Application of two kinetic measurement methods identified that moderated (adapted muscular control of foot and body movement may be induced by golf shoe outer sole design features. Ground reaction force measures inform comparisons of overall shoe functional performance, and insole pressure measurements inform comparisons of the underfoot conditions induced by specific regions of the golf shoe outer sole

  17. Prospective comparison of unenhanced spiral computed tomography and intravenous urogram in the evaluation of acute flank pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, O F; Rineer, S K; Reichard, S R; Buckley, R G; Donovan, M S; Graham, I R; Goff, W B; Kane, C J

    1998-12-01

    To prospectively compare the diagnostic ability of unenhanced spiral computed tomography (NCCT) and intravenous urogram (IVU) in the evaluation of adults with acute flank pain. After giving informed consent, 106 adult patients with acute flank pain suspected of having urolithiasis underwent NCCT followed by IVU. Subsequent follow-up was scheduled within 72 hours in the Urology Clinic. Each NCCT was read by a single radiologist who was unaware of clinical history and IVU results. Each IVU was read by a different radiologist who was unaware of clinical history and NCCT results. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values were determined for NCCT and IVU. The diagnosis of ureterolithiasis was defined as unequivocal evidence of urolithiasis on either NCCT or IVP. Seventy-five of 106 patients evaluated were diagnosed with ureterolithiasis. Clinical follow-up was available in 74 (98%) stone patients and in 31 (100%) of 31 non-stone patients. In 72 of the 75 patients diagnosed with ureteral calculi, the NCCT made the diagnosis. IVU made the diagnosis in 65 of the 75 patients. Of the 31 patients without ureterolithiasis, the NCCT was negative in all cases. IVU was negative in 29 of the 31 cases. Unenhanced spiral CT was 96% sensitive and 100% specific (P IVU was 87% sensitive and 94% specific (P IVU, using the log odds ratio and Fisher's exact test, NCCT was significantly better able to predict the presence of urolithiasis (P=0.015). NCCT accurately diagnoses ureterolithiasis in patients presenting with acute flank pain. NCCT is significantly better than IVU in determining the presence of urolithiasis.

  18. Flank eruptions of Mt Etna during the Greek-Roman and Early Medieval periods: New data from 226Ra-230Th dating and archaeomagnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branca, Stefano; Condomines, Michel; Tanguy, Jean-Claude

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, we present new data from 226Ra-230Th dating and archaeomagnetism with the aim of improving the knowledge of the flank eruptions that occurred at Mt Etna during the Greek-Roman and Early Medieval periods, as defined in the new geological map of the volcano. The combination of the two dating techniques demonstrates that three major flank eruptions occurred on the lower north and west flanks during Greek-Roman epochs, producing large scoria cones and extensive lava flows. In particular, the Mt Ruvolo and Mt Minardo events highly impacted the territory of the west flank, notably by damming the Simeto River. The new data of the Millicucco and Due Monti lava flows, on the lower north-east flank, indicate a younger age than their stratigraphic ages quoted in the 2011 geological map, since they occurred around 700 and 500 AD, respectively. None of the large flank eruptions occurring on the lower slopes of Etna during the Early Medieval age are reported in the historical sources. Overall, our paper shows that a comprehensive assessment of eruptions at Mount Etna in the last three millennia can only be achieved through a multidisciplinary approach.

  19. A Peptidomimetic Antibiotic Targets Outer Membrane Proteins and Disrupts Selectively the Outer Membrane in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urfer, Matthias; Bogdanovic, Jasmina; Lo Monte, Fabio; Moehle, Kerstin; Zerbe, Katja; Omasits, Ulrich; Ahrens, Christian H; Pessi, Gabriella; Eberl, Leo; Robinson, John A

    2016-01-22

    Increasing antibacterial resistance presents a major challenge in antibiotic discovery. One attractive target in Gram-negative bacteria is the unique asymmetric outer membrane (OM), which acts as a permeability barrier that protects the cell from external stresses, such as the presence of antibiotics. We describe a novel β-hairpin macrocyclic peptide JB-95 with potent antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli. This peptide exhibits no cellular lytic activity, but electron microscopy and fluorescence studies reveal an ability to selectively disrupt the OM but not the inner membrane of E. coli. The selective targeting of the OM probably occurs through interactions of JB-95 with selected β-barrel OM proteins, including BamA and LptD as shown by photolabeling experiments. Membrane proteomic studies reveal rapid depletion of many β-barrel OM proteins from JB-95-treated E. coli, consistent with induction of a membrane stress response and/or direct inhibition of the Bam folding machine. The results suggest that lethal disruption of the OM by JB-95 occurs through a novel mechanism of action at key interaction sites within clusters of β-barrel proteins in the OM. These findings open new avenues for developing antibiotics that specifically target β-barrel proteins and the integrity of the Gram-negative OM. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  20. Towards efficient 5-axis flank CNC machining of free-form surfaces via fitting envelopes of surfaces of revolution

    OpenAIRE

    Bo P.; Bartoň M.; Plakhotnik D.; Pottmann H.

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a new method that approximates free-form surfaces by envelopes of one-parameter motions of surfaces of revolution. In the context of 5-axis computer numerically controlled (CNC) machining, we propose a flank machining methodology which is a preferable scallop-free scenario when the milling tool and the machined free-form surface meet tangentially along a smooth curve. We seek both an optimal shape of the milling tool as well as its optimal path in 3D space and propose an optimiza...

  1. Emplacement controls for the basaltic-andesitic radial dikes of Summer Coon volcano and implications for flank vents at stratovolcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harp, A. G.; Valentine, G. A.

    2018-02-01

    Mafic flank eruptions are common events that pose a serious hazard to the communities and infrastructure often encroaching on the slopes of stratovolcanoes. Flank vent locations are dictated by the propagation path of their feeder dikes. The dikes are commonly thought to propagate either laterally from the central conduit or vertically from a deeper source. However, these interpretations are often based on indirect measurements, such as surface deformation and seismicity at active systems, and several studies at eroded volcanoes indicate the propagation paths may be more complex. We investigated the Oligocene age Summer Coon volcano (Colorado, USA), where erosion has exposed over 700 basaltic-andesitic radial dikes, to constrain the propagation directions, geometries, and spatial distributions of mafic dikes within a stratovolcano. The mean fabric angle of aligned plagioclase crystals was measured in oriented samples from the margins of 77 dikes. Of the 41 dikes with statistically significant flow fabrics, 85% had fabric angles that were inclined—plunging both inward and outward relative to the center of the volcano. After comparing fabric angles to those reported in other studies, we infer that, while most of the dikes with outward-plunging fabrics descended toward the flanks from a source within the edifice and near its axis, dikes with inward-plunging fabrics ascended through the edifice and toward the flanks from a deeper source. A possible control for the inclination of ascending dikes was the ratio between magma overpressure and the normal stress in the host rock. While higher ratios led to high-angle propagation, lower ratios resulted in inclined emplacement. Dikes crop out in higher frequencies within a zone surrounding the volcano axis at 2500 m radial distance from the center and may be the result of ascending dikes, emplaced at similar propagation angles, intersecting the current level of exposure at common distances from the volcano axis. The process

  2. The Effects of Urethane on Rat Outer Hair Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingyu Fu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The cochlea converts sound vibration into electrical impulses and amplifies the low-level sound signal. Urethane, a widely used anesthetic in animal research, has been shown to reduce the neural responses to auditory stimuli. However, the effects of urethane on cochlea, especially on the function of outer hair cells, remain largely unknown. In the present study, we compared the cochlear microphonic responses between awake and urethane-anesthetized rats. The results revealed that the amplitude of the cochlear microphonic was decreased by urethane, resulting in an increase in the threshold at all of the sound frequencies examined. To deduce the possible mechanism underlying the urethane-induced decrease in cochlear sensitivity, we examined the electrical response properties of isolated outer hair cells using whole-cell patch-clamp recording. We found that urethane hyperpolarizes the outer hair cell membrane potential in a dose-dependent manner and elicits larger outward current. This urethane-induced outward current was blocked by strychnine, an antagonist of the α9 subunit of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. Meanwhile, the function of the outer hair cell motor protein, prestin, was not affected. These results suggest that urethane anesthesia is expected to decrease the responses of outer hair cells, whereas the frequency selectivity of cochlea remains unchanged.

  3. Software alignment of the LHCb Outer Tracker chambers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deissenroth, Marc

    2010-04-21

    This work presents an alignment algorithm that was developed to precisely determine the positions of the LHCb Outer Tracker detector elements. The algorithm is based on the reconstruction of tracks and exploits that misalignments of the detector change the residual between a measured hit and the reconstructed track. It considers different levels of granularities of the Outer Tracker geometry and fully accounts for correlations of all elements which are imposed by particle trajectories. In extensive tests, simulated shifts and rotations for different levels of the detector granularity have been used as input to the track reconstruction and alignment procedure. With about 260 000 tracks the misalignments are recovered with a statistical precision of O(10 - 100 {mu}m) for the translational degrees of freedom and of O(10{sup -2} - 10{sup -1} mrad) for rotations. A study has been performed to determine the impact of Outer Tracker misalignments on the performance of the track reconstruction algorithms. It shows that the achieved statistical precision does not decrease the track reconstruction performance in a significant way. During the commissioning of the LHCb detector, cosmic ray muon events have been collected. The events have been analysed and used for the first alignment of the 216 Outer Tracker modules. The module positions have been determined within {proportional_to} 90 {mu}m. The developed track based alignment algorithm has demonstrated its reliability and is one of the core algorithms which are used for the precise determination of the positions of the LHCb Outer Tracker elements. (orig.)

  4. Sistema Faro, Isla de Mona, Puerto Rico: speleogenesis of the worlds largest flank margin cave; Sistema Faro, Isla de Mona, Puerto Rico: espeleogenesis de la cueva del tipo flank margin mas grande del mundo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lace, M. J.; Kambesis, P. N.; Mylroie, J. E.

    2016-07-01

    Isla de Mona, a small, uplifted carbonate plateau jutting out of the waters of the Mona Passage, is an incredibly fragile and densely karstic environment. Expedition work was conducted by the Isla de Mona Project in cooperation with the Departamento Recursos Naturales y Ambientales de Puerto Rico (DRNA), including contributions from many researchers and cavers volunteering from across the U.S and Puerto Rico in the course of 12 separate expeditions, spanning a 14 year period (1998 to 2013). Over 200 caves have been documented on the island to date, the majority of this inventory is composed of flank margin caves but also includes sea caves, pit caves and talus caves. The most extensive example of cave development on the island is Sistema Faro - a sprawling maze-like series of chambers formed within the eastern point of the island with over 40 cliffside entrances overlooking the Caribbean Sea. Detailed cartography and analysis of the geomorphology and development of the Sistema Faro has helped form a complex model of carbonate island cave development as a function of tectonic uplift, lithology, sea level changes, karst hydrogeology and cliff retreat. This communication examines the roles these controls have played in the genesis of the world's largest flank margin cave. (Author)

  5. Substrate specificity within a family of outer membrane carboxylate channels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elif Eren

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Many Gram-negative bacteria, including human pathogens such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, do not have large-channel porins. This results in an outer membrane (OM that is highly impermeable to small polar molecules, making the bacteria intrinsically resistant towards many antibiotics. In such microorganisms, the majority of small molecules are taken up by members of the OprD outer membrane protein family. Here we show that OprD channels require a carboxyl group in the substrate for efficient transport, and based on this we have renamed the family Occ, for outer membrane carboxylate channels. We further show that Occ channels can be divided into two subfamilies, based on their very different substrate specificities. Our results rationalize how certain bacteria can efficiently take up a variety of substrates under nutrient-poor conditions without compromising membrane permeability. In addition, they explain how channel inactivation in response to antibiotics can cause resistance but does not lead to decreased fitness.

  6. Knitted outer gloves in primary hip and knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, J; Wraighte, P; Howard, P

    2006-01-01

    A randomised trial was carried out to determine the rate of perforation to inner gloves when comparing latex with knitted gloves during hip and knee arthroplasty. Members of the surgical team were randomised to wear either two pairs of latex gloves (standard double gloving) or a knitted glove on top of a latex glove. In addition, participants completed a visual analogue assessment of their overall satisfaction with the gloves. A total of 406 inner gloves were tested for perforations over a four-month period: 23% of inner gloves were perforated when latex outer gloves were used and 6% of inner gloves were perforated when knitted outer gloves were used. In total, there were 64 perforations to the inner gloves; only one of these perforations was detected by the glove wearer. Wearing knitted outer gloves during hip and knee arthroplasty statistically significantly reduces the risk of perforation to inner latex gloves (p<0.0001).

  7. Outer Planet Missions with Electric Propulsion Systems—Part I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Renato Huaura Solórzano

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available For interplanetary missions, efficient electric propulsion systems can be used to increase the mass delivered to the destination. Outer planet exploration has experienced new interest with the launch of the Cassini and New Horizons Missions. At the present, new technologies are studied for better use of electric propulsion systems in missions to the outer planets. This paper presents low-thrust trajectories using the method of the transporting trajectory to Uranus, Neptune, and Pluto. They use nuclear and radio isotopic electric propulsion. These direct transfers have continuous electric propulsion of low power along the entire trajectory. The main goal of the paper is to optimize the transfers, that is, to provide maximum mass to be delivered to the outer planets.

  8. Fibril polymorphism affects immobilized non-amyloid flanking domains of huntingtin exon1 rather than its polyglutamine core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hsiang-Kai; Boatz, Jennifer C.; Krabbendam, Inge E.; Kodali, Ravindra; Hou, Zhipeng; Wetzel, Ronald; Dolga, Amalia M.; Poirier, Michelle A.; van der Wel, Patrick C. A.

    2017-05-01

    Polyglutamine expansion in the huntingtin protein is the primary genetic cause of Huntington's disease (HD). Fragments coinciding with mutant huntingtin exon1 aggregate in vivo and induce HD-like pathology in mouse models. The resulting aggregates can have different structures that affect their biochemical behaviour and cytotoxic activity. Here we report our studies of the structure and functional characteristics of multiple mutant htt exon1 fibrils by complementary techniques, including infrared and solid-state NMR spectroscopies. Magic-angle-spinning NMR reveals that fibrillar exon1 has a partly mobile α-helix in its aggregation-accelerating N terminus, and semi-rigid polyproline II helices in the proline-rich flanking domain (PRD). The polyglutamine-proximal portions of these domains are immobilized and clustered, limiting access to aggregation-modulating antibodies. The polymorphic fibrils differ in their flanking domains rather than the polyglutamine amyloid structure. They are effective at seeding polyglutamine aggregation and exhibit cytotoxic effects when applied to neuronal cells.

  9. CATASTROPHIC FLANK COLLAPSE ON TA’U ISLAND AND SUBSEQUENT TSUNAMI: HAS THIS OCCURRED DURING THE LAST 170 YEARS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaun Williams

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ta’u, the easternmost inhabited island in the Samoan Islands archipelago, exhibits a series of down-faulted benches on its southern flank, believed to be the remnant of ~30 km3 catastrophic collapse. A historical map of Ta’u charted in 1839 during the United States Exploring Expedition, which did not show the benches, suggests that the event occurred less than 170 years ago. A collapse event of this magnitude would have generated a locally devastating tsunami, with possible impacts experienced at the regional level. However, no written or oral records of such an event exist. A number of key questions thus emerge, and formed the basis for this study. Did this event actually happen within the last 170 years, and if so, how and why could it have gone unnoticed? Or, is the event much older than the impression obtained from the literature? The catastrophic flank collapse was modeled using 100 m contour-resolution bathymetry data of the Ta’u region, coupled with rational assumptions made on the geometry of the failed mass. This enabled numerical landslide- tsunami simulation in the Cornell Multigrid Coupled Tsunami Model (COMCOT. The results indicate that if an event of this magnitude occurred in the last 170 years, it could not have gone unnoticed by local inhabitants. It thus seems likely that the initial survey conducted during the Exploring Expedition was inaccurate. Nevertheless, the well-preserved nature of the benches indicates collapse relatively recently and raises the possibility of future collapse.

  10. Plasma wave profiles of Earth's bow shock at low Mach number: ISEE 3 observations on the far flank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenstadt, E.W.; Coroniti, F.V.; Moses, S.L.; Smith, E.J.

    1992-01-01

    The Earth's bow shock is weak along its distant flanks where the projected component of solar wind velocity normal to the hyperboloidal surface is only a fraction of the total free stream velocity, severely reducing the local Mach number. The authors present a survey of selected crossings far downstream from the subsolar shock, delineating the overall plasma wave (pw) behavior of a selected set of nearly perpendicular crossings and another set of limited Mach number but broad geometry; they include their immediate upstream regions. The result is a generalizable pw signature, or signatures, of low Mach number shocks and some likely implications of those signatures for the weak shock's plasma physical processes on the flank. They find the data consistent with the presence of ion beam interactions producing noise ahead of the shock in the ion acoustic frequency range. One subcritical case was found whose pw noise was presumably related to a reflected ion population just as in stronger events. The presence or absence, and the amplitudes, of pw activity are explainable by the presence or absence of a population of upstream ions controlled by the component of interplanetary magnetic field normal to the solar wind flow

  11. Influence of the cutting parameters on flank wear of coated inserts during turning of AISI 316L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusimit Zamora Hernández

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available (Received: 2015/01/20 - Accepted: 2015/03/25The continuous improvement of manufacturing processes is critical to achieve optimum levels of productivity, quality and cut production of components and products. This research aims to determine the cutting tool flank wearing progression, during a high speed dry turning, for AISI 316L steel parts. Experimental data were acquired using two cutting feed levels, two material levels, three cutting speeds, and four principal cutting times. A scanning electron microscope (SEM was used to measure and analyze the wear of the cutting tools. Results were compared using analysis of variance and multiple regression for describing the relation between the variables used in the study. The analysis showed that the three layers coating insert did not exceed the end of life wearing criterion, while the one layer insert suffered a catastrophic wearing at the highest cutting speed. It was found that a relation exists between the experimental data and the predicted values for flank wear with a general average error of 4.1182%.

  12. Study of Power Options for Jupiter and Outer Planet Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.; Fincannon, James

    2015-01-01

    Power for missions to Jupiter and beyond presents a challenging goal for photovoltaic power systems, but NASA missions including Juno and the upcoming Europa Clipper mission have shown that it is possible to operate solar arrays at Jupiter. This work analyzes photovoltaic technologies for use in Jupiter and outer planet missions, including both conventional arrays, as well as analyzing the advantages of advanced solar cells, concentrator arrays, and thin film technologies. Index Terms - space exploration, spacecraft solar arrays, solar electric propulsion, photovoltaic cells, concentrator, Fresnel lens, Jupiter missions, outer planets.

  13. Colors of Outer Solar System Objects Measured with VATT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanishin, William; Tegler, S. C.; Consolmagno, G. J.

    2010-10-01

    Over the past 7 years, we have measured optical B-V and V-R colors for about 40 minor outer solar system objects using the 1.8-m Vatican Advanced Technology Telescope (VATT) located on Mt. Graham in southeast Arizona. We will present these colors and use them to update the discussion of colors of minor bodies in the outer solar system. We gratefully acknowledge funding from the NASA Planetary Astronomy Program to Northern Arizona University and the U. of Oklahoma which helped support this work.

  14. Functional analysis of the highly antigenic outer capsid protein, Hoc, a virus decoration protein from T4-like bacteriophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathaliyawala, Taheri; Islam, Mohammad Z; Li, Qin; Fokine, Andrei; Rossmann, Michael G; Rao, Venigalla B

    2010-07-01

    Bacteriophage T4 is decorated with 155 copies of the highly antigenic outer capsid protein, Hoc. The Hoc molecule (40 kDa) is present at the centre of each hexameric capsomer and provides a good platform for surface display of pathogen antigens. Biochemical and modelling studies show that Hoc consists of a string of four domains, three immunoglobulin (Ig)-like and one non-Ig domain at the C-terminus. Biochemical data suggest that the Hoc protein has two functional modules, a capsid binding module containing domains 1 and 4 and a solvent-exposed module containing domains 2 and 3. This model is consistent with the dumbbell-shaped cryo-EM density of Hoc observed in the reconstruction of the T4 capsid. Mutagenesis localized the capsid binding site to the C-terminal 25 amino acids, which are predicted to form two beta-strands flanking a capsid binding loop. Mutations in the loop residues, ESRNG, abolished capsid binding, suggesting that these residues might interact with the major capsid protein, gp23*. With the conserved capsid binding module forming a foothold on the virus and the solvent-exposed module able to adapt to bind to a variety of surfaces, Hoc probably provides survival advantages to the phage, such as increasing the virus concentration near the host, efficient dispersion of the virus and exposing the tail for more efficient contact with the host cell surface prior to infection.

  15. Issues concerning outer space investments in international law ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In addition to the current commercial applications of outer space usage such as remote sensing and direct television broadcasting, real possibilities now exist for mining mineral deposits on the surface of the moon and nearby asteroids, among other things. Degradation and dissipation of most natural/mineral resources on ...

  16. Exploring bacterial outer membrane barrier to combat bad bugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghai, Ishan; Ghai, Shashank

    2017-01-01

    One of the main fundamental mechanisms of antibiotic resistance in Gram-negative bacteria comprises an effective change in the membrane permeability to antibiotics. The Gram-negative bacterial complex cell envelope comprises an outer membrane that delimits the periplasm from the exterior environment. The outer membrane contains numerous protein channels, termed as porins or nanopores, which are mainly involved in the influx of hydrophilic compounds, including antibiotics. Bacterial adaptation to reduce influx through these outer membrane proteins (Omps) is one of the crucial mechanisms behind antibiotic resistance. Thus to interpret the molecular basis of the outer membrane permeability is the current challenge. This review attempts to develop a state of knowledge pertinent to Omps and their effective role in antibiotic influx. Further, it aims to study the bacterial response to antibiotic membrane permeability and hopefully provoke a discussion toward understanding and further exploration of prospects to improve our knowledge on physicochemical parameters that direct the translocation of antibiotics through the bacterial membrane protein channels.

  17. Exploring bacterial outer membrane barrier to combat bad bugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghai I

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Ishan Ghai,1 Shashank Ghai2 1School of Engineering and Life Sciences, Jacobs University, Bremen, 2Leibniz University, Hannover, Germany Abstract: One of the main fundamental mechanisms of antibiotic resistance in Gram-negative bacteria comprises an effective change in the membrane permeability to antibiotics. The Gram-negative bacterial complex cell envelope comprises an outer membrane that delimits the periplasm from the exterior environment. The outer membrane contains numerous protein channels, termed as porins or nanopores, which are mainly involved in the influx of hydrophilic compounds, including antibiotics. Bacterial adaptation to reduce influx through these outer membrane proteins (Omps is one of the crucial mechanisms behind antibiotic resistance. Thus to interpret the molecular basis of the outer membrane permeability is the current challenge. This review attempts to develop a state of knowledge pertinent to Omps and their effective role in antibiotic influx. Further, it aims to study the bacterial response to antibiotic membrane permeability and hopefully provoke a discussion toward understanding and further exploration of prospects to improve our knowledge on physicochemical parameters that direct the translocation of antibiotics through the bacterial membrane protein channels. Keywords: antibiotics, Gram-negative bacteria, cell envelope, protein channels, nanopores, influx, antibiotic resistance

  18. Identification of outer membrane proteins of Yersinia pestis through biotinylation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smither, S.J.; Hill, J.; Baar, B.L.M. van; Hulst, A.G.; Jong, A.L. de; Titball, R.W.

    2007-01-01

    The outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria contains proteins that might be good targets for vaccines, antimicrobials or detection systems. The identification of surface located proteins using traditional methods is often difficult. Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of plague, was labelled with

  19. Thermographic studies of outer target heat fluxes on KSTAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.H. Lee

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available A new infra-red (IR thermography system with high spatial resolution has been installed on KSTAR and is now mainly applied to measure the outer divertor heat load profile. The first measurement results of the outer divertor heat load profiles between ELMs have been applied to characterize the inter-ELMs outer divertor heat loads in KSTAR H-mode plasmas. In particular, the power decay length (λq of the divertor heat load profile has been determined by fitting the profile to a convolution of an exponential decay and a Gaussian function. The analysis on the power decay length shows a good agreement with the recent multi-machine λq scaling, which predicts λq of the inter-ELMs divertor heat load to be ∼1 mm under the standard H-mode scenario in ITER. The divertor IR thermography system has also successfully measured the strike point splitting of the outer divertor heat flux during the application of resonant magnetic perturbation (RMP fields. In addition, it has provided a clear evidence that the strike point splitting pattern depends on the RMP fields configuration.

  20. A comparison of outer electron radiation belt dropouts during solar ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    O Ogunjobi

    2017-06-06

    Jun 6, 2017 ... during solar wind stream interface and magnetic cloud driven storms. O Ogunjobi1,2,* ... Keywords. Stream interfaces; magnetic clouds; magnetosphere; Earth's radiation belts; L-shell. 1. Introduction. The Earth's ...... storage ring embedded in earth's outer Van Allen belt;. Science 340 186–190. Behera J K ...

  1. Protection of celestial environments and the law of outer space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennen, Leslie; Race, Margaret

    The law of outer space expressly addresses the matter of preservation and protection of natural celestial environments from harmful contamination and disruption by mankind in the explo-ration and use of outer space, including the moon and other celestial bodies. The Outer Space Treaty, however, does not prohibit all human impact to an extraterrestrial environment, but rather permits a wide range of activities that could have significant environmental ramifications. This legal regime may be in conflict with the interests of preserving celestial environments for scientific research, especially when considered in relation to activities conducted for commercial purposes. Nevertheless, the Moon Agreement provides a mechanism by which special protective measures can be implemented to protect particular areas of the moon and other celestial bodies for scientific investigation. This paper examines the current status of the law of outer space vis-a-vis the protection and preservation of natural celestial environments. Particular emphasis is placed on the policies on which the legal obligations are based, together with consideration of the non-appropriation principle, and the commercial use of lunar and other celestial resources and areas. In addition, the concepts of international scientific preserves, special regions, keep out zones, and planetary parks are compared and evaluated as potential means to limit the disturbance to celestial environments caused by the activities of mankind.

  2. Photoreceptor atrophy in acute zonal occult outer retinopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zibrandtsen, N.; Munch, I.C.; Klemp, K.

    2008-01-01

    of all the segments composing the photoreceptor layer was found by OCT. Full-field ERG revealed affection of the 30 Hz flicker responses and subnormal photopic responses in both patients and subnormal scotopic responses in case 1. Multifocal electroretinography (mERG) revealed localized outer retinal...

  3. Photoreceptor atrophy in acute zonal occult outer retinopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zibrandtsen, N.; Munch, I.C.; Klemp, K.

    2008-01-01

    composing the photoreceptor layer was found by OCT. Full-field ERG revealed affection of the 30 Hz flicker responses and subnormal photopic responses in both patients and subnormal scotopic responses in case 1. Multifocal electroretinography (mERG) revealed localized outer retinal dysfunction. The field...

  4. On the Most Innovative Outer Access Structure of any Bantu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... access structure and access route, and Section 6 compares Polis's work with a dictionary from the same region and period. Conclusions are offered in Section 7, chief among them the fact that Polis designed the most innovative outer access structure of any Bantu dictionary. Keywords: Bantu, Kikongo, Kintandu, French, ...

  5. Isolation of Contact Sites Between Inner and Outer Mitochondrial Membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harner, Max

    2017-01-01

    Mitochondria are essential organelles of all eukaryotic cells. They perform a plethora of important metabolic functions and have a highly complex architecture that differs drastically between different cells and tissues. Mitochondria are delimited from the cytosol by the mitochondrial envelope that consists of the outer membrane and the inner membrane. The inner membrane is subdivided into the inner boundary membrane that runs parallel to the outer membrane and the crista membrane. Both sections of the inner membrane are linked by crista junctions. A further important architectural element of mitochondria are the contact sites between outer membrane and inner membrane. These sites were observed a long time ago by classical electron microscopy, but their molecular structure was identified only recently when it was recognized that proteins of crista junctions and proteins of the outer membrane are responsible for these strong contacts. Mitochondrial function is severely affected when contact sites are disturbed. This underlines the notion that mitochondrial architecture and function are intimately connected. In the following a method is described to generate and to isolate membrane vesicles from isolated yeast mitochondria that contain these contact sites.

  6. Serological response to the outer membrane lipoprotein in animal brucellosis.

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez-Miguel, M J; Moriyón, I; Alonso-Urmeneta, B; Riezu-Boj, J I; Díaz, R

    1988-01-01

    The presence of antibodies to Brucella outer membrane lipoprotein was investigated in cattle and rams. Low but significant amounts of antibody were detected in sera from B. abortus-infected cattle and from B. ovis-infected rams which had developed epididymitis. Strain-19-vaccinated cattle also showed a weak albeit transient antibody response.

  7. Investigations into the outer surface of pathogenic Treponema pallidum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.J. van der Sluis

    1987-01-01

    textabstractBased on the assumption that a successful immune response to T. pallidum must, at least initially, be targetted against the outer membrane of the treponemes, the purpose of the study was to gain more insight in the accessibility of this membrane. The in vitro adherence of the

  8. Detergent organisation in crystals of monomeric outer membrane phospholipase A

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snijder, HJ; Timmins, PA; Kalk, KH; Dijkstra, BW

    The structure of the detergent in crystals of outer membrane phospholipase A (OMPLA) has been determined using neutron diffraction contrast variation. Large crystals were soaked in stabilising solutions, each containing a different H2O/D2O contrast. From the neutron diffraction at five contrasts,

  9. Finite Element Analysis Of Influence Of Flank Wear Evolution On Forces In Orthogonal Cutting Of 42CrMo4 Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madajewski, Marek; Nowakowski, Zbigniew

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents analysis of flank wear influence on forces in orthogonal turning of 42CrMo4 steel and evaluates capacity of finite element model to provide such force values. Data about magnitude of feed and cutting force were obtained from measurements with force tensiometer in experimental test as well as from finite element analysis of chip formation process in ABAQUS/Explicit software. For studies an insert with complex rake face was selected and flank wear was simulated by grinding operation on its flank face. The aim of grinding inset surface was to obtain even flat wear along cutting edge, which after the measurement could be modeled with CAD program and applied in FE analysis for selected range of wear width. By comparing both sets of force values as function of flank wear in given cutting conditions FEA model was validated and it was established that it can be applied to analyze other physical aspects of machining. Force analysis found that progression of wear causes increase in cutting force magnitude and steep boost to feed force magnitude. Analysis of Fc/Ff force ratio revealed that flank wear has significant impact on resultant force in orthogonal cutting and magnitude of this force components in cutting and feed direction. Surge in force values can result in transfer of substantial loads to machine-tool interface.

  10. Vasopressin-dependent flank marking in golden hamsters is suppressed by drugs used in the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Messenger Tara

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alterations in arginine vasopressin regulation and secretion have been proposed as one possible biochemical abnormality in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder. In golden hamsters, arginine vasopressin microinjections into the anterior hypothalamus trigger robust grooming and flank marking, a stereotyped scent marking behaviors. The intensity and repetition of the behaviors induced by arginine vasopressin is somewhat reminiscent of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder in humans. The present experiments were carried out to test whether pharmacological agents used to alleviate obsessive compulsive disorder could inhibit arginine vasopressin-induced flank marking and grooming. Results Male golden hamsters were treated daily for two weeks with either vehicle, fluoxetine, clomipramine, or desipramine (an ineffective drug, before being tested for arginine vasopressin-induced flank marking and grooming. Flank marking was significantly inhibited in animals treated with fluoxetine or clomipramine but unaffected by treatment with desipramine. Grooming behavior was not affected by any treatment. Conclusion These data suggest that arginine vasopressin-induced flank marking may serve as an animal model for screening drugs used in the control of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder.

  11. Application of response surface methodology on investigating flank wear in machining hardened steel using PVD TiN coated mixed ceramic insert

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Kumar Sahoo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the development of flank wear model in turning hardened EN 24 steel with PVD TiN coated mixed ceramic insert under dry environment. The paper also investigates the effect of process parameter on flank wear (VBc. The experiments have been conducted using three level full factorial design techniques. The machinability model has been developed in terms of cutting speed (v, feed (f and machining time (t as input variable using response surface methodology. The adequacy of model has been checked using correlation coefficients. As the determination coefficient, R2 (98% is higher for the model developed; the better is the response model fits the actual data. In addition, residuals of the normal probability plot lie reasonably close to a straight line showing that the terms mentioned in the model are statistically significant. The predicted flank wear has been found to lie close to the experimental value. This indicates that the developed model can be effectively used to predict the flank wear in the hard turning. Abrasion and diffusion has been found to be the dominant wear mechanism in machining hardened steel from SEM micrographs at highest parametric range. Machining time has been found to be the most significant parameter on flank wear followed by cutting speed and feed as observed from main effect plot and ANOVA study.

  12. Identification of genomic insertion and flanking sequence of G2-EPSPS and GAT transgenes in soybean using whole genome sequencing method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingfu Guo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Molecular characterization of sequences flanking exogenous fragment insertions is essential for safety assessment and labeling of genetically modified organisms (GMO. In this study, the T-DNA insertion sites and flanking sequences were identified in two newly developed transgenic glyphosate-tolerant soybeans GE-J16 and ZH10-6 based on whole genome sequencing (WGS method. About 21 Gb sequence data (~21× coverage for each line was generated on Illumina HiSeq 2500 platform. The junction reads mapped to boundary of T-DNA and flanking sequences in these two events were identified by comparing all sequencing reads with soybean reference genome and sequence of transgenic vector. The putative insertion loci and flanking sequences were further confirmed by PCR amplification, Sanger sequencing, and co-segregation analysis. All these analyses supported that exogenous T-DNA fragments were integrated in positions of Chr19: 50543767-50543792 and Chr17: 7980527-7980541 in these two transgenic lines. Identification of the genomic insertion site of the G2-EPSPS and GAT transgenes will facilitate the use of their glyphosate-tolerant traits in soybean breeding program. These results also demonstrated that WGS is a cost-effective and rapid method of identifying sites of T-DNA insertions and flanking sequences in soybean.

  13. Identification of Genomic Insertion and Flanking Sequence of G2-EPSPS and GAT Transgenes in Soybean Using Whole Genome Sequencing Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Bingfu; Guo, Yong; Hong, Huilong; Qiu, Li-Juan

    2016-01-01

    Molecular characterization of sequence flanking exogenous fragment insertion is essential for safety assessment and labeling of genetically modified organism (GMO). In this study, the T-DNA insertion sites and flanking sequences were identified in two newly developed transgenic glyphosate-tolerant soybeans GE-J16 and ZH10-6 based on whole genome sequencing (WGS) method. More than 22.4 Gb sequence data (∼21 × coverage) for each line was generated on Illumina HiSeq 2500 platform. The junction reads mapped to boundaries of T-DNA and flanking sequences in these two events were identified by comparing all sequencing reads with soybean reference genome and sequence of transgenic vector. The putative insertion loci and flanking sequences were further confirmed by PCR amplification, Sanger sequencing, and co-segregation analysis. All these analyses supported that exogenous T-DNA fragments were integrated in positions of Chr19: 50543767-50543792 and Chr17: 7980527-7980541 in these two transgenic lines. Identification of genomic insertion sites of G2-EPSPS and GAT transgenes will facilitate the utilization of their glyphosate-tolerant traits in soybean breeding program. These results also demonstrated that WGS was a cost-effective and rapid method for identifying sites of T-DNA insertions and flanking sequences in soybean.

  14. Reduced heterozygosity at intragenic and flanking microsatellites of pfcrt gene establishes natural selection based molecular evolution of chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallick, Prashant K; Singh, Ruchi; Singh, Om P; Singh, Ashok K; Bhasin, Virendra K; Valecha, Neena

    2013-12-01

    The positive selection of a nucleotide substitution in exon 2 of Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter (pfcrt) gene (mutation responsible for chloroquine resistance) causes a reduction in variation of neutral loci close to the gene. This reduction in allelic diversity around flanking regions of pfcrt gene was reported in worldwide chloroquine resistant isolates and referred as selective sweep. In Plasmodium falciparum isolates of India, the selective sweep in flanking loci of pfcrt gene is well established, however, high allelic diversity observed in intragenic microsatellites of pfcrt gene implied an ongoing genetic recombination. To understand, if molecular evolution of chloroquine-resistant P. falciparum isolates in India follow a selective sweep model, we analyzed genetic diversity at both seven intragenic and seven flanking microsatellites of pfcrt (-24 to +106kb) gene in chloroquine sensitive and resistant parasites originating from high and low transmission areas. We observed low expected heterozygosity at all loci of resistant pfcrt-haplotypes (He=0-0.77) compared to the wild-type (He=0.38-0.96). Resistant SVMNT from high transmission areas showed significantly higher mean He (P=0.03, t-test) at both intragenic and pfcrt-flanking loci (-24 to +22 kb) in comparison to low transmission areas. Our observation of reduction in variation at both intragenic and flanking loci of mutant pfcrt gene confirmed the selective sweep model of natural selection in chloroquine resistant P. falciparum isolates in India. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Finite Element Analysis Of Influence Of Flank Wear Evolution On Forces In Orthogonal Cutting Of 42CrMo4 Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madajewski Marek

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents analysis of flank wear influence on forces in orthogonal turning of 42CrMo4 steel and evaluates capacity of finite element model to provide such force values. Data about magnitude of feed and cutting force were obtained from measurements with force tensiometer in experimental test as well as from finite element analysis of chip formation process in ABAQUS/Explicit software. For studies an insert with complex rake face was selected and flank wear was simulated by grinding operation on its flank face. The aim of grinding inset surface was to obtain even flat wear along cutting edge, which after the measurement could be modeled with CAD program and applied in FE analysis for selected range of wear width. By comparing both sets of force values as function of flank wear in given cutting conditions FEA model was validated and it was established that it can be applied to analyze other physical aspects of machining. Force analysis found that progression of wear causes increase in cutting force magnitude and steep boost to feed force magnitude. Analysis of Fc/Ff force ratio revealed that flank wear has significant impact on resultant force in orthogonal cutting and magnitude of this force components in cutting and feed direction. Surge in force values can result in transfer of substantial loads to machine-tool interface.

  16. Comparison of effective radiation doses in patients undergoing unenhanced MDCT and excretory urography for acute flank pain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eikefjord, E.N.; Thorsen, F.; Rorvik, J. [Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen (Norway). Dept. of Radiology

    2007-07-15

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to measure and compare the effective radiation dose in patients undergoing unenhanced MDCT and excretory urography for acute flank pain, and to explore technical and practical factors affecting the effective dose. Subjects and methods: One hundred nineteen patients with acute flank pain were included. All patients were examined using both MDCT and excretory urography. CT involved one acquisition from the upper kidney margin to the symphysis pubis. The only protocol variation was in the tube current (mAs), which was made according to patient body mass. The excretory urography protocol consisted of three images, with more when supplementary images were needed. Effective radiation doses were computer-simulated using dosimetry programs for CT and conventional radiography, based on Norwegian Radiological Protection Board dose data sets. Mean and SDs of measured patient doses were calculated and compared. Further analyses of dose variations in body mass categories (body mass index) were conducted, as were analyses concerning the number of images taken. Results: The mean effective doses were 7.7 mSv with MDCT and 3.63 mSv with excretory urography. The effective dose varied both in and between techniques but could be predicted. Radiation risk decreased significantly with increased patient weight. Conclusion: The average effective dose with MDCT was more than double that with excretory urography. However, the appropriate dose could be strongly predicted by the patient's body mass index and by procedure. An optimum low-dose protocol should be considered before initiating unenhanced MDCT for ureteral colic in order to minimize the radiation-induced cancer risk and to secure adequate image quality. (author)

  17. Genetic abnormalities in sporadic parathyroid adenomas: Loss of heterozygosity for chromosome 3q markers flanking the calcium receptor locus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, D.B.; Samowitz, W.S.; Davis, K. [Univ. of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)] [and others

    1995-10-01

    Inactivating mutations of the parathyroid cell calcium receptor (CaR) gene cause one form of familial benign/hypocalciuric hypercalcemia, and in homozygous form, cause neonatal severe primary hyperparathyroidism with parathyroid hyperplasia. Thus, we postulated that partial or total loss of CaR function might contribute to calcium insensitivity or even stimulate cell proliferation in sporadic parathyroid adenomas (PAds). To examine this possibility, we sought loss of heterozygosity (LOH) for markers flanking the CaR locus (3cen-3q21) in 35 PAds. We used 16 highly-polymorphic PCR-based markers in paired normal and tumor DNA, extracted from archived surgical specimens. Nineteen to twenty-four of the DNA pairs were informative with at least one marker. In two informative pairs, we found LOH for markers D3S1303, D3S1267, or D3S1269, which are tightly-linked with and flank the CaR locus. In one tumor, deletion mapping confined the lost area between D3S1271 and D3S1238 (41.7 centimorgans, cM). In the other tumor, LOH spanned most of chromosome 3, ranging at least from D3S1307 to D3S1311 (271.4 cM). LOH was confirmed by repetition of the experiments and quantified by phosphorimaging. Thus, we found LOH encompassing the CaR locus in approximately 10% of sporadic PAds. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that loss of CaR function may occur in PAds, with functional consequences for calcium sensitivity and cell proliferation. 20 refs., 2 figs.

  18. A Spatial Energy Balance Index to Analyze Geodetic and Seismic Time Series: The Eastern Flank of Mt. Etna Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannavo', Flavio; Arena, Alessandra; Mattia, Mario; Monaco, Carmelo

    2013-04-01

    In line with the aim of analyzing multivariate datasets, in this paper we propose a new methodology to merge different types of instrumental data, such as deformation data and seismic data, in order to extract and compare the common information about earthquake cycles. In particular, the development of large Continuously-operating Global Positioning System (CGPS) networks in recent years, has allowed measuring detailed surface deformations, generally used to obtain information on the strain accumulation along fault systems. The challenge is to combine the geodetic information coming from the CGPS networks with the seismic data from the earthquake databases. Here, we propose a Spatial Energy Balance Index (SEBI) which takes into account the accumulated geodetic strain and the seismically-released strain to quantify a balance of the energies, according to the elastic rebound theory. Indeed, a fault, being subjected to force and shift, accumulates energy and slowly deforms until its internal strength is exceeded, then releasing the accumulated energy. The proposed index synthesizes the energy state of an area, revealing possible dynamics of earthquake occurrences. Furthermore, the paper sets out a novel technique for GPS displacement interpolation. The interpolation takes into account the GPS network topology and the topography effects to estimate the continuous displacement field at the surface. The technique is a combination of techniques coming from soft-computing algorithms; in particular, it is based on Cellular Automata and Artificial Neural Networks. The whole process of data interpolation and index setting is mainly data-driven and consists of two steps: the first of model identification and a second step of testing. The proposed approach was applied to the Eastern flank of Mt. Etna (Italy) for the period 2008-2012. Results quantify the energy state of different faults of the Mt. Etna's Eastern flank.

  19. A Tooth Flank Crowning Method by Applying a Novel Crossed Angle Function Between the Hob Cutter and Work Gear in the Gear Hobbing Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Yu-Ren

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel longitudinal tooth flank crowning method is proposed by setting the crossed angle between the hob cutter and work gear as a linear function of hob’s traverse feed movement in the gear hobbing process. However, this method makes twisted tooth flanks on the hobbed work gear. Therefore, a variable pressure angle hob cutter is applied to obtain an anti-twist tooth flank of hobbed work gear. A computer simulation example is performed to verify the superiority of the proposed novel hobbing method by comparing topographies of the crowned work gear surfaces hobbed by a standard hob cutter and a variable pressure angle hob cutter.

  20. Effect of Saw Palmetto Supplements on Androgen-Sensitive LNCaP Human Prostate Cancer Cell Number and Syrian Hamster Flank Organ Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander B. Opoku-Acheampong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Saw palmetto supplements (SPS are commonly consumed by men with prostate cancer. We investigated whether SPS fatty acids and phytosterols concentrations determine their growth-inhibitory action in androgen-sensitive LNCaP cells and hamster flank organs. High long-chain fatty acids-low phytosterols (HLLP SPS ≥ 750 nM with testosterone significantly increased and ≥500 nM with dihydrotestosterone significantly decreased LNCaP cell number. High long-chain fatty acids-high phytosterols (HLHP SPS ≥ 500 nM with dihydrotestosterone and high medium-chain fatty acids-low phytosterols (HMLP SPS ≥ 750 nM or with androgens significantly decreased LNCaP cell number (n=3; p<0.05. Five- to six-week-old, castrated male Syrian hamsters were randomized to control (n=4, HLLP, HLHP, and HMLP SPS (n=6 groups. Testosterone or dihydrotestosterone was applied topically daily for 21 days to the right flank organ; the left flank organ was treated with ethanol and served as the control. Thirty minutes later, SPS or ethanol was applied to each flank organ in treatment and control groups, respectively. SPS treatments caused a notable but nonsignificant reduction in the difference between left and right flank organ growth in testosterone-treated SPS groups compared to the control. The same level of inhibition was not seen in dihydrotestosterone-treated SPS groups (p<0.05. Results may suggest that SPS inhibit 5α-reductase thereby preventing hamster flank organ growth.

  1. MARINE CONGLOMERATE AND REEF MEGACLASTS AT MAURITUS ISLAND: Evidences of a tsunami generated by a flank collapse of the PITON DE LA Fournaise volcano, Reunion Island?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Paris

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Tsunamis related to volcano flank collapse are typically a high-magnitude, low frequency hazard for which evaluation and mitigation are difficult to address. In this short communication, we present field evidences of a large tsunami along the southern coast of Mauritius Island ca. 4400 years ago. Tsunami deposits described include both marine conglomerates and coral boulders up to 90 m3 (> 100 tons. The most probable origin of the tsunami is a flank collapse of Piton de la Fournaise volcano, Réunion Island.

  2. Progressive outer retinal necrosis-like retinitis in immunocompetent hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chawla, Rohan; Tripathy, Koushik; Gogia, Varun; Venkatesh, Pradeep

    2016-08-10

    We describe two young immunocompetent women presenting with bilateral retinitis with outer retinal necrosis involving posterior pole with centrifugal spread and multifocal lesions simulating progressive outer retinal necrosis (PORN) like retinitis. Serology was negative for HIV and CD4 counts were normal; however, both women were on oral steroids at presentation for suspected autoimmune chorioretinitis. The retinitis in both eyes responded well to oral valaciclovir therapy. However, the eye with the more fulminant involvement developed retinal detachment with a loss of vision. Retinal atrophy was seen in the less involved eye with preservation of vision. Through these cases, we aim to describe a unique evolution of PORN-like retinitis in immunocompetent women, which was probably aggravated by a short-term immunosuppression secondary to oral steroids. 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  3. Potential advantages of solar electric propulsion for outer planet orbiters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, C. G.; Atkins, K. L.

    1972-01-01

    Past studies of solar electric propulsion for outer planet orbiters have generally emphasized the advantages of flight time reduction and payload increases. However, several subtle advantages exist, which may become important in an environment of increasingly difficult requirements as ways to extend current technology are sought. These advantages accrue primarily because of the inherent capability, unique to electric propulsion, to efficiently shape a trajectory while enroute. Stressed in this paper are: the ability to meet orbital constraints due to assumed radiation belts, science flexibility in a dual launch program, increased numbers of observational passes, and the lengthening of launch periods. These are examined for years representative of relatively easy and difficult ballistic missions. The results indicate that an early investment in solar electric technology will provide a strong performance foundation for a long range outer planet exploration program which evolves from current spacecraft technology.

  4. Defining the limits of outer space for regulatory purposes

    CERN Document Server

    Bittencourt Neto, Olavo de Oliviera

    2015-01-01

    With different countries ascribing to different theories of air space and outer space law, Dr. Bittencourt Neto proposes in this Brief a reassessment of the international law related to the extension of state territories vertically. Taking into consideration the vast number of proposals offered by scholars and diplomatic delegations on this subject matter, as well as the principles of comparative law, a compromise to allow for peaceful development is the only way forward. The author argues for setting the delimitation of the frontier between air space and outer space at 100 km above mean sea level through an international treaty. This would also regulate passage rights for space objects during launchings and reentries, as long as those space activities are peaceful, conducted in accordance with international Law and respecting the sovereign interests of the territorial State. Continuing expansion of the commercial space industry and conflicting national laws require a stable and fair legal framework best ...

  5. Outer brain barriers in rat and human development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøchner, Christian B; Holst, Camilla Bjørnbak; Møllgård, Kjeld

    2015-01-01

    Complex barriers at the brain's surface, particularly in development, are poorly defined. In the adult, arachnoid blood-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) barrier separates the fenestrated dural vessels from the CSF by means of a cell layer joined by tight junctions. Outer CSF-brain barrier provides...... diffusion restriction between brain and subarachnoid CSF through an initial radial glial end feet layer covered with a pial surface layer. To further characterize these interfaces we examined embryonic rat brains from E10 to P0 and forebrains from human embryos and fetuses (6-21st weeks post......-conception) and adults using immunohistochemistry and confocal microscopy. Antibodies against claudin-11, BLBP, collagen 1, SSEA-4, MAP2, YKL-40, and its receptor IL-13Rα2 and EAAT1 were used to describe morphological characteristics and functional aspects of the outer brain barriers. Claudin-11 was a reliable marker...

  6. Hubble 2020: Outer Planet Atmospheres Legacy (OPAL) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Amy

    2017-08-01

    Long time base observations of the outer planets are critical in understanding the atmospheric dynamics and evolution of the gas giants. We propose yearly monitoring of each giant planet for the remainder of Hubble's lifetime to provide a lasting legacy of increasingly valuable data for time-domain studies. The Hubble Space Telescope is a unique asset to planetary science, allowing high spatial resolution data with absolute photometric knowledge. For the outer planets, gas/ice giant planets Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune, many phenomena happen on timescales of years to decades, and the data we propose are beyond the scope of a typical GO program. Hubble is the only platform that can provide high spatial resolution global studies of cloud coloration, activity, and motion on a consistent time basis to help constrain the underlying mechanics.

  7. The carbon budget in the outer solar nebula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonelli, D.P.; Pollack, J.B.; Mckay, C.P.; Reynolds, R.T.; Summers, A.L.

    1989-01-01

    The compositional contrast between the giant-planet satellites and the significantly rockier Pluto/Charon system is indicative of different formation mechanisms; cosmic abundance calculations, in conjunction with an assumption of the Pluto/Charon system's direct formation from solar nebula condensates, strongly suggest that most of the carbon in the outer solar nebula was in CO form, in keeping with both the inheritance from the dense molecular clouds in the interstellar medium, and/or the Lewis and Prinn (1980) kinetic-inhibition model of solar nebula chemistry. Laboratory studies of carbonaceous chondrites and Comet Halley flyby studies suggest that condensed organic material, rather than elemental carbon, is the most likely candidate for the small percentage of the carbon-bearing solid in the outer solar nebula. 71 refs

  8. MAGNETIC FIELDS AND THE OUTER ROTATION CURVE OF M31

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz-Granados, B.; Rubino-Martin, J. A.; Florido, E.; Battaner, E.

    2010-01-01

    Recent observations of the rotation curve of M31 show a rise of the outer part that cannot be understood in terms of standard dark matter models or perturbations of the galactic disk by M31's satellites. Here, we propose an explanation of this dynamical feature based on the influence of the magnetic field within the thin disk. We have considered standard mass models for the luminous mass distribution, a Navarro-Frenk-White model to describe the dark halo, and we have added up the contribution to the rotation curve of a magnetic field in the disk, which is described by an axisymmetric pattern. Our conclusion is that a significant improvement of the fit in the outer part is obtained when magnetic effects are considered. The best-fit solution requires an amplitude of ∼4 μG with a weak radial dependence between 10 and 38 kpc.

  9. Possible origin of Saturn's newly discovered outer ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moehlmann, D.

    1986-01-01

    Within a planetogonic model the self-gravitationally caused formation of pre-planetary and pre-satellite rings from an earlier thin disk is reported. The theoretically derived orbital radii of these rings are compared with the orbital levels in the planetary system and the satellite systems of Jupiter, Saturn and Uranus. From this comparison it is concluded that at the radial position of Saturn's newly discovered outer ring an early pre-satellite ring of more or less evolved satellites could have existed. These satellites should have been disturbed in their evolution by the gravitation of the neighbouring massive satellite Titan. The comparison also may indicate similarities between the asteroidal belt and the newly discovered outer ring of Saturn

  10. Truss topology optimization with discrete design variables by outer approximation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stolpe, Mathias

    2015-01-01

    Several variants of an outer approximation method are proposed to solve truss topology optimization problems with discrete design variables to proven global optimality. The objective is to minimize the volume of the structure while satisfying constraints on the global stiffness of the structure...... for classical outer approximation approaches applied to optimal design problems. A set of two- and three-dimensional benchmark problems are solved and the numerical results suggest that the proposed approaches are competitive with other special-purpose global optimization methods for the considered class...... under the applied loads. We extend the natural problem formulation by adding redundant force variables and force equilibrium constraints. This guarantees that the designs suggested by the relaxed master problems are capable of carrying the applied loads, a property which is generally not satisfied...

  11. Progressive outer retinal necrosis and immunosuppressive therapy in myasthenia gravis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coisy, Solène; Ebran, Jean-Marc; Milea, Dan

    2014-01-01

    Progressive outer retinal necrosis (PORN) is a rare but devastating infectious retinitis associated with varicella zoster virus (VZV) and responsible for severe visual loss. A 59-year-old man treated for generalized myasthenia with oral azathioprine and prednisone presented with severe unilateral necrotizing retinitis. Polymerase chain reaction of the aqueous and vitreous humors was diagnostic for VZV PORN. VZV PORN is a severe potential ocular complication of immunosuppression, prompting urgent diagnosis and appropriate treatment.

  12. Progressive Outer Retinal Necrosis and Immunosuppressive Therapy in Myasthenia Gravis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solène Coisy

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Progressive outer retinal necrosis (PORN is a rare but devastating infectious retinitis associated with varicella zoster virus (VZV and responsible for severe visual loss. Case Report: A 59-year-old man treated for generalized myasthenia with oral azathioprine and prednisone presented with severe unilateral necrotizing retinitis. Polymerase chain reaction of the aqueous and vitreous humors was diagnostic for VZV PORN. Conclusion: VZV PORN is a severe potential ocular complication of immunosuppression, prompting urgent diagnosis and appropriate treatment.

  13. Spheres of influence: Porphyromonas gingivalis outer membrane vesicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gui, M J; Dashper, S G; Slakeski, N; Chen, Y-Y; Reynolds, E C

    2016-10-01

    Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) are asymmetrical single bilayer membranous nanostructures produced by Gram-negative bacteria important for bacterial interaction with the environment. Porphyromonas gingivalis, a keystone pathogen associated with chronic periodontitis, produces OMVs that act as a virulence factor secretion system contributing to its pathogenicity. Despite their biological importance, the mechanisms of OMV biogenesis have not been fully elucidated. The ~14 times more curvature of the OMV membrane than cell outer membrane (OM) indicates that OMV biogenesis requires energy expenditure for significant curvature of the OMV membrane. In P. gingivalis, we propose that this may be achieved by upregulating the production of certain inner or outer leaflet lipids, which causes localized outward curvature of the OM. This results in selection of anionic lipopolysaccharide (A-LPS) and associated C-terminal domain (CTD) -family proteins on the outer surface due to their ability to accommodate the curvature. Deacylation of A-LPS may further enable increased curvature leading to OMV formation. Porphyromonas gingivalis OMVs that are selectively enriched in CTD-family proteins, largely the gingipains, can support bacterial coaggregation, promote biofilm development and act as an intercessor for the transport of non-motile bacteria by motile bacteria. The P. gingivalis OMVs are also believed to contribute to host interaction and colonization, evasion of immune defense mechanisms, and destruction of periodontal tissues. They may be crucial for both micro- and macronutrient capture, especially heme and probably other assimilable compounds for its own benefit and that of the wider biofilm community. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Immunogenicity of Pasteurella multocida and Mannheimia haemolytica outer membrane vesicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roier, Sandro; Fenninger, Judith C.; Leitner, Deborah R.; Rechberger, Gerald N.; Reidl, Joachim; Schild, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Pasteurella multocida is able to cause disease in humans and in a wide range of animal hosts, including fowl cholera in birds, atrophic rhinitis in pigs, and snuffles in rabbits. Together with Mannheimia haemolytica, P. multocida also represents a major bacterial causative agent of bovine respiratory disease (BRD), which is one of the most important causes for economic losses for the cattle backgrounding and feedlot industry. Commercially available vaccines only partially prevent infections caused by P. multocida and M. haemolytica. Thus, this study characterized the immunogenicity of P. multocida and M. haemolytica outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) upon intranasal immunization of BALB/c mice. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) revealed that OMVs derived from P. multocida or M. haemolytica are able to induce robust humoral and mucosal immune responses against the respective donor strain. In addition, also significant cross-immunogenic potential was observed for both OMV types. Colonization studies showed that a potential protective immune response against P. multocida is not only achieved by immunization with P. multocida OMVs, but also by immunization with OMVs derived from M. haemolytica. Immunoblot and immunoprecipitation analyses demonstrated that M. haemolytica OMVs induce a more complex immune response compared to P. multocida OMVs. The outer membrane proteins OmpA, OmpH, and P6 were identified as the three major immunogenic proteins of P. multocida OMVs. Amongst others, the serotype 1-specific antigen, an uncharacterized outer membrane protein, as well as the outer membrane proteins P2 and OmpA were found to be the most important antigens of M. haemolytica OMVs. These findings are useful for the future development of broad-spectrum OMV based vaccines against BRD and other infections caused by P. multocida or M. haemolytica. PMID:23731905

  15. Optical coherence tomography identifies outer retina thinning in frontotemporal degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Benjamin J; Irwin, David J; Song, Delu; Daniel, Ebenezer; Leveque, Jennifer D; Raquib, Aaishah R; Pan, Wei; Ying, Gui-Shuang; Aleman, Tomas S; Dunaief, Joshua L; Grossman, Murray

    2017-10-10

    Whereas Alzheimer disease (AD) is associated with inner retina thinning visualized by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT), we sought to determine if the retina has a distinguishing biomarker for frontotemporal degeneration (FTD). Using a cross-sectional design, we examined retinal structure in 38 consecutively enrolled patients with FTD and 44 controls using a standard SD-OCT protocol. Retinal layers were segmented with the Iowa Reference Algorithm. Subgroups of highly predictive molecular pathology (tauopathy, TAR DNA-binding protein 43, unknown) were determined by clinical criteria, genetic markers, and a CSF biomarker (total tau: β-amyloid) to exclude presumed AD. We excluded eyes with poor image quality or confounding diseases. SD-OCT measures of patients (n = 46 eyes) and controls (n = 69 eyes) were compared using a generalized linear model accounting for intereye correlation, and correlations between retinal layer thicknesses and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) were evaluated. Adjusting for age, sex, and race, patients with FTD had a thinner outer retina than controls (132 vs 142 μm , p = 0.004). Patients with FTD also had a thinner outer nuclear layer (ONL) (88.5 vs 97.9 μm, p = 0.003) and ellipsoid zone (EZ) (14.5 vs 15.1 μm, p = 0.009) than controls, but had similar thicknesses for inner retinal layers. The outer retina thickness of patients correlated with MMSE (Spearman r = 0.44, p = 0.03). The highly predictive tauopathy subgroup (n = 31 eyes) also had a thinner ONL (88.7 vs 97.4 μm, p = 0.01) and EZ (14.4 vs 15.1 μm, p = 0.01) than controls. FTD is associated with outer retina thinning, and this thinning correlates with disease severity. © 2017 American Academy of Neurology.

  16. Total water content thresholds for shallow landslides, Outer Western Carpathians

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bil, M.; Andrašík, R.; Zahradníček, Pavel; Kubeček, J.; Sedonik, J.; Štěpánek, Petr

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 2 (2016), s. 337-347 ISSN 1612-510X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-19831S; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.20.0248 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : data quality -control * debris flows * rainfall thresholds * equivalent * depth * failures * example * europe * model * Landslides * Threshold * Snowmelt * Time series * Antecedent rainfall * Outer Western Carpathians Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 3.657, year: 2016

  17. Global storm time depletion of the outer electron belt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukhorskiy, A Y; Sitnov, M I; Millan, R M; Kress, B T; Fennell, J F; Claudepierre, S G; Barnes, R J

    2015-04-01

    The outer radiation belt consists of relativistic (>0.5 MeV) electrons trapped on closed trajectories around Earth where the magnetic field is nearly dipolar. During increased geomagnetic activity, electron intensities in the belt can vary by orders of magnitude at different spatial and temporal scales. The main phase of geomagnetic storms often produces deep depletions of electron intensities over broad regions of the outer belt. Previous studies identified three possible processes that can contribute to the main-phase depletions: adiabatic inflation of electron drift orbits caused by the ring current growth, electron loss into the atmosphere, and electron escape through the magnetopause boundary. In this paper we investigate the relative importance of the adiabatic effect and magnetopause loss to the rapid depletion of the outer belt observed at the Van Allen Probes spacecraft during the main phase of 17 March 2013 storm. The intensities of >1 MeV electrons were depleted by more than an order of magnitude over the entire radial extent of the belt in less than 6 h after the sudden storm commencement. For the analysis we used three-dimensional test particle simulations of global evolution of the outer belt in the Tsyganenko-Sitnov (TS07D) magnetic field model with an inductive electric field. Comparison of the simulation results with electron measurements from the Magnetic Electron Ion Spectrometer experiment shows that magnetopause loss accounts for most of the observed depletion at L >5, while at lower L shells the depletion is adiabatic. Both magnetopause loss and the adiabatic effect are controlled by the change in global configuration of the magnetic field due to storm time development of the ring current; a simulation of electron evolution without a ring current produces a much weaker depletion.

  18. Law and politics in outer space: A bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, I. L.; Wilson, C. E.; Vosburgh, J. A.

    1972-01-01

    The materials are categorized by specific topics and by types of materials. The sources are books, articles, reports, United Nations materials, U.S. Government documents, etc. Books are listed by geographical areas, and articles are divided into what are considered to be the major space topics. Book and article sections are also divided into English and foreign language entries. A bibliographical essay introduces the literature to those unacquainted with law and politics of outer space.

  19. Structural basis for alginate secretion across the bacterial outer membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitney, J.C.; Robinson, H.; Hay, I. D.; Li, C.; Eckford, P. D. W.; Amaya, M. F.; Wood, L. F.; Ohman, D. E.; Bear, C. E.; Rehm, B. H.; Howell, P. L.

    2011-08-09

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the predominant pathogen associated with chronic lung infection among cystic fibrosis patients. During colonization of the lung, P. aeruginosa converts to a mucoid phenotype characterized by the overproduction of the exopolysaccharide alginate. Secretion of newly synthesized alginate across the outer membrane is believed to occur through the outer membrane protein AlgE. Here we report the 2.3 {angstrom} crystal structure of AlgE, which reveals a monomeric 18-stranded {beta}-barrel characterized by a highly electropositive pore constriction formed by an arginine-rich conduit that likely acts as a selectivity filter for the negatively charged alginate polymer. Interestingly, the pore constriction is occluded on either side by extracellular loop L2 and an unusually long periplasmic loop, T8. In halide efflux assays, deletion of loop T8 ({Delta}T8-AlgE) resulted in a threefold increase in anion flux compared to the wild-type or {Delta}L2-AlgE supporting the idea that AlgE forms a transport pathway through the membrane and suggesting that transport is regulated by T8. This model is further supported by in vivo experiments showing that complementation of an algE deletion mutant with {Delta}T8-AlgE impairs alginate production. Taken together, these studies support a mechanism for exopolysaccharide export across the outer membrane that is distinct from the Wza-mediated translocation observed in canonical capsular polysaccharide export systems.

  20. Structural Basis for Alginate Secretion Across the Bacterial Outer Membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J Whitney; I Hay; C Li; P Eckford; H Robinson; M Amaya; L Wood; D Ohman; C Bear; et al.

    2011-12-31

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the predominant pathogen associated with chronic lung infection among cystic fibrosis patients. During colonization of the lung, P. aeruginosa converts to a mucoid phenotype characterized by the overproduction of the exopolysaccharide alginate. Secretion of newly synthesized alginate across the outer membrane is believed to occur through the outer membrane protein AlgE. Here we report the 2.3 {angstrom} crystal structure of AlgE, which reveals a monomeric 18-stranded {beta}-barrel characterized by a highly electropositive pore constriction formed by an arginine-rich conduit that likely acts as a selectivity filter for the negatively charged alginate polymer. Interestingly, the pore constriction is occluded on either side by extracellular loop L2 and an unusually long periplasmic loop, T8. In halide efflux assays, deletion of loop T8 ({Delta}T8-AlgE) resulted in a threefold increase in anion flux compared to the wild-type or {Delta}L2-AlgE supporting the idea that AlgE forms a transport pathway through the membrane and suggesting that transport is regulated by T8. This model is further supported by in vivo experiments showing that complementation of an algE deletion mutant with {Delta}T8-AlgE impairs alginate production. Taken together, these studies support a mechanism for exopolysaccharide export across the outer membrane that is distinct from the Wza-mediated translocation observed in canonical capsular polysaccharide export systems.

  1. Living among giants exploring and settling the outer solar system

    CERN Document Server

    Carroll, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The outer Solar System is rich in resources and may be the best region in which to search for life beyond Earth. In fact, it may ultimately be the best place for Earthlings to set up permanent abodes. This book surveys the feasibility of that prospect, covering the fascinating history of exploration that kicks off our adventure into the outer Solar System.   Although other books provide surveys of the outer planets, Carroll approaches it from the perspective of potential future human exploration, exploitation and settlement, using insights from today’s leading scientists in the field. These experts take us to targets such as the moons Titan, Triton, Enceladus, Iapetus and Europa, and within the atmospheres of the gas and ice giants. In these pages you will experience the thrill of discovery awaiting those who journey through the giant worlds and their moons.   All the latest research is included, as are numerous illustrations, among them original paintings by the author, a renowned prize-winning space art...

  2. Students’ misconceptions about Newton's second law in outer space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Temiz, B K; Yavuz, A

    2014-01-01

    Students’ misconceptions about Newton's second law in frictionless outer space were investigated. The research was formed according to an epistemic game theoretical framework. The term ‘epistemic’ refers to students’ participation in problem-solving activities as a means of constructing new knowledge. The term ‘game’ refers to a coherent activity that consists of moves and rules. A set of questions in which students are asked to solve two similar Newton's second law problems, one of which is on the Earth and the other in outer space, was administered to 116 undergraduate students. The findings indicate that there is a significant difference between students’ epistemic game preferences and race-type (outer space or frictional surface) question. So students who used Newton's second law on the ground did not apply this law and used primitive reasoning when it came to space. Among these students, voluntary interviews were conducted with 18 students. Analysis of interview transcripts showed that: (1) the term ‘space’ causes spontaneity among students that prevents the use of the law; (2) students hesitate to apply Newton's second law in space due to the lack of a condition—the friction; (3) students feel that Newton's second law is not valid in space for a variety of reasons, but mostly for the fact that the body in space is not in contact with a surface. (paper)

  3. NIF Double Shell outer/inner shell collision experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merritt, E. C.; Loomis, E. N.; Wilson, D. C.; Cardenas, T.; Montgomery, D. S.; Daughton, W. S.; Dodd, E. S.; Desjardins, T.; Renner, D. B.; Palaniyappan, S.; Batha, S. H.; Khan, S. F.; Smalyuk, V.; Ping, Y.; Amendt, P.; Schoff, M.; Hoppe, M.

    2017-10-01

    Double shell capsules are a potential low convergence path to substantial alpha-heating and ignition on NIF, since they are predicted to ignite and burn at relatively low temperatures via volume ignition. Current LANL NIF double shell designs consist of a low-Z ablator, low-density foam cushion, and high-Z inner shell with liquid DT fill. Central to the Double Shell concept is kinetic energy transfer from the outer to inner shell via collision. The collision determines maximum energy available for compression and implosion shape of the fuel. We present results of a NIF shape-transfer study: two experiments comparing shape and trajectory of the outer and inner shells at post-collision times. An outer-shell-only target shot measured the no-impact shell conditions, while an `imaging' double shell shot measured shell conditions with impact. The `imaging' target uses a low-Z inner shell and is designed to perform in similar collision physics space to a high-Z double shell but can be radiographed at 16keV, near the viable 2DConA BL energy limit. Work conducted under the auspices of the U.S. DOE by LANL under contract DE-AC52-06NA25396.

  4. Neogene sedimentation on the outer continental margin, southern Bering Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallier, T.L.; Underwood, M.B.; Gardner, J.V.; Barron, J.A.

    1980-01-01

    Neogene sedimentary rocks and sediments from sites on the outer continental margin in the southern Bering Sea and on the Alaska Peninsula are dominated by volcanic components that probably were eroded from an emergent Aleutian Ridge. A mainland continental source is subordinate. Most sediment in the marine environment was transported to the depositional sites by longshore currents, debris flows, and turbidity currents during times when sea level was near the outermost continental shelf. Fluctuations of sea level are ascribed both to worldwide glacio-eustatic effects and to regional vertical tectonics. Large drainage systems, such as the Yukon and Kuskokwim Rivers, had little direct influence on sedimentation along the continental slope and Unmak Plateau in the southern Bering Sea. Sediments from those drainage systems probably were transported to the floor of the Aleutian Basin, to the numerous shelf basins that underlie the outer continental shelf, and to the Arctic Ocean after passing through the Bering Strait. Environments of deposition at the sites along the outer continental margin have not changed significantly since the middle Miocene. The site on the Alaska Peninsula, however, is now emergent following shallow-marine and transitional sedimentation during the Neogene. ?? 1980.

  5. Water and Volatiles in the Outer Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasset, O.; Castillo-Rogez, J.; Guillot, T.; Fletcher, L. N.; Tosi, F.

    2017-10-01

    Space exploration and ground-based observations have provided outstanding evidence of the diversity and the complexity of the outer solar system. This work presents our current understanding of the nature and distribution of water and water-rich materials from the water snow line to the Kuiper Belt. This synthesis is timely, since a thorough exploration of at least one object in each region of the outer solar system has now been achieved. Next steps, starting with the Juno mission now in orbit around Jupiter, will be more focused on understanding the processes at work than on describing the general characteristics of each giant planet systems. This review is organized in three parts. First, the nature and the distribution of water and volatiles in giant and intermediary planets are described from their inner core to their outer envelopes. A special focus is given to Jupiter and Saturn, which are much better understood than the two ice giants (Uranus and Neptune) thanks to the Galileo and Cassini missions. Second, the icy moons will be discussed. Space missions and ground-based observations have revealed the variety of icy surfaces in the outer system. While Europa, Enceladus, and maybe Titan present past or even active tectonic and volcanic activities, many other moons have been dead worlds for more than 3 billion years. Ice compositions found at these bodies are also complex and it is now commonly admitted that icy surfaces are never composed of pure ices. A detailed review of the distribution of non-ice materials on the surfaces and in the tenuous atmospheres of the moons is proposed, followed by a more focused discussion on the nature and the characteristics of the liquid layers trapped below the cold icy crusts that have been suggested in the icy Galilean moons, and in Enceladus, Dione, and Titan at Saturn. Finally, the recent observations collected by Dawn at Ceres and New Horizons at Pluto, as well as the state of knowledge of other transneptunian objects

  6. Gradient rotating outer volume excitation (GROOVE): A novel method for single-shot two-dimensional outer volume suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Nathaniel J; Jang, Albert; Park, Jang-Yeon; Valette, Julien; Garwood, Michael; Marjańska, Małgorzata

    2015-01-01

    To introduce a new outer volume suppression (OVS) technique that uses a single pulse and rotating gradients to accomplish frequency-swept excitation. This new technique, which is called gradient rotating outer volume excitation (GROOVE), produces a circular or elliptical suppression band rather than suppressing the entire outer volume. Theoretical and k-space descriptions of GROOVE are provided. The properties of GROOVE were investigated with simulations, phantom, and human experiments performed using a 4T horizontal bore magnet equipped with a TEM coil. Similar suppression performance was obtained in phantom and human brain using GROOVE with circular and elliptical shapes. Simulations indicate that GROOVE requires less SAR and time than traditional OVS schemes, but traditional schemes provide a sharper transition zone and less residual signal. GROOVE represents a new way of performing OVS in which spins are excited temporally in space on a trajectory that can be tailored to fit the shape of the suppression region. In addition, GROOVE is capable of suppressing tailored regions of space with more flexibility and in a shorter period of time than conventional methods. GROOVE provides a fast, low SAR alternative to conventional OVS methods in some applications (e.g., scalp suppression). © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Grain Size Data from the NOAA Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Assessment Program (OCSEAP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains grain size data from samples acquired under the NOAA Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Assessment Program (OCSEAP) from the Outer...

  8. Mosaic composition of ribA and wspB genes flanking the virB8-D4 operon in the Wolbachia supergroup B-strain, wStr.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldridge, Gerald D; Li, Yang Grace; Witthuhn, Bruce A; Higgins, LeeAnn; Markowski, Todd W; Baldridge, Abigail S; Fallon, Ann M

    2016-01-01

    The obligate intracellular bacterium, Wolbachia pipientis (Rickettsiales), is a widespread, vertically transmitted endosymbiont of filarial nematodes and arthropods. In insects, Wolbachia modifies reproduction, and in mosquitoes, infection interferes with replication of arboviruses, bacteria and plasmodia. Development of Wolbachia as a tool to control pest insects will be facilitated by an understanding of molecular events that underlie genetic exchange between Wolbachia strains. Here, we used nucleotide sequence, transcriptional and proteomic analyses to evaluate expression levels and establish the mosaic nature of genes flanking the T4SS virB8-D4 operon from wStr, a supergroup B-strain from a planthopper (Hemiptera) that maintains a robust, persistent infection in an Aedes albopictus mosquito cell line. Based on protein abundance, ribA, which contains promoter elements at the 5'-end of the operon, is weakly expressed. The 3'-end of the operon encodes an intact wspB, which encodes an outer membrane protein and is co-transcribed with the vir genes. WspB and vir proteins are expressed at similar, above average abundance levels. In wStr, both ribA and wspB are mosaics of conserved sequence motifs from Wolbachia supergroup A- and B-strains, and wspB is nearly identical to its homolog from wCobU4-2, an A-strain from weevils (Coleoptera). We describe conserved repeated sequence elements that map within or near pseudogene lesions and transitions between A- and B-strain motifs. These studies contribute to ongoing efforts to explore interactions between Wolbachia and its host cell in an in vitro system.

  9. Flanking Polyproline Sequences Inhibit [beta]-Sheet Structure in Polyglutamine Segments by Inducing PPII-like Helix Structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darnell, Gregory; Orgel, Joseph P.R.O.; Pahl, Reinhard; Meredith, Stephen C. (IIT); (UC)

    2008-06-24

    Polyglutamine (poly(Q)) expansion is associated with protein aggregation into {beta}-sheet amyloid fibrils and neuronal cytotoxicity. In the mutant poly(Q) protein huntingtin, associated with Huntington's disease, both aggregation and cytotoxicity may be abrogated by a polyproline (poly(P)) domain flanking the C terminus of the poly(Q) region. To understand structural changes that may occur with the addition of the poly(P) sequence, we synthesized poly(Q) peptides with 3-15 glutamine residues and a corresponding set of poly(Q) peptides flanked on the C terminus by 11 proline residues (poly(Q)-poly(P)), as occurs in the huntingtin sequence. The shorter soluble poly(Q) peptides (three or six glutamine residues) showed polyproline type II-like (PPII)-like helix conformation when examined by circular dichroism spectroscopy and were monomers as judged by size-exclusion chromatography (SEC), while the longer poly(Q) peptides (nine or 15 glutamine residues) showed a {beta}-sheet conformation by CD and defined oligomers by SEC. Soluble poly(Q)-poly(P) peptides showed PPII-like content but SEC showed poorly defined, overlapping oligomeric peaks, and as judged by CD these peptides retained significant PPII-like structure with increasing poly(Q) length. More importantly, addition of the poly(P) domain increased the threshold for fibril formation to {approx} 15 glutamine residues. X-ray diffraction, electron microscopy, and film CD showed that, while poly(Q) peptides with {ge} 6 glutamine residues formed {beta}-sheet-rich fibrils, only the longest poly(Q)-poly(P) peptide (15 glutamine residues) did so. From these and other observations, we propose that poly(Q) domains exist in a 'tug-of-war' between two conformations, a PPII-like helix and a {beta}-sheet, while the poly(P) domain is conformationally constrained into a proline type II helix (PPII). Addition of poly(P) to the C terminus of a poly(Q) domain induces a PPII-like structure, which opposes the

  10. Flank Collapse Assessment At Kick-'em-Jenny Submarine Volcano (Lesser Antilles): A Combined Approach Using Modelling and Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dondin, F. J. Y.; Heap, M. J.; Robertson, R. E. A.; Dorville, J. F. M.; Carey, S.

    2016-12-01

    In the Lesser Antilles over 52 volcanic landslide episodes have been identified. These episodes serve as a testament to the hazard posed by volcanic landslides to a region composed of many islands that are small independent countries with vulnerable local economies. This study presents a relative slope stability analysis (RIA) to investigate the stability condition of the only active submarine volcano of the Lesser Antilles Arc: Kick-'em-Jenny Submarine Volcano (KeJ). Thus we hope to provide better constraint on the landslide source geometry to help mitigate volcanic landslide hazards at a KeJ. KeJ is located ca. 8 km north of Grenada island. KeJ lies within a collapse scar from a prehistorical flank collapse. This collapse was associated with a voluminous landslide deposit of about 4.4km3 with a 14 km runout. Numerial simulations showed that this event could generate a regional tsunami. We aim to quantify potential initial volumes of collapsed material using a RIA. The RIA evaluates the critical potential failure surface associated with factor of safety (Fs) inferior to unity and compares them to areas of deficit/surplus of mass/volume obtained from the comparison of an high resolution digital elevation model of the edifice with an ideal 3D surface. We use freeware programs VolcanoFit 2.0 and SSAP 4.7. and produce a 3D representation of the stability map. We report, for the first time, results of a Limit Equilibrium Method performed using geomechanical parameters retrieved from rock mechanics tests performed on two rock basaltic-andesite rock samples collected from within the crater of the volcano during the 1-18 November 2013 NA039 E/V Nautilus cruise. We performed triaxial and uniaxial deformation tests to obtain values of strength at the top and bottom of the edifice. We further characterized the permeability and P-wave velocity of the samples collected. The chosen internal structure for the model is composed of three bodies: (i) a body composed of basaltic

  11. Platypus globin genes and flanking loci suggest a new insertional model for beta-globin evolution in birds and mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warren Wesley C

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vertebrate alpha (α- and beta (β-globin gene families exemplify the way in which genomes evolve to produce functional complexity. From tandem duplication of a single globin locus, the α- and β-globin clusters expanded, and then were separated onto different chromosomes. The previous finding of a fossil β-globin gene (ω in the marsupial α-cluster, however, suggested that duplication of the α-β cluster onto two chromosomes, followed by lineage-specific gene loss and duplication, produced paralogous α- and β-globin clusters in birds and mammals. Here we analyse genomic data from an egg-laying monotreme mammal, the platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus, to explore haemoglobin evolution at the stem of the mammalian radiation. Results The platypus α-globin cluster (chromosome 21 contains embryonic and adult α- globin genes, a β-like ω-globin gene, and the GBY globin gene with homology to cytoglobin, arranged as 5'-ζ-ζ'-αD-α3-α2-α1-ω-GBY-3'. The platypus β-globin cluster (chromosome 2 contains single embryonic and adult globin genes arranged as 5'-ε-β-3'. Surprisingly, all of these globin genes were expressed in some adult tissues. Comparison of flanking sequences revealed that all jawed vertebrate α-globin clusters are flanked by MPG-C16orf35 and LUC7L, whereas all bird and mammal β-globin clusters are embedded in olfactory genes. Thus, the mammalian α- and β-globin clusters are orthologous to the bird α- and β-globin clusters respectively. Conclusion We propose that α- and β-globin clusters evolved from an ancient MPG-C16orf35-α-β-GBY-LUC7L arrangement 410 million years ago. A copy of the original β (represented by ω in marsupials and monotremes was inserted into an array of olfactory genes before the amniote radiation (>315 million years ago, then duplicated and diverged to form orthologous clusters of β-globin genes with different expression profiles in different lineages.

  12. Platypus globin genes and flanking loci suggest a new insertional model for beta-globin evolution in birds and mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Vidushi S; Cooper, Steven J B; Deakin, Janine E; Fulton, Bob; Graves, Tina; Warren, Wesley C; Wilson, Richard K; Graves, Jennifer A M

    2008-07-25

    Vertebrate alpha (alpha)- and beta (beta)-globin gene families exemplify the way in which genomes evolve to produce functional complexity. From tandem duplication of a single globin locus, the alpha- and beta-globin clusters expanded, and then were separated onto different chromosomes. The previous finding of a fossil beta-globin gene (omega) in the marsupial alpha-cluster, however, suggested that duplication of the alpha-beta cluster onto two chromosomes, followed by lineage-specific gene loss and duplication, produced paralogous alpha- and beta-globin clusters in birds and mammals. Here we analyse genomic data from an egg-laying monotreme mammal, the platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus), to explore haemoglobin evolution at the stem of the mammalian radiation. The platypus alpha-globin cluster (chromosome 21) contains embryonic and adult alpha- globin genes, a beta-like omega-globin gene, and the GBY globin gene with homology to cytoglobin, arranged as 5'-zeta-zeta'-alphaD-alpha3-alpha2-alpha1-omega-GBY-3'. The platypus beta-globin cluster (chromosome 2) contains single embryonic and adult globin genes arranged as 5'-epsilon-beta-3'. Surprisingly, all of these globin genes were expressed in some adult tissues. Comparison of flanking sequences revealed that all jawed vertebrate alpha-globin clusters are flanked by MPG-C16orf35 and LUC7L, whereas all bird and mammal beta-globin clusters are embedded in olfactory genes. Thus, the mammalian alpha- and beta-globin clusters are orthologous to the bird alpha- and beta-globin clusters respectively. We propose that alpha- and beta-globin clusters evolved from an ancient MPG-C16orf35-alpha-beta-GBY-LUC7L arrangement 410 million years ago. A copy of the original beta (represented by omega in marsupials and monotremes) was inserted into an array of olfactory genes before the amniote radiation (>315 million years ago), then duplicated and diverged to form orthologous clusters of beta-globin genes with different expression

  13. Multiple scales of hydrothermal circulation in the oceanic crust: Studies from the Juan de Fuca Ridge and flank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Joshua Stephenson

    Seafloor heat flow patterns influenced by hydrothermal circulation within the upper oceanic crust are used to constrain fluid flow, crustal permeability, and thermal budgets at Middle Valley, northern Juan de Fuca Ridge and along the eastern flank of the Juan de Fuca Ridge. We made 397 heat flow measurements in two areas of active venting in Middle Valley, a sedimented spreading center. Heat flow patterns suggest that the top of the hydrothermal reservoir at the Dead Dog vent area is located ˜30 m beneath the vent field and is separated from a shallow secondary circulation system by a thin, impermeable, diagenetic cap. This cap is a hydrologic barrier, separating the high-temperature, overpressured system at depth from a low-temperature, underpressured system near the seafloor. Circulation above the cap is influenced by hydrodynamic interactions with active vents. Vent fluid recharges at the unsedimented edges of Middle Valley and is driven toward the vent field by small driving forces documented by borehole observatories. These small driving forces, in combination with estimated fluid flux (150 l/min), imply that crustal permeability must be high (10 -12 to 10-10 m2). We estimate the total heat loss for a 260 km2 region of Middle Valley to be 274 MW. Conductive and advective heat loss are approximately equal, in contrast to bare-rock ridges that lose 90% or more of their heat advectively. Models of lateral heat and fluid flow across a 26 km transect of the eastern flank of the Juan de Fuca Ridge quantify relations between lateral specific discharge, flow layer thickness and formation permeability. Free flow simulations require non-hydrostatic initial conditions and permeabilities of 10-11 to 10-9 m2, but match heat flow observations with lateral specific discharges of 1.2 to 40 m/yr. These lateral flow rates are 10x to 1000x greater than predicted by apparent radiocarbon ages of the fluids. When apparent radiocarbon ages are corrected to account for diffusion

  14. Neogene Basin Evolution Along the Northern Flank of the Papuan Peninsula, Goodenough Bay, Eastern Papua New Guinea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, B. K.; Gillis, R. J.; Mann, P.

    2009-12-01

    Although large-magnitude extension in the Woodlark Rift of eastern Papua New Guinea (PNG) and the D’Entrecasteaux Islands has been addressed through previous research on the late Cenozoic structure and cooling history of metamorphic domes, few studies have evaluated the exhumational record contained within adjacent sedimentary basins. Onshore exposures of Neogene basin fill in PNG along the northern flank of the Papuan peninsula (east of the Dayman metamorphic dome and west-southwest of the domes of the D’Entrecasteaux Islands) provide a record of basin evolution prior to and during growth of the active spreading center that defines the boundary between the Australian plate and Woodlark microplate. Along the northern margin of the Papuan peninsula, a collection of lithofacies associations consisting of sandstone and subordinate conglomerate and mudstone represent deposition in bottomset, foreset, and topset subenvironments in a series of marine Gilbert-type deltas. Internal angular unconformities within the basin-fill succession indicate slope instability likely related to syndepositional deformation. This deformation is attributed to principally down-to-the north motion along extensional and strike-slip structures bordering the northern margin of Papuan peninsula, notably the ESE-striking Goodenough fault zone. Small-scale folding is interpreted as the product of late Miocene to Quaternary fault-related folding in an extensional setting, although we cannot rule out possible contraction coeval with significant collision-related shortening on the southern flank of the Papuan peninsula within the south-directed Papuan fold-thrust belt. Differences in sandstone petrographic results for the northern margin of the Papuan peninsula and the smaller Vogel peninsula suggest a multiphase history of basin evolution, with early Neogene subsidence of uncertain origin and late Neogene subsidence linked to regional extension. The timing of basin evolution will be assessed

  15. Tool Wear Analysis on Five-Axis Flank Milling for Curved Shape Part – Full Flute and Ground Shank End Mill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syahrul Azwan Sundi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a study on full flute (extra-long tool and ground shank end mill wear analysis by utilizing five-axis CNC to implement flank milling strategy on curved shape part. Five-axis machining eases the user to implement variations of strategy such as flank milling. Flank milling is different from point milling. Point milling cuts materials by using the tip of the tool whereas the flank milling uses the cutting tool body to cut material. The type of cutting tool used was end mill 10 mm diameter with High Speed Steel (HSS material. One factor at a time was utilized to analyze the overall data. Feed rate and spindle speed were the two main factors that been set up equally for both full flute and ground shank end mill. At the end of this research, the qualitative analysis based on tool wear between full flute and ground shank end mill is observed. Generally, both types of cutting tools showed almost the same failure indication such as broken edge or chipped off edge, formation of pinned hole on the surface and serration formation or built-up edge (BUE on the primary flute. However, the results obtained from the enlarged images which were captured by Optical Microscope indicated that, the ground shank end mill is better than the full flute end mill.

  16. The N-Terminal Flanking Region of the Invariant Chain Peptide Augments the Immunogenicity of a Cryptic “Self” Epitope from a Tumor-Associated Antigen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hess, A.D.; Thoburn, C.; Chen, W.; Miura, Y.; Wall, E. van der

    2001-01-01

    The N-terminal flanking region of the invariant chain peptide termed CLIP appears to have superagonistic properties interacting with the T cell receptor and the MHC class II molecule at or near the binding site for the bacterial superantigen Staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB). The present studies

  17. Genotyping of the 19-bp insertion/deletion polymorphism in the 5' flank of beta-hydroxylase gene by dissociation analysis of allele-specific PCR products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik Berg; Werge, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    The 19-bp insertion/deletion polymorphism in the 5' flank of the dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH) gene has been associated with psychiatric disorders. We have developed a simple, reliable and inexpensive closed-tube assay for genotyping of this polymorphism based upon T(m) determination of amplified...

  18. Pigs suffering from injurious behaviours like flank biting and tail biting are more interested to manipulate a novel rope than uninjured control animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bracke, M.B.M.; Ettema, K.

    2014-01-01

    Injurious behaviours in pigs may involve persistent or forceful biting in specific body parts and may result in wounds of the pigs’ tails, ears, flanks and legs. Such behaviours, which may lead to progressive tissue damage, are difficult to counteract. On a commercial farm 22 groups of pigs with

  19. The transition summit-flank activity at Mt. Etna, Sicily (Italy): inferences from the petrology of products erupted from 2007 to 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsaro, Rosa Anna; Miraglia, Lucia

    2014-05-01

    Mt. Etna is an active basaltic volcano where both flank and summit eruptions take place. In particular, the South-East summit crater (SEC) during the last decades has been characterized by 'episodic' eruptions, which consist of recurrent lava fountains associated with lava flows emission, lasting from a few weeks to months. The past recent volcanic activity has shown that, if a transition from an episodic summit eruption to a flank eruption occurred, it generally took place while the last paroxysm of the episodic eruption was still underway. Differently, the 2007-08 episodic eruption at SEC was followed by the 2008-09 flank activity which started three days after the conclusion of the last paroxysm, in coincidence with the strong earthquake (M= 7.9) in Sichuan (China), whose perturbations have been registered by the monitoring network of Mt. Etna. We then investigated the transition from summit episodic activity at SEC to flank eruption utilizing a petrologic study of the products erupted from 2007 to 2009 integrated with data from the literature. The compositional variability of the products is mainly explainable with a mixing between an evolved magma stored in the SEC reservoir and a more primitive magma which intrudes it. In the studied period the most significant episodes of magma recharge occurred before the onset of the 2007-08 episodic activity and during the 2008-09 flank eruption, more precisely before June 2008. According to previous studies the seven episodes of the 2007-08 eruption at SEC have been interpreted to result from the disruption of a foam layer at the top of the SEC reservoir which was rebuilt before each subsequent episode. The transition from 2007-08 episodic eruption at SEC to the 2008-09 flank activity was essentially triggered by the Sichuan earthquake which caused a variation of dynamic stress. It promoted the volatile exolution, the pressurization of SEC stored magma, and the consequent fracturing of the surrounding rocks where magma

  20. The transition from summit to flank activity at Mt. Etna, Sicily (Italy): Inferences from the petrology of products erupted in 2007-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsaro, Rosa Anna; Miraglia, Lucia

    2014-04-01

    Mt. Etna is an active basaltic volcano where both flank and summit eruptions take place. In recent decades, the South-East summit crater (SEC) has in particular been characterized by 'episodic' eruptions, consisting of recurrent lava fountains associated with lava flow emissions and lasting from a few weeks to months. Recent volcanic activity shows that, if there is a transition from an episodic summit eruption to a flank eruption, then this usually takes place while the last paroxysm of the episodic eruption is still underway. By contrast, the 2007-08 episodic eruption at SEC was followed by the 2008-09 flank activity which started three days after the conclusion of the last paroxysm, coinciding with the strong earthquake (M = 7.9) in Sichuan (China), whose perturbations were recorded by the monitoring network of Mt. Etna. We therefore investigated the transition from a summit episodic eruption at SEC to flank activity utilizing a petrologic study of the products erupted from 2007 to 2009, integrated with literature data. The compositional variability of the products may largely be explained by a mixing between an evolved magma stored in the SEC reservoir and a more primitive magma which intrudes it. In the studied period, the most significant episodes of magma recharge occurred before the onset of the 2007-08 episodic eruption and during the 2008-09 flank activity, more precisely before June 2008. According to previous studies, the seven paroxysms of the 2007-08 episodic eruption at SEC have been interpreted as resulting from the disruption of a foam layer at the top of the SEC reservoir which was rebuilt before each subsequent episode. The transition from the 2007-08 episodic eruption at SEC to the 2008-09 flank activity was essentially triggered by the Sichuan earthquake which caused a variation of dynamic stress. It caused the volatile exolution, the pressurization of SEC stored magma, and the consequent fracturing of the surrounding rocks where magma intruded

  1. 78 FR 13695 - Information Collection: Renewable Energy and Alternate Uses of Existing Facilities on the Outer...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-28

    ... Collection: Renewable Energy and Alternate Uses of Existing Facilities on the Outer Continental Shelf... Energy and Alternate Uses of Existing Facilities on the Outer Continental Shelf.'' This notice provides..., Renewable Energy and Alternate Uses of Existing Facilities on the Outer Continental Shelf. Forms: BOEM-0002...

  2. 77 FR 61633 - Information Collection: Renewable Energy and Alternate Uses of Existing Facilities on the Outer...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-10

    ...] Information Collection: Renewable Energy and Alternate Uses of Existing Facilities on the Outer Continental... requirements in the regulations under ``Renewable Energy and Alternate Uses of Existing Facilities on the Outer... Energy and Alternate Uses of Existing Facilities on the Outer Continental Shelf. Forms: BOEM-0002, BOEM...

  3. Generation of a genetically encoded marker of rod photoreceptor outer segment growth and renewal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John J. Willoughby

    2011-10-01

    Vertebrate photoreceptors are specialized light sensing neurons. The photoreceptor outer segment is a highly modified cilium where photons of light are transduced into a chemical and electrical signal. The outer segment has the typical cilary axoneme but, in addition, it has a large number of densely packed, stacked, intramembranous discs. The molecular and cellular mechanisms that contribute to vertebrate photoreceptor outer segment morphogenesis are still largely unknown. Unlike typical cilia, the outer segment is continuously regenerated or renewed throughout the life of the animal through the combined process of distal outer segment shedding and proximal outer segment growth. The process of outer segment renewal was discovered over forty years ago, but we still lack an understanding of how photoreceptors renew their outer segments and few, if any, molecular mechanisms that regulate outer segment growth or shedding have been described. Our lack of progress in understanding how photoreceptors renew their outer segments has been hampered by the difficulty in measuring rates of renewal. We have created a new method that uses heat-shock induction of a fluorescent protein that can be used to rapidly measure outer segment growth rates. We describe this method, the stable transgenic line we created, and the growth rates observed in larval and adult rod photoreceptors using this new method. This new method will allow us to begin to define the genetic and molecular mechanisms that regulate rod outer segment renewal, a crucial aspect of photoreceptor function and, possibly, viability.

  4. 33 CFR 165.1402 - Apra Outer Harbor, Guam-regulated navigation area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Apra Outer Harbor, Guam-regulated....1402 Apra Outer Harbor, Guam—regulated navigation area. (a) The following is a regulated navigation area—The waters of the Pacific Ocean and Apra Outer Harbor enclosed by a line beginning at latitude 13...

  5. 78 FR 29091 - Safety Zone; Outer Banks Bluegrass Festival; Shallowbag Bay, Manteo, NC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-17

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Outer Banks Bluegrass Festival; Shallowbag Bay, Manteo, NC AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... the Outer Banks Bluegrass Festival. This action is necessary to protect the life and property of the... vessels from a portion of Shallowbag Bay River during the Outer Banks Bluegrass Festival Fireworks display...

  6. Investigation of acute flank pain: how do practices of U.K.and Irish urologists compare with those of transatlantic and continental European colleagues?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otite, Ugo; Parkin, John; Waymont, Brian; Inglis, John A; Philp, Nigel H

    2005-10-01

    Noncontrast-enhanced spiral CT (NESCT) is more accurate and reliable than intravenous urography (IVU) in diagnosing the cause of acute flank pain. This study aimed to determine the impact of current literature on the choice of imaging modality used to investigate acute flank pain within the UK and the Republic of Ireland. A questionnaire regarding the preferred investigation for acute flank pain was sent to all consultant urologists registered as British Association of Urological Surgeons members. Of the 548 consultants from 210 institutions surveyed, 293 (54%) from 171 (81.4%) institutions returned their questionnaires. Intravenous urography is used in the majority of institutions (146; 85.4%) for investigating acute flank pain. Only 18 (10.5%) use NESCT, while 4.1% use ultrasonography. Among those using IVU as the investigation of choice, the main reason given was limited CT services (82.4%). Others included familiarity with IVU features (51.2%), limited availability of radiologists for out-of-hours reporting of CT (26%), more rapid procedure (20.8%), lower cost (20%), and lower radiation exposure (19.6%). Only 52.4% of consultants using IVU would prefer NESCT if both were equally available. Urography remains the commonest modality for the investigation of acute flank pain in the UK and Ireland primarily because of limited CT services and greater familiarity with the images. Given the opportunity, only half of consultant urologists would select NESCT in preference to IVU, suggesting that improving the availability of CT services alone may not lead to practice paralleling that of our transatlantic and continental European colleagues.

  7. Legal Implications of Military Uses of Outer Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catena, Johanna

    2002-01-01

    Acquisition of Space Weapons, the Legal, Political and Military Impact for International Peace and At the dawn of a new century an immediate danger is upon us: The weaponization of outer space, including potential cost implications upon the prospect of ushering an era of peace and prosperity. But, can such statements be explained as pure sentimentality for hopes of a new era? Or is the danger misplaced that the threat to peace and security is an ever more ominous? By militarising outer space one could monitor crisis areas that could become a potential threat and this would in turn build confidence and security amongst nations. However the Outer Space Treaty prohibits placing in orbit nuclear and other weapons of mass destruction. This does not include other military systems. Many countries feel the prohibition should be extended in the Treaty. Other military systems may involve anti-satellite weapons, (ASATS), emitting or simply placing technologies in space using laser and /or particle beams from space to intercept presently specific military targets such as ballistic missiles and hostile satellites, but in the future this may extend to destroying a target on earth. Military presence in space however, is not founded on weapons alone, but also through military surveillance systems and seen by some countries as an effective measure in verification on arms control. It is also seen as intensifying an arms race. At the forefront of the debate for space weapons is the possibility of countries deploying a National Missile Defence system. How does one reconcile such a system with present treaties? There has always been a direct relationship between weapons and space exploration, particularly if traced through the history of the late nineteenth century to the era of the space race. Konstantin Tsiolkovsky, (1857 - 1935), was one of the founders to astronautics. Robert Goddard, (1882-1945) an Englishman, developed Tsiolkovskys' work further. He built the first liquid

  8. Changes in Bottom Water Physical Properties Above the Mid-Atlantic Ridge Flank in the Brazil Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jian; Thurnherr, Andreas M.

    2018-01-01

    Warming of abyssal waters in recent decades has been widely documented around the global ocean. Here repeat hydrographic data collected in 1997 and 2014 near a deep fracture zone canyon in the eastern Brazil Basin are used to quantify the long-term change. Significant changes are found in the Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW) within the canyon. The AABW in 2014 was warmer (0.08 ± 0.06°C), saltier (0.01 ± 0.005), and less dense (0.005 ± 0.004 kg m-3) than in 1997. In contrast, the change in the North Atlantic Deep Water has complicated spatial structure and is almost indistinguishable from zero at 95% confidence. The resulting divergence in vertical displacement of the isopycnals modifies the local density stratification. At its peak, the local squared buoyancy frequency (N2) near the canyon is reduced by about 20% from 1997 to 2014. Similar reduction is found in the basinwide averaged profiles over the Mid-Atlantic Ridge flank along 25°W in years 1989, 2005, and 2014. The observed changes in density stratification have important implications for internal tide generation and dissipation.

  9. Diversity and metabolic potentials of subsurface crustal microorganisms from the western flank of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinxu eZhang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Deep-sea oceanic crust constitutes the largest region of the earth’s surface. Accumulating evidence suggests that unique microbial communities are supported by iron cycling processes, particularly in the young (<10 million-year old, cool (<25 °C subsurface oceanic crust. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the microbial abundance, diversity, and metabolic potentials in the sediment-buried crust from North Pond on western flank of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Three lithologic units along basement Hole U1383C were found, which typically hosted ~104 cells cm-3 of basaltic rock, with higher cell densities occurring between 115 and 145 m below seafloor. Similar bacterial community structures, which are dominated by Gammaproteobacterial and Sphingobacterial species closely related to iron oxidizers, were detected regardless of variations in sampling depth. The metabolic potentials of the crust microbiota were assayed by metagenomic analysis of two basalt enrichments which showed similar bacterial structure with the original sample. Genes coding for energy metabolism involved in hydrocarbon degradation, dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium, denitrification and hydrogen oxidation were identified. Compared with other marine environments, the metagenomes from the basalt-hosted environments were enriched in pathways for Fe3+ uptake, siderophore synthesis and uptake, and Fe transport, suggesting that iron metabolism is an important energy production and conservation mechanism in this system. Overall, we provide evidence that the North Pond crustal biosphere is dominated by unique bacterial groups with the potential for iron-related biogeochemical cycles.

  10. On the main anhydrite scenario, illustrated by the example of the NE flank of the Stassfurt saddle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwandt, A.; Schilder, C.; Rauche, H.; Franzke, H.J.

    1991-09-01

    The non-chloride successions embedded in the salt of the Zechstein with their geomechanical behaviour which is completely different from that of the salt rock play an important part in the assessment of the concrete safety situation in the salt mine destined to serve as a repository. The literature study of this report presents a safety-related assessment of the main anhydrite using the example of the NE flank of the Stassfurt saddle, on the basis of exploratory data and experience and documented data obtained by the authors of this report. The tectonic effects on the main anhydrite are studied in detail. It is found that geomechanical impacts can lead to healed or closed joints getting damaged and thus loose their tightness to water or gas. The most intensive geomechanical stress on the main anhydrite results from the flooding of mines. It is stated that, making pin-pointed investigations of the geological and hydrogeological conditions, natural or man-made hazards to the safety of a repository can be well recognized, characterized, and mastered. (orig./HP) [de

  11. Quadruplex-Flanking Stem Structures Modulate the Stability and Metal Ion Preferences of RNA Mimics of GFP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ageely, Eman A; Kartje, Zachary J; Rohilla, Kushal J; Barkau, Christopher L; Gagnon, Keith T

    2016-09-16

    The spinach family of RNA aptamers are RNA mimics of green fluorescent protein (GFP) that have previously been designed to address the challenges of imaging RNA inside living cells. However, relatively low levels of free intracellular magnesium limited the practical use of these aptamers. Recent cell-based selections identified the broccoli RNA aptamer, which requires less magnesium for fluorescence, but the basis for magnesium preference remained unclear. Here, we find that the broccoli RNA structure is very similar to that of baby spinach, a truncated version of the spinach aptamer. Differences in stability and metal ion preferences between these two aptamers, and among broccoli mutants, are primarily associated with the sequence and structure of predicted quadruplex-flanking stem structures. Mutation of purine-purine pairs in broccoli at the terminal stem-quadruplex transition caused reversion of broccoli to a higher magnesium dependence. Unique duplex-to-quadruplex transitions in GFP-mimic RNAs likely explain their sensitivity to magnesium for stability and fluorescence. Thus, optimizations designed to improve aptamers should take into consideration the role of metal ions in stabilizing the transitions and interactions between independently folding RNA structural motifs.

  12. Tightly linked flanking microsatellite markers for the Usher syndrome type I locus on the short arm of chromosome 11

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keats, B.J.B.; Nouri, N.; Pelias, M.Z.; Deininger, P.L. (Louisiana State Univ., New Orleans, LA (United States)); Litt, M. (Oregon Health Sciences Univ., Portland, OR (United States))

    1994-04-01

    Usher syndrome type I is an autosomal recessive disease characterized by profound congenital hearing impairment and vestibular dysfunction followed by the onset of progressive pigmentary retinopathy in childhood or early adolescence. A locus (USH1C) for one form of this disease was previously assigned to the short arm of chromosome 11 through linkage studies in the Acadian population of southwestern Louisiana. Linkage analyses of a set of microsatellite markers in 27 Acadian families provide evidence that USH1C lies between D11S861 and D11S928. Three markers (D11S419, D11S921, and D11S899) that lie between the flanking markers show no recombination with USH1C, and all 54 chromosomes with the abnormal allele at the disease locus have identical alleles for D11S419 and D11S921. This haplotype was found on only 10 of 50 chromosomes with the normal allele at the disease locus, suggesting a strong founder effect. Of the 54 chromosomes with the abnormal allele, 12 had a divergent allele at D11S899. These results suggest that USH1C is in the 2-3-cM interval between D11S861 and D11S899. 16 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Comparative assessment of surgeons' task performance and surgical ergonomics associated with conventional and modified flank positions: a simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yu; Kong, Gaiqing; Meng, Yisen; Tan, Shutao; Wei, Kunlin; Zhang, Qian; Jin, Jie

    2014-11-01

    Flank position is extensively used in retroperitoneoscopic urological practice. Most surgeons follow the patients' position in open approaches. However, surgical ergonomics of the conventional position in the retroperitoneoscopic surgery is poor. We introduce a modified position and evaluated task performance and surgical ergonomics of both positions with simulated surgical tasks. Twenty-one novice surgeons were recruited to perform four tasks: bead transfer, ring transfer, continuous suturing, and cutting a circle. The conventional position was simulated by setting an endo-surgical simulator parallel to the long axis of a surgical desk. The modified position was simulated by rotating the simulator 30° with respect to the long axis of the desk. The outcome measurements include task performance measures, kinematic measures for body alignment, surface electromyography, relative loading between feet, and subjective ratings of fatigue. We observed significant improvements in both task performance and surgical ergonomics parameters under the modified position. For all four tasks, subjects finished tasks faster with higher accuracy (p ergonomics part: (1) The angle between the upper body and the head was decreased by 7.4 ± 1.7°; (2) The EMG amplitude collected from shoulders and left lumber was significantly lower (p ergonomics. With a simulated surgery, we demonstrated that our modified position could significantly improve task performance and surgical ergonomics. Further studies are still warranted to validate these benefits for both patients and surgeons.

  14. The complex genetic context of blaPER-1 flanked by miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements in Acinetobacter johnsonii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiyong Zong

    Full Text Available On a large plasmid of Acinetobacter johnsonii strain XBB1 from hospital sewage, blaPER-1 and ISCR1 were found in a complex Tn402-like integron carrying an arr3-aacA4 cassette array. The integron was truncated by the same 439-bp miniature inverted-repeat transposable element (MITE at both ends. blaPER-1 and its complex surroundings might have been mobilized by the MITEst into an orf of unknown function, evidenced by the presence of the characteristic 5-bp direct target repeats. The same 439-bp MITEs have also been found flanking class 1 integrons carrying metallo-β-lactamases genes bla IMP-1, bla IMP-5 and bla VIM-2 before but without ISCR1. Although the cassette arrays are different, integrons have always been truncated by the 439-bp MITEs at the exact same locations. The results suggested that MITEs might be able to mobilize class 1 integrons via transposition or homologous recombination and therefore represent a possible common mechanism for mobilizing antimicrobial resistance determinants.

  15. Modeling ground deformation associated with the destructive earthquakes occurring on Mt. Etna's southeastern flank in 1984

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Cannavò

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The Timpe Fault System is the source of very shallow but destructive earthquakes that affect several towns and villages on the eastern flank of Mt. Etna (Italy. In 1984, several seismic events, and specifically on 19 and 25 October, caused one fatality, 12 injuries and produced serious damage in the Zafferana and Acireale territories. This seismicity was mainly related to the activity of the Fiandaca Fault, one of the structures belonging to the Timpe Fault System. We inverted ground deformation data collected by a geodimeter trilateration network set up in 1977 at a low altitude along the eastern side of the volcano in order to define the Timpe Fault System faulting mechanisms linked to the seismicity in 1984. We have found that in the period May 1980–October 1984, the Fiandaca Fault was affected by a strike-slip and normal dip-slip of about 20.4 and 12.7 cm respectively. This result is kinematically consistent with field observations of the coseismic ground ruptures along the fault but it is notably large compared to displacements estimated by seismicity, then suggesting that most of the slip over the fault plane was aseismic. The results once again confirm how seismicity and its relation with ground ruptures and creep displacement represent a very high hazard to the several towns and villages situated along the Timpe Fault System.

  16. Natural radioactivity content in groundwater of Mt. Etna’s eastern flank and gamma background of surrounding rocks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Kozłowska

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Waters of Mt. Etna are the main source of drinking water for the local population and are also distributed in municipal supply systems to neighbouring areas. Radioactivity in underground waters and surrounding rocks from the eastern flank of Mt.Etnawas investigated on the basis of 9 water and 8 rocks samples from 12 localities altogether. Three samples were from water drainage galleries and six from water wells. All water intakes are used for consumption. Activity concentration of uranium isotopes 234,238U, radium isotopes 226,228Ra and radon 222Rn were determined with the use different nuclear spectrometry techniques. The determination of uranium isotopes was carried out with the use of alpha spectrometry. The measurements of radium and radon activity concentration in water were performed with the use of a liquid scintillation technique. Additionally, rocks surrounding the intakes were examined with gamma spectrometry. All water samples showed uranium concentration above Minimum Detectable Activity (MDA, with the highest total uranium (234U + 238U activity concentration equal to 149.2±6 mBq/L. Conversely, all samples showed radium isotopes activity concentrations below MDA. Radon activity concentration was within the range from 2.91±0.36 to 21.21±1.10 Bq/L, hence these waters can be classified as low – radon waters. Gamma natural background of the rocks surrounding the water sampling sites was found on the same levels as other volcanic rocks of Italy.

  17. King's Trough Flank: geological and geophysical investigations of its suitability for high-level radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kidd, R.B.; Searle, R.C.; Weaver, P.P.E.; Jacobs, C.L.; Huggett, Q.J.; Noel, M.J.; Schultheiss, P.J.

    1983-01-01

    The King's Trough Flank study area in the Northeast Atlantic Ocean was chosen in 1979 as a location at which to examine the suitability of pelagic carbonate sequences for sub-seabed disposal of high-level radioactive waste. This report summarises investigations up to the end of 1982; following visits by four research ships to the area during which geophysical data and sediment samples were collected. The region is a characteristically rugged portion of the deep ocean floor with hills and scarps 10 to 30 km apart and slopes around the hills ranging from 18 deg to 30 deg. Areas of relatively smooth seafloor occur, however, up to 35 km across, where slopes no greater than 2 deg are recorded. At this stage an apparent discrepancy between the geophysical and sediment core data leaves some uncertainty regarding the stability of the sediment cover and the likelihood of current erosion in these areas. The general suitability of the area is discussed by comparing our present geological and geophysical data with the set of 'desirable characteristics' for a sub-seabed disposal site first outlined in 1979. The difficulties involved in extrapolating findings from presently-sampled depths of up to 10 metres to depths envisaged for shallow waste disposal are emphasised. (author)

  18. Revealing the hidden faults in the SE flank of Mt. Etna using radon in-soil gas measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnová, K; Thinová, L; Giammanco, S

    2014-07-01

    Although there are many methods for investigating tectonic structures, many faults remain hidden, and they can endanger the life and property of people living along them. The slopes of volcanoes are covered with such hidden faults, near which strong earthquakes and gas releases can appear. Revealing hidden faults can therefore contribute significantly to the protection of people living in volcanic areas. In the study, seven different techniques were used for making measurements of in-soil radon concentrations in order to search for hidden faults on the SE flank of the Mt. Etna volcano. These reported methods had previously been proved to be useful tools for investigating fault structures. The main aim of the experiment presented here was to evaluate the usability of these methods in the geological conditions of the Mt. Etna region, and to find the best place for continual radon monitoring using a permanent station in the near future. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Molecular Interaction between the Chaperone Hsc70 and the N-terminal Flank of Huntingtin Exon 1 Modulates Aggregation*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monsellier, Elodie; Redeker, Virginie; Ruiz-Arlandis, Gemma; Bousset, Luc; Melki, Ronald

    2015-01-01

    The aggregation of polyglutamine (polyQ)-containing proteins is at the origin of nine neurodegenerative diseases. Molecular chaperones prevent the aggregation of polyQ-containing proteins. The exact mechanism by which they interact with polyQ-containing, aggregation-prone proteins and interfere with their assembly is unknown. Here we dissect the mechanism of interaction between a huntingtin exon 1 fragment of increasing polyQ lengths (HttEx1Qn), the aggregation of which is tightly associated with Huntington's disease, and molecular chaperone Hsc70. We show that Hsc70, together with its Hsp40 co-chaperones, inhibits HttEx1Qn aggregation and modifies the structural, seeding, and infectious properties of the resulting fibrils in a polyQ-independent manner. We demonstrate that Hsc70 binds the 17-residue-long N-terminal flank of HttEx1Qn, and we map Hsc70-HttEx1Qn surface interfaces at the residue level. Finally, we show that this interaction competes with homotypic interactions between the N termini of different HttEx1Qn molecules that trigger the aggregation process. Our results lay the foundations of future therapeutic strategies targeting huntingtin aggregation in Huntington disease. PMID:25505179

  20. A GLIMPSE of Star Formation in the Outer Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winston, Elaine; Hora, Joseph L.; Tolls, Volker

    2018-01-01

    The wealth of infrared data provided by recent infrared missions such as Spitzer, Herschel, and WISE has yet to be fully mined in the study of star formation in the outer galaxy. The nearby galaxy and massive star forming regions towards the galactic center have been extensively studied. However the outer regions of the Milky Way, where the metallicity is intermediate in value between the inner galactic disk and the Magellanic Clouds, has not been systematically studied. We are using Spitzer/IRAC’s GLIMPSE (Galactic Legacy Infrared Mid-plane Survey Extraordinaire) observations of the galactic plane at 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, and 8.0 microns to identify young stellar objects (YSOs) via their disk emission in the mid-infrared. A tiered clustering analysis is then performed: preliminary large scale clustering is identified across the field using a Density-Based Spatial Clustering of Applications with Noise (DBSCAN) technique. Smaller scale sub clustering within these regions is performed using an implementation of the Minimum Spanning Tree (MST) technique. The YSOs are then compared to known objects in the SIMBAD catalogue and their photometry and cluster membership is augmented using available Herschel and WISE photometry. We compare our results to those in the inner galaxy to determine how dynamical processes and environmental factors affect the star formation efficiency. These results will have applications to the study of star formation in other galaxies, where only global properties can be determined. We will present here the results of our initial investigation into star formation in the outer galaxy using the Spitzer/GLIMPSE observations of the SMOG field.

  1. General Corrosion and Localized Corrosion of Waste Package Outer Barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K.G. Mon

    2004-10-01

    The waste package design for the License Application is a double-wall waste package underneath a protective drip shield (BSC 2004 [DIRS 168489]; BSC 2004 [DIRS 169480]). The purpose and scope of this model report is to document models for general and localized corrosion of the waste package outer barrier (WPOB) to be used in evaluating waste package performance. The WPOB is constructed of Alloy 22 (UNS N06022), a highly corrosion-resistant nickel-based alloy. The inner vessel of the waste package is constructed of Stainless Steel Type 316 (UNS S31600). Before it fails, the Alloy 22 WPOB protects the Stainless Steel Type 316 inner vessel from exposure to the external environment and any significant degradation. The Stainless Steel Type 316 inner vessel provides structural stability to the thinner Alloy 22 WPOB. Although the waste package inner vessel would also provide some performance for waste containment and potentially decrease the rate of radionuclide transport after WPOB breach before it fails, the potential performance of the inner vessel is far less than that of the more corrosion-resistant Alloy 22 WPOB. For this reason, the corrosion performance of the waste package inner vessel is conservatively ignored in this report and the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA). Treatment of seismic and igneous events and their consequences on waste package outer barrier performance are not specifically discussed in this report, although the general and localized corrosion models developed in this report are suitable for use in these scenarios. The localized corrosion processes considered in this report are pitting corrosion and crevice corrosion. Stress corrosion cracking is discussed in ''Stress Corrosion Cracking of the Drip Shield, the Waste Package Outer Barrier, and the Stainless Steel Structural Material'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169985]).

  2. Limit cycles at the outer edge of the habitable zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haqq-Misra, J. D.; Kopparapu, R.; Batalha, N. E.; Harman, C.; Kasting, J. F.

    2016-12-01

    The liquid water habitable zone (HZ) describes the orbital distance at which a terrestrial planet can maintain above-freezing conditions through regulation by the carbonate-silicate cycle. Calculations with one-dimensional climate models predict that the inner edge of the HZ is limited by water loss through a runaway greenhouse, while the outer edge of the HZ is bounded by the maximum greenhouse effect of carbon dioxide. This classic picture of the HZ continues to guide interpretation of exoplanet discoveries; however, recent calculations have shown that terrestrial planets near the outer edge of the HZ may exhibit other behaviors that affect their habitability. Here I discuss results from a hierarchy of climate models to understand the stellar environments most likely to support a habitable planet. I present energy balance climate model calculations showing the conditions under which planets in the outer regions of the habitable zone should oscillate between long, globally glaciated states and shorter periods of climatic warmth, known as `limit cycles.' Such conditions would be inimical to the development of complex land life, including intelligent life. Limit cycles may also provide an explanation for fluvial features on early Mars, although this requires additional greenhouse warming by hydrogen. These calculations show that the net volcanic outgassing rate and the propensity for plant life to sequester carbon dioxide are critical factors that determine the susceptibility of a planet to limit cycling. I argue that planets orbiting mid G- to mid K-type stars offer more opportunity for supporting advanced life than do planets around F-type stars or M-type stars.

  3. NIAC Support to Innovation in Outer Planet Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, R. E.

    2001-01-01

    Imagine: A magnetized plasma bubble is riding the solar wind, delivering payloads to the outer planets in months instead of years. Swarms of thousands of thumbnail sized 'mesocopters' are measuring the outgassing of an awakening volcano on Titan. A long-duration, nuclear ramjet-powered unmanned aircraft is navigating the winds of Jupiter. A colony of robotic swimmers are exploring remote oceanic vents under the Europan ice. This vision is derived from a sampling of the many studies in aerospace and aeronautics underway or completed through the auspices of the NASA Institute for Advanced Concepts (NIAC). NIAC was established in 1998 for the explicit purpose of being an independent source of revolutionary aeronautical and space concepts that could dramatically impact how NASA develops and conducts its mission. The institute is to provide a highly visible, recognized and high-level entry point for outside thinkers and researchers. The purpose of the NIAC is to provide an independent, open forum for the external analysis and definition of space and aeronautics advanced concepts to complement the advanced concepts activities conducted within the NASA Enterprises. The NIAC has advanced concepts as its sole focus. It addresses revolutionary concepts, specifically systems and architectures, that can have a major impact on missions of the NASA Enterprises in the time frame of 10 to 40 years in the future. It generates ideas for how the current NASA Agenda can be done better; it expands our vision of future possibilities. NIAC's interest in participating in the Innovations in Outer Planet Exploration Workshop is three-fold: (1) Ensure that NIAC is aware of the innovative research in Outer Planet exploration funded in NASA Centers; (2) Ensure that the appropriate individuals in NASA are aware of relevant NIAC studies; and (3) Communicate to the broader research community that NIAC exists and is funded by name to pursue long range revolutionary research that could impact NASA

  4. Progressive outer retinal necrosis after rituximab and cyclophosphamide therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohit Dogra

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of progressive outer retinal necrosis (PORN in a patient of microscopic polyangitis (MPA, being treated with immunosuppressive drugs such as cyclophosphamide and rituximab. Her aqueous tap was positive for Varicella Zoster virus and she was treated with oral and intravitreal antivirals, along with discontinuation of one of the immunosuppressive agents, i.e. rituximab, which might have led to reactivation of the virus causing necrotizing retinitis lesions. Rituximab and cyclophosphamide are extremely potent drugs, which are necessary to manage immunological disorders such as MPA. However, they may predispose the patient to serious complications like viral infections, including PORN.

  5. Progressive outer retinal necrosis after rituximab and cyclophosphamide therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogra, Mohit; Bajgai, Priya; Kumar, Ashok; Sharma, Aman

    2018-04-01

    We report a case of progressive outer retinal necrosis (PORN) in a patient of microscopic polyangitis (MPA), being treated with immunosuppressive drugs such as cyclophosphamide and rituximab. Her aqueous tap was positive for Varicella Zoster virus and she was treated with oral and intravitreal antivirals, along with discontinuation of one of the immunosuppressive agents, i.e. rituximab, which might have led to reactivation of the virus causing necrotizing retinitis lesions. Rituximab and cyclophosphamide are extremely potent drugs, which are necessary to manage immunological disorders such as MPA. However, they may predispose the patient to serious complications like viral infections, including PORN.

  6. Design of a Bearingless Outer Rotor Induction Motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuxin Sun

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A bearingless induction (BI motor with an outer rotor for flywheel energy storage systems is proposed due to the perceived advantages of simple rotor structure, non-contact support and high speed operation. Firstly, the configuration and operation principle of the proposed motor are described. Then several leading dimensional parameters are optimally calculated for achieving the maximum average values and the minimum ripples of torque output and suspension force. Finally, by using the finite element method, the characteristics and performance of the proposed machine are analyzed and verified.

  7. Outer compositions of hyperbolic/loxodromic linear fractional transfomations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Gill

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available It is shown, using classical means, that the outer composition of hyperbolic or loxodromic linear fractional transformations {fn}, where fn→f, converges to α, the attracting fixed point of f, for all complex numbers z, with one possible exception, z0. I.e.,Fn(z:=fn∘fn−1∘…∘f1(z→αWhen z0 exists, Fn(z0→β, the repelling fixed point of f. Applications include the analytic theory of reverse continued fractions.

  8. Redefining the essential trafficking pathway for outer membrane lipoproteins

    OpenAIRE

    Grabowicz, Marcin; Silhavy, Thomas J.

    2017-01-01

    In Gram-negative bacteria, most lipoproteins synthesized in the inner membrane (IM) are trafficked to the outer membrane (OM). The Lol pathway is the trafficking paradigm: LolCDE releases lipoproteins from the IM; LolA shuttles them between membranes to LolB in the OM. Several OM lipoproteins are essential for viability. In apparent concordance, the Lol proteins are each essential in wild-type cells. However, we show that Escherichia coli grows well without LolA and LolB in the absence of one...

  9. Uranus, Neptune, Pluto, and the outer solar system

    CERN Document Server

    Elkins-Tanton, Linda T

    2010-01-01

    Unlike all the planets closer to the Sun, known since antiquity, the farthest reaches are the discoveries of the modern world. Uranus was discovered in 1781, Neptune in 1846, Pluto in 1930, the Kuiper belt group of objects in 1992, and though the Oort cloud has been theorized since 1950, its first member was found in 2004. The discovery of the outer planets made such an impression on the minds of mankind that they were immortalized in the names of the newly discovered elements: uranium, neptunium, and plutonium, an astonishingly deadly constituent of atomic bombs. Uranus, Neptune, Pluto, and t

  10. The readout system for the LHCb Outer Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Wiedner, D; Apeldorn, G; Bachmann, S; Bagaturia, Yu S; Bauer, T; Berkien, A; Blouw, J; Bos, E; Deisenroth, M; Dubitzki, R; Eisele, F; Guz, Yu; Haas, T; Hommels, B; Ketel, T; Knopf, J; Merk, M; Nardulli, J; Nedos, M; Pellegrino, A; Rausch, A; Rusnyak, R; Schwemmer, R; Simoni, E; Sluijk, T; Spaan, B; Spelt, J; Stange, U; Van Tilburg, J; Trunk, U; Tuning, N; Uwer, U; Vankow, P; Warda, K

    2007-01-01

    The LHCb Outer Tracker is composed of 55 000 straw drift tubes. The requirements for the OT electronics are the precise (1 ns) drift time measurement at 6 % occupancy and 1 MHz readout. Charge signals from the straw detector are amplified, shaped and discriminated by ATLAS ASDBLR chips. Drift-times are determined and stored in the OTIS TDC and put out to a GOL serializer at L0 accept. Optical fibres carry the data 90 m to the TELL1 acquisition board. The full readout chain performed well in an e- test beam.

  11. A Readout System for the LHCb Outer Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Wiedner, D; Apeldorn , G; Bachmann, S; Bagaturi , I; Bauer, T; Berkien, A; Blouw, J; Bos, E; Deisenroth, M; Dubitzki, R; Eisele, F; Guz , Y; Haas, T; Hommels, B; Ketel, T; Knopf , J; Merk , M; Nardulli , J; Nedos, M; Pellegrino, A; Rausch, A; Rusnyak, R; Schwemmer, R; Simoni, E; Sluijk , T; Spaan, B; Spelt , J; Stange, U; van Tilburg, J; Trunk , U; Tuning , N; Uwer, U; Vankow , P; Warda, K

    2006-01-01

    The LHCb Outer Tracker is composed of 55 000 straw drift tubes. The requirements for the OT electronics are the precise (1 ns) drift time measurement at 6 % occupancy and 1 MHz readout. Charge signals from the straw detector are amplified, shaped and discriminated by ATLAS ASDBLR chips. Drift-times are determined and stored in the OTIS TDC and put out to a GOL serializer at L0 accept. Optical fibres carry the data 90 m to the TELL1 acquisition board. The full readout chain performed well in an e- test beam.

  12. The effects of radiation on the outer planets grand tour

    Science.gov (United States)

    1971-01-01

    A handbook is presented which was designed to accompany an oral presentation on the effects of radiation on the outer planets grand tour (OPGT). A summary of OPGT radiation environments expected from natural sources and the radioisotope thermoelectric generators and basic radiation effects and processes are reviewed, and ionization and displacement effects are examined. The presentation summarizes the effects of radiation on miscellaneous spacecraft materials and devices. The annealing and hardening of electronics are described. Special emphasis is placed on microcircuits. Mathematical modeling of circuits affected by radiation and radiation environmental testing are discussed. A review of means of evaluating the performance and correcting failures of irradiated devices is also presented.

  13. Dynamically hot Super-Earths from outer giant planet scattering

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Chelsea X.; Petrovich, Cristobal; Deibert, Emily

    2016-01-01

    The hundreds of multiple planetary systems discovered by the \\textit{Kepler} mission are typically observed to reside in close-in ($\\lesssim0.5$ AU), low-eccentricity, and low-inclination orbits. We run N-body experiments to study the effect that unstable outer ($\\gtrsim1$ AU) giant planets, whose end orbital configurations resemble those in the Radial Velocity population, have on these close-in multiple super-Earth systems. Our experiments show that the giant planets greatly reduce the multi...

  14. Aircraft crash upon outer containment of nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbas, H.; Paul, D.K.; Godbole, P.N.; Nayak, G.C.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper, analysis of an aircraft crash upon an outer containment of a nuclear power plant is presented. The effect of target yielding is considered simultaneously by calculating the reaction time in a time marching scheme. The concrete model employed is capable of predicting the cracking and yielding. The response for different cracking strains and different locations of aircraft strike for different aircraft has been studied. Critical location of aircraft strike for the containment has been investigated. The analytical procedure and the material model used are found to be capable of representing the aircraft impact response of the containment structure. (orig.)

  15. Low-Outgassing Photogrammetry Targets for Use in Outer Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Jason N.; Sampler, Henry; Reed, Benjamin B.

    2011-01-01

    A short document discusses an investigation of materials for photogrammetry targets for highly sensitive optical scientific instruments to be operated in outer space and in an outer-space-environment- simulating thermal vacuum chamber on Earth. A key consideration in the selection of photogrammetry-target materials for vacuum environments is the need to prevent contamination that could degrade the optical responses of the instruments. Therefore, in addition to the high levels and uniformity of reflectivity required of photogrammetry-target materials suitable for use in air, the materials sought must exhibit minimal outgassing. Commercially available photogrammetry targets were found to outgas excessively under the thermal and vacuum conditions of interest; this finding prompted the investigators to consider optically equivalent or superior, lower-outgassing alternative target materials. The document lists several materials found to satisfy the requirements, but does not state explicitly whether the materials can be used individually or must be combined in the proper sequence into layered target structures. The materials in question are an aluminized polyimide tape, an acrylic pressure- sensitive adhesive, a 500-A-thick layer of vapor-deposited aluminum, and spherical barium titanate glass beads having various diameters from 20 to 63 microns..

  16. Upgrades of the CMS Outer Tracker for HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2067159

    2016-01-01

    The LHC machine is planning an upgrade program which will smoothly bring the luminosity to about 5×1034cm$^{−2}$s$^{−1}$ around 2028, to possibly reach an integrated luminosity of 3000 fb$^{−1}$ in the following decade. This High Luminosity LHC scenario, HL-LHC, will require a preparation program of the LHC detectors known as Phase-2 upgrade. The current CMS Outer Tracker, already running close to its design limits, will not be able to survive HL-LHC radiation conditions and CMS will need a completely new device, in order to fully exploit the highly demanding operating conditions and the delivered luminosity. The new Tracker should have also L1 trigger capabilities. To achieve such goals, R&D; activities are ongoing to explore options and develop solutions that would allow including tracking information at Level-1. The design choices for the CMS Outer Tracker upgrades are discussed along with some highlights of the R&D; activities.

  17. Protective role of E. coli outer membrane vesicles against antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Heramb M; Nagaraj, R; Jagannadham, Medicharla V

    2015-12-01

    The outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) from bacteria are known to posses both defensive and protective functions and thus participate in community related functions. In the present study, outer membrane vesicles have been shown to protect the producer bacterium and two other bacterial species from the growth inhibitory effects of some antibiotics. The OMVs isolated from E. coli MG1655 protected the bacteria against membrane-active antibiotics colistin, melittin. The OMVs of E. coli MG1655 could also protect P. aeruginosa NCTC6751 and A. radiodioresistens MMC5 against these membrane-active antibiotics. However, OMVs could not protect any of these bacteria against the other antibiotics ciprofloxacin, streptomycin and trimethoprim. Hence, OMVs appears to protect the bacterial community against membrane-active antibiotics and not other antibiotics, which have different mechanism of actions. The OMVs of E. coli MG1655 sequester the antibiotic colistin, whereas their protein components degrade the antimicrobial peptide melittin. Proteomic analysis of OMVs revealed the presence of proteases and peptidases which appear to be involved in this process. Thus, the protection of bacteria by OMVs against antibiotics is situation dependent and the mechanism differs for different situations. These studies suggest that OMVs of bacteria form a common defense for the bacterial community against specific antibiotics. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Outer membrane vesicles of Pasteurella multocida contain virulence factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Rojas, Miguel A; Vaca, Sergio; Reyes-López, Magda; de la Garza, Mireya; Aguilar-Romero, Francisco; Zenteno, Edgar; Soriano-Vargas, Edgardo; Negrete-Abascal, Erasmo

    2014-10-01

    Pasteurella multocida (Pm) is a gram-negative bacterium able to infect different animal species, including human beings. This bacterium causes economic losses to the livestock industry because of its high morbidity and mortality in animals. In this work, we report the characterization of outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) released into the culture medium by different Pm serogroups. Purified OMVs in the range of 50-300 nm were observed by electron microscopy. Serum obtained from chickens infected with Pm recognized several proteins from Pm OMVs. Additionally, rabbit antiserum directed against a secreted protease from Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae recognized a similar protein in the Pm OVMs, suggesting that OMVs from these bacterial species contain common immunogenic proteins. OmpA, a multifunctional protein, was identified in OMVs from different Pm serogroups, and its concentration was twofold higher in OMVs from Pm serogroups B and D than in OMVs from other serogroups. Three outer membrane proteins were also identified: OmpH, OmpW, and transferrin-binding protein. Three bands of 65, 110, and 250 kDa with proteolytic activity were detected in Pm OMVs of serogroups A and E. Additionally, β-lactamase activity was detected only in OMVs from Pm 12945 Amp(r) (serogroup A). Pm OMVs may be involved in different aspects of disease pathogenesis. © 2014 The Authors. MicrobiologyOpen published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Structural optimization of the outer ring of FAST Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin-yu; Li, Hui; Yang, Shi-mo

    2012-09-01

    The two-axis steering mechanism installed in the FAST focus cabin can be seen as a universal joint consisting of two ring beams and makes role in the process of real-time adjustment of the receiver orientation. The outer ring of the mechanism is a large-span curve beam with strict mass and rigidity requirements. The aim of this paper is to develop a simple and effective method for constructing a truss-shape structure for the outer ring under the upper-limit constraints of certain structural weight and mid-span deflection. Two truss configurations for weight minimization problems are presented. One assumes consistent beam height. The second design proposes varying heights along the ring. Analytical deflections are given based on the theory of thin-walled beam in combination of bending and torsion. In numerical optimization of the structure, some key geometrical parameters are selected to be optimized. The optimization is subsequently achieved by the steepest descent method, which is based on the sensitivity analysis of the variables (reduced to be dimensionless) in each iteration. Several sets of initial conditions for optimization have been generated randomly. Corresponding optimum results have small mutual deviations. Finally a comparison of the two designs considering stiffness-to-mass ratios is given in the numerical examples.

  20. The CMS Outer Tracker for HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Dierlamm, Alexander Hermann

    2018-01-01

    The LHC is planning an upgrade program, which will bring the luminosity to about $5-7\\times10^{34}$~cm$^{-2}$s$^{-1}$ in 2026, with a goal of an integrated luminosity of 3000 fb$^{-1}$ by the end of 2037. This High Luminosity LHC scenario, HL-LHC, will require a preparation program of the LHC detectors known as Phase-2 Upgrade. The current CMS Tracker is already running beyond design specifications and will not be able to cope with the HL-LHC radiation conditions. CMS will need a completely new Tracker in order to fully exploit the highly demanding operating conditions and the delivered luminosity. The new Outer Tracker system is designed to provide robust tracking as well as Level-1 trigger capabilities using closely spaced modules composed of silicon macro-pixel and/or strip sensors. Research and development activities are ongoing to explore options and develop module components and designs for the HL-LHC environment. The design choices for the CMS Outer Tracker Upgrade are discussed along with some highlig...

  1. Solar system astrophysics planetary atmospheres and the outer solar system

    CERN Document Server

    Milone, Eugene F

    2014-01-01

    The second edition of Solar System Astrophysics: Planetary Atmospheres and the Outer Solar System provides a timely update of our knowledge of planetary atmospheres and the bodies of the outer solar system and their analogs in other planetary systems. This volume begins with an expanded treatment of the physics, chemistry, and meteorology of the atmospheres of the Earth, Venus, and Mars, moving on to their magnetospheres and then to a full discussion of the gas and ice giants and their properties. From here, attention switches to the small bodies of the solar system, beginning with the natural satellites. Then comets, meteors, meteorites, and asteroids are discussed in order, and the volume concludes with the origin and evolution of our solar system. Finally, a fully revised section on extrasolar planetary systems puts the development of our system in a wider and increasingly well understood galactic context. All of the material is presented within a framework of historical importance. This book and its sist...

  2. Dynamical limits on dark mass in the outer solar system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hogg, D.W.; Quinlan, G.D.; Tremaine, S.

    1991-01-01

    Simplified model solar systems with known observational errors are considered in conducting a dynamical search for dark mass and its minimum detectable amount, and in determining the significance of observed anomalies. The numerical analysis of the dynamical influence of dark mass on the orbits of outer planets and comets is presented in detail. Most conclusions presented are based on observations of the four giant planets where the observational errors in latitude and longitude are independent Gaussian variables with a standard deviation. Neptune's long orbital period cannot be predicted by modern ephemerides, and no evidence of dark mass is found in considering this planet. Studying the improvement in fit when observations are fitted to models that consider dark mass is found to be an efficient way to detect dark mass. Planet X must have a mass of more than about 10 times the minimum detectable mass to locate the hypothetical planet. It is suggested that the IRAS survey would have already located the Planet X if it is so massive and close that it dynamically influences the outer planets. Orbital residuals from comets are found to be more effective than those from planets in detecting the Kuiper belt. 35 refs

  3. Outer boundary as arrested history in general relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Lau, S

    2002-01-01

    We present explicit outer boundary conditions for the canonical variables of general relativity. The conditions are associated with the causal evolution of a finite Cauchy domain, a so-called quasilocal boost, and they suggest a consistent scheme for modelling such an evolution numerically. The scheme involves a continuous boost in the spacetime orthogonal complement 'orthogonal' T sub p (B) of the tangent space T sub p (B) belonging to each point p on the system boundary B. We show how the boost rate may be computed numerically via equations similar to those appearing in canonical investigations of black-hole thermodynamics (although here holding at an outer two-surface rather than the bifurcate two-surface of a Killing horizon). We demonstrate the numerical scheme on a model example, the quasilocal boost of a spherical three-ball in Minkowski spacetime. Developing our general formalism with recent hyperbolic formulations of the Einstein equations in mind, we use Anderson and York's 'Einstein-Christoffel' hy...

  4. Safety Framework for Nuclear Power Source Applications in Outer Space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    Nuclear power sources (NPS) for use in outer space have been developed and used in space applications where unique mission requirements and constraints on electrical power and thermal management precluded the use of non-nuclear power sources. Such missions have included interplanetary missions to the outer limits of the Solar System, for which solar panels were not suitable as a source of electrical power because of the long duration of these missions at great distances from the Sun. According to current knowledge and capabilities, space NPS are the only viable energy option to power some space missions and significantly enhance others. Several ongoing and foreseeable missions would not be possible without the use of space NPS. Past, present and foreseeable space NPS applications include radioisotope power systems (for example, radioisotope thermoelectric generators and radioisotope heater units) and nuclear reactor systems for power and propulsion. The presence of radioactive materials or nuclear fuels in space NPS and their consequent potential for harm to people and the environment in Earth's biosphere due to an accident require that safety should always be an inherent part of the design and application of space NPS. NPS applications in outer space have unique safety considerations compared with terrestrial applications. Unlike many terrestrial nuclear applications, space applications tend to be used infrequently and their requirements can vary significantly depending upon the specific mission. Mission launch and outer space operational requirements impose size, mass and other space environment limitations not present for many terrestrial nuclear facilities. For some applications, space NPS must operate autonomously at great distances from Earth in harsh environments. Potential accident conditions resulting from launch failures and inadvertent re-entry could expose NPS to extreme physical conditions. These and other unique safety considerations for the use of

  5. Photoionization of the outer electrons in noble gas endohedral atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amusia, M. Ya.; Baltenkov, A. S.; Chernysheva, L. V.

    2008-01-01

    We suggest a prominent modification of the outer shell photoionization cross section in noble gas (NG) endohedral atoms NG-C n under the action of the electron shell of fullerene C n . This shell leads to two important effects: a strong enhancement of the cross section due to fullerene shell polarization under the action of the incoming electromagnetic wave and to prominent oscillation of this cross section due to the reflection of a photoelectron from the NG by the fullerene shell. Both factors lead to powerful maxima in the outer shell ionization cross sections of NG-C n , which we call giant endohedral resonances. The oscillator strength reaches a very large value in the atomic scale, 25. We consider atoms of all noble gases except He. The polarization of the fullerene shell is expressed in terms of the total photoabsorption cross section of the fullerene. The photoelectron reflection is taken into account in the framework of the so-called bubble potential, which is a spherical δ-type potential. It is assumed in the derivations that the NG is centrally located in the fullerene. It is also assumed, in accordance with the existing experimental data, that the fullerene radius R C is much larger than the atomic radius r A and the thickness Δ C of the fullerene shell. As was demonstrated recently, these assumptions allow us to represent the NG-C n photoionization cross section as a product of the NG cross section and two well-defined calculated factors

  6. A Molecularly Complete Planar Bacterial Outer Membrane Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsia, Chih-Yun; Chen, Linxiao; Singh, Rohit R.; DeLisa, Matthew P.; Daniel, Susan

    2016-01-01

    The bacterial outer membrane (OM) is a barrier containing membrane proteins and liposaccharides that fulfill crucial functions for Gram-negative bacteria. With the advent of drug-resistant bacteria, it is necessary to understand the functional role of this membrane and its constituents to enable novel drug designs. Here we report a simple method to form an OM-like supported bilayer (OM-SB), which incorporates native lipids and membrane proteins of gram-negative bacteria from outer membrane vesicles (OMVs). We characterize the formation of OM-SBs using quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) and fluorescence microscopy. We show that the orientation of proteins in the OM-SB matches the native bacterial membrane, preserving the characteristic asymmetry of these membranes. As a demonstration of the utility of the OM-SB platform, we quantitatively measure antibiotic interactions between OM-SBs and polymyxin B, a cationic peptide used to treat Gram-negative infections. This data enriches understanding of the antibacterial mechanism of polymyxin B, including disruption kinetics and changes in membrane mechanical properties. Combining OM-SBs with microfluidics will enable higher throughput screening of antibiotics. With a broader view, we envision that a molecularly complete membrane-scaffold could be useful for cell-free applications employing engineered membrane proteins in bacterial membranes for myriad technological purposes. PMID:27600663

  7. Turbine exhaust diffuser with region of reduced flow area and outer boundary gas flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orosa, John

    2014-03-11

    An exhaust diffuser system and method for a turbine engine. The outer boundary may include a region in which the outer boundary extends radially inwardly toward the hub structure and may direct at least a portion of an exhaust flow in the diffuser toward the hub structure. At least one gas jet is provided including a jet exit located on the outer boundary. The jet exit may discharge a flow of gas downstream substantially parallel to an inner surface of the outer boundary to direct a portion of the exhaust flow in the diffuser toward the outer boundary to effect a radially outward flow of at least a portion of the exhaust gas flow toward the outer boundary to balance an aerodynamic load between the outer and inner boundaries.

  8. Rayleigh wave group velocity model of the southeast flank of the Rio Grande Rift using Cross-Correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis M. Sandoval

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The southeast shoulder of the Rio Grande Rift is located in southeastern New Mexico and west Texas in US and northern Chihuahua in Mexico. Noted mineral resources in the region are enriched in rare earth elements increasing the interest of research. These resources are related to tertiary volcanism. The magmas of this volcanism have similar composition of that of the oceanic island basalts suggesting that they were created from asthenosphere derived magmas from the basement of the North American Craton. That basement, in the area of interest, constitutes the Mazatzal and Grenville Proterozoic provinces of the Proterozoic Laurentia plate. This study is intended to contribute to the general understanding of the basement features of the region. In order to understand the structure of the crust and upper mantle we create a Rayleigh surface wave group velocity model of the southeast flank (or shoulder of the Rio Grande Rift. Rayleigh wave group velocities were calculated using data from EarthScope’s TA and Flex arrays. The periods of the model range from 10 s to 160 s. The kernels of the model are taken from the joint inversions made for LA RISTRA, from where the depths corresponding to periods between 10 s to 160 s should be approximately between 10 km and 350 km of depth. The results show the anisotropy of the region and difficulties faced using the Rayleigh wave cross correlation. Some structures like the Delaware basin are complicated and sensitive to seismic radiation directions and patterns. In general, structures are better resolved when these radiation directions are perpendicular to the structure boundaries.

  9. Retrotransposition creates sloping shores: a graded influence of hypomethylated CpG islands on flanking CpG sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandi, Fiorella C; Rosser, James M; Newkirk, Simon J; Yin, Jun; Jiang, Xiaoling; Xing, Zhuo; Whitmore, Leanne; Bashir, Sanum; Ivics, Zoltán; Izsvák, Zsuzsanna; Ye, Ping; Yu, Y Eugene; An, Wenfeng

    2015-08-01

    Long interspersed elements (LINEs), through both self-mobilization and trans-mobilization of short interspersed elements and processed pseudogenes, have made an indelible impact on the structure and function of the human genome. One consequence is the creation of new CpG islands (CGIs). In fact, more than half of all CGIs in the genome are associated with repetitive DNA, three-quarters of which are derived from retrotransposons. However, little is known about the epigenetic impact of newly inserted CGIs. We utilized a transgenic LINE-1 mouse model and tracked DNA methylation dynamics of individual germline insertions during mouse development. The retrotransposed GFP marker sequence, a strong CGI, is hypomethylated in male germ cells but hypermethylated in somatic tissues, regardless of genomic location. The GFP marker is similarly methylated when delivered into the genome via the Sleeping Beauty DNA transposon, suggesting that the observed methylation pattern may be independent of the mode of insertion. Comparative analyses between insertion- and non-insertion-containing alleles further reveal a graded influence of the retrotransposed CGI on flanking CpG sites, a phenomenon that we described as "sloping shores." Computational analyses of human and mouse methylomic data at single-base resolution confirm that sloping shores are universal for hypomethylated CGIs in sperm and somatic tissues. Additionally, the slope of a hypomethylated CGI can be affected by closely positioned CGI neighbors. Finally, by tracing sloping shore dynamics through embryonic and germ cell reprogramming, we found evidence of bookmarking, a mechanism that likely determines which CGIs will be eventually hyper- or hypomethylated. © 2015 Grandi et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  10. Atmospheric Mining in the Outer Solar System: Outer Planet In-Space Bases and Moon Bases for Resource Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palaszewski, Bryan

    2017-01-01

    Atmospheric mining in the outer solar system has been investigated as a means of fuel production for high energy propulsion and power. Fusion fuels such as Helium 3 (3He) and deuterium can be wrested from the atmospheres of Uranus and Neptune and either returned to Earth or used in-situ for energy production. Helium 3 and deuterium were the primary gases of interest with hydrogen being the primary propellant for nuclear thermal solid core and gas core rocket-based atmospheric flight. A series of analyses were undertaken to investigate resource capturing aspects of atmospheric mining in the outer solar system. This included the gas capturing rate, storage options, and different methods of direct use of the captured gases. While capturing 3He, large amounts of hydrogen and 4He are produced. The propulsion and transportation requirements for all of the major moons of Uranus and Neptune are presented. Analyses of orbital transfer vehicles (OTVs), landers, factories, and the issues with in-situ resource utilization (ISRU) low gravity processing factories are included. Preliminary observations are presented on near-optimal selections of moon base orbital locations, OTV power levels, and OTV and lander rendezvous points. Several artificial gravity in-space base designs and orbital sites at Uranus and Neptune and the OTV requirements to support them are also addressed.

  11. Progressive outer retinal necrosis: manifestation of human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Phey Feng; Lim, Rongxuan; Antonakis, Serafeim N; Almeida, Goncalo C

    2015-05-06

    We present the case of a 54-year-old man who developed progressive outer retinal necrosis (PORN) as an initial manifestation of HIV infection without any significant risk factors for infection with HIV. PORN is usually found as a manifestation of known AIDS late in the disease. Our patient presented with transient visual loss followed by decrease in visual acuity and facial rash. Subsequent investigation revealed anterior chamber tap positive for varicella zoster virus (VZV), as well as HIV positivity, with an initial CD4 count of 48 cells/µL. Systemic and intravitreal antivirals against VZV, and highly active antiretroviral therapy against HIV were started, which halted further progression of retinal necrosis. This case highlights the importance of suspecting PORN where there is a rapidly progressive retinitis, and also testing the patient for HIV, so appropriate treatment can be started. 2015 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  12. Progressive outer retinal necrosis presenting as cherry red spot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiu, Glenn; Young, Lucy H

    2012-10-01

    To report a case of progressive outer retinal necrosis (PORN) presenting as a cherry red spot. Case report. A 53-year-old woman with recently diagnosed HIV and varicella-zoster virus (VZV) aseptic meningitis developed rapid sequential vision loss in both eyes over 2 months. Her exam showed a "cherry red spot" in both maculae with peripheral atrophy and pigmentary changes, consistent with PORN. Due to her late presentation and the rapid progression of her condition, she quickly developed end-stage vision loss in both eyes. PORN should be considered within the differential diagnosis of a "cherry red spot." Immune-deficient patients with a history of herpetic infection who present with visual loss warrant prompt ophthalmological evaluation.

  13. Progressive outer retinal necrosis in immunocompromised kidney allograft recipient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turno-Kręcicka, A; Boratyńska, M; Tomczyk-Socha, M; Mazanowska, O

    2015-06-01

    Ocular complications in patients who underwent renal transplantation are attributed to side effects of the immunosuppressive regimen. Progressive outer retinal necrosis (PORN) syndrome is a clinical variant of necrotizing herpetic retinopathy and it occurs almost exclusively in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. We present a case of a human immunodeficiency virus-negative patient who underwent renal transplant and, after a few years, developed bilateral PORN associated with viral infections. Varicella zoster virus (VZV) and BK virus were identified by polymerase chain reaction from the vitreous fluid. It is unclear which of the viruses identified had the dominant role in the pathogenesis of PORN and other organ damage, or whether their actions were synergistic. Adequate antiviral immune surveillance, as well as pre-transplant vaccination against VZV, may reduce the incidence of VZV infection and its complications. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Biogenesis and function of Porphyromonas gingivalis outer membrane vesicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, H

    2015-01-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis is one of the keystone pathogens associated with chronic periodontitis. All P. gingivalis strains examined thus far produce outer membrane vesicles. Recent studies have found that vesicles possess some well-known virulence factors of P. gingivalis such as adhesins, toxins and proteolytic enzymes. Carrying most of the characteristic features of their parent P. gingivalis cells, vesicles communicate with host cells and other members of microbial biofilms, resulting in the transmission of virulence factors into these host cells and the formation of pathogenic bacteria-dominated microbial communities. An in-depth understanding of both the nature and role of vesicles in the pathogenicity of P. gingivalis is both important and timely, particularly when speaking of periodontitis and its related systemic effects. PMID:26343879

  15. A thermal study of pipes with outer transverse fins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gil

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides results of thermal investigations on pipes with outer transverse fins produced by placing a strip, being a form of helical spring which functions as a radiator, on the basis pipe. The investigations were carried out at the facility that enables measurements with respect to both natural and forced convection. Performance of the investigated pipes was assessed in relation to a non-finned pipe and a pipe welded with the use of Metal Active Gas (MAG technology. The experiments have shown that the finned pipe welding technology does not markedly affect their thermal efficiency, which has been confirmed by performed model calculations, while the welding technology has a crucial impact on their operating performance.

  16. The CMS Outer HCAL SiPM Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    CMS Collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The CMS Outer Hadron Calorimeter (HO) is the first large scale hadron collider detector to use SiPMs. By late January 2014 the installation of 1656 of 2376 channels was completed. The HO readout system provides for active temperature stabilisation of the SiPMs to less than 0.1$^\\circ$C using Peltier coolers, temperature measurement, and software feedback. Each channel has independently controlled bias voltage with a resolution of 25mV. Each SiPM is read out by 40MHz QIE ADCs. We report on the system design, schedule and progress. The next phase for the detector is commissioning during 2014 before the 2015 LHC run. We report on the status of commissioning and plans for operation. We discuss the calibration strategy with local cosmic ray runs using the HO's self trigger ability.

  17. The CMS Outer HCAL SiPM Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Lobanov, Artur

    2015-01-01

    The CMS Outer Hadron Calorimeter (HO) is the first large scale hadron collider detector to use SiPMs. By late January 2014 the installation of 1656 of 2376 channels was completed. The HO readout system provides for active temperature stabilization of the SiPMs to less than 0.1$^\\circ$C using Peltier coolers, temperature measurement, and software feedback. Each channel has independently controlled bias voltage with a resolution of 25~mV. Each SiPM is read out by 40~MHz QIE ADCs. We report on the system design, schedule and progress. The next phase for the detector is commissioning during 2014 before the 2015 LHC run. We report on the status of commissioning and plans for operation. We discuss the calibration strategy with local cosmic ray runs using the HO's self trigger ability. We discuss the plans for a global CMS operations run in November 2014.

  18. Outer planet atmospheric entry probes - An overview of technology readiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vojvodich, N. S.; Reynolds, R. T.; Grant, T. L.; Nachtsheim, P. R.

    1975-01-01

    Entry probe systems for characterizing, by in situ measurements, the atmospheric properties, chemical composition, and cloud structure of the planets Saturn, Uranus, and Jupiter are examined from the standpoint of unique mission requirements, associated subsystem performance, and degree of commonality of design. Past earth entry vehicles (PAET) and current planetary spacecraft (Pioneer Venus probes and Viking lander) are assessed to identify the extent of potential subsystem inheritance, as well as to establish the significant differences, in both form and function, relative to outer planet requirements. Recent research results are presented and reviewed for the most critical probe technology areas, including: science accommodation, telecommunication, and entry heating and thermal protection. Finally presented is a brief discussion of the use of decision analysis techniques for quantifying various probe heat-shield test alternatives and performance risk.

  19. Testing of a femtosecond pulse laser in outer space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joohyung; Lee, Keunwoo; Jang, Yoon-Soo; Jang, Heesuk; Han, Seongheum; Lee, Sang-Hyun; Kang, Kyung-In; Lim, Chul-Woo; Kim, Young-Jin; Kim, Seung-Woo

    2014-05-30

    We report a test operation of an Er-doped fibre femtosecond laser which was conducted for the first time in outer space. The fibre-based ultrashort pulse laser payload was designed to meet space-use requirements, undergone through ground qualification tests and finally launched into a low-earth orbit early in 2013. Test results obtained during a one-year mission lifetime confirmed stable mode-locking all the way through although the radiation induced attenuation (RIA) in the Er-doped gain fibre caused an 8.6% reduction in the output power. This successful test operation would help facilitate diverse scientific and technological applications of femtosecond lasers in space and earth atmosphere in the near future.

  20. Nuclear Electric Propulsion for the Exploration of the Outer Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noca, M.; Polk, J. E.; Lenard, R.

    2001-01-01

    New power and propulsion technology efforts such as the DS-1 ion propulsion system demonstration and renewed interest in space nuclear power sources call for a reassessment of the mission benefits of Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP). In this study, a large emphasis has been placed in defining the NEP vehicle configuration and corresponding subsystem elements in order to produce an estimate of the vehicle's payload delivery capability which is as credible as possible. Both a 100 kWe and a 1 MWe system are defined. Various Outer Planet missions are evaluated using NEP, such as a Pluto Orbiter, a Europa Lander and Sample Return, attain/Saturn Sample Return and a Neptune Orbiter. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  1. The CMS Outer Tracker Upgrade for the High Luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Luetic, Jelena

    2017-01-01

    The era of the High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider will pose unprecedented challenges for detector design and operation. The planned luminosity of the upgraded machine is $5$x$10^{34} $ cm$^{-2}$s$^{-1}$, reaching an integrated luminosity of more than 3000 fb$^{-1}$ by the end of 2037. The CMS Tracker detector will have to be replaced in order to fully exploit the delivered luminosity and cope with the demanding operating conditions. The new detector will provide robust tracking as well as input for the first level trigger. This report is focusing on the replacement of the CMS Outer Tracker system, describing the new layout and technological choices together with some highlights of research and development activities.

  2. Acute Zonal Occult Outer Retinopathy with Atypical Findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios Karagiannis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. To report a case of acute zonal occult outer retinopathy (AZOOR with atypical electrophysiology findings. Case Presentation. A 23-year-old-female presented with visual acuity deterioration in her right eye accompanied by photopsia bilaterally. Corrected distance visual acuity at presentation was 20/50 in the right eye and 20/20 in the left eye. Fundus examination was unremarkable. Visual field (VF testing revealed a large scotoma. Pattern and full-field electroretinograms (PERG and ERG revealed macular involvement associated with generalized retinal dysfunction. Electrooculogram (EOG light rise and the Arden ratio were within normal limits bilaterally. The patient was diagnosed with AZOOR due to clinical findings, visual field defect, and ERG findings. Conclusion. This is a case of AZOOR with characteristic VF defects and clinical symptoms presenting with atypical EOG findings.

  3. Testing of a femtosecond pulse laser in outer space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joohyung; Lee, Keunwoo; Jang, Yoon-Soo; Jang, Heesuk; Han, Seongheum; Lee, Sang-Hyun; Kang, Kyung-In; Lim, Chul-Woo; Kim, Young-Jin; Kim, Seung-Woo

    2014-01-01

    We report a test operation of an Er-doped fibre femtosecond laser which was conducted for the first time in outer space. The fibre-based ultrashort pulse laser payload was designed to meet space-use requirements, undergone through ground qualification tests and finally launched into a low-earth orbit early in 2013. Test results obtained during a one-year mission lifetime confirmed stable mode-locking all the way through although the radiation induced attenuation (RIA) in the Er-doped gain fibre caused an 8.6% reduction in the output power. This successful test operation would help facilitate diverse scientific and technological applications of femtosecond lasers in space and earth atmosphere in the near future. PMID:24875665

  4. Potential alternative energy technologies on the Outer Continental Shelf.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elcock, D.; Environmental Assessment

    2007-04-20

    This technical memorandum (TM) describes the technology requirements for three alternative energy technologies for which pilot and/or commercial projects on the U.S. Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) are likely to be proposed within the next five to seven years. For each of the alternative technologies--wind, wave, and ocean current--the TM first presents an overview. After each technology-specific overview, it describes the technology requirements for four development phases: site monitoring and testing, construction, operation, and decommissioning. For each phase, the report covers the following topics (where data are available): facility description, electricity generated, ocean area (surface and bottom) occupied, resource requirements, emissions and noise sources, hazardous materials stored or used, transportation requirements, and accident potential. Where appropriate, the TM distinguishes between pilot-scale (or demonstration-scale) facilities and commercial-scale facilities.

  5. Mapping the Outer Hebrides in sound: towards a sonic methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cathy

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Scottish Gaelic is still widely spoken in the Outer Hebrides, remote islands off the West Coast of Scotland, and the islands have a rich and distinctive cultural identity, as well as a complex history of settlement and migrations. Almost every geographical feature on the islands has a name which reflects this history and culture. This paper discusses research which uses sound and listening to investigate the relationship of the islands’ inhabitants, young and old, to placenames and the resonant histories which are enshrined in them and reveals them, in their spoken form, as dynamic mnemonics for complex webs of memories. I speculate on why this ‘place-speech’ might have arisen from specific aspects of Hebridean history and culture and how sound can offer a new way of understanding the relationship between people and island toponymies.

  6. Solar system astrophysics planetary atmospheres and the outer solar system

    CERN Document Server

    Milone, Eugene F

    2008-01-01

    Solar System Astrophysics opens with coverage of the atmospheres, ionospheres and magnetospheres of the Earth, Venus and Mars and the magnetosphere of Mercury. The book then provides an introduction to meteorology and treating the physics and chemistry of these areas in considerable detail. What follows are the structure, composition, particle environments, satellites, and rings of Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune, making abundant use of results from space probes. Solar System Astrophysics follows the history, orbits, structure, origin and demise of comets and the physics of meteors and provides a thorough treatment of meteorites, the asteroids and, in the outer solar system, the Kuiper Belt objects. The methods and results of extrasolar planet searches, the distinctions between stars, brown dwarfs, and planets, and the origins of planetary systems are examined. Historical introductions precede the development and discussion in most chapters. A series of challenges, useful as homework assignments or as foc...

  7. Normal Mode Derived Models of the Physical Properties of Earth's Outer Core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irving, J. C. E.; Cottaar, S.; Lekic, V.; Wu, W.

    2017-12-01

    Earth's outer core, the largest reservoir of metal in our planet, is comprised of an iron alloy of an uncertain composition. Its dynamical behaviour is responsible for the generation of Earth's magnetic field, with convection driven both by thermal and chemical buoyancy fluxes. Existing models of the seismic velocity and density of the outer core exhibit some variation, and there are only a small number of models which aim to represent the outer core's density.It is therefore important that we develop a better understanding of the physical properties of the outer core. Though most of the outer core is likely to be well mixed, it is possible that the uppermost outer core is stably stratified: it may be enriched in light elements released during the growth of the solid, iron enriched, inner core; by elements dissolved from the mantle into the outer core; or by exsolution of compounds previously dissolved in the liquid metal which will eventually be swept into the mantle. The stratified layer may host MAC or Rossby waves and it could impede communication between the chemically differentiated mantle and outer core, including screening out some of the geodynamo's signal. We use normal mode center frequencies to estimate the physical properties of the outer core in a Bayesian framework. We estimate the mineral physical parameters needed to best produce velocity and density models of the outer core which are consistent with the normal mode observations. We require that our models satisfy realistic physical constraints. We create models of the outer core with and without a distinct uppermost layer and assess the importance of this region.Our normal mode-derived models are compared with observations of body waves which travel through the outer core. In particular, we consider SmKS waves which are especially sensitive to the uppermost outer core and are therefore an important way to understand the robustness of our models.

  8. Biological and functional diversity of bird communities in natural and human modified habitats in Northern Flank of Knuckles Mountain Forest Range, Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    KALYA SUBASINGHE; AMILA P. SUMANAPALA

    2014-01-01

    Subasinghe K, Sumanapala AP. 2014. Biological and functional diversity of bird communities in natural and human modified habitats in Northern Flank of Knuckles Mountain Forest Range, Sri Lanka. Biodiversitas 15: 200-205. The Knuckles Mountain Forest Range (KMFR) has a complex mosaic of natural and human modified habitats and the contribution of these habitats to the biological and functional diversities has not been deeply studied. Present study investigated both of these diversities in five ...

  9. A Novel Variable Number of Tandem Repeat of the Natriuretic Peptide Precursor B gene's 5'-Flanking Region is Associated with Essential Hypertension among Japanese Females

    OpenAIRE

    Kosuge, Kotoko; Soma, Masayoshi; Nakayama, Tomohiro; Aoi, Noriko; Sato, Mikano; Izumi, Yoichi; Matsumoto, Koichi

    2007-01-01

    Background: Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) acts primarily as a cardiac hormone; it is produced by the ventricle and has both vasodilatory and natriuretic actions. Therefore, the BNP gene is thought to be a candidate gene for essential hypertension (EH). The present study identified variants in the 5'-flanking region of natriuretic peptide precursor B (NPPB) gene and assessed the relationship between gene variants and EH. Methods: The polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformation polym...

  10. The nexus of soil radon and hydrogen dynamics and seismicity of the northern flank of the Kuril-Kamchatka subduction zone

    OpenAIRE

    O. P. Malysheva; V. A. Shirokov; V. S. Yakovleva; P. P. Firstov

    2007-01-01

    The comparison of kinematics and dynamic parameters of radon and molecular hydrogen concentration in subsoil air on the stations network at the Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky geodynamic proving ground with seismicity of the northern flank of the Kuril-Kamchatka subduction zone was fulfilled in the period from July till August 2004. On the basis of correlation analysis of the regional seismicity and variations of radon flux density calculated using the data of gas-discharge count...

  11. Space Weathering on Icy Satellites in the Outer Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, R. N.; Perlman, Z.; Pearson, N.; Cruikshank, D. P.

    2014-01-01

    Space weathering produces well-known optical effects in silicate minerals in the inner Solar System, for example, on the Moon. Space weathering from solar wind and UV (ultraviolet radiation) is expected to be significantly weaker in the outer Solar System simply because intensities are low. However, cosmic rays and micrometeoroid bombardment would be similar to first order. That, combined with the much higher volatility of icy surfaces means there is the potential for space weathering on icy outer Solar System surfaces to show optical effects. The Cassini spacecraft orbiting Saturn is providing evidence for space weathering on icy bodies. The Cassini Visible and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS) instrument has spatially mapped satellite surfaces and the rings from 0.35-5 microns and the Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph (UVIS) instrument from 0.1 to 0.2 microns. These data have sampled a complex mixing space between H2O ice and non-ice components and they show some common spectral properties. Similarly, spectra of the icy Galilean satellites and satellites in the Uranian system have some commonality in spectral properties with those in the Saturn system. The UV absorber is spectrally similar on many surfaces. VIMS has identified CO2, H2 and trace organics in varying abundances on Saturn's satellites. We postulate that through the spatial relationships of some of these compounds that they are created and destroyed through space weathering effects. For example, the trapped H2 and CO2 observed by VIMS in regions with high concentrations of dark material may in part be space weathering products from the destruction of H2O and organic molecules. The dark material, particularly on Iapetus which has the highest concentration in the Saturn system, is well matched by space-weathered silicates in the .4 to 2.6 micron range, and the spectral shapes closely match those of the most mature lunar soils, another indicator of space weathered material.

  12. High-energy outer radiation belt dynamic modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiu, Y.T.; Nightingale, R.W.; Rinaldi, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    Specification of the average high-energy radiation belt environment in terms of phenomenological montages of satellite measurements has been available for some time. However, for many reasons both scientific and applicational (including concerns for a better understanding of the high-energy radiatino background in space), it is desirable to model the dynamic response of the high-energy radiation belts to sources, to losses, and to geomagnetic activity. Indeed, in the outer electron belt, this is the only mode of modeling that can handle the large intensity fluctuations. Anticipating the dynamic modeling objective of the upcoming Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite (CRRES) program, we have undertaken to initiate the study of the various essential elements in constructing a dynamic radiation belt model based on interpretation of satellite data according to simultaneous radial and pitch-angle diffusion theory. In order to prepare for the dynamic radiation belt modeling based on a large data set spanning a relatively large segment of L-values, such as required for CRRES, it is important to study a number of test cases with data of similar characteristics but more restricted in space-time coverage. In this way, models of increasing comprehensiveness can be built up from the experience of elucidating the dynamics of more restrictive data sets. The principal objectives of this paper are to discuss issues concerning dynamic modeling in general and to summarize in particular the good results of an initial attempt at constructing the dynamics of the outer electron radiation belt based on a moderately active data period from Lockheed's SC-3 instrument flown on board the SCATHA (P78-2) spacecraft. Further, we shall discuss the issues brought out and lessons learned in this test case

  13. Diagnosis of acute flank pain caused by ureteral stones: value of combined direct and indirect signs on IVU and unenhanced helical CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li-Jen; Ng, Chip-Jin; Chen, Jih-Chang; Chiu, Te-Fa; Wong, Yon-Cheong

    2004-09-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the usefulness of combined direct and indirect signs on intravenous urography (IVU) and unenhanced helical computed tomography (UHCT) for the diagnosis of ureteral stones in emergency patients with acute flank pain. During an 8-month period, 82 emergency patients with acute flank pain undergoing IVU and UHCT with sufficient clinical follow-up formed the study group. The presence or absence of direct sign (visualization of ureteral stones) and indirect signs on IVU and UHCT was recorded. The diagnostic accuracy of each direct/indirect sign and their combination for the diagnosis of ureteral stones on IVU and UHCT were analyzed and compared. Of the 82 patients, 66 had ureteral stones, four had passed urinary stones prior to imaging and 12 had other diseases. The diagnostic accuracies of direct signs on IVU and UHCT for the diagnosis of ureteral stones were 79.3 and 98.8%, respectively, which was more accurate than that of any single indirect sign on IVU and UHCT. However, the diagnostic accuracy of ureteral stones by IVU increased to 90.2% when using diagnostic criteria requiring the presence of a direct sign or at least three indirect signs, and by UHCT, it increased to 100% when using diagnostic criteria requiring the presence of a direct sign with at least one indirect sign. Therefore, for emergency patients with acute flank pain, the use of the above combinations of direct/indirect signs is useful as the diagnostic criterion for ureteral stones.

  14. Experimental investigation on flank wear and tool life, cost analysis and mathematical model in turning hardened steel using coated carbide inserts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Kumar Sahoo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Turning hardened component with PCBN and ceramic inserts have been extensively used recently and replaces traditional grinding operation. The use of inexpensive multilayer coated carbide insert in hard turning is lacking and hence there is a need to investigate the potential and applicability of such tools in turning hardened steels. An attempt has been made in this paper to have a study on turning hardened AISI 4340 steel (47 ± 1 HRC using coated carbide inserts (TiN/TiCN/Al2O3/ZrCN under dry environment. The aim is to assess the tool life of inserts and evolution of flank wear with successive machining time. From experimental investigations, the gradual growth of flank wear for multilayer coated insert indicates steady machining without any premature tool failure by chipping or fracturing. Abrasion is found to be the dominant wear mechanisms in hard turning. Tool life of multilayer coated carbide inserts has been found to be 31 minute and machining cost per part is Rs.3.64 only under parametric conditions chosen i.e. v = 90 m/min, f = 0.05 mm/rev and d = 0.5 mm. The mathematical model shows high determination coefficient, R2 (99% and fits the actual data well. The predicted flank wear has been found to lie very close to the experimental value at 95% confidence level. This shows the potential and effectiveness of multilayer coated carbide insert used in hard turning applications.

  15. Linkage disequilibrium in the insulin gene region: Size variation at the 5{prime} flanking polymorphism and bimodality among {open_quotes}Class I{close_quotes} alleles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGinnis, R.E.; Spielman, R.S. [Univ. of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    1994-09-01

    The 5{prime} flanking polymorphism (5{prime}FP), a hypervariable region at the 5{prime} end of the insulin gene, has {open_quotes}class 1{close_quotes} alleles (650-900 bp long) that are in positive linkage disequilibrium with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM). The authors report that precise sizing of the 5{prime}FP yields a bimodal frequency distribution of class 1 allele lengths. Class 1 alleles belonging to the lower component (650-750 bp) of the bimodal distribution were somewhat more highly associated with IDDM than were alleles from the upper component (760-900 bp), but the difference was not statistically significant. They also examined 5{prime}FP length variation in relation to allelic variation at nearby polymorphisms. At biallelic RFLPs on both sides of the 5{prime}FP, they found that one allele exhibits near-total association with the upper component of the 5FP class 1 distribution. Such associations represent a little-known but potentially wide-spread form of linkage disequilibrium. In this type of disequilibrium, a flanking allele has near-complete association with a single mode of VNTR alleles whose lengths represent consecutive numbers of tandem repeats (CNTR). Such extreme disequilibrium between a CNTR mode and flanking alleles may originate and persist because length mutations at some VNTR loci usually add or delete only one or two repeat units. 22 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs.

  16. Resequencing DCDC5 in the Flanking Region of an LD-SNP Derived from a Kidney-Yang Deficiency Syndrome Family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Ping Zhou

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To explore the genetic traits of Kidney-yang deficiency syndrome (KDS. Design. Twelve KDS subjects and three spouses from a typical KDS family were recruited. Their genomic DNA samples were genotyped by Affymetrix 100K single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP arrays. The linkage disequilibrium (LD SNPs were generated using GeneChip DNA analysis software (GDAS, Affymetrix. Genes located within 100 bp of the flanks of LD SNPs were mined via GeneView. 29 exons of the doublecortin domain containing 5 (DCDC5, a representative gene within the flank of an LD SNP, were resequenced. Results. Five LD SNPs display midrange linkage with KDS. Two genes with established functions, DCDC5 and Leucyl-tRNA synthetase, were mined in the flanks of LD SNPs. Resequencing of DCDC5 revealed a nonsynonymous variation, in which 3764T/A was replaced by C/G. Accordingly, the Ser1172 was substituted by Pro1172. The S1172P substitution effect was evaluated as “possibly damaging” by PolyPhen. Conclusion. We have identified a genomic variation of DCDC5 based on the LD SNPs derived from a KDS family. DCDC5 and other genes surrounding these SNPs display some relationships with key symptoms of KDS.

  17. Progressive tool flank wear and surface roughness when turning AISI 1017 mild steel using reduced thickness inserts in finishing cutting conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghani, Saiful Anwar Che; Zakaria, Mohd Hafizu; Harun, Wan Sharuzi Wan; Ghazalli, Zakri

    2017-12-01

    Tool wear is a major aspect in metal cutting, especially during steel machining. This studies the capability of 1 mm thick uncoated tungsten carbide insert during the turning of AISI 1017 mild steel. The reduction of insert thickness will lead to a more economical and efficient use of material and energy during fabrication, operation, and disposal of the cutting insert. Axial machining trials have been performed using the finishing cutting conditions. Tool flank wear and workpiece surface roughness were analysed using an optical microscope and contact perthometer device, respectively. The data of flank wear and surface roughness achieved were used to analyse the capability of replacing 4 mm thick cutting inserts with 1 mm thick cutting inserts. The results showed that the flank wear and the surface roughness of conventional inserts performed better as compared to the 1 mm thick insert with a significant difference of 5.74 % and 1.57 %. Thus, the experimental study shows that the 1 mm thick insert performed as good as a conventional cutting insert in terms of tool life and surface roughness quality.

  18. Diagnosis of acute flank pain caused by ureteral stones: value of combined direct and indirect signs on IVU and unenhanced helical CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Li-Jen; Wong, Yon-Cheong; Ng, Chip-Jin; Chen, Jih-Chang; Chiu, Te-Fa

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the usefulness of combined direct and indirect signs on intravenous urography (IVU) and unenhanced helical computed tomography (UHCT) for the diagnosis of ureteral stones in emergency patients with acute flank pain. During an 8-month period, 82 emergency patients with acute flank pain undergoing IVU and UHCT with sufficient clinical follow-up formed the study group. The presence or absence of direct sign (visualization of ureteral stones) and indirect signs on IVU and UHCT was recorded. The diagnostic accuracy of each direct/indirect sign and their combination for the diagnosis of ureteral stones on IVU and UHCT were analyzed and compared. Of the 82 patients, 66 had ureteral stones, four had passed urinary stones prior to imaging and 12 had other diseases. The diagnostic accuracies of direct signs on IVU and UHCT for the diagnosis of ureteral stones were 79.3 and 98.8%, respectively, which was more accurate than that of any single indirect sign on IVU and UHCT. However, the diagnostic accuracy of ureteral stones by IVU increased to 90.2% when using diagnostic criteria requiring the presence of a direct sign or at least three indirect signs, and by UHCT, it increased to 100% when using diagnostic criteria requiring the presence of a direct sign with at least one indirect sign. Therefore, for emergency patients with acute flank pain, the use of the above combinations of direct/indirect signs is useful as the diagnostic criterion for ureteral stones. (orig.)

  19. Paleomagnetism in rocks from the Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous in the western flank of the mountains of Perija; Contributions to the tectonic evolution of NW South America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nova R, Giovanny; Montano, Paola; Bayona, German; Rapalini, Augusto; Montes, Camilo

    2012-01-01

    The Perija Range is a mountain system located in the northwestern corner of South america; upon western flank outcrop its rocks from La Quinta and Rio Negro formations, and the Cogollo Group that were deposited from the Jurassic to Early Cretaceous. Paleomagnetic analysis allow to document rotations on vertical axis and translation of geologic terranes along of North Andes, especially those related with the Pangea fragmentation as the Mexican Blocks (Yucatan, Chortis, etc) and the Santa Marta Massif. Twenty nine paleomagnetic sites distributed in three areas from the western flank of the Perija Range were analyzed for testing if had changes in the rotation magnitude in several structural domains. In all, we collected 17 sites in the La Quinta Fm., 9 in the Rio Negro Fm. and 3 in the Cogollo Group. The results of our study were integrated to the paleomagnetic data reported from eastern flank allow us document clockwise rotations of 41+-13 degrade for Jurassic rocks and 45+-13 degrade for Cretaceous rocks. The values of positive inclination allow us suggest a stable paleolatitudinal position for the PR, adjacent to the Craton, between the Jurassic (+7.5 degrade) and Cretaceous (+9.2 degrade). This paleolatutudinal stability is opposite to the northward translation given for the Santa Marta Massif in previous studies, inferring that between these blocks in subsoil should be exist a paleosuture in late Jurassic.

  20. Coarse-Grained Tsunami Deposits in the Canary Islands: Evidence of the Tsunamigenic Potential of Volcanic Flank Failures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin-Giddings, W. D.; Tappin, D. R.; McGuire, W. J.

    2008-12-01

    Coarse-grained, polymict deposits draping hillslopes at high elevations on ocean island volcanoes have been variously interpreted as sourced from sea-level high-stands and tsunamis, their origin is thus controversial. Here, we present a detailed facies analysis of coarse-grained, fossiliferous sediments located at Agaete, on the north-west coast of Gran Canaria. Previously interpreted as the result of a sea-level high-stand, these deposits have recently been re-interpreted as sourced from a tsunami resulting from a volcano flank collapse. The tsunami deposit occurs at several locations in the Agaete valley, up to 188 m a.s.l. and two kilometres inland from the coast. The sediments comprise two reverse graded units, separated by a soil horizon with calcrete. The units are up to 2 m in thickness and contain a diverse assemblage of volcanic clasts, large beachrock boulders and a marine fauna that includes planktic, shallow and deep-water benthic foraminifera. The base of the lower unit is erosional and truncates plant roots and contains large soil clasts up to 1.5m in diameter. The upper unit is finer grained and is more extensive. At one location the lower unit comprises prograding beds that are interpreted as alluvial. The alternative 'high-stand' interpretation of the coarse-grained deposit is here discounted because of the absence of supporting geomorphological features such as a marine terrace and/or a wave cut platform, the composition of the sediments and their altitude. A tsunami origin is therefore proposed. Gran Canaria is in its post-shield erosional stage of development and has experienced limited vertical uplift of ~40-50 m over the past 1.75 Ma. Thus uplift cannot account for the occurrence of the sediments at elevations of 188 m a.s.l. The Güimar lateral collapse on the neighbouring island of Tenerife (~800ka) has been cited as a possible source. U/Pb dating of the deposits is currently being undertaken.

  1. High-energy deposits newly recognized in Hawaii Island (South Point): a catastrophic tsunami generated by South Kona or Kalae flank collapse?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, F. O.; Hildenbrand, A.; McMurtry, G. M.

    2012-12-01

    Most of the population and economic activity on Earth is concentrated in coastal areas. Tsunamis, in particular, represent a major threat, because they can travel great distances and impact the far surrounding shorelines within a few hours and cause considerable damage. Two main geological processes can generate destructive tsunamis: (1) high-magnitude earthquakes within the oceans, mostly along active margins, which can generate long-wavelength, low amplitude waves; and (2) giant mass-movements, such as catastrophic flank failure at oceanic volcanoes, which can instantaneously mobilize great amounts of material (several hundreds of km3) and generate high amplitude, medium-wavelength tsunamis. The Hawaiian volcanic chain has been affected by the largest landslides on Earth. Big Island, especially, has faced several catastrophic episodes of flank destabilization, the number, the amplitude and the age of which remain controversial. Knowing that there were flank collapses in South Kona and Kalae, we went to South Point to look for onland evidence of the collapse(s) and related tsunami(s), and found a deposit composed of polygenetic clasts, from mm3 to several m3 in size, mostly angular to sub-rounded, with a sandy to silty matrix. The deposit is covered by pyroclasts (the Pahala ash?), which seem to have been locally remobilized to fill in the spaces in the underlying conglomeratic deposit. The absence of a continuous indurate cement precludes an inland origin for the sedimentary deposit. Moreover, the South Point deposit lies on a flat platform far from the main topographic relief of the Mauna Loa and Kilauea volcanoes. Emplacement of the ash layers covering the deposits requires a highly explosive eruption, which we attribute to pressure release driven by the collapse. Presently the deposit is lying at an altitude of ca. 10 m, but in the past it was higher, since the island has experienced significant ongoing subsidence. From previous estimates of the age of the

  2. Insecticidal Activity Associated with the Outer Membrane Vesicles of Xenorhabdus nematophilus

    OpenAIRE

    Khandelwal, Puneet; Banerjee-Bhatnagar, Nirupama

    2003-01-01

    Xenorhabdus nematophilus secretes a large number of proteins into the culture supernatant as soluble proteins and also as large molecular complexes associated with the outer membrane. Transmission electron micrographs of X. nematophilus cells showed that there was blebbing of the outer membrane from the surface of the bacterium. The naturally secreted outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) were purified from the culture supernatant of X. nematophilus and analyzed. Electron microscopy revealed a vesic...

  3. Legal Provisions Applicable to the Definition of Outer Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorin, T.

    2002-01-01

    Whether it be the adjective "spatial" or the definition "space", these two terms have, in many respects, a non-identifiable dimension, which serves as a reference point for all players in this field, without being concerned with the exact area of application. This is evident from the vast diversity of corporate names, acronyms, logos and other designations that we often use. Among some of the most worldwide common include: NASA, ISS, ESA, and so on. Without of course forgetting , a field which concerns all legal experts and should not be overlooked is "space law". Thus, it is apparent that although the "space" community (i.e. influential and space- minded governments and relevant international authorities) has been involved in this field over the last few decades, no specific and universally-accepted definition has been adopted to date. Apart from certain demands made or unilateral positions taken by a given state particularly concerned by the matter, it is important to underline that the international community has refrained from making legislation in this area, apart from some rather limited or symbolic provisions introduced. This vagueness, in legal terms, should clearly be taken as the assertion of nationalistic demands, but also shows divergence or even antagonism between states fuelled by hypothetical profits, as was the case when attempts were made to establish maritime boundaries. We can thus by now summarise this issue by asking the following question: "Where does outer space begin?" We shall begin by looking at the sketchy legal references that we have at our disposal, which as lawyers we must use to attempt to find a solution to practical commercial or scientific contingencies which we are increasingly confronted with. Such references include the Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, Including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies of 10th October 1967, constituting the fundamental space charter

  4. The Gas Distribution in the Outer Regions of Galaxy Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckert, D.; Vazza, F.; Ettori, S.; Molendi, S.; Nagai, D.; Lau, E. T.; Roncarelli, M.; Rossetti, M.; Snowden, L.; Gastaldello, F.

    2012-01-01

    Aims. We present our analysis of a local (z = 0.04 - 0.2) sample of 31 galaxy clusters with the aim of measuring the density of the X-ray emitting gas in cluster outskirts. We compare our results with numerical simulations to set constraints on the azimuthal symmetry and gas clumping in the outer regions of galaxy clusters. Methods. We have exploited the large field-of-view and low instrumental background of ROSAT/PSPC to trace the density of the intracluster gas out to the virial radius, We stacked the density profiles to detect a signal beyond T200 and measured the typical density and scatter in cluster outskirts. We also computed the azimuthal scatter of the profiles with respect to the mean value to look for deviations from spherical symmetry. Finally, we compared our average density and scatter profiles with the results of numerical simulations. Results. As opposed to some recent Suzaku results, and confirming previous evidence from ROSAT and Chandra, we observe a steepening of the density profiles beyond approximately r(sub 500). Comparing our density profiles with simulations, we find that non-radiative runs predict density profiles that are too steep, whereas runs including additional physics and/ or treating gas clumping agree better with the observed gas distribution. We report high-confidence detection of a systematic difference between cool-core and non cool-core clusters beyond approximately 0.3r(sub 200), which we explain by a different distribution of the gas in the two classes. Beyond approximately r(sub 500), galaxy clusters deviate significantly from spherical symmetry, with only small differences between relaxed and disturbed systems. We find good agreement between the observed and predicted scatter profiles, but only when the 1% densest clumps are filtered out in the ENZO simulations. Conclusions. Comparing our results with numerical simulations, we find that non-radiative simulations fail to reproduce the gas distribution, even well outside

  5. The Gas Distribution in Galaxy Cluster Outer Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckert, D.; Vazza, F.; Ettori, S.; Molendi, S.; Nagai, D.; Laue, E. T.; Roncarelli, M.; Rossetti, M.; Snowden, S. L.; Gastaldello, F.

    2012-01-01

    Aims. We present the analysis of a local (z = 0.04 - 0.2) sample of 31 galaxy clusters with the aim of measuring the density of the X-ray emitting gas in cluster outskirts. We compare our results with numerical simulations to set constraints on the azimuthal symmetry and gas clumping in the outer regions of galaxy clusters. Methods. We exploit the large field-of-view and low instrumental background of ROSAT/PSPC to trace the density of the intracluster gas out to the virial radius. We perform a stacking of the density profiles to detect a signal beyond r200 and measure the typical density and scatter in cluster outskirts. We also compute the azimuthal scatter of the profiles with respect to the mean value to look for deviations from spherical symmetry. Finally, we compare our average density and scatter profiles with the results of numerical simulations. Results. As opposed to some recent Suzaku results, and confirming previous evidence from ROSAT and Chandra, we observe a steepening of the density profiles beyond approximately r(sub 500). Comparing our density profiles with simulations, we find that non-radiative runs predict too steep density profiles, whereas runs including additional physics and/or treating gas clumping are in better agreement with the observed gas distribution. We report for the first time the high-confidence detection of a systematic difference between cool-core and non-cool core clusters beyond 0.3r(sub 200), which we explain by a different distribution of the gas in the two classes. Beyond r(sub 500), galaxy clusters deviate significantly from spherical symmetry, with only little differences between relaxed and disturbed systems. We find good agreement between the observed and predicted scatter profiles, but only when the 1% densest clumps are filtered out in the simulations. Conclusions. Comparing our results with numerical simulations, we find that non-radiative simulations fail to reproduce the gas distribution, even well outside cluster

  6. Observational and Numerical Diagnostics of Galaxy Cluster Outer Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckert, D.; Vazza, F.; Ettori, S.; Molendi, S.; Nagai, D.; Lau, E.; Roncarelli, M.; Rossetti, M.; Snowden, S. L.; Gastaldello, F.

    2011-01-01

    Aims. We present the analysis of a local (z = 0.04 - 0.2) sample of 31 galaxy clusters with the aim of measuring the density of the X-ray emitting gas in cluster outskirts. We compare our results with numerical simulations to set constraints on the azimuthal symmetry and gas clumping in the outer regions of galaxy clusters. Methods. We exploit the large field-of-view and low instrumental background of ROSAT/PSPC to trace the density of the intracluster gas out to the virial radius. We perform a stacking of the density profiles to detect a signal beyond r(sub 200) and measure the typical density and scatter in cluster outskirts. We also compute the azimuthal scatter of the profiles with respect to the mean value to look for deviations from spherical symmetry. Finally, we compare our average density and scatter profiles with the results of numerical simulations. Results. As opposed to several recent results, we observe a steepening of the density profiles beyond approximately 0.3r(sub 500). Comparing our density profiles with simulations, we find that non-radiative runs predict too steep density profiles, whereas runs including additional physics and/or gas clumping are in better agreement with the observed gas distribution. We note a systematic difference between cool-core and non-cool core clusters beyond approximately 0.3r(sub 200), which we explain by a different distribution of the gas in the two classes. Beyond approximately r(sub 500), galaxy clusters deviate significantly from spherical symmetry, with only little differences between relaxed and disturbed systems. We find good agreement between the observed and predicted scatter profiles, but only when the 1% densest clumps are filtered out in the simulations. Conclusions. The general trend of steepening density around the virial radius indicates that the shallow density profiles found in several recent works were probably obtained along particular directions (e.g., filaments) and are not representative of the

  7. Dialogue between the Inner and Outer Space of the Building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orchowska, Anita

    2017-10-01

    The article presents the issues connected with the creation of the flow of space and the dialogue between the inner and outer space of the existing architectural objects. While the building industry and contemporary architectural concepts are developing, a man constantly turns to nature. He expresses his incessant longing for being in touch with the natural landscape by using these mutual relations in his solutions. In many cases a building may absorb its closest surroundings to the interior creating the illusive impression of its integrity with nature. Such solutions are commonly used and justified especially in suburban areas, where the natural landscape is an inspiration for every kind of spatial solution. Functional and spatial analysis of the solutions for buildings of different purposes prove that the role of the space flow between the inner and outer space of architectural objects is of great significance in shaping the quality of space, living comfort and aesthetic attractiveness of an object. Another beneficial activity is using transparency in the designed objects, letting the natural light into the inside and taking advantage of open spaces such as patios or atriums. A big role in building the relation between the inside and the outside of an object has the use of adequate materials and material borrowings, which integrate these two separate surroundings and make them similar. Finally, the creation of the junctures and the panoramic views from the interior of the object, of the designed place, emphasizes the interaction between the object and its natural surroundings. Which of these solutions create the best microclimate? May the creation of the relationship between the inside and the outside make the architecture more human, bring a man closer to nature, pretend in an unrestrained way the naturalness of the not natural landscape? What role does the spatial dialogue play from the environmental psychology point of view? Is it a desired phenomenon in

  8. Selected Legal Challenges Relating to the Military use of Outer Space, with Specific Reference to Article IV of the Outer Space Treaty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anél Ferreira-Snyman

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the end of the Second World War the potential use of outer space for military purposes persisted to be intrinsically linked to the development of space technology and space flight. The launch of the first artificial satellite, Sputnik 1, by the USSR in 1957 made Western states realise that a surprise attack from space was a real possibility, resulting in the so-called "space-race" between the USA and the USSR. During the Cold War space activities were intrinsically linked to the political objectives, priorities and national security concerns of the USA and the Soviet Union. After the Cold War the political relevance and benefits of space continued to be recognised by states. In view of the recent emergence of new major space powers such as China, the focus has again shifted to the military use of outer space and the potential that a state with advanced space technology may use it for military purposes in order to dominate other states. Article IV of the Outer Space Treaty prohibits the installation of nuclear weapons and weapons of mass destruction in outer space and determines that the moon and other celestial bodies shall be used for peaceful purposes only. Due to the dual-use character of many space assets, the distinction between military and non-military uses of outer space is becoming increasingly blurred. This article discusses a number of legal challenges presented by article IV of the Outer Space Treaty, relating specifically to the term peaceful, the distinction between the terms militarisation and weaponisation and the nature of a space weapon. It is concluded that article IV is in many respects outdated and that it cannot address the current legal issues relating to the military use of outer space. The legal vacuum in this area may have grave consequences not only for maintaining peace and security in outer space, but also on earth. Consequently, an international dialogue on the military uses of outer space should be

  9. Outer membrane lipoprotein biogenesis: Lol is not the end.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konovalova, Anna; Silhavy, Thomas J

    2015-10-05

    Bacterial lipoproteins are lipid-anchored proteins that contain acyl groups covalently attached to the N-terminal cysteine residue of the mature protein. Lipoproteins are synthesized in precursor form with an N-terminal signal sequence (SS) that targets translocation across the cytoplasmic or inner membrane (IM). Lipid modification and SS processing take place at the periplasmic face of the IM. Outer membrane (OM) lipoproteins take the localization of lipoproteins (Lol) export pathway, which ends with the insertion of the N-terminal lipid moiety into the inner leaflet of the OM. For many lipoproteins, the biogenesis pathway ends here. We provide examples of lipoproteins that adopt complex topologies in the OM that include transmembrane and surface-exposed domains. Biogenesis of such lipoproteins requires additional steps beyond the Lol pathway. In at least one case, lipoprotein sequences reach the cell surface by being threaded through the lumen of a beta-barrel protein in an assembly reaction that requires the heteropentomeric Bam complex. The inability to predict surface exposure reinforces the importance of experimental verification of lipoprotein topology and we will discuss some of the methods used to study OM protein topology. © 2015 The Author(s).

  10. Redefining the essential trafficking pathway for outer membrane lipoproteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabowicz, Marcin; Silhavy, Thomas J.

    2017-01-01

    The outer membrane (OM) of Gram-negative bacteria is a permeability barrier and an intrinsic antibiotic resistance factor. Lipoproteins are OM components that function in cell wall synthesis, diverse secretion systems, and antibiotic efflux pumps. Moreover, each of the essential OM machines that assemble the barrier requires one or more lipoproteins. This dependence is thought to explain the essentiality of the periplasmic chaperone LolA and its OM receptor LolB that traffic lipoproteins to the OM. However, we show that in strains lacking substrates that are toxic when mislocalized, both LolA and LolB can be completely bypassed by activating an envelope stress response without compromising trafficking of essential lipoproteins. We identify the Cpx stress response as a monitor of lipoprotein trafficking tasked with protecting the cell from mislocalized lipoproteins. Moreover, our findings reveal that an alternate trafficking pathway exists that can, under certain conditions, bypass the functions of LolA and LolB, implying that these proteins do not perform any truly essential mechanistic steps in lipoprotein trafficking. Instead, these proteins’ key function is to prevent lethal accumulation of mislocalized lipoproteins. PMID:28416660

  11. Proteomic analysis of Vibrio cholerae outer membrane vesicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altindis, Emrah; Fu, Yang; Mekalanos, John J.

    2014-01-01

    Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) produced by Gram-negative bacteria provide an interesting research material for defining cell-envelope proteins without experimental cell disruption. OMVs are also promising immunogenic platforms and may play important roles in bacterial survival and pathogenesis. We used in-solution trypsin digestion coupled to mass spectrometry to identify 90 proteins present in OMVs of Vibrio cholerae when grown under conditions that activate the TCP pilus virulence regulatory protein (ToxT) virulence regulon. The ToxT expression profile and potential contribution to virulence of these proteins were assessed using ToxT and in vivo RNA-seq, Tn-seq, and cholera stool proteomic and other genome-wide data sets. Thirteen OMV-associated proteins appear to be essential for cell growth, and therefore may represent antibacterial drug targets. Another 12 nonessential OMV proteins, including DegP protease, were required for intestinal colonization in rabbits. Comparative proteomics of a degP mutant revealed the importance of DegP in the incorporation of nine proteins into OMVs, including ones involved in biofilm matrix formation and various substrates of the type II secretion system. Taken together, these results suggest that DegP plays an important role in determining the content of OMVs and also affects phenotypes such as intestinal colonization, proper function of the type II secretion system, and formation of biofilm matrix. PMID:24706774

  12. KINEMATICS OF OUTER HALO GLOBULAR CLUSTERS IN M31

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veljanoski, J.; Ferguson, A. M. N.; Bernard, E. J.; Peñarrubia, J.; Mackey, A. D.; Huxor, A. P.; Irwin, M. J.; Chapman, S. C.; Côté, P.; Tanvir, N. R.; McConnachie, A.; Ibata, R. A.; Martin, N. F.; Fardal, M.; Lewis, G. F.

    2013-01-01

    We present the first kinematic analysis of the far outer halo globular cluster (GC) population in the Local Group galaxy M31. Our sample contains 53 objects with projected radii of ∼20-130 kpc, 44 of which have no previous spectroscopic information. GCs with projected radii ∼> 30 kpc are found to exhibit net rotation around the minor axis of M31, in the same sense as the inner GCs, albeit with a smaller amplitude of 79 ± 19 km s –1 . The rotation-corrected velocity dispersion of the full halo GC sample is 106 ± 12 km s –1 , which we observe to decrease with increasing projected radius. We find compelling evidence for kinematic coherence among GCs that project on top of halo substructure, including a clear signature of infall for GCs lying along the northwest stream. Using the tracer mass estimator, we estimate the dynamical mass of M31 within 200 kpc to be M M31 = (1.2-1.5) ± 0.2 × 10 12 M ☉ . This value is highly dependent on the chosen model and assumptions within.

  13. Experimental evaluation of outer planets probe thermal insulation concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grote, M. G.; Mezines, S. A.

    1976-01-01

    An experimental program was conducted to evaluate various thermal insulation concepts for use in the Outer Planets Probe (OPP) during entry and descent into the atmospheres of Jupiter, Saturn, and Uranus. Phenolic fiberglass honeycomb specimens representative of the OPP structure were packed and tested with various fillers: Thermal conductivity measurements were made over a temperature range of 300 K to 483 K and pressures from vacuum up to 10 atmospheres in helium and nitrogen gas environments. The conductivity results could not be fully explained so new test specimens were designed with improved venting characteristics, and tested to determine the validity of the original data. All of the conductivity data showed results that were substantially higher than expected. The original test data in helium were lower than the data from the redesigned specimens, probably due to inadequate venting of nitrogen gas from the original specimens. The thermal conductivity test results show only a marginal improvement in probe thermal protection performance for a filled honeycomb core compared to an unfilled core. In addition, flatwise tension tests showed a severe bond strength degradation due to the inclusion of either the powder or foam fillers. In view of these results, it is recommended that the baseline OPP design utilize an unfilled core.

  14. Redefining the essential trafficking pathway for outer membrane lipoproteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabowicz, Marcin; Silhavy, Thomas J

    2017-05-02

    The outer membrane (OM) of Gram-negative bacteria is a permeability barrier and an intrinsic antibiotic resistance factor. Lipoproteins are OM components that function in cell wall synthesis, diverse secretion systems, and antibiotic efflux pumps. Moreover, each of the essential OM machines that assemble the barrier requires one or more lipoproteins. This dependence is thought to explain the essentiality of the periplasmic chaperone LolA and its OM receptor LolB that traffic lipoproteins to the OM. However, we show that in strains lacking substrates that are toxic when mislocalized, both LolA and LolB can be completely bypassed by activating an envelope stress response without compromising trafficking of essential lipoproteins. We identify the Cpx stress response as a monitor of lipoprotein trafficking tasked with protecting the cell from mislocalized lipoproteins. Moreover, our findings reveal that an alternate trafficking pathway exists that can, under certain conditions, bypass the functions of LolA and LolB, implying that these proteins do not perform any truly essential mechanistic steps in lipoprotein trafficking. Instead, these proteins' key function is to prevent lethal accumulation of mislocalized lipoproteins.

  15. Para hydrogen equilibration in the atmospheres of the outer planets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conrath, B.J.

    1986-01-01

    The thermodynamic behavior of the atmospheres of the Jovian planets is strongly dependent on the extent to which local thermal equilibration of the ortho and para states of molecular hydrogen is achieved. Voyager IRIS data from Jupiter imply substantial departures of the para hydrogen fraction from equilibrium in the upper troposphere at low latitudes, but with values approaching equilibrium at higher latitudes. Data from Saturn are less sensitive to the orth-para ratio, but suggest para hydrogen fractions near the equilibrium value. Above approximately the 200 K temperature level, para hydrogen conversion can enhance the efficiency of convection, resulting in a substantial increase in overturning times on all of the outer planets. Currently available data cannot definitively establish the ortho-para ratios in the atmospheres of Uranus and Neptune, but suggest values closer to local equilibrium than to the 3.1 normal ratio. Modeling of sub-millimeter wavelength measurements of these planets suggest thermal structures with frozen equilibrium lapse rates in their convective regions

  16. The Eccentric Kozai-Lidov Mechanism for Outer Test Particle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naoz, Smadar; Li, Gongjie; Zanardi, Macarena; de Elía, Gonzalo Carlos; Di Sisto, Romina P.

    2017-07-01

    The secular approximation of the hierarchical three body systems has been proven to be very useful in addressing many astrophysical systems, from planets to stars to black holes. In such a system, two objects are on a tight orbit and the tertiary is on a much wider orbit. Here, we study the dynamics of a system by taking the tertiary mass to zero and solve the hierarchical three body system up to the octupole level of approximation. We find a rich dynamics that the outer orbit undergoes due to gravitational perturbations from the inner binary. The nominal result of the precession of the nodes is mostly limited for the lowest order of approximation; however, when the octupole level of approximation is introduced, the system becomes chaotic, as expected, and the tertiary oscillates below and above 90°, similarly to the non-test particle flip behavior. We provide the Hamiltonian of the system and investigate the dynamics of the system from the quadrupole to the octupole level of approximations. We also analyze the chaotic and quasi-periodic orbital evolution by studying the surfaces of sections. Furthermore, including general relativity, we showcase the long-term evolution of individual debris disk particles under the influence of a far-away interior eccentric planet. We show that this dynamics can naturally result in retrograde objects and a puffy disk after a long timescale evolution (a few Gyr) for initially aligned configuration.

  17. Secretable Small RNAs via Outer Membrane Vesicles in Periodontal Pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, J-W; Kim, S-C; Hong, S-H; Lee, H-J

    2017-04-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been shown to be major regulators of eukaryotic gene expression. However, bacterial RNAs comparable in size to eukaryotic miRNAs (18-22 nucleotides) have received little attention. Recently, a novel class of small RNAs similar in size to miRNAs (miRNA-size, small RNAs or msRNAs) have also been found in several bacteria. Like miRNAs, msRNAs are approximately 15 to 25 nucleotides in length, and their precursors are predicted to form a hairpin loop secondary structure. Here, we identified msRNAs in the periodontal pathogens Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, and Treponema denticola. We examined these msRNAs using a deep sequencing method and characterized dozens of msRNAs through bioinformatic analysis. Highly expressed msRNAs were selected for further validation. The findings suggest that this class of small RNAs is well conserved across the domains of life. Indeed, msRNAs secreted via bacterial outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) were detected. The ability of bacterial OMVs to deliver RNAs into eukaryotic cells was also observed. These msRNAs in OMVs allowed us to identify their potential human immune-related target genes. Furthermore, we found that exogenous msRNAs could suppress expression of certain cytokines in Jurkat T cells. We propose msRNAs may function as novel bacterial signaling molecules that mediate bacteria-to-human interactions. Furthermore, this study may provide fresh insight into bacterial pathogenic mechanisms of periodontal diseases.

  18. Dynamically correlated minor bodies in the outer Solar system

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Fuente Marcos, C.; de la Fuente Marcos, R.

    2018-02-01

    The organization of the orbits of most minor bodies in the Solar system seems to follow random patterns, the result of billions of years of chaotic dynamical evolution. Much as heterogeneous orbital behaviour is ubiquitous, dynamically coherent pairs and groups of objects are also present everywhere. Although first studied among the populations of asteroids and comets that inhabit or traverse the inner Solar system, where they are very numerous, at least one asteroid family has been confirmed to exist in the outer Solar system and two other candidates have been proposed in the literature. Here, we perform a systematic search for statistically significant pairs and groups of dynamically correlated objects through those with semimajor axis greater than 25 au, applying a novel technique that uses the angular separations of orbital poles and perihelia together with the differences in time of perihelion passage to single out pairs of relevant objects. Our analysis recovers well-known, dynamically coherent pairs and groups of comets and trans-Neptunian objects and uncovers a number of new ones, prime candidates for further spectroscopic study.

  19. Outer shell structure in nearly zero magnetostrictive amorphous microwires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Óvári, T.-A.; Chiriac, H.; Lostun, Mihaela

    2009-04-01

    Nearly zero magnetostrictive microwires have been proven to be very versatile, due to their extremely soft magnetic properties, the changes in their magnetization mechanism with dimensions, and the appearance of sensitive application-related effects, such as the large Barkhausen and the giant magnetoimpedance effects. Their sensitive magnetoimpedance response originates in the specific domain structure, composed of an inner core and an outer shell (OS), since the OS with a circumferential easy axis is the main region involved in the magnetoimpedance effect. The circumferential OS is believed to display a bamboolike structure with consecutive rings circumferentially magnetized in opposite directions. However, earlier theoretical studies predicted a uniformly magnetized OS as being energetically favored. This paper aims to clarify this contradiction. The variation of the magnetostatic energy from the bamboo domain to the uniformly magnetized state has been calculated and it has been found to be null. Therefore, a uniformly magnetized OS has lower energy due to the absence of domain walls. Calculation results are supported by magneto-optical Kerr effect surface domain images and surface hysteresis loops. For large values of the metallic nucleus diameter, as well as for microwires with the glass coating removed, the OS vanishes, being replaced with a surface region with helical magnetization, which expands toward the microwire surface.

  20. Storm/substorm signatures in the outer belt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korth, A.; Friedel, R.H.W.; Mouikis, C. [Max-Planck-Inst. fuer Aeronomie, Lindau (Germany); Fennell, J.F. [Aerospace Corp., El Segundo, CA (United States)

    1998-12-01

    The response of the ring current region is compared for periods of storm and substorm activity, with an attempt to isolate the contributions of both processes. The authors investigate CRRES particle data in an overview format that allows the display of long-term variations of the outer radiation belt. They compare the evolution of the ring current population to indicators of storm (Dst) and substorm (AE) activity and examine compositional changes. Substorm activity leads to the intensification of the ring current at higher L (L {approximately} 6) and lower ring current energies compared to storms (L {approximately} 4). The O{sup +}/H{sup +} ratio during substorms remains low, near 10%, but is much enhanced during storms (can exceed 100%). They conclude that repeated substorms with an AE {approximately} 900 nT lead to a {Delta}Dst of {approximately} 30 nT, but do not contribute to Dst during storm main phase as substorm injections do not form a symmetric ring current during such disturbed times.

  1. The Eccentric Kozai–Lidov Mechanism for Outer Test Particle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naoz, Smadar [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Li, Gongjie [Harvard Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Institute for Theory and Computation, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Zanardi, Macarena; De Elía, Gonzalo Carlos; Di Sisto, Romina P., E-mail: snaoz@astro.ucla.edu [Instituto de Astrofísica de La Plata, CCT La Plata-CONICET-UNLP Paseo del Bosque S/N (1900), La Plata (Argentina)

    2017-07-01

    The secular approximation of the hierarchical three body systems has been proven to be very useful in addressing many astrophysical systems, from planets to stars to black holes. In such a system, two objects are on a tight orbit and the tertiary is on a much wider orbit. Here, we study the dynamics of a system by taking the tertiary mass to zero and solve the hierarchical three body system up to the octupole level of approximation. We find a rich dynamics that the outer orbit undergoes due to gravitational perturbations from the inner binary. The nominal result of the precession of the nodes is mostly limited for the lowest order of approximation; however, when the octupole level of approximation is introduced, the system becomes chaotic, as expected, and the tertiary oscillates below and above 90°, similarly to the non-test particle flip behavior. We provide the Hamiltonian of the system and investigate the dynamics of the system from the quadrupole to the octupole level of approximations. We also analyze the chaotic and quasi-periodic orbital evolution by studying the surfaces of sections. Furthermore, including general relativity, we showcase the long-term evolution of individual debris disk particles under the influence of a far-away interior eccentric planet. We show that this dynamics can naturally result in retrograde objects and a puffy disk after a long timescale evolution (a few Gyr) for initially aligned configuration.

  2. Humanizing outer space: architecture, habitability, and behavioral health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Albert A.

    2010-03-01

    Space architecture is the theory and practice of designing and building environments for humans in outer space. In our present century professional astronauts and cosmonauts will remain a focus for space architects, but new designs must better accommodate passengers (tourists and industrial workers) and settlers who set forth to establish off-world societies. Psychologists and architects can work together to assure good spaceflight behavioral health, defined by a lack of neuropsychiatric dysfunction, and the presence of high levels of personal adjustment, cordial interpersonal relations, and positive interactions with the physical and social environments. By designing and constructing facilities that are occupant centered and activity oriented, architects increase habitability thereby decreasing environmental challenges to behavioral health. Simulators and spaceflight-analogous environments make it possible to test design solutions prior to their deployment in space. This paper concludes with suggestions for increasing collaboration between architects and psychologists. These include increased sharing of hypotheses and data, articulating complementary research styles, and mutual advocacy for early, potent, and sustained involvement in mission planning and execution.

  3. Fluorescence spectral properties of outer antenna LHC II

    CERN Document Server

    He Jun Fang; Zhang, Shu; He Fang Tao; Ren Zhao You; Li Liang Bi; Kuang Ting Yun

    2002-01-01

    Outer antenna LHC II acts to absorb and transfer energy for photosynthesis. The authors studied the fluorescence properties of LHC II of spinach with scanning imaging fluorescence spectroscopy. After it had been excited by 514.5 nm laser, the integral fluorescence spectrum of LHC II was detected. It was shown that energy transfer existed between carotenoid and chlorophyll. Seven bands of LHC II fluorescence emission were resolved by Gauss combination, viz. 656.7, 664.6, 671.5, 677.2, 683.5, 689.6, 695.3 nm, and the percentages of them were 3.0%, 13.1%,13.3%, 21.1%, 13.2%, 33.3%, 3.0% respectively. The emission of 658.7 nm was attributed to chlorophyll b, the other emission bands were produced by chlorophyll a molecules with the maximum absorption 662, 670/671, 676, 680 nm and over 690 nm. The band 656.7 nm, whose percentage was 3.0%, shows that the most energy was absorbed by chlorophyll a. The percentage of band 689.6 nm was the most, which was possibly correlated with one type of self protective mechanism o...

  4. Development of a 3D numerical model to evaluate the Stromboli NW flank instability in relation to magma intrusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apuani, T.; Merri, A.

    2009-04-01

    by means of the National Institute for Geophysics and Volcanology (INGV)-National Civil Protection Department (DPC), monitoring system. The results are expressed in terms of deformations and shear strain increments. The much unstable portion of the Sciara depression is evidenced by the highest value of the shear strain increments and is located on its upper right portion. The strain distribution is coherent with the ground motion recorded by the GB-InSAR monitoring system installed by the University of Florence thanks to the INGV-DPC 2004-2006 research program. Superficial displacements of metric amount are developed in this sector and indicate local instability, but are not sufficient to expect deep seated collapse of the volcano's flanks. A mechanism for sub horizontal sill intrusion starting from a vertical dike was proposed, and modelled, to explain the formation of the eruptive vent appeared on the Sciara slope at an altitude of about 400 meters a.s.l.. The results indicate an highly stressed and disturbed band extended transversally to the Sciara at the same elevation; furthermore the maximum value of the shear strain increments is located in correspondence with the actual position of the eruptive vents. The obtained results are very coherent with the field evidences, and could represent one possible explanation of the observed 2007 events.

  5. The last glacial termination on the eastern flank of the central Patagonian Andes (47 ° S

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. I. Henríquez

    2017-07-01

    during the Younger Dryas period. We posit that the withdrawal of glacial and associated glaciolacustrine environments through T1 provided a route for the dispersal of hygrophilous trees and herbs from the eastern flank of the central Patagonian Andes, contributing to the afforestation of the western Andean slopes and pacific coasts of central Patagonia during T1.

  6. Inner- and outer-sphere complexation of ions at the goethite-solution interface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahnemaie, R.; Hiemstra, T.; Riemsdijk, van W.H.

    2006-01-01

    Formation of inner- and outer-sphere complexes of environmentally important divalent ions on the goethite surface was examined by applying the charge distribution CD model for inner- and outer-sphere complexation. The model assumes spatial charge distribution between the surface (0-plane) and the

  7. Topological analysis of Chlamydia trachomatis L2 outer membrane protein 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mygind, P; Christiansen, Gunna; Birkelund, Svend

    1998-01-01

    Using monospecific polyclonal antisera to different parts of Chlamydia trachomatis L2 outer membrane protein 2 (Omp2), we show that the protein is localized at the inner surface of the outer membrane. Omp2 becomes immunoaccessible when Chlamydia elementary bodies are treated with dithiothreitol...

  8. Expression and distribution of leptospiral outer membrane components during renal infection of hamsters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barnett, J. K.; Barnett, D.; Bolin, C. A.; Summers, T. A.; Wagar, E. A.; Cheville, N. F.; Hartskeerl, R. A.; Haake, D. A.

    1999-01-01

    The outer membrane of pathogenic Leptospira species grown in culture media contains lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a porin (OmpL1), and several lipoproteins, including LipL36 and LipL41. The purpose of this study was to characterize the expression and distribution of these outer membrane antigens during

  9. 76 FR 20530 - Safety Zone; Boom Days, Buffalo Outer Harbor, Buffalo, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-13

    ...[deg]51'47.61'' W (NAD 83). (b) Effective period. This regulation will be effective and the safety zone...-AA00 Safety Zone; Boom Days, Buffalo Outer Harbor, Buffalo, NY AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone in the Buffalo Outer...

  10. Maximum outer-bank velocity reduction for vane-dike fields installed in channel bends

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. Michael Scurlock; Amanda L. Cox; Christopher I. Thornton; Drew C. Baird

    2011-01-01

    Hydraulic conditions associated with channel bends in meandering rivers include secondary, helical currents, mass shift of flow to the outside of the bend, and increased erosion along the outer streambank. Such outer-bank erosion may result in undesired plan-form migration of the stream course, placing valuable land holdings or infrastructure in jeopardy. A type of in-...

  11. Insertion Test of the Inner Vacuum Tank inside the Outer Vacuum Tank

    CERN Multimedia

    B. LEVESY

    2002-01-01

    Photos of the insertion test held on 13th of june 2002. The CMS Magnet inner Vacuum Tank is inserted inside the outer vacuum tank. False thermal shield have been placed on the inner vaccum tank to simulated the coil outer thermal shield. This test is a training for the 2 final insertions.

  12. Outer Measures on a Commutative Ring Induced by Measures on Its Spectrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dudzik Dariusz

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available On a commutative ring R we study outer measures induced by measures on Spec(R. The focus is on examples of such outer measures and on subsets of R that satisfy the Carathéodory condition.

  13. 78 FR 40394 - Safety Zone; Outer Banks Bluegrass Festival; Shallowbag Bay, Manteo, NC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-05

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Outer Banks Bluegrass Festival; Shallowbag Bay, Manteo, NC AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... Festival. This action is necessary to protect the life and property of the maritime public from the hazards... Shallowbag Bay River during the Outer Banks Bluegrass Festival Fireworks display. DATES: This rule is...

  14. The 16 November 2006 flank collapse of the south-east crater at Mount Etna, Italy: Study of the deposit and hazard assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norini, Gianluca; de Beni, Emanuela; Andronico, Daniele; Polacci, Margherita; Burton, Mike; Zucca, Francesco

    2009-02-01

    On 16 November 2006 a flank collapse affected the unstable eastern slope of the South-East Crater (SEC) of Mount Etna. The collapse occurred during one of the paroxysmal events with sustained strombolian activity that characterized the August-December 2006 eruption and was triggered by erosion of loose, hydrothermally altered material of the steep south-east sector of SEC from the outpour of lava. The collapse produced a debris avalanche that involved both lithic and juvenile material and resulted in a deposit emplaced on the eastern flank of the volcano up to 1.2 km away from the source. The total volume of the deposit was estimated to be in the order of 330,000-413,000 m3. The reconstruction of the collapse event was simulated using TITAN2D software designed to model granular avalanches and landslides. This approach can be used to estimate areas that may be affected by similar collapse events in the future. The area affected by the 16 November 2006 lateral collapse of SEC was a small portion of the Mount Etna summit area, but the fact that no one was killed or injured should be considered fortuitous. The summit and adjacent areas of the volcano, in fact, are usually visited by many tourists who are not prepared to face this type of danger. The 16 November 2006 collapse points to the need to be prepared for similar events through scientific investigation (analysis of flank instability, numerical simulation of flows) and development of specific civil protection plans.

  15. Lateral release of proteins from the TOM complex into the outer membrane of mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harner, Max; Neupert, Walter; Deponte, Marcel

    2011-07-15

    The TOM complex of the outer membrane of mitochondria is the entry gate for the vast majority of precursor proteins that are imported into the mitochondria. It is made up by receptors and a protein conducting channel. Although precursor proteins of all subcompartments of mitochondria use the TOM complex, it is not known whether its channel can only mediate passage across the outer membrane or also lateral release into the outer membrane. To study this, we have generated fusion proteins of GFP and Tim23 which are inserted into the inner membrane and, at the same time, are spanning either the TOM complex or are integrated into the outer membrane. Our results demonstrate that the TOM complex, depending on sequence determinants in the precursors, can act both as a protein conducting pore and as an insertase mediating lateral release into the outer membrane.

  16. Aging and Phase Stability of Waste Package Outer Barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    F. Wong

    2004-01-01

    This report was prepared in accordance with ''Technical Work Plan for: Regulatory Integration Modeling and Analysis of the Waste Form and Waste Package'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171583]). This report provides information on the phase stability of Alloy 22, the current waste package outer barrier material. The goal of this model is to determine whether the single-phase solid solution is stable under repository conditions and, if not, how fast other phases may precipitate. The aging and phase stability model, which is based on fundamental thermodynamic and kinetic concepts and principles, will be used to provide predictive insight into the long-term metallurgical stability of Alloy 22 under relevant repository conditions. The results of this model are used by ''General Corrosion and Localized Corrosion of Waste Package Outer Barrier'' as reference-only information. These phase stability studies are currently divided into three general areas: Tetrahedrally close-packed (TCP) phase and carbide precipitation in the base metal; TCP and carbide precipitation in welded samples; and Long-range ordering reactions. TCP-phase and carbide precipitates that form in Alloy 22 are generally rich in chromium (Cr) and/or molybdenum (Mo) (Raghavan et al. 1984 [DIRS 154707]). Because these elements are responsible for the high corrosion resistance of Alloy 22, precipitation of TCP phases and carbides, especially at grain boundaries, can lead to an increased susceptibility to localized corrosion in the alloy. These phases are brittle and also tend to embrittle the alloy (Summers et al. 1999 [DIRS 146915]). They are known to form in Alloy 22 at temperatures greater than approximately 600 C. Whether these phases also form at the lower temperatures expected in the repository during the 10,000-year regulatory period must be determined. The kinetics of this precipitation will be determined for both the base metal and the weld heat-affected zone (HAZ). The TCP phases (P, μ, and σ) are present in

  17. Genotyping of the 19-bp insertion/deletion polymorphism in the 5' flank of beta-hydroxylase gene by dissociation analysis of allele-specific PCR products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik Berg; Werge, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    The 19-bp insertion/deletion polymorphism in the 5' flank of the dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH) gene has been associated with psychiatric disorders. We have developed a simple, reliable and inexpensive closed-tube assay for genotyping of this polymorphism based upon T(m) determination of amplified...... and a conventional approach based upon agarose gel electrophoresis of amplified fragments revealed complete concordance between the two procedures. The insights obtained in this study may be utilized to develop assays based upon dissociation analysis of PCR products for genotyping of other insertion...

  18. Relationship between the flank sliding of the South East Crater (Mt. Etna, Italy) and the paroxysmal event of November 16, 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferlito, Carmelo; Viccaro, Marco; Nicotra, Eugenio; Cristofolini, Renato

    2010-12-01

    Over the last 2 years, the south east crater (SEC) at Mt. Etna (Italy) has been characterised by the intermittent emission of lava flows, often accompanied by paroxysmal episodes with violent strombolian activity and/or lava fountains. One of the most intense and intriguing episodes occurred on November 16, 2006 during strombolian and effusive activity from the very top of the SEC. At the eastern base of the crater, a violent and short-lasting outburst generated a 300-m-high eruptive curtain of finely fragmented magma and steam, which collapsed in a few seconds giving rise to a small but significant pyroclastic flow. The paroxysm was preceded by progressive sliding of the eastern flank of the SEC edifice, which led to the formation of a large niche. Previously published models explain the outburst as due to rapid vaporisation of water contained in sediments on contact with hot lava flowing along the flank of the SEC or, alternatively, to gravitational collapse of a destabilised portion of the eastern flank of the crater. However, several lines of evidence suggest that these models do not adequately explain the paroxysm, which we propose was associated with the explosive emission of magma during the rapid opening of an ESE-WNW-oriented fracture at the eastern base of the SEC. Moreover, geochemical data of the products associated with this episode show that they are the most primitive and gas-rich among those erupted during the entire 2006 period. We suggest that the paroxysm of November 16, 2006, which occurred at base of the SEC, was a magma outburst due to rapid ground fracturing related to a drop in confining pressure upon the underlying dyke consequent to the sliding of the eastern flank of the SEC cone. Specifically, the unloaded shallow portion of the feeding dyke did not restrain the arrival of a new batch of gas-rich magma, which worked its way out by fracturing the base of the niche at its weakest point. This paroxysm appears significant because it reveals

  19. The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Outer Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Masahiro; Quadrelli, Marco; Lantoine, Gregory; Backes, Paul; Lopez Ortega, Alejandro; Grip, Havard; Yen, Chen-Wan; Jewitt, David

    2015-01-01

    We propose a novel deep space propulsion method called the Comet Hitchhiker. The concept is to perform momentum exchange with small bodies (i.e., asteroid and comet) using an extendable/retrievable tether and a harpoon. Unlike previously proposed tethered fly-by, the use of extendable tether enables to change the relative speed with a target. Hence Hitchhiker would be a prospective means of providing orbit insertion deltaV, particularly for rendezvous missions to small bodies in the outer Solar System such as Kuiper belt objects and Centaurs, which are not easily manageable with chemical propulsion or solar electric propulsion. Furthermore, by applying regenerative brake during a hitchhike maneuver, a Hitchhiker can harvest energy. The stored energy can be used to make a departure from the target by quickly retrieving the tether, which we call a inverse hitchhike maneuver. By repeating hitchhike and inverse Hitchhike maneuvers, a Hitchhiker could perform a mission to rendezvous with multiple targets efficiently, which we call a multi-hitchhike mission. We derive the basic equation of Hitchhiker, namely the Space Hitchhike Equation, which relates the specific strength and mass fraction of tether to achievable ?V. We then perform detailed feasibility analysis through finite element simulations of tether as well as hypervelocity impact simulations of the harpoon using the Adaptive Mesh Refinement Objected-oriented C++ (AMROC) algorithm. The analysis results suggest that a hitchhike maneuver with deltaV = approximately 1.5km/s is feasible with flight proven materials such as Kevlar/Zylon tether and tungsten harpoon. A carbon nanotube tether, combined with diamond harpoon, would enable approximately 10 km/s hitchhike maneuver. Finally, we present two particular mission scenarios for Hitchhiker: Pluto rendezvous and a multi-hitchhike mission to the Themis family asteroids in the main belt.

  20. Human Outer Solar System Exploration via Q-Thruster Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joosten, B. Kent; White, Harold G.

    2014-01-01

    Propulsion technology development efforts at the NASA Johnson Space Center continue to advance the understanding of the quantum vacuum plasma thruster (QThruster), a form of electric propulsion. Through the use of electric and magnetic fields, a Q-thruster pushes quantum particles (electrons/positrons) in one direction, while the Qthruster recoils to conserve momentum. This principle is similar to how a submarine uses its propeller to push water in one direction, while the submarine recoils to conserve momentum. Based on laboratory results, it appears that continuous specific thrust levels of 0.4 - 4.0 N/kWe are achievable with essentially no onboard propellant consumption. To evaluate the potential of this technology, a mission analysis tool was developed utilizing the Generalized Reduced Gradient non-linear parameter optimization engine contained in the Microsoft Excel® platform. This tool allowed very rapid assessments of "Q-Ship" minimum time transfers from earth to the outer planets and back utilizing parametric variations in thrust acceleration while enforcing constraints on planetary phase angles and minimum heliocentric distances. A conservative Q-Thruster specific thrust assumption (0.4 N/kWe) combined with "moderate" levels of space nuclear power (1 - 2 MWe) and vehicle specific mass (45 - 55 kg/kWe) results in continuous milli-g thrust acceleration, opening up realms of human spaceflight performance completely unattainable by any current systems or near-term proposed technologies. Minimum flight times to Mars are predicted to be as low as 75 days, but perhaps more importantly new "retro-phase" and "gravity-augmented" trajectory shaping techniques were revealed which overcome adverse planetary phasing and allow virtually unrestricted departure and return opportunities. Even more impressively, the Jovian and Saturnian systems would be opened up to human exploration with round-trip times of 21 and 32 months respectively including 6 to 12 months of

  1. An outer approximation method for the road network design problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadi Bagloee, Saeed; Sarvi, Majid

    2018-01-01

    Best investment in the road infrastructure or the network design is perceived as a fundamental and benchmark problem in transportation. Given a set of candidate road projects with associated costs, finding the best subset with respect to a limited budget is known as a bilevel Discrete Network Design Problem (DNDP) of NP-hard computationally complexity. We engage with the complexity with a hybrid exact-heuristic methodology based on a two-stage relaxation as follows: (i) the bilevel feature is relaxed to a single-level problem by taking the network performance function of the upper level into the user equilibrium traffic assignment problem (UE-TAP) in the lower level as a constraint. It results in a mixed-integer nonlinear programming (MINLP) problem which is then solved using the Outer Approximation (OA) algorithm (ii) we further relax the multi-commodity UE-TAP to a single-commodity MILP problem, that is, the multiple OD pairs are aggregated to a single OD pair. This methodology has two main advantages: (i) the method is proven to be highly efficient to solve the DNDP for a large-sized network of Winnipeg, Canada. The results suggest that within a limited number of iterations (as termination criterion), global optimum solutions are quickly reached in most of the cases; otherwise, good solutions (close to global optimum solutions) are found in early iterations. Comparative analysis of the networks of Gao and Sioux-Falls shows that for such a non-exact method the global optimum solutions are found in fewer iterations than those found in some analytically exact algorithms in the literature. (ii) Integration of the objective function among the constraints provides a commensurate capability to tackle the multi-objective (or multi-criteria) DNDP as well.

  2. Nodulation outer proteins: double-edged swords of symbiotic rhizobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staehelin, Christian; Krishnan, Hari B

    2015-09-15

    Rhizobia are nitrogen-fixing bacteria that establish a nodule symbiosis with legumes. Nodule formation depends on signals and surface determinants produced by both symbiotic partners. Among them, rhizobial Nops (nodulation outer proteins) play a crucial symbiotic role in many strain-host combinations. Nops are defined as proteins secreted via a rhizobial T3SS (type III secretion system). Functional T3SSs have been characterized in many rhizobial strains. Nops have been identified using various genetic, biochemical, proteomic, genomic and experimental approaches. Certain Nops represent extracellular components of the T3SS, which are visible in electron micrographs as bacterial surface appendages called T3 (type III) pili. Other Nops are T3 effector proteins that can be translocated into plant cells. Rhizobial T3 effectors manipulate cellular processes in host cells to suppress plant defence responses against rhizobia and to promote symbiosis-related processes. Accordingly, mutant strains deficient in synthesis or secretion of T3 effectors show reduced symbiotic properties on certain host plants. On the other hand, direct or indirect recognition of T3 effectors by plant cells expressing specific R (resistance) proteins can result in effector triggered defence responses that negatively affect rhizobial infection. Hence Nops are double-edged swords that may promote establishment of symbiosis with one legume (symbiotic factors) and impair symbiotic processes when bacteria are inoculated on another legume species (asymbiotic factors). In the present review, we provide an overview of our current understanding of Nops. We summarize their symbiotic effects, their biochemical properties and their possible modes of action. Finally, we discuss future perspectives in the field of T3 effector research. © 2015 Authors; published by Portland Press Limited.

  3. Dust in the outer layers of the Barnard 5 globule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Il'in, V. B.; Efimov, Yu S.; Khudyakova, T. N.; Prokopjeva, M. S.; Varivoda, V. V.

    2018-04-01

    We present the results of our UBVRI polarimetric observations of a dozen stars located close to the well-studied Bok globule Barnard 5 (B5), with several of the stars being seen through its outer layers (with AV up to ˜3 mag). Using recent astrometric, spectroscopic and photometric surveys, we estimate the distance, spectral class and visual extinction for the observed stars and find that the results are in a good agreement with the available 3D extinction maps. We use a two-layer dust model of interstellar polarization towards B5, in which the layer closer to us is an extension of the Taurus cloud complex, and the farther one (including B5 and its halo) is related to the Perseus cloud complex (d ≈ 280-350 pc). Using spectral, photometric and polarimetric data on about 30 additional stars, we estimate the parameters of the former layer as λmax ≈ 0.56 μm, Pmax ≈ 0.7 per cent, θ ≈ 50°, AV ≈ 0.7 mag, and show that the observed wavelength dependence of the position angle for the stars observed generally agrees with the two-layer model. We find that when the stars are seen through the globule layers with AV = 2-3 mag, λmax ≈ 0.6-0.8 μm, which differs significantly from the λmax = 0.52-0.58 μm obtained by us for the diffuse interstellar medium in the direction of B5. We discuss the correlation of λmax with the optical thickness into the globule as well as other correlations of the extinction and polarization parameters.

  4. Energetic particle drift motions in the outer dayside magnetosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buck, R.M.

    1987-12-01

    Models of the geomagnetic field predict that within a distance of approximately one earth radius inside the dayside magnetopause, magnetic fields produced by the Chapman-Ferraro magnetopause currents create high-latitude minimum-B ''pockets'' in the geomagnetic field. Drift-shell branching caused by the minimum-B pockets is analyzed and interpreted in terms of an adiabatic shell branching and rejoining process. We examine the shell-branching process for a static field in detail, using the Choe-Beard 1974 magnetospheric magnetic field model. We find that shell branching annd rejoining conserves the particle mirror field B/sub M/, the fieldline integral invariant I, and the directional electron flux j. We determine the spatial extent of the stable trapping regions for the Choe-Beard model. We develop an adiabatic branching map methodology which completely identifies and describes the location of shell-branching points and the adiabatic trajectories of particles on branched shells, for any model field. We employ the map to develop synthetic pitch angle distributions near the dayside magnetopause by adiabatically transforming observed midnight distributions to the dayside. We find that outer dayside lines contain particles moving on branched and unbranched shells, giving rise to distinctive pitch angle distribution features. We find a good correlation between the pitch angles which mark the transition from branched to unbranched shells in the model, and the distinctive features of the OGO-5 distributions. In the morning sector, we observe large flux changes at critical pitch angles which correspond to B-pocket edges in the model. Measurements on inbound passes in the afternoon sector show first the adiabatic particle shadow, then the arrival of fluxes on rejoined shells, then fluxes on unbranced shells - in accord with model predictions. 204 refs., 138 figs., 2 tabs

  5. Energetic particle drift motions in the outer dayside magnetosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buck, R.M.

    1987-12-01

    Models of the geomagnetic field predict that within a distance of approximately one earth radius inside the dayside magnetopause, magnetic fields produced by the Chapman-Ferraro magnetopause currents create high-latitude minimum-B ''pockets'' in the geomagnetic field. Drift-shell branching caused by the minimum-B pockets is analyzed and interpreted in terms of an adiabatic shell branching and rejoining process. We examine the shell-branching process for a static field in detail, using the Choe-Beard 1974 magnetospheric magnetic field model. We find that shell branching annd rejoining conserves the particle mirror field B/sub M/, the fieldline integral invariant I, and the directional electron flux j. We determine the spatial extent of the stable trapping regions for the Choe-Beard model. We develop an adiabatic branching map methodology which completely identifies and describes the location of shell-branching points and the adiabatic trajectories of particles on branched shells, for any model field. We employ the map to develop synthetic pitch angle distributions near the dayside magnetopause by adiabatically transforming observed midnight distributions to the dayside. We find that outer dayside lines contain particles moving on branched and unbranched shells, giving rise to distinctive pitch angle distribution features. We find a good correlation between the pitch angles which mark the transition from branched to unbranched shells in the model, and the distinctive features of the OGO-5 distributions. In the morning sector, we observe large flux changes at critical pitch angles which correspond to B-pocket edges in the model. Measurements on inbound passes in the afternoon sector show first the adiabatic particle shadow, then the arrival of fluxes on rejoined shells, then fluxes on unbranced shells - in accord with model predictions. 204 refs., 138 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Collisional alignment and orientation of atomic outer shells. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, N.; Gallagher, J.W.; Hertel, I.V.

    1988-01-01

    The study of polarization of atomic radiation emitted after impact excitation has yielded an enormous wealth of detailed information on the mechanism and dynamics of collisional excitation and energy transfer, both in electron and heavy particle impact studies. In these studies, the beam of electrons, ions or fast atoms used to excite the target atoms provides a suitable quantization axis with respect to which the polarization of the fluorescent light of the excited atoms is detected. From these data information on the cross sections for the different magnetic substates of the excited atom is extracted, imparting a great deal of insight into impact mechanisms for both outer and inner shell excitation. It is our aim to provide a comprehensive review including all data available in the literature presented in a standardized and easily accessible fashion. In this review we include only alignment and orientation studies, which have a well-defined planar symmetry, i.e., in which the initial and final relative momentum of the interacting particles are well defined by differential scattering techniques. We do not make a major distinction between heavy-particle and electron impact excitation: In fact, one of our aims is to demonstrate similarities between the two fields from a technical as well as from a conceptual point of view. The review is divided into three parts: This first part (I) deals with direct excitation of atoms by electrons and fast atoms or ions. Section 2 gives an introduction to the general concepts and ideas behind this kind of study and a description of typical experimental setups. Section 3 deals with electron impact excitation of atoms, starting with the simplest case of electron-helium collisions which may be fully described by two parameters, followed by more complex cases such as electron impact excitation of hydrogen and the heavy rare gases. Section 4 describes the results for direct excitation by atomic impact. (orig./AH)

  7. Ordered Raft Domains Induced by Outer Leaflet Sphingomyelin in Cholesterol-Rich Asymmetric Vesicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Qingqing; London, Erwin

    2015-01-01

    Sphingolipid- and cholesterol-rich liquid-ordered (Lo) lipid domains (rafts) are thought to be important organizing elements in eukaryotic plasma membranes. How they form in the sphingolipid-poor cytosolic (inner) membrane leaflet is unclear. Here, we characterize how outer-leaflet Lo domains induce inner-leaflet-ordered domains, i.e., interleaflet coupling. Asymmetric vesicles studied contained physiologically relevant cholesterol levels (∼37 mol %), a mixture of SM (sphingomyelin) and DOPC (dioleoylphosphatidylcholine) in their outer leaflets, and DOPC in their inner leaflets. Lo domains were observed in both leaflets, and were in register, indicative of coupling between SM-rich outer-leaflet-ordered domains and inner-leaflet-ordered domains. For asymmetric vesicles with outer-leaflet egg SM or milk SM, a fluorescent lipid with unsaturated acyl chains (NBD-DOPE) was depleted in both the outer- and inner-leaflet-ordered domains. This suggests the inner-leaflet-ordered domains were depleted in unsaturated lipid (i.e., DOPC) and thus rich in cholesterol. For asymmetric vesicles containing egg SM, outer-leaflet Lo domains were also depleted in a saturated fluorescent lipid (NBD-DPPE), while inner-leaflet Lo domains were not. This indicates that inner- and outer-leaflet Lo domains can have significantly different physical properties. In contrast, in asymmetric vesicles containing outer-leaflet milk SM, which has long acyl chains capable of interdigitating into the inner leaflet, both outer- and inner-leaflet Lo domains were depleted, to a similar extent, in NBD-DPPE. This is indicative of interdigitation-enhanced coupling resulting in inner- and outer-leaflet Lo domains with similar physical properties. PMID:25954879

  8. Biological and functional diversity of bird communities in natural and human modified habitats in Northern Flank of Knuckles Mountain Forest Range, Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KALYA SUBASINGHE

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Subasinghe K, Sumanapala AP. 2014. Biological and functional diversity of bird communities in natural and human modified habitats in Northern Flank of Knuckles Mountain Forest Range, Sri Lanka. Biodiversitas 15: 200-205. The Knuckles Mountain Forest Range (KMFR has a complex mosaic of natural and human modified habitats and the contribution of these habitats to the biological and functional diversities has not been deeply studied. Present study investigated both of these diversities in five habitat types (two natural habitats: Sub-montane forest and Pitawala Patana grassland; three modified habitats: cardamom, pinus and abandoned tea plantations in Northern Flank of KMFR using birds as the indicator group. Bird communities were surveyed using point count method. A total of 1,150 individuals belonging to 56 species were observed. The highest species richness was reported from the cardamom plantation where as sub-montane forest had the highest feeding guild diversity in terms of Shannon Weiner index. The abandoned tea plantation and the Pitawala Patana grasslands with fairly open habitats, showed relatively lower levels of feeding guild diversities. It is clear that the structurally complex habitats contribute more to the area’s biological and functional diversities and need to be taken into consideration when developing conservation plans.

  9. Analysis of gene order data supports vertical inheritance of the leukotoxin operon and genome rearrangements in the 5' flanking region in genus Mannheimia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jesper; Kuhnert, Peter; Frey, Joachim

    2007-01-01

    examined the gene order in the 5' flanking region of the leukotoxin operon and found that the 5' flanking gene strings, hslVU-lapB-artJ-lktC and xylAB-lktC, are peculiar to M. haemolytica + M. glucosida and M. granulomatis, respectively, whereas the gene string hslVU-lapB-lktC is present in M. ruminalis...... than the hslVU-lapB-artJ-lktC and xylAB-lktC gene strings. The presence of (remnants of) the ancient gene string hslVU-lapB-lktC among any subclades within genus Mannheimia supports that it has been vertically inherited from the last common ancestor of genus Mannheimia to any ancestor of the diverging......, the supposed sister group of M. haemolytica + M. glucosida, and in the most ancient subclade M. varigena. In M. granulomatis, we found remnants of the gene string hslVU-lapB-lktC in the xylB-lktC intergenic region. CONCLUSIONS: These observations indicate that the gene string hslVU-lapB-lktC is more ancient...

  10. A recurrent deletion syndrome at chromosome bands 2p11.2-2p12 flanked by segmental duplications at the breakpoints and including REEP1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Servi J C; Blom, Eveline W; Siegelaer, Ingrid T J; Smeets, Eric E J G L

    2015-04-01

    We identified an identical and recurrent 9.4-Mbp deletion at chromosome bands 2p11.2-2p12, which occurred de novo in two unrelated patients. It is flanked at the distal and proximal breakpoints by two homologous segmental duplications consisting of low copy repeat (LCR) blocks in direct orientation, which have >99% sequence identity. Despite the fact that the deletion was almost 10 Mbp in size, the patients showed a relatively mild clinical phenotype, that is, mild-to-moderate intellectual disability, a happy disposition, speech delay and delayed motor development. Their phenotype matches with that of previously described patients. The 2p11.2-2p12 deletion includes the REEP1 gene that is associated with spastic paraplegia and phenotypic features related to this are apparent in most 2p11.2-2p12 deletion patients, but not in all. Other hemizygous genes that may contribute to the clinical phenotype include LRRTM1 and CTNNA2. We propose a recurrent but rare 2p11.2-2p12 deletion syndrome based on (1) the identical, non-random localisation of the de novo deletion breakpoints in two unrelated patients and a patient from literature, (2) the patients' phenotypic similarity and their phenotypic overlap with other 2p deletions and (3) the presence of highly identical LCR blocks flanking both breakpoints, consistent with a non-allelic homologous recombination (NAHR)-mediated rearrangement.

  11. Horizontal Transfer of the Plant Virulence Gene, nec1, and Flanking Sequences among Genetically Distinct Streptomyces Strains in the Diastatochromogenes Cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukhalid, R. A.; Takeuchi, T.; Labeda, D.; Loria, R.

    2002-01-01

    Evidence for the horizontal transfer of a pathogenicity island (PAI) carrying the virulence gene nec1 and flanking sequences among Streptomyces strains in the Diastatochromogenes cluster is presented. Plant-pathogenic, thaxtomin-producing Streptomyces strains, previously classified as S. scabiei based on the conventionally used phenotypic characteristics, were found to be genetically distinct from the type strain of S. scabiei based on DNA relatedness and 16S rDNA sequence analysis. Pairwise DNA-DNA hybridizations between some of these strains and the S. scabiei type strain were as low as 36%, a value much below what is conventionally accepted for species identity (70%). The sequence of the nec1 gene, however, was identical in all the S. scabiei and S. scabiei-like strains tested, irrespective of their DNA relatedness to the type strain of S. scabiei, their geographic origin, or the isolation host. Furthermore, a 26-kb DNA fragment including and flanking nec1 was also conserved among these strains based on restriction and Southern analyses. These data indicate that the etiology of potato scab is more complex than previously recognized; this result has important implications for potato scab management strategies. Previous research has suggested that horizontal transfer of a PAI was the mechanism for evolution of pathogenicity in S. acidiscabies and S. turgidiscabies, species that lie outside of the Diastatochromogenes cluster. Data presented here support this model and indicate that PAI transfer also has occurred frequently in species closely related to S. scabiei. PMID:11823214

  12. The outer limiting membrane (OLM revisited: clinical implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Omri

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available S Omri1,2,3, B Omri1,2,3, M Savoldelli1,2,3,4, L Jonet1,2,3, B Thillaye-Goldenberg1,2,3, G Thuret5, P Gain5, J C Jeanny1,2,3, P Crisanti1,2,3, Francine Behar-Cohen1,2,3,41INSERM, U872 Physiopathology of ocular diseases: Therapeutic innovations, Paris, France; 2Centre de Recherche des Cordeliers, Université Pierre et Marie Curie – Paris6, Paris, France; 3Université Paris Descartes, Paris, France; 4Department of Ophthalmology, Hôtel-Dieu de Paris, France; 5Department of Ophthalmology, Bellevue Hospital, University of Saint-Etienne, FrancePurpose: The outer limiting membrane (OLM is considered to play a role in maintaining the structure of the retina through mechanical strength. However, the observation of junction proteins located at the OLM and its barrier permeability properties may suggest that the OLM may be part of the retinal barrier.Material and methods: Normal and diabetic rat, monkey, and human retinas were used to analyze junction proteins at the OLM. Proteome analyses were performed using immunohistochemistry on sections and flat-mounted retinas and western blotting on protein extracts obtained from laser microdissection of the photoreceptor layers. Semi-thin and ultrastructure analyses were also reported.Results: In the rat retina, in the subapical region zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1, junction adhesion molecule (JAM, an atypical protein kinase C, is present and the OLM shows dense labeling of occludin, JAM, and ZO-1. The presence of occludin has been confirmed using western blot analysis of the microdissected OLM region. In diabetic rats, occludin expression is decreased and glial cells junctions are dissociated. In the monkey retina, occludin, JAM, and ZO-1 are also found in the OLM. Junction proteins have a specific distribution around cone photoreceptors and Müller glia. Ultrastructural analyses suggest that structures like tight junctions may exist between retinal glial Müller cells and photoreceptors.Conclusions: In the OLM

  13. Sorting of bacterial lipoproteins to the outer membrane by the Lol system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narita, Shin-ichiro; Tokuda, Hajime

    2010-01-01

    Bacterial lipoproteins comprise a subset of membrane proteins with a lipid-modified cysteine residue at their amino termini through which they are anchored to the membrane. In Gram-negative bacteria, lipoproteins are localized on either the inner or the outer membrane. The Lol system is responsible for the transport of lipoproteins to the outer membrane.The Lol system comprises an inner-membrane ABC transporter LolCDE complex, a periplasmic carrier protein, LolA, and an outer membrane receptor protein, LolB. Lipoproteins are synthesized as precursors in the cytosol and then translocated across the inner membrane by the Sec translocon to the outer leaflet of the inner membrane, where lipoprotein precursors are processed to mature lipoproteins. The LolCDE complex then mediates the release of outer membrane-specific lipoproteins from the inner membrane while the inner membrane-specific lipoproteins possessing Asp at position 2 are not released by LolCDE because it functions as a LolCDE avoidance signal, causing the retention of these lipoproteins in the inner membrane. A water-soluble lipoprotein-LolA complex is formed as a result of the release reaction mediated by LolCDE. This complex traverses the hydrophilic periplasm to reach the outer membrane, where LolB accepts a lipoprotein from LolA and then catalyzes its incorporation into the inner leaflet of the outer membrane.

  14. Expression of Caspase Signaling Components in the Outer Membranes of Chronic Subdural Hematomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osuka, Koji; Watanabe, Yasuo; Usuda, Nobuteru; Aoyama, Masahiro; Iwami, Kenichiro; Takeuchi, Mikinobu; Watabe, Takeya; Takayasu, Masakazu

    2017-11-15

    Chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) is fundamentally treatable through surgery, although CSDH recurs in some cases. We have observed several cases of spontaneous resolution of CSDH outer membranes, including in trabecular CSDH, after trepanation surgery. In this study, we examined the expression of molecules involved in caspase signaling in CSDH outer membranes. Eight patients whose outer membranes were obtained successfully during trepanation surgery were included in this study. The expression of Fas; Fas-associated death domain (FADD); tumor necrosis factor receptor type 1-associated death domain (TRADD); receptor-interacting protein (RIP); caspases 3, 7, 8, and 9; poly-(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP); DNA fragmentation factor 45 (DFF45) and β-actin was examined by Western blot analysis. The expression levels of PARP, caspase-3, and cleaved caspase-3 were also examined by immunohistochemistry. Fas; FADD; TRADD; RIP; caspases 3, 7, 8, and 9; PARP, and DFF45 were detected in nearly all samples. Caspase-3 and PARP were localized in the endothelial cells of vessels and in fibroblasts in CSDH outer membranes. In addition, cleaved caspase-3 was detected in fibroblasts. We detected molecules of the caspase signaling pathway in CSDH outer membranes. In particular, cleaved caspase-3 was detected, which suggests that apoptosis may occur within these membranes. Thus, during the growth of CSDH outer membranes, the caspase signaling pathway may be restrained. Once the pathway is activated, gradual resolution of CSDH outer membranes may occur. Therefore, these molecules may be novel therapeutic targets for intractable CSDH.

  15. Effect of outer wing separation on lift and thrust generation in a flapping wing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahardika, Nanang; Viet, Nguyen Quoc; Park, Hoon Cheol

    2011-01-01

    We explore the implementation of wing feather separation and lead-lagging motion to a flapping wing. A biomimetic flapping wing system with separated outer wings is designed and demonstrated. The artificial wing feather separation is implemented in the biomimetic wing by dividing the wing into inner and outer wings. The features of flapping, lead-lagging, and outer wing separation of the flapping wing system are captured by a high-speed camera for evaluation. The performance of the flapping wing system with separated outer wings is compared to that of a flapping wing system with closed outer wings in terms of forward force and downward force production. For a low flapping frequency ranging from 2.47 to 3.90 Hz, the proposed biomimetic flapping wing system shows a higher thrust and lift generation capability as demonstrated by a series of experiments. For 1.6 V application (lower frequency operation), the flapping wing system with separated wings could generate about 56% higher forward force and about 61% less downward force compared to that with closed wings, which is enough to demonstrate larger thrust and lift production capability of the separated outer wings. The experiments show that the outer parts of the separated wings are able to deform, resulting in a smaller amount of drag production during the upstroke, while still producing relatively greater lift and thrust during the downstroke.

  16. The Economic Geographies of the Outer City: Industrial Dynamics and Imaginary Spaces of Location in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Lars; Hansen, Høgni Kalsø

    2006-01-01

    The paper focuses on the changing economic geographies of the outer city of Copenhagen. The outer city is not a well-defined place but can be understood as a set of processes transforming the urban economic landscape outside the built-up area. Several central and interrelated economic processes...... (of the interviewee representing the firm). They are representations of the perception, experience and interpretation of the location of the firm. The imaginary spaces of firms in the outer city are different from those of the firms in the built-up area, and a survey points to the fact that multiple...

  17. Measurements of DT alpha particle loss near the outer midplane of TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zweben, S.J.; Darrow, D.S.; Herrmann, H.W.; Redi, M.H.; Schivell, J.; White, R.B.

    1995-07-01

    Measurements of DT alpha particle loss to the outer midplane region of TFTR have been made using a radially movable scintillator detector. The conclusion from this data is that mechanisms determining the DT alpha loss to the outer midplane are not substantially different from those for DD fusion products. Some of these results are compared with a simplified theoretical model for TF ripple-induced alpha loss, which is expected to be the dominant classical alpha loss mechanism near the outer midplane. An example of plasma-driven MHD-induced alpha particle loss is shown, but no signs of any ''collective'' alpha instability-induced alpha loss have yet been observed

  18. Model of alpha particle diffusion in the outer limiter shadow of TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, S.; Academia Sinica, Hefei, Anhui; Zweben, S.J.

    1996-05-01

    A new code, Monte Carlo Collisional Stochastic Orbit Retracing (MCCSOR), has been developed to model the alpha particle loss signal as measured by the outer midplane scintillator detector in TFTR. The shadowing effects due to the outer limiters and the detector itself have been included, along with a pitch angle scattering and stochastic ripple diffusion. Shadowing by the outer limiters has a strong effect on both the magnitude and pitch angle distribution of the calculated loss. There is at least qualitative agreement between the calculated results and the experimental data

  19. Outer- and middle-ear contributions to presbycusis in the Brown Norway rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gratton, Michael Anne; Bateman, Kristin; Cannuscio, Joseph F; Saunders, James C

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the contribution of the outer and middle ears to the hearing loss associated with presbycusis in Brown Norway rats. Animals were formed into two groups; young adults (2-3 months old) and aged animals (approximately 34 months old). Auditory brainstem response (ABR) thresholds were obtained with the outer ear intact or surgically removed. Tympanic membrane (TM) velocity transfer functions were measured from the umbo with the outer ear removed. The length of the auditory meatus, TM surface area, and TM thickness were quantified. The ABR thresholds were 17-26 dB less sensitive in the aged animals between 8.0 and 40.0 kHz when the outer ear was intact. A significant and reliable reduction in the aged rat velocity transfer function of 5-8 dB occurred between 10.0 and 32.0 kHz, while the low frequency velocity response was only a few decibels greater in the younger animals. The ABR threshold differences between young adult and aged ears were compensated by removing the outer/middle ear effects of aging to reveal a purely sensorineural component of presbycusis. The outer and middle ear effects were calculated directly when the ABR and TM velocity data were obtained with the outer ear removed. The outer ear intact condition was modeled in order to compare the ABR data obtained with the outer ear intact with the TM velocity data obtained with the outer removed. With either procedure, removal of the age-related contributions of the outer and middle ear to the ABR threshold resulted in similar age-related ABR threshold shifts between the two age groups. The pure sensorineural threshold shift component of the ABR response was restricted to frequencies between 5.0 and 20.0 kHz and reached a maximum of approximately 15 dB. These results support the conclusion that there is an outer- and middle-ear contribution to the threshold loss defining presbycusis. (c) 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Design, Performance, and Calibration of the CMS Hadron-Outer Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Abdullin, Salavat; Acharya, Bannaje Sripathi; Adam, Nadia; Adams, Mark Raymond; Akchurin, Nural; Akgun, Ugur; Albayrak, Elif Asli; Anderson, E Walter; Antchev, Georgy; Arcidy, M; Ayan, S; Aydin, Sezgin; Aziz, Tariq; Baarmand, Marc M; Babich, Kanstantsin; Baden, Drew; Bakirci, Mustafa Numan; Banerjee, Sunanda; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Bard, Robert; Barnes, Virgil E; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Baiatian, G; Bencze, Gyorgy; Beri, Suman Bala; Berntzon, Lisa; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Bhatti, Anwar; Bodek, Arie; Bose, Suvadeep; Bose, Tulika; Budd, Howard; Burchesky, Kyle; Camporesi, Tiziano; Cankocak, Kerem; Carrell, Kenneth Wayne; Cerci, Salim; Chendvankar, Sanjay; Chung, Yeon Sei; Clarida, Warren; Cremaldi, Lucien Marcus; Cushman, Priscilla; Damgov, Jordan; De Barbaro, Pawel; Debbins, Paul; Deliomeroglu, Mehmet; Demianov, A; de Visser, Theo; Deshpande, Pandurang Vishnu; Díaz, Jonathan; Dimitrov, Lubomir; Dugad, Shashikant; Dumanoglu, Isa; Duru, Firdevs; Efthymiopoulos, I; Elias, John E; Elvira, D; Emeliantchik, Igor; Eno, Sarah Catherine; Ershov, Alexander; Erturk, Sefa; Esen, Selda; Eskut, Eda; Fenyvesi, Andras; Fisher, Wade Cameron; Freeman, Jim; Ganguli, Som N; Gaultney, Vanessa; Gamsizkan, Halil; Gavrilov, Vladimir; Genchev, Vladimir; Gleyzer, Sergei V; Golutvin, Igor; Goncharov, Petr; Grassi, Tullio; Green, Dan; Gribushin, Andrey; Grinev, B; Gurtu, Atul; Murat Güler, A; Gülmez, Erhan; Gümüs, K; Haelen, T; Hagopian, Sharon; Hagopian, Vasken; Halyo, Valerie; Hashemi, Majid; Hauptman, John M; Hazen, Eric; Heering, Arjan Hendrix; Heister, Arno; Hunt, Adam; Ilyina, N; Ingram, D; Isiksal, Engin; Jarvis, Chad; Jeong, Chiyoung; Johnson, Kurtis F; Jones, John; Kaftanov, Vitali; Kalagin, Vladimir; Kalinin, Alexey; Kalmani, Suresh Devendrappa; Karmgard, Daniel John; Kaur, Manjit; Kaya, Mithat; Kaya, Ozlem; Kayis-Topaksu, A; Kellogg, Richard G; Khmelnikov, Alexander; Kim, Heejong; Kisselevich, I; Kodolova, Olga; Kohli, Jatinder Mohan; Kolossov, V; Korablev, Andrey; Korneev, Yury; Kosarev, Ivan; Kramer, Laird; Krinitsyn, Alexander; Krishnaswamy, Marthi Ramaswamy; Krokhotin, Andrey; Kryshkin, V; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kumar, Arun; Kunori, Shuichi; Laasanen, Alvin T; Ladygin, Vladimir; Laird, Edward; Landsberg, Greg; Laszlo, Andras; Lawlor, C; Lazic, Dragoslav; Lee, Sang Joon; Levchuk, Leonid; Linn, Stephan; Litvintsev, Dmitri; Lobolo, L; Los, Serguei; Lubinsky, V; Lukanin, Vladimir; Ma, Yousi; Machado, Emanuel; Maity, Manas; Majumder, Gobinda; Mans, Jeremy; Marlow, Daniel; Markowitz, Pete; Martínez, German; Mazumdar, Kajari; Merlo, Jean-Pierre; Mermerkaya, Hamit; Mescheryakov, G; Mestvirishvili, Alexi; Miller, Michael; Möller, A; Mohammadi-Najafabadi, M; Moissenz, P; Mondal, Naba Kumar; Mossolov, Vladimir; Nagaraj, P; Narasimham, Vemuri Syamala; Norbeck, Edwin; Olson, Jonathan; Onel, Yasar; Onengüt, G; Ozkan, Cigdem; Ozkurt, Halil; Ozkorucuklu, Suat; Ozok, Ferhat; Paktinat, S; Pal, Andras; Patil, Mandakini Ravindra; Penzo, Aldo; Petrushanko, Sergey; Petrosian, A; Pikalov, Vladimir; Piperov, Stefan; Podrasky, V; Polatoz, A; Pompos, Arnold; Popescu, Sorina; Posch, C; Pozdnyakov, Andrey; Qian, Weiming; Ralich, Robert; Reddy, L; Reidy, Jim; Rogalev, Evgueni; Roh, Youn; Rohlf, James; Ronzhin, Anatoly; Ruchti, Randy; Ryazanov, Anton; Safronov, Grigory; Sanders, David A; Sanzeni, Christopher; Sarycheva, Ludmila; Satyanarayana, B; Schmidt, Ianos; Sekmen, Sezen; Semenov, Sergey; Senchishin, V; Sergeyev, S; Serin, Meltem; Sever, Ramazan; Singh, B; Singh, Jas Bir; Sirunyan, Albert M; Skuja, Andris; Sharma, Seema; Sherwood, Brian; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Smirnov, Vitaly; Sogut, Kenan; Sonmez, Nasuf; Sorokin, Pavel; Spezziga, Mario; Stefanovich, R; Stolin, Viatcheslav; Sudhakar, Katta; Sulak, Lawrence; Suzuki, Ichiro; Talov, Vladimir; Teplov, Konstantin; Thomas, Ray; Tonwar, Suresh C; Topakli, Huseyin; Tully, Christopher; Turchanovich, L; Ulyanov, A; Vanini, A; Vankov, Ivan; Vardanyan, Irina; Varela, F; Vergili, Mehmet; Verma, Piyush; Vesztergombi, Gyorgy; Vidal, Richard; Vishnevskiy, Alexander; Vlassov, E; Vodopiyanov, Igor; Volobouev, Igor; Volkov, Alexey; Volodko, Anton; Wang, Lei; Werner, Jeremy Scott; Wetstein, Matthew; Winn, Dave; Wigmans, Richard; Whitmore, Juliana; Wu, Shouxiang; Yazgan, Efe; Yetkin, Taylan; Zálán, Peter; Zarubin, Anatoli; Zeyrek, Mehmet

    2008-01-01

    The CMS hadron calorimeter is a sampling calorimeter with brass absorber and plastic scintillator tiles with wavelength shifting fibres for carrying the light to the readout device. The barrel hadron calorimeter is complemented with an outer calorimeter to ensure high energy shower containment in the calorimeter. Fabrication, testing and calibration of the outer hadron calorimeter are carried out keeping in mind its importance in the energy measurement of jets in view of linearity and resolution. It will provide a net improvement in missing $\\et$ measurements at LHC energies. The outer hadron calorimeter will also be used for the muon trigger in coincidence with other muon chambers in CMS.

  1. OmcF, a Putative c-Type Monoheme Outer Membrane Cytochrome Required for the Expression of Other Outer Membrane Cytochromes in Geobacter sulfurreducens

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Byoung-Chan; Leang, Ching; Ding, Yan-Huai R.; Glaven, Richard H.; Coppi, Maddalena V.; Lovley, Derek R.

    2005-01-01

    Outer membrane cytochromes are often proposed as likely agents for electron transfer to extracellular electron acceptors, such as Fe(III). The omcF gene in the dissimilatory Fe(III)-reducing microorganism Geobacter sulfurreducens is predicted to code for a small outer membrane monoheme c-type cytochrome. An OmcF-deficient strain was constructed, and its ability to reduce and grow on Fe(III) citrate was found to be impaired. Following a prolonged lag phase (150 h), the OmcF-deficient strain de...

  2. Prototype repository - Microbes in the retrieved outer section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arlinger, Johanna; Bengtsson, Andreas; Edlund, Johanna; Eriksson, Lena; Johansson, Jessica; Lydmark, Sara; Rabe, Lisa; Pedersen, Karsten

    2013-10-01

    The Prototype repository is an international project to build and study a full-scale model of the planned Swedish final repository for spent nuclear fuel. The Prototype consists of two sections with four and two full-scale copper canisters, respectively. In 2011, the outer section with two canisters (nos. 5 and 6) was excavated. Groundwater surrounding the Prototype has been demonstrated to include microorganisms such as iron-reducing bacteria (IRB) and sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) with the ability to affect the repository through reduction of structural Fe(III) in the buffer or by the production of sulphide, respectively. During excavation, samples were taken for microbiological and molecular biological analysis from backfill, buffer, and canister surfaces and analysed with an emphasis on microbial presence and number. The underground environment is anaerobic, but the construction of a repository will raise the oxygen levels. Oxygen is not favourable for the longevity of the copper canister, but oxygen levels will decrease over time, partly due to microbial activity that consumes oxygen. Therefore, evaluating the presence and numbers of the heterotrophic aerobic bacteria that consume oxygen as well as monitoring the oxygen levels are important. The oxygen content of the bentonite itself is also a primary concern, and a method for measuring how the oxygen diffuses through the clay has long been needed. In the work reported here, we performed two pilot studies to address this need. One of these studies tested a method for differentiating between oxygen saturation in aerobic versus anaerobic bentonite; this method has potential for further development. The tunnel above the Prototype canisters was backfilled with a mixture of bentonite and crushed rock. Sixty-three randomly chosen samples from a cross-section through the backfill were analysed for culturable heterotrophic aerobic bacteria. All but one exhibited growth, with four samples exhibiting numbers over 106

  3. Prototype repository - Microbes in the retrieved outer section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arlinger, Johanna; Bengtsson, Andreas; Edlund, Johanna; Eriksson, Lena; Johansson, Jessica; Lydmark, Sara; Rabe, Lisa; Pedersen, Karsten [Microbial Analytics Sweden, Moelnlycke (Sweden)

    2013-10-15

    The Prototype repository is an international project to build and study a full-scale model of the planned Swedish final repository for spent nuclear fuel. The Prototype consists of two sections with four and two full-scale copper canisters, respectively. In 2011, the outer section with two canisters (nos. 5 and 6) was excavated. Groundwater surrounding the Prototype has been demonstrated to include microorganisms such as iron-reducing bacteria (IRB) and sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) with the ability to affect the repository through reduction of structural Fe(III) in the buffer or by the production of sulphide, respectively. During excavation, samples were taken for microbiological and molecular biological analysis from backfill, buffer, and canister surfaces and analysed with an emphasis on microbial presence and number. The underground environment is anaerobic, but the construction of a repository will raise the oxygen levels. Oxygen is not favourable for the longevity of the copper canister, but oxygen levels will decrease over time, partly due to microbial activity that consumes oxygen. Therefore, evaluating the presence and numbers of the heterotrophic aerobic bacteria that consume oxygen as well as monitoring the oxygen levels are important. The oxygen content of the bentonite itself is also a primary concern, and a method for measuring how the oxygen diffuses through the clay has long been needed. In the work reported here, we performed two pilot studies to address this need. One of these studies tested a method for differentiating between oxygen saturation in aerobic versus anaerobic bentonite; this method has potential for further development. The tunnel above the Prototype canisters was backfilled with a mixture of bentonite and crushed rock. Sixty-three randomly chosen samples from a cross-section through the backfill were analysed for culturable heterotrophic aerobic bacteria. All but one exhibited growth, with four samples exhibiting numbers over 106

  4. 78 FR 33897 - Atlantic Wind Lease Sale 2 (ATLW2) Commercial Leasing for Wind Power on the Outer Continental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-05

    ... Management Atlantic Wind Lease Sale 2 (ATLW2) Commercial Leasing for Wind Power on the Outer Continental...; MMAA104000] Atlantic Wind Lease Sale 2 (ATLW2) Commercial Leasing for Wind Power on the Outer Continental... Management (BOEM), Interior. ACTION: Final Sale Notice for Commercial Leasing for Wind Power on the Outer...

  5. 78 FR 44150 - Atlantic Wind Lease Sale 1 (ATLW1) Commercial Leasing for Wind Power on the Outer Continental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-23

    ... Wind Lease Sale 1 (ATLW1) Commercial Leasing for Wind Power on the Outer Continental Shelf Offshore... Notice for Commercial Leasing for Wind Power on the Outer Continental Shelf Offshore Virginia. SUMMARY... Commercial Leasing for Wind Power on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Offshore Virginia, which was published...

  6. 77 FR 71612 - Atlantic Wind Lease Sale 2 (ATLW2) Commercial Leasing for Wind Power on the Outer Continental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-03

    ... Wind Lease Sale 2 (ATLW2) Commercial Leasing for Wind Power on the Outer Continental Shelf Offshore...), Interior. ACTION: Proposed Sale Notice for commercial leasing for wind power on the Outer Continental Shelf... sale of commercial wind energy leases on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) offshore Rhode Island and...

  7. 76 FR 55090 - Commercial Lease of Submerged Lands for Renewable Energy Development on the Outer Continental Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-06

    ...-2011-0039] Commercial Lease of Submerged Lands for Renewable Energy Development on the Outer... renewable energy leases on the Outer Continental Shelf. In the preamble to the April 29, 2009, Final Rule, ``Renewable Energy and Alternate Uses of Existing Facilities on the Outer Continental Shelf,'' BOEMRE stated...

  8. BLM/OCS Southern California Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Baseline Studies

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data in this file were produced by Science Applications, Inc., prime contractor on the Bureau of Land Management/Outer Continental Shelf - Southern California...

  9. Meningococcal outer membrane vesicle composition-dependent activation of the innate immune response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zariri, Afshin; Beskers, Joep; van de Waterbeemd, Bas; Hamstra, Hendrik Jan; Bindels, Tim H E; van Riet, Elly; van Putten, Jos P M; van der Ley, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Meningococcal outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) have been extensively investigated and successfully implemented as vaccines. They contain pathogen associated molecular patterns including lipopolysaccharide (LPS), capable of triggering innate immunity. However, Neisseria meningitidis contains an

  10. BLM/OCS South Texas Outer Continental Shelf (STOCS) Project Sediment Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The South Texas Outer Continental Shelf Project (STOCS) conducted by the University of Texas and the USGS with funding from BLM/NOAA. The USGS produced geochemical...

  11. Next-generation outer membrane vesicle vaccines from concept to clinical trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waterbeemd, van de B.

    2013-01-01

    Only vaccines containing outer membrane vesicles (OMV) have successfully stopped Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B epidemics. The OMV vaccines, however, provide limited coverage and are difficult to produce. This is caused by an obligatory detergent treatment, which removes lipopolysaccharide

  12. Expression pattern of INNER NO OUTER homologue in Nymphaea (water lily family, Nymphaeaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Toshihiro; Ito, Motomi; Kato, Masahiro

    2003-10-01

    Two homologues of INNER NO OUTER ( INO) in Nymphaea alba and N. colorata (Nymphaeaceae) were isolated and the expression pattern of the N. alba INO homologue NaINO was examined by in situ hybridization. The INO homologues obtained have a portion similar to INO in the predicted amino acid sequences between the conserved zinc finger-like and YABBY domains. In an in situ hybridization analysis, NaINO is expressed in the outer epidermis of the outer integument, inner integument, and the tip of the nucellus. The pattern observed in the outer integument is very similar to that of Arabidopsis thaliana, while the expression in the inner integument and nucellus is not observed in A. thaliana.

  13. Quantitative Proteomics Reveals Distinct Differences in the Protein Content of Outer Membrane Vesicle Vaccines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waterbeemd, van de B.; Mommen, G.P.M.; Pennings, J.L.A.; Eppink, M.H.M.; Wijffels, R.H.; Pol, van der L.A.; Jong, de A.P.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    At present, only vaccines containing outer membrane vesicles (OMV) have successfully stopped Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B epidemics. These vaccines however require detergent-extraction to remove endotoxin, which changes immunogenicity and causes production difficulties. To investigate this in

  14. JUNO OUTER CRUISE RAW GRAVITY SCIENCE 1 V1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains archival raw, partially processed, and ancillary/supporting gravity science data acquired during the Juno outer cruise between the October...

  15. Thermal noise and the incessant vibration of the outer hair cells in the cochlea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Fritze

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The continual exposure of outer hair cells (OHCs to thermal noise causes vibrations in resonant frequency. As these vibrations are backprojected, they should be recordable as audiofrequencies in the outer ear canal. But even though they are likely to be amplified in some areas by clustering in terms of the chaos theory, they cannot be picked up in the outer ear canal by currently available recording technologies. Conditions change in the presence of pathology, e.g. loss of OHCs and fibrous replacement: Clusters grow in size and amplitudes become larger so that the vibrations can be picked up as spontaneous oto-acoustic emissions (SOAEs in the outer ear canal. Efforts are needed to demonstrate the presence of physiological OHC vibrations (emission by incessant vibration, EIV by processing auditory recordings with statistical methods.

  16. Structural Characterization of Outer Membrane Components of the Type IV Pili System in Pathogenic Neisseria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jain, Samta; Moscicka, Katarzyna B.; Bos, Martine P.; Pachulec, Emilia; Stuart, Marc C. A.; Keegstra, Wilko; Boekema, Egbert J.; van der Does, Chris; B. Mościcka, K.; Ahmed, Niyaz

    2011-01-01

    Structures of the type IV pili secretin complexes from Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Neisseria meningitidis, embedded in outer membranes were investigated by transmission electron microscopy. Single particle averaging revealed additional domains not observed previously. Secretin complexes of N.

  17. Self-optimizing Uplink Outer Loop Power Control for WCDMA Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Markoc

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The increasing demands for high data rates, drives the efforts for more efficient usage of the finite natural radio spectrum resources. Existing wideband code division multiple access (WCDMA uplink outer loop power control has difficulty to answer to the new load on air interface. The main reason is that the maximum allowed noise rise per single user is fixed value. In worst case uplink load can be so high that all services, including conversational service, could be blocked. In this paper investigation has been performed to present correlation of main system parameters, used by uplink outer loop power control, to uplink load. Simulation has been created and executed to present difference in current implementation of uplink outer loop power control against proposed changes. Proposed solution is self-optimizing uplink outer loop power control in a way that maximum allowed noise rise per single user would be dynamically changed based on current uplink load on cell.

  18. Interaction between magma intrusion and flank dynamics at Mt. Etna in 2008, imaged by integrated dense GPS and DInSAR data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonforte, Alessandro; Guglielmino, Francesco; Puglisi, Giuseppe

    2013-08-01

    Global positioning system (GPS) and differential interferometric synthetic aperture radar (DInSAR) data, collected from July 2007 to July 2008 on Mt. Etna, are analyzed to define the dynamics preceding and accompanying the onset of the eruption on 13 May 2008. Short- and long-term comparisons have been made on both GPS and radar data, covering similar time windows. Thanks to the availability of three GPS surveys the year before the eruption onset, an increase in the seaward movement of the NE flank of the volcano has been detected in the few months before the dike intrusion. The GPS ground deformation pattern also shows a slight inflation centered on the western side of the volcano in the preeruptive long-term comparison (from July 2007 to May 2008). The GPS has been integrated with DInSAR data by the SISTEM approach, to take advantage of the different methodologies and provide high spatial sampling of the 3-D ground displacement pattern. We inverted the SISTEM results to model the pressure source causing the observed preeruptive inflation. The subsequent emplacement of the eruptive dike was imaged by two GPS surveys carried out on a dense network over the uppermost part of the volcano on 6 and 13 May, i.e., a few days before and a few hours after the beginning of the eruption. We inverted this comparison to define the position, geometry, and kinematics of the dike. The dike intrusion was also imaged by DInSAR data with temporal baselines of 2-3 months, which confirm strong displacements localized on the summit area, rapidly decreasing toward the middle flanks of the volcano, as detected by very short-term GPS data; furthermore, the comparison between DInSAR and GPS data highlighted the presence of a depressurizing source localized beneath the upper southwestern area, acting just after the dike intrusion. Finally, the long-period (1 year) GPS and DInSAR data were integrated by SISTEM to finely depict the 3-D ground deformation pattern with the highest spatial

  19. A New Strain Collection for Improved Expression of Outer Membrane Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ina Meuskens

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Almost all integral membrane proteins found in the outer membranes of Gram-negative bacteria belong to the transmembrane β-barrel family. These proteins are not only important for nutrient uptake and homeostasis, but are also involved in such processes as adhesion, protein secretion, biofilm formation, and virulence. As surface exposed molecules, outer membrane β-barrel proteins are also potential drug and vaccine targets. High production levels of heterologously expressed proteins are desirable for biochemical and especially structural studies, but over-expression and subsequent purification of membrane proteins, including outer membrane proteins, can be challenging. Here, we present a set of deletion mutants derived from E. coli BL21(DE3 designed for the over-expression of recombinant outer membrane proteins. These strains harbor deletions of four genes encoding abundant β-barrel proteins in the outer membrane (OmpA, OmpC, OmpF, and LamB, both single and in all combinations of double, triple, and quadruple knock-outs. The sequences encoding these outer membrane proteins were deleted completely, leaving only a minimal scar sequence, thus preventing the possibility of genetic reversion. Expression tests in the quadruple mutant strain with four test proteins, including a small outer membrane β-barrel protein and variants thereof as well as two virulence-related autotransporters, showed significantly improved expression and better quality of the produced proteins over the parent strain. Differences in growth behavior and aggregation in the presence of high salt were observed, but these phenomena did not negatively influence the expression in the quadruple mutant strain when handled as we recommend. The strains produced in this study can be used for outer membrane protein production and purification, but are also uniquely useful for labeling experiments for biophysical measurements in the native membrane environment.

  20. ANATOMICAL CORRELATES TO THE BANDS SEEN IN THE OUTER RETINA BY OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY

    Science.gov (United States)

    SPAIDE, RICHARD F.; CURCIO, CHRISTINE A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the validity of commonly used anatomical designations for the four hyperreflective outer retinal bands seen in current-generation optical coherence tomography, a scale model of outer retinal morphology was created using published information for direct comparison with optical coherence tomography scans. Methods Articles and books concerning histology of the outer retina from 1900 until 2009 were evaluated, and data were used to create a scale model drawing. Boundaries between outer retinal tissue compartments described by the model were compared with intensity variations of representative spectral-domain optical coherence tomography scans using longitudinal reflectance profiles to determine the region of origin of the hyperreflective outer retinal bands. Results This analysis showed a high likelihood that the spectral-domain optical coherence tomography bands attributed to the external limiting membrane (the first, innermost band) and to the retinal pigment epithelium (the fourth, outermost band) are correctly attributed. Comparative analysis showed that the second band, often attributed to the boundary between inner and outer segments of the photoreceptors, actually aligns with the ellipsoid portion of the inner segments. The third band corresponded to an ensheathment of the cone outer segments by apical processes of the retinal pigment epithelium in a structure known as the contact cylinder. Conclusion Anatomical attributions and subsequent pathophysiologic assessments pertaining to the second and third outer retinal hyperreflective bands may not be correct. This analysis has identified testable hypotheses for the actual correlates of the second and third bands. Nonretinal pigment epithelium contributions to the fourth band (e.g., Bruch membrane) remain to be determined. PMID:21844839

  1. Radial Profiles of Star Formation in the Far Outer Regions of Galaxy Disks

    OpenAIRE

    Elmegreen, Bruce G.; Hunter, Deidre A.

    2005-01-01

    Star formation in galaxies is triggered by a combination of processes, including gravitational instabilities, spiral wave shocks, stellar compression, and turbulence compression. Some of these persist in the far outer regions where the column density is far below the threshold for instabilities, making the outer disk cutoff somewhat gradual. We show that in a galaxy with a single exponential gas profile the star formation rate can have a double exponential with a shallow one in the inner part...

  2. Ionization of inner shells of atoms taking account of outer shell rearrangement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amusia, M.Ya.

    1977-01-01

    The application of the general many-body theory and methods formulated with its help, in particular, the so-called random phase approximation with exchange (RPAE) and the many-body perturbation theory (MBPT) makes possible a description of ionization processes for many outer and intermediate shells of a number of atoms. This investigation of outer- and intermediate-shell ionization by photons and electrons demonstrates the collective character of these processes and the possibility of describing them by RPAE. 28 references

  3. Star Formation Activity Beyond the Outer Arm. I. WISE -selected Candidate Star-forming Regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izumi, Natsuko; Yasui, Chikako; Saito, Masao [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1, Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Kobayashi, Naoto; Hamano, Satoshi, E-mail: natsuko.izumi@nao.ac.jp [Laboratory of Infrared High-resolution spectroscopy (LIH), Koyama Astronomical Observatory, Kyoto Sangyo University, Motoyama, Kamigamo, Kita-ku, Kyoto 603-8555 (Japan)

    2017-10-01

    The outer Galaxy beyond the Outer Arm provides a good opportunity to study star formation in an environment significantly different from that in the solar neighborhood. However, star-forming regions in the outer Galaxy have never been comprehensively studied or cataloged because of the difficulties in detecting them at such large distances. We studied 33 known young star-forming regions associated with 13 molecular clouds at R {sub G} ≥ 13.5 kpc in the outer Galaxy with data from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer ( WISE ) mid-infrared all-sky survey. From their color distribution, we developed a simple identification criterion of star-forming regions in the outer Galaxy with the WISE color. We applied the criterion to all the WISE sources in the molecular clouds in the outer Galaxy at R {sub G} ≥ 13.5 kpc detected with the Five College Radio Astronomy Observatory (FCRAO) {sup 12}CO survey of the outer Galaxy, of which the survey region is 102.°49 ≤  l  ≤ 141.°54, −3.°03 ≤  b  ≤ 5.°41, and successfully identified 711 new candidate star-forming regions in 240 molecular clouds. The large number of samples enables us to perform the statistical study of star formation properties in the outer Galaxy for the first time. This study is crucial to investigate the fundamental star formation properties, including star formation rate, star formation efficiency, and initial mass function, in a primordial environment such as the early phase of the Galaxy formation.

  4. The Outer Planets and their Moons Comparative Studies of the Outer Planets prior to the Exploration of the Saturn System by Cassini-Huygens

    CERN Document Server

    Encrenaz, T; Owen, T. C; Sotin, C

    2005-01-01

    This volume gives an integrated summary of the science related to the four giant planets in our solar system. It is the result of an ISSI workshop on «A comparative study of the outer planets before the exploration of Saturn by Cassini-Huygens» which was held at ISSI in Bern on January 12-16, 2004. Representatives of several scientific communities, such as planetary scientists, astronomers, space physicists, chemists and astrobiologists have met with the aim to review the knowledge on four major themes: (1) the study of the formation and evolution processes of the outer planets and their satellites, beginning with the formation of compounds and planetesimals in the solar nebula, and the subsequent evolution of the interiors of the outer planets, (2) a comparative study of the atmospheres of the outer planets and Titan, (3) the study of the planetary magnetospheres and their interactions with the solar wind, and (4) the formation and properties of satellites and rings, including their interiors, surfaces, an...

  5. Light-dependent changes in outer retinal water diffusion in rats in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissig, David; Berkowitz, Bruce A

    2012-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that in rats, intraretinal light-dependent changes on diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in vivo are consistent with known retinal layer-specific physiology. In male Sprague-Dawley rats, retinal morphology (thickness, extent, surface area, volume) and intraretinal profiles of the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC, i.e., water mobility) parallel and perpendicular to the optic nerve were measured in vivo using quantitative MRI methods during light and dark stimulation. The parallel ADC in the posterior half of the avascular, photoreceptor-dominated outer retina was significantly higher in light than dark, and this pattern was reversed (dark>light) in the anterior outer retina. The perpendicular ADC in the posterior outer retina was similar in light and dark, but was significantly higher in dark than light in the anterior outer retina. No light-dark changes in the inner retina were noted. We identified light-dependent intraretinal diffusion changes that reflected established stimulation-based changes in outer retinal hydration. These findings are expected to motivate future applications of functional diffusion-based MRI in blinding disorders of the outer retina.

  6. Static length changes of cochlear outer hair cells can tune low-frequency hearing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikola Ciganović

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The cochlea not only transduces sound-induced vibration into neural spikes, it also amplifies weak sound to boost its detection. Actuators of this active process are sensory outer hair cells in the organ of Corti, whereas the inner hair cells transduce the resulting motion into electric signals that propagate via the auditory nerve to the brain. However, how the outer hair cells modulate the stimulus to the inner hair cells remains unclear. Here, we combine theoretical modeling and experimental measurements near the cochlear apex to study the way in which length changes of the outer hair cells deform the organ of Corti. We develop a geometry-based kinematic model of the apical organ of Corti that reproduces salient, yet counter-intuitive features of the organ's motion. Our analysis further uncovers a mechanism by which a static length change of the outer hair cells can sensitively tune the signal transmitted to the sensory inner hair cells. When the outer hair cells are in an elongated state, stimulation of inner hair cells is largely inhibited, whereas outer hair cell contraction leads to a substantial enhancement of sound-evoked motion near the hair bundles. This novel mechanism for regulating the sensitivity of the hearing organ applies to the low frequencies that are most important for the perception of speech and music. We suggest that the proposed mechanism might underlie frequency discrimination at low auditory frequencies, as well as our ability to selectively attend auditory signals in noisy surroundings.

  7. Insights into the preferential order of strand exchange in the Cre/loxP recombinase system: impact of the DNA spacer flanking sequence and flexibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abi-Ghanem, Josephine; Samsonov, Sergey A.; Pisabarro, M. Teresa

    2015-03-01

    The Cre/loxP system is widely used as a genetic tool to manipulate DNA. Cre recombinase catalyzes site-specific recombination between 34 bp loxP sites. Each loxP site is recognized by two Cre molecules assuming a cleaving (CreC) and non-cleaving (CreNC) activity. Despite the symmetry in the sequences of the arms of loxP, available biochemical data show strong evidence that the recombination reaction is asymmetric with a preferred strand exchange order. The asymmetry comes from the spacer separating the two sets of palindromic arms of the loxP sequence. However, it remains to be understood how this preferential order is established. We apply computational structure-based methods and perform a thorough detailed analysis of available structural and biochemical information on the Cre/loxP system in order to investigate such asymmetry in the recombination, and we propose a rationale to explain the determinants favoring the strand exchange order. We show that the structural properties of the DNA flanking sequence of the spacer guide the recombination, and we establish the role of residues R118, R121 and K122 from CreC, which contact the spacer region and by clamping the DNA inhibit the cleavage on the second arm of loxP. Our studies give an atomistic insight on the synapsis state of the recombination process in the Cre/loxP system and highlight the importance of the flexibility and other intrinsic properties of the flanking regions of the DNA spacer to establish a preferential strand exchange order.

  8. A polymorphic indel containing the RS3 microsatellite in the 5' flanking region of the vasopressin V1a receptor gene is associated with chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, W D; Donaldson, Z R; Young, L J

    2012-07-01

    Vasopressin is a neuropeptide that has been strongly implicated in the development and evolution of complex social relations and cognition in mammals. Recent studies in voles have shown that polymorphic variation in the promoter region of the arginine vasopressin V1a receptor gene (avpr1a) is associated with different dimensions of sociality. In humans, variation in a repetitive sequence element in the 5' flanking region of the AVPR1A, known as RS3, have also been associated with variation in AVPR1a gene expression, brain activity and social behavior. Here, we examined the association of polymorphic variation in this same 5' flanking region of the AVPR1A on subjective ratings of personality in a sample of 83 chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Initial analyses indicated that 34 females and 19 males were homozygous for the short allele, which lacks RS3 (DupB(-/-)), while 18 females and 12 males were heterozygous and thus had one copy of the long allele containing RS3 (DupB(+/-)), yielding overall allelic frequencies of 0.82 for the DupB(-) allele and 0.18 for the DupB(+) allele. DupB(+/+) chimpanzees were excluded from the analysis because of the limited number of individuals. Results indicated no significant sex difference in personality between chimpanzees homozygous for the deletion of the RS3-containing DupB region (DupB(-/-)); however, among chimpanzees carrying one allele with the DupB present (DupB(+/-)), males had significantly higher dominance and lower conscientiousness scores than females. These findings are the first evidence showing that the AVPR1A gene plays a role in different aspects of personality in male and female chimpanzees. © 2012 The Authors. Genes, Brain and Behavior © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  9. A SNP in the 5' flanking region of the myostatin-1b gene is associated with harvest traits in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peñaloza, Carolina; Hamilton, Alastair; Guy, Derrick R; Bishop, Stephen C; Houston, Ross D

    2013-11-27

    Myostatin (MSTN) belongs to the transforming growth factor-β superfamily and is a potent negative regulator of skeletal muscle development and growth in mammals. Most teleost fish possess two MSTN paralogues. However, as a consequence of a recent whole genome-duplication event, salmonids have four: MSTN-1 (-1a and -1b) and MSTN-2 (-2a and -2b). Evidence suggests that teleost MSTN plays a role in the regulation of muscle growth. In the current study, the MSTN-1b gene was re-sequenced and screened for SNP markers in a commercial population of Atlantic salmon. After genotyping 4,800 progeny for the discovered SNPs, we investigated their association with eight harvest traits - four body-weight traits, two ratios of weight traits, flesh colour and fat percentage - using a mixed model association analysis. Three novel SNPs were discovered in the MSTN-1b gene of Atlantic salmon. One of the SNPs, located within the 5' flanking region (g.1086C > T), had a significant association with harvest traits (p  T locus. The alleles at g.1086C > T act in an additive manner and explain a small percentage of the genetic variation of these phenotypes. The association analysis revealed that g.1086C > T had a significant association with all body-weight traits under study. Although the SNP explains a small percentage of the variance, our results indicate that a variation in the 5' flanking region of the myostatin gene is associated with the genetic regulation of growth in Atlantic salmon.

  10. Geomicrobiology of Archaeal Communities Isolated from an Off-axis Abyssal Hill Fault Scarp on the East Pacific Rise Flank at 9° 27'N

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrhardt, C. J.; Haymon, R.; Holden, P.; Lamontagne, M.

    2003-12-01

    Although heat flow studies suggest that ~70% of the hydrothermal heat loss in the oceans occurs in the abyssal hill terrain on the flanks of mid-ocean ridges, very few off-axis hydrothermal sites have been discovered. In May 2002, sedimentary blowout structures of probable hydrothermal origin were discovered along East Pacific Rise at 9° 27'N on an off-axis abyssal hill bounded by a fault scarp covered with orange-brown microbial flocculations. Recovered samples of these flocculations have presented an opportunity to study the unknown nature and role of thermophilic and hyperthermophilic microbial communities on the ridge flanks. Furthermore, the archaeal communities that we have identified in the samples are useful "microbial tracers" which can be used to locate off-axis areas of moderate-to-high temperature fluid flow (>50° C). In this study, we used molecular techniques to isolate, amplify, and sequence community archaeal RNA sequences from fault scarp flocculations collected with a slurp pump system mounted in the Alvin basket. Molecular phylogenies based on 16S rRNA were constructed. Phylogenetic relationships of isolated clones were used to infer temperature preferences of archaeal communities. We identified 12 clones that clustered within thermophilic or hyperthermophilic clades within Archaea suggesting that moderately high temperature fluid (>50° C) exited the seafloor along this abyssal hill fault scarp. Our studies also suggest that these communities mediate the formation of Fe-sulfide mineral phases. Analysis of the samples with an Environmental Scanning Electron Microscope (ESEM) and X-ray energy dispersive analysis (EDS) revealed unique iron sulfide mineral phases with anomalously low Fe/S ratios in direct association with microbial communities.

  11. Computed tomography versus intravenous urography in diagnosis of acute flank pain from urolithiasis: a randomized study comparing imaging costs and radiation dose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, J M; Glocer, J; Abbott, C; Maling, T M; Mark, S

    2001-08-01

    The equivalent sensitivity of non-contrast computed tomography (NCCT) and intravenous urography (IVU) in the diagnosis of suspected ureteric colic has been established. Approximately 50% of patients with suspected ureteric colic do not have a nephro-urological cause for pain. Because many such patients require further imaging studies, NCCT may obviate the need for these studies and, in so doing, be more cost effective and involve less overall radiation exposure. The present study compares the total imaging cost and radiation dose of NCCT versus IVU in the diagnosis of acute flank pain. Two hundred and twenty-four patients (157 men; mean age 45 years; age range 19-79 years) with suspected renal colic were randomized either to NCCT or IVU. The number of additional diagnostic imaging studies, cost (IVU A$136; CTU A$173), radiation exposure and imaging times were compared. Of 119 (53%) patients with renal obstruction, 105 had no nephro-urological causes of pain. For 21 (20%) of these patients an alternative diagnosis was made at the initial imaging, 10 of which were significant. Of 118 IVU patients, 28 (24%) required 32 additional imaging tests to reach a diagnosis, whereas seven of 106 (6%) NCCT patients required seven additional imaging studies. The average total diagnostic imaging cost for the NCCT group was A$181.94 and A$175.46 for the IVU group (P IVU) (P IVU) (P IVU, its advantages of faster diagnosis, the avoidance of additional diagnostic imaging tests and its ability to diagnose other causes makes it the study of choice for acute flank pain at Christchurch Hospital.

  12. Computed tomography versus intravenous urography in diagnosis of acute flank pain from urolithiasis: a randomized study comparing imaging costs and radiation dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomson, J.M.Z.; Maling, T.M.J.; Glocer, J.; Mark, S.; Abbott, C.

    2001-01-01

    The equivalent sensitivity of non-contrast computed tomography (NCCT) and intravenous urography (IVU) in the diagnosis of suspected ureteric colic has been established. Approximately 50% of patients with suspected ureteric colic do not have a nephro-urological cause for pain. Because many such patients require further imaging studies, NCCT may obviate the need for these studies and, in so doing, be more cost effective and involve less overall radiation exposure. The present study compares the total imaging cost and radiation dose of NCCT versus IVU in the diagnosis of acute flank pain. Two hundred and twenty-four patients (157 men; mean age 45 years; age range 19-79 years) with suspected renal colic were randomized either to NCCT or IVU. The number of additional diagnostic imaging studies, cost (IVU A$ 136; CTU A$ 173), radiation exposure and imaging times were compared. Of 119(53%) patients with renal obstruction, 105 had no nephro-urological causes of pain. For 21 (20%) of these patients an alternative diagnosis was made at the initial imaging, 10 of which were significant. Of 118 IVU patients, 28 (24%) required 32 additional imaging tests to reach a diagnosis, whereas seven of 106 (6%) NCCT patients required seven additional imaging studies. The average total diagnostic imaging cost for the NCCT group was A$181.94 and A$175.46 for the IVU group (P< 0.43). Mean radiation dose to diagnosis was 5.00 mSv (NCCT) versus 3.50 mSv (IVU) (P < 0.001). Mean imaging time was 30 min (NCCT) versus 75 min (IVU) (P < 0.001). Diagnostic imaging costs were remarkably similar. Although NCCT involves a higher radiation dose than IVU, its advantages of faster diagnosis, the avoidance of additional diagnostic imaging tests and its ability to diagnose other causes makes it the study of choice for acute flank pain at Christchurch Hospital. Copyright (2001) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  13. Inner and outer star forming regions over the disks of spiral galaxies. I. Sample characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Baras, M.; Díaz, A. I.; Rosales-Ortega, F. F.; Sánchez, S. F.

    2018-01-01

    Context. The knowledge of abundance distributions is central to understanding the formation and evolution of galaxies. Most of the relations employed for the derivation of gas abundances have so far been derived from observations of outer disk H ii regions, despite the known differences between inner and outer regions. Aims: Using integral field spectroscopy (IFS) observations we aim to perform a systematic study and comparison of two inner and outer H ii regions samples. The spatial resolution of the IFS, the number of objects and the homogeneity and coherence of the observations allow a complete characterization of the main observational properties and differences of the regions. Methods: We analyzed a sample of 725 inner H ii regions and a sample of 671 outer H ii regions, all of them detected and extracted from the observations of a sample of 263 nearby, isolated, spiral galaxies observed by the CALIFA survey. Results: We find that inner H ii regions show smaller equivalent widths, greater extinction and luminosities, along with greater values of [N ii] λ6583/Hα and [O ii] λ3727/[O iii] λ5007 emission-line ratios, indicating higher metallicities and lower ionization parameters. Inner regions have also redder colors and higher photometric and ionizing masses, although MionMphot is slighty higher for the outer regions. Conclusions: This work shows important observational differences between inner and outer H ii regions in star forming galaxies not previously studied in detail. These differences indicate that inner regions have more evolved stellar populations and are in a later evolution state with respect to outer regions, which goes in line with the inside-out galaxy formation paradigm. Table 4 is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/609/A102

  14. The Xylella fastidiosa PD1063 protein is secreted in association with outer membrane vesicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Brittany K; Voegel, Tanja; Kirkpatrick, Bruce C

    2014-01-01

    Xylella fastidiosa is a gram-negative, xylem-limited plant pathogenic bacterium that causes disease in a variety of economically important agricultural crops including Pierce's disease of grapevines. Xylella fastidiosa biofilms formed in the xylem vessels of plants play a key role in early colonization and pathogenicity by providing a protected niche and enhanced cell survival. Here we investigate the role of Xylella fastidiosa PD1063, the predicted ortholog of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae PXO_03968, which encodes an outer membrane protein. To assess the function of the Xylella fastidiosa ortholog, we created Xylella fastidiosa mutants deleted for PD1063 and then assessed biofilm formation, cell-cell aggregation and cell growth in vitro. We also assessed disease severity and pathogen titers in grapevines mechanically inoculated with the Xylella fastidiosa PD1063 mutant. We found a significant decrease in cell-cell aggregation among PD1063 mutants but no differences in cell growth, biofilm formation, disease severity or titers in planta. Based on the demonstration that Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae PXO_03968 encodes an outer membrane protein, secreted in association with outer membrane vesicles, we predicted that PD1063 would also be secreted in a similar manner. Using anti-PD1063 antibodies, we found PD1063 in the supernatant and secreted in association with outer membrane vesicles. PD1063 purified from the supernatant, outer membrane fractions and outer membrane vesicles was 19.2 kD, corresponding to the predicted size of the processed protein. Our findings suggest Xylella fastidiosa PD1063 is not essential for development of Pierce's disease in Vitis vinifera grapevines although further research is required to determine the function of the PD1063 outer membrane protein in Xylella fastidiosa.

  15. Atmospheric Mining in the Outer Solar System:. [Aerial Vehicle Reconnaissance and Exploration Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palaszewski, Bryan A.

    2014-01-01

    Atmospheric mining in the outer solar system has been investigated as a means of fuel production for high energy propulsion and power. Fusion fuels such as Helium 3 (3He) and hydrogen can be wrested from the atmospheres of Uranus and Neptune and either returned to Earth or used in-situ for energy production. Helium 3 and hydrogen (deuterium, etc.) were the primary gases of interest with hydrogen being the primary propellant for nuclear thermal solid core and gas core rocket-based atmospheric flight. A series of analyses were undertaken to investigate resource capturing aspects of atmospheric mining in the outer solar system. This included the gas capturing rate, storage options, and different methods of direct use of the captured gases. Additional supporting analyses were conducted to illuminate vehicle sizing and orbital transportation issues. While capturing 3He, large amounts of hydrogen and 4He are produced. With these two additional gases, the potential for fueling small and large fleets of additional exploration and exploitation vehicles exists. Additional aerospacecraft or other aerial vehicles (UAVs, balloons, rockets, etc.) could fly through the outer planet atmospheres, for global weather observations, localized storm or other disturbance investigations, wind speed measurements, polar observations, etc. Deep-diving aircraft (built with the strength to withstand many atmospheres of pressure) powered by the excess hydrogen or helium 4 may be designed to probe the higher density regions of the gas giants. Outer planet atmospheric properties, atmospheric storm data, and mission planning for future outer planet UAVs are presented.

  16. A highly redundant gene network controls assembly of the outer spore wall in S. cerevisiae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coney Pei-Chen Lin

    Full Text Available The spore wall of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a multilaminar extracellular structure that is formed de novo in the course of sporulation. The outer layers of the spore wall provide spores with resistance to a wide variety of environmental stresses. The major components of the outer spore wall are the polysaccharide chitosan and a polymer formed from the di-amino acid dityrosine. Though the synthesis and export pathways for dityrosine have been described, genes directly involved in dityrosine polymerization and incorporation into the spore wall have not been identified. A synthetic gene array approach to identify new genes involved in outer spore wall synthesis revealed an interconnected network influencing dityrosine assembly. This network is highly redundant both for genes of different activities that compensate for the loss of each other and for related genes of overlapping activity. Several of the genes in this network have paralogs in the yeast genome and deletion of entire paralog sets is sufficient to severely reduce dityrosine fluorescence. Solid-state NMR analysis of partially purified outer spore walls identifies a novel component in spore walls from wild type that is absent in some of the paralog set mutants. Localization of gene products identified in the screen reveals an unexpected role for lipid droplets in outer spore wall formation.

  17. Characterization of the Outer Domain of the gp120 Glycoprotein from Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xinzhen; Tomov, Vesko; Kurteva, Svetla; Wang, Liping; Ren, Xinping; Gorny, Miroslaw K.; Zolla-Pazner, Susan; Sodroski, Joseph

    2004-01-01

    The core of the gp120 glycoprotein from human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is comprised of three major structural domains: the outer domain, the inner domain, and the bridging sheet. The outer domain is exposed on the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein trimer and contains binding surfaces for neutralizing antibodies such as 2G12, immunoglobulin G1b12, and anti-V3 antibodies. We expressed the outer domain of HIV-1YU2 gp120 as an independent protein, termed OD1. OD1 efficiently bound 2G12 and a large number of anti-V3 antibodies, indicating its structural integrity. Immunochemical studies with OD1 indicated that antibody responses against the outer domain of the HIV-1 gp120 envelope glycoprotein are rare in HIV-1-infected human sera that potently neutralize the virus. Surprisingly, such outer-domain-directed antibody responses are commonly elicited by immunization with recombinant monomeric gp120. Immunization with soluble, stabilized HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein trimers elicited antibody responses that more closely resembled those in the sera of HIV-1-infected individuals. These results underscore the qualitatively different humoral immune responses elicited during natural infection and after gp120 vaccination and help to explain the failure of gp120 as an effective vaccine. PMID:15542649

  18. Isolation and partial characterization of outer and inner membranes from encapsulated Haemophilus influenzae type b.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeb, M R; Zachary, A L; Smith, D H

    1981-01-01

    A method has been developed to separate the cell envelope of encapsulated (type b) Haemophilus influenzae into its outer and inner membrane components with procedures that avoided two problems encountered in fractionation of this envelope: (i) the tendency of the outer and inner membranes to hybridize and (ii) the tendency of the apparently fragile inner membrane to fragment into difficulty sedimentable units. Log phage cells, whose lipids were radioactively labeled, were lysed by passage through a French press. The lysate was applied to a discontinuous sucrose gradient, and envelope-rich material was collected by centrifugation onto a cushion of dense sucrose under carefully controlled conditions. This material was then further fractionated by isopycnic centrifugation in a sucrose gradient to yield four membrane fractions which were partially characterized. On the basis of their radioactivity, buoyant density, ultrastructure, polypeptide composition, and content of phospholipid, protein, lipopolysaccharide, and succinic dehydrogenase, these fractions were identified as follows: fraction 1, outer membrane vesicles with very little inner membrane contamination (less than 4%); fraction 2, outer membrane vesicles containing entrapped inner membrane; fraction 3, a protein-rich fraction of inner membrane; fraction 4, a protein-poor fraction of inner membrane. Fractions 3 and 4 contained about 25% outer membrane contamination.

  19. Calcium sensors of ciliary outer arm dynein: functions and phylogenetic considerations for eukaryotic evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaba, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    The motility of eukaryotic cilia and flagella is modulated in response to several extracellular stimuli. Ca(2+) is the most critical intracellular factor for these changes in motility, directly acting on the axonemes and altering flagellar asymmetry. Calaxin is an opisthokont-specific neuronal calcium sensor protein first described in the sperm of the ascidian Ciona intestinalis. It binds to a heavy chain of two-headed outer arm dynein in a Ca(2+)-dependent manner and regulates 'asymmetric' wave propagation at high concentrations of Ca(2+). A Ca(2+)-binding subunit of outer arm dynein in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, the light chain 4 (LC4), which is a Ca(2+)-sensor phylogenetically different from calaxin, shows Ca(2+)-dependent binding to a heavy chain of three-headed outer arm dynein. However, LC4 appears to participate in 'symmetric' wave propagation at high concentrations of Ca(2+). LC4-type dynein light chain is present in bikonts, except for some subclasses of the Excavata. Thus, flagellar asymmetry-symmetry conversion in response to Ca(2+) concentration represents a 'mirror image' relationship between Ciona and Chlamydomonas. Phylogenetic analyses indicate the duplication, divergence, and loss of heavy chain and Ca(2+)-sensors of outer arm dynein among excavate species. These features imply a divergence point with respect to Ca(2+)-dependent regulation of outer arm dynein in cilia and flagella during the evolution of eukaryotic supergroups.

  20. The outer membrane, not a coat of host proteins, limits antigenicity of virulent Treponema pallidum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, D L; Chang, P; McDowall, A W; Radolf, J D

    1992-01-01

    Virulent Treponema pallidum reacts poorly with the specific antibodies present in human and rabbit syphilitic sera, a phenomenon often attributed to an outer coat of host serum proteins. Here we present additional evidence that the limited antigenicity of virulent organisms actually is due to a paucity of proteins in the outer membrane. Initially, we used electron microscopy to demonstrate that the outer membrane is highly susceptible to damage from physical manipulation (i.e., centrifugation and resuspension) and nonionic detergents. Organisms with disrupted outer membranes were markedly more antigenic than intact treponemes as determined by immunoelectron microscopy (IEM) with rabbit syphilitic and antiendoflagellar antisera. Data obtained with a new radioimmunoassay, designated the T. pallidum surface-specific radioimmunoassay, corroborated these IEM findings by demonstrating that the major T. pallidum immunogens are not surface exposed; the assay also was unable to detect serum proteins, including fibronectin, on the surfaces of intact organisms. Furthermore, IEM of T. pallidum on ultrathin cryosections with monospecific anti-47-kDa-immunogen antiserum confirmed the intracellular location of the 47-kDa immunogen. On the basis of these and previous findings, we proposed a new model for T. pallidum ultrastructure in which the outer membrane contains a small number of transmembrane proteins and the major membrane immunogens are anchored by lipids to the periplasmic leaflet of the cytoplasmic membrane. This unique ultrastructure explains the remarkable ability of virulent organisms to evade the humoral immune response of the T. pallidum-infected host. Images PMID:1541522

  1. Estimating volume of deposits associated with landslides on volcanic landscapes in the SW flank of the volcano Pico de Orizaba, Puebla-Veracruz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Legorreta Paulín

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Landslides that occur along river systems are very common and have the potential to cause harm to human, to its infrastructure or affect their socio-economic activity. This dynamic is magnified in territories where morphological contrasts are very marked; as in the border between the mountains and subhorizontal land. This is especially true for volcanic terrains where volcanic activity can trigger voluminous landslides along stream systems by sector and flank collapse and where high seasonal rainfall on terrains covered by poorly consolidated materials produces small but hazardous landslides and debris flows that occur continually along stream systems during the volcanic repose periods. Those type of landslides can deliver volumes of hundreds and millions cubic meters that create a potentially hazardous situation for people and property down the valleys. The study of landslides in volcanic terrains through a Geographic Information System (GIS and under a geomorphological criterion, have allowed to develop a comprehensive methodology linked to the development of multi-temporal inventory, with susceptibility and volume estimation of displaced material. The aim of this research is to develop a method (protocol for landslide susceptibility and landslide volume assessment of potentially unstable volcanic landscapes in order to be helpful in mitigating landslide damages to human settlements. Pico de Orizaba volcano is the highest volcano in Mexico. The volcano has been affected by large flank collapse landslides throughout its geological history. These events have partially destroyed the cone as it happened in Bezymianny volcano and St. Elena volcano. In this volcano, the risk associated with landslide and debris flows, is increased by the growing of human settlements along the hillslopes and by the subsistence agriculture, and deforestation. This situation is favored by a volcanic calm that has lasted 147 years, approximate. These conditions create a

  2. Brucella ovis PA mutants for outer membrane proteins Omp10, Omp19, SP41, and BepC are not altered in their virulence and outer membrane properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidhu-Muñoz, Rebeca S; Sancho, Pilar; Vizcaíno, Nieves

    2016-04-15

    Mutants in several genes have been obtained on the genetic background of virulent rough (lacking O-polysaccharide) Brucella ovis PA. The target genes encode outer membrane proteins previously associated with the virulence of smooth (bearing O-polysaccharide chains in the lipopolysaccharide) Brucella strains. Multiple attempts to delete omp16, coding for a homologue to peptidoglycan-associated lipoproteins, were unsuccessful, which suggests that Omp16 is probably essential for in vitro survival of B. ovis PA. Single deletion of omp10 or omp19-that encode two other outer membrane lipoproteins--was achieved, but the simultaneous removal of both genes failed, suggesting an essential complementary function between both proteins. Two other deletion mutants, defective in the Tol-C-homologue BepC or in the SP41 adhesin, were also obtained. Surprisingly when compared to previous results obtained with smooth Brucella, none of the B. ovis mutants showed attenuation in the virulence, either in the mouse model or in cellular models of professional and non-professional phagocytes. Additionally, and in contrast to the observations reported with smooth Brucella strains, several properties related to the outer membrane remained almost unaltered. These results evidence new distinctive traits between naturally rough B. ovis and smooth brucellae. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Lack of Outer Membrane Protein A Enhances the Release of Outer Membrane Vesicles and Survival of Vibrio cholerae and Suppresses Viability of Acanthamoeba castellanii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soni Priya Valeru

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of the diarrhoeal disease cholera, survives in aquatic environments. The bacterium has developed a survival strategy to grow and survive inside Acanthamoeba castellanii. It has been shown that V. cholerae expresses outer membrane proteins as virulence factors playing a role in the adherence to interacted host cells. This study examined the role of outer membrane protein A (OmpA and outer membrane vesicles (OMVs in survival of V. cholerae alone and during its interaction with A. castellanii. The results showed that an OmpA mutant of V. cholerae survived longer than wild-type V. cholerae when cultivated alone. Cocultivation with A. castellanii enhanced the survival of both bacterial strains and OmpA protein exhibited no effect on attachment, engulfment, and survival inside the amoebae. However, cocultivation of the OmpA mutant of V. cholerae decreased the viability of A. castellanii and this bacterial strain released more OMVs than wild-type V. cholerae. Surprisingly, treatment of amoeba cells with OMVs isolated from the OmpA mutant significantly decreased viable counts of the amoeba cells. In conclusion, the results might highlight a regulating rule for OmpA in survival of V. cholerae and OMVs as a potent virulence factor for this bacterium towards eukaryotes in the environment.

  4. Structure of Rotavirus Outer-Layer Protein VP7 Bound with a Neutralizing Fab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoki, Scott T.; Settembre, Ethan C.; Trask, Shane D.; Greenberg, Harry B.; Harrison, Stephen C.; Dormitzer, Philip R.; (Stanford-MED); (CH-Boston)

    2009-06-17

    Rotavirus outer-layer protein VP7 is a principal target of protective antibodies. Removal of free calcium ions (Ca{sup 2+}) dissociates VP7 trimers into monomers, releasing VP7 from the virion, and initiates penetration-inducing conformational changes in the other outer-layer protein, VP4. We report the crystal structure at 3.4 angstrom resolution of VP7 bound with the Fab fragment of a neutralizing monoclonal antibody. The Fab binds across the outer surface of the intersubunit contact, which contains two Ca{sup 2+} sites. Mutations that escape neutralization by other antibodies suggest that the same region bears the epitopes of most neutralizing antibodies. The monovalent Fab is sufficient to neutralize infectivity. We propose that neutralizing antibodies against VP7 act by stabilizing the trimer, thereby inhibiting the uncoating trigger for VP4 rearrangement. A disulfide-linked trimer is a potential subunit immunogen.

  5. Modification of Salmonella Lipopolysaccharides Prevents the Outer Membrane Penetration of Novobiocin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nobre, Thatyane M.; Martynowycz, Michael W.; Andreev, Konstantin; Kuzmenko, Ivan; Nikaido, Hiroshi; Gidalevitz, David

    2015-12-01

    Small hydrophilic antibiotics traverse the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria through porin channels. Large lipophilic agents traverse the outer membrane through its bilayer, containing a majority of lipopolysaccharides in its outer leaflet. Genes controlled by the two-component regulatory system PhoPQ modify lipopolysaccharides. We isolate lipopolysaccharides from isogenic mutants of Salmonella sp., one lacking the modification, the other fully modified. These lipopolysaccharides were reconstituted asmonolayers at the air-water interface, and their properties, aswell as their interaction with a large lipophilic drug, novobiocin, was studied. X-ray reflectivity showed that the drug penetrated the monolayer of the unmodified lipopolysaccharides reaching the hydrophobic region,butwas prevented fromthis penetration intothemodified lipopolysaccharides.Results correlatewith behavior of bacterial cells, which become resistant to antibiotics after PhoPQ-regulated modifications. Grazing incidence x-ray diffraction showed that novobiocin produced a striking increase in crystalline coherence length, and the size of the near-crystalline domains.

  6. Using Real and Simulated TNOs to Constrain the Outer Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaib, Nathan

    2018-04-01

    Over the past 2-3 decades our understanding of the outer solar system’s history and current state has evolved dramatically. An explosion in the number of detected trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs) coupled with simultaneous advances in numerical models of orbital dynamics has driven this rapid evolution. However, successfully constraining the orbital architecture and evolution of the outer solar system requires accurately comparing simulation results with observational datasets. This process is challenging because observed datasets are influenced by orbital discovery biases as well as TNO size and albedo distributions. Meanwhile, such influences are generally absent from numerical results. Here I will review recent work I and others have undertaken using numerical simulations in concert with catalogs of observed TNOs to constrain the outer solar system’s current orbital architecture and past evolution.

  7. Coherent correlation enhancement of outer shell photoionization cross sections of alkali-like ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amusia, M.Y.; Avdonina, B.; Pratt, R.H.

    1995-01-01

    An alkali-like ion interaction with inner electrons of an alkali-like ion leads to a significant increase in the photoionization cross section of the outer s electron. This occurs not only for ground-state ions with one s electron in the outer shell, but also when the outer s electron is in an excited state. The reason for this amplification, in addition to coherent enhancement in summing of the correlation amplitudes, is that the zero in the direct amplitude occurs below threshold. This leads to a constructive interference with the correlation amplitude above the photoionization threshold, in contrast to a destructive interference in the case of a neutral atom with the same electronic configuration, for which the zero occurs above threshold. Results of this research were published

  8. Impact of the symmetry energy on the outer crust of nonaccreting neutron stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roca-Maza, X.; Piekarewicz, J.

    2008-01-01

    The composition and equation of state of the outer crust of nonaccreting neutron stars is computed by using accurate nuclear mass tables. The main goal of the present study is to understand the impact of the symmetry energy on the structure of the outer crust. First, a simple ''toy model'' is developed to illustrate the competition between the electronic density and the symmetry energy. Then, realistic mass tables are used to show that models with a stiff symmetry energy--those that generate large neutron skins for heavy nuclei--predict a sequence of nuclei in the stellar environment that is more neutron rich than their softer counterparts. This result may be phrased in the form of a correlation: The larger the neutron skin of 208 Pb, the more exotic the composition of the outer crust

  9. Inherited discontinuities and fault kinematics of a multiphase, non-colinear extensional setting: Subsurface observations from the South Flank of the Golfo San Jorge basin, Patagonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paredes, José Matildo; Aguiar, Mariana; Ansa, Andrés; Giordano, Sergio; Ledesma, Mario; Tejada, Silvia

    2018-01-01

    We use three-dimensional (3D) seismic reflection data to analyze the structural style, fault kinematics and growth fault mechanisms of non-colinear normal fault systems in the South Flank of the Golfo San Jorge basin, central Patagonia. Pre-existing structural fabrics in the basement of the South Flank show NW-SE and NE-SW oriented faults. They control the location and geometry of wedge-shaped half grabens from the "main synrift phase" infilled with Middle Jurassic volcanic-volcaniclastic rocks and lacustrine units of Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous age. The NE-striking, basement-involved normal faults resulted in the rapid establishment of fault lenght, followed by gradual increasing in displacement, and minor reactivation during subsequent extensional phases; NW-striking normal faults are characterized by fault segments that propagated laterally during the "main rifting phase", being subsequently reactivated during succesive extensional phases. The Aptian-Campanian Chubut Group is a continental succession up to 4 km thick associated to the "second rifting stage", characterized by propagation and linkage of W-E to WNW-ESE fault segments that increase their lenght and displacement in several extensional phases, recognized by detailed measurement of current throw distribution of selected seismic horizons along fault surfaces. Strain is distributed in an array of sub-parallel normal faults oriented normal to the extension direction. A Late Cretaceous-Paleogene (pre-late Eocene) extensional event is characterized by high-angle, NNW-SSE to NNE-SSW grabens coeval with intraplate alkali basaltic volcanism, evidencing clockwise rotation of the stress field following a ∼W-E extension direction. We demonstrate differences in growth fault mechanisms of non-colinear fault populations, and highlight the importance of follow a systematic approach to the analysis of fault geometry and throw distribution in a fault network, in order to understand temporal-spatial variations

  10. Unenhanced helical computed tomography vs intravenous urography in patients with acute flank pain: accuracy and economic impact in a randomized prospective trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfister, S A; Deckart, A; Laschke, S; Dellas, S; Otto, U; Buitrago, C; Roth, J; Wiesner, W; Bongartz, G; Gasser, T C

    2003-11-01

    Unenhanced helical computed tomography (UHCT) has evolved into a well-accepted alternative to intravenous urography (IVU) in patients with acute flank pain and suspected ureterolithiasis. The purpose of our randomized prospective study was to analyse the diagnostic accuracy of UHCT vs IVU in the normal clinical setting with special interest on economic impact, applied radiation dose and time savings in patient management. A total of 122 consecutive patients with acute flank pain suggestive of urolithiasis were randomized for UHCT ( n=59) or IVU ( n=63). Patient management (time, contrast media), costs and radiation dose were analysed. The films were independently interpreted by four radiologists, unaware of previous findings, clinical history and clinical outcome. Alternative diagnoses if present were assessed. Direct costs of UHCT and IVU are nearly identical (310/309 Euro). Indirect costs are much lower for UHCT because it saves examination time and when performed immediately initial abdominal plain film (KUB) and sonography are not necessary. Time delay between access to the emergency room and start of the imaging procedure was 32 h 7 min for UHCT and 36 h 55 min for IVU. The UHCT took an average in-room time of 23 min vs 1 h 21 min for IVU. Mild to moderate adverse reactions for contrast material were seen in 3 (5%) patients. The UHCT was safe, as no contrast material was needed. The mean applied radiation dose was 3.3 mSv for IVU and 6.5 mSv for UHCT. Alternative diagnoses were identified in 4 (7%) UHCT patients and 3 (5%) IVU patients. Sensitivity and specificity of UHCT and IVU was 94.1 and 94.2%, and 85.2 and 90.4%, respectively. In patients with suspected renal colic KUB and US may be the least expensive and most easily accessable modalities; however, if needed and available, UHCT can be considered a better alternative than IVU because it has a higher diagnostic accuracy and a better economic impact since it is more effective, faster, less expensive and

  11. Unenhanced helical computed tomography vs intravenous urography in patients with acute flank pain: accuracy and economic impact in a randomized prospective trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfister, S.A.; Deckart, A.; Laschke, S.; Gasser, T.C.; Dellas, S.; Otto, U.; Buitrago, C.; Wiesner, W.; Bongartz, G.; Roth, J.

    2003-01-01

    Unenhanced helical computed tomography (UHCT) has evolved into a well-accepted alternative to intravenous urography (IVU) in patients with acute flank pain and suspected ureterolithiasis. The purpose of our randomized prospective study was to analyse the diagnostic accuracy of UHCT vs IVU in the normal clinical setting with special interest on economic impact, applied radiation dose and time savings in patient management. A total of 122 consecutive patients with acute flank pain suggestive of urolithiasis were randomized for UHCT (n=59) or IVU (n=63). Patient management (time, contrast media), costs and radiation dose were analysed. The films were independently interpreted by four radiologists, unaware of previous findings, clinical history and clinical outcome. Alternative diagnoses if present were assessed. Direct costs of UHCT and IVU are nearly identical (310/309 Euro). Indirect costs are much lower for UHCT because it saves examination time and when performed immediately initial abdominal plain film (KUB) and sonography are not necessary. Time delay between access to the emergency room and start of the imaging procedure was 32 h 7 min for UHCT and 36 h 55 min for IVU. The UHCT took an average in-room time of 23 min vs 1 h 21 min for IVU. Mild to moderate adverse reactions for contrast material were seen in 3 (5%) patients. The UHCT was safe, as no contrast material was needed. The mean applied radiation dose was 3.3 mSv for IVU and 6.5 mSv for UHCT. Alternative diagnoses were identified in 4 (7%) UHCT patients and 3 (5%) IVU patients. Sensitivity and specificity of UHCT and IVU was 94.1 and 94.2%, and 85.2 and 90.4%, respectively. In patients with suspected renal colic KUB and US may be the least expensive and most easily accessable modalities; however, if needed and available, UHCT can be considered a better alternative than IVU because it has a higher diagnostic accuracy and a better economic impact since it is more effective, faster, less expensive and less

  12. ROLE OF THE STRUCTURAL FACTOR IN THE DISTRIBUTION OF HIGH-RADON GROUNDWATER IN THE SOUTHWESTERN FLANK OF THE SOUTH BAIKAL RIFT BASIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Zh. Seminsky

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the distribution patterns of high-radon groundwater at the southwestern shore of LakeBaikal. This region is a flank of the South Baikalrift basin, characterized by high geodynamic activity and complex fault patterns, without any special geochemical conditions with regard to the content of uranium in the rocks. Based on our observations and measurements, we consolidated the first massive database on radon volume activity (Q in a variety of local water sources. In the Kultuk–Vydrino area, the Q values vary from zero to 81.1 Bq/l, according to the analysis of the water samples from 93 springs, lakes, small streams, wells, and drilled holes. The highest concentrations of radon are discovered in the groundwater samples. Such values are unevenly scattered across the study area. The chain of the maximum Q values trends northwestwards along the LakeBaikalshore. This distribution pattern of radon, as well as the locations of individual water sources with Q>15 Bq/l are predetermined by the structural factor. The paragenetic analysis of faults and joints in the Kultuk–Vydrino area shows that this factor includes both the structure and stages in the development of the regional largest Main Sayan fault zone (the southwestern flank of the South Baikalbasin is a segment of this zone. The water sources with increased concentrations of radon are located in zones with a high density of the 2nd order faults, especially on sites wherein the NW-striking faults cross the transverse faults that have experienced repeated activation. Temperature T is an additional factor influencing the degree of radioactivity in water. A relationship between T and Q is reverse. Water sources with Q>15 Bq/l associated with the 2nd order fault zones may occur also due to a locally lower temperature of groundwater. Our study gives evidence that the southwestern coast ofLake Baikal is promising for finding high-radon water sources. Using such water in balneo

  13. Legal Challenges Relating to the Commercial use of Outer Space, with Specific Reference to Space Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anél Ferreira-Snyman

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Since the launch of the first artificial satellite, Sputnik 1 in 1957, the outer space arena has evolved to include non-state entities, which are becoming serious participants in outer space activities themselves, including venturing into the space tourism market. Although space tourism is still in its infancy, it is estimated that the number of space tourists will substantially increase within the next few years. As space tourist activities increase, accidents will inevitably occur, which will give rise to legal questions relating to the duty of states to rescue space tourists in distress, and the liability for damages. This contribution points out that the current outer space treaty regime, which focuses on the use of outer space by states, is to a large extent outdated and that it cannot adequately deal with the unique legal challenges presented by the rapidly developing space tourism industry. This situation is exacerbated by the fact that the outer space legal framework is very fragmented – consisting of treaties, UN principles and guidelines, regional regulations and intergovernmental agreements, as well as national guidelines and legislation. In order to ensure that space tourism is indeed to the benefit of all mankind, it is imperative that clear international legal rules relating to space tourism be formulated, where standards are set for the authorisation and supervision of commercial space activities and the interests of states, passengers and private actors are balanced as far as possible. In view of the urgent need to address these legal questions and the consequent lack of time to negotiate a binding legal instrument, it is submitted that, as an interim measure, soft law guidelines should be developed in relation to space tourism in order to provide a framework for the eventual creation of a consolidated and binding legal instrument on all aspects relating to the use and exploration of outer space.

  14. Assembly of the outer retina in the absence of GABA synthesis in horizontal cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parker Edward

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The inhibitory neurotransmitter gamma-amino-butyric acid (GABA not only modulates excitability in the mature nervous system but also regulates neuronal differentiation and circuit development. Horizontal cells, a subset of interneurons in the outer retina, are transiently GABAergic during the period of cone photoreceptor synaptogenesis. In rodents, both horizontal cells and cone axonal terminals express GABAA receptors. To explore the possibility that transient GABA expression in mouse neonatal horizontal cells influences the structural development of synaptic connectivity in the outer retina, we examined a mutant in which expression of GAD67, the major synthesizing enzyme for GABA, is selectively knocked out in the retina. Results Immunocytochemistry and electron microscopy revealed that the assembly of triad synapses involving cone axonal pedicles and the dendrites of horizontal and bipolar cells is unaffected in the mutant retina. Moreover, loss of GABA synthesis in the outer retina did not perturb the spatial distributions and cell densities of cones and horizontal cells. However, there were some structural alterations at the cellular level: the average size of horizontal cell dendritic clusters was larger in the mutant, and there was also a small but significant increase in cone photoreceptor pedicle area. Moreover, metabotropic glutamate receptor 6 (mGluR6 receptors on the dendrites of ON bipolar cells occupied a slightly larger proportion of the cone pedicle in the mutant. Conclusions Together, our analysis shows that transient GABA synthesis in horizontal cells is not critical for synapse assembly and axonal and dendritic lamination in the outer retina. However, pre- and postsynaptic structures are somewhat enlarged in the absence of GABA in the developing outer retina, providing for a modest increase in potential contact area between cone photoreceptors and their targets. These findings differ from previous results

  15. Characterization of the thermotropic behavior and lateral organization of lipid-peptide mixtures by a combined experimental and theoretical approach: Effects of hydrophobic mismatch and role of flanking residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morein, S.; Killian, J.A.; Sperotto, Maria Maddalena

    2002-01-01

    bilayer hydrophobic thickness, and to investigate the potential role of flanking residues. The results show that both the WALP and the KALP peptides tend to favor the liquid-crystal line (or fluid) phase of the system; i.e., they tend to depress the main-transition temperature, T-m, of pure DPPC. However...

  16. Interplanetary conditions during 3-kHz radio-wave detections in the outer heliosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanzerotti, L. J.; Maclennan, C. G.; Gold, R. E.

    1985-01-01

    Plasma waves detected by the Voyager 1 and 2 spacecraft beyond about 12 AU that may be associated with the turbulence expected at the heliopause are interpreted in terms of the characteristics of the interplanetary medium at large heliocentric distances. The low-energy charged-particle environment in the outer heliosphere during the observations of the unusual plasma-wave signals is addressed. The particle data suggest that the outer heliosphere was unusually stable and free of transient shock and particle events for the roughly eight months during the wave observations.

  17. Outer Space and Cyber Space: A Tale of Two Security Realms (SWP 51)

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer, Paul

    2016-01-01

    The concept of “global commons” has been applied under international law to certain special environments for which states have agreed to prohibit national appropriation and to treat these spaces as “the province of all mankind” (Outer Space Treaty 1967). After tracing the origins of the concept with reference to the law of the sea, the paper examines two relatively new environments, outer space and cyberspace, for which the status of “global commons” can facilitate the emergence of a cooperat...

  18. Chlamydomonas Outer Arm Dynein Alters Conformation in Response to Ca2+

    OpenAIRE

    Sakato, Miho; Sakakibara, Hitoshi; King, Stephen M.

    2007-01-01

    We have previously shown that Ca2+ directly activates ATP-sensitive microtubule binding by a Chlamydomonas outer arm dynein subparticle containing the β and γ heavy chains (HCs). The γ HC–associated LC4 light chain is a member of the calmodulin family and binds 1-2 Ca2+ with KCa = 3 × 10−5 M in vitro, suggesting it may act as a Ca2+ sensor for outer arm dynein. Here we investigate interactions between the LC4 light chain and γ HC. Two IQ consensus motifs for binding calmodulin-like proteins a...

  19. Outer measures and weak type estimates of Hardy-Littlewood maximal operators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terasawa Yutaka

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We will introduce the times modified centered and uncentered Hardy-Littlewood maximal operators on nonhomogeneous spaces for . We will prove that the times modified centered Hardy-Littlewood maximal operator is weak type bounded with constant when if the Radon measure of the space has "continuity" in some sense. In the proof, we will use the outer measure associated with the Radon measure. We will also prove other results of Hardy-Littlewood maximal operators on homogeneous spaces and on the real line by using outer measures.

  20. Interactions of Neisseria gonorrhoeae with human neutrophils: studies with purified PII (Opa) outer membrane proteins and synthetic Opa peptides.

    OpenAIRE

    Naids, F L; Belisle, B; Lee, N; Rest, R F

    1991-01-01

    We investigated the role of gonococcal outer membrane protein PII (also called Opa protein) in nonopsonic adherence to human neutrophils. Gonococcal outer membranes, purified Opa in detergent (Opa), purified Opa in liposomes (Opa+ lips), and peptides composing the second hypervariable (HV2) region of OpaB (strain FA1090) in liposomes (pepHV2 lips) were tested for their abilities to inhibit subsequent gonococcal adherence to human neutrophils. Outer membranes from gonococci possessing adherent...