WorldWideScience

Sample records for undiscovered faster-than-light sub-atomic

  1. Faster than light, slower than time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rucker, R.

    1981-01-01

    The problem with faster-than-light travel is that, in the framework of Special Relativity, it is logically equivalent to time-travel. The problem with time-travel is that it leads to two types of paradoxes. The paradoxes, and the various means of skirting them, are all discussed here. Virtually all the examples are drawn from science-fiction novels, which are a large and neglected source of thought-experiments. (Auth.)

  2. Quantum mechanics and faster-than-light communication: methodological considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghirardi, G.C.; Weber, T.

    1983-06-01

    A detailed quantum mechanical analysis of a recent proposal of faster than light communication through wave packet reduction is performed. The discussion allows us to focus on some methodological problems about critical investigations in physical theories. (author)

  3. Faster than light motion does not imply time travel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andréka, Hajnal; Madarász, Judit X; Németi, István; Székely, Gergely; Stannett, Mike

    2014-01-01

    Seeing the many examples in the literature of causality violations based on faster than light (FTL) signals one naturally thinks that FTL motion leads inevitably to the possibility of time travel. We show that this logical inference is invalid by demonstrating a model, based on (3+1)-dimensional Minkowski spacetime, in which FTL motion is permitted (in every direction without any limitation on speed) yet which does not admit time travel. Moreover, the Principle of Relativity is true in this model in the sense that all observers are equivalent. In short, FTL motion does not imply time travel after all. (paper)

  4. Experimental study of electromagnetic radiation from a faster-than-light vacuum macroscopic source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bessarab, A.V. [Russian Federal Nuclear Center-All-Russia Scientific Research Institute of Experimental Physics, Sarov, Nizhni Novgorod region, 607188 (Russian Federation); Martynenko, S.P. [Russian Federal Nuclear Center-All-Russia Scientific Research Institute of Experimental Physics, Sarov, Nizhni Novgorod region, 607188 (Russian Federation); Prudkoi, N.A. [Russian Federal Nuclear Center-All-Russia Scientific Research Institute of Experimental Physics, Sarov, Nizhni Novgorod region, 607188 (Russian Federation); Soldatov, A.V. [Russian Federal Nuclear Center-All-Russia Scientific Research Institute of Experimental Physics, Sarov, Nizhni Novgorod region, 607188 (Russian Federation)]. E-mail: soldatov@vniief.ru; Terekhin, V.A. [Russian Federal Nuclear Center-All-Russia Scientific Research Institute of Experimental Physics, Sarov, Nizhni Novgorod region, 607188 (Russian Federation)

    2006-08-15

    The effect which manifests itself in the form of directed electromagnetic pulses (EMP) initiated by an X-ray incident obliquely upon a conducting surface has been confirmed and investigated experimentally in detail. A planar accelerating diode comprising a metallic cathode and grid anode was initiated with an oblique short soft-X-ray pulse from a point laser-plasma source. Then a source of directed EMP-a current of accelerated photoelectrons-was formed whose boundary ran along the anode external surface with a faster-than-light velocity. The plasma was formed when short-pulse ({approx}0.3ns) laser radiation from ISKRA-5 facility was focused on a plane Au target. The amplitude-in-time and spatial characteristics of radiation emitted by the faster-than-light source have been measured. Parameters of the accelerated electron current have been measured too.

  5. Are OPERA neutrinos faster than light because of non-inertial reference frames?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germanà, C.

    2012-02-01

    Context. Recent results from the OPERA experiment reported a neutrino beam traveling faster than light. The challenging experiment measured the neutrino time of flight (TOF) over a baseline from the CERN to the Gran Sasso site, concluding that the neutrino beam arrives ~60 ns earlier than a light ray would do. Because the result, if confirmed, has an enormous impact on science, it might be worth double-checking the time definitions with respect to the non-inertial system in which the neutrino travel time was measured. An observer with a clock measuring the proper time τ free of non-inertial effects is the one located at the solar system barycenter (SSB). Aims: Potential problems in the OPERA data analysis connected with the definition of the reference frame and time synchronization are emphasized. We aim to investigate the synchronization of non-inertial clocks on Earth by relating this time to the proper time of an inertial observer at SSB. Methods: The Tempo2 software was used to time-stamp events observed on the geoid with respect to the SSB inertial observer time. Results: Neutrino results from OPERA might carry the fingerprint of non-inertial effects because they are timed by terrestrial clocks. The CERN-Gran Sasso clock synchronization is accomplished by applying corrections that depend on special and general relativistic time dilation effects at the clocks, depending on the position of the clocks in the solar system gravitational well. As a consequence, TOF distributions are centered on values shorter by tens of nanoseconds than expected, integrating over a period from April to December, longer if otherwise. It is worth remarking that the OPERA runs have always been carried out from April/May to November. Conclusions: If the analysis by Tempo2 holds for the OPERA experiment, the excellent measurement by the OPERA collaboration will turn into a proof of the general relativity theory in a weak field approximation. The analysis presented here is falsifiable

  6. Experiments of the EPR-type involving CP-violation do not allow faster-than-light communication between distant observers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghirardi, G.C.; Grassi, R.; Weber, T.; Rimini, A.

    1987-11-01

    The proof that faster-than-light communication is not permitted by quantum mechanics derived some years ago by three of us, is extended to cover the case of measurements which do not fit within the standard scheme based on sets of orthogonal projections. A detailed discussion of a recent proposal of superluminal transmission making resort to a CP-violating interaction is presented. It is shown that such a proposal cannot work. (author). 8 refs

  7. Faster Than Light (FTL) Travel and Causality in the Context of the Gravity-Electro-Magnetism (GEM) Theory of Field Unification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandenburg, J. E.

    2010-01-01

    In The GEM (Brandenburg, 2006) theory, direct manipulation of space-time geometry is possible leading to the possibility of transformation of a starship into a tachyon moving Faster Than Light (FTL). The GEM theory is reviewed and Causality in terms of the time ordering of experienced events is considered as well as examining the space-time curvature signature of such FTL particles. Time ordering and time flow is found to be determined by the 2nd law of thermodynamics and is used to derive a Cosmic time flow in terms of the expansion of the universe. The rate of increase of cosmic entropy is approximately dS/dt = c3/(Gmp), the rate that light transits from a proton-mass Black Hole, reminiscent of the Dirac Larger Number Hypothesis relating Cosmic and subatomic quantities. It is found that the tachyon FTL method, rather than allowing reversal of time ordering of experienced events, actually makes the cosmos age faster by contributing to an increase in ``Dark Energy'' and thus FTL travel via tachyons irreversibly changes the cosmos. Therefore, it appears that FTL travel can be accomplished without violation of Causality.

  8. Confronting the Faster-Than-Light Neutrinos?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    How well do we know Special Theory of Relativity, Quantum Mechanics, General ... 1 The principle of relativity: The laws of physics are not affected by the .... If the limiting velocities of the three neutrinos are different, that would lead to neutrino.

  9. Are Dirac electrons faster than light?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Angelis, G.F.

    1986-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of path integral solutions of the Dirac equation. The path integral construction of the Dirac propagator which extends Fynman's checkerboard rule in more than one space dimension is discussed. A distinguished feature of such extension is the fact that the speed of a relativistic electron is actually greater than the speed of light when the space has more than one dimension. A technique employed in obtaining an extension to higher space dimension is described which consists in comparing continuity equations of quantum mechanical origin with forward Kolmogorov equations for suitable chosen classes of random processes

  10. Restoring locality with faster-than-light velocities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eberhard, P.H.

    1993-01-01

    The idea of ''locality'' is a deep rooted concept. It does not have to be abandoned even if ''loophole free'' EPR experiments are performed and confirm the predictions of quantum theory. To satisfy locality, one can imagine that influences at a distance are exerted via mechanisms involving an ether and effects propagating in that ether a velocity V > c. Such model of physical phenomena is not Lorentz invariant but, with V large enough, the model can be made to reproduce the results of all experiments where quantum mechanics and Lorentz invariance have been verified

  11. Possibility of faster-than-light particles with real mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schommers, W.

    1982-01-01

    The author derives a new expression for the dependence of mass on velocity without using any space-time conception. This expression is more general than the corresponding law of the special theory of relativity (STR). The deviations from the STR increase with increasing rest mass. Thus one should measure the dependence of mass on velocity for particles (or systems) with a large rest mass. The theory predicts that particles with real mass can travel with hyperlight velocities. The space-time picture discussed here is very close to Mach's conception: it is assumed that the cause for the dynamical behaviour of a particle, which is in uniform translational motion, is due to the action of all the other masses in the universe. Space-time is eliminated as an active cause and, in contrast with the STR, space-time does not form an absolute continuum within the theory discussed here. It turns out that effects based on the transformation formulas (existing between the coordinates and time in a stationary frame and the coordinates and time in a moving frame) are identical to those expected from the Lorentz transformations. (Auth.)

  12. Can a computer be "pushed" to perform faster-than-light?

    OpenAIRE

    Putz, Volkmar; Svozil, Karl

    2010-01-01

    We propose to "boost" the speed of communication and computation by immersing the computing environment into a medium whose index of refraction is smaller than one, thereby trespassing the speed-of-light barrier.

  13. Back-in-time and faster-than-light travel in general relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Krasnikov, Serguei

    2018-01-01

    For the past 20 years causality violations and superluminal motion have been the object of intensive study as physical and geometrical phenomena. This book compiles the results of its author and also reviews other work in the field. In particular, the following popular questions are addressed:  Is causality protected by quantum divergence at the relevant Cauchy horizon?  How much "exotic matter" would it take to create a time machine or a warp drive?  What is the difference between a "discovered" time machine and a created one?  Why does a time traveler fail to kill their grandfather?  How should we define the speed of gravity and what is its magnitude?

  14. Existence of undiscovered Uranian satellites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boice, D.C.

    1986-04-01

    Structure in the Uranian ring system as observed in recent occultations may contain indirect evidence for the existence of undiscovered satellites. Using the Alfven and Arrhenius (1975, 1976) scenario for the formation of planetary systems, the orbital radii of up to nine hypothetical satellites interior to Miranda are computed. These calculations should provide interesting comparisons when the results from the Voyager 2 encounter with Uranus are made public. 15 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  15. Assessment of undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources of Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Chris

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean volumes of 1.6 billion barrels of undiscovered conventional oil and 17 trillion cubic feet of undiscovered conventional natural gas in three geologic provinces of Thailand using a geology-based methodology. Most of the undiscovered conventional oil and gas resource is estimated to be in the area known as offshore Thai Basin province.

  16. Biodiversity hotspots house most undiscovered plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joppa, Lucas N; Roberts, David L; Myers, Norman; Pimm, Stuart L

    2011-08-09

    For most organisms, the number of described species considerably underestimates how many exist. This is itself a problem and causes secondary complications given present high rates of species extinction. Known numbers of flowering plants form the basis of biodiversity "hotspots"--places where high levels of endemism and habitat loss coincide to produce high extinction rates. How different would conservation priorities be if the catalog were complete? Approximately 15% more species of flowering plant are likely still undiscovered. They are almost certainly rare, and depending on where they live, suffer high risks of extinction from habitat loss and global climate disruption. By using a model that incorporates taxonomic effort over time, regions predicted to contain large numbers of undiscovered species are already conservation priorities. Our results leave global conservation priorities more or less intact, but suggest considerably higher levels of species imperilment than previously acknowledged.

  17. Professor George Rochester: Physicist whose discovery of a new sub-atomic particle began a period of feverish research

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Professor Rochester has died aged 93. He discovered a new sub-atomic particle known as the Kaon, an acheivement that resulted in a period of rapid development in the scientific understanding of the composition of matter.

  18. Sub-atomic resolution X-ray crystallography and neutron crystallography: promise, challenges and potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakeley, Matthew P; Hasnain, Samar S; Antonyuk, Svetlana V

    2015-07-01

    The International Year of Crystallography saw the number of macromolecular structures deposited in the Protein Data Bank cross the 100000 mark, with more than 90000 of these provided by X-ray crystallography. The number of X-ray structures determined to sub-atomic resolution (i.e. ≤1 Å) has passed 600 and this is likely to continue to grow rapidly with diffraction-limited synchrotron radiation sources such as MAX-IV (Sweden) and Sirius (Brazil) under construction. A dozen X-ray structures have been deposited to ultra-high resolution (i.e. ≤0.7 Å), for which precise electron density can be exploited to obtain charge density and provide information on the bonding character of catalytic or electron transfer sites. Although the development of neutron macromolecular crystallography over the years has been far less pronounced, and its application much less widespread, the availability of new and improved instrumentation, combined with dedicated deuteration facilities, are beginning to transform the field. Of the 83 macromolecular structures deposited with neutron diffraction data, more than half (49/83, 59%) were released since 2010. Sub-mm(3) crystals are now regularly being used for data collection, structures have been determined to atomic resolution for a few small proteins, and much larger unit-cell systems (cell edges >100 Å) are being successfully studied. While some details relating to H-atom positions are tractable with X-ray crystallography at sub-atomic resolution, the mobility of certain H atoms precludes them from being located. In addition, highly polarized H atoms and protons (H(+)) remain invisible with X-rays. Moreover, the majority of X-ray structures are determined from cryo-cooled crystals at 100 K, and, although radiation damage can be strongly controlled, especially since the advent of shutterless fast detectors, and by using limited doses and crystal translation at micro-focus beams, radiation damage can still take place. Neutron

  19. Sub-atomic resolution X-ray crystallography and neutron crystallography: promise, challenges and potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew P. Blakeley

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The International Year of Crystallography saw the number of macromolecular structures deposited in the Protein Data Bank cross the 100000 mark, with more than 90000 of these provided by X-ray crystallography. The number of X-ray structures determined to sub-atomic resolution (i.e. ≤1 Å has passed 600 and this is likely to continue to grow rapidly with diffraction-limited synchrotron radiation sources such as MAX-IV (Sweden and Sirius (Brazil under construction. A dozen X-ray structures have been deposited to ultra-high resolution (i.e. ≤0.7 Å, for which precise electron density can be exploited to obtain charge density and provide information on the bonding character of catalytic or electron transfer sites. Although the development of neutron macromolecular crystallography over the years has been far less pronounced, and its application much less widespread, the availability of new and improved instrumentation, combined with dedicated deuteration facilities, are beginning to transform the field. Of the 83 macromolecular structures deposited with neutron diffraction data, more than half (49/83, 59% were released since 2010. Sub-mm3 crystals are now regularly being used for data collection, structures have been determined to atomic resolution for a few small proteins, and much larger unit-cell systems (cell edges >100 Å are being successfully studied. While some details relating to H-atom positions are tractable with X-ray crystallography at sub-atomic resolution, the mobility of certain H atoms precludes them from being located. In addition, highly polarized H atoms and protons (H+ remain invisible with X-rays. Moreover, the majority of X-ray structures are determined from cryo-cooled crystals at 100 K, and, although radiation damage can be strongly controlled, especially since the advent of shutterless fast detectors, and by using limited doses and crystal translation at micro-focus beams, radiation damage can still take place

  20. Cracking quantum physics you, this book and 200 years of sub-atomic science

    CERN Document Server

    Clegg, Brian

    2017-01-01

    Enter the invisible world of sub-atomic physics and discover the very core of existence. Cracking Quantum Physics takes you through every area of particle physics to clearly explain how our world was, and is, created, and breaks down the most complex theories into easily understandable elements. Subjects covered include:-Time travel-The Higgs field-Dark Matter-The anatomy of the elements-Enter the atom-Quantum reality-Quantum tunnelling-Electrodynamics-Accelerators and colliders-The Zeno effectAn easy-to-understand guide to some of the most complex and intriguing topics: Cracking Quantum Physics is a must-read for anyone who has ever wondered about the underlying forces and materials that make up the world as we know it.

  1. Quantifying the undiscovered geothermal resources of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Colin F.; Reed, Marshall J.; DeAngelo, Jacob; Galanis, S. Peter

    2009-01-01

    In 2008, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) released summary results of an assessment of the electric power production potential from the moderate- and high-temperature geothermal resources of the United States (Williams et al., 2008a; USGS Fact Sheet 2008-3082; http://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2008/3082). In the assessment, the estimated mean power production potential from undiscovered geothermal resources is 30,033 Megawatts-electric (MWe), more than three times the estimated mean potential from identified geothermal systems: 9057 MWe. The presence of significant undiscovered geothermal resources has major implications for future exploration and development activities by both the government and private industry. Previous reports summarize the results of techniques applied by the USGS and others to map the spatial distribution of undiscovered resources. This paper describes the approach applied in developing estimates of the magnitude of the undiscovered geothermal resource, as well as the manner in which that resource is likely to be distributed among geothermal systems of varying volume and temperature. A number of key issues constrain the overall estimate. One is the degree to which characteristics of the undiscovered resources correspond to those observed among identified geothermal systems. Another is the evaluation of exploration history, including both the spatial distribution of geothermal exploration activities relative to the postulated spatial distribution of undiscovered resources and the probability of successful discoveries from the application of standard geothermal exploration techniques. Also significant are the physical, chemical, and geological constraints on the formation and longevity of geothermal systems. Important observations from this study include the following. (1) Some of the largest identified geothermal systems, such as The Geysers vapor-dominated system in northern California and the diverse geothermal manifestations found in Yellowstone

  2. Caring: An Undiscovered "Super Ility" of Smart Healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laplante, Nancy; Laplante, Phil; Voas, Jeff

    2016-01-01

    As new and exciting applications emerge using smart technologies, the Internet of Things, data analytics, and others for healthcare, a critical problem is emerging: the potential loss of caring. While these exciting technologies have improved patient care by allowing for better assessment, surveillance, and treatment, the use of technology can disassociate the caregiver from the patient, essentially removing the "care" from healthcare. Here we introduce the notion of caring as an undiscovered ility that ranks at least as important as other well-known ilities in healthcare systems.

  3. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Susitna Basin, southern Alaska, 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Richard G.; Potter, Christopher J.; Lewis, Kristen A.; Lillis, Paul G.; Shah, Anjana K.; Haeussler, Peter J.; Phillips, Jeffrey D.; Valin, Zenon C.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Klett, Timothy R.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Drake II, Ronald M.; Finn, Thomas M.; Haines, Seth S.; Higley, Debra K.; Houseknecht, David W.; Le, Phuong A.; Marra, Kristen R.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Paxton, Stanley T.; Pearson, Ofori N.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Woodall, Cheryl A.; Zyrianova, Margarita V.

    2018-05-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently completed an assessment of undiscovered, technically recoverable oil and gas resources in the Susitna Basin of southern Alaska. Using a geology-based methodology, the USGS estimates that mean undiscovered volumes of about 2 million barrels of oil and nearly 1.7 trillion cubic feet of gas may be found in this area.

  4. Lane fuzzy collision in channel with potential deformation by photon-phonon-electron excitation and sub-atomic control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Jing

    1998-01-01

    Collision between μ + and the μ - beams in the crystal are forbidden due to the two beams having different ''lanes'' in a channel. A laser pulse of ps-fs shocks lattice kernel vibration and dilates lattice electron distribution. It deforms the Lindhard's potential which is then expressed in a quantized form as the Huang-Zhu's potential[1]. The dynamic lanes can be made to overlap in a channel to allow collision without ductile fracture. This raises a new technology of sub-atomic information and control, which has been raised by T. D. Lee

  5. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the Paradox Basin Province, Utah, Colorado, New Mexico, and Arizona, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whidden, Katherine J.

    2012-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated means of 560 million barrels of undiscovered oil, 12,701 billion cubic feet of undiscovered natural gas, and 490 million barrels of undiscovered natural gas liquids in the Paradox Basin of Utah, Colorado, New Mexico, and Arizona.

  6. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the Cuyo Basin Province, Argentina, 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Le, Phuong A.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Finn, Thomas M.; Hawkins, Sarah J.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Woodall, Cheryl A.

    2017-07-18

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean undiscovered, technically recoverable resources of 236 million barrels of oil and 112 billion cubic feet of associated gas in the Cuyo Basin Province, Argentina.

  7. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the North-Central Montana Province, 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Woodall, Cheryl A.; Le, Phuong A.; Klett, Timothy R.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Finn, Thomas M.; Pitman, Janet K.; Marra, Kristen R.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.

    2018-02-12

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean undiscovered, technically recoverable resources of 55 million barrels of oil and 846 billion cubic feet of gas in the North-Central Montana Province.

  8. Assessment of undiscovered continuous gas resources in Upper Devonian Shales of the Appalachian Basin Province, 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enomoto, Catherine B.; Trippi, Michael H.; Higley, Debra K.; Rouse, William A.; Dulong, Frank T.; Klett, Timothy R.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Finn, Thomas M.; Marra, Kristen R.; Le, Phuong A.; Woodall, Cheryl A.; Schenk, Christopher J.

    2018-04-19

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean undiscovered, technically recoverable continuous resources of 10.7 trillion cubic feet of natural gas in Upper Devonian shales of the Appalachian Basin Province.

  9. Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources of the Red Sea Basin Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean volumes of 5 billion barrels of undiscovered technically recoverable oil and 112 trillion cubic feet of recoverable gas in the Red Sea Basin Province using a geology-based assessment methodology.

  10. Geology and assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Zyryanka Basin Province, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klett, Timothy; Pitman, Janet K.; Moore, T.E.; Gautier, D.L.

    2017-11-22

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently assessed the potential for undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Zyryanka Basin Province as part of the 2008 USGS Circum-Arctic Resource Appraisal program. The province is in the Russian Federation and is situated on the Omolon superterrane of the Kolyma block. The one assessment unit (AU) that was defined for this study, called the Zyryanka Basin AU, which coincides with the province, was assessed for undiscovered, technically recoverable, conventional resources. The estimated mean volumes of undiscovered resources in the Zyryanka Basin Province are ~72 million barrels of crude oil, 2,282 billion cubic feet of natural gas, and 61 million barrels of natural-gas liquids. About 66 percent of the study area and undiscovered petroleum resources are north of the Arctic Circle.

  11. Assessment of undiscovered, conventional oil and gas resources of Mexico, Guatemala, and Belize, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy A.; Klett, Timothy R.; Pitman, Janet K.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Weaver, Jean N.

    2012-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated means of 19 billion barrels of oil and 83 trillion cubic feet of undiscovered natural gas resources in 10 geologic provinces of Mexico, Guatemala, and Belize.

  12. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the Lower Indus Basin, Pakistan, 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Klett, Timothy R.; Finn, Thomas M.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Le, Phuong A.; Hawkins, Sarah J.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.

    2017-09-19

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean undiscovered, technically recoverable resources of 164 million barrels of oil and 24.6 trillion cubic feet of gas in the Lower Indus Basin, Pakistan.

  13. Undiscovered resource evaluation: Towards applying a systematic approach to uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fairclough, M.; Katona, L.

    2014-01-01

    Evaluations of potential mineral resource supply range from spatial to aspatial, and everything in between across a range of scales. They also range from qualitative to quantitative with similar hybrid examples across the spectrum. These can compromise detailed deposit-specific reserve and resource calculations, target generative processes and estimates of potential endowments in a broad geographic or geological area. All are estimates until the ore has been discovered and extracted. Contemporary national or provincial scale evaluations of mineral potential are relatively advanced and some include uranium, such as those for South Australia undertaken by the State Geological Survey. These play an important role in land-use planning as well as attracting exploration investment and range from datato knowledge-driven approaches. Studies have been undertaken for the Mt Painter region, as well as for adjacent basins. The process of estimating large-scale potential mineral endowments is critical for national and international planning purposes but is a relatively recent and less common undertaking. In many cases, except at a general level, the data and knowledge for a relatively immature terrain is lacking, requiring assessment by analogy with other areas. Commencing in the 1980s, the United States Geological Survey, and subsequently the Geological Survey of Canada evaluated a range of commodities ranging from copper to hydrocarbons with a view to security of supply. They developed innovative approaches to, as far as practical, reduce the uncertainty and maximise the reproducibility of the calculations in information-poor regions. Yet the approach to uranium was relatively ad hoc and incomplete (such as the US Department of Energy NURE project). Other historic attempts, such as the IAEA-NEA International Uranium Resource Evaluation Project (IUREP) in the 1970s, were mainly qualitative. While there is still no systematic global evaluation of undiscovered uranium resources

  14. Geology and assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Laptev Sea Shelf Province, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klett, Timothy; Pitman, Janet K.; Moore, Thomas E.; Gautier, Donald L.

    2017-12-21

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently assessed the potential for undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Laptev Sea Shelf Province as part of the 2008 Circum-Arctic Resource Appraisal (CARA) program. The province is situated in the Russian Federation and is located between the Taimyr Peninsula and the Novosibirsk (New Siberian) Islands. Three assessment units (AUs) were defined for this study: the West Laptev Grabens AU, the East Laptev Horsts AU, and the Anisin-Novosibirsk AU, two of which were assessed for undiscovered, technically recoverable resources. The East Laptev Horsts AU was not quantitatively assessed. The estimated mean volumes of undiscovered oil and gas for the Laptev Sea Shelf Province are approximately 3 billion barrels of crude oil, 32 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and <1 billion barrels of natural gas liquids, all north of the Arctic Circle.

  15. Economics of Undiscovered Oil and Gas in the North Slope of Alaska: Economic Update and Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attanasi, E.D.; Freeman, P.A.

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has published assessments by geologists of undiscovered conventional oil and gas accumulations in the North Slope of Alaska; these assessments contain a set of scientifically based estimates of undiscovered, technically recoverable quantities of oil and gas in discrete oil and gas accumulations that can be produced with conventional recovery technology. The assessments do not incorporate economic factors such as recovery costs and product prices. The assessors considered undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources in four areas of the North Slope: (1) the central North Slope, (2) the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska (NPRA), (3) the 1002 Area of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR), and (4) the area west of the NPRA, called in this report the 'western North Slope'. These analyses were prepared at different times with various minimum assessed oil and gas accumulation sizes and with slightly different assumptions. Results of these past studies were recently supplemented with information by the assessment geologists that allowed adjustments for uniform minimum assessed accumulation sizes and a consistent set of assumptions. The effort permitted the statistical aggregation of the assessments of the four areas composing the study area. This economic analysis is based on undiscovered assessed accumulation distributions represented by the four-area aggregation and incorporates updates of costs and technological and fiscal assumptions used in the initial economic analysis that accompanied the geologic assessment of each study area.

  16. Assessment of undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources of six geologic provinces of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charpentier, Ronald R.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Cook, Troy A.; Klett, Timothy R.; Pitman, Janet K.; Pollastro, Richard M.

    2012-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean volumes of undiscovered conventional petroleum resources in six geologic provinces of China at 14.9 billion barrels of oil, 87.6 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 1.4 billion barrels of natural-gas liquids.

  17. Assessment of undiscovered continuous oil and gas resources in the Bohaiwan Basin Province, China, 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Woodall, Cheryl A.; Finn, Thomas M.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Le, Phuong A.; Klett, Timothy R.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Potter, Christopher J.

    2018-02-07

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean undiscovered, technically recoverable continuous resources of 2.0 billion barrels of oil and 20.3 trillion cubic feet of gas in the Bohaiwan Basin Province, China.

  18. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the Canning Basin Province, Australia, 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Woodall, Cheryl A.; Finn, Thomas M.; Le, Phuong A.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.

    2018-05-31

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean undiscovered, technically recoverable resources of 1.3 billion barrels of oil and 34.4 trillion cubic feet of gas in the Canning Basin Province of Australia.

  19. Assessment of undiscovered conventional and continuous oil and gas resources of the Baltic Depression Province, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownfield, Michael E.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Pitman, Janet K.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Le, Phuong A.; Leathers, Heidi M.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean volumes of undiscovered, technically recoverable resources of 282 million barrels of conventional oil, 576 billion cubic feet of conventional gas, 1.3 billion barrels of continuous oil, and 4.6 trillion cubic feet of shale gas in the Baltic Depression Province.

  20. Assessment of undiscovered conventionally recoverable petroleum resources of the Arabian-Iranian Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, Charles D.; Klemme, H. Douglas; Coury, Anny B.

    1982-01-01

    The estimates of undiscovered conventionally recoverable petroleum resources in the Arabian-Iranian basin at probability levels of 95 percent, 5 percent, and statistical mean are for oil (in billions of barrels): 72, 337, and 174; and for gas (in trillions of cubic feet): 299, 1792, and 849. The occurrence of petroleum can be accounted for in five definitive geological settings or plays. The assessment of undiscovered resource potential assumes that the new discoveries will expand the occurrence of petroleum in these basic plays; no additional plays with significant petroleum potential were recognized. The five plays listed by geologic age are: (I) Upper Cretaceous and Tertiary, (II) Lower and Middle Cretaceous sandstone, (III) Lower and Middle Cretaceous limestone, (IV) Jurassic, and (V) Permian. The Permian play, located in the south-central Arabian Gulf region and extending northeast-southwest from southern Iran to the Ar Rub' al Khali in Saudi Arabia, accounts for over four-fifths of the mean estimate of undiscovered gas. The remainder of the gas is divided about equally among the other four plays. The Jurassic play, located on the south side of the Arabian Gulf, accounts for slightly less than one-third of the estimated undiscovered oil, which is split equally between Saudi Arabia and Iraq. The Lower and Middle Cretaceous limestone play is located in the southern Gulf region and accounts for about one-fifth of the undiscovered oil, most of which is located in Saudi Arabia and the remainder in the United Arab Emirates. The Lower and Middle Cretaceous sandstone play is centralized in Kuwait at the head of the Arabian Gulf with significant potential extending to the northwest in Iraq; the play accounts for about one-third of the undiscovered oil, the great majority of which is estimated to be in Iraq with the remainder divided between Saudi Arabia and Kuwait. The upper Cretaceous-Tertiary play is located in the Zagros fold belt of Iran and Iraq and accounts for

  1. Assessment of undiscovered sandstone copper deposits of the Kodar-Udokan area, Russia: Chapter M in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zientek, Michael L.; Chechetkin, Vladimir S.; Parks, Heather L.; Box, Stephen E.; Briggs, Deborah A.; Cossette, Pamela M.; Dolgopolova, Alla; Hayes, Timothy S.; Seltmann, Reimar; Syusyura, Boris; Taylor, Cliff D.; Wintzer, Niki E.

    2014-01-01

    Mineral resource assessments integrate and synthesize available information as a basis for estimating the location, quality, and quantity of undiscovered mineral resources. This probabilistic mineral resource assessment of undiscovered sandstone copper deposits within Paleoproterozoic metasedimentary rocks of the Kodar-Udokan area in Russia is a contribution to a global assessment led by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The purposes of this study are to (1) delineate permissive areas (tracts) to indicate where undiscovered sandstone-hosted copper deposits may occur within 2 km of the surface, (2) provide a database of known sandstone copper deposits and significant prospects, (3) estimate numbers of undiscovered deposits within these permissive tracts at several levels of confidence, and (4) provide probabilistic estimates of amounts of copper (Cu) and mineralized rock that could be contained in undiscovered deposits within each tract. The workshop for the assessment, held in October 2009, used a three-part form of mineral resource assessment as described by Singer (1993) and Singer and Menzie (2010).

  2. Undiscovered porphyry copper resources in the Urals—A probabilistic mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Mihalasky, Mark J.; Ludington, Stephen; Phillips, Jeffrey; Berger, Byron R.; Denning, Paul; Dicken, Connie; Mars, John; Zientek, Michael L.; Herrington, Richard J.; Seltmann, Reimar

    2017-01-01

    A probabilistic mineral resource assessment of metal resources in undiscovered porphyry copper deposits of the Ural Mountains in Russia and Kazakhstan was done using a quantitative form of mineral resource assessment. Permissive tracts were delineated on the basis of mapped and inferred subsurface distributions of igneous rocks assigned to tectonic zones that include magmatic arcs where the occurrence of porphyry copper deposits within 1 km of the Earth's surface are possible. These permissive tracts outline four north-south trending volcano-plutonic belts in major structural zones of the Urals. From west to east, these include permissive lithologies for porphyry copper deposits associated with Paleozoic subduction-related island-arc complexes preserved in the Tagil and Magnitogorsk arcs, Paleozoic island-arc fragments and associated tonalite-granodiorite intrusions in the East Uralian zone, and Carboniferous continental-margin arcs developed on the Kazakh craton in the Transuralian zone. The tracts range from about 50,000 to 130,000 km2 in area. The Urals host 8 known porphyry copper deposits with total identified resources of about 6.4 million metric tons of copper, at least 20 additional porphyry copper prospect areas, and numerous copper-bearing skarns and copper occurrences.Probabilistic estimates predict a mean of 22 undiscovered porphyry copper deposits within the four permissive tracts delineated in the Urals. Combining estimates with established grade and tonnage models predicts a mean of 82 million metric tons of undiscovered copper. Application of an economic filter suggests that about half of that amount could be economically recoverable based on assumed depth distributions, availability of infrastructure, recovery rates, current metals prices, and investment environment.

  3. Geology and assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the North Kara Basins and Platforms Province, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klett, Timothy R.; Pitman, Janet K.; Moore, T.E.; Gautier, D.L.

    2017-11-15

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently assessed the potential for undiscovered oil and gas resources of the North Kara Basins and Platforms Province as part of the its Circum-Arctic Resource Appraisal. This geologic province is north of western Siberia, Russian Federation, in the North Kara Sea between Novaya Zemlya to the west and Severnaya Zemlya to the east. One assessment unit (AU) was defined, the North Kara Basins and Platforms AU, which coincides with the geologic province. This AU was assessed for undiscovered, technically recoverable resources. The total estimated mean volumes of undiscovered petroleum resources in the province are ~1.8 billion barrels of crude oil, ~15.0 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and ~0.4 billion barrels of natural-gas liquids, all north of the Arctic Circle.

  4. Geology and assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Lena-Vilyui Basin Province, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klett, Timothy; Pitman, Janet K.; Moore, T.E.; Gautier, D.L.

    2017-11-22

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently assessed the potential for undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Lena-Vilyui Basin Province, north of the Arctic Circle, as part of the Circum-Arctic Resource Appraisal program. The province is in the Russian Federation and is situated between the Verkhoyansk fold-and-thrust belt and the Siberian craton. The one assessment unit (AU) defined for this study—the Northern Priverkhoyansk Foredeep AU—was assessed for undiscovered, technically recoverable resources. The estimated mean volumes of undiscovered resources for the Northern Priverkhoyansk Foredeep in the Lena-Vilyui Basin Province are ~400 million barrels of crude oil, 1.3 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 40 million barrels of natural-gas liquids, practically all (99.49 percent) of which is north of the Arctic Circle.

  5. Assessment of undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources of the Arabian Peninsula and Zagros Fold Belt, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitman, Janet K.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy A.; Klett, Timothy R.; Pollastro, Richard M.

    2012-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated means of 86 billion barrels of oil and 336 trillion cubic feet of undiscovered natural gas resources in the Arabian Peninsula and Zagros Fold Belt. The USGS assessed the potential for undiscovered conventional oil and gas accumulations within the Arabian Peninsula and Zagros Fold Belt as part of the USGS World Petroleum Resources Project. Twenty-three assessment units within seven petroleum systems were quantitatively assessed in this study, which represents a reassessment of this area last published in 2000.

  6. Methodology for assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources for the 2008 Circum-Arctic Resource Appraisal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charpentier, Ronald R.; Moore, Thomas E.; Gautier, D.L.

    2017-11-15

    The methodological procedures used in the geologic assessments of the 2008 Circum-Arctic Resource Appraisal (CARA) were based largely on the methodology developed for the 2000 U.S. Geological Survey World Petroleum Assessment. The main variables were probability distributions for numbers and sizes of undiscovered accumulations with an associated risk of occurrence. The CARA methodology expanded on the previous methodology in providing additional tools and procedures more applicable to the many Arctic basins that have little or no exploration history. Most importantly, geologic analogs from a database constructed for this study were used in many of the assessments to constrain numbers and sizes of undiscovered oil and gas accumulations.

  7. U.S. Geological Survey Assessment of Undiscovered Petroleum Resources of the Hamra Basin, Libya, 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2007-01-01

    The Hamra Basin Province encompasses approximately 244,100 square kilometers (94,250 square miles) and is entirely within Libya. One composite total petroleum system (TPS) was defined for this assessment; it extends from Libya westward into adjacent parts of Algeria and southern Tunisia. The Hamra Basin part of the TPS was subdivided into four assessment units for the purpose of resource assessment. The assessment units cover only 172,390 square kilometers of the Hamra Basin Province; the remaining area has little potential for undiscovered petroleum resources because of the absence of petroleum source rocks. Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean volumes of 784 million barrels of crude oil, 4,748 billion cubic feet of natural gas, and 381 million barrels of natural gas liquids in the Hamra Basin of northwestern Libya. Most of the undiscovered crude oil and natural gas are interpreted to be in deeper parts of the Hamra Basin.

  8. Assessment of undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources in the Wyoming Thrust Belt Province, Wyoming, Idaho, and Utah, 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Woodall, Cheryl A.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Le, Phuong A.; Klett, Timothy R.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Finn, Thomas M.; Marra, Kristen R.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.

    2018-02-16

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean undiscovered, technically recoverable resources of 26 million barrels of oil and 700 billion cubic feet of gas in the Wyoming Thrust Belt Province, Wyoming, Idaho, and Utah.

  9. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of Papua-New Guinea, Eastern Indonesia, and East Timor, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy A.; Klett, Timothy R.; Pitman, Janet K.; Pollastro, Richard M.

    2012-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated means of 5.8 billion barrels of oil and 115 trillion cubic feet of undiscovered natural gas in five geologic provinces in the areas of Papua New Guinea, eastern Indonesia, and East Timor.

  10. Assessment of undiscovered continuous oil and gas resources of Upper Cretaceous Shales in the Songliao Basin of China, 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Christopher J.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Pitman, Janet K.; Klett, Timothy R.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Finn, Thomas M.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Marra, Kristen R.; Woodall, Cheryl A.

    2018-05-03

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean undiscovered, technically recoverable resources of 3.3 billion barrels of oil and 887 billion cubic feet of gas in shale reservoirs of the Upper Cretaceous Qingshankou and Nenjiang Formations in the Songliao Basin of northeastern China.

  11. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Volga-Ural Region Province, Russia and Kazakhstan, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klett, T.R.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Pitman, Janet K.; Cook, Troy A.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean volumes of technically recoverable, conventional, undiscovered petroleum resources at 1.4 billion barrels of crude oil, 2.4 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 85 million barrels of natural gas liquids for the Volga-Ural Region Province, using a geology-based assessment methodology.

  12. Assessment of undiscovered continuous gas resources in the Amu Darya Basin Province of Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Iran, and Afghanistan, 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Hawkins, Sarah J.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Le, Phuong A.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Woodall, Cheryl A.

    2017-08-17

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean undiscovered, technically recoverable continuous resources of 35.1 trillion cubic feet of gas in the Amu Darya Basin Province of Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Iran, and Afghanistan.

  13. Assessment of undiscovered continuous oil and gas resources in the Heath Formation, central Montana and western North Dakota, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Ronald M.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Klett, Timothy R.; Le, Phuong A.; Leathers, Heidi M.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Finn, Thomas M.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.

    2017-06-07

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated undiscovered, technically recoverable mean resources of 884 million barrels of oil and 106 billion cubic feet of gas in the North-Central Montana and Williston Basin Provinces of central Montana and western North Dakota.

  14. Assessment of undiscovered resources in calcrete uranium deposits, Southern High Plains region of Texas, New Mexico, and Oklahoma, 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Susan M.; Mihalasky, Mark J.; Van Gosen, Bradley S.

    2017-11-14

    The U.S. Geological Survey estimates a mean of 40 million pounds of in-place uranium oxide (U3O8) remaining as potential undiscovered resources in the Southern High Plains region of Texas, New Mexico, and Oklahoma. This estimate used a geology-based assessment method specific to calcrete uranium deposits.

  15. Comparison of methods used to estimate conventional undiscovered petroleum resources: World examples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlbrandt, T.S.; Klett, T.R.

    2005-01-01

    Various methods for assessing undiscovered oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquid resources were compared in support of the USGS World Petroleum Assessment 2000. Discovery process, linear fractal, parabolic fractal, engineering estimates, PETRIMES, Delphi, and the USGS 2000 methods were compared. Three comparisons of these methods were made in: (1) the Neuquen Basin province, Argentina (different assessors, same input data); (2) provinces in North Africa, Oman, and Yemen (same assessors, different methods); and (3) the Arabian Peninsula, Arabian (Persian) Gulf, and North Sea (different assessors, different methods). A fourth comparison (same assessors, same assessment methods but different geologic models), between results from structural and stratigraphic assessment units in the North Sea used only the USGS 2000 method, and hence compared the type of assessment unit rather than the method. In comparing methods, differences arise from inherent differences in assumptions regarding: (1) the underlying distribution of the parent field population (all fields, discovered and undiscovered), (2) the population of fields being estimated; that is, the entire parent distribution or the undiscovered resource distribution, (3) inclusion or exclusion of large outlier fields; (4) inclusion or exclusion of field (reserve) growth, (5) deterministic or probabilistic models, (6) data requirements, and (7) scale and time frame of the assessment. Discovery process, Delphi subjective consensus, and the USGS 2000 method yield comparable results because similar procedures are employed. In mature areas such as the Neuquen Basin province in Argentina, the linear and parabolic fractal and engineering methods were conservative compared to the other five methods and relative to new reserve additions there since 1995. The PETRIMES method gave the most optimistic estimates in the Neuquen Basin. In less mature areas, the linear fractal method yielded larger estimates relative to other methods

  16. Methods for the estimation and economic evaluation of undiscovered uranium endowment and resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The present Instruction Manual was prepared as part of a programme of the International Atomic Energy Agency to supply the international uranium community with standard guides for a number of topics related to uranium resource assessment and supply. The quantitative estimation of undiscovered resources and endowments aims at supplying data on potential mineral resources; these data are needed to compare long term projections with one another and to assess the mineral supplies to be obtained from elsewhere. These objectives have relatively recently been supplemented by the concern of land managers and national policy planners to assess the potential of certain lands before the constitution of national parks and other areas reserved from mineral exploration and development. 88 refs, 28 figs, 33 tabs

  17. Geology and assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Hope Basin Province, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Kenneth J.; Houseknecht, David W.; Pitman, Janet K.; Moore, Thomas E.; Gautier, Donald L.

    2018-01-04

    The Hope Basin, an independent petroleum province that lies mostly offshore in the southern Chukchi Sea north of the Chukotka and Seward Peninsulas and south of Wrangel Island, the Herald Arch, and the Lisburne Peninsula, is the largest in a series of postorogenic (successor) basins in the East Siberian-Chukchi Sea region and the only one with exploratory-well control and extensive seismic coverage.In spite of the seismic coverage and well data, the petroleum potential of the Hope Basin Province is poorly known. The adequacy of hydrocarbon charge, in combination with uncertainties in source-rock potential and maturation, was the greatest risk in this assessment. A single assessment unit was defined and assessed, resulting in mean estimates of undiscovered, technically recoverable resources that include ~3 million barrels of oil and 650 billion cubic feet of nonassociated gas.

  18. Research on interactive genetic-geological models to evaluate favourability for undiscovered uranium resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finch, W.I.; Granger, H.C.; Lupe, R.; McCammon, R.B.

    1980-01-01

    Current methods of evaluating favourability for undiscovered uranium resources are unduly subjective, quite possibly inconsistent and, as a consequence, of questionable reliability. This research is aimed at reducing the subjectivity and increasing the reliability by designing an improved method that depends largely on geological data and their statistical frequency of occurrence. This progress report outlines a genetic approach to modelling the geological factors that controlled uranium mineralization in order to evaluate the favourability for the occurrence of undiscovered uranium deposits of the type modelled. A genetic model is constructed from all the factors that describe the processes, in chronological sequence, that formed uranium deposits thought to have a common origin. The field and laboratory evidence for the processes constitute a geologic-occurrence base that parallels the chronological sequence of events. The genetic model and the geologic-occurrence base are portrayed as two columns of an interactive matrix called the ''genetic-geologic model''. For each column, eight chronological stages are used to describe the overall formation of the uranium deposits. These stages consist of (1) precursor processes; (2) host-rock formation; (3) preparation of host-rock; (4) uranium-source development; (5) transport of uranium; (6) primary uranium deposition; (7) post-deposition modification; and (8) preservation. To apply the genetic-geological model to evaluate favourability, a question is posed that determines the presence or absence of each attribute listed under the geologic-occurrence base. By building a logic circuit of the attributes according to either their essential or non-essential nature, the resultant match between a well-documented control area and the test area may be determined. The degree of match is a measure of favourability for uranium occurrence as hypothesized in the genetic model

  19. Günther Anders’ Undiscovered Critical Theory of Technology in the Age of Big Data Capitalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Fuchs

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Günther Anders (1902-1992 was an Austrian philosopher, critical theorist, political activist, and a writer of poems, short stories and novels. His works on the critical theory of technology have remained rather undiscovered. His main work Die Antiquiertheit des Menschen (The Antiquatedness of the Human Being appeared in two volumes and has thus far not been published in English. This essay reviews key aspects of Anders’ works and uses them to critically assess big data capitalism. It first discusses Anders’ concept of the Promethean gap; the gap between what humans can produce with the help of technologies and the capacity of imagining the negative effects these technologies can have. The essay also engages with Anders’ analysis of commercial television and radio. Anders sees capitalism as having catastrophic potentials. He argues that Auschwitz and Hiroshima are two symbols of 20th-century catastrophism. The article discusses Anders’ letter to Klaus Eichmann, the son of Adolf Eichmann, who was in charge of the organisation of the displacement and deportation of Jews in the Third Reich. It furthermore analyses the exchange of letters between Anders and Claude Eatherly, the pilot of an aircraft that supported dropping the nuclear bomb “Little Boy” on Hiroshima. Finally, the paper engages with Anders’ critique of Martin Heidegger’s philosophy. In the age of the Internet and big data capitalism, Anders’ warnings about the potential negative effects of capitalist technologies and capitalism remain of crucial relevance and have taken on new qualities. Anders’ philosophy is an undiscovered critical theory of technology that allows us to critically understand power structures in the age of big data and social media. Günther Anders and Hannah Arendt. Source: posted on Flickr as CC by acido nucleio, https://www.flickr.com/photos/guntheranders/4248063814

  20. Quantitative Mineral Resource Assessment of Copper, Molybdenum, Gold, and Silver in Undiscovered Porphyry Copper Deposits in the Andes Mountains of South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Charles G.; Zappettini, Eduardo O.; Vivallo S., Waldo; Celada, Carlos Mario; Quispe, Jorge; Singer, Donald A.; Briskey, Joseph A.; Sutphin, David M.; Gajardo M., Mariano; Diaz, Alejandro; Portigliati, Carlos; Berger, Vladimir I.; Carrasco, Rodrigo; Schulz, Klaus J.

    2008-01-01

    Quantitative information on the general locations and amounts of undiscovered porphyry copper resources of the world is important to exploration managers, land-use and environmental planners, economists, and policy makers. This publication contains the results of probabilistic estimates of the amounts of copper (Cu), molybdenum (Mo), gold (Au), and silver (Ag) in undiscovered porphyry copper deposits in the Andes Mountains of South America. The methodology used to make these estimates is called the 'Three-Part Form'. It was developed to explicitly express estimates of undiscovered resources and associated uncertainty in a form that allows economic analysis and is useful to decisionmakers. The three-part form of assessment includes: (1) delineation of tracts of land where the geology is permissive for porphyry copper deposits to form; (2) selection of grade and tonnage models appropriate for estimating grades and tonnages of the undiscovered porphyry copper deposits in each tract; and (3) estimation of the number of undiscovered porphyry copper deposits in each tract consistent with the grade and tonnage model. A Monte Carlo simulation computer program (EMINERS) was used to combine the probability distributions of the estimated number of undiscovered deposits, the grades, and the tonnages of the selected model to obtain the probability distributions for undiscovered metals in each tract. These distributions of grades and tonnages then can be used to conduct economic evaluations of undiscovered resources in a format usable by decisionmakers. Economic evaluations are not part of this report. The results of this assessment are presented in two principal parts. The first part identifies 26 regional tracts of land where the geology is permissive for the occurrence of undiscovered porphyry copper deposits of Phanerozoic age to a depth of 1 km below the Earth's surface. These tracts are believed to contain most of South America's undiscovered resources of copper. The

  1. Geology and assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Northwest Laptev Sea Shelf Province, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klett, Timothy; Pitman, Janet K.; Moore, Thomas E.; Gautier, Donald L.

    2017-12-22

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has recently assessed the potential for undiscovered oil and gas resources in the Northwest Laptev Sea Shelf Province as part of the USGS Circum-Arctic Resource Appraisal. The province is in the Russian Arctic, east of Severnaya Zemlya and the Taimyr fold-and-thrust belt. The province is separated from the rest of the Laptev Sea Shelf by the Severnyi transform fault. One assessment unit (AU) was defined for this study: the Northwest Laptev Sea Shelf AU. The estimated mean volumes of undiscovered petroleum resources in the Northwest Laptev Sea Shelf Province are approximately 172 million barrels of crude oil, 4.5 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 119 million barrels of natural-gas liquids, north of the Arctic Circle.

  2. Geology and assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the West Greenland-East Canada Province, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Moore, Thomas E.; Gautier, Donald L.

    2018-01-05

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently assessed the potential for undiscovered oil and gas resources of the West Greenland-East Canada Province as part of the USGS Circum-Arctic Resource Appraisal program. The province lies in the offshore area between western Greenland and eastern Canada and includes Baffin Bay, Davis Strait, Lancaster Sound, and Nares Strait west of, and including, part of Kane Basin. A series of major tectonic events led to the formation of several distinct structural domains that are the geologic basis for defining five assessment units (AU ) in the province, all of which are within the Mesozoic-Cenozoic Composite Total Petroleum System (TPS). Potential petroleum source rocks within the TPS include strata of Ordovician, Lower and Upper Cretaceous, and Paleogene ages. The five AUs defined for this study—the Eurekan Structures AU, Northwest Greenland Rifted Margin AU, Northeast Canada Rifted Margin AU, Baffin Bay Basin AU, and the Greater Ungava Fault Zone AU— encompass the entire province and were assessed for undiscovered, technically recoverable resources. The estimated mean volumes of undiscovered resources for the West GreenlandEast Canada Province are 10.7 billion barrels of oil, 75 trillion cubic feet of gas, and 1.7 billion barrels of natural gas liquids. For the part of the province that is north of the Arctic Circle, the estimated mean volumes of these undiscovered resources are 7.3 billion barrels of oil, 52 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 1.1 billion barrels of natural-gas liquids.

  3. MKEM: a Multi-level Knowledge Emergence Model for mining undiscovered public knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Min

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since Swanson proposed the Undiscovered Public Knowledge (UPK model, there have been many approaches to uncover UPK by mining the biomedical literature. These earlier works, however, required substantial manual intervention to reduce the number of possible connections and are mainly applied to disease-effect relation. With the advancement in biomedical science, it has become imperative to extract and combine information from multiple disjoint researches, studies and articles to infer new hypotheses and expand knowledge. Methods We propose MKEM, a Multi-level Knowledge Emergence Model, to discover implicit relationships using Natural Language Processing techniques such as Link Grammar and Ontologies such as Unified Medical Language System (UMLS MetaMap. The contribution of MKEM is as follows: First, we propose a flexible knowledge emergence model to extract implicit relationships across different levels such as molecular level for gene and protein and Phenomic level for disease and treatment. Second, we employ MetaMap for tagging biological concepts. Third, we provide an empirical and systematic approach to discover novel relationships. Results We applied our system on 5000 abstracts downloaded from PubMed database. We performed the performance evaluation as a gold standard is not yet available. Our system performed with a good precision and recall and we generated 24 hypotheses. Conclusions Our experiments show that MKEM is a powerful tool to discover hidden relationships residing in extracted entities that were represented by our Substance-Effect-Process-Disease-Body Part (SEPDB model.

  4. Geology and assessment of the undiscovered, technically recoverable petroleum resources of Armenia, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klett, T.R.

    2016-02-23

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) assessed the undiscovered, technically recoverable oil and gas resources of Armenia in 2013. A Paleozoic and a Cenozoic total petroleum system (TPS) were identified within the country of Armenia. The postulated petroleum system elements are uncertain, resulting in low geologic probabilities for significant oil an gas resources. Two assessment units (AU) were delineated in each TPS—a Paleozoic-Sourced Conventional Reservoirs AU and a Permian Shale Gas AU in the Paleozoic Composite TPS and a Paleogene-Sourced Conventional Reservoirs AU and a Cenozoic Coalbed Gas AU in the Cenozoic Composite TPS. The TPS elements are largely uncertain and risked, and so only the Paleogene-Sourced Conventional Reservoirs AU was quantitatively assessed because the geologic probability is more than the threshold of 10 percent (that is, the probability of at least one conventional oil or gas accumulation of 5 million barrels of oil equivalent or greater based on postulated petroleum-system elements). The USGS estimated fully risked mean volumes of about 1 million barrels of oil (MMBO), about 6 billion cubic feet of natural gas (BCFG), and less than 1 million barrels of natural gas liquids (MMBNGL).

  5. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the Ventura Basin Province, California, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Pitman, Janet K.; Lillis, Paul G.; Klett, Timothy R.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Finn, Thomas M.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Hawkins, Sarah J.; Marra, Kristen R.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Le, Phuong A.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.

    2017-10-02

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) completed a geology-based assessment of undiscovered, technically recoverable conventional and continuous oil and gas resources in the part of the Ventura Basin Province that lies onshore or within State waters (within 3 miles of the shoreline) of California (fig. 1). Conventional oil and gas resources are those that have migrated upward into structural or stratigraphic traps from deep zones where the oil and gas is generated; water is present below the oil or gas. Continuous accumulations, in contrast, are those in which oil or gas is pervasively present in essentially all wells that penetrate them, that may not be structurally or stratigraphically trapped, and that typically lack oil-water or gas-water contacts. They are commonly produced with well-stimulation technology, such as hydraulic fracturing, referred to as “unconventional.” The same stimulation technology, however, is also used in many conventionally trapped accumulations. We estimated both the likely range of oil and gas volumes remaining to be discovered in accumulations similar to existing conventional oil and gas fields in the Ventura Basin Province (previously assessed by Keller [1995] as 1,060 million barrels of oil [MMBO], 1,900 billion cubic feet of gas [BCFG], and 60 million barrels of natural gas liquids [MMBNGL]), and the potential for oil and gas that might be present in a continuous accumulation at extreme depth in the floor of the basin.

  6. Geology and assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Yukon Flats Basin Province, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Kenneth J.; Stanley, Richard G.; Moore, Thomas E.; Gautier, Donald L.

    2017-12-22

    The hydrocarbon potential of the Yukon Flats Basin Province in Central Alaska was assessed in 2004 as part of an update to the National Oil and Gas Assessment. Three assessment units (AUs) were identified and assessed using a methodology somewhat different than that of the 2008 Circum-Arctic Resource Appraisal (CARA). An important difference in the methodology of the two assessments is that the 2004 assessment specified a minimum accumulation size of 0.5 million barrels of oil equivalent (MMBOE), whereas the 2008 CARA assessment specified a minimum size of 50 MMBOE. The 2004 assessment concluded that >95 percent of the estimated mean undiscovered oil and gas resources occur in a single AU, the Tertiary Sandstone AU. This is also the only AU of the three that extends north of the Arctic Circle.For the CARA project, the number of oil and gas accumulations in the 2004 assessment of the Tertiary Sandstone AU was re-evaluated in terms of the >50-MMBOE minimum accumulation size. By this analysis, and assuming the resource to be evenly distributed across the AU, 0.23 oil fields and 1.20 gas fields larger than 50 MMBOE are expected in the part of the AU north of the Arctic Circle. The geology suggests, however, that the area north of the Arctic Circle has a lower potential for oil and gas accumulations than the area to the south where the sedimentary section is thicker, larger volumes of hydrocarbons may have been generated, and potential structural traps are probably more abundant. Because of the low potential implied for the area of the AU north of the Arctic Circle, the Yukon Flats Tertiary Sandstone AU was not quantitatively assessed for the 2008 CARA.

  7. Geologic Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources of the North Cuba Basin, Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.

    2010-01-01

    Petroleum generation in the North Cuba Basin is primarily the result of thrust loading of Jurassic and Cretaceous source rocks during formation of the North Cuba fold and thrust belt in the Late Cretaceous to Paleogene. The fold and thrust belt formed as Cuban arc-forearc rocks along the leading edge of the Caribbean plate translated northward during the opening of the Yucatan Basin and collided with the passive margin of southern North America in the Paleogene. Petroleum fluids generated during thrust loading migrated vertically into complex structures in the fold and thrust belt, into structures in the foreland basin, and possibly into carbonate reservoirs along the margins of the Yucatan and Bahama carbonate platforms. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) defined a Jurassic-Cretaceous Composite Total Petroleum System (TPS) and three assessment units (AU)-North Cuba Fold and Thrust Belt AU, North Cuba Foreland Basin AU, and the North Cuba Platform Margin Carbonate AU-within this TPS based mainly on structure and reservoir type (fig. 1). There is considerable geologic uncertainty as to the extent of petroleum migration that might have occurred within this TPS to form potential petroleum accumulations. Taking this geologic uncertainty into account, especially in the offshore area, the mean volumes of undiscovered resources in the composite TPS of the North Cuba Basin are estimated at (1) 4.6 billion barrels of oil (BBO), with means ranging from an F95 probability of 1 BBO to an F5 probability of 9 BBO; and (2) 8.6 trillion cubic feet of of gas (TCFG), of which 8.6 TCFG is associated with oil fields, and about 1.2 TCFG is in nonassociated gas fields in the North Cuba Foreland Basin AU.

  8. Mapping membrane activity in undiscovered peptide sequence space using machine learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ernest Y; Fulan, Benjamin M; Wong, Gerard C L; Ferguson, Andrew L

    2016-11-29

    There are some ∼1,100 known antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), which permeabilize microbial membranes but have diverse sequences. Here, we develop a support vector machine (SVM)-based classifier to investigate ⍺-helical AMPs and the interrelated nature of their functional commonality and sequence homology. SVM is used to search the undiscovered peptide sequence space and identify Pareto-optimal candidates that simultaneously maximize the distance σ from the SVM hyperplane (thus maximize its "antimicrobialness") and its ⍺-helicity, but minimize mutational distance to known AMPs. By calibrating SVM machine learning results with killing assays and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), we find that the SVM metric σ correlates not with a peptide's minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), but rather its ability to generate negative Gaussian membrane curvature. This surprising result provides a topological basis for membrane activity common to AMPs. Moreover, we highlight an important distinction between the maximal recognizability of a sequence to a trained AMP classifier (its ability to generate membrane curvature) and its maximal antimicrobial efficacy. As mutational distances are increased from known AMPs, we find AMP-like sequences that are increasingly difficult for nature to discover via simple mutation. Using the sequence map as a discovery tool, we find a unexpectedly diverse taxonomy of sequences that are just as membrane-active as known AMPs, but with a broad range of primary functions distinct from AMP functions, including endogenous neuropeptides, viral fusion proteins, topogenic peptides, and amyloids. The SVM classifier is useful as a general detector of membrane activity in peptide sequences.

  9. Geology and assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Timan-Pechora Basin Province, Russia, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Moore, Thomas E.; Gautier, D.L.

    2017-11-15

    The Timan-Pechora Basin Province is a triangular area that represents the northeasternmost cratonic block of east European Russia. A 75-year history of petroleum exploration and production in the area there has led to the discovery of more than 16 billion barrels of oil (BBO) and 40 trillion cubic feet of gas (TCFG). Three geologic assessment units (AUs) were defined for assessing the potential for undiscovered oil and gas resources in the province: (1) the Northwest Izhma Depression AU, which includes all potential structures and reservoirs that formed in the northwestern part of the Izhma-Pechora Depression, although this part of the basin contains only sparse source and reservoir rocks and so was not assessed quantitatively; (2) the Main Basin Platform AU, which includes all potential structures and reservoirs that formed in the central part of the basin, where the tectonic and petroleum system evolution was complex; and (3) the Foredeep Basins AU, which includes all potential structures and reservoirs that formed within the thick sedimentary section of the foredeep basins west of the Uralian fold and thrust belt during the Permian and Triassic Uralian orogeny.For the Timan-Pechora Basin Province, the estimated means of undiscovered resources are 3.3 BBO, 17 TCFG, and 0.3 billion barrels of natural-gas liquids (BBNGL). For the AU areas north of the Arctic Circle in the province, the estimated means of undiscovered resources are 1.7 BBO, 9.0 TCFG, and 0.2 BBNGL. These assessment results indicate that exploration in the Timan-Pechora Basin Province is at a mature level.

  10. U.S. Geological Survey 2011 assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Cook Inlet region, south-central Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Richard G.; Pierce, Brenda S.; Houseknecht, David W.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has completed an assessment of the volumes of undiscovered, technically recoverable oil and gas resources in conventional and continuous accumulations in Cook Inlet. The assessment used a geology-based methodology and results from new scientific research by the USGS and the State of Alaska, Department of Natural Resources, Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys and Division of Oil and Gas (DOG). In the Cook Inlet region, the USGS estimates mean undiscovered volumes of nearly 600 million barrels of oil, about 19 trillion cubic feet of gas, and about 46 million barrels of natural gas liquids.

  11. Geologic assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in Aptian carbonates, onshore northern Gulf of Mexico Basin, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackley, Paul C.; Karlsen, Alexander W.

    2014-01-01

    Carbonate lithofacies of the Lower Cretaceous Sligo Formation and James Limestone were regionally evaluated using established U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) assessment methodology for undiscovered conventional hydrocarbon resources. The assessed area is within the Upper Jurassic–Cretaceous–Tertiary Composite total petroleum system, which was defined for the assessment. Hydrocarbons reservoired in carbonate platform Sligo-James oil and gas accumulations are interpreted to originate primarily from the Jurassic Smackover Formation. Emplacement of hydrocarbons occurred via vertical migration along fault systems; long-range lateral migration also may have occurred in some locations. Primary reservoir facies include porous patch reefs developed over paleostructural salt highs, carbonate shoals, and stacked linear reefs at the carbonate shelf margin. Hydrocarbon traps dominantly are combination structural-stratigraphic. Sealing lithologies include micrite, calcareous shale, and argillaceous lime mudstone. A geologic model, supported by discovery history analysis of petroleum geology data, was used to define a single regional assessment unit (AU) for conventional reservoirs in carbonate facies of the Sligo Formation and James Limestone. The AU is formally entitled Sligo-James Carbonate Platform Oil and Gas (50490121). A fully risked mean undiscovered technically recoverable resource in the AU of 50 million barrels of oil (MMBO), 791 billion cubic feet of natural gas (BCFG), and 26 million barrels of natural gas liquids was estimated. Substantial new development through horizontal drilling has occurred since the time of this assessment (2010), resulting in cumulative production of >200 BCFG and >1 MMBO.

  12. Geology and undiscovered resource assessment of the potash-bearing Pripyat and Dnieper-Donets Basins, Belarus and Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocker, Mark D.; Orris, Greta J.; Dunlap, Pamela; Lipin, Bruce R.; Ludington, Steve; Ryan, Robert J.; Słowakiewicz, Mirosław; Spanski, Gregory T.; Wynn, Jeff; Yang, Chao

    2017-08-03

    Undiscovered potash resources in the Pripyat Basin, Belarus, and Dnieper-Donets Basin, Ukraine, were assessed as part of a global mineral resource assessment led by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The Pripyat Basin (in Belarus) and the Dnieper-Donets Basin (in Ukraine and southern Belarus) host stratabound and halokinetic Upper Devonian (Frasnian and Famennian) and Permian (Cisuralian) potash-bearing salt. The evaporite basins formed in the Donbass-Pripyat Rift, a Neoproterozoic continental rift structure that was reactivated during the Late Devonian and was flooded by seawater. Though the rift was divided, in part by volcanic deposits, into the separate Pripyat and Dnieper-Donets Basins, both basins contain similar potash‑bearing evaporite sequences. An Early Permian (Cisuralian) sag basin formed over the rift structure and was also inundated by seawater resulting in another sequence of evaporite deposition. Halokinetic activity initiated by basement faulting during the Devonian continued at least into the Permian and influenced potash salt deposition and structural evolution of potash-bearing salt in both basins.Within these basins, four areas (permissive tracts) that permit the presence of undiscovered potash deposits were defined by using geological criteria. Three tracts are permissive for stratabound potash-bearing deposits and include Famennian (Upper Devonian) salt in the Pripyat Basin, and Famennian and Cisuralian (lower Permian) salt in the Dnieper-Donets Basin. In addition, a tract was delineated for halokinetic potash-bearing Famennian salt in the Dnieper-Donets Basin.The Pripyat Basin is the third largest source of potash in the world, producing 6.4 million metric tons of potassium chloride (KCl) (the equivalent of about 4.0 million metric tons of potassium oxide or K2O) in 2012. Potash production began in 1963 in the Starobin #1 mine, near the town of Starobin, Belarus, in the northwestern corner of the basin. Potash is currently produced from

  13. Assessment of undiscovered conventionally recoverable petroleum resources of the Northwest European region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, Charles D.; Klemme, H. Douglas

    1984-01-01

    The estimates of undiscovered conventionally recoverable petroleum resources in the northwest European region at probability levels of 95 percent, 5 percent, statistical mean, and mode are for oil (in billions of barrels): 9, 34, 20, and 15; and for gas (in trillions of cubic feet): 92, 258, 167, and 162. The occurrence of petroleum can be accounted for in two distinct geological plays located in the various subbasins of the region. Play I is associated with the distribution of mature source rocks of Late Jurassic age relative to four distinct trapping conditions. The play has been demonstrated productive mostly in the Viking and Central Grabens of the North Sea, where the shale has been buried to optimum depths for the generation of both oil and gas. To the north of 62 ? N. latitude up to the Barents Sea, source rocks become increasingly deeply buried and are interpreted to be dominantly gas prone; a narrow band of potentially oil-prone shales tracks most of the coast of Norway, but water depths in favorable localities commonly range from 600 to 1,200 feet. To the south of the Central Graben, the Jurassic source rocks are either immature or minimally productive because of a change in facies. Undrilled traps remain within the favorable source-rock area, and exploration will continue to challenge the boundaries of conventional wisdom, especially on the Norwegian side where little has .been reported on the geology of the adjoining Bergen High or Horda Basin, though, reportedly, the Jurassic source rocks are missing on the high and are immature in the southern part of the basin. Play II is associated with the distribution of a coal facies of Carboniferous age that is mature for the generation of gas and locally underlies favorable reservoir and sealing rocks. The play is limited largely by facies development to the present area of discovery and production but is limited as well to the southeast into onshore Netherlands and Germany by the unfavorable economics of an

  14. Assessment of undiscovered continuous oil and gas resources in the Domanik-type formations of the Volga-Ural Region Province, Russia, 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klett, Timothy R.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Finn, Thomas M.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Le, Phuong A.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Marra, Kristen R.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Pitman, Janet K.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Woodall, Cheryl A.

    2018-02-27

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean undiscovered, technically recoverable continuous resources of 2.8 billion barrels of oil and 34 trillion cubic feet of gas in the Domanik-type formations of the Volga-Ural Region Province, Russia.

  15. Assessment of undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources in the West Korea Bay–North Yellow Sea Basin, North Korea and China, 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Hawkins, Sarah J.; Finn, Thomas M.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Le, Phuong A.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Woodall, Cheryl A.

    2017-07-11

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean undiscovered, technically recoverable conventional resources of 1.1 billion barrels of oil and 2.2 trillion cubic feet of gas in the West Korea Bay–North Yellow Sea Basin, North Korea and China.

  16. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the Uteland Butte Member of the Eocene Green River Formation, Uinta Basin, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Ronald C.; Birdwell, Justin E.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Leathers, Heidi M.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.

    2015-09-03

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean undiscovered resources of 214 million barrels of oil, 329 billion cubic feet of associated/dissolved natural gas, and 14 million barrels of natural gas liquids in the informal Uteland Butte member of the Green River Formation, Uinta Basin, Utah.

  17. Assessment of undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources, onshore Claiborne Group, United Statespart of the northern Gulf of Mexico Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackley, P.C.; Ewing, T.E.

    2010-01-01

    The middle Eocene Claiborne Group was assessed for undiscovered conventional hydrocarbon resources using established U.S. Geological Survey assessment methodology. This work was conducted as part of a 2007 assessment of Paleogene-Neogene strata of the northern Gulf of Mexico Basin, including the United States onshore and state waters (Dubiel et al., 2007). The assessed area is within the Upper Jurassic-CretaceousTertiary composite total petroleum system, which was defined for the assessment. Source rocks for Claiborne oil accumulations are interpreted to be organic-rich, downdip, shaley facies of the Wilcox Group and the Sparta Sand of the Claiborne Group; gas accumulations may have originated from multiple sources, including the Jurassic Smackover Formation and the Haynesville and Bossier shales, the Cretaceous Eagle Ford and Pearsall (?) formations, and the Paleogene Wilcox Group and Sparta Sand. Hydrocarbon generation in the basin started prior to deposition of Claiborne sediments and is currently ongoing. Primary reservoir sandstones in the Claiborne Group include, from oldest to youngest, the Queen City Sand, Cook Mountain Formation, Sparta Sand, Yegua Formation, and the laterally equivalent Cockfield Formation. A geologic model, supported by spatial analysis of petroleum geology data, including discovered reservoir depths, thicknesses, temperatures, porosities, permeabilities, and pressures, was used to divide the Claiborne Group into seven assessment units (AUs) with three distinctive structural and depositional settings. The three structural and depositional settings are (1) stable shelf, (2) expanded fault zone, and (3) slope and basin floor; the seven AUs are (1) lower Claiborne stable-shelf gas and oil, (2) lower Claiborne expanded fault-zone gas, (3) lower Claiborne slope and basin-floor gas, (4) lower Claiborne Cane River, (5) upper Claiborne stable-shelf gas and oil, (6) upper Claiborne expanded fault-zone gas, and (7) upper Claiborne slope and basin

  18. The Undiscovered Country: How Many Low-Delta-V Near-Earth Objects Remain to be Found?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elvis, Martin; Ranjan, Sukrit; Galache, Jose Luis

    2014-11-01

    Low delta-v near-Earth objects (NEOs) are of great interest as targets for science and human missions, for possible retrieval to cis-lunar space and as potential resource targets for both exploration and commercial uses. This interest stems from the exponential nature of the rocket equation that imposes a harsh mass penalty on any mission to a higher delta-v. We have compared the known NEO population from the IAU Minor Planet Center (MPC) with the NEOSSat-1 model residence times for the NEO population (Greenstreet & Gladman, 2012) to assess how many undiscovered NEOs there are as a function of H magnitude and delta-v. We find that the median of known NEOs is at lower delta-v (7.3 km/s) than the model population (9.8 km/s), suggesting a bias toward detecting lower delta-v NEOs. To the precision of our data, which is as low as 40% for the 300-500 m diameter (D) objects, the bulk of the larger D>300 m NEOs have been found from delta-v<10.3 km/s. However in the 50 < D < 300 m range there are tens of thousands of delta-v < 10.3 km/s to be found. We examine the total number of undiscovered NEOs as a function of delta-v and find that to find at least 100 now unknown NEOs requires a threshold delta-v of 5.7 km/s, while to find at least 1000 of them requires a threshold delta-v of 6.2 km/s. These numbers can be used to determine mission delta-v requirements for a given number of suitable targets, that will likely be restricted by other criteria (size, composition, spin state) to a few percent of the total population.

  19. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the Cretaceous Nanushuk and Torok Formations, Alaska North Slope, and summary of resource potential of the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska, 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houseknecht, David W.; Lease, Richard O.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Rouse, William A.; Jarboe, Palma B.; Whidden, Katherine J.; Garrity, Christopher P.; Lewis, Kristen A.; Heller, Samuel; Craddock, William H.; Klett, Timothy R.; Le, Phuong A.; Smith, Rebecca; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Woodall, Cheryl A.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Finn, Thomas M.

    2017-12-22

    The U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean undiscovered, technically recoverable resources of 8.7 billion barrels of oil and 25 trillion cubic feet of natural gas (associated and nonassociated) in conventional accumulations in the Cretaceous Nanushuk and Torok Formations in the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska, adjacent State and Native lands, and State waters. The estimated undiscovered oil resources in the Nanushuk and Torok Formations are significantly higher than previous estimates, owing primarily to recent, larger than anticipated oil discoveries.

  20. Qualitative assessment of selected areas of the world for undiscovered sediment-hosted stratabound copper deposits: Chapter Y in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zientek, Michael L.; Wintzer, Niki E.; Hayes, Timothy S.; Parks, Heather L.; Briggs, Deborah A.; Causey, J. Douglas; Hatch, Shyla A.; Jenkins, M. Christopher; Williams, David J.; Zientek, Michael L.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Johnson, Kathleen M.

    2015-12-14

    A qualitative mineral resource assessment of sediment-hosted stratabound copper mineralized areas for undiscovered copper deposits was performed for 10 selected areas of the world. The areas, in alphabetical order, are (1) Belt-Purcell Basin, United States and Canada; (2) Benguela and Cuanza Basins, Angola; (3) Chuxiong Basin, China; (4) Dongchuan Group rocks, China; (5) Egypt–Israel–Jordan Rift, Egypt, Israel, and Jordan; (6) Maritimes Basin, Canada; (7) Neuquén Basin, Argentina; (8) Northwest Botswana Rift, Botswana and Namibia; (9) Redstone Copperbelt, Canada; and (10) Salta Rift System, Argentina. This assessment (1) outlines the main characteristics of the areas, (2) classifies known deposits by deposit model subtypes, and (3) ranks the areas according to their potential to contain undiscovered copper deposits.

  1. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Cretaceous-Tertiary Composite Total Petroleum System, Taranaki Basin Assessment Unit, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wandrey, Craig J.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Klett, Timothy R.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy A.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.

    2013-01-01

    The Cretaceous-Tertiary Composite Total Petroleum System coincident Taranaki Basin Assessment Unit was recently assessed for undiscovered technically recoverable oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids resources as part of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) World Energy Resources Project, World Oil and Gas Assessment. Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the USGS estimated mean volumes of 487 million barrels of oil, 9.8 trillion cubic feet of gas, and 408 million barrels of natural gas liquids.

  2. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Central Burma Basin and the Irrawaddy-Andaman and Indo-Burman Geologic Provinces, Myanmar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wandrey, Craig J.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Klett, Timothy R.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy A.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.

    2012-01-01

    The Irrawaddy-Andaman and Indo-Burman Geologic Provinces were recently assessed for undiscovered technically recoverable oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids resources as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) World Oil and Gas Assessment. Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the USGS estimated mean volumes of 2.3 billion barrels of oil, 79.6 trillion cubic feet of gas, and 2.1 billion barrels of natrual gas liquids.

  3. The economic impact of proposed regulations on the discharge of drilling muds and cuttings from the offshore facilities on US undiscovered crude oil reserves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an assessment of the potential economic impact of proposed regulations. on the discharge of drilling fluids (muds) and cuttings on US offshore undiscovered crude oil resources. These regulations include proposed Best Available Technology economically achievable (BAT) and New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) effluent limitations under the Clean Water Act governing the discharge of drilling fluids and drill cuttings from offshore oil and gas drilling operations. The impact of the proposed RAT/NSPS regulations for the drilling fluids and drill cuttings disposal on the cost of funding, developing, and producing Lower-48 offshore undiscovered crude oil resources will depend significantly on operators perceptions on the chances of failing toxicity or static sheen tests. If operators, in economically justifying their projects, assume that the fluids fail one of these tests, thereby prohibiting them from being discharged, up to 11% of the economically recoverable offshore resource would be considered uneconomic to produce. This would amount to 845 million barrels of oil at an oil price around $25 per barrel. On the other hand, if operators are willing co take their chances and see if their fluids fail one of these tests, then, based on EPA's assumptions concerning forecast fluid use and static sheen and toxicity test failure rates, up to 4% of the offshore undiscovered resource would be impacted, amounting to lost reserves of up to 270 million barrels

  4. Total petroleum systems and geologic assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the San Juan Basin Province, exclusive of Paleozoic rocks, New Mexico and Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2013-01-01

    In 2002, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) estimated undiscovered oil and gas resources that have the potential for additions to reserves in the San Juan Basin Province, New Mexico and Colorado. Paleozoic rocks were not appraised. The last oil and gas assessment for the province was in 1995. There are several important differences between the 1995 and 2002 assessments. The area assessed is smaller than that in the 1995 assessment. This assessment of undiscovered hydrocarbon resources in the San Juan Basin Province also used a slightly different approach in the assessment, and hence a number of the plays defined in the 1995 assessment are addressed differently in this report. After 1995, the USGS has applied a total petroleum system (TPS) concept to oil and gas basin assessments. The TPS approach incorporates knowledge of the source rocks, reservoir rocks, migration pathways, and time of generation and expulsion of hydrocarbons; thus the assessments are geologically based. Each TPS is subdivided into one or more assessment units, usually defined by a unique set of reservoir rocks, but which have in common the same source rock. Four TPSs and 14 assessment units were geologically evaluated, and for 13 units, the undiscovered oil and gas resources were quantitatively assessed.

  5. Petroleum Systems and Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas in the Raton Basin - Sierra Grande Uplift Province, Colorado and New Mexico - USGS Province 41

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higley, Debra K.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction The purpose of the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) National Oil and Gas Assessment is to develop geologically based hypotheses regarding the potential for additions to oil and gas reserves in priority areas of the United States. The USGS recently completed an assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Raton Basin-Sierra Grande Uplift Province of southeastern Colorado and northeastern New Mexico (USGS Province 41). The Cretaceous Vermejo Formation and Cretaceous-Tertiary Raton Formation have production and undiscovered resources of coalbed methane. Other formations in the province exhibit potential for gas resources and limited production. This assessment is based on geologic principles and uses the total petroleum system concept. The geologic elements of a total petroleum system include hydrocarbon source rocks (source rock maturation, hydrocarbon generation and migration), reservoir rocks (sequence stratigraphy and petrophysical properties), and hydrocarbon traps (trap formation and timing). The USGS used this geologic framework to define two total petroleum systems and five assessment units. All five assessment units were quantitatively assessed for undiscovered gas resources. Oil resources were not assessed because of the limited potential due to levels of thermal maturity of petroleum source rocks.

  6. Geologic models and evaluation of undiscovered conventional and continuous oil and gas resources: Upper Cretaceous Austin Chalk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Krystal

    2012-01-01

    The Upper Cretaceous Austin Chalk forms a low-permeability, onshore Gulf of Mexico reservoir that produces oil and gas from major fractures oriented parallel to the underlying Lower Cretaceous shelf edge. Horizontal drilling links these fracture systems to create an interconnected network that drains the reservoir. Field and well locations along the production trend are controlled by fracture networks. Highly fractured chalk is present along both regional and local fault zones. Fractures are also genetically linked to movement of the underlying Jurassic Louann Salt with tensile fractures forming downdip of salt-related structures creating the most effective reservoirs. Undiscovered accumulations should also be associated with structure-controlled fracture systems because much of the Austin that overlies the Lower Cretaceous shelf edge remains unexplored. The Upper Cretaceous Eagle Ford Shale is the primary source rock for Austin Chalk hydrocarbons. This transgressive marine shale varies in thickness and lithology across the study area and contains both oil- and gas-prone kerogen. The Eagle Ford began generating oil and gas in the early Miocene, and vertical migration through fractures was sufficient to charge the Austin reservoirs.

  7. Of Mind and (sub-atomic) Matter

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2012-01-01

    There are medics in the Main Building: neuroscientists, neurosurgeons and psychiatrists to name but a few. In short, more doctors than most of us have ever seen outside of a university or a hospital. Not a typical scene for a laboratory focusing on physics rather than physiology, but one that became common during the two-day European Brain Council Meeting held at CERN this June.   “CERN’s collaborative, multicultural research environment is an extraordinary source of inspiration for the scientific community,” says Mary Baker, President of the European Brain Council (EBC). “It was the reason why we chose to hold our first Management meeting for ‘Age of the Brain’.  It was a wonderful opportunity for us and a great privilege to be invited.” Established in 2002, the European Brain Council seeks to improve the management of brain diseases by promoting research in Europe, and also to improve the quality of lif...

  8. Clinical cues for detection of people with undiscovered depression in primary health care: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flyckt, Lena; Hassler, Ejda; Lotfi, Louise; Krakau, Ingvar; Nilsson, Gunnar H

    2014-07-01

    To identify clinical cues indicative of depression in medical records of cases in primary care with undetected depression. Depressive disorders are common; the lifetime risk for men and women is 27% and 45%, respectively. Despite effective treatment methods such as antidepressants and cognitive behavioural therapy, depression often remains undiscovered in primary care, with great implications both on the individual and societal level. Clinical cues indicating depression were sought in medical records the year before an opportunistic screening for depression in primary care. In a previous study of 221 patients in the waiting room of a primary care centre during 10 randomly selected days, 45 (20%) showed signs of depression (MADRS-S ⩾ 12) and 60% of these were verified as having depressive disorders (Prime-MD). These 45 patients constitute the cases in the present study. Age- and gender-matched controls were selected among those who scored below the chosen cut-off level. Seventeen (38%) of the 45 cases compared with eight (18%) of the 45 controls had one or more cues [odds ratio (OR) 2.81; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.06-7.43]. Sleep disturbance showed the greatest difference between cases and controls (OR 4.53; 95% CI: 1.17-17.55). A significant relationship was found between severity of depression, frequency of cues and lower functional level. Cues were twice as common in patients with undetected depression and their functional level was lower. A two-stage procedure, screening and a structured diagnostic interview, is recommended when sleep disturbances and lowered function are present.

  9. Executive summary--2002 assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the San Juan Basin Province, exclusive of Paleozoic rocks, New Mexico and Colorado: Chapter 1 in Total petroleum systems and geologic assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the San Juan Basin Province, exclusive of Paleozoic rocks, New Mexico and Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2013-01-01

    In 2002, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) estimated undiscovered oil and gas resources that have the potential for additions to reserves in the San Juan Basin Province (5022), New Mexico and Colorado (fig. 1). Paleozoic rocks were not appraised. The last oil and gas assessment for the province was in 1995 (Gautier and others, 1996). There are several important differences between the 1995 and 2002 assessments. The area assessed is smaller than that in the 1995 assessment. This assessment of undiscovered hydrocarbon resources in the San Juan Basin Province also used a slightly different approach in the assessment, and hence a number of the plays defined in the 1995 assessment are addressed differently in this report. After 1995, the USGS has applied a total petroleum system (TPS) concept to oil and gas basin assessments. The TPS approach incorporates knowledge of the source rocks, reservoir rocks, migration pathways, and time of generation and expulsion of hydrocarbons; thus the assessments are geologically based. Each TPS is subdivided into one or more assessment units, usually defined by a unique set of reservoir rocks, but which have in common the same source rock. Four TPSs and 14 assessment units were geologically evaluated, and for 13 units, the undiscovered oil and gas resources were quantitatively assessed.

  10. Geology and Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources of the East Barents Basins Province and the Novaya Zemlya Basins and Admiralty Arch Province, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klett, Timothy R.; Moore, Thomas E.; Gautier, D.L.

    2017-11-15

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently assessed the potential for undiscovered petroleum resources of the East Barents Basins Province and the Novaya Zemlya Basins and Admiralty Arch Province as part of its Circum-Arctic Resource Appraisal. These two provinces are situated northeast of Scandinavia and the northwestern Russian Federation, on the Barents Sea Shelf between Novaya Zemlya to the east and the Barents Platform to the west. Three assessment units (AUs) were defined in the East Barents Basins Province for this study: the Kolguyev Terrace AU, the South Barents and Ludlov Saddle AU, and the North Barents Basin AU. A fourth AU, defined as the Novaya Zemlya Basins and Admiralty Arch AU, coincides with the Novaya Zemlya Basins and Admiralty Arch Province. These four AUs, all lying north of the Arctic Circle, were assessed for undiscovered, technically recoverable resources, resulting in total estimated mean volumes of ~7.4 billion barrels of crude oil, 318 trillion cubic feet (TCF) of natural gas, and 1.4 billion barrels of natural-gas liquids.

  11. Geologic assessment of undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources--Middle Eocene Claiborne Group, United States part of the Gulf of Mexico Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackley, Paul C.

    2012-01-01

    The Middle Eocene Claiborne Group was assessed using established U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) assessment methodology for undiscovered conventional hydrocarbon resources as part of the 2007 USGS assessment of Paleogene-Neogene strata of the United States part of the Gulf of Mexico Basin including onshore and State waters. The assessed area is within the Upper Jurassic-Cretaceous-Tertiary Composite total petroleum system, which was defined as part of the assessment. Source rocks for Claiborne oil accumulations are interpreted to be organic-rich downdip shaley facies of the Wilcox Group and the Sparta Sand of the Claiborne Group; gas accumulations may have originated from multiple sources including the Jurassic Smackover and Haynesville Formations and Bossier Shale, the Cretaceous Eagle Ford and Pearsall(?) Formations, and the Paleogene Wilcox Group and Sparta Sand. Hydrocarbon generation in the basin started prior to deposition of Claiborne sediments and is ongoing at present. Emplacement of hydrocarbons into Claiborne reservoirs has occurred primarily via vertical migration along fault systems; long-range lateral migration also may have occurred in some locations. Primary reservoir sands in the Claiborne Group include, from oldest to youngest, the Queen City Sand, Cook Mountain Formation, Sparta Sand, Yegua Formation, and the laterally equivalent Cockfield Formation. Hydrocarbon traps dominantly are rollover anticlines associated with growth faults; salt structures and stratigraphic traps also are important. Sealing lithologies probably are shaley facies within the Claiborne and in the overlying Jackson Group. A geologic model, supported by spatial analysis of petroleum geology data including discovered reservoir depths, thicknesses, temperatures, porosities, permeabilities, and pressures, was used to divide the Claiborne Group into seven assessment units (AU) with distinctive structural and depositional settings. The AUs include (1) Lower Claiborne Stable Shelf

  12. Geology and undiscovered resource assessment of the potash-bearing Central Asia Salt Basin, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, and Afghanistan: Chapter AA in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynn, Jeff; Orris, Greta J.; Dunlap, Pamela; Cocker, Mark D.; Bliss, James D.

    2016-03-23

    Undiscovered potash resources in the Central Asia Salt Basin (CASB) of Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, and Afghanistan were assessed as part of a global mineral resource assessment led by the U.S. Geological Survey. The term “potash” refers to potassium-bearing, water-soluble salts derived from evaporite basins, where seawater dried up and precipitated various salt compounds; the word for the element “potassium” is derived from potash. Potash is produced worldwide at amounts exceeding 30 million metric tons per year, mostly for use in fertilizers. The term “potash” is used by industry to refer to potassium chloride, as well as potassium in sulfate, nitrate, and oxide forms. For the purposes of this assessment, the term “potash” refers to potassium ores and minerals and potash ore grades. Resource and production values are usually expressed by industry in terms of K2O (potassium oxide) or muriate of potash (KCl, potassium chloride).

  13. U.S. Geological Survey 2013 assessment of undiscovered resources in the Bakken and Three Forks Formations of the U.S. Williston Basin Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.

    2014-01-01

    The Upper Devonian Three Forks and Upper Devonian to Lower Mississippian Bakken Formations comprise a major United States continuous oil resource. Current exploitation of oil is from horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing of the Middle Member of the Bakken and upper Three Forks, with ongoing exploration of the lower Three Forks, and the Upper, Lower, and Pronghorn Members of the Bakken Formation. In 2008, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) estimated a mean of 3.65 billion bbl of undiscovered, technically recoverable oil resource within the Bakken Formation. The USGS recently reassessed the Bakken Formation, which included an assessment of the underlying Three Forks Formation. The Pronghorn Member of the Bakken Formation, where present, was included as part of the Three Forks assessment due to probable fluid communication between reservoirs. For the Bakken Formation, five continuous and one conventional assessment units (AUs) were defined. These AUs are modified from the 2008 AU boundaries to incorporate expanded geologic and production information. The Three Forks Formation was defined with one continuous and one conventional AU. Within the continuous AUs, optimal regions of hydrocarbon recovery, or “sweet spots,” were delineated and estimated ultimate recoveries were calculated for each continuous AU. Resulting undiscovered, technically recoverable resource estimates were 3.65 billion bbl for the five Bakken continuous oil AUs and 3.73 billion bbl for the Three Forks Continuous Oil AU, generating a total mean resource estimate of 7.38 billion bbl. The two conventional AUs are hypothetical and represent a negligible component of the total estimated resource (8 million barrels of oil).

  14. USGS assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in Paleogene strata of the U.S. Gulf of Mexico coastal plain and state waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warwick, Peter D.; Coleman, James; Hackley, Paul C.; Hayba, Daniel O.; Karlsen, Alexander W.; Rowan, Elisabeth L.; Swanson, Sharon M.; Kennan, Lorcan; Pindell, James; Rosen, Norman C.

    2007-01-01

    This report presents a review of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) 2007 assessment of the undiscovered oil and gas resources in Paleogene strata underlying the U.S. Gulf of Mexico Coastal Plain and state waters. Geochemical, geologic, geophysical, thermal maturation, burial history, and paleontologic studies have been combined with regional cross sections and data from previous USGS petroleum assessments have helped to define the major petroleum systems and assessment units. Accumulations of both conventional oil and gas and continuous coal-bed gas within these petroleum systems have been digitally mapped and evaluated, and undiscovered resources have been assessed following USGS methodology.The primary source intervals for oil and gas in Paleogene (and Cenozoic) reservoirs are coal and shale rich in organic matter within the Wilcox Group (Paleocene-Eocene) and Sparta Formation of the Claiborne Group (Eocene); in addition, Cretaceous and Jurassic source rocks probably have contributed substantial petroleum to Paleogene (and Cenozoic) reservoirs.For the purposes of the assessment, Paleogene strata have divided into the following four stratigraphic study intervals: (1) Wilcox Group (including the Midway Group and the basal Carrizo Sand of the Claiborne Group; Paleocene-Eocene); (2) Claiborne Group (Eocene); (3) Jackson and Vicksburg Groups (Eocene-Oligocene); and (4) the Frio-Anahuac Formations (Oligocene). Recent discoveries of coal-bed gas in Paleocene strata confirm a new petroleum system that was not recognized in previous USGS assessments. In total, 26 conventional Paleogene assessment units are defined. In addition, four Cretaceous-Paleogene continuous (coal-bed gas) assessment units are included in this report. Initial results of the assessment will be released as USGS Fact Sheets (not available at the time of this writing).Comprehensive reports for each assessment unit are planned to be released via the internet and distributed on CD-ROMs within the next year.

  15. Introduction to the 2002 geologic assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the San Juan Basin Province, exclusive of Paleozoic rocks: Chapter 2 in Total petroleum systems and geologic assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the San Juan Basin Province, exclusive of Paleozoic rocks, New Mexico and Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2013-01-01

    The U.S Geological Survey (USGS) periodically conducts assessments of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the United States. The purpose of the U.S. Geological Survey National Oil and Gas Assessment is to develop geologically based hypotheses regarding the potential for additions to oil and gas reserves in priority areas of the United States. The last major USGS assessment of oil and gas of the most important oil and gas provinces in the United States was in 1995 (Gautier and others, 1996). Since then a number of individual assessment provinces have been reappraised using new methodology. This was done particularly for those provinces where new information has become available, where new methodology was expected to reveal more insight to provide a better estimate, where additional geologic investigation was needed, or where continuous accumulations were deemed important. The San Juan Basin was reevaluated because of industry exploitation of new hydrocarbon accumulations that were not previously assessed and because of a change in application of assessment methodology to potential undiscovered hydrocarbon accumulations. Several changes have been made in this study. The methodology is different from that used in 1995 (Schmoker, 2003; Schmoker and Klett, 2003). In this study the total petroleum system (TPS) approach (Magoon and Dow, 1994) is used rather than the play approach. The Chama Basin is not included. The team of scientists studying the basin is different. The 1995 study focused on conventional accumulations, whereas in this 2002 assessment, it was a priority to assess continuous-type accumulations, including coal-bed gas. Consequently we are presenting here an entirely new study and results for the San Juan Basin Province. The results of this 2002 assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the San Juan Basin Province (5022) are presented in this report within the geologic context of individual TPSs and their assessment units (AU) (table 1). Results

  16. Geologic assessment of undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources in the Lower Paleogene Midway and Wilcox Groups, and the Carrizo Sand of the Claiborne Group, of the Northern Gulf coast region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warwick, Peter D.

    2017-09-27

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently conducted an assessment of the undiscovered, technically recoverable oil and gas potential of Tertiary strata underlying the onshore areas and State waters of the northern Gulf of Mexico coastal region. The assessment was based on a number of geologic elements including an evaluation of hydrocarbon source rocks, suitable reservoir rocks, and hydrocarbon traps in an Upper Jurassic-Cretaceous-Tertiary Composite Total Petroleum System defined for the region by the USGS. Five conventional assessment units (AUs) were defined for the Midway (Paleocene) and Wilcox (Paleocene-Eocene) Groups, and the Carrizo Sand of the Claiborne Group (Eocene) interval including: (1) the Wilcox Stable Shelf Oil and Gas AU; (2) the Wilcox Expanded Fault Zone Gas and Oil AU; (3) the Wilcox-Lobo Slide Block Gas AU; (4) the Wilcox Slope and Basin Floor Gas AU; and (5) the Wilcox Mississippi Embayment AU (not quantitatively assessed).The USGS assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources for the Midway-Wilcox-Carrizo interval resulted in estimated mean values of 110 million barrels of oil (MMBO), 36.9 trillion cubic feet of gas (TCFG), and 639 million barrels of natural gas liquids (MMBNGL) in the four assessed units. The undiscovered oil resources are almost evenly divided between fluvial-deltaic sandstone reservoirs within the Wilcox Stable Shelf (54 MMBO) AU and deltaic sandstone reservoirs of the Wilcox Expanded Fault Zone (52 MMBO) AU. Greater than 70 percent of the undiscovered gas and 66 percent of the natural gas liquids (NGL) are estimated to be in deep (13,000 to 30,000 feet), untested distal deltaic and slope sandstone reservoirs within the Wilcox Slope and Basin Floor Gas AU.

  17. Geology and sequence stratigraphy of undiscovered oil and gas resources in conventional and continuous petroleum systems in the Upper Cretaceous Eagle Ford Group and related strata, U.S. Gulf Coast Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubiel, Russell F.; Pearson, Ofori N.; Pitman, Janet K.; Pearson, Krystal M.; Kinney, Scott A.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently assessed the technically recoverable undiscovered oil and gas onshore and in State waters of the Gulf Coast region of the United States. The USGS defined three assessment units (AUs) with potential undiscovered conventional and continuous oil and gas resources in Upper Cretaceous (Cenomanian to Turonian) strata of the Eagle Ford Group and correlative rocks. The assessment is based on geologic elements of a total petroleum system, including hydrocarbon source rocks (source rock maturation, hydrocarbon generation and migration), reservoir rocks (sequence stratigraphy and petrophysical properties), and traps (formation, timing, and seals). Conventional oil and gas undiscovered resources are in updip sandstone reservoirs in the Upper Cretaceous Tuscaloosa and Woodbine Formations (or Groups) in Louisiana and Texas, respectively, whereas continuous oil and continuous gas undiscovered resources reside in the middip and downdip Upper Cretaceous Eagle Ford Shale in Texas and the Tuscaloosa marine shale in Louisiana. Conventional resources in the Tuscaloosa and Woodbine are included in the Eagle Ford Updip Sandstone Oil and Gas AU, in an area where the Eagle Ford Shale and Tuscaloosa marine shale display vitrinite reflectance (Ro) values less than 0.6%. The continuous Eagle Ford Shale Oil AU lies generally south of the conventional AU, is primarily updip of the Lower Cretaceous shelf edge, and is defined by thermal maturity values within shales of the Eagle Ford and Tuscaloosa that range from 0.6 to 1.2% Ro. Similarly, the Eagle Ford Shale Gas AU is defined downdip of the shelf edge where source rocks have Ro values greater than 1.2%. For undiscovered oil and gas resources, the USGS assessed means of: 1) 141 million barrels of oil (MMBO), 502 billion cubic feet of natural gas (BCFG), and 4 million barrels of natural gas liquids (MMBNGL) in the Eagle Ford Updip Sandstone Oil and Gas AU; 2) 853 MMBO, 1707 BCFG, and 34 MMBNGL in the

  18. Geologic framework for the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in sandstone reservoirs of the Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous Cotton Valley Group, U.S. Gulf of Mexico region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eoff, Jennifer D.; Dubiel, Russell F.; Pearson, Ofori N.; Whidden, Katherine J.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is assessing the undiscovered oil and gas resources in sandstone reservoirs of the Upper Jurassic–Lower Cretaceous Cotton Valley Group in onshore areas and State waters of the U.S. Gulf of Mexico region. The assessment is based on geologic elements of a total petroleum system. Four assessment units (AUs) are defined based on characterization of hydrocarbon source and reservoir rocks, seals, traps, and the geohistory of the hydrocarbon products. Strata in each AU share similar stratigraphic, structural, and hydrocarbon-charge histories.

  19. Geologic assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources—Lower Cretaceous Albian to Upper Cretaceous Cenomanian carbonate rocks of the Fredericksburg and Washita Groups, United States Gulf of Mexico Coastal Plain and State Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Sharon M.; Enomoto, Catherine B.; Dennen, Kristin O.; Valentine, Brett J.; Cahan, Steven M.

    2017-02-10

    In 2010, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) assessed Lower Cretaceous Albian to Upper Cretaceous Cenomanian carbonate rocks of the Fredericksburg and Washita Groups and their equivalent units for technically recoverable, undiscovered hydrocarbon resources underlying onshore lands and State Waters of the Gulf Coast region of the United States. This assessment was based on a geologic model that incorporates the Upper Jurassic-Cretaceous-Tertiary Composite Total Petroleum System (TPS) of the Gulf of Mexico basin; the TPS was defined previously by the USGS assessment team in the assessment of undiscovered hydrocarbon resources in Tertiary strata of the Gulf Coast region in 2007. One conventional assessment unit (AU), which extends from south Texas to the Florida panhandle, was defined: the Fredericksburg-Buda Carbonate Platform-Reef Gas and Oil AU. The assessed stratigraphic interval includes the Edwards Limestone of the Fredericksburg Group and the Georgetown and Buda Limestones of the Washita Group. The following factors were evaluated to define the AU and estimate oil and gas resources: potential source rocks, hydrocarbon migration, reservoir porosity and permeability, traps and seals, structural features, paleoenvironments (back-reef lagoon, reef, and fore-reef environments), and the potential for water washing of hydrocarbons near outcrop areas.In Texas and Louisiana, the downdip boundary of the AU was defined as a line that extends 10 miles downdip of the Lower Cretaceous shelf margin to include potential reef-talus hydrocarbon reservoirs. In Mississippi, Alabama, and the panhandle area of Florida, where the Lower Cretaceous shelf margin extends offshore, the downdip boundary was defined by the offshore boundary of State Waters. Updip boundaries of the AU were drawn based on the updip extent of carbonate rocks within the assessed interval, the presence of basin-margin fault zones, and the presence of producing wells. Other factors evaluated were the middle

  20. Water and Proppant Requirements and Water Production Associated with Undiscovered Petroleum in the Bakken and Three Forks Formations, North Dakota and Montana, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, S. S.; Varela, B. A.; Thamke, J.; Hawkins, S. J.; Gianoutsos, N. J.; Tennyson, M. E.

    2017-12-01

    Water is used for several stages of oil and gas production, in particular for hydraulic fracturing that is typically used during production of petroleum from low-permeability shales and other rock types (referred to as "continuous" petroleum accumulations). Proppant, often sand, is also consumed during hydraulic fracturing. Water is then produced from the reservoir along with the oil and gas, representing either a disposal consideration or a possible source of water for further petroleum development or other purposes. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has developed an approach for regional-scale estimation of these water and proppant quantities in order to provide an improved understanding of possible impacts and to help with planning and decision-making. Using the new methodology, the USGS has conducted a quantitative assessment of water and proppant requirements, and water production volumes, associated with associated with possible future production of undiscovered petroleum resources in the Bakken and Three Forks Formations, Williston Basin, USA. This water and proppant assessment builds directly from the 2013 USGS petroleum assessment for the Bakken and Three Forks Formations. USGS petroleum assessments incorporate all available geologic and petroleum production information, and include the definition of assessment units (AUs) that specify the geographic regions and geologic formations for the assessment. The 2013 petroleum assessment included 5 continuous AUs for the Bakken Formation and one continuous AU for the Three Forks Formation. The assessment inputs are defined probabilistically, and a Monte Carlo approach provides outputs that include uncertainty bounds. We can summarize the assessment outputs with the mean values of the associated distributions. The mean estimated total volume of water for well drilling and cement for all six continuous AUs is 5.9 billion gallons, and the mean estimated volume of water for hydraulic fracturing for all AUs is 164

  1. Petroleum systems and geologic assessment of undiscovered oil and gas, Cotton Valley group and Travis Peak-Hosston formations, East Texas basin and Louisiana-Mississippi salt basins provinces of the northern Gulf Coast region. Chapters 1-7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) National Oil and Gas Assessment is to develop geologically based hypotheses regarding the potential for additions to oil and gas reserves in priority areas of the United States. The USGS recently completed an assessment of undiscovered oil and gas potential of the Cotton Valley Group and Travis Peak and Hosston Formations in the East Texas Basin and Louisiana-Mississippi Salt Basins Provinces in the Gulf Coast Region (USGS Provinces 5048 and 5049). The Cotton Valley Group and Travis Peak and Hosston Formations are important because of their potential for natural gas resources. This assessment is based on geologic principles and uses the total petroleum system concept. The geologic elements of a total petroleum system include hydrocarbon source rocks (source rock maturation, hydrocarbon generation and migration), reservoir rocks (sequence stratigraphy and petrophysical properties), and hydrocarbon traps (trap formation and timing). The USGS used this geologic framework to define one total petroleum system and eight assessment units. Seven assessment units were quantitatively assessed for undiscovered oil and gas resources.

  2. Assessment of Undiscovered Deposits of Gold, Silver, Copper, Lead, and Zinc in the United States: A Portable Document (PDF) Recompilation of USGS Open-File Report 96-96 and Circular 1178

    Science.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey National Mineral Resource Assessment Team Recompiled by Schruben, Paul G.

    2002-01-01

    This publication contains the results of a national mineral resource assessment study. The study (1) identifies regional tracts of ground believed to contain most of the nation's undiscovered resources of gold, silver, copper, lead, and zinc in conventional types of deposits; and (2) includes probabilistic estimates of the amounts of these undiscovered resources in most of the tracts. It also contains a table of the significant known deposits in the tracts, and includes descriptions of the mineral deposit models used for the assessment. The assessment was previously released in two major publications. The conterminous United States assessment was published in 1996 as USGS Open-File Report 96-96. Subsequently, the Alaska assessment was combined with the conterminous assessment in 1998 and released as USGS Circular 1178. This new recompilation was undertaken for several reasons. First, the graphical browser software used in Circular 1178 was ONLY compatible with the Microsoft Windows operating system. It was incompatible with the Macintosh operating system, Linux, and other types of Unix computers. Second, the browser on Circular 1178 is much less intuitive to operate, requiring most users to follow a tutorial to understand how to navigate the information on the CD. Third, this release corrects several errors and numbering inconsistencies in Circular 1178.

  3. Executive Summary -- assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the San Joaquin Basin Province of California, 2003: Chapter 1 in Petroleum systems and geologic assessment of oil and gas in the San Joaquin Basin Province, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautier, Donald L.; Scheirer, Allegra Hosford; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Peters, Kenneth E.; Magoon, Leslie B.; Lillis, Paul G.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy A.; French, Christopher D.; Klett, Timothy R.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Schenk, Christopher J.

    2007-01-01

    In 2003, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) completed an assessment of the oil and gas resource potential of the San Joaquin Basin Province of California (fig. 1.1). The assessment is based on the geologic elements of each Total Petroleum System defined in the province, including hydrocarbon source rocks (source-rock type and maturation and hydrocarbon generation and migration), reservoir rocks (sequence stratigraphy and petrophysical properties), and hydrocarbon traps (trap formation and timing). Using this geologic framework, the USGS defined five total petroleum systems and ten assessment units within these systems. Undiscovered oil and gas resources were quantitatively estimated for the ten assessment units (table 1.1). In addition, the potential was estimated for further growth of reserves in existing oil fields of the San Joaquin Basin.

  4. USGS assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources for the Oligocene Frio and Anahuac formations, U.S. Gulf of Mexico coastal plain and state waters: Review of assessment units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Sharon M.; Karlsen, Alexander W.; Warwick, Peter D.; Kennan, Lorcan; Pindell, James; Rosen, Norman C.

    2007-01-01

    The Oligocene Frio and Anahuac formations were examined by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) as part of an assessment of technically recoverable undiscovered conventional and unconventional hydrocarbon resources in Paleogene and Neogene strata underlying the U.S. Gulf of Mexico Coastal Plain and state waters. Work included the identification of structural, stratigraphic, and tectonic relations between petroleum source rocks and migration pathways to Frio and Anahuac reservoirs; preliminary evaluation of the potential for shallow (less than 3,000 ft) biogenic gas accumulations; and evaluation of the potential for deep, undiscovered gas and oil accumulations in slope and basin floor areas. All assessments were conducted using USGS methodology (http://energy.cr.usgs.gov/oilgas/noga/methodology.html). Final products from the USGS assessment of the Paleogene and Neogene were reported in USGS fact sheets (Dubiel et al., 2007; Warwick et al., 2007).Five assessment units for the Frio Formation were defined, and three of these were based on the character of the reservoirs in relation to growth faults and other related factors: (1) the Frio stable shelf oil and gas assessment unit, which contains thin (average thickness of 34 ft) and shallow reservoirs (average depth of 4,834 ft); (2) the Frio expanded fault zone oil and gas assessment unit, which contains thick (average thickness of 56 ft) and deep reservoirs (average depth of 9,050 ft) in over-pressured intervals; and (3) the Frio slope and basin floor gas assessment unit, which has potential for deep gas (greater than 15,000 ft) and extends from the downdip boundary of the expanded fault zone to the offshore State/Federal water boundary. The fourth Frio assessment unit is the Hackberry oil and gas assessment unit. The Hackberry embayment of southeast Texas and southwest Louisiana consists of a slope facies in the middle part of the Frio Formation. The fifth unit, the Frio basin margin assessment unit, extends from the

  5. Chapter 7. The GIS project for the geologic assessment of undiscovered oil and gas in the Cotton Valley group and Travis Peak and Hosston formations, East Texas basin and Louisiana-Mississippi salt basins provinces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biewick, Laura

    2006-01-01

    A geographic information system (GIS) focusing on the Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous Cotton Valley Group and the Lower Cretaceous Travis Peak and Hosston Formations in the northern Gulf Coast region was developed as a visual-analysis tool for the U.S. Geological Survey's 2002 assessment of undiscovered, technically recoverable oil and natural gas resources in the East Texas Basin and Louisiana-Mississippi Salt Basins Provinces. The Central Energy Resources Team of the U.S. Geological Survey has also developed an Internet Map Service to deliver the GIS data to the public. This mapping tool utilizes information from a database about the oil and natural gas endowment of the United States-including physical locations of geologic and geographic data-and converts the data into visual layers. Portrayal and analysis of geologic features on an interactive map provide an excellent tool for understanding domestic oil and gas resources for strategic planning, formulating economic and energy policies, evaluating lands under the purview of the Federal Government, and developing sound environmental policies. Assessment results can be viewed and analyzed or downloaded from the internet web site, http://energy.cr.usgs.gov/oilgas/noga/ .

  6. Chapter 2. Assessment of undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources--Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous Cotton Valley group, Jurassic Smackover interior salt basins total petroleum system, in the East Texas basin and Louisiana-Mississippi salt basins provinces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyman, T.S.; Condon, S.M.

    2006-01-01

    The Jurassic Smackover Interior Salt Basins Total Petroleum System is defined for this assessment to include (1) Upper Jurassic Smackover Formation carbonates and calcareous shales and (2) Upper Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous Cotton Valley Group organic-rich shales. The Jurassic Smackover Interior Salt Basins Total Petroleum System includes four conventional Cotton Valley assessment units: Cotton Valley Blanket Sandstone Gas (AU 50490201), Cotton Valley Massive Sandstone Gas (AU 50490202), Cotton Valley Updip Oil and Gas (AU 50490203), and Cotton Valley Hypothetical Updip Oil (AU 50490204). Together, these four assessment units are estimated to contain a mean undiscovered conventional resource of 29.81 million barrels of oil, 605.03 billion cubic feet of gas, and 19.00 million barrels of natural gas liquids. The Cotton Valley Group represents the first major influx of clastic sediment into the ancestral Gulf of Mexico. Major depocenters were located in south-central Mississippi, along the Louisiana-Mississippi border, and in northeast Texas. Reservoir properties and production characteristics were used to identify two Cotton Valley Group sandstone trends across northern Louisiana and east Texas: a high-permeability blanket-sandstone trend and a downdip, low-permeability massive-sandstone trend. Pressure gradients throughout most of both trends are normal, which is characteristic of conventional rather than continuous basin-center gas accumulations. Indications that accumulations in this trend are conventional rather than continuous include (1) gas-water contacts in at least seven fields across the blanket-sandstone trend, (2) relatively high reservoir permeabilities, and (3) high gas-production rates without fracture stimulation. Permeability is sufficiently low in the massive-sandstone trend that gas-water transition zones are vertically extensive and gas-water contacts are poorly defined. The interpreted presence of gas-water contacts within the Cotton Valley

  7. Sub-atomic dimensional metrology: developments in the control of x-ray interferometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yacoot, Andrew; Kuetgens, Ulrich

    2012-07-01

    Within the European Metrology Research Programme funded project NANOTRACE, the nonlinearity of the next generation of optical interferometers has been measured using x-ray interferometry. The x-ray interferometer can be regarded as a ruler or translation stage whose graduations or displacement steps are based on the lattice spacing of the crystallographic planes from which the x-rays are diffracted: in this case the graduations are every 192 pm corresponding to the spacing between the (2 2 0) planes in silicon. Precise displacement of the x-ray interferometer's monolithic translation stage in steps corresponding to discrete numbers of x-ray fringes requires servo positioning capability at the picometre level. To achieve this very fine control, a digital control system has been developed which has opened up the potential for advances in metrology using x-ray interferometry that include quadrature counting of x-ray fringes.

  8. Sub-atomic dimensional metrology: developments in the control of x-ray interferometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yacoot, Andrew; Kuetgens, Ulrich

    2012-01-01

    Within the European Metrology Research Programme funded project NANOTRACE, the nonlinearity of the next generation of optical interferometers has been measured using x-ray interferometry. The x-ray interferometer can be regarded as a ruler or translation stage whose graduations or displacement steps are based on the lattice spacing of the crystallographic planes from which the x-rays are diffracted: in this case the graduations are every 192 pm corresponding to the spacing between the (2 2 0) planes in silicon. Precise displacement of the x-ray interferometer's monolithic translation stage in steps corresponding to discrete numbers of x-ray fringes requires servo positioning capability at the picometre level. To achieve this very fine control, a digital control system has been developed which has opened up the potential for advances in metrology using x-ray interferometry that include quadrature counting of x-ray fringes. (paper)

  9. Pseudoscalar meson photoproduction: from known to undiscovered resonances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saghai, B. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Dept. d`Astrophysique, de la Physique des Particules, de la Physique Nucleaire et de l`Instrumentation Associee; Tabakin, F.

    1996-12-31

    The role of dynamics in spin observables for pseudoscalar meson photoproduction is investigated using a density matrix approach in a multipole truncated framework. Extraction of novel rules for {gamma}p {yields} {pi}{sup +}n, K{sup +}{Lambda} and {eta}p reactions based on resonance dominance, and on other broad and reasonable dynamical assumptions, are discussed. Observables that are particularly sensitive to missing nucleonic resonances predicted by quark-based approaches, are singled out. (authors). 25 refs.

  10. [Perioperative thyroid storm in a patient with undiscovered hyperthyroidism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Shinji; Nishmyama, Tomoki; Hanaoka, Kazuo

    2005-04-01

    Thyroid storm can develop in patients with longstanding untreated hyperthyroidism. It is more often precipitated by an acute event such as surgery, trauma, or infection. We experienced a case in whom thyroid storm occurred during surgery, while he had no preoperative diagnosis of thyroid disease. A 30-year-old man was scheduled for left tympanoplasty. Anesthesia was induced and maintained with sevoflurane and nitrous oxide in oxygen. Heart rate and rectal temperature went up to 140 beats x min(-1) and 39 degrees C, respectively, in 3 hours during surgery. Cooling blanket, cold fluid infusion, flurbiprofen, diltiazem, and verapamil were used to decrease body temperature and heart rate. Surgery was completed and after emergence he was in agitation for 4 hours along with hyperpyrexia and tachycardia. He was diagnosed as hyperthyroidism by postoperative physical and laboratory examination. Thiamazole and propranorol were administered. In one week, symptom has declined with body temperature and heart rate of around 36 degrees C and 90 beats x min(-1), respectively. We should be more careful about evaluation of preoperative patients.

  11. TED 2013: The Young. The Wise. The Undiscovered.

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    Select live sessions of Disrupt! and Dream! from TED 2013 (Technology, Education, Design) taking place in Long Beach, Florida will be screened in CERN’s Main Auditorium on 27 February, at 17:30 and 20:00.   The event, organised by TEDxCERN, is a curtain raiser for the TEDxCERN talks scheduled for 3 May on the theme "Multiplying Dimensions". The TEDxCERN May event reaches beyond particle physics to provide a stage for the expression of science in multiple dimensions and disciplines, unveiling a world in which physics intersects with other multi-dimensional disciplines and thought. TEDxCERN team is looking for volunteers. If you are interested, please e-mail us at info@tedxcern.com.

  12. Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy in a Patient with Undiscovered Sigmoid Colon Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Po-Yen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TTC is a stress-related cardiomyopathy that is characterized by reversible left systolic dysfunction, which appears to be precipitated by sudden emotional or physical stress in the absence of myocardial infarction. Here we present a rare case that clinically presented with intermittent abdominal pain, initially impressed as non-ST elevation myocardial infarction and congestive heart failure but with a normal coronary angiogram. Her symptoms relieved spontaneously without returning. Sigmoid colon cancer was diagnosed via colonoscopy later due to persistent abdominal discomfort. In the absence of detectable emotional or physical stress factors, the newly diagnosed sigmoid colon cancer was the only possible trigger factor of TTC. We offer this case as a reminder that cancer should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients presenting with the etiology of TTC.

  13. Pseudoscalar meson photoproduction: from known to undiscovered resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saghai, B.; Tabakin, F.

    1996-01-01

    The role of dynamics in spin observables for pseudoscalar meson photoproduction is investigated using a density matrix approach in a multipole truncated framework. Extraction of novel rules for γp → π + n, K + Λ and ηp reactions based on resonance dominance, and on other broad and reasonable dynamical assumptions, are discussed. Observables that are particularly sensitive to missing nucleonic resonances predicted by quark-based approaches, are singled out. (authors)

  14. Commercial and Cost Effective Production of Two-Dimensional Read-Out Boards for Sub-Atomic Particle Detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crary, David; Majka, Richard

    2010-01-01

    We report results from research aimed at developing and demonstrating production of 2-D readout structures for GEM (Gas Electron Multiplier) charged particle tracking chambers at Tech-Etch. Readout boards of two types, bi-planar and single plane, were fabricated and evaluated. The results show that Tech-Etch can produce suitable boards of either type however the single plane board has a number of advantages both in production and use that will likely make it the preferred choice for GEM tracking chambers

  15. Inertial frames and breakthrough propulsion physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millis, Marc G.

    2017-09-01

    The term ;Breakthrough Propulsion Physics; comes from the NASA project by that name which examined non-rocket space drives, gravity control, and faster-than-light travel. The focus here is on space drives and the related unsolved physics of inertial frames. A ;space drive; is a generic term encompassing any concept for using as-yet undiscovered physics to move a spacecraft instead of existing rockets, sails, or tethers. The collective state of the art spans mostly steps 1-3 of the scientific method: defining the problem, collecting data, and forming hypotheses. The key issues include (1) conservation of momentum, (2) absence of obvious reaction mass, and (3) the net-external thrusting requirement. Relevant open problems in physics include: (1) the sources and mechanisms of inertial frames, (2) coupling of gravitation to the other fundamental forces, and (3) the nature of the quantum vacuum. Rather than following the assumption that inertial frames are an immutable, intrinsic property of space, this paper revisits Mach's Principle, where it is posited that inertia is relative to the distant surrounding matter. This perspective allows conjectures that a space drive could impart reaction forces to that matter, via some as-yet undiscovered interaction with the inertial frame properties of space. Thought experiments are offered to begin a process to derive new hypotheses. It is unknown if this line of inquiry will be fruitful, but it is hoped that, by revisiting unsolved physics from a propulsion point of view, new insights will be gained.

  16. Linear Thermal Expansion Measurements with Sub-Atomic Resolution for the Study of Phase Transitions in Novel Condensed Matter Systems. Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neumeier, John J.

    2010-01-01

    This grant has involved numerous projects focusing on further development of thermal expansion measurement technology. Significant improvements to our novel quartz thermal expansion cell have been realized. We have developed an absolute method for measuring the thermal expansion of materials under consideration for use in thermal expansion cell construction. The work associated with this grant has significantly expanded the capabilities and infrastructure for the measurement of the thermal expansion of solids at Montana State University. The techniques we develop have been transferred to students and postdocs through the training they receive. The National High Magnetic Field Laboratory (NHMFL) in Los Alamos has collaborated with the PI to import our quartz thermal expansion cells for measurements in pulsed-magnetic field as part of their user program. The significant progress made with our technology is expected to impact important problems in materials physics. Collaborations with LANL, ANL, BNL and ORNL formed a significant portion of the scientific work. Numerous scientific investigations associated with this grant have already appeared in the archival literature, or have been submitted. Some other work is still in progress, and will be the subject of future grant proposals and publications.

  17. Geology and assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Jan Mayen Microcontinent Province, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Thomas E.; Pitman, Janet K.; Moore, Thomas E.; Gautier, D.L.

    2018-01-26

    The Jan Mayen Microcontinent encompasses a rectangular, mostly submarine fragment of continental crust that lies north of Iceland in the middle of the North Atlantic Ocean. These continental rocks were rifted away from the eastern margin of Greenland as a consequence of a westward jump of spreading centers from the now-extinct Aegir Ridge to the currently active Kolbeinsey Ridge in the Oligocene and early Miocene. The microcontinent is composed of the high-standing Jan Mayen Ridge and a series of smaller ridges that diminish southward in elevation and includes several deep basins that are underlain by strongly attenuated continental crust. The geology of this area is known principally from a loose collection of seismic reflection and refraction lines and several deep-sea scientific drill cores.The Jan Mayen Microcontinent petroleum province encompasses the entire area of the microcontinent and was defined as a single assessment unit (AU). Although its geology is poorly known, the microcontinent is thought to consist of late Paleozoic and Mesozoic rift basin stratigraphic sequences similar to those of the highly prospective Norwegian, North Sea, and Greenland continental margins. The prospectivity of the AU may be greatly diminished, however, by pervasive extensional deformation, basaltic magmatism, and exhumation that accompanied two periods of continental rifting and breakup in the Paleogene and early Neogene. The overall probability of at least one petroleum accumulation of >50 million barrels of oil equivalent was judged to be 5.6 percent. As a consequence of the low level of probability, a quantitative assessment of this AU was not conducted.

  18. "Facets" as Interdisciplinary Undiscovered Public Knowledge: S. R. Ranganathan in India and L. Guttman in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beghtol, Clare

    1995-01-01

    Examines the origins and parallel uses of the concept of "facet" in bibliographic classification theory and behavioral research. Suggests that social sciences in general were receptive to conceptual borrowing, but that library and information science as a discipline was relatively isolated. (contains 108 references) (Author/AEF)

  19. The Arabidopsis thaliana proteome harbors undiscovered multi-domain molecules with functional guanylyl cyclase catalytic centers

    KAUST Repository

    Wong, Aloysius Tze; Gehring, Christoph A

    2013-01-01

    plants, guanylyl cyclases (GCs), enzymes that generate cGMP from guanosine-5'-triphosphate (GTP) have remained elusive until recently. GC search motifs constructed from the alignment of known GCs catalytic centers form vertebrates and lower eukaryotes

  20. Beyond blended learning! Undiscovered potentials for e-learning in organizational learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Jørgen; Dalsgaard, Christian; Kjær, Arne

    2007-01-01

    The basic question raised in this article is: Is pure e-learning able to support learning in organizations better today than 4-5 years ago? Based on two case studies on blended learning courses for company training, the article discusses whether use of new Web 2.0 and social software tools may help...... overcome previous limitations of e-learning....

  1. Geology and assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Chukchi Borderland Province, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Kenneth J.; Houseknecht, David W.; Moore, Thomas E.; Gautier, Donald L.

    2017-12-22

    The Chukchi Borderland is both a stand-alone petroleum province and assessment unit (AU) that lies north of the Chukchi Sea. It is a bathymetrically high-standing block of continental crust that was probably rifted from the Canadian continental margin. The sum of our knowledge of this province is based upon geophysical data (seismic, gravity, and magnetic) and a limited number of seafloor core and dredge samples. As expected from the limited data set, the basin’s petroleum potential is poorly known. A single assessment unit, the Chukchi Borderland AU, was defined and assigned an overall probability of about a 5 percent chance of at least one petroleum accumulation >50 million barrels of oil equivalent (MMBOE). No quantitative assessment of sizes and numbers of petroleum accumulations was conducted for this AU.

  2. The Arabidopsis thaliana proteome harbors undiscovered multi-domain molecules with functional guanylyl cyclase catalytic centers

    KAUST Repository

    Wong, Aloysius Tze

    2013-07-08

    Background: Second messengers link external cues to complex physiological responses. One such messenger, 3\\',5\\'-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP), has been shown to play a key role in many physiological responses in plants. However, in higher plants, guanylyl cyclases (GCs), enzymes that generate cGMP from guanosine-5\\'-triphosphate (GTP) have remained elusive until recently. GC search motifs constructed from the alignment of known GCs catalytic centers form vertebrates and lower eukaryotes have led to the identification of a number of plant GCs that have been characterized in vitro and in vivo.Presentation of the hypothesis.Recently characterized GCs in Arabidopsis thaliana contributed to the development of search parameters that can identify novel candidate GCs in plants. We hypothesize that there are still a substantial number (> 40) of multi-domain molecules with potentially functional GC catalytic centers in plants that remain to be discovered and characterized. Testing the hypothesis. The hypothesis can be tested, firstly, by computational methods constructing 3D models of selected GC candidates using available crystal structures as templates. Homology modeling must include substrate docking that can provide support for the structural feasibility of the GC catalytic centers in those candidates. Secondly, recombinant peptides containing the GC domain need to be tested in in vitro GC assays such as the enzyme-linked immune-sorbent assay (ELISA) and/or in mass spectrometry based cGMP assays. In addition, quantification of in vivo cGMP transients with fluorescent cGMP-reporter assays in wild-type or selected mutants will help to elucidate the biological role of novel GCs.Implications of the hypothesis.If it turns out that plants do harbor a large number of functional GC domains as part of multi-domain enzymes, then major new insights will be gained into the complex signal transduction pathways that link cGMP to fundamental processes such as ion transport and homeostasis, biotic and abiotic stress responses as well as cGMP-dependent responses to hormones. 2013 Wong and Gehring; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  3. Larval transport modeling of deep-sea invertebrates can aid the search for undiscovered populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon M Yearsley

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many deep-sea benthic animals occur in patchy distributions separated by thousands of kilometres, yet because deep-sea habitats are remote, little is known about their larval dispersal. Our novel method simulates dispersal by combining data from the Argo array of autonomous oceanographic probes, deep-sea ecological surveys, and comparative invertebrate physiology. The predicted particle tracks allow quantitative, testable predictions about the dispersal of benthic invertebrate larvae in the south-west Pacific. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In a test case presented here, using non-feeding, non-swimming (lecithotrophic trochophore larvae of polyplacophoran molluscs (chitons, we show that the likely dispersal pathways in a single generation are significantly shorter than the distances between the three known population centres in our study region. The large-scale density of chiton populations throughout our study region is potentially much greater than present survey data suggest, with intermediate 'stepping stone' populations yet to be discovered. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We present a new method that is broadly applicable to studies of the dispersal of deep-sea organisms. This test case demonstrates the power and potential applications of our new method, in generating quantitative, testable hypotheses at multiple levels to solve the mismatch between observed and expected distributions: probabilistic predictions of locations of intermediate populations, potential alternative dispersal mechanisms, and expected population genetic structure. The global Argo data have never previously been used to address benthic biology, and our method can be applied to any non-swimming larvae of the deep-sea, giving information upon dispersal corridors and population densities in habitats that remain intrinsically difficult to assess.

  4. A New Occurrence Model for National Assessment of Undiscovered Volcanogenic Massive Sulfide Deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanks, W.C. Pat; Dusel-Bacon, Cynthia; Koski, Randolph; Morgan, Lisa A.; Mosier, Dan; Piatak, Nadine M.; Ridley, Ian; Seal, Robert R.; Schulz, Klaus J.; Slack, John F.; Thurston, Roland

    2009-01-01

    Volcanogenic massive sulfide (VMS) deposits are very significant current and historical resources of Cu-Pb-Zn-Au-Ag, are active exploration targets in several areas of the United States and potentially have significant environmental effects. This new USGS VMS deposit model provides a comprehensive review of deposit occurrence and ore genesis, and fully integrates recent advances in the understanding of active seafloor VMS-forming environments, and integrates consideration of geoenvironmental consequences of mining VMS deposits. Because VMS deposits exhibit a broad range of geological and geochemical characteristics, a suitable classification system is required to incorporate these variations into the mineral deposit model. We classify VMS deposits based on compositional variations in volcanic and sedimentary host rocks. The advantage of the classification method is that it provides a closer linkage between tectonic setting and lithostratigraphic assemblages, and an increased predictive capability during field-based studies.

  5. Trypsin- and Chymotrypsin-Like Serine Proteases in Schistosoma mansoni - 'The Undiscovered Country'

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horn, Martin; Fajtová, Pavla; Arreola, L. R.; Ulrychová, Lenka; Bartošová-Sojková, Pavla; Franta, Zdeněk; Protasio, A. V.; Opavský, David; Vondrášek, Jiří; McKerrow, J. H.; Mareš, Michael; Caffrey, C. R.; Dvořák, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 3 (2014), e2766/1-e2766/13 ISSN 1935-2735 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP302/11/1481; GA MŠk(CZ) ME10011 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 248642 - SCHISTOSOMA PROTEASE Institutional support: RVO:61388963 ; RVO:68378050 ; RVO:60077344 Keywords : schistosomiasis * blood fluke * serine protease Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry; EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology (UMG-J); FN - Epidemiology, Contagious Diseases ; Clinical Immunology (BC-A) Impact factor: 4.446, year: 2014 http://www.plosntds.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pntd.0002766

  6. The Final Frontier of pH and the Undiscovered Country Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bal, Wojciech; Kurowska, Ewa; Maret, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    The comparison of volumes of cells and subcellular structures with the pH values reported for them leads to a conflict with the definition of the pH scale. The pH scale is based on the ionic product of water, K w = [H+]×[OH−].We used K w [in a reversed way] to calculate the number of undissociated H2O molecules required by this equilibrium constant to yield at least one of its daughter ions, H+ or OH− at a given pH. In this way we obtained a formula that relates pH to the minimal volume VpH required to provide a physical meaning to K w, (where N A is Avogadro’s number). For example, at pH 7 (neutral at 25°C) VpH = 16.6 aL. Any deviation from neutral pH results in a larger VpH value. Our results indicate that many subcellular structures, including coated vesicles and lysosomes, are too small to contain free H+ ions at equilibrium, thus the definition of pH based on K w is no longer valid. Larger subcellular structures, such as mitochondria, apparently contain only a few free H+ ions. These results indicate that pH fails to describe intracellular conditions, and that water appears to be dissociated too weakly to provide free H+ ions as a general source for biochemical reactions. Consequences of this finding are discussed. PMID:23049874

  7. The final frontier of pH and the undiscovered country beyond.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Bal

    Full Text Available The comparison of volumes of cells and subcellular structures with the pH values reported for them leads to a conflict with the definition of the pH scale. The pH scale is based on the ionic product of water, K(w = [H(+]×[OH(-].We used K(w [in a reversed way] to calculate the number of undissociated H(2O molecules required by this equilibrium constant to yield at least one of its daughter ions, H(+ or OH(- at a given pH. In this way we obtained a formula that relates pH to the minimal volume V(pH required to provide a physical meaning to K(w, V(pH=10(pH-pK(w/2 x 10(pK(w/2/N(A (where N(A is Avogadro's number. For example, at pH 7 (neutral at 25°C V(pH =16.6 aL. Any deviation from neutral pH results in a larger V(pH value. Our results indicate that many subcellular structures, including coated vesicles and lysosomes, are too small to contain free H(+ ions at equilibrium, thus the definition of pH based on K(w is no longer valid. Larger subcellular structures, such as mitochondria, apparently contain only a few free H(+ ions. These results indicate that pH fails to describe intracellular conditions, and that water appears to be dissociated too weakly to provide free H(+ ions as a general source for biochemical reactions. Consequences of this finding are discussed.

  8. Assessment of undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources of the Cooper and Eromanga Basins, Australia, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Klett, Timothy R.; Finn, Thomas M.; Le, Phuong A.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Hawkins, Sarah J.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Pitman, Janet K.

    2016-05-12

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean conventional resources of 68 million barrels of oil and 964 billion cubic feet of gas in the Cooper and Eromanga Basins of Australia.

  9. The existence of superluminal particles is consistent with the kinematics of Einstein's special theory of relativity

    OpenAIRE

    Székely, Gergely

    2012-01-01

    Within an axiomatic framework of kinematics, we prove that the existence of faster than light particles is logically independent of Einstein's special theory of relativity. Consequently, it is consistent with the kinematics of special relativity that there might be faster than light particles.

  10. CLOSE AIR SUPPORT (CAS) FOR COUNTERINSURGENCY (COIN) AND THE UPWARD TRAJECTORY OF UNMANNED AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS (UAS): NAVIGATING THE UNDISCOVERED DOMAIN

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Strategic Attack, Counter-air, and Air Interdiction.” 68 4. “Autonomous UAS platforms will take advantage of modular payloads to quickly add new...Vulnerability GPS Jamming GPS jammers at one time were only available to governments and major militaries. Since the proliferation of smartphones , and

  11. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the Spraberry Formation of the Midland Basin, Permian Basin Province, Texas, 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marra, Kristen R.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Klett, Timothy R.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Le, Phuong A.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Finn, Thomas M.; Hawkins, Sarah J.; Brownfield, Michael E.

    2017-05-15

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean resources of 4.2 billion barrels of oil and 3.1 trillion cubic feet of gas in the Spraberry Formation of the Midland Basin, Permian Basin Province, Texas.

  12. Integrated Synthesis of the Permian Basin: Data and Models for Recovering Existing and Undiscovered Oil Resources from the Largest Oil-Bearing Basin in the U.S.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Jackson; Katherine Jackson

    2008-09-30

    Large volumes of oil and gas remain in the mature basins of North America. This is nowhere more true than in the Permian Basin of Texas and New Mexico. A critical barrier to recovery of this vast remaining resource, however, is information. Access to accurate geological data and analyses of the controls of hydrocarbon distribution is the key to the knowledge base as well as the incentives needed by oil and gas companies. The goals of this project were to collect, analyze, synthesize, and deliver to industry and the public fundamental information and data on the geology of oil and gas systems in the Permian Basin. This was accomplished in two ways. First we gathered all available data, organized it, and placed it on the web for ready access. Data include core analysis data, lists of pertinent published reports, lists of available cores, type logs, and selected PowerPoint presentations. We also created interpretive data such as type logs, geological cross sections, and geological maps and placed them in a geospatially-registered framework in ARC/GIS. Second, we created new written syntheses of selected reservoir plays in the Permian basin. Although only 8 plays were targeted for detailed analysis in the project proposal to DOE, 14 were completed. These include Ellenburger, Simpson, Montoya, Fusselman, Wristen, Thirtyone, Mississippian, Morrow, Atoka, Strawn, Canyon/Cisco, Wolfcamp, Artesia Group, and Delaware Mountain Group. These fully illustrated reports include critical summaries of published literature integrated with new unpublished research conducted during the project. As such these reports provide the most up-to-date analysis of the geological controls on reservoir development available. All reports are available for download on the project website and are also included in this final report. As stated in our proposal, technology transfer is perhaps the most important component of the project. In addition to providing direct access to data and reports through the web, we published 29 papers dealing with aspects of Permian Basin and Fort Worth Basin Paleozoic geology, and gave 35 oral and poster presentations at professional society meetings, and 116 oral and poster presentations at 10 project workshops, field trips, and short courses. These events were attended by hundreds of scientists and engineers representing dozens of oil and gas companies. This project and the data and interpretations that have resulted from it will serve industry, academic, and public needs for decades to come. It will be especially valuable to oil and gas companies in helping to better identify opportunities for development and exploration and reducing risk. The website will be continually added to and updated as additional data and information become available making it a long term source of key information for all interested in better understanding the Permian Basin.

  13. Correlating sea level rise still-stands to marine terraces and undiscovered submerged shoreline features in the Channel Islands (USA) using autonomous and remotely operated systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raineault, N.; Ballard, R. D.; Fahy, J.; Mayer, L. A.; Heffron, E.; Krasnosky, K.; Roman, C.; Schmidt, V. E.; McLeod, A.; Bursek, J.; Broad, K.

    2017-12-01

    In 2017, the Ocean Exploration Trust aggregated onboard and autonomous mapping technologies to identify and explore paleo shorelines and discover previously undocumented submerged shoreline features in and around the Channel Islands offshore of California. Broad area mapping was conducted with the hull mounted multibeam echosounder aboard the E/V Nautilus. This Kongsberg EM302 provided maps at 2-10 m resolution, at depths generally greater than 50 m. From this data marine terraces were identified for higher resolution mapping via an Autonomous Surface Vehicle (ASV). The precision data from the ASV's Kongsberg EM2040p echosounder allowed identification of the knickpoints associated with cliffs on the landward extent of each terrace. Sub-sea cave targets were identified using backscatter and slope maps from a combination of both the broad area and high resolution multibeam data. To ground-truth the targets identified through mapping, remotely operated vehicles (ROVs) and a highly specialized team of cave divers explored these targets. The results from the visual inspection were then fed back into the analysis fostering the rapid iteration of the onboard identification criteria and resulted in locating submerged shorelines containing numerous large caves, arches, and concretions. Caves were found at still-stands at 8, 33, 66, and 103 m depth at Santa Cruz Island, Santa Barbara Island platform, and Osborn Bank, along the vertical escarpment at the cliff-face and aligned with the strike of fractures in the volcanic rock. These terraces correspond to different sea level still-stands. ROV grab samples of fossiliferous marine terraces will provide ages and aid in reconstructions of sea level change and tectonic history for each location. Finally, caves were mapped in sub-cm resolution using a Kongsberg M3 sonar mounted vertically on the front of the ROV to test the capabilities of the system to provide accurate information about exterior dimensions and morphology.

  14. Undiscovered Resource Modelling: Towards Applying a Systematic Approach to Uranium or How Much Uranium is Left and Where Might It Be Found?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fairclough, Martin; Katona, Laz

    2014-01-01

    Uranium Resource Modelling: Why do we want to plan for it? Purely from a supply-demand perspective: 1) Current supplies (at mid-range demand scenario) only enough until 2035 (likely to increase due to reactor shut down/stockpiling); 2) Not all uranium will be brought into production; 3) Long lead in times (particularly) for U mines; 4) Projections to 2060 (beyond IR) e.g IAEA TECDOC). From a socio-economic perspective: 1) Need for financial analysis; 2) Need for comparison with other land uses; 3) Need for comparison with other tracts of land; 4) Need for consideration of economic/environmental consequences of possible development; 5) Security of supply!!!

  15. Platinum-group elements in southern Africa: mineral inventory and an assessment of undiscovered mineral resources: Chapter Q in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zientek, Michael L.; Causey, J. Douglas; Parks, Heather L.; Miller, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    The platinum-group elements, platinum, palladium, rhodium, ruthenium, iridium, and osmium, possess unique physical and chemical characteristics that make them indispensable to modern technology and industry. However, mineral deposits that are the main sources of these elements occur only in three countries in the world, raising concerns about potential disruption in mineral supply. Using information in the public domain, mineral resource and reserve information has been compiled for mafic and ultramafic rocks in South Africa and Zimbabwe that host most of the world’s platinum-group element resources.

  16. Fetal and early post-natal mineralization of the tympanic bulla in fin whales may reveal a Hitherto undiscovered evolutionary trait.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Cozzi

    Full Text Available The evolution of the cetacean skeleton followed a path that differentiated this group from other terrestrial mammals about 50 million years ago [1], and debate is still going on about the relationships between Cetacea and Artiodactyla [2], [3], [4]. Some skeletal traits of the basilosaurids (the more advanced forms of Archaeocetes, such as the expansion of the peribullary air sinuses, dental modification and vertebral size uniformity [5] are maintained and further emphasized also in contemporary odontocetes and mysticetes. Using Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry here we report that the deposition of bone mineral in fetal and newborn specimens of the fin whale Balaenoptera physalus is remarkably higher in the bulla tympanica than in the adjacent basal skull or in the rest of the skeleton. Ossification of the tympanic bulla in fetal Artiodactyla (bovine, hippopotamus is minimal, becomes sensible after birth and then progresses during growth, contrarily to the precocious mineralization that we observed in fin whales. Given the importance of the ear bones for the precise identification of phylogenetic relationship in therian evolution [6], this feature may indicate a specific evolutionary trait of fin whales and possibly other cetacean species or families. Early mineralization of the tympanic bulla allows immediate sound conduction in the aquatic medium and consequently holds potential importance for mother-calf relationship and postnatal survival.

  17. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in conventional and continuous petroleum systems in the Upper Cretaceous Eagle Ford Group, U.S. Gulf Coast region, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubiel, Russell F.; Pitman, Janet K.; Pearson, Ofori N.; Pearson, Krystal; Kinney, Scott A.; Lewan, Michael D.; Burke, Lauri; Biewick, Laura; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy A.; Klett, Timothy R.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Schenk, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey assessed means of (1) 141 million barrels of oil (MMBO), 502 billion cubic feet of natural gas (BCFG), and 16 million barrels of natural gas liquids (MMBNGL) in the conventional Eagle Ford Updip Sandstone Oil and Gas Assessment Unit (AU); (2) 853 MMBO, 1,707 BCFG, and 34 MMBNGL in the continuous Eagle Ford Shale Oil AU; and (3) 50,219 BCFG and 2,009 MMBNGL in the continuous Eagle Ford Shale Gas AU in onshore lands and State waters of the Gulf Coast.

  18. Clear message for causality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinberg, Aephraim M. [Institute for Experimental Physics, University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria)

    2003-12-01

    Experiment confirms that information cannot be transmitted faster than the speed of light. Ever since Einstein stated that nothing can travel faster than light, physicists have delighted in finding exceptions. One after another, observations of such 'superluminal' propagation have been made. However, while some image or pattern- such as the motion of a spotlight projected on a distant wall - might have appeared to travel faster than light, it seemed that there was no way to use the superluminal effect to transmit energy or information. In recent years, the superluminal propagation of light pulses through certain media has led to renewed controversy. In 1995, for example, Guenther Nimtz of the University of Cologne encoded Mozart's 40th Symphony on a microwave beam, which he claimed to have transmitted at a speed faster than light. Others maintain that such a violation of Einstein's speed limit would wreak havoc on our most fundamental ideas about causality, allowing an effect to precede its cause. Relativity teaches us that sending a signal faster than light would be equivalent to sending it backwards in time. (U.K.)

  19. On the New Symmetries in Electrodynamics and Quantum Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Kotel'nikov, G. A.

    2004-01-01

    The generalized definition of symmetry is formulated. Application of this definition for symmetric analysis of theoretical physics equations is considered. The version of electrodynamics is constructed permitting the faster-than-light motions of particles with real masses. Some elements of physical interpretation of the proposed theory are presented.

  20. Tachyons imply the existence of a privileged frame

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjoedin, T.; Heylighen, F.

    1985-12-16

    It is shown that the existence of faster-than-light signals (tachyons) would imply the existence (and detectability) of a privileged inertial frame and that one can avoid all problems with reversed-time order only by using absolute synchronization instead of the standard one. The connection between these results and the EPR-paradox is discussed.

  1. Pramana – Journal of Physics | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Special Issue: Proceedings of the Second Winter Institute on Foundations of ... Quantum correlation with moving beamsplitters in relativistic configuration .... systems of particles in which, though there is no claim of faster-than-light signaling, it is .... Principles of maximally classical and maximally realistic quantum mechanics.

  2. Facets of tripartite entanglement

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Quantum mechanical correlations between results of measurments on entangled ..... It is interesting that motivation underpinning Einstein locality is not the relativistic re- quirement of no faster-than-light signalling but rather a consideration related .... of the relevant studies see, for instance, D Home, Conceptual foundations.

  3. Resonance – Journal of Science Education | Indian Academy of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 5; Issue 11. Can Light Travel Faster than Light? Supurna Sinha. Research News Volume 5 Issue 11 November 2000 pp 90-93. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/005/11/0090-0093 ...

  4. Toward affective brain-computer interfaces : exploring the neurophysiology of affect during human media interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mühl, C.

    2012-01-01

    Affective Brain-Computer Interfaces (aBCI), the sensing of emotions from brain activity, seems a fantasy from the realm of science fiction. But unlike faster-than-light travel or teleportation, aBCI seems almost within reach due to novel sensor technologies, the advancement of neuroscience, and the

  5. Fulltext PDF

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2+1 D particles, the formative stage of the horizon lasts only a finite time and is over as .... of singularities S that travel at faster-than-light speed toward the particles. .... The horizon enters the real spacetime at a point on the geodesic between.

  6. Quantum correlations in Newtonian space and time: arbitrarily fast communication or nonlocality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gisin, Nicolas

    2013-03-01

    Experimental violations of Bell inequalities using space-like separated measurements precludes the explanation of quantum correlations through causal influences propagating at subluminal speed. Yet, ``everything looks as if the two parties somehow communicate behind the scene.'' We investigate the assumption that they do so at a speed faster than light, though finite. Such an assumption doesn't respect the spirit of Einstein relativity. However, it is not crystal clear that such ``communication behind the scene'' would contradict relativity. Indeed, one could imagine that this communication remains for ever hidden to humans, i.e. that it could not be controlled by humans, only Nature exploits it to produce correlations that can't be explained by usual common causes. To define faster than light hidden communication requires a universal privileged reference frame in which this faster than light speed is defined. Again, such a universal privileged frame is not in the spirit of relativity, but it is also clearly not in contradiction: for example the reference frame in which the cosmic microwave background radiation is isotropic defines such a privileged frame. Hence, a priori, a hidden communication explanation is not more surprising than nonlocality. We prove that for any finite speed, such models predict correlations that can be exploited for faster-than-light communication. This superluminal communication doesn't require access to any hidden physical quantities, but only the manipulation of measurement devices at the level of our present-day description of quantum experiments. Consequently, all possible explanations of quantum correlations that satisfy the principle of continuity, which states that everything propagates gradually and continuously through space and time, or in other words, all combination of local common causes and direct causes that reproduce quantum correlations, lead to faster than light communication. Accordingly, either there is superluminal

  7. Chapter 5. Assessment of undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources-Lower Cretaceous Travis Peak and Hosston formations, Jurassic Smackover interior salt basins total petroleum system, in the East Texas basin and Louisiana-Mississippi salt basins provinces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyman, T.S.; Condon, S.M.

    2006-01-01

    The Lower Cretaceous Travis Peak Formation of east Texas and southern Arkansas (and the correlative Hosston Formation of Louisiana and Mississippi) is a basinward-thickening wedge of terrigenous clastic sedimentary rocks that underlies the northern Gulf of Mexico Basin from east Texas across northern Louisiana to southern Mississippi. Clastic detritus was derived from two main fluvial-deltaic depocenters, one in northeastern Texas and the other extending from southeastern Mississippi northwestward into northeastern Louisiana. Across the main hydrocarbon-productive trend in east Texas and northern Louisiana, the Travis Peak and Hosston Formations are about 2,000 ft thick.

  8. A Viable Paradigm for Quantum Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Jagdish

    2010-10-01

    After a brief discussion of the EPR paradox, Bell's inequality, and Aspect's experiment, arguments will be presented in favor of the following statements: ``As it stands, Quantum mechanics is incomplete. There is further hidden structure, which would involve variables. No influence can move faster than light. The wave function is one whole thing and any change in its structure instantly influences its outcomes. Bell's theorem has not been applied correctly. There is a better paradigm.'' The said paradigm will be presented.

  9. Superluminal warp drive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Diaz, Pedro F. [Colina de los Chopos, Centro de Fisica ' Miguel A. Catalan' , Instituto de Matematicas y Fisica Fundamental, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Serrano 121, 28006 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: p.gonzalezdiaz@imaff.cfmac.csic.es

    2007-09-20

    In this Letter we consider a warp drive spacetime resulting from that suggested by Alcubierre when the spaceship can only travel faster than light. Restricting to the two dimensions that retains most of the physics, we derive the thermodynamic properties of the warp drive and show that the temperature of the spaceship rises up as its apparent velocity increases. We also find that the warp drive spacetime can be exhibited in a manifestly cosmological form.

  10. Superluminal warp drive and dark energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Diaz, Pedro F. [Colina de los Chopos, Centro de Fisica ' Miguel A. Catalan' , Instituto de Matematicas y Fisica Fundamental, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Serrano 121, 28006 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: p.gonzalezdiaz@imaff.cfmac.csic.es

    2007-11-29

    In this Letter we consider a warp drive spacetime where the spaceship can only travel faster than light. Restricting to the two-dimensional case, we find that if the warp drive is placed in an accelerating universe the warp bubble size increases in a comoving way to the expansion of the universe in which it is immersed. Also shown is the result that the apparent velocity of the ship steadily increases with time as phantom energy is accreted onto it.

  11. Atomic-cascade photons and quantum-mechanical nonlocality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, J.S.

    1995-01-01

    In recent years there have been several experiments on polarization correlation between photons emitted in atomic cascades. They are supposed to bear on the notion that the consequences of events do not propagate faster than light. This notion is difficult to reconcile with quantum-mechanical predictions for idealized versions of the experiments in question. The present Comment offers a brief introduction to the situation. (author)

  12. A realistic model for quantum theory with a locality property

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eberhard, P.H.

    1987-04-01

    A model reproducing the predictions of relativistic quantum theory to any desired degree of accuracy is described in this paper. It involves quantities that are independent of the observer's knowledge, and therefore can be called real, and which are defined at each point in space, and therefore can be called local in a rudimentary sense. It involves faster-than-light, but not instantaneous, action at distance

  13. Particle Identification in Cherenkov Detectors using Convolutional Neural Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Theodore, Tomalty

    2016-01-01

    Cherenkov detectors are used for charged particle identification. When a charged particle moves through a medium faster than light can propagate in that medium, Cherenkov radiation is released in the shape of a cone in the direction of movement. The interior of the Cherenkov detector is instrumented with PMTs to detect this Cherenkov light. Particles, then, can be identified by the shapes of the images on the detector walls.

  14. Quantum Locality?

    OpenAIRE

    Stapp, Henry P.

    2011-01-01

    Robert Griffiths has recently addressed, within the framework of a 'consistent quantum theory' that he has developed, the issue of whether, as is often claimed, quantum mechanics entails a need for faster-than-light transfers of information over long distances. He argues that the putative proofs of this property that involve hidden variables include in their premises some essentially classical-physics-type assumptions that are fundamentally incompatible with the precepts of quantum physics. O...

  15. An introduction to ''extended'', ''projective'', and ''conformal'' relativities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recami, E.

    1978-01-01

    The theory of special relativity is reformulated by adding to the usual two postulates the postulate of retarded causality. Such treatment will lead to predict existence of antimatter in a pure relativistic context. The extension of SR to faster-than-light inertial frames and to superluminal objects is then studied thus introducing the theory of extended relativity. Other possible extensions of relativistic theories are briefly mentioned from a mainly intuitive point of view. (author)

  16. BellTest and CHSH experiments with more than two settings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basoalto, R M; Percival, I C [Department of Physics, Queen Mary University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom)

    2003-07-04

    Strong nonlocality allows signals faster than light. Weak nonlocality is a statistical property of classical events for which there is no realistic local theory. This requires the violation of at least one general Bell inequality. The theory of ideal quantum measurements predicts weak nonlocality but not strong nonlocality. Bell experiment here refers to any experiment designed to demonstrate weak nonlocality. BellTest is a computer program generally available on the Web to help planning and analysis of such Bell experiments. In Mode 1 it obtains general Bell inequalities. In Mode 2 it tests for their violation. We describe its use, with some new results for illustration.

  17. Energy resources in Arab countries: an overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Lababidi, M. Mukhtar [Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries, Technical Affairs Dept., Safat (Kuwait)

    1999-12-01

    The author examines the energy resources of Middle East and North African countries under the headings: oil (proven reserves, undiscovered potential recovery, improved recovery techniques, production capacities), natural gas (reserves, undiscovered potential gas recovery), shale oil and tar sand, coal, uranium, hydro, wind energy, solar energy and biomass. (UK)

  18. Economic filters for evaluating porphyry copper deposit resource assessments using grade-tonnage deposit models, with examples from the U.S. Geological Survey global mineral resource assessment: Chapter H in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Gilpin R.; Menzie, W. David

    2012-01-01

    An analysis of the amount and location of undiscovered mineral resources that are likely to be economically recoverable is important for assessing the long-term adequacy and availability of mineral supplies. This requires an economic evaluation of estimates of undiscovered resources generated by traditional resource assessments (Singer and Menzie, 2010). In this study, simplified engineering cost models were used to estimate the economic fraction of resources contained in undiscovered porphyry copper deposits, predicted in a global assessment of copper resources. The cost models of Camm (1991) were updated with a cost index to reflect increases in mining and milling costs since 1989. The updated cost models were used to perform an economic analysis of undiscovered resources estimated in porphyry copper deposits in six tracts located in North America. The assessment estimated undiscovered porphyry copper deposits within 1 kilometer of the land surface in three depth intervals.

  19. Mineral and energy resource assessment maps of the Mount Katmai, Naknek, and western Afognak quadrangles, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, S.E.; Riehle, J.R.; Magoon, L.B.; Campbell, D.L.

    1992-01-01

    On the basis of new geologic mapping and exploration geochemical studies, we have provided a mineral and energy resource assessment of the Mount Katmai, Naknek, and western Afognak quadrangles, Alaska. We delineate four tracts of ground that have metallic mineral resources. The mineral deposit types considered in each tract are summarized in table 4. Estimates of the number of undiscovered mineral deposits have been made for porphyry copper and polymetallic vein deposits. We estimate that one undiscovered porphyry copper deposit is present in the Katmai study area at the ten percent probability level. Although the sampling density may be too low to give an accurate estimate of the number of undiscovered polymetallic vein deposits, we suggest that, at a minimum, there is a five percent probability for five or more undiscovered polymetallic vein deposits in the Katmai study area. In addition, several areas have potential for undiscovered porphyry molybdenum, massive sulfide, and epithermal gold and mercury deposits.

  20. Geology, sequence stratigraphy, and oil and gas assessment of the Lewis Shale Total Petroleum System, San Juan Basin, New Mexico and Colorado: Chapter 5 in Total petroleum systems and geologic assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the San Juan Basin Province, exclusive of Paleozoic rocks, New Mexico and Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubiel, R.F.

    2013-01-01

    The Lewis Shale Total Petroleum System (TPS) in the San Juan Basin Province contains a continuous gas accumulation in three distinct stratigraphic units deposited in genetically related depositional environments: offshore-marine shales, mudstones, siltstones, and sandstones of the Lewis Shale, and marginal-marine shoreface sandstones and siltstones of both the La Ventana Tongue and the Chacra Tongue of the Cliff House Sandstone. The Lewis Shale was not a completion target in the San Juan Basin (SJB) in early drilling from about the 1950s through 1990. During that time, only 16 wells were completed in the Lewis from natural fracture systems encountered while drilling for deeper reservoir objectives. In 1991, existing wells that penetrated the Lewis Shale were re-entered by petroleum industry operators in order to fracture-stimulate the Lewis and to add Lewis gas production onto preexisting, and presumably often declining, Mesaverde Group production stratigraphically lower in the section. By 1997, approximately 101 Lewis completions had been made, both as re-entries into existing wells and as add-ons to Mesaverde production in new wells. Based on recent industry drilling and completion practices leading to successful gas production from the Lewis and because new geologic models indicate that the Lewis Shale contains both source rocks and reservoir rocks, the Lewis Shale TPS was defined and evaluated as part of this U.S. Geological Survey oil and gas assessment of the San Juan Basin. Gas in the Lewis Shale Total Petroleum System is produced from shoreface sandstones and siltstones in the La Ventana and Chacra Tongues and from distal facies of these prograding clastic units that extend into marine rocks of the Lewis Shale in the central part of the San Juan Basin. Reservoirs are in shoreface sandstone parasequences of the La Ventana and Chacra and their correlative distal parasequences in the Lewis Shale where both natural and artificially enhanced fractures produce gas. The Lewis Continuous Gas Assessment Unit (AU 50220261) is thought to be self-sourced from and self-sealed by marine shales and mudstones deposited within the Lewis Shale that enclose clastic parasequences in the La Ventana and Chacra Tongues. The gas resource is thought to be a continuous accumulation sourced from the Lewis Shale throughout the depositional basin. In the Lewis Continuous Gas Assessment Unit (AU 50220261), for continuous gas resources, there is an F95 of 8,315.22 billion cubic feet of gas (BCFG) and an F5 of 12,282.31 BCFG, with a mean value of 10,177.24 BCFG. There is an F95 of 18.08 million barrels of natural gas liquids (MMBNGL) and an F5 of 47.32 MMBNGL, with a mean of 30.53 MMBNGL.

  1. Tabular data and graphical images in support of the U.S. Geological Survey National Oil and Gas Assessment--San Juan Basin Province (5022): Chapter 7 in Total petroleum systems and geologic assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the San Juan Basin Province, exclusive of Paleozoic rocks, New Mexico and Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klett, T.R.; Le, P.A.

    2013-01-01

    This chapter describes data used in support of the process being applied by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Oil and Gas Assessment (NOGA) project. Digital tabular data used in this report and archival data that permit the user to perform further analyses are available elsewhere on this CD–ROM. Computers and software may import the data without transcription from the Portable Document Format files (.pdf files) of the text by the reader. Because of the number and variety of platforms and software available, graphical images are provided as .pdf files and tabular data are provided in a raw form as tab-delimited text files (.tab files).

  2. Geology and oil and gas assessment of the Mancos-Menefee Composite Total Petroleum System: Chapter 4 in Total petroleum systems and geologic assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the San Juan Basin Province, exclusive of Paleozoic rocks, New Mexico and Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgley, J.L.; Condon, S.M.; Hatch, J.R.

    2013-01-01

    The Mancos-Menefee Composite Total Petroleum System (TPS) includes all genetically related hydrocarbons generated from organic-rich shales in the Cretaceous Mancos Shale and from carbonaceous shale, coal beds, and humate in the Cretaceous Menefee Formation of the Mesaverde Group. The system is called a composite total petroleum system because the exact source of the hydrocarbons in some of the reservoirs is not known. Reservoir rocks that contain hydrocarbons generated in Mancos and Menefee source beds are found in the Cretaceous Dakota Sandstone, at the base of the composite TPS, through the lower part of the Cliff House Sandstone of the Mesaverde Group, at the top. Source rocks in both the Mancos Shale and Menefee Formation entered the oil generation window in the late Eocene and continued to generate oil or gas into the late Miocene. Near the end of the Miocene in the San Juan Basin, subsidence ceased, hydrocarbon generation ceased, and the basin was uplifted and differentially eroded. Reservoirs are now underpressured.

  3. Geology and oil and gas assessment of the Todilto Total Petroleum System, San Juan Basin Province, New Mexico and Colorado: Chapter 3 in Total petroleum systems and geologic assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the San Juan Basin Province, exclusive of Paleozoic rocks, New Mexico and Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgley, J.L.; Hatch, J.R.

    2013-01-01

    Organic-rich, shaly limestone beds, which contain hydrocarbon source beds in the lower part of the Jurassic Todilto Limestone Member of the Wanakah Formation, and sandstone reservoirs in the overlying Jurassic Entrada Sandstone, compose the Todilto Total Petroleum System (TPS). Source rock facies of the Todilto Limestone were deposited in a combined marine-lacustrine depositional setting. Sandstone reservoirs in the Entrada Sandstone were deposited in eolian depositional environments. Oil in Todilto source beds was generated beginning in the middle Paleocene, about 63 million years ago, and maximum generation of oil occurred in the middle Eocene. In the northern part of the San Juan Basin, possible gas and condensate were generated in Todilto Limestone Member source beds until the middle Miocene. The migration distance of oil from the Todilto source beds into the underlying Entrada Sandstone reservoirs was short, probably within the dimensions of a single dune crest. Traps in the Entrada are mainly stratigraphic and diagenetic. Regional tilt of the strata to the northeast has influenced structural trapping of oil, but also allowed for later introduction of water. Subsequent hydrodynamic forces have influenced the repositioning of the oil in some reservoirs and flushing in others. Seals are mostly the anhydrite and limestone facies of the Todilto, which thin to as little as 10 ft over the crests of the dunes. The TPS contains only one assessment unit, the Entrada Sandstone Conventional Oil Assessment Unit (AU) (50220401). Only four of the eight oil fields producing from the Entrada met the 0.5 million barrels of oil minimum size used for this assessment. The AU was estimated at the mean to have potential additions to reserves of 2.32 million barrels of oil (MMBO), 5.56 billion cubic feet of natural gas (BCFG), and 0.22 million barrels of natural gas liquids (MMBNGL).

  4. Unlabored system motion by specially conditioned electromagnetic fields in higher dimensional realms

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Froning, H.; Meholic, Gregory V.

    2010-01-01

    This third of three papers explores the possibility of swift, stress-less system transitions between slower-than-light and faster-than-light speeds with negligible net expenditure of system energetics. The previous papers derived a realm of higher dimensionality than 4-D spacetime that enabled such unlabored motion; and showed that fields that could propel and guide systems on unlabored paths in the higher dimensional realm must be fields that have been conditioned to SU(2) (or higher) Lie group symmetry. This paper shows that the system's surrounding vacuum dielectric ɛμ, within the higher dimensional realm's is a vector (not scalar) quantity with fixed magnitude ɛ0μ0 and changing direction within the realm with changing system speed. Thus, ɛμ generated by the system's EM field must remain tuned to vacuum ɛ0μ0 in both magnitude and direction during swift, unlabored system transitions between slower and faster than light speeds. As a result, the system's changing path and speed is such that the magnitude of the higher dimensional realm's ɛ0μ0 is not disturbed. And it is shown that a system's flight trajectories associated with its swift, unlabored transitions between zero and infinite speed can be represented by curved paths traced-out within the higher dimensional realm.

  5. Begin the Adventure. How to Break the Speed Barrier by A.D. 2070

    CERN Document Server

    Tilton, H B

    2004-01-01

    A book of hard science culminating in three separate chapters of fiction (7, 8, and 9), this book, written for the technically-savvy layman and amateur scientist, is comprised of selected articles by the authors which previously appeared in various journals along with new material that ties it all together. The book critically examines Einstein's conclusion that nothing can go faster than light. A wide, popular audience is sought to swamp the myriads who take the phrase "You cannot exceed the velocity of light" on faith alone or who generalize from a too narrow base. The book is about star travel but it is not science fiction; it is a science story describing a scenario centered around a fresh look at relativity in the light of current thinking. In 1905, Einstein published his landmark special theory of relativity from which he concluded that nothing can go faster than light. However the current trend among scientists is that the relativistic changes are a sort of kinematical perspective and are no more real ...

  6. The Nature of Belief and the Method of Its Justification in Husserl's ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    denise

    used to validate scientific hypotheses, it can likewise be practised in our everyday .... (origin and structure) of beliefs in general emerges, or ... sub-atomic particles are “real entities”). .... normal involvement with things around me, I take my.

  7. Porphyry copper assessment of western Central Asia: Chapter N in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Byron R.; Mars, John L.; Denning, Paul; Phillips, Jeffrey D.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Zientek, Michael L.; Dicken, Connie L.; Drew, Lawrence J.; with contributions from Alexeiev, Dmitriy; Seltmann, Reimar; Herrington, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey conducted an assessment of resources associated with porphyry copper deposits in the western Central Asia countries of Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, and Tajikistan and the southern Urals of Kazakhstan and Russia as part of a global mineral resource assessment. The purpose of the study was to (1) delineate permissive areas (tracts) for undiscovered porphyry copper deposits; (2) compile a database of known porphyry copper deposits and significant prospects; (3) where data permit, estimate numbers of undiscovered deposits within those permissive tracts; and (4) provide probabilistic estimates the amounts of copper (Cu), molybdenum (Mo), gold (Au), and silver (Ag) that could be contained in those undiscovered deposits.

  8. Bermuda: Search for Deep Water Caves 2009 on the R/V Endurance between 20090905 and 20090930

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Deep-water marine caves are one of the Earth's last largely unexplored frontiers of undiscovered fauna (animal life). More than 150 limestone caves are known to...

  9. IHRM's Role in Knowledge Management in Multinational Corporations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minbaeva, Dana

    2015-01-01

    Organizational knowledge has become the most strategically significant resource for organizations (Grant 1996a, 1996b). However, this invaluable resource may remain undiscovered, underleveraged, and trapped in the minds of individuals. Organizational competitiveness is enhanced not by knowledge p...

  10. Assessment of continuous oil and gas resources in the Perth Basin Province, Australia, 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Finn, Thomas M.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Hawkins, Sarah J.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Le, Phuong A.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Woodall, Cheryl A.

    2017-07-17

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey assessed undiscovered, technically recoverable mean resources of 223 million barrels of oil and 14.5 trillion cubic feet of gas in the Perth Basin Province, Australia.

  11. Assessment of continuous gas resources in the Khorat Plateau Province, Thailand and Laos, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Klett, Timothy R.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Finn, Thomas M.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Le, Phuong A.; Drake, Ronald M.

    2017-05-25

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey assessed mean undiscovered, technically recoverable resources of 2.3 trillion cubic feet of continuous gas in the Khorat Plateau Province of Thailand and Laos.

  12. Preoperative anaemia and newly diagnosed cancer 1 year after elective total hip and knee arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, C. C.; Jans, Ø.; Kehlet, H.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Preoperative anaemia is a well-established risk factor for use of blood transfusions and postoperative morbidity. Consequently, focus on preoperative evaluation of haemoglobin levels is increasing. In this context, iron deficiency anaemia may be a symptom of undiscovered gastrointesti......BACKGROUND: Preoperative anaemia is a well-established risk factor for use of blood transfusions and postoperative morbidity. Consequently, focus on preoperative evaluation of haemoglobin levels is increasing. In this context, iron deficiency anaemia may be a symptom of undiscovered...

  13. Tachyons in Robertson-Walker Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Tomaschitz, R

    1998-01-01

    Superluminal signal transfer is studied in the context of a preferred cosmic frame of reference provided by the galactic background. The receding galaxies constitute a frame of absolute rest, in which the energy of tachyons (faster-than-light particles) is unambiguously defined as a positive quantity. The causality violation which arises in relativistic tachyonic theories is avoided. We define interactions of particles and tachyons in terms of elastic head-on collisions and energy-momentum conservation. To compare the theory developed with existing relativistic theories, tachyons are studied at first in a Minkowski universe, and the causality of a superluminal communication process is analyzed. Then we discuss the dynamics of tachyons in a Robertson-Walker universe with linear expansion factor and negatively curved three-space. We point out the consequences that the space expansion has on tachyons, like a finite life-time in the frame of absolute rest, and multiple images in the rest frames of moving observer...

  14. Tachyons in an Expanding Space-Time

    CERN Document Server

    Tomaschitz, R

    1998-01-01

    Superluminal signal transfer is introduced in the context of an absolute frame of reference provided by the galactic background. The receding galaxies constitute a reference frame, a frame of absolute rest, in which the energy of tachyons (faster-than-light particles) can be defined as a positive definite quantity. The theory presented is essentially covariant, but not relativistic. The causality problem of superluminal signal transfer, which arises in relativistic theories, can be completely avoided. Tachyons are studied in a Robertson-Walker universe with linear expansion factor and negatively curved three-space. The tachyonic dynamics is defined, and it is pointed out how tachyonic events appear to observers who are uniformly moving in the frame of absolute rest. The consequences that the space expansion has on tachyons, e.g. redoubling effects, are discussed.

  15. Large violation of Bell inequalities using both particle andwave measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavalcanti, Daniel; Brunner, Nicolas; Skrzypczyk, Paul; Salles, Alejo; Scarani, Valerio

    2011-01-01

    When separated measurements on entangled quantum systems are performed, the theory predicts correlations that cannot be explained by any classical mechanism: communication is excluded because the signal should travel faster than light; preestablished agreement is excluded because Bell inequalities are violated. All optical demonstrations of such violations have involved discrete degrees of freedom and are plagued by the detection-efficiency loophole. A promising alternative is to use continuous variables combined with highly efficient homodyne measurements. However, all the schemes proposed so far use states or measurements that are extremely difficult to achieve, or they produce very weak violations. We present a simple method to generate large violations for feasible states using both photon counting and homodyne detections. The present scheme can also be used to obtain nonlocality from easy-to-prepare Gaussian states (e.g., two-mode squeezed state).

  16. Einstein locality, EPR locality, and the significance for science of the nonlocal character of quantum theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stapp, H.P.

    1985-10-01

    The immense difference between Einstein locality and EPR locality is discussed. The latter provides a basis for establishing the nonlocal character of quantum theory, whereas the former does not. A model representing Heisenberg's idea of physical reality is introduced. It is nondeterministic and holistic: the objects, measuring devices, and their environment are treated as an inseparable entity, with, however, macroscopically localizable attributes. The EPR principle that no disturbance can propagate faster than light is imposed without assuming any structure incompatible with orthodox quantum thinking. This locality requirement renders the model incompatible with rudimentary predictions of quantum theory. A more general proof not depending on any model is also given. A recent argument that purports to show that quantum theory is compatible with EPR locality is examined. It illustrates the importance of the crucial one-world assumption. The significance for science of the failure of EPR locality is discussed

  17. Fast space travel by vacuum zero-point field perturbations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Froning, H. D. Jr.

    1999-01-01

    Forces acting upon an accelerating vehicle that is 'warping' its surrounding space are estimated, using the techniques of computational gas/fluid dynamics. Disturbances corresponding to perturbation of spacetime metric and vacuum zero-point fields by electromagnetic discharges are modeled as changes in the electric permittivity and magnetic permeability characteristics of the vacuum of space. And it is assumed that resistance to acceleration (vehicle inertia) is, in part, a consequence of zero-point radiation pressure field anisotropy in the warped space region surrounding the craft. The paper shows that resistance to vehicle acceleration can be diminished by spacetime warping that increases light propagation speed within the warped region. If sufficient warping is achieved, ship speed is slower than light speed within the region that surrounds it-even if it is moving faster-than-light with respect to earth

  18. A model-theory for Tachyons in two dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recami, E.; Rodriques, W.A. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    The subject of Tachyons, even if still speculative, may deserve some attention for reasons that can be divided into a few categories, two of which are as follows: The larger scheme, to build up in order to incorporate space-like objects in the relativistic theories. These allow better understanding of many aspects of the ordinary relativistic physics, even if Tachyons would not exist in our cosmos as ''asymptotically free'' objects; superliminal classical objects can have a role in elementary particle interactions (perhaps even in astrophysics) and possible verification of the reproduction of quantum-like behaviour at a classical level when taking into account the possible existence of faster-than-light classical particles. This paper shows that Special Relativity - even without tachyons - can be given a form which describes both particles and anti-particles. This paper also is confined only to a ''model theory'' of Tachyons in two dimensions

  19. Fast light in atomic media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akulshin, Alexander M; McLean, Russell J

    2010-01-01

    Atomic media have played a major role in studies of fast light. One of their attractive features is the ability to manipulate experimental parameters to control the dispersive properties that determine the group velocity of a propagating light pulse. We give an overview of the experimental methods, based on both linear and nonlinear atom–light interaction, that have produced superluminal propagation in atomic media, and discuss some of the significant theoretical contributions to the issues of pulse preservation and reconciling faster-than-light propagation and the principle of causality. The comparison of storage of light, enhanced Kerr nonlinearity and efficient wave mixing processes in slow and fast light atomic media illustrates their common and distinct features. (review article)

  20. Violations of Lorentz invariance in the neutrino sector after OPERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maccione, Luca [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Liberati, Stefano [Scuola Internazionale Superiore di Studi Avanzati (SISSA), Trieste (Italy); INFN, Sezione de Trieste (Italy); Mattingly, David M. [New Hampshire Univ., Durham (United States). Dept. of Physics

    2011-10-15

    The OPERA collaboration has recently reported that neutrinos travel faster than light. We review the theoretical situation of constraints on violations of Lorentz invariance, focusing in particular on the compatibility between the OPERA results with both previous constraints and recently obtained ones. We generalize to higher order operators the recent constraint provided by the absence of neutrino energy loss, via electron-positron pair production at OPERA energies, and show that no modi ed in vacuo dispersion relation within an effective field theory context is compatible with OPERA results. We conclude that the OPERA result is incompatible with current observations, at least without resorting to models beyond effective field theory, possibly with local environmental effects. (orig.)

  1. The Complete Book of Spaceflight: From Apollo 1 to Zero Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darling, David

    2002-11-01

    A commanding encyclopedia of the history and principles of spaceflight-from earliest conceptions to faster-than-light galaxy-hopping Here is the first truly comprehensive guide to space exploration and propulsion, from the first musings of the Greeks to current scientific speculation about interstellar travel using "warp drives" and wormholes. Space buffs will delight in its in-depth coverage of all key manned and unmanned missions and space vehicles-past, present, and projected-and its clear explanations of the technologies involved. Over the course of more than 2,000 extensively cross-referenced entries, astronomer David Darling also provides fascinating insights into the cultural development of spaceflight. In vivid accounts of the major characters and historical events involved, he provides fascinating tales of early innovators, the cross-pollination that has long existed between science fiction and science fact, and the sometimes obscure links between geopolitics, warfare, and advances in rocketry.

  2. On a contradiction between the classical (idealised) quantum theory of measurement and the conservation of the square of the total angular momentum in the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cufaro-Petroni, Nicola; Garuccio, Augusto; Selleri, Franco; Vigier, J.-P.

    1980-01-01

    As is known the experimental verification of quantum mechanics (and not of Bell's inequalities) in experiments of the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen Aspect-type (involving two correlated photons emitted in the single state) implies the existence of non local faster than light, interactions between two quantum apparatus of measurement. It is shown in this work that if one assumes that real quantum measurements correspond to the usual classical (idealised) scheme (and are reproducible in time) the wave packet collapse of correlated particles by the intervention of a real physical apparatus in the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen Paradox implies the non conservation of the total angular momentum of the isolated apparatus-particle system [fr

  3. On the ideal gas of tachyons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mrowczynski, S.

    1983-01-01

    The properties of the ideal gas of classical (nonquantum) faster than light particles-tachyons have been considered. The basic notions of thermodynamics of tachyons have been introduced. We have found the partition function and other thermodynamical quantities for the ideal tachyon gas. The equation of state which we have found for tachyons is exactly the same as for the ideal gas of partictes slower than light-bradyons. The internal energy and the apecific heat have been discussed at low and at very high temperatures. It has been shown that in high temperature limit the properties of gas of tachyons and gas of bradyons are th'e same. The numerical calculations concerning the internal energy and specific heat at different temperatures were performed and the results have been presented. It has been shown that in full interval of temperature the characteristics of gas of tachyons are similar to those of gas of bradyons

  4. Upstream from OPERA: extreme attention to detail

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2011-01-01

    Two weeks ago, at a seminar held at CERN, the OPERA collaboration revealed their astonishing observation: neutrinos might move faster than light. The finding is currently under scrutiny in the scientific community. While the result downstream at Gran Sasso speaks for itself, upstream at CERN things are no less intriguing, with high-tech GPS systems, novel techniques for accurately measuring the time, and unique ways keeping the initial particle beam stable. Take away one ingredient and the accuracy needed for the final measurement is spoiled.   Underground installations of the CERN Neutrinos to Gran Sasso (CNGS) project. First ingredient: a stable beam CERN produces neutrinos by sending a beam of protons to hit a target. The collisions produce a secondary beam, which mostly consists of pions and kaons that decay in flight within an evacuated tunnel. Their decay products are muons and muon-neutrinos. An absorber stops the pions and kaons that do not decay, while the resulting muons are absorb...

  5. Violations of Lorentz invariance in the neutrino sector after OPERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maccione, Luca; Liberati, Stefano; Mattingly, David M.

    2011-10-01

    The OPERA collaboration has recently reported that neutrinos travel faster than light. We review the theoretical situation of constraints on violations of Lorentz invariance, focusing in particular on the compatibility between the OPERA results with both previous constraints and recently obtained ones. We generalize to higher order operators the recent constraint provided by the absence of neutrino energy loss, via electron-positron pair production at OPERA energies, and show that no modi ed in vacuo dispersion relation within an effective field theory context is compatible with OPERA results. We conclude that the OPERA result is incompatible with current observations, at least without resorting to models beyond effective field theory, possibly with local environmental effects. (orig.)

  6. Tunnel effect - spaces without time. From the big bang to the wormhole; Tunneleffekt - Raeume ohne Zeit. Vom Urknall zum Wurmloch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nimtz, Guenter [Koeln Univ. (Germany). II. Physikalisches Inst. Experimentelle Festkoerperphysik; Haibel, Astrid [Hahn-Meitner-Institut Berlin (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    By means of classical physics the tunnel effect is not explainable. Therefore the nature uses a trick from quantum mechanics: Particles, which possess no sufficient energy to overstep a barrier, ''tunnel'' simply through it. On this principle base both the nuclear decay and the heat-giving nuclear fusion in the sun and many further phenomenas of physics. Experimental studies recently showed that the particles tunnel thereby faster than light spreads in the vacuum. The ''mount to be tunneled through'' behaves thereby as a space without time. Is by this Einstein's theory of relativity disproved? Or even the causality principle violated? Answers give the authors in this draft on superluminal phenomena.

  7. New view about black holes. [Tachyon--bradyon transformation at horizon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Sabbata, V; Pavsic, M; Recami, E

    1977-01-01

    For a Schwarzschild black-hole, as reference frame is chosen the frame sigma at rest with respect to the Schwarzschild metric. In this locally non-inertial frame, a freely falling body is shown to reach the speed of light on the horizon and then to travel faster than light inside the horizon. The usual Szekeres--Kruskal (SK) coordinates represent themselves frames that (with respect to the frames sigma) travel at subluminal speed outside, at luminal speed on, and at superluminal speed inside the horizon (so that SK frames always describe any free falling body as a standard, slower-than-light object). Finally, black-holes are shown to be possible sources of tachyons.

  8. Large violation of Bell inequalities using both particle andwave measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavalcanti, Daniel [Centre for Quantum Technologies, National University of Singapore, 3 Science Drive 2, Singapore 117543 (Singapore); Brunner, Nicolas; Skrzypczyk, Paul [H. H. Wills Physics Laboratory, University of Bristol, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol BS8 1TL (United Kingdom); Salles, Alejo [Niels Bohr Institute, Blegdamsvej 17, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Scarani, Valerio [Centre for Quantum Technologies, National University of Singapore, 3 Science Drive 2, Singapore 117543 (Singapore); Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, 2 Science Drive 3, Singapore 117542 (Singapore)

    2011-08-15

    When separated measurements on entangled quantum systems are performed, the theory predicts correlations that cannot be explained by any classical mechanism: communication is excluded because the signal should travel faster than light; preestablished agreement is excluded because Bell inequalities are violated. All optical demonstrations of such violations have involved discrete degrees of freedom and are plagued by the detection-efficiency loophole. A promising alternative is to use continuous variables combined with highly efficient homodyne measurements. However, all the schemes proposed so far use states or measurements that are extremely difficult to achieve, or they produce very weak violations. We present a simple method to generate large violations for feasible states using both photon counting and homodyne detections. The present scheme can also be used to obtain nonlocality from easy-to-prepare Gaussian states (e.g., two-mode squeezed state).

  9. Mineral resources of the Swasey Mountain and Howell Peak Wilderness Study Areas, Millard County, Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindsey, D.A.; Zimbelman, D.R.; Campbell, D.L.; Duval, J.S.; Cook, K.L.; Podwysocki, M.H.; Brickey, D.W.; Yambrick, R.A.; Tuftin, S.E.

    1989-01-01

    The Swasey Mountain and the Howell Peak Wilderness Study Areas are underlain by an east-dipping sequence of carbonate rocks, shale, and quartzite of Cambrian age. The Sand Pass mineralized area, immediately northwest of the Swasey Mountain Wilderness Study Area, contains numerous occurrences of jasperoid, small igneous intrusions of Tertiary age, and geochemical anomalies; the mineralized area has been explored for gold. Although no identified resources of metals are known in or near the wilderness study areas, the distribution of geologic structures and stream-sediment geochemical anomalies indicates there is a moderate potential for undiscovered resources of lead, zinc, copper, molybdenum, silver, and gold. An area of moderate potential for undiscovered resources of these metals extends south and east into the Swasey Mountain Wilderness Study Area from the Sand Pass mineralized area. A second area of moderate potential for undiscovered resources of these metals extends from the southern part of the Swasey Mountain Wilderness Study Area across the western part of the Howell Peak Wilderness Study Area. Both study areas contain inferred subeconomic resources of quartzite, high-purity limestone, and sand and gravel. Both areas have moderate resource potential for high-purity limestone and dolomite. Fossils, especially trilobites, of interest to collectors are present in both areas. The potential for undiscovered resources is moderate for oil and gas and is low for geothermal energy within the study areas. There is no potential for undiscovered resources of coal.

  10. Preliminary Assessment of Non-Fuel Mineral Resources of Afghanistan, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Afghanistan has abundant mineral resources, including known deposits of copper, iron, barite, sulfur, talc, chromium, magnesium, salt, mica, marble, rubies, emeralds, lapis lazuli, asbestos, nickel, mercury, gold and silver, lead, zinc, fluorspar, bauxite, beryllium, and lithium (fig. 1). Between 2005 and 2007, the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) funded a cooperative study by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Afghanistan Geological Survey (AGS) to assess the non-fuel mineral resources of Afghanistan as part of the effort to aid in the reconstruction of that country. An assessment is an estimation or evaluation, in this instance of undiscovered non-fuel mineral resources. Mineral resources are materials that are in such form that economic extraction of a commodity is currently or potentially feasible. In this assessment, teams of scientists from the USGS and the AGS compiled information about known mineral deposits and then evaluated the possible occurrence of undiscovered deposits of all types. Quantitative probabilistic estimates were made for undiscovered deposits of copper, mercury, rare-earth elements, sulfur, chromite, asbestos, potash, graphite, and sand and gravel. These estimates were made for undiscovered deposits at depths less than a kilometer. Other deposit types were considered and discussed in the assessment, but quantitative estimates of numbers of undiscovered deposits were not made. In addition, the assessment resulted in the delineation of 20 mineralized areas for further study, of which several may contain resources amenable to rapid development.

  11. The Petroleum resources on the Norwegian Continental Shelf. 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    This resource report provides a survey of petroleum resources on the NCS. Content: Resource account; Unconventional oil and gas resources; Future oil and gas production; Challenges for producing fields; Discoveries; Undiscovered resources; Curbing greenhouse gas emissions; Technology and talent; Exploration and new areas; How undiscovered resources are calculated; The NPD's project database; Play analysis; Changes to and reductions in estimated undiscovered resources; Unconventional petroleum resources; Many wells, Increased exploration, Every little helps; Varied discovery success; Sub-basalt in the Norwegian Sea; High exploration costs; Profitable exploration; Unopened areas - mostly in the far north; Resource base; Small discoveries; Location; Development solutions, Profitability of discoveries; Things may take time; Area perspective; Development of production; Remaining reserves and resources in fields; Target for reserve growth; Existing technology; Water and gas injection; Drilling and wells; Infrastructure challenges; New methods and technology; Challenges for pilot projects; Long-term thinking and creativity. (eb)

  12. Oil resource panel finds more oil in United States by adding dollars and advancing recovery technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Three years ago, the experts figures the US had only 49.4 Bbo in undiscovered, recoverable reserves. Now, there's more undiscovered resources and more reserve growth. Those figures include present proved reserves of 25 Bbo. They also include undiscovered recoverable resources ranging from 43 Bbo to 90 Bbo and reserve growth in existing fields ranging from 31 Bbo to 89 Bbo. Those are the estimates from a panel of oil resource analysts assembled August 31 and September 1 by the University of Texas at Austin's Bureau of Economic Geology and the National Institute for Petroleum and Energy Research. At current US production of 2.7 Bbo/year, the estimate gives the US a supply lasting from 35 to 75 years

  13. Accelerating the discovery of hidden two-dimensional magnets using machine learning and first principle calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazato, Itsuki; Tanaka, Yuzuru; Takahashi, Keisuke

    2018-02-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) magnets are explored in terms of data science and first principle calculations. Machine learning determines four descriptors for predicting the magnetic moments of 2D materials within reported 216 2D materials data. With the trained machine, 254 2D materials are predicted to have high magnetic moments. First principle calculations are performed to evaluate the predicted 254 2D materials where eight undiscovered stable 2D materials with high magnetic moments are revealed. The approach taken in this work indicates that undiscovered materials can be surfaced by utilizing data science and materials data, leading to an innovative way of discovering hidden materials.

  14. A hidden Markov model approach for determining expression from genomic tiling micro arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Terkelsen, Kasper Munch; Gardner, P. P.; Arctander, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Background Genomic tiling micro arrays have great potential for identifying previously undiscovered coding as well as non-coding transcription. To-date, however, analyses of these data have been performed in an ad hoc fashion. Results We present a probabilistic procedure, ExpressHMM, that adaptiv......Background Genomic tiling micro arrays have great potential for identifying previously undiscovered coding as well as non-coding transcription. To-date, however, analyses of these data have been performed in an ad hoc fashion. Results We present a probabilistic procedure, Express...

  15. Assessment of water and proppant quantities associated with petroleum production from the Bakken and Three Forks Formations, Williston Basin Province, Montana and North Dakota, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, Seth; Varela, Brian A.; Hawkins, Sarah J.; Gianoutsos, Nicholas J.; Thamke, Joanna N.; Engle, Mark A.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Kinney, Scott A.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Martinez, Cericia D.

    2017-06-23

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has completed an assessment of water and proppant requirements and water production associated with the possible future production of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the Three Forks and Bakken Formations (Late Devonian to Early Mississippian) of the Williston Basin Province in Montana and North Dakota. This water and proppant assessment is directly linked to the geology-based assessment of the undiscovered, technically recoverable continuous oil and gas resources that is described in USGS Fact Sheet 2013–3013.

  16. Hadron-structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De, S.S.

    1989-01-01

    The paper deals with the space-time structure of the sub-atomic world and attempts to construct the fields of the constitutents of the hadrons. Then it is attempted to construct the fields of the hadrons from these micro-fields. (autho r). 24 refs

  17. The conceptual basis of Quantum Field Theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooft, G. 't

    2005-01-01

    Relativistic Quantum Field Theory is a mathematical scheme to describe the sub-atomic particles and forces. The basic starting point is that the axioms of Special Relativity on the one hand and those of Quantum Mechanics on the other, should be combined into one theory. The fundamental

  18. Life, the universe ... and nothing?; Science still can't explain what happened to half of everything

    CERN Multimedia

    Davidson, K

    2002-01-01

    New measurements at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Centre have refined measurements of sub-atomic particles that explain why there is a dominance of matter over antimatter in the Universe. The results partially confirm an announcement made last year that describes the imbalance in these physical opposites (1 page).

  19. Correlation functions of in- and out-of-equilibrium integrable models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Nardis, J.

    2015-01-01

    Since the birth of the scientific method it became widespread in the physical sciences the idea that natural phenomena can always be understood by studying the physics of each of their elementary constituents. While this attitude led to immense discoveries on the sub-atomic particles, on the other

  20. The role of the Arctic in future global petroleum supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindholt, Lars; Glomsroed, Solveig

    2011-07-01

    The Arctic has a substantial share of global petroleum resources, but at higher costs than in most other petroleum provinces. Arctic states and petroleum companies are carefully considering the potential for future extraction in the Arctic. This paper studies the oil and gas supply from 6 arctic regions during 2010-2050 along with global economic growth and different assumptions regarding petroleum prices and resource endowments. Supply is calculated based on a global model of oil and gas markets. The data on undiscovered resources for the Arctic is based on the estimates by USGS. Sensitivity studies are carried out for two alternative price scenarios and for a 50 per cent reduction of arctic undiscovered resources compared with the USGS 2008 resource estimate. Although a major part of the undiscovered arctic petroleum resources is natural gas, our results show that the relative importance of the Arctic as a world gas supplier will decline, while its importance as a global oil producer may be maintained. We also show that less than full access to undiscovered oil resources will have minor effect on total arctic oil production and a marginal effect on arctic gas extraction. The reason is that Arctic Russia is an important petroleum producer with a sufficiently large stock of already discovered resources to support their petroleum production before 2050. (Author)

  1. Assessment of continuous oil and gas resources in the Middle and Upper Magdalena Basins, Colombia, 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Le, Phuong A.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Finn, Thomas M.; Hawkins, Sarah J.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Woodall, Cheryl A.

    2017-09-22

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean undiscovered, technically recoverable continuous resources of 0.45 billion barrels of oil and 1.0 trillion cubic feet of gas in the Middle and Upper Magdalena Basins, Colombia.

  2. Assessment of continuous oil and gas resources in the San Jorge Basin Province, Argentina, 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Hawkins, Sarah J.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Marra, Kristen R.; Finn, Thomas M.; Le, Phuong A.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Woodall, Cheryl A.

    2017-07-18

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean undiscovered, technically recoverable resources of 78 million barrels of oil and 8.9 trillion cubic feet of gas in the San Jorge Basin Province, Argentina.

  3. Alaska oil and gas: Energy wealth or vanishing opportunity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, C.P.; Doughty, T.C.; Faulder, D.D.; Harrison, W.E.; Irving, J.S.; Jamison, H.C.; White, G.J.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to systematically identify and review (a) the known and undiscovered reserves and resources of arctic Alaska, (b) the economic factors controlling development, (c) the risks and environmental considerations involved in development, and (d) the impacts of a temporary shutdown of the Alaska North Slope Oil Delivery System (ANSODS). 119 refs., 45 figs., 41 tabs.

  4. Static Validation of a Voting Protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Christoffer Rosenkilde; Andersen, Esben Heltoft; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    2005-01-01

    is formalised in an extension of the LySa process calculus with blinding signatures. The analysis, which is fully automatic, pinpoints previously undiscovered flaws related to verifiability and accuracy and we suggest modifications of the protocol needed for validating these properties....

  5. Characterization of primary geochemical haloes for gold exploration at the Huanxiangwa gold deposit, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Changming; Carranza, E.J.M; Zhang, Shouting; Zhang, Jing; Liu, Xiaoji Liu; Zhang, Da; Sun, Xiang; Duan, Cunji

    2013-01-01

    Recognition of primary geochemical haloes is one of the most important tools for exploring undiscovered mineral resources. This tool is being routinely applied in exploration programs at the Huanxiangwa gold deposit, Xiong'er Mountains, China. Sampling of unweathered rock for multi-element analysis

  6. A new mode of SAM domain mediated oligomerization observed in the CASKIN2 neuronal scaffolding protein

    KAUST Repository

    Smirnova, Ekaterina; Kwan, Jamie J.; Siu, Ryan; Gao, Xin; Zoidl, Georg; Demeler, Borries; Saridakis, Vivian; Donaldson, Logan W.

    2016-01-01

    Background: CASKIN2 is a homolog of CASKIN1, a scaffolding protein that participates in a signaling network with CASK (calcium/calmodulin-dependent serine kinase). Despite a high level of homology between CASKIN2 and CASKIN1, CASKIN2 cannot bind CASK due to the absence of a CASK Interaction Domain and consequently, may have evolved undiscovered structural and functional distinctions.

  7. A new Be star in an open cluster - NGC 6871-8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigsby, James A.; Morrison, Nancy D.

    1988-01-01

    Spectroscopic observations of H-alpha show that star eight in the open cluster NGC 6871 is a previously-undiscovered Be star. The H-alpha profile was observed to vary from clear emission to pure absorption over a period of ten days; later observations over a five-day interval show weak emission along with asymmetries and filling in of the profile.

  8. A note on clique-web facets for multicut polytopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Michael Malmros

    2002-01-01

    In this note we provide a previously undiscovered necessary condition for the facet-defining property of clique-web inequalities for the multicut polytope. This condition imposes a minimum cardinality requirement on the node set of the clique, thus implying, in general, that clique-web inequaliti...

  9. Transboundary movements of genetically modified organisms and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biotechnology or the engineering of the genetic material of species can give way to avenues of possibilities for the benefit of people, fauna and flora but also has the potential of posing untold and undiscovered threats to human beings and other living organisms. One of the first attempts to legislate on international rules on ...

  10. Estimation of uranium resources by life-cycle or discovery-rate models: a critique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, D.P.

    1976-10-01

    This report was motivated primarily by M. A. Lieberman's ''United States Uranium Resources: An Analysis of Historical Data'' (Science, April 30). His conclusion that only 87,000 tons of U 3 O 8 resources recoverable at a forward cost of $8/lb remain to be discovered is criticized. It is shown that there is no theoretical basis for selecting the exponential or any other function for the discovery rate. Some of the economic (productivity, inflation) and data issues involved in the analysis of undiscovered, recoverable U 3 O 8 resources on discovery rates of $8 reserves are discussed. The problem of the ratio of undiscovered $30 resources to undiscovered $8 resources is considered. It is concluded that: all methods for the estimation of unknown resources must employ a model of some form of the endowment-exploration-production complex, but every model is a simplification of the real world, and every estimate is intrinsically uncertain. The life-cycle model is useless for the appraisal of undiscovered, recoverable U 3 O 8 , and the discovery rate model underestimates these resources

  11. PePPER : a webserver for prediction of prokaryote promoter elements and regulons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Anne; Pietersma, Hilco; Cordes, Martijn; Kuipers, Oscar P.; Kok, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Background: Accurate prediction of DNA motifs that are targets of RNA polymerases, sigma factors and transcription factors (TFs) in prokaryotes is a difficult mission mainly due to as yet undiscovered features in DNA sequences or structures in promoter regions. Improved prediction and comparison

  12. The Higgs Particle: A Useful Analogy for Physics Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cid, Xabier; Cid, Ramon

    2010-01-01

    In November 2009, the largest experiment in history was restarted. Its prime target is the Higgs particle--the last remaining undiscovered piece of our current theory of matter. We present a very simple way to introduce this topic to senior secondary school students, using a comparison with the refractive index of light.

  13. A new mode of SAM domain mediated oligomerization observed in the CASKIN2 neuronal scaffolding protein

    KAUST Repository

    Smirnova, Ekaterina

    2016-08-22

    Background: CASKIN2 is a homolog of CASKIN1, a scaffolding protein that participates in a signaling network with CASK (calcium/calmodulin-dependent serine kinase). Despite a high level of homology between CASKIN2 and CASKIN1, CASKIN2 cannot bind CASK due to the absence of a CASK Interaction Domain and consequently, may have evolved undiscovered structural and functional distinctions.

  14. Nigeria Gas Utilization Study: Presentation of NGUS Findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-10-01

    The Nigeria gas utilization study is an assessment of the magnitude and distribution of Nigeria's discovered and undiscovered gas, an estimate of gas composition emphasizing ethane and liquids content. It also assesses, at a scoping level, the cost to develop, produce and deliver gas for domestic and export projects

  15. Virtual Speed Mentoring in the Workplace--Current Approaches to Personal Informal Learning in the Workplace: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Chuck; Langlois, Kristen; Watson, Henry

    2010-01-01

    Informal learning is the biggest undiscovered treasure in today's workplace. Marcia Conner, author and often-cited voice for workplace learning, suggests that "Informal learning accounts for over 75% of the learning taking place in organizations today" (1997). IBM understands the value of the hyper-connected informal workplace and…

  16. Germline mutations in BMP9 are not identified in a series of Danish and French patients with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tørring, P. M.; Dupuis-Girod, S.; Giraud, S

    2016-01-01

    undiscovered HHT causative genes. A new vascular-anomaly syndrome caused by mutations in BMP9 has recently been published. Three patients suspected of HHT, with familial nose bleedings and dermal manifestations not characteristic for HHT, were described. Although, it was concluded that these patients probably...

  17. World resources of crude oil and natural gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masters, C.D.; Root, D.H.; Attanasi, E.D. (Geological Survey, Reston, VA (United States))

    1991-01-01

    An abstract is given of a paper presented at the World Petroleum Congress 1991 on the world estimates of identified reserves and undiscovered resources for crude oil, natural gas and natural gas liquids. Data are presented for Canada, Mexico, USA, South America, Western Europe, Eastern Europe, USSR, Africa, Middle East, Asia/Oceania and Antartica. (UK).

  18. Complete Genome Sequence of the Frog Pathogen Mycobacterium ulcerans Ecovar Liflandii

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tobias, Nicholas J.; Doig, Kenneth D.; Medema, Marnix H.; Chen, Honglei; Haring, Volker; Moore, Robert; Seemann, Torsten; Stinear, Timothy P.

    In 2004, a previously undiscovered mycobacterium resembling Mycobacterium ulcerans (the agent of Buruli ulcer) was reported in an outbreak of a lethal mycobacteriosis in a laboratory colony of the African clawed frog Xenopus tropicalis. This mycobacterium makes mycolactone and is one of several

  19. The Problem of Consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crick, Francis; Koch, Christof

    1992-01-01

    Discusses approaches to the problem presented in understanding consciousness as a yet undiscovered process of interacting neuron activity. Presents the historical context of research in the area of human awareness and identifies research necessary to scientifically explain how the brain relates to the mind. (MCO)

  20. Performance of the prototype of the electromagnetic calorimeter for PANDA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kavatsyuk, M.; Bremer, D.; Dormenev, V.; Drexler, P.; Eissner, T.; Erni, W.; Guliyev, E.; Hennino, T.; Krusche, B.; Lewandowski, B.; Löhner, H.; Moritz, M.; Novotny, R. W.; Peters, K.; Pouthas, J.; Rosier, P.; Steinacher, M.; Tambave, G.; Wilms, A.

    2011-01-01

    The PANDA collaboration at FAIR, Germany, will employ antiproton annihilations to investigate yet undiscovered charm-meson states and glueballs. The aim is to study QCD phenomena in the non-perturbative regime and to unravel the origin of hadronic masses. A multi-purpose detector for tracking,

  1. Drug-induced Hypothermia by 5HT1A Agonists Provide Neuroprotection in Experimental Stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Flemming Fryd; Hasseldam, Henrik; Nybro Smith, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Drug-induced hypothermia reduces brain damage in animal stroke models and is an undiscovered potential in human stroke treatment. We studied hypothermia induced by the serotonergic agonists S14671 (1-[2-(2-thenoylamino)ethyl]-4[1-(7- methoxynaphtyl)]piperazine) and ipsapirone in a rat...... therapeutic hypothermia....

  2. Implementation of a Project-Based Molecular Biology Laboratory Emphasizing Protein Structure-Function Relationships in a Large Introductory Biology Laboratory Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treacy, Daniel J.; Sankaran, Saumya M.; Gordon-Messer, Susannah; Saly, Danielle; Miller, Rebecca; Isaac, R. Stefan; Kosinski-Collins, Melissa S.

    2011-01-01

    In introductory laboratory courses, many universities are turning from traditional laboratories with predictable outcomes to inquiry-inspired, project-based laboratory curricula. In these labs, students are allowed to design at least some portion of their own experiment and interpret new, undiscovered data. We have redesigned the introductory…

  3. Detsibill : D.I.Y. - Do it yourself. White label : DJ Critical. Kuula / DJ Pickney Tiger

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    DJ Pickney Tiger, pseud., 1970-

    2007-01-01

    Saksa rockansambli The 4 Sivits kontserdituurist Ida-Saksamaal, Slovakkias ja Tšehhis. DJ Criticali heliplaadist "Mixtape". Heliplaatidest: Muse "Black Holes & Revelations", Beck "The Information", Alice Russell "Under The Munka Moon", Scissor Sisters "Ta-Dah", "Biitparaadid", Fergie "The Dutchess", Sabrina Malheiros "Vibrasons", Bob Dylan "Modern Times", Nelja Ruusua "Ensi-Ilta", Marshmobil "Minx", James Morrison "Undiscovered"

  4. Authentic Voices Authentic Singing : A Multicultural Approach To Vocal Music Therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uhlig, S.

    2006-01-01

    This book presents the exclusive use of the authentic voice to highlight its virtuosity, healing potency and its importance to well-being. It demonstrates the powerful impact of the voice with clinical examples from mental health, medical and special education settings. In the book the undiscovered

  5. Front-End Electronics and Feature-Extraction Algorithm for the PANDA Electromagnetic Calorimeter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kavatsyuk, M.; Guliyev, E.; Lemmens, P. J. J.; Löhner, H.; Poelman, T. P.; Tambave, G.; Wang, YF; Hu, T

    2011-01-01

    The PANDA collaboration at FAIR, Germany, will employ antiproton annihilations to investigate yet undiscovered charm-mesons and glueballs aiming to unravel the origin of hadronic masses. A multi-purpose detector for tracking, calorimetry and particle identification is presently being developed to

  6. In the Beginning Was the Pun

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chemi, Tatiana

    1998-01-01

    This is a book on a still undiscovered Beckett: the theatre-maker who is making use of several forms for comedy. With text-analysis taken from the whole Beckett’s production and the most important staging of plays, the volume aims at disclosing Beckett’s attitude to humour and his specific knowle...

  7. CLEVER: Clique-Enumerating Variant Finder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marschall, T.; Costa, I.; Canzar, S.; bauer, m; Klau, G.W.; Schliep, A.; Schönhuth, A.

    2012-01-01

    Motivation: Next-generation sequencing techniques have facilitated a large-scale analysis of human genetic variation. Despite the advances in sequencing speed, the computational discovery of structural variants is not yet standard. It is likely that many variants have remained undiscovered in most

  8. Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... The records of sunspot number, sunspot areas and sunspot locations gathered over the centuries by various observatories are reanalysed with the aim of finding as yet undiscovered connections between the different parameters of the sunspot cycle and the butterfly diagram. Preliminary results of such ...

  9. Rethinking Defensive Information Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-06-01

    Countless studies, however, have demonstrated the weakness in this system.15 The tension between easily remembered passwords and suffi...vulnerabilities Undiscovered flaws The patch model for Internet security has failed spectacularly. Caida , 2004 Signature-Based Defense Anti virus, intrusion

  10. Can An Amended Standard Model Account For Cold Dark Matter?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldhaber, Maurice

    2004-01-01

    It is generally believed that one has to invoke theories beyond the Standard Model to account for cold dark matter particles. However, there may be undiscovered universal interactions that, if added to the Standard Model, would lead to new members of the three generations of elementary fermions that might be candidates for cold dark matter particles

  11. Constraints on Exotic Spin-Dependent Interactions Between Matter and Antimatter from Antiprotonic Helium Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ficek, Filip; Fadeev, Pavel; Flambaum, Victor V.; Jackson Kimball, Derek F.; Kozlov, Mikhail G.; Stadnik, Yevgeny V.; Budker, Dmitry

    2018-05-01

    Heretofore undiscovered spin-0 or spin-1 bosons can mediate exotic spin-dependent interactions between standard model particles. Here, we carry out the first search for semileptonic spin-dependent interactions between matter and antimatter. We compare theoretical calculations and spectroscopic measurements of the hyperfine structure of antiprotonic helium to constrain exotic spin- and velocity-dependent interactions between electrons and antiprotons.

  12. Global mineral resource assessment: porphyry copper assessment of Mexico: Chapter A in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Robinson, Gilpin R.; Ludington, Steve; Gray, Floyd; Drenth, Benjamin J.; Cendejas-Cruz, Francisco; Espinosa, Enrique; Pérez-Segura, Efrén; Valencia-Moreno, Martín; Rodríguez-Castañeda, José Luis; Vásquez-Mendoza, Rigobert; Zürcher, Lukas

    2010-01-01

    Mineral resource assessments provide a synthesis of available information about distributions of mineral deposits in the Earth’s crust. A probabilistic mineral resource assessment of undiscovered resources in porphyry copper deposits in Mexico was done as part of a global mineral resource assessment. The purpose of the study was to (1) delineate permissive areas (tracts) for undiscovered porphyry copper deposits within 1 km of the surface at a scale of 1:1,000,000; (2) provide a database of known porphyry copper deposits and significant prospects; (3) estimate numbers of undiscovered deposits within those permissive tracts; and (4) provide probabilistic estimates of amounts of copper (Cu), molybdenum (Mo), gold (Au), and silver (Ag) that could be contained in undiscovered deposits for each permissive tract. The assessment was conducted using a three-part form of mineral resource assessment based on mineral deposit models (Singer, 1993). Delineation of permissive tracts primarily was based on distributions of mapped igneous rocks related to magmatic arcs that formed in tectonic settings associated with subduction boundary zones. Using a GIS, map units were selected from digital geologic maps based on lithology and age to delineate twelve permissive tracts associated with Jurassic, Laramide (~90 to 34 Ma), and younger Tertiary magmatic arcs. Stream-sediment geochemistry, mapped alteration, regional aeromagnetic data, and exploration history were considered in conjunction with descriptive deposit models and grade and tonnage models to guide estimates.

  13. Spacetime replication of continuous variable quantum information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayden, Patrick; Nezami, Sepehr; Salton, Grant; Sanders, Barry C

    2016-01-01

    The theory of relativity requires that no information travel faster than light, whereas the unitarity of quantum mechanics ensures that quantum information cannot be cloned. These conditions provide the basic constraints that appear in information replication tasks, which formalize aspects of the behavior of information in relativistic quantum mechanics. In this article, we provide continuous variable (CV) strategies for spacetime quantum information replication that are directly amenable to optical or mechanical implementation. We use a new class of homologically constructed CV quantum error correcting codes to provide efficient solutions for the general case of information replication. As compared to schemes encoding qubits, our CV solution requires half as many shares per encoded system. We also provide an optimized five-mode strategy for replicating quantum information in a particular configuration of four spacetime regions designed not to be reducible to previously performed experiments. For this optimized strategy, we provide detailed encoding and decoding procedures using standard optical apparatus and calculate the recovery fidelity when finite squeezing is used. As such we provide a scheme for experimentally realizing quantum information replication using quantum optics. (paper)

  14. Special relativity and superluminal motions: a discussion of some recent experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Recami, E. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Milan (Italy)]|[Bergamo Univ., Bergamo (Italy). Fac. di Ingegneria]|[State Univ. of Campinas, Campinas (Brazil); Fontana, F. [Pirelli Cavi, Milan (Italy). R and D sector; Garavaglia, R. [Milan Univ., Milan (Italy). Dipt. di Scienze dell' Informazione

    2000-03-01

    Some experiments, performed at Berkeley, Cologne, Florence, Vienna, Orsay and Rennes led to the claim that something seems to travel with a group velocity larger than the speed c of light in vacuum. Various other experimental results seem to point in the same direction. For instance, localized wavelet-type solutions of Maxwell equations have been found, both theoretically and experimentally, that travel with superluminal speed. Even mounic and electronic neutrinos - it has been proposed - might be tachyons, since their square mass appears to be negative. With regard to the first mentioned experiments, it was very recently claimed by Guenter Nimtz that those results with evanescent waves or tunnelling photons - implying superluminal signal and impulse transmission - violate Einstein causality. This note, on the contrary, discusses that all such results do not place relativistic causality in jeopardy, even if they refer to actual tachyonic motions. In fact, special relativity can cope even with also the known paradoxes , devised for faster than light motion, even if this is not widely recognized. Here the paper shows, in detail and rigorously, how to solve the oldest casual paradox. originally proposed by Tolman, which is the kernel of many further tachyon paradoxes. The key to the solution is a careful application of tachyon mechanics, as it unambiguously follows from special relativity.

  15. Lorentz invariance violation in modified gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brax, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    We consider an environmentally dependent violation of Lorentz invariance in scalar-tensor models of modified gravity where General Relativity is retrieved locally thanks to a screening mechanism. We find that fermions have a modified dispersion relation and would go faster than light in an anisotropic and space-dependent way along the scalar field lines of force. Phenomenologically, these models are tightly restricted by the amount of Cerenkov radiation emitted by the superluminal particles, a constraint which is only satisfied by chameleons. Measuring the speed of neutrinos emitted radially from the surface of the earth and observed on the other side of the earth would probe the scalar field profile of modified gravity models in dense environments. We argue that the test of the equivalence principle provided by the Lunar ranging experiment implies that a deviation from the speed of light, for natural values of the coupling scale between the scalar field and fermions, would be below detectable levels, unless gravity is modified by camouflaged chameleons where the field normalisation is environmentally dependent.

  16. MONITORING THE BIDIRECTIONAL RELATIVISTIC JETS OF THE RADIO GALAXY 1946+708

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, G. B.; Charlot, P.; Vermeulen, R. C.; Pradel, N.

    2009-01-01

    We report on a multifrequency, multi-epoch campaign of Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) observations of the radio galaxy 1946+708 using the Very Long Baseline Array and a Global VLBI array. From these high-resolution observations, we deduce the kinematic age of the radio source to be ∼4000 years, comparable with the ages of other Compact Symmetric Objects. Ejections of pairs of jet components appears to take place on time scales of ten years and these components in the jet travel outward at intrinsic velocities between 0.6c and 0.9c. From the constraint that jet components cannot have intrinsic velocities faster than light, we derive H 0 > 57 km s -1 Mpc -1 from the fastest pair of components launched from the core. We provide strong evidence for the ejection of a new pair of components in ∼1997. From the trajectories of the jet components, we deduce that the jet is most likely to be helically confined, rather than being purely ballistic in nature.

  17. Sonoluminescence Explained by the Standpoint of Coherent Quantum Vacuum Dynamics and its Prospects for Energy Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxmilian Caligiuri, Luigi; Musha, Takaaki

    Sonoluminescence, or its more frequently studied version known as Single Bubble Sonoluminescence, consisting in the emission of light by a collapsing bubble in water under ultrasounds, represents one of the most challenging and interesting phenomenon in theoretical physics. In fact, despite its relatively easy reproducibility in a simple laboratory, its understanding within the commonly accepted picture of condensed matter remained so far unsatisfactory. On the other hand, the possibility to control the physical process involved in sonoluminescence, representing a sort of nuclear fusion on small scale, could open unthinkable prospects of free energy production from water. Different explanations has been proposed during the past years considering, in various way, the photoemission to be related to electromagnetic Zero Point Field energy dynamics, by considering the bubble surface as a Casimir force boundary. More recently a model invoking Cherenkov radiation emission from superluminal photons generated in quantum vacuum has been successfully proposed. In this paper it will be shown that the same results can be more generally explained and quantitative obtained within a QED coherent dynamics of quantum vacuum, according to which the electromagnetic energy of the emitted photons would be related to the latent heat involved in the phase transition from water's vapor to liquid phase during the bubble collapse. The proposed approach could also suggest an explanation of a possible mechanism of generation of faster than light (FTL) photons required to start Cherenkov radiation as well as possible applications to energy production from quantum vacuum.

  18. Special relativity and superluminal motions: a discussion of some recent experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recami, E.; Fontana, F.; Garavaglia, R.

    2000-03-01

    Some experiments, performed at Berkeley, Cologne, Florence, Vienna, Orsay and Rennes led to the claim that something seems to travel with a group velocity larger than the speed c of light in vacuum. Various other experimental results seem to point in the same direction. For instance, localized wavelet-type solutions of Maxwell equations have been found, both theoretically and experimentally, that travel with superluminal speed. Even muonic and electronic neutrinos - it has been proposed - might be tachyons, since their square mass appears to be negative. With regard to the first mentioned experiments, it was very recently claimed by Guenter Nimtz that those results with evanescent waves or tunnelling photons - implying superluminal signal and impulse transmission - violate Einstein causality. This note, on the contrary, discusses that all such results do not place relativistic causality in jeopardy, even if they refer to actual tachyonic motions. In fact, special relativity can cope even with also the known paradoxes , devised for faster than light motion, even if this is not widely recognized. Here the paper shows, in detail and rigorously, how to solve the oldest casual paradox. originally proposed by Tolman, which is the kernel of many further tachyon paradoxes. The key to the solution is a careful application of tachyon mechanics, as it unambiguously follows from special relativity

  19. Is Einsteinian no-signalling violated in Bell tests?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kupczynski Marian

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Relativistic invariance is a physical law verified in several domains of physics. The impossibility of faster than light influences is not questioned by quantum theory. In quantum electrodynamics, in quantum field theory and in the standard model relativistic invariance is incorporated by construction. Quantum mechanics predicts strong long range correlations between outcomes of spin projection measurements performed in distant laboratories. In spite of these strong correlations marginal probability distributions should not depend on what was measured in the other laboratory what is called shortly: non-signalling. In several experiments, performed to test various Bell-type inequalities, some unexplained dependence of empirical marginal probability distributions on distant settings was observed. In this paper we demonstrate how a particular identification and selection procedure of paired distant outcomes is the most probable cause for this apparent violation of no-signalling principle. Thus this unexpected setting dependence does not prove the existence of superluminal influences and Einsteinian no-signalling principle has to be tested differently in dedicated experiments. We propose a detailed protocol telling how such experiments should be designed in order to be conclusive. We also explain how magical quantum correlations may be explained in a locally causal way.

  20. Is Einsteinian no-signalling violated in Bell tests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupczynski, Marian

    2017-11-01

    Relativistic invariance is a physical law verified in several domains of physics. The impossibility of faster than light influences is not questioned by quantum theory. In quantum electrodynamics, in quantum field theory and in the standard model relativistic invariance is incorporated by construction. Quantum mechanics predicts strong long range correlations between outcomes of spin projection measurements performed in distant laboratories. In spite of these strong correlations marginal probability distributions should not depend on what was measured in the other laboratory what is called shortly: non-signalling. In several experiments, performed to test various Bell-type inequalities, some unexplained dependence of empirical marginal probability distributions on distant settings was observed. In this paper we demonstrate how a particular identification and selection procedure of paired distant outcomes is the most probable cause for this apparent violation of no-signalling principle. Thus this unexpected setting dependence does not prove the existence of superluminal influences and Einsteinian no-signalling principle has to be tested differently in dedicated experiments. We propose a detailed protocol telling how such experiments should be designed in order to be conclusive. We also explain how magical quantum correlations may be explained in a locally causal way.

  1. A myth for special relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epstein, L.

    1983-01-01

    A 'myth' for the special theory of relativity is presented as a series of questions and explanations of them. For example: Why can't one travel faster than light. The reason is that one can't go slower. There is only one speed. Everything is always moving at the speed of light; even if one is at rest in a chair. This is because one is moving through time. Other questions include; Why do clocks moving through space seem to run slower and slower as they travel faster and faster. If a spacecraft is moving through space at half the speed of light how fast would it be perceived moving through time. Why are there three space dimensions but only one time dimension. Why can movement be forward and backwards in space but only forward in time. Myths must explain what is found in nature and what is logically deduced from the myth must be found in nature. Supposing that the myth of special relativity is true makes calculations easier to do and the world easier to understand. (U.K.)

  2. Causal localizations in relativistic quantum mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castrigiano, Domenico P. L.; Leiseifer, Andreas D.

    2015-07-01

    Causal localizations describe the position of quantum systems moving not faster than light. They are constructed for the systems with finite spinor dimension. At the center of interest are the massive relativistic systems. For every positive mass, there is the sequence of Dirac tensor-localizations, which provides a complete set of inequivalent irreducible causal localizations. They obey the principle of special relativity and are fully Poincaré covariant. The boosters are determined by the causal position operator and the other Poincaré generators. The localization with minimal spinor dimension is the Dirac localization. Thus, the Dirac equation is derived here as a mere consequence of the principle of causality. Moreover, the higher tensor-localizations, not known so far, follow from Dirac's localization by a simple construction. The probability of localization for positive energy states results to be described by causal positive operator valued (PO-) localizations, which are the traces of the causal localizations on the subspaces of positive energy. These causal Poincaré covariant PO-localizations for every irreducible massive relativistic system were, all the more, not known before. They are shown to be separated. Hence, the positive energy systems can be localized within every open region by a suitable preparation as accurately as desired. Finally, the attempt is made to provide an interpretation of the PO-localization operators within the frame of conventional quantum mechanics attributing an important role to the negative energy states.

  3. Smashing physics inside the world's biggest experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Butterworth, Jon

    2014-01-01

    The discovery of the Higgs boson made headlines around the world. Two scientists, Peter Higgs and Francois Englert, whose theories predicted its existence, shared a Nobel Prize. The discovery was the culmination of the largest experiment ever run, the ATLAS and CMS experiments at CERN's Large Hadron Collider. But what really is a Higgs boson and what does it do? How was it found? And how has its discovery changed our understanding of the fundamental laws of nature? And what did it feel like to be part of it? Jon Butterworth is one of the leading physicists at CERN and this book is the first popular inside account of the hunt for the Higgs. It is a story of incredible scientific collaboration, inspiring technological innovation and ground-breaking science. It is also the story of what happens when the world's most expensive experiment blows up, of neutrinos that may or may not travel faster than light, and the reality of life in an underground bunker in Switzerland. This book will also leave you with a working...

  4. Smashing physics. Inside the world's biggest experiment; Der Kosmos im Crashtest. So haben wir das Higgs gejagt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butterworth, Jon [University College, London (United Kingdom). Fachbereich Physik und Astronomie

    2015-11-01

    The discovery of the Higgs boson made headlines around the world. Two scientists, Peter Higgs and Francois Englert, whose theories predicted its existence, shared a Nobel Prize. The discovery was the culmination of the largest experiment ever run, the ATLAS and CMS experiments at CERN's Large Hadron Collider. But what really is a Higgs boson and what does it do? How was it found? And how has its discovery changed our understanding of the fundamental laws of nature? And what did it feel like to be part of it? Jon Butterworth is one of the leading physicists at CERN and this book is the first popular inside account of the hunt for the Higgs. It is a story of incredible scientific collaboration, inspiring technological innovation and ground-breaking science. It is also the story of what happens when the world's most expensive experiment blows up, of neutrinos that may or may not travel faster than light, and the reality of life in an underground bunker in Switzerland. This book will also leave you with a working knowledge of the new physics and what the discovery of the Higgs particle means for how we define the laws of nature. It will take you to the cutting edge of modern scientific thinking.

  5. Zero time tunneling: macroscopic experiments with virtual particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nimtz Günter

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Feynman introduced virtual particles in his diagrams as intermediate states of an interaction process. They represent necessary intermediate states between observable real states. Such virtual particles were introduced to describe the interaction process between an electron and a positron and for much more complicated interaction processes. Other candidates for virtual particles are evanescent modes in optics and in elastic fields. Evanescent modes have a purely imaginary wave number, they represent the mathematical analogy of the tunneling solutions of the Schrödinger equation. Evanescent modes exist in the forbidden frequency bands of a photonic lattice and in undersized wave guides, for instance. The most prominent example for the occurrence of evanescent modes is the frustrated total internal reflection (FTIR at double prisms. Evanescent modes and tunneling lie outside the bounds of the special theory of relativity. They can cause faster than light (FTL signal velocities. We present examples of the quantum mechanical behavior of evanescent photons and phonons at a macroscopic scale. The evanescent modes of photons are described by virtual particles as predicted by former QED calculations.

  6. Firewalls and flat mirrors: An alternative to the AMPS experiment which evades the Harlow-Hayden obstacle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppenheim, Jonathan; Unruh, Bill

    2014-03-01

    If quantum gravity does not lead to a breakdown of predictability, then Almheiri-Marolf-Polchinski-Sully (AMPS) have argued that an observer falling into a black hole can perform an experiment which verifies a violation of entanglement monogamy — that late time Hawking radiation is maximally entangled with early time Hawking radiation and also with in-falling radiation — something impossible in quantum field theory. However, as pointed out by Hayden and Harlow, this experiment is infeasible, as the time required to perform the experiment is almost certainly longer than the lifetime of the black hole. Here we propose an alternative firewall experiment which could actually be performed within the black hole's lifetime. The alternative experiment involves forming an entangled black hole in which the unscrambling of information is precomputed on a quantum memory prior to the creation of the black hole and without acting on the matter which forms the black hole or emerges from it. This would allow an observer near a black hole to signal faster than light. As another application of our precomputing strategy, we show how one can produce entangled black holes which acts like "flat mirrors", in the sense that information comes out almost instantly (as in the Hayden-Preskill scenario), but also emerge unscrambled, so that it can actually be observed instantly as well. Finally, we prove that a black hole in thermal equilibrium with its own radiation, is uncorrelated with this radiation.

  7. A model-theory for tachyons in two dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recami, E.; Rodrigues Junior, W.A.

    1985-01-01

    The subject of Tachyons, even if still speculative, may deserve some attention for reasons that can be divided into a few categories, two of which are preliminarily mentioned right now; (i) the larger scheme that one tries to build up in order to incorporate space-like objects in the relativistic theories can allow a better understanding of many aspects of the ordinary relativistic physics, even if Tachyons would not exist in our cosmos as 'asymptotically free' objects; (ii) Superluminal classical objects can have a role in elementary particle interactions (and perhaps even in astrophysics); and it might be tempting to verify how far one can go in reproducing the quantum-like behaviour at a classical level just by taking account of the possible existence of faster-than-light classical particles. This article is divided in two parts, the first one having nothing to do with tachyons. In fact, to prepare the ground, in Part I (Sect. 2) it is merely shown that Special Relativity - even without tachyons - can be given a form such to describe both particles and anti-particles. The plan of Part II is confined only to a 'model-theory' of Tachyons in two dimensions, for the reasons stated in Sect. 3. (Author) [pt

  8. Space Drive Physics: Introduction and Next Steps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millis, M. G.

    Research toward the visionary goal of propellantless ``space drives'' is introduced, covering key physics issues and a listing of roughly 2-dozen approaches. The targeted advantage of a space drive is to circumvent the propellant constraints of rockets and the maneuvering limits of light sails by using the interactions between the spacecraft and its surrounding space for propulsion. At present, the scientific foundations from which to engineer a space drive have not been discovered and, objectively, might be impossible. Although no propulsion breakthroughs appear imminent, the subject has matured to where the relevant questions have been broached and are beginning to be answered. The critical make-break issues include; conservation of momentum, uncertain sources of reaction mass, and the net-external thrusting requirement. Note: space drives are not necessarily faster- than-light devices. Speed limits are a separate, unanswered issue. Relevant unsolved physics includes; the sources and mechanisms of inertial frames, coupling of gravitation and electromagnetism, and the nature of the quantum vacuum. The propulsion approaches span mostly stages 1 through 3 of the scientific method (defining the problem, collecting data, and articulating hypotheses), while some have matured to stage 4 (testing hypotheses). Nonviable approaches include `stiction drives,' `gyroscopic antigravity,' and `lifters.' No attempt is made to gauge the prospects of the remaining approaches. Instead, a list of next-step research questions is derived from the examination of these goals, unknowns, and concepts.

  9. Lorentz invariance violation in modified gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brax, Philippe, E-mail: philippe.brax@cea.fr [Institut de Physique Theorique, CEA, IPhT, CNRS, URA 2306, F-91191Gif/Yvette Cedex (France)

    2012-06-06

    We consider an environmentally dependent violation of Lorentz invariance in scalar-tensor models of modified gravity where General Relativity is retrieved locally thanks to a screening mechanism. We find that fermions have a modified dispersion relation and would go faster than light in an anisotropic and space-dependent way along the scalar field lines of force. Phenomenologically, these models are tightly restricted by the amount of Cerenkov radiation emitted by the superluminal particles, a constraint which is only satisfied by chameleons. Measuring the speed of neutrinos emitted radially from the surface of the earth and observed on the other side of the earth would probe the scalar field profile of modified gravity models in dense environments. We argue that the test of the equivalence principle provided by the Lunar ranging experiment implies that a deviation from the speed of light, for natural values of the coupling scale between the scalar field and fermions, would be below detectable levels, unless gravity is modified by camouflaged chameleons where the field normalisation is environmentally dependent.

  10. Tachyon dynamics — for neutrinos?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Charles

    2018-04-01

    Following earlier studies that provided a consistent theory of kinematics for tachyons (faster-than-light particles), we here embark on a study of tachyon dynamics, both in classical physics and in the quantum theory. Examining a general scattering process, we come to recognize that the labels given to “in” and “out” states are not Lorentz invariant for tachyons; and this lets us find a sensible interpretation of negative energy states. For statistical mechanics, as well as for scattering problems, we study what should be the proper expression for density of states for tachyons. We review the previous work on quantization of a Dirac field for tachyons and go on to expand earlier considerations of neutrinos as tachyons in the context of cosmology. We stumble into the realization that tachyon neutrinos would contribute to gravitation with the opposite sign compared to tachyon antineutrinos. This leads to the gobsmacking prediction that the Cosmic Neutrino Background, if they are indeed tachyons, might explain both phenomena of Dark Matter and Dark Energy. This theoretical study also makes contact with the anticipated results from the experiments KATRIN and PTOLEMY, which focus on beta decay and neutrino absorption by Tritium.

  11. Firewalls and flat mirrors: An alternative to the AMPS experiment which evades the Harlow-Hayden obstacle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oppenheim, Jonathan; Unruh, Bill

    2014-01-01

    If quantum gravity does not lead to a breakdown of predictability, then Almheiri-Marolf-Polchinski-Sully (AMPS) have argued that an observer falling into a black hole can perform an experiment which verifies a violation of entanglement monogamy — that late time Hawking radiation is maximally entangled with early time Hawking radiation and also with in-falling radiation — something impossible in quantum field theory. However, as pointed out by Hayden and Harlow, this experiment is infeasible, as the time required to perform the experiment is almost certainly longer than the lifetime of the black hole. Here we propose an alternative firewall experiment which could actually be performed within the black hole’s lifetime. The alternative experiment involves forming an entangled black hole in which the unscrambling of information is precomputed on a quantum memory prior to the creation of the black hole and without acting on the matter which forms the black hole or emerges from it. This would allow an observer near a black hole to signal faster than light. As another application of our precomputing strategy, we show how one can produce entangled black holes which acts like “flat mirrors”, in the sense that information comes out almost instantly (as in the Hayden-Preskill scenario), but also emerge unscrambled, so that it can actually be observed instantly as well. Finally, we prove that a black hole in thermal equilibrium with its own radiation, is uncorrelated with this radiation

  12. Ether formulations of relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffy, M.C.

    1980-01-01

    Contemporary ether theories are surveyed and criticised, especially those formally identical to orthodox Relativity. The historical development of Relativity, Special and General, in terms of an ether, is briefly indicated. Classical interpretations of Generalized Relativity using ether are compared to Euclidean formulations using a background space. The history of a sub-group of theories, formulating a 'new' Relativity involving modified transforms, is outlined. According to the theory with which they agree, recent supposed detections of drift are classified and criticised. Cosmological evidence suggesting an ether is mentioned. Only ether theories formally identical to Relativity have been published in depth. They stand criticised as being contrary to the positivist spirit. The history of mechanical analogues is traced, from Hartley's representing gravitating matter as spherical standing waves, to recent suggestions that vortex-sponge might model electromagnetic, quantum, uncertainty and faster-than-light phenomena. Contemporary theories are particular physical theories, themselves 'second interpretations' of a primary mathematical model. Mechanical analogues are auxiliary, not necessary, to other theory, disclosing relationships between classical and non-classical descriptions of assemblies charging state. The ether-relativity polemic, part of a broader dispute about relativity, is founded on mistaken conceptions of the roles of mathematical and physical models, mechanical analogues; and a distored view of history, which indicates that ether theories have become relativistic. (author)

  13. Locality and reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stapp, H.P.

    1980-01-01

    Einstein's principle that no signal travels faster than light suggests that observations in one spacetime region should not depend on whether or not a radioactive decay is detected in a spacelike-separated region. This locality property is incompatible with the predictions of quantum theory, and this incompatibility holds independently of the questions of realism, objective reality, and hidden variables. It holds both in the pragmatic quantum theory of Bohr and in realistic frameworks. It is shown here to hold in a completed realistic quantum theory that reconciles Einstein's demand for a description of reality itself with Bohr's contention that quantum theory is complete. This completed realistic quantum theory has no hidden variables, and no objective reality in which observable attributes can become definite independently of observers. The theory is described in some detail, with particular attention to those aspects related to the question of locality. This completed realistic quantum theory is in principle more comprehensive than Bohn's pragmatic quantum theory because it is not limited in principle by the requirement that the observed system be physically separated from the observing one. Applications are discussed

  14. Quantum measurement and the mind-brain connection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stapp, H.P.

    1990-01-01

    It is argued that quantum measurements do pose a problem, within the context created by the fundamental aim of science, which is identified as the construction of a cohesive, comprehensive, and rationally coherent idea of the nature of the world in which we live. Models of nature are divided into two classes: (1), those in which there is a selection process that, for any possible measurement, would, if that measurement were to be performed, pick out one single outcome, and, (2), all others. It is proved that any model of class that reproduces the predictions of quantum theory must violate the condition that there be no faster-than-light influences of any kind. This result is used to motivate the study of models in which unitary evolution is maintained and there is no selection of unique outcomes. A consideration of ontic probabilities, historical records, and the form of the mind-brain connection leads to an elaboration of the Everett many-worlds interpretation that appears to provide the basis of satisfactory solution of the measurement problem. 18 refs

  15. Smashing physics. Inside the world's biggest experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butterworth, Jon

    2015-01-01

    The discovery of the Higgs boson made headlines around the world. Two scientists, Peter Higgs and Francois Englert, whose theories predicted its existence, shared a Nobel Prize. The discovery was the culmination of the largest experiment ever run, the ATLAS and CMS experiments at CERN's Large Hadron Collider. But what really is a Higgs boson and what does it do? How was it found? And how has its discovery changed our understanding of the fundamental laws of nature? And what did it feel like to be part of it? Jon Butterworth is one of the leading physicists at CERN and this book is the first popular inside account of the hunt for the Higgs. It is a story of incredible scientific collaboration, inspiring technological innovation and ground-breaking science. It is also the story of what happens when the world's most expensive experiment blows up, of neutrinos that may or may not travel faster than light, and the reality of life in an underground bunker in Switzerland. This book will also leave you with a working knowledge of the new physics and what the discovery of the Higgs particle means for how we define the laws of nature. It will take you to the cutting edge of modern scientific thinking.

  16. Particle physics brick by brick atomic and subatomic physics explained... in LEGO

    CERN Document Server

    Still, Ben

    2017-01-01

    Using LEGO (R) blocks to create a uniquely visual and clear depiction of the way our universe is put together. This is the perfect introduction to the enigmatic and fascinating world of Quantum Physics.Our story starts with the Big Bang, and along the way, the constructs and interactions within and among atoms and sub-atomic particles, and the forces that play upon them, are clearly explained, with each LEGO (R) block representing a different atomic or sub-atomic particle. The different colours and size denote what that particle is and its relationship with the other 'building blocks'.Each chapter is presented in digestible chunks, using toy building blocks to illustrate the ideas and experiments that have led to some of the biggest discoveries of the past 150 years.Soon you'll be able to construct every element in the Universe using a box of LEGO (R) and this book!

  17. Precise atomic-scale investigations of material sputtering process by light gas ions in pre-threshold energy region

    CERN Document Server

    Suvorov, A L

    2002-01-01

    Foundation and prospects of the new original technique of the sputtering yield determination of electro-conducting materials and sub-atomic layers on their surface by light gas ions the pre-threshold energy region (from 10 to 500 eV) are considered. The technique allows to identify individual surface vacancies, i.e., to count individual sputtered atoms directly. A short review of the original results obtained by using the developed techniques is given. Data are presented and analyzed concerning energy thresholds of the sputtering onset and energy dependences of sputtering yield in the threshold energy region for beryllium, tungsten, tungsten oxide, alternating tungsten-carbon layers, three carbon materials as well as for sub-atomic carbon layers on surface of certain metals at their bombardment by hydrogen, deuterium and/or helium ions

  18. Is this the answer to God, the universe and all that?

    CERN Multimedia

    Adam, David

    2004-01-01

    They call it the God particle: a mysterious sub-atomic fragment that permeates the entire universe and explains how everything is the way it is. Nobody has ever seen the God particle; some say it doesn't exist but, in the ultimate leap of faith, physicists across the world are preparing to build one of the most ambitious and expensive science experiments the world has ever seen to try to find it (1 page)

  19. God, the universe and all that?

    CERN Multimedia

    Adam, David

    2004-01-01

    They call it the God particle: a mysterious sub-atomic fragment that permeates the entire universe and explains how everything is the way it is. Nobody has ever seen the God particle; some say it doesn't exist but, in the ultimate leap of faith, physicists across the world are preparing to build one of the most ambitious and expensive science esperiments the world has ever seen to try to find it (¾ page)

  20. The identity card of particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-11-01

    For each particle, this publication briefly and simply indicates its properties, recalls how it has been discovered, describes how it can be observed, and its role in sub-atomic physics. The presented particles are: antimatter, W"+ and W"- bosons, Z boson, electron, gluon, graviton, muon, electronic neutrino, muon neutrino, tau neutrino, atomic nucleus, photon, quark, top quark, U and D quarks, S and C quarks, and tau

  1. Towards an axiomatic model of fundamental interactions at Planck scale

    OpenAIRE

    Kiselev, Arthemy V.

    2014-01-01

    By exploring possible physical sense of notions, structures, and logic in a class of noncommutative geometries, we try to unify the four fundamental interactions within an axiomatic quantum picture. We identify the objects and algebraic operations which could properly encode the formation and structure of sub-atomic particles, antimatter, annihilation, CP-symmetry violation, mass endowment mechanism, three lepton-neutrino matchings, spin, helicity and chirality, electric charge and electromag...

  2. Qingshankou-Putaohua/Shaertu and Jurassic Coal-Denglouku/Nongan total petroleum systems in the Songliao Basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, Robert T.; Qiang, Jin; McCabe, Peter J.; Nuccio, Vito F.; Persits, Felix

    2003-01-01

    The Qingshankou-Putaohua/Shaertu petroleum system involves the generation of oil and gas from a mature pod of lacustrine source rock near the center of the Songliao Basin in northeastern China. The primary source rock is the Lower Cretaceous Qingshankou Formation, and a secondary source rock is Member 1 of the Lower Cretaceous Nenjiang Formation. The most productive of six sandstone reservoirs are the Putaohua reservoir (Member 1 of the Lower Cretaceous Yaojia Formation) and the Shaertu reservoir (Members 2 and 3 of the Yaojia Formation and Member 1 of the Nenjiang Formation). Most oil and associated gas generated from the Qingshankou Formation and Nenjiang Formation (Member 1) are trapped in large faulted anticlines, fault blocks, and faulted anticlinal noses in combination with facies-change and (or) diagenetic stratigraphic traps. Two assessment units are defined in the petroleum system: (1) an anticlinal assessment unit; and (2) a subtle-traps assessment unit consisting of (a) anticlinal noses in combination with fault or stratigraphic traps, (b) stratigraphic traps, and (c) unconventional reservoirs. Undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources are expected in both assessment units in small (5?10 million barrels of oil; 30?60 billion ft3 gas) and medium (10?25 million barrels of oil; 60?150 billion ft3 of gas) fields. Also, undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources are expected in several large fields (25?73 million barrels of oil; 150?173 billion ft3 of gas). The Jurassic coal?Dengloukou/Nongan petroleum system involves the generation of natural gas from multiple pods of mature source rock in graben structures at the base of the Songliao Basin. Sandstone and conglomeratic sandstone in the Lower Cretaceous Denglouku Formation and the Lower Cretaceous Quantou Formation are the major reservoir rocks. Most of the known natural gas is trapped in anticlines, anticlinal noses, and fault blocks. This petroleum system is largely unexplored in comparison to

  3. Cultural resources: Deaf Smith and Swisher County locations, Palo Duro Basin, Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-12-01

    Cultural resources are prehistoric and historic sites, including archeological and paleontological sites, that are important to a group of people. They are protected by both federal and state legislation. In the area covered by the Deaf Smith and Swisher County locations, four stages of cultural development have been identified: Paleo-Indian, Archaic, Ceramic (Neo-Indian or Neo-American), and Historic. Areas where undiscovered cultural resources are most likely to be found include sources of water, playa lakes, and historic trails. Because extensive surveying has not been done in either location, the number of identified sites is low. However, the potential for finding undiscovered sites is high for significant parts of both locations

  4. ECONOMICS AND APPRAISAL OF CONVENTIONAL OIL AND GAS IN THE WESTERN GULF OF MEXICO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attanasi, E.D.; Haynes, John L.

    1984-01-01

    The oil and gas industry frequently appraises undiscovered oil and gas resources on a regional basis to decide whether to start or continue exploration programs. The appraisals are of little value unless conditioned by estimates of the costs of finding and producing the resources. This paper presents an economic appraisal of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the western Gulf of Mexico. Also presented are a description of the model used to make the assessment, results of a sensitivity analysis, and a discussion of the implications of the results to the industry. The appraisal is shown to be relatively robust to changes in physical and engineering assumptions. Because the number of commercial discoveries was found to be quite sensitive to economic conditions, the analysis has important implications in terms of forecasting future industry drilling and other associated activities in the western Gulf of Mexico.

  5. Definition of Greater Gulf Basin Lower Cretaceous and Upper Cretaceous Lower Cenomanian Shale Gas Assessment Unit, United States Gulf of Mexico Basin Onshore and State Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennen, Kristin O.; Hackley, Paul C.

    2012-01-01

    An assessment unit (AU) for undiscovered continuous “shale” gas in Lower Cretaceous (Aptian and Albian) and basal Upper Cretaceous (lower Cenomanian) rocks in the USA onshore Gulf of Mexico coastal plain recently was defined by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The AU is part of the Upper Jurassic-Cretaceous-Tertiary Composite Total Petroleum System (TPS) of the Gulf of Mexico Basin. Definition of the AU was conducted as part of the 2010 USGS assessment of undiscovered hydrocarbon resources in Gulf Coast Mesozoic stratigraphic intervals. The purpose of defining the Greater Gulf Basin Lower Cretaceous Shale Gas AU was to propose a hypothetical AU in the Cretaceous part of the Gulf Coast TPS in which there might be continuous “shale” gas, but the AU was not quantitatively assessed by the USGS in 2010.

  6. Chapter 8: US geological survey Circum-Arctic Resource Appraisal (CARA): Introduction and summary of organization and methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charpentier, R.R.; Gautier, D.L.

    2011-01-01

    The USGS has assessed undiscovered petroleum resources in the Arctic through geological mapping, basin analysis and quantitative assessment. The new map compilation provided the base from which geologists subdivided the Arctic for burial history modelling and quantitative assessment. The CARA was a probabilistic, geologically based study that used existing USGS methodology, modified somewhat for the circumstances of the Arctic. The assessment relied heavily on analogue modelling, with numerical input as lognormal distributions of sizes and numbers of undiscovered accumulations. Probabilistic results for individual assessment units were statistically aggregated taking geological dependencies into account. Fourteen papers in this Geological Society volume present summaries of various aspects of the CARA. ?? 2011 The Geological Society of London.

  7. Research on uranium resource models. Part IV. Logic: a computer graphics program to construct integrated logic circuits for genetic-geologic models. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, W.A.; Turner, R.M.; McCammon, R.B.

    1981-01-01

    Integrated logic circuits were described as a means of formally representing genetic-geologic models for estimating undiscovered uranium resources. The logic circuits are logical combinations of selected geologic characteristics judged to be associated with particular types of uranium deposits. Each combination takes on a value which corresponds to the combined presence, absence, or don't know states of the selected characteristic within a specified geographic cell. Within each cell, the output of the logic circuit is taken as a measure of the favorability of occurrence of an undiscovered deposit of the type being considered. In this way, geological, geochemical, and geophysical data are incorporated explicitly into potential uranium resource estimates. The present report describes how integrated logic circuits are constructed by use of a computer graphics program. A user's guide is also included

  8. Porphyry copper assessment of northeast Asia: Far East Russia and northeasternmost China: Chapter W in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihalasky, Mark J.; Ludington, Stephen; Alexeiev, Dmitriy V.; Frost, Thomas P.; Light, Thomas D.; Briggs, Deborah A.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Wallis, John C.; Bookstrom, Arthur A.; Panteleyev, Andre

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey assesses resources (mineral, energy, water, environmental, and biologic) at regional, national, and global scales to provide science in support of land management and decision making. Mineral resource assessments provide a synthesis of available information about where mineral deposits are known and suspected to be in the Earth’s crust, which commodities may be present, and estimates of amounts of resources in undiscovered deposits.

  9. Interactive Visualization Systems and Data Integration Methods for Supporting Discovery in Collections of Scientific Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    projection for exploratory analysis. It also enables quantitative analysis. We show that this combination can be used to assisting users with the...cited in “Undiscovered Public Knowledge” Swanson succeeds in integrating Wilson’s ideas with Karl Popper’s critique of positivism from the 1934 “Logik...data that was performed in the prior studies. In this study, quantitative properties of the graph were used to identify records that merit

  10. Can Canada Avoid Arctic Militarization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-20

    global market and the evolution of new fracking technology for the extraction of shale hydrocarbons, the development of the Canadian Arctic might not...resources extraction . In hydrocarbons alone, the United States Geological Survey estimates that there are approximately 90 billion barrels of oil...1,669 trillion cubic feet of natural gas , and 44 billion barrels of natural gas liquids currently undiscovered in the Arctic, with 84 percent lying in

  11. Induced sclerotium formation exposes new bioactive metabolites from Aspergillus sclerotiicarbonarius

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lene Maj; Frisvad, Jens Christian; Knudsen, Peter Boldsen

    2015-01-01

    Sclerotia are known to be fungal survival structures, and induction of sclerotia may prompt production of otherwise undiscovered metabolites. Aspergillus sclerotiicarbonarius (IBT 28362) was investigated under sclerotium producing conditions, which revealed a highly altered metabolic profile. Four...... new compounds were isolated from cultivation under sclerotium formation conditions and their structures elucidated using different analytical techniques (HRMS, UV, 1D and 2D NMR). This included sclerolizine, an alkylated and oxidized pyrrolizine, the new emindole analog emindole SC and two new...

  12. Maintaining the Uranium Resources Assessment Data System and assessing the 1990 US uranium potential resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCammon, R.B.; Finch, W.I.; Grundy, W.D.; Pierson, C.T.

    1991-01-01

    The Energy Information Administration's (EIA) Uranium Resource Assessment Data System contains information on potential resources (undiscovered) of uranium in the United States. The purpose of this report is: (1) to describe the work carried out to maintain and update the Uranium Resource Assessment Data (URAD) System, (2) to assess the 1990 US uranium potential resources in various cost categories, and (3) to identify problems and to recommend changes that are needed to improve the URAD System. 13 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs

  13. New results in the search for B(s)0->mu+mu- from LHCb

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    The rare decays Bs0→μ+μ− and B0→μ+μ− are highly suppressed in the Standard Model and are sensitive to possible contributions from as-yet undiscovered particles. We present the latest results from LHCb in the search for these decays, including in the analysis 1.1 fb-1 of pp collision data accumulated at sqrt(s) = 8 TeV during 2012.

  14. A troglomorphic spider from Java (Araneae, Ctenidae, Amauropelma)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jeremy; Rahmadi, Cahyo

    2012-01-01

    Abstract A new troglomorphic spider from caves in Central Java, Indonesia, is described and placed in the ctenid genus Amauropelma Raven, Stumkat & Gray, until now containing only species from Queensland, Australia. Only juveniles and mature females of the new species are known. We give our reasons for placing the new species in Amauropelma, discuss conflicting characters, and make predictions about the morphology of the as yet undiscovered male that will test our taxonomic hypothesis. The description includes DNA barcode sequence data. PMID:22303127

  15. A Double-Blind, Randomized Study of Safety and Efficacy of OnabotulinumtoxinA (OnaBoNT-A) versus Oral Oxybutynin in SCI Patients with NDO (11-09-10-04)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Medical Center Research Office at 713-794-7918 or 713-794-7566. SAMPLE STORAGE : You are being asked to agree to allow samples of your urine samples ...research tests on your urine samples . Urine presents a rich source of information for bladder diseases and the biomarkers (the chemical VA FORM JAN...there are yet undiscovered reasons for urinary diseases. OPTIONAL RESEARCH: Future research projects using your urine samples may lead to better

  16. The Running Wheel Enhances Food Anticipatory Activity: An Exploratory Study

    OpenAIRE

    Flôres, Danilo E. F. L.; Bettilyon, Crystal N.; Jia, Lori; Yamazaki, Shin

    2016-01-01

    Rodents anticipate rewarding stimuli such as daily meals, mates, and stimulant drugs. When a single meal is provided daily at a fixed time of day, an increase in activity, known as food anticipatory activity (FAA), occurs several hours before feeding time. The factors affecting the expression of FAA have not been well-studied. Understanding these factors may provide clues to the undiscovered anatomical substrates of food entrainment. In this study we determined whether wheel-running activity,...

  17. Science yield estimation for AFTA coronagraphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traub, Wesley A.; Belikov, Ruslan; Guyon, Olivier; Kasdin, N. Jeremy; Krist, John; Macintosh, Bruce; Mennesson, Bertrand; Savransky, Dmitry; Shao, Michael; Serabyn, Eugene; Trauger, John

    2014-08-01

    We describe the algorithms and results of an estimation of the science yield for five candidate coronagraph designs for the WFIRST-AFTA space mission. The targets considered are of three types, known radial-velocity planets, expected but as yet undiscovered exoplanets, and debris disks, all around nearby stars. The results of the original estimation are given, as well as those from subsequently updated designs that take advantage of experience from the initial estimates.

  18. Porphyry copper assessment of the Mesozoic of East Asia: China, Vietnam, North Korea, Mongolia, and Russia: Chapter G in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludington, Steve; Mihalasky, Mark J.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Robinson, Giplin R.; Frost, Thomas P.; Gans, Kathleen D.; Light, Thomas D.; Miller, Robert J.; Alexeiev, Dmitriy V.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) collaborated with the China Geological Survey (CGS) to conduct a mineral resource assessment of Mesozoic porphyry copper deposits in East Asia. This area hosts several very large porphyry deposits, exemplified by the Dexing deposit in eastern China that contains more than 8,000,000 metric tons of copper. In addition, large parts of the area are undergoing active exploration and are likely to contain undiscovered porphyry copper deposits.

  19. DNA barcoding and traditional taxonomy unified through Integrative Taxonomy: a view that challenges the debate questioning both methodologies

    OpenAIRE

    Pires, Amanda Ciprandi; Marinoni, Luciane

    2010-01-01

    The taxonomic crisis, emphasized in recent years, is marked by the lack of popularity (lack of interest in taxonomy) and financial incentives to study biodiversity. This situation, coupled with the issues involved with the necessity of knowing many yet undiscovered species, has meant that new technologies, including the use of DNA, have emerged to revitalize taxonomy. Part of the scientific community, however, has rejected the use of these innovative ideas. DNA barcoding has especially been t...

  20. Opaque Communities: A Framework for Assessing Potential Homeland Security Threats from Voids on the Map

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    and the amount of undiscovered clandestine activity mounts.39 Although this rubric is interchangeable between actors, it does not adequately...public assistance. The FLDS twin communities at Short Creek exhibit the highest global prevalence of fumarase deficiency, a rare genetic disorder that...Physician Finds Rare Disease in FLDS Kids; Genetic Disorder: About 20 Cases Have Been Discovered in 15 Years in Two Polygamous Towns; Rare Disorder Not

  1. Ethics in Family Businesses and Venture Capital Firms : How managers manage ethical considerations and steer behavior

    OpenAIRE

    de Groot, Niels; Antonsson, Jimmy

    2012-01-01

    Business ethics is a fragmented and well covered scientific field. This Master thesis study concerns two type of organizations, namely family businesses (FB’s) and venture capital firms (VCF’s), in relation to the ethical decision-making process, which is a relatively undiscovered field. The study is conducted in the way it sheds a light on the influences on a manager when taking decisions concerning ethical considerations. Important scholars such as Colby and Kohlberg (1987) and Rest et al. ...

  2. Exponential Decline of Deep-Sea Ecosystem Functioning Linked to Benthic Biodiversity Loss

    OpenAIRE

    Danovaro, Roberto; Gambi, Cristina; Dell'Anno, Antonio; Corinaldesi, Cinzia; Fraschetti, Simonetta; Vanreusel, Ann; Vincx, Magda; Gooday, Andrew J.

    2008-01-01

    BackgroundRecent investigations suggest that biodiversity loss might impair the functioning and sustainability of ecosystems. Although deep-sea ecosystems are the most extensive on Earth, represent the largest reservoir of biomass, and host a large proportion of undiscovered biodiversity, the data needed to evaluate the consequences of biodiversity loss on the ocean floor are completely lacking.ResultsHere, we present a global-scale study based on 116 deep-sea sites that relates benthic biodi...

  3. Porphyry copper assessment of the Tibetan Plateau, China: Chapter F in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludington, Steve; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Robinson, Gilpin R.; Mars, John L.; Miller, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey collaborated with the China Geological Survey to conduct a mineral-resource assessment of resources in porphyry copper deposits on the Tibetan Plateau in western China. This area hosts several very large porphyry deposits, exemplified by the Yulong and Qulong deposits, each containing at least 7,000,000 metric tons (t) of copper. However, large parts of the area are underexplored and are likely to contain undiscovered porphyry copper deposits.

  4. A new genus of oak gallwasp, Cyclocynips Melika, Tang & Sinclair (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae: Cynipini), with descriptions of two new species from Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melika, George; Tang, Chang-ti; Sinclair, Frazer; Yang, Man-miao; Lohse, Konrad; Hearn, Jack; Nicholls, James A; Stone, Graham N

    2013-01-01

    A new genus of cynipid oak gallwasp-Cyclocynips Melika, Tang, & Sinclair (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae: Cynipini), with two new species--C. uberis and C. tumorvirgae--reared from galls on oaks of the Quercus subgenus Cyclobalanopsis is described from Taiwan. Descriptions of asexual generation adults and their diagnostic characters are presented. The likelihood of yet undiscovered sexual generations and the evolution of host-plant associations in these species are discussed.

  5. Cognitive-behavioural theory and symbolic interactionism in theory of resocialization

    OpenAIRE

    Maciej Bernasiewicz

    2011-01-01

    The author points out a, still undiscovered in theory of resocialization, stream of theoretical symbolic interactionism. At the same time he shows its terminological and historical connections with cognitive-behavioural theory, which has already managed to find a due place in theory of resocialization. Indeterminism present in the perception of a man, common for both ways of thinking and clear practical implications for resocialization practise that can be grasped from both, make it possible ...

  6. Self-ordered Porous Alumina Fabricated via Phosphonic Acid Anodizing

    OpenAIRE

    Akiya, Shunta; Kikuchi, Tatsuya; Natsui, Shungo; Sakaguchi, Norihito; Suzuki, Ryosuke O.

    2016-01-01

    Self-ordered periodic porous alumina with an undiscovered cell diameter was fabricated via electrochemical anodizing in a new electrolyte, phosphonic acid (H3PO3). High-purity aluminum plates were anodized in phosphonic acid solution under various operating conditions of voltage, temperature, concentration, and anodizing time. Phosphonic acid anodizing at 150-180 V caused the self-ordering behavior of porous alumina, and an ideal honeycomb nanostructure measuring 370-440 nm in cell diameter w...

  7. Lessons Learned from the Soviet Withdrawal from Afghanistan: Examples for U.S. Policy Concerning Central Asia and Afghanistan after 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    This trend needs to be reversed in order for these countries to develop economically. However, this economic challenge presents a chicken-and- egg ...relations between these countries and a better appreciation of their mutual interests. As with reducing remittances, this is another chicken-and- egg ...Michael E., Pitman, Janet K., Pollastro, Richard M., Cook , Troy A., and Tennyson, Marilyn E. “Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources of

  8. Challenges Encountered in Creating Personalised Learning Activities to Suit Students Learning Preferences

    OpenAIRE

    O'Donnell, Eileen; Wade, Vincent; Sharp, Mary; O'Donnell, Liam

    2013-01-01

    This book chapter reviews some of the challenges encountered by educators in creating personalised e-learning activities to suit students learning preferences. Technology-enhanced learning (TEL) alternatively known as e-learning has not yet reached its full potential in higher education. There are still many potential uses as yet undiscovered and other discovered uses which are not yet realisable by many educators. TEL is still predominantly used for e-dissemination and e-administration. This...

  9. Status of Heavy Neutrino Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Wynne, Benjamin; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The observation of neutrino oscillations raises the possibility that there exist additional, undiscovered high-mass neutrinos, giving mass to Standard Model neutrinos via the seesaw mechanism. By pushing the collider energy frontier at the LHC, the possibility arises that these heavy neutrinos may be produced and identified. We summarise the latest LHC results of searches for heavy neutrinos in a variety of final states.

  10. Geology and total petroleum systems of the Paradox Basin, Utah, Colorado, New Mexico, and Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whidden, Katherine J.; Lillis, Paul G.; Anna, Lawrence O.; Pearson, Krystal M.; Dubiel, Russell F.

    2014-01-01

    The geological model for the development of the Total Petroleum Systems (TPSs) within the Paradox Basin formed the foundation of the recent U.S. Geological Survey assessment of undiscovered, technically recoverable resources in the basin. Five TPSs were defined, of which three have known production and two are hypothetical. These TPSs are based on geologic elements of the basin and the potential development of Precambrian, Devonian, Pennsylvanian, Permian-Mississippian, and Cretaceous source rock intervals.

  11. Refining the Results of a Classical SELEX Experiment by Expanding the Sequence Data Set of an Aptamer Pool Selected for Protein A

    OpenAIRE

    Regina Stoltenburg; Beate Strehlitz

    2018-01-01

    New, as yet undiscovered aptamers for Protein A were identified by applying next generation sequencing (NGS) to a previously selected aptamer pool. This pool was obtained in a classical SELEX (Systematic Evolution of Ligands by EXponential enrichment) experiment using the FluMag-SELEX procedure followed by cloning and Sanger sequencing. PA#2/8 was identified as the only Protein A-binding aptamer from the Sanger sequence pool, and was shown to be able to bind intact cells of Staphylococcus aur...

  12. Geology and Nonfuel Mineral Deposits of Africa and the Middle East

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Cliff D.; Schulz, Klaus J.; Doebrich, Jeff L.; Orris, Greta; Denning, Paul; Kirschbaum, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    A nation's endowment of nonfuel mineral resources, relative to the world's endowment, is a fundamental consideration in decisions related to a nation's economic and environmental well being and security. Knowledge of the worldwide abundance, distribution, and general geologic setting of mineral commodities provides a framework within which a nation can make decisions about economic development of its own resources, and the economic and environmental consequences of those decisions, in a global perspective. The information in this report is part of a U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) endeavor to evaluate the global endowment of both identified and undiscovered nonfuel mineral resources. The results will delineate areas of the world that are geologically permissive for the occurrence of undiscovered selected nonfuel mineral resources together with estimates of the quantity and quality of the resources. The results will be published as a series of regional reports; this one provides basic data on the identified resources and geologic setting, together with a brief appraisal of the potential for undiscovered mineral resources in Africa and the Middle East. Additional information, such as production statistics, economic factors that affect the mineral industries of the region, and historical information, is available in U.S. Geological Survey publications such as the Minerals Yearbook and the annual Mineral Commodity Summaries (available at http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals).

  13. Natural gas potential in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    An independent assessment of the undiscovered gas potential in Canada was conducted by a group of volunteer geoscientists. This report is the first of a series of assessments that are planned to be issued every three to four years. Separate assessments were made of conventional gas resources, unconventional gas resources and frontier gas resources. The assessment for conventional gas resources was organized into three categories: (1) gas producing areas where new discoveries can be integrated into existing producing and transportation infrastructure, (2) frontier basins where gas discoveries have been made, but no production is currently underway, and (3) frontier areas where gas-containing sedimentary rocks are known to exist, but where no gas discoveries have been made to date. The committee used year-end 1993 reserves data from discovered pools in each exploration play to predict the undiscovered potential. Information about discovered pools, geological setting, geographic limits and pool sizes of undiscovered pools in each exploration play was provided. Results of the investigation led to the conclusion that the natural gas potential in Canada is in fact larger than hitherto expected. It was estimated that in the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin 47 per cent of the total volume of conventional gas is yet to be discovered. 152 figs

  14. The wrong place at the wrong time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Currie, R.G.G.

    1998-01-01

    An attempt was made to predict future oil and natural gas prices, taking into account recent developments such as the crisis in Asia and the Iraqi situation. While oil production in Canada is increasing, the author suggested that based on his review of the industry, this is not the time to be investing in oil and gas securities. Heavy oil production is growing faster than light oil production. Increasing volumes of heavy crude will find their way to refineries in the U.S. Midwest where they will compete with growing volumes from Mexico and Venezuela. The reversal of IPL's Line 9 will allow refineries in the Toronto and Sarnia areas to access imported crude, which will offer increased competition to western Canadian supply. All of this growing production and shrinking markets spell wide heavy oil differentials for some time to come and possibly even a discount on Canadian crude. Rising finding and development costs are reflecting the maturation of the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin. Industry response to increasing exploration and development costs has been to: (1) buy each other out, (2) develop heavy oil, and (3) drill offshore in pursuit of more oil, but all of these strategies have associated risks. The outlook in the international exploration field, the oilfield service sector, and the outlook for gas producers were also reviewed, and reasons for pessimism were found in all of them. Despite the current depressed state of the oil/natural gas market, the author believes that with the ebb and flow of economic events, the tide will come in again as it did in 1994 and 1996. When it does, producers will get a lift and heavy oil producers will get the biggest lift of all. 6 tabs., 8 figs

  15. Quantum Locality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapp, Henry P.

    2012-05-01

    Robert Griffiths has recently addressed, within the framework of a `consistent quantum theory' that he has developed, the issue of whether, as is often claimed, quantum mechanics entails a need for faster-than-light transfers of information over long distances. He argues that the putative proofs of this property that involve hidden variables include in their premises some essentially classical-physics-type assumptions that are not entailed by the precepts of quantum mechanics. Thus whatever is proved is not a feature of quantum mechanics, but is a property of a theory that tries to combine quantum theory with quasi-classical features that go beyond what is entailed by quantum theory itself. One cannot logically prove properties of a system by establishing, instead, properties of a system modified by adding properties alien to the original system. Hence Griffiths' rejection of hidden-variable-based proofs is logically warranted. Griffiths mentions the existence of a certain alternative proof that does not involve hidden variables, and that uses only macroscopically described observable properties. He notes that he had examined in his book proofs of this general kind, and concluded that they provide no evidence for nonlocal influences. But he did not examine the particular proof that he cites. An examination of that particular proof by the method specified by his `consistent quantum theory' shows that the cited proof is valid within that restrictive version of quantum theory. An added section responds to Griffiths' reply, which cites general possibilities of ambiguities that might make what is to be proved ill-defined, and hence render the pertinent `consistent framework' ill defined. But the vagaries that he cites do not upset the proof in question, which, both by its physical formulation and by explicit identification, specify the framework to be used. Griffiths confirms the validity of the proof insofar as that pertinent framework is used. The section also shows

  16. Experimentally generated randomness certified by the impossibility of superluminal signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierhorst, Peter; Knill, Emanuel; Glancy, Scott; Zhang, Yanbao; Mink, Alan; Jordan, Stephen; Rommal, Andrea; Liu, Yi-Kai; Christensen, Bradley; Nam, Sae Woo; Stevens, Martin J; Shalm, Lynden K

    2018-04-01

    From dice to modern electronic circuits, there have been many attempts to build better devices to generate random numbers. Randomness is fundamental to security and cryptographic systems and to safeguarding privacy. A key challenge with random-number generators is that it is hard to ensure that their outputs are unpredictable 1-3 . For a random-number generator based on a physical process, such as a noisy classical system or an elementary quantum measurement, a detailed model that describes the underlying physics is necessary to assert unpredictability. Imperfections in the model compromise the integrity of the device. However, it is possible to exploit the phenomenon of quantum non-locality with a loophole-free Bell test to build a random-number generator that can produce output that is unpredictable to any adversary that is limited only by general physical principles, such as special relativity 1-11 . With recent technological developments, it is now possible to carry out such a loophole-free Bell test 12-14,22 . Here we present certified randomness obtained from a photonic Bell experiment and extract 1,024 random bits that are uniformly distributed to within 10 -12 . These random bits could not have been predicted according to any physical theory that prohibits faster-than-light (superluminal) signalling and that allows independent measurement choices. To certify and quantify the randomness, we describe a protocol that is optimized for devices that are characterized by a low per-trial violation of Bell inequalities. Future random-number generators based on loophole-free Bell tests may have a role in increasing the security and trust of our cryptographic systems and infrastructure.

  17. Determination of the Flux-distance Relationship for Pulsars in the Parkes Multibeam Survey: Violation of the Inverse Square Law Gives Support for a New Model of Pulsar Emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singleton, John; Sengupta, P.; Middleditch, J.; Graves, T.; Schmidt, A.; Perez, M.; Ardavan, H.; Ardavan, A.; Fasel, J.

    2010-01-01

    Soon after the discovery of pulsars, it was realized that their unique periodic emissions must be associated with a source that rotates. Despite this insight and forty one years of subsequent effort, a detailed understanding of the pulsar emission mechanism has proved elusive. Here, using data for 983 pulsars taken from the Parkes Multibeam Survey, we show that their fluxes at 1400 MHz (S(1400)) decay with distance d according to a non-standard power-law; we suggest that S(1400) is proportional to 1/d. This distance dependence is revealed by two independent statistical techniques, (i) the Maximum Likelihood Method and (ii) analysis of the distance evolution of the cumulative distribution functions of pulsar flux. Moreover, the derived power law is valid for both millisecond and longer-period pulsars, and is robust against possible errors in the NE2001 method for obtaining pulsar distances from dispersion measure. This observation provides strong support for a mechanism of pulsar emission due to superluminal (faster than light in vacuo) polarization currents. Such superluminal polarization currents have been extensively studied by Bolotovskii, Ginzburg and others, who showed both that they do not violate Special Relativity (since the oppositely-charged particles that make them move relatively slowly) and that they form a bona-fide source term in Maxwell's equations. Subsequently, emission of radiation by superluminal polarization currents was demonstrated in laboratory experiments. By extending these ideas to a superluminal polarization current whose distribution pattern follows a circular orbit, we can explain the 1/d dependence of the flux suggested by our analyses of the observational data. In addition, we show that a model of pulsar emission due to such a rotating superluminal polarization current can predict the the frequency spectrum of nine pulsars over 16 orders of magnitude of frequency quantitatively. This work is supported by the DoE LDRD program at Los

  18. Can EPR non-locality be geometrical?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ne'eman, Y.

    1995-01-01

    The presence in Quantum Mechanics of non-local correlations is one of the two fundamentally non-intuitive features of that theory. The non-local correlations themselves fall into two classes: EPR and Geometrical. The non-local characteristics of the geometrical type are well-understood and are not suspected of possibly generating acausal features, such as faster-than-light propagation of information. This has especially become true since the emergence of a geometrical treatment for the relevant gauge theories, i.e. Fiber Bundle geometry, in which the quantum non-localities are seen to correspond to pure homotopy considerations. This aspect is reviewed in section 2. Contrary-wise, from its very conception, the EPR situation was felt to be paradoxical. It has been suggested that the non-local features of EPR might also derive from geometrical considerations, like all other non-local characteristics of QM. In[7], one of the authors was able to point out several plausibility arguments for this thesis, emphasizing in particular similarities between the non-local correlations provided by any gauge field theory and those required by the preservation of the quantum numbers of the original EPR state-vector, throughout its spatially-extended mode. The derivation was, however, somewhat incomplete, especially because of the apparent difference between, on the one hand, the closed spatial loops arising in the analysis of the geometrical non-localities, from Aharonov-Bohm and Berry phases to magnetic monopoles and instantons, and on the other hand, in the EPR case, the open line drawn by the positions of the two moving decay products of the disintegrating particle. In what follows, the authors endeavor to remove this obstacle and show that as in all other QM non-localities, EPR is somehow related to closed loops, almost involving homotopy considerations. They develop this view in section 3

  19. Porphyry copper assessment of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt and eastern Tethysides: China, Mongolia, Russia, Pakistan, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, and India: Chapter X in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihalasky, Mark J.; Ludington, Stephen; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Alexeiev, Dmitriy V.; Frost, Thomas P.; Light, Thomas D.; Robinson, Gilpin R.; Briggs, Deborah A.; Wallis, John C.; Miller, Robert J.; Bookstrom, Arthur A.; Panteleyev, Andre; Chitalin, Andre; Seltmann, Reimar; Guangsheng, Yan; Changyun, Lian; Jingwen, Mao; Jinyi, Li; Keyan, Xiao; Ruizhao, Qiu; Jianbao, Shao; Gangyi, Shai; Yuliang, Du

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey collaborated with international colleagues to assess undiscovered resources in porphyry copper deposits in the Central Asian Orogenic Belt and eastern Tethysides. These areas host 20 known porphyry copper deposits, including the world class Oyu Tolgoi deposit in Mongolia that was discovered in the late 1990s. The study area covers major parts of the world’s largest orogenic systems. The Central Asian Orogenic Belt is a collage of amalgamated Precambrian through Mesozoic terranes that extends from the Ural Mountains in the west nearly to the Pacific Coast of Asia in the east and records the evolution and final closure of the Paleo-Asian Ocean in Permian time. The eastern Tethysides, the orogenic belt to the south of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt, records the evolution of another ancient ocean system, the Tethys Ocean. The evolution of these orogenic belts involved magmatism associated with a variety of geologic settings appropriate for formation of porphyry copper deposits, including subduction-related island arcs, continental arcs, and collisional and postconvergent settings. The original settings are difficult to trace because the arcs have been complexly deformed and dismembered by younger tectonic events. Twelve mineral resource assessment tracts were delineated to be permissive for the occurrence of porphyry copper deposits based on mapped and inferred subsurface distributions of igneous rocks of specific age ranges and compositions. These include (1) nine Paleozoic tracts in the Central Asian Orogenic Belt, which range in area from about 60,000 to 800,000 square kilometers (km2); (2) a complex area of about 400,000 km2 on the northern margin of the Tethysides, the Qinling-Dabie tract, which spans central China and areas to the west, encompassing Paleozoic through Triassic igneous rocks that formed in diverse settings; and (3) assemblages of late Paleozoic and Mesozoic rocks that define two other tracts in the Tethysides, the 100

  20. Nobel prize winner returns home to tell a fascinating 'Big Science' story

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angiolillo, C.; Dranga, R.

    2015-01-01

    This paper is about the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) experiment. SNO achieved a major breakthrough on the study of the behavior of an elementary and enigmatic particle of the universe - the neutrino. The experiment was the result of the synthesis of over 30-years of work on particle physics, astrophysics and nuclear science that saw early germination at Chalk River Laboratories. Preliminary SNO results led to a major leap forward on how to measure sub-atomic phenomena that were never used to this extent before and have also provided new insights into the Standard Model of physics, and indeed in our fundamental understanding of the entire universe.

  1. Inexpensive Mie scattering experiment for the classroom manufactured by 3D printing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scholz, Christian; Sack, Achim; Heckel, Michael; Pöschel, Thorsten

    2016-01-01

    Scattering experiments are fundamental for structure analysis of matter on molecular, atomic and sub-atomic length scales. In contrast, it is not standard to demonstrate optical scattering experiments on the undergraduate level beyond simple diffraction gratings. We present an inexpensive Mie scattering setup manufactured with 3D printing and open hardware. The experiment can be used to determine the particle size in dilute monodisperse colloidal suspensions with surprisingly high accuracy and is, thus, suitable to demonstrate relations between scattering measurements and microscopic properties of particles within undergraduate lab course projects. (paper)

  2. Cosmogenesis the growth of order in the universe

    CERN Document Server

    Layzer, David

    1990-01-01

    Eminent Harvard astrophysicist David Layzer offers readers a unified theory of natural order and its origins, from the permanence, stability, and orderliness of sub-atomic particles to the evolution of the human mind. Cosmogenesis provides the first extended account of a controversial theory that connects quantum mechanics with the second law of thermodynamics, and presents novel resolutions of longstanding paradoxes in these theories, such as those of Schroedinger's cat and the arrow of time. Layzer's main concerns in the second half of the book are with the philosophical issues surrounding s

  3. Nobel prize winner returns home to tell a fascinating 'Big Science' story

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angiolillo, C.; Dranga, R. [Canadian Nuclear Laboratories, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada)

    2015-12-15

    This paper is about the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) experiment. SNO achieved a major breakthrough on the study of the behavior of an elementary and enigmatic particle of the universe - the neutrino. The experiment was the result of the synthesis of over 30-years of work on particle physics, astrophysics and nuclear science that saw early germination at Chalk River Laboratories. Preliminary SNO results led to a major leap forward on how to measure sub-atomic phenomena that were never used to this extent before and have also provided new insights into the Standard Model of physics, and indeed in our fundamental understanding of the entire universe.

  4. One century of cosmic rays – A particle physicist's view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutton Christine

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Experiments on cosmic rays and the elementary particles share a common history that dates back to the 19th century. Following the discovery of radioactivity in the 1890s, the paths of the two fields intertwined, especially during the decades after the discovery of cosmic rays. Experiments demonstrated that the primary cosmic rays are positively charged particles, while other studies of cosmic rays revealed various new sub-atomic particles, including the first antiparticle. Techniques developed in common led to the birth of neutrino astronomy in 1987 and the first observation of a cosmic γ-ray source by a ground-based cosmic-ray telescope in 1989.

  5. Quantum enigma physics encounters consciousness

    CERN Document Server

    Rosenblum, Bruce

    2012-01-01

    Everyone knows that sub-atomic particles have some very strange qualities. Light sometimes behaves like a particle, sometimes like a wave. Objects separated by vast distances interact faster than the speed of light – what Einstein called ‘spooky action at a distance'. Most strangely, the behaviour of objects somehow seems to be determined in retrospect, depending on what the observer is looking for. In this ground-breaking work the authors show how these quantum properties are being observed in larger and larger objects. They set out carefully and cautiously exactly what quantum theory

  6. Paladin Enterprises: Monolithic particle physics models global climate.

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Paladin Enterprises presents a monolithic particle model of the universe which will be used by them to build an economical fusion energy system. The model is an extension of the work done by James Clerk Maxwell. Essentially, gravity is unified with electro-magnetic forces and shown to be a product of a closed loop current system, i.e. a particle - monolithic or sub atomic. This discovery explains rapid global climate changes which are evident in the geological record and also provides an explanation for recent changes in the global climate.

  7. The Big Bang and the Search for a Theory of Everything

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogut, Alan

    2010-01-01

    How did the universe begin? Is the gravitational physics that governs the shape and evolution of the cosmos connected in a fundamental way to the sub-atomic physics of particle colliders? Light from the Big Bang still permeates the universe and carries within it faint clues to the physics at the start of space and time. I will describe how current and planned measurements of the cosmic microwave background will observe the Big Bang to provide new insight into a "Theory of Everything" uniting the physics of the very large with the physics of the very small.

  8. Particles and forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peierls, R.

    1981-01-01

    The particles and forces of matter, found in the Universe, are discussed with especial reference to some of the laws which govern behaviour in the sub-atomic world and which determine the way forces work to give matter its various characteristics. The recent history of the search for elementary constituents of matter in this century is outlined and the replacement of the simplicity anticipated in the 1930s by the proliferation of particle states uncovered in the 1950s and 1960s which led to the quark model is examined. (U.K.)

  9. Macroprocessing is the computing design principle for the times

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    In a keynote speech, Intel Corporation CEO Craig Barrett emphasized that "macroprocessing" provides innovative and cost effective solutions to companies that they can customize and scale to match their own data needs. Barrett showcased examples of macroprocessing implementations from business, government and the scientific community, which use the power of Intel Architecture and Oracle9i Real Application Clusters to build large complex and scalable database solutions. A testimonial from CERN explained how the need for high performance computing to perform scientific research on sub-atomic particles was accomplished by using clusters of Xeon processor-based servers.

  10. U.S. Geological Survey assessment of global potash production and resources—A significant advancement for global development and a sustainable future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocker, Mark D.; Orris, Greta J.; Wynn, Jeff

    2016-01-01

    During the past 15 yr, the global requirement for fertilizers has grown considerably, mainly due to demand by a larger and wealthier world population for more and higher-quality food. The demand and price for potash as a primary fertilizer ingredient have increased in tandem, because of the necessity to increase the quantity and quality of food production on the decreasing amount of available arable land. The primary sources of potash are evaporates, which occur mainly in marine salt basins and a few brine-bearing continental basins. World potash resources are large, but distribution is inequitable and not presently developed in countries where population and food requirements are large and increasing. There is no known substitute for potash in fertilizer, so knowledge of the world’s potash resources is critical for a sustainable future. The U.S. Geological Survey recently completed a global assessment of evaporite-hosted potash resources, which included a geographic information system–based inventory of known potash resources. This assessment included permissive areas or tracts for undiscovered resources at a scale of 1:1,000,000. Assessments of undiscovered potash resources were conducted for a number of the world’s evaporite-hosted potash basins. The data collected provide a major advance in our knowledge of global potash resources that did not exist prior to this study. The two databases include: (1) potash deposits and occurrences, and (2) potash tracts (basins that contain these deposits and occurrences and potentially undiscovered potash deposits). Data available include geology, mineralogy, grade, tonnage, depth, thickness, areal extent, and structure, as well as numerous pertinent references.

  11. Assessment of Appalachian basin oil and gas resources: Devonian gas shales of the Devonian Shale-Middle and Upper Paleozoic Total Petroleum System: Chapter G.9 in Coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: distribution, geologic framework, and geochemical character

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milici, Robert C.; Swezey, Christopher S.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Ryder, Robert T.

    2014-01-01

    This report presents the results of a U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) assessment of the technically recoverable undiscovered natural gas resources in Devonian shale in the Appalachian Basin Petroleum Province of the eastern United States. These results are part of the USGS assessment in 2002 of the technically recoverable undiscovered oil and gas resources of the province. This report does not use the results of a 2011 USGS assessment of the Devonian Marcellus Shale because the area considered in the 2011 assessment is much greater than the area of the Marcellus Shale described in this report. The USGS assessment in 2002 was based on the identification of six total petroleum systems, which include strata that range in age from Cambrian to Pennsylvanian. The Devonian gas shales described in this report are within the Devonian Shale-Middle and Upper Paleozoic Total Petroleum System, which extends generally from New York to Tennessee. This total petroleum system is divided into ten assessment units (plays), four of which are classified as conventional and six as continuous. The Devonian shales described in this report make up four of these continuous assessment units. The assessment results are reported as fully risked fractiles (F95, F50, F5, and the mean); the fractiles indicate the probability of recovery of the assessment amount. The products reported are oil, gas, and natural gas liquids. The mean estimates for technically recoverable undiscovered hydrocarbons in the four gas shale assessment units are 12,195.53 billion cubic feet (12.20 trillion cubic feet) of gas and 158.91 million barrels of natural gas liquids

  12. Subjective probability appraisal of uranium resources in the state of New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, J.R.; Harris, D.P.; VanWie, N.H.

    1975-12-01

    This report presents an estimate of undiscovered uranium resources in New Mexico of 226,681,000 tons of material containing 455,480 tons U 3 O 8 . The basis for this estimate was a survey of expectations of 36 geologists, in terms of subjective probabilities of number of deposits, ore tonnage, and grade. Weighting of the geologists' estimates to derive a mean value used a self-appraisal index of their knowledge within the field. Detailed estimates are presented for the state, for each of 62 subdivisions (cells), and for an aggregation of eight cells encompassing the San Juan Basin, which is estimated to contain 92 percent of the undiscovered uranium resources in New Mexico. Ore-body attributes stated as probability distributions enabled the application of Monte Carlo methods to the analysis of the data. Sampling of estimates of material and contained U 3 O 8 which are provided as probability distributions indicates a 10 percent probability of there being at least 600,000 tons U 3 O 8 remaining undiscovered in deposits virtually certain to number between 500 and 565. An indicated probability of 99.5 percent that the ore grade is greater than 0.12 percent U 3 O 8 suggests that this survey may not provide reliable estimates of the abundance of material in very low-grade categories. Extrapolation to examine the potential for such deposits indicates more than 1,000,000 tons U 3 O 8 may be available down to a grade of 0.05 percent U 3 O 8 . Supplemental point estimates of ore depth and thickness allowed derivative estimates of cost of development, extraction, and milling. 80 percent of the U 3 O 8 is estimated to be available at a cost less than dollars 15/lb (1974) and about 98 percent at less than dollars 30/lb

  13. A methodology for handling exploration risk and constructing supply curves for oil and gas plays when resources are stacked

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dallaire, S.M.

    1994-01-01

    The use of project economics to estimate full-cycle supply prices for undiscovered oil and gas resources is a straightforward exercise for those regions where oil and gas plays are not vertically superimposed on one another, ie. are not stacked. Exploration risk is incorporated into such an analysis by using a simple two-outcome decision tree model to include the costs of dry and abandoned wells. The decision tree model can be expanded to include multiple targets or discoveries, but this expansion requires additional drilling statistics and resource assessment data. A methodology is suggested to include exploration risk in the preparation of supply curves when stacked resources are expected and little or no information on uphole resources is available. In this method, all exploration costs for wells drilled to targets in the play being evaluated are assigned to that play, rather than prorated among the multiple targets or discoveries. Undiscovered pools are assumed to either bear all exploration costs (full cycle discoveries) or no exploration costs (half cycle discoveries). The weighted full- and half-cycle supply price is shown to be a more realistic estimate of the supply price of undiscovered pools in a play when stacked resources exist. The statistics required for this methodology are minimal, and resource estimates for prospects in other zones are not required. The equation relating the average pool finding cost to the discovery record is applicable to different scenarios regarding the presence of shallower and deeper resources. The equation derived for the two-outcome decision tree model is shown to be a special case of the general expression. 5 refs., 7 figs

  14. Eukaryote-wide sequence analysis of mitochondrial β-barrel outer membrane proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fujita Naoya

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The outer membranes of mitochondria are thought to be homologous to the outer membranes of Gram negative bacteria, which contain 100's of distinct families of β-barrel membrane proteins (BOMPs often forming channels for transport of nutrients or drugs. However, only four families of mitochondrial BOMPs (MBOMPs have been confirmed to date. Although estimates as high as 100 have been made in the past, the number of yet undiscovered MBOMPs is an open question. Fortunately, the recent discovery of a membrane integration signal (the β-signal for MBOMPs gave us an opportunity to look for undiscovered MBOMPs. Results We present the results of a comprehensive survey of eukaryotic protein sequences intended to identify new MBOMPs. Our search employs recent results on β-signals as well as structural information and a novel BOMP predictor trained on both bacterial and mitochondrial BOMPs. Our principal finding is circumstantial evidence suggesting that few MBOMPs remain to be discovered, if one assumes that, like known MBOMPs, novel MBOMPs will be monomeric and β-signal dependent. In addition to this, our analysis of MBOMP homologs reveals some exceptions to the current model of the β-signal, but confirms its consistent presence in the C-terminal region of MBOMP proteins. We also report a β-signal independent search for MBOMPs against the yeast and Arabidopsis proteomes. We find no good candidates MBOMPs in yeast but the Arabidopsis results are less conclusive. Conclusions Our results suggest there are no remaining MBOMPs left to discover in yeast; and if one assumes all MBOMPs are β-signal dependent, few MBOMP families remain undiscovered in any sequenced organism.

  15. Preliminary vitrinite and bitumen reflectance, total organic carbon, and pyrolysis data for samples from Upper and Lower Cretaceous strata, Maverick Basin, south Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackley, Paul C.; Dennen, Kristin O.; Gesserman, Rachel M.; Ridgley, Jennie L.

    2009-01-01

    The Lower Cretaceous Pearsall Formation, a regionally occurring limestone and shale interval of 500-600-ft maximum thickness (Rose, 1986), is being evaluated as part of an ongoing U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) assessment of undiscovered hydrocarbon resources in onshore Lower Cretaceous strata of the northern Gulf of Mexico. The purpose of this report is to release preliminary vitrinite and bitumen reflectance, total organic carbon, and pyrolysis data for Pearsall Formation, Glen Rose Formation, Hosston Formation, Austin Group, and Eagle Ford Group samples from the Maverick Basin in south Texas in order to aid in the characterization of these strata in this area. The preliminary nature of this report and the data contained herein reflect that the assessment and characterization of these samples is a work currently in progress. Pearsall Formation subdivisions are, in ascending stratigraphic order, the Pine Island Shale, James Limestone, and Bexar Shale Members (Loucks, 2002). The Lower Cretaceous Glen Rose Formation is also part of the USGS Lower Cretaceous assessment and produces oil in the Maverick Basin (Loucks and Kerans, 2003). The Hosston Formation was assessed by the USGS for undiscovered oil and gas resources in 2006 (Dyman and Condon, 2006), but not in south Texas. The Upper Cretaceous Austin Group is being assessed as part of the USGS assessment of undiscovered hydrocarbon resources in the Upper Cretaceous strata of the northern Gulf of Mexico and, along with the Upper Cretaceous Eagle Ford Group, is considered to be an important source rock in the Smackover-Austin-Eagleford Total Petroleum System (Condon and Dyman, 2006). Both the Austin Group and the Eagle Ford Group are present in the Maverick Basin in south Texas (Rose, 1986).

  16. Porphyry copper assessment of Southeast Asia and Melanesia: Chapter D in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Bookstrom, Arthur A.; Dicken, Connie L.; Drenth, Benjamin J.; Ludington, Steve; Robinson, Gilpin R.; Setiabudi, Bambang Tjahjono; Sukserm, Wudhikarn; Sunuhadi, Dwi Nugroho; Wah, Alexander Yan Sze; Zientek, Michael L.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey collaborated with member countries of the Coordinating Committee for Geoscience Programmes in East and Southeast Asia (CCOP) on an assessment of the porphyry copper resources of Southeast Asia and Melanesia as part of a global mineral resource assessment. The region hosts world-class porphyry copper deposits and underexplored areas that are likely to contain undiscovered deposits. Examples of known porphyry copper deposits include Batu Hijau and Grasberg in Indonesia; Panguna, Frieda River, and Ok Tedi in Papua New Guinea; and Namosi in Fiji.

  17. Extending Dylan's type system for better type inference and error detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehnert, Hannes

    2010-01-01

    a dynamically typed language. Dylan poses several special challenges for gradual typing, such as multiple return values, variable-arity methods and generic functions (multiple dispatch). In this paper Dylan is extended with function types and parametric polymorphism. We implemented the type system...... and aunification-based type inference algorithm in the mainstream Dylan compiler. As case study we use the Dylan standard library (roughly 32000 lines of code), which witnesses that the implementation generates faster code with fewer errors. Some previously undiscovered errors in the Dylan library were revealed....

  18. Norway between tradition and opening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mer, J.

    1996-01-01

    This book is a general presentation of Norway: natural and human framework, history, institutions and political life, economy, economic policy and means, foreign relations, and social life. In the chapter devoted to Norway's economy, the energy sources and policies of the country are described: hydro-power, coal, hydrocarbons (petroleum, natural gas and condensates, proven, discovered and undiscovered resources). The production, imports, exports, retail prices and national consumption are given for each energy sources and each economic sector. The chapter focusses on the deterministic role of energy in the Swedish economy: investments, contract management, balance of trade, public finances, employment etc.. (N.K.)

  19. submitter Flavour-changing neutral currents making and breaking the standard model

    CERN Document Server

    Archilli, F; Owen, P; Petridis, K A

    2017-01-01

    The standard model of particle physics is our best description yet of fundamental particles and their interactions, but it is known to be incomplete. As yet undiscovered particles and interactions might exist. One of the most powerful ways to search for new particles is by studying processes known as flavour-changing neutral current decays, whereby a quark changes its flavour without altering its electric charge. One example of such a transition is the decay of a beauty quark into a strange quark. Here we review some intriguing anomalies in these decays, which have revealed potential cracks in the standard model—hinting at the existence of new phenomena.

  20. Well-planned due diligence can protect buyers of healthcare entities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doty, L W; Campbell, A T

    2000-10-01

    Conducting a thorough due diligence is essential for any buyer that plans to acquire a healthcare entity, including a hospital or a group practice, because it provides an opportunity for the buyer to uncover billing or other fraud-and-abuse problems within the selling organization. These problems can be significant, because the buyer can be held liable for undiscovered billing problems that result in investigation, prosecution, and penalties. It is important for the buyer to ascertain who bears the liability of fraud-and-abuse violations and attempt to protect itself from assuming such liability.

  1. Population studies of the unidentified EGRET sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siegal-Gaskins, J M [University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Pavlidou, V [University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Olinto, A V [University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Brown, C [University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Fields, B D [University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States)

    2007-03-15

    The third EGRET catalog contains a large number of unidentified sources. Current data allows the intriguing possibility that some of these objects may represent a new class of yet undiscovered gamma-ray sources. By assuming that galaxies similar to the Milky Way host comparable populations of objects, we constrain the allowed Galactic abundance and distribution of various classes of gamma-ray sources using the EGRET data set. Furthermore, regardless of the nature of the unidentified sources, faint unresolved objects of the same class contribute to the observed diffuse gamma-ray background. We investigate the potential contribution of these unresolved sources to the extragalactic gamma-ray background.

  2. Population studies of the unidentified EGRET sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siegal-Gaskins, J M; Pavlidou, V; Olinto, A V; Brown, C; Fields, B D

    2007-01-01

    The third EGRET catalog contains a large number of unidentified sources. Current data allows the intriguing possibility that some of these objects may represent a new class of yet undiscovered gamma-ray sources. By assuming that galaxies similar to the Milky Way host comparable populations of objects, we constrain the allowed Galactic abundance and distribution of various classes of gamma-ray sources using the EGRET data set. Furthermore, regardless of the nature of the unidentified sources, faint unresolved objects of the same class contribute to the observed diffuse gamma-ray background. We investigate the potential contribution of these unresolved sources to the extragalactic gamma-ray background

  3. Photon-Graviton Interaction and CPH Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Javadi, Hossein; Forouzbakhsh, Farshid; Daei Kasmaei, Hamed

    2016-01-01

    , and the weak interaction by the W and Z bosons. The hypothesis is that the gravitational interaction is likewise mediated by a – yet undiscovered – elementary particle, dubbed the graviton. In the classical limit, the theory would reduce to general relativity and conform to Newton's law of gravitation......-renormalizable). Since classical general relativity and quantum mechanics are incompatible at such energies, from a theoretical point of view the present situation is not tenable. Some proposed models of quantum gravity attempt to address these issues, but these are speculative theories. Does a new definition...

  4. Potential of high resolution protein mapping as a method of monitoring the human immune system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, N.L.; Anderson, N.G

    1980-01-01

    Immunology traditionally deals with complex cellular systems and heterogeneous mixtures of effector molecules (primarily antibodies). Some sense has emerged from this chaos through the use of functional assays. Such an approach however naturally leaves a great deal undiscovered since the assays are simple and the assayed objects are complex. In this chapter some experimental approaches to immunological problems are described using high-resolution two-dimensional electrophoresis, a method that can resolve thousands of proteins and can thus begin to treat immunological entities at their appropriate level of complexity. In addition, the possible application of this work to the problem of monitoring events in the individual human immune system are discussed

  5. Genetic barcoding of dark-spored myxomycetes (Amoebozoa)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Mathilde Borg; Brejnrod, Asker Daniel; Unterseher, Martin

    2018-01-01

    Unicellular, eukaryotic organisms (protists) play a key role in soil food webs as major predators of microorganisms. However, due to the polyphyletic nature of protists, no single universal barcode can be established for this group, and the structure of many protistean communities remains...... unresolved. Plasmodial slime moulds (Myxogastria or Myxomycetes) stand out among protists by their formation of fruit bodies, which allow for a morphological species concept. By Sanger sequencing of a large collection of morphospecies, this study presents the largest database to date of dark...... match, thus thought to represent undiscovered diversity of dark-spored myxomycetes....

  6. Standard classification of uranium resources-an illustrative example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishna, P.M.; Babitzke, H.R.; Curry, D.; Masters, C.D.; McCammon, R.B.; Noble, R.B.; Rodriguez, J.A.; Schanz, J.J.; Schreiber, H.W.

    1983-01-01

    An example illustrates the use of ASTM Standard E901-82, Classification System for Uranium Resources. The example demonstrates the dynamic nature of the process of classification and attests to the necessity of addressing both the aggregate needs of broad-scale resource planning and the specific needs of individual property evaluation. Problems that remain in fixing the classification of a given uranium resource include the uncertainty in estimating the quantity of undiscovered resources and resolving the differences that may exist in deciding when the drill-hole spacing is adequate to determine the tonnage and grade of discovered resources

  7. Maintaining the uranium resources data system and assessing the 1991 US uranium potential resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCammon, R.B. (Geological Survey, Reston, VA (United States)); Finch, W.I.; Grundy, W.D.; Pierson, C.T. (Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States))

    1992-12-31

    The Energy Information Administration's (EIA) Uranium Resource Assessment Data (URAD) System contains information on potential resources (undiscovered) of uranium in the United States. The purpose of this report is: (1) to describe the work carried out to maintain and update the URAD system; (2) to assess the 1991 U.S. uranium potential resources in various cost categories; and (3) to describe the progress that has been made to automate the generation of the assessment reports and their subsequent transmittal by diskette.

  8. Maintaining the uranium resources data system and assessing the 1991 US uranium potential resources. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCammon, R.B. [Geological Survey, Reston, VA (United States); Finch, W.I.; Grundy, W.D.; Pierson, C.T. [Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States)

    1992-12-31

    The Energy Information Administration`s (EIA) Uranium Resource Assessment Data (URAD) System contains information on potential resources (undiscovered) of uranium in the United States. The purpose of this report is: (1) to describe the work carried out to maintain and update the URAD system; (2)to assess the 1991 U.S. uranium potential resources in various cost categories; and (3) to describe the progress that has been made to automate the generation of the assessment reports and their subsequent transmittal by diskette.

  9. Moths produce extremely quiet ultrasonic courtship songs by rubbing specialized scales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nakano, Ryo; Skals, Niels; Takanashi, Takuma

    2008-01-01

    level at 1 cm) adapted for private sexual communication in the Asian corn borer moth, Ostrinia furnacalis. During courtship, the male rubs specialized scales on the wing against those on the thorax to produce the songs, with the wing membrane underlying the scales possibly acting as a sound resonator....... The male's song suppresses the escape behavior of the female, thereby increasing his mating success. Our discovery of extremely low-intensity ultrasonic communication may point to a whole undiscovered world of private communication, using "quiet" ultrasound....

  10. Communicating with Light: A New Dawn in the Information Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raible, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    You and I are living in a very special time; the age of Solar System exploration. Our Solar System is a complex masterpiece of which we knew so little from our ground-based observations. But within the span of a single lifetime, NASA has sent spacecraft to every planet and several moons, our first eyes to set upon undiscovered lands. Before we endeavored on this journey everything we knew of Pluto could have fit on a single file card, and now we downlink new data every day.

  11. Measuring beauty

    CERN Document Server

    Wilkinson, G

    2017-01-01

    The LHCb experiment at CERN’s Large Hadron Collider is searching for undiscovered particles that may illuminate new truths about how nature operates at its tiniest scale. Instead of aiming to produce these new particles directly, LHCb scientists are hoping to detect the influence of "virtual" particles that pop briefly in and out of existence and influence conventional matter. Already the experiment has shown hints of odd particle behavior that cannot easily be explained by current laws of physics. More research will determine if these are the first glimpses of new lands on the particle map.

  12. FASP, an analytic resource appraisal program for petroleum play analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crovelli, R.A.; Balay, R.H.

    1986-01-01

    An analytic probabilistic methodology for resource appraisal of undiscovered oil and gas resources in play analysis is presented in a FORTRAN program termed FASP. This play-analysis methodology is a geostochastic system for petroleum resource appraisal in explored as well as frontier areas. An established geologic model considers both the uncertainty of the presence of the assessed hydrocarbon and its amount if present. The program FASP produces resource estimates of crude oil, nonassociated gas, dissolved gas, and gas for a geologic play in terms of probability distributions. The analytic method is based upon conditional probability theory and many laws of expectation and variance. ?? 1986.

  13. Calculating investment potential in South America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    Taxes and licensing provisions typically increase overall costs for private investors, and therefore impede private investment. In addition, the design and structure of tax systems in each country affect the extent to which financial risks are borne by private investors, rather than by the host government. Tax systems that increase perceived financial risks stemming from unpredictable oil prices, development costs and physical characteristics of undiscovered or undeveloped oil fields raise further impediments to private investment. This analysis focuses on both aspects of the investment climate--risk and return--and the way that investment incentives within three South American countries are influenced by tax and licensing regimes

  14. Neutral Scalar Higgs searches using Vector Boson Fusion at ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    De Jong, J K; Pinfold, J L

    2005-01-01

    The Higgs boson is the last undiscovered particle predicted by the Standard Model. Its discovery is key to our understanding of the electroweak symmetry breaking process and the origin of mass. The primary purpose of the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider is the discovery of this particle. This thesis evaluates the discovery potential of the ATLAS experiment for a Heavy Neutral Scalar Higgs boson, $\\text{M}_{H} \\ge 170 ~\\text{\\GEVCC}$, produced through vector boson fusion and decaying through the four physics channels : H$\\rightarrow$ZZ$\\rightarrow l^{+}l^{-}$+jj and H$\\rightarrow$WW$\\rightarrow l\

  15. Concerning the mass of the suggested sixth satellite of Uranus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steigmann, G.A.

    1979-01-01

    Comparison of the strength of resonances arising from the known satellites of Uranus in the vicinity of the α and γ rings, with the strengths of probable resonances at the β and delta rings, suggest that the β and delta rings might be associated with an undiscovered satellite of mass approximately 0.4 mass of Miranda. This satellite is predicted to be a 17 to 18 mag object moving in a near-circular orbit, of low inclination to the plane of the rings, at a distance of 105 221 km from Uranus. (author)

  16. Short Course Introduction to Quantitative Mineral Resource Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Donald A.

    2007-01-01

    This is an abbreviated text supplementing the content of three sets of slides used in a short course that has been presented by the author at several workshops. The slides should be viewed in the order of (1) Introduction and models, (2) Delineation and estimation, and (3) Combining estimates and summary. References cited in the slides are listed at the end of this text. The purpose of the three-part form of mineral resource assessments discussed in the accompanying slides is to make unbiased quantitative assessments in a format needed in decision-support systems so that consequences of alternative courses of action can be examined. The three-part form of mineral resource assessments was developed to assist policy makers evaluate the consequences of alternative courses of action with respect to land use and mineral-resource development. The audience for three-part assessments is a governmental or industrial policy maker, a manager of exploration, a planner of regional development, or similar decision-maker. Some of the tools and models presented here will be useful for selection of exploration sites, but that is a side benefit, not the goal. To provide unbiased information, we recommend the three-part form of mineral resource assessments where general locations of undiscovered deposits are delineated from a deposit type's geologic setting, frequency distributions of tonnages and grades of well-explored deposits serve as models of grades and tonnages of undiscovered deposits, and number of undiscovered deposits are estimated probabilistically by type. The internally consistent descriptive, grade and tonnage, deposit density, and economic models used in the design of the three-part form of assessments reduce the chances of biased estimates of the undiscovered resources. What and why quantitative resource assessments: The kind of assessment recommended here is founded in decision analysis in order to provide a framework for making decisions concerning mineral

  17. Permissive tracts for sediment-hosted lead-zinc-silver deposits in the Islamic Republic of Mauritania (phase V, deliverable 73): Chapter J in Second projet de renforcement institutionnel du secteur minier de la République Islamique de Mauritanie (PRISM-II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauk, Jeffrey L.

    2015-01-01

    Although Mississippi Valley-type (MVT) deposits have not been recognized in Mauritania there are permissive tracts for these deposits in the regionally extensive Proterozoic carbonate rocks of the Taoudeni Basin. Permissive tracts for undiscovered MVT Pb-Zn-Ag deposits in the Proterozoic carbonate units are supported by the occurrences of MVT mineral and alteration assemblages, presence of evaporites, proximity to major orogenic events that have produced MVT ores elsewhere, red bed sequences and basal aquifers that may have been potential brine migration pathways for large MVT hydrothermal systems.

  18. A Search for weakly interacting dark matter particles with low temperature detectors capable of simultaneously measuring ionization and heat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonnenschein, Andrew Harry [UC, Santa Barbara

    1999-01-01

    Lots of gravitating material that doesn't emit or absorb light seems to be required in all sensible accounts of the dynamics of large-scale structures in the universe. The nature and extent of this mysterious "dark matter" has been one of the central puzzles in cosmology over the last decade. This dissertation describes an experiment that tests one possibility, that the dark matter is in the form of undiscovered Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) produced as a thermal relic of the big bang. In this chapter, we will review the most important observations that suggest the dark matter must exist and discuss the forms it could take.

  19. Rhizosecretion of stele-synthesized glucosinolates and their catabolites requires GTR-mediated import in Arabidopsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Deyang; Hanschen, Franziska S.; Witzel, Katja

    2017-01-01

    Casparian strip-generated apoplastic barriers not only control the radial flow of both water and ions but may also constitute a hindrance for the rhizosecretion of stele-synthesized phytochemicals. Here, we establish root-synthesized glucosinolates (GLS) are in Arabidopsis as a model to study...... via the xylem to the shoot; and (iii) GTR-dependent import to GLS-degrading myrosin cells at the cortex. The study suggests a previously undiscovered role of the import process in the rhizosecretion of root-synthesized phytochemicals....

  20. Introduction to the 2008 Circum-Arctic Resource Appraisal (CARA) professional paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautier, Donald L.; Moore, Thomas E.; Moore, Thomas E.; Gautier, D.L.

    2017-11-15

    The amount of yet-to-find oil and gas in the high northern latitudes is one of the great uncertainties of future energy supply. The possibility of extensive new petroleum developments in the Arctic Ocean is of interest to the Arctic nations, to petroleum companies, and to those concerned with the delicate and changing Arctic environment. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) 2008 Circum-Arctic Resource Appraisal (CARA) had the express purpose of conducting a geologically based assessment of undiscovered petroleum north of the Arctic Circle, thereby providing an initial evaluation of resource potential. 

  1. Rare earth element and rare metal inventory of central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihalasky, Mark J.; Tucker, Robert D.; Renaud, Karine; Verstraeten, Ingrid M.

    2018-03-06

    Rare earth elements (REE), with their unique physical and chemical properties, are an essential part of modern living. REE have enabled development and manufacture of high-performance materials, processes, and electronic technologies commonly used today in computing and communications, clean energy and transportation, medical treatment and health care, glass and ceramics, aerospace and defense, and metallurgy and chemical refining. Central Asia is an emerging REE and rare metals (RM) producing region. A newly compiled inventory of REE-RM-bearing mineral occurrences and delineation of areas-of-interest indicate this region may have considerable undiscovered resources.

  2. Evaluation of mineral resource potential of the Finnish precambrian

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peltonen, K.

    1993-05-01

    In the report the undiscovered mineral resource potential of metallogenic regions in Finland is evaluated. The evaluation is based on known deposits. The criteria of the evaluation were: ore and mineral deposit density, regional distribution of valuable metals, and the amount and the nature of prospecting methods used. The information for the study has been collected from the data base for ore minerals maintained by the Geological Survey of Finland. Regions with mineral resource potential conclusively under national average are Presvecokarelidic and Svecokarelidic granitoids and rapakivi Massif. The mineral resource potential of basic rocks in relation to their surface area is multiple compared to non-basic rocks

  3. Novel anammox bacteria and nitrogen loss from Lake Superior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crowe, Sean A.; Treusch, Alexander H.; Forth, Michael

    2017-01-01

    and diversity of anammox bacteria in the world's largest freshwater lake - Lake Superior. We found that anammox performed by previously undiscovered bacteria is an important contributor to sediment N2 production. We observed striking differences in the anammox bacterial populations found at different locations...... within Lake Superior and those described from other locations. Our data thus reveal that novel anammox bacteria underpin N-loss from Lake Superior, and if more broadly distributed across inland waters would play an important role in continental N-cycling and mitigation of fixed nitrogen transfer from...

  4. Inferring demographic history from a spectrum of shared haplotype lengths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harris, Kelley; Nielsen, Rasmus

    2013-01-01

    There has been much recent excitement about the use of genetics to elucidate ancestral history and demography. Whole genome data from humans and other species are revealing complex stories of divergence and admixture that were left undiscovered by previous smaller data sets. A central challenge...... is to estimate the timing of past admixture and divergence events, for example the time at which Neanderthals exchanged genetic material with humans and the time at which modern humans left Africa. Here, we present a method for using sequence data to jointly estimate the timing and magnitude of past admixture...

  5. Particle physics and cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srednicki, M.

    1990-01-01

    At least eighty percent of the mass of the universe consists of some material which, unlike ordinary matter, neither emits nor absorbs light. This book collects key papers related to the discovery of this astonishing fact and its profound implications for astrophysics, cosmology, and the physics of elementary particles. The book focusses on the likely possibility that the dark matter is composed of an as yet undiscovered elementary particle, and examines the boundaries of our present knowledge of the properties such a particle must possess. (author). refs.; figs.; tabs

  6. Transmission of viral hepatitis by blood and blood derivatives: current risks, past heritage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prati, D

    2002-11-01

    For more than 40 years in the history of transfusion medicine, transmission of viral hepatitis from infected donors to recipients has been a frequent and serious adverse effect of the administration of blood components and plasma derivatives. This epidemic is now over, at least in developed and resource-rich countries. Hence, the attention of clinicians and investigators now focuses mainly on the measures to reduce the residual risk, on the possible emergence of novel or undiscovered agents causing post-transfusion hepatitis, and on the long-term outcome of patients who became infected more than ten years ago. The present article reviews these issues.

  7. Simulating atomic-scale phenomena on surfaces of unconventional superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreisel, Andreas; Andersen, Brian [Niels Bohr Institute (Denmark); Choubey, Peayush; Hirschfeld, Peter [Univ. of Florida (United States); Berlijn, Tom [CNMS and CSMD, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (United States)

    2016-07-01

    Interest in atomic scale effects in superconductors has increased because of two general developments: First, the discovery of new materials as the cuprate superconductors, heavy fermion and Fe-based superconductors where the coherence length of the cooper pairs is as small to be comparable to the lattice constant, rendering small scale effects important. Second, the experimental ability to image sub-atomic features using scanning-tunneling microscopy which allows to unravel numerous physical properties of the homogeneous system such as the quasi particle excitation spectra or various types of competing order as well as properties of local disorder. On the theoretical side, the available methods are based on lattice models restricting the spatial resolution of such calculations. In the present project we combine lattice calculations using the Bogoliubov-de Gennes equations describing the superconductor with wave function information containing sub-atomic resolution obtained from ab initio approaches. This allows us to calculate phenomena on surfaces of superconductors as directly measured in scanning tunneling experiments and therefore opens the possibility to identify underlying properties of these materials and explain observed features of disorder. It will be shown how this method applies to the cuprate material Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8} and a Fe based superconductor.

  8. Fixed-Target Electron Accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, William K.

    2001-01-01

    A tremendous amount of scientific insight has been garnered over the past half-century by using particle accelerators to study physical systems of sub-atomic dimensions. These giant instruments begin with particles at rest, then greatly increase their energy of motion, forming a narrow trajectory or beam of particles. In fixed-target accelerators, the particle beam impacts upon a stationary sample or target which contains or produces the sub-atomic system being studied. This is in distinction to colliders, where two beams are produced and are steered into each other so that their constituent particles can collide. The acceleration process always relies on the particle being accelerated having an electric charge; however, both the details of producing the beam and the classes of scientific investigations possible vary widely with the specific type of particle being accelerated. This article discusses fixed-target accelerators which produce beams of electrons, the lightest charged particle. As detailed in the report, the beam energy has a close connection with the size of the physical system studied. Here a useful unit of energy is a GeV, i.e., a giga electron-volt. (ne GeV, the energy an electron would have if accelerated through a billion volts, is equal to 1.6 x 10 -10 joules.) To study systems on a distance scale much smaller than an atomic nucleus requires beam energies ranging from a few GeV up to hundreds of GeV and more

  9. The Finsler spacetime framework. Backgrounds for physics beyond metric geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfeifer, Christian

    2013-11-15

    possible dependence of the speed of light on the relative motion between the observer and the light ray; modified dispersion relation and possible propagation of particle modes faster than light and the propagation of light on Finsler null-geodesics. Our Finsler spacetime framework is the first extension of the framework of general relativity based on non-metric Finslerian geometry which provides causality, observers and their measurements and gravity from a Finsler geometric spacetime structure and yields a viable background on which action based physical field theories can be defined.

  10. Quantum Locality?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stapp, Henry

    2011-11-10

    Robert Griffiths has recently addressed, within the framework of a ‘consistent quantum theory’ (CQT) that he has developed, the issue of whether, as is often claimed, quantum mechanics entails a need for faster-than-light transfers of information over long distances. He argues, on the basis of his examination of certain arguments that claim to demonstrate the existence of such nonlocal influences, that such influences do not exist. However, his examination was restricted mainly to hidden-variable-based arguments that include in their premises some essentially classical-physics-type assumptions that are fundamentally incompatible with the precepts of quantum physics. One cannot logically prove properties of a system by attributing to the system properties alien to that system. Hence Griffiths’ rejection of hidden-variable-based proofs is logically warranted. Griffiths mentions the existence of a certain alternative proof that does not involve hidden variables, and that uses only macroscopically described observable properties. He notes that he had examined in his book proofs of this general kind, and concluded that they provide no evidence for nonlocal influences. But he did not examine the particular proof that he cites. An examination of that particular proof by the method specified by his ‘consistent quantum theory’ shows that the cited proof is valid within that restrictive framework. This necessary existence, within the ‘consistent’ framework, of long range essentially instantaneous influences refutes the claim made by Griffiths that his ‘consistent’ framework is superior to the orthodox quantum theory of von Neumann because it does not entail instantaneous influences. An added section responds to Griffiths’ reply, which cites a litany of ambiguities that seem to restrict, devastatingly, the scope of his CQT formalism, apparently to buttress his claim that my use of that formalism to validate the nonlocality theorem is flawed. But the

  11. The Finsler spacetime framework. Backgrounds for physics beyond metric geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfeifer, Christian

    2013-11-01

    possible dependence of the speed of light on the relative motion between the observer and the light ray; modified dispersion relation and possible propagation of particle modes faster than light and the propagation of light on Finsler null-geodesics. Our Finsler spacetime framework is the first extension of the framework of general relativity based on non-metric Finslerian geometry which provides causality, observers and their measurements and gravity from a Finsler geometric spacetime structure and yields a viable background on which action based physical field theories can be defined.

  12. Evaluation of uranium resources. Problems and constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, R.M.

    1979-01-01

    Growing awareness that the era of cheap energy is over has led to current efforts by governments and international organizations to examine the question of the adequacy of energy resources on a global scale. Despite the relative success of the NEA and the IAEA efforts in the study of world uranium supply, there is a need for such studies to become still more comprehensive and broader in scope. A basic problem exists with respect to the lack of a universally accepted set of resource terms by which to classify resource estimates once they are made. Often voids exist in international assessments because of insufficient data with respect to known resources and occasionally because of a lack of expertise to make the required estimates. With respect to the assessment of undiscovered uranium resources, major constraints are the relatively embryonic state of methodology for assessment of undiscovered resources and the fact that the inventory of basic geology, geochemical, and geophysical data is either incomplete or non-existent in many parts of the world. Finally, once resource estimates are made, there is often an unclear understanding about when and at what rate the resources can be made available. Hopefully, current efforts will lead to a solution to some of the principal problems and constraints which may be impeding progress toward an expansion and improvement of world uranium resource assessments. (author)

  13. Total petroleum systems of the Pelagian Province, Tunisia, Libya, Italy, and Malta; the Bou Dabbous, Tertiary and Jurassic-Cretaceous composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klett, T.R.

    2001-01-01

    Undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources were assessed within total petroleum systems of the Pelagian Province (2048) as part of the U.S. Geological Survey World Petroleum Assessment 2000. The Pelagian Province is located mainly in eastern Tunisia and northwestern Libya. Small portions of the province extend into Malta and offshore Italy. Although several petroleum systems may exist, only two ?composite? total petroleum systems were identified. Each total petroleum system comprises a single assessment unit. These total petroleum systems are called the Bou Dabbous?Tertiary and Jurassic-Cretaceous Composite, named after the source-rock intervals and reservoir-rock ages. The main source rocks include mudstone of the Eocene Bou Dabbous Formation; Cretaceous Bahloul, Lower Fahdene, and M?Cherga Formations; and Jurassic Nara Formation. Known reservoirs are in carbonate rocks and sandstone intervals throughout the Upper Jurassic, Cretaceous, and Tertiary sections. Traps for known accumulations include fault blocks, low-amplitude anticlines, high-amplitude anticlines associated with reverse faults, wrench fault structures, and stratigraphic traps. The estimated means of the undiscovered conventional petroleum volumes in total petroleum systems of the Pelagian Province are as follows: [MMBO, million barrels of oil; BCFG, billion cubic feet of gas; MMBNGL, million barrels of natural gas liquids] Total Petroleum System MMBO BCFG MMBNGL Bou Dabbous?Tertiary 667 2,746 64 Jurassic-Cretaceous Composite 403 2,280 27

  14. Total petroleum systems of the Trias/Ghadames Province, Algeria, Tunisia, and Libya; the Tanezzuft-Oued Mya, Tanezzuft-Melrhir, and Tanezzuft-Ghadames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klett, T.R.

    2000-01-01

    Undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources were assessed within total petroleum systems of the Trias/Ghadames Province (2054) as part of the U.S. Geological Survey World Petroleum Assessment 2000. The Trias/Ghadames Province is in eastern Algeria, southern Tunisia, and westernmost Libya. The province and its total petroleum systems generally coincide with the Triassic Basin. The province includes the Oued Mya Basin, Melrhir Basin, and Ghadames (Berkine) Basin. Although several total petroleum systems may exist within each of these basins, only three “composite” total petroleum systems were identified. Each total petroleum system occurs in a separate basin, and each comprises a single assessment unit.The main source rocks are the Silurian Tanezzuft Formation (or lateral equivalents) and Middle to Upper Devonian mudstone. Maturation history and the major migration pathways from source to reservoir are unique to each basin. The total petroleum systems were named after the oldest major source rock and the basin in which it resides.The estimated means of the undiscovered conventional petroleum volumes in total petroleum systems of the Trias/Ghadames Province are as follows [MMBO, million barrels of oil; BCFG, billion cubic feet of gas; MMBNGL, million barrels of natural gas liquids]:Tanezzuft-Oued Mya 830 MMBO 2,341 BCFG 110 MMBNGLTanezzuft-Melrhir 1,875 MMBO 4,887 BCFG 269 MMBNGLTanezzuft-Ghadames 4,461 MMBO 12,035 BCFG 908 MMBNGL

  15. Recent experience with onshore oil and gas operations in the Mackenzie Delta, NWT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, J.

    1999-01-01

    Hydrocarbon deposits in the Beaufort Sea and Mackenzie Delta indicate mean discovered gas reserves of 5 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, 67 million barrels of condensate, and 247 million barrels of oil in fields located onshore. There may be even bigger undiscovered reserves that could be proven by a surge in drilling likely to occur in this region within the next few years. There are a number of characteristics of this area that appeal to the oil and gas industry over and above the discovered and undiscovered reserves. There is a local aboriginal group with a settled land claim, clear and reasonable rules for access, a business-like approach to development and a sophisicated understanding of the oil and gas industry. There is reasonable access by road, commercial air service, rail and barge by Hay river or sea with an excellent harbour at Tuktoyaktuk. Local contractors and labour with applicable skills and good equipment are available. The Inuvialuit Petroleum Corp. and its partners Altagas Services Inc. and Enbridge Inc. completed a project to supply the town of Inuvik with natural gas for electricity generation and local distribution. This project is a small example of the physical, economic and regulatory environments that the oil industry will face with the undertaking of larger projects. Aspects of the region described include: the Inuvialuit, recent experience, logistics, regulatory environment, project approvels, environmental, and specific observations

  16. Bioactive endophytes warrant intensified exploration and conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Stephen A; Tank, David C; Boulanger, Lori-Ann; Bascom-Slack, Carol A; Eisenman, Kaury; Kingery, David; Babbs, Beatrice; Fenn, Kathleen; Greene, Joshua S; Hann, Bradley D; Keehner, Jocelyn; Kelley-Swift, Elizabeth G; Kembaiyan, Vivek; Lee, Sun Jin; Li, Puyao; Light, David Y; Lin, Emily H; Ma, Cong; Moore, Emily; Schorn, Michelle A; Vekhter, Daniel; Nunez, Percy V; Strobel, Gary A; Donoghue, Michael J; Strobel, Scott A

    2008-08-25

    A key argument in favor of conserving biodiversity is that as yet undiscovered biodiversity will yield products of great use to humans. However, the link between undiscovered biodiversity and useful products is largely conjectural. Here we provide direct evidence from bioassays of endophytes isolated from tropical plants and bioinformatic analyses that novel biology will indeed yield novel chemistry of potential value. We isolated and cultured 135 endophytic fungi and bacteria from plants collected in Peru. nrDNAs were compared to samples deposited in GenBank to ascertain the genetic novelty of cultured specimens. Ten endophytes were found to be as much as 15-30% different than any sequence in GenBank. Phylogenetic trees, using the most similar sequences in GenBank, were constructed for each endophyte to measure phylogenetic distance. Assays were also conducted on each cultured endophyte to record bioactivity, of which 65 were found to be bioactive. The novelty of our contribution is that we have combined bioinformatic analyses that document the diversity found in environmental samples with culturing and bioassays. These results highlight the hidden hyperdiversity of endophytic fungi and the urgent need to explore and conserve hidden microbial diversity. This study also showcases how undergraduate students can obtain data of great scientific significance.

  17. Bioactive endophytes warrant intensified exploration and conservation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen A Smith

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available A key argument in favor of conserving biodiversity is that as yet undiscovered biodiversity will yield products of great use to humans. However, the link between undiscovered biodiversity and useful products is largely conjectural. Here we provide direct evidence from bioassays of endophytes isolated from tropical plants and bioinformatic analyses that novel biology will indeed yield novel chemistry of potential value.We isolated and cultured 135 endophytic fungi and bacteria from plants collected in Peru. nrDNAs were compared to samples deposited in GenBank to ascertain the genetic novelty of cultured specimens. Ten endophytes were found to be as much as 15-30% different than any sequence in GenBank. Phylogenetic trees, using the most similar sequences in GenBank, were constructed for each endophyte to measure phylogenetic distance. Assays were also conducted on each cultured endophyte to record bioactivity, of which 65 were found to be bioactive.The novelty of our contribution is that we have combined bioinformatic analyses that document the diversity found in environmental samples with culturing and bioassays. These results highlight the hidden hyperdiversity of endophytic fungi and the urgent need to explore and conserve hidden microbial diversity. This study also showcases how undergraduate students can obtain data of great scientific significance.

  18. Distribution and quantitative assessment of world crude oil reserves and resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, Charles D.; Root, David H.; Dietzman, William D.

    1983-01-01

    World Demonstrated Reserves of crude oil are approximately 723 billion barrels of oil (BBO). Cumulative production is 445 BBO and annual production is 20 BBO. Demonstrated Reserves of crude-oil have declined over the past 10 years consistent with discoveries lagging production over the same period. The assessment of Undiscovered Resources shows a 90 percent probability that the amount discoverable lies between 321 and 1,417 BBO, 550 BBO being the most likely value. The most likely value for Ultimate recoverable resources is 1,718 BBO. The distribution of Ultimate Resources of crude oil will remain highly skewed toward the Middle East; no frontier areas that have potentials large enough to significantly affect present distribution are recognized. Rates of discovery have continued to decline over the past 20 years even though exploration activity has increased in recent years. Prudence dictates, therefore, that the low side of the assessment of Undiscovered Resources be responsibly considered and that alternate energy sources be a part of future planning. Extra-heavy oil and bitumen are assessed separately, with Reserves being figured as the annual productive capacity of installed facilities times 25 years. The annual production of extra-heavy oil is about 8 million barrels and of bitumen about 60 million barrels.

  19. Shahejie-Shahejie/Guantao/Wumishan and Carboniferous/Permian Coal-Paleozoic Total Petroleum Systems in the Bohaiwan Basin, China (based on geologic studies for the 2000 World Energy Assessment Project of the U.S. Geological Survey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, Robert T.; Qiang, Jin; McCabe, Peter J.; Nuccio, Vito F.; Persits, Felix

    2012-01-01

    This report discusses the geologic framework and petroleum geology used to assess undiscovered petroleum resources in the Bohaiwan basin province for the 2000 World Energy Assessment Project of the U.S. Geological Survey. The Bohaiwan basin in northeastern China is the largest petroleum-producing region in China. Two total petroleum systems have been identified in the basin. The first, the Shahejie&ndashShahejie/Guantao/Wumishan Total Petroleum System, involves oil and gas generated from mature pods of lacustrine source rock that are associated with six major rift-controlled subbasins. Two assessment units are defined in this total petroleum system: (1) a Tertiary lacustrine assessment unit consisting of sandstone reservoirs interbedded with lacustrine shale source rocks, and (2) a pre-Tertiary buried hills assessment unit consisting of carbonate reservoirs that are overlain unconformably by Tertiary lacustrine shale source rocks. The second total petroleum system identified in the Bohaiwan basin is the Carboniferous/Permian Coal–Paleozoic Total Petroleum System, a hypothetical total petroleum system involving natural gas generated from multiple pods of thermally mature coal beds. Low-permeability Permian sandstones and possibly Carboniferous coal beds are the reservoir rocks. Most of the natural gas is inferred to be trapped in continuous accumulations near the center of the subbasins. This total petroleum system is largely unexplored and has good potential for undiscovered gas accumulations. One assessment unit, coal-sourced gas, is defined in this total petroleum system.

  20. Offshore industry executives meet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, R.F.

    1993-01-01

    The future of the Gulf of Mexico is tied to the overall future of oil/gas on the international market as it relates to the US. Conquering this last frontier, possibly only through development of technology, was one of the themes covered in the 21st Annual Meeting of the National Ocean Industries Association held in early April, 1993 in Washington, D.C. Oil is the major source for foreign exchange but there are major uncertainties in predicting the future. The swing (imports vs. exports) is two million barrels per day. The big oil users (heavy industry) have reduced consumption. The last big uncertainty is the environmental policies of the West. Development of resources in the Gulf was the third record year in a row in 1992. The potential for hydrocarbon discoveries is significant, a substantial number of new fields have been made and significant discoveries are likely to continue. More than 100 trillion cubic feet of natural gas lies undiscovered offshore - 35% of undiscovered domestic resources. The oil potential exceeds nine billion barrels, more than any other basin except Alaska

  1. Predicting microRNA-disease associations using label propagation based on linear neighborhood similarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guanghui; Luo, Jiawei; Xiao, Qiu; Liang, Cheng; Ding, Pingjian

    2018-05-12

    Interactions between microRNAs (miRNAs) and diseases can yield important information for uncovering novel prognostic markers. Since experimental determination of disease-miRNA associations is time-consuming and costly, attention has been given to designing efficient and robust computational techniques for identifying undiscovered interactions. In this study, we present a label propagation model with linear neighborhood similarity, called LPLNS, to predict unobserved miRNA-disease associations. Additionally, a preprocessing step is performed to derive new interaction likelihood profiles that will contribute to the prediction since new miRNAs and diseases lack known associations. Our results demonstrate that the LPLNS model based on the known disease-miRNA associations could achieve impressive performance with an AUC of 0.9034. Furthermore, we observed that the LPLNS model based on new interaction likelihood profiles could improve the performance to an AUC of 0.9127. This was better than other comparable methods. In addition, case studies also demonstrated our method's outstanding performance for inferring undiscovered interactions between miRNAs and diseases, especially for novel diseases. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. An Improved W Boson Mass Measurement Using the Collider Detector at Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, Yu [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States)

    2012-01-01

    The mass of the W boson is one of the most important parameters in the Standard Model. A precise measurement of the W boson mass, together with a precise measurement of the top quark mass, can constrain the mass of the undiscovered Higgs boson within the Standard Model framework or give a hint for physics beyond the Standard Model. This dissertation describes a measurement of the W boson mass through its decay into a muon and a neutrino using ~ 2.2 fb-1 of √ s = 1.96 TeV p$\\bar{p}$ data taken with the CDF II detector at Fermilab. We measure the W boson mass to be (80.374 ± 0.015stat. ± 0.016syst.) GeV/c2. This result, when combined with the W mass measurement in the electron channel, leads to the single most precise mW value and greatly constrains the possible mass range of the undiscovered Higgs boson. iv

  3. East coast gas - the big picture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drummond, K.J.

    1998-01-01

    The North American conventional gas resource base was reviewed and an explanation of how Canada's East coast fits into the overall picture was given. At 1996 year end, the total conventional ultimate natural gas resource base for North America was estimated to be 2,695 trillion cubic feet. The most important supply areas are Canada and the United States. Mexico and Alaska are expected to play only a minor role in the overall North American supply. Approximately half of the conventional gas estimated to exist in North America remains to be discovered. Only 78 per cent from the half that has been discovered has been produced, and only 22 per cent of it is remaining as reserves. Of the undiscovered natural gas resource, 38 per cent is in the frontier regions of Alaska and Canada. The growing importance of the East coast of North America as markets for natural gas was reviewed. The distribution of ultimate conventional marketable gas resources for Canada was described. The potential of the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin (WCSB) and selected frontier areas were assessed. The report showed an undiscovered conventional marketable gas estimate of 122 trillion cubic feet for the WCSB and 107 trillion cubic feet for the Frontier areas. The two most significant areas of discovery in eastern Canada were considered to be the Hibernia oil field on the Grand Banks and the Venture gas field of the Scotian Shelf. 2 tabs., 7 figs

  4. Geologic report and recommendations for the cobalt mission to Morocco sponsored by The Trade and Development Program of the International Development Cooperation Agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foose, M.P.; Rossman, D.L.

    1982-01-01

    A mission sponsored by the Trade and Development Program (TDP) of the International Development Cooperation Agency (IDCA) went to Morocco to evaluate the possibility of finding additional sources of cobalt in that country, as well as other types of mineralization. Information obtained during this trip shows Morocco to be a country for which much geologic information is available and in which there are many favorable target areas for future exploration. Work in the Bou Azzer district (Morocco's principal cobalt district) shows that much excellent geologic work has been done in searching for additional deposits. However, a number of useful approaches to locate cobalt have not been tried, and their use might be successful. The potential for undiscovered deposits in the Bou Azzer region seems very high. The cobalt mineralization in the Siroua uplift is different from that in the Bou Azzer district. However, geologic similarities between the two areas suggest that a genetic link may exist between the two types of mineralization. This further indicates that cobalt deposits of the Bou Azzer types might be present in the Siroua region. Examination of the Bleida copper mine shows it to be a well-exposed volcanic hosted stratabound copper deposit. Large unexplored areas containing similar rocks occur near this deposit and may contain as yet undiscovered copper mineralization.

  5. Undiagnosed tuberculosis as clinical, epidemiological and medicolegal problem: Report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savić Slobodan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors present two cases of undiagnosed tuberculosis in order to point out clinical, epidemiological and medicolegal importance of such cases. The first patient was a 29- year old woman, who died after 10-day hospital treatment, but true nature of her disease remained undiscovered. Due to her known marital problems, as well as numerous bruises developed as a consequence of hemorrhagic syndrome, violent death caused by injuries inflicted by her husband was suspected. Medicolegal autopsy and microscopic examination revealed fatal tuberculosis of the lungs, and small and large intestines. In another case, a 35-year old male died suddenly and unexpectedly, being found dead in his flat where numerous blood traces were noticed during the scene investigation. Therefore, possible homicide was suspected. Medicolegal investigation proved pulmonary tuberculosis as a cause of natural death. Presented cases point out the fact that even nowadays both pulmonary and extrapulmonary tuberculosis may remain clinically undiscovered, even when this disease is a cause of death. Hence, physicians should always keep in mind possible tuberculosis, especially in patients with long-lasting typical symptoms and signs. In both reported cases, the individuals suffered from cavernous pulmonary tuberculosis being thus a permanent source of infection. From medicolegal point of view, described cases represent examples of so called suspicious natural death. On the other hand, the fact that fatal tuberculosis remained clinically undiagnosed may make physicians be accused of medical negligence and malpractice.

  6. Arctic Energy Resources: Security and Environmental Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Johnston

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available n recent years, there has been considerable interest in the Arctic as a source for resources, as a potential zone for commercial shipping, and as a region that might experience conflict due to its strategic importance. With regards to energy resources, some studies suggest that the region contains upwards of 13 percent of global undiscovered oil, 30 percent of undiscovered gas, and multiples more of gas hydrates. The decreasing amount and duration of Arctic ice cover suggests that extraction of these resources will be increasingly commercially viable. Arctic and non-arctic states wish to benefit from the region's resources and the potential circum-polar navigation possibilities. This has led to concerns about the environmental risks of these operations as well as the fear that competition between states for resources might result in conflict. Unresolved offshore boundaries between the Arctic states exacerbate these fears. Yet, the risk of conflict seems overstated considering the bilateral and multilateral steps undertaken by the Arctic states to resolve contentious issues. This article will examine the potential impact of Arctic energy resources on global security as well as the regional environment and examine the actions of concerned states to promote their interests in the region.

  7. Future petroleum energy resources of the world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlbrandt, T.S.

    2002-01-01

    Is the world running out of oil? Where will future oil and gas supplies come from? To help answer these questions, in 2000 the U.S. Geological Survey completed a new world assessment, exclusive of the United States, of the undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources and potential additions to reserves from field growth.2 One hundred and twenty-eight provinces were assessed in a 100 man-year effort from 1995-2000. The assessed provinces included 76 priority provinces containing 95% of the world's discovered oil and gas and an additional 52 "boutique" provinces, many of which may be highly prospective. Total Petroleum Systems (TPS) were identified and described for each of these provinces along with associated Assessment Units (AU) that are the basic units for assessing undiscovered petroleum. The assessment process coupled geologic analysis with a probabilistic methodology to estimate remaining potential. Within the 128 assessed provinces were 159 TPS and 274 AU. For these provinces, the endowment of recoverable oil-which includes cumulative production, remaining reserves, reserve growth, and undiscovered resources-is estimated at about 3 trillion barrels of oil (TBO). The natural gas endowment is estimated at 2.6 trillion barrels of oil equivalent (TBOE). Oil reserves are currently 1.1 TBO; world consumption is about .028 TBO per year. Natural gas reserves are about 0.8 TBOE; world consumption is about 0.014 TBOE per year. Thus, without any additional discoveries of oil, gas or natural gas liquids, we have about 2 TBOE of proved petroleum reserves. Of the oil and gas endowment of about 5.6 TBOE, we estimate that the world has consumed about 1 TBOE, or 18%, leaving about 82% of the endowment to be utilized or found. Half of the world's undiscovered potential is offshore. Arctic basins with about 25% of undiscovered petroleum resources make up the next great frontier. An additional 279 provinces contain some oil and gas and, if considered, would increase the oil

  8. Future Oil and Gas Resources of the World: A Coming Supply Crisis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlbrandt, T. S.

    2002-05-01

    Is the world running out of oil? Where will future oil and gas supplies come from? To help answer these questions, the U.S. Geological Survey completed in 2000 a new assessment of the undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources and potential additions to reserves from field growth. One hundred and twenty-eight provinces were assessed in a 100 man-year effort from 1995-2000. The assessed provinces included 76 priority provinces containing 95 percent of the world's discovered oil and gas and an additional 52 "boutique" provinces, many of which may be highly prospective. Total Petroleum Systems (TPS) were identified and described for each of these provinces along with associated Assessment Units (AU) that are the basic units for assessing undiscovered petroleum. The assessment process coupled geologic analysis with a probabilistic methodology to estimate remaining potential. Within the 128 assessed provinces, were 159 TPS and 274 AU. For these provinces, the endowment of recoverable oil, which includes cumulative production, remaining reserves, reserve growth, and undiscovered resources is estimated at about 3 trillion barrels of oil (TBO). The natural gas endowment is estimated at 2.6 trillion barrels of oil equivalent (TBOE). Oil reserves are currently 1.1 TBO; world consumption is about .028 TBO per year. Natural gas reserves are about .8 TBOE; world consumption is about .014 TBOE. Thus, without any additional discoveries of oil, gas or natural gas liquids, we have about 2 TBOE of proved petroleum reserves. Of the oil and gas endowment of about 5.6 TBOE, we estimate that the world has consumed about 1 TBOE, or 18 percent leaving about 82 percent of endowment to be utilized or found. Half of the world's undiscovered potential is offshore. Arctic basins with about 25 percent of undiscovered petroleum resources make up the next great frontier. An additional 279 provinces contain some oil and gas and, if considered, would increase the oil and gas endowment

  9. The beauty of physics patterns, principles, and perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Rau, A R P

    2014-01-01

    The beauty of physics lies in its coherence in terms of a few fundamental concepts and principles. Even physicists have occasion to marvel at the overarching reach of basic principles and their ability to account for features stretching from the microscopic sub-atomic world to the cosmological expanses of the Universe. While mathematics is its natural language, physics is mostly about patterns, connections, and relations between objects and phenomena, and it is this aspect that is emphasized in this book. Since science tries to connect phenomena that at first sight appear widely different, while boiling them down to a small set of essential principles and laws, metaphor and analogy pervade our subject. Consider the pendulum, its swing from one extreme to the other often invoked in social or economic contexts. In molecular vibrations, such as in the CO2 molecule, the quantum motions of electrons and nuclei are metaphorically the pendulums. In electromagnetic radiation, including the visible light we observe, t...

  10. 2nd Symposium on applied nuclear physics and innovative technologies

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    Symposium on Applied Nuclear Physics and Innovative Technologies will be held for the second time at Collegium Maius, the oldest building of the Jagiellonian University in Cracow, the same building where Nicolaus Copernicus has studied astronomy. Symposium is organized in the framework of the MPD programme carried out by the Foundation for Polish science based on the European Structural Funds. The aim of this conference is to gather together young scientists and experts in the field of applied and fundamental nuclear as well as particle physics. Aiming at interplay of fundamental and applied science the conference will be devoted to the following topics: * Medical imaging and radiotherapy * New materials and technologies in radiation detection * Fission, fusion and spallation processes * High-performance signal processing and data analysis * Tests of foundations of physics and search for a new kind of sub-atomic matter

  11. Runaway universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davies, P

    1978-01-01

    The subject is covered in chapters entitled: the emerging universe (general introduction, history of astronomical and cosmological research, origins, the expanding universe, stars, galaxies, electromagnetic radiation); primeval fire (the big bang model, origin of the elements, properties of the elements and of sub-atomic particles); order out of chaos (galactic evolution, star formation, nuclear fusion, the solar system, origin of life on Earth); a star called Sol (properties of the sun and of other stars); life in the universe; the catastrophe principle (the rise and fall of cosmic order); stardoom (star evolution, neutron stars); black holes and superholes (gravitational collapse); technology and survival; the dying universe (second law of thermodynamics); worlds without end (cosmological models).

  12. Discrete Event Modeling and Simulation-Driven Engineering for the ATLAS Data Acquisition Network

    CERN Document Server

    Bonaventura, Matias Alejandro; The ATLAS collaboration; Castro, Rodrigo Daniel

    2016-01-01

    We present an iterative and incremental development methodology for simulation models in network engineering projects. Driven by the DEVS (Discrete Event Systems Specification) formal framework for modeling and simulation we assist network design, test, analysis and optimization processes. A practical application of the methodology is presented for a case study in the ATLAS particle physics detector, the largest scientific experiment built by man where scientists around the globe search for answers about the origins of the universe. The ATLAS data network convey real-time information produced by physics detectors as beams of particles collide. The produced sub-atomic evidences must be filtered and recorded for further offline scrutiny. Due to the criticality of the transported data, networks and applications undergo careful engineering processes with stringent quality of service requirements. A tight project schedule imposes time pressure on design decisions, while rapid technology evolution widens the palett...

  13. Register now for ISOTDAQ 2017

    CERN Multimedia

    Hannes Sakulin, on behalf of the organisers

    2016-01-01

    The International School of Trigger and Data Acquisition (ISOTDAQ) 2017 is the eighth in a series of International Schools dedicated to introducing MSc and PhD students to the "arts and crafts" of triggering and acquiring data for physics experiments.   The main aim of the school is to provide an overview of the basic instruments and methodologies used in high energy physics, spanning from small experiments in the lab to the very large LHC experiments, emphasising the main building blocks as well as the different choices and architectures at different levels of complexity. About half of the school time will be dedicated to laboratory exercises where the students are exposed to most of the techniques described in the lectures. The 8th International School of Trigger and Data Acquisition will be held in the Amsterdam Science Park at Nikhef (the National Institute for Sub-atomic physics) Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Lectures, the hands on exercises, breakfast, lunch and coffee breaks ...

  14. Designing and testing a laser-based vibratory sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, G.

    2018-04-01

    Sensor technology has proved its importance, not only in the range of few-meter applications in different fields, but in micro, nano, atomic and sub-atomic-sized objects. The present work describes the designing of a laser-based vibratory sensor using a He-Ne laser as the signal source. The received characteristics of the signal are mainly the frequency and amplitude of the vibration from which the physical parameters such as energy, power and absorption coefficients of the material are determined, which enables us to provide information of the hidden target or object. This laboratory-designed sensor finds application in different local phenomena as well as laboratory practical activity for students.

  15. Progress Report for 1947

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Authors, Various

    1947-11-01

    The year 1947 has witnessed the dawn of a new era of atomic science, a flowering of fundamental knowledge of the nature of matter which appears to be unsurpassed even by that period of the 1930's which led to the age of plutonium. A great new cyclotron, an atom-smasher ten times more powerful than the one which brought plutonium into the world, has carried mankind over a new horizon of sub-atomic space. It has brought scientists at last to grips with the infinitely small and rapid forces, until now beyond reach, which operate within the incredibly tiny distances of nuclear space. On the new energy frontier created by the giant machine, now laws govern nuclear reactions. methods are at hand, heretofore unavailable, which permit the measurement and determination of the nature of sub-atomic forces. Under ultra-high energy bombardment, the nucleus presents a different appearance from the nucleus of Bohr and Rutherford, the nucleus of atomic energy fission. The new exploration of the atom has been sponsored by the Atomic Energy Commission with the giant, new 4000-ton cyclotron in the Radiation Laboratory of the University of California. This is the thirdmajor machine built by the Director of the Laboratory and inventor of the cyclotron, Professor Ernest O. Lawrence. Whether the new knowledge will be of immediate practical consequence cannot now be predicted. Nor could Professor Lawrence predict, when in 1934 he established a new atomic energy range for that day with his first cyclotron, that the fundamental knowledge he pursued would be climaxed with the discovery of plutonium. What can be predicted is this: without the new basic knowledge, practical atomic developments of the future would be limited to the applicability of the fundamental information which made possible the initial release of atomic energy. In short, the nation's atomic potential has been greatly expanded.

  16. Evolution of Ore Deposits and Technology Transfer Project: Isotope and Chemical Methods in Support of the U.S. Geological Survey Science Strategy, 2003-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rye, Robert O.; Johnson, Craig A.; Landis, Gary P.; Hofstra, Albert H.; Emsbo, Poul; Stricker, Craig A.; Hunt, Andrew G.; Rusk, Brian G.

    2010-01-01

    Principal functions of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Mineral Resources Program are providing assessments of the location, quantity, and quality of undiscovered mineral deposits, and predicting the environmental impacts of exploration and mine development. The mineral and environmental assessments of domestic deposits are used by planners and decisionmakers to improve the stewardship of public lands and public resources. Assessments of undiscovered mineral deposits on a global scale reveal the potential availability of minerals to the United States and other countries that manufacture goods imported to the United States. These resources are of fundamental relevance to national and international economic and security policy in our globalized world economy. Performing mineral and environmental assessments requires that predictions be made of the likelihood of undiscovered deposits. The predictions are based on geologic and geoenvironmental models that are constructed for the diverse types of mineral deposits from detailed descriptions of actual deposits and detailed understanding of the processes that formed them. Over the past three decades the understanding of ore-forming processes has benefited greatly from the integration of laboratory-based geochemical tools with field observations and other data sources. Under the aegis of the Evolution of Ore Deposits and Technology Transfer Project (referred to hereinafter as the Project), a 5-year effort that terminated in 2008, the Mineral Resources Program provided state-of-the-art analytical capabilities to support applications of several related geochemical tools to ore-deposit-related studies. The analytical capabilities and scientific approaches developed within the Project have wide applicability within Earth-system science. For this reason the Project Laboratories represent a valuable catalyst for interdisciplinary collaborations of the type that should be formed in the coming years for the United States to meet

  17. Material-balance assessment of the New Albany-Chesterian petroleum system of the Illinois basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewan, M.D.; Henry, M.E.; Higley, D.K.; Pitman, Janet K.

    2002-01-01

    The New Albany-Chesterian petroleum system of the Illinois basin is a well-constrained system from which petroleum charges and losses were quantified through a material-balance assessment. This petroleum system has nearly 90,000 wells penetrating the Chesterian section, a single New Albany Shale source rock accounting for more than 99% of the produced oil, well-established stratigraphic and structural frameworks, and accessible source rock samples at various maturity levels. A hydrogen index (HI) map based on Rock-Eval analyses of source rock samples of New Albany Shale defines the pod of active source rock and extent of oil generation. Based on a buoyancy-drive model, the system was divided into seven secondary-migration catchments. Each catchment contains a part of the active pod of source rock from which it derives a petroleum charge, and this charge is confined to carrier beds and reservoirs within these catchments as accountable petroleum, petroleum losses, or undiscovered petroleum. A well-constrained catchment with no apparent erosional or leakage losses is used to determine an actual petroleum charge from accountable petroleum and residual migration losses. This actual petroleum charge is used to calibrate the other catchments in which erosional petroleum losses have occurred. Petroleum charges determined by laboratory pyrolysis are exaggerated relative to the actual petroleum charge. Rock-Eval charges are exaggerated by a factor of 4-14, and hydrouspyrolysis charges are exaggerated by a factor of 1.7. The actual petroleum charge provides a more meaningful material balance and more realistic estimates of petroleum losses and remaining undiscovered petroleum. The total petroleum charge determined for the New Albany-Chesterian system is 78 billion bbl, of which 11.4 billion bbl occur as a accountable in place petroleum, 9 billion bbl occur as residual migration losses, and 57.6 billion bbl occur as erosional losses. Of the erosional losses, 40 billion bbl

  18. The Status and Future of Geothermal Electric Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kutscher, C.

    2000-08-14

    Geothermal electricity production in the US began in 1960. Today there are over 20 plants in the western US providing a total of about 2,200 MW of clean and reliable electricity. Currently identified resources could provide over 20,000 MW of power in the US, and undiscovered resources might provide 5 times that amount. In the 1990s industry growth slowed due to the loss of market incentives and competition from natural gas. However, increased interest in clean energy sources, ongoing technological improvements, and renewed opportunities abroad hold promise for a resurgence in the industry. This review paper covers the status of the technology, the issues faced, and the latest research. While the focus is on geothermal in the US, a brief description of the large international market is included.

  19. The status and future of geothermal power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kutscher, Charles F. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2000-08-01

    Geothermal electricity production in the United States began in 1960. Today there are over 20 plants in the western United States providing a total of about 2,200 MW of clean and reliable electricity. Currently identified resources could provide over 20,000 MW of power in the U.S., and undiscovered resources might provide 5 times that amount. In the 1990s industry growth slowed due to the loss of market incentives and competition from natural gas. However, increased interest in clean energy sources, ongoing technological improvements, and renewed opportunities abroad hold promise for a resurgence in the industry. This review paper covers the status of the technology, the issues faced, and the latest research. While the focus is on geothermal in the U.S., a brief description of the large international market is included.

  20. Natural gas resources in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meneley, R.A.

    2001-01-01

    Natural gas is an important component in many of the technologies aimed at reducing greenhouse gas emissions. In order to understand the role that natural gas can play, it is important to know how much may be present, where it is, when can it be accessed and at what cost. The Canadian Gas Potential Committee has completed its second report 'Natural Gas Potential in Canada - 2001' (CGPC, 2001). This comprehensive study of exploration plays in Canada addresses the two issues of 'how much may be present' and 'where is it'. The Report deals with both conventional gas and non-conventional gas. One hundred and seven Established Conventional Exploration Plays, where discoveries of gas exist, have been assessed in all of the sedimentary basins in Canada. In addition, where sufficient information was available, twelve Conceptual Exploration Plays, where no discoveries have been made, were assessed. Sixty-five other Conceptual Plays were described and qualitatively ranked. An experienced volunteer team of exploration professionals conducted assessments of undiscovered gas potential over a four-year period. The team used technical judgment, statistical techniques and a unique peer review process to make a comprehensive assessment of undiscovered gas potential and estimates of the size of individual undiscovered gas accumulations. The Committee assessed all gas in place in individual exploration plays. For Established Plays, estimates of Undiscovered Nominal Marketable Gas are based on the percentage of the gas in place that is marketable gas in the discovered pools in a play. Not all of the Nominal Marketable Gas will be available. Some underlies areas where exploration is not possible, such as parks, cities and other closed areas. Some will be held in gas pools that are too small to be economic and some of the pools will never be found. In some areas no production infrastructure will be available. Detailed studies of individual exploration plays and basins will be required

  1. A Regulatory Network Analysis of Orphan Genes in Arabidopsis Thaliana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Pramesh; Chen, Tianlong; Arendsee, Zebulun; Wurtele, Eve S.; Bassler, Kevin E.

    Orphan genes, which are genes unique to each particular species, have recently drawn significant attention for their potential usefulness for organismal robustness. Their origin and regulatory interaction patterns remain largely undiscovered. Recently, methods that use the context likelihood of relatedness to infer a network followed by modularity maximizing community detection algorithms on the inferred network to find the functional structure of regulatory networks were shown to be effective. We apply improved versions of these methods to gene expression data from Arabidopsis thaliana, identify groups (clusters) of interacting genes with related patterns of expression and analyze the structure within those groups. Focusing on clusters that contain orphan genes, we compare the identified clusters to gene ontology (GO) terms, regulons, and pathway designations and analyze their hierarchical structure. We predict new regulatory interactions and unravel the structure of the regulatory interaction patterns of orphan genes. Work supported by the NSF through Grants DMR-1507371 and IOS-1546858.

  2. Highly rearranged mitochondrial genome in Nycteria parasites (Haemosporidia) from bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karadjian, Gregory; Hassanin, Alexandre; Saintpierre, Benjamin; Gembu Tungaluna, Guy-Crispin; Ariey, Frederic; Ayala, Francisco J; Landau, Irene; Duval, Linda

    2016-08-30

    Haemosporidia parasites have mostly and abundantly been described using mitochondrial genes, and in particular cytochrome b (cytb). Failure to amplify the mitochondrial cytb gene of Nycteria parasites isolated from Nycteridae bats has been recently reported. Bats are hosts to a diverse and profuse array of Haemosporidia parasites that remain largely unstudied. There is a need to obtain more molecular data from chiropteran parasites. Such data would help to better understand the evolutionary history of Haemosporidia, which notably include the Plasmodium parasites, malaria's agents. We use next-generation sequencing to obtain the complete mitochondrial genome of Nycteria parasites from African Nycteris grandis (Nycteridae) and Rhinolophus alcyone (Rhinolophidae) and Asian Megaderma spasma (Megadermatidae). We report four complete mitochondrial genomes, including two rearranged mitochondrial genomes within Haemosporidia. Our results open outlooks into potentially undiscovered Haemosporidian diversity.

  3. Physical Properties and Seasonal Behavior of H2O, HDO, CO2 and Trace Gases on Mars: Quantitative Mapping from Earth-Based Observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Robert E.; Mumma, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    Since 1997, we have used high-resolution (R greater than 40000) spectrometers on ground based-telescopes to study molecules that have astrobiological significance in Mars' atmosphere. We have used the NASA-IRTF, Keck II, and VLT telescopes in the 1.0-5.0 micron range. The spectrometer is set at a wavelength to detect specific molecules. Spectral/spatial images are produced. Extracts from these images provide column densities centered at latitude/longitude locations (resolution 400km at sub-Earth point). We have mapped the O2 singlet-Delta emission (a proxy for ozone), HDO, and H2O for seasonal dates throughout the Martian year. Previously undiscovered isotopic bands of CO2 have been identified along with isotopic forms of CO. We are searching for other molecules that have astrobiological importance and have successfully measured methane in Mars' atmosphere.

  4. Organization and annotation of the Xcat critical region: elimination of seven positional candidate genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kristen M; Geunes-Boyer, Scarlett; Wu, Sufen; Dutra, Amalia; Favor, Jack; Stambolian, Dwight

    2004-05-01

    Xcat mice display X-linked congenital cataracts and are a mouse model for the human X-linked cataract disease Nance Horan syndrome (NHS). The genetic defect in Xcat mice and NHS patients is not known. We isolated and sequenced a BAC contig representing a portion of the Xcat critical region. We combined our sequencing data with the most recent mouse sequence assemblies from both Celera and public databases. The sequence of the 2.2-Mb Xcat critical region was then analyzed for potential Xcat candidate genes. The coding regions of the seven known genes within this area (Rai2, Rbbp7, Ctps2, Calb3, Grpr, Reps2, and Syap1) were sequenced in Xcat mice and no mutations were detected. The expression of Rai2 was quantitatively identical in wild-type and Xcat mutant eyes. These results indicate that the Xcat mutation is within a novel, undiscovered gene.

  5. Optimized Latching Control of Floating Point Absorber Wave Energy Converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadodia, Chaitanya; Shandilya, Shubham; Bansal, Hari Om

    2018-03-01

    There is an increasing demand for energy in today’s world. Currently main energy resources are fossil fuels, which will eventually drain out, also the emissions produced from them contribute to global warming. For a sustainable future, these fossil fuels should be replaced with renewable and green energy sources. Sea waves are a gigantic and undiscovered vitality asset. The potential for extricating energy from waves is extensive. To trap this energy, wave energy converters (WEC) are needed. There is a need for increasing the energy output and decreasing the cost requirement of these existing WECs. This paper presents a method which uses prediction as a part of the control scheme to increase the energy efficiency of the floating-point absorber WECs. Kalman Filter is used for estimation, coupled with latching control in regular as well as irregular sea waves. Modelling and Simulation results for the same are also included.

  6. Maps showing geology, oil and gas fields, and geological provinces of South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, C. J.; Viger, R.J.; Anderson, C.P.

    1999-01-01

    This digitally compiled map includes geology, geologic provinces, and oil and gas fields of South America. The map is part of a worldwide series on CD-ROM by World Energy Project released of the U.S. Geological Survey . The goal of the project is to assess the undiscovered, technically recoverable oil and gas resources of the world and report these results by the year 2000. For data management purposes the world is divided into eight energy regions corresponding approximately to the economic regions of the world as defined by the U.S. Department of State. South America (Region 6) includes Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Columbia, Ecuador, Falkland Islands, French Guiana, Guyuna, Netherlands, Netherlands Antilles, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, Uruguay, and Venezuela.

  7. Design of a groundwater sampling network for Minnesota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanivetsky, R.

    1977-01-01

    This folio was compiled to facilitate the use of groundwater as a sampling medium to aid in exploration for hitherto undiscovered deposits of uranium in the subsurface rocks of Minnesota. The report consists of the following sheets of the hydrogeologic map of Minnesota: (1) map of bedrock hydrogeology, (2) generalized cross sections of the hydrogeologic map of Minnesota, showing both Quaternary deposits and bedrock, (3) map of waterwells that penetrate Precambrian rocks in Minnesota. A list of these wells, showing locations, names of owners, type of Precambrian aquifers penetrated, lithologic material of the aquifers, and well depths is provided in the appendix to this report. Structural settings, locations, and composition of the bedrock aquifers, movement of groundwater, and preliminary suggestions for a sampling program are discussed below under the heading Bedrock Hydrogeology of Minnesota. The map sheet showing Quaternary hydrogeology is not included in this report because the chemistry of groundwater in these deposits is not directly related to bedrock mineralization

  8. Competence Development among mentors: An Action Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragelund, Linda

    2014-01-01

    Artiklen er blevet dobbelt blind reviewet og jeg er i gang med at rette den til. This article presents results about student nurse mentors' competence development in relation to exploiting learning opportunities in everyday life activities in hospital wards. They are from the Danish action research...... about them. The research used the concept of 'pseudo-everyday life activities' in which hitherto undiscovered learning opportunities in everyday situations can be exploited, alongside Lauvås and Handal's 'Mentoring loop'. The research sought to establish how mentors’ competence could be improved using...... this framework. The analytical approach was qualitative content analysis. Results were not entirely as expected; they showed that when the tools were used as in the research design, mentors felt they benefitted and evidence indicated their competence would improve. Surprisingly, most mentors did not perform...

  9. Bottom and top physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foley, K.J.; Gilman, F.J.; Herten, G.; Hinchliffe, I.; Jawahery, A.; Sanda, A.; Schmidt, M.P.; Schubert, K.R.; Fridman, A.

    1988-01-01

    The production of heavy quark flavors occurs primarily by the strong interactions and offers another arena in which to test QCD and to probe gluon distributions at very small values of x. Such quarks can also be produced as decay products of possible new, yet undiscovered particles, e.g., Higgs bosons, and therefore are a necessary key to reconstructing such particles. The decay products of heavy quarks, especially from their semileptonic decays, can themselves form a background to other new physics processes. The production of bottom quarks at the SSC and the formalism and phenomenology of observing CP violation in B meson decays is discussed. The production of a heavy t quark which decays into a real W boson, and what might be learned from its decays is examined

  10. Measurement of the Weak Boson Production Cross Section in the Events with Muons in Proton-Proton Collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV with the ATLAS Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Kubota, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) -- a proton-proton collider with the highest center-of-mass energy which surpasses the previous energy frontier -- was built at CERN to investigate the TeV energy region where the existence of undiscovered physics such as the origin of the electroweak symmetry breaking and the Supersymmetry is expected. The LHC started operation on 30 March, 2010, then has been delivering proton-proton collision events. The ATLAS (A Toroidal LHC ApparatuS) experiment is held using one of the two general purpose detectors placed at the LHC. The detector %is called the ATLAS detector which is designed to exploit the full physics potential of the LHC. In this thesis, a measurement of the $W$ and $Z$-boson production cross sections in proton-proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV are presented in the $\\W \\to \\mu\

  11. Mineral resources at the beginning of the 21st century - trends and possibilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grecula Pavol

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The world's population growth might have a positive impact on the geological investigation, the exploration and on the mining industry. The globalization of the world economy will have a positive economic cosequence for mining enterprises. Important is, that mining companies have to accept the environmental laws and to carry out rehabilitation in areas of mining activities. The detail understanding of geology of mineral deposits remains the primary control of their efficient exploitation.In regards to growing concerns about the sustainability of mineral production and environmental quality, as well as the simultaneous increase of demand for mineral-resource information, the Ministry of Environment of Slovak Republic completed the introduction study of the feasibility of assessing and predicting where and how much undiscovered mineral resources remain in Slovakia.

  12. CHARACTERISTICS OF HYDROCARBON EXPLOITATION IN ARCTIC CIRCLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanja Lež

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The existence of large quantities of hydrocarbons is supposed within the Arctic Circle. Assumed quantities are 25% of the total undiscovered hydrocarbon reserves on Earth, mostly natural gas. Over 500 major and minor gas accumulations within the Arctic Circle were discovered so far, but apart from Snøhvit gas field, there is no commercial exploitation of natural gas from these fields. Arctic gas projects are complicated, technically hard to accomplish, and pose a great threat to the return of investment, safety of people and equipment and for the ecosystem. Russia is a country that is closest to the realization of the Arctic gas projects that are based on the giant gas fields. The most extreme weather conditions in the seas around Greenland are the reason why this Arctic region is the least explored and furthest from the realization of any gas project (the paper is published in Croatian .

  13. On Chilean Loxosceles (Araneae: Sicariidae: first description of the males of L. surca and L. coquimbo, new records of L. laeta and three remarkable new species from coastal deserts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio D. Brescovit

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Loxosceles Heineken & Lowe, 1832 spiders are infamous for their medical importance, but a taxonomic picture of the genus is still far from complete. In this study, the Chilean species of Loxosceles are described and mapped. The males of Loxosceles surca Gertsch, 1967 and L. coquimbo Gertsch, 1967 are described for the first time. Three new species with narrow distributions are described from central and northern Chile: Loxosceles diaguita sp. nov. from the Antofagasta Region, L. pallalla sp. nov. from Coquimbo and L. vallenar sp. nov. from Atacama. The first two species are remarkable in their morphology and do not fit into any of Gertsch’s species groups, suggesting that Chile still harbours an undiscovered phylogenetic diversity of the genus. New distribution records for Loxosceles laeta (Nicolet, 1849 are provided throughout Chile.

  14. Aortic Disease in the Young: Genetic Aneurysm Syndromes, Connective Tissue Disorders, and Familial Aortic Aneurysms and Dissections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Cury

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There are many genetic syndromes associated with the aortic aneurysmal disease which include Marfan syndrome (MFS, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS, Loeys-Dietz syndrome (LDS, familial thoracic aortic aneurysms and dissections (TAAD, bicuspid aortic valve disease (BAV, and autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD. In the absence of familial history and other clinical findings, the proportion of thoracic and abdominal aortic aneurysms and dissections resulting from a genetic predisposition is still unknown. In this study, we propose the review of the current genetic knowledge in the aortic disease, observing, in the results that the causative genes and molecular pathways involved in the pathophysiology of aortic aneurysm disease remain undiscovered and continue to be an area of intensive research.

  15. The strangest man. The hidden life of Paul Dirac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farmelo, Graham

    2016-01-01

    The Strangest Man is the Costa Biography Award-winning account of Paul Dirac, the famous physicist sometimes called the British Einstein. He was one of the leading pioneers of the greatest revolution in twentieth-century science: quantum mechanics. The youngest theoretician ever to win the Nobel Prize for Physics, he was also pathologically reticent, strangely literal-minded and legendarily unable to communicate or empathize. Through his greatest period of productivity, his postcards home contained only remarks about the weather. Based on a previously undiscovered archive of family papers, Graham Farmelo celebrates Dirac's massive scientific achievement while drawing a compassionate portrait of his life and work. Farmelo shows a man who, while hopelessly socially inept, could manage to love and sustain close friendship. The Strangest Man is an extraordinary and moving human story, as well as a study of one of the most exciting times in scientific history.

  16. Apoptosis Gene Hunting Using Retroviral Expression Cloning: Identification of Vacuolar ATPase Subunit E

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire L. Anderson

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past 10-15 years there has been an explosion of interest in apoptosis. The delayed realisation that cell death is an essential part of life for any multicellular organism has meant that, despite the recent and rapid developments of the last decade, the precise biochemical pathways involved in apoptosis remain incomplete and potentially novel genes may, as yet, remain undiscovered. The hunt is therefore on to bridge the remaining gaps in our knowledge. Our contribution to this research effort utilises a functional cloning approach to isolate important regulatory genes involved in apoptosis. This mini-review focuses on the use and advantages of a retroviral expression cloning strategy and describes the isolation and identification of one such potential apoptosis regulatory gene, namely that encoding vacuolar ATPase subunit E.

  17. Assessment of Appalachian basin oil and gas resources: Carboniferous Coal-bed Gas Total Petroleum System: Chapter G.1 in Coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: distribution, geologic framework, and geochemical character

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milici, Robert C.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Ryder, Robert T.

    2014-01-01

    The Carboniferous Coal-bed Gas Total Petroleum System, which lies within the central and southern Appalachian basin, consists of the following five assessment units (AUs): (1) the Pocahontas Basin AU in southern West Virginia, eastern Kentucky, and southwestern Virginia; (2) the Central Appalachian Shelf AU in Tennessee, eastern Kentucky, and southern West Virginia; (3) the East Dunkard (Folded) AU in western Pennsylvania and northern West Virginia; (4) the West Dunkard (Unfolded) AU in Ohio and adjacent parts of Pennsylvania and West Virginia; and (5) the Appalachian Anthracite and Semi-Anthracite AU in Pennsylvania and Virginia. Only two of these assessment units were assessed quantitatively by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in the National Oil and Gas Assessment in 2002. The USGS estimated the Pocahontas Basin AU and the East Dunkard (Folded) AU to contain a mean of about 3.6 and 4.8 trillion cubic feet (TCF) of undiscovered, technically recoverable gas, respectively.

  18. The petroleum resources on the Norwegian Continental Shelf. 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-07-01

    Exploration activity has reached record-breaking levels in the last couple of years, which has led to many, but small, discoveries. The NPD believes that large discoveries can still be made in areas of the shelf that have not been extensively explored. Content: Challenges on the Norwegian continental shelf; Value creation in fields; 40 years of oil and gas production; Resource management; Still many possibilities; Energy consumption and the environment; Exploration; Access to acreage; Awards of new licenses; Exploration in frontier areas; Exploration history and statistics; Resources and forecasts; Undiscovered resources; Proven recoverable resources; Forecasts; Short-term petroleum production forecast (2009-2013); Investments- and operating costs forecasts; Long-term forecast for the petroleum production; Emissions from the petroleum activity. (AG)

  19. Do mobile phones cause brain cancer? and what should be done about it?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maclean, I.; Jones, S.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: The explosive growth in the use of mobile phones has led concerns that there might be as-yet-undiscovered effects on human health arising from the use of mobile phones. Many concerns have centred around the possibility that use of mobile phones may cause brain cancer. The Australian Communications Authority (ACA) regulates telecommunications and radiocommunications in Australia, has significant consumer protection responsibilities. The ACA exercises its functions through a range of legislative methods including standards, one of which relates to human exposure to electromagnetic radiation from mobile phones. The rationale for the standard will be discussed, including a brief account of the medical and physical basis for the limits set in the standard. There will also be an account of how physics can inform community debate on this issue, including the approaches adopted by the ACA

  20. Near-Earth Asteroids 2006 RH120 AND 2009 BD: Proxies for Maximally Accessible Objects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbee, Brent W.; Chodas, Paul W.

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Near-Earth Object Human Space Flight Accessible Targets Study (NHATS) has identified over 1,400 of the approximately 12,800 currently known near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) as more astrodynamically accessible, round-trip, than Mars. Hundreds of those approximately 1,400 NEAs can be visited round-trip for less change-in-velocity than the lunar surface, and dozens can be visited round-trip for less change-in-velocity than low lunar orbit. How accessible might the millions of undiscovered NEAs be? We probe that question by investigating the hypothesis that NEAs 2006 RH120 and 2009 BD are proxies for the most accessible NEAs we would expect to find, and describing possible future NEA population model studies.

  1. Nitrous oxide as an opioid agonist: some experimental and clinical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillman, M.A.

    1984-01-01

    The interactions of nitrous oxide at analgesic concentrations with the endogenous opioid system is investigated, both in vitro and in vivo, with particular emphasis on the possibility that nitrous oxide is a possible tool both experimentally, diagnostically and therapeutically. In vitro findings show that nitrous oxide displaces ( 3 H) - naloxone from its binding sites in a definite and measurable manner, indicating a direct action of nitrous oxide at opioid receptors, in this case the mu site. An additional finding is that nitrous oxide unmasks a heretofore undiscovered super high affinity sites which may be an opioid auto-receptor. Naloxone was demonstrated to reverse acute alcoholic intoxication in some cases. The investigative as well as therapeutic role of nitrous oxide was investigated. It is concluded that nitrous oxide at analgesic concentrations (ie. low concentrations of nitrous oxide diluted with high concentrations of oxygen) is a safe and effective therapeutic agent

  2. The Running Wheel Enhances Food Anticipatory Activity: An Exploratory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flôres, Danilo E F L; Bettilyon, Crystal N; Jia, Lori; Yamazaki, Shin

    2016-01-01

    Rodents anticipate rewarding stimuli such as daily meals, mates, and stimulant drugs. When a single meal is provided daily at a fixed time of day, an increase in activity, known as food anticipatory activity (FAA), occurs several hours before feeding time. The factors affecting the expression of FAA have not been well-studied. Understanding these factors may provide clues to the undiscovered anatomical substrates of food entrainment. In this study we determined whether wheel-running activity, which is also rewarding to rodents, modulated the robustness of FAA. We found that access to a freely rotating wheel enhanced the robustness of FAA. This enhancement was lost when the wheel was removed. In addition, while prior exposure to a running wheel alone did not enhance FAA, the presence of a locked wheel did enhance FAA as long as mice had previously run in the wheel. Together, these data suggest that FAA, like wheel-running activity, is influenced by reward signaling.

  3. New experimental determination of the neutron resonance parameters of {sup 99}Tc; Nouvelle determination experimentale des parametres de resonances neutroniques de {sup 99}Tc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brienne-Raepsaet, C. [CEA Bruyeres-le-Chatel, 91 (France). Dept. de Physique Theorique et Appliquee]|[Aix-Marseille-1 Univ., 13 - Marseille (France)

    1999-04-01

    In order to improve nuclear data for nuclear waste transmutation cross-sections of Tc{sup 99} in the resonance energy region have been performed using the time-of-flight method at the pulsed white neutron source GELINA of the Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements, Geel, Belgium. The energy range studied spreads from 3 eV to 100 KeV. 2 kinds of measurements have been performed: capture and transmission measurements. In the energy range between 0 and 2 KeV, more than 220 resonances have been analyzed. About 130 resonances which had stayed previously undiscovered, have been detected and analyzed. Because of instability problems concerning the process of measuring itself, the systematic error is not yet determined. The accuracy which takes into account statistical and systematic errors is expected to be between 4 and 5%.

  4. Is there a metric for mineral deposit occurrence probabilities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drew, L.J.; Menzie, W.D.

    1993-01-01

    Traditionally, mineral resource assessments have been used to estimate the physical inventory of critical and strategic mineral commodities that occur in pieces of land and to assess the consequences of supply disruptions of these commodities. More recently, these assessments have been used to estimate the undiscovered mineral wealth in such pieces of land to assess the opportunity cost of using the land for purposes other than mineral production. The field of mineral resource assessment is an interdisciplinary field that draws elements from the disciplines of geology, economic geology (descriptive models), statistics and management science (grade and tonnage models), mineral economics, and operations research (computer simulation models). The purpose of this study is to assert that an occurrenceprobability metric exists that is useful in "filling out" an assessment both for areas in which only a trivial probability exists that a new mining district could be present and for areas where nontrivial probabilities exist for such districts. ?? 1993 Oxford University Press.

  5. Z-dark search with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00212108

    2016-01-01

    The search of the "hidden sector" via new neutral light bosons Z-dark ($Z_{d}$) could be revealed by the study of the decay of the discovered Higgs-like boson or any other undiscovered Higgs boson. After the LHC concluded a successful first period of running, the ATLAS Collaboration published its latest results on the $H\\rightarrow Z_{d}Z_{d}\\rightarrow 4l$ analysis using up to 20 fb$^{-1}$ of integrated luminosity at $\\sqrt{s}=8$ TeV. In this proceeding I present a summary of the recent results on the search of the $Z_{d}$ in the signature $H\\rightarrow Z_{d}Z_{d}\\rightarrow 4l$ with the ATLAS detector at the LHC.

  6. Canonical Quantization of Crystal Dislocation and Electron-Dislocation Scattering in an Isotropic Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mingda; Cui, Wenping; Dresselhaus, M. S.; Chen, Gang; MIT Team; Boston College Team

    Crystal dislocations govern the plastic mechanical properties of materials but also affect the electrical and optical properties. However, a fundamental and decent quantum-mechanical theory of dislocation remains undiscovered for decades. Here we present an exact and manageable Hamiltonian theory for both edge and screw dislocation line in an isotropic media, where the effective Hamiltonian of a single dislocation line can be written in a harmonic-oscillator-like form, with closed-form quantized 1D phonon-like excitation. Moreover a closed-form, position dependent electron-dislocation coupling strength is obtained, from which we obtained good agreement of relaxation time when comparing with classical results. This Hamiltonian provides a platform to study the effect of dislocation to materials' non-mechanical properties from a fundamental Hamiltonian level.

  7. Primary adenocarcinoma of lung: A pictorial review of recent updates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaikwad, Anand, E-mail: anandgaik@yahoo.co.in [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, The Ottawa Hospital, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Gupta, Ashish, E-mail: ashgupta@toh.on.ca [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, The Ottawa Hospital, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Hare, Sam, E-mail: samanjeet@btinternet.com [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, The Ottawa Hospital, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Gomes, Marcio, E-mail: mgomes@toh.on.ca [Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, The Ottawa Hospital, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Sekhon, Harman, E-mail: hsekhon@toh.on.ca [Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, The Ottawa Hospital, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Souza, Carolina, E-mail: csouza@ottawahospital.on.ca [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, The Ottawa Hospital, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Inacio, Joao, E-mail: joao.r.inacio@gmail.com [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, The Ottawa Hospital, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Lad, Shilpa, E-mail: slad@toh.on.ca [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, The Ottawa Hospital, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Seely, Jean, E-mail: jeseely@ottawahospital.on.ca [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, The Ottawa Hospital, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2012-12-15

    Primary adenocarcinoma of lung has replaced squamous cell carcinoma as the commonest histological subtype of lung cancer and the incidence of primary lung adenocarcinoma appears to be rising. Although the main factors behind this ‘epidemic-like’ situation are largely undiscovered, filter cigarettes appear to significantly contribute to this shift in the histopathological spectrum. The new multidisciplinary classification of adenocarcinoma of lung was introduced to address advances in clinical, pathological, radiological and molecular sciences. The purpose of this essay is to discuss various classes of lung adenocarcinoma in the new classification with their classical imaging features on computed tomography and summarise the recent advances in the field of radiology and review radiology recommendations.

  8. Renal Artery Stenosis (RAS) Case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaater, M.K.

    2012-01-01

    Renal Artery Stenosis (RAS), is one of the causes of secondary hypertension; there are many causes of renal artery stenosis, as atherosclerosis of the renal artery which account for 90% of cases of RAS; fibromuscular dysplasia accounts for 10% of RAS. Various causes of thrombophilia either due congenital causes or acquired causes and can lead to RAS. Our patient was presented by acute attack of epistaxis and hypertension. Angiography of the Renal Arteries,are showed no sign of renal artery stenosis. However, the right kidney showed upper pole infarction, and the left kidney showed evidence of functional lower pole renal artery stenosis, although there is no anatomical stenosis detected in angiography. Work up for the cause of thrombophilia did not help in the diagnosis, which may be due to an undiscovered cause of thrombophilia

  9. Endophytic Fungi of Various Medicinal Plants Collected From Evergreen Forest Baluran National Park and Its Potential as Laboratory Manual for Mycology Course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Murdiyah

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Endophytic fungi found on a variety of medicinal plants may express particular benefit. These fungi provide an alternative to overcome the progressive microbial resistance and as an effort to combat infectious diseases that became one of the leading causes of mortality. The main objective of this study was to isolate endophytic fungi from leaf samples of five medicinal plants species collected from evergreen forests Baluran National Park and its use as laboratory manual for Micology. Research findings showed there were 3 isolates of endophytic fungi isolated from 2 medicinal plants namely Kesambi (Schleicera oleosa and Ketapang (Terminalia catappa. All three isolates formed sporangiophores as asexual reproductive structures, while the structure of sexual still undiscovered therefore its classification has not been determined. The validity tests also showed that the lab manual is feasible for use with the percentage achievement 85.37% and 88.56%.

  10. Definitive Mineralogical Analysis of Mars Analog Rocks Using the CheMin XRD/XRF Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, D. F.; Sarrazin, P.; Bish, D. L.; Feldman, S.; Chipera, S. J.; Vaniman, D. T.; Collins, S.

    2004-01-01

    Mineral identification is a critical component of Mars Astrobiological missions. Chemical or elemental data alone are not definitive because a single elemental or chemical composition or even a single bonding type can represent a range of substances or mineral assemblages. Minerals are defined as unique structural and compositional phases that occur naturally. There are about 15,000 minerals that have been described on Earth, all uniquely identifiable via diffraction methods. There are likely many minerals yet undiscovered on Earth, and likewise on Mars. If an unknown phase is identified on Mars, it can be fully characterized by structural (X-ray Diffraction, XRD) and elemental analysis (X-ray Fluorescence, XRF) without recourse to other data because XRD relies on the principles of atomic arrangement for its determinations. XRD is the principal means of identification and characterization of minerals on Earth.

  11. Particle dark matter: A multimessenger endeavour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regis, M.

    2017-01-01

    The search for dark matter (DM) as a new, yet undiscovered, particle is explored through a complex host of different signals, from collider to direct and indirect searches. A special focus is dedicated to the latter ones, covering the full electromagnetic spectrum (from radio to gamma-rays), charged cosmic-rays and neutrinos. The expected DM signals are by definition faint, but the possibility to exploit a wide-field investigation offers promising prospects. In this brief review, I summarize the state-of-the-art in the search for particle DM signals, exploring some new ideas that are emerging in the effort of the scientific community to understand the elusive nature of DM.

  12. Silicon: Child and Progenitor of Revolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahn, R. W.

    Antoine Lavoisier, the pioneering French chemist who (together with Joseph Priestley in England) identified oxygen as an element and gave it its name, in 1789 concluded that quartz was probably a compound with an as-yet undiscovered but presumably extremely common element. That was also the year in which the French Revolution broke out. Five years later, the Jacobins accused Lavoisier of offences against the people and cut off his head, thereby nearly cutting off the new chemistry. It was not until 1824 that Jöns Berzelius in Sweden succeeded in confirming Lavoisier's speculation by isolating silicon. Argument at once broke out among the scientific elite as to whether the newly found element was a metal or an insulator. It took more than a century to settle that disagreement decisively: As so often, when all-or-nothing alternatives are fiercely argued, the truth turned out to be neither all nor nothing.

  13. Theoretical topics in B-physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjorken, J.D.

    1990-12-01

    The bottom quark should need no introduction. Other than the undiscovered top quark, it is by far the most fashionable of the six. There is good reason for this. It is bottom-quark behavior which holds out the most hope of measuring and understanding some of the most hope of measuring and understanding some of the most fundamental and delicate parameters of the standard model -- those having to do with the origin of electroweak mixing -- and thereby in all probability also the origin of quark mass. Also interwoven into this is the subject of CP violation, and its proposed interpretation in terms of electroweak mixing. In this section we shall review the basics of electroweak mixing and how it is impacted by the study of b-quark properties. There are by now many lecture series and workshop proceedings devoted to this topic, so I will not try to be comprehensive, but only hit some highlights. 28 refs., 14 figs., 4 tabs

  14. A Study of Particle Beam Spin Dynamics for High Precision Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiedler, Andrew J. [Northern Illinois Univ., DeKalb, IL (United States)

    2017-05-01

    In the search for physics beyond the Standard Model, high precision experiments to measure fundamental properties of particles are an important frontier. One group of such measurements involves magnetic dipole moment (MDM) values as well as searching for an electric dipole moment (EDM), both of which could provide insights about how particles interact with their environment at the quantum level and if there are undiscovered new particles. For these types of high precision experiments, minimizing statistical uncertainties in the measurements plays a critical role. \\\\ \\indent This work leverages computer simulations to quantify the effects of statistical uncertainty for experiments investigating spin dynamics. In it, analysis of beam properties and lattice design effects on the polarization of the beam is performed. As a case study, the beam lines that will provide polarized muon beams to the Fermilab Muon \\emph{g}-2 experiment are analyzed to determine the effects of correlations between the phase space variables and the overall polarization of the muon beam.

  15. Lipoprotein Transport: Greasing the Machines of Outer Membrane Biogenesis: Re-Examining Lipoprotein Transport Mechanisms Among Diverse Gram-Negative Bacteria While Exploring New Discoveries and Questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabowicz, Marcin

    2018-04-01

    The Gram-negative outer membrane (OM) is a potent permeability barrier against antibiotics, limiting clinical options amid mounting rates of resistance. The Lol transport pathway delivers lipoproteins to the OM. All the OM assembly machines require one or more OM lipoprotein to function, making the Lol pathway central for all aspects of OM biogenesis. The Lol pathways of many medically important species clearly deviate from the Escherichia coli paradigm, perhaps with implications for efforts to develop novel antibiotics. Moreover, recent work reveals the existence of an undiscovered alternate route for bringing lipoproteins to the OM. Here, lipoprotein transport mechanisms, and the quality control systems that underpin them, is re-examined in context of their diversity. © 2018 WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Cytogenetics of Premature Ovarian Failure: An Investigation on 269 Affected Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Baronchelli

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The importance of X chromosome in the aetiology of premature ovarian failure (POF is well-known but in many cases POF still remains idiopathic. Chromosome aneuploidy increase is a physiological phenomenon related to aging, but the role of low-level sex chromosome mosaicism in ovarian function is still undiscovered. Standard cytogenetic analysis was carried out in a total of 269 patients affected by POF: 27 chromosomal abnormalities were identified, including X chromosome and autosomal structural and numerical abnormalities. In 47 patients with 46,XX karyotype we performed interphase FISH using X alpha-satellite probe in order to identify X chromosome mosaicism rate. Aneuploidy rate in the patient group was significantly higher than the general population group. These findings underline the importance of X chromosome in the aetiology of POF and highlight the potential role of low-level sex chromosome mosaicism in ovarian aging that may lead to a premature onset of menopause.

  17. Isolated Horizontal Gaze Palsy: Observations and Explanations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renee Ewe

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available We present three cases that we suggest require a novel diagnosis and a reconsideration of current understandings of pontine anatomy. In this case series, we highlight a series of patients with monophasic, fully recovering inflammatory lesions in the pontine tegmentum not due to any of the currently recognized causes of this syndrome. We highlight other similar cases in the literature and suggest there may be a particular epitope for an as-yet-undiscovered antibody underlying the tropism for this area. We highlight the potential harm of misdiagnosis with relapsing inflammatory or other serious diagnoses with significant adverse impact on the patient. In addition, we propose that this would support a reinterpretation of the currently accepted anatomy of the pontine gaze inputs to the median longitudinal fasciculus and paramedian pontine reticular formation.

  18. Energy related applications of elementary particle physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafelski, J.

    1991-01-01

    The current research position is summarized, and what could be done in the future to clarify issues which were opened up by the research is indicated. Following on the discussion of the viability of catalyzed fusion, there is presented along with the key experimental results, a short account of the physics surrounding the subject. This is followed by a discussion of key research topics addressed. In consequence of the progress made, it appears that the feasibility of a small-scale fusion based on catalyzed reactions rests on either the remote chance that a yet undiscovered ultraheavy negatively charged elementary particle exists in Nature, or on the possible technical realization of a system based on muon-catalyzed fusion (MuCF) in high-density degenerate hydrogen plasma (density 1000 LHD, temperature O(100 eV)). The lattter is considered to have practical promise

  19. Climate change, future Arctic Sea ice, and the competitiveness of European Arctic offshore oil and gas production on world markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrick, Sebastian; Riemann-Campe, Kathrin; Hoog, Sven; Growitsch, Christian; Schwind, Hannah; Gerdes, Rüdiger; Rehdanz, Katrin

    2017-12-01

    A significant share of the world's undiscovered oil and natural gas resources are assumed to lie under the seabed of the Arctic Ocean. Up until now, the exploitation of the resources especially under the European Arctic has largely been prevented by the challenges posed by sea ice coverage, harsh weather conditions, darkness, remoteness of the fields, and lack of infrastructure. Gradual warming has, however, improved the accessibility of the Arctic Ocean. We show for the most resource-abundant European Arctic Seas whether and how a climate induced reduction in sea ice might impact future accessibility of offshore natural gas and crude oil resources. Based on this analysis we show for a number of illustrative but representative locations which technology options exist based on a cost-minimization assessment. We find that under current hydrocarbon prices, oil and gas from the European offshore Arctic is not competitive on world markets.

  20. Probability theory versus simulation of petroleum potential in play analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crovelli, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    An analytic probabilistic methodology for resource appraisal of undiscovered oil and gas resources in play analysis is presented. This play-analysis methodology is a geostochastic system for petroleum resource appraisal in explored as well as frontier areas. An objective was to replace an existing Monte Carlo simulation method in order to increase the efficiency of the appraisal process. Underlying the two methods is a single geologic model which considers both the uncertainty of the presence of the assessed hydrocarbon and its amount if present. The results of the model are resource estimates of crude oil, nonassociated gas, dissolved gas, and gas for a geologic play in terms of probability distributions. The analytic method is based upon conditional probability theory and a closed form solution of all means and standard deviations, along with the probabilities of occurrence. ?? 1987 J.C. Baltzer A.G., Scientific Publishing Company.

  1. The Brown Muck of $B^0$ and $B^0_s$ Mixing: Beyond the Standard Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouchard, Christopher Michael [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Standard Model contributions to neutral $B$ meson mixing begin at the one loop level where they are further suppressed by a combination of the GIM mechanism and Cabibbo suppression. This combination makes $B$ meson mixing a promising probe of new physics, where as yet undiscovered particles and/or interactions can participate in the virtual loops. Relating underlying interactions of the mixing process to experimental observation requires a precise calculation of the non-perturbative process of hadronization, characterized by hadronic mixing matrix elements. This thesis describes a calculation of the hadronic mixing matrix elements relevant to a large class of new physics models. The calculation is performed via lattice QCD using the MILC collaboration's gauge configurations with $2+1$ dynamical sea quarks.

  2. Genetic architecture of circulating lipid levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demirkan, Ayşe; Amin, Najaf; Isaacs, Aaron

    2011-01-01

    Serum concentrations of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), triglycerides (TGs) and total cholesterol (TC) are important heritable risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Although genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of circulating lipid...... the ENGAGE Consortium GWAS on serum lipids, were applied to predict lipid levels in an independent population-based study, the Rotterdam Study-II (RS-II). We additionally tested for evidence of a shared genetic basis for different lipid phenotypes. Finally, the polygenic score approach was used to identify...... an alternative genome-wide significance threshold before pathway analysis and those results were compared with those based on the classical genome-wide significance threshold. Our study provides evidence suggesting that many loci influencing circulating lipid levels remain undiscovered. Cross-prediction models...

  3. The strangest man. The hidden life of Paul Dirac; Der seltsamste Mensch. Das verborgene Leben des Quantengenies Paul Dirac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmelo, Graham

    2016-07-01

    The Strangest Man is the Costa Biography Award-winning account of Paul Dirac, the famous physicist sometimes called the British Einstein. He was one of the leading pioneers of the greatest revolution in twentieth-century science: quantum mechanics. The youngest theoretician ever to win the Nobel Prize for Physics, he was also pathologically reticent, strangely literal-minded and legendarily unable to communicate or empathize. Through his greatest period of productivity, his postcards home contained only remarks about the weather. Based on a previously undiscovered archive of family papers, Graham Farmelo celebrates Dirac's massive scientific achievement while drawing a compassionate portrait of his life and work. Farmelo shows a man who, while hopelessly socially inept, could manage to love and sustain close friendship. The Strangest Man is an extraordinary and moving human story, as well as a study of one of the most exciting times in scientific history.

  4. A Nodal-independent and tissue-intrinsic mechanism controls heart-looping chirality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noël, Emily S.; Verhoeven, Manon; Lagendijk, Anne Karine; Tessadori, Federico; Smith, Kelly; Choorapoikayil, Suma; den Hertog, Jeroen; Bakkers, Jeroen

    2013-11-01

    Breaking left-right symmetry in bilateria is a major event during embryo development that is required for asymmetric organ position, directional organ looping and lateralized organ function in the adult. Asymmetric expression of Nodal-related genes is hypothesized to be the driving force behind regulation of organ laterality. Here we identify a Nodal-independent mechanism that drives asymmetric heart looping in zebrafish embryos. In a unique mutant defective for the Nodal-related southpaw gene, preferential dextral looping in the heart is maintained, whereas gut and brain asymmetries are randomized. As genetic and pharmacological inhibition of Nodal signalling does not abolish heart asymmetry, a yet undiscovered mechanism controls heart chirality. This mechanism is tissue intrinsic, as explanted hearts maintain ex vivo retain chiral looping behaviour and require actin polymerization and myosin II activity. We find that Nodal signalling regulates actin gene expression, supporting a model in which Nodal signalling amplifies this tissue-intrinsic mechanism of heart looping.

  5. E-COMMERCE MARKET AND PERSPECTIVES FOR THE REVERSE COMMERCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Laskowski

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available E-commerce has been evolving from being a purely niche phenomenon to owning a vital share in economies of developed countries. Growth of such distribution and sales channel has been highly correlated with technological improvements penetrating modern societies. Today we stand in front of new ideas, adoption barriers and profit opportunities. There are a few trends ready to take off in the near future, one of them is the idea of reverse e-commerce, which is engaging the consumer even more into a highly personalized buying process. Nevertheless, every new idea needs the suitable time and place to launch. The purpose of this analysis is to verify prospects for the reverse e-commerce, which has a huge market potential. Reverse e-Commerce has every chance of becoming a new, still undiscovered now, marketing channel.

  6. User’s guide for MapMark4GUI—A graphical user interface for the MapMark4 R package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Jason

    2018-05-29

    MapMark4GUI is an R graphical user interface (GUI) developed by the U.S. Geological Survey to support user implementation of the MapMark4 R statistical software package. MapMark4 was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey to implement probability calculations for simulating undiscovered mineral resources in quantitative mineral resource assessments. The GUI provides an easy-to-use tool to input data, run simulations, and format output results for the MapMark4 package. The GUI is written and accessed in the R statistical programming language. This user’s guide includes instructions on installing and running MapMark4GUI and descriptions of the statistical output processes, output files, and test data files.

  7. Against the grain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hands, Simon

    1994-01-01

    The higgs particle is an undiscovered elementary particle, thought to be a vital piece of the closely-fitting jigsaw of particle physics. Like all particles, it has wave properties akin to those of ripples on the surface of a pond which has been disturbed: indeed, only when the ripples travel as a welldefined group it is sensible to speak of a particle at all. Quantum mechanics naturally incorporates both particle and wavelike aspects of matter. In quantum language the analogue of the water surface which carries the waves is called a field. Each type of particle has its corresponding field. The higgs field is a particularly simple one - it has the same properties viewed from every direction, and in important respects is indistinguishable from empty space. The particle-ripples associated with many other fields in particle physics spin on their axes, which clearly is not a property of empty space

  8. General properties of grapevine viruses occurring in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eszter Cseh

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The past fifty years important advances have been made in the field of grapevine virus research, including characterization of pathogens and control measurements. Still the occurrence of Grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV, Arabis mosaic virus (ArMV, Tomato black ring virus (TBRV, Grapevine chrome mosaic virus (GCMV, Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV, Grapevine Bulgarian latent virus (GBLV, Grapevine fleck virus (GFkV, Grapevine leafroll- associated viruses (GLRaV1-4, Grapevine virus A (GVA, Grapevine virus B (GVB and Grapevine rupestris stem pitting- associated virus (GRSPaV have been reported in Hungary and characterized by conventional methods as woody indexing, herbaceous indexing and serological methods. Among grapevine viruses the Grapevine line pattern virus (GLPV seems to be uncial; because it was reported only in Hungary. Causal agents of several grapevine diseases, like enation, vein necrosis and vein mosaic remained undiscovered. These virus-like diseases occurred only sporadically, without economic importance.

  9. U.S. Geological Survey input-data forms for the assessment of the Spraberry Formation of the Midland Basin, Permian Basin Province, Texas, 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marra, Kristen R.

    2017-10-24

    In 2017, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) completed an updated assessment of undiscovered, technically recoverable oil and gas resources in the Spraberry Formation of the Midland Basin (Permian Basin Province) in southwestern Texas (Marra and others, 2017). The Spraberry Formation was assessed using both the standard continuous (unconventional) and conventional methodologies established by the USGS for three assessment units (AUs): (1) Lower Spraberry Continuous Oil Trend AU, (2) Middle Spraberry Continuous Oil Trend AU, and (3) Northern Spraberry Conventional Oil AU. The revised assessment resulted in total estimated mean resources of 4,245 million barrels of oil, 3,112 billion cubic feet of gas, and 311 million barrels of natural gas liquids. The purpose of this report is to provide supplemental documentation of the input parameters used in the USGS 2017 Spraberry Formation assessment.

  10. Spatial interaction creates period-doubling bifurcation and chaos of urbanization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yanguang

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides a new way of looking at complicated dynamics of simple mathematical models. The complicated behavior of simple equations is one of the headstreams of chaos theory. However, a recent study based on dynamical equations of urbanization shows that there are still some undiscovered secrets behind the simple mathematical models such as logistic equation. The rural-urban interaction model can also display varied kinds of complicated dynamics, including period-doubling bifurcation and chaos. The two-dimension map of urbanization presents the same dynamics as that from the one-dimension logistic map. In theory, the logistic equation can be derived from the two-population interaction model. This seems to suggest that the complicated behavior of simple models results from interaction rather than pure intrinsic randomicity. In light of this idea, the classical predator-prey interaction model can be revised to explain the complex dynamics of logistic equation in physical and social sciences.

  11. Congenital anomalies of the pulmonary arteries: spectrum of findings on computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno, J; Flors, L; Mejía, M

    Congenital anomalies of the pulmonary arteries are uncommon. They can occur in isolation or in association with congenital heart defects. Isolated congenital anomalies remain undiscovered until they are reported as incidental findings on imaging tests, usually not until adolescence. We review the embryological development and normal anatomy of the pulmonary arteries as well as the spectrum of computed tomography findings for various congenital anomalies: unilateral interruption of the pulmonary artery, anomalous origin of the left pulmonary artery (pulmonary artery sling), idiopathic aneurysm of the pulmonary artery, and other anomalies associated with congenital heart defects. Congenital anomalies of the pulmonary arteries represent a diagnostic challenge for clinicians and radiologists. Computed tomography is useful for their diagnosis, and general radiologists need to be familiar with their imaging appearance because they are often discovered incidentally. Copyright © 2016 SERAM. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. The Search for Wolf-Rayet Stars in IC10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tehrani, Katie; Crowther, Paul; Archer, Isabelle

    2017-11-01

    We present a deep imaging and spectroscopic survey of the Local Group starburst galaxy IC10 using Gemini North/GMOS to unveil the global Wolf-Rayet population. It has previously been suggested that for IC10 to follow the WC/WN versus metallicity dependence seen in other Local Group galaxies, a large WN population must remain undiscovered. Our search revealed 3 new WN stars, and 5 candidates awaiting confirmation, providing little evidence to support this claim. We also compute an updated nebular derived metallicity of log(O/H)+12=8.40 +/- 0.04 for the galaxy using the direct method. Inspection of IC10 WR average line luminosities show these stars are more similar to their LMC, rather than SMC counterparts.

  13. Phylogenetic placement of the Pacific Northwest subterranean endemic diving beetle Stygoporus oregonensis Larson & LaBonte (Dytiscidae, Hydroporinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kojun Kanda

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Stygoporus oregonensis Larson & LaBonte is a little-known subterranean diving beetle, which, until recently, had not been collected since the type series was taken from a shallow well in western Oregon, USA, in 1984. Here we report the discovery of additional specimens collected from a nearby well in the Willamette Valley. Sequence data from four mitochondrial genes, wingless, and histone III place Stygoporus Larson & LaBonte in the predominantly Mediterranean subtribe Siettitiina of the Hydroporini. Morphological support for these results is discussed, and details of the collecting circumstances of the new specimens are presented. We argue that the biogeographic patterns of Nearctic Siettitiina highlight the likelihood of additional undiscovered subterranean dytiscids in North America.

  14. Phylogenetic placement of the Pacific Northwest subterranean endemic diving beetle Stygoporus oregonensis Larson & LaBonte (Dytiscidae, Hydroporinae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanda, Kojun; Gomez, R. Antonio; Van Driesche, Richard; Miller, Kelly B.; Maddison, David R.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Stygoporus oregonensis Larson & LaBonte is a little-known subterranean diving beetle, which, until recently, had not been collected since the type series was taken from a shallow well in western Oregon, USA, in 1984. Here we report the discovery of additional specimens collected from a nearby well in the Willamette Valley. Sequence data from four mitochondrial genes, wingless, and histone III place Stygoporus Larson & LaBonte in the predominantly Mediterranean subtribe Siettitiina of the Hydroporini. Morphological support for these results is discussed, and details of the collecting circumstances of the new specimens are presented. We argue that the biogeographic patterns of Nearctic Siettitiina highlight the likelihood of additional undiscovered subterranean dytiscids in North America. PMID:27920606

  15. Lithium: for harnessing renewable energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Dwight; Jaskula, Brian W.

    2014-01-01

    Lithium, which has the chemical symbol Li and an atomic number of 3, is the first metal in the periodic table. Lithium has many uses, the most prominent being in batteries for cell phones, laptops, and electric and hybrid vehicles. Worldwide sources of lithium are broken down by ore-deposit type as follows: closed-basin brines, 58%; pegmatites and related granites, 26%; lithium-enriched clays, 7%; oilfield brines, 3%; geothermal brines, 3%; and lithium-enriched zeolites, 3% (2013 statistics). There are over 39 million tons of lithium resources worldwide. Of this resource, the USGS estimates there to be approximately 13 million tons of current economically recoverable lithium reserves. To help predict where future lithium supplies might be located, USGS scientists study how and where identified resources are concentrated in the Earth’s crust, and they use that knowledge to assess the likelihood that undiscovered resources also exist.

  16. Using transcriptomics to guide lead optimization in drug discovery projects: Lessons learned from the QSTAR project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbist, Bie; Klambauer, Günter; Vervoort, Liesbet; Talloen, Willem; Shkedy, Ziv; Thas, Olivier; Bender, Andreas; Göhlmann, Hinrich W H; Hochreiter, Sepp

    2015-05-01

    The pharmaceutical industry is faced with steadily declining R&D efficiency which results in fewer drugs reaching the market despite increased investment. A major cause for this low efficiency is the failure of drug candidates in late-stage development owing to safety issues or previously undiscovered side-effects. We analyzed to what extent gene expression data can help to de-risk drug development in early phases by detecting the biological effects of compounds across disease areas, targets and scaffolds. For eight drug discovery projects within a global pharmaceutical company, gene expression data were informative and able to support go/no-go decisions. Our studies show that gene expression profiling can detect adverse effects of compounds, and is a valuable tool in early-stage drug discovery decision making. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. What does the brain tell us about abstract art?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vered eAviv

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In this essay I focus on the question of why we are attracted to abstract art (or, perhaps more accurately, non-representational art. After elaborating on the processing of visual art in general and abstract art in particular, I discuss recent data from neuroscience and behavioral studies related to abstract art. I conclude with several speculations concerning our apparent appeal to this particular type of art. In particular, I claim that abstract art frees our brain from the dominance of reality, enabling it to flow within its inner states, create new emotional and cognitive associations, and activate brain-states that are otherwise harder to access. This process is apparently rewarding as it enables the exploration of yet undiscovered inner territories of the viewer’s brain.

  18. Probability calculations for three-part mineral resource assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellefsen, Karl J.

    2017-06-27

    Three-part mineral resource assessment is a methodology for predicting, in a specified geographic region, both the number of undiscovered mineral deposits and the amount of mineral resources in those deposits. These predictions are based on probability calculations that are performed with computer software that is newly implemented. Compared to the previous implementation, the new implementation includes new features for the probability calculations themselves and for checks of those calculations. The development of the new implementation lead to a new understanding of the probability calculations, namely the assumptions inherent in the probability calculations. Several assumptions strongly affect the mineral resource predictions, so it is crucial that they are checked during an assessment. The evaluation of the new implementation leads to new findings about the probability calculations,namely findings regarding the precision of the computations,the computation time, and the sensitivity of the calculation results to the input.

  19. Potential supply system for uranium based upon a crustal abundance model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chavez-Martinez, M.L.

    1982-01-01

    The design of a computerized system for the estimation of uranium potential supply in the US was the primary objective of this study. Once completed, this system performs for various levels of economic variables, such as prices and estimation of potential uranium supply, without requiring the appraisal by geologists, area by area, of undiscovered uranium endowment. The main components that form the system are explicit models of endowment, exploration, and production. These component models are derived from engineering and geological data, and together, they comprise the system. This system is unique in that it likes physical attributes of endowment to time series of price and production. This linkage is made by simulating the activities of the US uranium industry, activities (exploration, mine development, and production) that are involved in the transformation of endowment to potential supply

  20. A new methodical approach in neuroscience: assessing inter-personal brain coupling using functional near-infrared imaging (fNIRI hyperscanning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix eScholkmann

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Since the first demonstration of how to simultaneously measure brain activity using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI on two subjects about 10 years ago, a new paradigm in neuroscience is emerging: the assessment of the inter-brain coupling between two or more subjects, termed hyperscanning. The hyperscanning approach has the potential to enable a new view on how the brain works and will reveal as yet undiscovered brain functions based on brain-to-brain coupling, since the single-subject setting cannot capture them. In particular, functional near-infrared imaging (fNIRI hyperscanning is a promising new method, offering a cost-effective, easy to apply and reliable technology to measure inter-personal interactions in a natural context. In this short review we report on fNIRI hyperscanning studies published so far and summarize opportunities and challenges for future studies.

  1. Ancient Egypt and radiology, a future for the past!

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiggelen, R. van

    2004-01-01

    X-rays, discovered by W.K. Roentgen was a scientific bombshell and was received with extraordinary interest by scientist in all disciplines, including Egyptology: the first radiological essay was already made in Germany 3 months after Roentgens discovery. Since then, radiological examinations of mummies are used to detect frauds, to appreciate sex and age, and possible cause of death. As non-destructive tool it can reveal the nature of materials, presence of jewellery and amulets. The paper gives a brief history of major milestones in Belgium and abroad. More modern technology such as axial computed tomography and image colouring will allow better representations and reveal up to now undiscovered funerary artefacts

  2. Alternative cytoskeletal landscapes: cytoskeletal novelty and evolution in basal excavate protists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Scott C.; Paredez, Alexander R.

    2016-01-01

    Microbial eukaryotes encompass the majority of eukaryotic evolutionary and cytoskeletal diversity. The cytoskeletal complexity observed in multicellular organisms appears to be an expansion of components present in genomes of diverse microbial eukaryotes such as the basal lineage of flagellates, the Excavata. Excavate protists have complex and diverse cytoskeletal architectures and life cycles – essentially alternative cytoskeletal “landscapes” – yet still possess conserved microtubule- and actin-associated proteins. Comparative genomic analyses have revealed that a subset of excavates, however, lack many canonical actin-binding proteins central to actin cytoskeleton function in other eukaryotes. Overall, excavates possess numerous uncharacterized and “hypothetical” genes, and may represent an undiscovered reservoir of novel cytoskeletal genes and cytoskeletal mechanisms. The continued development of molecular genetic tools in these complex microbial eukaryotes will undoubtedly contribute to our overall understanding of cytoskeletal diversity and evolution. PMID:23312067

  3. Galilean Yang-Mills theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagchi, Arjun; Basu, Rudranil; Kakkar, Ashish; Mehra, Aditya

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the symmetry structure of the non-relativistic limit of Yang-Mills theories. Generalising previous results in the Galilean limit of electrodynamics, we discover that for Yang-Mills theories there are a variety of limits inside the Galilean regime. We first explicitly work with the SU(2) theory and then generalise to SU(N) for all N, systematising our notation and analysis. We discover that the whole family of limits lead to different sectors of Galilean Yang-Mills theories and the equations of motion in each sector exhibit hitherto undiscovered infinite dimensional symmetries, viz. infinite Galilean Conformal symmetries in D=4. These provide the first examples of interacting Galilean Conformal Field Theories (GCFTs) in D>2.

  4. Western Canada: high prices, high activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savidant, S

    2000-01-01

    The forces responsible for the high drilling and exploration activity in Western Canada (recent high prices, excess pipeline capacity, and the promise of as yet undiscovered natural gas resources) are discussed. Supply and demand signposts, among them weather impacts, political response by governments, the high demand for rigs and services, the intense competition for land, the scarcity of qualified human resources, are reviewed/. The geological potential of Western Canada, the implications of falling average pool sizes, the industry's ability to catch up to increasing declines, are explored. The disappearance of easy large discoveries, rising development costs involved in smaller, more complex hence more expensive pools are assessed and the Canadian equity and capital markets are reviewed. The predicted likely outcome of all the above factors is fewer players, increasing expectation of higher returns, and more discipline among the remaining players

  5. Galilean Yang-Mills theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagchi, Arjun [Center for Theoretical Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology,77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Basu, Rudranil [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics,Block AF, Sector 1, Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700068 (India); Kakkar, Ashish [Indian Institute of Science Education and Research,Dr Homi Bhabha Road, Pashan. Pune 411008 (India); Mehra, Aditya [Indian Institute of Science Education and Research,Dr Homi Bhabha Road, Pashan. Pune 411008 (India); Van Swinderen Institute for Particle Physics and Gravity, University of Groningen, Nijenborgh 4, 9747 AG Groningen (Netherlands)

    2016-04-11

    We investigate the symmetry structure of the non-relativistic limit of Yang-Mills theories. Generalising previous results in the Galilean limit of electrodynamics, we discover that for Yang-Mills theories there are a variety of limits inside the Galilean regime. We first explicitly work with the SU(2) theory and then generalise to SU(N) for all N, systematising our notation and analysis. We discover that the whole family of limits lead to different sectors of Galilean Yang-Mills theories and the equations of motion in each sector exhibit hitherto undiscovered infinite dimensional symmetries, viz. infinite Galilean Conformal symmetries in D=4. These provide the first examples of interacting Galilean Conformal Field Theories (GCFTs) in D>2.

  6. Against the grain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hands, Simon

    1994-01-15

    The higgs particle is an undiscovered elementary particle, thought to be a vital piece of the closely-fitting jigsaw of particle physics. Like all particles, it has wave properties akin to those of ripples on the surface of a pond which has been disturbed: indeed, only when the ripples travel as a welldefined group it is sensible to speak of a particle at all. Quantum mechanics naturally incorporates both particle and wavelike aspects of matter. In quantum language the analogue of the water surface which carries the waves is called a field. Each type of particle has its corresponding field. The higgs field is a particularly simple one - it has the same properties viewed from every direction, and in important respects is indistinguishable from empty space. The particle-ripples associated with many other fields in particle physics spin on their axes, which clearly is not a property of empty space.

  7. Experiments on continuum electron capture in atomic hydrogen and collisional interaction of trapped ions. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sellin, I.A.; Elston, S.B.

    1981-01-01

    This section describes the background and scope of as well as progress made on experiments designed to test the present theory of charge exchange to continuum for the case of bare nuclei on atomic hydrogen. The charge transfer process is well known to be an essential ingredient of any attempt to understand the ionization of gaseous media traversed by highly-charged energetic ions. Surprisingly, a sometimes dominant contribution to such ionization remained undiscovered until the past decade. This process, known as charge transfer to the continuum, involves the ionization of electrons from the target species into unbound states closely matched in exit direction and speed to the charged particles which generate them. Subsequent measurements of the resultant forward electron production, performed by University of Tennessee searchers at Oak Ridge and Brookhaven National Laboratories, were unique in employing more highly charged projectiles than previously

  8. Crossing the Barriers: An Analysis of Land Access Barriers to Geothermal Development and Potential Improvement Scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, Aaron L [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Young, Katherine R [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-10-04

    Developers have identified many non-technical barriers to geothermal power development, including access to land. Activities required for accessing land, such as environmental review and private and public leasing can take a considerable amount of time and can delay or prevent project development. This paper discusses the impacts to available geothermal resources and deployment caused by land access challenges, including tribal and cultural resources, environmentally sensitive areas, biological resources, land ownership, federal and state lease queues, and proximity to military installations. In this analysis, we identified challenges that have the potential to prevent development of identified and undiscovered hydrothermal geothermal resources. We found that an estimated 400 MW of identified geothermal resource potential and 4,000 MW of undiscovered geothermal resource potential were either unallowed for development or contained one or more significant barriers that could prevent development at the site. Potential improvement scenarios that could be employed to overcome these barriers include (1) providing continuous funding to the U.S. Forest Service (USFS) for processing geothermal leases and permit applications and (2) the creation of advanced environmental mitigation measures. The model results forecast that continuous funding to the USFS could result in deployment of an additional 80 MW of geothermal capacity by 2030 and 124 MW of geothermal capacity by 2050 when compared to the business-as-usual scenario. The creation of advanced environmental mitigation measures coupled with continuous funding to the USFS could result in deployment of an additional 97 MW of geothermal capacity by 2030 and 152 MW of geothermal capacity by 2050 when compared to the business-as-usual scenario. The small impact on potential deployment in these improvement scenarios suggests that these 4,400 MW have other barriers to development in addition to land access. In other words, simply

  9. Exoplanet orbital eccentricity: multiplicity relation and the Solar System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limbach, Mary Anne; Turner, Edwin L

    2015-01-06

    The known population of exoplanets exhibits a much wider range of orbital eccentricities than Solar System planets and has a much higher average eccentricity. These facts have been widely interpreted to indicate that the Solar System is an atypical member of the overall population of planetary systems. We report here on a strong anticorrelation of orbital eccentricity with multiplicity (number of planets in the system) among cataloged radial velocity (RV) systems. The mean, median, and rough distribution of eccentricities of Solar System planets fits an extrapolation of this anticorrelation to the eight-planet case rather precisely despite the fact that no more than two Solar System planets would be detectable with RV data comparable to that in the exoplanet sample. Moreover, even if regarded as a single or double planetary system, the Solar System lies in a reasonably heavily populated region of eccentricity-multiplicity space. Thus, the Solar System is not anomalous among known exoplanetary systems with respect to eccentricities when its multiplicity is taken into account. Specifically, as the multiplicity of a system increases, the eccentricity decreases roughly as a power law of index -1.20. A simple and plausible but ad hoc and model-dependent interpretation of this relationship implies that ∼ 80% of the one-planet and 25% of the two-planet systems in our sample have additional, as yet undiscovered, members but that systems of higher observed multiplicity are largely complete (i.e., relatively rarely contain additional undiscovered planets). If low eccentricities indeed favor high multiplicities, habitability may be more common in systems with a larger number of planets.

  10. Geothermal Exploration Case Studies on OpenEI (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, K.; Bennett, M.; Atkins, D.

    2014-03-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) resource assessment (Williams et al., 2008) outlined a mean 30 GWe of undiscovered hydrothermal resource in the western United States. One goal of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Geothermal Technology Office (GTO) is to accelerate the development of this undiscovered resource. DOE has focused efforts on helping industry identify hidden geothermal resources to increase geothermal capacity in the near term. Increased exploration activity will produce more prospects, more discoveries, and more readily developable resources. Detailed exploration case studies akin to those found in oil and gas (e.g. Beaumont and Foster, 1990-1992) will give developers central location for information gives models for identifying new geothermal areas, and guide efficient exploration and development of these areas. To support this effort, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has been working with GTO to develop a template for geothermal case studies on the Geothermal Gateway on OpenEI. In 2012, the template was developed and tested with two case studies: Raft River Geothermal Area (http://en.openei.org/wiki/Raft_River_Geothermal_Area) and Coso Geothermal Area (http://en.openei.org/wiki/Coso_Geothermal_Area). In 2013, ten additional case studies were completed, and Semantic MediaWiki features were developed to allow for more data and the direct citations of these data. These case studies are now in the process of external peer review. In 2014, NREL is working with universities and industry partners to populate additional case studies on OpenEI. The goal is to provide a large enough data set to start conducting analyses of exploration programs to identify correlations between successful exploration plans for areas with similar geologic occurrence models.

  11. Behcet disease combined with Sjogren syndrome: A unique case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Fang-He; Xu, Ting-Zhen; Hong, Hui-Hua; Mao, He; Wang, Meng; Wang, Zhen

    2018-03-01

    Behcet disease(BD) and Sjogren syndrome(SS) are separate conditions that rarely concomitantly affect an individual. In theory,mild symptoms of patients with BD or SS are easy to igore and,thus,remain undiagnosed. There,it is reasonable to believe there may be some clinical cases of combined diseases that go undiscovered and which needs to be taken seriously. In addition,it has been suggested that herpes simplex virus(HSV) types 1 and 2 are associated with BD,but have not been shown to be correlated to the direct pathogenesis of BD. The role of HSV in BD needs more research and attention. Here,we report a young woman who had both BD and SS. The first symptom of the disease was fever. However,the HSV type 1 IgG and HSV type 2 IgM antibody results were positive in our case and,which rendered this case unique. BD and SS concomitantly affect the individual,and BD was the acute type. IV methylprednisolone was used for 9 days and then oral glucocorticoids was used to instead,and the treatment works very well. BD and SS can concomitantly affect an individual,and we believe that HSV-2 may be directly related to the pathogenesis of BD. The nature of BD as an auto-inflammatory disorder, autoimmune disorder, or both, is controversial. If we can find more patients who combined affected these two disease, it might helpful for us to understand the nature of BD. For patients with clinical diagnosis of BD or SS,we need to be alert that it may combinded the other disease. Long term follow up and detailed inspection are important means to avoid undiscovered.

  12. Bacterial succession during curing process of a skate (Dipturus batis) and isolation of novel strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynisson, E; Thornór Marteinsson, V; Jónsdóttir, R; Magnússon, S H; Hreggvidsson, G O

    2012-08-01

    To study the succession of cultivated and uncultivated microbes during the traditional curing process of skate. The microbial diversity was evaluated by sequencing 16Sr RNA clone libraries and cultivation in variety of media from skate samples taken periodically during a 9-day curing process. A pH shift was observed (pH 6·64-9·27) with increasing trimethylamine (2·6 up to 75·6 mg N per 100 g) and total volatile nitrogen (TVN) (from 58·5 to 705·8 mg N per 100 g) but with relatively slow bacterial growth. Uncured skate was dominated by Oceanisphaera and Pseudoalteromonas genera but was substituted after curing by Photobacterium and Aliivibrio in the flesh and Pseudomonas on the skin. Almost 50% of the clone library is derived from putative undiscovered species. Cultivation and enrichment strategies resulted in isolation of putatively new species belonging to the genera Idiomarina, Rheinheimera, Oceanisphaera, Providencia and Pseudomonas. The most abundant genera able to hydrolyse urea to ammonia were Oceanisphaera, Psychrobacter, Pseudoalteromonas and isolates within the Pseudomonas genus. The curing process of skate is controlled and achieved by a dynamic bacterial community where the key players belong to Oceanisphaera, Pseudoalteromonas, Photobacterium, Aliivibrio and Pseudomonas. For the first time, the bacterial population developments in the curing process of skate are presented and demonstrate a reservoir of many yet undiscovered bacterial species. No Claim to Norwegian Government works Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2012 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  13. Geology and total petroleum systems of the Gulf of Guinea province of West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownfield, Michael E.; Charpentier, Ronald R.

    2006-01-01

    The Gulf of Guinea Province as defined by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) consists of the coastal and offshore areas of Cote d'Ivoire, Ghana, Togo, and Benin, and the western part of the coast of Nigeria, from the Liberian border east to the west edge of the Niger Delta. The province includes the Ivory Coast, Tano, Central, Saltpond, Keta, and Benin Basins and the Dahomey Embayment. The area has had relatively little hydrocarbon exploration since 1968, with only 33 small to moderate-sized oil and gas fields having been discovered prior to the USGS assessment. Most discoveries to 1995 have been located in water depths less than 500 m. Since 1995, only eight new offshore discoveries have been made, with four of the discoveries in the deep-water area of the province. Although as many as five total petroleum systems exist in the Gulf of Guinea Province, only one, the Cretaceous Composite Total Petroleum System, and its assessment unit, the Coastal Plain and Offshore Assessment Unit, had sufficient data to allow assessment. The province shows two important differences compared to the passive-margin basins south of the Niger Delta: (1) the influence of transform tectonics, and (2) the absence of evaporites and salt deformation. The province also lacks long-lived, large deltaic systems that typically result in rapid source rock burial and abundant high-quality hydrocarbon reservoirs. The USGS assessed the potential for undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources in the Gulf of Guinea Province as part of its World Petroleum Assessment 2000, estimating a mean of 1,004 million barrels of conventional undiscovered oil, 10,071 billion cubic feet of gas, and 282 million barrels of natural gas liquids. Most of the hydrocarbon potential is postulated to be in the offshore, deeper waters of the province. Gas resources may be large, as well as accessible, in areas where the zone of hydrocarbon generation is relatively shallow.

  14. The usefulness of resource analysis in national economic planning. Examples from the Norwegian Shelf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalheim, J.E.; Brekke, H.

    1996-01-01

    Petroleum resources have an important influence on the economic life in Norway. To the official authorities it is therefore essential to have good and detailed knowledge of these resources. Questions like 'what are the total resources', 'how much of the resources have been produced' and 'how much is expected to remain' should be answered. A classification system and an updated resource account is therefore required. Even though there is currently a well defined classification system and a resource account which is annually updated, estimates of discovered resources are associated with considerable uncertainty for some fields and discoveries. The uncertainties are not only connected to the mapping of field sizes but also to the possible potential for improved recovery, particularly in the light of new or sophisticated recovery methods. During the last two years the Norwegian Petroleum Directorate (NPD) has paid considerable attention to the potential for improved oil recovery. This is because of the time-critical aspects in the producing fields. The assessment of undiscovered resources also includes large uncertainties. However, regardless of the uncertainties such assessments are important for long term national planning. Decisions concerning opening of new areas for future exploration will have a considerable impact on the future level of the petroleum activities. To national authorities it is therefore important to have an understanding of what economic potential the undiscovered resources may represent. To resource analysts it will be important to know how the results from the geological assessments are uses in the economic calculations. Different resource assessments of a single play model are compared, and a comparison between different prospect evaluations of one single prospect are also presented. This approach is used to focus on the most critical uncertainty factors. 8 refs

  15. Emergent Geometry from Entropy and Causality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhardt, Netta

    generalizations are discussed, both at the classical and perturbatively quantum limits. In particular, several No Go Theorems are proven, indicative of a conclusion that supplementary approaches or information may be necessary to recover the full spacetime geometry. Part II of this thesis involves the relation between geometry and causality, the property that information cannot travel faster than light. Requiring this of any quantum field theory results in constraints on string theory setups that are dual to quantum field theories via the AdS/CFT correspondence. At the level of perturbative quantum gravity, it is shown that causality in the field theory constraints the causal structure in the bulk. At the level of nonperturbative quantum string theory, we find that constraints on causal signals restrict the possible ways in which curvature singularities can be resolved in string theory. Finally, a new program of research is proposed for the construction of bulk geometry from the divergences of correlation functions in the dual field theory. This divergence structure is linked to the causal structure of the bulk and of the field theory.

  16. The Mont Blanc neutrinos from SN 1987A: Could they have been monochromatic (8 MeV) tachyons with m2 = - 0.38 keV2?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrlich, Robert

    2018-05-01

    According to conventional wisdom the 5 h early Mont Blanc burst probably was not associated with SN 1987A, but if it was genuine, some exotic physics explanation had to be responsible. Here we consider one truly exotic explanation, namely faster-than-light neutrinos having mν2 = - 0.38 keV2. It is shown that the Mont Blanc burst is consistent with the distinctive signature of that explanation i.e., an 8 MeV antineutrino line from SN 1987A. It is further shown that a model of core collapse supernovae involving dark matter particles of mass 8 MeV would in fact yield an 8 MeV antineutrino line. Moreover, that dark matter model predicts 8 MeV ν ,νbar and e+e- pairs from the galactic center, a place where one would expect large amounts of dark matter to collect. The resulting e+ would create γ - rays from the galactic center, and a fit to MeV γ - ray data yields the model's dark matter mass, as well as the calculated source temperature and angular size. These good fits give indirect experimental support for the existence of an 8 MeV antineutrino line from SN 1987A. More direct support comes from the spectrum of N ∼ 1000 events recorded by the Kamiokande-II detector on the day of SN 1987A, which appear to show an 8 MeV line atop the detector background. This νbar line, if genuine, has been well-hidden for 30 years because it occurs very close to the peak of the background. This fact might ordinarily justify extreme skepticism. In the present case, however, a more positive view is called for based on (a) the very high statistical significance of the result (30σ), (b) the use of a detector background independent of the SN 1987A data using a later K-II data set, and (c) the observation of an excess above the background spectrum whose central energy and width both agree with that of an 8 MeV νbar line broadened by 25% resolution. Most importantly, the last observation is in accord with the prior prediction of an 8 MeV νbar line based on the Mont Blanc data, and

  17. Testing the gravitational inverse-square law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adelberger, Eric; Heckel, B.; Hoyle, C.D.

    2005-01-01

    If the universe contains more than three spatial dimensions, as many physicists believe, our current laws of gravity should break down at small distances. When Isaac Newton realized that the acceleration of the Moon as it orbited around the Earth could be related to the acceleration of an apple as it fell to the ground, it was the first time that two seemingly unrelated physical phenomena had been 'unified'. The quest to unify all the forces of nature is one that still keeps physicists busy today. Newton showed that the gravitational attraction between two point bodies is proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them. Newton's theory, which assumes that the gravitational force acts instantaneously, remained essentially unchallenged for roughly two centuries until Einstein proposed the general theory of relativity in 1915. Einstein's radical new theory made gravity consistent with the two basic ideas of relativity: the world is 4D - the three directions of space combined with time - and no physical effect can travel faster than light. The theory of general relativity states that gravity is not a force in the usual sense but a consequence of the curvature of this space-time produced by mass or energy. However, in the limit of low velocities and weak gravitational fields, Einstein's theory still predicts that the gravitational force between two point objects obeys an inverse-square law. One of the outstanding challenges in physics is to finish what Newton started and achieve the ultimate 'grand unification' - to unify gravity with the other three fundamental forces (the electromagnetic force, and the strong and weak nuclear forces) into a single quantum theory. In string theory - one of the leading candidates for an ultimate theory - the fundamental entities of nature are 1D strings and higher-dimensional objects called 'branes', rather than the point-like particles we are familiar with. String

  18. A Computational Framework for Proteome-Wide Pursuit and Prediction of Metalloproteins using ICP-MS and MS/MS Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trauger Sunia A

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Metal-containing proteins comprise a diverse and sizable category within the proteomes of organisms, ranging from proteins that use metals to catalyze reactions to proteins in which metals play key structural roles. Unfortunately, reliably predicting that a protein will contain a specific metal from its amino acid sequence is not currently possible. We recently developed a generally-applicable experimental technique for finding metalloproteins on a genome-wide scale. Applying this metal-directed protein purification approach (ICP-MS and MS/MS based to the prototypical microbe Pyrococcus furiosus conclusively demonstrated the extent and diversity of the uncharacterized portion of microbial metalloproteomes since a majority of the observed metal peaks could not be assigned to known or predicted metalloproteins. However, even using this technique, it is not technically feasible to purify to homogeneity all metalloproteins in an organism. In order to address these limitations and complement the metal-directed protein purification, we developed a computational infrastructure and statistical methodology to aid in the pursuit and identification of novel metalloproteins. Results We demonstrate that our methodology enables predictions of metal-protein interactions using an experimental data set derived from a chromatography fractionation experiment in which 870 proteins and 10 metals were measured over 2,589 fractions. For each of the 10 metals, cobalt, iron, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, lead, tungsten, uranium, vanadium, and zinc, clusters of proteins frequently occurring in metal peaks (of a specific metal within the fractionation space were defined. This resulted in predictions that there are from 5 undiscovered vanadium- to 13 undiscovered cobalt-containing proteins in Pyrococcus furiosus. Molybdenum and nickel were chosen for additional assessment producing lists of genes predicted to encode metalloproteins or metalloprotein

  19. Local air pollution in the Arctic: knowledge gaps, challenges and future directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, K.; Schmale, J.; Anenberg, S.; Arnold, S.; Simpson, W. R.; Mao, J.; Starkweather, S.

    2017-12-01

    It is estimated that about 30 % of the world's undiscovered gas and 13 % of undiscovered oil resources are located in the Arctic. Sea ice loss with climate change is progressing rapidly and by 2050 the Arctic could be nearly sea ice free in summer. This will allow for Arctic industrialization, commercial shipping, fishing and tourism to increase. Given that the world population is projected to grow beyond 9 billion by mid-century needing more resources, partly to be found in the Arctic, it can be expected that the current urbanization trend in the region will accelerate in the future. Against this background, it is likely that new local emission sources emerge which may lead to increased burdens of air pollutants such as particulate matter (PM), reactive nitrogen, and ozone. Typical Arctic emission sources include road transport, domestic fuel burning, diesel emissions, as well as industrial sources such as oil and gas extraction, metallurgical smelting, power generation as well as shipping in coastal areas. These emissions and their impacts remain poorly quantified in the Arctic. Boreal wildfires can already affect summertime air quality and may increase in frequency and size in a warmer climate. Locally produced air pollution, in combination with cold, stagnant weather conditions and inversion layers in winter, can also lead to significant localized pollutant concentrations, often in exceedance of air quality standards. Despite these concerns, very few process studies on local air pollution in or near inhabited areas in the Arctic have been conducted, which significantly limits our understanding of atmospheric chemical reactions involving air pollutants under Arctic conditions (e.g., extremely cold and dry air with little solar radiation in winter) and their impacts on human health and ecosystems. We will provide an overview of our current understanding of local air pollution and its impacts in Arctic urban environments and highlight key gaps. We will discuss a

  20. Natural gas utilization study : offshore Newfoundland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-10-01

    A study was conducted to quantify the natural gas resources of Newfoundland and to identify production and transportation options. The objective was to create a development strategy for natural gas which is growing in global importance as an energy source and as a feedstock for the downstream industry. The growth is driven by general economic expansion and the fact that natural gas is far less polluting than its main fossil fuel alternatives of oil and coal. New use is dominated by the power generation sector. The natural gas industry is also evolving rapidly as new reserves are established and pipelines are being constructed. Proven world reserves of natural gas now stand in excess of 5000 Tcf, 70 per cent of which is in the Russian Federation (CIS) and Middle East regions. Production and consumption, however, is dominated by the industrialized countries of North America and western Europe. This difference between markets and reserves has major implications including the need to develop cost effective long-distance transportation technologies and delivery systems or to relocate downstream industries closer to the reserves. In Newfoundland, the estimated reserves total 61.9 Tcf, including 8.2 Tcf of discovered reserves and 53.7 Tcf of undiscovered reserves. Of the discovered reserves, 4.2 Tcf is on the Labrador Shelf and 4.0 Tcf is in the the Jeanne d'Arc Basin on the Grand Banks. The Hibernia development could play a major role in the development of the natural gas resources of fields within a radius of 50 km around the platform. The general conclusion from the first phase of this study is that Newfoundland's natural gas resources are valuable and potentially capable of supporting significant industrial activities. The undiscovered potential holds significant promise for both the Newfoundland offshore and onshore areas. Phase Two of the study will deal with the development and implementation of a Strategic Plan for Newfoundland's natural gas resources. A series of

  1. Global Uranium And Thorium Resources: Are They Adequate To Satisfy Demand Over The Next Half Century?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, I. B.

    2012-04-01

    This presentation will consider the adequacy of global uranium and thorium resources to meet realistic nuclear power demand scenarios over the next half century. It is presented on behalf of, and based on evaluations by, the Uranium Group - a joint initiative of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency and the International Atomic Energy Agency, of which the author is a Vice Chair. The Uranium Group produces a biennial report on Uranium Resources, Production and Demand based on information from some 40 countries involved in the nuclear fuel cycle, which also briefly reviews thorium resources. Uranium: In 2008, world production of uranium amounted to almost 44,000 tonnes (tU). This supplied approximately three-quarters of world reactor requirements (approx. 59,000 tU), the remainder being met by previously mined uranium (so-called secondary sources). Information on availability of secondary sources - which include uranium from excess inventories, dismantling nuclear warheads, tails and spent fuel reprocessing - is incomplete, but such sources are expected to decrease in market importance after 2013. In 2008, the total world Reasonably Assured plus Inferred Resources of uranium (recoverable at less than 130/kgU) amounted to 5.4 million tonnes. In addition, it is clear that there are vast amounts of uranium recoverable at higher costs in known deposits, plus many as yet undiscovered deposits. The Uranium Group has concluded that the uranium resource base is more than adequate to meet projected high-case requirements for nuclear power for at least half a century. This conclusion does not assume increasing replacement of uranium by fuels from reprocessing current reactor wastes, or by thorium, nor greater reactor efficiencies, which are likely to ameliorate future uranium demand. However, progressively increasing quantities of uranium will need to be mined, against a backdrop of the relatively small number of producing facilities around the world, geopolitical uncertainties and

  2. A Methodology for the Assessment of Unconventional (Continuous) Resources with an Application to the Greater Natural Buttes Gas Field, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olea, Ricardo A.; Cook, Troy A.; Coleman, James L.

    2010-01-01

    The Greater Natural Buttes tight natural gas field is an unconventional (continuous) accumulation in the Uinta Basin, Utah, that began production in the early 1950s from the Upper Cretaceous Mesaverde Group. Three years later, production was extended to the Eocene Wasatch Formation. With the exclusion of 1100 non-productive ('dry') wells, we estimate that the final recovery from the 2500 producing wells existing in 2007 will be about 1.7 trillion standard cubic feet (TSCF) (48.2 billion cubic meters (BCM)). The use of estimated ultimate recovery (EUR) per well is common in assessments of unconventional resources, and it is one of the main sources of information to forecast undiscovered resources. Each calculated recovery value has an associated drainage area that generally varies from well to well and that can be mathematically subdivided into elemental subareas of constant size and shape called cells. Recovery per 5-acre cells at Greater Natural Buttes shows spatial correlation; hence, statistical approaches that ignore this correlation when inferring EUR values for untested cells do not take full advantage of all the information contained in the data. More critically, resulting models do not match the style of spatial EUR fluctuations observed in nature. This study takes a new approach by applying spatial statistics to model geographical variation of cell EUR taking into account spatial correlation and the influence of fractures. We applied sequential indicator simulation to model non-productive cells, while spatial mapping of cell EUR was obtained by applying sequential Gaussian simulation to provide multiple versions of reality (realizations) having equal chances of being the correct model. For each realization, summation of EUR in cells not drained by the existing wells allowed preparation of a stochastic prediction of undiscovered resources, which range between 2.6 and 3.4 TSCF (73.6 and 96.3 BCM) with a mean of 2.9 TSCF (82.1 BCM) for Greater Natural Buttes

  3. Significant deposits of gold, silver, copper, lead, and zinc in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, K.R.; DeYoung, J.H.; Ludington, S.

    2000-01-01

    Approximately 99 percent of past production and remaining identified resources of gold, silver, copper, lead, and zinc in the United States are accounted for by deposits that originally contained at least 2 metric tonnes (t) gold, 85 t silver, 50,000 t copper, 30,000 t lead, or 50,000 t zinc. The U.S. Geological Survey, beginning with the 1996 National Mineral Resource Assessment, is systematically compiling data on these deposits, collectively known as 'significant' deposits. As of December 31, 1996, the significant deposits database contained 1,118 entries corresponding to individual deposits or mining districts. Maintaining, updating and analyzing a database of this size is much easier than managing the more than 100,000 records in the Mineral Resource Data System and Minerals Availability System/Minerals Industry Location System, yet the significant deposits database accounts for almost all past production and remaining identified resources of these metals in the United States. About 33 percent of gold, 22 percent of silver, 42 percent of copper, 39 percent of lead, and 46 percent of zinc are contained in or were produced from deposits discovered after World War II. Even within a database of significant deposits, a disproportionate share of past production and remaining resources is accounted for by a very small number of deposits. The largest 10 producers for each metal account for one third of the gold, 60 percent of the silver, 68 percent of the copper, 85 percent of the lead, and 75 percent of the zinc produced in the United States. The 10 largest deposits in terms of identified remaining resources of each of the five metals contain 43 percent of the gold, 56 percent of the silver, 48 percent of the copper, 94 percent of the lead, and 72 percent of the zinc. Identified resources in significant deposits for each metal are less than the mean estimates of resources in undiscovered deposits from the 1996 U.S. National Mineral Resource Assessment. Identified

  4. Visual Perceptual Echo Reflects Learning of Regularities in Rapid Luminance Sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Acer Y-C; Schwartzman, David J; VanRullen, Rufin; Kanai, Ryota; Seth, Anil K

    2017-08-30

    A novel neural signature of active visual processing has recently been described in the form of the "perceptual echo", in which the cross-correlation between a sequence of randomly fluctuating luminance values and occipital electrophysiological signals exhibits a long-lasting periodic (∼100 ms cycle) reverberation of the input stimulus (VanRullen and Macdonald, 2012). As yet, however, the mechanisms underlying the perceptual echo and its function remain unknown. Reasoning that natural visual signals often contain temporally predictable, though nonperiodic features, we hypothesized that the perceptual echo may reflect a periodic process associated with regularity learning. To test this hypothesis, we presented subjects with successive repetitions of a rapid nonperiodic luminance sequence, and examined the effects on the perceptual echo, finding that echo amplitude linearly increased with the number of presentations of a given luminance sequence. These data suggest that the perceptual echo reflects a neural signature of regularity learning.Furthermore, when a set of repeated sequences was followed by a sequence with inverted luminance polarities, the echo amplitude decreased to the same level evoked by a novel stimulus sequence. Crucially, when the original stimulus sequence was re-presented, the echo amplitude returned to a level consistent with the number of presentations of this sequence, indicating that the visual system retained sequence-specific information, for many seconds, even in the presence of intervening visual input. Altogether, our results reveal a previously undiscovered regularity learning mechanism within the human visual system, reflected by the perceptual echo. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT How the brain encodes and learns fast-changing but nonperiodic visual input remains unknown, even though such visual input characterizes natural scenes. We investigated whether the phenomenon of "perceptual echo" might index such learning. The perceptual echo is a

  5. Madbi Amran/Qishn total petroleum system of the Ma'Rib-Al Jawf/Shabwah, and Masila-Jeza basins, Yemen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlbrandt, Thomas S.

    2002-01-01

    Since the first discovery of petroleum in Yemen in 1984, several recent advances have been made in the understanding of that countrys geologic history and petroleum systems. The total petroleum resource endowment for the combined petroleum provinces within Yemen, as estimated in the recent U.S. Geological Survey world assessment, ranks 51st in the world, exclusive of the United States, at 9.8 BBOE, which includes cumulative production and remaining reserves, as well as a mean estimate of undiscovered resources. Such undiscovered petroleum resources are about 2.7 billion barrels of oil, 17 trillion cubic feet (2.8 billion barrels of oil equivalent) of natural gas and 1 billion barrels of natural gas liquids. A single total petroleum system, the Jurassic Madbi Amran/Qishn, dominates petroleum generation and production; it was formed in response to a Late Jurassic rifting event related to the separation of the Arabian Peninsula from the Gondwana supercontinent. This rifting resulted in the development of two petroleum-bearing sedimentary basins: (1) the western MaRibAl Jawf / Shabwah basin, and (2) the eastern Masila-Jeza basin. In both basins, petroleum source rocks of the Jurassic (Kimmeridgian) Madbi Formation generated hydrocarbons during Late Cretaceous time that migrated, mostly vertically, into Jurassic and Cretaceous reservoirs. In the western MaRibAl Jawf / Shabwah basin, the petroleum system is largely confined to syn-rift deposits, with reservoirs ranging from deep-water turbidites to continental clastics buried beneath a thick Upper Jurassic (Tithonian) salt. The salt initially deformed in Early Cretaceous time, and continued halokinesis resulted in salt diapirism and associated salt withdrawal during extension. The eastern Masila-Jeza basin contained similar early syn-rift deposits but received less clastic sediment during the Jurassic; however, no salt formed because the basin remained open to ocean circulation in the Late Jurassic. Thus, Madbi Formation

  6. Play-fairway analysis for geothermal resources and exploration risk in the Modoc Plateau region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siler, Drew; Zhang, Yingqi; Spycher, Nicolas F.; Dobson, Patrick; McClain, James S.; Gasperikova, Erika; Zierenberg, Robert A.; Schiffman, Peter; Ferguson, Colin; Fowler, Andrew; Cantwell, Carolyn

    2017-01-01

    The region surrounding the Modoc Plateau, encompassing parts of northeastern California, southern Oregon, and northwestern Nevada, lies at an intersection between two tectonic provinces; the Basin and Range province and the Cascade volcanic arc. Both of these provinces have substantial geothermal resource base and resource potential. Geothermal systems with evidence of magmatic heat, associated with Cascade arc magmatism, typify the western side of the region. Systems on the eastern side of the region appear to be fault controlled with heat derived from high crustal heat flow, both of which are typical of the Basin and Range. As it has the potential to host Cascade arc-type geothermal resources, Basin and Range-type geothermal resources, and/or resources with characteristics of both provinces, and because there is relatively little current development, the Modoc Plateau region represents an intriguing potential for undiscovered geothermal resources. It remains unclear however, what specific set(s) of characteristics are diagnostic of Modoc-type geothermal systems and how or if those characteristics are distinct from Basin and Range-type or Cascade arc-type geothermal systems. In order to evaluate the potential for undiscovered geothermal resources in the Modoc area, we integrate a wide variety of existing data in order to evaluate geothermal resource potential and exploration risk utilizing ‘play-fairway’ analysis. We consider that the requisite parameters for hydrothermal circulation are: 1) heat that is sufficient to drive circulation, and 2) permeability that is sufficient to allow for fluid circulation in the subsurface. We synthesize data that indicate the extent and distribution of these parameters throughout the Modoc region. ‘Fuzzy logic’ is used to incorporate expert opinion into the utility of each dataset as an indicator of either heat or permeability, and thus geothermal favorability. The results identify several geothermal prospects, areas that

  7. Proceedings for a Workshop on Deposit Modeling, Mineral Resource Assessment, and Their Role in Sustainable Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briskey, Joseph A.; Schulz, Klaus J.

    2007-01-01

    The world's use of nonfuel mineral resources continues to increase to support a growing population and increasing standards of living. The ability to meet this increasing demand is affected especially by concerns about possible environmental degradation associated with minerals production and by competing land uses. What information does the world need to support global minerals development in a sustainable way?Informed planning and decisions concerning sustainability and future mineral resource supply require a long–term perspective and an integrated approach to resource, land use, economic, and environmental management worldwide. Such perspective and approach require unbiased information on the global distribution of identified and especially undiscovered resources, the economic and political factors influencing their development, and the potential environmental consequences of their exploitation.The U.S. Geological Survey and the former Deposit Modeling Program of the International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS) of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) sponsored a workshop on "Deposit Modeling, Mineral Resource Assessment, and Their Role in Sustainable Development" at the 31st International Geological Congress (IGC) in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, on August 18–19, 2000. The purpose of the workshop was to review the state-of-the-art in mineral deposit modeling and resource assessment and to examine the role of global assessments of nonfuel mineral resources in sustainable development.The workshop addressed questions such as the following: Which of the available mineral deposit models and assessment methods are best suited for predicting the locations, deposit types, and amounts of undiscovered nonfuel mineral resources remaining in the world? What is the availability of global geologic, mineral deposit, and mineral exploration information? How can mineral resource assessments be used to address economic and

  8. T-R Cycle Characterization and Imaging: Advanced Diagnostic Methodology for Petroleum Reservoir and Trap Detection and Delineation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernest A. Mancini

    2006-08-30

    and seismic reflection configurations and terminations, improves the ability to identify and define the limits of potential stratigraphic traps and the stratigraphic component of combination stratigraphic and structural traps and the associated continental, coastal plain and marine potential reservoir facies. The assessment of the underdeveloped and undiscovered reservoirs and resources in the Mississippi Interior and North Louisiana Salt Basins resulted in the confirmation of the Monroe Uplift as a feature characterized by a major regional unconformity, which serves as a combination stratigraphic and structural trap with a significant stratigraphic component, and the characterization of a developing play in southwest Alabama, which involves a stratigraphic trap, located updip near the pinchout of the potential reservoir facies. Potential undiscovered and underdeveloped reservoirs in the onshore interior salt basins are identified as Jurassic and Cretaceous aggrading continental and coastal, backstepping nearshore marine and marine shelf, and infilling fluvial, deltaic, coastal plain and marine shelf.

  9. A map of the invisible journeys into particle physics

    CERN Document Server

    Butterworth, Jon

    2017-01-01

    What is the universe really made of? How do we know? Follow the map of the invisible to find out... Over the last sixty years, scientists around the world have worked together to explore the fundamental constituents of matter, and the forces that govern their behaviour. The result, so far, is the ‘Standard Model’ of elementary particles: a theoretical map of the basic building blocks of the universe. With the discovery of the Higgs boson in 2012, the map as we know it was completed, but also extended into strange new territory. A Map of the Invisible is an explorer’s guide to the Standard Model and the extraordinary realms of particle physics. After shrinking us down to the size of a sub-atomic particle, pioneering physicist Jon Butterworth takes us on board his research vessel for a journey in search of atoms and quarks, electrons and neutrinos, and the forces that shape the universe. Step by step, discovery by discovery, we journey into the world of the unseen, from the atom to black holes and dark ...

  10. Extraordinary Matter: Visualizing Space Plasmas and Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbier, S. B.; Bartolone, L.; Christian, E.; Thieman, J.; Eastman, T.; Lewis, E.

    2011-09-01

    Atoms and sub-atomic particles play a crucial role in the dynamics of our universe, but these particles and the space plasmas comprised of them are often overlooked in popular scientific and educational resources. Although the concepts are pertinent to a wide range of topics, even the most basic particle and plasma physics principles are generally unfamiliar to non-scientists. Educators and public communicators need assistance in explaining these concepts that cannot be easily demonstrated in the everyday world. Active visuals are a highly effective aid to understanding, but resources of this type are currently few in number and difficult to find, and most do not provide suitable context for audience comprehension. To address this need, our team is developing an online multimedia reference library of animations, visualizations, interactivities, and videos resources - Extraordinary Matter: Visualizing Space Plasmas and Particles. The site targets grades 9-14 and the equivalent in informal education and public outreach. Each ready-to-use product will be accompanied by a supporting explanation at a reading level matching the educational level of the concept. It will also have information on relevant science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) educational standards, activities, lesson plans, related products, links, and suggested uses. These products are intended to stand alone, making them adaptable to the widest range of uses, including scientist presentations, museum displays, educational websites and CDs, teacher professional development, and classroom use. This project is funded by a NASA Education and Public Outreach in Earth and Space Science (EPOESS) grant.

  11. A Systems-Theoretical Generalization of Non-Local Correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Stillfried, Nikolaus

    Non-local correlations between quantum events are not due to a causal interaction in the sense of one being the cause for the other. In principle, the correlated events can thus occur simultaneously. Generalized Quantum Theory (GQT) formalizes the idea that non-local phenomena are not exclusive to quantum mechanics, e.g. due to some specific properties of (sub)atomic particles, but that they instead arise as a consequence of the way such particles are arranged into systems. Non-local phenomena should hence occur in any system which fulfils the necessary systems-theoretical parameters. The two most important parameters with respect to non-local correlations seem to be a conserved global property of the system as a whole and sufficient degrees of freedom of the corresponding property of its subsystems. Both factors place severe limitations on experimental observability of the phenomena, especially in terms of replicability. It has been suggested that reported phenomena of a so-called synchronistic, parapsychological or paranormal kind could be understood as instances of systems-inherent non-local correlations. From a systems-theoretical perspective, their phenomenology (including the favorable conditions for their occurrence and their lack of replicability) displays substantial similarities to non-local correlations in quantum systems and matches well with systems-theoretical parameters, thus providing circumstantial evidence for this hypothesis.

  12. Challenging the Science Curriculum Paradigm: Teaching Primary Children Atomic-Molecular Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haeusler, Carole; Donovan, Jennifer

    2017-11-01

    Solutions to global issues demand the involvement of scientists, yet concern exists about retention rates in science as students pass through school into University. Young children are curious about science, yet are considered incapable of grappling with abstract and microscopic concepts such as atoms, sub-atomic particles, molecules and DNA. School curricula for primary (elementary) aged children reflect this by their limitation to examining only what phenomena are without providing any explanatory frameworks for how or why they occur. This research challenges the assumption that atomic-molecular theory is too difficult for young children, examining new ways of introducing atomic theory to 9 year olds and seeks to verify their efficacy in producing genuine learning in the participants. Early results in three cases in different schools indicate these novel methods fostered further interest in science, allowed diverse children to engage and learn aspects of atomic theory, and satisfied the children's desire for intellectual challenge. Learning exceeded expectations as demonstrated in the post-interview findings. Learning was also remarkably robust, as demonstrated in two schools 8 weeks after the intervention and, in one school, 1 year after their first exposure to ideas about atoms, elements and molecules.

  13. Design and performance of an ultra-high vacuum scanning tunneling microscope operating at dilution refrigerator temperatures and high magnetic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, S; Zhou, B B; Drozdov, I K; Seo, J; Urban, L; Gyenis, A; Kingsley, S C J; Jones, H; Yazdani, A

    2013-10-01

    We describe the construction and performance of a scanning tunneling microscope capable of taking maps of the tunneling density of states with sub-atomic spatial resolution at dilution refrigerator temperatures and high (14 T) magnetic fields. The fully ultra-high vacuum system features visual access to a two-sample microscope stage at the end of a bottom-loading dilution refrigerator, which facilitates the transfer of in situ prepared tips and samples. The two-sample stage enables location of the best area of the sample under study and extends the experiment lifetime. The successful thermal anchoring of the microscope, described in detail, is confirmed through a base temperature reading of 20 mK, along with a measured electron temperature of 250 mK. Atomically resolved images, along with complementary vibration measurements, are presented to confirm the effectiveness of the vibration isolation scheme in this instrument. Finally, we demonstrate that the microscope is capable of the same level of performance as typical machines with more modest refrigeration by measuring spectroscopic maps at base temperature both at zero field and in an applied magnetic field.

  14. National Computational Infrastructure for Lattice Gauge Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brower, Richard C.

    2014-04-15

    SciDAC-2 Project The Secret Life of Quarks: National Computational Infrastructure for Lattice Gauge Theory, from March 15, 2011 through March 14, 2012. The objective of this project is to construct the software needed to study quantum chromodynamics (QCD), the theory of the strong interactions of sub-atomic physics, and other strongly coupled gauge field theories anticipated to be of importance in the energy regime made accessible by the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). It builds upon the successful efforts of the SciDAC-1 project National Computational Infrastructure for Lattice Gauge Theory, in which a QCD Applications Programming Interface (QCD API) was developed that enables lattice gauge theorists to make effective use of a wide variety of massively parallel computers. This project serves the entire USQCD Collaboration, which consists of nearly all the high energy and nuclear physicists in the United States engaged in the numerical study of QCD and related strongly interacting quantum field theories. All software developed in it is publicly available, and can be downloaded from a link on the USQCD Collaboration web site, or directly from the github repositories with entrance linke http://usqcd-software.github.io

  15. Dark matter, neutrinos, and our solar system

    CERN Document Server

    Prakash, Nirmala

    2013-01-01

    Dark Matter, Neutrinos, and Our Solar System is a unique enterprise that should be viewed as an important contribution to our understanding of dark matter, neutrinos and the solar system. It describes these issues in terms of links, between cosmology, particle and nuclear physics, as well as between cosmology, atmospheric and terrestrial physics. It studies the constituents of dark matter (classified as hot warm and cold) first in terms of their individual structures (baryonic and non-baryonic, massive and non-massive, interacting and non-interacting) and second, in terms of facilities available to detect these structures (large and small). Neutrinos (an important component of dark matter) are treated as a separate entity. A detailed study of these elusive (sub-atomic) particles is done, from the year 1913 when they were found as byproducts of beta decay -- until the discovery in 2007 which confirmed that neutrino flavors were not more than three (as speculated by some). The last chapter of the book details t...

  16. Institute of Nuclear physics of Lyon - IPNL, Activity Report 2010-2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The Institute of Nuclear physics of Lyon (IPNL) is under the joint supervision of the Claude Bernard University of Lyon (UCBL) and the National Institute of Nuclear and particle physics (IN2P3) of the CNRS (National Centre for Scientific Research). The laboratory studies the properties and interactions of sub-atomic particles. Its activities are largely experimental, with groups involved in a wide range of national and international collaborations concerning particle and astro-particle physics, nuclear matter and the interactions of ions and cluster with matter. In addition, the Institute has important interdisciplinary and applied research activities related to: detectors R and D, confinement of radioactive waste, bio-medical imaging, measurement of environmental levels of radioactive elements. This document presents the activity of the Centre during the 2010-2011 years: 1 - Forewords; 2 - Research activities: Quarks and Leptons, Astro-particles, Hadronic and nuclear matter, Theoretical physics, trans-disciplinary activities, publications, communications, partnerships; 3 - Teaching and research training; 4 - Technical services: electronics, Computers, Mechanics, Instrumentation, Accelerators, LABRADOR metrology service; 5 - Laboratory administration; 6 - Communication and scientific mediation (seminars, conferences, exhibitions..)

  17. Institute of Nuclear physics of Lyon - IPNL, Activity Report 2002-2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The Institute of Nuclear physics of Lyon (IPNL) is under the joint supervision of the Claude Bernard University of Lyon (UCBL) and the National Institute of Nuclear and particle physics (IN2P3) of the CNRS (National Centre for Scientific Research). The laboratory studies the properties and interactions of sub-atomic particles. Its activities are largely experimental, with groups involved in a wide range of national and international collaborations concerning particle and astro-particle physics, nuclear matter and the interactions of ions and cluster with matter. In addition, the Institute has important interdisciplinary and applied research activities related to: detectors R and D, confinement of radioactive waste, bio-medical imaging, measurement of environmental levels of radioactive elements. This document presents the activity of the Centre during the 2002-2003 years: 1 - Research topics: Quarks and Leptons; Astro-particles; Hadronic matter; Nuclear matter; Theoretical physics; trans-disciplinary activities; 2 - Technical support to experiments (electronics, Computers, Mechanics, Accelerators, Instrumentation, Radiation protection, LABRADOR metrology service, Administration); 3 - Transverse activities (Training, Science and society, Communication, Documentation); 4 - Scientific life (Scientific production, participation to scientific bodies); 5 - Manpower (Permanent training, Staff)

  18. Black Swans and Many Worlds: Contemporary models in music, the arts and ideas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barry Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Black Swans and Many Worlds are new models to help explain musical structures, and by extension, events in the social environment and in internal human experience. Many Worlds takes its departure point from quantum physics, and especially the work of Hugh Everett III, who used the defining point of a measurement in the sub-atomic world as initiating alternative courses of action. Everett extrapolated this idea to the macro-world: a defining point may initiate multiple outcomes, each with its own character and events, as parallel worlds. One application of this model is to consider musical works within a genre as Many Worlds. Black Swans derive from Nassim Taleb, who proposes that social, political, and in fact all aspects of today’s world are not understandable by logical processes or incremental change but are often rocked by extreme, unpredictable shocks. If Many Worlds provide new ways of thinking about potentiality, probability and innovation, Black Swans arrest us in our tracks by eruptions that threaten to derail contemporary life, and with it, music, the arts and ideas.

  19. Commercializing research: the leadership challenges for the 21st century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardner, P.L.; Verma, V.

    2000-06-01

    R and D today is a large industry that consumes vast amounts of public and private funds in most countries. It is becoming increasingly evident that technology transfer and the commercialization of research done at universities and government funded research laboratories must be a key element of their comprehensive strategic plan. It involves using a verified and organized knowledge and research to develop commercially viable products. It requires a visionary leader with effective project management skills to manage and motivate a team of scientists and engineers, otherwise even a top rated researcher will enervate and wither within the walls of research laboratories. This paper will highlight the importance, challenges and techniques of commercializing technology from accelerator research laboratories. It will provide an overview of the requirements of scientific leadership for both commercialization of research and technology, together with some case studies based on the experience at TRIUMF - Canada's national sub-atomic research facility in Vancouver. TRIUMF's experience with both research and commercial developments involving innovative technologies, along with some of the important leadership and management factors that lead to successful projects will be described. (author)

  20. Density functional theory study of the adsorption and dissociation of O{sub 2} on CuO(1 1 1) surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Shujuan, E-mail: sunshujuan@hebut.edu.cn [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin 300130 (China); Li, Chunyu [Science and Technology Innovation Center, Datang Technologies Industry Group Company Limited, Beijing (China); Zhang, Dongsheng [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin 300130 (China); Wang, Yanji, E-mail: yjwang@hebut.edu.cn [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin 300130 (China)

    2015-04-01

    Highlights: • The dissociation mechanisms of O{sub 2} on the CuO(1 1 1) surface have been obtained. • The energy barriers and reaction energies are calculated. • The presence of oxygen vacancy can obviously improve the catalytic activity of CuO. - Abstract: Density functional theory (DFT) have been performed to investigate the adsorption and dissociation of O{sub 2} on the perfect and oxygen-deficient CuO(1 1 1) surfaces. The calculated results indicate that the bridge site of two Cu{sub sub} atoms is the most favorable site for O adsorption on the perfect CuO(1 1 1) surface. But on the oxygen-deficient CuO(1 1 1) surface, the O atom adsorbed on O{sub vacancy} site after optimization. On the perfect and oxygen-deficient CuO(1 1 1) surfaces, the O{sub 2} are all paralleling to the surface after optimization. Possible dissociation pathways of molecularly adsorbed O{sub 2} on the two surfaces are identified. The calculated results suggest that the presence of oxygen vacancy exhibits a strong chemical reactivity towards the dissociation of O{sub 2} and can obviously improve the catalytic activity of CuO.

  1. Institute of Nuclear physics of Lyon - IPNL, Activity Report 2006-2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The Institute of Nuclear physics of Lyon (IPNL) is under the joint supervision of the Claude Bernard University of Lyon (UCBL) and the National Institute of Nuclear and particle physics (IN2P3) of the CNRS (National Centre for Scientific Research). The laboratory studies the properties and interactions of sub-atomic particles. Its activities are largely experimental, with groups involved in a wide range of national and international collaborations concerning particle and astro-particle physics, nuclear matter and the interactions of ions and cluster with matter. In addition, the Institute has important interdisciplinary and applied research activities related to: detectors R and D, confinement of radioactive waste, bio-medical imaging, measurement of environmental levels of radioactive elements. This document presents the activity of the Centre during the 2006-2007 years: 1 - Research topics: Quarks, Leptons and FUNDAMENTAL INTERACTIONS; Astro-particles; Hadronic and nuclear matter; Theoretical physics; trans-disciplinary activities; 2 - Technical support to experiments (electronics, Computers, Mechanics, Instrumentation, Accelerators, LABRADOR metrology service); 3 - Research support (administration, documentation, partnership and valorisation, quality assurance, permanent training, open university); 4 - Scientific life (publications, seminars, conferences, exhibitions, PhDs..)

  2. Institute of Nuclear physics of Lyon - IPNL, Activity Report 2004-2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The Institute of Nuclear physics of Lyon (IPNL) is under the joint supervision of the Claude Bernard University of Lyon (UCBL) and the National Institute of Nuclear and particle physics (IN2P3) of the CNRS (National Centre for Scientific Research). The laboratory studies the properties and interactions of sub-atomic particles. Its activities are largely experimental, with groups involved in a wide range of national and international collaborations concerning particle and astro-particle physics, nuclear matter and the interactions of ions and cluster with matter. In addition, the Institute has important interdisciplinary and applied research activities related to: detectors R and D, confinement of radioactive waste, bio-medical imaging, measurement of environmental levels of radioactive elements. This document presents the activity of the Centre during the 2004-2005 years: 1 - Research topics: Quarks and Leptons; Astro-particles; Hadronic and nuclear matter; Theoretical physics; trans-disciplinary activities; 2 - Technical support to experiments (electronics, Computers, Mechanics, Instrumentation, Radiation protection, Accelerators, LABRADOR metrology service, Administration); 3 - Transverse activities (Training, Science and society, Communication, Documentation); 4 - Scientific life (publications, seminars, conferences, exhibitions, PhDs..); 5 - Manpower (Permanent training, Staff)

  3. 1st Roman Young Researchers Meeting Proceedings

    CERN Document Server

    Cannuccia, E; Pietrobon, D; Stellato, F; Veneziani, M

    2009-01-01

    During the last few decades scientists have been able to test the bases of the physics paradigms, where the quantum mechanics has to match the cosmological scales. Between the extremes of this scenario, biological phenomena and their complexity take place, challenging the laws we observe in the atomic and sub-atomic world. In order to explore the details of this world, new huge experimental facilities are under construction. These projects involve people coming from several countries and give physicists the opportunity to work together with chemists, biologists and other scientists. The Roman Young Researchers Meeting is a conference, organised by Ph. D. students and young postdocs connected to the Roman area. It is aimed primarily at graduate students and post-docs, working in physics. The 1st conference has been held on the 21st of July 2009 at the University of Roma Tor Vergata. It was organised in three sessions, devoted to Astrophysics and Cosmology, Soft and Condensed Matter Physics and Theoretical and ...

  4. Cosmic Evolutionary Philosophy and a Dialectical Approach to Technological Singularity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cadell Last

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The anticipated next stage of human organization is often described by futurists as a global technological singularity. This next stage of complex organization is hypothesized to be actualized by scientific-technic knowledge networks. However, the general consequences of this process for the meaning of human existence are unknown. Here, it is argued that cosmic evolutionary philosophy is a useful worldview for grounding an understanding of the potential nature of this futures event. In the cosmic evolutionary philosophy, reality is conceptualized locally as a universal dynamic of emergent evolving relations. This universal dynamic is structured by a singular astrophysical origin and an organizational progress from sub-atomic particles to global civilization mediated by qualitative phase transitions. From this theoretical ground, we attempt to understand the next stage of universal dynamics in terms of the motion of general ideation attempting to actualize higher unity. In this way, we approach technological singularity dialectically as an event caused by ideational transformations and mediated by an emergent intersubjective objectivity. From these speculations, a historically-engaged perspective on the nature of human consciousness is articulated where the truth of reality as an emergent unity depends on the collective action of a multiplicity of human observers.

  5. Microstructure and mechanical properties of titanium aluminum carbides neutron irradiated at 400–700 °C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ang, Caen [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Parish, Chad M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Shih, Chunghao [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Silva, Chinthaka [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Katoh, Yutai [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-02-23

    Here, this work reports the first mechanical properties of Ti3AlC2-Ti5Al2C3 materials neutron irradiated at ~400, 630 and 700 °C at a fluence of 2 × 1025 n m-2 (E > 0.1 MeV) or a displacement dose of ~2 dpa. After irradiation at ~400 °C, anisotropic swelling and loss of 90% flexural strength was observed. After irradiation at ~630–700 °C, properties were unchanged. Microcracking and kinking-delamination had occurred during irradiation at ~630–700 °C. Further examination showed no cavities in Ti3AlC2 after irradiation at ~630 °C, and MX and A lamellae were preserved. However, disturbance of (0004) reflections corresponding to M-A layers was observed, and the number density of line/planar defects was ~1023 m-3 of size 5–10 nm. HAADF identified these defects as antisite TiAlsub> atoms. Finally, Ti3AlC2-Ti5Al2C3 shows abrupt dynamic recovery of A-layers from ~630 °C, but a higher temperature appears necessary for full recovery.

  6. Fake lepton determination, Supersymmetry searches in dilepton final states, and sharing ATLAS research with young students

    CERN Document Server

    Pedersen, Maiken; Lincoln Read, Alexander

    2014-06-01

    The world around us seems concrete and apparent. However, it is in fact governed by what goes on at the sub-atomic level, hidden from immediate experience. We describe this microscopic world by a theory we call the Standard Model (SM). Since its formation in the 1970s, collecting the physics of electromagnetism, the weak and the strong forces, into one coherent theory, it has proven extremely successful. Experimental evidence however, tells us that the Universe consists of 26.8\\% of dark matter, a type of matter that the SM does not describe. If we had a theory that predicted a symmetry in Nature where each type of particle came in two versions, only separated by their spin, we would have a promising pool of candidate dark-matter particles. Supersymmetry (SUSY) is exactly this type of theory. It even addresses other fundamental short-comings of the SM. Why we have not earlier discovered such particles can be explained by the nature of symmetries, they are often \\emph{broken}, in this case leading to very ma...

  7. Distribution of natural radionuclides in soil around Sultan Azlan Shah Coal-Fired Power Plant at Manjung, Perak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaini Hamzah; Fetri Zainal; Ahmad Saat; Abdul Khalik Wood

    2013-01-01

    Full-text: A radionuclide is an atom with an unstable nucleus which is created by excess energy. This radionuclide will undergo radioactive decay where gamma ray or sub atomic particles are released making them radioactive which can be harmful if the safe level is exceeded. This study was carried out in Manjung, Perak near Sultan Azlan Shah coal-fired power plant. Coal combustion from power plant generates emissions of potentially toxic radionuclides besides major pollutants which are particulates, sulphur and nitrogen oxides. It is noted that emission of particulates, sulphur and nitrogen oxides are strictly control. Soil is one of the most important media for plant to growth however soil is subject to contamination and its quality must be protected. The concentration of natural radionuclides in soil can be affected from coal combustion process from power plant in order to generate electricity. In this study, natural radionuclides concentration such as 238 U and 232 Th concentration in soil at nine points around this power plant were determined to assess radioactivity level and the possible radiation hazard to local population that residence in that area will be carried out in future study. Concentrations of natural radionuclides have been determined by using Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) technique. The concentration of 238 U in the area were in the ranged between 3.42 mg/ kg to 7.59 mg/ kg. While the concentration of 232 Th ranged from 12.19 mg/ kg to 21.67 mg/ kg respectively. (author)

  8. Institute of Nuclear physics of Lyon - IPNL, Activity Report 2008-2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The Institute of Nuclear physics of Lyon (IPNL) is under the joint supervision of the Claude Bernard University of Lyon (UCBL) and the National Institute of Nuclear and particle physics (IN2P3) of the CNRS (National Centre for Scientific Research). The laboratory studies the properties and interactions of sub-atomic particles. Its activities are largely experimental, with groups involved in a wide range of national and international collaborations concerning particle and astro-particle physics, nuclear matter and the interactions of ions and cluster with matter. In addition, the Institute has important interdisciplinary and applied research activities related to: detectors R and D, confinement of radioactive waste, bio-medical imaging, measurement of environmental levels of radioactive elements. This document presents the activity of the Centre during the 2008-2009 years: 1 - Forewords; 2 - Quarks and Leptons; 3 - Astro-particles; 4 - Hadronic and nuclear matter; 5 - Theoretical physics; 6 - Radiation sciences; 7 - Technical support to experiments (electronics, Computers, Mechanics, Instrumentation, Accelerators, LABRADOR metrology service); 8 - Laboratory administration; 9 - Scientific life (publications, seminars, conferences, exhibitions, PhDs..)

  9. Braids as a representation space of SU(5)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartin, Daniel

    2015-06-01

    The standard model of particle physics provides very accurate predictions of phenomena occurring at the sub-atomic level, but the reason for the choice of symmetry group and the large number of particles considered elementary is still unknown. Along the lines of previous preon models positing a substructure to explain these aspects, Bilson-Thompson showed how the first family of elementary particles is realized as the crossings of braids made of three strands, with charges resulting from twists of those strands with certain conditions; in this topological model, there are only two distinct neutrino states. Modeling the particles as braids implies these braids must be the representation space of a Lie algebra, giving the symmetries of the standard model. In this paper, this representation is made explicit, obtaining the raising operators associated with the Lie algebra of SU(5), one of the earliest grand unified theories. Because the braids form a group, the action of these operators are braids themselves, leading to their identification as gauge bosons. Possible choices for the other two families are also given. Although this realization of particles as braids is lacking a dynamical framework, it is very suggestive, especially when considered as a natural method of adding matter to loop quantum gravity.

  10. String derived exophobic SU(6)×SU(2) GUTs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, Laura; Faraggi, Alon E.; Glasser, Ivan; Rizos, John; Sonmez, Hasan

    2013-01-01

    With the apparent discovery of the Higgs boson, the Standard Model has been confirmed as the theory accounting for all sub-atomic phenomena. This observation lends further credence to the perturbative unification in Grand Unified Theories (GUTs) and string theories. The free fermionic formalism yielded fertile ground for the construction of quasi-realistic heterotic-string models, which correspond to toroidal Z 2 ×Z 2 orbifold compactifications. In this paper we study a new class of heterotic-string models in which the GUT group is SU(6)×SU(2) at the string level. We use our recently developed fishing algorithm to extract an example of a three generation SU(6)×SU(2) GUT model. We explore the phenomenology of the model and show that it contains the required symmetry breaking Higgs representations. We show that the model admits flat directions that produce a Yukawa coupling for a single family. The novel feature of the SU(6)×SU(2) string GUT models is that they produce an additional family universal anomaly free U(1) symmetry, and may remain unbroken below the string scale. The massless spectrum of the model is free of exotic states.

  11. Report of Activity, 1996 - 1997; Rapport d`activite 1996 - 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Augustin, Jean-Eudes [Inst. de Physique Nucleaire, Lyon-1 Univ., 69 - Villeurbanne (France)

    1998-12-31

    This report covers the activity developed in the Lyon Institute of Nuclear Physics in the years 1996-1997. The INP-Lyon is a mixed research unit, dependent on Lyon 1 Claude Bernard University, on one side, and on CNRS Institute of Nuclear and Particle Physics, on the other side. Its personnel of some 200 fellows is formed up of a half of researchers and undergraduate researchers, the other half being engineers, technicians and administration personnel. The principal activities in INP Lyon are the experimental research in sub-atomic physics as well as the training by research of the master and enrolled towards Ph D students. The main research problems concern the particle physics nuclear matter and the particle astrophysics as well as the works in theoretical physics, radioactive product management and the interactions ions/clusters - matter. The report contains the following chapters: Physics at LEP, Experiment preparation for LHC, Hadronic and Nuclear Matter, Astro-particles, Theoretical Physics, Ions/clusters - matter and physico-chemistry of the ion-matter interaction, Technical activities, Scientific life at INP -Lyon

  12. Report of Activity, 1996 - 1997; Rapport d`activite 1996 - 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Augustin, Jean-Eudes [Inst. de Physique Nucleaire, Lyon-1 Univ., 69 - Villeurbanne (France)

    1999-12-31

    This report covers the activity developed in the Lyon Institute of Nuclear Physics in the years 1996-1997. The INP-Lyon is a mixed research unit, dependent on Lyon 1 Claude Bernard University, on one side, and on CNRS Institute of Nuclear and Particle Physics, on the other side. Its personnel of some 200 fellows is formed up of a half of researchers and undergraduate researchers, the other half being engineers, technicians and administration personnel. The principal activities in INP Lyon are the experimental research in sub-atomic physics as well as the training by research of the master and enrolled towards Ph D students. The main research problems concern the particle physics nuclear matter and the particle astrophysics as well as the works in theoretical physics, radioactive product management and the interactions ions/clusters - matter. The report contains the following chapters: Physics at LEP, Experiment preparation for LHC, Hadronic and Nuclear Matter, Astro-particles, Theoretical Physics, Ions/clusters - matter and physico-chemistry of the ion-matter interaction, Technical activities, Scientific life at INP -Lyon

  13. Technology transfer at TRIUMF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardner, P.

    1994-06-01

    TRIUMF is Canada's major national research centre for sub-atomic physics. For the past five or six years, there has been an increasing emphasis on commercializing the technology that has emanated from the scientific research at the facility. This emphasis on technology transfer reflects a national policy trend of the Canadian federal government, which is the funding source for the majority of the research performed at TRIUMF. In TRIUMF's case, however, the initiative and funding for the commercialization office came from the provincial, or local government. This paper will describe the evolution of technology transfer at the TRIUMF facility, identifying the theory, policies and practical procedures that have been developed and followed. It will also include TRIUMF's experiences in finding exploitable technologies, protecting those technologies, and locating and linking with suitable industry partners to commercialize the technologies. There will be a discussion of resource allocation, and how TRIUMF has endeavoured to establish a portfolio of projects of assorted risks and expected returns. (author). 15 refs

  14. Commercializing research: the leadership challenges for the 21st century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardner, P.L.; Verma, V

    2000-06-01

    R and D today is a large industry that consumes vast amounts of public and private funds in most countries. It is becoming increasingly evident that technology transfer and the commercialization of research done at universities and government funded research laboratories must be a key element of their comprehensive strategic plan. It involves using a verified and organized knowledge and research to develop commercially viable products. It requires a visionary leader with effective project management skills to manage and motivate a team of scientists and engineers, otherwise even a top rated researcher will enervate and wither within the walls of research laboratories. This paper will highlight the importance, challenges and techniques of commercializing technology from accelerator research laboratories. It will provide an overview of the requirements of scientific leadership for both commercialization of research and technology, together with some case studies based on the experience at TRIUMF - Canada's national sub-atomic research facility in Vancouver. TRIUMF's experience with both research and commercial developments involving innovative technologies, along with some of the important leadership and management factors that lead to successful projects will be described. (author)

  15. Anti-drift and auto-alignment mechanism for an astigmatic atomic force microscope system based on a digital versatile disk optical head.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwu, E-T; Illers, H; Wang, W-M; Hwang, I-S; Jusko, L; Danzebrink, H-U

    2012-01-01

    In this work, an anti-drift and auto-alignment mechanism is applied to an astigmatic detection system (ADS)-based atomic force microscope (AFM) for drift compensation and cantilever alignment. The optical path of the ADS adopts a commercial digital versatile disc (DVD) optical head using the astigmatic focus error signal. The ADS-based astigmatic AFM is lightweight, compact size, low priced, and easy to use. Furthermore, the optical head is capable of measuring sub-atomic displacements of high-frequency AFM probes with a sub-micron laser spot (~570 nm, FWHM) and a high-working bandwidth (80 MHz). Nevertheless, conventional DVD optical heads suffer from signal drift problems. In a previous setup, signal drifts of even thousands of nanometers had been measured. With the anti-drift and auto-alignment mechanism, the signal drift is compensated by actuating a voice coil motor of the DVD optical head. A nearly zero signal drift was achieved. Additional benefits of this mechanism are automatic cantilever alignment and simplified design.

  16. Precision muon physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorringe, T. P.; Hertzog, D. W.

    2015-09-01

    The muon is playing a unique role in sub-atomic physics. Studies of muon decay both determine the overall strength and establish the chiral structure of weak interactions, as well as setting extraordinary limits on charged-lepton-flavor-violating processes. Measurements of the muon's anomalous magnetic moment offer singular sensitivity to the completeness of the standard model and the predictions of many speculative theories. Spectroscopy of muonium and muonic atoms gives unmatched determinations of fundamental quantities including the magnetic moment ratio μμ /μp, lepton mass ratio mμ /me, and proton charge radius rp. Also, muon capture experiments are exploring elusive features of weak interactions involving nucleons and nuclei. We will review the experimental landscape of contemporary high-precision and high-sensitivity experiments with muons. One focus is the novel methods and ingenious techniques that achieve such precision and sensitivity in recent, present, and planned experiments. Another focus is the uncommonly broad and topical range of questions in atomic, nuclear and particle physics that such experiments explore.

  17. Muon-catalyzed fusion: A new direction in fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, S.E.

    1986-01-01

    In four years of intensive research, muon-catalyzed fusion has been raised from the level of a scientific curiosity to a potential means of achieving clean fusion energy. This novel approach to fusion is based on the fact that a sub-atomic particle known as a ''muon'' can induce numerous energy-releasing fusion reactions without the need for high temperatures or plasmas. Thus, the muon serves as a catalyst to facilitate production for fusion energy. The success of the research effort stems from the recent discovery of resonances in the reaction cycle which make the muon-induced fusion process extremely efficient. Prior estimates were pessimistic in that only one fusion per muon was expected. In that case energy balance would be impossible since energy must be invested to generate the muons. However, recent work has gone approximately half-way to energy balance and further improvements are being worked on. There has been little time to assess the full implications of these discoveries. However, various ways to use muon-catalyzed fusion for electrical power production are now being explored

  18. Muon-catalyzed fusion: a new direction in fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, S.E.

    1986-01-01

    In four years of intensive research, muon-catalyzed fusion has been raised from the level of a scientific curiosity to a potential means of achieving clean fusion energy. This novel approach to fusion is based on the fact that a sub-atomic particle known as a ''muon'' can induce numerous energy-releasing fusion reactions without the need for high temperatures or plasmas. Thus, the muon serves as a catalyst to facilitate production for fusion energy. The success of the research effort stems from the recent discovery of resonances in the reaction cycle which make the muon-induced fusion process extremely efficient. Prior estimates were pessimistic in that only one fusion per muon was expected. In that case energy balance would be impossible since energy must be invested to generate the muons. However, recent work has gone approximately half-way to energy balance and further improvements are being worked on. There has been little time to assess the full implications of these discoveries. However, various ways to use muon-catalyzed fusion for electrical power production are now being explored

  19. Mitigating radiation damage of single photon detectors for space applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anisimova, Elena; Higgins, Brendon L.; Bourgoin, Jean-Philippe [University of Waterloo, Institute for Quantum Computing, Waterloo, ON (Canada); University of Waterloo, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Waterloo, ON (Canada); Cranmer, Miles [University of Waterloo, Institute for Quantum Computing, Waterloo, ON (Canada); Choi, Eric [University of Waterloo, Institute for Quantum Computing, Waterloo, ON (Canada); Magellan Aerospace, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Hudson, Danya; Piche, Louis P.; Scott, Alan [Honeywell Aerospace (formerly COM DEV Ltd.), Ottawa, ON (Canada); Makarov, Vadim [University of Waterloo, Institute for Quantum Computing, Waterloo, ON (Canada); University of Waterloo, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Waterloo, ON (Canada); University of Waterloo, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Waterloo, ON (Canada); Jennewein, Thomas [University of Waterloo, Institute for Quantum Computing, Waterloo, ON (Canada); University of Waterloo, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Waterloo, ON (Canada); Canadian Institute for Advanced Research, Quantum Information Science Program, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2017-12-15

    Single-photon detectors in space must retain useful performance characteristics despite being bombarded with sub-atomic particles. Mitigating the effects of this space radiation is vital to enabling new space applications which require high-fidelity single-photon detection. To this end, we conducted proton radiation tests of various models of avalanche photodiodes (APDs) and one model of photomultiplier tube potentially suitable for satellite-based quantum communications. The samples were irradiated with 106 MeV protons at doses approximately equivalent to lifetimes of 0.6, 6, 12 and 24 months in a low-Earth polar orbit. Although most detection properties were preserved, including efficiency, timing jitter and afterpulsing probability, all APD samples demonstrated significant increases in dark count rate (DCR) due to radiation-induced damage, many orders of magnitude higher than the 200 counts per second (cps) required for ground-to-satellite quantum communications. We then successfully demonstrated the mitigation of this DCR degradation through the use of deep cooling, to as low as -86 C. This achieved DCR below the required 200 cps over the 24 months orbit duration. DCR was further reduced by thermal annealing at temperatures of +50 to +100 C. (orig.)

  20. Analyses, algorithms, and computations for models of high-temperature superconductivity. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, Q.

    1997-01-01

    Under the sponsorship of the Department of Energy, the authors have achieved significant progress in the modeling, analysis, and computation of superconducting phenomena. The work so far has focused on mezoscale models as typified by the celebrated Ginzburg-Landau equations; these models are intermediate between the microscopic models (that can be used to understand the basic structure of superconductors and of the atomic and sub-atomic behavior of these materials) and the macroscale, or homogenized, models (that can be of use for the design of devices). The models they have considered include a time dependent Ginzburg-Landau model, a variable thickness thin film model, models for high values of the Ginzburg-landau parameter, models that account for normal inclusions and fluctuations and Josephson effects, and the anisotropic ginzburg-Landau and Lawrence-Doniach models for layered superconductors, including those with high critical temperatures. In each case, they have developed or refined the models, derived rigorous mathematical results that enhance the state of understanding of the models and their solutions, and developed, analyzed, and implemented finite element algorithms for the approximate solution of the model equations