WorldWideScience

Sample records for undiscovered conventional oil

  1. Assessment of undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources of Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Chris

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean volumes of 1.6 billion barrels of undiscovered conventional oil and 17 trillion cubic feet of undiscovered conventional natural gas in three geologic provinces of Thailand using a geology-based methodology. Most of the undiscovered conventional oil and gas resource is estimated to be in the area known as offshore Thai Basin province.

  2. Guiding principles of USGS methodology for assessment of undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charpentier, R.R.; Klett, T.R.

    2005-01-01

    During the last 30 years, the methodology for assessment of undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources used by the Geological Survey has undergone considerable change. This evolution has been based on five major principles. First, the U.S. Geological Survey has responsibility for a wide range of U.S. and world assessments and requires a robust methodology suitable for immaturely explored as well as maturely explored areas. Second, the assessments should be based on as comprehensive a set of geological and exploration history data as possible. Third, the perils of methods that solely use statistical methods without geological analysis are recognized. Fourth, the methodology and course of the assessment should be documented as transparently as possible, within the limits imposed by the inevitable use of subjective judgement. Fifth, the multiple uses of the assessments require a continuing effort to provide the documentation in such ways as to increase utility to the many types of users. Undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources are those recoverable volumes in undiscovered, discrete, conventional structural or stratigraphic traps. The USGS 2000 methodology for these resources is based on a framework of assessing numbers and sizes of undiscovered oil and gas accumulations and the associated risks. The input is standardized on a form termed the Seventh Approximation Data Form for Conventional Assessment Units. Volumes of resource are then calculated using a Monte Carlo program named Emc2, but an alternative analytic (non-Monte Carlo) program named ASSESS also can be used. The resource assessment methodology continues to change. Accumulation-size distributions are being examined to determine how sensitive the results are to size-distribution assumptions. The resource assessment output is changing to provide better applicability for economic analysis. The separate methodology for assessing continuous (unconventional) resources also has been evolving. Further

  3. Assessment of undiscovered, conventional oil and gas resources of Mexico, Guatemala, and Belize, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy A.; Klett, Timothy R.; Pitman, Janet K.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Weaver, Jean N.

    2012-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated means of 19 billion barrels of oil and 83 trillion cubic feet of undiscovered natural gas resources in 10 geologic provinces of Mexico, Guatemala, and Belize.

  4. Assessment of undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources of the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin, Canada, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higley, Debra K.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey recently completed a geoscience-based assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of provinces within the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin. The Western Canada Sedimentary Basin primarily comprises the (1) Alberta Basin Province of Alberta, eastern British Columbia, and the southwestern Northwest Territories; (2) the Williston Basin Province of Saskatchewan, southeastern Alberta, and southern Manitoba; and (3) the Rocky Mountain Deformed Belt Province of western Alberta and eastern British Columbia. This report is part of the U.S. Geological Survey World Petroleum Resources Project assessment of priority geologic provinces of the world. The assessment was based on geoscience elements that define a total petroleum system (TPS) and associated assessment unit(s). These elements include petroleum source rocks (geochemical properties and petroleum generation, migration, and accumulation), reservoir description (reservoir presence, type, and quality), and petroleum traps (trap and seal types, and timing of trap and seal formation relative to petroleum migration). Using this framework, the Elk Point-Woodbend Composite TPS, Exshaw-Fernie-Mannville Composite TPS, and Middle through Upper Cretaceous Composite TPS were defined, and four conventional assessment units within the total petroleum systems were quantitatively assessed for undiscovered resources in the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin.

  5. A Monte Carlo simulation method for the assessment of undiscovered, conventional oil and gas: Chapter 26 in Petroleum systems and geologic assessment of oil and gas in the San Joaquin Basin Province, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charpentier, Ronald R.; Klett, T.R.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey has developed two Monte Carlo programs for assessment of undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources. EMCEE (for Energy Monte Carlo) and Emc2 (for Energy Monte Carlo program 2) are programs that calculate probabilistic estimates of undiscovered resources based on input distributions for numbers and sizes of undiscovered fields. Emc2 uses specific types of distributions for the input, whereas EMCEE allows greater flexibility of the input distribution types.

  6. Assessment of undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources in the West Korea Bay–North Yellow Sea Basin, North Korea and China, 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Hawkins, Sarah J.; Finn, Thomas M.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Le, Phuong A.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Woodall, Cheryl A.

    2017-07-11

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean undiscovered, technically recoverable conventional resources of 1.1 billion barrels of oil and 2.2 trillion cubic feet of gas in the West Korea Bay–North Yellow Sea Basin, North Korea and China.

  7. Assessment of undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources, onshore Claiborne Group, United Statespart of the northern Gulf of Mexico Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackley, P.C.; Ewing, T.E.

    2010-01-01

    The middle Eocene Claiborne Group was assessed for undiscovered conventional hydrocarbon resources using established U.S. Geological Survey assessment methodology. This work was conducted as part of a 2007 assessment of Paleogene-Neogene strata of the northern Gulf of Mexico Basin, including the United States onshore and state waters (Dubiel et al., 2007). The assessed area is within the Upper Jurassic-CretaceousTertiary composite total petroleum system, which was defined for the assessment. Source rocks for Claiborne oil accumulations are interpreted to be organic-rich, downdip, shaley facies of the Wilcox Group and the Sparta Sand of the Claiborne Group; gas accumulations may have originated from multiple sources, including the Jurassic Smackover Formation and the Haynesville and Bossier shales, the Cretaceous Eagle Ford and Pearsall (?) formations, and the Paleogene Wilcox Group and Sparta Sand. Hydrocarbon generation in the basin started prior to deposition of Claiborne sediments and is currently ongoing. Primary reservoir sandstones in the Claiborne Group include, from oldest to youngest, the Queen City Sand, Cook Mountain Formation, Sparta Sand, Yegua Formation, and the laterally equivalent Cockfield Formation. A geologic model, supported by spatial analysis of petroleum geology data, including discovered reservoir depths, thicknesses, temperatures, porosities, permeabilities, and pressures, was used to divide the Claiborne Group into seven assessment units (AUs) with three distinctive structural and depositional settings. The three structural and depositional settings are (1) stable shelf, (2) expanded fault zone, and (3) slope and basin floor; the seven AUs are (1) lower Claiborne stable-shelf gas and oil, (2) lower Claiborne expanded fault-zone gas, (3) lower Claiborne slope and basin-floor gas, (4) lower Claiborne Cane River, (5) upper Claiborne stable-shelf gas and oil, (6) upper Claiborne expanded fault-zone gas, and (7) upper Claiborne slope and basin

  8. Assessment of undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources in the Wyoming Thrust Belt Province, Wyoming, Idaho, and Utah, 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Woodall, Cheryl A.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Le, Phuong A.; Klett, Timothy R.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Finn, Thomas M.; Marra, Kristen R.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.

    2018-02-16

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean undiscovered, technically recoverable resources of 26 million barrels of oil and 700 billion cubic feet of gas in the Wyoming Thrust Belt Province, Wyoming, Idaho, and Utah.

  9. Geologic models and evaluation of undiscovered conventional and continuous oil and gas resources: Upper Cretaceous Austin Chalk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Krystal

    2012-01-01

    The Upper Cretaceous Austin Chalk forms a low-permeability, onshore Gulf of Mexico reservoir that produces oil and gas from major fractures oriented parallel to the underlying Lower Cretaceous shelf edge. Horizontal drilling links these fracture systems to create an interconnected network that drains the reservoir. Field and well locations along the production trend are controlled by fracture networks. Highly fractured chalk is present along both regional and local fault zones. Fractures are also genetically linked to movement of the underlying Jurassic Louann Salt with tensile fractures forming downdip of salt-related structures creating the most effective reservoirs. Undiscovered accumulations should also be associated with structure-controlled fracture systems because much of the Austin that overlies the Lower Cretaceous shelf edge remains unexplored. The Upper Cretaceous Eagle Ford Shale is the primary source rock for Austin Chalk hydrocarbons. This transgressive marine shale varies in thickness and lithology across the study area and contains both oil- and gas-prone kerogen. The Eagle Ford began generating oil and gas in the early Miocene, and vertical migration through fractures was sufficient to charge the Austin reservoirs.

  10. Geologic assessment of undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources--Middle Eocene Claiborne Group, United States part of the Gulf of Mexico Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackley, Paul C.

    2012-01-01

    The Middle Eocene Claiborne Group was assessed using established U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) assessment methodology for undiscovered conventional hydrocarbon resources as part of the 2007 USGS assessment of Paleogene-Neogene strata of the United States part of the Gulf of Mexico Basin including onshore and State waters. The assessed area is within the Upper Jurassic-Cretaceous-Tertiary Composite total petroleum system, which was defined as part of the assessment. Source rocks for Claiborne oil accumulations are interpreted to be organic-rich downdip shaley facies of the Wilcox Group and the Sparta Sand of the Claiborne Group; gas accumulations may have originated from multiple sources including the Jurassic Smackover and Haynesville Formations and Bossier Shale, the Cretaceous Eagle Ford and Pearsall(?) Formations, and the Paleogene Wilcox Group and Sparta Sand. Hydrocarbon generation in the basin started prior to deposition of Claiborne sediments and is ongoing at present. Emplacement of hydrocarbons into Claiborne reservoirs has occurred primarily via vertical migration along fault systems; long-range lateral migration also may have occurred in some locations. Primary reservoir sands in the Claiborne Group include, from oldest to youngest, the Queen City Sand, Cook Mountain Formation, Sparta Sand, Yegua Formation, and the laterally equivalent Cockfield Formation. Hydrocarbon traps dominantly are rollover anticlines associated with growth faults; salt structures and stratigraphic traps also are important. Sealing lithologies probably are shaley facies within the Claiborne and in the overlying Jackson Group. A geologic model, supported by spatial analysis of petroleum geology data including discovered reservoir depths, thicknesses, temperatures, porosities, permeabilities, and pressures, was used to divide the Claiborne Group into seven assessment units (AU) with distinctive structural and depositional settings. The AUs include (1) Lower Claiborne Stable Shelf

  11. Geology and sequence stratigraphy of undiscovered oil and gas resources in conventional and continuous petroleum systems in the Upper Cretaceous Eagle Ford Group and related strata, U.S. Gulf Coast Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubiel, Russell F.; Pearson, Ofori N.; Pitman, Janet K.; Pearson, Krystal M.; Kinney, Scott A.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently assessed the technically recoverable undiscovered oil and gas onshore and in State waters of the Gulf Coast region of the United States. The USGS defined three assessment units (AUs) with potential undiscovered conventional and continuous oil and gas resources in Upper Cretaceous (Cenomanian to Turonian) strata of the Eagle Ford Group and correlative rocks. The assessment is based on geologic elements of a total petroleum system, including hydrocarbon source rocks (source rock maturation, hydrocarbon generation and migration), reservoir rocks (sequence stratigraphy and petrophysical properties), and traps (formation, timing, and seals). Conventional oil and gas undiscovered resources are in updip sandstone reservoirs in the Upper Cretaceous Tuscaloosa and Woodbine Formations (or Groups) in Louisiana and Texas, respectively, whereas continuous oil and continuous gas undiscovered resources reside in the middip and downdip Upper Cretaceous Eagle Ford Shale in Texas and the Tuscaloosa marine shale in Louisiana. Conventional resources in the Tuscaloosa and Woodbine are included in the Eagle Ford Updip Sandstone Oil and Gas AU, in an area where the Eagle Ford Shale and Tuscaloosa marine shale display vitrinite reflectance (Ro) values less than 0.6%. The continuous Eagle Ford Shale Oil AU lies generally south of the conventional AU, is primarily updip of the Lower Cretaceous shelf edge, and is defined by thermal maturity values within shales of the Eagle Ford and Tuscaloosa that range from 0.6 to 1.2% Ro. Similarly, the Eagle Ford Shale Gas AU is defined downdip of the shelf edge where source rocks have Ro values greater than 1.2%. For undiscovered oil and gas resources, the USGS assessed means of: 1) 141 million barrels of oil (MMBO), 502 billion cubic feet of natural gas (BCFG), and 4 million barrels of natural gas liquids (MMBNGL) in the Eagle Ford Updip Sandstone Oil and Gas AU; 2) 853 MMBO, 1707 BCFG, and 34 MMBNGL in the

  12. Geologic assessment of undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources in the Lower Paleogene Midway and Wilcox Groups, and the Carrizo Sand of the Claiborne Group, of the Northern Gulf coast region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warwick, Peter D.

    2017-09-27

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently conducted an assessment of the undiscovered, technically recoverable oil and gas potential of Tertiary strata underlying the onshore areas and State waters of the northern Gulf of Mexico coastal region. The assessment was based on a number of geologic elements including an evaluation of hydrocarbon source rocks, suitable reservoir rocks, and hydrocarbon traps in an Upper Jurassic-Cretaceous-Tertiary Composite Total Petroleum System defined for the region by the USGS. Five conventional assessment units (AUs) were defined for the Midway (Paleocene) and Wilcox (Paleocene-Eocene) Groups, and the Carrizo Sand of the Claiborne Group (Eocene) interval including: (1) the Wilcox Stable Shelf Oil and Gas AU; (2) the Wilcox Expanded Fault Zone Gas and Oil AU; (3) the Wilcox-Lobo Slide Block Gas AU; (4) the Wilcox Slope and Basin Floor Gas AU; and (5) the Wilcox Mississippi Embayment AU (not quantitatively assessed).The USGS assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources for the Midway-Wilcox-Carrizo interval resulted in estimated mean values of 110 million barrels of oil (MMBO), 36.9 trillion cubic feet of gas (TCFG), and 639 million barrels of natural gas liquids (MMBNGL) in the four assessed units. The undiscovered oil resources are almost evenly divided between fluvial-deltaic sandstone reservoirs within the Wilcox Stable Shelf (54 MMBO) AU and deltaic sandstone reservoirs of the Wilcox Expanded Fault Zone (52 MMBO) AU. Greater than 70 percent of the undiscovered gas and 66 percent of the natural gas liquids (NGL) are estimated to be in deep (13,000 to 30,000 feet), untested distal deltaic and slope sandstone reservoirs within the Wilcox Slope and Basin Floor Gas AU.

  13. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Taoudeni Basin Province, Mali and Mauritania, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownfield, Michael E.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Klett, Timothy R.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Pitman, Janet K.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Le, Phuong A.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Marra, Kristen R.; Hawkins, Sarah J.

    2016-03-31

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated undiscovered, technically recoverable mean resources of 160 million barrels of conventional oil, 1,880 billion cubic feet of conventional gas, 602 million barrels of shale oil, and 6,395 billion cubic feet of shale gas in the Taoudeni Basin Province in Mali and Mauritania.

  14. Undiscovered oil and gas resources of Lower Silurian Qusaiba-Paleozoic total petroleum systems, Arabian Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlbrandt, T.S.; Pollastro, R.M.; Schenk, C.J.

    2002-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently completed an assessment of the undiscovered conventional oil and gas potential of 128 of the world’s petroleum provinces (U.S. Geological Survey World Energy Assessment Team, 2000). In each province, the USGS defined Total Petroleum Systems, and Assessment Units in each Total Petroleum System, and then quantitatively estimated the undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources. Of the eight global regions studied by the USGS, the Arabian Peninsula portion of the Middle East region was estimated to contain the greatest volumes of undiscovered oil and gas. The Lower Silurian Qusaiba Member of the Qalibah Formation is the source rock for some of the most important Total Petroleum Systems of the Middle East region. For example, the sources of the gas in the supergiant North field of Qatar and Iran and recent giant light oil discoveries in central Saudi Arabia were largely organic-rich, Qusaiba marine mudstones.

  15. Geology and assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Zyryanka Basin Province, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klett, Timothy; Pitman, Janet K.; Moore, T.E.; Gautier, D.L.

    2017-11-22

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently assessed the potential for undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Zyryanka Basin Province as part of the 2008 USGS Circum-Arctic Resource Appraisal program. The province is in the Russian Federation and is situated on the Omolon superterrane of the Kolyma block. The one assessment unit (AU) that was defined for this study, called the Zyryanka Basin AU, which coincides with the province, was assessed for undiscovered, technically recoverable, conventional resources. The estimated mean volumes of undiscovered resources in the Zyryanka Basin Province are ~72 million barrels of crude oil, 2,282 billion cubic feet of natural gas, and 61 million barrels of natural-gas liquids. About 66 percent of the study area and undiscovered petroleum resources are north of the Arctic Circle.

  16. Assessment of undiscovered conventionally recoverable petroleum resources of the Arabian-Iranian Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, Charles D.; Klemme, H. Douglas; Coury, Anny B.

    1982-01-01

    The estimates of undiscovered conventionally recoverable petroleum resources in the Arabian-Iranian basin at probability levels of 95 percent, 5 percent, and statistical mean are for oil (in billions of barrels): 72, 337, and 174; and for gas (in trillions of cubic feet): 299, 1792, and 849. The occurrence of petroleum can be accounted for in five definitive geological settings or plays. The assessment of undiscovered resource potential assumes that the new discoveries will expand the occurrence of petroleum in these basic plays; no additional plays with significant petroleum potential were recognized. The five plays listed by geologic age are: (I) Upper Cretaceous and Tertiary, (II) Lower and Middle Cretaceous sandstone, (III) Lower and Middle Cretaceous limestone, (IV) Jurassic, and (V) Permian. The Permian play, located in the south-central Arabian Gulf region and extending northeast-southwest from southern Iran to the Ar Rub' al Khali in Saudi Arabia, accounts for over four-fifths of the mean estimate of undiscovered gas. The remainder of the gas is divided about equally among the other four plays. The Jurassic play, located on the south side of the Arabian Gulf, accounts for slightly less than one-third of the estimated undiscovered oil, which is split equally between Saudi Arabia and Iraq. The Lower and Middle Cretaceous limestone play is located in the southern Gulf region and accounts for about one-fifth of the undiscovered oil, most of which is located in Saudi Arabia and the remainder in the United Arab Emirates. The Lower and Middle Cretaceous sandstone play is centralized in Kuwait at the head of the Arabian Gulf with significant potential extending to the northwest in Iraq; the play accounts for about one-third of the undiscovered oil, the great majority of which is estimated to be in Iraq with the remainder divided between Saudi Arabia and Kuwait. The upper Cretaceous-Tertiary play is located in the Zagros fold belt of Iran and Iraq and accounts for

  17. Economics of Undiscovered Oil and Gas in the North Slope of Alaska: Economic Update and Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attanasi, E.D.; Freeman, P.A.

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has published assessments by geologists of undiscovered conventional oil and gas accumulations in the North Slope of Alaska; these assessments contain a set of scientifically based estimates of undiscovered, technically recoverable quantities of oil and gas in discrete oil and gas accumulations that can be produced with conventional recovery technology. The assessments do not incorporate economic factors such as recovery costs and product prices. The assessors considered undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources in four areas of the North Slope: (1) the central North Slope, (2) the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska (NPRA), (3) the 1002 Area of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR), and (4) the area west of the NPRA, called in this report the 'western North Slope'. These analyses were prepared at different times with various minimum assessed oil and gas accumulation sizes and with slightly different assumptions. Results of these past studies were recently supplemented with information by the assessment geologists that allowed adjustments for uniform minimum assessed accumulation sizes and a consistent set of assumptions. The effort permitted the statistical aggregation of the assessments of the four areas composing the study area. This economic analysis is based on undiscovered assessed accumulation distributions represented by the four-area aggregation and incorporates updates of costs and technological and fiscal assumptions used in the initial economic analysis that accompanied the geologic assessment of each study area.

  18. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of Libya and Tunisia, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whidden, Katherine J.; Lewan, Michael; Schenk, Christopher J.; Charpentier, Rondald R.; Cook, Troy A.; Klett, Timothy R.; Pitman, Janet K.

    2011-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated means of 3.97 billion barrels of undiscovered oil, 38.5 trillion cubic feet of undiscovered natural gas, and 1.47 billion barrels of undiscovered natural gas liquids in two provinces of North Africa.

  19. USGS world petroleum assessment 2000; new estimates of undiscovered oil and natural gas, including reserve growth, outside the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2000-01-01

    Oil and natural gas account for approximately 63 percent of the world’s total energy consumption. The U.S. Geological Survey periodically estimates the amount of oil and gas remaining to be found in the world. Since 1981, each of the last four of these assessments has shown a slight increase in the combined volume of identified reserves and undiscovered resources. The latest assessment estimates the volume of technically recoverable conventional oil and gas that may be added to the world's reserves, exclusive of the United States, in the next 30 years. The USGS World Petroleum Assessment 2000 reports an increase in global petroleum resources, including a 20-percent increase in undiscovered oil and a 14-percent decrease in undiscovered natural gas compared to the previous assessment (table 1). These results have important implications for energy prices, policy, security, and the global resource balance.

  20. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Volga-Ural Region Province, Russia and Kazakhstan, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klett, T.R.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Pitman, Janet K.; Cook, Troy A.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean volumes of technically recoverable, conventional, undiscovered petroleum resources at 1.4 billion barrels of crude oil, 2.4 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 85 million barrels of natural gas liquids for the Volga-Ural Region Province, using a geology-based assessment methodology.

  1. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the Bossier Formation, U.S. Gulf Coast, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paxton, Stanley T.; Pitman, Janet K.; Kinney, Scott A.; Gianoutsos, Nicholas J.; Pearson, Ofori N.; Whidden, Katherine J.; Dubiel, Russell F.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Burke, Lauri A.; Klett, Timothy R.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Haines, Seth S.; Varela, Brian A.; Le, Phuong A.; Finn, Thomas M.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Hawkins, Sarah J.; Marra, Kristen R.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.

    2017-04-13

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated undiscovered, technically recoverable mean resources of 2.9 billion barrels of conventional oil and 108.6 trillion cubic feet of natural gas in the Upper Jurassic Bossier Formation in onshore lands and State waters of the U.S. Gulf Coast region.

  2. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the Haynesville Formation, U.S. Gulf Coast, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paxton, Stanley T.; Pitman, Janet K.; Kinney, Scott A.; Gianoutsos, Nicholas J.; Pearson, Ofori N.; Whidden, Katherine J.; Dubiel, Russell F.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Burke, Lauri A.; Klett, Timothy R.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Haines, Seth S.; Varela, Brian A.; Le, Phuong A.; Finn, Thomas M.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Hawkins, Sarah J.; Marra, Kristen R.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.

    2017-04-13

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated undiscovered, technically recoverable mean resources of 1.1 billion barrels of conventional oil and 195.8 trillion cubic feet of gas in the Upper Jurassic Haynesville Formation in onshore lands and State waters of the U.S. Gulf Coast region.

  3. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the Ventura Basin Province, California, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Pitman, Janet K.; Lillis, Paul G.; Klett, Timothy R.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Finn, Thomas M.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Hawkins, Sarah J.; Marra, Kristen R.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Le, Phuong A.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.

    2017-10-02

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) completed a geology-based assessment of undiscovered, technically recoverable conventional and continuous oil and gas resources in the part of the Ventura Basin Province that lies onshore or within State waters (within 3 miles of the shoreline) of California (fig. 1). Conventional oil and gas resources are those that have migrated upward into structural or stratigraphic traps from deep zones where the oil and gas is generated; water is present below the oil or gas. Continuous accumulations, in contrast, are those in which oil or gas is pervasively present in essentially all wells that penetrate them, that may not be structurally or stratigraphically trapped, and that typically lack oil-water or gas-water contacts. They are commonly produced with well-stimulation technology, such as hydraulic fracturing, referred to as “unconventional.” The same stimulation technology, however, is also used in many conventionally trapped accumulations. We estimated both the likely range of oil and gas volumes remaining to be discovered in accumulations similar to existing conventional oil and gas fields in the Ventura Basin Province (previously assessed by Keller [1995] as 1,060 million barrels of oil [MMBO], 1,900 billion cubic feet of gas [BCFG], and 60 million barrels of natural gas liquids [MMBNGL]), and the potential for oil and gas that might be present in a continuous accumulation at extreme depth in the floor of the basin.

  4. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Lusitanian Basin Province, Portugal, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Klett, Timothy R.; Finn, Thomas M.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Le, Phuong A.; Hawkins, Sarah J.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Paxton, Stanley T.

    2016-11-04

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey assessed mean undiscovered, technically recoverable resources of 121 million barrels of oil and 212 billion cubic feet of gas in the Lusitanian Basin Province, Portugal.

  5. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the Cuyo Basin Province, Argentina, 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Le, Phuong A.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Finn, Thomas M.; Hawkins, Sarah J.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Woodall, Cheryl A.

    2017-07-18

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean undiscovered, technically recoverable resources of 236 million barrels of oil and 112 billion cubic feet of associated gas in the Cuyo Basin Province, Argentina.

  6. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the Lower Indus Basin, Pakistan, 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Klett, Timothy R.; Finn, Thomas M.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Le, Phuong A.; Hawkins, Sarah J.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.

    2017-09-19

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean undiscovered, technically recoverable resources of 164 million barrels of oil and 24.6 trillion cubic feet of gas in the Lower Indus Basin, Pakistan.

  7. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the North-Central Montana Province, 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Woodall, Cheryl A.; Le, Phuong A.; Klett, Timothy R.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Finn, Thomas M.; Pitman, Janet K.; Marra, Kristen R.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.

    2018-02-12

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean undiscovered, technically recoverable resources of 55 million barrels of oil and 846 billion cubic feet of gas in the North-Central Montana Province.

  8. Assessment of undiscovered continuous oil and gas resources in the Hanoi Trough, Vietnam, 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Woodall, Cheryl A.; Le, Phuong A.; Klett, Timothy R.; Finn, Thomas M.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.

    2018-02-13

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean undiscovered, technically recoverable continuous resources of 52 million barrels of oil and 591 billion cubic feet of gas in the Hanoi Trough of Vietnam.

  9. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the Paradox Basin Province, Utah, Colorado, New Mexico, and Arizona, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whidden, Katherine J.

    2012-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated means of 560 million barrels of undiscovered oil, 12,701 billion cubic feet of undiscovered natural gas, and 490 million barrels of undiscovered natural gas liquids in the Paradox Basin of Utah, Colorado, New Mexico, and Arizona.

  10. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the Cretaceous Nanushuk and Torok Formations, Alaska North Slope, and summary of resource potential of the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska, 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houseknecht, David W.; Lease, Richard O.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Rouse, William A.; Jarboe, Palma B.; Whidden, Katherine J.; Garrity, Christopher P.; Lewis, Kristen A.; Heller, Samuel; Craddock, William H.; Klett, Timothy R.; Le, Phuong A.; Smith, Rebecca; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Woodall, Cheryl A.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Finn, Thomas M.

    2017-12-22

    The U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean undiscovered, technically recoverable resources of 8.7 billion barrels of oil and 25 trillion cubic feet of natural gas (associated and nonassociated) in conventional accumulations in the Cretaceous Nanushuk and Torok Formations in the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska, adjacent State and Native lands, and State waters. The estimated undiscovered oil resources in the Nanushuk and Torok Formations are significantly higher than previous estimates, owing primarily to recent, larger than anticipated oil discoveries.

  11. Geology and assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Laptev Sea Shelf Province, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klett, Timothy; Pitman, Janet K.; Moore, Thomas E.; Gautier, Donald L.

    2017-12-21

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently assessed the potential for undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Laptev Sea Shelf Province as part of the 2008 Circum-Arctic Resource Appraisal (CARA) program. The province is situated in the Russian Federation and is located between the Taimyr Peninsula and the Novosibirsk (New Siberian) Islands. Three assessment units (AUs) were defined for this study: the West Laptev Grabens AU, the East Laptev Horsts AU, and the Anisin-Novosibirsk AU, two of which were assessed for undiscovered, technically recoverable resources. The East Laptev Horsts AU was not quantitatively assessed. The estimated mean volumes of undiscovered oil and gas for the Laptev Sea Shelf Province are approximately 3 billion barrels of crude oil, 32 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and <1 billion barrels of natural gas liquids, all north of the Arctic Circle.

  12. Assessment of undiscovered continuous oil and gas resources in the Bohaiwan Basin Province, China, 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Woodall, Cheryl A.; Finn, Thomas M.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Le, Phuong A.; Klett, Timothy R.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Potter, Christopher J.

    2018-02-07

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean undiscovered, technically recoverable continuous resources of 2.0 billion barrels of oil and 20.3 trillion cubic feet of gas in the Bohaiwan Basin Province, China.

  13. Geologic assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in Aptian carbonates, onshore northern Gulf of Mexico Basin, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackley, Paul C.; Karlsen, Alexander W.

    2014-01-01

    Carbonate lithofacies of the Lower Cretaceous Sligo Formation and James Limestone were regionally evaluated using established U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) assessment methodology for undiscovered conventional hydrocarbon resources. The assessed area is within the Upper Jurassic–Cretaceous–Tertiary Composite total petroleum system, which was defined for the assessment. Hydrocarbons reservoired in carbonate platform Sligo-James oil and gas accumulations are interpreted to originate primarily from the Jurassic Smackover Formation. Emplacement of hydrocarbons occurred via vertical migration along fault systems; long-range lateral migration also may have occurred in some locations. Primary reservoir facies include porous patch reefs developed over paleostructural salt highs, carbonate shoals, and stacked linear reefs at the carbonate shelf margin. Hydrocarbon traps dominantly are combination structural-stratigraphic. Sealing lithologies include micrite, calcareous shale, and argillaceous lime mudstone. A geologic model, supported by discovery history analysis of petroleum geology data, was used to define a single regional assessment unit (AU) for conventional reservoirs in carbonate facies of the Sligo Formation and James Limestone. The AU is formally entitled Sligo-James Carbonate Platform Oil and Gas (50490121). A fully risked mean undiscovered technically recoverable resource in the AU of 50 million barrels of oil (MMBO), 791 billion cubic feet of natural gas (BCFG), and 26 million barrels of natural gas liquids was estimated. Substantial new development through horizontal drilling has occurred since the time of this assessment (2010), resulting in cumulative production of >200 BCFG and >1 MMBO.

  14. Assessment of undiscovered conventionally recoverable petroleum resources of the Northwest European region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, Charles D.; Klemme, H. Douglas

    1984-01-01

    The estimates of undiscovered conventionally recoverable petroleum resources in the northwest European region at probability levels of 95 percent, 5 percent, statistical mean, and mode are for oil (in billions of barrels): 9, 34, 20, and 15; and for gas (in trillions of cubic feet): 92, 258, 167, and 162. The occurrence of petroleum can be accounted for in two distinct geological plays located in the various subbasins of the region. Play I is associated with the distribution of mature source rocks of Late Jurassic age relative to four distinct trapping conditions. The play has been demonstrated productive mostly in the Viking and Central Grabens of the North Sea, where the shale has been buried to optimum depths for the generation of both oil and gas. To the north of 62 ? N. latitude up to the Barents Sea, source rocks become increasingly deeply buried and are interpreted to be dominantly gas prone; a narrow band of potentially oil-prone shales tracks most of the coast of Norway, but water depths in favorable localities commonly range from 600 to 1,200 feet. To the south of the Central Graben, the Jurassic source rocks are either immature or minimally productive because of a change in facies. Undrilled traps remain within the favorable source-rock area, and exploration will continue to challenge the boundaries of conventional wisdom, especially on the Norwegian side where little has .been reported on the geology of the adjoining Bergen High or Horda Basin, though, reportedly, the Jurassic source rocks are missing on the high and are immature in the southern part of the basin. Play II is associated with the distribution of a coal facies of Carboniferous age that is mature for the generation of gas and locally underlies favorable reservoir and sealing rocks. The play is limited largely by facies development to the present area of discovery and production but is limited as well to the southeast into onshore Netherlands and Germany by the unfavorable economics of an

  15. Comparison of methods used to estimate conventional undiscovered petroleum resources: World examples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlbrandt, T.S.; Klett, T.R.

    2005-01-01

    Various methods for assessing undiscovered oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquid resources were compared in support of the USGS World Petroleum Assessment 2000. Discovery process, linear fractal, parabolic fractal, engineering estimates, PETRIMES, Delphi, and the USGS 2000 methods were compared. Three comparisons of these methods were made in: (1) the Neuquen Basin province, Argentina (different assessors, same input data); (2) provinces in North Africa, Oman, and Yemen (same assessors, different methods); and (3) the Arabian Peninsula, Arabian (Persian) Gulf, and North Sea (different assessors, different methods). A fourth comparison (same assessors, same assessment methods but different geologic models), between results from structural and stratigraphic assessment units in the North Sea used only the USGS 2000 method, and hence compared the type of assessment unit rather than the method. In comparing methods, differences arise from inherent differences in assumptions regarding: (1) the underlying distribution of the parent field population (all fields, discovered and undiscovered), (2) the population of fields being estimated; that is, the entire parent distribution or the undiscovered resource distribution, (3) inclusion or exclusion of large outlier fields; (4) inclusion or exclusion of field (reserve) growth, (5) deterministic or probabilistic models, (6) data requirements, and (7) scale and time frame of the assessment. Discovery process, Delphi subjective consensus, and the USGS 2000 method yield comparable results because similar procedures are employed. In mature areas such as the Neuquen Basin province in Argentina, the linear and parabolic fractal and engineering methods were conservative compared to the other five methods and relative to new reserve additions there since 1995. The PETRIMES method gave the most optimistic estimates in the Neuquen Basin. In less mature areas, the linear fractal method yielded larger estimates relative to other methods

  16. Petroleum systems and assessment of undiscovered oil and gas in the Anadarko Basin Province, Colorado, Kansas, Oklahoma, and Texas: USGS Province 58

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higley, Debra K.

    2014-01-01

    This publication provides research results and related data in support of the U.S. Geological Survey assessment of the undiscovered oil and gas resource potential of the Anadarko Basin Province of western Oklahoma and Kansas, northern Texas, and southeastern Colorado. This province area includes the Las Animas arch of southeastern Colorado, part of the Palo Duro Basin of Texas, and the Anadarko Basin. Results of the geologic analysis and resource assessment are based on the geologic elements of each defined total petroleum system, including hydrocarbon source rocks (source-rock maturation, hydrocarbon generation and migration), reservoir rocks (sequence stratigraphic and petrophysical properties), hydrocarbon traps (trapping mechanisms and timing), and seals. Using this geologic framework, the U.S. Geological Survey defined 2 total petroleum systems, the Woodford Composite total petroleum system and Pennsylvanian Composite total petroleum system and 12 included assessment units, and quantitatively estimated the undiscovered oil and gas resources within these conventional and continuous (unconventional) AUs.

  17. Geology and assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the North Kara Basins and Platforms Province, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klett, Timothy R.; Pitman, Janet K.; Moore, T.E.; Gautier, D.L.

    2017-11-15

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently assessed the potential for undiscovered oil and gas resources of the North Kara Basins and Platforms Province as part of the its Circum-Arctic Resource Appraisal. This geologic province is north of western Siberia, Russian Federation, in the North Kara Sea between Novaya Zemlya to the west and Severnaya Zemlya to the east. One assessment unit (AU) was defined, the North Kara Basins and Platforms AU, which coincides with the geologic province. This AU was assessed for undiscovered, technically recoverable resources. The total estimated mean volumes of undiscovered petroleum resources in the province are ~1.8 billion barrels of crude oil, ~15.0 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and ~0.4 billion barrels of natural-gas liquids, all north of the Arctic Circle.

  18. Geology and assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Lena-Vilyui Basin Province, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klett, Timothy; Pitman, Janet K.; Moore, T.E.; Gautier, D.L.

    2017-11-22

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently assessed the potential for undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Lena-Vilyui Basin Province, north of the Arctic Circle, as part of the Circum-Arctic Resource Appraisal program. The province is in the Russian Federation and is situated between the Verkhoyansk fold-and-thrust belt and the Siberian craton. The one assessment unit (AU) defined for this study—the Northern Priverkhoyansk Foredeep AU—was assessed for undiscovered, technically recoverable resources. The estimated mean volumes of undiscovered resources for the Northern Priverkhoyansk Foredeep in the Lena-Vilyui Basin Province are ~400 million barrels of crude oil, 1.3 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 40 million barrels of natural-gas liquids, practically all (99.49 percent) of which is north of the Arctic Circle.

  19. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Williston Basin Province of North Dakota, Montana, and South Dakota, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2011-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment method, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean undiscovered volumes of 3.8 billion barrels of undiscovered oil, 3.7 trillion cubic feet of associated/dissolved natural gas, and 0.2 billion barrels of undiscovered natural gas liquids in the Williston Basin Province, North Dakota, Montana, and South Dakota. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently completed a comprehensive oil and gas assessment of the Williston Basin, which encompasses more than 90 million acres in parts of North Dakota, eastern Montana, and northern South Dakota. The assessment is based on the geologic elements of each total petroleum system (TPS) defined in the province, including hydrocarbon source rocks (source-rock maturation, hydrocarbon generation, and migration), reservoir rocks (sequence stratigraphy and petrophysical properties), and hydrocarbon traps (trap formation and timing). Using this geologic framework, the USGS defined 11 TPS and 19 Assessment Units (AU).

  20. Assessment of undiscovered continuous oil and gas resources in the Heath Formation, central Montana and western North Dakota, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Ronald M.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Klett, Timothy R.; Le, Phuong A.; Leathers, Heidi M.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Finn, Thomas M.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.

    2017-06-07

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated undiscovered, technically recoverable mean resources of 884 million barrels of oil and 106 billion cubic feet of gas in the North-Central Montana and Williston Basin Provinces of central Montana and western North Dakota.

  1. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of Papua-New Guinea, Eastern Indonesia, and East Timor, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy A.; Klett, Timothy R.; Pitman, Janet K.; Pollastro, Richard M.

    2012-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated means of 5.8 billion barrels of oil and 115 trillion cubic feet of undiscovered natural gas in five geologic provinces in the areas of Papua New Guinea, eastern Indonesia, and East Timor.

  2. Assessment of conventional oil resources of the East African Rift Province, East Africa, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownfield, Michael E.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Klett, Timothy R.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Finn, Thomas M.; Le, Phuong A.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.

    2017-03-27

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated undiscovered, technically recoverable mean conventional resources of 13.4 billion barrels of oil and 4.6 trillion cubic feet of gas in the East African Rift Province of east Africa.

  3. Methodology for assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources for the 2008 Circum-Arctic Resource Appraisal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charpentier, Ronald R.; Moore, T.E.; Gautier, D.L.

    2017-11-15

    The methodological procedures used in the geologic assessments of the 2008 Circum-Arctic Resource Appraisal (CARA) were based largely on the methodology developed for the 2000 U.S. Geological Survey World Petroleum Assessment. The main variables were probability distributions for numbers and sizes of undiscovered accumulations with an associated risk of occurrence. The CARA methodology expanded on the previous methodology in providing additional tools and procedures more applicable to the many Arctic basins that have little or no exploration history. Most importantly, geologic analogs from a database constructed for this study were used in many of the assessments to constrain numbers and sizes of undiscovered oil and gas accumulations.

  4. Geology and assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Hope Basin Province, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Kenneth J.; Houseknecht, David W.; Pitman, Janet K.; Moore, Thomas E.; Gautier, Donald L.

    2018-01-04

    The Hope Basin, an independent petroleum province that lies mostly offshore in the southern Chukchi Sea north of the Chukotka and Seward Peninsulas and south of Wrangel Island, the Herald Arch, and the Lisburne Peninsula, is the largest in a series of postorogenic (successor) basins in the East Siberian-Chukchi Sea region and the only one with exploratory-well control and extensive seismic coverage.In spite of the seismic coverage and well data, the petroleum potential of the Hope Basin Province is poorly known. The adequacy of hydrocarbon charge, in combination with uncertainties in source-rock potential and maturation, was the greatest risk in this assessment. A single assessment unit was defined and assessed, resulting in mean estimates of undiscovered, technically recoverable resources that include ~3 million barrels of oil and 650 billion cubic feet of nonassociated gas.

  5. Assessment of undiscovered technically recoverable oil and gas resources of Puerto Rico and the Puerto Rico-U.S. Virgin Islands Exclusive Economic Zone, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Pitman, Janet K.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Wandrey, Craig J.; Weaver, Jean N.

    2013-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated means of 19 million barrels of undiscovered, technically recoverable oil and 244 billion cubic feet of undiscovered natural gas in the Puerto Rico–U.S. Virgin Islands Exclusive Economic Zone.

  6. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Paris Basin, France, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Le, Phoung A.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Pitman, Janet K.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Leathers, Heidi M.

    2015-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated means of 222 million barrels of unconventional oil; 2,092 billion cubic feet of unconventional gas; 18 million barrels of conventional oil; and 47 billion cubic feet of conventional gas resources in the Paris Basin of France.

  7. Geology and assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Yukon Flats Basin Province, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Kenneth J.; Stanley, Richard G.; Moore, Thomas E.; Gautier, Donald L.

    2017-12-22

    The hydrocarbon potential of the Yukon Flats Basin Province in Central Alaska was assessed in 2004 as part of an update to the National Oil and Gas Assessment. Three assessment units (AUs) were identified and assessed using a methodology somewhat different than that of the 2008 Circum-Arctic Resource Appraisal (CARA). An important difference in the methodology of the two assessments is that the 2004 assessment specified a minimum accumulation size of 0.5 million barrels of oil equivalent (MMBOE), whereas the 2008 CARA assessment specified a minimum size of 50 MMBOE. The 2004 assessment concluded that >95 percent of the estimated mean undiscovered oil and gas resources occur in a single AU, the Tertiary Sandstone AU. This is also the only AU of the three that extends north of the Arctic Circle.For the CARA project, the number of oil and gas accumulations in the 2004 assessment of the Tertiary Sandstone AU was re-evaluated in terms of the >50-MMBOE minimum accumulation size. By this analysis, and assuming the resource to be evenly distributed across the AU, 0.23 oil fields and 1.20 gas fields larger than 50 MMBOE are expected in the part of the AU north of the Arctic Circle. The geology suggests, however, that the area north of the Arctic Circle has a lower potential for oil and gas accumulations than the area to the south where the sedimentary section is thicker, larger volumes of hydrocarbons may have been generated, and potential structural traps are probably more abundant. Because of the low potential implied for the area of the AU north of the Arctic Circle, the Yukon Flats Tertiary Sandstone AU was not quantitatively assessed for the 2008 CARA.

  8. Quality of the log-geometric distribution extrapolation for smaller undiscovered oil and gas pool size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenglin, L.; Charpentier, R.R.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey procedure for the estimation of the general form of the parent distribution requires that the parameters of the log-geometric distribution be calculated and analyzed for the sensitivity of these parameters to different conditions. In this study, we derive the shape factor of a log-geometric distribution from the ratio of frequencies between adjacent bins. The shape factor has a log straight-line relationship with the ratio of frequencies. Additionally, the calculation equations of a ratio of the mean size to the lower size-class boundary are deduced. For a specific log-geometric distribution, we find that the ratio of the mean size to the lower size-class boundary is the same. We apply our analysis to simulations based on oil and gas pool distributions from four petroleum systems of Alberta, Canada and four generated distributions. Each petroleum system in Alberta has a different shape factor. Generally, the shape factors in the four petroleum systems stabilize with the increase of discovered pool numbers. For a log-geometric distribution, the shape factor becomes stable when discovered pool numbers exceed 50 and the shape factor is influenced by the exploration efficiency when the exploration efficiency is less than 1. The simulation results show that calculated shape factors increase with those of the parent distributions, and undiscovered oil and gas resources estimated through the log-geometric distribution extrapolation are smaller than the actual values. ?? 2010 International Association for Mathematical Geology.

  9. Geology and assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Northwest Laptev Sea Shelf Province, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klett, Timothy; Pitman, Janet K.; Moore, Thomas E.; Gautier, Donald L.

    2017-12-22

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has recently assessed the potential for undiscovered oil and gas resources in the Northwest Laptev Sea Shelf Province as part of the USGS Circum-Arctic Resource Appraisal. The province is in the Russian Arctic, east of Severnaya Zemlya and the Taimyr fold-and-thrust belt. The province is separated from the rest of the Laptev Sea Shelf by the Severnyi transform fault. One assessment unit (AU) was defined for this study: the Northwest Laptev Sea Shelf AU. The estimated mean volumes of undiscovered petroleum resources in the Northwest Laptev Sea Shelf Province are approximately 172 million barrels of crude oil, 4.5 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 119 million barrels of natural-gas liquids, north of the Arctic Circle.

  10. Geology and assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the West Greenland-East Canada Province, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Moore, Thomas E.; Gautier, Donald L.

    2018-01-05

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently assessed the potential for undiscovered oil and gas resources of the West Greenland-East Canada Province as part of the USGS Circum-Arctic Resource Appraisal program. The province lies in the offshore area between western Greenland and eastern Canada and includes Baffin Bay, Davis Strait, Lancaster Sound, and Nares Strait west of, and including, part of Kane Basin. A series of major tectonic events led to the formation of several distinct structural domains that are the geologic basis for defining five assessment units (AU ) in the province, all of which are within the Mesozoic-Cenozoic Composite Total Petroleum System (TPS). Potential petroleum source rocks within the TPS include strata of Ordovician, Lower and Upper Cretaceous, and Paleogene ages. The five AUs defined for this study—the Eurekan Structures AU, Northwest Greenland Rifted Margin AU, Northeast Canada Rifted Margin AU, Baffin Bay Basin AU, and the Greater Ungava Fault Zone AU— encompass the entire province and were assessed for undiscovered, technically recoverable resources. The estimated mean volumes of undiscovered resources for the West GreenlandEast Canada Province are 10.7 billion barrels of oil, 75 trillion cubic feet of gas, and 1.7 billion barrels of natural gas liquids. For the part of the province that is north of the Arctic Circle, the estimated mean volumes of these undiscovered resources are 7.3 billion barrels of oil, 52 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 1.1 billion barrels of natural-gas liquids.

  11. Geologic Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources of the North Cuba Basin, Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.

    2010-01-01

    Petroleum generation in the North Cuba Basin is primarily the result of thrust loading of Jurassic and Cretaceous source rocks during formation of the North Cuba fold and thrust belt in the Late Cretaceous to Paleogene. The fold and thrust belt formed as Cuban arc-forearc rocks along the leading edge of the Caribbean plate translated northward during the opening of the Yucatan Basin and collided with the passive margin of southern North America in the Paleogene. Petroleum fluids generated during thrust loading migrated vertically into complex structures in the fold and thrust belt, into structures in the foreland basin, and possibly into carbonate reservoirs along the margins of the Yucatan and Bahama carbonate platforms. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) defined a Jurassic-Cretaceous Composite Total Petroleum System (TPS) and three assessment units (AU)-North Cuba Fold and Thrust Belt AU, North Cuba Foreland Basin AU, and the North Cuba Platform Margin Carbonate AU-within this TPS based mainly on structure and reservoir type (fig. 1). There is considerable geologic uncertainty as to the extent of petroleum migration that might have occurred within this TPS to form potential petroleum accumulations. Taking this geologic uncertainty into account, especially in the offshore area, the mean volumes of undiscovered resources in the composite TPS of the North Cuba Basin are estimated at (1) 4.6 billion barrels of oil (BBO), with means ranging from an F95 probability of 1 BBO to an F5 probability of 9 BBO; and (2) 8.6 trillion cubic feet of of gas (TCFG), of which 8.6 TCFG is associated with oil fields, and about 1.2 TCFG is in nonassociated gas fields in the North Cuba Foreland Basin AU.

  12. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Devonian Marcellus Shale of the Appalachian Basin Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, James L.; Milici, Robert C.; Cook, Troy A.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Kirshbaum, Mark; Klett, Timothy R.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Schenk, Christopher J.

    2011-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) estimated a mean undiscovered natural gas resource of 84,198 billion cubic feet and a mean undiscovered natural gas liquids resource of 3,379 million barrels in the Devonian Marcellus Shale within the Appalachian Basin Province. All this resource occurs in continuous accumulations. In 2011, the USGS completed an assessment of the undiscovered oil and gas potential of the Devonian Marcellus Shale within the Appalachian Basin Province of the eastern United States. The Appalachian Basin Province includes parts of Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, Maryland, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Tennessee, Virginia, and West Virginia. The assessment of the Marcellus Shale is based on the geologic elements of this formation's total petroleum system (TPS) as recognized in the characteristics of the TPS as a petroleum source rock (source rock richness, thermal maturation, petroleum generation, and migration) as well as a reservoir rock (stratigraphic position and content and petrophysical properties). Together, these components confirm the Marcellus Shale as a continuous petroleum accumulation. Using the geologic framework, the USGS defined one TPS and three assessment units (AUs) within this TPS and quantitatively estimated the undiscovered oil and gas resources within the three AUs. For the purposes of this assessment, the Marcellus Shale is considered to be that Middle Devonian interval that consists primarily of shale and lesser amounts of bentonite, limestone, and siltstone occurring between the underlying Middle Devonian Onondaga Limestone (or its stratigraphic equivalents, the Needmore Shale and Huntersville Chert) and the overlying Middle Devonian Mahantango Formation (or its stratigraphic equivalents, the upper Millboro Shale and middle Hamilton Group).

  13. Geology and assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Timan-Pechora Basin Province, Russia, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Moore, T.E.; Gautier, D.L.

    2017-11-15

    The Timan-Pechora Basin Province is a triangular area that represents the northeasternmost cratonic block of east European Russia. A 75-year history of petroleum exploration and production in the area there has led to the discovery of more than 16 billion barrels of oil (BBO) and 40 trillion cubic feet of gas (TCFG). Three geologic assessment units (AUs) were defined for assessing the potential for undiscovered oil and gas resources in the province: (1) the Northwest Izhma Depression AU, which includes all potential structures and reservoirs that formed in the northwestern part of the Izhma-Pechora Depression, although this part of the basin contains only sparse source and reservoir rocks and so was not assessed quantitatively; (2) the Main Basin Platform AU, which includes all potential structures and reservoirs that formed in the central part of the basin, where the tectonic and petroleum system evolution was complex; and (3) the Foredeep Basins AU, which includes all potential structures and reservoirs that formed within the thick sedimentary section of the foredeep basins west of the Uralian fold and thrust belt during the Permian and Triassic Uralian orogeny.For the Timan-Pechora Basin Province, the estimated means of undiscovered resources are 3.3 BBO, 17 TCFG, and 0.3 billion barrels of natural-gas liquids (BBNGL). For the AU areas north of the Arctic Circle in the province, the estimated means of undiscovered resources are 1.7 BBO, 9.0 TCFG, and 0.2 BBNGL. These assessment results indicate that exploration in the Timan-Pechora Basin Province is at a mature level.

  14. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Cretaceous-Tertiary Composite Total Petroleum System, Taranaki Basin Assessment Unit, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wandrey, Craig J.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Klett, Timothy R.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy A.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.

    2013-01-01

    The Cretaceous-Tertiary Composite Total Petroleum System coincident Taranaki Basin Assessment Unit was recently assessed for undiscovered technically recoverable oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids resources as part of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) World Energy Resources Project, World Oil and Gas Assessment. Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the USGS estimated mean volumes of 487 million barrels of oil, 9.8 trillion cubic feet of gas, and 408 million barrels of natural gas liquids.

  15. Assessment of undiscovered continuous oil and gas resources in the Dnieper-Donets Basin and North Carpathian Basin Provinces, Ukraine, Romania, Moldova, and Poland, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klett, Timothy R.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.

    2016-11-30

    Using a geology-based methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated undiscovered, technically recoverable mean resources of 13 million barrels of oil and 2,643 billion cubic feet of natural gas in the Dnieper-Donets Basin and North Carpathian Basin Provinces of Ukraine, Romania, Moldova, and Poland.

  16. Assessment of undiscovered continuous oil and gas resources in the Domanik-type formations of the Volga-Ural Region Province, Russia, 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klett, Timothy R.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Finn, Thomas M.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Le, Phuong A.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Marra, Kristen R.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Pitman, Janet K.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Woodall, Cheryl A.

    2018-02-27

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean undiscovered, technically recoverable continuous resources of 2.8 billion barrels of oil and 34 trillion cubic feet of gas in the Domanik-type formations of the Volga-Ural Region Province, Russia.

  17. Geologic assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources—Lower Cretaceous Albian to Upper Cretaceous Cenomanian carbonate rocks of the Fredericksburg and Washita Groups, United States Gulf of Mexico Coastal Plain and State Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Sharon M.; Enomoto, Catherine B.; Dennen, Kristin O.; Valentine, Brett J.; Cahan, Steven M.

    2017-02-10

    In 2010, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) assessed Lower Cretaceous Albian to Upper Cretaceous Cenomanian carbonate rocks of the Fredericksburg and Washita Groups and their equivalent units for technically recoverable, undiscovered hydrocarbon resources underlying onshore lands and State Waters of the Gulf Coast region of the United States. This assessment was based on a geologic model that incorporates the Upper Jurassic-Cretaceous-Tertiary Composite Total Petroleum System (TPS) of the Gulf of Mexico basin; the TPS was defined previously by the USGS assessment team in the assessment of undiscovered hydrocarbon resources in Tertiary strata of the Gulf Coast region in 2007. One conventional assessment unit (AU), which extends from south Texas to the Florida panhandle, was defined: the Fredericksburg-Buda Carbonate Platform-Reef Gas and Oil AU. The assessed stratigraphic interval includes the Edwards Limestone of the Fredericksburg Group and the Georgetown and Buda Limestones of the Washita Group. The following factors were evaluated to define the AU and estimate oil and gas resources: potential source rocks, hydrocarbon migration, reservoir porosity and permeability, traps and seals, structural features, paleoenvironments (back-reef lagoon, reef, and fore-reef environments), and the potential for water washing of hydrocarbons near outcrop areas.In Texas and Louisiana, the downdip boundary of the AU was defined as a line that extends 10 miles downdip of the Lower Cretaceous shelf margin to include potential reef-talus hydrocarbon reservoirs. In Mississippi, Alabama, and the panhandle area of Florida, where the Lower Cretaceous shelf margin extends offshore, the downdip boundary was defined by the offshore boundary of State Waters. Updip boundaries of the AU were drawn based on the updip extent of carbonate rocks within the assessed interval, the presence of basin-margin fault zones, and the presence of producing wells. Other factors evaluated were the middle

  18. Geologic assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources: Oligocene Frio and Anahuac Formations, United States Gulf of Mexico coastal plain and State waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Sharon M.; Karlsen, Alexander W.; Valentine, Brett J.

    2013-01-01

    million barrels of natural gas liquids for all of the Frio and Anahuac AUs. Of the five units assessed, the Frio Slope and Basin Floor Gas AU has the greatest potential for undiscovered gas resources, having an estimated mean of 5.6 TCFG. The Hackberry Oil and Gas AU shows the second highest potential for gas of the five units assessed, having an estimated mean of 1.8 TCFG. The largest undiscovered, conventional crude oil resource was estimated for the Frio Slope and Basin Floor Gas AU; the estimated mean for oil in this AU is 110 MMBO.

  19. Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources of the Levant Basin Province, Eastern Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey estimated a mean of 1.7 billion barrels of recoverable oil and a mean of 122 trillion cubic feet of recoverable gas in the Levant Basin Province using a geology based assessment methodology.

  20. Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources of the Nile Delta Basin Province, Eastern Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschbaum, Mark A.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Pitman, Janet K.; Cook, Troy A.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey estimated means of 1.8 billion barrels of recoverable oil, 223 trillion cubic feet of recoverable gas, and 6 billion barrels of natural gas liquids in the Nile Delta Basin Province using a geology-based assessment methodology.

  1. Geology and assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Chukchi Borderland Province, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Kenneth J.; Houseknecht, David W.; Moore, Thomas E.; Gautier, Donald L.

    2017-12-22

    The Chukchi Borderland is both a stand-alone petroleum province and assessment unit (AU) that lies north of the Chukchi Sea. It is a bathymetrically high-standing block of continental crust that was probably rifted from the Canadian continental margin. The sum of our knowledge of this province is based upon geophysical data (seismic, gravity, and magnetic) and a limited number of seafloor core and dredge samples. As expected from the limited data set, the basin’s petroleum potential is poorly known. A single assessment unit, the Chukchi Borderland AU, was defined and assigned an overall probability of about a 5 percent chance of at least one petroleum accumulation >50 million barrels of oil equivalent (MMBOE). No quantitative assessment of sizes and numbers of petroleum accumulations was conducted for this AU.

  2. Geology and assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Jan Mayen Microcontinent Province, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Thomas E.; Pitman, Janet K.; Moore, T.E.; Gautier, D.L.

    2018-01-26

    The Jan Mayen Microcontinent encompasses a rectangular, mostly submarine fragment of continental crust that lies north of Iceland in the middle of the North Atlantic Ocean. These continental rocks were rifted away from the eastern margin of Greenland as a consequence of a westward jump of spreading centers from the now-extinct Aegir Ridge to the currently active Kolbeinsey Ridge in the Oligocene and early Miocene. The microcontinent is composed of the high-standing Jan Mayen Ridge and a series of smaller ridges that diminish southward in elevation and includes several deep basins that are underlain by strongly attenuated continental crust. The geology of this area is known principally from a loose collection of seismic reflection and refraction lines and several deep-sea scientific drill cores.The Jan Mayen Microcontinent petroleum province encompasses the entire area of the microcontinent and was defined as a single assessment unit (AU). Although its geology is poorly known, the microcontinent is thought to consist of late Paleozoic and Mesozoic rift basin stratigraphic sequences similar to those of the highly prospective Norwegian, North Sea, and Greenland continental margins. The prospectivity of the AU may be greatly diminished, however, by pervasive extensional deformation, basaltic magmatism, and exhumation that accompanied two periods of continental rifting and breakup in the Paleogene and early Neogene. The overall probability of at least one petroleum accumulation of >50 million barrels of oil equivalent was judged to be 5.6 percent. As a consequence of the low level of probability, a quantitative assessment of this AU was not conducted.

  3. USGS assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources for the Oligocene Frio and Anahuac formations, U.S. Gulf of Mexico coastal plain and state waters: Review of assessment units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Sharon M.; Karlsen, Alexander W.; Warwick, Peter D.; Kennan, Lorcan; Pindell, James; Rosen, Norman C.

    2007-01-01

    The Oligocene Frio and Anahuac formations were examined by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) as part of an assessment of technically recoverable undiscovered conventional and unconventional hydrocarbon resources in Paleogene and Neogene strata underlying the U.S. Gulf of Mexico Coastal Plain and state waters. Work included the identification of structural, stratigraphic, and tectonic relations between petroleum source rocks and migration pathways to Frio and Anahuac reservoirs; preliminary evaluation of the potential for shallow (less than 3,000 ft) biogenic gas accumulations; and evaluation of the potential for deep, undiscovered gas and oil accumulations in slope and basin floor areas. All assessments were conducted using USGS methodology (http://energy.cr.usgs.gov/oilgas/noga/methodology.html). Final products from the USGS assessment of the Paleogene and Neogene were reported in USGS fact sheets (Dubiel et al., 2007; Warwick et al., 2007).Five assessment units for the Frio Formation were defined, and three of these were based on the character of the reservoirs in relation to growth faults and other related factors: (1) the Frio stable shelf oil and gas assessment unit, which contains thin (average thickness of 34 ft) and shallow reservoirs (average depth of 4,834 ft); (2) the Frio expanded fault zone oil and gas assessment unit, which contains thick (average thickness of 56 ft) and deep reservoirs (average depth of 9,050 ft) in over-pressured intervals; and (3) the Frio slope and basin floor gas assessment unit, which has potential for deep gas (greater than 15,000 ft) and extends from the downdip boundary of the expanded fault zone to the offshore State/Federal water boundary. The fourth Frio assessment unit is the Hackberry oil and gas assessment unit. The Hackberry embayment of southeast Texas and southwest Louisiana consists of a slope facies in the middle part of the Frio Formation. The fifth unit, the Frio basin margin assessment unit, extends from the

  4. Geology and Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources of the East Barents Basins Province and the Novaya Zemlya Basins and Admiralty Arch Province, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klett, Timothy R.; Moore, T.E.; Gautier, D.L.

    2017-11-15

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently assessed the potential for undiscovered petroleum resources of the East Barents Basins Province and the Novaya Zemlya Basins and Admiralty Arch Province as part of its Circum-Arctic Resource Appraisal. These two provinces are situated northeast of Scandinavia and the northwestern Russian Federation, on the Barents Sea Shelf between Novaya Zemlya to the east and the Barents Platform to the west. Three assessment units (AUs) were defined in the East Barents Basins Province for this study: the Kolguyev Terrace AU, the South Barents and Ludlov Saddle AU, and the North Barents Basin AU. A fourth AU, defined as the Novaya Zemlya Basins and Admiralty Arch AU, coincides with the Novaya Zemlya Basins and Admiralty Arch Province. These four AUs, all lying north of the Arctic Circle, were assessed for undiscovered, technically recoverable resources, resulting in total estimated mean volumes of ~7.4 billion barrels of crude oil, 318 trillion cubic feet (TCF) of natural gas, and 1.4 billion barrels of natural-gas liquids.

  5. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the Spraberry Formation of the Midland Basin, Permian Basin Province, Texas, 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marra, Kristen R.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Klett, Timothy R.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Le, Phuong A.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Finn, Thomas M.; Hawkins, Sarah J.; Brownfield, Michael E.

    2017-05-15

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean resources of 4.2 billion barrels of oil and 3.1 trillion cubic feet of gas in the Spraberry Formation of the Midland Basin, Permian Basin Province, Texas.

  6. Gaharu oil processing: gaharu oil from conventional extraction method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Fajri Osman; Mat Rasol Awang; Ahsanulkhaliqin Abd Wahab; Chow Saw Peng; Shyful Azizi Abd Rahman; Khairuddin Abdul Rahim

    2006-01-01

    Gaharu oil is extracted through water or steam distillation of gaharu wood powder. Gaharu oil can fetch prices ranging from RM 25,000 to RM 50,000 per kg, depending on the quality or grade of gaharu wood used to produce the oil. The oil is commonly exported to the Middle East and customarily used as a perfume base. This paper describes gaharu oil extraction technique from traditional method which is commonly practiced by gaharu entrepreneurs in Malaysia. Gaharu woods are initially chopped, dried and ground into powder form. The gaharu wood powder is then soaked in water for a week. After the soaking process, the fermented powder is distilled with water using a special distiller for 4 to 10 days depending on the quality of gaharu wood used in the extraction process. (Author)

  7. Comparative analysis of fiscal terms for Alberta oil sands and international heavy and conventional oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Meurs, P.

    2007-01-01

    There are considerable differences between international heavy oil and Alberta oil sands projects, notably the high viscosity of the bitumen in the oil sands reservoirs. The oil sands bitumen do not flow to wells without heating the bitumen, thereby adding to the already high cost of Alberta oil sand operations. This report provided an economic comparison of Alberta oil sands and international heavy oil projects. It also included a brief scoping review to compare with conventional oil regimes. Full exploration costs including the costs of dry holes were allocated to conventional oil operations in order to obtain a proper comparison. This investigation included the costs of dry holes. The report was a follow up to an earlier study released on April 12, 2007 on the preliminary fiscal evaluation of Alberta oil sand terms. The report provided an economic framework and described project selection. It then provided a discussion of production, costs and price data. Four adjusted projects were presented and compared with Alberta. The Venezuelan royalty formula was also discussed. Last, the report provided a detailed fiscal analysis. Comparisons were offered with Cold Lake and Athabasca Mine. A review of some other fiscal systems applicable to conventional oil were also outlined. It was concluded that Alberta oil sands developments are very competitive. It would be possible to modestly increase government revenues, without affecting the international competitive position of Alberta with respect to conventional oil. There is also some possibility to increase the base royalty on the Alberta oil sands without losing competitiveness. tabs., figs

  8. Alberta's conventional oil supply: How much? How long?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heath, M.

    1992-01-01

    To assess the future conventional crude oil supply potential in Alberta, a modelling system was designed with the capacity to determine the fraction of existing and potential reserves which could prove technically, economically and/or commercially viable over time. The reference case analysis described assumed constant real oil prices and fiscal burdens, capital and operating costs. Reserve additions from new pool discoveries were summed with reserves from existing pools to arrive at an estimate of the potential supply of established reserves in each play area. The established reserves from all plays were then totalled to provide the provincial conventional oil resource potential. Alberta's recoverable conventional crude oil reserves were shown to be declining at about 2 percent per year. However, even with declining recoverable reserves and relatively low prices, the results of the study indicated that the conventional oil industry remained a major revenue generator for the province and would continue to be so over the next 15 to 20 years. Improved operating efficiencies, cost reductions, reasonable prices and cooperation between industry and government were shown to be necessary to assure the continued viability of Alberta's conventional oil industry. figs., tabs., 11 refs

  9. Petroleum systems and geologic assessment of undiscovered oil and gas, Cotton Valley group and Travis Peak-Hosston formations, East Texas basin and Louisiana-Mississippi salt basins provinces of the northern Gulf Coast region. Chapters 1-7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) National Oil and Gas Assessment is to develop geologically based hypotheses regarding the potential for additions to oil and gas reserves in priority areas of the United States. The USGS recently completed an assessment of undiscovered oil and gas potential of the Cotton Valley Group and Travis Peak and Hosston Formations in the East Texas Basin and Louisiana-Mississippi Salt Basins Provinces in the Gulf Coast Region (USGS Provinces 5048 and 5049). The Cotton Valley Group and Travis Peak and Hosston Formations are important because of their potential for natural gas resources. This assessment is based on geologic principles and uses the total petroleum system concept. The geologic elements of a total petroleum system include hydrocarbon source rocks (source rock maturation, hydrocarbon generation and migration), reservoir rocks (sequence stratigraphy and petrophysical properties), and hydrocarbon traps (trap formation and timing). The USGS used this geologic framework to define one total petroleum system and eight assessment units. Seven assessment units were quantitatively assessed for undiscovered oil and gas resources.

  10. Role of reservoir engineering in the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the National Petroleum Reserve, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, M.K.; Bird, K.J.

    2005-01-01

    The geology and reservoir-engineering data were integrated in the 2002 U.S. Geological Survey assessment of the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska (NPRA). VVhereas geology defined the analog pools and fields and provided the basic information on sizes and numbers of hypothesized petroleum accumulations, reservoir engineering helped develop necessary equations and correlations, which allowed the determination of reservoir parameters for better quantification of in-place petroleum volumes and recoverable reserves. Seismic- and sequence-stratigraphic study of the NPRA resulted in identification of 24 plays. Depth ranges in these 24 plays, however, were typically greater than depth ranges of analog plays for which there were available data, necessitating the need for establishing correlations. The basic parameters required were pressure, temperature, oil and gas formation volume factors, liquid/gas ratios for the associated and nonassociated gas, and recovery factors. Finally, the re sults of U.S. Geological Survey deposit simulation were used in carrying out an economic evaluation, which has been separately published. Copyright ?? 2005. The American Association of Petroleum Geologists. All rights reserved.

  11. Geologic framework for the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in sandstone reservoirs of the Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous Cotton Valley Group, U.S. Gulf of Mexico region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eoff, Jennifer D.; Dubiel, Russell F.; Pearson, Ofori N.; Whidden, Katherine J.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is assessing the undiscovered oil and gas resources in sandstone reservoirs of the Upper Jurassic–Lower Cretaceous Cotton Valley Group in onshore areas and State waters of the U.S. Gulf of Mexico region. The assessment is based on geologic elements of a total petroleum system. Four assessment units (AUs) are defined based on characterization of hydrocarbon source and reservoir rocks, seals, traps, and the geohistory of the hydrocarbon products. Strata in each AU share similar stratigraphic, structural, and hydrocarbon-charge histories.

  12. Integrated Synthesis of the Permian Basin: Data and Models for Recovering Existing and Undiscovered Oil Resources from the Largest Oil-Bearing Basin in the U.S.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Jackson; Katherine Jackson

    2008-09-30

    Large volumes of oil and gas remain in the mature basins of North America. This is nowhere more true than in the Permian Basin of Texas and New Mexico. A critical barrier to recovery of this vast remaining resource, however, is information. Access to accurate geological data and analyses of the controls of hydrocarbon distribution is the key to the knowledge base as well as the incentives needed by oil and gas companies. The goals of this project were to collect, analyze, synthesize, and deliver to industry and the public fundamental information and data on the geology of oil and gas systems in the Permian Basin. This was accomplished in two ways. First we gathered all available data, organized it, and placed it on the web for ready access. Data include core analysis data, lists of pertinent published reports, lists of available cores, type logs, and selected PowerPoint presentations. We also created interpretive data such as type logs, geological cross sections, and geological maps and placed them in a geospatially-registered framework in ARC/GIS. Second, we created new written syntheses of selected reservoir plays in the Permian basin. Although only 8 plays were targeted for detailed analysis in the project proposal to DOE, 14 were completed. These include Ellenburger, Simpson, Montoya, Fusselman, Wristen, Thirtyone, Mississippian, Morrow, Atoka, Strawn, Canyon/Cisco, Wolfcamp, Artesia Group, and Delaware Mountain Group. These fully illustrated reports include critical summaries of published literature integrated with new unpublished research conducted during the project. As such these reports provide the most up-to-date analysis of the geological controls on reservoir development available. All reports are available for download on the project website and are also included in this final report. As stated in our proposal, technology transfer is perhaps the most important component of the project. In addition to providing direct access to data and reports through

  13. Oil shale, shale oil, shale gas and non-conventional hydrocarbons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clerici A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years there has been a world “revolution” in the field of unconventional hydrocarbon reserves, which goes by the name of “shale gas”, gas contained inside clay sediments micropores. Shale gas finds particular development in the United States, which are now independent of imports and see a price reduction to less than one third of that in Europe. With the high oil prices, in addition to the non-conventional gas also “oil shales” (fine-grained sedimentary rocks that contain a large amount of organic material to be used both to be directly burned or to extract liquid fuels which go under the name of shale oil, extra heavy oils and bitumen are becoming an industrial reality. Both unconventional gas and oil reserves far exceed in the world the conventional oil and gas reserves, subverting the theory of fossil fuels scarcity. Values and location of these new fossil reserves in different countries and their production by comparison with conventional resources are presented. In view of the clear advantages of unconventional fossil resources, the potential environmental risks associated with their extraction and processing are also highlighted.

  14. Oil shale, shale oil, shale gas and non-conventional hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clerici, A.; Alimonti, G.

    2015-08-01

    In recent years there has been a world "revolution" in the field of unconventional hydrocarbon reserves, which goes by the name of "shale gas", gas contained inside clay sediments micropores. Shale gas finds particular development in the United States, which are now independent of imports and see a price reduction to less than one third of that in Europe. With the high oil prices, in addition to the non-conventional gas also "oil shales" (fine-grained sedimentary rocks that contain a large amount of organic material to be used both to be directly burned or to extract liquid fuels which go under the name of shale oil), extra heavy oils and bitumen are becoming an industrial reality. Both unconventional gas and oil reserves far exceed in the world the conventional oil and gas reserves, subverting the theory of fossil fuels scarcity. Values and location of these new fossil reserves in different countries and their production by comparison with conventional resources are presented. In view of the clear advantages of unconventional fossil resources, the potential environmental risks associated with their extraction and processing are also highlighted.

  15. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the East Coast Mesozoic basins of the Piedmont, Blue Ridge Thrust Belt, Atlantic Coastal Plain, and New England Provinces, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milici, Robert C.; Coleman, James L.; Rowan, Elisabeth L.; Cook, Troy A.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Kirschbaum, Mark A.; Klett, Timothy R.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Schenk, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    During the early opening of the Atlantic Ocean in the Mesozoic Era, numerous extensional basins formed along the eastern margin of the North American continent from Florida northward to New England and parts of adjacent Canada. The basins extend generally from the offshore Atlantic continental margin westward beneath the Atlantic Coastal Plain to the Appalachian Mountains. Using a geology-based assessment method, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated a mean undiscovered natural gas resource of 3,860 billion cubic feet and a mean undiscovered natural gas liquids resource of 135 million barrels in continuous accumulations within five of the East Coast Mesozoic basins: the Deep River, Dan River-Danville, and Richmond basins, which are within the Piedmont Province of North Carolina and Virginia; the Taylorsville basin, which is almost entirely within the Atlantic Coastal Plain Province of Virginia and Maryland; and the southern part of the Newark basin (herein referred to as the South Newark basin), which is within the Blue Ridge Thrust Belt Province of New Jersey. The provinces, which contain these extensional basins, extend across parts of Georgia, South Carolina, North Carolina, Virginia, Maryland, Delaware, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, New York, Connecticut, and Massachusetts.

  16. Chapter 7. The GIS project for the geologic assessment of undiscovered oil and gas in the Cotton Valley group and Travis Peak and Hosston formations, East Texas basin and Louisiana-Mississippi salt basins provinces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biewick, Laura

    2006-01-01

    A geographic information system (GIS) focusing on the Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous Cotton Valley Group and the Lower Cretaceous Travis Peak and Hosston Formations in the northern Gulf Coast region was developed as a visual-analysis tool for the U.S. Geological Survey's 2002 assessment of undiscovered, technically recoverable oil and natural gas resources in the East Texas Basin and Louisiana-Mississippi Salt Basins Provinces. The Central Energy Resources Team of the U.S. Geological Survey has also developed an Internet Map Service to deliver the GIS data to the public. This mapping tool utilizes information from a database about the oil and natural gas endowment of the United States-including physical locations of geologic and geographic data-and converts the data into visual layers. Portrayal and analysis of geologic features on an interactive map provide an excellent tool for understanding domestic oil and gas resources for strategic planning, formulating economic and energy policies, evaluating lands under the purview of the Federal Government, and developing sound environmental policies. Assessment results can be viewed and analyzed or downloaded from the internet web site, http://energy.cr.usgs.gov/oilgas/noga/ .

  17. Oil shale, shale oil, shale gas and non-conventional hydrocarbons

    OpenAIRE

    Clerici A.; Alimonti G.

    2015-01-01

    In recent years there has been a world “revolution” in the field of unconventional hydrocarbon reserves, which goes by the name of “shale gas”, gas contained inside clay sediments micropores. Shale gas finds particular development in the United States, which are now independent of imports and see a price reduction to less than one third of that in Europe. With the high oil prices, in addition to the non-conventional gas also “oil shales” (fine-grained sedimentary rocks that contain a large am...

  18. Chapter 9: Oil and gas resource potential north of the Arctic Circle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautier, D.L.; Bird, K.J.; Charpentier, R.R.; Grantz, A.; Houseknecht, D.W.; Klett, T.R.; Moore, T.E.; Pitman, Janet K.; Schenk, C.J.; Schuenemeyer, J.H.; Sorensen, K.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Valin, Z.C.; Wandrey, C.J.

    2011-01-01

    The US Geological Survey recently assessed the potential for undiscovered conventional petroleumin the Arctic. Using a new map compilation of sedimentary elements, the area north of the Arctic Circle was subdivided into 70 assessment units, 48 of which were quantitatively assessed. The Circum-Arctic Resource Appraisal (CARA) was a geologically based, probabilistic study that relied mainly on burial history analysis and analogue modelling to estimate sizes and numbers of undiscovered oil and gas accumulations. The results of the CARA suggest the Arctic is gas-prone with an estimated 770-2990 trillion cubic feet of undiscovered conventional natural gas, most of which is in Russian territory. On an energy-equivalent basis, the quantity of natural gas ismore than three times the quantity of oil and the largest undiscovered gas eld is expected to be about 10 times the size of the largest undiscovered oil eld. In addition to gas, the gas accumulationsmay contain an estimated 39 billion barrels of liquids. The South Kara Sea is themost prospective gas assessment unit, but giant gas elds containingmore than 6 trillion cubic feet of recoverable gas are possible at a 50%chance in 10 assessment units. Sixty per cent of the estimated undiscovered oil resource is in just six assessment units, of which the Alaska Platform, with 31%of the resource, is the most prospective. Overall, the Arctic is estimated to contain between 44 and 157 billion barrels of recoverable oil. Billion barrel oil elds are possible at a 50%chance in seven assessment units.Undiscovered oil resources could be signicant to the Arctic nations, but are probably not sufcient to shift the world oil balance away from the Middle East. ?? 2011 The Geological Society of London.

  19. Assessment of undiscovered continuous oil and shale-gas resources in the Bazhenov Formation of the West Siberian Basin Province, Russia, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klett, Timothy R.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Pitman, Janet K.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.

    2016-11-10

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean continuous resources of 12 billion barrels of oil and 75 trillion cubic feet of gas in the Bazhenov Formation of the West Siberian Basin Province, Russia.

  20. Study of greenhouse gases reduction alternatives for the exploitation of non conventional oil sands in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouchonneau, Deborah [Institut Francais du Petrole (IFP), Paris (France)

    2008-07-01

    High energy prices and greenhouse gases reduction represent the main challenges the current worldwide energetic situation has to face. As a consequence, paradox strategies can be highlighted: oil prices are sufficiently high to exploit non conventional oil resources, like extra heavy oils and oil sands. But the production of these resources emits larger GHG than the conventional oil path and implies other major environmental issues (water management, risks of soil pollution, destruction of the boreal forest), incompatible with the rules validated by the protocol of Kyoto. At the light of the new greenhouse gases reduction regulation framework announced by the Canadian Federal government, this work focuses on the study of greenhouse gases reduction alternatives applied to the non conventional oil sands exploitation in Canada. (author)

  1. The concept of ''pollution damage'' in the maritime conventions governing liability and compensation for oil spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobsson, M.

    2000-01-01

    Compensation for pollution damage caused by spills from oil tankers is governed by an international regime elaborated under the auspices of the International Maritime Organization (I.M.O.). The framework for the regime was originally by the 1969 International Convention on Civil Liability for Oil Pollution Damage (1969 Civil liability convention) and the 1971 International Convention on the Establishment of an International Fund for Compensation for Oil Pollution Damage (1971 Fund Convention). This old regime was amended in 1992 by two protocols, and the amended Conventions are known as 1992 Civil Liability Convention and the 1992 Fund Convention. The Civil Liability conventions govern the liability of ship-owners for oil pollution damage. The Conventions lay down the principle of strict liability for ship-owners and create a system of compulsory liability insurance. The ship-owner is normally entitled to limit his liability to an amount which is linked to the tonnage of his ship. The regime of liability and the funds created by the 1971 and 1992 Conventions are analyzed in detail. Are studied as following: the concepts of pollution damage and the safeguard measures or preventive measures, the question of receivability for compensation demands (damage to properties, cleansing operations, costs, economic loss). The question of compensation conditions for the only economic loss and the damage to environment are tackled. This expose is concluded by enlightening the contribution brought by the previously named Conventions to the International law about the civil liability. (N.C.)

  2. Net energy yield from production of conventional oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dale, Michael; Krumdieck, Susan; Bodger, Pat

    2011-01-01

    Historic profitability of bringing oil to market was profound, but most easy oil has been developed. Higher cost resources, such as tar sands and deep off-shore, are considered the best prospects for the future. Economic modelling is currently used to explore future price scenarios commensurate with delivering fuel to market. Energy policy requires modelling scenarios capturing the complexity of resource and extraction aspects as well as the economic profitability of different resources. Energy-return-on-investment (EROI) expresses the profitability of bringing energy products to the market. Net energy yield (NEY) is related to the EROI. NEY is the amount of energy less expenditures necessary to deliver a fuel to the market. This paper proposes a pattern for EROI of oil production, based on historic oil development trends. Methodology and data for EROI is not agreed upon. The proposed EROI function is explored in relation to the available data and used to attenuate the International Energy Agency (IEA) world oil production scenarios to understand the implications of future declining EROI on net energy yield. The results suggest that strategies for management and mitigation of deleterious effects of a peak in oil production are more urgent than might be suggested by analyses focussing only on gross production. - Highlights: → Brief introduction to methodological issues concerning net energy analysis. → Description of EROI function over the whole production cycle of an energy resource. → Calibration of this function to EROI data from historic oil production. → Application to determine the net energy yield from current global oil production. → Calculation of net energy yield from IEA projections of future oil production.

  3. Existence of undiscovered Uranian satellites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boice, D.C.

    1986-04-01

    Structure in the Uranian ring system as observed in recent occultations may contain indirect evidence for the existence of undiscovered satellites. Using the Alfven and Arrhenius (1975, 1976) scenario for the formation of planetary systems, the orbital radii of up to nine hypothetical satellites interior to Miranda are computed. These calculations should provide interesting comparisons when the results from the Voyager 2 encounter with Uranus are made public. 15 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  4. Microwave heat treatment as a substitute for conventional treatment of palm oil fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mujahid H Al-Fayadh; Nor Azura Masabbir Ali

    1996-01-01

    Microwave energy has become a sound method of heat treatment because of its high penetration power, cleanliness and possible economic significance. In this research, microwave heat was used as a substitute for conventional blanching method of palm oil fruits. Microwave treatment at 2450 MHz and 800 watts gave very close color and frn,frying characteristics to oil of blanched fruits after one minute exposure time. However, five minutes of microwave heat gave severe husk oil discoloration after 49 hours of deep frying, compared to all oils extracted from fruits treated by either low, microwave exposure time or conventional steam treatment. Kernel oil, after five minutes of microwave treatment, was less discolored than both steam or microwave-treated fruits for one minute. More carotenes and discoloration compounds may be contributed to discoloration during microwave treatments. Oil chemical constants of both husk and kernel oils treated by microwave heat were close to those treated by conventional heat. Further research is needed to investigate detailed oil characteristics and evaluate the feasibility study for using microwave energy, as a substitute for conventional heat in palm oil industry

  5. Comparative Studies between Conventional and Microwave Assisted Extraction for Rice Bran Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Himanshu S; Pratap, Amit

    2017-09-01

    The present work deals with comparison of microwave assisted extraction to that of conventional solvent extraction for the extraction of rice bran oil (RBO); focusing on extraction yield and oil composition. Microwave assisted extraction act as a green process over other method and proved that it is effective method for extraction of oil. The investigation also focuses on the study of functional group and component present in oil. Natural antioxidant component; its activity was confirmed by DPPH assay. The oryzanol content was also determined by measuring the optical density of the sample at 315 nm in n-heptane using UV visible spectrophotometer.

  6. Panorama 2015 - New conventional oil and gas discoveries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hureau, Geoffroy; Vially, Roland

    2014-12-01

    Exploration expenditure rose sharply in 2013, as in the previous year. The overall results for 2014 are likely to show more modest growth at around 5%. In ten years, exploration budgets have increased fivefold, which has led to some major discoveries; but since 2010, the volumes discovered have fallen every year despite the continuing increase in spending. In 2013, 17 billion barrels of oil equivalent (Gboe) were discovered. This is less than both the amount for the previous year and the ten-year average. The initial estimates for 2014 suggest a stabilization of volumes discovered at the same level as 2013. The continuing decline in offshore discoveries in Brazil and East Africa, where operators have cut back on their exploration programmes, appears to have been partly offset by the increase in border areas, such as the pre-salt reservoirs in West Africa and the Russian Arctic. (authors)

  7. Improved microwave steam distillation apparatus for isolation of essential oils. Comparison with conventional steam distillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahraoui, Naima; Vian, Maryline Abert; Bornard, Isabelle; Boutekedjiret, Chahrazed; Chemat, Farid

    2008-11-14

    Steam distillation (SD) is routinely used by analysts for the isolation of essential oils from herbs, flowers and spices prior to gas chromatographic analysis. In this work, a new process design and operation for an improved microwave steam distillation (MSD) of essential oils from aromatic natural products was developed. To demonstrate its feasibility, MSD was compared with the conventional technique, SD, for the analysis of volatile compounds from dry lavender flowers (Lavandula angustifolia Mill., Lamiaceae). Essential oils isolated by MSD were quantitatively (yield) and qualitatively (aromatic profile) similar to those obtained by SD, but MSD was better than SD in terms of rapidity (6 min versus 30 min for lavender flowers), thereby allowing substantial savings of costs in terms of time and energy. Lavender flowers treated by MSD and SD were observed by scanning electron microscopy. Micrographs provide evidence of more rapid opening of essential oil glands treated by MSD, in contrast to conventional SD.

  8. Producing Gas-Oil Ratio Performance of Conventional and Unconventional Reservoirs

    OpenAIRE

    Lei, Guowen

    2012-01-01

    This study presents a detailed analysis of producing gas-oil ratio performance characteristics from conventional reservoir to unconventional reservoir. Numerical simulations of various reservoir fluid systems are included for comparison. In a wide sense of the word, the term of unconventional reservoir is including tight gas sand, coal bed methane, gas hydrate deposits, heavy oil gas shale and etc. In this study we specify the unconventional reservoir to only mean the low and ultra low permea...

  9. The In Vitro Antimicrobial Effects of Lavandula angustifolia Essential Oil in Combination with Conventional Antimicrobial Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie de Rapper

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the in vitro antimicrobial activity of Lavandula angustifolia Mill. (lavender essential oil in combination with four commercial antimicrobial agents. Stock solutions of chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, nystatin, and fusidic acid were tested in combination with L. angustifolia essential oil. The antimicrobial activities of the combinations were investigated against the Gram-positive bacterial strain Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 6538 and Gram-negative Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27858 and Candida albicans (ATCC 10231 was selected to represent the yeasts. The antimicrobial effect was performed using the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC microdilution assay. Isobolograms were constructed for varying ratios. The most prominent interaction was noted when L. angustifolia essential oil was combined with chloramphenicol and tested against the pathogen P. aeruginosa (ΣFIC of 0.29. Lavendula angustifolia essential oil was shown in most cases to interact synergistically with conventional antimicrobials when combined in ratios where higher volumes of L. angustifolia essential oil were incorporated into the combination.

  10. VOLATILE CONSTITUENTS OF GINGER OIL PREPARED ACCORDING TO IRANIAN TRADITIONAL MEDICINE AND CONVENTIONAL METHOD: A COMPARATIVE STUDY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirooye, Pantea; Mokaberinejad, Roshanak; Ara, Leila; Hamzeloo-Moghadam, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    Herbal medicines formulated as oils were believed to possess more powerful effects than their original plants in Iranian Traditional Medicine (ITM). One of the popular oils suggested for treatment of various indications was ginger oil. In the present study, to suggest a more convenient method of oil preparation (compared to the traditional method), ginger oil has been prepared according to both the traditional and conventional maceration methods and the volatile oil constituents have been compared. Ginger oil was obtained in sesame oil according to both the traditional way and the conventional (maceration) methods. The volatile oil of dried ginger and both oils were obtained by hydro-distillation and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy. Fifty five, fifty nine and fifty one components consisting 94 %, 94 % and 98 % of the total compounds were identified in the volatile oil of ginger, traditional and conventional oils, respectively. The most dominant compounds of the traditional and conventional oils were almost similar; however they were different from ginger essential oil which has also been to possess limited amounts of anti-inflammatory components. It was concluded that ginger oil could be prepared through maceration method and used for indications mentioned in ITM.

  11. Geologic assessment of undiscovered hydrocarbon resources of the Western Oregon and Washington Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,; Brownfield, Michael E.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy A.; Klett, Timothy R.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Le, P.A.; ,

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Oil and Gas Assessment is to develop geology-based hypotheses regarding the potential for additions to oil and gas reserves in priority areas of the United States, focusing on the distribution, quantity, and availability of oil and natural gas resources. The USGS has completed an assessment of the undiscovered, technically recoverable oil and gas resources in western Oregon and Washington (USGS Western Oregon and Washington Province 5004). The province includes all of Oregon and Washington north of the Klamath Mountains and west of the crest of the Cascade Range, and extends offshore to the 3-mi limit of State waters on the west and to the International Boundary in the Straits of Juan de Fuca and Canada on the north. It measures about 450 mi north-south and 50 to 160 mi east-west, encompassing more than 51,000 mi2. The assessment of the Western Oregon and Washington Province is geology based and used the total petroleum system (TPS) concept. The geologic elements of a TPS include hydrocarbon source rocks (source rock maturation and hydrocarbon generation and migration), reservoir rocks (quality and distribution), and traps for hydrocarbon accumulation. Using these geologic criteria, two conventional and one unconventional (continuous) total petroleum systems were defined, with one assessment unit (AU) in each TPS: (1) the Cretaceous-Tertiary Composite TPS and the Western Oregon and Washington Conventional Gas AU, (2) the Tertiary Marine TPS and the Tertiary-Marine Gas AU, and (3) the Tertiary Coalbed Gas TPS and the Eocene Coalbed Gas AU, in which a cell-based methodology was used to estimate coalbed-gas resources.

  12. Liability and compensation for oil pollution damage: some current threats to the international convention system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chao Wu

    2002-01-01

    The carriage of oil is indispensable to the industrialized nations. In this respect, the carriage of oil is undertaken as a service to society as a whole with its individual members deriving benefits from its carriage to varying degrees. Consequently, after examining the four Conventions in the international system of compensation for oil pollution from ships, it is argued that the general citizenship of those nations pay, in exceptional cases, for a small share of the risk, which is created in part by the citizens, as users of oil. The paper proposes the creation of a fund of last resort that could be conceived either at a regional level or a national level and financed through (indirect) taxation on the population as a whole. This type of fund could have a wider use in the field of marine pollution and protection of marine resources. (author)

  13. Identification, Verification, and Compilation of Produced Water Management Practices for Conventional Oil and Gas Production Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rachel Henderson

    2007-09-30

    The project is titled 'Identification, Verification, and Compilation of Produced Water Management Practices for Conventional Oil and Gas Production Operations'. The Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (IOGCC), headquartered in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, is the principal investigator and the IOGCC has partnered with ALL Consulting, Inc., headquartered in Tulsa, Oklahoma, in this project. State agencies that also have partnered in the project are the Wyoming Oil and Gas Conservation Commission, the Montana Board of Oil and Gas Conservation, the Kansas Oil and Gas Conservation Division, the Oklahoma Oil and Gas Conservation Division and the Alaska Oil and Gas Conservation Commission. The objective is to characterize produced water quality and management practices for the handling, treating, and disposing of produced water from conventional oil and gas operations throughout the industry nationwide. Water produced from these operations varies greatly in quality and quantity and is often the single largest barrier to the economic viability of wells. The lack of data, coupled with renewed emphasis on domestic oil and gas development, has prompted many experts to speculate that the number of wells drilled over the next 20 years will approach 3 million, or near the number of current wells. This level of exploration and development undoubtedly will draw the attention of environmental communities, focusing their concerns on produced water management based on perceived potential impacts to fresh water resources. Therefore, it is imperative that produced water management practices be performed in a manner that best minimizes environmental impacts. This is being accomplished by compiling current best management practices for produced water from conventional oil and gas operations and to develop an analysis tool based on a geographic information system (GIS) to assist in the understanding of watershed-issued permits. That would allow management costs to be kept in

  14. A comparison of two typical multicyclic models used to forecast the world's conventional oil production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jianliang; Feng Lianyong; Zhao Lin; Snowden, Simon; Wang Xu

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces two typical multicyclic models: the Hubbert model and the Generalized Weng model. The model-solving process of the two is expounded, and it provides the basis for an empirical analysis of the world's conventional oil production. The results for both show that the world's conventional oil (crude+NGLs) production will reach its peak in 2011 with a production of 30 billion barrels (Gb). In addition, the forecasting effects of these two models, given the same URR are compared, and the intrinsic characteristics of these two models are analyzed. This demonstrates that for specific criteria the multicyclic Generalized Weng model is an improvement on the multicyclic Hubbert model. Finally, based upon the resultant forecast for the world's conventional oil, some suggestions are proposed for China's policy makers. - Highlights: ► Hubbert model and Generalized Weng model are introduced and compared in this article. ► We conclude each model's characteristic and scopes and conditions of applicable. ► We get the same peak production and time of world's oil by applying two models. ► Multicyclic Generalized Weng model is proven slightly better than Hubbert model.

  15. Proceedings of the World Heavy Oil Congress : unconventional oil challenging conventional expectations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    This international technical and business conference provided a forum to promote heavy oil technology and foster relationships between supply and demand countries. The interactive forum between global industry professionals addressed technological, strategic and environmental challenges facing the unconventional oil industry, including seeking innovative, low cost technologies, driving high costs down; educating and leading the workforce to maintain high standards of production; and ensuring that the footprint on the land is as light as possible. It emphasized that as demand for the uses of heavy oil grows, so does the responsibility of managing sustainability not just from an environmental and social perspective, but also with respect to supply, including manpower and infrastructure. The technical conference featured sessions on advanced and enhanced processes; combustion processes; drilling and completions; geology and reservoir; heavy oil exploitation and development; mining, extraction and transportation; non thermal processes; production and operations; reservoir monitoring; SAGD processes; sustainable development; thermal processes; and, upgrading technology. All 124 presentations from the technical conference were catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs

  16. National Assembly report on the bill authorizing joining the 2001 International Convention on Civil Liability for Bunker Oil Pollution Damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    This report first gives an overview of the progressive implementation of measures and international convention to prevent pollution by ships: the Oilpol convention (Convention for the Prevention of Pollution of the Sea by Oil), the Marpol convention (Marine Pollution), and the different international conventions on liability and compensation (International Convention on Civil Liability for Oil Pollution, International Convention on Liability and Compensation for Damage in Connection with the Carriage of Hazardous and Noxious Substances by Sea, convention on other damages). It also describes the French system to struggle against marine pollution. Then, it presents the main arrangements of the 2001 Convention (liability, mandatory insurance and certificate, and so on), expresses some reserves on the chosen arrangement, and comments the impact of this convention

  17. Assessment of undiscovered gas resources of the Thrace Basin, Turkey, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Klett, Timothy R.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Pitman, Janet K.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Le, Phuong A.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Marra, Kristen R.; Hawkins, Sarah J.; Brownfield, Michael E.

    2016-01-27

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey assessed undiscovered, technically recoverable mean resources of 787 billion cubic feet of conventional gas and 1,630 billion cubic feet of unconventional gas in the Thrace Basin, Turkey.

  18. Extraction of kiwi seed oil: Soxhlet versus four different non-conventional techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cravotto, Giancarlo; Bicchi, Carlo; Mantegna, Stefano; Binello, Arianna; Tomao, Valerie; Chemat, Farid

    2011-06-01

    Kiwi seed oil has a nutritionally interesting fatty acid profile, but a rather low oxidative stability, which requires careful extraction procedures and adequate packaging and storage. For these reasons and with the aim to achieve process intensification with shorter extraction time, lower energy consumption and higher yields, four different non-conventional techniques were experimented. Kiwi seeds were extracted in hexane using classic Soxhlet as well as under power ultrasound (US), microwaves (MWs; closed vessel) and MW-integrated Soxhlet. Supercritical CO₂ was also employed and compared to the other techniques in term of yield, extraction time, fatty acid profiles and organoleptic properties. All these non-conventional techniques are fast, effective and safe. A sensory evaluation test showed the presence of off-flavours in oil samples extracted by Soxhlet and US, an indicator of partial degradation.

  19. Alternatives to conventional crude oil. When, how quickly, and market driven?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaufmann, Robert K.; Shiers, Laura D.

    2008-01-01

    We examine the effect of uncertainty concerning remaining supplies of conventional crude oil and its production path on: the date alternative fuels will be needed, the quantity of alternative fuels needed, and how this uncertainty affects firms' willingness to provide alternatives in a timely fashion. Despite large uncertainties about the quantity of oil that remains and its production path, the start date for replacements is likely to fall within a twenty-two year period that is narrower and earlier than previous estimates. The twenty-two year window represents considerable uncertainty about the date of the peak and this uncertainty creates an asymmetry in the strategy that maximizes the welfare of firms relative to total social welfare, which works against the market's ability to generate a smooth transition from oil to alternative fuels. The timeliness of this transition is critical - the production paths generated here suggest that 10 million barrels per day or more of alternative fuels will be needed within a decade of the peak in production of conventional crude oil. (author)

  20. The antimicrobial activity of four commercial essential oils in combination with conventional antimicrobials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vuuren, S F; Suliman, S; Viljoen, A M

    2009-04-01

    Due to the emergence of multi-drug resistance, alternatives to conventional antimicrobial therapy are needed. This study aims to investigate the in vitro pharmacological interactions between essential oils (considered valuable as natural therapeutic treatments) and conventional antimicrobials (ciprofloxacin/amphotericin B) when used in combination. Interactions of the essential oils (Melaleuca alternifolia, Thymus vulgaris, Mentha piperita and Rosmarinus officinalis) when combined with ciprofloxacin against Staphylococcus aureus indicate mainly antagonistic profiles. When tested against Klebsiella pneumoniae the isobolograms show antagonistic, synergistic and additive interactions depending on the combined ratio. The R. officinalis/ciprofloxacin combination against K. pneumoniae displayed the most favourable synergistic pattern. The interactions of M. alternifolia (tea tree), T. vulgaris (thyme), M. piperita (peppermint) and R. officinalis (rosemary) essential oils with amphotericin B indicate mainly antagonistic profiles when tested against Candida albicans. While a number of interactions show complete antagonism, others show varied (synergistic, additive and/or antagonistic) interactions, thus the efficacy is dependent on the ratio in which the two components co-exist. The predominant antagonistic interactions noted here, suggests that some natural therapies containing essential oils should be used with caution when combined with antibiotics.

  1. Thermal effusivity measurement of conventional and organic coffee oils via photopyroelectric technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedoya, A; Gordillo-Delgado, F; Cruz-Santillana, Y E; Plazas, J; Marin, E

    2017-12-01

    In this work, oil samples extracted from organic and conventional coffee beans were studied. A fatty acids profile analysis was done using gas chromatography and physicochemical analysis of density and acidity index to verify the oil purity. Additionally, Mid-Infrared Fourier Transform Photoacoustic Spectroscopy (FTIR-PAS) aided by Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was used to identify differences between the intensities of the absorption bands related to functional groups. Thermal effusivity values between 592±3 and 610±4Ws 1/2 m -2 K -1 were measured using the photopyroelectric technique in a front detection configuration. The acidity index was between 1.11 and 1.27% and the density changed between 0.921 and 0.94g/mL. These variables, as well as the extraction yield between 12,6 and 14,4%, showed a similar behavior than that observed for the thermal effusivity, demonstrating that this parameter can be used as a criterion for discrimination between oil samples extracted from organic and conventional coffee beans. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Plant Essential Oils from Apiaceae Family as Alternatives to Conventional Insecticides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asgar Ebadollahi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Main method to control insect pest is using synthetic insecticides, but the development of insect resistance to this products, the high operational cost, environmental pollution, toxicity to humans and harmful effect on non-target organisms have created the need for developing alternative approaches to control insect pest. Furthermore, the demand for organic crops, especially vegetables for the fresh market, has greatly increased worldwide. The ideal insecticide should control target pests adequately and should be target-specific, rapidly degradable, and low in toxicity to humans and other mammals. Plant essential oils could be an alternative source for insect pest control because they constitute a rich source of bioactive chemicals and are commonly used as flavoring agents in foods. These materials may be applied to food crops shortly before harvest without leaving excessive residues. Moreover, medically safe of these plant derivatives has emphasized also. For these reasons, much effort has been focused on plant essential oils or their constituents as potential sources of insect control agents. In this context, Apiaceae (Umbelliferae family would rank among the most important families of plants. In the last few years more and more studies on the insecticidal properties of essential oils from Apiaceae family have been published and it seemed worthwhile to compile them. The focus of this review lies on the lethal (ovicidal, larvicidal, pupicidal and adulticidal and sublethal (antifeedant, repellent, oviposition deterrent, Growth inhibitory and progeny production activities of plant essential oils and theirmain components from Apiaceae family. These features indicate that pesticides based on Apiaceae essential oils could be used in a variety of ways to control a large number of pests. It can be concluded that essential oils and phytochemicals isolated from Apiaceae family may be efficacious and safe replacements for conventional synthetic

  3. In situ net N mineralisation and nitrification under organic and conventionally managed olive oil orchards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gomez Muñoz, Beatriz; Hinojosa, M. B.; García-Ruiz, R.

    2015-01-01

    Olive oil orchard occupies a great percentage of the cropland in southern Spain. Thus, changes in nitrogen (N) fertilization might have a great effect on N dynamics at least at regional scale, which should be investigated for a sustainable N fertilization program. In situ net N mineralization (NM......) and nitrification (NN) were investigated during a year in comparable organic (OR) and conventional (CV) olive oil orchards of two locations differing their N input. Soil samples were collected in two soil positions (under and between trees canopy) and both buried-bags and soil core techniques were used to quantify...... soil TN. Soil TN and PMN explained together a 50 % of the variability in soil N availability, which suggests that these two variables are good predictors of the potential of a soil to provide available N. The highest rates of soil N availability were found in spring, when olive tree demand for N...

  4. A comparative study on the deterioration of oils by microwave and conventional heating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parag, Radwan S.

    1991-06-01

    Full Text Available Refined cottonseed oil and hydrogenated palm oil were heated by two methods, i.e., conventionally by gas-cooker and microwaves. Quality assurance methods such as refractive index, color, diene content, acid value, peroxide value, TBA value, iodine value, petroleum ether insoluble oxidized fatty acid content and degree of polymerization were determined. Exposing the oil samples to various heating times and microwave oven power caused some hydrolysis to free fatty acids, accelerated the formation of hydroperoxides and secondary oxidation products. The values from each test increased with both the power settings of microware oven and time of heating. In general, the development of rancidity for refined cottonseed oil heated by microwaves was twice faster than that produced by conventional heating. Also, the chemical values for refined cottonseed oil were much higher than that of hydrogenated palm oil in all cases.

    Se han calentado aceites de semilla de algodón y de palma hidrogenado mediante dos métodos: convencionalmente en cocina de gas y microonda. Se han determinado como métodos de garantía de calidad el índice de refracción, color, contenido en dienos, índice de acidez, índice de peróxido, índice de TBA, índice de iodo, contenido en ácidos grasos oxidados insolubles en éter de petróleo y grado de polimerización. La exposición de las muestras de aceite a varios tiempos de calentamiento y potencia del horno microonda causó hidrólisis hacia ácidos grasos libres, aceleró la formación de hidroperóxidos y productos de oxidación secundarios. Los valores para cada test aumentaron con los ajustes de potencia del horno microonda y el tiempo de calentamiento. En general, el desarrollo de la rancidez para aceite de semilla de algodón refinado calentado por microonda fue 2 veces más rápido que el producido por calentamiento convencional. También, los índices químicos para aceites de semilla de algodón refinado fueron

  5. Productions of palm oil bio diesel whit heterogeneous basic catalysts compared to conventional homogeneous catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rios, Luis A; Franco C, Alexander; Zuleta S, Ernesto

    2009-01-01

    The conventional process to produce biodiesel involves the presence of homogeneous basic catalysts. However, these catalysts have disadvantages associated to the need of purification steps, which increase the cost of the final product and generate pollution problems caused by the effluents. This paper compares different homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts for the biodiesel production from palm oil. For this, heterogeneous catalysts supported on alumina were prepared and characterized by nitrogen adsorption, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X ray spectroscopy and X ray diffraction. Transesterification of palm oil with methanol was accomplished at 60 celsius degrade and one hour, varying methanol/oil ratio, the type of catalyst and its concentration. Yields of the reaction and purity of the so obtained biodiesel were evaluated. Comparing the catalysts performance, based on the amount, was found that sodium methoxide (CH 3 ONa) and potassium carbonate supported on alumina (K 2 CO 3 /Al 2 O 3 ) were the catalysts that give the higher purity of biodiesel (96.8 and 95.85% respectively). When was determined the active site quality, by dividing the performance by each mole of active sites, it was found that calcined Na 2 SO 4 /Al 2 O 3 has the most active sites.

  6. Usefulness of oil lubrication during colonoscopy: A comparative study with the conventional technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-García, J L; Carmona-Sánchez, R; Rosas-Vitorino, C

    2016-01-01

    The different forms of lubrication are among the most simple, accessible, and economic techniques that have been implemented for improving the diagnostic performance of colonoscopy. To determine whether the use of oil improved the number of complete colonoscopies, facilitated the procedure, reduced pain, or improved the study's diagnostic performance, compared with the conventional lubrication technique. One hundred and seventy-five patients referred for colonoscopy were alternately allocated to receive treatment with the standard lubrication method with chlorhexidine gel (group 1) or lubrication with corn oil administered through the working channel (group II). The number of complete colonoscopies, the length of time needed to reach the cecum, the degree of difficulty estimated by the endoscopist and the assistant, the level of pain at the end of the study estimated by the patient, and the endoscopic findings were all determined. Eighty-eight patients made up group I and 87 made up group II. No statistically significant differences were found between the two groups in relation to general characteristics, the number of complete colonoscopies (93 vs. 97%, respectively), the time needed to reach the cecum (8:00 vs. 8:41min, respectively), the level of pain at the end of the study, or the detection of polyps. The degree of difficulty was slightly lower in group II, but with no statistical significance. Lubrication with oil during colonoscopy did not improve the number of complete colonoscopies, did not facilitate the study, nor did it reduce pain or increase the diagnostic performance of the study, when compared with the conventional technique. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Mexicana de Gastroenterología. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  7. Geology and oil and gas assessment of the Todilto Total Petroleum System, San Juan Basin Province, New Mexico and Colorado: Chapter 3 in Total petroleum systems and geologic assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the San Juan Basin Province, exclusive of Paleozoic rocks, New Mexico and Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgley, J.L.; Hatch, J.R.

    2013-01-01

    Organic-rich, shaly limestone beds, which contain hydrocarbon source beds in the lower part of the Jurassic Todilto Limestone Member of the Wanakah Formation, and sandstone reservoirs in the overlying Jurassic Entrada Sandstone, compose the Todilto Total Petroleum System (TPS). Source rock facies of the Todilto Limestone were deposited in a combined marine-lacustrine depositional setting. Sandstone reservoirs in the Entrada Sandstone were deposited in eolian depositional environments. Oil in Todilto source beds was generated beginning in the middle Paleocene, about 63 million years ago, and maximum generation of oil occurred in the middle Eocene. In the northern part of the San Juan Basin, possible gas and condensate were generated in Todilto Limestone Member source beds until the middle Miocene. The migration distance of oil from the Todilto source beds into the underlying Entrada Sandstone reservoirs was short, probably within the dimensions of a single dune crest. Traps in the Entrada are mainly stratigraphic and diagenetic. Regional tilt of the strata to the northeast has influenced structural trapping of oil, but also allowed for later introduction of water. Subsequent hydrodynamic forces have influenced the repositioning of the oil in some reservoirs and flushing in others. Seals are mostly the anhydrite and limestone facies of the Todilto, which thin to as little as 10 ft over the crests of the dunes. The TPS contains only one assessment unit, the Entrada Sandstone Conventional Oil Assessment Unit (AU) (50220401). Only four of the eight oil fields producing from the Entrada met the 0.5 million barrels of oil minimum size used for this assessment. The AU was estimated at the mean to have potential additions to reserves of 2.32 million barrels of oil (MMBO), 5.56 billion cubic feet of natural gas (BCFG), and 0.22 million barrels of natural gas liquids (MMBNGL).

  8. Senate report on the bill authorizing joining the 2001 International Convention on Civil Liability for Bunker Oil Pollution Damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    This report recalls the different texts concerning the law of the sea: United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) of 1982 which was ratified by France in 1996, the International Convention on Civil Liability for Oil Pollution of 1992, the creation of the International Oil Pollution Compensation Funds, and the International Convention on Liability and Compensation for Damage in Connection with the Carriage of Hazardous and Noxious Substances by sea (HNS) in 1996. While evoking some recent examples of wrecks and pollutions and some already existing French and European initiatives, it describes the implications and consequences of this convention on the French law and for its enforcement, provided that this new treaty is designed to take bunker oil into account as it may induce a significant pollution of the marine environment

  9. An empirical analysis of the impacts of taxes and royalties on the supply of conventional crude oil in Alberta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amoah, B.

    1998-01-01

    The economic impact of taxes, royalties and government fiscal policy tools on conventional crude oil supply in Alberta was examined. A dynamic economic model of Alberta's conventional petroleum industry was developed and used to evaluate the quantitative impacts of government fiscal policies on exploration and extraction of conventional crude oil in the province. It was determined that taxes and royalties can shorten the life of the industry, reduce activity level, reduce ultimate recovery of conventional crude oil, render more of the established reserves sub-economic and create social welfare loss. It was also revealed that compared to provincial corporate income tax and crown royalties, federal corporate income tax has a larger adverse effect on the performance of the industry in terms of creating higher dead-weight loss and shortening the life of the industry

  10. Islamic vs. Conventional Banking Role in Non-Oil Growth: A Causal Analysis in the Case of Bahrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdallah Belhadia

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to investigate the type of relationship between Islamic vs. Conventional banking and non-Oil economic growth in the case of Bahrain by using annual data 1990-2012 retrieved from Islamic banks and financial institutions information (Ibis-Online of the Islamic Bank of Development (IDB, World Bank development indicators (WB, and the Central Bank of Bahrain (CBB annual reports.This study employs the Johansen and Juselius Cointegration test and Vector Error Correction Model (VECM as well as Vector Autoregressive model (VAR to reveal the long run and short-run causality between the dual banking development and non-Oil GDP growth. The VECM results of the conventional banking show that there is long-run bidirectional causality between all the conventional banking selected indicators and the non-Oil GDP. For the Islamic banking VAR model, there is a unidirectional causality from Islamic banking indicators to the non-oil GDP. There is no evidence on the role of non-oil GDP on the Islamic banking development. Impulse response functions in the two models shows that through one standards deviation positive shock in Islamic vs. Conventional Credit provided to private sector, the non-Oil GDP will be much higher in the next five years if we stimulate the Islamic credit provided to private sector than the conventional banks.Moreover, the Islamic credit provided to the private sector appears to be more procyclical than the credit provided by the conventional banks. However, the fluctuations in the conventional credit are sharper than the Islamic banks’ private credit. This study provides the policy makers in Bahrain with the appropriate evidences to design their policies in fostering the non-Oil sector.

  11. Energy balance in olive oil farms: comparison of organic and conventional farming systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Marta M.; Meco, Ramón; Moreno, Carmen

    2013-04-01

    The viability of an agricultural production system not only depends on the crop yields, but especially on the efficient use of available resources. However, the current agricultural systems depend heavily on non-renewable energy consumption in the form of fertilizers, fossil fuels, pesticides and machinery. In developed countries, the economic profitability of different productive systems is dependent on the granting of subsidies of diverse origin that affect both production factors (or inputs) and the final product (or output). Leaving such external aids, energy balance analysis reveals the real and most efficient form of management for each agroclimatic region, and is also directly related to the economic activity and the environmental state. In this work we compare the energy balance resulting from organic and conventional olive oil farms under the semi-arid conditions of Central Spain. The results indicate that the mean energy supplied to the organic farms was sensitively lower (about 30%) in comparison with the conventional management, and these differences were more pronounced for the biggest farms (> 15 ha). Mean energy outputs were about 20% lower in the organic system, although organic small farms (benefits it provides, which are not usually considered in the conventional management on not valuing the damage it produces to the environment. Organic farming would improve the energy efficiency in these environmental conditions, offering a sustainable production with minimal inputs.

  12. Microwave-Assisted Isolation of Essential oil of Cinnamomum iners Reinw. ex Bl.: Comparison with Conventional Hydrodistillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duang Buddhasukh

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Microwave-assistedhydrodistillation was used to isolate an essential oil from the leaves of Cinnamomuminers Reinw. ex Bl., and the results compared with those obtained by conventional hydrodistillation. The composition of the oil from both methods was found to be similar, and (--linalool was found as the main component (30-50 %. The antioxidant activity of the essential oil obtained by both methods was evaluated using DPPH, ABTS, FRAP and lipid peroxidation methods, all of which indicated the same but insignificant activity.

  13. Productions of sunflower oil biodiesel and used cooking oil through heterogeneous catalysts compared to conventional homogeneous catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutiérrez-Zapata, C A; Collazos, C A; Acuña, H E Castellanos; Fernandez, C P; Martínez, D Blanco; Cuervo, J A

    2017-01-01

    This document compares homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts used by production of biodiesel of sunflower oil and cooking oil used in frying. For this, NaOH was used as a catalyst homogeneous, and K 2 CO 3 and Na 2 CO 3 supported in gamma-alumina (K 2 CO 3 /γ Al 2 O 3 y Na 2 CO 3 /γ-Al 2 O 3 ) were synthesized as heterogeneous catalysts, which were characterized by X-ray diffraction. The transesterification tests were carried out for the sunflower oil and used cooking oil, in a reflux system, to different molar relations methanol/oil, depending on the type of oil and characterization of the same. The reflux system is performed at a temperature of 55-60°C for one hour. Finally, biofuel was characterized and the yield of the reaction was calculated. (paper)

  14. Productions of sunflower oil biodiesel and used cooking oil through heterogeneous catalysts compared to conventional homogeneous catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Zapata, C. A.; Blanco Martínez, D.; Collazos, C. A.; Castellanos Acuña, H. E.; Cuervo, J. A.; Fernandez, C. P.

    2017-01-01

    This document compares homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts used by production of biodiesel of sunflower oil and cooking oil used in frying. For this, NaOH was used as a catalyst homogeneous, and K2CO3 and Na2CO3 supported in gamma-alumina (K2CO3/γ Al2O3 y Na2CO3 /γ-Al2O3) were synthesized as heterogeneous catalysts, which were characterized by X-ray diffraction. The transesterification tests were carried out for the sunflower oil and used cooking oil, in a reflux system, to different molar relations methanol/oil, depending on the type of oil and characterization of the same. The reflux system is performed at a temperature of 55-60°C for one hour. Finally, biofuel was characterized and the yield of the reaction was calculated.

  15. Comparative evaluation of civil liability conventions on radioactive and oil pollution and liability under international law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoche, A.

    1988-01-01

    In the event of transfrontier radioactive pollution or oil pollution, compensation for damage may be sought under two different liability systems: there is the framework of international law of liability of international persons, and there is the liability regime established by international conventions. The latter system has adopted a very friendly attitude towards the claims of a private victim claiming compensation from the private polluter. The book first sets out the basic principles and practice of the two liability systems, also considering the latest developments and current discussions advocating the acknowledgement of the principle of strict and absolute liability in international law. The relationship of the two systems is the major issue of the book, and the Chernobyl reactor accident has made it a particularly topical issue at that. The problems arising in the wake of this accident have shown the need for clarification in this field. The author suggests as a practical approach a strict separation of the two bases of claims, so that parallel or successive procedure on the level of international law or civil law is possible. Finally the problem of avoiding duplication in the payment of compensation is discussed. (orig./HP) [de

  16. Quality evaluation of Terpinen-4-ol type Australian Tea Tree oils and commercial products: An integrated approach using conventional and chiral GC/MS combined with chemometrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conventional GC/MS, chiral GC/MS and chemometric techniques were used to evaluate a large set of tea tree oils (TTO) and commercial products purported to contain tea tree oils. Fifty-seven known provenance pure Australian tea tree oils and forty-seven commercial TTO products were investigated. Twent...

  17. Running Out of and Into Oil: Analyzing Global Oil Depletion and Transition Through 2050

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, D.L.

    2003-11-14

    This report presents a risk analysis of world conventional oil resource production, depletion, expansion, and a possible transition to unconventional oil resources such as oil sands, heavy oil and shale oil over the period 2000 to 2050. Risk analysis uses Monte Carlo simulation methods to produce a probability distribution of outcomes rather than a single value. Probability distributions are produced for the year in which conventional oil production peaks for the world as a whole and the year of peak production from regions outside the Middle East. Recent estimates of world oil resources by the United States Geological Survey (USGS), the International Institute of Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), the World Energy Council (WEC) and Dr. C. Campbell provide alternative views of the extent of ultimate world oil resources. A model of oil resource depletion and expansion for twelve world regions is combined with a market equilibrium model of conventional and unconventional oil supply and demand to create a World Energy Scenarios Model (WESM). The model does not make use of Hubbert curves but instead relies on target reserve-to-production ratios to determine when regional output will begin to decline. The authors believe that their analysis has a bias toward optimism about oil resource availability because it does not attempt to incorporate political or environmental constraints on production, nor does it explicitly include geologic constraints on production rates. Global energy scenarios created by IIASA and WEC provide the context for the risk analysis. Key variables such as the quantity of undiscovered oil and rates of technological progress are treated as probability distributions, rather than constants. Analyses based on the USGS and IIASA resource assessments indicate that conventional oil production outside the Middle East is likely to peak sometime between 2010 and 2030. The most important determinants of the date are the quantity of undiscovered oil, the rate at

  18. Landscape Disturbance from Unconventional and Conventional Oil and Gas Development in the Marcellus Shale Region of Pennsylvania, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Terrence Slonecker

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The spatial footprint of unconventional (hydraulic fracturing and conventional oil and gas development in the Marcellus Shale region of the State of Pennsylvania was digitized from high-resolution, ortho-rectified, digital aerial photography, from 2004 to 2010. We used these data to measure the spatial extent of oil and gas development and to assess the exposure of the extant natural resources across the landscape of the watersheds in the study area. We found that either form of development: (1 occurred in ~50% of the 930 watersheds that defined the study area; (2 was closer to streams than the recommended safe distance in ~50% of the watersheds; (3 was in some places closer to impaired streams and state-defined wildland trout streams than the recommended safe distance; (4 was within 10 upstream kilometers of surface drinking water intakes in ~45% of the watersheds that had surface drinking water intakes; (5 occurred in ~10% of state-defined exceptional value watersheds; (6 occurred in ~30% of the watersheds with resident populations defined as disproportionately exposed to pollutants; (7 tended to occur at interior forest locations; and (8 had >100 residents within 3 km for ~30% of the unconventional oil and gas development sites. Further, we found that exposure to the potential effects of landscape disturbance attributable to conventional oil and gas development was more prevalent than its unconventional counterpart.

  19. Landscape disturbance from unconventional and conventional oil and gas development in the Marcellus Shale region of Pennsylvania, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slonecker, Terry E.; Milheim, Lesley E.

    2015-01-01

    The spatial footprint of unconventional (hydraulic fracturing) and conventional oil and gas development in the Marcellus Shale region of the State of Pennsylvania was digitized from high-resolution, ortho-rectified, digital aerial photography, from 2004 to 2010. We used these data to measure the spatial extent of oil and gas development and to assess the exposure of the extant natural resources across the landscape of the watersheds in the study area. We found that either form of development: (1) occurred in ~50% of the 930 watersheds that defined the study area; (2) was closer to streams than the recommended safe distance in ~50% of the watersheds; (3) was in some places closer to impaired streams and state-defined wildland trout streams than the recommended safe distance; (4) was within 10 upstream kilometers of surface drinking water intakes in ~45% of the watersheds that had surface drinking water intakes; (5) occurred in ~10% of state-defined exceptional value watersheds; (6) occurred in ~30% of the watersheds with resident populations defined as disproportionately exposed to pollutants; (7) tended to occur at interior forest locations; and (8) had >100 residents within 3 km for ~30% of the unconventional oil and gas development sites. Further, we found that exposure to the potential effects of landscape disturbance attributable to conventional oil and gas development was more prevalent than its unconventional counterpart.

  20. Alternative to conventional extraction of vetiver oil: Microwave hydrodistillation of essential oil from vetiver roots (Vetiveria zizanioides)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusuma, H. S.; Altway, A.; Mahfud, M.

    2017-12-01

    In this study the extraction of essential oil from vetiver roots (Vetiveria zizanioides) has been carried out by using microwave hydrodistillation. In the extraction of vetiver oil using microwave hydrodistillation method is studied the effect of microwave power, feed to solvent (F/S) ratio and extraction time on the yield of vetiver oil. Besides, in this study can be seen that microwave hydrodistillation method offers important advantages over hydrodistillation, such as shorter extraction time (3 h vs. 24 h for hydrodistillation); better yields (0.49% vs. 0.46% for hydrodistillation); and environmental impact (energy cost is appreciably higher for performing hydrodistillation than that required for extraction using microwave hydrodistillation). Based on the analysis using GC-MS can be seen 19 components on vetiver oil that has been extracted using microwave hydrodistillation. In addition, GC-MS analysis showed that the main components of vetiver oil that has been extracted using microwave hydrodistillation method were β-Gurjunene (30.12%), α-Vetivone (20.12%), 4-(1-cyclohexenyl)-2-trimethylsilymethyl-1-buten-3-yne (13.52%) and δ-Selinene (7.27%).

  1. Effect of conventional and pressure frying on lipids and fatty acid composition of fried chicken and oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawar, Deepthi P; Boomathi, S; Hathwar, Swapna C; Rai, Amit Kumar; Modi, Vinod Kumar

    2013-04-01

    Lipid class and fatty acid profile of pressure fried (PF) and conventionally fried (CF) chicken and medium of frying were evaluated. Depending on the frying cycle, neutral lipid (NL) content of PF chicken varied from 75-86% as compared to that of CF (84-90%). Similarly, glycolipid (GL) content varied from 11-21% in PF and from 9-12% in case of CF. Phospholipid (PL) was the least among lipid classes in both the products. The fresh frying medium (oil before frying cycle started), NL, GL and PL were 89, 10 and 0.33%, respectively. After the frying cycles were over, NL content of oil used for CF decreased to 82% and GL content increased from 10 to 17%. There was no significant difference (p ≥ 0.05) between the contents of lipid classes of oil used for PF or CF. Fried chicken and frying medium had higher concentration of linoleic acid and oleic acid irrespective of the frying cycle or frying method. PF chicken had moisture content in the range of 56-58% and total fat was 14% whereas in case of CF chicken it ranged from 49-52% and 18% respectively. TBA and FFA values of CF chicken and oil on repeated frying were higher (p ≤ 0.05) than PF. In comparison to conventional frying, pressure frying resulted in relatively tender and juicier product presumably due to better retention of moisture (p ≤ 0.05) and low oil uptake.

  2. Synergistic activity of coriander oil and conventional antibiotics against Acinetobacter baumannii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, A; Ferreira, S; Silva, F; Domingues, F C

    2012-02-15

    In this study we investigated the existence of synergistic antibacterial effect between coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) essential oil and six different antibacterial drugs (cefoperazone, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, tetracycline and piperacillin). The antibacterial activity of coriander oil was assessed using microdilution susceptibility testing and synergistic interaction by checkerboard assays. The association of coriander essential oil with chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin and tetracycline against Acinetobacter baumannii showed in vitro effectiveness, which is an indicator of a possible synergistic interaction against two reference strains of A. baumannii (LMG 1025 and LMG 1041) (FIC index from 0.047 to 0.375). However, when tested the involvement between coriander essential oil and piperacillin or cefoperazone, the isobolograms and FIC index showed an additive interaction. The in vitro interaction could improve the antimicrobial effectiveness of ciprofloxacin, gentamicin and tetracycline and may contribute to resensitize A. baumannii to the action of chloramphenicol. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. Plant Essential Oils Synergize and Antagonize Toxicity of Different Conventional Insecticides against Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraone, Nicoletta; Hillier, N Kirk; Cutler, G Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Plant-derived products can play an important role in pest management programs. Essential oils from Lavandula angustifolia (lavender) and Thymus vulgaris (thyme) and their main constituents, linalool and thymol, respectively, were evaluated for insecticidal activity and synergistic action in combination with insecticides against green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Hemiptera: Aphididae). The essential oils and their main constituents exerted similar insecticidal activity when aphids were exposed by direct sprays, but were non-toxic by exposure to treated leaf discs. In synergism experiments, the toxicity of imidacloprid was synergized 16- to 20-fold by L. angustifolia and T. vulgaris essential oils, but far less synergism occurred with linalool and thymol, indicating that secondary constituents of the oils were probably responsible for the observed synergism. In contrast to results with imidacloprid, the insecticidal activity of spirotetramat was antagonized by L. angustifolia and T. vulgaris essential oils, and linalool and thymol. Our results demonstrate the potential of plant essential oils as synergists of insecticides, but show that antagonistic action against certain insecticides may occur.

  4. Plant Essential Oils Synergize and Antagonize Toxicity of Different Conventional Insecticides against Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraone, Nicoletta; Hillier, N. Kirk; Cutler, G. Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Plant-derived products can play an important role in pest management programs. Essential oils from Lavandula angustifolia (lavender) and Thymus vulgaris (thyme) and their main constituents, linalool and thymol, respectively, were evaluated for insecticidal activity and synergistic action in combination with insecticides against green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Hemiptera: Aphididae). The essential oils and their main constituents exerted similar insecticidal activity when aphids were exposed by direct sprays, but were non-toxic by exposure to treated leaf discs. In synergism experiments, the toxicity of imidacloprid was synergized 16- to 20-fold by L. angustifolia and T. vulgaris essential oils, but far less synergism occurred with linalool and thymol, indicating that secondary constituents of the oils were probably responsible for the observed synergism. In contrast to results with imidacloprid, the insecticidal activity of spirotetramat was antagonized by L. angustifolia and T. vulgaris essential oils, and linalool and thymol. Our results demonstrate the potential of plant essential oils as synergists of insecticides, but show that antagonistic action against certain insecticides may occur. PMID:26010088

  5. Plant Essential Oils Synergize and Antagonize Toxicity of Different Conventional Insecticides against Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoletta Faraone

    Full Text Available Plant-derived products can play an important role in pest management programs. Essential oils from Lavandula angustifolia (lavender and Thymus vulgaris (thyme and their main constituents, linalool and thymol, respectively, were evaluated for insecticidal activity and synergistic action in combination with insecticides against green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer (Hemiptera: Aphididae. The essential oils and their main constituents exerted similar insecticidal activity when aphids were exposed by direct sprays, but were non-toxic by exposure to treated leaf discs. In synergism experiments, the toxicity of imidacloprid was synergized 16- to 20-fold by L. angustifolia and T. vulgaris essential oils, but far less synergism occurred with linalool and thymol, indicating that secondary constituents of the oils were probably responsible for the observed synergism. In contrast to results with imidacloprid, the insecticidal activity of spirotetramat was antagonized by L. angustifolia and T. vulgaris essential oils, and linalool and thymol. Our results demonstrate the potential of plant essential oils as synergists of insecticides, but show that antagonistic action against certain insecticides may occur.

  6. Reversal of resistance in bacteria underlies synergistic effect of essential oils with conventional antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahmar, Aida; Bedoui, Ahmed; Mokdad-Bzeouich, Imen; Dhaouifi, Zaineb; Kalboussi, Zahar; Cheraif, Imed; Ghedira, Kamel; Chekir-Ghedira, Leila

    2017-05-01

    The pervasive of bacterial resistance earnestly threaten the prevention and the treatment of infectious diseases. Therefore, scientific communities take precedence over development of new antimicrobial agents. The aim of the study was to determine antimicrobial potency of three North-African essential oils Pituranthos chloranthus, Teucruim ramosissimum and Pistacia lentiscus individually, and in combination with antibiotics, to inhibit the growth of highly resistant clinical pathogen. Bacteria clinically isolated from patients, subsequently, challenged to a panel of drugs to determine the antibiotic-resistance profiles. Drugs displaying clinically irrelevant CMI were subjected to further studies in order to rescue antibiotic actions. Singular activity of essential oils and activity when combined with an antibiotic was hence elucidated. The results obtained highlighted the occurrence of strong antibacterial potential of essential oils when administrated alone. In the interactive experiment essential oils were found highly effective in reducing the resistance of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus to amoxicillin, tetracycline, piperacillin, ofloxacin and oxacillin and resistance of Acinetobacter baumannii to amoxicillin and to ofloxacin in interactive manner. Furthermore, the results proved synergism among essential oils and both antibiotics ofloxacin and novobiocin against the Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase producing E. coli (ESBL). Time kill kinetics was performed with a combination of sub-inhibitory concentrations to confirm the efficiency and killing rate of the combination over time. Further, the hypothetical toxicity of essential oils against human keratinocytes HaCat and murine spleenocytes were examined. The chemical composition of essential oils was assessed by GC/MS analysis and the major constituents found were sabinene, limonene, terpinen-4-ol, and β-eudesmol. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Rhazya stricta Decne seed oil as an alternative, non-conventional feedstock for biodiesel production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nehdi, Imededdine Arbi; Sbihi, Hassen Mohamed; Al-Resayes, Saud Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • First report of Rhazia stricta seed oil as feedstock for biodiesel production. • Biodiesel is prepared by alkaline transesterification. • Biodiesel from R. stricta oil meets specifications in biodiesel standards. - Abstract: Rhazya stricta Decne (R. stricta) is a hardy, drought-resistant, and arid land plant that is widely distributed from the Middle East to South Asia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of R. stricta seed oil as an alternative source of triacylglycerols that may be suitable for the synthesis of biodiesel. The oil content of the seeds was approximately 14% and was mainly composed of the fatty acids linoleic (60.95%) and oleic (25.48%) acid. R. stricta methyl esters (RSME) were prepared by a base-catalyzed transesterification reaction. The conversion rate of the triacylglycerols to the corresponding methyl esters was determined by 1 H-NMR to be approximately 97%. This study showed that the fuel properties of the RSMEs are comparable to other vegetable oil methyl esters that are commonly used as biodiesels. R. stricta plantations will therefore be suitable for promoting sustainable agriculture and for producing biodiesel with viable prices in arid and semi-arid regions throughout the world

  8. Chapter 5. Assessment of undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources-Lower Cretaceous Travis Peak and Hosston formations, Jurassic Smackover interior salt basins total petroleum system, in the East Texas basin and Louisiana-Mississippi salt basins provinces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyman, T.S.; Condon, S.M.

    2006-01-01

    The Lower Cretaceous Travis Peak Formation of east Texas and southern Arkansas (and the correlative Hosston Formation of Louisiana and Mississippi) is a basinward-thickening wedge of terrigenous clastic sedimentary rocks that underlies the northern Gulf of Mexico Basin from east Texas across northern Louisiana to southern Mississippi. Clastic detritus was derived from two main fluvial-deltaic depocenters, one in northeastern Texas and the other extending from southeastern Mississippi northwestward into northeastern Louisiana. Across the main hydrocarbon-productive trend in east Texas and northern Louisiana, the Travis Peak and Hosston Formations are about 2,000 ft thick.

  9. Two Novel Non-Conventional Seed Oil Extracts with Antioxidant and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    consumed as green vegetables but their seeds are under-exploited. Indeed, some reports have revealed the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the leaves and flowers of these two tropical plants [10,11]. However, there is no report dealing with the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the seed oils of the two ...

  10. Effect of the Rapeseed Oil Methyl Ester Component on Conventional Diesel Fuel Properties

    OpenAIRE

    Kumbár V.; Votava J.

    2015-01-01

    The effect of the rapeseed oil methyl ester (RME) component in diesel fuel was assessed. Dynamic viscosity and density of blends were particularly observed. Measurements were performed at standard constant temperature. Increasing ratio of RME in diesel fuel was reflected in increased density value and dynamic viscosity of the blend. In the case of pure RME, pure diesel fuel, and the blend of both, temperature dependence of dynamic viscosity and density was examined. Considerable temperature d...

  11. Conventional methods and emerging wastewater polishing technologies for palm oil mill effluent treatment: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, Wai Loan; Kassim, Mohd Azraai; Muda, Khalida; Loh, Soh Kheang; Affam, Augustine Chioma

    2015-02-01

    The Malaysian palm oil industry is a major revenue earner and the country is ranked as one of the largest producers in the world. However, growth of the industry is synonymous with a massive production of agro-industrial wastewater. As an environmental protection and public health concern, the highly polluting palm oil mill effluent (POME) has become a major attention-grabber. Hence, the industry is targeting for POME pollution abatement in order to promote a greener image of palm oil and to achieve sustainability. At present, most palm oil mills have adopted the ponding system for treatment. Due to the successful POME pollution abatement experiences, Malaysia is currently planning to revise the effluent quality standards towards a more stringent discharge limits. Hence, the current trend of POME research focuses on developing tertiary treatment or polishing systems for better effluent management. Biotechnologically-advanced POME tertiary (polishing) technologies as well as other physicochemical methods are gaining much attention as these processes are the key players to push the industry towards the goal of environmental sustainability. There are still ongoing treatment technologies being researched and the outcomes maybe available in a while. However, the research completed so far are compiled herein and reported for the first time to acquire a better perspective and insight on the subject with a view of meeting the new standards. To this end, the most feasible technology could be the combination of advanced biological processes (bioreactor systems) with extended aeration, followed by solids separation prior to discharge. Chemical dosing is favoured only if effluent of higher quality is anticipated. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Anaerobic digestion of residues from production and refining of vegetable oils as an alternative to conventional solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrijos, M; Thalla, Arun Kumar; Sousbie, P; Bosque, F; Delgenès, J P

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to study the anaerobic digestion of by-products generated during the production and refining of oil with the objective of proposing an alternative solution (methanisation) to the conventional solutions while reducing the energy consumption of fossil origin on refinery sites. The production of sunflower oil was taken as example. Glycerine from the production of biodiesel was also included in this study. The results show that glycerine has a high potential for methanisation because of its high methane potential (465 ml CH4/g VS) and high metabolization rates (0.42 g VS/g VSS.d). The use of oil cake as substrate for anaerobic digestion is not interesting because it has a low methane potential of 215 ml CH4/g VS only and because it is easily recovered in animal feed. Six residues have quite a high methane potential (465 to 850 ml CH4/g VS) indicating a good potential for anaerobic digestion. However, they contain a mixture of rapidly and slowly biodegradable organic matter and the loading rates must remain quite low (0.03 to 0.09 g VS/g VSS.d) to prevent any accumulation of slowly biodegradable solids in the digesters. IWA Publishing 2008.

  13. Quantifying the undiscovered geothermal resources of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Colin F.; Reed, Marshall J.; DeAngelo, Jacob; Galanis, S. Peter

    2009-01-01

    In 2008, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) released summary results of an assessment of the electric power production potential from the moderate- and high-temperature geothermal resources of the United States (Williams et al., 2008a; USGS Fact Sheet 2008-3082; http://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2008/3082). In the assessment, the estimated mean power production potential from undiscovered geothermal resources is 30,033 Megawatts-electric (MWe), more than three times the estimated mean potential from identified geothermal systems: 9057 MWe. The presence of significant undiscovered geothermal resources has major implications for future exploration and development activities by both the government and private industry. Previous reports summarize the results of techniques applied by the USGS and others to map the spatial distribution of undiscovered resources. This paper describes the approach applied in developing estimates of the magnitude of the undiscovered geothermal resource, as well as the manner in which that resource is likely to be distributed among geothermal systems of varying volume and temperature. A number of key issues constrain the overall estimate. One is the degree to which characteristics of the undiscovered resources correspond to those observed among identified geothermal systems. Another is the evaluation of exploration history, including both the spatial distribution of geothermal exploration activities relative to the postulated spatial distribution of undiscovered resources and the probability of successful discoveries from the application of standard geothermal exploration techniques. Also significant are the physical, chemical, and geological constraints on the formation and longevity of geothermal systems. Important observations from this study include the following. (1) Some of the largest identified geothermal systems, such as The Geysers vapor-dominated system in northern California and the diverse geothermal manifestations found in Yellowstone

  14. Effect of the Rapeseed Oil Methyl Ester Component on Conventional Diesel Fuel Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumbár V.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the rapeseed oil methyl ester (RME component in diesel fuel was assessed. Dynamic viscosity and density of blends were particularly observed. Measurements were performed at standard constant temperature. Increasing ratio of RME in diesel fuel was reflected in increased density value and dynamic viscosity of the blend. In the case of pure RME, pure diesel fuel, and the blend of both, temperature dependence of dynamic viscosity and density was examined. Considerable temperature dependence of dynamic viscosity and density was found out and demonstrated for all three samples. This finding is in accordance with theoretical assumptions and literature data sources. Mathematical models were developed and tested. Temperature dependence of dynamic viscosity was modelled using the 3rd degree polynomial. Temperature dependence of density was modelled using the 2nd degree polynomial. The proposed models can be used for flow behaviour prediction of RME, diesel fuel, and their blends.

  15. Supercritical CO2 Extracts and Volatile Oil of Basil (Ocimum basilicum L. Comparison with Conventional Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Coelho

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Interest in new products from aromatic plants as medical and nutritional compounds is increasing. The aim of this work was to apply different extraction methods, including the use of supercritical carbon dioxide extraction, and to test the antioxidant activity of basil (Ocimum basilicum L. extracts. In vitro efficacy assessments were performed using enzymatic assays. Essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation and volatile oil obtained from supercritical fluid extraction were analyzed by gas chromatography to quantify components. The total phenolic content in the extracts ranged from 35.5 ± 2.9 to 85.3 ± 8.6 mg of gallic acid equivalents and the total flavonoid content ranged from 35.5 ± 2.9 to 93.3 ± 3.9 micromole catechin equivalents per gram of dry weight of extract. All the extracts showed an antioxidant activity with 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, 2,2-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS, and the reducing power test. Extracts obtained from methanol had a higher antioxidant capacity per the DPPH test results (IC50 = 3.05 ± 0.36 mg/mL and the reducing power test assay 306.8 ± 21.8 μmol of trolox equivalents per gram of extract (TE/g compared with ethanolic or supercritical fluid extracts. However, using the ABTS assay, the extract obtained by supercritical fluid extraction had a higher antioxidant capacity with an IC50 of 1.74 ± 0.05 mg/mL. Finally, the examined extracts showed practically no acetylcholinesterase (AChE inhibitory capacity and a slight inhibitory activity against tyrosinase.

  16. Water-related Issues Affecting Conventional Oil and Gas Recovery and Potential Oil-Shale Development in the Uinta Basin, Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, Michael Vanden; Anderson, Paul; Wallace, Janae; Morgan, Craig; Carney, Stephanie

    2012-04-30

    Saline water disposal is one of the most pressing issues with regard to increasing petroleum and natural gas production in the Uinta Basin of northeastern Utah. Conventional oil fields in the basin provide 69 percent of Utah?s total crude oil production and 71 percent of Utah?s total natural gas, the latter of which has increased 208% in the past 10 years. Along with hydrocarbons, wells in the Uinta Basin produce significant quantities of saline water ? nearly 4 million barrels of saline water per month in Uintah County and nearly 2 million barrels per month in Duchesne County. As hydrocarbon production increases, so does saline water production, creating an increased need for economic and environmentally responsible disposal plans. Current water disposal wells are near capacity, and permitting for new wells is being delayed because of a lack of technical data regarding potential disposal aquifers and questions concerning contamination of freshwater sources. Many companies are reluctantly resorting to evaporation ponds as a short-term solution, but these ponds have limited capacity, are prone to leakage, and pose potential risks to birds and other wildlife. Many Uinta Basin operators claim that oil and natural gas production cannot reach its full potential until a suitable, long-term saline water disposal solution is determined. The enclosed project was divided into three parts: 1) re-mapping the base of the moderately saline aquifer in the Uinta Basin, 2) creating a detailed geologic characterization of the Birds Nest aquifer, a potential reservoir for large-scale saline water disposal, and 3) collecting and analyzing water samples from the eastern Uinta Basin to establish baseline water quality. Part 1: Regulators currently stipulate that produced saline water must be disposed of into aquifers that already contain moderately saline water (water that averages at least 10,000 mg/L total dissolved solids). The UGS has re-mapped the moderately saline water boundary

  17. Characterization of sunflower oils obtained separately by pressing and subsequent solvent extraction from a new line of seeds rich in phytosterols and conventional seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aguirre Marta R.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study we evaluate the chemical composition of sunflower oils obtained separately by pressing and subsequent solvent extraction from a new seeds rich in phytosterols (IASP-18 and conventional seeds (HA-89. Results have shown that the total content of oil was much lower in the IASP-18 (18.1% than in the conventional (37.5% seeds. The extraction yield obtained by pressing was as low as 3% in the IASP-18 seeds and 37.5% in HA-89, while in the solvent extraction it was of the same order (~18 wt% on seeds extracted by pressing for the two types of seeds. No significant changes in the fatty acid composition were found between the oils extracted by the two procedures, but the pressed oils presented significantly lower acidity and larger content of the unsaponifiable fraction. Expressed as free sterols, the total sterols were 37–38% more concentrated in the oils extracted with solvent, reaching amounts of 13 700 and 6500 mg/kg in the IASP-18 and HA-89 oils, respectively. No substantial differences were found in the composition of total sterols analysed as free sterols between the oils extracted with the two procedures, but the contents of free sterols and sterol glycosides were much higher in the oils extracted with solvent.

  18. The Effect of Clove Bud, Nigella, Salix Alba and Olive Oil on Wart Treatment in Comparison with Conventional Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    roghaye Jebraili

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Jebraili R1, Rezaei K2, Matourianpour H3, Moradi L4, Meshkaat MH5, Tarrahi MJ6 1. Assistant professor, Department of Dermatology, Faculty of Medicine, Islamic Azad University of Tehran 2. Instructor, Department of Nursing, Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences 3. Assistant Professor, Department of Dermatology, Faculty of Medicine, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences 4. BSc. Nurse, Haaj Seddiq Health and Treatment Center, Khorramabad 5. Assistant Professor, Department of Chemistry, Lorestan University 6. Instructor, Department of Epidemiology and Statistics, Faculty of Medicine, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences Abstract Background: Wart is a common and contagious viral disease of the skin caused by papilloma viruses which leads to aesthetic and psychological problems, and if occurred in touching and pressured parts of the body causes pain and inflammation. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Clove bud, Nigella, Salix alba and Olive oil which have wound disinfectant, anesthetic, analgesic and wound healing properties on wart treatment in comparison with the conventional treatment. Materials and methods: This randomized double blind controlled clinical trial was conducted on 291 female students selected form guidance and high schools in Khorramabad, Lorestan, Iran, during the year 2007. The diagnosis of wart was confirmed by a dermatologist according to the diagnosis criteria. The cases fulfilling the inclusion criteria were assigned in 3 study groups randomly. The first group was treated with the conventional treatment (Salicylic acid 16.7%, lactic acid 16.7% in Collodione body, the second group with herbal medicine without acid in olive oil, and the third group with herbal medicine alongside salicylic acid 1% and lactic acid 1% in olive oil. Each group was administered the drugs for 6 weeks. The effects of drugs on lesions were assessed after 4 and 6 weeks and compared among 3

  19. Antimicrobial activity of Eucalyptus camaldulensis essential oils and their interactions with conventional antimicrobial agents against multi-drug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knezevic, Petar; Aleksic, Verica; Simin, Natasa; Svircev, Emilija; Petrovic, Aleksandra; Mimica-Dukic, Neda

    2016-02-03

    Traditional herbal medicine has become an important issue on the global scale during the past decade. Among drugs of natural origin, special place belongs to essential oils, known as strong antimicrobial agents that can be used to combat antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Eucalyptus camaldulensis leaves are traditional herbal remedy used for various purposes, including treatment of infections. The aim of this study was to determine antimicrobial potential of two E. camaldulensis essential oils against multi-drug resistant (MDR) Acinetobacter baumannii wound isolates and to examine possible interactions of essential oils with conventional antimicrobial agents. Chemical composition of essential oils was determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis (GC-MS). MIC values of essential oils against A. baumannii strains were estimated by modified broth microdilution method. The components responsible for antimicrobial activity were detected by bioautographic analysis. The potential synergy between the essential oils and antibiotics (ciprofloxacin, gentamicin and polymyxin B) was examined by checkerboard method and time kill curve. The dominant components of both essential oils were spatulenol, cryptone, p-cimene, 1,8-cineole, terpinen-4-ol and β-pinene. The detected MICs for the E. camaldulensis essential oils were in range from 0.5 to 2 μl mL(-1). The bioautographic assay confirmed antibacterial activity of polar terpene compounds. In combination with conventional antibiotics (ciprofloxacin, gentamicin and polymyxin B), the examined essential oils showed synergistic antibacterial effect in most of the cases, while in some even re-sensitized MDR A. baumannii strains. The synergistic interaction was confirmed by time-kill curves for E. camaldulensis essential oil and polymyxin B combination which reduced bacterial count under detection limit very fast, i.e. after 6h of incubation. The detected anti-A. baumannii activity of E. camaldulensis essential oils

  20. Extra-heavy crude oils: ecologically competitive with respect to conventional crudes; Les petroles bruts extra-lourds: ecologiquement competitifs par rapport aux bruts conventionnels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sigaud, J.B. [Institut Francais du Petrole (IFP), 92 - Rueil-Malmaison (France)

    2005-12-15

    The exploitation of non-conventional crude oil reserves, like the heavy crudes of the Orenoque basin (Venezuela) and the tar sands of Athabasca (Canada), require different processes depending on the temperature of the reservoir rock, and thus can have different environmental impact in terms of CO{sub 2} emissions. In the case of the Orenoque belt, the recoverable part by cold production is equivalent to conventional crude oil exploitation for 80% of the deposit and to coal exploitation for 20%. In the case of other deposits, like the tar sands of Athabasca, a re-warming of the sand is necessary to extract the oil which leads to higher CO{sub 2} emissions. Other solutions, like CO{sub 2} sequestration or warming up of the reservoir rock using a nuclear reactor, would reduce the environmental impact. (J.S.)

  1. Evaluation of oil and flour for human nutrition obtained from conventional and organic grape seed Bordô from a winery in the South of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. O. Gauer

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The south of Brazil is one of the largest producers of grapes, and as a consequence there is a large generation of waste that can be used as a profitable alternative source. The aim of this work was to obtain and evaluate oil and the flour for human consumption from the residue of cold-pressed Bordô from conventional and organic grape seeds in a winery in the south of Brazil. By cold pressing, the organic oil obtained higher yield. The quality parameters of the conventional oil were better, although with a higher index of peroxides and iodine. The conventional flour presented better results for quality and centesimal composition, mainly due to the higher fiber content and the fact that it did not contain high acidity or humidity. Therefore, the results of products were similar for both crops, but the conventional one was better. However, traces in the agrochemical residue analysis found for the conventional crop might better qualify the organic products.

  2. Effect of temperature on the density of palm oil bio diesel and its blends with conventional diesel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benjumea H, Pedro N; Chaves N, German; Vargas R, Claudia M

    2006-01-01

    The density is a property of easy measurement which can be correlated with other key properties for evaluating fuel performance in diesel engines, such as calorific value and cetane number. Additionally, the density is one of the most important parameters in connection with fuel storage, transportation and commercialization. In this paper, experimental results showing the temperature dependence of the density for palm oil bio diesel and its 5% and 20% blends with conventional petroleum derived diesel fuel are presented. The experimental results were adequate fixed by linear regressions resulting in regression coefficients close to 1. For calculating the density of the BACPACPM blends a simple mixing law (weighted mass average) was proposed leading to absolute maximum deviations lesser than 0.5% of measured data. The density experimental results for the different tested fuels were compared with the estimated values from the volume correction method proposed by the Astm D1250 standard for hydrocarbon type fuels. For the neat BACP case (B100) the absolute maximum deviation was within 0.32% of measured data indicating that the mentioned correction method is also adequate for predicting the volumetric temperature behavior of substances having different chemical nature such as the methylesters of fatty acids.

  3. Tabular data and graphical images in support of the U.S. Geological Survey National Oil and Gas Assessment--San Juan Basin Province (5022): Chapter 7 in Total petroleum systems and geologic assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the San Juan Basin Province, exclusive of Paleozoic rocks, New Mexico and Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klett, T.R.; Le, P.A.

    2013-01-01

    This chapter describes data used in support of the process being applied by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Oil and Gas Assessment (NOGA) project. Digital tabular data used in this report and archival data that permit the user to perform further analyses are available elsewhere on this CD–ROM. Computers and software may import the data without transcription from the Portable Document Format files (.pdf files) of the text by the reader. Because of the number and variety of platforms and software available, graphical images are provided as .pdf files and tabular data are provided in a raw form as tab-delimited text files (.tab files).

  4. Geology and oil and gas assessment of the Mancos-Menefee Composite Total Petroleum System: Chapter 4 in Total petroleum systems and geologic assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the San Juan Basin Province, exclusive of Paleozoic rocks, New Mexico and Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgley, J.L.; Condon, S.M.; Hatch, J.R.

    2013-01-01

    The Mancos-Menefee Composite Total Petroleum System (TPS) includes all genetically related hydrocarbons generated from organic-rich shales in the Cretaceous Mancos Shale and from carbonaceous shale, coal beds, and humate in the Cretaceous Menefee Formation of the Mesaverde Group. The system is called a composite total petroleum system because the exact source of the hydrocarbons in some of the reservoirs is not known. Reservoir rocks that contain hydrocarbons generated in Mancos and Menefee source beds are found in the Cretaceous Dakota Sandstone, at the base of the composite TPS, through the lower part of the Cliff House Sandstone of the Mesaverde Group, at the top. Source rocks in both the Mancos Shale and Menefee Formation entered the oil generation window in the late Eocene and continued to generate oil or gas into the late Miocene. Near the end of the Miocene in the San Juan Basin, subsidence ceased, hydrocarbon generation ceased, and the basin was uplifted and differentially eroded. Reservoirs are now underpressured.

  5. Petroleum reserves and undiscovered resources in the total petroleum systems of Iraq: Reserve growth and production implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, M.K.; Ahlbrandt, T.S.; Al-Gailani, M.

    2004-01-01

    Iraq is one of the world's most petroleum-rich countries and, in the future, it could become one of the main producers. Iraq's petroleum resources are estimated to be 184 billion barrels, which include oil and natural gas reserves, and undiscovered resources. With its proved (or remaining) reserves of 113 billion barrels of oil (BBO) as of January 2003, Iraq ranks second to Saudi Arabia with 259 BBO in the Middle East. Iraq's proved reserves of 110 trillion cubic feet of gas (TCFG) rank tenth in the world. In addition to known reserves, the combined undiscovered hydrocarbon potential for the three Total Petroleum Systems (Paleozoic, Jurassic, and Cretaceous/Tertiary) in Iraq is estimated to range from 14 to 84 BBO (45 BBO at the mean), and 37 to 227 TCFG (120 TCFG at the mean). Additionally, of the 526 known prospective structures, some 370 remain undrilled. Petroleum migration models and associated geological and geochemical studies were used to constrain the undiscovered resource estimates of Iraq. Based on a criterion of recoverable reserves of between 1 and 5 BBO for a giant field, and more than 5 BBO for a super-giant, Iraq has 6 super-giant and 11 giant fields, accounting for 88% of its recoverable reserves, which include proved reserves and cumulative production. Of the 28 producing fields, 22 have recovery factors that range from 15 to 42% with an overall average of less than 30%. The recovery factor can be increased with water injection, improved and enhanced oil recovery methods (IOR and EOR) in various reservoirs, thus potentially increasing Iraq's reserves by an additional 50 to 70 BBO. Reserve growth is a significant factor that has been observed, to some extent, in nearly all Iraqi oil fields. Historically, producing fields have shown an average growth of 1.6 fold (or 60%) in their recoverable reserves over a 20-year period (1981-2001). With periodic assessments of reservoirs, application of available technology, and an upgrading of facilities

  6. Assessment of continuous oil and gas resources in the Perth Basin Province, Australia, 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Finn, Thomas M.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Hawkins, Sarah J.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Le, Phuong A.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Woodall, Cheryl A.

    2017-07-17

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey assessed undiscovered, technically recoverable mean resources of 223 million barrels of oil and 14.5 trillion cubic feet of gas in the Perth Basin Province, Australia.

  7. Comparison of ultrasound-assisted extraction with conventional extraction methods of oil and polyphenols from grape (Vitis vinifera L.) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Porto, Carla; Porretto, Erica; Decorti, Deborha

    2013-07-01

    Ultrasound-assisted extraction (US) carried out at 20 KHz, 150 W for 30 min gave grape seed oil yield (14% w/w) similar to Soxhlet extraction (S) for 6 h. No significant differences for the major fatty acids was observed in oils extracted by S and US at 150 W. Instead, K232 and K268 of US- oils resulted lower than S-oil. From grape seeds differently defatted (S and US), polyphenols and their fractions were extracted by maceration for 12 h and by ultrasound-assisted extraction for 15 min. Sonication time was optimized after kinetics study on polyphenols extraction. Grape seed extracts obtained from seeds defatted by ultrasound (US) and then extracted by maceration resulted the highest in polyphenol concentration (105.20mg GAE/g flour) and antioxidant activity (109 Eq αToc/g flour). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Geology, sequence stratigraphy, and oil and gas assessment of the Lewis Shale Total Petroleum System, San Juan Basin, New Mexico and Colorado: Chapter 5 in Total petroleum systems and geologic assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the San Juan Basin Province, exclusive of Paleozoic rocks, New Mexico and Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubiel, R.F.

    2013-01-01

    The Lewis Shale Total Petroleum System (TPS) in the San Juan Basin Province contains a continuous gas accumulation in three distinct stratigraphic units deposited in genetically related depositional environments: offshore-marine shales, mudstones, siltstones, and sandstones of the Lewis Shale, and marginal-marine shoreface sandstones and siltstones of both the La Ventana Tongue and the Chacra Tongue of the Cliff House Sandstone. The Lewis Shale was not a completion target in the San Juan Basin (SJB) in early drilling from about the 1950s through 1990. During that time, only 16 wells were completed in the Lewis from natural fracture systems encountered while drilling for deeper reservoir objectives. In 1991, existing wells that penetrated the Lewis Shale were re-entered by petroleum industry operators in order to fracture-stimulate the Lewis and to add Lewis gas production onto preexisting, and presumably often declining, Mesaverde Group production stratigraphically lower in the section. By 1997, approximately 101 Lewis completions had been made, both as re-entries into existing wells and as add-ons to Mesaverde production in new wells. Based on recent industry drilling and completion practices leading to successful gas production from the Lewis and because new geologic models indicate that the Lewis Shale contains both source rocks and reservoir rocks, the Lewis Shale TPS was defined and evaluated as part of this U.S. Geological Survey oil and gas assessment of the San Juan Basin. Gas in the Lewis Shale Total Petroleum System is produced from shoreface sandstones and siltstones in the La Ventana and Chacra Tongues and from distal facies of these prograding clastic units that extend into marine rocks of the Lewis Shale in the central part of the San Juan Basin. Reservoirs are in shoreface sandstone parasequences of the La Ventana and Chacra and their correlative distal parasequences in the Lewis Shale where both natural and artificially enhanced fractures produce

  9. Physicochemical properties and composition of pignut (Jatropha curcas) non-conventional oil from different regions of Benin; Proprietes physico-chimiques et composition de l'huile non conventionnelle de pourghere (Jatropha curcas) de differentes regions du Benin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dossou Sika Salome, Kpoviessi; Accrombessi, G.C.; Kossouoh, C. [Universite d' Abomey-Calavi, Lab. de Chimie Organique, Faculte des Sciences et Technique, Cotonou (Benin); Soumanou, M.M. [Universite d' Abomey-Calavi, Lab. de Recherche en Chimie et Biologie Appliquees, College Polytechnique Universitaire, Cotonou (Benin); Moudachirou, M. [Universite d' Abomey-Calavi, Lab. de Pharmacognosie et des Huiles Essentielles(FSS/FAST/UAC), (Benin)

    2004-11-01

    The non-conventional oils extracted from pignut seeds in eight localities of Benin have been studied. Oil content of seeds was in the range of 40 to 60%. Oil samples of different localities showed liquid and unsaturated oils and contained mainly oleic acid (43 to 53%), linoleic acid (20 to 32%) and palmitic acid (13 to 15%). Un-saponifiable content of these samples did not exceed 4%, except at Bohicon (5,5%) and Akiza (8,4%). These oils are used in the formulation of biofuels for the energy production. (authors)

  10. Production of portland cement using Moroccan oil shale and comparative study between conventional cement plant and cement plant using oil shale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doumbouya, M.; Kacemi, K.E.; Kitane, S.

    2012-01-01

    Like the use of coal ash from power plants as an addition to cement, oil shale are used for cement production on an industrial scale in Estonia, China, USA and Germany. Oil shale can be utilized in manufacturing the cement. In addition to the utilization of these by-products after combustion, it can also reduce the required temperature for the clinkering reactions during the production of Portland clinker. We performed a study on the Moroccan oil shale to maximize the use of oil shale ash in the manufacturing of Portland cement. We found that Moroccan oil shale ash can be used up to 30% with 70% Portland clinker without altering its principle properties. The corresponding temperature required to generate the required liquid for the clinkering reactions as well as the essential ingredients for clinker was found to be around 850 to 1000 deg. C. The operating temperatures for this optimized blend ratio were found to 1000 deg. C. The resulting Portland clinker from this ratio will need further testing in accordance with international standards for Portland cement to examine properties like strength and setting time. (author)

  11. Total petroleum system assessment of undiscovered resources in the giant Barnett Shale continuous (unconventional) gas accumulation, Fort Worth Basin, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollastro, R.M.

    2007-01-01

    Undiscovered natural gas having potential for additions to reserves in the Mississippian Barnett Shale of the Fort Worth Basin, north-central Texas, was assessed using the total petroleum system assessment unit concept and a cell-based methodology for continuous-type (Unconventional) resources. The Barnett-Paleozoic total petroleum system is defined in the Bend arch-Fort Worth Basin as encompassing the area in which the organic-rich Barnett is the primary source rock for oil and gas produced from Paleozoic carbonate and clastic reservoirs. Exploration, technology, and drilling in the Barnett Shale play have rapidly evolved in recent years, with about 3500 vertical and 1000 horizontal wells completed in the Barnett through 2005 and more than 85% of the them completed since 1999. Using framework geology and historical production data, assessment of the Barnett Shale was performed by the U.S. Geological Survey using vertical wells at the peak of vertical well completions and before a transition to completions with horizontal wells. The assessment was performed after (1) mapping critical geological and geochemical parameters to define assessment unit areas with future potential, (2) defining distributions of drainage area (cell size) and estimating ultimate recovery per cell, and (3) estimating future success rates. Two assessment units are defined and assessed for the Barnett Shale continuous gas accumulation, resulting in a total mean undiscovered volume having potential for additions to reserves of 26.2 TCFG. The greater Newark East fracture-barrier continuous Barnett Shale gas assessment unit represents a core-producing area where thick, organic-rich, siliceous Barnett Shale is within the thermal window for gas generation (Ro ??? 1.1%) and is overlain and underlain by impermeable limestone barriers (Pennsylvanian Marble Falls Limestone and Ordovician Viola Limestone, respectively) that serve to confine induced fractures during well completion to maximize gas

  12. Assessment of undiscovered continuous gas resources in Upper Devonian Shales of the Appalachian Basin Province, 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enomoto, Catherine B.; Trippi, Michael H.; Higley, Debra K.; Rouse, William A.; Dulong, Frank T.; Klett, Timothy R.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Finn, Thomas M.; Marra, Kristen R.; Le, Phuong A.; Woodall, Cheryl A.; Schenk, Christopher J.

    2018-04-19

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean undiscovered, technically recoverable continuous resources of 10.7 trillion cubic feet of natural gas in Upper Devonian shales of the Appalachian Basin Province.

  13. In vitro sensitivity of Alternaria solani to conventional fungicides and a biofungicide based on tea tree essential oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miloš Stepanović

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A study of in vitro sensitivity of five Alternaria solani isolates to cooper-oxychloride, chlorothalonil, difenoconazole, pyraclostrobin and a biofungicide based on tea tree essential oil was carried out. The isolates were obtained from infected tomato leaves collected from five different locations in Serbia. The tested isolates showed the highest sensitivity to pyraclostrobin with EC50 values ranging from 0.0014 to 0.0041 μg ml-1. The EC50 values of difenoconazole were 0.018-0.037 μg ml-1, chlorothalonil 2.99-4.54 μg ml-1, and cooper-oxychloride 13.27-15.63 μg ml-1. All tested A. solani isolates were the least sensitive to tea tree oil (1323.97-3307.08 μg l-1.

  14. Undiscovered resource evaluation: Towards applying a systematic approach to uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fairclough, M.; Katona, L.

    2014-01-01

    Evaluations of potential mineral resource supply range from spatial to aspatial, and everything in between across a range of scales. They also range from qualitative to quantitative with similar hybrid examples across the spectrum. These can compromise detailed deposit-specific reserve and resource calculations, target generative processes and estimates of potential endowments in a broad geographic or geological area. All are estimates until the ore has been discovered and extracted. Contemporary national or provincial scale evaluations of mineral potential are relatively advanced and some include uranium, such as those for South Australia undertaken by the State Geological Survey. These play an important role in land-use planning as well as attracting exploration investment and range from datato knowledge-driven approaches. Studies have been undertaken for the Mt Painter region, as well as for adjacent basins. The process of estimating large-scale potential mineral endowments is critical for national and international planning purposes but is a relatively recent and less common undertaking. In many cases, except at a general level, the data and knowledge for a relatively immature terrain is lacking, requiring assessment by analogy with other areas. Commencing in the 1980s, the United States Geological Survey, and subsequently the Geological Survey of Canada evaluated a range of commodities ranging from copper to hydrocarbons with a view to security of supply. They developed innovative approaches to, as far as practical, reduce the uncertainty and maximise the reproducibility of the calculations in information-poor regions. Yet the approach to uranium was relatively ad hoc and incomplete (such as the US Department of Energy NURE project). Other historic attempts, such as the IAEA-NEA International Uranium Resource Evaluation Project (IUREP) in the 1970s, were mainly qualitative. While there is still no systematic global evaluation of undiscovered uranium resources

  15. A comparison of intraoral antimicrobial effects of stabilized stannous fluoride dentifrice, baking soda/peroxide dentifrice, conventional NaF dentifrice and essential oil mouthrinse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacca, L A; Leusch, M; Lanzalaco, A C; Macksood, D; Bouwsma, O J; Shaffer, J B; Howard-Nordan, K S; Knippenberg, S H; Kreutzjans, M K; Miller, J M; Poore, C L; Sunberg, R J; Vastola, K A; Becus, M; Bartizek, R D; Block, R P; Briner, W W; White, D J

    1997-01-01

    The intraoral antimicrobial activity of four commercial oral products-conventional NaF dentifrice (Crest), baking soda/peroxide/NaF dentifrice (Mentadent), essential oil mouthrinse (Listerine) and SnF2 dentifrice (Crest Plus Gum Care)-have been compared in three test regimens. Formulations were compared for their ability to suppress the regrowth and apical extension of dental plaque following toothbrushing during thirty hours of non-brushing where products were used as oral rinses (30-hour plaque regrowth model). Formulations were also compared for their ability to suppress the colony-forming units (cfu) of facultative anaerobic bacteria sampled from buccal gingival surfaces following use (Gingival Surface Microbial Index-GSMI model). Lastly, formulations were compared for effects in suppressing the glycolytic metabolic activity and regrowth activity of in vivo-treated dental plaques sampled at various periods following topical use and incubated under controlled ex vivo conditions (Plaque Glycolysis and Regrowth-PGRM model). In thirty-hour plaque regrowth testing, the rank ordered antimicrobial efficacy of formulations followed SnF2 > essential oils > NaF = water = baking soda/peroxide. In GSMI testing, all formulations were shown to suppress the cfu of facultative anaerobic bacteria relative to baseline, although SnF2 treatment was observed to reduce bacterial levels to a significantly greater degree than NaF dentifrice or baking soda/peroxide dentifrice up to two hours following brushing. In PGRM testing, the SnF2 dentifrice provided significant inhibition of bacterial metabolism and regrowth following topical application when compared with the NaF dentifrice as control. The baking soda/peroxide dentifrice provided no reduction in either bacterial metabolism or regrowth in PGRM. Previous studies had demonstrated modest effects for essential oil rinse in reducing PGRM plaque regrowth, with no effects for this treatment on plaque metabolism. Overall, these results

  16. Geology and undiscovered resource assessment of the potash-bearing Pripyat and Dnieper-Donets Basins, Belarus and Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocker, Mark D.; Orris, Greta J.; Dunlap, Pamela; Lipin, Bruce R.; Ludington, Steve; Ryan, Robert J.; Słowakiewicz, Mirosław; Spanski, Gregory T.; Wynn, Jeff; Yang, Chao

    2017-08-03

    six potash mines in the Starobin area. Published reserves in the Pripyat Basin area are about 7.3 billion metric tons of potash ore (about 1.3 billion metric tons of K2O) mostly from potash-bearing salt horizons in the Starobin and Petrikov mine areas. The 15,160-square-kilometer area of the Pripyat Basin underlain by Famennian potash-bearing salt contains as many as 60 known potash-bearing salt horizons. Rough estimates of the total mineral endowment associated with stratabound Famennian salt horizons in the Pripyat Basin range from 80 to 200 billion metric tons of potash-bearing salt that could contain 15 to 30 billion metric tons of K2O.Parameters (including the number of economic potash horizons, grades, and depths) for these estimates are not published so the estimates are not easily confirmed. Historically, reserves have been estimated above a depth of 1,200 meters (m) (approximately the depths of conventional underground mining). Additional undiscovered K2O resources could be significantly greater in the remainder of the Fammenian salt depending on the extents and grades of the 60 identified potash horizons above the USGS assessment depth of 3,000 m in the remainder of the tract. Increasing ambient temperatures with increasing depths in the eastern parts of the Pripyat Basin may require a solution mining process which is aided by higher temperatures.No resource or reserve data have been published and little is known about stratabound Famennian and Frasnian salt in the Dnieper-Donets Basin. These Upper Devonian salt units dip to the southeast and extend to depths of 15–19 kilometers (km) or greater. The tract of stratabound Famennian salt that lies above a depth of 3 km, the depth above which potash is technically recoverable by solution mining, underlies an area of about 15,600 square kilometers (km2). If Upper Devonian salt units in the Dnieper-Donets Basin contain potash-bearing strata similar to salt of the same age in the Pripyat Basin, then the

  17. Phosphate Fertilizer and Growing Environment Change the Phytochemicals, Oil Quality, and Nutritional Composition of Roundup Ready Genetically Modified and Conventional Soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scilewski da Costa Zanatta, Tatiane; Manica-Berto, Roberta; Ferreira, Cristiano Dietrich; Cardozo, Michele Maciel Crizel; Rombaldi, Cesar Valmor; Zambiazi, Rui Carlos; Dias, Álvaro Renato Guerra

    2017-04-05

    Phosphorus (P) intake, genotype, and growth environment in soybean cultivation can affect the composition of the soybean. This experiment was conducted in two locations (microregions I and II) using a randomized complete block design, including conventional soybean (BRS Sambaíba) and genetically modified (GM) [Msoy 9144 Roundup Ready (RR)] cultivars and varying doses of phosphorus fertilizer (0, 60, 120, and 240 kg/ha P 2 O 5 ). Soybeans were evaluated for chemical composition, total phenols, phytic acid content, individual isoflavone content, antioxidant activity, oil quality, fatty acid profile, total carotenoid content, and individual tocopherol contents. Multivariate analysis facilitated reduction in the number of variables with respect to soybean genotype (conventional BRS Sambaíba and GM Msoy 9144 RR), dose of P 2 O 5 fertilizer, and place of cultivation (microregion I and II). BRS Sambaíba had higher concentrations of β-glucosides, malonylglucosides, glycitein, and genistein than Msoy 9144 RR, which showed a higher concentration of daidzein. The highest concentrations of isoflavones and fatty acids were observed in soybeans treated with 120 and 240 kg/ha P 2 O 5 , regardless of the location and cultivar.

  18. Oil and gas resources in the West Siberian Basin, Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    The primary objective of this study is to assess the oil and gas potential of the West Siberian Basin of Russia. The study does not analyze the costs or technology necessary to achieve the estimates of the ultimate recoverable oil and gas. This study uses reservoir data to estimate recoverable oil and gas quantities which were aggregated to the field level. Field totals were summed to a basin total for discovered fields. An estimate of undiscovered oil and gas, from work of the US Geological Survey (USGS), was added to give a total basin resource volume. Recent production decline points out Russia`s need to continue development of its discovered recoverable oil and gas. Continued exploration is required to discover additional oil and gas that remains undiscovered in the basin.

  19. World resources of crude oil and natural gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masters, C.D.; Root, D.H.; Attanasi, E.D. (Geological Survey, Reston, VA (United States))

    1991-01-01

    An abstract is given of a paper presented at the World Petroleum Congress 1991 on the world estimates of identified reserves and undiscovered resources for crude oil, natural gas and natural gas liquids. Data are presented for Canada, Mexico, USA, South America, Western Europe, Eastern Europe, USSR, Africa, Middle East, Asia/Oceania and Antartica. (UK).

  20. Alaska oil and gas: Energy wealth or vanishing opportunity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, C.P.; Doughty, T.C.; Faulder, D.D.; Harrison, W.E.; Irving, J.S.; Jamison, H.C.; White, G.J.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to systematically identify and review (a) the known and undiscovered reserves and resources of arctic Alaska, (b) the economic factors controlling development, (c) the risks and environmental considerations involved in development, and (d) the impacts of a temporary shutdown of the Alaska North Slope Oil Delivery System (ANSODS). 119 refs., 45 figs., 41 tabs.

  1. Effect of process variables on the oil extraction from passion fruit seeds by conventional and non-conventional techniques - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v36i1.15217

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Cardoso de Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of process variables on the oil extraction from passion fruit seeds by three techniques, ultrasound shaker, and soxhlet, and of environment-friendly solvents are evaluated. Ratio variables of seed weight, solvent volume (R, time of extraction (T, and type of solvent (S were evaluated. The significant variables for oil extraction from passion fruit seeds were R and S by ultrasound and shaker techniques and T for soxhlet extraction. Comparison of the three techniques showed that the soxhlet technique had the highest yield with 65% of total oil in the initial matrix.

  2. Effects of Conventional Heating on the Stability of Major Olive Oil Phenolic Compounds by Tandem Mass Spectrometry and Isotope Dilution Assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Sindona

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The quality of olive oils is sensorially tested by accurate and well established methods. It enables the classification of the pressed oils into the classes of extra virgin oil, virgin oil and lampant oil. Nonetheless, it would be convenient to have analytical methods for screening oils or supporting sensorial analysis using a reliable independent approach based on exploitation of mass spectrometric methodologies. A number of methods have been proposed to evaluate deficiencies of extra virgin olive oils resulting from inappropriate technological treatments, such as high or low temperature deodoration, and home cooking processes. The quality and nutraceutical value of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO can be related to the antioxidant property of its phenolic compounds. Olive oil is a source of at least 30 phenolic compounds, such as oleuropein, oleocanthal, hydroxytyrosol, and tyrosol, all acting as strong antioxidants, radical scavengers and NSAI-like drugs. We now report the efficacy of MRM tandem mass spectrometry, assisted by the isotope dilution assay, in the evaluation of the thermal stability of selected active principles of extra virgin olive oil.

  3. Effects of conventional heating on the stability of major olive oil phenolic compounds by tandem mass spectrometry and isotope dilution assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attya, Mohamed; Benabdelkamel, Hicham; Perri, Enzo; Russo, Anna; Sindona, Giovanni

    2010-12-01

    The quality of olive oils is sensorially tested by accurate and well established methods. It enables the classification of the pressed oils into the classes of extra virgin oil, virgin oil and lampant oil. Nonetheless, it would be convenient to have analytical methods for screening oils or supporting sensorial analysis using a reliable independent approach based on exploitation of mass spectrometric methodologies. A number of methods have been proposed to evaluate deficiencies of extra virgin olive oils resulting from inappropriate technological treatments, such as high or low temperature deodoration, and home cooking processes. The quality and nutraceutical value of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) can be related to the antioxidant property of its phenolic compounds. Olive oil is a source of at least 30 phenolic compounds, such as oleuropein, oleocanthal, hydroxytyrosol, and tyrosol, all acting as strong antioxidants, radical scavengers and NSAI-like drugs. We now report the efficacy of MRM tandem mass spectrometry, assisted by the isotope dilution assay, in the evaluation of the thermal stability of selected active principles of extra virgin olive oil.

  4. utilization of some non-edible oil for biodiesel production

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ogunjo Samuel

    greenhouse gas emissions [2]. Biodiesel is a non-conventional energy source produced from edible oil such as soya bean oil, corn oil, groundnut oil, palm oil, and sunflower oil and non-edible oil such as animal fat, waste vegetable oil, jatropha oil, algae oil, and castor oil. It is produced through transesterification process.

  5. 77 FR 29682 - Gulf of Mexico, Outer Continental Shelf, Central Planning Area, Oil and Gas Lease Sale 216/222

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-18

    ... 216/222. The Gulf of Mexico OCS Oil and Gas Lease Sales: 2009-2012; Central Planning Area Lease Sales... billion barrels of oil (BBO) and over 133 trillion cubic feet (Tcf) of natural gas which are undiscovered... Doc No: 2012-11999] DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Gulf of Mexico, Outer...

  6. Assessment of Appalachian basin oil and gas resources: Devonian gas shales of the Devonian Shale-Middle and Upper Paleozoic Total Petroleum System: Chapter G.9 in Coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: distribution, geologic framework, and geochemical character

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milici, Robert C.; Swezey, Christopher S.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Ryder, Robert T.

    2014-01-01

    This report presents the results of a U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) assessment of the technically recoverable undiscovered natural gas resources in Devonian shale in the Appalachian Basin Petroleum Province of the eastern United States. These results are part of the USGS assessment in 2002 of the technically recoverable undiscovered oil and gas resources of the province. This report does not use the results of a 2011 USGS assessment of the Devonian Marcellus Shale because the area considered in the 2011 assessment is much greater than the area of the Marcellus Shale described in this report. The USGS assessment in 2002 was based on the identification of six total petroleum systems, which include strata that range in age from Cambrian to Pennsylvanian. The Devonian gas shales described in this report are within the Devonian Shale-Middle and Upper Paleozoic Total Petroleum System, which extends generally from New York to Tennessee. This total petroleum system is divided into ten assessment units (plays), four of which are classified as conventional and six as continuous. The Devonian shales described in this report make up four of these continuous assessment units. The assessment results are reported as fully risked fractiles (F95, F50, F5, and the mean); the fractiles indicate the probability of recovery of the assessment amount. The products reported are oil, gas, and natural gas liquids. The mean estimates for technically recoverable undiscovered hydrocarbons in the four gas shale assessment units are 12,195.53 billion cubic feet (12.20 trillion cubic feet) of gas and 158.91 million barrels of natural gas liquids

  7. Investigating the organic and conventional production type of olive oil with target and suspect screening by LC-QTOF-MS, a novel semi-quantification method using chemical similarity and advanced chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalogiouri, Natasa P; Aalizadeh, Reza; Thomaidis, Nikolaos S

    2017-09-01

    The discrimination of organic and conventional production has been a critical topic of public discussion and constitutes a scientific issue. It remains a challenge to establish a correlation between the agronomical practices and their effects on the composition of olive oils, especially the phenolic composition, since it defines their organoleptic and nutritional value. Thus, a liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-quadrupole time of flight tandem mass spectrometric method was developed, using target and suspect screening workflows, coupled with advanced chemometrics for the identification of phenolic compounds and the discrimination between organic and conventional extra virgin olive oils. The method was optimized by one-factor design and response surface methodology to derive the optimal conditions of extraction (methanol/water (80:20, v/v), pure methanol, or acetonitrile) and to select the most appropriate internal standard (caffeic acid or syringaldehyde). The results revealed that extraction with methanol/water (80:20, v/v) was the optimum solvent system and syringaldehyde 1.30 mg L -1 was the appropriate internal standard. The proposed method demonstrated low limits of detection in the range of 0.002 (luteolin) to 0.028 (tyrosol) mg kg -1 . Then, it was successfully applied in 52 olive oils of Kolovi variety. In total, 13 target and 24 suspect phenolic compounds were identified. Target compounds were quantified with commercially available standards. A novel semi-quantitation strategy, based on chemical similarity, was introduced for the semi-quantification of the identified suspects. Finally, ant colony optimization-random forest model selected luteolin as the only marker responsible for the discrimination, during a 2-year study. Graphical abstract Investigation of the organic and conventional production type of olive oil by LC-QTOF-MS.

  8. Focused microwave-assisted Soxhlet extraction of acorn oil for determination of the fatty acid profile by GC-MS. Comparison with conventional and standard methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Serradilla, J A; Ortiz, M C; Sarabia, L; de Castro, M D Luque

    2007-05-01

    A study of the feasibility of focused microwave-assisted Soxhlet extraction of acorn oil and comparison of results from analysis of trans fatty acids in the oil thus obtained with those for oils obtained by use of other methods commonly used for oil extraction are reported here. The proposed method was optimized by means of a 21-experiment screening design to determine, by means of a reduced number of experiments, which factors affect both extraction efficiency and the degree of unsaturation of the fatty acids in the oil. The proposed method enables total extraction of the fatty acids in 30 min, which is much less than the time required by the Folch (4.5 h), Soxhlet (16 h), and ISO (8 h) reference methods and the stirring-extraction method (56 h). The efficiency of extraction achieved by use of the proposed method is statistically equivalent to that achieved by use of the other methods; the composition of the extracts obtained by use of the proposed method and the Folch and stirring reference methods are also statistically similar. No trans fatty acids were present in the extracts obtained by use of the Folch, stirring, and proposed methods but they were detected in the extracts obtained by use of both the Soxhlet and ISO methods.

  9. Assessment of undiscovered sandstone copper deposits of the Kodar-Udokan area, Russia: Chapter M in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zientek, Michael L.; Chechetkin, Vladimir S.; Parks, Heather L.; Box, Stephen E.; Briggs, Deborah A.; Cossette, Pamela M.; Dolgopolova, Alla; Hayes, Timothy S.; Seltmann, Reimar; Syusyura, Boris; Taylor, Cliff D.; Wintzer, Niki E.

    2014-01-01

    Mineral resource assessments integrate and synthesize available information as a basis for estimating the location, quality, and quantity of undiscovered mineral resources. This probabilistic mineral resource assessment of undiscovered sandstone copper deposits within Paleoproterozoic metasedimentary rocks of the Kodar-Udokan area in Russia is a contribution to a global assessment led by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The purposes of this study are to (1) delineate permissive areas (tracts) to indicate where undiscovered sandstone-hosted copper deposits may occur within 2 km of the surface, (2) provide a database of known sandstone copper deposits and significant prospects, (3) estimate numbers of undiscovered deposits within these permissive tracts at several levels of confidence, and (4) provide probabilistic estimates of amounts of copper (Cu) and mineralized rock that could be contained in undiscovered deposits within each tract. The workshop for the assessment, held in October 2009, used a three-part form of mineral resource assessment as described by Singer (1993) and Singer and Menzie (2010).

  10. Undiscovered porphyry copper resources in the Urals—A probabilistic mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Mihalasky, Mark J.; Ludington, Stephen; Phillips, Jeffrey; Berger, Byron R.; Denning, Paul; Dicken, Connie; Mars, John; Zientek, Michael L.; Herrington, Richard J.; Seltmann, Reimar

    2017-01-01

    A probabilistic mineral resource assessment of metal resources in undiscovered porphyry copper deposits of the Ural Mountains in Russia and Kazakhstan was done using a quantitative form of mineral resource assessment. Permissive tracts were delineated on the basis of mapped and inferred subsurface distributions of igneous rocks assigned to tectonic zones that include magmatic arcs where the occurrence of porphyry copper deposits within 1 km of the Earth's surface are possible. These permissive tracts outline four north-south trending volcano-plutonic belts in major structural zones of the Urals. From west to east, these include permissive lithologies for porphyry copper deposits associated with Paleozoic subduction-related island-arc complexes preserved in the Tagil and Magnitogorsk arcs, Paleozoic island-arc fragments and associated tonalite-granodiorite intrusions in the East Uralian zone, and Carboniferous continental-margin arcs developed on the Kazakh craton in the Transuralian zone. The tracts range from about 50,000 to 130,000 km2 in area. The Urals host 8 known porphyry copper deposits with total identified resources of about 6.4 million metric tons of copper, at least 20 additional porphyry copper prospect areas, and numerous copper-bearing skarns and copper occurrences.Probabilistic estimates predict a mean of 22 undiscovered porphyry copper deposits within the four permissive tracts delineated in the Urals. Combining estimates with established grade and tonnage models predicts a mean of 82 million metric tons of undiscovered copper. Application of an economic filter suggests that about half of that amount could be economically recoverable based on assumed depth distributions, availability of infrastructure, recovery rates, current metals prices, and investment environment.

  11. Assessment of continuous oil and gas resources in the Pannonian Basin Province, Hungary, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Klett, Timothy R.; Le, Phuong A.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.

    2017-06-29

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean undiscovered, technically recoverable continuous resources of 119 million barrels of oil and 944 billion cubic feet of gas in the Hungarian part of the Pannonian Basin Province.

  12. Assessment of continuous oil and gas resources in the San Jorge Basin Province, Argentina, 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Hawkins, Sarah J.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Marra, Kristen R.; Finn, Thomas M.; Le, Phuong A.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Woodall, Cheryl A.

    2017-07-18

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean undiscovered, technically recoverable resources of 78 million barrels of oil and 8.9 trillion cubic feet of gas in the San Jorge Basin Province, Argentina.

  13. Assessment of continuous oil and gas resources in the Middle and Upper Magdalena Basins, Colombia, 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Le, Phuong A.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Finn, Thomas M.; Hawkins, Sarah J.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Woodall, Cheryl A.

    2017-09-22

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean undiscovered, technically recoverable continuous resources of 0.45 billion barrels of oil and 1.0 trillion cubic feet of gas in the Middle and Upper Magdalena Basins, Colombia.

  14. Assessment of Permian tight oil and gas resources in the Junggar basin of China, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Christopher J.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Klett, Timothy R.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Finn, Thomas M.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Pitman, Janet K.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Le, Phuong A.; Drake, Ronald M.

    2017-04-05

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated undiscovered, technically recoverable mean resources of 764 million barrels of oil and 3.5 trillion cubic feet of gas in tight reservoirs in the Permian Lucaogou Formation in the Junggar basin of northwestern China.

  15. Cost-Benefit Analysis of Possible U.S. Adherence to Two International Conventions on Liability and Compensation for Oil Pollution Damages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-06-30

    ANTONIO GRAMSCI, BETELGEUSE , ELENI V, IRENES SERENADE, and TARPENBEK cases all involve potentially large liabilities, but the actual amount to be paid by...CASE STUDIES Contents AMOCO CADIZ ANTONIO GRAMSCI ARI ES BETELGEUSE BURMAH AGATE CHEVRON HAWAII CONCHO DONA MARIKA EDGAR M. QIJEENY ELENI V ESSO BAYWAY...1981. i . " -. D-10 BETELGEUSE The 121,430 DWT French tanker BETELGEUSE exploded while offloading at the Gulf Oil Terminal at Whiddy Island in Bantry

  16. Conventional oil and natural gas infrastructure increases brown-headed cowbird (Molothrus ater) relative abundance and parasitism in mixed-grass prairie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernath-Plaisted, Jacy; Nenninger, Heather; Koper, Nicola

    2017-07-01

    The rapid expansion of oil and natural gas development across the Northern Great Plains has contributed to habitat fragmentation, which may facilitate brood parasitism of ground-nesting grassland songbird nests by brown-headed cowbirds ( Molothrus ater ), an obligate brood parasite, through the introduction of perches and anthropogenic edges. We tested this hypothesis by measuring brown-headed cowbird relative abundance and brood parasitism rates of Savannah sparrow ( Passerculus sandwichensis ) nests in relation to the presence of infrastructure features and proximity to potential perches and edge habitat. The presence of oil and natural gas infrastructure increased brown-headed cowbird relative abundance by a magnitude of four times, which resulted in four times greater brood parasitism rates at infrastructure sites. While the presence of infrastructure and the proximity to roads were influential in predicting brood parasitism rates, the proximity of perch sites was not. This suggests that brood parasitism associated with oil and natural gas infrastructure may result in additional pressures that reduce productivity of this declining grassland songbird.

  17. Dumping convention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roche, P.

    1992-01-01

    Sea dumping of radioactive waste has, since 1983, been precluded under a moratorium established by the London Dumping Convention. Pressure from the nuclear industry to allow ocean dumping of nuclear waste is reported in this article. (author)

  18. Effects of exposure to Prestige-like heavy fuel oil and to perfluorooctane sulfonate on conventional biomarkers and target gene transcription in the thicklip grey mullet Chelon labrosus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilbao, E.; Raingeard, D.; Diaz de Cerio, O.; Ortiz-Zarragoitia, M.; Ruiz, P.; Izagirre, U.; Orbea, A.; Marigomez, I.; Cajaraville, M.P.; Cancio, I.

    2010-01-01

    Thicklip grey mullets Chelon labrosus inhabit coastal and estuarine areas where they can be chronically exposed to commonly released pollutants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and perfluorinated compounds. These pollutants can also originate from accidental spills, such as the Prestige oil spill in 2002, which resulted in the release of a heavy fuel oil that affected coastal ecosystems in the Bay of Biscay. Peroxisome proliferation (PP), induced biotransformation metabolism, immunosuppression and endocrine disruption are some of the possible biological effects caused by such chemicals. With the aim of studying the effects of organic toxic chemicals on such biological processes at the transcriptional and at the cell/tissue level, juvenile mullets were exposed to the typical mammalian peroxisome proliferator perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), and to fresh (F) and weathered (WF) Prestige-like heavy fuel oil for 2 and 16 days. First, fragments of genes relevant to biotransformation, immune/inflammatory and endocrine disruption processes were cloned using degenerate primers. Fuel oil elicited a significant PP response as proved by the transcriptional upregulation of palmitoyl-CoA oxidase (aox1), peroxisome proliferator activated receptor α (pparα) and retinoic X receptor, by the AOX1 activity induction and by the increased peroxisomal volume density. PFOS only elicited a significant induction of AOX1 activity at day 2 and of PPARα mRNA expression at day 16. All treatments significantly increased catalase mRNA expression at day 16 in liver and at day 2 in gill. Cyp1a transcription (liver and gill) and EROD activity were induced in fuel oil treated organisms. In the case of phase II metabolism only hepatic glutathione S-transferase mRNA was overexpressed in mullets exposed to WF for 16 days. Functionally, this response was reflected in a significant accumulation of bile PAH metabolites. WF treated fish accumulated mainly high molecular weight metabolites

  19. Effects of exposure to Prestige-like heavy fuel oil and to perfluorooctane sulfonate on conventional biomarkers and target gene transcription in the thicklip grey mullet Chelon labrosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilbao, E; Raingeard, D; de Cerio, O Diaz; Ortiz-Zarragoitia, M; Ruiz, P; Izagirre, U; Orbea, A; Marigómez, I; Cajaraville, M P; Cancio, I

    2010-07-01

    Thicklip grey mullets Chelon labrosus inhabit coastal and estuarine areas where they can be chronically exposed to commonly released pollutants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and perfluorinated compounds. These pollutants can also originate from accidental spills, such as the Prestige oil spill in 2002, which resulted in the release of a heavy fuel oil that affected coastal ecosystems in the Bay of Biscay. Peroxisome proliferation (PP), induced biotransformation metabolism, immunosuppression and endocrine disruption are some of the possible biological effects caused by such chemicals. With the aim of studying the effects of organic toxic chemicals on such biological processes at the transcriptional and at the cell/tissue level, juvenile mullets were exposed to the typical mammalian peroxisome proliferator perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), and to fresh (F) and weathered (WF) Prestige-like heavy fuel oil for 2 and 16 days. First, fragments of genes relevant to biotransformation, immune/inflammatory and endocrine disruption processes were cloned using degenerate primers. Fuel oil elicited a significant PP response as proved by the transcriptional upregulation of palmitoyl-CoA oxidase (aox1), peroxisome proliferator activated receptor alpha (pparalpha) and retinoic X receptor, by the AOX1 activity induction and by the increased peroxisomal volume density. PFOS only elicited a significant induction of AOX1 activity at day 2 and of PPARalpha mRNA expression at day 16. All treatments significantly increased catalase mRNA expression at day 16 in liver and at day 2 in gill. Cyp1a transcription (liver and gill) and EROD activity were induced in fuel oil treated organisms. In the case of phase II metabolism only hepatic glutathione S-transferase mRNA was overexpressed in mullets exposed to WF for 16 days. Functionally, this response was reflected in a significant accumulation of bile PAH metabolites. WF treated fish accumulated mainly high molecular weight

  20. Effects of exposure to Prestige-like heavy fuel oil and to perfluorooctane sulfonate on conventional biomarkers and target gene transcription in the thicklip grey mullet Chelon labrosus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bilbao, E.; Raingeard, D.; Diaz de Cerio, O.; Ortiz-Zarragoitia, M.; Ruiz, P.; Izagirre, U.; Orbea, A.; Marigomez, I.; Cajaraville, M.P. [Laboratory of Cell Biology and Histology, Department of Zoology and Animal Cell Biology, School of Science and Technology, University of the Basque Country, E-48080 Bilbao, Basque Country (Spain); Cancio, I., E-mail: ibon.cancio@ehu.es [Laboratory of Cell Biology and Histology, Department of Zoology and Animal Cell Biology, School of Science and Technology, University of the Basque Country, E-48080 Bilbao, Basque Country (Spain)

    2010-07-01

    Thicklip grey mullets Chelon labrosus inhabit coastal and estuarine areas where they can be chronically exposed to commonly released pollutants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and perfluorinated compounds. These pollutants can also originate from accidental spills, such as the Prestige oil spill in 2002, which resulted in the release of a heavy fuel oil that affected coastal ecosystems in the Bay of Biscay. Peroxisome proliferation (PP), induced biotransformation metabolism, immunosuppression and endocrine disruption are some of the possible biological effects caused by such chemicals. With the aim of studying the effects of organic toxic chemicals on such biological processes at the transcriptional and at the cell/tissue level, juvenile mullets were exposed to the typical mammalian peroxisome proliferator perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), and to fresh (F) and weathered (WF) Prestige-like heavy fuel oil for 2 and 16 days. First, fragments of genes relevant to biotransformation, immune/inflammatory and endocrine disruption processes were cloned using degenerate primers. Fuel oil elicited a significant PP response as proved by the transcriptional upregulation of palmitoyl-CoA oxidase (aox1), peroxisome proliferator activated receptor {alpha} (ppar{alpha}) and retinoic X receptor, by the AOX1 activity induction and by the increased peroxisomal volume density. PFOS only elicited a significant induction of AOX1 activity at day 2 and of PPAR{alpha} mRNA expression at day 16. All treatments significantly increased catalase mRNA expression at day 16 in liver and at day 2 in gill. Cyp1a transcription (liver and gill) and EROD activity were induced in fuel oil treated organisms. In the case of phase II metabolism only hepatic glutathione S-transferase mRNA was overexpressed in mullets exposed to WF for 16 days. Functionally, this response was reflected in a significant accumulation of bile PAH metabolites. WF treated fish accumulated mainly high molecular

  1. Assessment of undiscovered resources in calcrete uranium deposits, Southern High Plains region of Texas, New Mexico, and Oklahoma, 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Susan M.; Mihalasky, Mark J.; Van Gosen, Bradley S.

    2017-11-14

    The U.S. Geological Survey estimates a mean of 40 million pounds of in-place uranium oxide (U3O8) remaining as potential undiscovered resources in the Southern High Plains region of Texas, New Mexico, and Oklahoma. This estimate used a geology-based assessment method specific to calcrete uranium deposits.

  2. Assessment of undiscovered continuous gas resources in the Amu Darya Basin Province of Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Iran, and Afghanistan, 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Hawkins, Sarah J.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Le, Phuong A.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Woodall, Cheryl A.

    2017-08-17

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean undiscovered, technically recoverable continuous resources of 35.1 trillion cubic feet of gas in the Amu Darya Basin Province of Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Iran, and Afghanistan.

  3. Methods for the estimation and economic evaluation of undiscovered uranium endowment and resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The present Instruction Manual was prepared as part of a programme of the International Atomic Energy Agency to supply the international uranium community with standard guides for a number of topics related to uranium resource assessment and supply. The quantitative estimation of undiscovered resources and endowments aims at supplying data on potential mineral resources; these data are needed to compare long term projections with one another and to assess the mineral supplies to be obtained from elsewhere. These objectives have relatively recently been supplemented by the concern of land managers and national policy planners to assess the potential of certain lands before the constitution of national parks and other areas reserved from mineral exploration and development. 88 refs, 28 figs, 33 tabs

  4. Assessment of continuous oil and gas resources in the Neuquén Basin Province, Argentina, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Klett, Timothy R.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Pitman, Janet K.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Finn, Thomas M.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Le, Phuong A.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Marra, Kristen R.

    2017-05-23

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey assessed undiscovered, technically recoverable mean continuous resources of 14.4 billion barrels of oil and 38 trillion cubic feet of gas in the Neuquén Basin Province, Argentina.

  5. Assessment of continuous oil and gas resources of the Maracaibo Basin Province of Venezuela and Colombia, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Le, Phoung A.; Pitman, Janet K.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Hawkins, Sarah J.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Finn, Thomas M.; Klett, Timothy R.

    2017-03-27

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated undiscovered, technically recoverable mean continuous resources of 656 million barrels of oil and 5.7 trillion cubic feet of gas in the Maracaibo Basin Province, Venezuela and Colombia.

  6. Chemical Composition, Antibacterial Activity, and Synergistic Effects with Conventional Antibiotics and Nitric Oxide Production Inhibitory Activity of Essential Oil from Geophila repens (L. I.M. Johnst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huijuanzi Rao

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Geophila repens (L. I.M. Johnst, a perennial herb, belongs to the Rubiaceae family. In this study, we identified the chemical composition of the Geophila repens essential oil (GR-EO for the first time. Totally, seventy-seven compounds were identified according to GC and GC-MS, which represent 98.0% of the oil. And the major components of GR-EO were β-caryophyllene (23.3%, β-elemene (8.0%, farnesyl butanoate (7.4%, myrcene (3.5%, and trans-nerolidol (3.3%. Then we evaluated the antibacterial activities of GR-EO and the synergistic effects of GR-EO in combination with commercial antibiotics using the microdilution and Checkerboard method. The results demonstrated that GR-EO possessed an excellent broad spectrum antibacterial activity, especially against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus subtilis. It also showed that the combined application of GR-EO with antibiotics led to synergistic effects in most cases. And the most prominent synergistic effect was noticed when GR-EO was in combination with Streptomycin and tested against Escherichia coli (fractional inhibitory concentration indices (FICI of 0.13. Additionally, the results of a Griess assay revealed that GR-EO exhibited a potent inhibitory effect on NO production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS-activated RAW 264.7 (murine macrophage cells. In conclusion, the combination of GR-EO and the commercial antibiotics has significant potential for the development of new antimicrobial treatment and reduction of drug resistance.

  7. Long term prediction of unconventional oil production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohr, S.H.; Evans, G.M.

    2010-01-01

    Although considerable discussion surrounds unconventional oil's ability to mitigate the effects of peaking conventional oil production, very few models of unconventional oil production exist. The aim of this article was to project unconventional oil production to determine how significant its production may be. Two models were developed to predict the unconventional oil production, one model for in situ production and the other for mining the resources. Unconventional oil production is anticipated to reach between 18 and 32 Gb/y (49-88 Mb/d) in 2076-2084, before declining. If conventional oil production is at peak production then projected unconventional oil production cannot mitigate peaking of conventional oil alone.

  8. Quantitative Mineral Resource Assessment of Copper, Molybdenum, Gold, and Silver in Undiscovered Porphyry Copper Deposits in the Andes Mountains of South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Charles G.; Zappettini, Eduardo O.; Vivallo S., Waldo; Celada, Carlos Mario; Quispe, Jorge; Singer, Donald A.; Briskey, Joseph A.; Sutphin, David M.; Gajardo M., Mariano; Diaz, Alejandro; Portigliati, Carlos; Berger, Vladimir I.; Carrasco, Rodrigo; Schulz, Klaus J.

    2008-01-01

    Quantitative information on the general locations and amounts of undiscovered porphyry copper resources of the world is important to exploration managers, land-use and environmental planners, economists, and policy makers. This publication contains the results of probabilistic estimates of the amounts of copper (Cu), molybdenum (Mo), gold (Au), and silver (Ag) in undiscovered porphyry copper deposits in the Andes Mountains of South America. The methodology used to make these estimates is called the 'Three-Part Form'. It was developed to explicitly express estimates of undiscovered resources and associated uncertainty in a form that allows economic analysis and is useful to decisionmakers. The three-part form of assessment includes: (1) delineation of tracts of land where the geology is permissive for porphyry copper deposits to form; (2) selection of grade and tonnage models appropriate for estimating grades and tonnages of the undiscovered porphyry copper deposits in each tract; and (3) estimation of the number of undiscovered porphyry copper deposits in each tract consistent with the grade and tonnage model. A Monte Carlo simulation computer program (EMINERS) was used to combine the probability distributions of the estimated number of undiscovered deposits, the grades, and the tonnages of the selected model to obtain the probability distributions for undiscovered metals in each tract. These distributions of grades and tonnages then can be used to conduct economic evaluations of undiscovered resources in a format usable by decisionmakers. Economic evaluations are not part of this report. The results of this assessment are presented in two principal parts. The first part identifies 26 regional tracts of land where the geology is permissive for the occurrence of undiscovered porphyry copper deposits of Phanerozoic age to a depth of 1 km below the Earth's surface. These tracts are believed to contain most of South America's undiscovered resources of copper. The

  9. Gravity separation for oil wastewater treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Golomeova, Mirjana; Zendelska, Afrodita; Krstev, Boris; Krstev, Aleksandar

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, the applications of gravity separation for oil wastewater treatment are presented. Described is operation on conventional gravity separation and parallel plate separation. Key words: gravity separation, oil, conventional gravity separation, parallel plate separation.

  10. Vegetable Oil-Biorefinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pudel, Frank; Wiesen, Sebastian

    2017-03-07

    Conventional vegetable oil mills are complex plants, processing oil, fruits, or seeds to vegetable fats and oils of high quality and predefined properties. Nearly all by-products are used. However, most of the high valuable plant substances occurring in oil fruits or seeds besides the oil are used only in low price applications (proteins as animal feeding material) or not at all (e.g., phenolics). This chapter describes the state-of-the-art of extraction and use of oilseed/oil fruit proteins and phyto-nutrients in order to move from a conventional vegetable oil processing plant to a proper vegetable oil-biorefinery producing a wide range of different high value bio-based products.

  11. Response to Oil Sands Products Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Canada’s total proven reserves the third largest in the world, after Saudi Arabia’s conventional oil and Venezuela’s Orinoco oil sands. In 1967, the...largest in the world, after Saudi Arabia’s conventional oil and Venezuela’s Orinoco oil sands. (See Figure 2) Source: (National Academy of Science

  12. Assessment of continuous oil and gas resources of Solimões, Amazonas, and Parnaíba Basin Provinces, Brazil, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Klett, Timothy R.; Finn, Thomas M.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Hawkins, Sarah J.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Le, Phuong A.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.

    2017-03-27

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated undiscovered, technically recoverable mean continuous resources of 5 billion barrels of oil and 47 trillion cubic feet of gas in the Paleozoic Solimões, Amazonas, and Parnaíba Basin Provinces, Brazil. 

  13. Deep sequencing reveals as-yet-undiscovered small RNAs in Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirano Reiko

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Escherichia coli, approximately 100 regulatory small RNAs (sRNAs have been identified experimentally and many more have been predicted by various methods. To provide a comprehensive overview of sRNAs, we analysed the low-molecular-weight RNAs (E. coli with deep sequencing, because the regulatory RNAs in bacteria are usually 50-200 nt in length. Results We discovered 229 novel candidate sRNAs (≥ 50 nt with computational or experimental evidence of transcription initiation. Among them, the expression of seven intergenic sRNAs and three cis-antisense sRNAs was detected by northern blot analysis. Interestingly, five novel sRNAs are expressed from prophage regions and we note that these sRNAs have several specific characteristics. Furthermore, we conducted an evolutionary conservation analysis of the candidate sRNAs and summarised the data among closely related bacterial strains. Conclusions This comprehensive screen for E. coli sRNAs using a deep sequencing approach has shown that many as-yet-undiscovered sRNAs are potentially encoded in the E. coli genome. We constructed the Escherichia coli Small RNA Browser (ECSBrowser; http://rna.iab.keio.ac.jp/, which integrates the data for previously identified sRNAs and the novel sRNAs found in this study.

  14. Reactivation of an Idle Lease to Increase Heavy Oil Recovery through Application of Conventional Steam Drive Technology in a Low-Dip Slope and Reservoir in the Midway-Sunset Field, San Jaoquin Basin, California, Class III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schamel, S.

    2001-01-09

    The objective of this project is not just to produce oil from the Pru Fee property, but rather to test which operational strategies best optimize total oil recovery at economically acceptable rates of production and production costs.

  15. Reactivation of an Idle Lease to Increase Heavy Oil Recovery through Application of Conventional Steam Drive Technology in a Low-Dip Slope and Reservoir in the Midway-Sunset Field, San Jaoquin Basin, California, Class III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schamel, Steven; Deo, Milind; Deets, Mike

    2002-02-21

    The objective of the project is not just to commercially produce oil from the Pru Fee property, but rather to test which operational strategies best optimize total oil recovery at economically acceptable rates of production volumes and costs.

  16. Mapping membrane activity in undiscovered peptide sequence space using machine learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ernest Y; Fulan, Benjamin M; Wong, Gerard C L; Ferguson, Andrew L

    2016-11-29

    There are some ∼1,100 known antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), which permeabilize microbial membranes but have diverse sequences. Here, we develop a support vector machine (SVM)-based classifier to investigate ⍺-helical AMPs and the interrelated nature of their functional commonality and sequence homology. SVM is used to search the undiscovered peptide sequence space and identify Pareto-optimal candidates that simultaneously maximize the distance σ from the SVM hyperplane (thus maximize its "antimicrobialness") and its ⍺-helicity, but minimize mutational distance to known AMPs. By calibrating SVM machine learning results with killing assays and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), we find that the SVM metric σ correlates not with a peptide's minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), but rather its ability to generate negative Gaussian membrane curvature. This surprising result provides a topological basis for membrane activity common to AMPs. Moreover, we highlight an important distinction between the maximal recognizability of a sequence to a trained AMP classifier (its ability to generate membrane curvature) and its maximal antimicrobial efficacy. As mutational distances are increased from known AMPs, we find AMP-like sequences that are increasingly difficult for nature to discover via simple mutation. Using the sequence map as a discovery tool, we find a unexpectedly diverse taxonomy of sequences that are just as membrane-active as known AMPs, but with a broad range of primary functions distinct from AMP functions, including endogenous neuropeptides, viral fusion proteins, topogenic peptides, and amyloids. The SVM classifier is useful as a general detector of membrane activity in peptide sequences.

  17. Water and Proppant Requirements and Water Production Associated with Undiscovered Petroleum in the Bakken and Three Forks Formations, North Dakota and Montana, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, S. S.; Varela, B. A.; Thamke, J.; Hawkins, S. J.; Gianoutsos, N. J.; Tennyson, M. E.

    2017-12-01

    Water is used for several stages of oil and gas production, in particular for hydraulic fracturing that is typically used during production of petroleum from low-permeability shales and other rock types (referred to as "continuous" petroleum accumulations). Proppant, often sand, is also consumed during hydraulic fracturing. Water is then produced from the reservoir along with the oil and gas, representing either a disposal consideration or a possible source of water for further petroleum development or other purposes. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has developed an approach for regional-scale estimation of these water and proppant quantities in order to provide an improved understanding of possible impacts and to help with planning and decision-making. Using the new methodology, the USGS has conducted a quantitative assessment of water and proppant requirements, and water production volumes, associated with associated with possible future production of undiscovered petroleum resources in the Bakken and Three Forks Formations, Williston Basin, USA. This water and proppant assessment builds directly from the 2013 USGS petroleum assessment for the Bakken and Three Forks Formations. USGS petroleum assessments incorporate all available geologic and petroleum production information, and include the definition of assessment units (AUs) that specify the geographic regions and geologic formations for the assessment. The 2013 petroleum assessment included 5 continuous AUs for the Bakken Formation and one continuous AU for the Three Forks Formation. The assessment inputs are defined probabilistically, and a Monte Carlo approach provides outputs that include uncertainty bounds. We can summarize the assessment outputs with the mean values of the associated distributions. The mean estimated total volume of water for well drilling and cement for all six continuous AUs is 5.9 billion gallons, and the mean estimated volume of water for hydraulic fracturing for all AUs is 164

  18. Running Out Of and Into Oil. Analyzing Global Oil Depletion and Transition Through 2050

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, David L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hopson, Janet L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Li, Jia [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2003-10-01

    This report presents a risk analysis of world conventional oil resource production, depletion, expansion, and a possible transition to unconventional oil resources such as oil sands, heavy oil and shale oil over the period 2000 to 2050. Risk analysis uses Monte Carlo simulation methods to produce a probability distribution of outcomes rather than a single value.

  19. Distribution and quantitative assessment of world crude oil reserves and resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, Charles D.; Root, David H.; Dietzman, William D.

    1983-01-01

    World Demonstrated Reserves of crude oil are approximately 723 billion barrels of oil (BBO). Cumulative production is 445 BBO and annual production is 20 BBO. Demonstrated Reserves of crude-oil have declined over the past 10 years consistent with discoveries lagging production over the same period. The assessment of Undiscovered Resources shows a 90 percent probability that the amount discoverable lies between 321 and 1,417 BBO, 550 BBO being the most likely value. The most likely value for Ultimate recoverable resources is 1,718 BBO. The distribution of Ultimate Resources of crude oil will remain highly skewed toward the Middle East; no frontier areas that have potentials large enough to significantly affect present distribution are recognized. Rates of discovery have continued to decline over the past 20 years even though exploration activity has increased in recent years. Prudence dictates, therefore, that the low side of the assessment of Undiscovered Resources be responsibly considered and that alternate energy sources be a part of future planning. Extra-heavy oil and bitumen are assessed separately, with Reserves being figured as the annual productive capacity of installed facilities times 25 years. The annual production of extra-heavy oil is about 8 million barrels and of bitumen about 60 million barrels.

  20. Economic feasibility of biochemical processes for the upgrading of crudes and the removal of sulfur, nitrogen, and trace metals from crude oil -- Benchmark cost establishment of biochemical processes on the basis of conventional downstream technologies. Final report FY95

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Premuzic, E.T.

    1996-08-01

    During the past several years, a considerable amount of work has been carried out showing that microbially enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) is promising and the resulting biotechnology may be deliverable. At Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), systematic studies have been conducted which dealt with the effects of thermophilic and thermoadapted bacteria on the chemical and physical properties of selected types of crude oils at elevated temperatures and pressures. Current studies indicate that during the biotreatment several chemical and physical properties of crude oils are affected. The oils are (1) emulsified; (2) acidified; (3) there is a qualitative and quantitative change in light and heavy fractions of the crudes; (4) there are chemical changes in fractions containing sulfur compounds; (5) there is an apparent reduction in the concentration of trace metals; and (6) the qualitative and quantitative changes appear to be microbial species dependent; and (7) there is a distinction between biodegraded and biotreated oils. The downstream biotechnological crude oil processing research performed thus far is of laboratory scale and has focused on demonstrating the technical feasibility of downstream processing with different types of biocatalysts under a variety of processing conditions. Quantitative economic analysis is the topic of the present project which investigates the economic feasibility of the various biochemical downstream processes which hold promise in upgrading of heavy crudes, such as those found in California, e.g., Monterey-type, Midway Sunset, Honda crudes, and others.

  1. The combination of functional metagenomics and an oil-fed enrichment strategy revealed the phylogenetic diversity of lipolytic bacteria overlooked by the cultivation-based method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narihiro, Takashi; Suzuki, Aya; Yoshimune, Kazuaki; Hori, Tomoyuki; Hoshino, Tamotsu; Yumoto, Isao; Yokota, Atsushi; Kimura, Nobutada; Kamagata, Yoichi

    2014-01-01

    Metagenomic screening and conventional cultivation have been used to exploit microbial lipolytic enzymes in nature. We used an indigenous forest soil (NS) and oil-fed enriched soil (OS) as microbial and genetic resources. Thirty-four strains (17 each) of lipolytic bacteria were isolated from the NS and OS microcosms. These isolates were classified into the (sub)phyla Betaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Actinobacteria, all of which are known to be the main microbial resources of commercially available lipolytic enzymes. Seven and 39 lipolytic enzymes were successfully retrieved from the metagenomic libraries of the NS and OS microcosms, respectively. The screening efficiency (a ratio of positive lipolytic clones to the total number of environmental clones) was markedly higher in the OS microcosm than in the NS microcosm. Moreover, metagenomic clones encoding the lipolytic enzymes associated with Alphaproteobacteria, Deltaproteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Armatimonadetes, and Planctomycetes and hitherto-uncultivated microbes were recovered from these libraries. The results of the present study indicate that functional metagenomics can be effectively used to capture as yet undiscovered lipolytic enzymes that have eluded the cultivation-based method, and these combined approaches may be able to provide an overview of lipolytic organisms potentially present in nature.

  2. Combustion for Enhanced Recovery of Light Oil at Medium Pressures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khoshnevis Gargar, N.

    2014-01-01

    Using conventional production methods, recovery percentages from oil reservoirs range from 5% for difficult oil to 50% for light oil in highly permeable homogeneous reservoirs. To increase the oil recovery factor, enhanced oil recovery (EOR) methods are used. We distinguish EOR that uses chemical

  3. Compensation for oil pollution damage caused by oil spills from ships and the International Oil Pollution Compensation Fund

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobsson, M.

    1994-01-01

    Liability and compensation for pollution damage caused by oil spills from laden tankers is governed by two international conventions: the 1969 Civil Liability Convention and the 1971 Fund Convention. The Civil Liability Convention established a system of strict liability for tanker owners and introduced compulsory liability insurance. The Fund Convention created a system of supplementary compensation administered by an intergovernmental organization, the International Oil Pollution Compensation Fund (IOPC Fund), which at present has 56 member states (August 1993). The IOPC Fund pays compensation to victims of oil pollution in member states when the compensation from the ship owner and his insurer is insufficient. (author)

  4. Assessment of an oil palm population from Nigerian Institute for Oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.), a monocotyledonous plant belonging to the Arecaceae family, is one of the most important oil crops in the world. In Nigeria, oil palm has benefited immensely from conventional breeding efforts resulting in high yields that have been achieved with this breeding material. However, oil palm ...

  5. Diesel oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oil ... Diesel oil ... Diesel oil poisoning can cause symptoms in many parts of the body. EYES, EARS, NOSE, AND THROAT Loss of ... most dangerous effects of hydrocarbon (such as diesel oil) poisoning are due to inhaling the fumes. NERVOUS ...

  6. Palm Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palm oil is obtained from the fruit of the oil palm tree. Palm oil is used for preventing vitamin A deficiency, cancer, ... high blood pressure, high cholesterol, and cyanide poisoning. Palm oil is used for weight loss and increasing the ...

  7. Qualitative assessment of selected areas of the world for undiscovered sediment-hosted stratabound copper deposits: Chapter Y in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zientek, Michael L.; Wintzer, Niki E.; Hayes, Timothy S.; Parks, Heather L.; Briggs, Deborah A.; Causey, J. Douglas; Hatch, Shyla A.; Jenkins, M. Christopher; Williams, David J.; Zientek, Michael L.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Johnson, Kathleen M.

    2015-12-14

    A qualitative mineral resource assessment of sediment-hosted stratabound copper mineralized areas for undiscovered copper deposits was performed for 10 selected areas of the world. The areas, in alphabetical order, are (1) Belt-Purcell Basin, United States and Canada; (2) Benguela and Cuanza Basins, Angola; (3) Chuxiong Basin, China; (4) Dongchuan Group rocks, China; (5) Egypt–Israel–Jordan Rift, Egypt, Israel, and Jordan; (6) Maritimes Basin, Canada; (7) Neuquén Basin, Argentina; (8) Northwest Botswana Rift, Botswana and Namibia; (9) Redstone Copperbelt, Canada; and (10) Salta Rift System, Argentina. This assessment (1) outlines the main characteristics of the areas, (2) classifies known deposits by deposit model subtypes, and (3) ranks the areas according to their potential to contain undiscovered copper deposits.

  8. The Hague Judgments Convention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter Arnt

    2011-01-01

    The Hague Judgments Convention of 2005 is the first global convention on international jurisdiction and recognition and enforcement of judgments in civil and commercial matters. The author explains the political and legal background of the Convention, its content and certain crucial issues during...

  9. Oil Spills

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... up. How Oil Harms Animals and Plants in Marine Environments In general, oil spills can affect animals and plants in two ways: from the oil ... up. How Oil Harms Animals and Plants in Marine Environments In general, oil spills can affect animals and plants in two ways: from the oil ...

  10. Microbes and oil recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, V

    1987-10-01

    Conventional oilfield operations recover, on average, about a third of the crude oil originally present in a reservoir. Improving the yield depends both on overcoming macro- and micro-geological problems and on progressively compensating for the pressure drop in the reservoir as it is depleted of oil. In some cases this may be achieved by treating the oil-bearing matrix with certain chemicals, most commonly surfactants and viscous or insoluble polymers. One effective way of introducing the chemicals is by employing a population of bacteria in the reservoir as synthetic agents. Some of these processes are shown in the Centrespread illustration.

  11. Nanotechnologies in oil production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alieva, M.K; Kazimov, F.K.; Ismailov, E.

    2010-01-01

    Extraction of remaining, laboriously developed oil reserves at the last stage of development of deposits require drastically improved methods of oil recovery. From this point of view it is more expedient to apply high-tech nanotechnologies. Application of metal nanoparticles in solutions consisting of conventional reagents (deemulgators, SAA and etc.) allows to improve their rheology considerably to increase permaibility and washing of highly viscous components from the smallest pores. Thus, nanofluids influence layer system on atomic-molecular-ionic level which will lead to a complex synergetic effect from the application of nanotechnologies in oil and gas production.

  12. Recent experience with onshore oil and gas operations in the Mackenzie Delta, NWT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, J.

    1999-01-01

    Hydrocarbon deposits in the Beaufort Sea and Mackenzie Delta indicate mean discovered gas reserves of 5 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, 67 million barrels of condensate, and 247 million barrels of oil in fields located onshore. There may be even bigger undiscovered reserves that could be proven by a surge in drilling likely to occur in this region within the next few years. There are a number of characteristics of this area that appeal to the oil and gas industry over and above the discovered and undiscovered reserves. There is a local aboriginal group with a settled land claim, clear and reasonable rules for access, a business-like approach to development and a sophisicated understanding of the oil and gas industry. There is reasonable access by road, commercial air service, rail and barge by Hay river or sea with an excellent harbour at Tuktoyaktuk. Local contractors and labour with applicable skills and good equipment are available. The Inuvialuit Petroleum Corp. and its partners Altagas Services Inc. and Enbridge Inc. completed a project to supply the town of Inuvik with natural gas for electricity generation and local distribution. This project is a small example of the physical, economic and regulatory environments that the oil industry will face with the undertaking of larger projects. Aspects of the region described include: the Inuvialuit, recent experience, logistics, regulatory environment, project approvels, environmental, and specific observations

  13. Supplying Synthetic Crude Oil from Canadian Oil Sands: A Comparative Study of the Costs and CO2 Emissions of Mining and In-Situ Recovery

    OpenAIRE

    Méjean, A.; Hope, C.

    2010-01-01

    High crude oil prices and the eventual decline of conventional oil production raise the issue of alternative fuels such as non-conventional oil. The paper describes a simple probabilistic model of the costs of synthetic crude oil (SCO) produced from Canadian oil sands. Synthetic crude oil is obtained by upgrading bitumen that is first produced through mining or in-situ recovery techniques. This forward-looking analysis quantifies the effects of learning and production constraints on the costs...

  14. Administration of olive oil followed by a low volume of polyethylene glycol-electrolyte lavage solution improves patient satisfaction with right-side colonic cleansing over administration of the conventional volume of polyethylene glycol-electrolyte lavage solution for colonoscopy preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abut, Evren; Guveli, Hakan; Yasar, Bulent; Bolukbas, Cengiz; Bolukbas, Filiz Fusun; Ince, Ali Tuzun; Kendir, Tulin; Dalay, Ali Remzi; Kurdas, Oya Ovunc

    2009-09-01

    Proper bowel cleansing before colonoscopy is essential for satisfactory evaluation of the colon. The required consumption of a large volume of salty-tasting liquid, 4 L of polyethylene glycol-electrolyte lavage solution (PEG-ELS), is the primary limitation to achieving this goal. To achieve better patient satisfaction with efficient bowel cleansing, we compared the effects of the conventional volume (4 L) of PEG-ELS with those of a low volume (2 L) in combination with pretreatment using different laxatives, such as magnesium hydroxide (milk of magnesia) and olive oil. Randomized, controlled study. A single research hospital. Patients undergoing elective colonoscopy. A total of 120 patients were randomized to 1 of 3 different preparation regimens: 39 patients were prepared with a conventional volume (4 L) of PEG-ELS (Preparation [Prep] 1), and the remaining patients were prepared with a lower volume (2 L) of PEG-ELS and pretreatment with a laxative, either 15 g of magnesium hydroxide (40 patients, Prep 2) or 60 mL of olive oil (41 patients, Prep 3) 3 hours before PEG-ELS administration. The primary outcome was the efficacy of colonic cleansing on the left and right sides. Secondary outcomes were patient satisfaction and side effects. The olive oil regimen (Prep 3) resulted in significantly more adequate bowel cleansing of the right colon than administration of the conventional volume of PEG-ELS (Prep 1) and the magnesium hydroxide (Prep 2) regimen (97.6% vs 74.5% and 72.5%, respectively, P = .007). However, this difference was not observed in the left colon (91.5%, 85.5%, and 91.8% for Preps 1, 2, and 3, respectively, P = .776). When asked, 38 patients (95%) taking Prep 2, 35 patients (85.3%) taking Prep 3, and only 11 patients (28.2%) taking Prep 1 preferred the same preparation regimen if they required a future colonoscopy (P =.006), based on ease of use and taste. The side effects were comparable in each group. The limitations of this study include the relatively

  15. Oil Spills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oil spills often happen because of accidents, when people make mistakes or equipment breaks down. Other causes include natural disasters or deliberate acts. Oil spills have major environmental and economic effects. Oil ...

  16. Oil shale highlights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The low prices of crude oil have continued to retard the commercial development of oil shale and other syn fuels. Although research funds are more difficult to find, some R and D work by industry, academia, and governmental agencies continues in the United States and in other parts of the world. Improvements in retorting technology, upgrading oil-shale feedstock, and developing high-value niche-market products from shale oil are three notable areas of research that have been prominent for the past several years. Although the future prices of conventional crude cannot be predicted, it seems evident that diminishing supplies and a burgeoning world population will force us to turn to alternate fossil fuels as well as to cleaner sources of non-fossil energy. (author)

  17. Convention on nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The Convention on Nuclear Safety was adopted on 17 June 1994 by Diplomatic Conference convened by the International Atomic Energy Agency at its Headquarters from 14 to 17 June 1994. The Convention will enter into force on the ninetieth day after the date of deposit with the Depository (the Agency's Director General) of the twenty-second instrument of ratification, acceptance or approval, including the instruments of seventeen States, having each at leas one nuclear installation which has achieved criticality in a reactor core. The text of the Convention as adopted is reproduced in the Annex hereto for the information of all Member States

  18. Lubrication from mixture of boric acid with oils and greases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdemir, A.

    1995-07-11

    Lubricating compositions are disclosed including crystalline boric acid and a base lubricant selected from oils, greases and the like. The lubricity of conventional oils and greases can also be improved by adding concentrates of boric acid.

  19. Lubrication from mixture of boric acid with oils and greases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdemir, Ali

    1995-01-01

    Lubricating compositions including crystalline boric acid and a base lubricant selected from oils, greases and the like. The lubricity of conventional oils and greases can also be improved by adding concentrates of boric acid.

  20. New Mexico Convention Centers

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This dataset provides an initial version of the locations of convention centers in New Mexico, in point form, with limited attributes, compiled using available data...

  1. United States Pharmacopeial Convention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... crisis. Learn More Containing drug costs in the United States The FDA is currently exploring a variety of ... Notices Privacy Policy Terms of Use Sitemap © The United States Pharmacopeial Convention ×

  2. Minamata Convention on Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    On November 6, 2013 the United States signed the Minamata Convention on Mercury, a new multilateral environmental agreement that addresses specific human activities which are contributing to widespread mercury pollution

  3. Chile: Its Conventional Threats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-03-18

    tdf.htm>. Internet. Accessed 30 October 2004. 20 21 BIBLIOGRAPHY Barros, Van Buren Mario. Historia Diplomatica de Chile . Santiago: Editorial Andres...USAWC STRATEGY RESEARCH PROJECT CHILE : ITS CONVENTIONAL THREATS by Lieutenant Colonel Claudio Toledo Chilean Army Dr. Gabriel Marcella Project...3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Chile Its Conventional Threats 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6

  4. Water issues associated with heavy oil production.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veil, J. A.; Quinn, J. J.; Environmental Science Division

    2008-11-28

    Crude oil occurs in many different forms throughout the world. An important characteristic of crude oil that affects the ease with which it can be produced is its density and viscosity. Lighter crude oil typically can be produced more easily and at lower cost than heavier crude oil. Historically, much of the nation's oil supply came from domestic or international light or medium crude oil sources. California's extensive heavy oil production for more than a century is a notable exception. Oil and gas companies are actively looking toward heavier crude oil sources to help meet demands and to take advantage of large heavy oil reserves located in North and South America. Heavy oil includes very viscous oil resources like those found in some fields in California and Venezuela, oil shale, and tar sands (called oil sands in Canada). These are described in more detail in the next chapter. Water is integrally associated with conventional oil production. Produced water is the largest byproduct associated with oil production. The cost of managing large volumes of produced water is an important component of the overall cost of producing oil. Most mature oil fields rely on injected water to maintain formation pressure during production. The processes involved with heavy oil production often require external water supplies for steam generation, washing, and other steps. While some heavy oil processes generate produced water, others generate different types of industrial wastewater. Management and disposition of the wastewater presents challenges and costs for the operators. This report describes water requirements relating to heavy oil production and potential sources for that water. The report also describes how water is used and the resulting water quality impacts associated with heavy oil production.

  5. Climate change convention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, D.

    1992-01-01

    Principles that guide Canada's Green Plan with respect to global warming are outlined. These include respect for nature, meeting environmental goals in an economically beneficial manner, efficient use of resources, shared responsibilities, federal leadership, and informed decision making. The policy side of the international Framework Convention on Climate Change is then discussed and related to the Green Plan. The Convention has been signed by 154 nations and has the long-term objective of stabilizing anthropogenic greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at levels that prevent dangerous interference with the climate system. Some of the Convention's commitments toward achieving that objective are only applicable to the developed countries. Five general areas of commitment are emissions reductions, assistance to developing countries, reporting requirements, scientific and socioeconomic research, and education. The most controversial area is that of limiting emissions. The Convention has strong measures for public accountability and is open to future revisions. Canada's Green Plan represents one country's response to the Convention commitments, including a national goal to stabilize greenhouse gas emissions at the 1990 level by the year 2000

  6. seed oil

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wara

    found to be 2.0 cm which is lower than that of Jatropha oil soap(5.4cm), Sesame oil soap(4.8cm), Cotton seed oil soap(4.5cm) and shea nut soap(4.2cm),t higher than that of Castor oil soap(1.6cm) and Castor glycerine soap(1.4cm). The soap was milk in colour and slightly soluble in distilled water. Keywords: Neem oil ...

  7. Oil risk in oil stocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtens, Bert; Wang, L

    2008-01-01

    We assess the oil price sensitivities and oil risk premiums of NYSE listed oil & gas firms' returns by using a two-step regression analysis under two different arbitrage pricing models. Thus, we apply the Fama and French (1992) factor returns in a study of oil stocks. In all, we find that the return

  8. Canada's crude oil resources : crude oil in our daily lives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bott, R.

    2001-10-01

    Created in 1975, the Petroleum Communication Foundation is a not-for-profit organization. The objective of the Foundation is to inform Canadians about the petroleum industry in Canada. It produces educational, fact-based publications and programs, employing a multi-stakeholder review process. The first section of this publication is devoted to crude oil and the benefits that are derived from it. It begins by providing a brief definition of crude oil, then moves to the many uses in our daily lives and the environmental impacts like air pollution, spills, and footprint on the land from exploration and production activities. Section 2 details the many uses of crude oil and identifies the major oil producing regions of Canada. A quick mention is made of non-conventional sources of crude oil. The search for crude oil is the topic of section 3 of the document, providing an overview of the exploration activities, the access rights that must be obtained before gaining access to the resource. The drilling of oil is discussed in section 4. Section 5 deals with issues pertaining to reservoirs within rocks, while section 6 covers the feeding of the refineries, discussing topics from the movement of oil to market to the refining of the crude oil, and the pricing issues. In section 7, the uncertain future is examined with a view of balancing the supply and demand, as crude oil is a non-renewable resource. Supplementary information is provided concerning additional publications published by various organizations and agencies. figs

  9. Conventions and Institutional Logics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westenholz, Ann

    Two theoretical approaches – Conventions and Institutional Logics – are brought together and the similarities and differences between the two are explored. It is not the intention to combine the approaches, but I would like to open both ‘boxes’ and make them available to each other with the purpose...... analyses. The theoretical quest of both Conventions and Institutional Logics has been to understand the increasing indeterminacy, uncertainty and ambiguity in people’s lives where a sense of reality, of value, of moral, of feelings is not fixed. Both approaches have created new theoretical insights...

  10. Convents as homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Enrique Alberto

    2005-01-01

    The present article discusses convents as homes. Resulting from the study of a Gregorian source presently housed at DePaul University's Richardson library, this article probes the complexities and restrictions of convent life in 17th century Spain. The Sanctoral de Visperas (1653) functions as a backdrop for a consideration of how singing chant and attendant rituals enriched the lives of nuns. Also included are references to nuns from this period who were outstanding musicians and poets and whose works have recently received enthusiastic attention.

  11. Comparative Analysis of Biodegradability of Biodiesel obtained by Conventional and Non-Conventional Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Nagaraja Y. P; Chandrashekhar Biradar

    2015-01-01

    Biodiesel is an alternative to conventional diesel fuel made from renewable resources. No engine modifications are required to use biodiesel in place of crude oil-based diesel. The use of biodiesel resulted in lower emissions of unburned hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide and particulate matter. Biodiesel also increased catalytic converter efficiency in reducing particulate emissions. Chemical characterization also revealed lower levels of some toxic and reactive hydrocarbo...

  12. Worldwide cheap and heavy oil productions: A long-term energy model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guseo, Renato

    2011-01-01

    Crude oil, natural gas liquids, heavy oils, deepwater oils, and polar oils are non-renewable energy resources with increasing extraction costs. Two major definitions emerge: regular or 'cheap' oil and non-conventional or 'heavy' oil. Peaking time in conventional oil production has been a recent focus of debate. For two decades, non-conventional oils have been mixed with regular crude oil. Peaking time estimation and the rate at which production may be expected to decline, following the peak, are more difficult to determine. We propose a two-wave model for world oil production pattern and forecasting, based on the diffusion of innovation theories: a sequential multi-Bass model. Historical well-known shocks are confirmed, and new peaking times for crude oil and mixed oil are determined with corresponding depletion rates. In the final section, possible ties between the dynamics of oil extraction and refining capacities are discussed as a predictive symptom of an imminent mixed oil peak in 2016. - Highlights: → Production of conventional and non-conventional oils in aggregate time series. → Decomposition modelling and forecasting with a multi-regime model. → Diffusion of innovation theories and appropriateness of applying Bass concepts to the extraction of oil resources. → Partially overlapping oil extraction processes. → Refining capacities and dynamics of oil extraction.

  13. A complementary conventional analysis for channelized reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escobar Freddy Humberto; Montealegre M, Matilde

    2007-01-01

    Many well pressure data coming from long and narrow reservoirs which result from either fluvial deposition of faulting connote be completely interpreted by conventional analysis since some flow regimes are not conventionally recognized yet in the oil literature. This narrow geometry allows for the simultaneous development of two linear flow regimes coming from each one of the lateral sides of the system towards the well. This has been called dual linear flow regime. If the well is off-centered with regards to the two lateral boundaries, then, and of the linear flow regimes vanishes and, than, two possibilities con be presented. Firstly, if the closer lateral boundary is close to flow the unique linear flow persists along the longer lateral boundary. It has been called single linear flow. Following this, either steady or pseudo-steady states will develop. Secondly, if a constant - pressure closer lateral boundary is dealt with, then parabolic flow develops along the longer lateral boundary. Steady state has to be developed once the disturbance reaches the farther boundary. This study presents new equations for conventional analysis for the dual linear, linear and parabolic flow regimes recently introduced to the oil literature. The equations were validated by applying them to field and simulated examples

  14. Global climate convention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonis, U.E.

    1991-01-01

    The effort of negotiate a global convention on climate change is one of mankind's great endeavours - and a challenge to economists and development planners. The inherent linkages between climate and the habitability of the earth are increasingly well recognized, and a convention could help to ensure that conserving the environment and developing the economy in the future must go hand in hand. Due to growing environmental concern the United Nations General Assembly has set into motion an international negotiating process for a framework convention on climate change. One the major tasks in these negotiations is how to share the duties in reducing climate relevant gases, particularly carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), between the industrial and the developing countries. The results and proposals could be among the most far-reaching ever for socio-economic development, indeed for global security and survival itself. While the negotiations will be about climate and protection of the atmosphere, they will be on fundamental global changes in energy policies, forestry, transport, technology, and on development pathways with low greenhouse gas emissions. Some of these aspects of a climate convention, particularly the distributional options and consequences for the North-South relations, are addressed in this chapter. (orig.)

  15. Limits to oil pricing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Austvik, O.G.

    1992-01-01

    The bad record of oil price forecasting indicates that conventional oil market models should be critically reassessed. Scenario planning may be one alternative approach. This approach does not contradict other theories of the market. But it claims that no single discipline is able to tell the whole truth about the market. The SP approach stresses and clarifies the role of uncertainty. It argues that without a cross-disciplinary approach, with an adequate choice of parameters, at the right level of in depth discussion, the analysis may either lose essential input or drown in detail. As an example of the methodology, an analysis of the oil market in the 1990s is presented. This shows how upper and lower limits for the price can be constructed, and which actual price development can be expected, in a combination of economic and political reasoning. (author)

  16. Method for reclaiming waste lubricating oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whisman, Marvin L.; Goetzinger, John W.; Cotton, Faye O.

    1978-01-01

    A method for purifying and reclaiming used lubricating oils containing additives such as detergents, antioxidants, corrosion inhibitors, extreme pressure agents and the like and other solid and liquid contaminants by preferably first vacuum distilling the used oil to remove water and low-boiling contaminants, and treating the dried oil with a solvent mixture of butanol, isopropanol and methylethyl ketone which causes the separation of a layer of sludge containing contaminants, unspent additives and oxidation products. After solvent recovery, the desludged oil is then subjected to conventional lubricating oil refining steps such as distillation followed by decolorization and deodorization.

  17. Development of karanja oil based offset printing ink in comparison with linseed oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, Moumita; Roy, Ananda Sankar; Ghosh, Santinath; Dey, Munmun

    2011-01-01

    The conventional offset lithographic printing ink is mainly based on linseed oil. But in recent years, due to stiff competition from synthetic substitutes mainly from petroleum products, the crop production shrinks down to an unsustainable level, which increases the price of linseed oil. Though soyabean oil has replaced a major portion of linseed oil, it is also necessary to develop alternate cost effective vegetable oils for printing ink industry. The present study aims to evaluate the performance of karanja oil (Pongamia glabra) as an alternative of linseed oil in the formulation of offset printing ink because karanja oil is easily available in rural India. Physical properties of raw karanja oil are measured and compared with that of alkali refined linseed oil. Rosin modified phenolic resin based varnishes were made with linseed oil as well as with karanja oil and their properties are compared. Sheetfed offset inks of process colour yellow and cyan is chosen to evaluate the effect of karanja oil in ink properties. In conclusion, karanja oil can be accepted as an alternate vegetable oil source with its noticeable effect on print and post print properties with slower drying time on paper. However, the colour and odour of the oil will restrict its usage on offset inks.

  18. Conventions and Institutional Logics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westenholz, Ann

    Two theoretical approaches – Conventions and Institutional Logics – are brought together and the similarities and differences between the two are explored. It is not the intention to combine the approaches, but I would like to open both ‘boxes’ and make them available to each other with the purpose...... of creating a space for dialog. Both approaches were developed in the mid-1980s as a reaction to rational-choice economic theory and collectivistic sociological theory. These two theories were oversimplifying social life as being founded either in actor-micro level analyses or in structure-macro level...... analyses. The theoretical quest of both Conventions and Institutional Logics has been to understand the increasing indeterminacy, uncertainty and ambiguity in people’s lives where a sense of reality, of value, of moral, of feelings is not fixed. Both approaches have created new theoretical insights...

  19. Lavender oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavender oil is an oil made from the flowers of lavender plants. Lavender poisoning can occur when ... further instructions. This is a free and confidential service. All local poison control centers in the United ...

  20. Petroleum Oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Different types of crude oil and refined product, of all different chemical compositions, have distinct physical properties. These properties affect the way oil spreads and breaks down, its hazard to marine and human life, and the likelihood of threat.

  1. What about oil reserve depletion and crude oil price evolution?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this report is to give a synthesis of different points of view with respect to the 'Peak Oil' perspective and to the crude oil price evolution. In the first part, the authors examine the evolutions and assessments of oil reserves and productions, by discussing the different types of reserve, the optimistic and pessimistic points of views. Then, in the second part, they analyse the long term price formation, the various production technical costs (conventional oils, heavy oils and asphaltic sands, coal- and gas-based synthetic hydrocarbons, bio-fuels), the external costs (notably in relationship with greenhouse emissions), the relationship between geopolitical issues and short and middle term price formation. In the third and last part, they discuss the possible evolutions and scenarios in terms of demand, production, and prices

  2. Conceptual design and techno-economic evaluation of efficient oil shale refinery processes ingratiated with oil and gas products upgradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Qingchun; Qian, Yu; Zhou, Huairong; Yang, Siyu

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Three integrated oil shale refinery processes are proposed. • Techno-economic performance of three proposed processes is conducted and compared. • Competitiveness of the three proposed processes is investigated at different scenarios. • A development direction for oil shale refinery industry is suggested. - Abstract: Compared with the petrochemical industry, oil shale refinery industry is still relatively backward and has many shortcomings, such as poor quality of shale oil, inefficient utilization of retorting gas, and the unsatisfactory economic performance. In the situation of the low oil price, many oil shale refinery plants are forced to stop or cut production. Thus, oil shale industry is facing a severe problem. How to relieve monetary loss or turn it into profits? This paper proposes three integrated oil shale refinery processes: an integrated with hydrogen production from retorting gas, an integrated with hydrogenation of shale oil, and an integrated with hydrogen production and oil hydrogenation. The techno-economic performance of the three different processes is conducted and compared with that of a conventional oil shale process. Results show the exergy destruction ratio of the oil shale process integrated with hydrogen production from retorting gas is the least, 41.6%, followed by the oil shale process integrated with hydrogen production and oil hydrogenation, 45.9%. Furthermore, these two proposed processes have the best economic performance. Especially they can turn losses of the conventional oil shale process into profits at the situation of low oil price. The oil shale process integrated with hydrogen production from retorting gas is recommended to the oil shale plants which use the oil shale with oil content lower than 12.9%, while the plants using oil shale with oil content higher than 12.9% are better to select the oil shale process integrated with hydrogen production and oil hydrogenation.

  3. Enhanced Oil Recovery with Surfactant Flooding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandersen, Sara Bülow

    Enhanced oil recovery (EOR) is being increasingly applied in the oil industry and several different technologies have emerged during, the last decades in order to optimize oil recovery after conventional recovery methods have been applied. Surfactant flooding is an EOR technique in which the phase...... behavior inside the reservoir can be manipulated by the injection of surfactants and co-surfactants, creating advantageous conditions in order to mobilize trapped oil. Correctly designed surfactant systems together with the crude oil can create microemulsions at the interface between crude oil and water......, thus reducing the interfacial tension (IFT) to ultra low (0.001 mN/m), which consequently will mobilize the residual oil and result in improved oil recovery. This EOR technology is, however, made challenging by a number of factors, such as the adsorption of surfactant and co-surfactant to the rock...

  4. RESEARCH OIL RECOVERY MECHANISMS IN HEAVY OIL RESERVOIRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anthony R. Kovscek; William E. Brigham

    1999-06-01

    The United States continues to rely heavily on petroleum fossil fuels as a primary energy source, while domestic reserves dwindle. However, so-called heavy oil (10 to 20{sup o}API) remains an underutilized resource of tremendous potential. Heavy oils are much more viscous than conventional oils. As a result, they are difficult to produce with conventional recovery methods such as pressure depletion and water injection. Thermal recovery is especially important for this class of reservoirs because adding heat, usually via steam injection, generally reduces oil viscosity dramatically. This improves displacement efficiency. The research described here was directed toward improved understanding of thermal and heavy-oil production mechanisms and is categorized into: (1) flow and rock properties; (2) in-situ combustion; (3) additives to improve mobility control; (4) reservoir definition; and (5) support services. The scope of activities extended over a three-year period. Significant work was accomplished in the area of flow properties of steam, water, and oil in consolidated and unconsolidated porous media, transport in fractured porous media, foam generation and flow in homogeneous and heterogeneous porous media, the effects of displacement pattern geometry and mobility ratio on oil recovery, and analytical representation of water influx. Significant results are described.

  5. Saturation distributions in heavy oil reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staten, Joshua Todd

    Models that describe conventional reservoirs can be used to explore the possibility of heavier-than-water oil. Steam-assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) is a common process in reservoirs with extra heavy oils (oil sands). In some cases, oil that is heavier than water is present in these reservoirs. The segregation of oil and water may cause issues for recovery. It is important to understand the initial saturation distribution of oil and water for proper design of injection. It was found through simulation that the heavy oil would pool towards the bottom of a heavy oil reservoir with water remaining on top of the oil. With capillary pressure, the heavy oil and water will form a transition zone. The extent of the transition zone is dependent on the density gradient of the oil, the density difference between the oil and water, and the slope of the capillary pressure saturation profile. This finding influences the positioning of production piping in steam-assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) as well as possible geological pooling areas for recovery. The possibility of a water zone between oil zones increases the risk of missing oil in the reservoir when drilling or perforating.

  6. Oil quotations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-10-01

    Prices quoted during the last few weeks for fuel oil and gas oil - on the ARA market, on the New York future market, by the Berlin price supervision authority - fob TW from Germany storage or refinery, and - on the German commodity markets for fuel oil are listed.

  7. Oil biodegradation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahsepar, Shokouhalsadat; Langenhoff, Alette A.M.; Smit, Martijn P.J.; Eenennaam, van Justine S.; Murk, Tinka; Rijnaarts, Huub H.M.

    2017-01-01

    During the Deepwater Horizon (DwH) oil spill, interactions between oil, clay particles and marine snow lead to the formation of aggregates. Interactions between these components play an important, but yet not well understood, role in biodegradation of oil in the ocean water. The aim of this study

  8. Unconventional uses for unconventional oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehlig-Economides, C.A.; Barrufet, M.; Longbottom, J.R.; Velu, B.P.

    2005-01-01

    The transportation sector in the United States is 95 per cent dependent on oil, which is the only primary fuel that is being imported to the country in great quantities. It has been proposed that energy independence may come by supplying electric power with renewable energy sources. It was also suggested that the best solution for future transportation may be to develop electrified guideways that would provide energy to automatically convey personal cars and driverless freight through the roadways. Advantages include zero vehicle emissions, greater safety and decreased road congestion. This paper examined the option of using heavy oil for power generation instead of the current expensive refining practices designed to produce liquid transportation fuels from heavy oil. It compared coal gasification with heavy oil for power generation. The cost to consumers and environmental impacts were considered. The comparison of conventional versus electrified transportation options was based on on a well-to-mine-to-wheels cycle. It was shown that electrified transportation is attractive from a cost, environmental and energy security perspective. If the United States were to import Canadian heavy oil only for transportation, the consumer cost will increase by approximately 25 per cent based on 2003 data. If the United States were to transform transportation from conventional to electrified transportation, the cost of using Canadian heavy oil will be less, even including carbon dioxide capture. It was concluded that all primary fuel sources would seek new equilibrium prices that may affect comparisons between heavy oil and coal. 14 refs., 4 tabs., 10 figs

  9. Olive Oil and its Potential Effects on Alzheimer's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antony, Shan; Zhang, G. P.

    Alzheimer's disease is a neuro-degenerative brain disease that is responsible for affecting the lives of hundreds of thousands of people every year. There has been no evidence to suggest a cure for the disease and the only existing treatments have very low rates of success in trial patients. This is largely due to the fact that the brain is one of the most undiscovered parts of the human body. Brain chemistry is highly complex and responds to its environment in random and radical ways. My research includes testing the reactionary outcomes of combining compounds of olive oil with the 20 basic amino acids. Regions around the world with olive oil based diets show a direct correlation to lower rates of Alzheimer's. Testing few compounds of olive oil with chemicals already found in the brain may yield to a better understanding as to why that is. I took the compounds tyrosol, hydroxytyrosol, and oleocanthal, and combined them with the 20 basic amino acids and calculated the total energy of the new molecule. The molecules produced with acceptably low energy values will be the center of further research. These molecules could lead to truly understanding olive oil's effect on the brain, and ultimately, the cure or prevention of Alzheimer's disease.

  10. Applications of Enzymes in Oil and Oilseed Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Xuebing

    edible requirements. The oil can be also modified to meet functional or even nutritional needs. In each of those steps, enzymes have been used in industry successfully. For the oil processing stage, enzymes have been used to destroy the cell structure so that makes the oil release easier, where......Enzymes, through the last 20-30 years research and development, have been widely explored for the uses in oil and oilseed processing. Following the conventional processing technology from oilseeds, the oil can be produced through pressing or solvent extraction. The crude oil is then refined to meet...... conventionally high temperature conditioning or cooking is necessary. The good story in industry is the fish oil and olive oil processing. Good quality and higher oil yield have been achieved through the use of enzymes in the processing stages. For the refining stage, the use of enzymes for degumming has...

  11. Have we run out of oil yet? Oil peaking analysis from an optimist's perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene, David L.; Hopson, Janet L.; Li Jia

    2006-01-01

    This study addresses several questions concerning the peaking of conventional oil production from an optimist's perspective. Is the oil peak imminent? What is the range of uncertainty? What are the key determining factors? Will a transition to unconventional oil undermine or strengthen OPEC's influence over world oil markets? These issues are explored using a model combining alternative world energy scenarios with an accounting of resource depletion and a market-based simulation of transition to unconventional oil resources. No political or environmental constraints are allowed to hinder oil production, geological constraints on the rates at which oil can be produced are not represented, and when USGS resource estimates are used, more than the mean estimate of ultimately recoverable resources is assumed to exist. The issue is framed not as a question of 'running out' of conventional oil, but in terms of the timing and rate of transition from conventional to unconventional oil resources. Unconventional oil is chosen because production from Venezuela's heavy-oil fields and Canada's Athabascan oil sands is already underway on a significant scale and unconventional oil is most consistent with the existing infrastructure for producing, refining, distributing and consuming petroleum. However, natural gas or even coal might also prove to be economical sources of liquid hydrocarbon fuels. These results indicate a high probability that production of conventional oil from outside of the Middle East region will peak, or that the rate of increase of production will become highly constrained before 2025. If world consumption of hydrocarbon fuels is to continue growing, massive development of unconventional resources will be required. While there are grounds for pessimism and optimism, it is certainly not too soon for extensive, detailed analysis of transitions to alternative energy sources

  12. Metabolisable energy values of some non-conventional feeding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A metabolism trial was designed to evaluate dietary energy values (AME, AMEn, TME, TMEn) of eight readily available non-conventional feeding ingredients viz: cassava root meal (CRM); cassava leaf meal (CLM), mango leaf meal (MLM), shrimp waste meal (SWM), full-fat soyabean (FFSB), palm oil sludge (POS), corn cob ...

  13. Strategic interaction and conventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Espinosa, María Paz

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The scope of the paper is to review the literature that employs coordination games to study social norms and conventions from the viewpoint of game theory and cognitive psychology. We claim that those two alternative approaches are in fact complementary, as they provide different insights to explain how people converge to a unique system of self-fulfilling expectations in presence of multiple, equally viable, conventions. While game theory explains the emergence of conventions relying on efficiency and risk considerations, the psychological view is more concerned with frame and labeling effects. The interaction between these alternative (and, sometimes, competing effects leads to the result that coordination failures may well occur and, even when coordination takes place, there is no guarantee that the convention eventually established will be the most efficient.

    El objetivo de este artículo es presentar la literatura que emplea los juegos de coordinación para el estudio de normas y convenciones sociales, que se han analizado tanto desde el punto de vista de la teoría de juegos como de la psicología cognitiva. Argumentamos en este trabajo que estos dos enfoques alternativos son en realidad complementarios, dado que ambos contribuyen al entendimiento de los procesos mediante los cuales las personas llegan a coordinarse en un único sistema de expectativas autorrealizadas, en presencia de múltiples convenciones todas ellas igualmente viables. Mientras que la teoría de juegos explica la aparición de convenciones basándose en argumentos de eficiencia y comportamientos frente al riesgo, el enfoque de la psicología cognitiva utiliza en mayor medida consideraciones referidas al entorno y naturaleza de las decisiones. La interacción entre estos efectos diferentes (y en ocasiones, rivales desemboca con frecuencia en fallos de coordinación y, aun cuando la coordinación se produce, no hay garantía de que la convención en vigor sea la m

  14. Conventional magnets. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marks, N.

    1994-01-01

    The design and construction of conventional, steel-cored, direct-current magnets are discussed. Laplace's equation and the associated cylindrical harmonic solutions in two dimensions are established. The equations are used to define the ideal pole shapes and required excitation for dipole, quadrupole and sextupole magnets. Standard magnet geometries are then considered and criteria determining the coil design are presented. The use of codes for predicting flux density distributions and the iterative techniques used for pole face design are then discussed. This includes a description of the use of two-dimensional codes to generate suitable magnet end geometries. Finally, standard constructional techniques for cores and coils are described. (orig.)

  15. Conventional RF system design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puglisi, M.

    1994-01-01

    The design of a conventional RF system is always complex and must fit the needs of the particular machine for which it is planned. It follows that many different design criteria should be considered and analyzed, thus exceeding the narrow limits of a lecture. For this reason only the fundamental components of an RF system, including the generators, are considered in this short seminar. The most common formulas are simply presented in the text, while their derivations are shown in the appendices to facilitate, if desired, a more advanced level of understanding. (orig.)

  16. Conventional and advanced liquid biofuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurišić-Mladenović Nataša L.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy security and independence, increase and fluctuation of the oil price, fossil fuel resources depletion and global climate change are some of the greatest challanges facing societies today and in incoming decades. Sustainable economic and industrial growth of every country and the world in general requires safe and renewable resources of energy. It has been expected that re-arrangement of economies towards biofuels would mitigate at least partially problems arised from fossil fuel consumption and create more sustainable development. Of the renewable energy sources, bioenergy draws major and particular development endeavors, primarily due to the extensive availability of biomass, already-existence of biomass production technologies and infrastructure, and biomass being the sole feedstock for liquid fuels. The evolution of biofuels is classified into four generations (from 1st to 4th in accordance to the feedstock origin; if the technologies of feedstock processing are taken into account, than there are two classes of biofuels - conventional and advanced. The conventional biofuels, also known as the 1st generation biofuels, are those produced currently in large quantities using well known, commercially-practiced technologies. The major feedstocks for these biofuels are cereals or oleaginous plants, used also in the food or feed production. Thus, viability of the 1st generation biofuels is questionable due to the conflict with food supply and high feedstocks’ cost. This limitation favoured the search for non-edible biomass for the production of the advanced biofuels. In a general and comparative way, this paper discusses about various definitions of biomass, classification of biofuels, and brief overview of the biomass conversion routes to liquid biofuels depending on the main constituents of the biomass. Liquid biofuels covered by this paper are those compatible with existing infrastructure for gasoline and diesel and ready to be used in

  17. Geology and undiscovered resource assessment of the potash-bearing Central Asia Salt Basin, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, and Afghanistan: Chapter AA in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynn, Jeff; Orris, Greta J.; Dunlap, Pamela; Cocker, Mark D.; Bliss, James D.

    2016-03-23

    Undiscovered potash resources in the Central Asia Salt Basin (CASB) of Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, and Afghanistan were assessed as part of a global mineral resource assessment led by the U.S. Geological Survey. The term “potash” refers to potassium-bearing, water-soluble salts derived from evaporite basins, where seawater dried up and precipitated various salt compounds; the word for the element “potassium” is derived from potash. Potash is produced worldwide at amounts exceeding 30 million metric tons per year, mostly for use in fertilizers. The term “potash” is used by industry to refer to potassium chloride, as well as potassium in sulfate, nitrate, and oxide forms. For the purposes of this assessment, the term “potash” refers to potassium ores and minerals and potash ore grades. Resource and production values are usually expressed by industry in terms of K2O (potassium oxide) or muriate of potash (KCl, potassium chloride).

  18. Climate change, future Arctic Sea ice, and the competitiveness of European Arctic offshore oil and gas production on world markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrick, Sebastian; Riemann-Campe, Kathrin; Hoog, Sven; Growitsch, Christian; Schwind, Hannah; Gerdes, Rüdiger; Rehdanz, Katrin

    2017-12-01

    A significant share of the world's undiscovered oil and natural gas resources are assumed to lie under the seabed of the Arctic Ocean. Up until now, the exploitation of the resources especially under the European Arctic has largely been prevented by the challenges posed by sea ice coverage, harsh weather conditions, darkness, remoteness of the fields, and lack of infrastructure. Gradual warming has, however, improved the accessibility of the Arctic Ocean. We show for the most resource-abundant European Arctic Seas whether and how a climate induced reduction in sea ice might impact future accessibility of offshore natural gas and crude oil resources. Based on this analysis we show for a number of illustrative but representative locations which technology options exist based on a cost-minimization assessment. We find that under current hydrocarbon prices, oil and gas from the European offshore Arctic is not competitive on world markets.

  19. Reserve growth in oil fields of the North Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klett, T.R.; Gautier, D.L.

    2005-01-01

    The assessment of petroleum resources of the North Sea, as well as other areas of the world, requires a viable means to forecast the amount of growth of reserve estimates (reserve growth) for discovered fields and to predict the potential fully developed sizes of undiscovered fields. This study investigates the utility of North Sea oil field data to construct reserve-growth models. Oil fields of the North Sea provide an excellent dataset in which to examine the mechanisms, characteristics, rates and quantities of reserve growth because of the high level of capital investments, implementation of sophisticated technologies and careful data collection. Additionally, these field data are well reported and available publicly. Increases in successive annual estimat es of recoverable crude oil volumes indicate that oil fields in the North Sea, collectively and in each country, experience reserve growth. Specific patterns of reserve growth are observed among countries and primary producing reservoir-rock types. Since 1985, Norwegian oil fields had the greatest volume increase; Danish oil fields increased by the greatest percentage relative to 1985 estimates; and British oil fields experienced an increase in recoverable oil estimates for the first ten years since 1985, followed by a slight reduction. Fields producing primarily from clastic reservoirs account for the majority of the estimated recoverable oil and, therefore, these fields had the largest volumetric increase. Fields producing primarily from chalk (limestone) reservoirs increased by a greater percentage relative to 1985 estimates than did fields producing primarily from clastic reservoirs. Additionally, the largest oil fields had the greatest volumetric increases. Although different reserve-growth patterns are observed among oil fields located in different countries, the small number of fields in Denmark precludes construction of reserve-growth models for that country. However, differences in reserve

  20. Polymeric surfactants for enhanced oil recovery : A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raffa, Patrizio; Broekhuis, Antonius A.; Picchioni, Francesco

    Chemical enhanced oil recovery (EOR) is surely a topic of interest, as conventional oil resources become more scarce and the necessity of exploiting heavy and unconventional oils increases. EOR methods based on polymer flooding, surfactant-polymer flooding and alkali-surfactant-polymer flooding are

  1. Maps showing geology, oil and gas fields, and geological provinces of South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, C. J.; Viger, R.J.; Anderson, C.P.

    1999-01-01

    This digitally compiled map includes geology, geologic provinces, and oil and gas fields of South America. The map is part of a worldwide series on CD-ROM by World Energy Project released of the U.S. Geological Survey . The goal of the project is to assess the undiscovered, technically recoverable oil and gas resources of the world and report these results by the year 2000. For data management purposes the world is divided into eight energy regions corresponding approximately to the economic regions of the world as defined by the U.S. Department of State. South America (Region 6) includes Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Columbia, Ecuador, Falkland Islands, French Guiana, Guyuna, Netherlands, Netherlands Antilles, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, Uruguay, and Venezuela.

  2. A methodology for handling exploration risk and constructing supply curves for oil and gas plays when resources are stacked

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dallaire, S.M.

    1994-01-01

    The use of project economics to estimate full-cycle supply prices for undiscovered oil and gas resources is a straightforward exercise for those regions where oil and gas plays are not vertically superimposed on one another, ie. are not stacked. Exploration risk is incorporated into such an analysis by using a simple two-outcome decision tree model to include the costs of dry and abandoned wells. The decision tree model can be expanded to include multiple targets or discoveries, but this expansion requires additional drilling statistics and resource assessment data. A methodology is suggested to include exploration risk in the preparation of supply curves when stacked resources are expected and little or no information on uphole resources is available. In this method, all exploration costs for wells drilled to targets in the play being evaluated are assigned to that play, rather than prorated among the multiple targets or discoveries. Undiscovered pools are assumed to either bear all exploration costs (full cycle discoveries) or no exploration costs (half cycle discoveries). The weighted full- and half-cycle supply price is shown to be a more realistic estimate of the supply price of undiscovered pools in a play when stacked resources exist. The statistics required for this methodology are minimal, and resource estimates for prospects in other zones are not required. The equation relating the average pool finding cost to the discovery record is applicable to different scenarios regarding the presence of shallower and deeper resources. The equation derived for the two-outcome decision tree model is shown to be a special case of the general expression. 5 refs., 7 figs

  3. Conversion factors and oil statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karbuz, Sohbet

    2004-01-01

    World oil statistics, in scope and accuracy, are often far from perfect. They can easily lead to misguided conclusions regarding the state of market fundamentals. Without proper attention directed at statistic caveats, the ensuing interpretation of oil market data opens the door to unnecessary volatility, and can distort perception of market fundamentals. Among the numerous caveats associated with the compilation of oil statistics, conversion factors, used to produce aggregated data, play a significant role. Interestingly enough, little attention is paid to conversion factors, i.e. to the relation between different units of measurement for oil. Additionally, the underlying information regarding the choice of a specific factor when trying to produce measurements of aggregated data remains scant. The aim of this paper is to shed some light on the impact of conversion factors for two commonly encountered issues, mass to volume equivalencies (barrels to tonnes) and for broad energy measures encountered in world oil statistics. This paper will seek to demonstrate how inappropriate and misused conversion factors can yield wildly varying results and ultimately distort oil statistics. Examples will show that while discrepancies in commonly used conversion factors may seem trivial, their impact on the assessment of a world oil balance is far from negligible. A unified and harmonised convention for conversion factors is necessary to achieve accurate comparisons and aggregate oil statistics for the benefit of both end-users and policy makers

  4. The future of oil supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Richard G; Sorrell, Steven R

    2014-01-13

    Abundant supplies of oil form the foundation of modern industrial economies, but the capacity to maintain and grow global supply is attracting increasing concern. Some commentators forecast a peak in the near future and a subsequent terminal decline in global oil production, while others highlight the recent growth in 'tight oil' production and the scope for developing unconventional resources. There are disagreements over the size, cost and recoverability of different resources, the technical and economic potential of different technologies, the contribution of different factors to market trends and the economic implications of reduced supply. Few debates are more important, more contentious, more wide-ranging or more confused. This paper summarizes the main concepts, terms, issues and evidence that are necessary to understand the 'peak oil' debate. These include: the origin, nature and classification of oil resources; the trends in oil production and discoveries; the typical production profiles of oil fields, basins and producing regions; the mechanisms underlying those profiles; the extent of depletion of conventional oil; the risk of an approaching peak in global production; and the potential of various mitigation options. The aim is to introduce the subject to non-specialist readers and provide a basis for the subsequent papers in this Theme Issue.

  5. Can reserve additions in mature crude oil provinces attenuate supply-side peak oil?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okullo, Samuel; Reynes, Frederic

    2010-09-15

    More often, oil supply has been modeled on the basis of resource availability and demand. The impact of strategy between oil producers has largely been ignored or overly simplified. In this paper, we formulate a model that embodies a weak and strong OPEC for varied rates of reserve additions. With this economic equilibrium model which has the capability to generate a supply side peak in oil production, we show that although reserves of conventional crude oil may seem abundant. OPEC has the ability to lead to substantial crude oil reserve depletion in non-OPEC countries by 2050 given likely depletion rates.

  6. Oil crises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linderoth, H.

    1992-01-01

    The author's aim was to give very precise information on the many causes and effects of the oil crises that have occurred since 1900, and at the same time offer the reader the possibility to build up a basic knowledge of the oil industry and market, as he feels that the public is often subjected to misleading information. Political and economical aspects are elaborated. First-hand sources such as statistics and investigations have been used as far as possible to give information on the oil market. An oil crisis is defined by the author as a significant change in the price of oil compared to prices of other goods. Changes can be in the form of either rising or falling prices. A special chapter concentrates on Denmark in relation to the oil crises. (AB) (165 refs.)

  7. Panorama 2016 - New conventional oil and gas discoveries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hureau, Geoffroy; Vially, Roland

    2015-12-01

    Following a decline in 2014, spending on exploration is expected to drop by more than 20% in 2015, a clear shift from the consistently upward trend observed for over ten years, with the exception of a slight dip in 2009 and 2010. On the other hand, there is no expectation that the downward trend in volumes discovered will reverse itself, having fallen every year for the past five years despite a sharp rise in exploration budgets between 2010 and 2014. Notwithstanding, this overall decline in exploration performance worldwide has been accompanied by some spectacular successes, such as the two massive Pobeda discoveries in the Kara Sea in 2014, and the 2015 Zohr discovery in Egyptian offshore waters. (authors)

  8. Conventional oil and gas, tenure acquisition and drilling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The natural gas industry in British Columbia is the second in importance in Canada, with expenditures reaching $4.3 billion in 2001, and 850 wells drilled during the same period. Concise business information concerning tenure acquisition and the drilling sector in British Columbia was presented in this document. The brief overview of the sector was followed by discussions of the following issues: land resource requirements and sensitivities; investment requirements; infrastructure; the market; the labour market; capacity; the regulatory regime; government revenues; and, regional cost variations. An input-output table was also included. 15 refs., 4 tabs

  9. Conventional oil and gas, gathering and processing systems and facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    Accounting for 13 per cent of natural gas production in Canada, British Columbia is the second largest producing province in the country. The northeastern region of the province is where the bulk of petroleum activity takes place. The expenditures in the sector in 2001 totalled $4.3 billion and 850 wells were drilled over the same period. The document presents an overview of the industry and a discussion of the following topics: land resource requirements and sensitivities; investment requirements; infrastructure; the market; the labour force; capacity; the regulatory regime; government revenues; and, regional cost variations. An input-output table was also included. 15 refs., 5 tabs

  10. Lubricating Effects of Cocoa Butter and Coconut Oil in Conventional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Due to chemical instability of some Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients often caused by magnesium stearate and its impurities, it is expedient to research into some other materials especially of natural origin, which would probably exhibit better lubricating activity, chemically inactive, less bioactive and less ...

  11. Unconventional Liquids, Peak Oil and Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, J. D.

    2015-12-01

    Oil is the largest source of primary energy in the world, at 32% of 2014 consumption. Forecasts by the International Energy Agency suggest oil will continue to provide the largest share of global energy through 2040, even with new policies to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. The IPCC's Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) scenarios indicate that between 1.5 and 3.8 trillion barrels of oil will be burnt between 2015 and 2100. Various sources suggest that the world has 5 to 6 trillion barrels of remaining recoverable oil, more than half of which are in low grade deposits. Although oil sands and extra heavy oil are claimed to hold 1.5 trillion barrels, assessments of major deposits in the Canadian oil sands and the Venezuela Orinoco Belt, which hold the bulk of these resources, total less than 500 billion barrels of recoverable oil. Kerogen oil (oil shale), which has never been produced in anything but miniscule volumes, comprises an additional trillion barrels of these estimates. These unconventional deposits are very different from the conventional oil of the past as: - they are rate constrained, as they require massive upfront capital investments and lengthy construction periods, and therefore cannot be scaled up quickly in response to declines in conventional production. - they are expensive, both in terms of cost per barrel and the large energy inputs required for production. The best in situ oil sands deposits may yield an energy return of 3:1 and kerogen oil even less if it ever becomes commercially viable. This compares to 10:1 or more for conventional oil. Shale oil (light tight oil), may yield another 300 billion barrels worldwide, but suffers from high decline rates, expensive wells and limited availability of high quality deposits. The most productive and economically viable portions of these unconventional deposits tend to be exploited first, leaving the less productive, higher cost oil for later. As a result, increasing global oil consumption

  12. Developing new markets for oil sands products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crandall, G.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a review by Purvin and Gertz of western Canadian crude oil supply. This energy consulting firm provides advise to the energy sector. It suggests that oil sands production will surpass declining conventional production. Oil sands supply includes bitumen, synthetic crude oil (SCO), and diluent. It is forecasted that oil sands will increase from 42 per cent of western supply in 2002 to 78 per cent in 2015. The potential of Alberta's oil sands was discussed along with a recent study of refined products and petrochemicals from bitumen. Upgrading, refining and petrochemical case studies were presented. The author examined if a Canadian oil sands upgrading project with high capital costs can be competitive with competing projects in the United States and internationally. In addition to supply and demand issues, the presentation examined infrastructure capability and market potential in the United States. The economic potential and risks of preferred business cases compared to upgrading to SCO were also evaluated. 15 figs

  13. Learning from the Past - Evaluating Forecasts for Canadian Oil Sands Production with Data

    OpenAIRE

    Hehl, Friedrich

    2013-01-01

    Crude oil plays an important role for the global energy system. As there is ample evidence that conventional oil production will have peaked by 2020, unconventional oil has attained a stronger focus. In particular, oil derived from bitumen from Canadian oilsands has been proposed as a possible remedy to global oil depletion. This study aims to test the hypothesis that forecasts on the Canadian oil sands published between about 2000 and 2010 have been overestimating production significantly. A ...

  14. Hedging Strategies and the Financing of the 1992 International Oil Pollution Compensation Fund.

    OpenAIRE

    André SCHMITT; Sandrine SPAETER

    2005-01-01

    The maritime oil transport is regulated by the 1992 Civil Liability Convention for Oil Damage and the 1992 Oil Pollution Compensation Fund. In this compensation regime, contributions of oil firms are based on the aggregate risk of the Fund and are assessed each time an oil spill is registered. In this paper, we present the main characteristics of such a compensation regime and we explain why oil firms would benefit from a reorga- nization of the financing of the Fund by introducing appropriat...

  15. Oil pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mankabady, Samir.

    1994-08-01

    Oil enters the marine environment when it is discharged, or has escaped, during transport, drilling, shipping, accidents, dumping and offshore operations. This book serves as a reference both on the various complex international operational and legal matters of oil pollution using examples such as the Exxon Valdez, the Braer and Lord Donaldson's report. The chapters include the development of international rules on the marine environment, the prevention of marine pollution from shipping activities, liability for oil pollution damage, the conflict of the 1990 Oil Pollution Act and the 1992 protocols and finally the cooperation and response to pollution incidents. (UK)

  16. Convention Attendance: A Gender Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    DANIELLE CANDICE RAMIREZ

    2017-01-01

    The number of people attending conventions is growing worldwide, yet there are gaps in our knowledge of convention attendee behaviour. Drawing upon social role theory, the purpose of this study was to identify the role that gender might have in the convention attendance decision. The findings revealed that although location was important for both males and females, money, timing and family/work responsibilities were more important on the decision to attend a convention for men. The results co...

  17. Canada's conventional natural gas resources : a status report : an energy market assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-04-01

    The National Energy Board monitors the supply of all energy commodities in Canada as well as the demand for Canadian energy commodities in domestic and export markets. Energy market assessment reports examine different facets of the Canadian energy market and include long term-assessments of Canada's supply and demand as well as near-term energy market issues. This report examines the geological potential for conventional natural gas resources. An estimate of those resources for Canada was also presented. The main objective of the report is to set the groundwork for future partnerships between provincial, territorial and federal agencies. The size of Alberta's conventional natural gas resources is being examined in partnership with the Alberta Energy and Utilities Board (EUB). The ultimate potential for conventional natural gas in British Columbia is being assessed by the British Columbia Ministry of Energy and Mines. The Board's internal assessment for 2004 has revealed an estimate of 207 trillion cubic feet for the ultimate of conventional natural gas in Alberta. This estimate is higher than the estimate provided by the Canadian Gas Potential Committee in 2001 and higher than the 1992 assessment of the EUB. It was noted that most undiscovered resources in Alberta will be found in the shallow Cretaceous zones, not in deep Devonian zones. The Board also revised its estimate for the Mackenzie Delta-Beaufort Sea region and the East Newfoundland Basin. The current estimate for ultimate potential of conventional natural gas in Canada is 501 trillion cubic feet, with the following distribution of the resources by basin: Western Canada Sedimentary Basin (54.5 per cent), Northern Canada (23.1 per cent), East Coast (18.3 per cent), West Coast (3.4 per cent), Ontario (0.5 per cent), and Gulf of St. Lawrence (0.3 per cent). 39 refs., 7 tabs., 13 figs

  18. Pore-Scale Investigation of Crude Oil/CO2 Compositional Effects on Oil Recovery by Carbonated Water Injection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seyyedi, Mojtaba; Sohrabi, Mehran

    2017-01-01

    Through coreflood and micromodel studies, it has been shown that carbonated water injection (CWI) can improve oil recovery compared to conventional waterflood. However, in most early studies, either a refined oil or dead crude oil had been used, which is not representative of a real oil reservoir...... where the oil has significant dissolved gases. In such studies, oil swelling and oil viscosity reduction had been introduced as the main mechanisms of additional oil recovery by CWI. However, in our direct flow visualization (micro model) studies reported here, we have used live crude oil, and we have......-temperature direct flow visualization (micromodel) experiments which have been performed using a live crude oil sample. These include a tertiary (post-waterflood) and a secondary (pre-waterflood) CWI experiment performed at 2500 psia and 100 degrees F. The results of our secondary and tertiary CWI showed that CWI...

  19. Effects of de-oiled palm kernel cake based fertilizers on sole maize ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJL

    2012-03-08

    Mar 8, 2012 ... conventional fertilizers. Nutritional values of the two crops were raised by the application of the fertilizer formulations. Key words: De-oiled seed cake, palm kernel, fertilizer. INTRODUCTION. De-oiled seed cake (Doc) is a by product of oil seed from oil extraction plants. It has the potential of being used as.

  20. Determination of the viability of chicken feather as oil spill clean-up ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study a comparative assessment was conducted between chicken feather and a conventional synthetic sorbent mat used in the oil industry to clean-up oil spill. The result of the study shows that chicken feather has higher oil sorption capacity and sorbed oil recoverability than the standard (synthetic sorbent mat), and ...

  1. Reduced Need of Lubricity Additives in Soybean Oil Blends Under Boundary Lubrication Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Converging prices of vegetable oils and petroleum, along with increased focus on renewable resources, gave more momentum to vegetable oil lubricants. Boundary lubrication properties of four Extreme Pressure (EP) additive blends in conventional Soy Bean Oil (SBO) and Paraffinic Mineral Oil (PMO) of ...

  2. Straight Vegetable Oil as a Diesel Fuel?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-01-01

    Biodiesel, a renewable fuel produced from animal fats or vegetable oils, is popular among many vehicle owners and fleet managers seeking to reduce emissions and support U.S. energy security. Questions sometimes arise about the viability of fueling vehicles with straight vegetable oil (SVO), or waste oils from cooking and other processes, without intermediate processing. But SVO and waste oils differ from biodiesel (and conventional diesel) in some important ways and are generally not considered acceptable vehicle fuels for large-scale or long-term use.

  3. Oil extraction from plant seeds for biodiesel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadessa Gonfa Keneni

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Energy is basic for development and its demand increases due to rapid population growth, urbanization and improved living standards. Fossil fuels will continue to dominate other sources of energy although it is non-renewable and harm global climate. Problems associated with fossil fuels have driven the search for alternative energy sources of which biodiesel is one option. Biodiesel is renewable, non-toxic, environmental-friendly and an economically feasible options to tackle the depleting fossil fuels and its negative environmental impact. It can be produced from vegetable oils, animal fats, waste oils and algae. However, nowadays, the major feedstocks of biodiesel are edible oils and this has created food vs fuel debate. Therefore, the future prospect is to use non-edible oils, animal fats, waste oils and algae as feedstock for biodiesel. Selection of non-expensive feedstock and the extraction and preparation of oil for biodiesel production is a crucial step due to its relevance on the overall technology. There are three main conventional oil extraction methods: mechanical, chemical/solvent and enzymatic extraction methods. There are also some newly developed oil extraction methods that can be used separately or in combination with the conventional ones, to overcome some disadvantages of the conventional oil extraction methods. This review paper presents, compare and discusses different potential biofuel feedstocks, various oil extraction methods, advantages and disadvantages of different oil extraction methods, and propose future prospective for the improvement of oil extraction methods and sustainability of biodiesel production and utilization.

  4. Biodiesel production from palm oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiatsimkul, P.

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Methyl ester was produced from many sources of oil palm products, namely used frying oil, RBD palm oil, degummed and deacidified palm oil, palm stearin and superhard palm stearin. Production process was a conventional transesterification batch process using methanol as reactant and sodium hydroxide as catalyst. Production procedure consisted of oil preparation, solvent preparation, reaction step, glycerol separation, washing step and finishing step. Thin layer chromatograph was used to determine the composition of product and nearly 100% methyl ester was obtained at a suitable condition. Molar ratio of oil: methanol was about 1:6, which equal to 20% by weight of methanol. Sodium hydroxide was 0.5-1 %wt. of oil. The production temperature was 60-80ºC, mixing time was only 15-30 minutes and reaction time was 3-4 hours. Many fuel properties of methyl ester were very close to high-speed diesel such as viscosity, density, heating value and boiling point range. Pour point of methyl ester was higher than diesel owing to the high composition of saturated methyl ester that has a high melting point.

  5. Combustion of soybean oil and diesel mixtures for heating purposes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guimaraes, Adriana Correa; Sanz, Jose Francisco [European University Miguel de Cervantes, Valladolid (Spain)], E-mail: acorrea@uemc.es; Hernandez, Salvador; Navas, Luis Manuel; Rodriguez, Elena; Ruiz, Gonzalo [University of Valladolid (Spain). Dept. of Agricultural and Forest Engineering; San Jose, Julio [University of Valladolid (Spain). Dept. of Energetic Engineering; Gomez, Jaime [University of Valladolid (Spain). Dept. of Communications and Signal Theory and Telematics Engineering

    2008-07-01

    Using blends of vegetable oils with petroleum derivates for heating purposes has several advantages over other energy application for vegetable oils. This paper presents the results of an investigation by use of soybean oil and diesel mixture as fuel for producing heat in conventional diesel installation. The paper is set out as follows: properties characterization of soybean oil as fuel and of diesel oil, as well as the mixture of both; selection of the mixture according to their physical chemical properties and how they adapt to conventional combustion installation; experimentation with the selected mixture, allowing the main combustion parameters to be measured; processing the collected data, values of combustion, efficiency and reduction of emissions. Conclusions show that the use of soybean oil and diesel mixture for producing heat energy in conventional equipment is feasible and beneficial for reduction emissions. (author)

  6. International Oil Pollution Compensation Fund

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-11-01

    The International Oil Pollution Compensation Fund was established under a 1971 Intergovernmental Maritime Consultative Organization Convention to supplement the 1969 Civil Liability Convention (CLC) under which shipowners were held liable for damage caused by oil spills up to $18 million per incident; the new fund increases the amount payable per incident to $57 million as of April 1979. A further increase up to about $76 million is now under consideration. During 1979, the Fund has been concerned in particular with claims arising out of oil spills in Japan and the Baltic Sea. In the former case, some 540 tons of oil was lost by Miya Maru No. 8 after a collision in March 1979 in the Japanese Inland Sea; cleanup costs and compensation to fishermen were about (pound sterling)400,000. In the latter phase, crude oil apparently coming from the Russian tanker Antonio Gramsci, which grounded off Ventspils in February 1979, drifted across the Baltic and was trapped in or under the ice. After the ice melted, it spread to more than 2000 islands in the Swedish Archipelaso; cleanup measures may result in claims as high as (pound sterling) 8 million.

  7. Understanding the conventional arms trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stohl, Rachel

    2017-11-01

    The global conventional arms trade is worth tens of billions of dollars every year and is engaged in by every country in the world. Yet, it is often difficult to control the legal trade in conventional arms and there is a thriving illicit market, willing to arm unscrupulous regimes and nefarious non-state actors. This chapter examines the international conventional arms trade, the range of tools that have been used to control it, and challenges to these international regimes.

  8. Conventional natural gas resources of the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowers, B.

    1999-01-01

    The use of decline curve analysis to analyse and extrapolate the production performance of oil and gas reservoirs was discussed. This mathematical analytical tool has been a valid method for estimating the conventional crude oil resources of the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin (WCSB). However, it has failed to provide a generally acceptable estimate of the conventional natural gas resources of the WCSB. This paper proposes solutions to this problem and provides an estimate of the conventional natural gas resources of the basin by statistical analysis of the declining finding rates. Although in the past, decline curve analysis did not reflect the declining finding rates of natural gas in the WCSB, the basin is now sufficiently developed that estimates of conventional natural gas resources can be made by this analytical tool. However, the analysis must take into account the acceleration of natural gas development drilling that has occurred over the lifetime of the basin. It was concluded that ultimate resources of conventional marketable natural gas of the WCSB estimated by decline analysis amount to 230 tcf. It was suggested that further research be done to explain why the Canadian Gas Potential Committee (CGPC) estimate for Alberta differs from the decline curve analysis method. 6 refs., 35 figs

  9. Non-conventional fuel tax credit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soeoet, P.M.

    1988-01-01

    Coal-seam methane, along with certain other non-conventional fuels, is eligible for a tax credit. This production tax credit allowed coal-seam methane producers to receive $0.7526 per million Btu of gas sold during 1986. In 1987, this credit rose to $0.78 per million Btu. The tax credit is a very significant element of the economic analysis of current coal-seam methane projects. In today's spot market, gas prices are around $1.50 per million Btu. Allowing for costs of production, the gas producer will net more income from the tax credit than from the sale of the gas. The Crude Oil Windfall Profit Tax Act of 1980 is the source of this tax credit. There were some minor changes made by subsequent legislation, but most of the tax credit has remained intact. Wells must be drilled by 1990 to qualify for the tax credit but the production from such wells is eligible for the tax credit until 2001. Projections have been made, showing that the tax credit should increase to $0.91 per million Btu for production in 1990 and $1.34 per million Btu in 2000. Variables which may decrease the tax credit from these projections are dramatically lower oil prices or general economic price deflation

  10. Biodegradable and compostable alternatives to conventional plastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, J H; Murphy, R J; Narayan, R; Davies, G B H

    2009-07-27

    Packaging waste forms a significant part of municipal solid waste and has caused increasing environmental concerns, resulting in a strengthening of various regulations aimed at reducing the amounts generated. Among other materials, a wide range of oil-based polymers is currently used in packaging applications. These are virtually all non-biodegradable, and some are difficult to recycle or reuse due to being complex composites having varying levels of contamination. Recently, significant progress has been made in the development of biodegradable plastics, largely from renewable natural resources, to produce biodegradable materials with similar functionality to that of oil-based polymers. The expansion in these bio-based materials has several potential benefits for greenhouse gas balances and other environmental impacts over whole life cycles and in the use of renewable, rather than finite resources. It is intended that use of biodegradable materials will contribute to sustainability and reduction in the environmental impact associated with disposal of oil-based polymers. The diversity of biodegradable materials and their varying properties makes it difficult to make simple, generic assessments such as biodegradable products are all 'good' or petrochemical-based products are all 'bad'. This paper discusses the potential impacts of biodegradable packaging materials and their waste management, particularly via composting. It presents the key issues that inform judgements of the benefits these materials have in relation to conventional, petrochemical-based counterparts. Specific examples are given from new research on biodegradability in simulated 'home' composting systems. It is the view of the authors that biodegradable packaging materials are most suitable for single-use disposable applications where the post-consumer waste can be locally composted.

  11. Biodegradable and compostable alternatives to conventional plastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, J. H.; Murphy, R. J.; Narayan, R.; Davies, G. B. H.

    2009-01-01

    Packaging waste forms a significant part of municipal solid waste and has caused increasing environmental concerns, resulting in a strengthening of various regulations aimed at reducing the amounts generated. Among other materials, a wide range of oil-based polymers is currently used in packaging applications. These are virtually all non-biodegradable, and some are difficult to recycle or reuse due to being complex composites having varying levels of contamination. Recently, significant progress has been made in the development of biodegradable plastics, largely from renewable natural resources, to produce biodegradable materials with similar functionality to that of oil-based polymers. The expansion in these bio-based materials has several potential benefits for greenhouse gas balances and other environmental impacts over whole life cycles and in the use of renewable, rather than finite resources. It is intended that use of biodegradable materials will contribute to sustainability and reduction in the environmental impact associated with disposal of oil-based polymers. The diversity of biodegradable materials and their varying properties makes it difficult to make simple, generic assessments such as biodegradable products are all ‘good’ or petrochemical-based products are all ‘bad’. This paper discusses the potential impacts of biodegradable packaging materials and their waste management, particularly via composting. It presents the key issues that inform judgements of the benefits these materials have in relation to conventional, petrochemical-based counterparts. Specific examples are given from new research on biodegradability in simulated ‘home’ composting systems. It is the view of the authors that biodegradable packaging materials are most suitable for single-use disposable applications where the post-consumer waste can be locally composted. PMID:19528060

  12. OIL BOND®

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technical product bulletin: this miscellaneous oil spill control agent is a solidifier used in cleanups. It absorbs and solidifies hydrocarbon spills on freshwater and saltwater or land applications. Ring spill with booms or pillows before treatment.

  13. Peppermint Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Talley NJ, Spiegel BM, et al. Effect of fibre, antispasmodics, and peppermint oil in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome: systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ . 2008;337:a2313. Kligler B, Chaudhary S. Peppermint ...

  14. Mineral oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schult-Bornemann, Karl-Heinz

    2015-01-01

    The dominant theme in the world energy market was the fall in oil prices in 2014. From 115 US-$/bbl in June it dropped to below 50 US-$/bbl in January 2015. Thereby the shale oil revolution has had the strong impact on the global energy situation, to this point has been predicted for three years. Although no one could predict the exact height of the fall in oil prices, but with oil as a reserve currency for all other fuels, it has not only had an impact on the gas and coal prices, but other commodities, such as copper, have also yielded. About cause and effect, there is a lot of speculation - not all of which are supported by wisdom. [de

  15. SOVENT BASED ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY FOR IN-SITU UPGRADING OF HEAVY OIL SANDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munroe, Norman

    2009-01-30

    With the depletion of conventional crude oil reserves in the world, heavy oil and bitumen resources have great potential to meet the future demand for petroleum products. However, oil recovery from heavy oil and bitumen reservoirs is much more difficult than that from conventional oil reservoirs. This is mainly because heavy oil or bitumen is partially or completely immobile under reservoir conditions due to its extremely high viscosity, which creates special production challenges. In order to overcome these challenges significant efforts were devoted by Applied Research Center (ARC) at Florida International University and The Center for Energy Economics (CEE) at the University of Texas. A simplified model was developed to assess the density of the upgraded crude depending on the ratio of solvent mass to crude oil mass, temperature, pressure and the properties of the crude oil. The simplified model incorporated the interaction dynamics into a homogeneous, porous heavy oil reservoir to simulate the dispersion and concentration of injected CO2. The model also incorporated the characteristic of a highly varying CO2 density near the critical point. Since the major challenge in heavy oil recovery is its high viscosity, most researchers have focused their investigations on this parameter in the laboratory as well as in the field resulting in disparaging results. This was attributed to oil being a complex poly-disperse blend of light and heavy paraffins, aromatics, resins and asphaltenes, which have diverse behaviors at reservoir temperature and pressures. The situation is exacerbated by a dearth of experimental data on gas diffusion coefficients in heavy oils due to the tedious nature of diffusivity measurements. Ultimately, the viscosity and thus oil recovery is regulated by pressure and its effect on the diffusion coefficient and oil swelling factors. The generation of a new phase within the crude and the differences in mobility between the new crude matrix and the

  16. Peak oil demand: the role of fuel efficiency and alternative fuels in a global oil production decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Adam R; Millard-Ball, Adam; Ganser, Matthew; Gorelick, Steven M

    2013-07-16

    Some argue that peak conventional oil production is imminent due to physical resource scarcity. We examine the alternative possibility of reduced oil use due to improved efficiency and oil substitution. Our model uses historical relationships to project future demand for (a) transport services, (b) all liquid fuels, and (c) substitution with alternative energy carriers, including electricity. Results show great increases in passenger and freight transport activity, but less reliance on oil. Demand for liquids inputs to refineries declines significantly after 2070. By 2100 transport energy demand rises >1000% in Asia, while flattening in North America (+23%) and Europe (-20%). Conventional oil demand declines after 2035, and cumulative oil production is 1900 Gbbl from 2010 to 2100 (close to the U.S. Geological Survey median estimate of remaining oil, which only includes projected discoveries through 2025). These results suggest that effort is better spent to determine and influence the trajectory of oil substitution and efficiency improvement rather than to focus on oil resource scarcity. The results also imply that policy makers should not rely on liquid fossil fuel scarcity to constrain damage from climate change. However, there is an unpredictable range of emissions impacts depending on which mix of substitutes for conventional oil gains dominance-oil sands, electricity, coal-to-liquids, or others.

  17. File: non conventional hydrocarbons - Between concerns and opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deflandre, Jean-Pierre; Heidmann, Jean-Claude; Vially, Roland; Duflot, Sylvie; Lions, Renaud; Speirs, Julie; Bauquis, Pierre-Rene; Brunelle, Nathalie

    2015-01-01

    A first article proposes an overview of gas and oil resources with respect to their geological context. The authors address the origins of hydrocarbons, their underground migration and possible trapping, thus scanning the whole spectrum of conventional and non conventional resources. A second article, signed by representatives of companies working on shale gas in Europe as well as in the USA, examines whether the development of shale gases, if it ever emerges in Europe, will be the same as it is in the USA. They notably outline differences regarding several legal aspects on land property and on the environment. Based on a study on shale supply chain which identified costs, needed skills, existing capabilities, and recommendations for closing identified gaps, the third article discusses the perspective and opportunity of a possible development of shale gas in the UK. The fourth article discusses the impacts of the exploitation of source rock oils and gases on the American and World economies, and the fifth one discusses the perspectives for the petrochemicals and refining industries in a context of development of shale gases and oils in the USA, of an over-capacity situation for the refining industry, of decline of the European oil product market, and of competition with new polymer production capacities (notably in the Middle East where ethane extracted from natural gas is available in large quantities and at very low prices)

  18. Co-processing of standard gas oil and biocrude oil to hydrocarbon fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agblevor, Foster A.; Mante, O.; McClung, R.; Oyama, S.T.

    2012-01-01

    The major obstacle in thermochemical biomass conversion to hydrocarbon fuels using pyrolysis has been the high oxygen content and the poor stability of the product oils, which cause them to solidify during secondary processing. We have developed a fractional catalytic pyrolysis process to convert biomass feedstocks into a product termed “biocrude oils” (stable biomass pyrolysis oils) which are distinct from unstable conventional pyrolysis oils. The biocrude oils are stable, low viscosity liquids that are storable at ambient conditions without any significant increases in viscosity; distillable at both atmospheric pressure and under vacuum without char or solid formation. About 15 wt% biocrude oils containing 20–25% oxygen were blended with 85 wt% standard gas oil and co-cracked in an Advanced Catalyst Evaluation (ACE™) unit using fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) catalysts to produce hydrocarbon fuels that contain negligible amount of oxygen. For the same conversion of 70% for both the standard gas oil and the biocrude oil/gas oil blends, the product gasoline yield was 44 wt%, light cycle oil (LCO) 17 wt%, heavy cycle oil (HCO) 13 wt%, and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) 16 wt%. However, the coke yield for the standard gas oil was 7.06 wt% compared to 6.64–6.81 wt% for the blends. There appeared to be hydrogen transfer from the cracking of the standard gas oil to the biocrude oil which subsequently eliminated the oxygen in the fuel without external hydrogen addition. We have demonstrated for the first time that biomass pyrolysis oils can be successfully converted into hydrocarbons without hydrogenation pretreatment. -- Highlights: ► The co-processed product had less than 1% oxygen content and contained biocarbons determined by 14 C analysis. ► The co-processing did not affect the yields of gasoline, LCO, and HCO. ► First demonstration of direct conversion of pyrolysis oils into drop-in hydrocarbon fuels.

  19. Coreflood assay using extremophile microorganisms for recovery of heavy oil in Mexican oil fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castorena-Cortés, Gladys; Roldán-Carrillo, Teresa; Reyes-Avila, Jesús; Zapata-Peñasco, Icoquih; Mayol-Castillo, Martha; Olguín-Lora, Patricia

    2012-10-01

    A considerable portion of oil reserves in Mexico corresponds to heavy oils. This feature makes it more difficult to recover the remaining oil in the reservoir after extraction with conventional techniques. Microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) has been considered as a promising technique to further increase oil recovery, but its application has been developed mainly with light oils; therefore, more research is required for heavy oil. In this study, the recovery of Mexican heavy oil (11.1°API and viscosity 32,906 mPa s) in a coreflood experiment was evaluated using the extremophile mixed culture A7, which was isolated from a Mexican oil field. Culture A7 includes fermentative, thermophilic, and anaerobic microorganisms. The experiments included waterflooding and MEOR stages, and were carried out under reservoir conditions (70°C and 9.65 MPa). MEOR consisted of injections of nutrients and microorganisms followed by confinement periods. In the MEOR stages, the mixed culture A7 produced surface-active agents (surface tension reduction 27 mN m⁻¹), solvents (ethanol, 1738 mg L⁻¹), acids (693 mg L⁻¹), and gases, and also degraded heavy hydrocarbon fractions in an extreme environment. The interactions of these metabolites with the oil, as well as the bioconversion of heavy oil fractions to lighter fractions (increased alkanes in the C₈-C₃₀ range), were the mechanisms responsible for the mobility and recovery of heavy oil from the porous media. Oil recovery by MEOR was 19.48% of the residual oil in the core after waterflooding. These results show that MEOR is a potential alternative to heavy oil recovery in Mexican oil fields. Copyright © 2012 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Performance of palm oil as a biobased machining lubricant when drilling inconel 718

    OpenAIRE

    Abd Rahim Erween; Sasahara Hiroyuki

    2017-01-01

    Metalworking fluid acts as cooling and lubrication agent at the cutting zone in the machining process. However, conventional Metalworking fluid such mineral oil gives negative impact on the human and environment. Therefore, the manufacture tends to substitute the mineral oil to bio-based oil such as vegetables and synthetic oil. In this paper, the drilling experiment was carried out to evaluate the efficiency of palm oil and compare it with minimal quantity lubrication technique using synthet...

  1. Revision of the Paris Convention and the Brussels Supplementary Convention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busekist, Otto von.

    1977-01-01

    The Paris Convention and the Brussels Supplementary Convention have in substance remained unchanged since their adoption in 1960 and 1963, respectively. During that period, nuclear industry and technology have developed considerably while the financial and monetary bases of the Conventions have been shattered. The amounts of liability and compensation have been eroded by inflation, and the gold-based unit of account in which these amounts are expressed has lost its original meaning after the abolition of the official gold price. The question of revising the Conventions, in particular of raising those amounts and of replacing the unit of account, is therefore being studied by the Group of Governmental Experts on Third party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency. (auth.) [fr

  2. The nuclear liability conventions revised

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyners, P.

    2004-01-01

    The signature on 12 February 2004 of the Protocols amending respectively the 1960 Paris Convention and the 1963 Brussels Supplementary Convention was the second step of the process of modernisation of the international nuclear liability regime after the adoption in September 1997 of a Protocol revising the 1963 Vienna Convention and of a new Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage. The common objective of the new instruments is to provide more funds to compensate a larger number of potential victims in respect of a broader range of damage. Another goal of the revision exercise was to maintain the compatibility between the Paris and Vienna based systems, a commitment enshrined in the 1988 Joint Protocol, as well as to ascertain that Paris/Brussels countries could also become a Party to the Convention on Supplementary Compensation. However, while generally consistent vis a vis the Joint Protocol, the provisions of the Paris and Vienna Conventions, as revised, differ on some significant aspects. Another remaining issue is whether the improved international nuclear liability regime will succeed in attracting in the future a larger number of countries, particularly outside Europe, and will so become truly universal. Therefore, the need for international co-operation to address these issues, to facilitate the adoption of new implementing legislation and to ensure that this special regime keeps abreast of economic and technological developments, is in no way diminished after the revision of the Conventions.(author)

  3. Evolutionary Games and Social Conventions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Pelle Guldborg

    2007-01-01

    Some thirty years ago Lewis published his Convention: A Philosophical Study (Lewis, 2002). This laid the foundation for a game-theoretic approach to social conventions, but became more famously known for its seminal analysis of common knowledge; the concept receiving its canonical analysis...... which any theory of convention must revolve. In response, the so-called evolutionary turn has developed. While retaining the broad framework, in which games are described in terms of strategies and payoffs, this marks a transition from the classical assumptions of perfect rationality and common...

  4. Solving the oil independence problem: Is it possible?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sovacool, Benjamin K.

    2007-01-01

    As currently discussed in political circles, oil independence is unattainable-lacking coherent meaning and wedding policymakers to the notion that they can never accomplish it. Contrary to this thinking, more than a dozen different sets of technologies and practices could increase domestic supply and reduce demand for oil to the point of making the US functionally independent from oil price shocks. However, achieving this goal demands concerted action to expand and diversify conventional domestic oil supplies, reduce overall demand in the transportation and buildings sector, and continue to develop alternative fuels. If policymakers undertook such actions today, the US could become oil independent by 2030

  5. Solving the oil independence problem: Is it possible?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sovacool, Benjamin K. [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States)

    2007-11-15

    As currently discussed in political circles, oil independence is unattainable - lacking coherent meaning and wedding policymakers to the notion that they can never accomplish it. Contrary to this thinking, more than a dozen different sets of technologies and practices could increase domestic supply and reduce demand for oil to the point of making the US functionally independent from oil price shocks. However, achieving this goal demands concerted action to expand and diversify conventional domestic oil supplies, reduce overall demand in the transportation and buildings sector, and continue to develop alternative fuels. If policymakers undertook such actions today, the US could become oil independent by 2030. (author)

  6. Guide to oil spill exercise planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The International Convention on Oil Pollution Preparedness, Response and Cooperation (OPRC Convention) foresees a future in which all at risk states have national oil spill preparedness and response plans. The Convention also encourages the idea that national plans be developed in cooperation with oil and shipping industries. The ultimate test of any contingency plan is measured by performance in a real emergency. It is vital, therefore, that any programme for developing a national contingency plan must include an ongoing programme to test the plan through realistic exercises. An exercise programme must progressively prepare the Oil Spill Energy Response Team to perform effectively in realistic representations of the risks that the contingency plan has been designed to meet. This report has been designed to guide all those in government or industry who are faced with the responsibility of developing and managing oil spill response exercises at all levels. It carries with it the authority that derives from peer review by many centres of oil spill response excellence around the world. It is well-illustrated with brief case histories of exercises that have been carried out by many IPIECA member companies. Each of those companies has indicated its preparedness to share more information by providing contact name and address details within this report. (author)

  7. Oil Reservoir Production Optimization using Single Shooting and ESDIRK Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Capolei, Andrea; Völcker, Carsten; Frydendall, Jan

    2012-01-01

    the injections and oil production such that flow is uniform in a given geological structure. Even in the case of conventional water flooding, feedback based optimal control technologies may enable higher oil recovery than with conventional operational strategies. The optimal control problems that must be solved......Conventional recovery techniques enable recovery of 10-50% of the oil in an oil field. Advances in smart well technology and enhanced oil recovery techniques enable significant larger recovery. To realize this potential, feedback model-based optimal control technologies are needed to manipulate...... are large-scale problems and require specialized numerical algorithms. In this paper, we combine a single shooting optimization algorithm based on sequential quadratic programming (SQP) with explicit singly diagonally implicit Runge-Kutta (ESDIRK) integration methods and the a continuous adjoint method...

  8. Towards a Theory of Convention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Pelle Guldborg

    2006-01-01

    Some thirty years ago Lewis published his Convention: A philosophical Study (Lewis 1969). Besides exciting the logical community by providing the seminal analysis work on common knowledge, it also laid the foundations for the formal approach to the study of social conventions by means of game...... theory. Like for the study of common knowledge much has happened in this latter field since then. The theory of convention has been developed and extended so as to include multiple types as well as a basis for the study of social norms. However, classical game theory is currently undergoing severe crisis...... as a tool for understanding and explaining social phenomena; a crisis emerging from the problem of equilibrium selection around which any theory of convention must revolve. The so-called evolutionary turn in game theory marks a transition from the classical assumptions of rationality and common knowledge...

  9. Paris convention - Decisions, recommendations, interpretations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This booklet is published in a single edition in English and French. It contains decisions, recommendations and interpretations concerning the 1960 Paris Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy adopted by the OECD Steering Committee and the OECD Council. All the instruments are set out according to the Article of the Convention to which they relate and explanatory notes are added where necessary [fr

  10. Financing options to develop non-conventional reserves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tricoli, C.

    1997-01-01

    The economics of non-conventional natural gas reserves such as coalbed methane, gas shales and tight gas were discussed, with special reference to financing options to develop such reserves. Before 1992, tax credits were used to stimulate the development of non-conventional gas. The requirements for section 29 tax credits, the objectives of investors and producers, and the methods used to monetize section 29 tax credits, such as public royalty trusts, partnership structures, and up-front payment mechanisms were described. The capital gains implications of gas sales were also reviewed. It was noted that in the absence of tax credits, financing the development of non-conventional reserves must undergo the same economic scrutiny as any other oil and gas project

  11. The oil industry in 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The various contributions present and comment many data about the evolutions of different parts of the oil industry until 2007: world oil and gas markets, worldwide oil exploration and production, oil exploration and production in France, oil and oil-related industry in France, hydrocarbon supplies, oil refining in France, fuel quality, substitution fuels, inner transportation of oil products, storage of oil products, consumption of oil products, taxing of oils products, price of oil products, distribution of oil products

  12. Nuclear and conventional energy transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schikarski, W.

    1979-03-01

    Atmospheric pollution from fossil fuel- and nuclear power plants have been compared. SO 2 is the substance chosen from coal- and oil fuel power plants. Measured values for chemical pollution are at levels 10 times, and radioactive pollution near to nuclear power plants, 10.000 times, below that which would cause damage to health. (A.R.H.) [pt

  13. Extra-heavy oil: the new frontier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pogam, P.

    2005-01-01

    In front of the depletion of classical crude oil reserves, the petroleum industry is looking towards the 'non-conventional' fields. With the rise of crude prices, their exploitation become profitable and such reserves are enormous. This short paper presents the activity of Total company in Alberta, Canada where recoverable extra-heavy oil reserves represent between 175 and 300 billions of barrels. New extraction techniques, like steam injection, have to be implemented for the extraction of oil from the bituminous sands but they remain costly and an additional process is needed to transform the bitumen into a lighter, commercializable, synthetic crude. (J.S.)

  14. How equity markets view heavy oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janisch, M. L.

    1996-01-01

    Factors that influence the equity market in investment decisions vis-a-vis the oil sands/heavy oil industry were reviewed. The importance of financing methods (debt, royalty trusts, common equity), liquidity of investments, absolute vs. relative performance, comparative economics vis-a-vis conventional oil producers, oil prices, operating cost drivers (technology, natural gas costs, cost/availability of diluent), transportation and refining capacity, were summarized. In the final analysis, consistent economic success on a large scale, combined with an assessment of available alternatives, were considered to be the most likely motivators for portfolio managers. As a cautionary note, it was noted that traditionally, oil and gas investors have not been known to be in the forefront to invest in research and development

  15. Some basic properties of environmentally adapted oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeglund, E. [Div. of Machine Elements, Luleaa University of Technology (Sweden)

    1998-11-01

    Environmental concern has led to a development of lubricants that are less harmful to the environmental than traditional mineral based oils. Biodegradability and non-toxicity are desired properties together with a competitive price and if possible they should also be derived from renewable raw materials. In order to have a major breakthrough for the new, environmentally adapted lubricating oils they must perform well in mechanical and hydraulic systems. They must reduce wear, increase efficiency and reduce maintenance costs equally well, or preferably better than mineral based oils. This paper presents primary results from an investigation where four environmentally adapted oils (rape seed, pine tree, diester and TMP-ester) are compared to a conventional naphthenic mineral oil. Viscosity and viscosity-pressure coefficients, limiting shear stress, friction properties and film forming ability have been evaluated under elastohydrodynamic conditions. It was found that the mineral oil had the highest values of pressure-viscosity coefficient, limiting shear stress and coefficient of friction. Rape seed oil had the second highest pressure-viscosity coefficient but the lowest limiting shear stress and coefficient of friction. Pine tree oil, diester and TMP-ester formed an intermediate group with rather similar results. The Hamrock-Dowson equation for central film thickness was found to overestimate film thickness by about 10-20 per cent with the least discrepancy for the mineral oil. (orig.) 8 refs.

  16. Oil refining expansion criteria for Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavares, M.E.E.; Szklo, A.S.; Machado, G.V.; Schaeffer, R.; Mariano, J.B.; Sala, J.F.

    2006-01-01

    This paper assesses different strategies for the expansion of Brazil's oil refining segment, using criteria that range from energy security (reducing imports and vulnerability for key products) through to maximizing the profitability of this sector (boosting the output of higher value oil products) and adding value to Brazil's oil production (reducing exports of heavy acid oil). The development prospects are analyzed for conventional fuel production technology routes, sketching out three possible refining schemes for Brazilian oil and a GTL plant for producing gasoil from natural gas. Market scenario simulations indicate that investments will be required in Brazil's oil refining segment over and above those allocated to planned modifications in its current facilities, reducing the nation's vulnerability in terms of gasoil and petrochemical naphtha imports. Although not economically attractive, oil refining is a key activity that is crucial to oil company strategies. The decision to invest in this segment depends on local infrastructure conditions, environmental constraints and fuel specifications, in addition to oil company strategies, steady growth in demand and the definition of a government policy that eases institutional risks. (author)

  17. Oil refining expansion criteria for Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavares, Marina Elisabete Espinho; Szklo, Alexandre Salem; Machado, Giovani Vitoria; Schaeffer, Roberto; Mariano, Jacqueline Barboza; Sala, Janaina Francisco

    2006-01-01

    This paper assesses different strategies for the expansion of Brazil's oil refining segment, using criteria that range from energy security (reducing imports and vulnerability for key products) through to maximizing the profitability of this sector (boosting the output of higher value oil products) and adding value to Brazil's oil production (reducing exports of heavy acid oil). The development prospects are analyzed for conventional fuel production technology routes, sketching out three possible refining schemes for Brazilian oil and a GTL plant for producing gasoil from natural gas. Market scenario simulations indicate that investments will be required in Brazil's oil refining segment over and above those allocated to planned modifications in its current facilities, reducing the nation's vulnerability in terms of gasoil and petrochemical naphtha imports. Although not economically attractive, oil refining is a key activity that is crucial to oil company strategies. The decision to invest in this segment depends on local infrastructure conditions, environmental constraints and fuel specifications, in addition to oil company strategies, steady growth in demand and the definition of a government policy that eases institutional risks

  18. Oil spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spaulding, M.L.; Reed, M.

    1990-01-01

    Public awareness and concern for the potential short and long term impacts of oil spills on the marine environment has generally been high, particularly for regions of special ecological importance or where significant numbers of marine mammals and birds are present. This awareness was further heightened by the extraordinary number of recent large spills in coastal U.S. water: Exxon Valdez, Alaska; World Prodigy, Rhode Island; Presidente Rivera, Delaware; Rachel-B, Texas and American Trader, California. The occurrence of so many spills in a one year period is unprecedented in U.S. spill history. The legislative response to these spills has been immediate. New legislative initiative are rapidly being developed. Improved ways to organize spill response efforts are being devised and implemented. Funds are being allocated to further develop and improve spill response equipment and damage assessment methodologies. These spill events will have a significant impact in both the short and long term on oil exploration, development and transport in marine waters. They will result in major changes in management and operation of oil exploration and development. The purpose of this conference was to provide a forum for discussion of the changes which are currently taking place in oil spill legislation, management, and response strategies

  19. Oil spills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spaulding, M.L.; Reed, M.

    1990-01-01

    Public awareness and concern for the potential short and long term impacts of oil spills on the marine environment has generally been high, particularly for regions of special ecological importance or where significant numbers of marine mammals and birds are present. This awareness was further heightened by the extraordinary number of recent large spills in coastal U.S. water: Exxon Valdez, Alaska; World Prodigy, Rhode Island; Presidente Rivera, Delaware; Rachel-B, Texas and American Trader, California. The occurrence of so many spills in a one year period is unprecedented in U.S. spill history. The legislative response to these spills has been immediate. New legislative initiative are rapidly being developed. Improved ways to organize spill response efforts are being devised and implemented. Funds are being allocated to further develop and improve spill response equipment and damage assessment methodologies. These spill events will have a significant impact in both the short and long term on oil exploration, development and transport in marine waters. They will result in major changes in management and operation of oil exploration and development. The purpose of this conference was to provide a forum for discussion of the changes which are currently taking place in oil spill legislation, management, and response strategies.

  20. Cracking oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lelgemann, W.

    1933-12-19

    A volatile spirit suitable for use as petrol and containing aromatic and aliphatic constituents is obtained by cracking crude oils, asphalts, and creosotes, in presence of catalysts comprising a halogenated oxygen compound of nitrogen, e.g. nitrosyl chloride, and calcium oxide. The method of carrying out the process and the apparatus used are the same as described in Specification 430,748.

  1. Cracking oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lelgemann, W.

    1933-12-19

    A volatile spirit suitable for use as petrol and containing aromatic and aliphatic constituents is obtained by cracking crude oils, asphalts, and creosotes, in presence of catalysts comprising a halogenated oxygen compound of nitrogen and a mixture of iron and aluminum chlorides. The method of carrying out the process and the apparatus used are the same as described in Specification 430,748.

  2. Mining and oil. Oil shale's contribution to future oil supply; Bergbau und Oel. Der Beitrag des Oelschiefers zur Oelversorgung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linden, Eike von der [Linden Advisory, Dreieich (Germany)

    2012-05-15

    Crude oil contributes in Germany and globally approximately one third to the consumption of primary energies and actually is and in the foreseeable future will be the most important energy source. Recently shale oil as an unconventional oil has gained attention in public discussions. Depending on temperatures oil shale contains either already matured fluid shale oil or immature waxy kerogen. For determination of kerogen containing oil shale and shale oil common definitions for fluid hydrocarbons will be presented. Fluid hydrocarbons (molecular chains > C{sub 5}H{sub 12}) originate from animal substance which had been settled millions of years in sediments on sea- or lakebeds under anaerobic conditions. High pressure and high temperatures effect conversion to hydrocarbons. With sufficient permeability the liquid hydrocarbons migrate from the sediment as the source rock and get assembled in porous rocks under the cover of an impermeable rock strata, in so called entrapment structures. In case there is no impermeable rock strate the hydrocarbons will diffuse into the atmosphere. The hydrocarbons in entrapment structures are called conventional oil and are extracted by drilling wells. The extractable oil as part of the oil in place depends on the viscosity of the oil, the permeability of the host rock and applied exploitation methods which can affect pressure, viscosity and permeability. The exploitation achieves 30 to 50% of the oil in place. When the source rock consisting of strata hundreds of meters thick is not sufficiently permeable the matured hydrocarbons remain at its place of origination. These hydrocarbons are called shale oil and belong to the unconventional oil resources. For exploitation of shale oil by wells the source rock must be treated by intensive energy input, amongst others, by fracking which creates artificial permeability and by pressure which affects migration of the hydrocarbons to the well. The exploitation methods for shale oil do not

  3. Hydrophobically associated polymers for wettability alteration and enhanced oil recovery – Article review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.N. El-hoshoudy

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Crude oil and other petroleum products are crucial to the global economy today due to increasing energy demand approximately (∼1.5% per year and significant oil remaining after primary and secondary oil recovery (∼45–55% of original oil in place, OOIP, which accelerates the development of enhanced oil recovery (EOR technologies to maximize the recovered oil amount by non-conventional methods as polymer flooding. This review discusses enhanced oil recovery methods specially polymer flooding techniques and their effects on rock wettability alteration.

  4. Conventions for reporting and displaying overflight observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McFarland, B.; Murphy, J.; Simecek-Beatty, D.

    1993-01-01

    During the critical initial phases of an oil spill response, as observations and reports come in from different agencies and companies, descriptions and representations can vary widely. These apparently conflicting reports can cause unnecessary confusion, wasting valuable time and resources. As the number of open-quotes expertsclose quotes and the amount of open-quotes necessaryclose quotes information multiply, the potential for information overload also increases. Important information that needs to be presented can be lost in the flood of information that is available. For many years the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), in support of the US Coast Guard, has coordinated scientific input concerning the tracking and prediction of the transport of oil spilled in the marine environment. This role frequently involves recording visual or remote sensing observations from multiple platforms and observers, and displaying the information in a clear format, which needs to be rapidly available and unambiguous. Simple graphic products help identify conflicting views of information and allow responders to quickly build a open-quotes graphic consensusclose quotes of the situation. To this end the authors have developed in-house guidelines for presentation of crucial response information. Because correctly designed graphics can clearly and rapidly transmit large amounts of information, these guidelines focus on the graphic presentation of information. Some of these same conventions and criteria are being applied in evaluating and developing information acquisition and display tools. This poster presentation includes examples of the hardware and software used by Genwest and NOAA for the rapid display of response information

  5. Combustion Characterization of Individual Bio-oil Droplets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Brian Brun; Jensen, Peter Arendt

    2015-01-01

    Single droplet combustion characteristics has been investigated for bio-oil slurries, containing biomass residue, and compared to conventional fuels for pulverized burners, such as fuel oil (start up) and wood chips (solid biomass fuel). The investigated fuels ignition delays and pyrolysis behavior...

  6. Characterization of pure plant oil and biodiesel from Jatropha curcas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The problems associated with long term availability of conventional hydrocarbon fuels for automotive engines, and the continuous emission of combustion ... study investigates the characteristics of pure plant oils (PPO) of Jatropha curcas and Thevetia nerifolia ; biodiesel produced from them at different methanol/ oil ratio.

  7. Closed Process of Shale Oil Recovery from Circulating Washing Water by Hydrocyclones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Huang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The conventional oil recovery system in the Fushun oil shale retorting plant has a low oil recovery rate. A large quantity of fresh water is used in the system, thereby consuming a considerable amount of water and energy, as well as polluting the environment. This study aims to develop a closed process of shale oil recovery from the circulating washing water for the Fushun oil shale retorting plant. The process would increase oil yield and result in clean production. In this process, oil/water hydrocyclone groups were applied to decrease the oil content in circulating water and to simultaneously increase oil yield. The oil sludge was removed by the solid/liquid hydrocyclone groups effectively, thereby proving the smooth operation of the devices and pipes. As a result, the oil recovery rate has increased by 5.3 %, which corresponds to 230 tonnes a month.

  8. DOE/DOT Crude Oil Characterization Research Study, Task 2 Test Report on Evaluating Crude Oil Sampling and Analysis Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lord, David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Allen, Ray [Allen Energy Services, Inc., Longview, TX (United States); Rudeen, David [GRAM, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-11-01

    The Crude Oil Characterization Research Study is designed to evaluate whether crude oils currently transported in North America, including those produced from "tight" formations, exhibit physical or chemical properties that are distinct from conventional crudes, and how these properties associate with combustion hazards with may be realized during transportation and handling.

  9. Comparison of Conventional and Semi-Conventional Management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data were collected on final body weight (FBW), total weight gain (TWG), feed intake (FI), Mortality and feed conversion ratio (FCR) for performance indicators while dressing percentage, major cuts, organs and offals were determined for carcass yield. Broiler chickens reared using conventional system recorded highest ...

  10. Greenhouse gas emissions from recovery of various North American conventional crudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, Md Mustafizur; Canter, Christina; Kumar, Amit

    2014-01-01

    Emissions from crude recovery contribute significantly to the life cycle GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions of transportation fuels. Recovery emissions come from drilling and land use change, crude extraction, crude oil processing, venting, flaring, and fugitives. In this study an attempt has been made to provide a transparent quantification of GHG emissions from oil well drilling and land use change, crude recovery and associated gas and water treatment, and venting and flaring for five North American conventional crudes through the development of data-intensive engineering models. Estimates of emissions from crude extraction were made from recovery efficiency, the amount of energy used, and process fuel shares in extraction techniques. Extraction emissions vary from 1.24 g-CO 2eq /MJ for Bow River heavy oil to 23 g-CO 2eq /MJ for California's Kern County heavy oil. The amount of gas vented and flared per m 3 of crude extracted was determined to quantify venting and flaring emissions. The amount of energy required for crude oil processing was quantified based on the properties of crude oil and different techniques applied in the oil fields. Of the five crudes we studied, California's Kern County heavy oil and Mars crude oil emit the highest and lowest emissions: 23.85 g-CO 2eq /MJ and 3.94 g-CO 2eq /MJ, respectively. - Highlights: • Quantification of emissions associated with recovery of five North American conventional crudes. • Development of spreadsheet-based models for estimation of GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions. • GHG emissions from the extraction of California's Kern County heavy oil is the highest among the crude oils considered. • Use of different sensitivity parameters to check the impact on total emissions

  11. Novel versus conventional antipsychotic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, R C

    1996-01-01

    Novel antipsychotic agents differ from conventional ones in several key characteristics, including effectiveness, adverse reactions, and receptor-binding profile. Most of the newer agents have an affinity for the serotonin 5HT2 receptor that is at least 10 times greater than that for the dopamine D2 receptor. This increased affinity for the serotonin receptor may be responsible for another distinguishing characteristic of novel antipsychotic agents--decreased frequency of extrapyramidal side effects. These side effects, which include pseudoparkinsonism, acute dystonias, and akathisia, frequently are the reason for noncompliance with conventional drug therapy. The newer drugs are often effective in patients resistant to treatment with conventional agents. They also appear to reduce the negative symptoms of schizophrenia in many patients.

  12. Intentionalism versus The New Conventionalism

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, Daniel W.

    2016-01-01

    Are the properties of communicative acts grounded in the intentions with which they are performed, or in the conventions that govern them? The latest round in this debate has been sparked by Ernie Lepore and Matthew Stone (2015), who argue that much more of communication is conventional than we thought, and that the rest isn’t really communication after all, but merely the initiation of open-ended imaginative thought. I argue that although Lepore and Stone may be right about many of the speci...

  13. The European Convention on bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byk, C

    1993-03-01

    Benefiting from a widely recognised experience of the field of bioethics, the Council of Europe which represents all the democratic countries of Europe, has embarked on the ambitious task of drafting a European Convention on bioethics. The purpose of this text is to set out fundamental values, such as respect for human dignity, free informed consent and non-commercialisation of the human body. In addition to this task, protocols will provide specific standards for the different fields concerned with the application of biomedical sciences. The convention and the first two protocols (human experiments and organ transplants) are due to be ready for signature by mid 1994.

  14. Single Shooting and ESDIRK Methods for adjoint-based optimization of an oil reservoir

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Capolei, Andrea; Völcker, Carsten; Frydendall, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Conventional recovery techniques enable recovery of 10-50% of the oil in an oil eld. Advances in smart well technology and enhanced oil recovery techniques enable signicant larger recovery. To realize this potential, feedback model-based optimal control technologies are needed to manipulate...

  15. Ni-Based Catalysts for the Hydrotreatment of Fast Pyrolysis Oil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ardiyanti, A. R.; Bykova, M. V.; Khromova, S. A.; Yin, W.; Venderbosch, R. H.; Yakovlev, V. A.; Heeres, Hero

    Catalytic hydrotreatment is an attractive technology to convert fast pyrolysis oil to stabilized oil products for co processing in conventional crude oil refinery units. We report here the use of novel bimetallic NiCu- and NiPd-based (Picula) catalysts characterized by a high Ni content (29-58 wt %)

  16. Implications of the Law of the Sea Convention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brewer, W.C. Jr.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports that protection and preservation of the marine environment from wastes and toxic substances was an early concern of the Third United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea, and the subject is extensively dealt with in the text of the Convention, adopted on 30 April 1982. The environmental provisions of the Convention are intended to serve as an umbrella treaty that states general goals, delimits the power and geographical jurisdiction of states in dealing with environmental problems, and requires states to cooperate through regional and global organizations in the development of standards. The most complex provisions of the environmental text deal with vessel discharges, reflecting the high degree of public interest in oil pollution, whereas the ocean dumping provisions rely largely on the standards of the London Dumping Convention. Pollution carried by air and rivers and wastes from seabed mining within national jurisdiction are treated briefly. The International Seabed Authority, created elsewhere in the Convention to regulate seabed mining, is granted power to regulate pollution from such mining beyond national jurisdiction. Overall, the most important contribution made by the Law of the Sea Convention to the protection of the marine environment is the obligation of states to bring national marine pollution laws up to global standards

  17. Conventional - Frontier and east coast supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrell, G.R.

    1998-01-01

    An assessment of frontier basins in Canada with proven potential for petroleum resources was provided. A prediction of which frontier basin will become a major supplier of conventional light oil was made by examining where companies are investing in frontier exploration today. Frontier land values for five active frontier areas were discussed. These included the Grand Banks of Newfoundland, Nova Scotia Offshore, Western Newfoundland, the southern Northwest Territories and the Central Mackenzie Valley. The focus of this presentation was on three of these regions which are actually producing: Newfoundland's Grand Banks, offshore Nova Scotia and the Mackenzie Valley. Activities in each of these areas were reviewed. The Canada-Newfoundland Offshore Petroleum Board has listed Hibernia's reserves at 666 million barrels. The Sable Offshore Energy Project on the continental shelf offshore Nova Scotia proposes to develop 5.4 tcf of gas plus 75 million barrels of NGLs over a project life of 14 years. In the Mackenzie Valley there are at least three petroleum systems, including the 235 million barrel pool at Norman Wells. 8 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs

  18. Growing markets to sustain oil sands development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wise, T.H.

    2003-01-01

    The utilization of Alberta bitumen for the clean fuels market depends on upgrading, transportation, and refining processes. Forecasts show that oil sands production, which includes synthetic crude oil (SCO), will surpass declining conventional production in Western Canada. Several issues pose a challenge to the oil sands processing industry. The producers' market is affected by crude oil prices, market expansion options, diluent availability/cost, supply cost competitiveness, and regional processing. The common market issues include light/heavy crude prices, oil sands crude qualities, prices of oil sands crudes, pipeline infrastructure, and competitive supplies. The issues facing the refiners are: refining margins, security of crude supply, refined product quality, and competitive product supply. A brief review of markets for Canadian crude oil, including synthetic crude, was provided. The share of the Midwest market by Alberta must be retained and increased. The market expansion options were reviewed for both downstream (refining) and upstream (upgrading) operations. To reach more distant markets such as Southern Midwest, Washington, and California, new pipeline capacity would be required. The market is nearly saturated for Canada's heavy oil supply. More upgrading will be required as bitumen production increases. Market growth is still possible for Canada's SCO but according to forecasts, the market could also become saturated. To increase demand and allow supplies to grow, SCO prices may fall below light crude prices. It was noted that a balance must be achieved in order for producers to increase production and for refiner/upgraders to expand their conversion capacity. tabs., figs

  19. Avocado and olive oil methyl esters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biodiesel, the mono-alkyl esters of vegetable oils, animal fats or other triacylglycerol-containing materials and an alternative to conventional petroleum-based diesel fuel, has been derived from a variety of feedstocks. Numerous feedstocks have been investigated as potential biodiesel sources, incl...

  20. Whither Alberta's oil production?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purvis, R.A.; Dick, A.B.

    1991-01-01

    It is demonstrated how a combination of old theory (decline methods and statistics) and new technology (computer graphics) can enhance decline-curve forecasts for multi-well groupings. Production and well-count forecasts are presented for four different sized groups of aggregate production. The four examples are: the small Manville pool; the Pembina Cardium, Alberta's largest oil pool; an aggregate of all reef pools of Keg River age; and an aggregate of all wells reporting conventional oil production in the province of Alberta. In each case graphical results show the historical and forecast trends for the statistical distribution of well rates, the median well rate, the aggregated rate, and the number of producing wells. It is concluded that well rate distributions for groups ranging from 15 wells in a single pool to thousands of wells in hundreds of pools are all approximately lognormal. Lognormal well rate distributions and Lorenz graphs provide qualitative and quantitative assessments of a resource base. Decline curves for the median well rate can reveal trends masked in the aggregated rate by changing well count, operating practice and degradation of the resource base. The number of producing wells in Alberta has grown from ca 9000 in 1970 to ca 24,000 in 1988, has remained constant from 1988-1990, and will start to decline as the number of suspended or abandoned wells exceeds the number of new completions. 3 refs., 13 figs., 4 figs

  1. Clean and Secure Energy from Domestic Oil Shale and Oil Sands Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spinti, Jennifer [Inst. for Clean and Secure Energy, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Birgenheier, Lauren [Inst. for Clean and Secure Energy, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Deo, Milind [Inst. for Clean and Secure Energy, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Facelli, Julio [Inst. for Clean and Secure Energy, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Hradisky, Michal [Inst. for Clean and Secure Energy, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Kelly, Kerry [Inst. for Clean and Secure Energy, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Miller, Jan [Inst. for Clean and Secure Energy, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); McLennan, John [Inst. for Clean and Secure Energy, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Ring, Terry [Inst. for Clean and Secure Energy, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Ruple, John [Inst. for Clean and Secure Energy, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Uchitel, Kirsten [Inst. for Clean and Secure Energy, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2015-09-30

    This report summarizes the significant findings from the Clean and Secure Energy from Domestic Oil Shale and Oil Sands Resources program sponsored by the Department of Energy through the National Energy Technology Laboratory. There were four principle areas of research; Environmental, legal, and policy issues related to development of oil shale and oil sands resources; Economic and environmental assessment of domestic unconventional fuels industry; Basin-scale assessment of conventional and unconventional fuel development impacts; and Liquid fuel production by in situ thermal processing of oil shale Multiple research projects were conducted in each area and the results have been communicated via sponsored conferences, conference presentations, invited talks, interviews with the media, numerous topical reports, journal publications, and a book that summarizes much of the oil shale research relating to Utah’s Uinta Basin. In addition, a repository of materials related to oil shale and oil sands has been created within the University of Utah’s Institutional Repository, including the materials generated during this research program. Below is a listing of all topical and progress reports generated by this project and submitted to the Office of Science and Technical Information (OSTI). A listing of all peer-reviewed publications generated as a result of this project is included at the end of this report; Geomechanical and Fluid Transport Properties 1 (December, 2015); Validation Results for Core-Scale Oil Shale Pyrolysis (February, 2015); and Rates and Mechanisms of Oil Shale Pyrolysis: A Chemical Structure Approach (November, 2014); Policy Issues Associated With Using Simulation to Assess Environmental Impacts (November, 2014); Policy Analysis of the Canadian Oil Sands Experience (September, 2013); V-UQ of Generation 1 Simulator with AMSO Experimental Data (August, 2013); Lands with Wilderness Characteristics, Resource Management Plan Constraints, and Land Exchanges

  2. Efficacy of Olive oil, Groundnut oil, Soybean oil and Palm kernel oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Laboratory experiments were conducted to investigate the potentials of four different vegetable oils (olive oil, groundnut oil, soybean oil and palm kernel oil) for the protection of stored cowpea against Callosobruchus maculatus. Ife-brown seeds (a susceptible variety) used for the experiment were subjected to the different ...

  3. Neo-Liberal International Economy and World Oil Price

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jun Beom [Korea National Oil Corporation, Anyang (Korea)

    2001-06-01

    World oil price has been rapidly going up for almost 2 years. The recent high oil price, which has started from March 1999 about to close the 20th century, ended the period of the low oil price that had continued in 1990s and made the entry into the period of the high oil price as an established fact, so the oil consumers have taken it as the considerable economic impacts. The possibility of the world economic stagnation, which has been raised recently, seems to reconfirm the conventional wisdom that the world economic stagnation comes after the period of the high oil price as the Minister of Energy department, Abraham Spencer, mentioned in March. However, it is necessary to differently understand the recent high oil price because it occurred under the circumstance of neo-liberalism, a new international economic system.

  4. Capacitive sensor for engine oil deterioration measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinde, Harish; Bewoor, Anand

    2018-04-01

    A simple system or mechanism for engine Oil (lubricating oil) deterioration monitoring is a need. As engine oil is an important element in I C engines and it is exposed to various strains depending on the operating conditions. If it becomes contaminated with dirt and metal particles, it can become too thick or thin and loses its protective properties, leads to unwanted friction. In turn, to avoid an engine failure, the oil must be changed before it loses its protective properties, which may be harmful to engine which deteriorates vehicle performance. At the same time, changing the lubricant too early, cause inefficient use of already depleting resources, also unwanted impact on the environment and economic reasons. Hence, it will be always helpful to know the quality of the oil under use. With this objective, the research work had been undertaken to develop a simple capacitance sensor for quantification of the quality of oil under use. One of the investigated parameter to quantify oil degradation is Viscosity (as per standard testing procedure: DIN 51562-1). In this research work, an alternative method proposed which analyzing change in capacitance of oil, to quantify the quality of oil underuse and compared to a conventional standard method. The experimental results reported in this paper shows trend for the same. Engine oil of grade SAE 15W40 used for light-duty vehicle, vans and passenger cars is used for experimentation. Suggested method can form a base for further research to develop a cost-effective method for indicating the time to change in engine oil quality have been presented.

  5. Dietary Fats and Oxidative Stress: A Cross-Sectional Study Among Coronary Artery Disease Subjects Consuming Coconut Oil/Sunflower Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazhy, Sabitha; Kamath, Prakash; Vasudevan, D M

    2018-01-01

    Coconut oil has been used by the people of Kerala as a cooking medium for several decades. Due to its alleged hypercholesterolemic activity, general population in recent times is shifting to cooking oils rich in polyunsaturated fats, the most popular being sunflower oil. The effect of long-term consumption of sunflower oil on oxidative stress in humans is not well investigated. We studied oxidative stress among coronary artery disease (CAD) patients who were consuming coconut oil or sunflower oil as a part of their routine diet. Men, aged 35-70 years, with established CAD, who presented to the hospital for routine cardiac evaluations, were enrolled in this observational study. Group 1 and 2 consisted of 73 and 80 subjects consuming coconut oil and sunflower oil respectively for over a period of 2 years. Lipid profile and parameters for oxidative stress were evaluated among them. Conventional lipid parameters did not differ significantly between the two groups. Mean vitamin C concentration was significantly reduced for subjects on sunflower oil compared to those consuming coconut oil ( P  = 0.044). Malondialdehyde was higher for sunflower oil consumers compared to coconut oil consumers ( P  coconut oil did not induce hypercholesterolemia compared to sunflower oil. On the other hand, sunflower oil group had elevated oxidative stress compared to coconut oil group.

  6. Raman detection of extra virgin olive oil adulterated with cheaper oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, Carlton; Kassu, Aschalew; Mills, Jonathan; Kenney, Brianna; Ruffin, Paul; Sharma, Anup

    2016-09-01

    Pure extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) is mixed with cheaper edible oils and samples are kept inside clear glass containers, while a 785nm Raman system is used to take measurements as Raman probe is placed against glass container. Several types of oils at various concentrations of adulteration are used. Ratios of peak intensities are used to analyze raw data, which allows for quick, easy, and accurate analysis. While conventional Raman measurements of EVOO may take as long as 2 minutes, all measurements reported here are for integration times of 15s. It is found that adulteration of EVOO with cheaper oils is detectable at concentrations as low as 5% for all oils used in this study.

  7. Negotiating Conventions and Creating Community

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cole, Alexander Sasha; Barberá-Tomás, David

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the processes of negotiation and institution building through which transnational networks of learning are fashioned. It does so by examining the case of the European animation industry and the activity of an association, Cartoon, which facilitated the development of common...... conventions supporting cooperation and learning in this industry. The case draws attention to how issues of institutional context can frustrate collaboration and limit the scope of learning; simultaneously, it illustrates interventions that permitted the negotiation between situated and context......-specific understandings on the one hand and the development of shared understandings and common conventions for action within the industry on the other. In sum, the article sheds light on the institutional work required to mobilize situated forms of knowledge and the important bridging functions that institutional...

  8. The undiscovered Argentine pharmaceutical market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix, P F; Thomas, R K; Pol, L G

    2001-01-01

    The Argentine health care system is more highly developed than most systems in Latin America and gives most of its citizens access to a reasonable level of care. Now after 50 years of government control the system is becoming privatized, which provides new possibilities for health care marketers. One company developed an innovative approach to pharmaceutical marketing in Argentina that, while perhaps not appropriate for the U.S. market, may reap rewards in certain cultures and provide lessons for others.

  9. Undiscovered Continuous Gas Colorado Plateau

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — This dataset is based on U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) resource assessments for “undiscovered” gas resources, which are resources that have not yet been extensively...

  10. Reconditioning of soils degraded through oil contamination using bacteria relating to thiosphaera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakhno, T.V.; Kurashov, V.M.; Kolesnik, A.A.; Morozkin, A.I.; Gavrilov, V.S.

    2005-01-01

    Bio-preparations based on aerobic bacteria are conventionally used to decontaminate soils of oil. There is a problem of no effect in oil decomposing by using conventional bio-preparations in soils where the depth of oil penetration into the soil exceeds 60 cm in the case of oil outflow. At deep oil penetration into the soil, the efficiency of oil biodegradation with aerobic hydrocarbon oxidizing microorganisms is limited by the factor of oxygen accessibility (oxygen limit). We used Thiosphaera pantotropha as a mono-culture and together with a culture of Pseudomonas putida to solve this problem. Pseudomonas putida being aerobes decompose oil effectively at oil concentration up to 25 g of oil in 1 kg of soil and at the depth of oil penetration into the soil up to 25-30 cm. At a deeper level of soil, the activity of Pseudomonas putida falls because of oxygen limit. At the depth of 60 cm and deeper, Pseudomonas putida stop oxidize and decompose oil because of the limited oxygen accessibility. Bacteria of Thiosphaera pantotropha being elective anaerobes decompose oil both in the presence and in the absence of oxygen, and at low concentrations of oxygen insufficient for vital functions of obligate aerobic species of bacteria. Thus, bacteria of Thiosphaera pantotropha decompose hydrocarbons independently on the depth of oil penetration into the soil. Due to special features of their metabolism, bacteria of Thiosphaera pantotropha can realize their vital functions and decompose hydrocarbons at high oil concentrations in soils at which conventionally used bio-preparations can not be effective. We found out that Thiosphaera decompose sulfurous closed-ring and aromatic compounds in oil which are chemically and thermally stable and can be hardly decomposed, and possess extremely poisonous properties, as well. The use of microorganisms of Thiosphaera pantotropha allows to purify soils polluted with oil and oil products. The results obtained are applied to the cleaning of

  11. Non-aqueous heavy oil extraction from oil sand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohnert, George [National Nuclear Security Administration (United States)

    2011-07-01

    The Kansas City plant operated by Honeywell has a long history of working with DOE NNSA on engineering and manufacturing services supporting national security requirements. The plant has developed a non-aqueous method for heavy oil extraction from oil sands. This method is environmentally friendly as it does not use any external body of water, which would normally be contaminated in the conventional method. It is a 2 phase process consisting of terpene, limonene or alpha pinene, and carbon dioxide. The CO2 and terpene phases are both closed loop systems which minimizes material loss. The limonene and alpha pinene are both naturally derived solvents that come from citrus sources or pine trees respectively. Carbon dioxide is an excellent co-solvent with terpene. There is also a possibility for heat loss recovery during the distillation phase. This process produces clean dry sand. Laboratory tests have concluded that this using non-aqueous liquids process works effectively.

  12. Oil trading manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, D.

    1995-01-01

    This manual provides basic information on all aspects of oil trading. Topics reviewed in Part 1 include physical characteristics and refining and oil pricing arrangements. Part 2 on instruments and markets contains chapters on crude oil markets, product markets, forward and futures contracts, forward paper markets, oil future exchanges, options, swaps and long term oil markets. Part 3 deals with administration and has chapters on operations and logistics, credit control, accounting, taxation of oil trading, contracts and legal and regulatory issues. (UK)

  13. Upgrading and Refining of Crude Oils and Petroleum Products by Ionizing Irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaikin, Yuriy A; Zaikina, Raissa F

    2016-06-01

    A general trend in the oil industry is a decrease in the proven reserves of light crude oils so that any increase in future oil exploration is associated with high-viscous sulfuric oils and bitumen. Although the world reserves of heavy oil are much greater than those of sweet light oils, their exploration at present is less than 12 % of the total oil recovery. One of the main constraints is very high expenses for the existing technologies of heavy oil recovery, upgrading, transportation, and refining. Heavy oil processing by conventional methods is difficult and requires high power inputs and capital investments. Effective and economic processing of high viscous oil and oil residues needs not only improvements of the existing methods, such as thermal, catalytic and hydro-cracking, but the development of new technological approaches for upgrading and refining of any type of problem oil feedstock. One of the perspective approaches to this problem is the application of ionizing irradiation for high-viscous oil processing. Radiation methods for upgrading and refining high-viscous crude oils and petroleum products in a wide temperature range, oil desulfurization, radiation technology for refining used oil products, and a perspective method for gasoline radiation isomerization are discussed in this paper. The advantages of radiation technology are simple configuration of radiation facilities, low capital and operational costs, processing at lowered temperatures and nearly atmospheric pressure without the use of any catalysts, high production rates, relatively low energy consumption, and flexibility to the type of oil feedstock.

  14. Enhanced dielectric breakdown performance of anatase and rutile titania based nano-oils

    OpenAIRE

    Katiyar, Ajay; Dhar, Purbarun; Maganti, Lakshmi Sirisha; Das, Sarit K.

    2015-01-01

    Nano oils synthesized by dispersing dielectric nanostructures counter common intuition as such nano oils possess substantially higher positive dielectric breakdown voltage with reduced streamer velocities than the base oils. Nano oils comprising stable and dilute homogeneous dispersions of two forms of titanium (IV) oxide (TiO2) nanoparticles (Anatase and Rutile) have been experimentally examined and observed to exhibit highly enhanced dielectric breakdown strength compared to conventional tr...

  15. Castor oil induces laxation and uterus contraction via ricinoleic acid activating prostaglandin EP3 receptors

    OpenAIRE

    Tunaru, Sorin; Althoff, Till F.; Nüsing, Rolf M.; Diener, Martin; Offermanns, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Castor oil is one of the oldest drugs. When given orally, it has a laxative effect and induces labor in pregnant females. The effects of castor oil are mediated by ricinoleic acid, a hydroxylated fatty acid released from castor oil by intestinal lipases. Despite the wide-spread use of castor oil in conventional and folk medicine, the molecular mechanism by which ricinoleic acid acts remains unknown. Here we show that the EP3 prostanoid receptor is specifically activated by ricinoleic acid and...

  16. Oil and the world economy: some possible futures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumhof, Michael; Muir, Dirk

    2014-01-13

    This paper, using a six-region dynamic stochastic general equilibrium model of the world economy, assesses the output and current account implications of permanent oil supply shocks hitting the world economy. For modest-sized shocks and conventional production technologies, the effects are modest. But for larger shocks, for elasticities of substitution that decline as oil usage is reduced to a minimum, and for production functions in which oil acts as a critical enabler of technologies, output growth could drop significantly. Also, oil prices could become so high that smooth adjustment, as assumed in the model, may become very difficult.

  17. Comparison between conventional and ultrasonic preparation of beef tallow biodiesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teixeira, Leonardo S.G. [Instituto de Quimica - Universidade Federal da Bahia, Campus Universitario de Ondina, 40.170-280 - Salvador, Bahia (Brazil); Assis, Julio C.R.; Santos, Iran T.V.; Guimaraes, Paulo R.B.; Pontes, Luiz A.M. [Universidade Salvador - UNIFACS - Departamento de Engenharia e Arquitetura, - Av. Cardeal da Silva 132, 40.220-141 - Salvador, Bahia (Brazil); Mendonca, Daniel R. [Escola Politecnica - Universidade Federal da Bahia, Av. Aristides Novis 2, 40.210-630, Salvador, Bahia (Brazil); Teixeira, Josanaide S.R. [Instituto Federal de Educacao Ciencia e Tecnologica da Bahia - IFBAHIA - Rua Emidio de Morais S/N, 40.625-650, Salvador - BA (Brazil)

    2009-09-15

    Tallow is biodiesel feedstock that, due to its highly centralized generation in slaughter/processing facilities and historically low prices, may have energetic, environmental, and economic advantages that could be exploited. Transesterification of fatty acids by means of ultrasonic energy has been used for biodiesel production from different vegetable oils. However, application of ultrasonic irradiation for biodiesel production from beef tallow has received little attention. In this work, the transesterification of beef tallow with methanol was performed in the presence of potassium hydroxide as a catalyst using ultrasound irradiation (400 W, 24 kHz). The reaction time, conversion and biodiesel quality were compared with that seen in conventional transesterification. The results indicated that the reaction conversion and biodiesel quality were similar; however, the use of ultrasonic irradiation decreased the reaction time, showing that this method may be a promising alternative to the conventional method. (author)

  18. Comparison between conventional and ultrasonic preparation of beef tallow biodiesel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teixeira, Leonardo S.G.; Assis, Julio C.R.; Santos, Iran T.V.; Guimaraes, Paulo R.B.; Pontes, Luiz A.M.; Mendonca, Daniel R.; Teixeira, Josanaide S.R.

    2009-01-01

    Tallow is biodiesel feedstock that, due to its highly centralized generation in slaughter/processing facilities and historically low prices, may have energetic, environmental, and economic advantages that could be exploited. Transesterification of fatty acids by means of ultrasonic energy has been used for biodiesel production from different vegetable oils. However, application of ultrasonic irradiation for biodiesel production from beef tallow has received little attention. In this work, the transesterification of beef tallow with methanol was performed in the presence of potassium hydroxide as a catalyst using ultrasound irradiation (400 W, 24 kHz). The reaction time, conversion and biodiesel quality were compared with that seen in conventional transesterification. The results indicated that the reaction conversion and biodiesel quality were similar; however, the use of ultrasonic irradiation decreased the reaction time, showing that this method may be a promising alternative to the conventional method. (author)

  19. Computer based training for oil spill management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodman, R.

    1993-01-01

    Large oil spills are infrequent occurrences, which poses a particular problem for training oil spill response staff and for maintaining a high level of response readiness. Conventional training methods involve table-top simulations to develop tactical and strategic response skills and boom-deployment exercises to maintain operational readiness. Both forms of training are quite effective, but they are very time-consuming to organize, are expensive to conduct, and tend to become repetitious. To provide a variety of response experiences, a computer-based system of oil spill response training has been developed which can supplement a table-top training program. Using a graphic interface, a realistic and challenging computerized oil spill response simulation has been produced. Integral to the system is a program editing tool which allows the teacher to develop a custom training exercise for the area of interest to the student. 1 ref

  20. Oil supply in Central and South America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilera, Roberto F.

    2009-01-01

    This paper estimates a cumulative supply curve for conventional oil in the Central and South American (CSA) region. The curve includes volumes from provinces not previously assessed by other organizations, as well as reserve growth. Volumes for the previously unassessed provinces are estimated using a variable shape distribution (VSD) model. Then the volumes are allocated to CSA countries based on each country's share of proved reserves. Figures provided by the cumulative supply curve are stock variables for all time, unlike the traditional supply curve where they are flow variables that can continue from one period to the next. In this study, the fixed stock approach is used since it provides practical information with respect to the concerns that some have expressed about oil scarcity in the near future. Results indicate that Central and South American oil is more abundant than often assumed, and can be produced at costs below current market oil prices, and substantially below mid-2008 prices.

  1. Reactivation of an idle lease to increase heavy oil recovery through application of conventional steam drive technology in a low dip slope and basin reservoir in the Midway-Sunset field, San Jaoquin Basin, California. Annual report, June 13, 1995--June 13, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deo, M.; Jenkins, C.; Sprinkel, D.; Swain, R.; Wydrinski, R.; Schamel, S.

    1998-09-01

    This project reactivates ARCO`s idle Pru Fee lease in the Midway-Sunset field, California and conducts a continuous steamflood enhanced oil recovery demonstration aided by an integration of modern reservoir characterization and simulation methods. Cyclic steaming is being used to reestablish baseline production within the reservoir characterization phase of the project. During the demonstration phase scheduled to begin in January 1997, a continuous steamflood enhanced oil recovery will be initiated to test the incremental value of this method as an alternative to cyclic steaming. Other economically marginal Class III reservoirs having similar producibility problems will benefit from insight gained in this project. The objectives of the project are: (1) to return the shut-in portion of the reservoir to optimal commercial production; (2) to accurately describe the reservoir and recovery process; and (3) to convey the details of this activity to the domestic petroleum industry, especially to other producers in California, through an aggressive technology transfer program.

  2. Upgrading of raw tall oil soap into fuel oils and lubricants; Raakasuovan jalostus poltto- ja voiteluoeljyksi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oasmaa, A.; Arpiainen, V.; McKeough, P.; Tapola, E.; Haekkinen, R.; Kuoppala, E.; Koskela, K. [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland). Energy Production Technologies

    1997-12-01

    Thermochemical processing of tall oil soap originating from various mixtures of birch and pine has been experimentally investigated. The organic matter of tall oil soap, which is a by- product of Kraft pulping, originates mainly from wood extractives. Conventional processing of tall oil soap involves acidulation with sulphuric acid to yield crude tall oil and subsequent distillation of the oil at centralised refineries. Because tall oil originating from birch wood is far less valuable than that from pine, there is an economic incentive in the Nordic countries to develop alternative conversion processes for the tall oil soap produced at pulp mills where birch is widely used as feedstock. Furthermore, thermochemical processing of tall oil soap does not introduce sulphur into the chemical recovery cycle. This would be a significant advantage in future mills employing closure of water circuits and/or sulphur-free pulping. In small-scale experiments tall oil soaps from wood mixtures with high birch content have been processed using both liquid-phase thermal treatment and pyrolysis. The liquid-phase thermal treatment at 450 deg C under a nitrogen atmosphere yielded a good-quality oil product at high yield (about 50 % of the energy content of the tall oil soap). In the atmospheric pyrolysis of birch tall oil soap a separation of inorganic and organic constituents was obtained. The energy value of the product gases was high. Both processes are promising, but the pyrolysis alternative has the greater economic potential, providing that the promising preliminary experimental results have given a true picture of the performance of the full-scale pyrolysis process. (orig.)

  3. Rapeseed oil, olive oil, plant sterols, and cholesterol metabolism: an ileostomy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellegård, L; Andersson, H; Bosaeus, I

    2005-12-01

    To study whether olive oil and rapeseed oil have different effects on cholesterol metabolism. Short-term experimental study, with controlled diets. Outpatients at a metabolic-ward kitchen. A total of nine volunteers with conventional ileostomies. Two 3-day diet periods; controlled diet including 75 g of rapeseed oil or olive oil. Cholesterol absorption, ileal excretion of cholesterol, and bile acids. Serum levels of cholesterol and bile acid metabolites. Differences between diets evaluated with Wilcoxon's signed rank sum test. Rapeseed oil diet contained 326 mg more plant sterols than the olive oil diet. Rapeseed oil tended to decrease cholesterol absorption by 11% (P = 0.050), and increased excretion of cholesterol, bile acids, and their sum as sterols by 9% (P = 0.021), 32% (P = 0.038), and 51% (P = 0.011) compared to olive oil. A serum marker for bile acid synthesis (7alpha-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one) increased by 28% (P = 0.038) within 10 h of consumption, and serum cholesterol levels decreased by 7% (P = 0.024), whereas a serum marker for cholesterol synthesis (lathosterol) as well as serum levels of plant sterols remained unchanged. Rapeseed oil and olive oil have different effects on cholesterol metabolism. Rapeseed oil, tends to decrease cholesterol absorption, increases excretion of cholesterol and bile acids, increases serum marker of bile acid synthesis, and decreases serum levels of cholesterol compared to olive oil. This could in part be explained by different concentrations of natural plant sterols. Supported by the Göteborg Medical Society, the Swedish Medical Society, the Swedish Board for Agricultural Research (SJFR) grant 50.0444/98 and by University of Göteborg.

  4. Nuclear energy in the oils sands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arsenault, J.E.

    2014-01-01

    The major Canadian oil sands are located in Alberta and Saskatchewan, with most production from the strata along the Athabasca River in Alberta. The economically recoverable oil sands reserves are estimated to be 168 billion barrels which at a current production rate of 1.8 million barrels per day (2012), are projected to last a very long time. Canada has been blessed with vast energy resources which make it potentially energy-independent and able to provide significant exports but there are concerns that their development cannot be managed in a wholly acceptable manner. Comparable concerns have been applied to nuclear energy in the past and in recent times to the oil sands. The technologies associated with these energy sources have always been controversial because they are at the confluence of economics and politics where finding a balance between risk and reward is difficult. So it should be no surprise that when these technologies get linked together in certain proposals their prospect for success is doubly difficult. The possible use of nuclear energy for production of oil from the oil sands dates back to the late 1950s, when an experiment to mine the oil by detonating an underground nuclear device was proposed. It was predicted that the heat and pressure released from such a device would create a large cavern into which oil would flow, and from where it would be pumped to the surface. Almost at the same time, oil sands research using conventional sources of energy had culminated with the development of practical refining processes, essentially those still in use today. These methods require large amounts of heat energy in the form of hot water and steam. In this century nuclear energy was proposed as the source for the heat required by the oil sands production processes. To date neither of these nuclear proposals for oil sands projects have been successful, because the economic and political balance could not be struck. (author)

  5. Dilution Confusion: Conventions for Defining a Dilution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishel, Laurence A.

    2010-01-01

    Two conventions for preparing dilutions are used in clinical laboratories. The first convention defines an "a:b" dilution as "a" volumes of solution A plus "b" volumes of solution B. The second convention defines an "a:b" dilution as "a" volumes of solution A diluted into a final volume of "b". Use of the incorrect dilution convention could affect…

  6. Zeta potential in oil-brine-sandstone system and its role in oil recovery during controlled salinity waterflooding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, S.; Jackson, M.

    2017-12-01

    Wettability alteration is widely recognised as a primary role in improved oil recovery (IOR) during controlled salinity waterflooding (CSW) by modifying brine composition. The change of wettability of core sample depends on adsorption of polar oil compounds into the mineral surface which influences its surface charge density and zeta potential. It has been proved that zeta potentials can be useful to quantify the wettability and incremental oil recovery in natural carbonates. However, the study of zeta potential in oil-brine-sandstone system has not investigated yet. In this experimental study, the zeta potential is used to examine the controlled salinity effects on IOR in nature sandstone (Doddington) aged with two types of crude oils (Oil T and Oil D) over 4 weeks at 80 °C. Results show that the zeta potential measured in the Oil T-brine-sandstone system following primary waterflooding decreases compared to that in fully water saturation, which is consistent with the negative oil found in carbonates study, and IOR response during secondary waterflooding using diluted seawater was observed. In the case of negative oil, the injected low salinity brine induces a more repulsive electrostatic force between the mineral-brine interface and oil-brine interface, which results in an increase disjoining pressure and alters the rock surface to be more water-wet. For Oil D with a positive oil-brine interface, the zeta potential becomes more positive compared to that under single phase condition. The conventional waterflooding fails to observe the IOR in Oil D-brine-sandstone system due to a less repulsive electrostatic force built up between the two interfaces. After switching the injection brine from low salinity brine to formation brine, the IOR was observed. Measured zeta potentials shed some light on the mechanism of wettability alteration in the oil-brine-sandstone system and oil recovery during CSW.

  7. [MICROBIAL DESTRUCTION MINERAL (OIL) MOTOR OIL].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homenko, L A; Nogina, T M

    2015-01-01

    In a review information is presented about composition of mineral motor oils and their negative impact on the environment and the ability of microorganisms, in particular actinobacteria, to assimilate hydrocarbon oil components. The role of bacteria is described in the process of cleaning up polluted environments motor oils and the prospect of their use in biotechnology, environmental clean-up of these pollutants.

  8. Study of antioxidant activity of non-conventional Brazilian fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzia, D M M; Jorge, N

    2014-06-01

    This study aimed to analyze the proximate composition of seeds from some non-conventional Brazilian fruits, as well as to evaluate the antioxidant activity through DPPH(•) free radical and to quantify the total phenolic compounds. To obtain the extracts, dried and crushed seeds were extracted with ethanol for 30 min, in a ratio of 1:3 (seeds:ethyl alcohol), under continuous agitation, at room temperature. Then, the mixtures were filtered and the supernatants were subjected to rotary evaporator under pressure reduced to 40 °C. The results report that the seeds of non-conventional fruits are remarkable sources of lipids, and the extraction of oil from these seeds could be an alternative for the commercial utilization of waste. They also presented significant percentages of protein and carbohydrates. Ethanol extracts of seeds from non-conventional Brazilian fruits showed relevant antioxidant activity and high amount of phenolic compounds. Therefore Brazilian non-conventional fruits can be used as functional food products or feed.

  9. Photocatalytic Desulfurization of Waste Tire Pyrolysis Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Napida Hinchiranan

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Waste tire pyrolysis oil has high potential to replace conventional fossil liquid fuels due to its high calorific heating value. However, the large amounts of sulfurous compounds in this oil hinders its application. Thus, the aim of this research was to investigate the possibility to apply the photo-assisted oxidation catalyzed by titanium dioxide (TiO2, Degussa P-25 to partially remove sulfurous compounds in the waste tire pyrolysis oil under milder reaction conditions without hydrogen consumption. A waste tire pyrolysis oil with 0.84% (w/w of sulfurous content containing suspended TiO2 was irradiated by using a high-pressure mercury lamp for 7 h. The oxidized sulfur compounds were then migrated into the solvent-extraction phase. A maximum % sulfur removal of 43.6% was achieved when 7 g/L of TiO2 was loaded into a 1/4 (v/v mixture of pyrolysis waste tire oil/acetonitrile at 50 °C in the presence of air. Chromatographic analysis confirmed that the photo-oxidized sulfurous compounds presented in the waste tire pyrolysis oil had higher polarity, which were readily dissolved and separated in distilled water. The properties of the photoxidized product were also reported and compared to those of crude oil.

  10. Organic versus conventional fertilization effects on sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) growth in a greenhouse system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocimum basilicum L. (sweet basil) is an essential oil producing crop used in culinary and fragrance applications. The objective of this controlled environment study was to evaluate the effects of organic and conventional fertilization, (applied at two nitrogen rates, 150 and 250 kg N/ha), on plant g...

  11. Tribological behaviour of conventional Al–Sn and equivalent Al–Pb ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    It was found that aluminium tin and leaded aluminium alloys slightly differ in mechanical properties. Frictional states created during sliding against steel shaft (hardness 55–60 Rc) under oil lubrication were not much different. Leaded aluminium alloy bushes show marginally lower friction than the conventional ones.

  12. Trends in oil spills from tanker ships 1995-2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huijer, K.

    2005-01-01

    The trends in oil spills around the world over from 1995 to 2004 were examined and analyzed for possible influences on spill volumes and frequencies for incidents of 3 spill size classes. The International Tanker Owners Pollution Federation (ITOPF) has maintained a database since 1974 of all oil spills from tankers, combined carriers and barges. The number of oil spills has decreased significantly in the last 30 years despite a steady increase in maritime oil trade since the 1980s. The recent trends were identified by causes, locations, oil type, and shipping legislation. The causes include ship loading/discharging, bunkering, collisions, groundings, hull failures and fires. The types of oil spilt include bunker, crude, cargo fuel, white product and some unknowns. It was concluded that the decline in oil spills is due to a range of initiatives taken by governments and the shipping industry rather than any one factor. Some notable influences towards reduced number of spills include: the international convention for the prevention of pollution from ships of 1972, as modified by the Protocol of 1978; the international convention for the safety of life at sea of 1974; and the Oil Pollution Act of 1990. Results of investigations into the causes of spills serve the purpose of informing the international process to further prevent and reduce marine oil pollution due to tankers. 7 refs., 5 tabs., 12 figs

  13. Apocryphal Angels in Nun Convents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Ávila Vivar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The preponderance of studies about viceregal angelic series, and the widespread belief that the representation of apocryphal angels is a specific peculiarity of viceregal angelology, have created such a close relation between it and the apocryphal angels, that they are even considered as synonymous. However, both the texts and the presence of this angels in the spanish convents of the XVII century, evidence that the apocryphal angels appeared and they were represented in Spain long before that in its american viceregal. Therefore, it is here where their origins and their meaning should be sought.

  14. Fat absorption in germ-free and conventional rats artificially deprived of bile secretion

    OpenAIRE

    Demarne, Y.; Corring, T.; Pihet, A.; Sacquet, E.

    1982-01-01

    Bile duct ligation was performed in germ-free and conventional rats in order to study the effects of bile deprivation on the absorption of dietary lipids and the excretion of faecal lipids in the presence or the absence of gastrointestinal flora. The main consequence of bile duct ligation in conventional rats was decrease of about 50% in the apparent absorption of dietary lipids (peanut oil). In germ-free rats, absorption decreased by only about 25%.In conventional as well as in germ-free con...

  15. Diverticular Disease: Reconsidering Conventional Wisdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peery, Anne F.; Sandler, Robert S.

    2013-01-01

    Colonic diverticula are common in developed countries and complications of colonic diverticulosis are responsible for a significant burden of disease. Several recent publications have called into question long held beliefs about diverticular disease. Contrary to conventional wisdom, studies have not shown that a high fiber diet protects against asymptomatic diverticulosis. The risk of developing diverticulitis among individuals with diverticulosis is lower than the 10–25% commonly quoted, and may be as low as 1% over 11 years. Nuts and seeds do not increase the risk of diverticulitis or diverticular bleeding. It is unclear whether diverticulosis, absent diverticulitis or overt colitis, is responsible for chronic gastrointestinal symptoms or worse quality of life. The role of antibiotics in acute diverticulitis has been challenged by a large randomized trial that showed no benefit in selected patients. The decision to perform elective surgery should be made on a case-by-case basis and not routinely after a second episode of diverticulitis, when there has been a complication, or in young people. A colonoscopy should be performed to exclude colon cancer after an attack of acute diverticulitis but may not alter outcomes among individuals who have had a colonoscopy prior to the attack. Given these surprising findings, it is time to reconsider conventional wisdom about diverticular disease. PMID:23669306

  16. Fish oil for use as hydraulic oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen, T.E. [Maine Univ., Orono, ME (United States). Dept. of Bio-Resource Engineering; Bimbo, A.P. [Zapata Protein, Inc., Reedville, VA (United States). Menhaden Oil Refinery

    1996-04-01

    A study initiated to find a non-toxic environmentally friendly fluid suitable for use in hydraulic systems, such as in marine and food processing operations, has resulted in a fish-oil-based fluid that appears promising. This paper describes the fluid testing and laboratory and field system tests used to evaluate the fish oil with additive packages. The fish oil with non-toxic additives was endurance tested for durability in complete hydraulic systems in the laboratory and introduced into a commercial system. The results indicate that the oil functioned very well in the systems and the components were compatible with the oil, giving no degradation, wear or performance problems. (author)

  17. Implementing the chemical weapons convention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kellman, B.; Tanzman, E. A.

    1999-01-01

    In 1993, as the CWC ratification process was beginning, concerns arose that the complexity of integrating the CWC with national law could cause each nation to implement the Convention without regard to what other nations were doing, thereby causing inconsistencies among States as to how the CWC would be carried out. As a result, the author's colleagues and the author prepared the Manual for National Implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention and presented it to each national delegation at the December 1993 meeting of the Preparatory Commission in The Hague. During its preparation, the Committee of CWC Legal Experts, a group of distinguished international jurists, law professors, legally-trained diplomats, government officials, and Parliamentarians from every region of the world, including Central Europe, reviewed the Manual. In February 1998, they finished the second edition of the Manual in order to update it in light of developments since the CWC entered into force on 29 April 1997. The Manual tries to increase understanding of the Convention by identifying its obligations and suggesting methods of meeting them. Education about CWC obligations and available alternatives to comply with these requirements can facilitate national response that are consistent among States Parties. Thus, the Manual offers options that can strengthen international realization of the Convention's goals if States Parties act compatibly in implementing them. Equally important, it is intended to build confidence that the legal issues raised by the Convention are finite and addressable. They are now nearing competition of an internet version of this document so that interested persons can access it electronically and can view the full text of all of the national implementing legislation it cites. The internet address, or URL, for the internet version of the Manual is http: //www.cwc.ard.gov. This paper draws from the Manual. It comparatively addresses approximately thirty

  18. Implementing the chemical weapons convention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kellman, B.; Tanzman, E. A.

    1999-12-07

    In 1993, as the CWC ratification process was beginning, concerns arose that the complexity of integrating the CWC with national law could cause each nation to implement the Convention without regard to what other nations were doing, thereby causing inconsistencies among States as to how the CWC would be carried out. As a result, the author's colleagues and the author prepared the Manual for National Implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention and presented it to each national delegation at the December 1993 meeting of the Preparatory Commission in The Hague. During its preparation, the Committee of CWC Legal Experts, a group of distinguished international jurists, law professors, legally-trained diplomats, government officials, and Parliamentarians from every region of the world, including Central Europe, reviewed the Manual. In February 1998, they finished the second edition of the Manual in order to update it in light of developments since the CWC entered into force on 29 April 1997. The Manual tries to increase understanding of the Convention by identifying its obligations and suggesting methods of meeting them. Education about CWC obligations and available alternatives to comply with these requirements can facilitate national response that are consistent among States Parties. Thus, the Manual offers options that can strengthen international realization of the Convention's goals if States Parties act compatibly in implementing them. Equally important, it is intended to build confidence that the legal issues raised by the Convention are finite and addressable. They are now nearing competition of an internet version of this document so that interested persons can access it electronically and can view the full text of all of the national implementing legislation it cites. The internet address, or URL, for the internet version of the Manual is http: //www.cwc.ard.gov. This paper draws from the Manual. It comparatively addresses approximately thirty

  19. Effect of Different Sterilization Methods on the Extracted Oil from Oil Palm Fruit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasimah Kasmin; Hasimah Kasmin; Roila Awang; Azwan Mat Lazim

    2015-01-01

    Sterilization is important process during the processing of oil palm fruits in order to produce crude palm oil (CPO). This process can be carried out using steam (conventional method), dry heating or wet heating method. In this study, the effectiveness of the dry heating and wet heating method for sterilization and solvent extraction were carried out. The sterilization time of these two methods were varied at 30, 60 and 90 min in order to determine their effectiveness on the oil extraction and their quality. Results showed that, at 30 min of sterilization, the wet heating produced a higher percentage of oil extraction compared to the conventional and dry heating, with average of 27.65 %, 19.01 % and 20.21 % respectively. In comparison with the conventional method, both sterilization methods gave better FFA and DOBI results. This can be seen where the average of free fatty acid (FFA) content for proposed sterilization method was between 0.37 % to 0.93 % while, average deterioration of bleach ability index (DOBI) was from 4.89 to 6.12. The average carotene content was in agreement with the conventional method at a range of 644.64 ppm to 764.80 ppm. (author)

  20. Non-Petroleum Oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    These include synthetics such as silicone fluids and tung oils, wood-derivative oils such as resin/rosin, animal fats/oil, and seed oils. Many have similar physical properties to petroleum-based, such as water insolubility and formation of slicks.

  1. A combined microwave pretreatment/solvent extraction process for the production of oil from palm fruit: optimisation, oil quality and effect of prolonged exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Jason Cx; Chuah, Cheng-Hock; Cheng, Sit-Foon

    2017-04-01

    Conventional palm oil milling involves multiple stages after fruit collection; in particular, oil clarification introduces water into the pressed oil, which results in a large quantity of wastewater. A combined process of microwave pretreatment and solvent extraction to mill crude palm oil, without introducing water or steam, is described. An excellent yield (up to 30%) of oil was obtained with pretreatment in a 42 L, 1000 W and 2450 MHz microwave oven followed by hexane extraction. The optimum conditions (10 min microwave pretreatment and 12 h solvent extraction) yielded an oil with a low free fatty acid content (oil had a fatty acid composition not resembling those of conventional crude palm oil and crude palm kernel oil. In the pretreatment, the leached oil had 6.3% lauric acid whereas the solvent extracted oil had only 1.5% lauric acid. Among the factors affecting the oil quality, microwave pretreatment affected the oil quality significantly; however, an optimised duration that would ensure high efficiency in solvent extraction also resulted in ruptured fruitlets, although not to the extent of causing excessive oxidation. In fact, microwave pretreatment should exceed 12 min; after only 15 min, the oil had 1-methylcyclopentanol (12.96%), 1-tetradecanol (9.44%), 1-nonadecene (7.22%), nonanal (7.13%) and 1-tridecene (5.09%), which probably arose from the degradation of fibres. Microwave pretreatment represents an alternative milling process for crude palm oil compared with conventional processes in the omission of wet treatment with steam. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Experiment on the Effects of Storage Duration of Biodiesel produced from Crude Palm Oil, Waste Cooking oil and Jatropha

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanihar, Nadiarulah; Khalid, Amir; Mustaffa, Norrizal; Jaat, Norrizam; Sapit, Azwan; Razali, Azahari; Sunar, Norshuhaila Mohamed

    2017-10-01

    Biodiesel based on vegetable oil is an alternative that had various advantage in term of sustainability and environmental attractive compare to others conventional diesel. Biodiesel is product of any fat or oil that derived from any organic sources through a refinery process called transesterification process. This research investigates the effects of storage duration and variant ambient condition on the biodiesel properties and characteristics. In this study, there are three types of blending which is 5vol% blends ( 5vol% plant oil 95vol% diesel), 10vol% blending (10vol% plant oil and 90vol% diesel) and 15vol% blending (15vol% plant oil and 85vol% diesel) each called CPO5 (crude palm oil 5vol%), CPO10 (crude palm oil 10vol%),CPO15 (crude palm oil 15vol%), JO5 (jatropha oil 5vol%), JO10 (jatropha oil 10vol%),and JO15 (jatropha oil 15vol%) respectively. Biodiesel samples were stored at indoor condition and outdoor condition for a 3 months period. The fuel properties such as acid value, viscosity, density, water content and flash point are observed with the laboratory instrument. Flash point value and water content increased under both of indoor and outdoor condition and a steady data for viscosity and density. However, acid value at indoor condition nearly constant but increased dramatically for outdoor condition over the time.

  3. Verification of Some Vegetable Oils as Cutting Fluid for Aluminium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Obi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Vegetable oils (palm oil, groundnut oil, shear butter oil and cotton seed oil have been used as lubricants in the turning operation of aluminum under varying spindle speeds, feed rates and depths of cut and the results compared with kerosene (due to the gummy nature of aluminium metal. The parameters investigated are the chip thickness ratio, surface finish and surface temperature. Their performances when compared with the conventional soluble oil have shown that they can perform the same functions as imported ones in the machining of aluminum. They reduced chip thickness ratio, improved surface finish and exhibited good cooling behaviour at the work piece-tool interface. This performance is due to their high viscosities and the presence of surface active agents such as stearic acid and halogens, such as chlorine which help to reduce surface energy of a liquid and increase its wetting ability or oiliness.

  4. Performance Evaluation of Palm Oil as Biodiesel

    OpenAIRE

    Sunday A. LAWAL; Ahmed BABAKANO

    2011-01-01

    This work involved the production of diesel from most commonly available palm fruits oil Pisifera elaeis guineensis and testing for the brake power, torque of an engine and specific fuel consumption of a conventional diesel engine utilizing the produced diesel from palm oil. The obtained results were compared with those for fossil diesel fuel. The results show that the value of brake power was 6927.21W for fossil diesel while that of biodiesel was 7135.02W. Similarly the value for brake torqu...

  5. Grounding Damage to Conventional Vessels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lützen, Marie; Simonsen, Bo Cerup

    2003-01-01

    The present paper is concerned with rational design of conventional vessels with regard to bottom damage generated in grounding accidents. The aim of the work described here is to improve the design basis, primarily through analysis of new statistical data for grounding damage. The current...... regulations for design of bottom compartment layout with regard to grounding damages are largely based on statistical damage data. New and updated damage statistics holding 930 grounding accident records has been investigated. The bottom damage statistics is compared to current regulations for the bottom...... compartment layout, in an attempt to determine the probability of exceeding the design requirements. Distributions for the extent of damage, such as damage length, height and width, are determined. Furthermore, attempts are made at identifying the governing grounding scenarios and deriving a formula...

  6. Rapid Analytical Method for the Determination of Aflatoxins in Plant-Derived Dietary Supplement and Cosmetic Oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consumption of edible oils derived from conventional crop plants is increasing because they are generally regarded as more healthy alternatives to animal based fats and oils. More recently there has been increased interest in the use of alternative specialty plant-derived oils, including those from...

  7. Laparoscopic splenectomy using conventional instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalvi A

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION : Laparoscopic splenectomy (LS is an accepted procedure for elective splenectomy. Advancement in technology has extended the possibility of LS in massive splenomegaly [Choy et al., J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A 14(4, 197-200 (2004], trauma [Ren et al., Surg Endosc 15(3, 324 (2001; Mostafa et al., Surg Laparosc Endosc Percutan Tech 12(4, 283-286 (2002], and cirrhosis with portal hypertension [Hashizume et al., Hepatogastroenterology 49(45, 847-852 (2002]. In a developing country, these advanced gadgets may not be always available. We performed LS using conventional and reusable instruments in a public teaching the hospital without the use of the advanced technology. The technique of LS and the outcome in these patients is reported. MATERIALS AND METHODS : Patients undergoing LS for various hematological disorders from 1998 to 2004 were included. Electrocoagulation, clips, and intracorporeal knotting were the techniques used for tackling short-gastric vessels and splenic pedicle. Specimen was delivered through a Pfannensteil incision. RESULTS : A total of 26 patients underwent LS. Twenty-two (85% of patients had spleen size more than 500 g (average weight being 942.55 g. Mean operative time was 214 min (45-390 min. The conversion rate was 11.5% ( n = 3. Average duration of stay was 5.65 days (3-30 days. Accessory spleen was detected and successfully removed in two patients. One patient developed subphrenic abscess. There was no mortality. There was no recurrence of hematological disease. CONCLUSION : Laparoscopic splenectomy using conventional equipment and instruments is safe and effective. Advanced technology has a definite advantage but is not a deterrent to the practice of LS.

  8. Heavy crude oils - From Geology to Upgrading - An Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huc, A.Y.

    2010-01-01

    Heavy oils, extra-heavy oils and tar sands are major players for the future of energy. They represent a massive world resource, at least the size of conventional oils. They are found all over the world but Canada and Venezuela together account, by themselves, for more than half of world deposits. They share the same origin as the lighter conventional oils, but their geological fate drove them into thick, viscous tar-like crude oils. Most of them result from alteration processes mediated by microbial degradation. They are characterized by a low content of lighter cuts and a high content of impurities such as sulfur and nitrogen compounds and metals; so, their production is difficult and deployment of specific processes is required in order to enhance their transportability and to upgrade them into valuable products meeting market needs, and honouring environmental requirements. Although these resources are increasingly becoming commercially producible, less than 1% of total heavy crude oil deposits worldwide are under active development. The voluntarily wide scope of this volume encompasses geology, production, transportation, upgrading, economics and environmental issues of heavy oils. It does not pretend to be exhaustive, but to provide an authoritative view of this very important energy resource. Besides presenting the current status of knowledge and technology involved in exploiting heavy oils, the purpose is to provide an insight into technical, economic and environmental challenges that should be taken up in order to increase the efficiency of production and processing, and finally to give a prospective view of the emerging technologies which will contribute to releasing the immense potential reserves of heavy oil and tar deposits. Contents: Part 1. Heavy Crude Oils.1. Heavy Crude Oils in the Perspective of World Oil Demand. 2. Definitions and Specificities. 3. Geological Origin of Heavy Crude Oils. 4. Properties and composition. Part 2. Reservoir Engineering

  9. Contact Allergy to Neem Oil.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, Anton; Jagtman, Berend A; Woutersen, Marjolijn

    2018-01-01

    A case of allergic contact dermatitis from neem oil is presented. Neem oil (synonyms: Melia azadirachta seed oil [INCI name], nim oil, margosa oil) is a vegetable (fixed) oil obtained from the seed of the neem tree Azadirachta indica by cold pressing. Contact allergy to neem oil has been described

  10. Paris Convention on third party liability in the field of nuclear energy and Brussels Convention Supplementary to the Paris Convention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This new bilingual (English and French) edition of the 1960 Paris Convention and 1963 Brussels Supplementary Convention incorporates the provisions of the Protocols which amended each of them on two occasions, in 1964 and 1982. The Expose des motifs to the Paris Convention, as revised in 1982 is also included in this pubication. (NEA) [fr

  11. Kashagan oil field development. Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urbaniak, D.; Gerebizza, E.; Wasse, G.; Kochladze, M.

    2007-12-01

    Based on our research and field investigations of the Kashagan oil field development and relevant infrastructure in the Atyrau and Mangistau regions of Kazakhstan (cities and vicinities of Aktau, Atash, Atyrau, Bautino, Bolashak, Karabatan and Koshanai) evidence has been collected that raises serious concerns about environmental, social and health effects of this oil field development - such as sulphur emissions and storage which may pose serious threats for the communities close to the Kashagan oil facilities and for the Caspian Sea environment. Furthermore, since becoming the single Operator of the North Caspian Sea Production Sharing Agreement (PSA), the Agip Kazakhstan North Caspian Operating Company N.V. (Agip KCO) has failed to release all information available on the environmental, health and social impacts of its operations in the Kashagan oil field. As requested by the local communities and required by Constitution of Kazakhstan Republic and Aarhus Convention on Access to Information, Public Participation in Decision-Making and Access to Justice in Environmental Matters ratified by Kazakhstan in 2001, such information must be made available. There is also a growing concern among the civil society that the European Commission through its officials is publicly expressing support to European oil companies' members of the Agip KCO despite their failure to fulfil basic environmental regulations. This continued support contradicts the European Union's fundamental values and frequent statements related to Human Rights and Sustainable Development. Thousands of people have already been relocated in the region because of sulphur emissions and other highly poisonous chemicals such as mercaptans, which are present at very high levels in Northern Caspian oil. Unprotected storage of large quantities of sulphur is also recognised as a major cause of acid rain on a global level. This Report implores Agip KCO to release all available and required information on the

  12. Equal Remuneration Convention (ILO No. 100).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    The government of Uruguay ratified this UN International Labor Organization convention on equal remuneration on November 16, 1989, and the Government of Zimbabwe ratified this Convention on December 14, 1989.

  13. A flexible fuzzy regression algorithm for forecasting oil consumption estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azadeh, A.; Khakestani, M.; Saberi, M.

    2009-01-01

    Oil consumption plays a vital role in socio-economic development of most countries. This study presents a flexible fuzzy regression algorithm for forecasting oil consumption based on standard economic indicators. The standard indicators are annual population, cost of crude oil import, gross domestic production (GDP) and annual oil production in the last period. The proposed algorithm uses analysis of variance (ANOVA) to select either fuzzy regression or conventional regression for future demand estimation. The significance of the proposed algorithm is three fold. First, it is flexible and identifies the best model based on the results of ANOVA and minimum absolute percentage error (MAPE), whereas previous studies consider the best fitted fuzzy regression model based on MAPE or other relative error results. Second, the proposed model may identify conventional regression as the best model for future oil consumption forecasting because of its dynamic structure, whereas previous studies assume that fuzzy regression always provide the best solutions and estimation. Third, it utilizes the most standard independent variables for the regression models. To show the applicability and superiority of the proposed flexible fuzzy regression algorithm the data for oil consumption in Canada, United States, Japan and Australia from 1990 to 2005 are used. The results show that the flexible algorithm provides accurate solution for oil consumption estimation problem. The algorithm may be used by policy makers to accurately foresee the behavior of oil consumption in various regions.

  14. Effects of degumming on biodiesel properties of some non-conventional seedoils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolanle Saheed Adekunle

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the effect of degumming process on physicochemical and biodiesel properties of six non-conventional oils in Nigeria extracted from the seeds and flesh of Terminalia catappa (seed, Irvingia gabonesis (seed, Glycine max (seed, Persea americana(flesh, Tithonia diversifolia (seed, and Dacryodes edulis(flesh. The fruits and seeds were air-dried to constant weight and pulverized. Oil was extracted from the milled sample using Soxhlet extraction method. The oils were degummed using 300 μg/mL of NaCl solution to obtain the refined (degummed oil. Physicochemical properties of both degummed and crude oils were carried out using the AOAC (1990 methods. The fuel properties of the biodiesel obtained were carried out using ASTM methods. Results showed that degumming process lead to high biodiesel yield and reduced the acid value and iodine value compared with the crude oils. The study therefore concluded that degummed oils were a better substitute for biodiesel fuels production.

  15. Chemical compositions and antioxidant activity of Heracleum persicum essential oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Gharachorloo

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In this study essential oil of the aerial parts of Heracleum persicum a spice widely used in Iran was isolated by conventional hydrodistillation (HD and microwave-assisted hydrodistillation (MAHD techniques. The extraction yield was determined and the chemical compositions of essential oils were identified by the application of gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS. The antioxidant activity was determined by two different methods: 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH free radical scavenging and oven test methods. Although the main compounds of essential oils by the both extraction methods were similar, the essential oil extracted by HD with lower extraction efficiency showed more diverse compounds. The evaluation of antioxidant activity of the essential oil measured by delay in sunflower oil oxidation indicated that the antioxidant activity was dependent on the concentration which increased when higher concentrations of the essential oils were applied. The results of DPPH radical assay also indicated that the percentage of inhibition increased with increasing of essential oil concentration and IC50 value for essential oil extracted by MAHD method was obtained 1.25 mg/mL. Therefore the Heracleum persicum essential oil might be recommended for use as a flavoring agent and a source of natural antioxidants in functional foods, formulation of the supplements and in medicinal due to numerous pharmacological activities.

  16. Environmental significance of biocatalytic conversion of low grade oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, M.S.; Premuzic, E.T.; Lian, H.; Zhou, W.M.; Yablon, J.

    1996-09-01

    Studies dealing with the interactions between extremophilic microorganisms and crude oils have led to the identification of biocatalysts which through multiple biochemical reactions catalyze desulfurization, denitrogenation, and demetalation reactions in oils. Concurrently, the oils are also converted to lighter oils. These complex biochemical reactions have served as models in the development of the crude oil bioconversion technology to be applied prior to the treatment of oils by conventional chemical processes. In practical terms, this means that the efficiency of the existing technology is being enhanced. For example, the recently introduced additional regulation for the emission of nitrogen oxides in some states restricts further the kinds of oils that may be used in burners. The biocatalysts being developed in this laboratory selectively interact with nitrogen compounds, i.e. basic and neutral types present in the oil and, hence, affect the fuel NOx production. This, in turn, has a cost-efficient influence on the processed oils and their consumption. In this paper, these cost-efficient and beneficial effects will be discussed in terms of produced oils, the lowering of sulfur and nitrogen contents, and the effect on products, as well as the longevity of catalysts due to the removal of heteroatoms and metal containing compounds found in crudes.

  17. Applicability of Vegetable Oils as a Wood Preservative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eylem Dizman Tomak

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Conventional heavy duty wood preservatives have been banned or restricted for some applications due to their mammalian toxicity and their adverse effect on the environment. New, eco-friendly, but nevertheless still effective protection systems, is needed to protect wood in outdoors. Non-toxic vegetable oils can form of a protective layer on the surface of the wood cells which decrease water uptake of wood. For that reason, oils have a good potential as being a wood preservative. However, impregnation with vegetable oils is insufficient to impart adequate biological decay and termite resistance, and indeed the treatment may increase wood’s propensity to burn. In addition, a high level of oil absorption required for good protection make the process impractical and uneconomic to use. The efficiency of the treatment can be improved with using the biocides and oils together. Beside this, usage of modified oils can decrease the retention levels in wood. In this study, applicability of vegetable oils being one of the environment-friendly, biodegradable water repellents on wood treatments was reported. Furthermore, problems related to the use of oils for wood protection, and possible solutions for the problems were discussed.In this study, applicability of vegetable oils as one of the environment-friendly, biodegradable water repellents was reported. Furthermore, problems related to the use of oils for wood protection and possible solutions for the problems were discussed

  18. Why mixed equilibria may not be conventions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Pelle Guldborg

    2008-01-01

    on dropping Lewis' eccentric ‘coordination' requirement as well as that of common knowledge, they are confused on whether conventions should be regarded as proper thereby precluding mixed equilibria. In this paper I argue that mixed equilibria may not be conventions, but also suggest that the reason...... for this reveals that though common knowledge is not necessary for a convention to operate, it may be utilized as to identify the conventional aspect of a given practice....

  19. Preparation of function-enhanced vegetable oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Maeda

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Previously, we (HM found that most commercially available edible oils, which were processed by hexane extraction followed by a number of purification steps, were extremely low in anti-peroxy radical (ROO., or radical scavenging activity. This is a great contrast to the respective virgin oils as exemplified by extra-virgin olive oil or crude rape seed oil [1-4] (Figure 1. Therefore, such highly purified oils will became prooxidant and less desirable food components in terms of health oriented diet. Oxidized oils may eventually cause DNA cleavages, modification of proteins, RNA, and lipids, as well as cellular damage, or promote inflammation and carcinogenesis at later time [5-9]. These commercial oils of low antioxidant activity may be improved by adding functionally effective antioxidative components, by using dried vegetable-waste such as tomato-juice-waste-residues and wine-ferment-waste-residues. Their antioxiative components will be transferred into the functionally poor grade edible oils, and consequently, one can improve the quality of such functionally poor oils and thereby contributing human health [2,8,9]. The purpose of this paper is to report a practical procedure to fortify functionally low grade conventional edible oils to functionally enriched edible oils using dried vegetable-waste residues such as tomato juice waste, and wine-ferment-residues, or other vegetable-waste residues. Methods: (1 Preparation and measurements of lycopene and carotenoid enriched oils. To 5.0g or 1.0g of the dried residue of tomato juice waste, 100ml of commercial rape seed (canola oil was added respectively. Each mixture was incubated at room temperature in dark for several weeks. Amount of lycopene and carotenoids extracted into the oil was monitored by increase of absorption (400-550nm and fluorescence at 470nm of carotenoid. Grape-juice ferment (wine waste was similarly prepared after hot air drying, and immersed in canola oil. (2

  20. Asian oil demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fesharaki, F.

    2005-01-01

    This conference presentation examined global oil market development and the role of Asian demand. It discussed plateau change versus cyclical movement in the global oil market; supply and demand issues of OPEC and non-OPEC oil; if high oil prices reduce demand; and the Asian oil picture in the global context. Asian oil demand has accounted for about 50 per cent of the global incremental oil market growth. The presentation provided data charts in graphical format on global and Asia-Pacific incremental oil demand from 1990-2005; Asia oil demand growth for selected nations; real GDP growth in selected Asian countries; and, Asia-Pacific oil production and net import requirements. It also included charts in petroleum product demand for Asia-Pacific, China, India, Japan, and South Korea. Other data charts included key indicators for China's petroleum sector; China crude production and net oil import requirements; China's imports and the share of the Middle East; China's oil exports and imports; China's crude imports by source for 2004; China's imports of main oil products for 2004; India's refining capacity; India's product balance for net-imports and net-exports; and India's trade pattern of oil products. tabs., figs

  1. Investigation into photostability of soybean oils by thermal lens spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savi, E. L.; Malacarne, L. C.; Baesso, M. L.; Pintro, P. T. M.; Croge, C.; Shen, J.; Astrath, N. G. C.

    2015-06-01

    Assessment of photochemical stability is essential for evaluating quality and the shelf life of vegetable oils, which are very important aspects of marketing and human health. Most of conventional methods used to investigate oxidative stability requires long time experimental procedures with high consumption of chemical inputs for the preparation or extraction of sample compounds. In this work we propose a time-resolved thermal lens method to analyze photostability of edible oils by quantitative measurement of photoreaction cross-section. An all-numerical routine is employed to solve a complex theoretical problem involving photochemical reaction, thermal lens effect, and mass diffusion during local laser excitation. The photostability of pure oil and oils with natural and synthetic antioxidants is investigated. The thermal lens results are compared with those obtained by conventional methods, and a complete set of physical properties of the samples is presented.

  2. Investigation into photostability of soybean oils by thermal lens spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savi, E L; Malacarne, L C; Baesso, M L; Pintro, P T M; Croge, C; Shen, J; Astrath, N G C

    2015-06-15

    Assessment of photochemical stability is essential for evaluating quality and the shelf life of vegetable oils, which are very important aspects of marketing and human health. Most of conventional methods used to investigate oxidative stability requires long time experimental procedures with high consumption of chemical inputs for the preparation or extraction of sample compounds. In this work we propose a time-resolved thermal lens method to analyze photostability of edible oils by quantitative measurement of photoreaction cross-section. An all-numerical routine is employed to solve a complex theoretical problem involving photochemical reaction, thermal lens effect, and mass diffusion during local laser excitation. The photostability of pure oil and oils with natural and synthetic antioxidants is investigated. The thermal lens results are compared with those obtained by conventional methods, and a complete set of physical properties of the samples is presented. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Studies of Terminalia catappa L. oil: characterization and biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, I C F; de Carvalho, S H V; Solleti, J I; Ferreira de La Salles, W; Teixeira da Silva de La Salles, K; Meneghetti, S M P

    2008-09-01

    Since the biodiesel program has been started in Brazil, the investigation of alternative sources of triacylglycerides from species adapted at semi-arid lands became a very important task for Brazilian researchers. Thus we initiated studies with the fruits of the Terminalia catappa L (TC), popularly known in Brazil as "castanhola", evaluating selected properties and chemical composition of the oil, as well any potential application in biodiesel production. The oil was obtained from the kernels of the fruit, with yields around 49% (% mass). Also, its fatty acid composition was quite similar to that of conventional oils. The crude oil of the TC was transesterified, using a conventional catalyst and methanol to form biodiesel. The studied physicochemical properties of the TC biodiesel are in acceptable range for use as biodiesel in diesel engines.

  4. Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy of edible oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinovitser, Alex; Valchev, Dimitar G; Abbott, Derek

    2017-06-01

    Chemical degradation of edible oils has been studied using conventional spectroscopic methods spanning the spectrum from ultraviolet to mid-IR. However, the possibility of morphological changes of oil molecules that can be detected at terahertz frequencies is beginning to receive some attention. Furthermore, the rapidly decreasing cost of this technology and its capability for convenient, in situ measurement of material properties, raises the possibility of monitoring oil during cooking and processing at production facilities, and more generally within the food industry. In this paper, we test the hypothesis that oil undergoes chemical and physical changes when heated above the smoke point, which can be detected in the 0.05-2 THz spectral range, measured using the conventional terahertz time-domain spectroscopy technique. The measurements demonstrate a null result in that there is no significant change in the spectra of terahertz optical parameters after heating above the smoke point for 5 min.

  5. Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy of edible oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinovitser, Alex; Valchev, Dimitar G.; Abbott, Derek

    2017-06-01

    Chemical degradation of edible oils has been studied using conventional spectroscopic methods spanning the spectrum from ultraviolet to mid-IR. However, the possibility of morphological changes of oil molecules that can be detected at terahertz frequencies is beginning to receive some attention. Furthermore, the rapidly decreasing cost of this technology and its capability for convenient, in situ measurement of material properties, raises the possibility of monitoring oil during cooking and processing at production facilities, and more generally within the food industry. In this paper, we test the hypothesis that oil undergoes chemical and physical changes when heated above the smoke point, which can be detected in the 0.05-2 THz spectral range, measured using the conventional terahertz time-domain spectroscopy technique. The measurements demonstrate a null result in that there is no significant change in the spectra of terahertz optical parameters after heating above the smoke point for 5 min.

  6. Mexican oil industry: Shifting to difficult oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazan G., Gerardo; Gonzalez, Cristobal J.

    2010-09-15

    Mexico has stepped into an important transition of declining oil fields and new challenging oil projects. The aim of this paper is to show a new perspective of the oil resources that have been exploited throughout the Mexican territory, as well as the remaining resources yet to be exploited. We have developed a resources/production-costs chart that illustrates the historical and future development of the Mexican oil industry, showing the shift that the industry will face in the coming years; this chart was taken from a model already in use by the most prestige energy agencies in the world.

  7. Formation of the oil composition of the Yu0 Bazhenov formation, Salym oil field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.V. Soboleva

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The Bazhenov horizon of Western Siberia has been studied in considerable detail from different perspectives and different methods, a large number of studies have been devoted to a wide range of issues related to the lithological composition of rocks, their reservoir properties, the study of organic matter, properties and composition of oil at various analytical levels, and many others. This work is devoted to restoring conditions for the formation of oil properties and composition of the Yu0 Salym oil field, based mainly on the geochemical aspects of the study of oil changes both in area and in the section within the productive layer of Salym structure, using some geological data, such as structural plan for the reflecting horizon B (the roof of the Bazhenov formation, having a complex configuration, reservoir temperatures and pressure, well flow rates, and others. There is no single reservoir at the Salym field in the Yu0 formation. For the conclusions of the geological-geochemical interpretation, a sampling of 61 samples of oil from exploration, appraisal and production wells of the initial stages of production was used, since in the future when oil is extracted, the ecology in the deposits changes, and 21 samples of oil from other fields in the West Siberian oil and gas basin. Conventionally, three types of oils are distinguished, differing in their physicochemical parameters, group hydrocarbon and molecular composition. It was suggested that in addition to the own organic matter of the Bazhenov formation, hydrocarbon fluids of the Vasyugan, Tyumen formations and possibly Paleozoic rocks were involved in the formation of the oil composition. The flow of light liquid hydrocarbons and gases occurred along the zones of faults of different genesis and duration of existence.

  8. Oil Depletion and the Energy Efficiency of Oil Production: The Case of California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam R. Brandt

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the impact of oil depletion on the energetic efficiency of oil extraction and refining in California. These changes are measured using energy return ratios (such as the energy return on investment, or EROI. I construct a time-varying first-order process model of energy inputs and outputs of oil extraction. The model includes factors such as oil quality, reservoir depth, enhanced recovery techniques, and water cut. This model is populated with historical data for 306 California oil fields over a 50 year period. The model focuses on the effects of resource quality decline, while technical efficiencies are modeled simply. Results indicate that the energy intensity of oil extraction in California increased significantly from 1955 to 2005. This resulted in a decline in the life-cycle EROI from 6.5 to 3.5 (measured as megajoules (MJ delivered to final consumers per MJ primary energy invested in energy extraction, transport, and refining. Most of this decline in energy returns is due to increasing need for steam-based thermal enhanced oil recovery, with secondary effects due to conventional resource depletion (e.g., increased water cut.

  9. Ultrasound induced green solvent extraction of oil from oleaginous seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Sicaire, Anne-Gaëlle; Abert Vian, Maryline; Fine, Frédéric; Carré, Patrick; Tostain, Sylvain

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasound-assisted extraction of rapeseed oil was investigated and compared with conventional extraction for energy efficiency, throughput time, extraction yield, cleanness, processing cost and product quality. A multivariate study enabled us to define optimal parameters (7.7 W/cm2 for ultrasonic power intensity, 40 °C for processing temperature, and a solid/liquid ratio of 1/15) for ultrasound-assisted extraction of oil from oilseeds to maximize lipid yield while reducing solvent consumptio...

  10. Pyrolytic Waste Plastic Oil and Its Diesel Blend: Fuel Characterization

    OpenAIRE

    M. Z. H. Khan; M. Sultana; M. R. Al-Mamun; M. R. Hasan

    2016-01-01

    The authors introduced waste plastic pyrolysis oil (WPPO) as an alternative fuel characterized in detail and compared with conventional diesel. High density polyethylene, HDPE, was pyrolyzed in a self-designed stainless steel laboratory reactor to produce useful fuel products. HDPE waste was completely pyrolyzed at 330?490?C for 2-3 hours to obtain solid residue, liquid fuel oil, and flammable gaseous hydrocarbon products. Comparison of the fuel properties to the petrodiesel fuel standards AS...

  11. China's Oil Rush in Africa

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hurst, Cindy

    2006-01-01

    ... now being forced to search for oil elsewhere. Africa has become a key oil exporter to China. In 2005 China imported nearly 701,000 bpd of oil from Africa, approximately 30 percent of its total oil imports...

  12. Nuclear stimulation of oil-reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delort, F.; Supiot, F.

    1970-01-01

    Underground nuclear explosions in the Hoggar nuclear test site have shown that the geological effects may increase the production of oil or gas reservoirs. By studying the permanent liquid flow-rate with approximate DUPUIT's equation, or with a computer code, it is shown that the conventional well flow-rate may be increased by a factor between 3 and 50, depending on the medium and explosion conditions. (author)

  13. Transesterification of jojoba oil, sunflower oil, neem oil, rocket seed oil and linseed oil by tin catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, Mazloom; Tariq, Muhammad; Ali, Saqib; Guo, Qing-Xiang; Fu, Yao

    2014-01-01

    The methanolysis of jojoba oil has been studied in the presence of tin powder, dibutyltin diacetate (C 4 H 9 ) 2 Sn(OOCCH 3 ) 2 , dioctyltin diacetate (C 8 H 17 ) 2 Sn(OOCCH 3 ) 2 , dibutyltin oxide (C 4 H 9 ) 2 SnO, dioctyltin oxide (C 8 H 17 ) 2 SnO, diphenyltin oxide (C 6 H 5 ) 2 SnO, dibutyltin chloride dihydroxide (C 4 H 9 ) 2 Sn(OH) 2 Cl, butyltinhydroxide hydrate (C 4 H 9 )Sn(=O)OH.xH 2 O, Ni nanoparticles and Pd nanoparticles act as catalysts. Among these, 1 weight % of dibutyltin diacetate shows the maximum conversion. Then, methanolysis of sunflower oil, neem oil, rocket seed oil and linseed oil into methyl esters studied in the presence of 1% dibutyltin diacetate as a catalyst and was compared their percentage conversions. The experimental yield for the conversion of jojoba oil, sunflower oil, neem oil, rocket seed oil and linseed oil into biodiesel was found to be 71%, 51%, 50.78%, 40.90% and 39.66%, respectively. The experimental yield of the conversion of jojoba oil into methyl esters was found to be increased up to 96% by increasing reaction time, without emulsion formation. The synthesis of jojoba seed oil biodiesel (JSOB), soybean oil biodiesel (SOB), neem oil biodiesel (NOB), rocket seed oil biodiesel (RSOB) and linseed oil biodiesel (LSOB) was confirmed by NMR ( 1 H and 13 C) and FT-IR analyses of biodiesel. - Highlights: • Transesterification of jojoba oil into biodiesel by tin and nano catalysts. • 1 weight % dibutyltin diacetate showed highest yield at 60 °C. • Catalytic conversion comparison of five oils using dibutyltin diacetate • The experimental yield of the conversion of jojoba oil increased with time. • FT-IR and NMR ( 1 H and 13 C) characterization

  14. Supercritical CO2Extraction of Rice Bran Oil -the Technology, Manufacture, and Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sookwong, Phumon; Mahatheeranont, Sugunya

    2017-06-01

    Rice bran is a good source of nutrients that have large amounts of phytochemicals and antioxidants. Conventional rice bran oil production requires many processes that may deteriorate and degrade these valuable substances. Supercritical CO 2 extraction is a green alternative method for producing rice bran oil. This work reviews production of rice bran oil by supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO 2 ) extraction. In addition, the usefulness and advantages of SC-CO 2 extracted rice bran oil for edible oil and health purpose is also described.

  15. OIL SOLUTIONS POWDER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technical product bulletin: aka OIL SOLUTIONS POWDER, SPILL GREEN LS, this miscellaneous oil spill control agent used in cleanups initially behaves like a synthetic sorbent, then as a solidifier as the molecular microencapsulating process occurs.

  16. Myristica oil poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myristica oil is found in: Aromatherapy products Mace Nutmeg Other products may also contain myristica oil. ... Take the product to the hospital with you, if possible. The ... signs, including temperature, pulse, breathing rate, and blood ...

  17. EPA OIL FIELD SOLUTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technical product bulletin: aka HYDRO-CLEAN, GLOBAL ENVIRONMENTAL CLEANER, AWAN PRA, this surface washing agent for oil spill cleanups is sprayed full strength on oiled rocky surfaces at shorelines, mangroves, and seagrasses. Allow at least 30 minute soak.

  18. Recycling of used oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vipulanandan, C.; Ghurye, G.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on used oil which is a valuable resource that should be recycled. Recycling used oil saves energy and natural resources. Used oil can be reprocessed and used as fuel in industrial burners and boilers. Unfortunately, more than 400 million gallons/year of used oil is lost through widespread dumping, partly due to lack of effective recycling procedures. Although used oil is not currently a federally listed hazardous waste, the U.S. EPA has proposed to list it as a hazardous waste, which will make recycling of used oil even more attractive. Laboratory samples, representing used oil, were used for detailed parametric studies and to determine the limitation of extending some of the current physical separation techniques such as sedimentation and centrifuging developed for oil-water and solid-liquid separation

  19. Eucalyptus oil poisoning.

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, S; Wiggins, J

    1980-01-01

    Accidental ingestion of eucalyptus oil by a 3-year-old boy caused profound central nervous system depression within 30 minutes, but he recovered rapidly after gastric lavage. The extreme toxicity of eucalyptus oil is emphasised.

  20. Oil market outlook

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lorié, J.; Kastelein, M.; Zeilstra, A.

    2013-01-01

    The price of oil has a huge impact on the profitability of many and varied industries. In this report, we explore the factors that affect that price and look at the likely future development of the oil market.

  1. Oil information 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The Oil Information 1996 is the latest edition of a publication that has been produced annually since 1989, replacing the publication Annual Oil and Gas Statistics. Part II of Oil Information 1996, 'World Oil Developments' provides summary tables of world oil market developments, with time series back to the early 1970's.Part III, 'Detailed OECD Oil Data' provides, in tabular form, a more detailed and comprehensive picture of oil supply, demand and end-use consumption for the OECD by region and individual countries. PART IV, 'Historical Series' shows time series of major oil flows for all years beginning in either 1970 or 1971 and ending in 1996, where data is available

  2. Increased automobile fuel efficiency and synthetic fuels: alternatives for reducing oil imports

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-09-01

    This report assesses and compares increased automobile fuel efficiency and : synthetic fuels production with respect to their potential to reduce : conventional oil consumption, and their costs and impacts. Conservation and : fuel switching as a mean...

  3. The oil distribution file

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    A series of articles addresses the recent evolutions of the French domestic fuel oil market, the development of the Argos oil company (a Dutch group) on this market, the situation and the recent evolution of the German oil product market in 2007 and 2008, the problem faced by the mandatory introduction of biofuels in Belgium and in Spain, the evolution of the Italian oil product market, and the mandatory introduction of biofuels in the United Kingdom in 2008

  4. SRC Residual fuel oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewari, Krishna C.; Foster, Edward P.

    1985-01-01

    Coal solids (SRC) and distillate oils are combined to afford single-phase blends of residual oils which have utility as fuel oils substitutes. The components are combined on the basis of their respective polarities, that is, on the basis of their heteroatom content, to assure complete solubilization of SRC. The resulting composition is a fuel oil blend which retains its stability and homogeneity over the long term.

  5. Oil Spill Response Manual

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marieke Zeinstra; Sandra Heins; Wierd Koops

    2014-01-01

    A two year programme has been carried out by the NHL University of Applied Sciences together with private companies in the field of oil and chemical spill response to finalize these manuals on oil and chemical spill response. These manuals give a good overview of all aspects of oil and chemical

  6. Oil Spill Cleanup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauble, Christena Ann

    2011-01-01

    Several classroom activities using a model of a seashore and an oil spill demonstrate the basic properties of oil spills in oceans. Students brainstorm about how to best clean up the mess. They work in teams, and after agreeing on how they will proceed, their method is tested by measuring the amount of oil removed and by rating the cleanliness of…

  7. Sassafras oil overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassafras oil comes from the root bark of the sassafras tree. Sassafras oil overdose occurs when someone swallows more than the ... Safrole is the poisonous ingredient in sassafras oil. It is a clear or ... yellow oily liquid. It can be dangerous in large amounts.

  8. Bulk oil clauses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gough, N.

    1993-01-01

    The Institute Bulk Oil Clauses produced by the London market and the American SP-13c Clauses are examined in detail in this article. The duration and perils covered are discussed, and exclusions, adjustment clause 15 of the Institute Bulk Oil Clauses, Institute War Clauses (Cargo), and Institute Strikes Clauses (Bulk Oil) are outlined. (UK)

  9. OIL AS POLITICAL WEAPON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana, BUICAN

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Oil (called by some black gold has not always been as coveted and used, but only in the last hundred years has established itself as a highly sought after as an indispensable proper functioning of modern economic activity that an important factor in international politics. International oil regime has changed in the last decades. In 1960, oil regime was a private oligopol which had links with governments main consuming countries. By then the price of a barrel of oil was two U.S. dollars and seven major transnational oil companies decided the amount of oil that will be produced. Meanwhile the world region with the largest oil exports were more strongly expressed nationalism and decolonization. Result, it was so in the late 60s in the region occur independent states. They have created an organization aim of this resource to their advantage - OPEC (Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries. Thus since 1973 there have been changes in the international regime governing oil field, namely producing countries were fixed production rate and price. After this time the oil weapon has become increasingly important in the management of international relations. Oil influenced the great powers to Middle East conflicts that occurred in the last century, but their attitude about the emergence of new sources of oil outside OPEC. In the late 90's, Russia has become a major supplier of oil to the West.

  10. Oil palm: domestication achieved?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerritsma, W.; Wessel, M.

    1997-01-01

    The natural habitat of the oil palm comprises very wet and relatively dry niches in the lowland rain forest in West and Central Africa. The domestication of the oil palm started with the extraction of fruits from wild forest resources. When forests were cleared for shifting cultivation, oil palms

  11. Hubbert's Oil Peak Revisited by a Simulation Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giraud, P.N.; Sutter, A.; Denis, T.; Leonard, C.

    2010-01-01

    As conventional oil reserves are declining, the debate on the oil production peak has become a burning issue. An increasing number of papers refer to Hubbert's peak oil theory to forecast the date of the production peak, both at regional and world levels. However, in our views, this theory lacks micro-economic foundations. Notably, it does not assume that exploration and production decisions in the oil industry depend on market prices. In an attempt to overcome these shortcomings, we have built an adaptative model, accounting for the behavior of one agent, standing for the competitive exploration-production industry, subjected to incomplete but improving information on the remaining reserves. Our work yields challenging results on the reasons for an Hubbert type peak oil, lying mainly 'above the ground', both at regional and world levels, and on the shape of the production and marginal cost trajectories. (authors)

  12. Oil and Gas - Energy Sources for 21st Century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Secen, J.

    2008-01-01

    During the 150-year long history of the oil industry, many forecasters have been predicting a drastic decline in the world's oil reserves. In 1950 the US Geological Survey estimated ultimately recoverable world's conventional oil reserves at 150 billion m 3 (1 trillion bbl), and 68 years later these reserves are not smaller, but even somewhat bigger -197 billion m 3 or 1.238 trillion bbl. A theory has been developed lately on achievement of recoverability of one half of the proved reserves and peak of oil production, the so called Hubert's peak, with subsequent decline afterwards. In spite of unfavourable prediction, the proved reserves of oil and natural gas are continuously increasing and the peak of oil production has been moved to some future period. Most of these forecasters predict a potential increase of the proved reserves, application of new technology and enhanced oil recovery methods on the already discovered reservoirs and increase of reserves through contribution of huge sources of unconventional hydrocarbons: heavy oil and oil in shale, as well as gas in coal beds, tight sands and gas hydrates. (author)

  13. Shale oil specialty markets: Screening survey for United States applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-12-01

    EG and G requested J. E. Sinor Consultants Inc. to carry out an initial screening study on the possibilities for producing specialty chemicals from oil shale. Raw shale oil is not an acceptable feedstock to refineries and there are not enough user of heavy fuel oil in the western oil shale region to provide a dependable market. The only alternatives are to hydrotreat the oil, or else ship it long distances to a larger market area. Either of these alternatives results in a cost penalty of several dollars per barrel. Instead of attempting to enter the large-volume petroleum products market, it was hypothesized that a small shale oil facility might be able to produce specialty chemicals with a high enough average value to absorb the high costs of shipping small quantities to distant markets and still provide a higher netback to the plant site than sales to the conventional petroleum products market. This approach, rather than attempting to refine shale oil or to modify its characteristics to satisfy the specifications for petroleum feedstocks or products, focuses instead on those particular characteristics which distinguish shale oil from petroleum, and attempts to identify applications which would justify a premium value for those distinctive characteristics. Because byproducts or specialty chemicals production has been a prominent feature of oil shale industries which have flourished for periods of time in various countries, a brief review of those industries provides a starting point for this study. 9 figs., 32 tabs.

  14. Oil Dependence: The Value of R{ampersand}D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, D.L.

    1997-07-01

    Over the past quarter century the United States` dependence on oil has cost its economy on the order of $5 trillion. Oil dependence is defined as economically significant consumption of oil, given price inelastic demand in the short and long run and given the ability of the OPEC cartel to use market power to influence oil prices. Although oil prices have been lower and more stable over the past decade, OPEC still holds the majority of the world`s conventional oil resources according to the best available estimates. OPEC`s share of the world oil market is likely to grow significantly in the future,restoring much if not all of their former market power. Other than market share, the key determinants of OPEC`s market power are the long and short run price elasticities of world oil demand and supply. These elasticities depend critically on the technologies of oil supply and demand, especially the technology of energy use in transportation. Research and development can change these elasticities in fundamental ways, and given the nature of the problem,the government has an important role to play in supporting such research.

  15. Technical aspects of biodiesel production from vegetable oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnakumar Janahiraman

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel, a promising substitute as an alternative fuel has gained significant attention due to the finite nature of fossil energy sources and does not produce sulfur oxides and minimize the soot particulate in comparison with the existing one from petroleum diesel. The utilization of liquid fuels such as biodiesel produced from vegetable oil by transesterification process represents one of the most promising options for the use of conventional fossil fuels. In the first step of this experimental research, edible rice bran oil used as test material and converted into methyl ester and non-edible jatropha vegetable oil is converted into jatropha oil methyl ester, which are known as biodiesel and they are prepared in the presence of homogeneous acid catalyst and optimized their operating parameters like reaction temperature, quantity of alcohol and the catalyst requirement, stirring rate and time of esterification. In the second step, the physical properties such as density, flash point, kinematic viscosity, cloud point, and pour point were found out for the above vegetable oils and their methyl esters. The same characteristics study was also carried out for the diesel fuel for obtaining the baseline data for analysis. The values obtained from the rice bran oil methyl ester and jatropha oil methyl ester are closely matched with the values of conventional diesel and it can be used in the existing diesel engine without any hardware modification. In the third step the storage characteristics of biodiesel are also studied. .

  16. Differences in Pop Levels between Conventional and Omega-3 Fatty Acid-Enriched Milk and Dairy Products

    OpenAIRE

    Guerranti, Cristiana; Focardi, Silvano Ettore

    2011-01-01

    Conventional and omega-3 fatty acid-enriched milk and cheese were analyzed for persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Omega-3-enriched products are usually supplemented with fish oil which is potentially contaminated. All classes of the considered POPs (PCBs, DDT, HCB, PBDEs, and PCDD/Fs) were found in the samples, with average concentrations higher in omega-3-enriched products than in conventional ones. For PCBs, DDT, and HCB, differences were statistically significant and, therefore, cannot ...

  17. Utah Heavy Oil Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Bauman; S. Burian; M. Deo; E. Eddings; R. Gani; R. Goel; C.K. Huang; M. Hogue; R. Keiter; L. Li; J. Ruple; T. Ring; P. Rose; M. Skliar; P.J. Smith; J.P. Spinti; P. Tiwari; J. Wilkey; K. Uchitel

    2009-10-20

    The Utah Heavy Oil Program (UHOP) was established in June 2006 to provide multidisciplinary research support to federal and state constituents for addressing the wide-ranging issues surrounding the creation of an industry for unconventional oil production in the United States. Additionally, UHOP was to serve as an on-going source of unbiased information to the nation surrounding technical, economic, legal and environmental aspects of developing heavy oil, oil sands, and oil shale resources. UHOP fulGilled its role by completing three tasks. First, in response to the Energy Policy Act of 2005 Section 369(p), UHOP published an update report to the 1987 technical and economic assessment of domestic heavy oil resources that was prepared by the Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission. The UHOP report, entitled 'A Technical, Economic, and Legal Assessment of North American Heavy Oil, Oil Sands, and Oil Shale Resources' was published in electronic and hard copy form in October 2007. Second, UHOP developed of a comprehensive, publicly accessible online repository of unconventional oil resources in North America based on the DSpace software platform. An interactive map was also developed as a source of geospatial information and as a means to interact with the repository from a geospatial setting. All documents uploaded to the repository are fully searchable by author, title, and keywords. Third, UHOP sponsored Give research projects related to unconventional fuels development. Two projects looked at issues associated with oil shale production, including oil shale pyrolysis kinetics, resource heterogeneity, and reservoir simulation. One project evaluated in situ production from Utah oil sands. Another project focused on water availability and produced water treatments. The last project considered commercial oil shale leasing from a policy, environmental, and economic perspective.

  18. EFFECT OF CONVENTIONAL AND ALTERNATIVE PRODUCTS ON POSTHARVEST DISEASE CONTROL IN AVOCADOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Herman Fischer

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Postharvest diseases constitute a serious problem for avocado commercialization. Thus, the present study aimed to evaluate the effect of conventional and alternative products in controlling diseases affecting ‘Hass’ avocados in the field and in the postharvest by carrying out physicochemical characterization of fruits subjected to postharvest treatments. In the field, besides the management adopted by the farmer, seven products were sprayed three times during fruiting for evaluation. Postharvest products were diluted in water or in oxidized polyethylene wax and shellac. Water treatments with potassium phosphite, Soil-Set®, chlorine dioxide, thyme essential oil, sodium bicarbonate, lemon grass essential oil and thiabendazole reduced the incidence of diseased fruits, and anthracnose, the main disease, was controlled with sodium bicarbonate, lemon grass essential oil and thiabendazole. Greater soluble solids content was found for control (water, chlorine dioxide, acibenzolar-S-methyl and thiabendazole. For the products that reduced anthracnose, there was no correlation between the disease and the physicochemical parameters, evidencing that the disease control is not associated with delayed ripening. For wax treatments, diseases were not controlled, and the fruits presented lower titratable acidity with thyme essential oil, sodium bicarbonate, control (wax, acibenzolar-S-methyl and lemon grass essential oil. Control and thyme essential oil were highlighted for maintaining the green coloration of the fruit skin for the shortest period. Under field conditions, azoxystrobin, thiabendazole, difenoconazole+azoxystrobin and acibenzolar-S-methyl+azoxystrobin reduced the occurrence of diseased fruits, while anthracnose control was only obtained with azoxystrobin.

  19. Optimization of aqueous enzymatic oil extraction from kernel of oil palm (elaeis guineensis) using three phase partitioning and microwave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saifuddin, N.

    2006-01-01

    The use of microwave irradiation as a pretreatment before aqueous enzymatic oil extraction from oil palm kernel was found to be useful. The microwave irradiation for 10 min -assisted extraction was found to be a simpler and more effective alternative to the solvent extraction methods for the productions of palm kernel oil. Further enhancement was achieved when the microwave irradiated slurries were treated with a commercial enzyme preparation of proteases, followed by three phase partitioning. This resulted in 93% (w/w) oil yields form the palm kernel. The efficiency of the present technique is comparable to solvent extraction with an added advantage of being less time consuming and using t-butanol which is a safer solvent as compared to n-hexane used in conventional oil extraction process. The technique also tries to reduce the amount of enzyme used and hence reduces the overall cost. (author)

  20. Direct olive oil analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peña, F.

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available The practical impact of “direct analysis” is undeniable as it strong contributes to enhance the so-called productive analytical features such as expeditiousness, reduction of costs and minimisation of risks for the analysts and environment. The main objective is to establish a reliable bypass to the conventional preliminary operations of the analytical process. This paper offers a systematic approach in this context and emphasises the great field of action of direct methodologies in the routine analysis of olive oil. Two main types of methodologies are considered. On the one hand, the direct determination of volatile components is systematically considered. On the other hand, simple procedures to automatically implement the preliminary operations of the oil analysis using simple devices in which the sample is directly introduced with/without a simple dilution are present and discussed.El impacto práctico del análisis directo es tan innegable como que el contribuye decisivamente a mejorar las denominadas características analíticas relacionadas con la productividad como la rapidez, la reducción de costes y la minimización de riesgos para los analistas y el ambiente. El principal objetivo es establecer un adecuado "bypass" a las operaciones convencionales preliminares del proceso analítico. Este artículo ofrece una propuesta sistemática en este contexto y resalta el gran campo de acción de las metodologías directas en los análisis de rutina del aceite de oliva. Se analizan los dos tipos principales de metodologías. Por una lado, se analiza la determinación directa de los compuestos volátiles. Por el otro, se presentan y discuten los procedimientos simples para implementar automáticamente las operaciones preliminares del análisis del aceite usando sistemas simples en los que la muestra se introduce directamente con/sin un dilución simple.

  1. Logistic curves, extraction costs and effective peak oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brecha, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Debates about the possibility of a near-term maximum in world oil production have become increasingly prominent over the past decade, with the focus often being on the quantification of geologically available and technologically recoverable amounts of oil in the ground. Economically, the important parameter is not a physical limit to resources in the ground, but whether market price signals and costs of extraction will indicate the efficiency of extracting conventional or nonconventional resources as opposed to making substitutions over time for other fuels and technologies. We present a hybrid approach to the peak-oil question with two models in which the use of logistic curves for cumulative production are supplemented with data on projected extraction costs and historical rates of capacity increase. While not denying the presence of large quantities of oil in the ground, even with foresight, rates of production of new nonconventional resources are unlikely to be sufficient to make up for declines in availability of conventional oil. Furthermore we show how the logistic-curve approach helps to naturally explain high oil prices even when there are significant quantities of low-cost oil yet to be extracted. - Highlights: ► Extraction cost information together with logistic curves to model oil extraction. ► Two models of extraction sequence for different oil resources. ► Importance of time-delay and extraction rate limits for new resources. ► Model results qualitatively reproduce observed extraction cost dynamics. ► Confirmation of “effective” peak oil, even though resources are in ground.

  2. Non conventional hydrocarbons in Maghreb - an announced ecocide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balvet, Jacqueline; Espagne, Vincent; Rondeleux, Nejma; Dupont, Stephane

    2015-01-01

    Whereas gas and oil companies did not succeed in the development of shale gas exploration and exploitation in Europe for different reasons (citizen mobilisation against these projects, resources much smaller than expected), these companies are looking in other directions, notably the Maghreb region (North Africa) which is an important hydrocarbon supplier for European countries. This publication proposes an overview of the situation in Algeria, Morocco and Tunisia regarding this exploitation. It first recalls health and pollution impacts and consequences of hydraulic fracturing, and also the impact of hydrocarbon consumption on climate change. It indicates assessments made by the EIA of resources of shale gas and shale oil in the three countries, and outlines that these assessments might be too high as it has been the case in other countries. An overview of the situation of the three countries is then proposed, starting with Algeria: the third world shale gas reserve, presence of Total and GDF-Suez as investors with Sonatrach (the Algerian company) keeping a large majority, existence of a law which authorises the exploitation of non conventional hydrocarbons, and a very strong mobilisation of populations in the Algerian Sahara. The case of Morocco is then addressed: high dependence on imports but important non conventional reserves, exploitation of several sites, good conditions awarded to multinational companies, a focus on two important investors (Chevron and Repsol), start of a citizen mobilisation. The case of Tunisia is finally addressed: discovery of 'miraculous' deposits, overview of investors, a new but absolutely iniquitous legal framework, mobilisation of local associations

  3. Studies on percolating characteristics of heavy oil and its application in Shengli petroliferous province

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min, L.Y.; Sun, J.F.; Wu, G.G. [SINOPEC, Shengli (China). Shengli Oil Field Co. Ltd.

    2006-07-01

    This paper provided details of a study that evaluated the percolating characteristics of heavy oil under various conditions. Oil samples with different viscosity and permeability levels were taken from 10 heavy oil blocks in an oilfield in China. The aim of the study was to develop an exploitation pattern and confirm the drainage radius. A laboratory experiment measured the flow rates and pressure differences of the samples at the inlets and outlets of porous media. Percolation characteristics of the heavy oil in the porous media were then transformed from pseudo-plastic to dilatant. The maximum drainage radius for the conventional production of the heavy oil was confirmed by examining starting pressure gradients and mobility. Results of the experiment demonstrated that conventional heavy oil flow is pseudoplastic, while extra-viscous oil flow is dilatant in porous media. Heavy oil flow was found to be non-Darcy Law within specified pressure gradients in porous media. Results also demonstrated that the starting pressure gradient of heavy oil was influenced by oil viscosity, permeability, and temperature. It was concluded that an improved understanding of the starting pressure gradient can help to confirm the maximum drainage radius of heavy oil wells and guide in the selection of development schemes. 9 refs., 1 tab., 9 figs.

  4. Effect of olive storage period at two different temperatures on oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ambient and 5°C) for different periods before oil extraction at 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days to investigate the effect of postharvest fruit storage on olive oil quality. Conventional analyses (acidity, peroxide value, specific extinction coefficient at 232 and 270 ...

  5. Environmental impact assessment of olive pomace oil biodiesel production and consumption: A comparative lifecycle assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rajaeifar, M.A.; Akram, A.; Ghobadian, B.; Rafiee, S.; Heijungs, R.; Tabatabaei, M.

    2016-01-01

    The well-to-wheel environmental impacts of olive pomace oil biodiesel (B20 and B100) and conventional petroleum diesel were compared using life cycle assessment. Moreover, energy and economic analyses of olive pomace oil biodiesel production was conducted throughout its life cycle. Human Health,

  6. Production of biodiesel from Parinari polyandra B. seed oil using bio ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two agricultural residues, cocoa pod ash (CPA) and rice husk ash (RHA), were investigated as bio-based catalysts for the transesterification of Parinari polyandra seeds oil and the results obtained using these bio-based catalysts were compared with potassium hydroxide which is a conventional catalyst. Oil was extracted ...

  7. Potential oil recovery from Kansas oil shales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlinsog, D.G.; Angino, E.

    1983-01-01

    Dark organic-rich shales are present throughout much of the stratigraphic column of Kansas. Some of these shales yield considerable amounts of shale oil when assayed. One hundred forty samples from 37 shale units were tested for potential oil recovery. Fischer assay results indicate yields ranging from trace amounts to 23.3 gallons of oil per ton of shale. Differences in oil revovery are directly related to the type and amount of organic matter within a shale. Vitrinite is the dominant maceral in the Upper Cretaceous and Pennsylvanian dark shales tested. The Lower Permian and Upper Ordovician shales are essentially devoid of any organic material. The Devonian-Mississippian Chattanogga Shale contains equally small amounts of phytoplankton and vitrinite. Seven potentially economic, low-grade mixed oil shales are present in the Middle and Upper Pennsylvanian strata of eastern Kansas: the ''V'', Excello, Little Osage, Anna, Tacket Formation, Eudora, and Heebner shales. If shale oil, phosphate, uranium, and mineable coals were extracted concurrently from these units, extraction costs would be reduced and an economic window for potential exploitation of these oil shales might be formed. 47 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs.

  8. Hydroprocessing of Light Pyrolysis Fuel Oil for Kerosine Type Jet Fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-02-01

    as shale oils, tar sands and coal liquids. The conclusion emerged from these studies that shale oils are most anienable to conventional refinery...published by J. P. Franck of IFP (8). Preparation of hydroprocessed "Synthoil" (USBM) coal liquid feed- stocks for petrochemicals in a nearly identical...00 HYDROPROCESSING OF LIGHT PYROLYSIS FUEL O OIL FOR KEROSINE TYPE JET FUEL w ALEXANDER KOROSI J. N. RUBIN STONE & WEBSTER ENGINEERING CORPORATION

  9. Solvent-free microwave extraction of essential oil from Melaleuca leucadendra L.

    OpenAIRE

    Widya Ismanto Aviarina; Septya Kusuma Heri; Mahfud Mahfud

    2018-01-01

    Cajuput (Melaleuca leucadendra L.) oil is one of potential commodity that provides an important role for the country’s foreign exchange but the extraction of these essential oil is still using conventional method such as hydrodistillation which takes a long time to produce essential oil with good quality. Therefore it is necessary to optimize the extraction process using a more effective and efficient method. So in this study the extraction is done using solvent-free microwave extraction meth...

  10. An Evaluation of Holistic Sustainability Assessment Framework for Palm Oil Production in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Chye Ing Lim; Wahidul Biswas

    2015-01-01

    Palm oil based biodiesel offers an alternative energy source that can reduce current dependence on conventional fossil fuels and may reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions depending on the type of feedstock and processes used. In the Malaysian context, the palm oil industry not only provides high-yield, renewable feedstock to the world, it brings socio-economic development to the Malaysian rural community and contributes to the national income. However, the sustainability of palm oil remains c...

  11. Boiler feedwater quality improvement by replacing conventional pre-treatment with advanced membrane systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doll, Bernhard [Process Systems Pall GmbH, Dreieich (Germany). Marketing; Venkatadri, Ramraj [Pall Corporation, Port Washington, NY (United States). Global Marketing Energy

    2013-09-01

    Two case studies in different application fields highlight significant economical and operational improvements that were achieved by replacing conventional water treatment technologies by highly-sophisticated membrane systems. The first case study deals with boiler feedwater in a power plant, focusing on the challenges faced as well as the direct and indirect benefits gained by the new system within a utility station. The second case study deals with the conventional water treatment scheme for groundwater from 13 wells at a major oil sands facility. Operational performance as well as the cost improvements gained in both cases will be presented. (orig.)

  12. Residential heating costs: a comparison of geothermal, solar and conventional resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloomster, C.H.; Garrett-Price, B.A.; Fassbender, L.L.

    1980-08-01

    The costs of residential heating throughout the United States using conventional, solar, and geothermal energy were determined under current and projected conditions. These costs are very sensitive to location - being dependent on the local prices of conventional energy supplies, local solar insolation, cimate, and the proximity and temperature of potential geothermal resources. The sharp price increases in imported fuels during 1979 and the planned decontrol of domestic oil and natural gas prices have set the stage for geothermal and solar market penetration in the 1980's.

  13. Oil tariff policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hogan, W.W. (Energy and Environmental Policy Center, Harvard Univ., 79 John F. Kennedy St., Cambridge, MA (US)); Broadman, H.G. (U.S. Senate Government Affairs Committee (US))

    1988-01-01

    A tariff on U.S. oil imports is justified by the special characteristics of oil and oil markets. Unlike other commodities, oil production and prices have been manipulated successfully by foreign producers for protracted periods. Moreover, unlike most other products, the price and availability of oil significantly affect macro-economic variables such as our trade balance, the rate of inflation, and the aggregate level of economic activity. And, more than most commodities, oil is crucial to our national security. For these reasons, the full cost of U.S. oil imports is not reflected in the price we pay in the world market. The gap between the true cost of oil to the nation and the market price justifies imposition of an offsetting tariff. Beleagured domestic oil producers have called for a tariff on imported petroleum supplies. Such a protectionist measure would, in effect, provide them with price guarantees in the face of soft market conditions. Behind the producers' argument is the belief that world oil prices will remain low for a sustained period of time and that, as a result, there will be an appreciable decline in U.S. exploration, development, and production activity, posing a major threat to the future viability of the U.S. oil industry.

  14. Plant essential oils as active antimicrobial agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seow, Yi Xin; Yeo, Chia Rou; Chung, Hui Ling; Yuk, Hyun-Gyun

    2014-01-01

    Essential oils derived from plants have been recognized for decades to exhibit biological activities, including antioxidant, anticancer, and antimicrobial attributes. Antimicrobial activities of these natural plant materials have been intensively explored in recent years, mainly in response to the overwhelming concern of consumers over the safety of synthetic food additives. Gram-negative organisms are believed to be slightly less sensitive to essential oils than Gram-positive bacteria. Generally, a higher concentration is required to obtain the same efficacy in foods than in synthetic media. The combinations of different types of essential oils or with other food additives have been found to potentially exhibit synergistic if not additive effects. This suggests a cost-efficient and wholesome alternative to both food industry and consumers, at the same time adhering to the hurdle technology in inhibiting proliferation of foodborne pathogens. This review aims to examine the conventional methods commonly used for assessment of antimicrobial activities of essential oils and phytochemicals, the use of these substances as antimicrobials in food products, factors that affect their efficacy, synergism between components or with available food preservatives as well as the challenges and future directions of using essential oils and phytochemicals as natural food preservatives.

  15. Oil producers facing a common challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galal, E.E.

    1992-01-01

    Among the numerous challenges facing our modern world, perhaps the most urgent and dominant are energy related. From the perspective of developing countries they are, in order of priorities, development, energy security and environment. Oil covers above 38% of the global commercial energy needs and gas about 20%. In some commanding sectors of the economy, like transport, oil is for now virtually the irreplaceable source of energy. In addition, oil and gas are two valuable primary materials of the chemical industry. It also happens that oil consumption is one of the sources of environmental pollution through the emission of CO 2 . Utilisation of the world's finite fossil energy resources (88% of total commercial energy) in the service of development reflects all the negative attributes of the mismanagement of the global economy, exemplified by waste, inefficiency, unfair terms of trade, market instability and short-sighted policies. These serious inequities have been further compounded by the growing menace of environmental and climatic degradation. In dealing with the interactions between these three complex systems, i.e., energy, environment and development, it is important for oil producers to delineate their priorities clearly, if they are to disentangle credible common goals for an international convention. (author)

  16. Heavy and standard silicone oil: intraocular inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Andrea; Morescalchi, Francesco; Donati, Simone; Gambicorti, Elena; Azzolini, Claudio; Costagliola, Ciro; Semeraro, Francesco

    2017-03-13

    Proliferative vitreoretinopathy in the inferior retina remains clinically challenging. Heavier-than-water intraocular tamponades have been developed to improve inferior tamponading properties, and their chemical compositions have been substantially improved over the years, in parallel with developments in vitrectomy instrumentation and surgical techniques. Herein we present an updated review of the clinical use of standard formulations and HSO, focusing on analysis of the intraocular inflammation associated with endotamponade agents, and comparison of the adverse effects of these agents on the physical and biological properties of the eye. A detailed literature search was conducted on PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, and Google Scholar using the key words. Fifty-eight articles matched our inclusion criteria that were included in this systematic review. Perfluorocarbon liquids and partially fluorinated alkanes are associated with tamponade emulsification, intraocular inflammation, and rises in intraocular pressure, but these associations are not as strong when these substances are mixed with a heavy silicone oil (HSO). Two recently approved heavy silicone oil tamponades, Oxane HD and Densiron 68, are now available for use in clinical practice. While the complication spectrum of the new generation of these HSOs seems to be similar to that of conventional silicone oil tamponades, they provide better support for the inferior retina and the posterior pole. Both regular and heavy silicone oils usually yield good success rates in cases of complicated retinal detachment. Decisions as to whether to utilize heavy or regular silicone oil should be made on a case-by-case basis.

  17. The Russian oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rucker, Laurent

    2003-01-01

    This article proposes a brief discussion of various assessments of Russian oil reserves, of the evolutions of Russian oil production (Russia is the second world producer after Saudi Arabia), of the distribution of Russian oil exports among various regions, and of the decrease of Russian oil consumption between 1992 and 2002. It describes the evolution of the actor system as the oil sector has been largely privatised since 1992, and indicates the main companies which should control the Russia market on a medium term. It also discusses the obstacles for the development of Production Sharing Agreements (PSA) between these companies. It addresses the issue of modernisation of the oil transport system as its status and its condition are often an obstacle to oil export for Russian companies. The article finally discusses the price issue, the relationship between Russia and other OPEC countries, and the need for huge investments

  18. Oils, paintings and chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Eduarda Machado de Araújo

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In oil paintings artists use oils to apply pigments. These oils firstly are liquid and then solidify in a thin film. Many chemical reactions are involved in drying and also in the aging of these oils. Drying is a continuous process that begins with the oxidation of insaturated fatty acids from triglycerides to originate peroxides. These compounds suffer a cascade of reactions that lead to cross linking bonds between fatty acids residues, transforming the oil in a solid film. Identification of the film oil is possible using the palmitic/stearic ratio (P/S by chromatographic (GC and/or spectroscopic techniques. Sterol composition, phytosterols or cholesterol, determined by GC-MS or FTIR techniques, allows investigators to distinguish between oil painting and a temper one that used egg as the binding medium.

  19. Electricity/oil substitution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melvin, J.G.

    1980-09-01

    The extent to which electricity could substitute for imported oil in Canada is assessed and it is concluded that the bulk of projected oil imports could be displaced. This substitution of electricity for oil could be largely completed within two decades, with existing technology, using Canadian resources. The substitution of electricity for imported oil would result in relatively low energy costs and would stimulate economic growth. Energy self-sufficiency through the substitution of electricity for oil is uniquely a Canadian option; it is not open to other industrial countries. The option exists because of Canada's resources of oil sands for essential liquid fuels, hydraulic and nuclear electrical potential, and natural gas as an interim source of energy. While other countries face an energy crisis due to declining supplies of oil, Canada faces opportunities. The policies of Federal and Provincial governments, as perceived by individual decision makers, will have a major influence on Canada's ability to realize opportunities. (auth)

  20. The oil barrel price

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blondy, J.; Papon, P.

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes an overview and a prospective glance on the oil barrel price. It indicates the relevant indicators: Brent quotation, euro/dollar parity, economic activity indicators, world oil consumption distribution, crude oil production, refining capacity. It briefly presents the involved stake holders: crude oil producers, oil refiners, refined product dealers, and the OPEC. It discusses the major retrospective trends: evolution in relationship with geopolitical events and energy policies, strong correlation between oil demand and economic growth, prevalence of OPEC, growing importance of national oil companies. An emerging trend is noticed: growing role of emerging countries on the crude market. Some prospective issues are discussed: duration and intensity of economic recession, separation between economic growth and energy consumption, pace and ambition level of policies of struggle against climate change, exploitable resources, and geopolitical hazards. Four evolution hypotheses are discussed

  1. Oil My Love

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gay, Michel

    2014-01-01

    The author first describes how oil will disappear from non-producing countries, notably France and Europe and will therefore lead to an energy crisis. He outlines that renewable energies will have a weak contribution in the replacement of fossil energies (in this case, oil and gas). To illustrate these trends, the author proposes an appendix which presents and discusses the evolution of global consumption of fossil fuels, the evolution of production of different oil grades, a forecast of global oil demand by 2035, evolutions of productions and exports. Another appendix discusses additional issues on oil: the meaning of reserves, solutions for France in case of shortage of oil, the world oil situation (USA, China, Russia, the European Union, Japan)

  2. Executive order no. 433 of 24th May 1996. Executive order on the international fund for compensation for damages caused by oil pollution, 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-05-01

    The Danish executive order on the international fund for the compensation for damages caused by oil pollution, 1992 is related to the Danish law no. 205 of March 29th 1996, and is based on the International Convention on the Establishment of an International Fund for Compensation for Oil Damage, 1992. The document includes the convention's protocol presented in French, Danish and English. (AB)

  3. An oil production forecast for China considering economic limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Ke; Feng, Lianyong; Wang, Jianliang; Xiong, Yi; Tverberg, Gail E.

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, it has become apparent that oil prices may not rise endlessly. Unconventional oil is likely to be especially affected by low prices because it tends to be high-priced to extract. To estimate the impact prices might have on future Chinese oil production, we develop a model in which only future unconventional oil production is affected by price. We analyze three price scenarios: Stays Low, Best Estimate, and Ever-Rising Prices. In these scenarios, remaining Ultimate Recoverable Resources (URR) are estimated to be 10%, 50%, and 90% of remaining Technically Recoverable Resources, respectively. Since oil price can be expected to affect the shape of the extraction curve, we spread estimated URR to year using models that do not assume that future production will ultimately produce a symmetric Hubbert-type curve (Multi-Cycle Generalized Weng Model and Stochastic Resource-Constrained Growth Model). In the Best Estimate Scenario, China's oil production is expected to reach a maximum of 226.79 million tons in 2020. In the Ever-Rising Prices Scenario, China's maximum oil production occurs in 2023. In the Stays Low Scenario, maximum production has already been reached. - Highlights: • China's conventional oil reached a peak in 2010 and has begun to decline. • Unconventional oil production will be especially adversely affected by low prices. • Rising selling price of oil may lead to recession, bringing prices back down. • China's total oil supply appears likely to peak about 2020. • Likely oil production is less than Technically Recoverable Resources.

  4. Canadian conventional gas at a crossroads : a Ziff Energy white paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziff, P.

    2010-01-01

    The current low price of natural gas may have a significant and lasting impact on Canada's natural gas industry. This paper discussed the future of Canada's conventional gas industry and presented recommendations for ensuring a competitive and successful industry. Canada's oil and gas producers are increasingly shifting drilling activity towards oil production. The ratio of proven gas reserves to current production is now less than 8 years. As the conventional gas drilling reserve base shrinks, investment levels will also decline. Gas production in the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin (WCSB) is expected to decline a further 15 per cent by 2020. The strong Canadian dollar has resulted in extensive monetary losses to Canadian gas producers. Service costs to the industry are also high. Recommendations included increased government involvement, new royalty rates, investment in unconventional gas, and regulatory reviews, and low gas production costs. Industry approaches will require involvement from operators, service companies, mid-stream processors, and transporters. 15 figs.

  5. The protocol amending the 1963 Vienna Convention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamm, V.

    2006-01-01

    Technically the Vienna Convention was revised by the adoption of the protocol to amend the instrument. and according to Article 19 of the protocol 'A State which is Party to this Protocol but not to the 1963 Vienna Convention shall be bound by the provisions of that Convention as amended by this Protocol in relation to other States Parties hereto, and failing an expression of a different intention by that State at the time of deposit of an instrument referred to in Article 20 shall be bound by the provisions of the 1963 Vienna Convention in relation to States which are only Parties thereto'. This solution has created a special situation, because after the entry into force of the protocol there will be living together or operating in practice 'two' Vienna Conventions, notably the convention's original text of 1963 and its new version as amended by the protocol. After the protocol has come into force, a state may only accede to the amended version, but in the inter se relations of the States Party to the 'old' Vienna Convention the provisions of that convention will remain in force until such time as they have acceded to the new protocol. This rather complicated situation is nevertheless understandable and is fully in accord with Article 40 of the 1969 Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties, which provides for the amendment of multilateral treaties. In 1989 the negotiations on the revision of the Vienna Convention had begun with the aim of strengthening the existing nuclear liability regime and of improving the situation of potential victims of nuclear accidents. The Protocol to Amend the Vienna Convention serves those purposes; it also reflects a good compromise, since it is the outcome of a negotiation process in which experts from both nuclear and non-nuclear states, from Contacting Parties and non-Contracting Parties were very active. That affords some assurance that the compromise solution reached is acceptable to all States participating in the adoption of

  6. Oil vulnerability index of oil-importing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Eshita

    2008-01-01

    This paper assesses the relative oil vulnerability of 26 net oil-importing countries for the year 2004 on the basis of various indicators - the ratio of value of oil imports to gross domestic product (GDP), oil consumption per unit of GDP, GDP per capita and oil share in total energy supply, ratio of domestic reserves to oil consumption, exposure to geopolitical oil market concentration risks as measured by net oil import dependence, diversification of supply sources, political risk in oil-supplying countries, and market liquidity. The approach using the principal component technique has been adopted to combine these individual indicators into a composite index of oil vulnerability. Such an index captures the relative sensitivity of various economies towards developments of the international oil market, with a higher index indicating higher vulnerability. The results show that there are considerable differences in the values of individual indicators of oil vulnerability and overall oil vulnerability index among the countries (both inter and intraregional). (author)

  7. Emission of particulate matter from ternary blends consisting of biodiesel, ethanol and vegetable oil: a comparison with conventional dieselEmissão de material particulado por misturas ternárias compostas de biodiesel, etanol e óleo vegetal: uma comparação com o óleo diesel convencional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murilo Daniel de Melo Innocentini

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to quantify the particulate matter emission from ternary blends comprehending biodiesel, ethanol and vegetable oil in a Diesel cycle engine, and an identical engine working with petrol diesel as control. To compare the fuels’ emissions, the particulate matter from the engine’s exhaust was collected, using a fiberglass circular filter paper, which was coupled by means of a steel flange at the end of the exhaust pipe. The results with ternary blends showed expressive reduction of particulate matter level exhausted by the engine, in its maximum load. We can conclude that the utilization of ternary blends, with the methods and conditions of this experiment, was efficient to reduce the emission of particulate matter contained in the exhaust gases of Diesel cycle engine.O objetivo deste trabalho foi quantificar a emissão de material particulado de misturas ternárias compostas de biodiesel, etanol e óleo vegetal em um motor de ciclo Diesel, tendo como testemunha um motor idêntico funcionando com óleo diesel de petróleo. Para a comparação da emissão dos dois combustíveis, foi realizada a coleta de material particulado proveniente dos escapamentos dos motores com um filtro circular confeccionado de fibra de vidro, que foi acoplado com um flange de aço, no final da tubulação de escape. Os resultados obtidos com a utilização das misturas ternárias de biocombustíveis indicaram uma redução expressiva no nível de material particulado emitido pelo motor em sua carga máxima. Pode-se concluir que a utilização das misturas ternárias, nas condições e métodos de realização do experimento, foi eficiente na redução de emissão de material particulado presente nos gases de exaustão do motor de ciclo Diesel.

  8. AECT Convention, Orlando, Florida 2008 Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, Eddie

    2009-01-01

    This article presents several reports that highlight the events at the 2008 Association for Educational Communications and Technology (AECT) International Convention in Orlando, Florida. At the annual convention this year, the Multimedia Production Division goal was to continue to share information about the latest tools in multimedia production,…

  9. Influence of Kosher (Shechita) and conventional slaughter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Influence of Kosher (Shechita) and conventional slaughter techniques on shear force, drip and cooking loss of beef. ... South African Journal of Animal Science ... force values for meat samples from cattle slaughtered by the Kosher method compared to those from cattle slaughtered by the conventional slaughter method.

  10. Organic and conventional production systems, microbial fertilization ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A common belief among consumers is the superior quality of organically grown tomato fruits over their conventionally grown counterparts. The present study was performed to evaluate the quality characteristics of tomatoes grown using organic and conventional production systems and to determine the effects of microbial ...

  11. numerical assessment of conventional regulation effectiveness

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Benkoussas B, Djedjig R, and Vauquelin O

    2016-05-01

    May 1, 2016 ... The effectiveness of an underground smoke control system mainly depends on fire safety engineering that is ... In the same context, this work aims firstly, at investigating the effectiveness of conventional regulation applied to .... 5a). Fig.4. Station smoke behavior for conventional ventilation regulation. Fig.5a.

  12. French Economics of Convention and Economic Sociology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jagd, Søren

    The French Economics of convention tradition has developed to be an influential research tradition situated in the area between economics and sociology. The aim of the paper is to explore some of the themes that may be common to economics of conventions and economic sociology by looking more...

  13. Improved Soybean Oil for Biodiesel Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tom Clemente; Jon Van Gerpen

    2007-11-30

    The goal of this program was to generate information on the utility of soybean germplasm that produces oil, high in oleic acid and low in saturated fatty acids, for its use as a biodiesel. Moreover, data was ascertained on the quality of the derived soybean meal (protein component), and the agronomic performance of this novel soybean germplasm. Gathering data on these later two areas is critical, with respect to the first, soybean meal (protein) component is a major driver for commodity soybean, which is utilized as feed supplements in cattle, swine, poultry and more recently aquaculture production. Hence, it is imperative that the resultant modulation in the fatty acid profile of the oil does not compromise the quality of the derived meal, for if it does, the net value of the novel soybean will be drastically reduced. Similarly, if the improved oil trait negative impacts the agronomics (i.e. yield) of the soybean, this in turn will reduce the value of the trait. Over the course of this program oil was extruded from approximately 350 bushels of soybean designated 335-13, which produces oil high in oleic acid (>85%) and low in saturated fatty acid (<6%). As predicted improvement in cold flow parameters were observed as compared to standard commodity soybean oil. Moreover, engine tests revealed that biodiesel derived from this novel oil mitigated NOx emissions. Seed quality of this soybean was not compromised with respect to total oil and protein, nor was the amino acid profile of the derived meal as compared to the respective control soybean cultivar with a conventional fatty acid profile. Importantly, the high oleic acid/low saturated fatty acids oil trait was not impacted by environment and yield was not compromised. Improving the genetic potential of soybean by exploiting the tools of biotechnology to improve upon the lipid quality of the seed for use in industrial applications such as biodiesel will aid in expanding the market for the crop. This in turn, may

  14. 27 CFR 21.98 - Bone oil (Dipple's oil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bone oil (Dipple's oil....98 Bone oil (Dipple's oil). (a) Color. The color shall be a deep brown. (b) Distillation range. When... below 90 °C. (c) Pyrrol reaction. Prepare a 1.0 percent solution of bone oil in 95 percent alcohol...

  15. Oil: Economics and politics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayoub, A.

    1994-01-01

    A review is presented of the evolution of the international petroleum sector since 1973 with a special emphasis on the interdependence between the economic and political factors that influence it. Two issues are focused on: the effects of the nationalization of oil companies on the sharing of oil rents and on changes in the structure of the oil market; and the determination of oil prices. Definitions are presented of oil rents, and the reasons for OPEC nationalization of oil companies are explored. The effects of nationalization on market structures, expansion of free markets, and vertical integration are discussed. The existence of an oil price floor and the reasons for such a floor are examined. It is shown that nationalization induced an internalization of rents by the producing countries, leading to the emergence of a differential rent supported by the politics of the industrialized countries. Nationalization led to the breakup of systems of vertical and horizontal integration, with replacement by a new dual structure with OPEC controlling the upstream activities of the oil sector and oil companies controlling the downstream ones. Prices move between a floor price set by the costs of substitute deposits in the U.S., while the determination of ceiling levels by OPEC rests on successive fragile compromises. Overall oil is still a strategic product, despite the existence of spot markets, forward trading options, etc. 29 refs

  16. Oman: World Oil Report 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that for the sixth consecutive year, Oman should retain its title as the biggest driller in the Middle East in 1991. An accelerated program in 1990 pushed production to an all-time record 700,000 bpd late in the year. Although not a member of Opec, Oman has cooperated with the group in restraining output as needed to support oil prices. Petroleum Development Oman (PDO), a partnership of the government (60%), Royal Dutch Shell (34%), Total (4%) and Partex (2%), remains by far the biggest producer. This year, PDO will begin work on its $500-million effort to boost production from its Lekhwair field from a current 24,000 bpd to 110,000 bpd by 1994. Last year, PDO also drilled 15 horizontal wells, most of which were successful in increasing per well production compared to conventional vertical holes. The horizontal program has been continued this year with two rings

  17. Shale oil. II. Gases from oil shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKee, R.H.; Manning, P.D.V.

    1927-01-01

    Oil shale (from Colorado) was pyrolyzed, and the gaseous products obtained were studied. The organic material present in oil shale contains carboxyl groups that lose carbon dioxide during pyrolysis before the formation of soluble bitumen. Nitrogen was evolved as ammonia in two stages and was not continuous. The first evolution was from loosely combined nitrogen structures, whereas the second was from more stable forms. No hydrocarbons were present as such in the kerogen. The gaseous products from oil-shale pyrolysis were similar to those obtained by distillation of colophony, amber, coal, and wood. This places the kerogen of the oil shale in the same series of carbonaceous substances as those from which coals are formed. Kerogen appeared to be decomposed in three steps; namely, to insoluble bitumen, to soluble bitumen, and to oil (gas evolution accompanied each step). Its low solubility and the character of its pyrolytic gas indicated that kerogen is largely a resinous residue from vegetation of the past era and may have been formed by the tranportation of coal-forming organic debris to inland salty lakes or carried to the sea by clay-laden waters. The salt water and the natural settling action precipitated the clay and organic matter in an almost homogeneous deposit. Oil shales have existed to the present time because they have not been subjected to high pressures or elevated temperatures that would have changed them to petroleum.

  18. Greenhouse gases: How does heavy oil stack up?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ottenbreit, R.J.

    1991-01-01

    Life-cycle emissions of direct greenhouse gases (GHG) have been calculated to elucidate the global warming impacts of various fossil fuel feedstocks. Calculations were made for the transportation sector using five fossil fuel sources: natural gas, light crude oil, conventional heavy oil, crude bitumen recovered through in-situ steam stimulation, and crude bitumen recovered through mining. Results suggest that fuels sourced from light crude oil have the lowest GHG emissions, while conventional heavy oil has the highest GHG emission levels for this application. Emissions of methane can constitute a significant portion of the life-cycle GHG emissions of a fossil fuel. For all the fossil fuels examined, except conventional heavy oil, GHG emissions associated with their production, transport, processing, and distribution are less than one third of their total life-cycle emissions. The remainder is associated with end use. This confirms that consumers of fossil fuel products, rather than fossil fuel producers, have the most leverage to reduce GHG emissions. 2 figs

  19. Commercial Essential Oils as Potential Antimicrobials to Treat Skin Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orchard, Ané

    2017-01-01

    Essential oils are one of the most notorious natural products used for medical purposes. Combined with their popular use in dermatology, their availability, and the development of antimicrobial resistance, commercial essential oils are often an option for therapy. At least 90 essential oils can be identified as being recommended for dermatological use, with at least 1500 combinations. This review explores the fundamental knowledge available on the antimicrobial properties against pathogens responsible for dermatological infections and compares the scientific evidence to what is recommended for use in common layman's literature. Also included is a review of combinations with other essential oils and antimicrobials. The minimum inhibitory concentration dilution method is the preferred means of determining antimicrobial activity. While dermatological skin pathogens such as Staphylococcus aureus have been well studied, other pathogens such as Streptococcus pyogenes, Propionibacterium acnes, Haemophilus influenzae, and Brevibacterium species have been sorely neglected. Combination studies incorporating oil blends, as well as interactions with conventional antimicrobials, have shown that mostly synergy is reported. Very few viral studies of relevance to the skin have been made. Encouragement is made for further research into essential oil combinations with other essential oils, antimicrobials, and carrier oils. PMID:28546822

  20. Efficient heavy crude oil dehydration with centrifugal separation technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perschke, T. [GEA Westfalia Separator Systems GmbH, Oelde (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    Most conventional oil reservoirs are declining and the importance of unconventional heavy crude oil reservoirs is increasing. Unconventional heavy crude oils cannot be handled in the traditional way for dewatering and desalting. The industry mostly employs static dewatering and desalting systems using electrostatic field, chemicals and temperature. These systems have their limitations when it comes to lower API grades. High-speed centrifuges from GEA Westfalia Separator are utilized successfully in the exploration, delivery and treatment of crude oils and oily water applications as they combine efficiency, reliability and environmental conservation in a broad spectrum of highly specialized applications. This paper presented the basic function and fundamental principle behind the separation of particles, or water droplets, in a liquid using Stokes Law. The paper also presented the throughput equation and discussed heavy oil extraction. The solution was then presented. The paper also explained why disk stack centrifuges are used for heavy crude oil dehydration. The process parameters for disc stack centrifuge technology were also reviewed along with future considerations for using disc stack centrifuges for crude oil. It was concluded that the efficiencies of the respective types of equipment are preliminarily determined by the driving g-force in combination with the length of the settling path for the oil droplets. 1 fig.

  1. Evaluation of rapeseed genotypes for yield and oil quality under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-12-15

    Dec 15, 2009 ... genotype were considered as stable. Rapeseed has attained the status of alternate crop of wheat, in the rainfed areas of District Mansehra. Some traditional landraces of Turnip Rape are widely cultivated as conventional crop mostly for fodder, hair oil and green vegetable. Commercial cultivation of B.

  2. Characterization of insoluble organic matter of the Lokpanta oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conventional infrared (IR) spectroscopy was used to get quantitative information on the structure of the isolated kerogen of the Lokpanta oil shales in the Anambra basin. The kerogen was extracted from six shale samples collected from different geographical locations in the basin. Only about 1 to 14% of the kerogen ...

  3. Develop a New Lesquerella fendleri Crop for Castor Oil Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seed oil of Lesquerella fendleri contains a valuable hydroxy fatty acid (HFA), lesquerolic acid (20:1OH). The conventional source of HFA is ricinoleic acid (18:1OH) from castor seeds. Ricinoleic acid and its derivatives are used as raw materials for numerous industrial products, such as lubricants, ...

  4. The Dilemma of the Oil Market in the Current Geopolitical Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Teodora Balaceanu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In an increasingly globalized world, where the effects of technology have an overwhelming impact on people's lives, meaning an increase in appetite for consumption of luxury goods, of lifestyle, it seems that conventional resources are becoming fewer and their use in industrial processes lead to environmental harm, at least from pollution. Essentially, oil prices influence governments, companies, and markets of raw materials markets of finite economic goods, markets of conventional and unconventional energy and an assumed oil crisis would lead to stronger inflections on the market, with repercussions on the overall level of prices, the oil price being generally regarded as decisive for the other prices in the economy.

  5. Supplying synthetic crude oil from Canadian oil sands: A comparative study of the costs and CO2 emissions of mining and in-situ recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Méjean, Aurélie; Hope, Chris

    2013-01-01

    High crude oil prices and the eventual decline of conventional oil production raise the issue of alternative fuels such as non-conventional oil. The paper describes a simple probabilistic model of the costs of synthetic crude oil produced from Canadian oil sands. Synthetic crude oil is obtained by upgrading bitumen that is first produced through mining or in-situ recovery techniques. This forward-looking analysis quantifies the effects of learning and production constraints on the costs of supplying synthetic crude oil. The sensitivity analysis shows that before 2035, the most influential parameters are the learning parameter in the case of in-situ bitumen and the depletion parameter in the case of mined bitumen. After 2035, depletion dominates in both cases. The results show that the social cost of CO 2 has a large impact on the total costs of synthetic crude oil, in particular in the case of synthetic crude oil from in-situ bitumen, due to the carbon intensity of the recovery techniques: taking into account the social cost of CO 2 adds more than half to the cost of producing synthetic crude oil from mined bitumen in 2050 (mean value), while the cost of producing synthetic crude oil from in-situ bitumen more than doubles. - Highlights: • We model the cost of Canadian synthetic crude oil (SCO) using Monte-Carlo techniques. • We reveal the uncertainty associated with each input parameter. • We quantify the effect of learning, depletion and CO 2 using sensitivity analyses. • Accounting for the social cost of CO 2 doubles the cost of SCO from in-situ bitumen. • CO 2 pricing could have a large effect on the economics of the oil sands

  6. European Union and oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paillard, Christophe Alexandre

    2004-01-01

    In a context of oil price increase, problems about a Russian oil company (Loukos), and uncertainties in the Middle-East, the possibility of a new oil shock is a threat for Europe, and raises the issue of a true European energy policy which would encompass, not only grid development, environmental issues or market regulation issues, but also strategic issues related to energy supply security. This article proposes an overview of the European policy: first steps for a future European energy and oil policy in the green paper of the European Commission published in November 2000, issues of pollution and safety for hydrocarbon maritime transport. The article then examines the possibility of a third oil shock due to a crisis in the Middle East, and discusses whether European must have strategic stocks to face an outage of oil supplies

  7. The oil market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amic, E.; Lautard, P.

    1999-01-01

    This chapter examines the structure of the oil industry and the impacts of the oil markets on the hedging strategies of the energy consumers, the oil company, and the energy derivatives' provider. An introduction to market perspectives is presented, and the hedging operations in the jet fuel market in the airline sector are discussed. Trading and risk management within an oil company, the derivatives provider, trading derivatives in a multi-dimensional world, locational risks, and the modelling of term structure and the role of storage are considered. Industrial spreads and the role of refining, future market developments and market strategies for crude oil and oil products, and marketing packages and market risk are addressed

  8. Digital vs. conventional implant impressions: efficiency outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang J; Gallucci, German O

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate the efficiency, difficulty and operator's preference of a digital impression compared with a conventional impression for single implant restorations. Thirty HSDM second year dental students performed conventional and digital implant impressions on a customized model presenting a single implant. The outcome of the impressions was evaluated under an acceptance criteria and the need for retake/rescan was decided. The efficiency of both impression techniques was evaluated by measuring the preparation, working, and retake/scan time (m/s) and the number of retakes/rescans. Participants' perception on the level of difficulty for the both impressions was assessed with a visual analogue scale (VAS) questionnaire. Multiple questionnaires were obtained to assess the participants' perception on preference, effectiveness and proficiency. Mean total treatment time was of 24:42 m/s for conventional and 12:29 m/s for digital impressions (P impressions (P impression (P impression technique and 30.63 (±17.57) for digital impression technique (P = 0.006). Sixty percent of the participants preferred the digital impression, 7% the conventional impression technique and 33% preferred either technique. Digital impressions resulted in a more efficient technique than conventional impressions. Longer preparation, working, and retake time were consumed to complete an acceptable conventional impression. Difficulty was lower for the digital impression compared with the conventional ones when performed by inexperienced second year dental students. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  9. Geopolitics of oil markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liscom, W.L.

    1991-01-01

    Geopolitics can inject a great deal of uncertainty and cause fundamental shifts in the overall direction of oil markets, which would otherwise act in a fairly predictable and stable manner. The Iraqi invasion of Kuwait and the response of the USA were definitely linked with oil, and the aftermath of the invasion left four geopolitical issues affecting world oil markets. The provision authorizing $1.6 billion in Iraqi oil exports under the United Nations sanctions was imposed with little concern about the potential impact of these exports on the oil market; Iraq could export as much as 1 million bbl/d and it is unlikely that exports would be stopped once the $1.6 billion limit is reached. By making up most of the supply shortfall during the Kuwait crisis, Saudi Arabia suddenly became the producer of over a third of OPEC oil supplies and now dominates OPEC. The Saudis have indicated it will swing production according to world demand, irrespective of what OPEC wants, so that world oil demand will return strongly and remain. Middle East politics in general will determine the stability of oil supplies in the region for many of the countries. A producer-consumer dialogue at the high governmental level has started, with a view to some type of multilateral understanding in the light of mutual interests in secure oil supplies. This is not likely to have a big impact on oil markets without participation and support from the USA. The recent changes in the Soviet Union have potential impacts in regard to the attraction of that market for Western investment, in particular to assist exports. The worldwide environmental movement will also play a geopolitical role in the world oil market due to its influence on oil taxation policies

  10. Experimental Study on Characteristics of Oil Particle Distribution in Water-Gelled Crude Oil Two-Phase Flow System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Xiaoyan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The conventional gathering and transportation mode of heating the produced fluid of oil wells with hot water or steam may result in excessive energy consumption. In order to perform the unheated transportation, the idea of hydraulic suspension transport of the gelled crude oil is proposed based on the actual production of Daqing Oilfield, and the experimental system is established to test characteristics of oil particle distribution which have an important effect on the hydraulic suspension transportation. In the experiment, the image of gelled crude oil particle distribution was obtained in a horizontal pipe with inner diameter of 0.053 m, and then the law of particle distribution was investigated by the theoretical model. The results showed that the gelled crude oil hydraulic suspension transport could be achieved without any chemical reagent when the gelled crude oil was transformed into particles and dispersedly suspended in water. The results also showed that the gelled oil particles of 0–4 mm in size accounted for 92% or more of all particles, and the percentage of gelled crude oil particles of a size of 4 mm gradually increased with the increasing mixed flow rate.

  11. Feasibility study of utilizing jatropha curcas oil as bio-diesel in an oil firing burner system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaiful, A. I. M.; Jaafar, M. N. Mohd; Sahar, A. M.

    2017-09-01

    Jatropha oil derived from the Jatropha Curcas Linnaeus is one of the high potential plants to be use as bio-diesel. The purpose of this research is to carry out a feasibility study of using jatropha oil as bio-diesel on oil firing burner system. Like other bio-diesels, jatropha oil can also be used in any combustion engine and the performance and emissions such as NOx, SO2, CO and CO2 as well as unburned hydocarbon (UHC) from the engine will vary depending on the bio-diesel blends. The properties of Conventional Diesel Fuel (CDF) obtained will be used as baseline and the jatropha oil properties will be compared as well as other bio-diesels. From several researches, the properties of jatropha oil was found to be quite similar with other bio-diesel such as palm oil, neem, keranja and pongamia bio-diesel and complying with the ASTM standard for bio-diesel. Still, there are factors and issues concerning the use of jatropha oil such as technology, economy, legislation and resource. Plus, there several challenges to the growth of bio-diesel industry development since the world right now do not totally depend on the bio-diesel.

  12. A new nano-engineered hierarchical membrane for concurrent removal of surfactant and oil from oil-in-water nanoemulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Detao; Liu, Zhaoyang; Bai, Hongwei; Sun, Darren Delai; Song, Xiaoxiao

    2016-01-01

    Surfactant stabilized oil-in-water nanoemulsions pose a severe threat to both the environment and human health. Recent development of membrane filtration technology has enabled efficient oil removal from oil/water nanoemulsion, however, the concurrent removal of surfactant and oil remains unsolved because the existing filtration membranes still suffer from low surfactant removal rate and serious surfactant-induced fouling issue. In this study, to realize the concurrent removal of surfactant and oil from nanoemulsion, a novel hierarchically-structured membrane is designed with a nanostructured selective layer on top of a microstructured support layer. The physical and chemical properties of the overall membrane, including wettability, surface roughness, electric charge, thickness and structures, are delicately tailored through a nano-engineered fabrication process, that is, graphene oxide (GO) nanosheet assisted phase inversion coupled with surface functionalization. Compared with the membrane fabricated by conventional phase inversion, this novel membrane has four times higher water flux, significantly higher rejections of both oil (~99.9%) and surfactant (as high as 93.5%), and two thirds lower fouling ratio when treating surfactant stabilized oil-in-water nanoemulsion. Due to its excellent performances and facile fabrication process, this nano-engineered membrane is expected to have wide practical applications in the oil/water separation fields of environmental protection and water purification. PMID:27087362

  13. Upgrading Unconventional Oil Resources with the EST Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delbianco, Alberto; Meli, Salvatori; Panariti, Nicolleta; Rispoli, Giacomo

    2007-07-01

    We strongly believe that unconventional oils will play a much larger role in the growth of supply than is currently recognized. As a matter of fact, whereas the earth's conventional proven world oil reserves are 1.3 trillion barrels, extra-heavy plus bitumen resources amount to about 4 trillion barrels. The unconventional oils are characterized by low API gravity (<10), high viscosity and high concentration of poisons such as sulphur, nitrogen, metals, and asphaltenes. For this reason, a key role for the full exploitation of these hydrocarbon resources is played by the downstream processes that are required to upgrade and convert them into valuable products. In this scenario, Eni has developed a novel hydrocracking process (EST: Eni Slurry Technology) which is particularly well-suited for the conversion and upgrading of heavy feedstocks (conventional vacuum residues, extra-heavy oils and bitumen). EST employs nano-sized hydrogenation catalysts and an original process scheme that allow complete feedstock conversion to an upgraded synthetic crude oil (SCO) with an API gravity gain greater than 20 and avoid the production of residual by-products, such as pet-coke or heavy fuel oil. A Commercial Demonstration Unit (CDP) of 1200 bbl/d capacity is successfully operating in the Eni's Taranto refinery since November 2005. (auth)

  14. Oil based mud discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiesma, R.

    1996-01-01

    The intensive use of oil based muds by the offshore oil and gas industry during the 1980s has caused considerable contamination around drilling sites. A recent investigation on the Norwegian continental shelf indicates that the situation is much worse than previously thought. This material suggests that oil pollution of this kind could be damaging the North Sea's endangered fish stocks, including cod, haddock and plaice. The amount of oil discharged in the UK sector is many times higher than in the other sectors, suggesting that the problem there may be even more serious. The amount discharged in the Dutch and Norwegian sectors are comparable. (author)

  15. Solubility and Permeability Studies of Aceclofenac in Different Oils

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dissolved quantity of aceclofenac in each of the oils (almond oil, oleic acid, castor oil, paraffin oil, cinnamon oil, clove oil, canola oil, sesame oil, isopropyl myristate (ipm), sunflower oil, corn oil, coconuts oil and eucalyptus oil) at 25 °C. The in-vitro permeability of aceclofenac in each of these oils was determined at 32 ± 0.5 ...

  16. Synthesis of biodiesel from castor oil: Silent versus sonicated methylation and energy studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sáez-Bastante, J.; Pinzi, S.; Jiménez-Romero, F.J.; Luque de Castro, M.D.; Priego-Capote, F.; Dorado, M.P.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Sonicated transesterification leads to higher conversion than conventional one. • Energy consumption required by conventional and ultrasound-assisted transesterification was compared. • Ultrasound-assisted methylation is more competitive in terms of energy than conventional one. - Abstract: In recent years, biodiesel is evolving to be one of the most employed biofuels for partial replacement of petrodiesel. The most widely used feedstocks for biodiesel production are vegetable oils. Among them, castor oil presents two interesting features as biodiesel raw material; on one hand, it does not compete with edible oils; on the other, the cultivar does not require high inputs. In this research, a comparison between conventional and ultrasound-assisted transesterification was carried out in terms of castor oil methyl ester (COME) yield and energy efficiency. Results show that sonicated transesterification leads to higher COME yields under lower methanol-to-oil molar ratio, lower amount of catalyst, shorter reaction time and lower amount of energy required. Ultrasound-assisted transesterification parameters were optimized resulting in the following optimum conditions: 20 kHz fixed frequency, 70% duty cycle, 40% sonication amplitude, 4.87 methanol-to-oil molar ratio, 1.4% w/w amount of catalyst and 3 sonication cycles (3 min 48 s) that provided 86.57% w/w COME yield. The energy required along each type of transesterification was measured leading to the conclusion that sonicated transesterification consumes a significant lower amount of energy than conventional one, thus achieving higher COME yield

  17. Oil-based paint poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paint - oil-based - poisoning ... Hydrocarbons are the primary poisonous ingredient in oil paints. Some oil paints have heavy metals such as lead, mercury, cobalt, and barium added as pigment. These heavy metals can cause additional ...

  18. Convention on supplementary compensation for nuclear damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The document reproduces the text of the Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage which was adopted on 12 September 1997 by a Diplomatic Conference held between 8-12 September 1997 in Vienna

  19. Deceased Slabs Drive Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, H. J.; Hannah, J. L.

    2017-12-01

    The application of Re-Os isotope geochemistry to dating single oils is a nascent field [1,2]. Challenges include dissection of oils into asphaltene-maltene (ASPH-MALT) components in a way that preserves meaningful chronologic and source information. Significantly, oil-water mixing rapidly transfers Os to the oil, while Re exchange is sluggish [3]. The Os initial ratio of the oil is shifted in the direction of Os carried in the aqueous fluid, whereas the Re-Os isotopic age is preserved. We show that this phenomenon is operative in natural systems. Further, we show that deserpentinization of old oceanic slabs [4], may be linked to expulsion of Os-enriched waters into overlying sedimentary sections - a process that may be of fundamental importance for oil generation. This conclusion does not diminish the role of traditional organic-rich shales as source rocks for the hydrocarbon, but shows that external fluids are essential to petroleum generation. Moreover, the external fluids may be an important driver for expulsion and migration of oils. We have taken apart several petroleum systems from source rock, to residual oil, to tar mat development, to in situ live oil, through to produced oil. In many cases, a fluid with low 187Os/188Os - unlike that of normal basinal brines - provides a critical component to the oil-water mixture. Funding - CHRONOS project supported by Norwegian petroleum industry (Eni-Norge, Lundin, Aker BP) Acknowledgement - Christine Fichler [4], who first queried us on old slabs and oil, and stimulated ideas. [1] Georgiev, S.V., Stein, H.J., Hannah, J.L., Galimberti, R., Nali, M., Yang, G., and Zimmerman, A. (2016) Re-Os dating of maltenes and asphaltenes within single samples of crude oil: Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 179: 53-75. [doi.org/10.1016/j.gca.2016.01.016] [2] DiMarzio, J., Georgiev, S.V., Stein, H.J., and Hannah, J.L. (in press) Residency of rhenium and osmium in a heavy crude oil: Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta. [3] Hurtig, N.C., Georgiev, S

  20. Stakes and impact of non conventional gases on the market energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-04-01

    This article presents the content of a market study which aimed at describing the boom of the market of non conventional gases in the USA (definition, reasons for quick development, competitiveness, growth perspectives), at understanding how and why theses gases are the new playground of oil and gas companies (actors in presence, positions held by independent operators, ambitions of major companies, question of the development of a European sector of non conventional gases), and at anticipating the changes of the energy production market (the emergence of this market in the USA is an acceleration and imbalance factor of the world market of natural gas, and non conventional gases may change the deal on energy markets)