WorldWideScience

Sample records for undisclosed paid authorship

  1. Self-Authorship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter Magolda, Marcia B.

    2014-01-01

    Developing self-authorship, or the internal capacity to construct one's beliefs, identity, and social relations, is crucial to successfully navigate adult life. Learning partnerships that engage collegians in interdependent relationships with educators support the transition from dependence on authority to self-authorship during college.

  2. SAR: Stroke Authorship Recognition

    KAUST Repository

    Shaheen, Sara

    2015-10-15

    Are simple strokes unique to the artist or designer who renders them? If so, can this idea be used to identify authorship or to classify artistic drawings? Also, could training methods be devised to develop particular styles? To answer these questions, we propose the Stroke Authorship Recognition (SAR) approach, a novel method that distinguishes the authorship of 2D digitized drawings. SAR converts a drawing into a histogram of stroke attributes that is discriminative of authorship. We provide extensive classification experiments on a large variety of data sets, which validate SAR\\'s ability to distinguish unique authorship of artists and designers. We also demonstrate the usefulness of SAR in several applications including the detection of fraudulent sketches, the training and monitoring of artists in learning a particular new style and the first quantitative way to measure the quality of automatic sketch synthesis tools. © 2015 The Eurographics Association and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Authorship Inflation in Medical Publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilak, Gaurie; Prasad, Vinay; Jena, Anupam B

    2015-01-01

    The number of authors per manuscript in peer-reviewed medical journals has increased substantially in the last several decades. Several reasons have been offered to explain this authorship growth, including increased researcher collaboration, honorary authorship driven by increased pressures for funding and promotion, the belief that including senior authors will facilitate publication, and the growing complexity of medical research. It is unknown, however, whether authorship has grown over time due to growing complexity of published academic articles, in which case growth could be warranted, or whether it has grown due to pressures of funding and academic promotion, which have created "authorship inflation." To answer this question, we analyzed data on authorship count, study type, and size of study population for the first 50 original articles published in each decade during 1960-2010 in 3 major medical journals. Within each type of study we considered (eg, randomized trials, observational studies, etc), average authorship rose more than 3-fold during this period. Similar growth persisted after adjustment for changes in study population sizes over time. Our findings suggest that increasing research complexity is an inadequate explanation for authorship growth. Instead, growth in authorship appears inflationary. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. Authorship Attribution of Source Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennyson, Matthew F.

    2013-01-01

    Authorship attribution of source code is the task of deciding who wrote a program, given its source code. Applications include software forensics, plagiarism detection, and determining software ownership. A number of methods for the authorship attribution of source code have been presented in the past. A review of those existing methods is…

  5. Undisclosed conflicts of interest among biomedical textbook authors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piper, Brian J; Lambert, Drew A; Keefe, Ryan C; Smukler, Phoebe U; Selemon, Nicolas A; Duperry, Zachary R

    2018-02-05

    Textbooks are a formative resource for health care providers during their education and are also an enduring reference for pathophysiology and treatment. Unlike the primary literature and clinical guidelines, biomedical textbook authors do not typically disclose potential financial conflicts of interest (pCoIs). The objective of this study was to evaluate whether the authors of textbooks used in the training of physicians, pharmacists, and dentists had appreciable undisclosed pCoIs in the form of patents or compensation received from pharmaceutical or biotechnology companies. The most recent editions of six medical textbooks, Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine ( Har PIM), Katzung and Trevor's Basic and Clinical Pharmacology ( Kat BCP), the American Osteopathic Association's Foundations of Osteopathic Medicine ( AOA FOM), Remington: The Science and Practice of Pharmacy ( Rem SPP), Koda-Kimble and Young's Applied Therapeutics ( KKY AT), and Yagiela's Pharmacology and Therapeutics for Dentistry ( Yag PTD), were selected after consulting biomedical educators for evaluation. Author names (N = 1,152, 29.2% female) were submitted to databases to examine patents (Google Scholar) and compensation (ProPublica's Dollars for Docs [PDD]). Authors were listed as inventors on 677 patents (maximum/author = 23), with three-quarters (74.9%) to Har PIM authors. Females were significantly underrepresented among patent holders. The PDD 2009-2013 database revealed receipt of US$13.2 million, the majority to (83.9%) to Har PIM. The maximum compensation per author was $869,413. The PDD 2014 database identified receipt of $6.8 million, with 50.4% of eligible authors receiving compensation. The maximum compensation received by a single author was $560,021. Cardiovascular authors were most likely to have a PDD entry and neurologic disorders authors were least likely. An appreciable subset of biomedical authors have patents and have received remuneration from medical product

  6. Authorship policies of scientific journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnik, David B; Tyler, Ana M; Black, Jennifer R; Kissling, Grace

    2016-03-01

    We analysed the authorship policies of a random sample of 600 journals from the Journal Citation Reports database. 62.5% of the journals we sampled had an authorship policy. Having an authorship policy was positively associated with impact factor. Journals from the biomedical sciences and social sciences/humanities were more likely to have an authorship policy than journals from the physical sciences, engineering or mathematical sciences. Among journals with a policy, the most frequent type of policy was guidance on criteria for authorship (99.7%); followed by guidance on acknowledgments (97.3%); requiring that authors make substantial contributions to the research (94.7%); requiring that authors be accountable for the research as a whole (84.8%); guidance on changes in authorship (77.9%); requiring that authors give final approval to the manuscript (77.6%); requiring that authors draft or critically revise the manuscript (71.7%); providing guidance on corporate authorship (58.9%); prohibiting gift, guest or ghost authorship (31.7%); requiring authors to describe their contributions (5.3%); limiting the number of authors for some types of articles (4.0%) and requiring authors to be accountable for their part in the research (1.1%). None of the policies addressed equal contribution statements. Journals that do not have authorship policies should consider adopting or developing ones. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  7. Honorary authorship and symbolic violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacs, Jozsef

    2017-03-01

    This paper invokes the conceptual framework of Bourdieu to analyse the mechanisms, which help to maintain inappropriate authorship practices and the functions these practices may serve. Bourdieu's social theory with its emphasis on mechanisms of domination can be applied to the academic field, too, where competition is omnipresent, control mechanisms of authorship are loose, and the result of performance assessment can be a matter of symbolic life and death for the researchers. This results in a problem of game-theoretic nature, where researchers' behaviour will be determined more by the logic of competition, than by individual character or motives. From this follows that changing this practice requires institutionalized mechanisms, and change cannot be expected from simply appealing to researchers' individual conscience. The article aims at showing that academic capital (administrative power, seniority) is translated into honorary authorship. With little control, undetected honorary authorship gives the appearance of possessing intellectual capital (scientific merit). In this way a dominant position is made to be seen as natural result of intellectual ability or scientific merit, which makes it more acceptable to those in dominated positions. The final conclusion of this paper is that undemocratic authorship decisions and authorship based performance assessment together are a form of symbolic violence.

  8. 41 CFR 50-201.103 - Dealer as agent of undisclosed principal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Dealer as agent of undisclosed principal. 50-201.103 Section 50-201.103 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions... materials, supplies, articles, or equipment required under the contract, such dealer will be deemed the...

  9. Undisclosed chemicals--implications for risk assessment: a case study from the mining industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Khareen; Oates, Christopher; Plant, Jane; Voulvoulis, Nikolaos

    2014-07-01

    Many of the chemicals used in industry can be hazardous to human health and the environment, and some formulations can have undisclosed ingredients and hazards, increasing the uncertainty of the risks posed by their use. The need for a better understanding of the extent of undisclosed information in chemicals arose from collecting data on the hazards and exposures of chemicals used in typical mining operations (copper, platinum and coal). Four main categories of undisclosed chemicals were defined (incomplete disclosure; chemicals with unspecific identities; relative quantities of ingredients not stated; and trade secret ingredients) by reviewing material safety data sheet (MSDS) omissions in previous studies. A significant number of chemicals (20% of 957 different chemicals) across the three sites had a range of undisclosed information, with majority of the chemicals (39%) having unspecific identities. The majority of undisclosed information was found in commercially available motor oils followed by cleaning products and mechanical maintenance products, as opposed to reagents critical to the main mining processes. All three types of chemicals had trade secrets, unspecific chemical identities and incomplete disclosures. These types of undisclosed information pose a hindrance to a full understanding of the hazards, which is made worse when combined with additional MSDS omissions such as acute toxicity endpoints (LD50) and/or acute aquatic toxicity endpoints (LC50), as well as inadequate hazard classifications of ingredients. The communication of the hazard information in the MSDSs varied according to the chemical type, the manufacturer and the regulations governing the MSDSs. Undisclosed information can undermine occupational health protection, compromise the safety of workers in industry, hinder risk assessment procedures and cause uncertainty about future health. It comes down to the duty of care that industries have towards their employees. With a wide range of

  10. Authorship: Few Myths and Misconceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Ritesh G; Kharoshah, Magdy A; Madadin, Mohammed; Marakala, Vijaya; Lasrado, Savita; Al Tamimi, Dalal M

    2016-12-01

    This article seeks to address and dispel some of the popular myths and misconceptions surrounding authorship of a scientific publication as this is often misconstrued by beginners in academia especially those in the developing world. While ethical issues in publishing related to authorship have been increasingly discussed, not much has been written about the myths and misconceptions of who might be an author. Dispelling these myths and misconceptions would go a long way in shaping the thoughts and plans of students, junior faculty and researchers in academia especially in the developing world.

  11. Temporal context for authorship attribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Niels Dalum; Lioma, Christina; Larsen, Birger

    2014-01-01

    A study of temporal aspects of authorship attribution - a task which aims to distinguish automatically between texts written by different authors by measuring textual features. This task is important in a number of areas, including plagiarism detection in secondary education, which we study...

  12. Authorships of habitual bodies dancing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Susanne

    Dance is a mandatory part of physical education in Denmark and in this context imitation and improvisation are often used as if they are to be understood as dichotomies. In this paper I focus on analyzing how the students’ experience of the authorships of their dance-movements – whether improvise...

  13. Addressing Authorship Issues Prospectively: A Heuristic Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Laura Weiss

    2017-02-01

    Collaborative writing in academic medicine gives rise to more richly informed scholarship, and yet challenging ethical issues surrounding authorship are commonly encountered. International guidelines on authorship help clarify whether individuals who have contributed to a completed scholarly work have been correctly included as authors, but these guidelines do not facilitate intentional and proactive authorship planning or decisions regarding authorship order.In this Commentary, the author presents a heuristic approach to help collaborators clarify, anticipate, and resolve practical and ethically important authorship issues as they engage in the process of developing manuscripts. As this approach illustrates, assignment of authorship should balance work effort and professional responsibility, reflecting the effort and intellectual contribution and the public accountability of the individuals who participate in the work. Using a heuristic approach for managing authorship issues prospectively can foster an ethical, collaborative writing process in which individuals are properly recognized for their contributions.

  14. Paide Spordihall = Paide Sports Hall / Margit Mutso

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mutso, Margit, 1966-

    2010-01-01

    Paides Aiavilja 1 asuva spordihalli arhitektuursest lahendusest. Arhitektid: Maarja Kask, Karli Luik, Ralf Lõoke, kaasautor Jaan Port (Salto AB). Sisearhitekt Ville Lausmäe (VL Sisearhitektuur). Žürii liikme Kalle Komissarovi hinnang kultuurkapitali aastapreemiale esitatud hoonele

  15. Authorship for scientific papers: the new challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Carla Costa; Martrucelli, Cristina Ribeiro Nabuco; Rossilho, Marilisa de Melo Freire; Denardin, Odilon Victor Porto

    2010-01-01

    The dissemination of the practice of collaborative authorship (coauthorship) in Brazil and in the international scientific community has been accompanied by an increasing occurrence of frauds, manipulations and other deviations in the assignment of responsibility for a scientific paper. This article discusses the criteria for authorship attribution, the reasons for the growing indices of coauthorship and the challenges to determine authorship in electronic journals. Through literature review and case study (bibliographic search in scientific database), it shows ways to avoid that "misbehaviors" related to the authorship attribution affect the credibility of science.

  16. Authorships of habitual bodies dancing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Susanne

    Dance is a mandatory part of physical education in Denmark and in this context imitation and improvisation are often used as if they are to be understood as dichotomies. In this paper I focus on analyzing how the students’ experience of the authorships of their dance-movements – whether improvised...... or choreographed - is heavily informed by pedagogical ideas and institutional related discourses. In the analysis I draw on my recent research emphasizing that when dancing one improvises in different degrees – and on resent discussions concerning how habits can be understood as a potentiality transforming...

  17. Authorship issues in multi-centre clinical trials: the importance of making an authorship contract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Jacob; Burcharth, Jakob; Pommergaard, Hans-Christian; Vinther, Siri

    2015-02-01

    Discussions about authorship often arise in multi-centre clinical trials. Such trials may involve up to hundreds of contributors of whom some will eventually co-author the final publication. It is, however, often impossible to involve all contributors in the manuscript process sufficiently for them to qualify for authorship as defined by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors. Therefore, rules for authorship in multi-centre trials are strongly recommended. We propose two contracts to prevent conflicts regarding authorship; both are freely available for use without pay but with reference to the original source.

  18. Intriguing Trends in Nuclear Physics Articles Authorship

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pritychenko, B. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). NNDC

    2014-11-06

    A look at how authorship of physics publications (particularly nuclear publications) have changed throughout the decades by comparing data mined from the National Nuclear Data Center (NNDC) with observations.

  19. Which medical interview skills are associated with patients' verbal indications of undisclosed feelings of anxiety and depressive feelings?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Michiko; Takemura, Yousuke C

    2016-01-01

    In medical practice, obtaining information regarding patients' undisclosed "feelings of anxiety" or "depressive feelings" is important. The purpose of this study was to determine which interview skills are best suited for eliciting verbal indications of undisclosed feelings, for example anxiety or depressive feelings in patients. Our group videotaped 159 medical interviews at an outpatient department of the Department of Family Medicine, Mie University Hospital (Mie, Japan). Physicians' medical interview skills were evaluated using a Medical Interview Evaluation System and Emotional Information Check Sheet for assessing indications of "feelings of anxiety" or "depressive feelings". We analyzed the relationship between the interview skills and patients' consequent emotional disclosure using generalized linear model (GLIM). The usage of interview skills such as "open-ended questions" "asking the patient's ideas about the meaning of illness" "reflection" and "legitimization" were positively associated with the number of anxiety disclosure, whereas "close-ended questions" and "focused question" were negatively associated. On the other hand, only "respect" was positively associated with the number of depressive disclosures, whereas "surveying question" was negatively associated. The results revealed that there are several interview skills that are effective in eliciting verbal indication of undisclosed "feelings of anxiety" or "depressive feelings".

  20. CEAI: CCM based Email Authorship Identification Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nizamani, Sarwat; Memon, Nasrullah

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we present a model for email authorship identification (EAI) by employing a Cluster-based Classification (CCM) technique. Traditionally, stylometric features have been successfully employed in various authorship analysis tasks; we extend the traditional feature-set to include some...... reveal that the proposed CCM-based email authorship identification model, along with the proposed feature set, outperforms the state-of-the-art support vector machine (SVM)-based models, as well as the models proposed by Iqbal et al. [1, 2]. The proposed model attains an accuracy rate of 94% for 10...... authors, 89% for 25 authors, and 81% for 50 authors, respectively on Enron data set, while 89.5% accuracy has been achieved on authors' constructed real email data set. The results on Enron data set have been achieved on quite a large number of authors as compared to the models proposed by Iqbal et al. [1...

  1. Co-Authorship and Collaboration in Academia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Dorte

    Researchers’ status in academia is primarily determined by reputation. This reputation is applied in hiring, promotion and funding decisions, as well as performance evaluations (Weingart, 2005). Perhaps, one of the single most important factors for establishing a reputation is authorship, ideally...... individual bibliometric research assessment increases the need for an examination and discussion of academic authorship (Gläser & Laudel, 2007). Hence, the aim of this study is to investigate how researcher perceive and utilize authorship in academia. The case study is based on interviews of 43 Danish...... researchers from six universities in Denmark conducted in the period October 2013-february 2014. We interviewed 8-12 researchers from each of the four main academic research areas; Humanities, Social Sciences, Health & Life sciences and the Science & Technologies. These interviews included questions about...

  2. Honorary and ghost authorship in nursing publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Maureen Shawn; Barnsteiner, Jane; Daly, John

    2014-11-01

    The purposes of this study were to (a) assess the prevalence of articles with honorary authors and ghost authors in 10 leading peer-reviewed nursing journals between 2010 to 2012; (b) compare the results to prevalence reported by authors of articles published in high-impact medical journals; and (c) assess the experiences of editors in the International Academy of Nursing Editors with honorary and guest authorship. Corresponding authors of articles published in 10 nursing journals between 2010 and 2012 were invited to complete an online survey about the contributions of coauthors to see if the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors () criteria for authorship were met. Additionally, members of the International Academy of Nursing Editors were invited to complete an online survey about their experiences in identifying honorary or ghost authors in articles submitted for publication. The prevalence of articles published in 10 nursing journals with honorary authors was 42%, and the prevalence of ghost authorship was 27.6%. This is a greater prevalence than what has been reported among medical journals. Qualitative data yielded five themes: lack of awareness around the rules for authorship; acknowledged need for debate, discussion, and promotion of ethical practice; knowingly tolerating, and sometimes deliberately promoting, transgressions in practice; power relations and expectations; and avoiding scrutiny. Among the 60 respondents to the editor survey, 22 (36.7%) reported identifying honorary authors and 13 (21.7%) reported ghost authors among papers submitted to their publications. Inappropriate authorship is a significant problem among scholarly nursing publications. If nursing scholarship is to maintain integrity and be considered trustworthy, and if publications are to be a factor in professional advancement, editors, nursing leaders, and faculty need to disseminate and adhere to ethical authorship practices. © 2014 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  3. Moral Authorship of Novice Teachers in Primary Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gertsen, Rob; Schaap, Harmen; Bakker, Cok

    2017-01-01

    This article focuses on moral authorship as an element of the professional development of novice teachers in the Netherlands. Moral authorship refers to the ability of teachers to observe, identify, verbalize and reflect on the moral aspects of their work in a proactive and dialogical manner. We elaborate on moral authorship by theoretically…

  4. Significance of authorship in Patristic and Classical literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay Lipatov

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the study of various aspects of the problem of authorship of theological and literary works. It discusses causes of anonymity and pseudonimity, methods of identification and confirmation of authorship and the general significance of attribution. The study is supported with numerous examples of contested authorship in Patristic and Classical literature

  5. Authorship issues in multi-centre clinical trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenberg, Jacob; Burcharth, Jakob; Pommergaard, Hans-Christian

    2015-01-01

    to qualify for authorship as defined by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors. Therefore, rules for authorship in multi-centre trials are strongly recommended. We propose two contracts to prevent conflicts regarding authorship; both are freely available for use without pay but with reference...... to the original source....

  6. Authorship issues in multi-centre clinical trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenberg, Jacob; Burcharth, Jakob; Pommergaard, Hans-Christian

    2015-01-01

    to qualify for authorship as defined by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors. Therefore, rules for authorship in multi-centre trials are strongly recommended. We propose two contracts to prevent conflicts regarding authorship; both are freely available for use without pay but with reference...

  7. Authorship in scientific publications: analysis and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Christian W; Brückner, Christian; Kaiser, Tony; Mauron, Alex; Wahli, Walter; Wenzel, Uwe Justus; Salathé, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    In 2008, a Swiss Academies of Arts and Sciences working group chaired by Professor Emilio Bossi issued a "Memorandum on scientific integrity and the handling of misconduct in the scientific context", together with a paper setting out principles and procedures concerning integrity in scientific research. In the Memorandum, unjustified claims of authorship in scientific publications are referred to as a form of scientific misconduct - a view widely shared in other countries. In the Principles and Procedures, the main criteria for legitimate authorship are specified, as well as the associated responsibilities. It is in fact not uncommon for disputes about authorship to arise with regard to publications in fields where research is generally conducted by teams rather than individuals. Such disputes may concern not only the question who is or is not to be listed as an author but also, frequently, the precise sequence of names, if the list is to reflect the various authors' roles and contributions. Subjective assessments of the contributions made by the individual members of a research group may differ substantially. As scientific collaboration - often across national boundaries - is now increasingly common, ensuring appropriate recognition of all parties is a complex matter and, where disagreements arise, it may not be easy to reach a consensus. In addition, customs have changed over the past few decades; for example, the practice of granting "honorary" authorship to an eminent researcher - formerly not unusual - is no longer considered acceptable. It should be borne in mind that the publications list has become by far the most important indicator of a researcher's scientific performance; for this reason, appropriate authorship credit has become a decisive factor in the careers of young researchers, and it needs to be managed and protected accordingly. At the international and national level, certain practices have therefore developed concerning the listing of authors

  8. Authorship Rights in Scientific Publication and Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman İnci

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available While authorship is the key to science and academic career and confers reputation and credit to the author, it also places significant responsibility on the author. Ethical deception and fraud in scientific publications not only casts doubt on the integrity of science, but also weakens public support. Research results are published with the names of all individuals who have carried out the research. Although there are variations depending on the fields of study, the general rule is that everyone who has substantially contributed to the research and publication are given credit as authors. Activities such as obtaining funding, language editing, technical editing, or administrative support do not qualify an individual for authorship. However, despite clear guidelines, forms of ethical misconduct such as granting authorship to those who fail to meet the authorship criteria, omission of deserving authors from the author list and making inappropriate and unjustifiable modifications to the author list are prevalent. One way to solve these problems would be to determine and document the list and order of authors, and require the signatures of all authors in the planning stage, even before starting to do the research and write the manuscript.

  9. Measurable progress in female authorship in otolaryngology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeron, Jennifer L; Wilken, Reason; Miller, Mia E; Shapiro, Nina L; Bhattacharyya, Neil

    2012-07-01

    To identify contemporary trends in female authorship in the otolaryngology literature. Analysis of 4 otolaryngology journals. All articles published in Annals of Otology, Rhinology and Laryngology, Archives of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Laryngoscope, and Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery in 2008 were reviewed and compared with prior data from 1978, 1988, and 1998. Each published article's authorship panel was examined for the number of authors and each author's sex, degree, and the subspecialty area of publication. Year-to-year comparisons were conducted for the rates and characteristics of female authorship. A total of 544, 629, 713, and 785 articles from 1978, 1988, 1998, and 2008, respectively, were analyzed. From 1998 to 2008, the overall percentage of female authors increased from 14.5% to 22.5% (P otology (18.6%), general (22.3%), head and neck (22.2%), plastics (18.9%), and pediatrics (19.4%) (P = .885). A significant number of female first authors continue to be nonphysicians (19.2% in 2008, P < .001). Female authorship has shown significant and steady increases in the otolaryngology literature, particularly in the past decade. Increased rates of publication from female otolaryngologists within most subspecialties have resulted in similar rates of publication across the subspecialties.

  10. Authorship Ethics. ERIC/AE Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syrett, Kristen L.; Rudner, Lawrence M.

    The key ethical standards for authorship of educational research are summarized, drawing on "Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals" developed by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors. Adopted by more than 500 scientific and biomedical journals, these standards are effective guidelines for…

  11. Scholarly communication and authorship patterns in language ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Investigation into citation and authorship patterns in language and linguistics research is of serious interest to librarians and researchers. The purpose of this paper is to examine scholarly communication behaviour in languages using theses and dissertations to enhance collection development policy in linguistics research.

  12. Authorship and Moral Rights in Video Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Stein

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The complex and multimedia nature of video games results in several original and derivative works of copyright contained in a single game. Although there is no need to establish a new category of work and the current state of law offers comprehensive protection of the works, it also means there can be many different authors in a single production, so assignment of rights can be difficult.This interrelation of works and their respective authors can also have a negative effect on authors' moral rights, or, more specifically, the right to claim authorship and the right to object to derogatory treatment of the work.This article analyses the current law of the United Kingdom with regard to authorship and ownership of copyright in video games and underlying works before analysing and evaluating the moral rights of video games' contributors.

  13. Female authorship in Latin American pediatric journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero, Paula; Marcos, Cecilia; Ferrero, Fernando

    2017-12-01

    The participation of women in science increases every day. Here we estimated their participation in authorship in three Latin American pediatric journals indexed in PubMed. All articles published in 2015 in the Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría, the Jornal de Pediatría and the Revista Chilena de Pediatría were identified, and the first and last authors and the total number of authors by sex were determined. A total of 329 articles were identified. Out of 1432 authors, 59.9% were women. Also, 54.4% of all first authors and 48% of last authors were women. No significant difference was observed in female authorship ratio among the three journals. Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría had a significantly lower number of women as first and last authors. Women authorship ratio across three Latin American pediatric journals reached 59.9%. Their role as first or last authors was significantly lower in the Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría. Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría

  14. Authors, authorship order, the moving finger writes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayakumar Avula

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There has been a phenomenal increase in the number of research papers with multiple authors. Increasing academic pressures and halo around individuals with prolific publications have made many aspirants to claim authorship. Increasing number of authors has brought its own issues of author credits, disputes, rivalry, and a degree of unwelcome scramble for credit sharing. Many unresolved issues about authorship and various guidelines and admonitions are more often infringed than adhered to. The position of the first and last author seem to be well recognized in medical and dental journals, but the fate of middle authors is left to guessing and often of inconsequential importance. Most of these issues, as well as fraud, misconduct in medical research publications, have been discussed amply but too of no avail. It is comforting to know that except for small shouts and whispers, dental research has been relatively free from scams and frauds. The complacency, however, needs to be tempered with constant vigil against fraud, falsification and fabrication of research reports. Honest authorship, vigilant editors, robust peer review, and a discerning readership are the sine qua non for a good research paper. Academic institutions and selection committees should be concentrating on the quality of research papers and not enamored of their number.

  15. Authorship Attribution with Function Word N-Grams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Rusty

    2013-01-01

    Prior research has considered the sequential order of function words, after the contextual words of the text have been removed, as a stylistic indicator of authorship. This research describes an effort to enhance authorship attribution accuracy based on this same information source with alternate classifiers, alternate n-gram construction methods,…

  16. Written memory: authorship and cultural identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma Seltzer Goldstein

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This article is based on a research work in progress which approaches the relationship between written from memory, discourse and cultural identity. This choice rests on the idea that memory, identity and sense of belonging are intrinsically related. The memory space is also the space of the “ressignification”: the space where we construct and reconstruct representations and identities. We build representations of the past according to the representations we make of the present, and both are contaminated by representations socially and historically constructed. Such concepts are associated with the concepts of autonomy (FREIRE, 2002, agency (BAZERMAN, 2011; KLEIMAN, 2006 and authorship (BAZERMAN, 2011.

  17. Appropriation: Towards a Sociotechnical History of Authorship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriaan van der Weel

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of our literate culture across the millennia has been marked by clearly identified and well-documented milestones in the history of reading and writing technologies. Changes in literacy, understood as the sum of reading and writing practices, have always followed such milestones at some remove. Not only are they much more diffuse in character and much harder to identify and describe, but they stand in a tenuous cause-and-effect relationship to the technologies in question. This article makes a plea for a stronger awareness of the effects of technology on our literate culture. Reading has always received a fair amount of attention (with the history of reading being a prominent subdiscipline of the field of book studies, but it should be recognized that its corollary, authorship, is a central, and, as digital technology is becoming ubiquitous—at least in the Western world—, increasingly important part of our literate culture, too. With Web 2.0 technology enabling more people than ever in history to write for public or at least semi-public consumption, the concept, definition and status of authorship is in need of radical revision.

  18. Paid care work and depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ida E H; Aust, Birgit; Burr, Hermann

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have reported that employees in paid care work (e.g., child, health, and elderly care) have increased rates of hospitalization with depression and treatment with antidepressants. It is unclear, however, whether these findings reflect a causal effect of the work on employee mental...

  19. Erratum regarding inaccurate authorship attributions noted.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    For the paper entitled Pain improvement in rheumatoid arthritis with hyperbaric oxygen: report of three cases,' which appeared in the July-August 2016 issue of UHM (43-4), author attributions read as: John B. Slade MD, Mary V. Potts RN, Alan M. Flower DO, Michelle T. Sit MD, Thomas W. Schmidt MD. Undersea Hyperb Med. 2016 Jul-Aug; 43(4): 467-472. The corrected authorship reads as: John B. Slade MD, Mary V. Potts RN, Alan M. Flower DO, Karen M. Sky, MD, FACP, FACR, Michelle T. Sit MD, Thomas W. Schmidt MD. Undersea Hyperb Med. 2016 Jul-Aug; 43(4): 467-472. Dr. Karen M. Sky was inadvertently deleted from the list of authors. UHM apologizes for the omission.

  20. Kyd and Shakespeare: Authorship versus Influence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darren Freebury-Jones

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This article explores Shakespeare’s verbal indebtedness to works that have been attributed to Thomas Kyd, encompassing plays such as Soliman and Perseda, King Leir, and Arden of Faversham. Significantly, Martin Mueller has created an electronic corpus called Shakespeare His Contemporaries, which consists of over 500 plays dated between 1552 and 1662. Shakespeare His Contemporaries lists play pairs that share large numbers of dislegomena consisting of four words or more, and therefore provides empirical data that can help researchers to explore the intertextual relationships between early modern texts. This article investigates the nature of these parallels, drawing upon the idea of Shakespeare’s aural, or ‘actor’s memory’, and concludes that in order to distinguish between authorship and influence in contested texts like Arden of Faversham, more work needs to be done to ascertain the patterns of influence in Shakespeare’s plays.

  1. Authorship and authenticity in Sherlock Holmes pastiches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanna Nyqvist

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Rewritings and adaptations of the Sherlock Holmes stories are traditionally called pastiches among fandom. This article juxtaposes that established use with the literary critical notion of pastiche as imitation of style, and shows how stylistic affinity to the originals produces complex effects in the imitations. The article identifies two main strands in the pastiches: one that aims to correct the mistakes and fill in the gaps in the original stories, and one that supplements the canon with stories Watson left untold. Balancing among homage, criticism, and usurpation, the pastiches comment on the original story world and its cultural context, and engage in fictions of authorship to account for the apparent inauthenticity of the retellings.

  2. [Ethical conflicts in the authorship of scientific papers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Oetinger, Astrid; Sadarangani, Kabir P; Salas, Sofía P

    2016-11-01

    The frequency of conflicts about authorship of publications has increased along with the increase in the number of people involved in scientific work. Some of the factors that strongly influence the generation of conflicts and malpractices in authorship definition of scientific publications are the pressure of academia, economic incentives from the pharmaceutical industry in the field of biomedicine and authors’ wishes and expectations of recognition, among other factors. The article analyzes this problem, increasingly common in the field of medicine and related areas. Special attention is devoted to the prevailing laws in our country and international guidelines related to intellectual property and authorship of scientific publications, respectively. However, the ethical commitment, intellectual honesty and truthfulness of each of the authors about what is reported seems to be the decisive factor for the solution to these authorship conflicts.

  3. Growth and structure of authorship and co-authorship network in the strategic management realm: Evidence from the Strategic Management Journal

    OpenAIRE

    Koseoglu, Mehmet Ali

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to investigate the intellectual structure and evolution of author collaborations from articles published in the Strategic Management Journal between 1980 and 2014. This assessment includes the general view of authorship, authorship patterns, author productivity, ranking of authors, visualization of the co-authorship network, comparison of strategic management co-authorship network attributes with those of other disciplines, the evolution of main components ...

  4. Authors and authorship in brazilian information science journals

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Del Carmen Bohn

    2003-01-01

    This article discusses issues of authorship. It presents the analysis of 86 journal articles with 1528 bibliographical entries. The articles were all published in 2001 in four Brazilian journals of Information Science. Several characteristics of the authors were considered. Among them are the authors’ academic qualification, function and job held; individual and joint authorship, language of publication, papers published by sex and nationality and self-citation. Data show that the most signif...

  5. CEAI: CCM-based email authorship identification model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarwat Nizamani

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a model for email authorship identification (EAI by employing a Cluster-based Classification (CCM technique. Traditionally, stylometric features have been successfully employed in various authorship analysis tasks; we extend the traditional feature set to include some more interesting and effective features for email authorship identification (e.g., the last punctuation mark used in an email, the tendency of an author to use capitalization at the start of an email, or the punctuation after a greeting or farewell. We also included Info Gain feature selection based content features. It is observed that the use of such features in the authorship identification process has a positive impact on the accuracy of the authorship identification task. We performed experiments to justify our arguments and compared the results with other base line models. Experimental results reveal that the proposed CCM-based email authorship identification model, along with the proposed feature set, outperforms the state-of-the-art support vector machine (SVM-based models, as well as the models proposed by Iqbal et al. (2010, 2013 [1,2]. The proposed model attains an accuracy rate of 94% for 10 authors, 89% for 25 authors, and 81% for 50 authors, respectively on Enron dataset, while 89.5% accuracy has been achieved on authors’ constructed real email dataset. The results on Enron dataset have been achieved on quite a large number of authors as compared to the models proposed by Iqbal et al. [1,2].

  6. A Comprehensive Analysis of Authorship in Radiology Journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Wilfred; McInnes, Matthew D F; Kielar, Ania Z; Hong, Jiho

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to investigate authorship trends in radiology journals, and whether International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) recommendations have had an impact on these trends. A secondary objective was to explore other variables associated with authorship trends. A retrospective, bibliometric analysis of 49 clinical radiology journals published from 1946-2013 was conducted. The following data was exported from MEDLINE (1946 to May 2014) for each article: authors' full name, year of publication, primary author institution information, language of publication and publication type. Microsoft Excel Visual Basics for Applications scripts were programmed to categorize extracted data. Statistical analysis was performed to determine the overall mean number of authors per article over time, impact of ICMJE guidelines, authorship frequency per journal, country of origin, article type and language of publication. 216,271 articles from 1946-2013 were included. A univariate analysis of the mean authorship frequency per year of all articles yielded a linear relationship between time and authorship frequency. The mean number of authors per article in 1946 (1.42) was found to have increased consistently by 0.07 authors/ article per year (R² = 0.9728, Pjournals, country of origin, language of publication and article type. Overall authorship for 49 radiology journals across 68 years has increased markedly with no demonstrated impact from ICMJE guidelines. A higher number of authors per article was seen in articles from: higher impact journals, European and Asian countries, original research type, and those journals who explicitly endorse the ICMJE guidelines.

  7. "What is Authorship, and What Should it Be? A Survey of Prominent Guidelines for Determining Authorship in Scientific Publications"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason W. Osborne

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Before the mid 20th century most scientific writing was solely authored (Claxton, 2005; Greene, 2007 and thus it is only relatively recently, as science has grown more complex, that the ethical and procedural issues around authorship have arisen. Fields as diverse as medicine (International Committee of Medical Journal Editors, 2008, mathematics (e.g., American Statistical Association, 1999, the physical sciences (e.g., American Chemical Society, 2006, and the social sciences (e.g., American Psychological Association, 2002 have, in recent years, wrestled with what constitutes authorship and how to eliminate problematic practices such as honorary authorship and ghost authorship (e.g., Anonymous, 2004; Claxton, 2005; Manton & English, 2008. As authorship is the coin of the realm in academia (Louis, Holdsworth, Anderson, & Campbell, 2008, it is an ethical issue of singular importance. The goal of this paper is to review prominent and diverse guidelines concerning scientific authorship and to attempt to synthesize existing guidelines into recommendations that represent ethical practices for ensuring credit where (and only where credit is due.

  8. An Evaluation of Paid Leave

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albæk, Karsten

    relationship between the unemployment rate and transition rates from employment into the paid leave scheme. Program participation is low, precisely in those labor market states, where the scheme has a potential to perform as a remedy by increasing the transition rate from unemployment to employment. Several......This paper analyzes a labor market program which enables workers to leave employment temporarily with a compensation financed by the taxpayers. The main aim of the program was to increase the chances of the unemployed finding a job. However, the empirical analysis reveals a clear negative...

  9. Authorship in Croatian copyright legislation from 1846 to 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Velagić

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to investigate and present concepts of the author and his/her copyright work in copyright legislation that entered into force in Croatia from 1846 to 2007. 17 legal documents (acts, corrigenda, amendments were investigated using the content analysis method. The analysis of the results gives an insight into various cultural and sociological dimensions of authorship in the given time-frame. Special attention was paid to definitions of the author and his/her copyright work, examples of copyright works and exceptions related to the duration of copyright for different kinds of copyright works. As there had been no systematic overview of such legal documents in the available literature, they were briefly described in the first part of the paper, highlighting the important articles that stress the role of authors and their copyright work. In the analysis and summary we provide a systematic overview of the main concepts, with a special review of copyright laws in relation to new technologies and artistic forms: it is their relationship that testifies to the complexity of the term 'copyright work'. The paper shows that the basic perception of the author, his/her copyright works and their relations in the analysed copyright legislation has not changed significantly during this period of time. All legal documents refer to the examples of copyright work, and in 1957 a definition of copyright work was included, according to which copyright work is every spiritual (later referred to as intellectual creation. The concept of the author is strongly linked with the concept of author's copyright work. Various examples of copyright works allow us to see the difference between works that are permanent (e.g. literary works, music works, art works and works that are yet to be protected by copyright thanks to the development of technology and new features of artistic expression (e.g. photography, movies, computer programs. The process of

  10. Publication practices and responsible authorship: a review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvis E. Tarkang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Dissemination of research findings through the publication of one’s work or a group of contributors is an important part of the research process, as this allows the passing on of benefits to a much wider community. In whatever evocative form this dissemination may take, the onus lies on the author(s to ensure adherence to the code of ethics as it pertains to the integrity of the information being put out. We publish because we want our findings to be adapted into practice and application, or in some cases may be relevant to policy makers in decision-making. To a large extent in the field of academia, successful publication improves opportunities for academic funding and promotion whilst enhancing scientific and scholarly achievement and repute. A situation may be compromised where intellectual contributions to a scientific investigation do not adhere to the four key guidelines of scholarship, authorship, approval and agreement as well as the protocols of ensuring good publication ethics. The objective of this review is to lay emphasis on universal standards for manuscript authorship and to fostering good practices. This in our view will bring authorship credit and accountability to the attention of our colleagues and readers at large. To achieve this, a systematic and critical review of the literature was undertaken. Electronic databases, academic journals and books from various sources were accessed. Several key search terms relating to responsible authorship, common authorship malpractices, conflict of interest, universal publication guidelines and other authorship related issues, were used. Only references deemed useful from relevant texts and journal articles were included. In this paper, the authors have sought to highlight the pitfalls researchers sometimes entangle themselves within an act of compromise thereby impinging on the ethical and professional responsibilities for the content of a paper under consideration. This article

  11. Multiple Authorship in Scientific Manuscripts: Ethical Challenges, Ghost and Guest/Gift Authorship, and the Cultural/Disciplinary Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira da Silva, Jaime A; Dobránszki, Judit

    2016-10-01

    Multiple authorship is the universal solution to multi-tasking in the sciences. Without a team, each with their own set of expertise, and each involved mostly in complementary ways, a research project will likely not advance quickly, or effectively. Consequently, there is a risk that research goals will not be met within a desired timeframe. Research teams that strictly scrutinize their modus operandi select and include a set of authors that have participated substantially in the physical undertaking of the research, in its planning, or who have contributed intellectually to the ideas or the development of the manuscript. Authorship is not an issue that is taken lightly, and save for dishonest authors, it is an issue that is decided collectively by the authors, usually in sync with codes of conduct established by their research institutes or national ministries of education. Science, technology and medicine (STM) publishers have, through independent, or sometimes coordinated efforts, also established their own sets of guidelines regarding what constitutes valid authorship. However, these are, for the greater part, merely guidelines. A previous and recent analysis of authorship definitions indicates that the definitions in place regarding authorship and its validity by many leading STM publishers is neither uniform, nor standard, despite several of them claiming to follow the guidelines as set forward by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors or ICMJE. This disparity extends itself to ghost and guest authorship, two key authorship-related issues that are examined in this paper to assess the extent of discrepancies among the same set of STM publishers and what possible influence they might have on publishing ethics.

  12. Paid work and unpaid work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonke, Jens

    -questions are asked about the time spent on paid work and unpaid/household work. The advantage of the latter technique is that it can easily be integrated into surveys. Thus the American National Survey of Families and Households (NSFH) already contains two waves, and a new wave for 2001-2002, which allows......Time-use information is preferably obtained from diaries, as this method is considered more reliable than information from questionnaires. The diary-technique seems to be unique in catching the rhythm of every day life and thereby the structuring of work and leisure during a well......-defined and memorable period of time. However, there is no a priori reasoning why major differentials at least at an aggregate level should be found by using the two techniques. The purpose of this paper is to test this hypothesis by using the Danish Time Use Survey 2001, where diary information as well as survey...

  13. The question of authorship in the era of cyberculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Yukie Murakami

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at analyzing a number of consequences of the concept of authorship in the contemporary debate. Therefore, two objects, representing current tendencies, where chosen, both marked by the dynamics of cyberculture: Facebook and fandom. The first, a social network widely used in Brazil, does not require introductions. The latter is less known by general public, because it refers to a space used by fans to discuss the works they love. Through the analysis of these two virtual spaces, this paper is going to show how the authorship is called into question nowadays. It is going to describe the attempts of authors hedging their symbolic space and the readers’ strategies to conquer the authorship field.

  14. Exploring Authorship Development Among Mexican EFL Teacher-Researchers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Estefania Trujeque Moreno

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a multi-theoretical model to address processes of authorship development in the English as a foreign language teaching profession. Working within a sociocultural perspective of second-language teacher education, the authors examined six experienced nonnative English-speaking teacher-researchers. Perceptions of their key moments in the profession were analyzed using a mixed-method approach that combined document analysis with personal narratives. The findings indicated that both authoring (products and activities in their profession and self-authorship (transformational processes throughout their careers contributed to constructing these English as a foreign language professionals as scholars.

  15. Ghostly Collaboration: the Authorship of False Criminal Confession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Laughlin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Drawing on a body of confession scholarship, “Ghostly Collaboration” defines “coercive ghostwriting,” an authorship-inspired term for collaborative practices enacted between custodial criminal suspects and professional police interrogators resulting in coerced, potentially false confession. Within the United States, still-prominent notions of a Romantically-influenced autonomous Author problematically intersect with public perception of collaborative texts; the coercive ghostwriting label is intended to draw explicit attention to co-authorship via coercive collaboration, hopefully contributing to the ongoing efforts of researchers working to challenge inaccurate views of false confessions.

  16. Literary celebrity and the discourse on authorship in Dutch literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franssen, G.

    2010-01-01

    Literary celebrity results from a clash between two discursive configurations: literary authorship and popular celebrity. In order to gain an understanding of the contradictions that lie at the heart of literary celebrity, the authorial subjectivity of two Dutch authors are analyzed: Menno ter Braak

  17. Automated authorship attribution using advanced signal classification techniques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Ebrahimpour

    Full Text Available In this paper, we develop two automated authorship attribution schemes, one based on Multiple Discriminant Analysis (MDA and the other based on a Support Vector Machine (SVM. The classification features we exploit are based on word frequencies in the text. We adopt an approach of preprocessing each text by stripping it of all characters except a-z and space. This is in order to increase the portability of the software to different types of texts. We test the methodology on a corpus of undisputed English texts, and use leave-one-out cross validation to demonstrate classification accuracies in excess of 90%. We further test our methods on the Federalist Papers, which have a partly disputed authorship and a fair degree of scholarly consensus. And finally, we apply our methodology to the question of the authorship of the Letter to the Hebrews by comparing it against a number of original Greek texts of known authorship. These tests identify where some of the limitations lie, motivating a number of open questions for future work. An open source implementation of our methodology is freely available for use at https://github.com/matthewberryman/author-detection.

  18. Sustained Authorship: Digital Writing, Self-Publishing, and the Ebook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laquintano, Tim

    2010-01-01

    This article reports on a digital ethnography that examines writing, authorship, and self-publication in an online niche market. Drawing on interview and web data collected over 3 years, it focuses on the writing practices that have supported the production, distribution, and sanction of 13 ebooks self-published by online poker players. The…

  19. Authorship trends in Ghana journal of agricultural science: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper examined authorship patterns of feature articles, research and development notes, subject review articles, provisional communications and documentation in the Ghana Journal of Agricultural Science (GJAS). Content analysis was undertaken to collect feature articles, research and development notes, subject ...

  20. Authorship issues in multi-centre clinical trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenberg, Jacob; Burcharth, Jakob; Pommergaard, Hans-Christian

    2015-01-01

    Discussions about authorship often arise in multi-centre clinical trials. Such trials may involve up to hundreds of contributors of whom some will eventually co-author the final publication. It is, however, often impossible to involve all contributors in the manuscript process sufficiently for th...... to the original source....

  1. Citation Analysis and Authorship Patterns of Two Linguistics Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezema, Ifeanyi J.; Asogwa, Brendan E.

    2014-01-01

    This article analyzes the sources cited in articles published in two linguistics journals, "Applied Linguistics and Journal of Linguistics," from 2001 to 2010. A retrospective descriptive study was conducted using bibliometric indicators, such as types of cited sources, timeliness of cited sources, authorship patterns, rank lists of the…

  2. Ongoing ethical issues concerning authorship in biomedical journals: an integrative review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornhaber, Rachel Anne; McLean, Loyola M; Baber, Rodney J

    2015-01-01

    Health professionals publishing within the field of health sciences continue to experience issues concerning appropriate authorship, which have clinical, ethical, and academic implications. This integrative review sought to explore the key issues concerning authorship from a bioethical standpoint, aiming to explore the key features of the authorship debate. Studies were identified through an electronic search, using the PubMed, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), and Scopus databases of peer-reviewed research, published between 2009 and 2014, limited to English language research, with search terms developed to reflect the current issues of authorship. From among the 279 papers identified, 20 research papers met the inclusion criteria. Findings were compiled and then arranged to identify themes and relationships. The review incorporated a wide range of authorship issues encompassing equal-credited authors, honorary (guest/gift) and ghost authorship, perception/experiences of authorship, and guidelines/policies. This review suggests that the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors’ (ICMJE) recommended guidelines for authorship are not reflected in current authorship practices within the domain of health sciences in both low-and high-impact-factor journals. This devaluing of the true importance of authorship has the potential to affect the validity of authorship, diminish the real contributions of the true authors, and negatively affect patient care. PMID:26257520

  3. Authorship Trends in Spine Publications from 2000 to 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haws, Brittany E; Khechen, Benjamin; Movassaghi, Kamran; Yom, Kelly H; Guntin, Jordan A; Cardinal, Kaitlyn L; Shoshana, Noah B; Singh, Kern

    2018-02-06

    Literature review. To examine changes in authorship characteristics for Spine publications from the year 2000-2015. Scientific publications are considered an indication of academic achievement for physicians. Recently, authorship trends have been investigated, however, limited information is available on this topic within spine-specific literature. Original research articles published in Spine in the years 2000, 2005, 2010, and 2015 were evaluated. Authorship characteristics were collected for each article, including the number of authors and institutions per publication, first and last author gender, publication origin, and highest degree held by the first and last author. Trends over time were analyzed using numeric and visual descriptive analyses including percentages, means, standard deviations, and graphs. An average of 506 articles per year were published in Spine during the years 2000, 2005, 2010, and 2015. The number of articles written by ≥ 10 authors increased during this time (0.9% to 14.4%). There was a substantial increase in the number of multiple institutional affiliations (33.6% to 68.7%) and articles originating from outside North America (47.6% to 55.7%) from 2000 to 2015. The percentage of first authors with bachelor's degrees was higher in 2015 (6.6%) as compared to 2000 (1.4%), and more last authors were identified as MD/PhDs in 2015 (19.2%) than in 2000 (10.0%). Similar female representation was noted for first and last authorship for all years evaluated. The results of this study demonstrate increases in authors per article published in Spine from 2000 to 2015. Additionally, first authors were more likely to hold bachelor's degrees over time. This may be attributed to increasing competition in spine-related fields, necessitating earlier research exposure to aid in academic achievement. Interestingly, the percentage of female authorship has not changed significantly over time, in contrast with much of the previous literature. 2.

  4. Measuring co-authorship and networking-adjusted scientific impact.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John P A Ioannidis

    Full Text Available Appraisal of the scientific impact of researchers, teams and institutions with productivity and citation metrics has major repercussions. Funding and promotion of individuals and survival of teams and institutions depend on publications and citations. In this competitive environment, the number of authors per paper is increasing and apparently some co-authors don't satisfy authorship criteria. Listing of individual contributions is still sporadic and also open to manipulation. Metrics are needed to measure the networking intensity for a single scientist or group of scientists accounting for patterns of co-authorship. Here, I define I(1 for a single scientist as the number of authors who appear in at least I(1 papers of the specific scientist. For a group of scientists or institution, I(n is defined as the number of authors who appear in at least I(n papers that bear the affiliation of the group or institution. I(1 depends on the number of papers authored N(p. The power exponent R of the relationship between I(1 and N(p categorizes scientists as solitary (R>2.5, nuclear (R = 2.25-2.5, networked (R = 2-2.25, extensively networked (R = 1.75-2 or collaborators (R<1.75. R may be used to adjust for co-authorship networking the citation impact of a scientist. I(n similarly provides a simple measure of the effective networking size to adjust the citation impact of groups or institutions. Empirical data are provided for single scientists and institutions for the proposed metrics. Cautious adoption of adjustments for co-authorship and networking in scientific appraisals may offer incentives for more accountable co-authorship behaviour in published articles.

  5. Defining and Experiencing Authorship(s) in the Composition Classroom: Findings from a Qualitative Study of Undergraduate Writing Students at the City University of New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Johannah

    2011-01-01

    Theories of authorship and models of the author have been influential in shaping various approaches to composition theory and pedagogy. While discussions of the role of the author and authorship in composition studies have been going on for some time, tensions between the theoretical (author as social construct) and practical (author as agent)…

  6. Paide raekoja renoveerimine = Renovation of the Paide Town Hall / Margit Mutso

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mutso, Margit, 1966-

    2009-01-01

    Paide raekoja muinsuskaitse eritingimused koostasid Epi Tohvri ja Pille Viirsalu. Arhitekt Merike Kordemets (Paide EKE Projekt), sisearhitektid Annes Arro ja Hanna Karits (Arro Projekt). Sisekujunduses lähtuti juugendstiilist. Žürii hinnang kultuurkapitali aastapreemiale esitatud hoonele

  7. Writing a research paper at the university: authorship vs plagiarism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fátima Alves

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-8026.2016v69n3p77 Considering the need of producing academic texts at the university, many undergraduate students do it by copying texts that were already published. In this study we discuss the presence of plagiarism versus authorship marks in the introduction of academic articles produced by freshmen in a licenciateship degree. Therefore, we emphasize the issue of plagiarism and authorship, particularly from the perspective of the enunciative bakhtinian studies and then present the theoretical basis of Literacies, with the most recent studies on Literacies and Socio-Rhetorics. Data analysis revealed and confirmed the academic writing as a complex activity, given the practice of plagiarism found in the analyzed productions. The lack of knowledge of academic writing together not the theme domain contributed to the practice of plagiarism.

  8. Writing a research paper at the university: authorship vs plagiarism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fátima Alves

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Considering the need of producing academic texts at the university, many undergraduate students do it by copying texts that were already published. In this study we discuss the presence of plagiarism versus authorship marks in the introduction of academic articles produced by freshmen in a licenciateship degree. Therefore, we emphasize the issue of plagiarism and authorship, particularly from the perspective of the enunciative bakhtinian studies and then present the theoretical basis of Literacies, with the most recent studies on Literacies and Socio-Rhetorics. Data analysis revealed and confirmed the academic writing as a complex activity, given the practice of plagiarism found in the analyzed productions. The lack of knowledge of academic writing together not the theme domain contributed to the practice of plagiarism.

  9. Ghostly Collaboration: the Authorship of False Criminal Confession

    OpenAIRE

    Mary Laughlin

    2014-01-01

    Drawing on a body of confession scholarship, “Ghostly Collaboration” defines “coercive ghostwriting,” an authorship-inspired term for collaborative practices enacted between custodial criminal suspects and professional police interrogators resulting in coerced, potentially false confession. Within the United States, still-prominent notions of a Romantically-influenced autonomous Author problematically intersect with public perception of collaborative texts; the coercive ghostwriting label is ...

  10. Measuring co-authorship and networking-adjusted scientific impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioannidis, John P A

    2008-07-23

    Appraisal of the scientific impact of researchers, teams and institutions with productivity and citation metrics has major repercussions. Funding and promotion of individuals and survival of teams and institutions depend on publications and citations. In this competitive environment, the number of authors per paper is increasing and apparently some co-authors don't satisfy authorship criteria. Listing of individual contributions is still sporadic and also open to manipulation. Metrics are needed to measure the networking intensity for a single scientist or group of scientists accounting for patterns of co-authorship. Here, I define I(1) for a single scientist as the number of authors who appear in at least I(1) papers of the specific scientist. For a group of scientists or institution, I(n) is defined as the number of authors who appear in at least I(n) papers that bear the affiliation of the group or institution. I(1) depends on the number of papers authored N(p). The power exponent R of the relationship between I(1) and N(p) categorizes scientists as solitary (R>2.5), nuclear (R = 2.25-2.5), networked (R = 2-2.25), extensively networked (R = 1.75-2) or collaborators (Rscientist. I(n) similarly provides a simple measure of the effective networking size to adjust the citation impact of groups or institutions. Empirical data are provided for single scientists and institutions for the proposed metrics. Cautious adoption of adjustments for co-authorship and networking in scientific appraisals may offer incentives for more accountable co-authorship behaviour in published articles.

  11. Authorship attribution based on Life-Like Network Automata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machicao, Jeaneth; Corrêa, Edilson A.; Miranda, Gisele H. B.; Amancio, Diego R.

    2018-01-01

    The authorship attribution is a problem of considerable practical and technical interest. Several methods have been designed to infer the authorship of disputed documents in multiple contexts. While traditional statistical methods based solely on word counts and related measurements have provided a simple, yet effective solution in particular cases; they are prone to manipulation. Recently, texts have been successfully modeled as networks, where words are represented by nodes linked according to textual similarity measurements. Such models are useful to identify informative topological patterns for the authorship recognition task. However, there is no consensus on which measurements should be used. Thus, we proposed a novel method to characterize text networks, by considering both topological and dynamical aspects of networks. Using concepts and methods from cellular automata theory, we devised a strategy to grasp informative spatio-temporal patterns from this model. Our experiments revealed an outperformance over structural analysis relying only on topological measurements, such as clustering coefficient, betweenness and shortest paths. The optimized results obtained here pave the way for a better characterization of textual networks. PMID:29566100

  12. ‘mere prattle without practice’: Authorship in Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Betteridge

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the last ten years there has been a struggle within Shakespeare studies between the vast majority of scholars who have remained committed to the orthodox view on Shakespeare’s authorship of the plays that bear his name and a much smaller group of scholars, working with profoundly different levels of rigour, who have sought to question this position. Recently there has been a degree of agreement that it is more productive to approach the issue in terms of acknowledging the collaborative nature of early modern play writing. It is noticeable, however, that for the literary critics and historians involved in this debate collaboration seems to end at the playhouse’s door. There is an assumption that the collaborators who produced early modern drama were all writers and not the other people involved in the production of Tudor and Stuart plays. This is profoundly problematic. In this article, Thomas Betteridge and Greg Thompson propose a non-textual approach to the authorship question through the use of performance as a research technique. The first part of the article will map out the current ground of Shakespeare authorship studies while the second part is an account of a performance as research workshop carried out by Betteridge and Thompson with students from Brunel University, London

  13. "Political co-authorships" in medical science journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johal, Jaspreet; Loukas, Marios; Oskouian, Rod J; Tubbs, R Shane

    2017-09-01

    The issue of co-author relationships on medical sciences journal publications has become more pronounced as advances in technology have enabled collaboration across countries and institutions to occur much more efficiently. These relationships often have underlying political motivations and outcomes, including career advancement, attempting to increase prestige of a project, and maintaining research grants. Some authors may be listed as senior or honorary authors despite offering little or no contribution to the original research project. This may be done in an effort to enhance the gravitas of a research project, and attain publication in a highly regarded medical journal. The current review covers the topic of political co-authorship and germane literature and lists strategies to combat this phenomenon. Such co-authorship practices corrupt the integrity of the research process as they attempt to bypass the safeguard that medical journals and institutions have put in place to prevent fraud and falsification. A number of strategies have been proposed to combat the practice of co-authorship, but it may ultimately be an unavoidable feature of contemporary medical research publishing that is difficult to police. Clin. Anat. 30:831-834, 2017. © 2017Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. [AUTHORSHIP - A GREAT HONOR OR AN ONEROUS RESPONSIBILITY?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shemer, Asaf; Shoenfeld, Yehuda

    2017-06-01

    Over the years ethical issues have been raised regarding authorship of scientific literature. Research is mainly accomplished through teamwork, and publishing articles has a significant impact upon academic promotion and career path. Thus, concepts such as honorary authors, ghost authors, and equally contributing authors have been established. In order to maintain better regulation, authorship recommendation and policies have been developed such as the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) guidelines. The senior researcher plays an important role in the process of publishing an article. While they may be eager to announce their findings, the senior researcher must first ensure that no falsification, fabrication or plagiarism has been committed, as well as address the sensitive subject of the correct order of authors on the paper. The senior researcher, along with the rest of the authors appearing on the paper, must also be accountable for the data reported in the article. In this editorial, we will review the topic of authorship and explore famous international incidents as well as our own experiences.

  15. A systematic review of research on the meaning, ethics and practices of authorship across scholarly disciplines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marušić, Ana; Bošnjak, Lana; Jerončić, Ana

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this systematic review was to evaluate evidence about authorship issues and provide synthesis of research on authorship across all research fields. We searched bibliographical databases to identify articles describing empirical quantitive or qualitative research from all scholarly fields on different aspects of authorship. Search was limited to original articles and reviews. The final sample consisted of 123 articles reporting results from 118 studies. Most studies came for biomedical and health research fields and social sciences. Study design was usually a survey (53%) or descriptive study (27%); only 2 studies used randomized design. We identified four 4 general themes common to all research disciplines: authorship perceptions, definitions and practices, defining order of authors on the byline, ethical and unethical authorship practices, and authorship issues related to student/non-research personnel-supervisor collaboration. For 14 survey studies, a meta-analysis showed a pooled weighted average of 29% (95% CI 24% to 35%) researchers reporting their own or others' experience with misuse of authorship. Authorship misuse was reported more often by researcher outside of the USA and UK: 55% (95% CI 45% to 64%) for 4 studies in France, South Africa, India and Bangladesh vs. 23% (95% CI 18% to 28%) in USA/UK or international journal settings. High prevalence of authorship problems may have severe impact on the integrity of the research process, just as more serious forms of research misconduct. There is a need for more methodologically rigorous studies to understand the allocation of publication credit across research disciplines.

  16. Empirical Analysis of Pre-Paid and Post-Paid Mobile Subscription in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat ÇETİNKAYA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the determinants of pre-paid and post-paid mobile phone subscriptions in Turkey. The binary logit analysis is employed to explore the relationship between the subscribers’ characteristics and their subscription type i.e. pre-paid or post-paid. The data used in the analysis relies on a survey carried out during 2009-Q3. The results indicate that there is a statistically significant relationship between the subscription type choice and the dependent variables. It is found that the choices of the other members living in the respondents’ household have significant effect on the decisions of the subscribers. The results also show that the subscribers who use their phones mainly for mobile calls and for surfing on internet are more likely to have a post-paid subscription while the pre-paid users usually use their phones for short messages and for playing games on their mobile phones.

  17. Co-Authorship and Bibliographic Coupling Network Effects on Citations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biscaro, Claudio; Giupponi, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyzes the effects of the co-authorship and bibliographic coupling networks on the citations received by scientific articles. It expands prior research that limited its focus on the position of co-authors and incorporates the effects of the use of knowledge sources within articles: references. By creating a network on the basis of shared references, we propose a way to understand whether an article bridges among extant strands of literature and infer the size of its research community and its embeddedness. Thus, we map onto the article – our unit of analysis – the metrics of authors' position in the co-authorship network and of the use of knowledge on which the scientific article is grounded. Specifically, we adopt centrality measures – degree, betweenneess, and closeness centrality – in the co-authorship network and degree, betweenness centrality and clustering coefficient in the bibliographic coupling and show their influence on the citations received in first two years after the year of publication. Findings show that authors' degree positively impacts citations. Also closeness centrality has a positive effect manifested only when the giant component is relevant. Author's betweenness centrality has instead a negative effect that persists until the giant component - largest component of the network in which all nodes can be linked by a path - is relevant. Moreover, articles that draw on fragmented strands of literature tend to be cited more, whereas the size of the scientific research community and the embeddedness of the article in a cohesive cluster of literature have no effect. PMID:24911416

  18. Authorship, institutional and citation metrics for publications on postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biglu, M H; Ghavami, M; Biglu, S

    2014-04-01

    Osteoporosis is the most common metabolic bone condition that does not often become clinically clear until a fracture occurs. The objective of the current study was to analyze all publications whose titles included the term "postmenopausal osteoporosis" published during the past decade by journals indexed in the database of SCI-E. This paper analyzes two sets of data: in the first, all papers with "postmenopausal osteoporosis" in their titles indexed in the database of SCI-E in the period 2001-2011; the second, all papers published by Osteoporosis International that were indexed in SCI-E during 2001-2011. The Science of Science Tool was used to map the co-authorship networks of papers published by Osteoporosis International in 2007-2011. Only papers cited more than 100 times in the Web of Science were considered for mapping the co-authorship network. A total number of 2,056 papers with "postmenopausal osteoporosis" in their titles were indexed in SCI-E between 2001 and 2011. The annual number of publications increased during the study period. The majority of publications came from Western Europe and North America. The number of papers published by authors based in Western Europe was about 75% greater than for North America. More papers on postmenopausal osteoporosis were published in Western Europe than in North America. The networks of co-authorship pointed to the strategic positions of highly cited authors from Western Europe. The top eight authors contributing the majority of papers were from Western Europe. Consequently Western Europe had greater impact than North America.

  19. Temptation, Trash and Trust: The Authorship and Authority of Digital Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayne, Sian

    2006-01-01

    This article considers the question of the authorship of digital texts and their use by learners and teachers in higher education. It draws on the work of Foucault, in particular how his concept of the "author function" is applied by Poster to the authorships of the digital age. From this theoretical basis, the article goes on to…

  20. The Missing Tooth: Case Illustrations of a Child's Assembled, Out-of-School Authorship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winters, Kari-Lynn

    2012-01-01

    Case illustrations of a six-year-old boy's adventures with a missing tooth are used in this paper to re-define a broader notion of authorship. Drawing on theories of social semiotics, New Literacy Studies (NLS), and critical positioning, this notion of authorship not only interweaves the boy's preferred modes of meaning-making and communication,…

  1. Authorship Policies for the Conduct of Graduate Research in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulero-Portela, Ana L.; Colon-Santaella, Carmen L.; Bonet-Rivera, Ivette

    2011-01-01

    Authorship credit is one of the areas addressed by research integrity. Policies established by graduate academic programs and academic institutions in Puerto Rico are analyzed by describing authorship principles included. Twenty-six percent of the policies specify that students are authors of their research work. Four percent of the policies…

  2. The rise in co-authorship in the social sciences (1980-2013)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Dorte

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the rise in co-authorship in the Social Sciences over a 34-year period. It investigates the development in co-authorship in different research fields and discusses how the methodological differences in these research fields together with changes in academia affect the tenden...

  3. Composers on Stage: Ambiguous Authorship in Contemporary Music Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Sanne Krogh

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, workflows within the field of contemporary classical music have changed drastically. Increasingly, composers are active in the process of creating and co-creating performances, not only the auditory dimensions but also the visual design and theatrical staging. The practice has...... but involving themselves in other ways. The article explores the ambivalent authorship at stake in these performances, arguing that they appear to be projects that reveal the processes of musical performance in ways that undermine the Romantic idea of the composer while concurrently celebrating that very same...

  4. Growth and structure of authorship and co-authorship network in the strategic management realm: Evidence from the Strategic Management Journal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Ali Koseoglu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study is to investigate the intellectual structure and evolution of author collaborations from articles published in the Strategic Management Journal between 1980 and 2014. This assessment includes the general view of authorship, authorship patterns, author productivity, ranking of authors, visualization of the co-authorship network, comparison of strategic management co-authorship network attributes with those of other disciplines, the evolution of main components and core authors in the networks by period, discussions on whether the strategic management network fits with the small world network theory, individual network attributes such as degree centrality, Bonacich's power index, closeness centrality, and betweenness centrality. Finally, the authors provide an inclusive evaluation of the results, limitations, and suggestions for future research.

  5. Gender equality in academic research on epilepsy-a study on scientific authorships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendels, Michael H K; Wanke, Eileen; Schöffel, Norman; Bauer, Jan; Quarcoo, David; Groneberg, David A

    2017-10-01

    The study aims to elucidate the state of gender equality in epilepsy research, analyzing the representation of female authorships from 2008 to 2016. Gendermetrics aided in analyzing 106,282 authorships from 22,180 epilepsy-related original research articles. The key methodology was the combined analysis of the relative frequency and the odds ratio of female authorships. The Prestige Index measures the distribution of prestigious authorships between the two genders. The following were held by women: 39.6% of all authorships and 44.1% of the first, 41.0% of the co-, and 29.0% of the last authorships. Female authors have an odds ratio of 1.25 (95% CI 1.21-1.29) for first, 1.17 (CI 1.14-1.20) for co-, and 0.57 (CI 0.55-0.59) for last authorships. The female authorship ratios showed substantial growth in recent years, with an annual growth rate of 1.7% overall, with 2.4% for first, 1.4% for co-, and 1.9% for last authorships. Women publish fewer articles compared to men (43.8% female authors hold 39.6% of the authorships). Women are also less likely to secure prestigious authorships in articles with many authors that attract the highest citation rates. Multi-author articles with male key authors are cited slightly more frequently than articles with female key authors. Distinct differences at the country level were revealed. The prognosis for the next decade forecasts significantly increasing female odds for first authorships and only slightly higher female odds for last authorships. A female authorship ratio of 49.2% is predicted for the year 2026. The integration of women in the scientific field of epilepsy is advanced. However, a dichotomy is present: Although the current system promotes early career steps, there is an apparent lack of female research leaders. This structural imbalance is expected to grow in the next decade due to the consistently high increase of female early career researchers. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 International League Against Epilepsy.

  6. Alphabetical co-authorship in the social sciences and humanities: evidence from a comprehensive local database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guns, R

    2016-07-01

    We present an analysis of alphabetical co-authorship in the social sciences and humanities (SSH), based on data from the VABB-SHW, a comprehensive database of SSH research output in Flanders (2000-2013). Using an unbiased estimator of the share of intentional alphabetical co-authorship (IAC), we find that alphabetical co-authorship is more engrained in SSH than in science as a whole. Within the SSH, large differences exist between disciplines. The highest proportions of IAC are found for Literature, Economics & business, and History. Furthermore, alphabetical co-authorship varies with publication type: it occurs most often in books, is less common in articles in journals or in books, and is rare in proceedings papers. The use of alphabetical co-authorship appears to be slowly declining. (Author)

  7. Are Female Top Managers Really Paid Less?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geiler, P.H.M.; Renneboog, L.D.R.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: Are female top managers paid less than their male counterparts? Is the gender gap higher in male-dominated industries? What effect on pay do female non-executive directors and remuneration consultants exert? While we find no pay gap for the figure-head (CEO), there is strong pay

  8. 38 CFR 8.10 - How paid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Service Life Insurance policy shall participate in and receive such dividends from gains and savings as... policy or policies, or that they be used to purchase paid-up additions, any such dividends shall be held... policy or policies held by the insured: Provided, That such dividend credits will be applied as of the...

  9. Authors and authorship in brazilian information science journals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Del Carmen Bohn

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses issues of authorship. It presents the analysis of 86 journal articles with 1528 bibliographical entries. The articles were all published in 2001 in four Brazilian journals of Information Science. Several characteristics of the authors were considered. Among them are the authors’ academic qualification, function and job held; individual and joint authorship, language of publication, papers published by sex and nationality and self-citation. Data show that the most significant number of papers are published by the academic community; they also show that publishing partnerships are more common among members of the same academic institution and that the male contribution to publications has lately increased. The analysis furthermore shows that self-citations privilege papers given at academic events and articles. However the preferred citations in articles are book chapters, journal articles and electronic texts. Finally, data show that most of the referred bibliography is recent, but they also show a certain degree of inbreeding since there are few references of interdisciplinary nature.

  10. Writer by Trade: James Ralph’s Claims to Authorship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Thomas Mari

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available To the enterprising journalists of early eighteenth-century Great Britain, the refined status of “author” remained elusive. Journalism itself was a nascent occupation formed in the processes of cultural legitimatization, commercialization, and politicization of authorship. In London, James Ralph, an American expatriate and political writer, emerged as a spokesman for journalism. In his Case of Authors by Profession or Trade, a short treatise published in 1758, Ralph argued that “professional” authors included journalists and other non-patroned writers. They deserved respect as an occupational group, and a special role in society. Ralph equated and extended the privileged notions of authorship and the role of the author — essentially, respectability and some limited independence from political and financial pressures — to his fellow journalists. His Case is worth revisiting because it shows how literary culture was being challenged in his era, extended and subverted as it was by his fellow journalists and their more transitory creations.

  11. Plagiarism, Intertextuality and Emergent Authorship in University Students' Academic Writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celia Helen Thompson

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Issues of plagiarism, intertextuality and authorial presence in academic writing are fundamental to the teaching and learning activities of all university lecturers and their students. Knowing how to assist students, particularly those who speak English as an additional language (EAL, to develop a sense of text/knowledge ownership and authorial presence in the creation of discipline-based scholarly texts can be especially challenging. Clarifying what is encompassed by the notion of ‘common knowledge’ is also central to this process. The aim of this paper is to explore the political and intertextual nature of text/knowledge construction and emergent student authorship through the analysis of interviews and written assignments from two EAL students, together with interview data from lecturers from relevant disciplinary fields. Drawing on the work of Bakhtin, Kristeva and Penrose and Geisler, I conclude by suggesting that it is by engaging with, rather than fearing, intertextual connections, that we can create a dialogic pedagogy for academic writing that will enable students to articulate an authoritative authorial identity of their own. The importance of lecturer intervention during the drafting stages of text production is also emphasised. Keywords: plagiarism; intertextuality; emergent authorship; academic writing

  12. Patterns of authorship in the IPCC Working Group III report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbera, Esteve; Calvet-Mir, Laura; Hughes, Hannah; Paterson, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has completed its Fifth Assessment Report (AR5). Here, we explore the social scientific networks informing Working Group III (WGIII) assessment of mitigation for the AR5. Identifying authors’ institutional pathways, we highlight the persistence and extent of North-South inequalities in the authorship of the report, revealing the dominance of US and UK institutions as training sites for WGIII authors. Examining patterns of co-authorship between WGIII authors, we identify the unevenness in co-authoring relations, with a small number of authors co-writing regularly and indicative of an epistemic community’s influence over the IPCC’s definition of mitigation. These co-authoring networks follow regional patterns, with significant EU-BRICS collaboration and authors from the US relatively insular. From a disciplinary perspective, economists, engineers, physicists and natural scientists remain central to the process, with insignificant participation of scholars from the humanities. The shared training and career paths made apparent through our analysis suggest that the idea that broader geographic participation may lead to a wider range of viewpoints and cultural understandings of climate change mitigation may not be as sound as previously thought.

  13. Data mining of text as a tool in authorship attribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visa, Ari J. E.; Toivonen, Jarmo; Autio, Sami; Maekinen, Jarno; Back, Barbro; Vanharanta, Hannu

    2001-03-01

    It is common that text documents are characterized and classified by keywords that the authors use to give them. Visa et al. have developed a new methodology based on prototype matching. The prototype is an interesting document or a part of an extracted, interesting text. This prototype is matched with the document database of the monitored document flow. The new methodology is capable of extracting the meaning of the document in a certain degree. Our claim is that the new methodology is also capable of authenticating the authorship. To verify this claim two tests were designed. The test hypothesis was that the words and the word order in the sentences could authenticate the author. In the first test three authors were selected. The selected authors were William Shakespeare, Edgar Allan Poe, and George Bernard Shaw. Three texts from each author were examined. Every text was one by one used as a prototype. The two nearest matches with the prototype were noted. The second test uses the Reuters-21578 financial news database. A group of 25 short financial news reports from five different authors are examined. Our new methodology and the interesting results from the two tests are reported in this paper. In the first test, for Shakespeare and for Poe all cases were successful. For Shaw one text was confused with Poe. In the second test the Reuters-21578 financial news were identified by the author relatively well. The resolution is that our text mining methodology seems to be capable of authorship attribution.

  14. Believing and perceiving: authorship belief modulates sensory attenuation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Desantis

    Full Text Available Sensory attenuation refers to the observation that self-generated stimuli are attenuated, both in terms of their phenomenology and their cortical response compared to the same stimuli when generated externally. Accordingly, it has been assumed that sensory attenuation might help individuals to determine whether a sensory event was caused by themselves or not. In the present study, we investigated whether this dependency is reciprocal, namely whether sensory attenuation is modulated by prior beliefs of authorship. Participants had to judge the loudness of auditory effects that they believed were either self-generated or triggered by another person. However, in reality, the sounds were always triggered by the participants' actions. Participants perceived the tones' loudness attenuated when they believed that the sounds were self-generated compared to when they believed that they were generated by another person. Sensory attenuation is considered to contribute to the emergence of people's belief of authorship. Our results suggest that sensory attenuation is also a consequence of prior belief about the causal link between an action and a sensory change in the environment.

  15. Reconstructing Faculty Roles to Align with Self- Authorship Development: The Gentle Art of Stepping Back

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah A. Day

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Student development has connections to important academic purposes in higher education (King, Baxter Magolda, Barber, Kendall Brown & Lindsay, 2009. In particular, a growing body of work on self-authorship, a social-constructive theory of development, has demonstrated relevance to the purposes of higher education (Baxter Magolda, 2001; King & Baxter Magolda, 2004. The conditions which support self-authorship development in academic settings have been studied in detail, drawing attention to what King et al. (2009 frame as developmentally effective educational experiences. Explorations of self-authorship development in academic settings have focused on students’ experiences and outcomes. The classroom experiences of faculty, particularly those working outside institutional initiatives, to support self-authorship have received less attention. This study used a theory-driven (Baxter Magolda, 2001; Pizzolato, 2005, practice-based research framework, to explore a faculty-student affairs collaboration through participant observation as the collaborators sought to align their teaching practices with the tenets of self-authorship development in the context of a senior undergraduate course in Service-Learning. Four themes emerged, which have relevance for those who wish to consider student personal and academic development concurrently. We argue that individual faculty members can collaborate with student affairs professionals and use self-authorship theory to expand their constructions of what it means to be a “good professor” by approaching teaching as a mirror image of the self-authorship journey traveled by students.

  16. A systematic review of research on the meaning, ethics and practices of authorship across scholarly disciplines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Marušić

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The purpose of this systematic review was to evaluate evidence about authorship issues and provide synthesis of research on authorship across all research fields. METHODS: We searched bibliographical databases to identify articles describing empirical quantitive or qualitative research from all scholarly fields on different aspects of authorship. Search was limited to original articles and reviews. RESULTS: The final sample consisted of 123 articles reporting results from 118 studies. Most studies came for biomedical and health research fields and social sciences. Study design was usually a survey (53% or descriptive study (27%; only 2 studies used randomized design. We identified four 4 general themes common to all research disciplines: authorship perceptions, definitions and practices, defining order of authors on the byline, ethical and unethical authorship practices, and authorship issues related to student/non-research personnel-supervisor collaboration. For 14 survey studies, a meta-analysis showed a pooled weighted average of 29% (95% CI 24% to 35% researchers reporting their own or others' experience with misuse of authorship. Authorship misuse was reported more often by researcher outside of the USA and UK: 55% (95% CI 45% to 64% for 4 studies in France, South Africa, India and Bangladesh vs. 23% (95% CI 18% to 28% in USA/UK or international journal settings. INTERPRETATION: High prevalence of authorship problems may have severe impact on the integrity of the research process, just as more serious forms of research misconduct. There is a need for more methodologically rigorous studies to understand the allocation of publication credit across research disciplines.

  17. Housework, paid work and psychiatric symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilma S Santana

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the hypothesis that work burden, the simultaneous engagement in paid work and unpaid family housework, is a potential risk factor for psychiatric symptoms among women. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out with 460 women randomly selected from a poor area of the city of Salvador, Brazil. Women between 18 to 70 years old, who reported having a paid occupation or were involved in unpaid domestic activities for their families, were eligible. Work burden-related variables were defined as: a double work shift, i.e., simultaneous engagement in a paid job plus unpaid housework; and b daily working time. Psychiatric symptoms were collected through a validated questionnaire, the QMPA. RESULTS: Positive, statistically significant associations between high (>7 symptoms QMPA scores and either double work shift (prevalence ratio -- PR=2.04, 95% confidence interval -- CI: 1.16, 2.29 or more than 10 hours of daily work time (PR=2.29, 95% CI: 1.96, 3.43 were found after adjustment for age, marital status and number of pre-school children. CONCLUSIONS: Major correlates of high QMPA scores are work burden variables. Being married or having pre-school children are also associated with high QMPA scores only when associated with work burden.

  18. The strength of co-authorship in gene name disambiguation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farkas Richárd

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A biomedical entity mention in articles and other free texts is often ambiguous. For example, 13% of the gene names (aliases might refer to more than one gene. The task of Gene Symbol Disambiguation (GSD – a special case of Word Sense Disambiguation (WSD – is to assign a unique gene identifier for all identified gene name aliases in biology-related articles. Supervised and unsupervised machine learning WSD techniques have been applied in the biomedical field with promising results. We examine here the utilisation potential of the fact – one of the special features of biological articles – that the authors of the documents are known through graph-based semi-supervised methods for the GSD task. Results Our key hypothesis is that a biologist refers to each particular gene by a fixed gene alias and this holds for the co-authors as well. To make use of the co-authorship information we decided to build the inverse co-author graph on MedLine abstracts. The nodes of the inverse co-author graph are articles and there is an edge between two nodes if and only if the two articles have a mutual author. We introduce here two methods using distances (based on the graph of abstracts for the GSD task. We found that a disambiguation decision can be made in 85% of cases with an extremely high (99.5% precision rate just by using information obtained from the inverse co-author graph. We incorporated the co-authorship information into two GSD systems in order to attain full coverage and in experiments our procedure achieved precision of 94.3%, 98.85%, 96.05% and 99.63% on the human, mouse, fly and yeast GSD evaluation sets, respectively. Conclusion Based on the promising results obtained so far we suggest that the co-authorship information and the circumstances of the articles' release (like the title of the journal, the year of publication can be a crucial building block of any sophisticated similarity measure among biological articles

  19. Paide linna ja gümnaasiumi spordihall = Paide city and upper secondary school sports building

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    Paides Aedvilja 1 asuva spordihalli sisekujundusest. Sisearhitektid Ville Lausmäe ja Kadi Karmann (VL Sisearhitektuur). Akustik Linda Madalik. Hoone arhitektid: Karli Luik, Ralf Lõoke, Maarja Kask, Jaan Port (Salto AB)

  20. Figureheads, ghost-writers and pseudonymous quant bloggers: the recent evolution of authorship in science publishing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton, Bruce G

    2008-10-01

    Traditionally, science has been published only under the proper names and postal addresses of the scientists who did the work. This is no longer the case, and over recent decades science authorship has fundamentally changed its character. At one extreme, prestigious scientists writing from high status institutions are used as mere figureheads to publish research that has been performed, analyzed and 'ghost-written' by commercial organizations. At the other extreme 'quant bloggers' are publishing real science with their personal identity shielded by pseudonyms and writing from internet addresses that give no indication of their location or professional affiliation. Yet the paradox is that while named high status scientists from famous institutions are operating with suspect integrity (e.g. covertly acting as figureheads) and minimal accountability (i.e. failing to respond to substantive criticism); pseudonymous bloggers - of mostly unknown identity, unknown education or training, and unknown address - are publishing interesting work and interacting with their critics on the internet. And at the same time as 'official' and professional science is increasingly timid careerist and dull; the self-organized, amateur realm of science blogs displays curiosity, scientific motivation, accountability, responsibility - and often considerable flair and skill. Quant bloggers and other internet scientists are, however, usually dependent on professional scientists to generate databases. But professional science has become highly constrained by non-scientific influences: increasingly sluggish, rigid, bureaucratic, managerial, and enmeshed with issues of pseudo-ethics, political correctness, public relations, politics and marketing. So it seems that professional science needs the quant bloggers. One possible scenario is that professional scientists may in future continue to be paid to do the plodding business of generating raw data (dull work that no one would do unless they were

  1. Co-authorship and scientific collaboration networks in Medwave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrales-Reyes, Ibraín Enrique

    2017-12-15

    Scientific collaboration between researchers is one of the most important aspects in the evolution of science helping promote the quality of the studies that are carried out. In turn, it determines an increase in citations when research results are published in scholarly journals. It is interesting to explore the dynamics of scientific collaboration networks regarding co-authorship of scientific articles published in Medwave from January 2014 to September of 2017 and indexed in PubMed/MEDLINE. The largest collaboration networks occurred among authors Rada G, Corsi O and Peña J; and, at universities and healthcare centers level, in the Faculty of Medicine belonging to the Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile located in Santiago, Chile.

  2. Co-authorship patterns and networks of Korean radiation oncologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jinhyun; Kang, Jin Oh; Park, Seo Hyun; Kim, Sang Ki

    2011-09-01

    This research aimed to analyze the patterns of co-authorship network among the Korean radiation oncologists and to identify attributing factors for the formation of networks. A total of 1,447 articles including contents of 'Radiation Oncology' and 'Therapeutic Radiology' were searched from the KoreaMed database. The co-authorship was assorted by the author's full name, affiliation and specialties. UCINET 6.0 was used to figure out the author's network centrality and the cluster analysis, and KeyPlayer 1.44 program was used to get a result of key player index. Sociogram was analyzed with the Netdraw 2.090. The statistical comparison was performed by a t-test and ANOVA using SPSS 16.0 with p-value articles written by a radiation oncologist as the first author was 1,025 out of 1,447. The pattern of co-authorship was classified into five groups. For articles of which the first author was a radiation oncologist, the number of single-author articles (type-A) was 81; single-institution articles (type-B) was 687; and multiple-author articles (type-C) was 257. For the articles which radiation oncologists participated in as a co-author, the number of single-institution articles (type-D) was 280 while multiple-institution articles (type-E) were 142. There were 8,895 authors from 1,366 co-authored articles, thus the average number of authors per article was 6.51. It was 5.73 for type-B, 6.44 for type-C, 7.90 for type-D, and 7.67 for type-E (p = 0.000) in the average number of authors per article. The number of authors for articles from the hospitals published more than 100 articles was 7.23 while form others was 5.94 (p = 0.005). Its number was 5.94 and 7.16 for the articles published before and after 2001 (p = 0.000). The articles written by a radiation oncologist as the first author had 5.92 authors while others for 7.82 (p = 0.025). Its number was 5.57 and 7.71 for the Journal of the Korean Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology and others (p = 0.000), respectively

  3. A Further Survey of Multiple Authorship in the Astronomical Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Graeme H.

    2017-11-01

    Authorship trends within the astronomical community have been studied using data drawn from the publication records of 12 refereed journals. The period covered by the study is 1991-2015. Across all journals, the annual fraction of papers with one or two authors has decreased with time, typically accompanied by an increased propensity for papers to have six or more co-authors. There is considerable variability in the behavior of three-to-five author papers. Reports on instrumentation developments within Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific (PASP), a journal that places specific emphasis on publishing instrumentation papers, have a higher number of authors than average. The trends away from one-to-two author papers and toward papers with six or more authors show no correlation with either the annual number of papers per journal or the geographical diversity of the contributing author pools.

  4. Explaining international co-authorship in global environmental change research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jappe, A.

    2006-04-15

    This paper maps the domain of earth and environmental sciences (EES) and investigates the relationship between cognitive problem structures and internationalisation patterns, drawing on the concepts of systemic versus cumulative global environmental change (GEC) and mutual task dependence in scientific fields. We find that scientific output concentration and internationalisation are significantly higher in the systemic GEC fields of Meteorology and Atmospheric Sciences and Oceanography than in the cumulative GEC fields Ecology and Water Resources. The relationship is explained by stronger mutual task dependence in systemic GEC fields. In contrast, the portion of co-authorships with developing, emerging and transition countries among all international publications is larger for Water Resources than for the three other fields, consistent with the most pressing needs for STI capacity development in these countries. (orig.)

  5. Computing Cumulative Interest and Principal Paid For a Calendar Year

    OpenAIRE

    John O. MASON

    2011-01-01

    This paper demonstrates how easy it is use Microsoft Excel’s CUMPRINC and CUMIPMT functions to compute principal and interest paid for an entire year, even though the payments were made monthly. The CUMPRINC function computes the principal paid by a series of loan payments; the CUMIPMT function computes the interest paid. These two functions provide an alternative to preparing a monthly loan amortization schedule and adding up the amounts of monthly interest paid and principal paid for the ye...

  6. William Wordsworth and the ecology of authorship: the roots of environmentalism in nineteenth-century culture

    OpenAIRE

    Malla García, Noelia

    2014-01-01

    Reseña de libro: Scott Hess, William Wordsworth and the Ecology of Authorship: The Roots of Environmentalism in Nineteenth-Century Culture (Charlottesville & London: Virginia University Press, 2012), 290 pp.

  7. Opinions on Authorship: A Survey of Plastic Surgery Residents and Fellows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momeni, Arash; Hunter, Cedric; Li, Alexander Y; Safa, Bauback; Wan, Derrick C; Kneser, Ulrich

    2018-02-28

    Scientific publications are the cornerstone of scholarly activities. The importance of appropriately assigned authorship cannot be overstated. Hence, we felt it prudent to examine the perception of plastic surgery trainees regarding authorship. We hypothesized that plastic surgery trainees would not be in compliance with International Committee of Medical Journal Editors guidelines when determining what constitutes an authorship justifying contribution. An online survey describing 4 distinct scenarios was distributed to plastic surgery trainees at 2 academic institutions using the Qualtrics research software (Provo, UT). Additional parameters queried included level of training and number of publications. Linear regression models were used to test correlation between responses and level of training and number of publications. Thirty-three of 48 trainees responded (response rate, 68.8%). All respondents had previously authored publications, with the majority (54.5%) having at least 10 publications. Although none of the scenarios presented justified authorship based on international guidelines, 33.3% of respondents believed that authorship was warranted in at least 3 of the 4 presented scenarios. Linear regression comparing for demographic variables to number of perceived authorship scenarios found a mild-moderate positive correlation with level of training (R = 0.34, P = 0.05) and number of publications (R = 0.32, P = 0.07). Plastic surgery trainees do not seem to be familiar with guidelines regarding authorship justifying contributions. It is important to raise awareness regarding criteria that warrant authorship and to educate our residents and fellows in matters of appropriate scholarly conduct because nothing short of the credibility of our scientific endeavors is otherwise in question.

  8. Honorary authorship in radiologic research articles: assessment of frequency and associated factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Ronald L; Ngo, Long; Boiselle, Philip M; Bankier, Alexander A

    2011-05-01

    To quantify the frequency of perceived honorary authorship in radiologic journals and to identify specific factors that increase its prevalence. This study qualified for exempt status by the institutional review board. An electronic survey was sent to first authors of all original research articles published in Radiology and European Radiology over 3 years. Questions included guidelines used for determining authorship, contributions of coauthors, the perception of honorary authorship, and demographic information. Univariable analysis of sample proportions was performed by using χ(2) tests. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to assess the independent factors that were associated with the probability of perceiving honorary authorship. Of the 392 (29.3%) of 1338 first authors who responded to the survey, 102 (26.0%) perceived that one or more coauthors did not make sufficient contributions to merit being included as an author. Of the 392 respondents, 231 (58.9%) stated that one or more coauthors performed only "nonauthor" tasks according to International Committee of Medical Journal Editors criteria. Factors associated with an increased first-author perception of honorary authorship included lower academic rank (adjusted odds ratio [OR]: 2.89; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.66, 5.06), as well as working in an environment in which the section or department head was automatically listed as an author (adjusted OR: 3.80; 95% CI: 2.13, 6.79). The percentage of honorary authorship was significantly higher (P = .019) among respondents who did not follow journal requirements for authorship. The rate of perceived honorary authorship (overall, 26.0%) was substantially more frequent among respondents of lower academic rank and in those working in an environment in which their section or department head was automatically listed as an author. http://radiology.rsna.org/lookup/suppl/doi:10.1148/radiol.11101500/-/DC1. RSNA, 2011

  9. Honorary Authorship in Radiologic Research Articles: Assessment of Pattern and Longitudinal Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Ronald L; Ngo, Long H; Heidinger, Benedikt H; Bankier, Alexander A

    2018-03-16

    To analyze the pattern and longitudinal evolution of honorary authorship in major radiology journals. In this Institutional Review Board-approved study, an electronic survey was sent to first authors of original research articles published in the American Journal of Roentgenology, European Radiology, the Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging, and Radiology during 2 years (July 2014 through June 2016). Questions addressed the perception of honorary authorship and contributing factors, as well as demographic information. Univariate analysis was performed by using χ2 tests. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to assess independent factors associated with the perception of honorary authorship. Of 1839 first authors, 315 (17.3%) responded. Of these, 31.4% (97/309) perceived that at least one coauthor did not make sufficient contributions to merit authorship and 54.3% (159/293) stated that one or more coauthors performed only "nonauthor" tasks according to International Committee of Medical Journal Editors criteria. Of eight factors significantly associated with the perception of honorary authorship on univariate analysis, two were retained by the stepwise multivariate model: having someone suggest adding an author and a coauthor performing only a nonauthorship task. There has been little variation in the perception of honorary authorship among first authors of original research articles in radiology. The suggestion of adding an author and having coauthors performing only nonauthorship tasks are the two most important risk factors for honorary authorship. Our findings indicate that a prolonged course of transformation of current cultural norms is required to decrease honorary authorship. Copyright © 2018 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Authorship trends over the past fifty years in the Journal of the Danish Medical Association

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, Siri; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    Internationally, the number of authors per scientific article is increasing. The objective of this study was to determine authorship trends over the past fifty years in Ugeskrift for Læger (UfL).......Internationally, the number of authors per scientific article is increasing. The objective of this study was to determine authorship trends over the past fifty years in Ugeskrift for Læger (UfL)....

  11. "Conferring authorship": biobank stakeholders' experiences with publication credit in collaborative research.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flora M A Colledge

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Multi-collaborator research is increasingly becoming the norm in the field of biomedicine. With this trend comes the imperative to award recognition to all those who contribute to a study; however, there is a gap in the current "gold standard" in authorship guidelines with regards to the efforts of those who provide high quality biosamples and data, yet do not play a role in the intellectual development of the final publication. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We carried out interviews with 36 individuals working in, or with links to, biobanks in Switzerland, in order to understand how they interpret, apply and value authorship criteria in studies involving biosamples. The majority of respondents feel that authorship is an important motivating factor in working and publishing collaboratively. However, our findings suggest that in some cases, authorship guidelines are being ignored in favor of departmental standards which recognize "scientific work" as meriting authorship. CONCLUSIONS: Our results support the current calls in the literature for an alternative method of crediting biomaterial contributions, in order to ensure appropriate authorship inclusion and promote collaborative research involving biobanks.

  12. Guest authors or ghost inventors? Inventorship and authorship attribution in academic science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lissoni, Francesco; Montobbio, Fabio

    2015-02-01

    Authorship and inventorship are the key attribution rights that contribute to a scientist's reputation and professional achievement. This article discusses the concepts of coinventorship and coauthorship in the legal and sociological literature, as well as journals' publication guidelines and technology transfer offices' recommendations. It discusses also the relative importance of social and legal norms in the allocation of scientific credit. This article revises critically the literature on inventorship and authorship in academic science and derives some policy implications on the institutional mechanisms allocating scientific credit. It reports and assesses the recent empirical evidence on the importance of social norms for the attribution of inventorship and authorship in teams of scientists. Finally, it discusses those norms from a social welfare perspective. The social norms that regulate the distribution of authorship and inventorship do not reflect exclusively the relative contribution of each team member but also the members' relative seniority or status. In the case of inventorship, such social norms appear to be as important as the legal norms whose respect is often invoked by technology transfer officers. Authorship and inventorship appear to be obsolete because they do not capture the increasing division of labor and responsibility typical of contemporary scientific research teams. The informative value of both authorship and inventorship attributions may be much more limited than assumed by recent evaluation exercises. © The Author(s) 2014.

  13. Credit where credit is due? Regulation, research integrity and the attribution of authorship in the health sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Street, Jackie M; Rogers, Wendy A; Israel, Mark; Braunack-Mayer, Annette J

    2010-05-01

    Despite attempts at clear direction in international, national and journal guidelines, attribution of authorship can be a confusing area for both new and established researchers. As journal articles are valuable intellectual property, authorship can be hotly contested. Individual authors' responsibilities for the integrity of article content have not been well explored. Semi-structured interviews (n = 17) were conducted with staff, student advocates and doctoral candidates working in health research in two universities in Australia. Stratified sampling ensured participants reflected a range of experience across biomedical, clinical and social science disciplines. Participants were asked about their experience with research publication and their views on the responsibilities of authorship. Participants gave a variety of reasons for attribution of authorship including: writing the paper; seniority; and student supervision. Gift authorship was seen by some participants as: a way of maintaining relationships; a reward; a means to increase a paper's credibility; or a demonstration of collaboration between authors. Norms and beliefs differed markedly between disciplines for authorship attribution and, to a lesser extent, for authors' responsibility for content integrity. Discussions about the effect of power differentials on authorship were common across disciplines. This paper describes a broad range of beliefs, values and practice norms held by health science researchers with respect to attribution of authorship and author responsibility for scientific publications. The findings support the need for clarity in relation to authorship, and a research environment which is supportive of ethical behaviour in the publication of research. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. 48 CFR 53.205-1 - Paid advertisements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Paid advertisements. 53... (CONTINUED) CLAUSES AND FORMS FORMS Prescription of Forms 53.205-1 Paid advertisements. SF 1449, prescribed in 53.212, shall be used to place orders for paid advertisements as specified in 5.503. [61 FR 39198...

  15. Gender Trends in Radiology Authorship: A 35-Year Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piper, Crystal L; Scheel, John R; Lee, Christoph I; Forman, Howard P

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe trends over time in female authorship in the radiology literature and to investigate the tendency of female first authors to publish with female senior authors. Data on the gender of academic physician authors based in the United States for all major articles published in three general radiology journals--Radiology, AJR, and Academic Radiology--were collected and analyzed for the years 1978, 1988, 1998, 2008, and 2013. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify significant trends over time, and a chi-square test of independence was performed to determine significant relations between the genders of first and senior authors. The gender of 4182 of 4217 (99.17%) authors with MD degrees was determined. The proportion of original research articles published by women as first authors increased from 8.33% in 1978 to 32.35% in 2013 (p articles with women as senior authors increased from 6.75% in 1978 to 21.90% in 2013 (p articles and guest editorials (p academic radiology literature. Female first authors were more likely to publish with female senior authors.

  16. On authorship in Samuel Beckett’s prose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willian André

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at building a reflection on the notion of authorship in Samuel Beckett’s work, with a main focus on his short prose from the 60s and 70s. Thereunto, supported by the writings of Maurice Blanchot, S. E. Gontarski, João Adolfo Hansen and Hugh Kenner, we draw a route that starts with the Beckettian post-war trilogy, going through the subsequent productions that culminate in the short pieces outlined by the author after the publishing of How It Is (1961. As we take the path run by the Irish writer in his deal with failure (a path full of mud and light-grey-dark oscillations, we experience the rise of a paradoxical impression: the more severe are Beckett’s attacks against the shapes of the I, testifying the dilution of identity, more accurate become the shapes surrounding the idea of “author” that surmounts the whole of his literary project.

  17. [Co-authorship research networks in public health in Santander].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naranjo-Estupiñán, Néstor F; Mora, Query J; Jaimes-Vega, Diana; Idrovo, Álvaro J

    2014-01-01

    Although a good deal of research in public health has been performed, large inequalities still exist in health. It is necessary to know how knowledge is generated and disseminated to the public in order for research to reach decision-makers. To characterize public health research networks in Santander, Colombia. Analysis of social networks based on co-authorship of scientific publications by researchers living in Santander in 2012. Researchers were identified using a "snowball" technique. The publications search was conducted using national and international databases. The density and average geodesic distance of networks were calculated, as was the size, pairs, brokers and homophily of egocentric networks. There were 531 researchers. Most worked in epidemiology (77.59%), and in more than one thematic field. The network density was 0.0058 and the average geodesic distance was 4.418. Several indicators suggested that the most cohesive egocentric networks were those in which researches investigated more than in one knowledge area or in epidemiology. Homophily was lower for health systems, biostatistics and social and behavioral sciences, as well as private hospitals and the public university. The network structure suggests a growth phase in research and a predominance of epidemiology. Other public health areas need strengthening so as to better address the health needs of the state.

  18. Views on authorship: survey among academic staffs of the Korean radiologists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Seong Su

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of my survey is to assess the knowledge and views of the academic staff on authorship criteria. 363 academic staff were invited to fill out the survey via e-mail and the responses were collected for two weeks. A one-page questionnaire was prepared and it included 19 questions with three major groups. The first group of questions was demographic information including the responder's age, sex and academic position. The second group of questions was focused on the individual perception and personal experience for authorship on their publications. The last group of questions included awareness and views of authorship criteria established by International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE). The responders were grouped according to age, sex and grade. To examine the difference of responses among each group, a Chi square test for categorical variables was performed. The overall response rate to the survey was 39.2% (113/288) and 20.7% (75/363) of e-mail address were undeliverable. The grade of respondents is relatively evenly distributed from fellowship (20%) to professor (22%). Most of the respondents (90.6%) had experienced difficulties with authorship. Although 72.2% of respondents had no awareness of ICMJE's criteria, they agreed with criteria fully (56.1%) and partially (42.4%). 42% of respondents expected that more than 50% of the authors per paper didn't fulfill the authorship criteria. Less than 5 authors per paper were adequate (96%). Most of respondents thought that the introduction of a contribution listing to the Journal of the Korean radiological society is necessary (93.5%) but it is not urgently needed (59.0%). I can see that there are authorship problems among the academic members of Korean radiological society. It is necessary to educate the members and to have them justify the validity of their authorship claims

  19. Honorary and ghost authorship in high impact biomedical journals: a cross sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wislar, Joseph S; Flanagin, Annette; Fontanarosa, Phil B; Deangelis, Catherine D

    2011-10-25

    To assess the prevalence of honorary and ghost authors in six leading general medical journals in 2008 and compare this with the prevalence reported by authors of articles published in 1996. Cross sectional survey using a web based questionnaire. International survey of journal authors. Sample of corresponding authors of 896 research articles, review articles, and editorial/opinion articles published in six general medical journals with high impact factors in 2008: Annals of Internal Medicine, JAMA, Lancet, Nature Medicine, New England Journal of Medicine, and PLoS Medicine. Self reported compliance with International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) criteria for authorship for all authors on the selected articles. A total of 630/896 (70.3%) corresponding authors responded to the survey. The prevalence of articles with honorary authorship or ghost authorship, or both, was 21.0% (95% CI 18.0% to 24.3%), a decrease from 29.2% reported in 1996 (P = 0.004). Based on 545 responses on honorary authorship, 96 articles (17.6% (95% CI 14.6% to 21.0%)) had honorary authors (range by journal 12.2% to 29.3%), a non-significant change from 1996 (19.3%; P = 0.439). Based on 622 responses on ghost authorship, 49 articles (7.9% (6.0% to 10.3%)) had ghost authors (range by journal 2.1% to 11.0%), a significant decline from 1996 (11.5%; P = 0.023). The prevalence of honorary authorship was 25.0% in original research reports, 15.0% in reviews, and 11.2% in editorials, whereas the prevalence of ghost authorship was 11.9% in research articles, 6.0% in reviews, and 5.3% in editorials. Evidence of honorary and ghost authorship in 21% of articles published in major medical journals in 2008 suggests that increased efforts by scientific journals, individual authors, and academic institutions are essential to promote responsibility, accountability, and transparency in authorship, and to maintain integrity in scientific publication.

  20. The Gender of Authorship: Heiner Müller and Christa Wolf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Fehervary

    1980-09-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between sexuality and politics has always been an underlying assumption of the avant-garde. In recent East German avant-garde literature, the notion of authorship as production has become associated with technological rationality and the patriarchal socialist state. The ensuing crisis of the traditional male author has thus led necessarily to a radicalization of subjectivity and to the politics of gender. A comparison of two contemporary texts, one by a female author, one by a male, shows that the crisis of authorship assumes two distinctly different forms when differences in gender are taken into account. The East German authors Heiner Müller and Christa Wolf have exhibited remarkably similar literary and political developments. Two of their most recent texts, Mülller's Hamletmachine and Wolf's No Place. Nowhere , both address the problematic of traditional male authorship and the disintegration of a preconceived literary gender identity. Yet, these two texts exemplify very different assumptions about the relationship between authorship and the literary tradition. Müller's text suggests the imprisonment of the male author within a petrified system of tradition and images, and hence the necessity of deconstruction. Wolf's text manifests a process of creating a new form of female-identified authorship and the possibility of redefining the tradition of literature and its future.

  1. Research Activity in Computational Physics utilizing High Performance Computing: Co-authorship Network Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Sul-Ah; Jung, Youngim

    2016-10-01

    The research activities of the computational physicists utilizing high performance computing are analyzed by bibliometirc approaches. This study aims at providing the computational physicists utilizing high-performance computing and policy planners with useful bibliometric results for an assessment of research activities. In order to achieve this purpose, we carried out a co-authorship network analysis of journal articles to assess the research activities of researchers for high-performance computational physics as a case study. For this study, we used journal articles of the Scopus database from Elsevier covering the time period of 2004-2013. We extracted the author rank in the physics field utilizing high-performance computing by the number of papers published during ten years from 2004. Finally, we drew the co-authorship network for 45 top-authors and their coauthors, and described some features of the co-authorship network in relation to the author rank. Suggestions for further studies are discussed.

  2. The evolution of your success lies at the centre of your co-authorship network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Servia-Rodríguez

    Full Text Available Collaboration among scholars and institutions is progressively becoming essential to the success of research grant procurement and to allow the emergence and evolution of scientific disciplines. Our work focuses on analysing if the volume of collaborations of one author together with the relevance of his collaborators is somewhat related to his research performance over time. In order to prove this relation we collected the temporal distributions of scholars' publications and citations from the Google Scholar platform and the co-authorship network (of Computer Scientists underlying the well-known DBLP bibliographic database. By the application of time series clustering, social network analysis and non-parametric statistics, we observe that scholars with similar publications (citations patterns also tend to have a similar centrality in the co-authorship network. To our knowledge, this is the first work that considers success evolution with respect to co-authorship.

  3. Effects of Spatial Distance and Paid Card on Price Promotions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Dazhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Paid card is an important mean of companies to maintain the customers and increase gain. It is applied extensively in retailing, fitness center, and by other service delivers. However, there is lack of studies focused on promotion mechanisms of paid card in the literature. In this paper, the promotion mechanisms of paid card based on the theories of mental accounting, construal level, and customer’s perceived value. The study has the results that the intention to purchase of paid card holders is higher than that of the consumers without payment in advance in the same discount rate. When there is large spatial distance between paid card holder and the target store, the traffic mode will impact on the purchase intention of paid card holders. Finally, the study has provided the corresponding suggestions for companies’ promotion management.

  4. Policies to support women’s paid work

    OpenAIRE

    Giannelli, Gianna Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Engaging in paid work is generally difficult for women in developing countries. Many women work unpaid in family businesses or on farms, are engaged in low-income self-employment activities, or work in low-paid wage employment. In some countries, vocational training or grants for starting a business have been effective policy tools for supporting women’s paid work. Mostly lacking, however, are job and business training programs that take into account how mothers’ employment affects child welf...

  5. Are over-paid Chief Executive Officers better innovators?

    OpenAIRE

    Habib Jouber

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on the pay level of the highest paid executive directors, which we label as "Executive Director’s Organizational Level" (henceforth EDOL), to raise the question if highest paid CEOs invest heavily in innovative projects. Two-stage least squares (2SLS) regressions show that over-paid CEOs are more likely to invest in R & D projects. They highlight, moreover, both from a "statutory" and an "activist" perspective, that CEOs’ intends to invest in value-enhancing innovations are...

  6. 20 CFR 411.505 - How is an EN paid?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How is an EN paid? 411.505 Section 411.505 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION THE TICKET TO WORK AND SELF-SUFFICIENCY PROGRAM Employment Network Payment Systems § 411.505 How is an EN paid? An EN (including a State VR agency acting as...

  7. Globalization of authorship in the marketing discipline: Does it help or hinder the field?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Stremersch (Stefan); P.C. Verhoef (Peter)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractMarketing scholars have reflected upon the marketing discipline's internal evolution before. However, no prior study has assessed the globalization of authorship in our discipline, let alone assessed its consequences for the field. This paper addresses the following two questions: (1) Is

  8. Exploring State-of-the-Art Software for Forensic Authorship Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillén-Nieto, Victoria; Vargas-Sierra, Chelo; Pardiño-Juan, Maria; Martinez-Barco, Patricio; Suárez-Cueto, Armando

    2008-01-01

    Back in the 1990s Malcolm Coulthard announced the beginnings of an emerging discipline, "forensic linguistics", resulting from the interface of language, crime and the law. Today the courts are more than ever calling on language experts to help in certain types of cases, such as authorship identification, plagiarism, legal interpreting…

  9. Globalization of authorship in the marketing discipline : Does it help or hinder the field?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stremersch, S; Verhoef, PC

    2005-01-01

    Marketing scholars have reflected upon the marketing discipline's internal evolution before. However, no prior study has assessed the globalization of authorship in our discipline, let alone assessed its consequences for the field. This paper addresses the following two questions: (1) Is there

  10. The Authorship of a 'Relation of the State of Polonia', 1598

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sobecki, Sebastian

    2004-01-01

    1. Sebastian Sobecki makes so strong an argument for Carew that his cautionary conclusion ("one cannot argue for Carew's authorship with the same certainty with which William Bruce can be excluded"— p. 176) seems unwarranted 2. British and Irish Experiences and Impressions of Central Europe,

  11. Teaching authorship and publication practices in the biomedical and life sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macrina, Francis L

    2011-06-01

    Examination of a limited number of publisher's Instructions for Authors, guidelines from two scientific societies, and the widely accepted policy document of the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) provided useful information on authorship practices. Three of five journals examined (Nature, Science, and the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences) publish papers across a variety of disciplines. One is broadly focused on topics in medical research (New England Journal of Medicine) and one publishes research reports in a single discipline (Journal of Bacteriology). Similar elements of publication policy and accepted practices were found across the policies of these journals articulated in their Instructions for Authors. A number of these same elements were found in the professional society guidelines of the Society for Neuroscience and the American Chemical Society, as well as the ICMJE Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals. Taken together, these sources provide the basis for articulating best practices in authorship in scientific research. Emerging from this material is a definition of authorship, as well as policy statements on duplicative publication, conflict of interest disclosure, electronic access, data sharing, digital image integrity, and research requiring subjects' protection, including prior registration of clinical trials. These common elements provide a foundation for teaching about scientific authorship and publication practices across biomedical and life sciences disciplines.

  12. Psychometric Evaluation of the Student Authorship Questionnaire: A Confirmatory Factor Analysis Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballantine, Joan; Guo, Xin; Larres, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    This research provides new insights into the measurement of students' authorial identity and its potential for minimising the incidence of unintentional plagiarism by providing evidence about the psychometric properties of the Student Authorship Questionnaire (SAQ). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses (EFA and CFA) are employed to…

  13. Multiple Authorship in Two English-Language Journals in Radiation Oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halperin, Edward C.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    A study of multiple authorship in 1,908 papers in the "International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, and Physics" and "Radiotherapy and Oncology" from 1983-87 investigated patterns and trends in number of authors per article by journal, article type, country, author's institution, author gender, and order of listing of…

  14. Web 2.0 Authorship: Issues of Referencing and Citation for Academic Integrity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Kathleen; Thompson, Celia; Clerehan, Rosemary; Sheard, Judithe; Hamilton, Margaret

    2008-01-01

    Web 2.0 authoring forms such as wikis and blogs, social bookmarking, and audio and video podcasting pose a challenge to academic authorship traditions. This paper reviews the provisions made in major academic referencing and citation style guides for acknowledging content and ideas that may be published using these new web authoring forms. It…

  15. An Ethical Decision-Making Model to Determine Authorship Credit in Published Faculty-Student Collaborations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Ryan D.; Ray, Dee C.

    2012-01-01

    Publishing research is imperative to both counselor educators and students in counseling programs. Furthermore, faculty-student publication collaborations can often be a mutually beneficial professional endeavor. However, determining order of authorship can be a complex ethical issue. The authors review prior research to illustrate the…

  16. Liegnitzer, Hundsfeld or Lew? The question of authorship of popular Medieval fighting teachings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaquet Daniel

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In numerous 15th and 16th century Fightbooks several sets of teachings appear alongside the glosses of Liechtenauer’s Epitome on armoured fighting and fighting on horseback (Harnischfechten and Rossfechten often enough to be considered auctoritas on these subjects. However, their authorship from various witnesses are attributed to different authorial figures - Andreas Liegnitzer, Martin Hundsfeld, Jud Lew.

  17. Does the multi-authorship trend influence the quality of an article?

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sahu, S.R.; Panda, K.C.

    (10):920–927, 2010). It may be necessitated by interdisciplinary research, the evolution of a discipline, or the intention of quality improvement. This article studies the relationship between the authorship and the quality of articles (publications in better impact...

  18. Authorship Trends in "The Analysis of Verbal Behavior": 1982-2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben, Rodrigo Dal; Goyos, Celso

    2017-01-01

    "The Analysis of Verbal Behavior" ("TAVB") is the only journal focused on theoretical and empirical research in verbal behavior. An assessment of authorship trends can provide a critical perspective on practices in verbal behavior analysis (e.g., participation by non-US institutions, contributions by female authors). The…

  19. Authorship ethics in global health research partnerships between researchers from low or middle income countries and high income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Elise; Hunt, Matthew; Master, Zubin

    2014-05-28

    Over the past two decades, the promotion of collaborative partnerships involving researchers from low and middle income countries with those from high income countries has been a major development in global health research. Ideally, these partnerships would lead to more equitable collaboration including the sharing of research responsibilities and rewards. While collaborative partnership initiatives have shown promise and attracted growing interest, there has been little scholarly debate regarding the fair distribution of authorship credit within these partnerships. In this paper, we identify four key authorship issues relevant to global health research and discuss their ethical and practical implications. First, we argue that authorship guidance may not adequately apply to global health research because it requires authors to write or substantially revise the manuscript. Since most journals of international reputation in global health are written in English, this would systematically and unjustly exclude non-English speaking researchers even if they have substantially contributed to the research project. Second, current guidance on authorship order does not address or mitigate unfair practices which can occur in global health research due to power differences between researchers from high and low-middle income countries. It also provides insufficient recognition of "technical tasks" such as local participant recruitment. Third, we consider the potential for real or perceived editorial bias in medical science journals in favour of prominent western researchers, and the risk of promoting misplaced credit and/or prestige authorship. Finally, we explore how diverse cultural practices and expectations regarding authorship may create conflict between researchers from low-middle and high income countries and contribute to unethical authorship practices. To effectively deal with these issues, we suggest: 1) undertaking further empirical and conceptual research regarding

  20. Guidelines for Authorship Credit, Order, and Co-Inquirer Learning in Collaborative Faculty-Student SoTL Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trent Maurer

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Determining authorship credit and order in collaborative research projects can be difficult, can introduce or increase conflict in the research environment, and can exacerbate existing inequalities and affect power dynamics between team members. As a result, much disciplinary scholarship has been written to develop potential guidelines for authorship credit and order. However, the collaborative interdisciplinary nature of much SoTL work, along with the increasing focus of SoTL on students as co-inquirers into SoTL research, creates unique issues and challenges in ethically assigning authorship credit on SoTL projects. Informed by seminal disciplinary papers on authorship issues and best practices in undergraduate research, this paper proposes a new model to identify the relative contributions of student collaborators and explicitly incorporate a process-focused approach to collaborative faculty-student SoTL projects.

  1. Study of co-authorship network of papers in the Journal of Research in Medical Sciences using social network analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firoozeh Zare-Farashbandi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Co-authorship is one of the most tangible forms of research collaboration. A co-authorship network is a social network in which the authors through participation in one or more publication through an indirect path have linked to each other. The present research using the social network analysis studied co-authorship network of 681 articles published in Journal of Research in Medical Sciences (JRMS during 2008-2012. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out with the scientometrics approach and using co-authorship network analysis of authors. The topology of the co-authorship network of 681 published articles in JRMS between 2008 and 2012 was analyzed using macro-level metrics indicators of network analysis such as density, clustering coefficient, components and mean distance. In addition, in order to evaluate the performance of each authors and countries in the network, the micro-level indicators such as degree centrality, closeness centrality and betweenness centrality as well as productivity index were used. The UCINET and NetDraw softwares were used to draw and analyze the co-authorship network of the papers. Results: The assessment of the authors productivity in this journal showed that the first ranks were belonged to only five authors, respectively. Furthermore, analysis of the co-authorship of the authors in the network demonstrated that in the betweenness centrality index, three authors of them had the good position in the network. They can be considered as the network leaders able to control the flow of information in the network compared with the other members based on the shortest paths. On the other hand, the key role of the network according to the productivity and centrality indexes was belonged to Iran, Malaysia and United States of America. Conclusion: Co-authorship network of JRMS has the characteristics of a small world network. In addition, the theory of 6° separation is valid in this network was also true.

  2. Perceptions of Scholars in the Field of Economics on Co-Authorship Associations: Evidence from an International Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sameer; Ratnavelu, Kuru

    2016-01-01

    Scholars (n = 580) from 69 countries who had contributed articles in the field of Economics during the year 2015 participated in a survey that gauged their perceptions of various aspects of co-authorship, including its benefits, motivations, working relationships, order of authorship and association preferences. Among the main findings, significant differences emerged in the proportion of co-authored papers based on age, gender and number of years the researchers had spent in their present institution. Female scholars had a greater proportion of co-authored papers than male scholars. Respondents considered improved quality of paper, contribution of mutual expertise, and division of labor as the biggest benefits of and motivation for co-authorship. Contrary to common perceptions that Economics researchers used a predominantly alphabetical order of authorship, our study found that a considerable percentage of respondents (34.5%) had practiced an order of authorship based on the significance of the authors' contribution to the work. The relative importance of tasks differed significantly according to whether researchers co-authored as mentors or co-authored as colleagues. Lastly, researchers were found to associate, to varying degrees, with other researchers based on socio-academic parameters, such as nationality, ethnicity, gender, professional position and friendship. The study indicates that Economics authors perceive co-authorship as a rewarding endeavor. Nonetheless, the level of contribution and even the choice of association itself as a co-author depends to a great extent on the type of working relationship and socio-academic factors.

  3. Social Network: a Cytoscape app for visualizing co-authorship networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofia, Victor; Isserlin, Ruth; Buchan, Alison M J; Bader, Gary D

    2015-01-01

    Networks that represent connections between individuals can be valuable analytic tools. The Social Network Cytoscape app is capable of creating a visual summary of connected individuals automatically. It does this by representing relationships as networks where each node denotes an individual and an edge linking two individuals represents a connection. The app focuses on creating visual summaries of individuals connected by co-authorship links in academia, created from bibliographic databases like PubMed, Scopus and InCites. The resulting co-authorship networks can be visualized and analyzed to better understand collaborative research networks or to communicate the extent of collaboration and publication productivity among a group of researchers, like in a grant application or departmental review report. It can also be useful as a research tool to identify important research topics, researchers and papers in a subject area.

  4. Social networks in indexing languages: a co-authorship analysis from the Brazilian reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo de Sales

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Social networks can measure the scientific collaboration among researchers, institutions and countries, making visible the investigative behavior of any field. Indexing language is a theme primarily approached by the area of information organization and representation. This paper presents the formation of social networks related to the indexing language theme using the available curricula on the Lattes Platform. Co-authorship analyses were done for researchers and institutions, as well as information about the journals most used to communicate the theme and knowledge areas that deal with investigations of indexing languages. It was found that co-authorship index is high, but the social networks of the respective theme are designed in a localized way.

  5. An information theoretic clustering approach for unveiling authorship affinities in Shakespearean era plays and poems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Shamsul Arefin

    Full Text Available In this paper we analyse the word frequency profiles of a set of works from the Shakespearean era to uncover patterns of relationship between them, highlighting the connections within authorial canons. We used a text corpus comprising 256 plays and poems from the 16th and 17th centuries, with 17 works of uncertain authorship. Our clustering approach is based on the Jensen-Shannon divergence and a graph partitioning algorithm, and our results show that authors' characteristic styles are very powerful factors in explaining the variation of word use, frequently transcending cross-cutting factors like the differences between tragedy and comedy, early and late works, and plays and poems. Our method also provides an empirical guide to the authorship of plays and poems where this is unknown or disputed.

  6. Eugenics and moral authorship. Analysis of a Habermas´s thesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Ortega Esquembre

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to study the Jürgen Habermas´s vision of genetic manipulation; in particular, it will be addressed critically his assumption that the genetically engineered person would loose his awareness of authorship. In the author´s view, positive genetic intervention —one that is to genetically enhance the subject— would eliminate the awareness of authorship of that subject, as well as his self-understanding as moral agent. Two aspects of the question will be approached: firstly, the correctness or incorrectness of Habermas´s thesis. Secondly, the relevance of the thesis to oppose positive eugenics. Could be other arguments considered within Habermas´s conceptual framework to oppose positive eugenics?

  7. Trends and Developments in Multi-Authorship in five Social Science disciplines from 1991 to 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, S.J

    2016-07-01

    This article explores developments in author numbers in five disciplines of the Social Sciences from 1991 to 2014, Economics, Educational Sciences, Political Science, Psychology, and Sociology. The relationship between the mean number of authors per article (in every discipline's five top journals) and three factors, publication year, international collaboration (IC), and article content (theoretical, experimental, or large-scale comparative) are analyzed. The findings show that single-authorship is decreasing and multi-authorship is on the rise, publication year was found to be significantly correlated with the number of authors. In addition, IC is positively correlated with the number of authors, even when publication year is controlled for. The content type “theoretical articles” is negatively related to the number of authors, even when publication year is controlled for. (Author)

  8. The Rise in Co-authorship in the Social Sciences (1980-2013)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Dorte

    2015-01-01

    -author articles. The study is based on bibliographic data about 4.5 million peer review articles published in the period 1980- 2013 and indexed in the 56 subject categories of the Web of Science’s (WoS) Social Science Citation Index (SSCI). Results show that in the majority of the subject categories we can......This paper examines the rise in co-authorship in the Social Sciences over a 33-year period. We investigate the development in co-authorship in different research areas and discuss how the methodological differences in these research areas and changes in academia affect the tendency to co...... document a rise in the mean number of authors and that there are disciplinary differences in how much the number of authors has increased. The most substantial rise in the mean and median number of authors has happen in subject categories, where the research often is based on the use of experiments, large...

  9. Gendered Authorship and Demographic Research: An Analysis of 50 Years of Demography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krapf, Sandra; Kreyenfeld, Michaela; Wolf, Katharina

    2016-08-01

    Demography, the official journal of the Population Association of America, has been given the highest rating among demographic journals by the Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI). Our aim here is to investigate the development of research subfields and female authorship in Demography over the last 50 years. We find that female authorship in Demography has risen considerably since the 1980s and that currently a woman is about as likely as a man to be the sole or the first author of a paper published in the journal. However, we find some differences by subfield. Women seem to be overrepresented in the "family and household" research subfield but underrepresented in the "mortality and health" and "data and methods" categories.

  10. Qualitative Study to improve integrity of NET : Perspectives of Peer review and Authorship in research ethics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Hyuk; Min, Byung Joo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-10-15

    After Dr. Hwang's Human embryonic stem cell scandal, research ethics stood out as the hot issue in both Korean scientific circles and general public. Science Publishing Group referred the limitation of peer review system and the absence of responsibility of author to one of the causes for the scandal. In order to prevent a similar fraud, Ministry of Science and Technology(MOST) established guidelines for research ethics and integrity in 2006. The guidelines included fabrication, falsification, and plagiarism(FFP) and unfair authorship. MOST committed the authority of administration and supervision to the society and the institutes of research to preserve the research integrity. The society and institute are charged with overseeing the implementation of enacted ethics guidelines. SCI(Scientific Citation Index) holds the guideline of research ethics and canon of the society which were crafted in order to guaranty the integrity and quality of the research. The publication policy pertains submission of articles, authorship and responsibilities of a reviewer. Societies pay attention to the peer review policy because the quality of articles is strongly dependent on the peer review. Nuclear Engineering and Technology (NET) is the journal of Korea Nuclear Society(KNS). NET is registered with SCIE(Science Citation Index Expanded), recently. In addition to the growth in external circulation, the improvement of quality requires the effort of the society to establish a strict peer review system and a fair authorship. The qualitative study on peer review and authorship of NET was put into force to improve the quality of NET. Based on studies and suggestions, the policy focuses on research ethics to improve the integrity of NET.

  11. Authorship bias in violence risk assessment? A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay P Singh

    Full Text Available Various financial and non-financial conflicts of interests have been shown to influence the reporting of research findings, particularly in clinical medicine. In this study, we examine whether this extends to prognostic instruments designed to assess violence risk. Such instruments have increasingly become a routine part of clinical practice in mental health and criminal justice settings. The present meta-analysis investigated whether an authorship effect exists in the violence risk assessment literature by comparing predictive accuracy outcomes in studies where the individuals who designed these instruments were study authors with independent investigations. A systematic search from 1966 to 2011 was conducted using PsycINFO, EMBASE, MEDLINE, and US National Criminal Justice Reference Service Abstracts to identify predictive validity studies for the nine most commonly used risk assessment tools. Tabular data from 83 studies comprising 104 samples was collected, information on two-thirds of which was received directly from study authors for the review. Random effects subgroup analysis and metaregression were used to explore evidence of an authorship effect. We found a substantial and statistically significant authorship effect. Overall, studies authored by tool designers reported predictive validity findings around two times higher those of investigations reported by independent authors (DOR=6.22 [95% CI=4.68-8.26] in designers' studies vs. DOR=3.08 [95% CI=2.45-3.88] in independent studies. As there was evidence of an authorship effect, we also examined disclosure rates. None of the 25 studies where tool designers or translators were also study authors published a conflict of interest statement to that effect, despite a number of journals requiring that potential conflicts be disclosed. The field of risk assessment would benefit from routine disclosure and registration of research studies. The extent to which similar conflict of interests exists

  12. Qualitative Study to improve integrity of NET : Perspectives of Peer review and Authorship in research ethics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Hyuk; Min, Byung Joo

    2007-01-01

    After Dr. Hwang's Human embryonic stem cell scandal, research ethics stood out as the hot issue in both Korean scientific circles and general public. Science Publishing Group referred the limitation of peer review system and the absence of responsibility of author to one of the causes for the scandal. In order to prevent a similar fraud, Ministry of Science and Technology(MOST) established guidelines for research ethics and integrity in 2006. The guidelines included fabrication, falsification, and plagiarism(FFP) and unfair authorship. MOST committed the authority of administration and supervision to the society and the institutes of research to preserve the research integrity. The society and institute are charged with overseeing the implementation of enacted ethics guidelines. SCI(Scientific Citation Index) holds the guideline of research ethics and canon of the society which were crafted in order to guaranty the integrity and quality of the research. The publication policy pertains submission of articles, authorship and responsibilities of a reviewer. Societies pay attention to the peer review policy because the quality of articles is strongly dependent on the peer review. Nuclear Engineering and Technology (NET) is the journal of Korea Nuclear Society(KNS). NET is registered with SCIE(Science Citation Index Expanded), recently. In addition to the growth in external circulation, the improvement of quality requires the effort of the society to establish a strict peer review system and a fair authorship. The qualitative study on peer review and authorship of NET was put into force to improve the quality of NET. Based on studies and suggestions, the policy focuses on research ethics to improve the integrity of NET

  13. Associating co-authorship patterns with publications in high-impact journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bales, Michael E; Dine, Daniel C; Merrill, Jacqueline A; Johnson, Stephen B; Bakken, Suzanne; Weng, Chunhua

    2014-12-01

    To develop a method for investigating co-authorship patterns and author team characteristics associated with the publications in high-impact journals through the integration of public MEDLINE data and institutional scientific profile data. For all current researchers at Columbia University Medical Center, we extracted their publications from MEDLINE authored between years 2007 and 2011 and associated journal impact factors, along with author academic ranks and departmental affiliations obtained from Columbia University Scientific Profiles (CUSP). Chi-square tests were performed on co-authorship patterns, with Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons, to identify team composition characteristics associated with publication impact factors. We also developed co-authorship networks for the 25 most prolific departments between years 2002 and 2011 and counted the internal and external authors, inter-connectivity, and centrality of each department. Papers with at least one author from a basic science department are significantly more likely to appear in high-impact journals than papers authored by those from clinical departments alone. Inclusion of at least one professor on the author list is strongly associated with publication in high-impact journals, as is inclusion of at least one research scientist. Departmental and disciplinary differences in the ratios of within- to outside-department collaboration and overall network cohesion are also observed. Enrichment of co-authorship patterns with author scientific profiles helps uncover associations between author team characteristics and appearance in high-impact journals. These results may offer implications for mentoring junior biomedical researchers to publish on high-impact journals, as well as for evaluating academic progress across disciplines in modern academic medical centers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Female authorship in emergency medicine parallels women practicing academic emergency medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinjum, Banu E; Getto, Leila; Tiedemann, Juliah; Marri, Maaya; Brodowy, Michelle; Bollinger, Melissa; O'Connor, Robert E; Breyer, Michael J

    2011-12-01

    Studies have shown that women in emergency medicine (EM) lag behind their male counterparts in academic productivity. We compared the proportion of female attending physicians from EM academic programs to the proportion of female first or second authors of original scientific manuscripts and case reports from four major EM journals in a single year. We used a retrospective cross-sectional design. Original scientific manuscripts and case reports from four major EM journals published in 2005: Academic Emergency Medicine, Annals of Emergency Medicine, American Journal of Emergency Medicine, and Journal of Emergency Medicine were reviewed to determine genders of first and second authors. The proportion of female first or second authorship was then compared to the proportion of female EM attending physicians from 134 academic EM programs in the United States. Data were analyzed using Pearson's chi-squared and Clopper-Pearson binomial confidence intervals as appropriate. A p-value of ≤ 0.05 was considered significant. The percentage of female faculty; 940/3571 (26.32%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 24.9-27.8%) vs. the percentage of female first or second authorship 289/1123 (25.73%, 95% CI 23.3-28.4%) was not statistically significant (p = 0.562). There was no difference in the proportion of male and female authors with multiple manuscripts (p = 0.889). As measured by first and second authorship, there was no discrepancy between the proportion of female EM faculty and the proportion of female authorship in EM literature from 2005. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. May I steal your sentences? Brazilian modernists debate the issue of authorship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Regina Jaschke Machado

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The topic of authorship has been thoroughly debated among Brazilian modernist intellectuals, especially during the 1920s. What we call search for the  authorial personality of modern styles was often linked to notions of influence and plagiarism. This article aims at presenting this debate in texts published at the time and in letters exchanged between Mário de Andrade and some of his interlocutors.

  16. Malpractice paid losses and financial performance of nursing homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Mei; Haley, D Rob; Oetjen, Reid M; Carretta, Henry J

    2011-01-01

    Florida's nursing home industry has experienced significant financial pressure over the past decade. One of the primary reasons is the dramatic increase in litigation activity for nursing home providers claiming negligent care and abuse. Although anecdotal reports indicate a higher cost because of malpractice in nursing facilities, few studies have examined the extent of malpractice paid losses and their effect on the financial performance of nursing homes. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of malpractice paid losses on the financial performance of nursing homes. Medicare Cost Report data and Online Survey, Certification, and Reporting data for Florida skilled nursing facilities over the 6-year period from 2001 to 2006 were used to calculate the malpractice paid losses and the financial performance indicators as well as the nursing home organizational and market factors. Descriptive analysis and multivariate regression analysis were used to examine the effect of paid loss on financial performance. The paid loss for malpractice claims was strongly associated with financial performance. Nursing facilities with malpractice paid losses had consistently lower total margins over the study period. The threat of nursing home litigation may create an incentive for nursing homes to improve quality of care; however, large paid claims can also force nursing homes into a financial situation where the organization no longer has the resources to improve quality. Nursing home managers must assess their malpractice litigation risk and identify tactics to mitigate these risks to better provide a safe and secure environment for the older persons. In addition, this research offers support for local, state, and federal policymakers to revisit the issue of malpractice litigation and the nursing home industry through its insight on the relationship of nursing home margins and litigation.

  17. Popular Authorship Reconfigured: Stephen King’s Authorial Personae from Print to Digital Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Despoina Feleki

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The convergence of literary practices with computer information technologies (ICTs has immensely affected writing processes and theories of authorship. This paper aims to foreground contemporary sociocultural conditions which have reconfigured authorship in relation to the materiality of the product through the example of Stephen King’s writing and marketing choices. An investigation of selected printed and digital works, including Misery, Lisey’s Story, Duma’s Key, and UR, showcases King’s concern for the future of authorship in the digital age and the position of the writer in the book and entertainment industries. This article seeks to trace the trajectory of the concept of the author who is seen moving from print to digital environments and being entangled in new forms of communication with the reader. In particular, King, who leaves control of the narrative story to experts in digital mediation, takes advantage of the new medium’s immediacy, comes closer to the recipients of his works, and manages to re-invent his authorial image while his name turns into a brand.

  18. Comparing intermittency and network measurements of words and their dependence on authorship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amancio, Diego Raphael; Oliveira, Osvaldo N Jr; Fontoura Costa, Luciano da; Altmann, Eduardo G

    2011-01-01

    Many features of texts and languages can now be inferred from statistical analyses using concepts from complex networks and dynamical systems. In this paper, we quantify how topological properties of word co-occurrence networks and intermittency (or burstiness) in word distribution depend on the style of authors. Our database contains 40 books by eight authors who lived in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, for which the following network measurements were obtained: the clustering coefficient, average shortest path lengths and betweenness. We found that the two factors with stronger dependence on authors were skewness in the distribution of word intermittency and the average shortest paths. Other factors such as betweenness and Zipf's law exponent show only weak dependence on authorship. Also assessed was the contribution from each measurement to authorship recognition using three machine learning methods. The best performance was about 65% accuracy upon combining complex networks and intermittency features with the nearest-neighbor algorithm of automatic authorship. From a detailed analysis of the interdependence of the various metrics, it is concluded that the methods used here are complementary for providing short- and long-scale perspectives on texts, which are useful for applications such as the identification of topical words and information retrieval. (paper)

  19. Social Network Analysis of Iranian Researchers on Medical Parasitology: A 41 Year Co-Authorship Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadoughi, Farahnaz; Valinejadi, Ali; Shirazi, Mansoureh Serati; Khademi, Rouhallah

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to survey the Iranian Parasitology researchers' performance, and analyse and visualize the scientific outputs of their co-authorship network. This study was conducted using scientometric method and social network analysis (SNA). The data extracted from the Web of Science (WoS) databases in July 10th 2014. Totally, 1048 documents of all types in research area of Parasitology during 1972-2013 by Iranian researches retrieved. The co-authorship map was drawn utilizing NETDRAW, Coauthor.exe, and UCINET softwares and was analysed based on SNA measures. The researchers' co-authorship network consisted of 78 authors and its density degree is 0.57. "Mohebali" ranked top in all of centrality measures. The most of the publications were related to 2012, "Mohebali" with about 9% of all documents was the Iranian most prolific author in Parasitology field. The Iranian researches have published mostly (266 documents) in "Iranian Journal of Parasitology", and the most of the documents belong to "Tropical Medicine" subject field. The most of Iranian researchers' scientific cooperation was performed with England and United States. Bringing forth density degree (is 0.57) showed that this network has an almost medium density. Indeed, the authors have had relations in moderate level with each other in the network. The findings of this study can be identified aspects of scientific collaboration, and help policy makers of Parasitology field research.

  20. Trends in female authorship in research papers on eating disorders: 20-year bibliometric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strand, Mattias; Bulik, Cynthia M

    2018-03-01

    There is a clear gender gap in scientific authorship. Although the proportions of female authors in medicine and psychiatry have increased over the past decades, women are still underrepresented. Aims To analyse authorship gender trends in eating disorder research. First and last author gender in research articles on eating disorders during the period 1997-2016 were assessed in eating disorder specialty journals, high-impact psychiatry journals and high-impact clinical psychology journals. The total number of papers on eating disorders increased substantially over the observation period, although a decrease was observed in high-impact psychiatry journals. Female authorship increased in both specialty journals and high-impact psychiatry journals. Authors were significantly less likely to be female in high-impact psychiatry and clinical psychology journals than in speciality journals. Eating disorder research has been increasingly allocated to specialty journals over the past 20 years. A consistent gender gap between specialty and high-impact journals exists. Declaration of interest C.M.B is a grant recipient from Shire Pharmaceuticals, Inc. and has participated as a member of their scientific advisory board. These positions are unrelated to the content of this article.

  1. Authorship in Radiation Oncology: Proliferation Trends Over 30 Years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ojerholm, Eric; Swisher-McClure, Samuel

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate authorship trends in the radiation oncology literature. Methods and Materials: We examined the authorship credits of “original research articles” within 2 popular radiation oncology journals–International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics and Radiotherapy and Oncology–in 1984, 1994, 2004, and 2014. We compared the number of authors per publication during these 4 time periods using simple linear regression as a test for trend. We investigated additional author characteristics in a subset of articles. Results: A total of 2005 articles were eligible. The mean number of authors per publication rose from 4.3 in 1984 to 9.1 in 2014 (P<.001). On subset analysis of 400 articles, there was an increase in the percentage of multidisciplinary bylines (from 52% to 72%), multi-institutional bylines (from 20% to 53%), and publications with a trainee first author (from 16% to 56%) during the study period. Conclusions: The mean number of authors per publication has more than doubled over the last 30 years in the radiation oncology literature. Possible explanations include increasingly complex and collaborative research as well as honorary authorship. Explicit documentation of author contributions could help ensure that scientific work is credited according to accepted standards.

  2. Technological measures for controlling the use of copyrighted works of authorship in the information society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spasić Vidoje

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Information technology has given rise to the problem of controlling the use of copyrighted works of authorship from their unauthorized use. In this context, one of the effective solutions is the application of technological protection measures, which are aimed at a more efficient application of the protection measures prescribed by the law. Technological protection measures imply the use of any technology, device or component which may be aimed at preventing or restricting an unauthorized use of a protected work of authorship, which has not been approved by the author or holder of some related right. Generally, all these measures may be classified into three basic groups: technological measures aimed at controlling access, technological measured aimed at controlling exploitation, and technological measures aimed at protecting the integrity of the work of authorship. Considering their technical characteristics and mode of application, they may be hardware-based measures, software-based measures, or a combination thereof. Modern technology has enabled the development of digital systems which entail a controlled use of copyrighted works and facilitate obtaining licences for their exploitation. They are commonly known as digital rights management (DRM. The DRM system should provide for a compromise between safeguarding the intellectual property rights of the copyright holder, the end user privacy, and system costs. The envisaged goals are achieved by employing various cryptographic measures. The process of developing technological protection measures is accompanied by concurrent attempts to circumvent the application of these measures. Thus, the effectiveness of these measures primarily depends on their legal protection, which has been recognized by a vast majority of legal systems, we now know the most modern legal system. However, the normative solutions are not uniform. The observed differences actually reflect problems in finding adequate forms

  3. 20 CFR 341.2 - Sum or damages paid or payable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...-Fault” personal-injury protection benefits or any other benefits paid under a health, sickness, accident... INSURANCE ACT STATUTORY LIEN WHERE SICKNESS BENEFITS PAID § 341.2 Sum or damages paid or payable. (a) The...

  4. Differences between paid and unpaid social services for beneficiaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Metz, Judith; Roza, Lonneke; Meijs, Lucas; van Baren, Eva; Hoogervorst, Niek

    2017-01-01

    In many Western welfare states, social work services that have traditionally been provided by paid employees are being replaced by family support, community support, informal networks and volunteering. For the field of social work, it is relevant to know what it matters to beneficiaries whether

  5. 13 CFR 134.618 - How are awards paid?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ....618 How are awards paid? If you are seeking payment of an award, you must submit a copy of the final... of Financial Operations, SBA, P.O. Box 205, Denver, CO 80201-0205. SBA will pay you the amount...

  6. 38 CFR 6.11 - How dividends are paid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... National Service Life Insurance policy or policies in force, dividends used to pay premiums in advance will... premiums on more than one policy having the same premium due date are unpaid and the dividend credit of the... payment of premium. Upon maturity of the policy, any unpaid dividend will be paid to the person(s...

  7. Individual loss reserving using paid-incurred data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pigeon, M.; Antonio, K.; Denuit, M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper develops a stochastic model for individual claims reserving using observed data on claim payments as well as incurred losses. We extend the approach of Pigeon et al. (2013), designed for payments only, towards the inclusion of incurred losses. We call the new technique the individual Paid

  8. 29 CFR 452.87 - Dues paid by checkoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... arrears when the union changes to a checkoff system. The member may not be denied the right to vote merely... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dues paid by checkoff. 452.87 Section 452.87 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor OFFICE OF LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR LABOR-MANAGEMENT...

  9. Group Seeks Standards for Paid Recruiters of Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMurtrie, Beth

    2008-01-01

    In the world of international education, few subjects are as controversial as the use of paid recruiting agents. Paying the agents, particularly on commission, is often viewed as unseemly, if not downright unethical. But a new organization, the American International Recruitment Council, hopes to change that attitude. The council wants to develop…

  10. Pain assessment and medications use among daily paid skilled ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Paracetamol 186(46.5%) was the most commonly used analgesic followed by Ibuprofen 100(25%). The pain experienced by daily paid skilled workers was found to be work- related musculoskeletal disorder. There is a need for establishment of intervention programs to reduce the risk of work - related musculoskeletal ...

  11. A comparative study on the reliability of co-authorship networks with emphases on edges and nodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Cristina de Oliveira

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A scientific co-authorship network may be modeled by a graph G composed of k nodes and m edges. Researchers that make up this network may be interpreted as its nodes and the link between these agents (co-authored papers as its edges. Current work evaluated and compared the reliability measure of networks with two emphases: 1 On nodes (perfectly reliable edges and 2 On edges (perfectly reliable nodes. Specifically, the reliability of a fictitious co-authorship network at a given time t was analyzed taking into account, first, the reliability of nodes (researchers equal and different, and, second, the reliability of edges (co-authorship relations, equal and different. Additionally, centrality measures of nodes were obtained to identify situations where the insertion of an edge significantly increased the reliability of the network. Results showed that the reliability of the co-authorship network focusing on edges is more sensitive to changes in individual reliabilities than the reliability of the network focusing on nodes. Additionally, the use of centrality measures was viable to identify possible insertions of edges or co-authorship relations to increase the reliability of the network in the two approaches.

  12. A ten-year comparison of women authorship in U.S. dermatology literature, 1999 vs. 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shali Zhang, MD

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Women are entering medicine at increasing rates, particularly in dermatology. In this study, we compared women’s influence and status in academic dermatology with that of men by examining authorship roles in peer-reviewed dermatology literature. We examined the literature in 2009 and compared that to 10 years prior (1999. A total of 1399 articles were reviewed, 594 of which met study criteria and were included in statistical analysis. There was a marked increase in senior female authorship over a decade (22% vs. 38%, p < 0.001. Female first authorship increased as well (41% vs. 51%, p < 0.001. In contrast, changes in male senior and first authorship were not statistically significant. Federal funding for female senior authors increased over a decade (19% vs. 37%, p = 0.05, and female senior authors in the 2009 cohort were more likely to hold a dual MD/PhD degree (0% vs. 11%, p = 0.04 or pure PhD degree (11% vs. 27%, p = 0.04. Women are approaching parity with men in terms of authorship in the dermatology literature, and additional research training and attainment of federal funding have helped women publish as senior authors.

  13. A ten-year comparison of women authorship in U.S. dermatology literature, 1999 vs. 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shali Zhang, MD

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Women are entering medicine at increasing rates, particularly in dermatology. In this study, we compared women’s influence and status in academic dermatology with that of men by examining authorship roles in peer-reviewed dermatology literature. We examined the literature in 2009 and compared that to 10 years prior (1999. A total of 1399 articles were reviewed, 594 of which met study criteria and were included in statistical analysis. There was a marked increase in senior female authorship over a decade (22% vs. 38%, p < 0.001. Female first authorship increased as well (41% vs. 51%, p < 0.001. In contrast, changes in male senior and first authorship were not statistically significant. Federal funding for female senior authors increased over a decade (19% vs. 37%, p = 0.05, and female senior authors in the 2009 cohort were more likely to hold a dual MD/PhD degree (0% vs. 11%, p = 0.04 or pure PhD degree (11% vs. 27%, p = 0.04. Women are approaching parity with men in terms of authorship in the dermatology literature, and additional research training and attainment of federal funding have helped women publish as senior authors.

  14. Gender Differences in the Authorship of Original Research in Pediatric Journals, 2001-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, Michael; Williams, Wadsworth A; Goodman, Denise M; Ross, Lainie Friedman

    2017-12-01

    To examine the gender of authors of original research in 3 high-impact pediatric journals between 2001 and 2016, given the importance of publishing on academic promotion, and to compare authorship gender with the percentage of women on editorial boards and with academic faculty composition. We assessed the prevalence of female first and senior (last-listed) authorship of original research articles published in 3 pediatric-focused journals Pediatrics, JAMA Pediatrics (entitled Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine until 2013), and The Journal of Pediatrics. We also examined the gender breakdown of the main editors and the broader editorial boards of these journals. In addition, we examined whether junior female faculty co-authored with male or female senior faculty. Of 3895 original articles, 22 were excluded because the gender of either the first or senior author could not be determined from the name. An analysis of authorship by year showed increasing female representation across the selected journals in both first (39.8% in 2001, 57.7% in 2016) and senior (28.6% in 2001, 38.1% in 2016) authors, respectively. Editorial boards also showed increasing female representation (17.8% in 2001 to 39.8% in 2016). Junior female faculty were more likely to co-author with senior female women (female first and last author); the gap remained unchanged despite the increasing number of women entering pediatrics. Women are underrepresented as authors and editors, although the gap is closing. Junior women are less likely to co-author with senior men, which may be a disservice given current gender disparities in promotion and leadership. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. [Co-authorship and Spanish pediatric scientific collaboration networks (2006-2010)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleixandre Benavent, R; González de Dios, J; Alonso Arroyo, A; Bolaños Pizarro, M; Castelló Cogollos, L; González Alcaide, G; Vidal Infer, A; Navarro Molina, C; Coronado Ferrer, S; González Muñoz, M; Málaga Guerrero, S

    2013-06-01

    Scientific collaboration is very important, as it is the basis of the scientific development of every discipline. The aim of this paper is to identify the indicators of scientific collaboration and co-authorship networks of Spanish researchers and institutions publishing in national and international paediatric, multidisciplinary or other knowledge areas journals during the period 2006-2010. The papers studied were obtained from the databases including, Science Citation Index Expanded, Scopus, Índice Médico Español and Índice Bibliográfico Español en Ciencias de la Salud, by means of applying different search profiles. All the papers signed by co-authors were quantified in order to identify the authorship and institutional collaboration networks. Furthermore the degree, betweenness index, and closeness index were obtained as a measurement of the structural analysis. Co-authorships were represented graphically by the network analysis and display software Pajek. A total of 7971 articles were published during the period 2006-2010, with 90.55% completed in collaboration. Using a threshold of 10 or more co-authorships, 77 research groups in Pediatrics were identified. Most papers were published in collaboration between institutions of the same Autonomous Community (42.28%), and 14.84% with international collaboration. The analysis of institutional participation enabled a large nucleus or institutional collaboration network to be identified, with 52 linked institutions. International collaboration was led by the USA and European countries, such as United Kingdom, Germany and Italy. Authors, institutions and the most active working groups in Spanish pediatrics were identified, which is very interesting information to establish contacts to increase the existing networks, to prevent redundancies, and to take advantage of the new emerging groups. It is necessary to promote the collaboration of Spanish researchers, especially with their international colleagues, since a

  16. Authorship Trends and Collaborative Research in Veterinary Sciences: A Bibliometric Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chanda Arya

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study highlights the collaboration in research and authorship trend in the area of veterinary sciences all over the world with special reference to India. The study is based on the data collected from ‘CABI abstracts” for the period of 2006-2010. The findings of the study revealed that collaborative research has been preferred by the scientists over that of solitary research. Average degree of collaboration was found 0.84, which also indicates dominance of collaborative research over solo research. Subject analysis showed a good research in the area of animal nutrition and veterinary physiology.

  17. The authorships and dates of the specific nomina Megophrys shuichengensis and Pseudohynobius shuichengensis (Amphibia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohler, Annemarie; Frétey, Thierry; Dubois, Alain

    2015-05-28

    Two amphibian species from China are designated by the specific nomen shuichengensis, which refers to the Shuicheng County (26°34'N, 104°51'E), south of the city of Liupanshui in the province of Guizhou: Megophrys shuichengensis (Amphibia, Anura) and Pseudohynobius shuichengensis (Amphibia, Urodela). The holotypes (holophoronts) of both species were deposited in Department of Biology of the Liupanshui Teachers Higher College (LTHC below). Both species share the particularity of having been described as new twice, at different dates, in different journals and with different authorships. Although this has been acknowledged for the salamander, it has not yet been so for the frog.

  18. The Burden of Authorship: How Agenda-Setting and Electoral Rules Shape Legislative Behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finke, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    by electoral rules. I argue that this interaction between agenda rules and electoral rules has significant implications for the political representation in the European Parliament. Analysing voting data from the Sixth European Parliament, I find that the effect of authorship depends on the electoral rules....... Members from open list systems avoid conflict with their party leaders by defecting on other groups’ proposals. Members from closed list systems are more likely to defect on their own group’s proposals, thereby confronting the party leadership. My results have important implications for the discussion...

  19. Perceptions of Scholars in the Field of Economics on Co-Authorship Associations: Evidence from an International Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnavelu, Kuru

    2016-01-01

    Scholars (n = 580) from 69 countries who had contributed articles in the field of Economics during the year 2015 participated in a survey that gauged their perceptions of various aspects of co-authorship, including its benefits, motivations, working relationships, order of authorship and association preferences. Among the main findings, significant differences emerged in the proportion of co-authored papers based on age, gender and number of years the researchers had spent in their present institution. Female scholars had a greater proportion of co-authored papers than male scholars. Respondents considered improved quality of paper, contribution of mutual expertise, and division of labor as the biggest benefits of and motivation for co-authorship. Contrary to common perceptions that Economics researchers used a predominantly alphabetical order of authorship, our study found that a considerable percentage of respondents (34.5%) had practiced an order of authorship based on the significance of the authors’ contribution to the work. The relative importance of tasks differed significantly according to whether researchers co-authored as mentors or co-authored as colleagues. Lastly, researchers were found to associate, to varying degrees, with other researchers based on socio-academic parameters, such as nationality, ethnicity, gender, professional position and friendship. The study indicates that Economics authors perceive co-authorship as a rewarding endeavor. Nonetheless, the level of contribution and even the choice of association itself as a co-author depends to a great extent on the type of working relationship and socio-academic factors. PMID:27322645

  20. Blogs, Twitter Feeds, and Reddit Comments: Cross-domain Authorship Attribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Overdorf Rebekah

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Stylometry is a form of authorship attribution that relies on the linguistic information to attribute documents of unknown authorship based on the writing styles of a suspect set of authors. This paper focuses on the cross-domain subproblem where the known and suspect documents differ in the setting in which they were created. Three distinct domains, Twitter feeds, blog entries, and Reddit comments, are explored in this work. We determine that state-of-the-art methods in stylometry do not perform as well in cross-domain situations (34.3% accuracy as they do in in-domain situations (83.5% accuracy and propose methods that improve performance in the cross-domain setting with both feature and classification level techniques which can increase accuracy to up to 70%. In addition to testing these approaches on a large real world dataset, we also examine real world adversarial cases where an author is actively attempting to hide their identity. Being able to identify authors across domains facilitates linking identities across the Internet making this a key security and privacy concern; users can take other measures to ensure their anonymity, but due to their unique writing style, they may not be as anonymous as they believe.

  1. An investigation into the authorship of scientific data webs of a network under construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackson da Silva Medeiros

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to analyze the scientific authorship from the data sharing. For this purpose, it uses the Actor-Network Theory (ANT, which seeks, from an idea of symmetry between human and non-human, do not assume a division between those entities, allowing to view the establishment and dissolution of a network from the relationships that are created at different levels. The data collected, which were the basis for description and analysis from the literature that also emerged from what ware collected by observation, interviews and bibliographic materials. The study was carried out by the Repositório de Dados de Estudos Ecológicos do Programa de Pesquisa em Biodiversidade (PPBio. Concludes that conceptual and pragmatic objects can not be seen in isolate way, but like actors directly affected by the technology, should be considered important actants in the process of production, sharing and use of digital research data. The construction of scientific and social fact authorship is coordinated by a number of elements, such as data collection, curation, scientific data and its metadata, funding sources, data policy, repository and its management software for data and metadata, licensing, ownership and responsibility, acting like a kind of exploitation of a phenomena arrangement.

  2. Predictive Characteristics of Co-authorship Networks: Comparing the Unweighted, Weighted, and Bipartite Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raf Guns

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study aims to answer the question to what extent different types of networks can be used to predict future co-authorship among authors. Design/methodology/approach: We compare three types of networks: unweighted networks, in which a link represents a past collaboration; weighted networks, in which links are weighted by the number of joint publications; and bipartite author-publication networks. The analysis investigates their relation to positive stability, as well as their potential in predicting links in future versions of the co-authorship network. Several hypotheses are tested. Findings: Among other results, we find that weighted networks do not automatically lead to better predictions. Bipartite networks, however, outperform unweighted networks in almost all cases. Research limitations: Only two relatively small case studies are considered. Practical implications: The study suggests that future link prediction studies on co-occurrence networks should consider using the bipartite network as a training network. Originality/value: This is the first systematic comparison of unweighted, weighted, and bipartite training networks in link prediction.

  3. Recognising contributions to work in research collaboratives: Guidelines for standardising reporting of authorship in collaborative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-01

    Trainee research collaboratives (TRCs) have been revolutionary changes to the delivery of high-quality, multicentre research. The aim of this study was to define common roles in the conduct of collaborative research, and map these to academic competencies as set out by General Medical Council (GMC) in the United Kingdom. This will support trainers and assessors when judging academic achievements of those involved in TRC projects, and supports trainees by providing guidance on how to fulfil their role in these studies. A modified Delphi process was followed. Electronic discussion with key stakeholders was undertaken to identify and describe common roles. These were refined and mapped to GMC educational domains and International Committee of Medical Journal Editors authorship (ICJME) guidelines. The resulting roles and descriptions were presented to a face-to-face consensus meeting for voting. The agreed roles were then presented back to the electronic discussion group for approval. Electronic discussion generated six common roles. All of these were agreed in face-to-face meetings, where two further roles identified and described. All eight roles required skills that map to part of the academic requirements for surgical training in the UK. This paper presents a standardised framework for reporting authorship in collaborative group authored research publications. Linkage of collaborator roles to the ICMJE guidelines and GMC academic competency guidelines will facilitate incorporation into relevant training curricular and journal publication policies. Copyright © 2017 IJS Publishing Group Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Collaboration patterns in the German political science co-authorship network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wankmüller, Sandra; Berger, Valentin T. Z.; Ingold, Karin; Steiner, Christiane

    2017-01-01

    Research on social processes in the production of scientific output suggests that the collective research agenda of a discipline is influenced by its structural features, such as “invisible colleges” or “groups of collaborators” as well as academic “stars” that are embedded in, or connect, these research groups. Based on an encompassing dataset that takes into account multiple publication types including journals and chapters in edited volumes, we analyze the complete co-authorship network of all 1,339 researchers in German political science. Through the use of consensus graph clustering techniques and descriptive centrality measures, we identify the ten largest research clusters, their research topics, and the most central researchers who act as bridges and connect these clusters. We also aggregate the findings at the level of research organizations and consider the inter-university co-authorship network. The findings indicate that German political science is structured by multiple overlapping research clusters with a dominance of the subfields of international relations, comparative politics and political sociology. A small set of well-connected universities takes leading roles in these informal research groups. PMID:28388621

  5. Collaboration patterns in the German political science co-authorship network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leifeld, Philip; Wankmüller, Sandra; Berger, Valentin T Z; Ingold, Karin; Steiner, Christiane

    2017-01-01

    Research on social processes in the production of scientific output suggests that the collective research agenda of a discipline is influenced by its structural features, such as "invisible colleges" or "groups of collaborators" as well as academic "stars" that are embedded in, or connect, these research groups. Based on an encompassing dataset that takes into account multiple publication types including journals and chapters in edited volumes, we analyze the complete co-authorship network of all 1,339 researchers in German political science. Through the use of consensus graph clustering techniques and descriptive centrality measures, we identify the ten largest research clusters, their research topics, and the most central researchers who act as bridges and connect these clusters. We also aggregate the findings at the level of research organizations and consider the inter-university co-authorship network. The findings indicate that German political science is structured by multiple overlapping research clusters with a dominance of the subfields of international relations, comparative politics and political sociology. A small set of well-connected universities takes leading roles in these informal research groups.

  6. Authorship Guidelines and Actual Practice: Are They Harmonized in Different Research Systems?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Vasconcelos

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Changing patterns in collaborative research networks reflect a new geography of science that is increasingly shaped by interactions between established and emerging scientific powers, whose cultural and political diversity are now reflected in perhaps never before thought of interactions. The various partners in these international collaborations are likely to produce research results that should gradually lead to stronger diversity in research output, including an increase in international co-authorship. When it comes to multinational co-authored publications, among sensitive questions that may complicate these relationships is the way different research systems deal with research integrity. It is well worth examining how to accommodate different cultural traditions and normative assumptions embedded in academic practices for collaborative research networks. Given the increasingly international and interdisciplinary nature of science and engineering, any guidelines for authorship practices in international collaborations must be clear about the variations that exist across disciplines and cultures, variations which will have an impact on accepted practices and expectations for collaboration. Collaborative endeavors in research will succeed only if a broader understanding of potential obstacles to these collaborations is reached.

  7. Controversies surrounding authorship of manuscripts by industry employees: academic and industry perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smilowitz, Nathaniel R; Ferguson, James J; Weisz, Giora

    2018-03-20

    The medical device and pharmaceutical industries play an essential role in the development of cardiovascular devices and drugs, and industry employees are frequently listed as co-authors of clinical trials published in peer-reviewed journals. Potential conflicts of interest in biomedical research have attracted significant attention in recent years, but issues and challenges surrounding authors who are industry employees have not received nearly as much scrutiny. We present a comprehensive discussion of the concerns and challenges regarding the role of industry in the authorship of scientific manuscripts. Academic co-authors, industry employees, the editors of medical journals, and, most importantly, readers, need to consider the perception and implications that accompany industry employee authorship. Potential concerns include the effect of industry authors (and industry support) on study design, data analysis, interpretations, conclusions, and, ultimately, scientific content. Meaningful contributions from industry employees must be acknowledged and reported in scientific and clinical publications. Efforts to provide full transparency on industry support and the role of industry contributors are necessary to maintain confidence in the reports of studies with industry involvement.

  8. Detailing the co-authorship networks in degree coupling, edge weight and academic age perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Türker, İlker; Çavuşoğlu, Abdullah

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Collaboration tendency is increasing together with the increasing average degree and decaying one-author publication ratio. • The dominant wiring scenario is performed by nodes having small degree differences. • Majority of the edges in the co-authorship network connects the nodes of comparable degrees and academic ages. • Strong collaboration activities occur between comparable careers. • Together with the degree distributions, power-law regimes are also evident in link weight and degree difference distributions. - Abstract: Scientific collaboration networks are good resources for understanding self-organizing systems, reflecting the main generic properties like clustering, small-world and scale-free degree distribution. Beyond discovering the evolution of main parameters, we aimed to uncover the microscopic wiring properties in this study. We focused on the degree circumstances of pairing nodes together with degree differences, academic age differences and link weights. Analyzes are visualized by single distribution plots of the network parameters together with the 2D coupling characteristics of these parameters with a logarithmic colorbar as a third dimension, drawing visual perspective presenting “who prefers connecting to whom” during the network evolution. We showed that majority of the edges in the co-authorship network connects the nodes of comparable degrees and academic ages, featuring that strong collaboration activities occur between comparable academic careers. We also stated out that beyond the node degree distributions, power-law regimes are also observed in link weight and degree difference distributions.

  9. Paid caregiver motivation, work conditions, and falls among senior clients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindquist, Lee A; Tam, Karen; Friesema, Elisha; Martin, Gary J

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the motivation of paid non-familial caregivers of seniors, understand more about their work conditions, and identify any links to negative outcomes among their senior clients. Ninety-eight paid caregivers (eighty-five female and thirteen male), recruited from multiple sites (i.e. senior centers, shopping malls, local parks, lobbies of senior apartments, caregiver agency meetings) completed face-to-face questionnaires and semi-structured interviews. We found that 60.7% of participants chose to become a caregiver because they enjoyed being with seniors while 31.7% were unable to obtain other work, and 8.2% stated it was a prerequisite to a different health related occupation. Caregivers stated that the most challenging conditions of their work were physical lifting (24.5%), behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (24.5%), senior depression/mood changes (18.4%), attachment with impending death (8.2%), missing injuries to client (5.1%), lack of sleep (4.1%), and lack of connection with outside world (3.1%). Caregivers who reported that the best part of their job was the salary, flexible hours, and ease of work were significantly more likely to have clients who fell and fractured a bone than those who enjoyed being with seniors (job characteristics, 62.5% vs. senior enjoyment, 25.6%; pmotivated commonly by their love of seniors and also by their lack of other job opportunities. Paid caregivers frequently face challenging work conditions. When seeking a caregiver for a senior, motivation of the caregiver should be considered when hiring. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. [Fulfilment of the criteria about scientific authorship in Spanish biomedical and health science journals included in Journal Citation Reports].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Pérez, Rafael; Marcos-Cartagena, Diego; Delgado López-Cózar, Emilio

    2010-01-01

    Scientific journals have been recognized to have the authority to register both the ownership of ideas and the validity of published knowledge. This paper explores the extent to which the editorial policies of journals contribute to ensure the accuracy of scientific authorship. Cross-sectional study of scientific authorship criteria used by 23 Spanish medical journals included in Journal Citation Reports 2008 and evaluation of their fulfilment to the uniformity requirements URM of ICMJE. Criteria have been structured in observational items and six levels of fulfilment have been established in order to quantify its adjustment to URM. 52% of journals do not make a reference to URM, 39% only provides some information on the conditions to be respected by the signatories of an article and only 26% (6 magazines) comply with URM. 61% of the journals declare information regarding the responsibility contracted by authors. 35% of the journals give some type guidelines as to the number of authors but no one mentions signature order. As for acknowledgments and corresponding address instructions, 61% declare it but 30,4% only properly formulate their aims. Only 48% of the journals include one or some instructions related with scientific authorship. Results coincide with those of other studies. Despite the existence of an international standard such as URM, authorship criteria provided by journals are scarce and uneven. The assertion that URM is universally well-known by medical journals is questioned.

  11. Trends in Female Authorships, Editorial Board Memberships, and Editorships in Educational Psychology Journals from 2003 to 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Carlton J.; Yoo, Julia H.; Jones, Sara J.; Torres, Laura G.; Decker, Mark Lowry

    2009-01-01

    Robinson, McKay, Katayama, and Fan ("Contemporary Educational Psychology," 23, 331-343, 1998) reported that women were underrepresented in terms of authorships, editorial board memberships, and editorships in the field of educational psychology based on membership trends. More recently, Evans, Hsieh, and Robinson ("Educational Psychology Review,"…

  12. Autoria em artigos científicos: os novos desafios Authorship for scientific papers: the new challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Costa Garcia

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A disseminação da prática de coautoria no Brasil e na comunidade internacional tem sido acompanhada pelo aumento no registro de fraudes, manipulações e outros desvios ao definir a responsabilidade por um trabalho científico. Este artigo discorre sobre os critérios utilizados para atribuição da autoria, as razões para o crescimento dos índices de coautoria e os desafios para estabelecer a autoria em periódicos eletrônicos. Por meio de revisão bibliográfica e estudo de caso (a partir de levantamento de base de dados, aponta caminhos para evitar que "desvios de comportamento" quanto à atribuição de autoria abalem a credibilidade da ciência.The dissemination of the practice of collaborative authorship (coauthorship in Brazil and in the international scientific community has been accompanied by an increasing occurrence of frauds, manipulations and other deviations in the assignment of responsibility for a scientific paper. This article discusses the criteria for authorship attribution, the reasons for the growing indices of coauthorship and the challenges to determine authorship in electronic journals. Through literature review and case study (bibliographic search in scientific database, it shows ways to avoid that "misbehaviors" related to the authorship attribution affect the credibility of science.

  13. The growth of medical groups paid through capitation in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, J C; Casalino, L P

    1995-12-21

    In California, it is common for health maintenance organizations (HMOs) to contract with large medical groups that are paid through capitation and are responsible for managing a full spectrum of medical services. We studied six large medical groups in California--Bristol Park Medical, Friendly Hills HealthCare Network, HealthCare Partners Medical Group, Mullikin Medical Centers, Palo Alto Medical Foundation, and San Jose Medical Group--that are paid through capitation and that are growing as a result of contracts with managed-care organizations. We conducted interviews and obtained data on factors such as patient enrollment, capitation and other revenue, numbers of days spent by enrollees in the hospital, and numbers of visits to physicians per enrollee. Between 1990 and 1994, the number of HMO enrollees whose care was paid for through capitation in the six medical groups increased by 91 percent, from 398,359 to 759,474. In 1994, the mean number of hospital days per 1000 HMO enrollees ranged from 120 to 149 for non-Medicare patients and from 643 to 936 days for Medicare patients. By comparison, in 1993 the mean numbers of hospital days per 1000 HMO enrollees not covered by Medicare were 232 for California and 297 for the United States; for HMO enrollees covered by Medicare, the numbers were 1337 for California and 1698 for the United States. In 1994, the average annual number of visits to physicians for HMO patients in the six groups not covered by Medicare ranged from 3.1 to 3.9; for Medicare patients, it ranged from 7.2 to 9.3; these rates were slightly lower than statewide and national rates. Four of the groups have sold their assets (such as facilities, supplies, equipment, and patients' charts) to outside investors; the physicians remain employed by physician-owned professional corporations. Medical groups paid through capitation offer a model for the status of physicians in managed-care systems that differs from the employee status offered by staff-model HMOs

  14. Pre-paid envelopes commemorating the 2013 Open Days

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    The post office on CERN's Prévessin site is still selling pre-paid envelopes commemorating the 2013 Open Days. Hurry while stocks last!   The special envelopes, which are valid in France for non-priority letters weighing up to 20 grams, are ideal for your Christmas and New Year correspondence. A set of ten envelopes, each featuring a different image, costs € 8.70 or 10 CHF. The post office is located in Building 866 on the Prévessin site and is open Mondays to Thursdays from 9.30 a.m. to 12.30 p.m.

  15. Authorship Attribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, David I.

    1994-01-01

    Considers problems of quantifying literary style. Examines several variables that may be used as stylistic "fingerprints" of a writer. Reviews work done on statistical analysis of change over time in literary style and applies this technique to the Bible. (CFR)

  16. Authorship, plagiarism and conflict of interest: views and practices from low/middle-income country health researchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Taryn; Garner, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To document low/middle-income country (LMIC) health researchers’ views about authorship, redundant publication, plagiarism and conflicts of interest and how common poor practice was in their institutions. Design We developed a questionnaire based on scenarios about authorship, redundant publication, plagiarism and conflicts of interest. We asked participants whether the described practices were acceptable and whether these behaviours were common at their institutions. We conducted in-depth interviews with respondents who agreed to be interviewed. Participants We invited 607 corresponding authors of Cochrane reviews working in LMICs. From the 583 emails delivered, we obtained 199 responses (34%). We carried out in-depth interviews with 15 respondents. Results Seventy-seven per cent reported that guest authorship occurred at their institution, 60% reported text recycling. For plagiarism, 12% of respondents reported that this occurred ‘occasionally’, and 24% ‘rarely’. Forty per cent indicated that their colleagues had not declared conflicts of interest in the past. Respondents generally recognised poor practice in scenarios but reported that they occurred at their institutions. Themes identified from in-depth interviews were (1) authorship rules are simple in theory, but not consistently applied; (2) academic status and power underpin behaviours; (3) institutions and culture fuel bad practices and (4) researchers are uncertain about what conflict of interests means and how this may influence research. Conclusions LMIC researchers report that guest authorship is widely accepted and common. While respondents report that plagiarism and undeclared conflicts of interest are unacceptable in practice, they appear common. Determinants of poor practice relate to academic status and power, fuelled by institutional norms and culture. PMID:29170291

  17. Authorship, plagiarism and conflict of interest: views and practices from low/middle-income country health researchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohwer, Anke; Young, Taryn; Wager, Elizabeth; Garner, Paul

    2017-11-22

    To document low/middle-income country (LMIC) health researchers' views about authorship, redundant publication, plagiarism and conflicts of interest and how common poor practice was in their institutions. We developed a questionnaire based on scenarios about authorship, redundant publication, plagiarism and conflicts of interest. We asked participants whether the described practices were acceptable and whether these behaviours were common at their institutions. We conducted in-depth interviews with respondents who agreed to be interviewed. We invited 607 corresponding authors of Cochrane reviews working in LMICs. From the 583 emails delivered, we obtained 199 responses (34%). We carried out in-depth interviews with 15 respondents. Seventy-seven per cent reported that guest authorship occurred at their institution, 60% reported text recycling. For plagiarism, 12% of respondents reported that this occurred 'occasionally', and 24% 'rarely'. Forty per cent indicated that their colleagues had not declared conflicts of interest in the past. Respondents generally recognised poor practice in scenarios but reported that they occurred at their institutions. Themes identified from in-depth interviews were (1) authorship rules are simple in theory, but not consistently applied; (2) academic status and power underpin behaviours; (3) institutions and culture fuel bad practices and (4) researchers are uncertain about what conflict of interests means and how this may influence research. LMIC researchers report that guest authorship is widely accepted and common. While respondents report that plagiarism and undeclared conflicts of interest are unacceptable in practice, they appear common. Determinants of poor practice relate to academic status and power, fuelled by institutional norms and culture. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  18. Sick of inequality: gender and support for paid sick days.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindemann, Danielle J; Houser, Linda; White, Karen

    2015-01-01

    The availability of paid sick days (PSD) is on the forefront of policy issues relating to women's health and well-being. Previous research regarding PSD and other forms of family-work balance legislation has linked access to paid time off from work for addressing one's own or another's health concerns to a range of health benefits for working women and their families. In general, public support for such policies is high, but little work has tested the extent to which support extends to PSD. Researchers have yet to engage in a rigorous statistical analysis of public opinion on PSD, including whether opinion varies by gender. Using data from a 2013 poll of adults in New Jersey (n = 925), we bridged this research gap by conducting the first multivariate analysis of public attitudes toward PSD. As expected, we found markedly high levels of support for PSD across all respondents, with a preponderance of most sociodemographic categories supporting proposed PSD legislation in New Jersey. We also found that gender was a strong predictor of support for PSD, with women significantly (odds ratio, 1.916; p ≤ .01) more likely than men to be in favor of such legislation. We discuss the implications of our findings for future work on PSD as well as for research concerning women, wellness, and work-life legislation more broadly. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Unfinalisability and the authorship of life - Narratives of young-old women from Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, Jin Kuan; Li, Ming-Chin

    2017-08-01

    This study investigates and presents the narratives of Taiwanese women who have reached the young-old stage. The narrative interview method was used for data collection from 12 Taiwanese women. After analysing the recurring themes emerging from the women's life histories, it is found that the meanings of these Taiwanese women's narratives could not be finalised according to traditional Confucian norms. These women rebelled, resisted, and resumed authorship to make changes to their lives in a patriarchal society. The women were reflexive, and had constant struggles. The findings also reveal a prominent characteristic of Taiwanese culture that emphasises relationships. The women were able to pursue their dreams to involve themselves in self-care, leisure, aesthetic activities, and classes for their personal growth and pleasure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The Illustrious Anatomist: Authorship, Patronage, and Illustrative Style in Anatomy Folios, 1700-1840.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkowitz, Carin

    2015-01-01

    A number of anatomists working in the period 1700-1840 used expensive illustrated books to depict their greatest scientific work, establish priority of discovery for posterity, and enlist patrons. These anatomists drew on the grand traditions of anatomical illustration and asserted their right to a place within that history. But with artists mediating the expression of anatomists' vision, it was important that an anatomist assert his control over the illustrations commemorating his expertise. Anatomists used stylistic signatures to signal that a work was their own. Very different styles of illustration in the works of different anatomists, therefore, were made easily recognizable, and sometimes a single artist adopted notably different styles for different anatomists who employed him. Style became a marker of authorship, identifiable with the anatomist, even when he employed an artist to do the drawing and engraving, and it was also an important method of appealing to patrons.

  1. The increasing female participation in authorship of articles published in neurology in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayanagui, Osvaldo M; Livramento, José Antonio

    2009-09-01

    During the past four decades the participation of women in medicine has increased dramatically. This study is focused on the women's participation in authorship of articles published in the Arquivos de Neuro-Psiquiatria, the official Journal of the Brazilian Academy of Neurology. The articles were analyzed according to the number of articles and sex of both first and the senior (last) authors. The data were collected from 1945 to 2005. A total of 950 articles were published in this period. The proportion of women serving as first authors increased from 2.8% to 36.6% and the proportion serving as senior authors increased from 2.8% to 23.8% (1945-2005).

  2. Quantitative Study of the Geographical Distribution of the Authorship of High-Energy Physics Journals

    CERN Document Server

    Krause, Jan; Mele, S

    2007-01-01

    The recent debate on Open Access publishing in High-Energy Physics has exposed the problem of assessing the scienti c production of every country where scholars are active in this discipline. This assessment is complicated by the highly-collaborative cross-border tradition of High-Energy Physics research. We present the results of a quantitative study of the geographical distribution of authors of High-Energy Physics articles, which takes into account cross-border co-authorship by attributing articles to countries on a pro-rata basis. Aggregated data on the share of scienti c results published by each country are presented together with a breakdown for the most popular journals in the eld, and a separation for articles by small groups or large collaborations. Collaborative patterns across large geographic areas are also investigated. Finally, the High-Energy Physics production of each country is compared with some economic indicators.

  3. Authorship of some polychaete (Annelida) names derived from the works of Renier and Savigny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muir, Alexander I; Petersen, Mary E

    2013-01-01

    Full citations of animal specific or generic names ultimately derived from unpublished manuscripts should commemorate the work of the person who described the new species as well as the person who eventually validly published the name. We suggest that biologists should use the following authorships when citing these names: Terebella infundibulum Renier in Meneghini, 1847 (now used in the genus Myxicola); Nereis coccinea Renier in Meneghini, 1847 (now used in the genus Lumbrineris); Thalassema scutatum Renier in Ranzani, 1817 (now known as Sternaspis scutata); Polynoe Savigny in Lamarck, 1818. The case of Myxicola infundibulum is further complicated by a possible homonymy, and to avoid confusion we suggest that the name is used for the Myxicola species found in the Adriatic.

  4. Fragranced consumer products and undisclosed ingredients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinemann, Anne C.

    2009-01-01

    Fragranced consumer products-such as air fresheners, laundry supplies, personal care products, and cleaners-are widely used in homes, businesses, institutions, and public places. While prevalent, these products can contain chemicals that are not disclosed to the public through product labels or material safety data sheets (MSDSs). What are some of these chemicals and what limits their disclosure? This article investigates these questions, and brings new pieces of evidence to the science, health, and policy puzzle. Results from a regulatory analysis, coupled with a chemical analysis of six best-selling products (three air fresheners and three laundry supplies), provide several findings. First, no law in the U.S. requires disclosure of all chemical ingredients in consumer products or in fragrances. Second, in these six products, nearly 100 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were identified, but none of the VOCs were listed on any product label, and one was listed on one MSDS. Third, of these identified VOCs, ten are regulated as toxic or hazardous under federal laws, with three (acetaldehyde, chloromethane, and 1,4-dioxane) classified as Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAPs). Results point to a need for improved understanding of product constituents and mechanisms between exposures and effects

  5. Gender trends in authorship in oral and maxillofacial surgery literature: A 30-year analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkenke, Emeka; Seemann, Rudolf; Vairaktaris, Elefterios; Schaller, Hans-Günter; Rohde, Maximilian; Stelzle, Florian; Knipfer, Christian

    2015-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to perform a bibliometric analysis of the gender distribution of first and senior authorships in important oral and maxillofacial journals over the 30-year period from 1980 to 2010. Articles published in three representative oral and maxillofacial surgery journals were selected. The years 1980, 1990, 2000, and 2010 were chosen as representative points in time for article selection. Original research, case reports, technical notes, and reviews were included in the analysis. Case reports and technical notes were pooled in one group. For each article, the gender of the first author as well as that of the senior author was determined, based on the inspection of their first name. The type of article was determined and the country of origin of the article was documented. A total 1412 articles were subjected to the data analysis. A significant increase in female authorship in oral and maxillofacial surgery could be identified over the chosen 30-year period. However, the number of publications by male authors was still significantly higher at all points of time, exceeding those of female authors by at least 3.8 fold in 2010. As there is a trend towards feminization of medicine and dentistry, the results of the present study may serve as the basis for further analysis of the current situation, and the identification of necessary actions to accelerate the closure of the gender gap in publishing in oral and maxillofacial surgery. Copyright © 2015 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Copyright and Computer Generated Materials – Is it Time to Reboot the Discussion About Authorship?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Fitzgerald

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Computer generated materials are ubiquitous and we encounter them on a daily basis, even though most people are unaware that this is the case. Blockbuster movies, television weather reports and telephone directories all include material that is produced by utilising computer technologies. Copyright protection for materials generated by a programmed computer was considered by the Federal Court and Full Court of the Federal Court in Telstra Corporation Limited v Phone Directories Company Pty Ltd.  The court held that the White and Yellow pages telephone directories produced by Telstra and its subsidiary, Sensis, were not protected by copyright because they were computer-generated works which lacked the requisite human authorship.The Copyright Act 1968 (Cth does not contain specific provisions on the subsistence of copyright in computer-generated materials. Although the issue of copyright protection for computer-generated materials has been examined in Australia on two separate occasions by independently-constituted Copyright Law Review Committees over a period of 10 years (1988 to 1998, the Committees’ recommendations for legislative clarification by the enactment of specific amendments to the Copyright Act have not yet been implemented and the legal position remains unclear. In the light of the decision of the Full Federal Court in Telstra v Phone Directories it is timely to consider whether specific provisions should be enacted to clarify the position of computer-generated works under copyright law and, in particular, whether the requirement of human authorship for original works protected under Part III of the Copyright Act should now be reconceptualised to align with the realities of how copyright materials are created in the digital era.

  7. Juggling identities of rheumatoid arthritis, motherhood and paid work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feddersen, Helle; Mechlenborg Kristiansen, Tine; Andersen, Pernille Tanggaard

    2018-01-01

    professionals have an important role to play in investigating possible ways for the individual to maintain employment or return to work. Living with rheumatoid arthritis and being a paid worker challenge women's role performance and thereby their identification as mothers. Therefore, rehabilitation......PURPOSE: To explore how women with rheumatoid arthritis manage their illness, motherhood, and work life. METHODS: A constructivist, grounded theory approach based on individual interviews and participant observations with 20 women with rheumatoid arthritis who participated in work life and had...... children living at home or were pregnant. After initial and focused coding Goffman's concepts of social identity were applied. RESULTS: A core category: "Juggling meaningful identities" and three conceptual categories were developed: (1) Work life as the strongest identity marker; (2) Motherhood: a two...

  8. Are Ontario Teachers Paid More Equitably? Do Local Variables Matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaobin Li

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated whether Ontario’s education funding reform of 1998 made teacher salaries more equitable. It also examined whether selected local variables had the same influence on teacher salaries in 2001-02 as they did in 1995-96 before the reform. Average teacher salaries before the reform in 1995-96 and after the reform in 2001-02 among school boards and among census divisions were compared to see whether the variation in teacher salaries increased or decreased. A partial correlation analysis was conducted to examine the influence on teacher salaries from local variables, which were derived from a literature review. This study finds that (a teachers are paid more equitably today than before the reform, and (b local variables no longer really matter, as a result of the changed provincial funding formula.

  9. Procurement Prices Paid for Aircraft Weapons Systems for Foreign Military Sales

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hendricks, Nancy

    1993-01-01

    The objective of the audit was to determine whether the prices paid to DoD contractors for aircraft weapons systems procured for FMS customers were reasonable, compared to the prices DoD paid for similar items...

  10. Feasibility and outcomes of paid undergraduate student nurse positions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamroth, Lucia; Budgen, Claire; Lougheed, Mary

    2006-09-01

    An Undergraduate Nurse Employment Demonstration Project (UNDP) was implemented in four Health Service Areas in British Columbia with a concurrent evaluation study. This demonstration project comprised the development and implementation of a new position in the BC healthcare system. The position enabled third- and fourth-year nursing students to be employed at their level of education. The purposes of the evaluation were to explore the feasibility and outcomes of this type of paid undergraduate student nurse employment. The three-year project and evaluation included both implementation and outcome analysis. The implementation evaluation design was descriptive and prospective, involving multiple data sources. The outcome evaluation design was quasi-experimental, with intervention and comparison groups. Learning outcomes for undergraduate nurses were increased confidence, organizational ability, competency and ability to work with a team. Workplace outcomes were increased unit morale, help with workload and improved patient care. New graduates with undergraduate nurse experience reported less time required for orientation and transition than other graduates who did not have this experience, and workplace nurses viewed these new graduates as more job-ready than other new graduates. After 21 months, new graduates with undergraduate nurse experience were less likely to move to other employment than other new graduates. Results from the four Health Service Areas indicated that the paid undergraduate nurse position was feasible and that outcomes benefited students, new graduates and workplaces. The undergraduate nurse position is now being implemented throughout all Health Service Areas in British Columbia.By 2000, concerns in British Columbia about the nursing workforce, workplace and patient safety had escalated to the point where diverse stakeholder groups were prepared to work together in new ways to prepare nursing graduates to be more job-ready, to recruit and retain

  11. 76 FR 1105 - Guidance on Reporting Interest Paid to Nonresident Aliens

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-07

    ...-BJ01 Guidance on Reporting Interest Paid to Nonresident Aliens AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS... and paid to nonresident alien individuals. These proposed regulations affect persons making payments.... bank deposit interest paid to any nonresident alien individual must be reported annually to the IRS. On...

  12. 38 CFR 2.4 - Delegation of authority to order paid advertising for use in recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... paid advertising for use in recruitment. Paid advertisements may be used in recruitment for VA competitive and excepted service positions. Authority to order such advertisements is hereby delegated to... to order paid advertising for use in recruitment. 2.4 Section 2.4 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans...

  13. Autores e autoria em periódicos brasileiros de ciência da informação

    Authors and authorship in brazilian information science journals

    OpenAIRE

    Maria del Carmen Rivera Bohn

    2003-01-01

    This article discusses issues of authorship. It presents the analysis of 86 journal articles with 1528 bibliographical entries. The articles were all published in 2001 in four Brazilian journals of Information Science. Several characteristics of the authors were considered. Among them are the authors’ academic qualification, function and job held; individual and joint authorship, language of publication, papers published by sex and nationality and self-citation. Data show that the most signif...

  14. 24 CFR 245.416 - Initial submission of materials to HUD: Conversion from project-paid utilities to tenant-paid...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... projects, and utility rate information, as obtained from the utility supplier; (iv) The estimated monthly... HUD: Conversion from project-paid utilities to tenant-paid utilities or a reduction in tenant utility... AUTHORITIES TENANT PARTICIPATION IN MULTIFAMILY HOUSING PROJECTS Procedures for Requesting Approval of a...

  15. Commitment with or without a stick of paid work: comparison of paid and unpaid workers in a non-profit organization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vuuren, Hubrecht A.; de Jong, Menno D.T.; Seydel, E.R.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate whether nonpaid volunteers have other reasons to be a member of an organization than paid workers. Volunteers are assumed to be hard to manage, because there is no “stick of a paid contract” to keep them in line. Therefore, we studied different dimensions

  16. Social Network: a Cytoscape app for visualizing co-authorship networks [version 3; referees: 1 approved, 2 approved with reservations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Kofia

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Networks that represent connections between individuals can be valuable analytic tools. The Social Network Cytoscape app is capable of creating a visual summary of connected individuals automatically. It does this by representing relationships as networks where each node denotes an individual and an edge linking two individuals represents a connection. The app focuses on creating visual summaries of individuals connected by co-authorship links in academia, created from bibliographic databases like PubMed, Scopus and InCites. The resulting co-authorship networks can be visualized and analyzed to better understand collaborative research networks or to communicate the extent of collaboration and publication productivity among a group of researchers, like in a grant application or departmental review report. It can also be useful as a research tool to identify important research topics, researchers and papers in a subject area.

  17. Ferramentas tecnológicas para investigação de autoria Technology tools for investigation of authorship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Helena Muller Zart

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo busca verificar como se dá o processo da autoria, permitido pela tecnologia, nas produções textuais em ambientes digitais, com o uso da internet. Esse ambiente de produção textual no meio digital suscita implicações sobre a concepção de autoria nos textos digitais e sobre práticas escolares em contextos digitais, em que as marcas de um autor individual desaparecem em favor de um autor coletivo constituído pelo hipertexto. Apontamos este aspecto como constituidor da concepção de letramento digital, desenvolvido na perspectiva da autoria segundo a função autor (FOUCAULT, 1996; 2006, e de reprodutibilidade técnica (BENJAMIN, 1994.This study aims to verify how is the process of authorship, enabled by technology, in the textual productions in digital environments, using the Internet. This textual production environment in the digital context raises implications about the concept of authorship in digital texts and about school practices in digital environments, in which the characteristics of an individual author disappear in favor of a collective author constituted by a hypertext. We point this aspect as the constitutor of the digital literacy conception, developed in the perspective of authorship according to the author's function (FOUCAULT, 1996; 2006 and of a technical reproducibility (BENJAMIN, 1994.

  18. Breast cancer publication network: profile of co-authorship and co-organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biglu, Mohammad-Hossein; Abotalebi, Parvaneh; Ghavami, Mostafa

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Breast cancer is one of the highest reasons of deaths for people in the world. The objective of current study is to analyze and visualize the trend of global scientific activities in the field of breast cancer during a period of 10 years through 2006-2015. Methods: The current study was performed by utilizing the scientometrics analysis and mapping the co-authorship and co-organization networks. The Web of Science Core Collection (WoS-CC)database was used to extract all papers indexed as a topic of breast cancer through 2006 to 2015. Research productivity was measured through analysis several parameters, including: the number and time course of publications, the journal and language of publications, the frequency and type of publications, as well as top 20 active sub-categories together with country contribution. The extracted data were transferred into the Excel charts and plotted as diagrams. The Science of Science (Sci2) and CiteSpace softwares were used as tools for mapping the co-authorship and co-organization networks of the published papers. Results: Analysis of data indicated that the number of publications in the field of breast cancer has linearly increased and correlated with the time-course of the study. The number of publication indexed in WoS-CC in 2015 was two times greater than that of 2006, which reached from 15 229 documents in 2006 to 30 667 documents in 2015. English Language accounted for 98% of total publications as the most dominant language. The vast majority of publications' type was in the form of original journal articles (64.7%). Based on Bradford scatterings law, the journal of "Cancer Research" was the most productive journal among the core journals, while the USA, China, and England were the most prolific countries in the field. The co-organization network indicated the dominant role of Harvard University in the field. Conclusion: The integrity of network indicated that scientists in the field of breast cancer

  19. Gender Authorship Trends of Plastic Surgery Research in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestre, Jason; Wu, Liza C; Lin, Ines C; Serletti, Joseph M

    2016-07-01

    An increasing number of women are entering the medical profession, but plastic surgery remains a male-dominated profession, especially within academia. As academic aspirations and advancement depend largely on research productivity, the authors assessed the number of articles authored by women published in the journal Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Original articles in Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery published during the years 1970, 1980, 1990, 2000, 2004, and 2014 were analyzed. First and senior authors with an M.D. degree and U.S. institutional affiliation were categorized by gender. Authorship trends were compared with those from other specialties. Findings were placed in the context of gender trends among plastic surgery residents in the United States. The percentage of female authors in Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery increased from 2.4 percent in 1970 to 13.3 percent in 2014. Over the same time period, the percentage of female plastic surgery residents increased from 2.6 percent to 32.5 percent. By 2014, there were more female first authors (19.1 percent) than senior authors (7.7 percent) (p plastic surgery had fewer female authors than other medical specialties including pediatrics, obstetrics and gynecology, general surgery, internal medicine, and radiation oncology (p plastic surgery is encouraging but lags behind advances in other specialties. Understanding reasons for these trends may help improve gender equity in academic plastic surgery.

  20. On the role of words in the network structure of texts: Application to authorship attribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akimushkin, Camilo; Amancio, Diego R.; Oliveira, Osvaldo N.

    2018-04-01

    Well-established automatic analyses of texts mainly consider frequencies of linguistic units, e.g. letters, words, and bigrams. In a recent, alternative approach, medium and large-scale text structures were used in opposition to the belief that text structure is dominated by the language features. In this paper, we introduce a generalized similarity measure to compare texts which accounts for both the network structure of texts and the role of individual words in the networks. The similarity measure is used for authorship attribution of three collections of books, each composed of 8 authors and 10 books per author. High accuracy rates were obtained with typical values between 90% and 98 . 75%, much higher than with the traditional term frequency-inverse document frequency (tf-idf) approach for the same collections. These accuracies are also higher than those obtained solely with the topology of networks. We conclude that the different properties of specific words on the macroscopic scale structure of a whole text are as relevant as their frequency of appearance; conversely, considering the identity of nodes brings further knowledge about a piece of text represented as a network.

  1. Female authorship in major academic gastroenterology journals: a look over 20 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Michelle T; Leszczynski, Ania; Thompson, Katherine D; Wasan, Sharmeel K; Calderwood, Audrey H

    2015-01-01

    Authorship in peer-reviewed medical journals is a marker for success in academic medicine. To determine the representation of female physicians among authors of original research in U.S. gastroenterology journals. Retrospective. All first and senior U.S. authors of original research published in the years 1992, 1997, 2002, 2007, and 2012 in the following journals: Gastroenterology, Hepatology, American Journal of Gastroenterology, Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology (CGH), and Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (GIE). The percentage of female first and senior authors compared with the percentage of women practicing in academic gastroenterology. We evaluated 6490 articles, of which 2275 original research articles and 455 editorials were eligible for inclusion. Author gender was determined for 98.5% of the 3792 authors. Overall, female first authors increased from 9.1±2.9% in 1992 to 29.3±4.9% in 2012 (Pjournals (P for trendacademic gastroenterologists (Pjournals has increased over time, yet the percentage of women in the senior author position remains lower than expected. Further research should explore potential reasons for this gender gap. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Ahead of others in the authorship order: names with middle initials appear earlier in author lists of academic articles in psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igou, Eric R; van Tilburg, Wijnand A P

    2015-01-01

    Middle name initials are often used by people in contexts where intellectual performance matters. Given this association, middle initials in people's names indicate intellectual capacity and performance (Van Tilburg and Igou, 2014). In the current research, we examined whether middle initials are associated with a typical academic indicator of intellectual performance: authorship order of journal articles. In psychology, authorship early in the author list of an article should correspond with greater contribution to this intellectual endeavor compared to authorship appearing later in the author list. Given that middle initials indicate intellectual capacity and performance, we investigated whether there would be a positive relationship between middle initials in author names and early (vs. late) appearance of names in author lists of academic journal articles in psychology. In two studies, we examined the relationship between amount of authors' middle initials and authorship order. Study 1 used a sample of 678 articles from social psychology journals published in the years 2006 and 2007. Study 2 used a sample of 696 articles from journals of multiple sub-disciplines in psychology published in the years from 1970 to 2013. Middle initials in author names were overrepresented early (vs. late) in author lists. We discuss implications of our findings for academic decisions on authorship orders, potential avenues of further investigation, and applications.

  3. Ahead of Others in the Authorship Order: Names With Middle Initials Appear Earlier in Author Lists of Academic Articles in Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Raymond Igou

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Middle name initials are often used by people in contexts where intellectual performance matters. Given this association, middle initials in people’s names indicate intellectual capacity and performance (Van Tilburg & Igou, 2014. In the current research, we examined whether middle initials are associated with a typical academic indicator of intellectual performance: authorship order of journal articles. In psychology, authorship early in the author list of an article should correspond with greater contribution to this intellectual endeavor compared to authorship appearing later in the author list. Given that middle initials indicate intellectual capacity and performance, we investigated whether there would be a positive relationship between middle initials in author names and early (vs. late appearance of names in author lists of academic journal articles in psychology. In two studies, we examined the relationship between amount of authors’ middle initials and authorship order. Study 1 used a sample of 678 articles from social psychology journals published in the years 2006 and 2007. Study 2 used a sample of 696 articles from journals of multiple sub-disciplines in psychology published in the years from 1970 to 2013. Middle initials in author names were overrepresented early (vs. late in author lists. We discuss implications of our findings for academic decisions on authorship orders, potential avenues of further investigation, and applications.

  4. [Co-authorship and collaboration networks in Spanish research into multiple sclerosis (1996-2010)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleixandre-Benavent, R; Alonso-Arroyo, A; Gonzalez de Dios, J; Sempere, A P; Castello-Cogollos, L; Bolanos-Pizarro, M; Valderrama-Zurian, J C

    2013-08-16

    INTRODUCTION. Scientific collaboration is vital for to the advance of knowledge and is especially important in health sciences. The aim of this study is to identify scientific collaboration indicators and co-authorship networks of researchers and Spanish institutions that publish on multiple sclerosis (MS) during the period 1996-2010. MATERIALS AND METHODS. The analyzed papers were obtained from Web of Science and Scopus international databases, and IBECS and IME national databases, applying specific search profiles in each one of them. In order to identify collaboration networks all signed papers were quantified and co-authored measures were obtained, as the different indexes, degree, intermediation and closeness. RESULTS. 1,613 articles were published in the period 1996-2010, 92% of them in collaboration. With 10 or more works signed in collaboration, 20 Spanish research groups in MS were identified. 64.23% of the papers were published in collaboration between Spanish institutions, and 33.85% were in collaboration with foreign institutions. The institutional participation analysis has identified a large network of institutional partnerships that integrates 27 institutions, with the Hospital Vall d'Hebron in a central position. International collaboration is headed by the U.S. and European countries, most notably the UK and Italy. CONCLUSION. The most collaborative authors, institutions, and work groups in Spanish research in MS have been identified. Despite these indicators that characterize the collaboration in this area, it is necessary to enhance cooperation between them, since this collaboration is positively related to the quality and impact of research and publications.

  5. Dynamics of co-authorship and productivity across different fields of scientific research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parish, Austin J; Boyack, Kevin W; Ioannidis, John P A

    2018-01-01

    We aimed to assess which factors correlate with collaborative behavior and whether such behavior associates with scientific impact (citations and becoming a principal investigator). We used the R index which is defined for each author as log(Np)/log(I1), where I1 is the number of co-authors who appear in at least I1 papers written by that author and Np are his/her total papers. Higher R means lower collaborative behavior, i.e. not working much with others, or not collaborating repeatedly with the same co-authors. Across 249,054 researchers who had published ≥30 papers in 2000-2015 but had not published anything before 2000, R varied across scientific fields. Lower values of R (more collaboration) were seen in physics, medicine, infectious disease and brain sciences and higher values of R were seen for social science, computer science and engineering. Among the 9,314 most productive researchers already reaching Np ≥ 30 and I1 ≥ 4 by the end of 2006, R mostly remained stable for most fields from 2006 to 2015 with small increases seen in physics, chemistry, and medicine. Both US-based authorship and male gender were associated with higher values of R (lower collaboration), although the effect was small. Lower values of R (more collaboration) were associated with higher citation impact (h-index), and the effect was stronger in certain fields (physics, medicine, engineering, health sciences) than in others (brain sciences, computer science, infectious disease, chemistry). Finally, for a subset of 400 U.S. researchers in medicine, infectious disease and brain sciences, higher R (lower collaboration) was associated with a higher chance of being a principal investigator by 2016. Our analysis maps the patterns and evolution of collaborative behavior across scientific disciplines.

  6. Success Breeds Success: Authorship Distribution in the Red Journal, 1975-2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holliday, Emma; Fuller, Clifton David; Wilson, Lynn D.; Thomas, Charles R.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Publication analysis has value in evaluating the mechanics of academic efforts in specific scientific communities. The specific aim of this study was to evaluate whether established bibliometric patterns seen in other academic fields were likewise observed in radiation oncology publication parameters. Methods and Materials: We used a commercial bibliographic database to analyze all publications in Red Journal, or International Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology Physics (IJROBP), the New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM), the Journal of Clinical Oncology (JCO), and Radiology (Rad) between January 1, 1975 and May 18, 2011. Power-law (Lotka's law or 1/n 2 ) conformance was assessed. Curve fit analysis was then performed. Results: In all 4 journals, a total of 219,476 authors were responsible for 62,232 articles. Of those, 79,810 authors published 13,772 articles in IJROBP, with 79,446/16,707 authors/articles in NEJM, 106,984/11,920 authors/articles in JCO and 90,325/19,745 authors/articles in Rad. The mean ± standard deviation of authors per publication was 5.74 ± 4.61 overall. There were 5.8 ± 3.53, 4.8 ± 5.7, 8.9 ± 3.53, and 4.6 ± 2.8 authors per article in IJROBP, NEJM, JCO, and Rad, respectively (P 2.02 of those publishing 1 article in IJROBP, 1/n 2.52 in NEJM, 1/n 1.97 in JCO, and 1/n 2.16 in Rad. Conclusions: Bibliometric analysis shows that authorship distributions in IJROBP approximate those of the scientific literature in comparable scientific journals. Our results suggest that the majority of publications in the field of radiation oncology are produced by a small but highly productive group of authors.

  7. Authorship characteristics in prosthodontic literature: proliferation and internationalization. A review and analysis following a 10-year observation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Judy Chia-Chun; Lee, Damian J; Knoernschild, Kent L; Campbell, Stephen D; Sukotjo, Cortino

    2010-09-01

    Author characteristics and the extent of dental literature authorship globalization have not been widely investigated, especially in prosthodontics. The purpose of this study was to examine trends in authorship characteristics in prosthodontics. Articles published in The Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry (JPD), International Journal of Prosthodontics (IJP), and Journal of Prosthodontics (JP) in 1998, 2003, and 2008 were reviewed. Abstracts, letters to the editor, and book reviews were not included in the investigation. The authors' educational degrees had to be listed in the publications for the articles to be included. For each article, number of authors, degrees of all authors, academic ranks of first and last authors, and geographic origin were recorded. Descriptive and analytic analyses (alpha=.05), including a generalized linear model, Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney U, or chi-square tests, were used as appropriate. A total of 998 articles met the inclusion criteria from the 3 selected journals for the years studied. Across all 3 journals, the mean number of authors per article increased significantly from 2.9 in 1998 to 3.6 in 2008 (Kruskal-Wallis, P<.001). The mean number of authors per article increased steadily on all continents, except for Africa and Oceania. A steady increase of authors with higher degrees was observed. There was a significant increase in the proportion of senior-ranking faculty as last author over time (chi-square=5.57, df=1, P=.018). The contributions from Asia and South America increased over time. The number of authors per article, the number of authors with higher educational degrees, and the percentage of senior-ranking faculty as last author steadily increased in the prosthodontic literature from 1998 to 2008. The trend of globalization of authorship was evident in the prosthodontic literature. Copyright © 2010 The Editorial Council of the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Authorship and affiliation as an indicator of quality criteria in Web 2.0: The Blogs about the environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Esperanza Oller-Arlandis

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To describe content quality and its relation with authorship and / or affiliation in the Blogs about the Environment. Settings and Design: A descriptive study of the Blogs was carried out using the searches on “Google Blogs Search”. Methods and Material: Data were obtained from direct access to and consultation of the blogs studied via the Internet. Three hundred and eighty six blogs were selected and located using simple random sampling without replacement. Studying the accessible and in case of not being able to access, it was replaced by the one that was not previously selected in the sampling. Statistical analysis used: The statistical calculations were performed using the program SPSS®. The qualitative variables were described with their absolute value and percentage. The existence of a linear trend relationship between variables was performed by the Chi Square test. The significance level used in all of the hypothesis comparisons was α ≤ 0.05. Results: The results reveal that indication of authorship on the Blogs studied implied greater suitability of the contents concerning environment (Pearson`s test χ2 = 13.306, p < 0.01, as did the existence of affiliation to an institution (Pearson’s test χ2 = 7.015, p < 0.01. However, it is important to point out that there were no significant differences in the adequacy of content when the blog studied presents authorship and filiation (Pearson’s test χ2 = 4.546, p = 0.103. Conclusions: Contrary to expectations, in the subject-matter (area/field of study about the Environment, the presence of an author linked to a reference institution has not presented significant results, and therefore this circumstance should not presuppose a greater adequacy of the Blog, consequently, in this case, would not be a criterion of quality to take into account.

  9. 25 CFR 20.501 - What services can be paid for with Child Assistance funds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE AND SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Child Assistance How Child Assistance Funds Can Be Used § 20.501 What services can be paid for with Child Assistance funds? The social services program can use... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What services can be paid for with Child Assistance funds...

  10. 76 FR 42038 - Determining the Amount of Taxes Paid for Purposes of the Foreign Tax Credit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-18

    ... Determining the Amount of Taxes Paid for Purposes of the Foreign Tax Credit AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service... contains final regulations providing guidance relating to the determination of the amount of taxes paid for purposes of the foreign tax credit. These regulations address certain highly structured transactions that...

  11. 76 FR 42076 - Determining the Amount of Taxes Paid for Purposes of the Foreign Tax Credit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-18

    ... Determining the Amount of Taxes Paid for Purposes of the Foreign Tax Credit AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service... temporary regulations that provide guidance relating to the determination of the amount of taxes paid for purposes of the foreign tax credit. These regulations address certain highly structured arrangements that...

  12. 78 FR 54391 - Determining the Amount of Taxes Paid for Purposes of the Foreign Tax Credit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-04

    ... Determining the Amount of Taxes Paid for Purposes of the Foreign Tax Credit AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service... contains final regulations providing guidance relating to the determination of the amount of taxes paid for purposes of the foreign tax credit. These regulations address certain highly structured arrangements that...

  13. 76 FR 53819 - Determining the Amount of Taxes Paid for Purposes of the Foreign Tax Credit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-30

    ... Determining the Amount of Taxes Paid for Purposes of the Foreign Tax Credit AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service..., July 18, 2011, providing guidance relating to the determination of the amount of taxes paid for purposes of the foreign tax credit. These regulations address certain highly structured arrangements that...

  14. 76 FR 42036 - Determining the Amount of Taxes Paid for Purposes of the Foreign Tax Credit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-18

    ... Determining the Amount of Taxes Paid for Purposes of the Foreign Tax Credit AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service... temporary regulations providing guidance relating to the determination of the amount of taxes paid for purposes of the foreign tax credit. These regulations address certain highly structured arrangements that...

  15. 76 FR 53818 - Determining the Amount of Taxes Paid for Purposes of the Foreign Tax Credit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-30

    ... Determining the Amount of Taxes Paid for Purposes of the Foreign Tax Credit AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service... of taxes paid for purposes of the foreign tax credit. These regulations address certain highly structured arrangements that produce inappropriate foreign tax credit results. The regulations affect...

  16. 25 CFR 12.61 - Can I be paid for information that helps solve a crime?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Can I be paid for information that helps solve a crime... COUNTRY LAW ENFORCEMENT Support Functions § 12.61 Can I be paid for information that helps solve a crime... investigation of a crime. This is subject to the availability of funds. This authority may be delegated in...

  17. 7 CFR 1951.15 - Return of paid-in-full or satisfied notes to borrower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... making marginal releases or satisfactions or security instruments, the notes will be held until the... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Return of paid-in-full or satisfied notes to borrower... Servicing Policies § 1951.15 Return of paid-in-full or satisfied notes to borrower. (a) Notes not held in...

  18. 76 FR 20595 - Guidance on Reporting Interest Paid to Nonresident Aliens; Hearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Parts 1 and 31 [REG-146097-09] RIN 1545-BJ01 Guidance on Reporting Interest Paid to Nonresident Aliens; Hearing AGENCY: Internal Revenue.... offices of certain financial institutions and paid to nonresident alien individuals. DATES: The public...

  19. 76 FR 7757 - Guidance on Reporting Interest Paid to Nonresident Aliens; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-11

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Parts 1 and 31 [REG-146097-09] RIN 1545-BJ01 Guidance on Reporting Interest Paid to Nonresident Aliens; Correction AGENCY: Internal Revenue... maintained at U.S. offices of certain financial institutions and paid to nonresident alien individuals. FOR...

  20. 76 FR 2852 - Guidance on Reporting Interest Paid to Nonresident Aliens; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Parts 1 and 31 [REG-146097-09] RIN 1545-BJ01 Guidance on Reporting Interest Paid to Nonresident Aliens; Correction AGENCY: Internal Revenue.... offices of certain financial institutions and paid to nonresident alien individuals. FOR FURTHER...

  1. 76 FR 22064 - Guidance on Reporting Interest Paid to Nonresident Aliens; Hearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Parts 1 and 31 [REG-146097-09] RIN 1545-BJ01 Guidance on Reporting Interest Paid to Nonresident Aliens; Hearing AGENCY: Internal Revenue... and paid to nonresident alien individuals. DATES: The public hearing is being rescheduled from Monday...

  2. The Division of Paid Labor in Same-Sex Couples in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaspers, E.; Verbakel, C.M.C.

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the division of paid labor among gay male and lesbian couples in the Netherlands. We hypothesize that same-sex couples have a more equal division of paid labor than different-sex couples, partly because of lower marriage and fertility rates, and partly because equity norms are

  3. 20 CFR 404.1243 - Use of reporting forms-for wages paid prior to 1987.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Use of reporting forms-for wages paid prior to 1987. 404.1243 Section 404.1243 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE... submit an annual report of the covered wages the State and its political subdivisions paid their...

  4. 12 CFR 701.6 - Fees paid by Federal credit unions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fees paid by Federal credit unions. 701.6 Section 701.6 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS ORGANIZATION AND OPERATION OF FEDERAL CREDIT UNIONS § 701.6 Fees paid by Federal credit unions. (a) Basis for...

  5. 27 CFR 25.285 - Refund of beer tax excessively paid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Refund of beer tax excessively paid. 25.285 Section 25.285 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... quantity of beer eligible to be taxpaid at the lower rate of tax, but which was paid at the higher rate of...

  6. The division of paid labor in same-sex couples in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaspers, E.; Verbakel, C.M.C.

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the division of paid labor among gay male and lesbian couples in the Netherlands. We hypothesize that same-sex couples have a more equal division of paid labor than different-sex couples, partly because of lower marriage and fertility rates, and partly because equity norms are

  7. Local mandate improves equity of paid sick leave coverage: Seattle’s experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L. Romich

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Paid sick leave allows workers to take time off work for personal or family health needs, improving health and potentially limiting infectious diseases. The U.S. has no national sick leave mandate, and many American workers - particularly those at lower income levels - have no right to paid time off for their own or family members’ health needs. This article reports on outcomes of a local mandate, the City of Seattle Paid Sick and Safe Time Ordinance, which requires certain employers to provide paid sick leave to eligible workers. Methods Survey collectors contacted a stratified random sample of Seattle employers before the Ordinance went into effect and one year later. Pre- and post- analysis draws on responses to survey items by 345 employers who were subject to the paid sick leave mandate. Results Awareness of the policy and provision of paid leave grew significantly over the year after the Ordinance was enacted. More employers offered leave to full-time workers (80.8 to 93.9%, p < .001 and part-time workers (47.1 to 66.7%, p < .001 with particularly large increases in the hospitality sector, which includes food workers (coverage of any hospitality employee: 27.5 to 85.0%, p < .001. Conclusions Absent a federal policy, local paid sick time mandates can increase paid sick leave coverage, an important social determinant of health.

  8. An analysis of factors affecting job satisfaction of women in paid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the job satisfaction of women in paid employment in Benin City. The purpose of this study was to find out whether women in paid employment are satisfied with their jobs or not and to establish the effects of marital status, experience, academic qualification and relationship with superior officers of the ...

  9. 26 CFR 1.247-1 - Deduction for dividends paid on preferred stock of public utilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... of public utilities. 1.247-1 Section 1.247-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF....247-1 Deduction for dividends paid on preferred stock of public utilities. (a) Amount of deduction. (1... lesser of (i) the amount of the dividends paid during the taxable year by a public utility on its...

  10. 'The brain-sucker: or, the distress of authorship': a late eighteenth-century satire of Grub Street

    OpenAIRE

    Berensmeyer, Ingo; Guttzeit, Gero; Van Hecke-Jameson, Alise

    2015-01-01

    Originally printed in the first issue of The British Mercury in 1787, “The Brain-Sucker: Or, the Distress of Authorship” is a piece of satirical short fiction that has so far received only little attention in discussions of eighteenth-century print culture and practices of authorship. Probably written by the Scottish radical John Oswald (c. 1760-1793), “The Brain-Sucker” is told in the form of a letter by a farmer who tells an absent friend about his unfortunate son Dick, whose brain has beco...

  11. The maternal health outcomes of paid maternity leave: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitken, Zoe; Garrett, Cameryn C; Hewitt, Belinda; Keogh, Louise; Hocking, Jane S; Kavanagh, Anne M

    2015-04-01

    Paid maternity leave has become a standard benefit in many countries throughout the world. Although maternal health has been central to the rationale for paid maternity leave, no review has specifically examined the effect of paid maternity leave on maternal health. The aim of this paper is to provide a systematic review of studies that examine the association between paid maternity leave and maternal health. We conducted a comprehensive search of electronic databases (Medline, Embase, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Web of Science, Sociological Abstracts) and Google Scholar. We searched websites of relevant organisations, reference lists of key papers and journals, and citation indices for additional studies including those not in refereed journals. There were no language restrictions. Studies were included if they compared paid maternity leave versus no paid maternity leave, or different lengths of paid leave. Data were extracted and an assessment of bias was performed independently by authors. Seven studies were identified, with participants from Australia, Sweden, Norway, USA, Canada, and Lebanon. All studies used quantitative methodologies, including cohort, cross-sectional, and repeated cross-sectional designs. Outcomes included mental health and wellbeing, general health, physical wellbeing, and intimate partner violence. The four studies that examined leave at an individual level showed evidence of maternal health benefits, whereas the three studies conducting policy-level comparisons reported either no association or evidence of a negative association. The synthesis of the results suggested that paid maternity leave provided maternal health benefits, although this varied depending on the length of leave. This has important implications for public health and social policy. However, all studies were subject to confounding bias and many to reverse causation. Given the small number of studies and the methodological limitations of the evidence, longitudinal studies are

  12. Rates and Characteristics of Paid Malpractice Claims Among US Physicians by Specialty, 1992-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffer, Adam C; Jena, Anupam B; Seabury, Seth A; Singh, Harnam; Chalasani, Venkat; Kachalia, Allen

    2017-05-01

    Although physician concerns about medical malpractice are substantial, national data are lacking on the rate of claims paid on behalf of US physicians by specialty. To characterize paid malpractice claims by specialty. A comprehensive analysis was conducted of all paid malpractice claims, with linkage to physician specialty, from the National Practitioner Data Bank from January 1, 1992, to December 31, 2014, a period including an estimated 19.9 million physician-years. All dollar amounts were inflation adjusted to 2014 dollars using the Consumer Price Index. The dates on which this analysis was performed were from May 1, 2015, to February 20, 2016, and from October 25 to December 16, 2016. For malpractice claims (n = 280 368) paid on behalf of physicians (in aggregate and by specialty): rates per physician-year, mean compensation amounts, the concentration of paid claims among a limited number of physicians, the proportion of paid claims that were greater than $1 million, severity of injury, and type of malpractice alleged. From 1992-1996 to 2009-2014, the rate of paid claims decreased by 55.7% (from 20.1 to 8.9 per 1000 physician-years; P malpractice claims paid on behalf of physicians in the United States declined substantially. Mean compensation amounts and the percentage of paid claims exceeding $1 million increased, with wide differences in rates and characteristics across specialties. A better understanding of the causes of variation among specialties in paid malpractice claims may help reduce both patient injury and physicians' risk of liability.

  13. Scientific authorships and collaboration network analysis on Chagas disease: papers indexed in PubMed (1940-2009).

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Alcaide, Gregorio; Park, Jinseo; Huamaní, Charles; Gascón, Joaquín; Ramos, José Manuel

    2012-08-01

    Chagas disease is a chronic, tropical, parasitic disease, endemic throughout Latin America. The large-scale migration of populations has increased the geographic distribution of the disease and cases have been observed in many other countries around the world. To strengthen the critical mass of knowledge generated in different countries, it is essential to promote cooperative and translational research initiatives. We analyzed authorship of scientific documents on Chagas disease indexed in the Medline database from 1940 to 2009. Bibliometrics was used to analyze the evolution of collaboration patterns. A Social Network Analysis was carried out to identify the main research groups in the area by applying clustering methods. We then analyzed 13,989 papers produced by 21,350 authors. Collaboration among authors dramatically increased over the study period, reaching an average of 6.2 authors per paper in the last five-year period. Applying a threshold of collaboration of five or more papers signed in co-authorship, we identified 148 consolidated research groups made up of 1,750 authors. The Chagas disease network identified constitutes a "small world," characterized by a high degree of clustering and a notably high number of Brazilian researchers.

  14. Multiple authorship and article type in journals of urology across the Atlantic: trends over the past six decades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammad, Fayez T; Shaban, Sami; Abu-Zidan, Fikri

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this research was to study the trends in authorship and type of article in European and North American journals of urology over the past 6 decades. Using a self-developed Visual Basic program, the number of authors per article and the type of article in four European journals (BJU International, Current Opinion in Urology, European Urology and Urologia Internationalis) and four North American journals (Journal of Urology, Urologic Clinics of North America, Urology and World Journal of Urology) were extracted from the PubMed website from January 1946 to October 2010, and the number of authors per article in each year was calculated in all the journals. The average number of authors per article has increased and the percentage of single-author articles has decreased in both European and American journals. An increase in the number of authors per article was observed mainly in original articles and case reports. Since the early 1980s, there has also been a decreasing percentage of published case reports and a general increase in the percentage of letters to the editor and editorials. The multiple-authorship trends observed in both European and North American urology journals were similar and appeared to be mainly due to changes in original articles and case reports. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Trends in Authorship Characteristics in The American Journal of Sports Medicine, 1994 to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrock, John B; Kraeutler, Matthew J; McCarty, Eric C

    2016-07-01

    Trends in author qualifications, the number of authors per article, and the internationalization of author groups in sports medicine journals have not been widely investigated. To examine trends in authorship characteristics in a single prominent sports medicine journal. Systematic review. Articles published in The American Journal of Sports Medicine (AJSM) in 1994, 2004, and 2014 were reviewed. For each article, the academic degree(s) of the first and last author, the total number of authors, the country of the author group, and academic institution status were recorded. A total of 708 articles met the inclusion criteria: 129 in 1994, 244 in 2004, and 335 in 2014. There were significant differences in the proportion of first authors with an MD degree (80% in 1994, 75% in 2004, 67% in 2014; P = .01), a dual MD/PhD degree (4.7% in 1994, 6.2% in 2004, 9.3% in 2014; P < .001), and a bachelor's degree (0% in 1994, 0% in 2004, 3.9% in 2014; P < .001). The proportion of last authors with an MD/PhD significantly increased over the 2 decades studied (7% in 1994, 13% in 2004, 17% in 2014; P = .01). The mean number of authors per article also significantly increased (3.8 in 1994, 4.3 in 2004, 5.8 in 2014; P < .0001). The proportion of articles published by an international group and the proportion of articles published by an academic institution increased over the 20-year span as well (both P < .0001). Within the past 2 decades, there has been a significant increase in the average number of authors per article in AJSM, as well as a higher proportion of international groups and academic institutions publishing in the journal. More nonphysicians are publishing in AJSM, with a significantly higher percentage of first authors with a bachelor's degree as their highest degree. This is likely due to a combination of a general increased interest in research as well as increased competition among medical students. These factors have likely led to larger research groups and thus a

  16. In tabula graffiti as a means of communication: Authorship, space and receiver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muñoz-Basols, Javier

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Graffiti, as a means of expression, underscore the coexistence of diverse sociolinguistic and communicative parameters that offer intrinsic data about the sender and the world surrounding him/her. In this study I analyze graffiti specifically on university desks, or in tabula, a type of graffiti that has not been the subject of in-depth study, but which nevertheless possesses sociolinguistic characteristics that distinguish it from other similar expressions or manifestations. We will see how an iconic and verbal milieu constructed on a desk defines and linguistically conditions the authorship, the subject matter, and the intention of the message, as well as indicates the existence of a series of sociocultural parameters that define the field shared by the sender and the receiver. The sociohistorical information that can be traced on the desk —the channel or medium of communication— yields the concerns and anxieties of the epoch or time frame when the message was created, and thus corroborates the communicative and interpretative relevance of the in tabula graffiti.Los grafiti —como manifestación expresiva— subrayan la coexistencia de diversos parámetros sociolingüisticos que aportan datos intrínsecos sobre el emisor, el mundo que le rodea y su intención comunicativa. En el presente estudio analizamos los grafiti sobre mesas universitarias o in tabula; un tipo de grafiti que no ha sido objeto de un profundo estudio y que sin embargo posee características sociolingüisticas que lo distinguen del resto de manifestaciones similares. A lo largo del análisis veremos cómo se construye sobre una mesa un entorno icónico y verbal que determina y condiciona lingüisticamente la autoría, la temática y la intencionalidad del mensaje. Dichas características acentúan además la presencia de una serie de parámetros socioculturales compartidos por emisor y receptor que definen y delimitan su campo de actuación. Sobre la mesa —o canal

  17. Authorship Trends of Emergency Medicine Publications over the Last Two Decades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammers, Richard; Simunich, Thomas; Ashurst, John

    2016-05-01

    With the recent merger of the American Osteopathic Association (AOA) and the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) a heightened pressure for publication may become evident. Our objective was to determine whether there was a gap in the type of both medical degree designation and advanced degree designation among authorship in three United States-based academic emergency medicine journals. We reviewed the Journal of Emergency Medicine, Academic Emergency Medicine and Annals of Emergency Medicine for the type of degree designation that the first and senior authors had obtained for the years 1995, 2000, 2005, 2010 and 2014. A total of 2.48% of all authors held a degree in osteopathic medicine. Osteopathic physician first authors contributed to 3.26% of all publications while osteopathic physician senior authors contributed 1.53%. No statistical trend could be established for the years studied for osteopathic physicians. However, we noted an overall trend for increased publication for allopathic senior authors (p=0.001), allopathic first authors with a dual degree (p=0.003) and allopathic senior authors with a dual degree (p=0.005). For each journal studied, no statistical trend could be established for osteopathic first or senior authors but a trend was noted for allopathic first and senior authors in the Journal of Emergency Medicine (p-value=0.020 and 0.006). Of those with dual degrees, osteopathic physicians were in the minority with 1.85% of osteopathic first authors and 0.60% of osteopathic senior authors attaining a dual degree. No statistical trend could be established for increased dual degree publications for osteopathic physicians over the study period, nor could a statistical trend be established for any of the journals studied. Very few osteopathic physicians have published in the Journal of Emergency Medicine, Academic Emergency Medicine or Annals of Emergency Medicine over the last two decades. Despite a trend for increased

  18. The international distribution of authorship in the Nuclear Medicine literature: a bibliometric analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hannigan, G.G.; Bartold, S.P.

    2002-01-01

    Nuclear Medicine and the Journal of Nuclear Medicine: US 39%, Japan 11%, Germany 7%, UK 6%, Netherlands 6%, France 5%, Italy 4%, Canada 3%, Belgium 3%, and Australia 2%. This study confirms the increasing dispersion of authorship in nuclear medicine

  19. Paid leave benefits among a national sample of working mothers with infants in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd-Banigan, Megan; Bell, Janice F

    2014-01-01

    To describe a range of employment benefits, including maternity and other paid leave, afforded to working women with infants; and to examine the geographic, socio-demographic correlates of such benefits to inform the workplace policy agenda in the US. Using data from the Listening to Mothers II Survey, a national sample of English-speaking women who gave birth in 2005, we conducted multivariable linear and logistic regression analyses to examine the associations between socio-demographic factors and employment leave variables (paid maternity, sick and personal leave). Forty-one percent of women received paid maternity leave for an average of 3.3 weeks with 31 % wage replacement. On average women took 10 weeks of maternity leave and received 10.4 days of paid sick leave and 11.6 days of paid personal time per year. Women who were non-Hispanic Black, privately insured, working full-time, and from higher income families were more likely to receive paid maternity leave, for more time, and at higher levels of wage replacement, when controlling for the other socio-demographic characteristics. Race/ethnicity, family income and employment status were associated with the number of paid personal days. Currently, the majority of female employees with young children in the US do not receive financial compensation for maternity leave and women receive limited paid leave every year to manage health-related family issues. Further, women from disadvantaged backgrounds generally receive less generous benefits. Federal policy that supports paid leave may be one avenue to address such disparities and should be modified to reflect accepted international standards.

  20. Paid Family Leave, Fathers' Leave-Taking, and Leave-Sharing in Dual-Earner Households

    OpenAIRE

    Bartel, Ann P.; Rossin-Slater, Maya; Ruhm, Christopher J.; Stearns, Jenna; Waldfogel, Jane

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides quasi-experimental evidence on the impact of paid leave legislation on fathers' leave-taking, as well as on the division of leave between mothers and fathers in dual-earner households. Using difference-in-difference and difference-in-difference-in-difference designs, we study California's Paid Family Leave (CA-PFL) program, which is the first source of government-provided paid parental leave available to fathers in the United States. Our results show that fathers in Califo...

  1. Local and foreign authorship of maternal health interventional research in low- and middle-income countries: systematic mapping of publications 2000-2012

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chersich, M.F.; Blaauw, D.; Dumbaugh, M.; Penn-Kekana, L.; Dhana, A.; Thwala, S.; Bijlmakers, L.A.; Vargas, E.; Kern, E.; Becerra-Posada, F.; Kavanagh, J.; Mannava, P.; Mlotshwa, L.; Becerril-Montekio, V.; Footman, K.; Rees, H.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Researchers in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) are under-represented in scientific literature. Mapping of authorship of articles can provide an assessment of data ownership and research capacity in LMICs over time and identify variations between different settings. METHODS:

  2. What factors are associated with increasing co-authorship in the social sciences? A case study of Danish Economics and Political Science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Dorte

    2018-01-01

    The number of co-authors has in the social sciences has been rising over the last decades, but a deeper understanding of why this rise is occurring is lacking. Previous studies of co-authorship in the social sciences often refer to the physical or life sciences or anecdotal evidence to explain th...

  3. Has globalization strengthened South Korea’s national research system? National and international dynamics of the Triple Helix of scientific co-authorship relationships in South Korea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwon, K.-S.; Park, H.W.; So, M.; Leydesdorff, L.

    2012-01-01

    We trace the structural patterns of co-authorship between Korean researchers at three institutional types (university, government, and industry) and their international partners in terms of the mutual information generated in these relations. Data were collected from the Web of Science during the

  4. Hoopoes, cuckoos and birds of prey: the authorship of Sophocles, Fr. 581 R. (Arist., HA 633a 17-28 (Tereus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miryam Librán Moreno

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Some mythographical and ornithological details in S., Fr. 581 R. (Tereus’ metamorphosis into both a hoopoe and a hawk; Itys’ transformation into a raptor, preserved by Aristotle, HA 633a17-28, are not compatible with what can be known of Sophocles’ Tereus. Such a discrepance casts doubts on the Sophoclean authorship of the fragment.

  5. Relationships Between Depression and Stress Factors in Housework and Paid Work Among Japanese Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiko Hoshino

    2016-06-01

    Conclusion: Rehabilitation programmes involving variance in workload and under self-evaluation in housework, and interpersonal conflict in paid work must be adequately addressed to support working women with depression.

  6. Paide raekoja (Keskväljak 14) renoveerimine / Merike Kordemets, Annes Arro, Hanna Karits

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kordemets, Merike

    2009-01-01

    Ill.: situatsiooniplaan, 1. ja 2. korruse plaan, välisvaade, 3 sisevaadet; fotod: Kalle Veesaar, Arne Maasik; muinsuskaitse eritingimused: Epi Tohvri, Pille Viirsalu; arhitektuur: Paide EKE Projekt; sisearhitektuur: Arro Projekt

  7. Mats valib Paides kuningaid ja põletab mõisaid / Tiina Laanem

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laanem, Tiina

    2001-01-01

    Kati Murutari "Eestlase neli kuningat" peaproovilt (lavastaja Ivo Eensalu, muusika autor Siiri Sisask, kunstnik Vadim Fomitshev). Esietendus 28. juunil Paide Vallimäel. Vabaõhuetenduses teevad kaasa tuntud näitlejad ja ansambel Ultima Thule

  8. End-of-life training for paid carers working with people with learning disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codling, Mary; Knowles, Jane; Vevers, Ann

    2014-04-01

    People with learning disabilities are living longer lives. Over the past few years, research has explored the needs of people with learning disabilities, their families and learning disability professionals in relation to end-of-life care and death. However, little is known about the needs of paid carers and their experience of end-of-life care. This article discusses the development, implementation and evaluation of a study day about end-of-life care that was delivered to paid carers on two separate occasions in Berkshire Healthcare NHS Foundation Trust. A total of 43 paid carers attended and the days were well evaluated. The need for further training for paid carers who work with people with learning disabilities at the end of life was highlighted.

  9. 5 CFR Appendix A to Subpart B of... - Places and Rates at Which Allowances Are Paid

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ALLOWANCES AND DIFFERENTIALS Cost-of-Living Allowance and Post Differential... Allowances Are Paid This appendix lists the places approved for a cost-of-living allowance and shows the...

  10. Archaeological studies in the church and churchyard of Paide / Villu Kadakas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kadakas, Villu, 1972-

    2014-01-01

    Uuringutest Paide Püha Risti kirikus ja kirikuaias. Oluliselt õnnestus täpsustada praeguse hoone kohal asunud keskaegse eelkäija põhiplaani. Keskaegse ja 1770-1780. aastatel valminud hoonete erinevusest

  11. Determinants of perceived and actual knowledge of commission paid by contributors in the pension funds industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Farías

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the determinants of perceived and actual knowledge of commission paid by contributors in the Chilean pension funds industry. Results show that price consciousness and brand credibility are positively associated with perceived and actual knowledge of commission paid by pension fund contributors. Results also show that financial literacy is only positively associated with actual knowledge of commission paid by contributors. Additionally, results show that price based advertising exposure is only positively associated with perceived knowledge of commission paid by contributors. This association is stronger for contributors with a high use of the price-quality cue. Based on the findings presented, implications for managers, regulators and researchers are drawn.

  12. Customer orientation on online newspaper business models with paid content strategies: An empirical study

    OpenAIRE

    Goyanes, Manuel; Sylvie, George

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the transformations that trigger business models with paid content strategies on news organizations under the theoretical framework of market orientation. The results show three main factors: those related to competence, to the organization culture and to understanding of needs and wants of the audience. The findings also suggest that online newspapers business models with paid content strategies are more like experiments or forays rather than definitive methods that monet...

  13. Paid Maternity Leave in the United States: Associations with Maternal and Infant Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jou, Judy; Kozhimannil, Katy B; Abraham, Jean M; Blewett, Lynn A; McGovern, Patricia M

    2018-02-01

    Objectives The United States is one of only three countries worldwide with no national policy guaranteeing paid leave to employed women who give birth. While maternity leave has been linked to improved maternal and child outcomes in international contexts, up-to-date research evidence in the U.S. context is needed to inform current policy debates on paid family leave. Methods Using data from Listening to Mothers III, a national survey of women ages 18-45 who gave birth in 2011-2012, we conducted multivariate logistic regression to predict the likelihood of outcomes related to infant health, maternal physical and mental health, and maternal health behaviors by the use and duration of paid maternity leave. Results Use of paid and unpaid leave varied significantly by race/ethnicity and household income. Women who took paid maternity leave experienced a 47% decrease in the odds of re-hospitalizing their infants (95% CI 0.3, 1.0) and a 51% decrease in the odds of being re-hospitalized themselves (95% CI 0.3, 0.9) at 21 months postpartum, compared to women taking unpaid or no leave. They also had 1.8 times the odds of doing well with exercise (95% CI 1.1, 3.0) and stress management (95% CI 1.1, 2.8), compared to women taking only unpaid leave. Conclusions for Practice Paid maternity leave significantly predicts lower odds of maternal and infant re-hospitalization and higher odds of doing well with exercise and stress management. Policies aimed at expanding access to paid maternity and family leave may contribute toward reducing socio-demographic disparities in paid leave use and its associated health benefits.

  14. Paid and Unpaid Online Recruitment for Health Interventions in Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musiat, Peter; Winsall, Megan; Orlowski, Simone; Antezana, Gaston; Schrader, Geoffrey; Battersby, Malcolm; Bidargaddi, Niranjan

    2016-12-01

    There is a growing need to identify new and innovative approaches to recruit representative samples of young adults in health intervention research. The current study used a data set of screening information from an online well-being intervention trial of young adults, to investigate cost-effectiveness of different recruitment strategies and whether the clinical and demographic characteristics of participants differed depending on paid or unpaid online recruitment sources. Data were collected from 334 18- to 25-year-old Australians. The study was advertised through a variety of paid and unpaid online recruitment channels (e.g., Google, Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, recruitment agency), with response rates to different recruitment channels tracked using unique Web links. Well-being of participants was measured using the Mental Health Continuum Short Form. Analyses consisted of independent t tests and χ 2 tests. Overall, unpaid recruitment channels had a considerably higher yield than paid recruitment channels. Of paid recruitment channels, a recruitment agency and paid Facebook advertisements attracted the largest number of individuals. This study also found differences between paid and unpaid online recruitment channels with regard to the well-being and mood of participants. Although the success of online recruitment channels is likely subject to a complex interplay between the number of exposures, the targeted sample, the wording, and placement of the advertisement, as well as study characteristics, our study demonstrated that unpaid recruitment channels are more effective than paid channels and that paid and unpaid channels may result in samples with different characteristics. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. All rights reserved.

  15. Crowdsourcing Analysis of Twitter Data on Climate Change: Paid Workers vs. Volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei P. Kirilenko

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Web based crowdsourcing has become an important method of environmental data processing. Two alternatives are widely used today by researchers in various fields: paid data processing mediated by for-profit businesses such as Amazon’s Mechanical Turk, and volunteer data processing conducted by amateur citizen-scientists. While the first option delivers results much faster, it is not quite clear how it compares with volunteer processing in terms of quality. This study compares volunteer and paid processing of social media data originating from climate change discussions on Twitter. The same sample of Twitter messages discussing climate change was offered for processing to the volunteer workers through the Climate Tweet project, and to the paid workers through the Amazon MTurk platform. We found that paid crowdsourcing required the employment of a high redundancy data processing design to obtain quality that was comparable with volunteered processing. Among the methods applied to improve data processing accuracy, limiting the geographical locations of the paid workers appeared the most productive. Conversely, we did not find significant geographical differences in the accuracy of data processed by volunteer workers. We suggest that the main driver of the found pattern is the differences in familiarity of the paid workers with the research topic.

  16. Hierarchical and Non-Hierarchical Linear and Non-Linear Clustering Methods to “Shakespeare Authorship Question”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Refat Aljumily

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A few literary scholars have long claimed that Shakespeare did not write some of his best plays (history plays and tragedies and proposed at one time or another various suspect authorship candidates. Most modern-day scholars of Shakespeare have rejected this claim, arguing that strong evidence that Shakespeare wrote the plays and poems being his name appears on them as the author. This has caused and led to an ongoing scholarly academic debate for quite some long time. Stylometry is a fast-growing field often used to attribute authorship to anonymous or disputed texts. Stylometric attempts to resolve this literary puzzle have raised interesting questions over the past few years. The following paper contributes to “the Shakespeare authorship question” by using a mathematically-based methodology to examine the hypothesis that Shakespeare wrote all the disputed plays traditionally attributed to him. More specifically, the mathematically based methodology used here is based on Mean Proximity, as a linear hierarchical clustering method, and on Principal Components Analysis, as a non-hierarchical linear clustering method. It is also based, for the first time in the domain, on Self-Organizing Map U-Matrix and Voronoi Map, as non-linear clustering methods to cover the possibility that our data contains significant non-linearities. Vector Space Model (VSM is used to convert texts into vectors in a high dimensional space. The aim of which is to compare the degrees of similarity within and between limited samples of text (the disputed plays. The various works and plays assumed to have been written by Shakespeare and possible authors notably, Sir Francis Bacon, Christopher Marlowe, John Fletcher, and Thomas Kyd, where “similarity” is defined in terms of correlation/distance coefficient measure based on the frequency of usage profiles of function words, word bi-grams, and character triple-grams. The claim that Shakespeare authored all the disputed

  17. How many orthopedic surgeons does it take to write a research article? 50 years of authorship proliferation in and internationalization of the orthopedic surgery literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Luthfur; Muirhead-Allwood, Sarah K

    2010-07-13

    Publications are considered to indicate academic achievement and can lead to various rewards, including job opportunities and research funding. Recent years have seen a rising trend in the number of articles published, multiple authorship, and internationalization of the biomedical literature. The goal of this study was to analyze the trends in authorship over the past 50 years to determine whether the orthopedic literature parallels trends seen in other areas of the biomedical literature. We performed an observational study with analysis of the number of authors and geographic origin of articles published in the Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery British Volume (JBJS) and Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research (CORR). We analyzed 2776 articles (CORR, n=1809; JBJS, n=967) published between 1958 and 2008 at 10-year intervals. There has been a significant increase in the mean number of authors per article from 1.638 to 4.08 (P<.0001) and 1.633 to 4.540 (P<.0001) for CORR and JBJS, respectively between 1958 and 2008. There has been a significant increase in the international contribution to both journals (P<.0001). The number of countries contributing to articles increased from 5 to 39 and from 17 to 33 for CORR and JBJS, respectively. These findings are similar to other areas of the biomedical literature. The reasons for this proliferation are multifactorial, including multicenter trials and inappropriate authorship. Guidelines for authorship and preparation of manuscripts from the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors or from individual journals are widely available, and every effort should be made to adhere to them to prevent inappropriate authorship proliferation in the future. Copyright 2010, SLACK Incorporated.

  18. LITERATURA DE AUTORIA FEMININA NEGRA: (DESSILENCIAMENTOS E RESSIGNIFICAÇÕES (LITERATURE OF BLACK FEMINE AUTHORSHIP: (DESILENCE AND NEW MEANINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Rita Santiago da Silva

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available It is difficult to find in Brazilian literature works in which discursive constructions and narratives of women appear figured by male power. Prevail in them, for example, preachings of black female characters overwhelmed not only by patriarchy, as well as representations surrounded by traces of inferiority, virility and strong negative valuation of their ethnic and cultural diversity. When you add the fact that the invisibility of black women's writing, the scene of literary tradition, we can more easily understand the literature you want distinctive, innovative and transgressive, produced by them. Thus, this text will make an interpretative reading practices (un silencing of literary authorship and literary voices of black women writers, who, as discursive formations, march away from stigmas and deletions and coming brands of otherness.

  19. Steering the Author Discourse: The Construction of Authorship in Quality TV, and the Case of Game of Thrones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Steiner

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This essay examines how the authorship is discursively constructed and employed as an indicator of quality in the marketing of US cable network HBO's TV series Game of Thrones (2011-. It relates the authorial concept of literary studies to that in the visual media and analyses mise-en-scène and narrative structure of the show pilot in order to detect markers of an authorial voice within the text. Subsequently, it turns to a selection of paratexts – critical reviews, producers' commentaries and special features of the show’s DVD box set – to show how the team of producers help manufacture and promote the presence of a showrunner-auteur collective in order to foster a perception of this text as a ‘quality TV’ narrative.

  20. Assessing the gap in female authorship in the journal Emergency Radiology: trends over a 20-year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Kristopher; Ramonas, Milita; Patlas, Michael; Katz, Douglas S

    2017-12-01

    To examine trends in female authorship in the journal Emergency Radiology from January 1994 to December 2014. We obtained institutional review board approval for our study. We retrospectively reviewed a total of 1617 articles published in the journal Emergency Radiology over a 20-year period. Original articles, case reports, review articles, and pictorial essays were included. The first and last position author's gender was categorized as female or male. We analyzed trends by comparing the first and last position authors of original articles from the first and last year reviewed. We utilized Chi-square test for statistical analysis, with a p value years, there has been a statistically significant upward trend in female last position authors publishing in the journal Emergency Radiology.

  1. Evolution of Cooperation Patterns in Psoriasis Research: Co-Authorship Network Analysis of Papers in Medline (1942-2013).

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Alcaide, Gregorio; Park, Jinseo; Huamaní, Charles; Belinchón, Isabel; Ramos, José M

    2015-01-01

    Although researchers have worked in collaboration since the origins of modern science and the publication of the first scientific journals in the eighteenth century, this phenomenon has acquired exceptional importance in the last several decades. Since the mid-twentieth century, new knowledge has been generated from within an ever-growing network of investigators, working cooperatively in research groups across countries and institutions. Cooperation is a crucial determinant of academic success. The aim of the present paper is to analyze the evolution of scientific collaboration at the micro level, with regard to the scientific production generated on psoriasis research. A bibliographic search in the Medline database containing the MeSH terms "psoriasis" or "psoriatic arthritis" was carried out. The search results were limited to articles, reviews and letters. After identifying the co-authorships of documents on psoriasis indexed in the Medline database (1942-2013), various bibliometric indicators were obtained, including the average number of authors per document and degree of multi-authorship over time. In addition, we performed a network analysis to study the evolution of certain features of the co-authorship network as a whole: average degree, size of the largest component, clustering coefficient, density and average distance. We also analyzed the evolution of the giant component to characterize the changing research patterns in the field, and we calculated social network indicators for the nodes, namely betweenness and closeness. The main active research clusters in the area were identified, along with their authors of reference. Our analysis of 28,670 documents sheds light on different aspects related to the evolution of scientific collaboration in the field, including the progressive increase in the mean number of co-authors (which stood at 5.17 in the 2004-2013 decade), and the rise in multi-authored papers signed by many different authors (in the same

  2. The Experience of Paid Family-Care Workers of People with Dementia in South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jungmin Kim, RN, MN

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The South Korean government introduced the universal long-term care insurance program in 2008 that created a new employment category of “paid family-care worker” to assist the elderly with chronic illnesses including dementia. The aim of this study was to understand the lived experience of paid family-care workers of people with dementia in South Korea. Methods: The study was a qualitative research design underpinned by interpretive description principles involving eight paid family-care workers. The participants were recruited by attaching the advertisement flyer in a notice board of an educational facility for paid family-care workers. Results: Paid family-care workers struggled to manage the behavioral and psychological symptoms of their care recipients. Their workloads created physical, emotional, social, and financial burdens. However, the care-giving activities were encouraged through their sense of responsibility, filial piety, and personal religious beliefs. Financial subsidies from the government and help received from others were also identified as encouragements. The education course provided to them assisted them to improve their dementia-care capabilities. Conclusion: Understanding paid family-care workers' lived experience in dementia care in South Korea assists with the identification of their educational needs and level of support they require to improve dementia care in the home care environment. A number of suggestions are made to increase paid family-care workers' knowledge, clinical skills, and job satisfaction to reduce their burdens and work-related incidents, such as challenging behaviors from those being cared for. Keywords: dementia, health personnel, long-term care, Republic of Korea

  3. The Experience of Paid Family-Care Workers of People with Dementia in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jungmin; De Bellis, Anita Marie; Xiao, Lily Dongxia

    2018-03-01

    The South Korean government introduced the universal long-term care insurance program in 2008 that created a new employment category of "paid family-care worker" to assist the elderly with chronic illnesses including dementia. The aim of this study was to understand the lived experience of paid family-care workers of people with dementia in South Korea. The study was a qualitative research design underpinned by interpretive description principles involving eight paid family-care workers. The participants were recruited by attaching the advertisement flyer in a notice board of an educational facility for paid family-care workers. Paid family-care workers struggled to manage the behavioral and psychological symptoms of their care recipients. Their workloads created physical, emotional, social, and financial burdens. However, the care-giving activities were encouraged through their sense of responsibility, filial piety, and personal religious beliefs. Financial subsidies from the government and help received from others were also identified as encouragements. The education course provided to them assisted them to improve their dementia-care capabilities. Understanding paid family-care workers' lived experience in dementia care in South Korea assists with the identification of their educational needs and level of support they require to improve dementia care in the home care environment. A number of suggestions are made to increase paid family-care workers' knowledge, clinical skills, and job satisfaction to reduce their burdens and work-related incidents, such as challenging behaviors from those being cared for. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. The Prevalence of Honorary and Ghost Authorships in Iranian Bio-Medical Journals and Its Associated Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzazadeh, A; Navadeh, S; Rokni, MB; Farhangniya, M

    2011-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to detect the prevalence of ghost and honorary authors and its determinant factors in bio-medical journals of Iran. Methods: The study was done in 2009–10 in Tehran, Kerman, and Iran Medical Universities, Iran. We contacted the first or corresponding authors of the papers had published papers in the recent two issues of Iranian Journal of Public Health, Journal of Kerman University of Medical Sciences, and Tehran University Medical Journal. They explored the role of each coauthor and others who had done mouthing for the paper. Then, according to ICMJE criteria, we counted how many of them are real, honorary or ghost author. For the analysis, we utilized two databases. One included articles as the records and the other included authors as the records. Results: From 124 articles, with 536 authors, 301 (56.1%) were honorary authors. Each article had 4.35 authors on average, while 2.4 of them were honorary authors. The percentage of honorary author in basic science articles was about 6% more than the articles of clinical sciences. Moreover, 89% of articles had at least one honorary author. About 20% of all articles had more than three honorary authors. Besides, 25 (21.43%) authors confessed they had colleague(s) omitted from the authors list, while only one (0.81%) of them met the authorship criteria. The percentage of agreement between the corresponding and the remaining authors on the number of honorary of the authors was about 47.4% (Kappa= 0.27, P= 0.01). Conclusion: It seems that the present data might assist the authorities to make a decisive decision on amending the process of authorship in Iran. PMID:23113050

  5. A bibliometric analysis assessing temporal changes in publication and authorship characteristics in The Knee from 1996 to 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan, G; Wisken, E; Hing, C B; Smith, T O

    2018-03-05

    Evidence-based practice is a foundation to clinical excellence. However there remains little evidence on the characteristics of authors who contribute to the evidence-base and whether these have changed over time. The purpose of this study was to explore these characteristics by undertaking a bibliometric analysis to explore publication and authorship characteristics in a leading sub-speciality orthopaedic journal (The Knee) over a 20-year period. All articles published in The Knee in 1996, 2006 and 2016 were identified. For each article, data collected included: highest academic award; profession; gender; continent of first and last author; total number of authors; the level of evidence; and funding source. We analysed temporal changes in these variables using appropriate statistical models. A total of 413 papers were analysed. Between 1996 to 2016 there has been a significant increase in the overall number of authors, the number of paper submitted from Asia, the proportion of Level 1 or 2 tiered evidence, the proportion of people with Bachelor or Master-level degrees as their highest level of educational award and the proportion of non-medically qualified authors (P<0.001). From 2006 to 2016 there was a significant increase in the proportion of articles whose first author was female (P=0.03), but no significant change in the number of females as last author (P=0.43). The findings indicate that there have been changes in publication and authorship characteristics in this sub-speciality orthopaedic journal during the past 20years. This provides encouraging indication of greater diversification and internationalisation of orthopaedic research. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The rise of the middle author: Investigating collaboration and division of labor in biomedical research using partial alphabetical authorship.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Mongeon

    Full Text Available Contemporary biomedical research is performed by increasingly large teams. Consequently, an increasingly large number of individuals are being listed as authors in the bylines, which complicates the proper attribution of credit and responsibility to individual authors. Typically, more importance is given to the first and last authors, while it is assumed that the others (the middle authors have made smaller contributions. However, this may not properly reflect the actual division of labor because some authors other than the first and last may have made major contributions. In practice, research teams may differentiate the main contributors from the rest by using partial alphabetical authorship (i.e., by listing middle authors alphabetically, while maintaining a contribution-based order for more substantial contributions. In this paper, we use partial alphabetical authorship to divide the authors of all biomedical articles in the Web of Science published over the 1980-2015 period in three groups: primary authors, middle authors, and supervisory authors. We operationalize the concept of middle author as those who are listed in alphabetical order in the middle of an authors' list. Primary and supervisory authors are those listed before and after the alphabetical sequence, respectively. We show that alphabetical ordering of middle authors is frequent in biomedical research, and that the prevalence of this practice is positively correlated with the number of authors in the bylines. We also find that, for articles with 7 or more authors, the average proportion of primary, middle and supervisory authors is independent of the team size, more than half of the authors being middle authors. This suggests that growth in authors lists are not due to an increase in secondary contributions (or middle authors but, rather, in equivalent increases of all types of roles and contributions (including many primary authors and many supervisory authors. Nevertheless

  7. Paid parental leave and family wellbeing in the sustainable development era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heymann, Jody; Sprague, Aleta R; Nandi, Arijit; Earle, Alison; Batra, Priya; Schickedanz, Adam; Chung, Paul J; Raub, Amy

    2017-01-01

    The Sustainable development goals (SDGs) have the potential to have a significant impact on maternal and child health through their commitments both to directly addressing health services and to improving factors that form the foundation of social determinants of health. To achieve change at scale, national laws and policies have a critical role to play in implementing the SDGs' commitments. One particular policy that could advance a range of SDGs and importantly improve maternal and infant health is paid parental leave. This article analyzes literature on paid leave and related policies relevant to SDG 1 (poverty), SDG 3 (health), SDG 5 (gender equality), SDG 8 (decent work), and SDG 10 (inequality). In addition, this article presents global data on the prevalence of policies in all 193 UN Member States. A review of the literature finds that paid parental leave may support improvements across a range of SDG outcomes relevant to maternal and child health. Across national income levels, paid leave has been associated with lower infant mortality and higher rates of immunizations. In high-income countries, studies have found that paid leave increases exclusive breastfeeding and may improve women's economic outcomes. However, factors including the duration of leave, the wage replacement rate, and whether leave is made available to both parents importantly shape the impacts of paid leave policies. While most countries now offer at least some paid maternal leave, many provide less than the 6 months recommended for exclusive breastfeeding, and only around half as many provide paternal leave. To accelerate progress on the SDGs' commitments to maternal and child health, we should monitor countries' actions on enacting or strengthening paid leave policies. Further research is needed on the duration, wage replacement rate, and availability of leave before and after birth that would best support both child and parental health outcomes and social determinants of health more

  8. On the Need for Paid Maternity Leave in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, C. L.

    2007-12-01

    Maternity leave policies in the U.S. are among the worst in the world. The 12 weeks of un-paid family leave that the U.S. grants are only surpassed by South Korea's 8 un-paid weeks as the worst treatment to mothers and newborns in the developed world. California is the only state in the U.S. where two programs exist, the State Disability Insurance (SDI) and Paid Family Leave (PFL), which cover up to $840/week for up to 12 weeks (excluding a waiting period of 7 un-paid days combined for both SDI and PFL). Even with these State contributions, the average parent of a newborn in California receives less than the 100% paid 6 weeks of Portugal and the 100% paid 12 weeks of Mexico, with all other countries providing better treatment. For mothers and fathers, time at home during the first precious months after birth or adoption is critical to getting to know their babies. It can provide long-term benefits that improve a child's brain development, social development and overall well being. Parental leave results in better prenatal and postnatal care and more intense parental bonding over a child's life. It also improves the chance that a child will be immunized; as a result, it is associated with lower death rates for infants. But lawmakers and employers are denying those benefits to most families by refusing to provide paid parental leave. For some families, the economic burden of caring for a newborn alone results in financial hardship or ruin. Fortunately, about 12% of companies in the U.S. voluntarily choose to offer some sort of paid and/or longer maternity and family care leaves. Some companies offer on-site child care as a way to facilitate breastfeeding and bonding between new mothers and their babies. Other companies allow new parents to reduce their work schedule temporarily and to telecommute from their homes, both effective ways to guarantee work productivity without requiring the sacrifice of a newborn's right to better health through breastfeeding and bonding

  9. Beyond money and survival: the meaning of paid work among older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altschuler, Joanne

    2004-01-01

    This article explores the meaning and experiences of paid work for older women. Taped, in-person interviews were conducted with 53 ethnically and economically diverse women, 55 to 84 years old. The interview guide contained open-ended questions regarding the meaning of work, reasons for working, and the centrality of work to personal identity. Participants discussed the following topics: independence from men; lost dreams and regrets related to paid work and educational opportunities; being responded to as mother by co-workers and supervisors; and working above and beyond the call of duty.

  10. The literary science as de-facement. Problem of double authorship in Tadeusz Rachwał and Tadeusz Sławek's texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Bogalecki

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The essay is an attempt of rethinking a mode of authorship in literary science discourse of Tadeusz Rachwał and Tadeusz Sławek. Their texts is being compared with G. Deleuze and F. Guattari's method of collective writing and interpreted according to theories of J. Derrida, P. de Man and M. Foucault. Rachwał and Sławek's strategy of double authorship (which is not the same as traditional co-authorship underlines the impossibility of recognition who is speaking in the text; therefore their collective books may be understood as a kind of performing theses which they contain (e.g. connected with poststructuralist "death of author" or a poet and God's mystical co-writing. Furthermore, double authorship leaves its marks on structure of text. We can see a lot of techniques which make Rachwał and Sławek's texts more complicated, e.g. fragmentary style of writing, using different types of typography and even creating an elements of visual poetry. These experiments and a new way of these texts' being in academic public sphere make them rather ethical than scientific - the ethic qualities and poetic function seem to be more important than the science typical cognitive functions. Because of unceasing underlining a linguistic aspect, the texts of Rachwał and Sławek may be read as examples of rhetorical type of ethic criticism. Not only do they ask about a significance of primary ethical ideas like friendship, community or responsibility, but also about an existence of category of author in literary studies after linguistic turn.

  11. A study on scientific collaboration and co-authorship patterns in library and information science studies in Iran between 2005 and 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siamaki, Saba; Geraei, Ehsan; Zare-Farashbandi, Firoozeh

    2014-01-01

    Scientific collaboration is among the most important subjects in scientometrics, and many studies have investigated this concept to this day. The goal of the current study is investigation of scientific collaboration and co-authorship patterns of researchers in the field of library and information science in Iran between years 2005 and 2009. The current study uses scientometrics method. The statistical population consists of 942 documents published in Iranian library and information science journals between years 2005 and 2009. Collaboration coefficient, collaboration index (CI), and degree of collaboration (DC) were used for data analysis. The findings showed that among 942 investigated documents, 506 documents (53.70%) was created by one individual researcher and 436 documents (46.30%) were the result of collaboration between two or more researchers. Also, the highest rank of different authorship patterns belonged to National Journal of Librarianship and Information Organization (code H). The average collaboration coefficient for the library and information science researchers in the investigated time frame was 0.23. The closer this coefficient is to 1, the higher is the level of collaboration between authors, and a coefficient near zero shows a tendency to prefer individual articles. The highest collaboration index with an average of 1.92 authors per paper was seen in year 1388. The five year collaboration index in library and information science in Iran was 1.58, and the average degree of collaboration between researchers in the investigated papers was 0.46, which shows that library and information science researchers have a tendency for co-authorship. However, the co-authorship had increased in recent years reaching its highest number in year 1388. The researchers' collaboration coefficient also shows relative increase between years 1384 and 1388. National Journal of Librarianship and Information Organization has the highest rank among all the investigated

  12. Marital conflict about the division of household labor and paid work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kluwer, E.S; Heesink, J.A.M.; Van de Vliert, E.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to gain insight into the relations between time use, dissatisfaction, and marital conflict about the division of house-hold labor and paid work. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 54 Dutch couples who were either expecting their first child or had a first

  13. 20 CFR 411.535 - Under what circumstances will milestones be paid?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Under what circumstances will milestones be paid? 411.535 Section 411.535 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION THE TICKET TO WORK AND SELF-SUFFICIENCY PROGRAM Employment Network Payment Systems § 411.535 Under what circumstances will...

  14. ANALYSIS OF THE RATIO OF FREE AND PAID EDUCATIONAL SERVICES IN HIGHER PROFESSIONAL EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay Dmitrievich Naydenov

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the relationship of public and private ownership in education in the Russian Federation. Recommendations to improve theoperating conditions of education by sector of free and paid educational services system of higher education are given.Modernization of production necessitates a clear understanding of private and public ownership in education, dynamics of free and paid educational services. In the economic literature there is not enough attention to the analysis of rational combination of paid and free educational services, particularly in the higher education system.In the article the analysis of trends in the delimitation of the sphere of higher professional education by form of ownership and the nature of reimbursement of educational services in the Russian Federation for the years 1993-2010 is given.Research methods: abstract-analytical method, statistical methods, analysis, aggregation, interviews.The society localizes areas of public and private property in accordance with the maximum efficiency of resources involved.The main trend in the development of higher professional education in the Russian Federation and CIS (The Commonwealth of independent States countries is the adoption by universities of properties of business structures. The share of the commercial sector in educational services is growing. «Free» educational services are dominated in the field of fundamental education. Paid public and private educational services are dominated in the field of specia-lized professional educational services.

  15. Determinants of job satisfaction: a European comparison of self-employed and paid employees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M. Millan; S.J.A. Hessels (Jolanda); A.R. Thurik (Roy); R. Aguado (Rafael)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThe job satisfaction of self-employed and paid-employed workers is analyzed using the European Community Household Panel for the EU-15 covering the years 1994-2001. We distinguish between two types of job satisfaction: job satisfaction in terms of type of work and job satisfaction in

  16. 20 CFR 363.1 - Authorization for garnishment of remuneration for employment paid by the Board.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... or to make alimony payments. (b) Remuneration for employment includes compensation paid or payable for personal services, whether such compensation is denominated as wages, salary, commission, bonus... individual concerned claimed all dependents to which he was entitled (the withholding of additional amounts...

  17. 26 CFR 1.1463-1 - Tax paid by recipient of income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... otherwise applicable. See § 1.1441-7(b) for additional applicable rules. See § 1.1446-3(e) and (f) for application of the rule of this paragraph (a), and for additional rules, where the withholding tax was required to be paid under section 1446. The previous sentence shall apply to partnership taxable years...

  18. 26 CFR 1.6049-8 - Interest and original issue discount paid to residents of Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... residents of Canada. 1.6049-8 Section 1.6049-8 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... original issue discount paid to residents of Canada. (a) Interest subject to reporting requirement. For... nonresident alien individual is an individual who resides in Canada and is not a United States citizen. The...

  19. 20 CFR 404.1270 - Adjustments in general-for wages paid prior to 1987.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adjustments in general-for wages paid prior to 1987. 404.1270 Section 404.1270 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE... contributions. A State but not its political subdivisions is authorized to adjust errors in the underpayment of...

  20. 20 CFR 404.1275 - Adjustment of employee contributions-for wages paid prior to 1987.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adjustment of employee contributions-for wages paid prior to 1987. 404.1275 Section 404.1275 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION... matter between the employee and the State or political subdivision. The State shall show any correction...

  1. 20 CFR 404.1251 - Final reports-for wages paid prior to 1987.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Final reports-for wages paid prior to 1987. 404.1251 Section 404.1251 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE... to 1987. If a political subdivision is legally dissolved, the State shall file a final report on that...

  2. 26 CFR 1.25-1T - Credit for interest paid on certain home mortgages (Temporary).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... TREASURY INCOME TAX INCOME TAXES Changes in Rates During A Taxable Year § 1.25-1T Credit for interest paid... against his Federal income taxes. The amount of the credit depends upon (1) the amount of mortgage... residences. The terms “single-family” and “owner-occupied” have the meaning given those terms under section...

  3. How Pensions Contribute to the Premium Paid to Experienced Public School Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Joshua B.; Winters, Marcus A.

    2017-01-01

    Many argue that public school systems should stop linking teachers' salaries so closely to their years of experience. However, the effect of deferred retirement compensation on the premium paid to experienced teachers has, to date, been underappreciated. To shed more light on this issue, we calculate the total compensation earned by teachers in…

  4. Green Purchasing Behavior Analysis of Government Policy About Paid Plastic Bags

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Khoiruman

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This research will be conducted to know: 1 The influence of green perceived value to consumer green trust to use plastic bag after the policy of using plastic bag paid at modern retail store in Surakarta. 2 The influence of green perceived risk to consumer green trust to use plastic bag after the policy of using plastic bag paid at modern retail store in Surakarta. 3 The effect of green trust on green purchase behavior of consumers to use plastic bags after the policy of using plastic bag paid at modern retail store in Surakarta. The study was conducted in modern retail stores (Alfamart, Indomart and Superindo in Surakarta using 200 respondents who shop at the modern retail store. A model that can be used to measure green purchasing behavior in the use of paid plastic bags using four interrelated variables: green perceived value, green perceived risk, green trust and green purchasing. Data analysis using Structural Equation Model (SEM. The result of analysis and discussion showed that green perceived value have positive and significant effect to green trust, green trust has positive effect on green purchasing, but green perceived risk has no significant effect to green trust.

  5. Parenthood and Well-Being : The Moderating Role of Leisure and Paid Work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roeters, Anne; Mandemakers, Jornt; Voorpostel, Marieke

    2016-01-01

    This study contributes to our knowledge on the association between parenthood and psychological well-being by examining whether pre-parenthood lifestyles (leisure and paid work) moderate the transition to parenthood. We expected that people with less active lifestyles would find it easier to adapt

  6. 18 CFR 382.106 - Accounting for annual charges paid under part 382.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Accounting for annual... Provisions § 382.106 Accounting for annual charges paid under part 382. (a) Any natural gas pipeline company... Account No. 928, Regulatory Commission Expenses, of the Commission's Uniform System of Accounts. (b) Any...

  7. Increasing attention is being paid to the quality of meat as living ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Increasing attention is being paid to the quality of meat as living standards rise and this tendency is accentuat- ed in game meat. Whereas game meat is a common and essential component of the human diet in some countries, it is considered a delicacy in highly developed countries and for this reason stronger emphasis is ...

  8. An Analysis of Factors Affecting Job Satisfaction of Women in Paid

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Elizabeth Egbochuku

    An Analysis of Factors Affecting Job Satisfaction of Women in Paid Employment in Benin City. Ofuani, F. N.. 124. Women‟s participation in the labour force is on the increase. This is as a result of increased women education, training, urbanization and the demands of the present day economy in Nigeria. The economic ...

  9. Recruiting Science Majors into Secondary Science Teaching: Paid Internships in Informal Science Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worsham, Heather M.; Friedrichsen, Patricia; Soucie, Marilyn; Barnett, Ellen; Akiba, Motoko

    2014-01-01

    Despite the importance of recruiting highly qualified individuals into the science teaching profession, little is known about the effectiveness of particular recruitment strategies. Over 3 years, 34 college science majors and undecided students were recruited into paid internships in informal science settings to consider secondary science teaching…

  10. A household production model of paid labor, household work and child care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maassen van den Brink, H.; Groot, W.J.N.

    1997-01-01

    In this paper we use data on time allocation of women to estimate the value of market and non-market work. Four time use categories are distinguished: paid work, household work, care for children, and leisure. The estimation results show that the value of non-market production (household production

  11. an analysis of factors affecting job satisfaction of women in paid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Elizabeth Egbochuku

    Data collected were analysed using the t-test. The result of the study revealed that marital status, experience, academic qualification and relationship with superior officers had no significant effect on the job satisfaction of women in paid employment in Benin City. It is recommended that women should be given opportunities ...

  12. 48 CFR 225.7303-5 - Aquisitions wholly paid for from nonrepayable funds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Aquisitions wholly paid for from nonrepayable funds. 225.7303-5 Section 225.7303-5 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION...

  13. 20 CFR 404.1292 - How to request review-for wages paid prior to 1987.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 1987. 404.1292 Section 404.1292 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE... Review of Decisions on Credits, Refunds, Or Assessments-for Wages Paid Prior to 1987 § 404.1292 How to... disallowance being questioned; (2) Describe the specific issue on which the review is requested; (3) Contain...

  14. Combination Pressure : The Paid Work–Family Balance of Men and Women in European Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lippe, Tanja van der; Jager, Annet; Kops, Yvonne

    2006-01-01

    People today lead busy, hurried lives with competing time claims between the spheres of paid work and the household. The aim of this article is to provide more insight into the way men and women experience the multiple claims on their time and to attempt to understand the differences between

  15. The effects of ill health on entering and maintaining paid employment: Evidence in European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Schuring (Merel); A. Burdorf (Alex); A.E. Kunst (Anton); J.P. Mackenbach (Johan)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractObjectives: To examine the effects of ill health on selection into paid employment in European countries. Methods: Five annual waves (1994-8) of the European Community Household Panel were used to select two populations: (1) 4446 subjects unemployed for at least 2 years, of which 1590

  16. The effects of ill health on entering and maintaining paid employment: evidence in European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuring, Merel; Burdorf, Lex; Kunst, Anton; Mackenbach, Johan

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To examine the effects of ill health on selection into paid employment in European countries. METHODS: Five annual waves (1994-8) of the European Community Household Panel were used to select two populations: (1) 4446 subjects unemployed for at least 2 years, of which 1590 (36%) subjects

  17. Increased rates of authorship in radiology publications: a bibliometric analysis of 142,576 articles published worldwide by radiologists between 1991 and 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Daniel S; Ha, Richard; Filippi, Christopher G

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE; There is evidence in academic medicine that the number of authors per paper has increased over time. The goal of this study was to quantitatively analyze authorship trends in the field of radiology over 20 years. A search of the National Library of Medicine MEDLINE database was conducted to identify articles published by radiology departments between 1991 and 2012. Country of origin, article study design, and journal impact factor were recorded. The increase in number of authors per paper was assessed by linear and nonlinear regression. Pearson correlation was used to assess the relation between journal impact factor and number of authors. A total of 142,576 articles and 699,257 authors were identified during the study period. The mean number of authors per paper displayed linear growth from 3.9 to 5.7 (p articles in an exponential pattern, and case reports in a logistic pattern (p articles funded by the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) displayed exponential growth and of non-NIH-funded articles displayed linear growth (p journal impact factor and number of authors (Pearson r = 0.1066). Radiology has had a steady increase in mean number of authors per paper since the early 1990s that has varied by study design. The increase is probably multi-factorial and includes components of author inflation and increasing complexity of research. Findings support the need for reemphasis of authorship criteria to preserve authorship value and accountability.

  18. Trends and comparison of female first authorship in high impact medical journals: observational study (1994-2014).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filardo, Giovanni; da Graca, Briget; Sass, Danielle M; Pollock, Benjamin D; Smith, Emma B; Martinez, Melissa Ashley-Marie

    2016-03-02

    To examine changes in representation of women among first authors of original research published in high impact general medical journals from 1994 to 2014 and investigate differences between journals. Observational study. All original research articles published in Annals of Internal Medicine, Archives of Internal Medicine, The BMJ, JAMA, The Lancet, and the New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM) for one issue every alternate month from February 1994 to June 2014. Time and journal of publication. Prevalence of female first authorship and its adjusted association with time of publication and journal, assessed using a multivariable logistic regression model that accounted for number of authors, study type and specialty/topic, continent where the study was conducted, and the interactions between journal and time of publication, study type, and continent. Estimates from this model were used to calculate adjusted odds ratios against the mean across the six journals, with 95% confidence intervals and P values to describe the associations of interest. The gender of the first author was determined for 3758 of the 3860 articles considered; 1273 (34%) were women. After adjustment, female first authorship increased significantly from 27% in 1994 to 37% in 2014 (Pjournals, first authors were significantly less likely to be female in the NEJM (adjusted odds ratio 0.68, 95% confidence interval 0.53 to 0.89) and significantly more likely to be female in The BMJ (1.30, 1.01 to 1.66) over the study period. The representation of women among first authors of original research in high impact general medical journals was significantly higher in 2014 than 20 years ago, but it has plateaued in recent years and has declined in some journals. These results, along with the significant differences seen between journals, suggest that underrepresentation of research by women in high impact journals is still an important concern. The underlying causes need to be investigated to help to identify

  19. Maternal depression, pregnancy intention, and return to paid work after childbirth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagher, Rada K; Hofferth, Sandra L; Lee, Yoonjoo

    2014-01-01

    Maternal depression is an important public health issue for women, their families, and their employers. Previous studies have examined the impact of leave duration on maternal depression, but none have studied the association between maternal depression and the pace of return to paid work. We examine herein the relationship between maternal depression and return to work, and the moderating effects of pregnancy intention. We utilized data from the Listening to Mothers II Survey collected from January 20 through February 21, 2006. The woman had to be 18 to 45 years old, speak English, and have given birth in 2005 to a live singleton baby in a U.S. hospital. Our analyses were limited to women who worked for an employer during pregnancy (n = 882). The primary outcome was return to paid work at the time of the interview and the analyses utilized Cox proportional hazard models. In combination, intending the baby and being depressed suppressed return to paid work. Nondepressed mothers with unintended pregnancies returned to work the soonest. Compared with mothers who were not depressed and with unintended pregnancy, the risk ratio of returning to paid work (0.70) was significantly lower for mothers who were depressed and had an intended pregnancy. Mothers who were not depressed and with intended pregnancy also had a significantly lower risk ratio (0.60) of returning to paid work than those who were not depressed and with unintended pregnancy. Primary care providers and policy makers can use these findings to support employed women in their childbearing years. Copyright © 2014 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Between Authorship and Oral Transmission: Negotiating the Attribution of Authorial, Oral and Collective Style Markers in Early Modern Playtexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lene Buhl Petersen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The production of playtexts in early modern England falls between two categories of artistic provenance: textual production in quill and print and oral transmission of the text committed to paper. Both categories are rightly speaking processes, and may be repeated several times over within the lifespan of a play. The former is the domain of authors, scribes and printers, the latter the responsibility of actors using their memories to verbally transmit the play in performance. An early modern playtext may thus be (cowritten, probably performed and potentially printed, and possibly rewritten, reperformed and reprinted in almost any given combination. It is only to be expected that a number of stylistic ‘complications’ will ensue. The question remains how to determine which stylistic markers characterise which creative domain. This paper returns to the cross-roads between authorship attribution and the quantification of other (oral, collective style markers in an attempt to offer discussion and a better overview of appropriate methodologies for determining which features may feasibly be attributed to which source(s.

  1. Whistleblowing as Employee’s Freedom of Speech. Günther Wallraff’s authorship as an illustrative case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristian Alm

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we use Günther Wallraff’s authorship as an illustrative case in order to discuss whistleblowing understood as employees’ freedom of speech. We define the phenomenon according to significant democratic values; the public, fallible search for a deeper truth. When it comes to the sources, our point of departure is based on several of the most significant books published by Wallraff during a period from the end of the 1960-ties to the end of the 1980-ties. We trace some of the personal motivation behind his whistleblowing-project in Marxism and focus that he applies the undercover methods of journalism on the profession of journalists themselves. We argue that the Wallraff-case deals with three important issues; 1 investigative journalism linked to the discussion of the legitimacy of lying, 2 freedom of speech as an active choice of publically disclosing unethical behavior and different types of repression in organizations, and 3 Wallraff’s whistle-blowing in organizations as related to analogues modern types of freedom of speech. In the end, we use different social theories to explain why the type of whistleblowing Wallraff is famous for was necessary.

  2. Is Paid Surrogacy a Form of Reproductive Prostitution? A Kantian Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrone, Tatiana

    2018-01-01

    This article reexamines the "prostitution objection" to paid surrogacy, and argues that rebuttals to this objection fail to focus on surrogates as embodied persons. This failure is based on the false distinction between "selling one's reproductive services" and "selling one's body." To ground the analysis of humans as embodied persons, this article uses Kant's late ethical theory, which develops the conceptual framework for understanding human beings as embodied selves. Literature on surrogacy commonly emphasizes that all Kantian duties heed to the categorical prohibition to treat persons as mere means. What this literature leaves out is that this imperative commands us more specifically to engage ourselves and others as embodied persons. This article aims to relate this point to a specific issue in assisted reproduction. It argues that a Kantian account of human beings as embodied persons prohibits paid surrogacy on exactly the same grounds as it prohibits prostitution.

  3. Racism and the older voter? Arizona's rejection of a paid holiday to honor Martin Luther King.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastenbaum, R

    1991-01-01

    Two propositions that would have established a paid Martin Luther King holiday were defeated in Arizona's statewide elections of November 6, 1990. Communities and counties with high proportions of senior adult voters cast proportionately more votes against these propositions. Was this an example of racism among the primarily anglo senior adult voters of Arizona? Three models were proposed to account for the general pattern of election-related behavior as well as the vote itself: 1) proactive racist, 2) pragmatic self-interest, and 3) fortress mentality. It was suggested that proactive racism and pragmatic self-interest accounted for less of the opposition to a paid holiday honoring Martin Luther King than did a fortress mentality that has developed through a combination of circumstances. Attention is also given to the larger question of senior adults as perpetrators as well as victims of bigotry.

  4. Paid Family Leave, Fathers' Leave-Taking, and Leave-Sharing in Dual-Earner Households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartel, Anne P; Rossin-Slater, Maya; Ruhm, Christopher J; Stearns, Jenna; Waldfogel, Jane

    Using difference-in-difference and difference-in-difference-in-difference designs, we study California's Paid Family Leave (CA-PFL) program, the first source of government-provided paid parental leave available to fathers in the Unites States. Relative to the pre-treatment mean, fathers of infants in California are 46 percent more likely to be on leave when CA-PFL is available. In households where both parents work, we find suggestive evidence that CA-PFL increases both father-only leave-taking (i.e., father on leave while mother is at work) and joint leave-taking (i.e., both parents on leave at the same time). Effects are larger for fathers of first-born children than for fathers of later-born children.

  5. Specific occupational satisfaction and stresses that differentiate paid and volunteer EMTs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, E J; Whitley, T W; Revicki, D A; Landis, S S

    1987-06-01

    A survey completed by 265 emergency medical technicians (EMTs) who provide emergency prehospital care in a rural area included a stress inventory for health professionals and a job satisfaction scale. Logistic regression indicated that the 118 paid EMTs were more likely to be dissatisfied with the freedom they have on the job than were the 147 volunteer EMTs. Paid EMTs also are less likely to be satisfied with the recognition they receive and more likely to cite work interference with family life and perceptions that others are trying to take advantage of them as sources of stress. Volunteer EMTs are more likely to be dissatisfied with the way their days off work are scheduled and to report stress attributable to work responsibilities different from those they had anticipated. Additional information about the demographic characteristics of EMTs from a rural area is provided.

  6. Using Paid Radio Advertisements to Promote Physical Activity Among Arkansas Tweens

    OpenAIRE

    Rath, David; Balamurugan, Appathurai; Oakleaf, Ernest J

    2005-01-01

    Introduction The level of physical activity among children is a growing concern. Evidence shows that many children aged 9 to 13 years (tweens) do not participate in any organized physical activity during their nonschool hours, and some do not engage in any free-time physical activity. Physical inactivity is associated with a host of chronic diseases such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Paid media advertisements have been an effective method of promoting physical activity. Methods Fro...

  7. Japanese women's paid labor force : its changing dimensions and present situations : a review of literature

    OpenAIRE

    Islam, Mohsin-Ul

    1995-01-01

    Japanese women's paid labor force participation has been increased tremendously backed by the economic development and expansion of tertiary industry in the recent past. The traditional M-shape pattern of Japanese women participation in the labor force is found to be changed since the participation behavior at the crucial age has undergone a change. Higher education, declining fertility rate, working hours, wage rate and household earnings are found more influential towards the participation ...

  8. Higher fees paid to US physicians drive higher spending for physician services compared to other countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laugesen, Miriam J; Glied, Sherry A

    2011-09-01

    Higher health care prices in the United States are a key reason that the nation's health spending is so much higher than that of other countries. Our study compared physicians' fees paid by public and private payers for primary care office visits and hip replacements in Australia, Canada, France, Germany, the United Kingdom, and the United States. We also compared physicians' incomes net of practice expenses, differences in financing the cost of medical education, and the relative contribution of payments per physician and of physician supply in the countries' national spending on physician services. Public and private payers paid somewhat higher fees to US primary care physicians for office visits (27 percent more for public, 70 percent more for private) and much higher fees to orthopedic physicians for hip replacements (70 percent more for public, 120 percent more for private) than public and private payers paid these physicians' counterparts in other countries. US primary care and orthopedic physicians also earned higher incomes ($186,582 and $442,450, respectively) than their foreign counterparts. We conclude that the higher fees, rather than factors such as higher practice costs, volume of services, or tuition expenses, were the main drivers of higher US spending, particularly in orthopedics.

  9. 20 CFR 404.1018a - Work by civilians for the United States Government or its instrumentalities-remuneration paid...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the retirement system. (e) Work as a Peace Corps Volunteer—remuneration paid prior to 1984. Work... United States. (g) Work by Volunteer in Service to America—remuneration paid prior to 1984. Work... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Work by civilians for the United States...

  10. "I'm so Much More Myself Now, Coming Back to Work"--Working Class Mothers, Paid Work and Childcare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Annette; Vincent, Carol; Ball, Stephen J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores the ways in which working class mothers negotiate mothering and paid work. Drawing on interviews with 70 families with pre-school children, we examine how caring and working responsibilities are conceptualised and presented in mothers' narratives. Mothers showed a high degree of commitment to paid work and, in contrast to…

  11. Family life under pressure? Parents' paid work and the quantity and quality of parent-child and family time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roeters, A.

    2010-01-01

    Even though family life and paid work are often considered as difficult to reconcile, prior research found that family time is relatively unaffected by the demands paid work imposes upon employed parents. This dissertation investigates this puzzling finding by exploring how parents protect family

  12. 43 CFR 30.148 - Will interest or penalties charged after the date of death be paid?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... date of death be paid? Interest or penalties charged against claims after the date of death will not be... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Will interest or penalties charged after the date of death be paid? 30.148 Section 30.148 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the...

  13. 76 FR 53818 - Determining the Amount of Taxes Paid for Purposes of the Foreign Tax Credit; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-30

    ... Determining the Amount of Taxes Paid for Purposes of the Foreign Tax Credit; Correction AGENCY: Internal... foreign tax credit results. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Jeffrey Cowan, (202) 622-3850 (not a toll... profits tax paid or accrued. * * * * * (e) * * * (5) * * * (iv) * * * (B) * * * (1) * * * (iii) [The text...

  14. 26 CFR 1.221-2 - Deduction for interest due and paid on qualified education loans before January 1, 2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... requirements, Student A may deduct the $750 of interest paid in 1998 under section 221. Example 2. Student... Federal income tax. Student B may not deduct the $750 of interest paid in 1998 under section 221. Because.... Payment by employer. Student C obtains a qualified education loan to attend college. Upon Student C's...

  15. Juggling identities of rheumatoid arthritis, motherhood and paid work - a grounded theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feddersen, Helle; Mechlenborg Kristiansen, Tine; Tanggaard Andersen, Pernille; Hørslev-Petersen, Kim; Primdahl, Jette

    2018-02-01

    To explore how women with rheumatoid arthritis manage their illness, motherhood, and work life. A constructivist, grounded theory approach based on individual interviews and participant observations with 20 women with rheumatoid arthritis who participated in work life and had children living at home or were pregnant. After initial and focused coding Goffman's concepts of social identity were applied. A core category: "Juggling meaningful identities" and three conceptual categories were developed: (1) Work life as the strongest identity marker; (2) Motherhood: a two-sided act; (3) Living with rheumatoid arthritis as an identity? Paid work, motherhood, and illness are linked to the women's social identities. The women construct and change their identities in interactions with children, partners, other parents, colleagues, and employers. The women attribute the highest priority to their professional identity, spending the majority of their time and energy in an effort to appear as "good stable workers". The disease is seen as a hindrance in this regard, and the illness identity is almost completely rejected. In motherhood, the women prioritize close interaction with their children, and deprioritize external activities. Extended outbreaks of the disease and issues regarding the children force the women to deprioritize working life. Implications for rehabilitation Juggling meaningful identities of rheumatoid arthritis, motherhood, and paid work challenge women in managing their everyday lives. Therefore, rehabilitation professionals should support individuals to develop new strategies to manage the challenges they experience regarding juggling motherhood and work ability. Work is a dominant identity marker for women with rheumatoid arthritis therefore, rehabilitation professionals have an important role to play in investigating possible ways for the individual to maintain employment or return to work. Living with rheumatoid arthritis and being a paid worker challenge

  16. The nature and correlates of paid and unpaid work among service users of London Community Mental Health Teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd-Evans, B; Marwaha, S; Burns, T; Secker, J; Latimer, E; Blizard, R; Killaspy, H; Totman, J; Tanskanen, S; Johnson, S

    2013-06-01

    Aims. Little is known about how the rates and characteristics of mental health service users in unpaid work, training and study compare with those in paid employment. Methods. From staff report and patient records, 1353 mental health service users of seven Community Mental Health Teams in two London boroughs were categorized as in paid work, unpaid vocational activity or no vocational activity. Types of work were described using Standard Occupational Classifications. The characteristics of each group were reported and associations with vocational status were explored. Results. Of the sample, 5.5% were in paid work and 12.7% were in unpaid vocational activity, (including 5.3% in voluntary work and 8.1% in study or training). People in paid work were engaged in a broader range of occupations than those in voluntary work and most in paid work (58.5%) worked part-time. Younger age and high educational attainment characterized both groups. Having sustained previous employment was most strongly associated with being in paid work. Conclusions. Rates of vocational activity were very low. Results did not suggest a clear clinical distinction between those in paid and unpaid activity. The motivations for and functions of unpaid work need further research.

  17. Recruiting Science Majors into Secondary Science Teaching: Paid Internships in Informal Science Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worsham, Heather M.; Friedrichsen, Patricia; Soucie, Marilyn; Barnett, Ellen; Akiba, Motoko

    2014-02-01

    Despite the importance of recruiting highly qualified individuals into the science teaching profession, little is known about the effectiveness of particular recruitment strategies. Over 3 years, 34 college science majors and undecided students were recruited into paid internships in informal science settings to consider secondary science teaching as a career. Analysis of interns' subsequent career plans revealed the internships were not effective in recruiting the interns into the secondary science teacher education program, although many interns thought they might consider becoming teachers later in their lives. Reasons for not pursuing teaching included continued indecisiveness, inflexibility of required plans of study, and concerns about teachers' pay and classroom management.

  18. Construction of meaningful identities in the context of rheumatoid arthritis, motherhood and paid work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feddersen, Helle; Kristiansen, Tine Mechlenborg; Andersen, Pernille Tanggaard

    2017-01-01

    aspects of life; however, little is known about how women with rheumatoid arthritis simultaneously manage their illness, motherhood and paid work. DESIGN: Qualitative metasynthesis. METHODS: A qualitative metasynthesis informed by Noblit and Hare's meta-ethnography was carried out, based on studies...... arthritis. Pressure in managing one of the sub-identities could restrict the fulfilment of the others. The sub-identities were interpreted as being flexible, situational, contextual and competing. The women strove to construct meaningful sub-identities by taking into account feedback obtained in social...

  19. Paid celebrity endorsement in health promotion: a case study from Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, S; Leask, J A

    2001-12-01

    In late 1998, Australian cricketer Shane Warne was allegedly paid A$200 000 ( pound78 060, US$123 000) by a pharmaceutical company to publicize his attempt to stop smoking. Warne failed to stop, and his continuing smoking remained newsworthy more than a year later. The arrangement caused considerable media controversy about the ethics of payment for charitable or socially worthy actions. This paper explores the community's reaction to payment for modelling a healthy behaviour, discussing the values that Warne transgressed and whether these mattered, given that the campaign caused an unprecedented rise in the use of nicotine replacement therapy.

  20. Decomposing Fees paid to Audit Firms-Assessing Knowledge Spillovers and Independence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Claus

    We extend prior studies (e.g., Whisenant et al., 2003; Krishnan and Yu, 2011; Chan et al., 2012) by explicitly utilizing a stringent decomposition of total fee paid for audit services and other services in a sample of listed non-financial Danish companies. When controlling for the joint...... determination of fees pertaining to the statutory audit and non-audit services, we find support for the existence of positive knowledge spillover from non-audit to audit and the possible independence problems related to this economic bonding. In terms of the non-audit components, the knowledge spillover...

  1. Kafka and Autism: The Undisclosed Logic Behind Kafka's Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuger, Jerry

    2017-01-01

    In this paper the hypothesis is presented that Franz Kafka was a person with autism. This is done by analyzing and discussing his biography, letters, diaries and major works. Kafka's autism is an integral diagnosis which encompasses both his personal life and his work. This interpretation is contrary to other interpretations from the past which in…

  2. Typography and colour: A comparative analysis of the free and paid-for newspapers in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Parratt-Fernández, Ph.D.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the design of free newspapers in Spain, with special emphasis on their format, typography and colour. In order to establish the main features of the design of the free press, we compare it with the paid-for newspapers. The method of analysis is a comparative quantitative analysis based on case studies. The sample of analysis comprises eight Spanish newspapers: the four most-circulated free newspapers (Qué!, 20 Minutos, Metro Directo, and Adn, and the four highest-selling newspapers (El Mundo, El País, Abc, and La Vanguardia. This work is part of a larger research project that examines the model of the free press by taking into account the publishers, the papers, and the audience. This article presents the results related to the design of the papers. The analysis shows that there are obvious similarities between the free and paid-for newspapers, but also very subtle differences in the treatment of typography and colour.

  3. Paid- and family-carers' views on supporting women with intellectual disability through breast screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, D S; Kilbride, L; Horsburgh, D; Kennedy, C M

    2015-07-01

    The cancer needs of people with intellectual disabilities are increasingly being debated. This paper explores the views and experiences of paid- and family-carers when supporting women with intellectual disabilities through breast screening. An ethnographic approach was drawn on and purposive sampling methods were employed. One-to-one semi-structured interviews with 13 carers (10 paid-carers, three family-carers) were undertaken and supported by periods of focused observation on behaviour related to breast awareness and breast screening. Findings indicated that most women with intellectual disabilities needed some support but the quality and quantity of support depended upon both the woman's level of intellectual disability and who was supporting them. In terms of breast screening, the findings suggested that the women were potentially being let down at all the different stages of the breast screening process, from the arrival of the invitation letter to the experience of having a mammogram. The conclusion drawn was that there was evidence of equality of service provision but inequality of service delivery and uptake. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Balancing Study and Paid Work: The Experiences of Construction Undergraduates in an Australian University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Lingard

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A questionnaire survey was undertaken among third year studentsenrolled in the University of Melbourne’s Bachelor of Property andConstruction (BPC programme. The survey explored students’experiences in balancing paid work with study. Hours spent in paidemployment were at least as long and, in many cases, were inexcess of hours spent at university. While work was not perceivedby students to pose a difficulty for attending lectures and tutorials,students indicated that their paid work made it difficult for them toengage in independent learning activities, such as using libraryresources or preparing for classes by reading beforehand. Twoscales, previously used in other countries to measure students’burnout and engagement, were tested. Both scales were foundto be valid and reliable in that the factorial structures foundin previous studies were confirmed and acceptable internalconsistency reliability coefficients were generated for each of thescales’ component factors. This opens the way for more in-depthmultivariate analysis to determine the linkages between workhours, work-study conflict and students’ burnout or engagementwith university life.

  5. The Authorship of a Musical Work and the Position of a Music Arranger (Avtorstvo glasbenega dela in položaj glasbenega aranžerja

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matija Damjan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The creation of the final form of a piece of popular music usually involves several people: the composer, the lyricist, the music arranger, performers, sound engineers, etc. The article explores under what conditions the contributions of these persons constitute co-authorship of a piece of music and discusses in which phase a musical work can be considered finished. The copyright status of a music arranger is discussed in particular, whose work is usually defined in theory as adaptation of existing musical works, whereas in the practice of Slovenian popular music, arrangers often act as co-authors of new original music. The last part of the article examines the rules on the duration of rights in musical works produced in co-authorship and discusses in what way the ownership and the duration of copyrights in musical works is affected by Directive 2011/77/EU, which sets out unified rules on the duration of rights in musical compositions with words.

  6. Co-authorship of Iranian Researchers in Science, Social Science, Art and Humanities Citation Indexes in the Web of Science between 2000 and 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farideh Osareh

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study determines the co-authorship factor in the Iranian scientific output between 2000 and 2006 as reflected in the science, social science art and humanities citation indexes made available through the Web of Science database. Webometric indicators were used. The data were extracted in plain text from WOS, analyzed using HistCite software and counted in MS Office Excel program. Of the Total of 25320 documents indexed, 24480 documents were in Science Citation Index, 783 in Social Citation Index and 57 in Art and Humanities index. The findings indicated that co-authorship factor in the period studied had been on the rise. The highest participation rate belonged to the documents with two or three authors. General coauthorship factor was 0.59. The year 2006 had the highest coauthorship factor (0.62 while the year 2000 had the least (0.55. Bradford and Lotka laws were applied to the data sets. The Lotka’s Law only held true for the science citation index. The Bradford’s Law, however, held true for all indexes. In all citation indexes, the United States with 1865 documents (7.38 had the highest degree of coauthorship in Iranian scientific output.

  7. Using Co-authorship Networks to Map and Analyse Global Neglected Tropical Disease Research with an Affiliation to Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Max Ernst; Edwards, Suzanne; von Philipsborn, Peter; Steinbeis, Fridolin; Keil, Thomas; Tinnemann, Peter

    2015-12-01

    Research on Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs) has increased in recent decades, and significant need-gaps in diagnostic and treatment tools remain. Analysing bibliometric data from published research is a powerful method for revealing research efforts, partnerships and expertise. We aim to identify and map NTD research networks in Germany and their partners abroad to enable an informed and transparent evaluation of German contributions to NTD research. A SCOPUS database search for articles with German author affiliations that were published between 2002 and 2012 was conducted for kinetoplastid and helminth diseases. Open-access tools were used for data cleaning and scientometrics (OpenRefine), geocoding (OpenStreetMaps) and to create (Table2Net), visualise and analyse co-authorship networks (Gephi). From 26,833 publications from around the world that addressed 11 diseases, we identified 1,187 (4.4%) with at least one German author affiliation, and we processed 972 publications for the five most published-about diseases. Of those, we extracted 4,007 individual authors and 863 research institutions to construct co-author networks. The majority of co-authors outside Germany were from high-income countries and Brazil. Collaborations with partners on the African continent remain scattered. NTD research within Germany was distributed among 220 research institutions. We identified strong performers on an individual level by using classic parameters (number of publications, h-index) and social network analysis parameters (betweenness centrality). The research network characteristics varied strongly between diseases. The share of NTD publications with German affiliations is approximately half of its share in other fields of medical research. This finding underlines the need to identify barriers and expand Germany's otherwise strong research activities towards NTDs. A geospatial analysis of research collaborations with partners abroad can support decisions to strengthen

  8. Using Co-authorship Networks to Map and Analyse Global Neglected Tropical Disease Research with an Affiliation to Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Max Ernst; Edwards, Suzanne; von Philipsborn, Peter; Steinbeis, Fridolin; Keil, Thomas; Tinnemann, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Background Research on Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs) has increased in recent decades, and significant need-gaps in diagnostic and treatment tools remain. Analysing bibliometric data from published research is a powerful method for revealing research efforts, partnerships and expertise. We aim to identify and map NTD research networks in Germany and their partners abroad to enable an informed and transparent evaluation of German contributions to NTD research. Methodology/Principal Findings A SCOPUS database search for articles with German author affiliations that were published between 2002 and 2012 was conducted for kinetoplastid and helminth diseases. Open-access tools were used for data cleaning and scientometrics (OpenRefine), geocoding (OpenStreetMaps) and to create (Table2Net), visualise and analyse co-authorship networks (Gephi). From 26,833 publications from around the world that addressed 11 diseases, we identified 1,187 (4.4%) with at least one German author affiliation, and we processed 972 publications for the five most published-about diseases. Of those, we extracted 4,007 individual authors and 863 research institutions to construct co-author networks. The majority of co-authors outside Germany were from high-income countries and Brazil. Collaborations with partners on the African continent remain scattered. NTD research within Germany was distributed among 220 research institutions. We identified strong performers on an individual level by using classic parameters (number of publications, h-index) and social network analysis parameters (betweenness centrality). The research network characteristics varied strongly between diseases. Conclusions/Significance The share of NTD publications with German affiliations is approximately half of its share in other fields of medical research. This finding underlines the need to identify barriers and expand Germany’s otherwise strong research activities towards NTDs. A geospatial analysis of research

  9. Housework, paid work and psychiatric symptoms Trabalho doméstico, trabalho assalariado e sintomas psiquiátricos

    OpenAIRE

    Vilma S Santana; Dana P Loomis; Beth Newman

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the hypothesis that work burden, the simultaneous engagement in paid work and unpaid family housework, is a potential risk factor for psychiatric symptoms among women. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out with 460 women randomly selected from a poor area of the city of Salvador, Brazil. Women between 18 to 70 years old, who reported having a paid occupation or were involved in unpaid domestic activities for their families, were eligible. Work burden-related ...

  10. Digital advertising around paid spaces, e-advertising industry’s revenue engine : A review and research agenda

    OpenAIRE

    Aslam, Bilal; Karjaluoto, Heikki

    2017-01-01

    We develop and describe a framework for research in a particular segment of digital advertising. Internet Advertising Paid Slots and Spaces (IAPS) is a neologism and work almost like a stock exchange for buying and selling advertising in various formats on designated spaces around web and make a significant contribution to Internet advertising revenues. These paid spaces were found to encompass diverse areas of Internet advertising that include search engine marketing, social media advertisin...

  11. Impact of paid work on the academic performance of nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Vargas, Mery Constanza; Rizo-Baeza, Mercedes; Cortés-Castell, Ernesto

    2016-01-01

    Background. Little research exists on the impact of paid work on academic performance of students of health sciences. No research exists on this subject for students in Colombia. Objectives. This paper seeks to analyze the impact of paid work on academic performance among nursing students. cross-sectional research, involving 430 of nursing students from the National University of Colombia (N = 566). Methods. Variables analyzed: sex, age, work activity, attendance, current semester, degree subjects studied and unavailable, lost credits, grades during the second semester of 2013, and delayed semesters. Subgroups analyzed: (i) according to labor activity: do not work, work up to 20 h and work more than 20 h per week; (ii) Grade point average: failing is considered as less than 3.0 and passing 3.0 or above out of 5.0. Percentage of delayed semesters were calculated. Qualitative and quantitative variables were analyzed for groups by work activity. The percentage and probability of students getting a grade point average less than 3.0 and delaying semesters were calculated by multivariate logistic regression. Results. A total of 219 of the students work (50.9%), the main reason is socioeconomic, of which 99 (45.2%) work more than 20 h per week and have an increased risk of failing, which is higher in the first semester. They also get lower grades, lose more credits and take longer to finish the degree. The logistic bivariate regressions of success (grade point average, credits gained, courses gained and not having delayed semesters) reduce with work, above all in those who work more than 20 h per week and increase as the number of semesters completed increases, independent of sex. Conclusion. A high percentage of nursing students work more than 20 h per week. The compatibility of paid work with studies in university nursing students has a negative impact on academic performance, more so when they work more than 20 h per week. This negative impact diminishes as the student

  12. Impact of paid work on the academic performance of nursing students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mery Constanza García-Vargas

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Little research exists on the impact of paid work on academic performance of students of health sciences. No research exists on this subject for students in Colombia. Objectives. This paper seeks to analyze the impact of paid work on academic performance among nursing students. Design, settings and participants: cross-sectional research, involving 430 of nursing students from the National University of Colombia (N = 566. Methods. Variables analyzed: sex, age, work activity, attendance, current semester, degree subjects studied and unavailable, lost credits, grades during the second semester of 2013, and delayed semesters. Subgroups analyzed: (i according to labor activity: do not work, work up to 20 h and work more than 20 h per week; (ii Grade point average: failing is considered as less than 3.0 and passing 3.0 or above out of 5.0. Percentage of delayed semesters were calculated. Qualitative and quantitative variables were analyzed for groups by work activity. The percentage and probability of students getting a grade point average less than 3.0 and delaying semesters were calculated by multivariate logistic regression. Results. A total of 219 of the students work (50.9%, the main reason is socioeconomic, of which 99 (45.2% work more than 20 h per week and have an increased risk of failing, which is higher in the first semester. They also get lower grades, lose more credits and take longer to finish the degree. The logistic bivariate regressions of success (grade point average, credits gained, courses gained and not having delayed semesters reduce with work, above all in those who work more than 20 h per week and increase as the number of semesters completed increases, independent of sex. Conclusion. A high percentage of nursing students work more than 20 h per week. The compatibility of paid work with studies in university nursing students has a negative impact on academic performance, more so when they work more than 20 h per

  13. The role of the paid non-professional nursing helper: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewar, B J; Clark, J M

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of research into the role of paid non-professional nursing helpers. This term refers to auxiliaries, ward clerks, healthcare assistants and support workers. The focus of the review is on work carried out on attitudes of qualified staff to the role of the helper, role descriptions and the role of the helper in different organizational modes of work. Some of the research reviewed in relation to the role description and attitudes to the helper date back to 1978. However, the emphasis of the paper is on research published in the past 3 years. The research is reviewed against the background of two theoretical frameworks, both of which are perceived to be useful in analysing the division of labour between the nurse, the patient and the helper.

  14. Harsh choices: Chinese women's paid work and unpaid care responsibilities under economic reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Sarah; Dong, Xiao-yuan

    2011-01-01

    China's economic reforms over the past three decades have dramatically changed the mechanisms for allocating goods and labour in both market and non-market spheres. This article examines the social and economic trends that intensify the pressure on the care economy, and on women in particular in playing their dual roles as care givers and income earners in post-reform China. The analysis sheds light on three critical but neglected issues. How does the reform process reshape the institutional arrangements of care for children and elders? How does the changing care economy affect women's choices between paid work and unpaid care responsibilities? And what are the implications of women's work–family conflicts for the well-being of women and their families? The authors call for a gendered approach to both social and labour market policies, with investments in support of social reproduction services so as to ease the pressures on women.

  15. An unsettled bargain? Mothers' perceptions of justice and fairness in paid work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yerkes, Mara A; Martin, Bill; Baxter, Janeen; Rose, Judy

    2017-06-01

    Mothers' return to work following childbirth is widely recognized as a key stage in establishing employment arrangements that disadvantage them in the long run. This article investigates why mothers accept these unequal arrangements using data from a qualitative study of 109 Australian mothers. It focuses on mothers' perceptions of the fairness and justice of the flexibility of arrangements they commonly enter into upon return to work. The article draws attention to the importance of different justice frameworks, distributive, procedural and interactional, in understanding women's acceptance of gender inequality in paid work. The results indicate that most mothers view their workplace arrangements as fair, consistent with a distributive justice framework. Many women also place great importance on interactional justice, particularly in their experiences in negotiating flexibility. The article also identifies differences across employment type with women in jobs with career prospects more likely to invoke interactional justice frameworks than women in jobs with few career prospects.

  16. The Best and Worst-Paid Sectors in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bílková Diana

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The present paper deals with the issue of diff erent behaviour of wage distribution of two highest and two lowest-paid sectors of the Czech economy in the period since the beginning of the global economic crisis; the former ones are the sectors of “Financial and Insurance Activities” and “Information and Communication”, the latter ones being those of “Accommodation and Food Service Activities” and “Administrative and Support Service Activities”. The aim is to capture the differences between these two groups of sectors, not only in terms of wage levels, but also as far as the variability and concentration of wage distribution is concerned. The gross (nominal monthly wage in CZK represents a research variable. The paper focuses on diff erent developments of wage distribution of the above sector groups in time, wage level forecasts for 2015 and 2016 being included.

  17. Informal and paid care for Brazilian older adults (National Health Survey, 2013).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima-Costa, Maria Fernanda; Peixoto, Sérgio Viana; Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Szwarcwald, Célia Landmann; Mambrini, Juliana Vaz de Melo

    2017-06-01

    To describe the prevalence and sociodemographic factors associated with informal and paid care for Brazilian older adults with functional limitations. Of the 23,815 participants of the National Health Survey aged 60 or older, 5,978 reported needing help to perform activities of daily living and were included in this analysis. The dependent variable was the source of care, categorized as exclusively informal (unpaid), exclusively formal (paid), mixed or none. The socio-demographic variables were age (60-64, 65-74, ≥ 75 years old), gender and number of residents in the household (1, 2, ≥ 3). The multivariate analysis was based on binomial and multinomial logistic regressions. Informal care predominated (81.8%), followed by paid (5.8%) or mixed (6.8%) and no care (5.7%). The receipt of care from any source increased gradually with the number of residents in a same household, regardless of age and gender (OR = 4.85 and 9.74 for 2 and ≥ 3, respectively). Age was positively associated with receiving any care while the male gender showed a negative association. The number of residents in the household showed the strongest association with informal care (OR = 10.94 for ≥ 3 residents), compared with paid (OR = 5.48) and mixed (OR = 4.16) care. Informal care is the main source of help for community-dwelling older adults with functional limitations. In a context of rapid population aging and decline in family size, the results reinforce the need for policies to support long-term care for older Brazilians. Descrever a prevalência e fatores sociodemográficos associados à ajuda informal e remunerada a idosos com limitações funcionais. Dos 23.815 participantes com 60 anos ou mais da Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde, 5.978 declararam necessitar de ajuda para realizar atividades da vida diária e foram incluídos nesta análise. A variável dependente foi a fonte de ajuda, categorizada como exclusivamente informal (não remunerada), exclusivamente remunerada, mista ou

  18. Exploring Authorship Development among Mexican EFL Teacher-Researchers (Exploración sobre el desarrollo de la autoría en los profesores-investigadores de inglés como lengua extranjera)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujeque Moreno, Eva Estefania; Encinas Prudencio, Fátima; Thomas-Ruzic, Maria

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a multi-theoretical model to address processes of "authorship development" in the English as a foreign language teaching profession. Working within a sociocultural perspective of second-language teacher education, the authors examined six experienced nonnative English-speaking teacher-researchers. Perceptions of…

  19. Idolizing Authorship : An Introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franssen, G.; Honings, R.; Franssen, G.; Honings, R.

    2017-01-01

    Though these days, our celebrity culture tends to revolve around movie stars and pop musicians, there have been plenty of celebrity authors over the years and around the world. This volume brings together a number of contributors to look at how and why certain writers have attained celebrity

  20. Novel Topic Authorship Attribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    by fairness and public welfare concerns: plagiarism detection and identifying authors in a criminal investigation or intelligence setting. The...MEGAM format which makes this MaxEnt classifier a natural choice. MEGAM is publicly available for download [25] and has no restrictions for academic use

  1. The work of authorship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eechoud, M.

    2014-01-01

    Technological and economic concerns have long been the drivers of debate about copyright. But diverse disciplines in the humanities - including literary studies, aesthetics, film studies, and the philosophy of art - have a great deal to offer if we wish to establish a more nuanced and useful

  2. The Authorship Dilemma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ackerman, Margareta; Branzei, Simina

    2014-01-01

    Academic communities have adopted different conventions for ordering authors on academic publications. Are these choices inconsequential, or can they significantly impact individual authors, or even communities at large? We consider a game theoretic model to study allocation of credit to authors......; in particular, we find that alphabetical ordering can lead to higher research quality, while ordering by contribution results in a denser collaboration network and more publications....

  3. 41 CFR 304-3.12 - Must I receive advance approval from my agency before I perform travel paid by a non-Federal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... approval from my agency before I perform travel paid by a non-Federal source to attend a meeting? 304-3.12... agency before I perform travel paid by a non-Federal source to attend a meeting? Yes, you must receive advance approval from your agency before performing travel paid by a non-Federal source to attend a...

  4. Determinants for employer-paid health insurance coverage: a population-based study of the Danish labour force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Ann; Søgaard, Rikke

    2013-08-01

    In 2002, the Danish tax law was changed, giving employees a tax exemption on supplemental, employer-paid health insurance. This might have conflicted with one of the key foundations of the healthcare system, namely equal access for equal needs. The aim of this study was to investigate determinants for employer-paid health insurance coverage. Because the policy change affected only people who were part of the labour force and because the public sector at that time had no tradition of providing fringe benefits, the analysis was restricted to the private labour force. The analysis was based on data from a range of Danish person-level and company-level registers (explanatory variables). These data were combined with information on insurance status obtained from the trade organisation for insurance (dependent variable). A logistic regression was performed to estimate the odds of having employer-paid health insurance coverage. The individuals who were most likely to be insured were those employed in foreign companies as mid-level managers within the field of building and construction. Other important variables were the number of persons employed in a company, gender, ethnicity, region of residence, years of education, and annual income. Both company and individual characteristics were found to be important and significant predictors for employer-paid health insurance coverage. The Danish tax exemption on private health insurance in the years 2002-12 thus seems to have led to inequality in employer-paid health insurance coverage.

  5. Lifetime Paid Work and Mental Health Problems among Poor Urban 9-to-13-Year-Old Children in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel A. Bordin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To verify if emotional/behavioral problems are associated with lifetime paid work in poor urban children, when taking into account other potential correlates. Methods. Cross-sectional study focused on 9-to-13-year-old children (n=212. In a probabilistic sample of clusters of eligible households (women 15–49 years and son/daughter <18 years, one mother-child pair was randomly selected per household (n=813; response rate = 82.4%. CBCL/6-18 identified child emotional/behavioral problems. Potential correlates include child gender and age, socioeconomic status/SES, maternal education, parental working status, and family social isolation, among others. Multivariate analysis examined the relationship between emotional/behavioral problems and lifetime paid work in the presence of significant correlates. Findings. All work activities were non-harmful (e.g., selling fruits, helping parents at their small business, and baby sitting. Children with lower SES and socially isolated were more involved in paid work than less disadvantaged peers. Children ever exposed to paid work were four times more likely to present anxiety/depression symptoms at a clinical level compared to non-exposed children. Multivariate modeling identified three independent correlates: child pure internalizing problems, social isolation, and low SES. Conclusion. There is an association between lifetime exposure to exclusively non-harmful paid work activities and pure internalizing problems even when considering SES variability and family social isolation.

  6. Subject and authorship of records related to the Organization for Tropical Studies (OTS in BINABITROP, a comprehensive database about Costa Rican biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julián Monge-Nájera

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available BINABITROP is a bibliographical database of more than 38 000 records about the ecosystems and organisms of Costa Rica. In contrast with commercial databases, such as Web of Knowledge and Scopus, which exclude most of the scientific journals published in tropical countries, BINABITROP is a comprehensive record of knowledge on the tropical ecosystems and organisms of Costa Rica. We analyzed its contents in three sites (La Selva, Palo Verde and Las Cruces and recorded scientific field, taxonomic group and authorship. We found that most records dealt with ecology and systematics, and that most authors published only one article in the study period (1963-2011. Most research was published in four journals: Biotropica, Revista de Biología Tropical/ International Journal of Tropical Biology and Conservation, Zootaxa and Brenesia. This may be the first study of a such a comprehensive database for any case of tropical biology literature.

  7. Subject and authorship of records related to the Organization for Tropical Studies (OTS) in BINABITROP, a comprehensive database about Costa Rican biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monge-Nájera, Julián; Nielsen-Muñoz, Vanessa; Azofeifa-Mora, Ana Beatriz

    2013-06-01

    BINABITROP is a bibliographical database of more than 38000 records about the ecosystems and organisms of Costa Rica. In contrast with commercial databases, such as Web of Knowledge and Scopus, which exclude most of the scientific journals published in tropical countries, BINABITROP is a comprehensive record of knowledge on the tropical ecosystems and organisms of Costa Rica. We analyzed its contents in three sites (La Selva, Palo Verde and Las Cruces) and recorded scientific field, taxonomic group and authorship. We found that most records dealt with ecology and systematics, and that most authors published only one article in the study period (1963-2011). Most research was published in four journals: Biotropica, Revista de Biología Tropical/ International Journal of Tropical Biology and Conservation, Zootaxa and Brenesia. This may be the first study of a such a comprehensive database for any case of tropical biology literature.

  8. Part II: Should the h-index be modified? An analysis of the m-quotient, contemporary h-index, authorship value, and impact factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Nickalus R; Thompson, Clinton J; Taylor, Douglas R; Gabrick, Kyle S; Choudhri, Asim F; Boop, Frederick R; Klimo, Paul

    2013-12-01

    The widely accepted h-index depends on the citation analysis source and does not consider the authorship position, the journal's impact factor (IF), or the age of the paper or author. We investigated these factors in citation statistics of academic neurosurgeons. An uncorrected h-index and the m-quotient, which corrects for career length, were calculated by the use of Scopus and Google Scholar. In a subset of neurosurgeons, we computed the contemporary h-index (hc), which accounts for the age of the publications; the authorship value (AV), weighted by author position; and the journal IF. An "overall' average for AV and IF including most of an author's publications and an average for publications comprising the h-index ("h-index core") were calculated. When we used Google Scholar, the mean h-index was significantly greater than that calculated when we used Scopus (P = 0.0030). m-quotient and hc-index increased with academic rank, with an m-quotient >1 achieved by 69% of chairmen and 48% of professors. The effect of AV was greatest on the greater h-indices. The average IF for the h-index core was greater than the overall IF, which did not correlate with academic rank. Few neurosurgeons consistently publish in high-impact journals. Google Scholar tends to inflate the h-index. The m-quotient and hc-index allow comparisons of researchers across time. Although average journal IF did not differ significantly among neurosurgeons academic ranks, it should be noted for individuals who consistently publish in high-impact journals. We recommend the creation of individual bibliometric profiles to better compare the academic productivity of neurosurgeons. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Factors associated with breastfeeding duration and exclusivity in mothers returning to paid employment postpartum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Dorothy Li; Fong, Daniel Yee Tak; Tarrant, Marie

    2015-05-01

    Mothers who are employed postpartum are less likely to continue breastfeeding than mothers who are not formally employed. However, as postpartum employment is increasingly necessary for the majority of new mothers, it is important to investigate factors that influence the continuation of breastfeeding in employed mothers. A sample of 1,738 mothers who returned to paid employment postpartum were recruited from the obstetric units of four public hospitals in Hong Kong, and prospectively followed for 12 months or until their infant was weaned. More than 85 % of participants returned to formal employment within 10 weeks postpartum, with over 90 % of these employed full-time. About one-third of the participants (32 %) were able to combine breastfeeding and employment, with breastfeeding defined as continuing for more than 2 weeks after returning to work postpartum. Later return to work and higher maternal education were associated with new mothers being able to combine breastfeeding and employment. Later return to work, shorter working hours, parental childcare, and higher maternal education were also associated with less likelihood of weaning from any or exclusive breastfeeding. Improvements in employment-related conditions for mothers and additional support for lower educated mothers may be effective strategies to enable employed women to continue breastfeeding after their return to work.

  10. Millennials and the World of Work: Experiences in Paid Work During Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulenberg, John E.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose This article considers some important questions faced by youth as they enter and adapt to paid work. We focus on two key questions: (1) how many hours should teenagers work during the school year and (2) what available jobs are desirable? Design/Methodology/Approach To help answer these questions, we review studies that have examined the effects of early work experiences on academic achievement, positive youth development, and health-risk behaviors. We also draw upon nationally representative data from the Monitoring the Future (MTF) study to illustrate some new findings on youth employment. Findings Moderate work hours, especially in jobs of higher-quality, are associated with a broad range of positive developmental outcomes. Implications These questions are not only important to teenagers and their parents, they also reflect key debates among scholars in sociology, developmental psychology, and economics regarding the potential short- and long-term consequences of early work experiences for social development and socioeconomic achievement. Originality/Value Although work intensity is an important dimension of adolescent work experience, it is clearly not the only one and we argue that it may not even be the most important one. By focusing on types and qualities of jobs, more can be gained in terms of understanding for whom and under what conditions teenage work does provide benefits for and detriments to youth development. PMID:20495611

  11. Paid part-time employment and academic performance of undergraduate nursing students.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Rochford, Ceire

    2012-02-01

    Nursing students are increasingly undertaking paid term-time employment to finance their living expenses and studies. However the type and duration of this part-time work is unknown; furthermore there is a limited evidence on the extent to which this part-time employment is impacting on academic performance and the student\\'s experience of higher education. To address this shortfall this study undertook a cross-sectional survey of undergraduate nursing students to explore the incidence of student involvement in term-time employment and to develop an understanding of the relationship of employment on student\\'s academic and clinical achievement, and on their experience of higher education. The results found that the vast majority of the sample were working in part-time employment during term-time. The average number of hours worked per week was sixteen. The number of hours worked per week was found to be a predictor of course performance, the student\\'s experience of college and grades achieved. Students who worked greater hours reported negative outcomes in each of these three domains. The findings also support the contention that it is not working per se that has a detrimental effect on student outcomes but the numbers of hours\\' students are actually working while attending college. Therefore policy makers, educationalists and health service providers need to be aware of the burden that nursing students may have to contend with in combining work with their academic studies.

  12. Millennials and the World of Work: Experiences in Paid Work During Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staff, Jeremy; Schulenberg, John E

    2010-06-01

    PURPOSE: This article considers some important questions faced by youth as they enter and adapt to paid work. We focus on two key questions: (1) how many hours should teenagers work during the school year and (2) what available jobs are desirable? DESIGN/METHODOLOGY/APPROACH: To help answer these questions, we review studies that have examined the effects of early work experiences on academic achievement, positive youth development, and health-risk behaviors. We also draw upon nationally representative data from the Monitoring the Future (MTF) study to illustrate some new findings on youth employment. FINDINGS: Moderate work hours, especially in jobs of higher-quality, are associated with a broad range of positive developmental outcomes. IMPLICATIONS: These questions are not only important to teenagers and their parents, they also reflect key debates among scholars in sociology, developmental psychology, and economics regarding the potential short- and long-term consequences of early work experiences for social development and socioeconomic achievement. ORIGINALITY/VALUE: Although work intensity is an important dimension of adolescent work experience, it is clearly not the only one and we argue that it may not even be the most important one. By focusing on types and qualities of jobs, more can be gained in terms of understanding for whom and under what conditions teenage work does provide benefits for and detriments to youth development.

  13. Pre-registration paid employment choice: the views of newly qualified nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Craig; Kenny, Amanda; Smith, Colleen; Esterman, Adrian

    2012-01-01

    In Australia, nurse education was transferred from hospital based nursing schools to the higher education sector. This transfer resulted in a change for students, from hospital employee to an unpaid, supernumerary role during professional placements. The majority of undergraduate nursing students now combine part time employment with their studies, working mainly within health settings or service sectors such as hospitality and retail. The aims of this study were to identify if newly qualified registered nurses engaged in paid employment during their final year of undergraduate studies, the types of employment they chose, reasons for that choice, skills acquired and their views on any link between employment choice and transition to practice. Focus group interviews involving sixty seven new graduates were conducted. From the data, four organising themes were identified; financial independence and autonomy, confidence and experience, future opportunity and ease of transition. The global theme maximising opportunity describes nurse's views about their decisions on student employment. Participants had differing views on employment choice and transition to practice. Further research is needed in the area to identify whether there is any link between student employment choice and transition to practice. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Paid part-time employment and academic performance of undergraduate nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochford, Céire; Connolly, Michael; Drennan, Jonathan

    2009-08-01

    Nursing students are increasingly undertaking paid term-time employment to finance their living expenses and studies. However the type and duration of this part-time work is unknown; furthermore there is a limited evidence on the extent to which this part-time employment is impacting on academic performance and the student's experience of higher education. To address this shortfall this study undertook a cross-sectional survey of undergraduate nursing students to explore the incidence of student involvement in term-time employment and to develop an understanding of the relationship of employment on student's academic and clinical achievement, and on their experience of higher education. The results found that the vast majority of the sample were working in part-time employment during term-time. The average number of hours worked per week was sixteen. The number of hours worked per week was found to be a predictor of course performance, the student's experience of college and grades achieved. Students who worked greater hours reported negative outcomes in each of these three domains. The findings also support the contention that it is not working per se that has a detrimental effect on student outcomes but the numbers of hours' students are actually working while attending college. Therefore policy makers, educationalists and health service providers need to be aware of the burden that nursing students may have to contend with in combining work with their academic studies.

  15. Educational Inequalities in Exit from Paid Employment among Dutch Workers: The Influence of Health, Lifestyle and Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robroek, Suzan J W; Rongen, Anne; Arts, Coos H; Otten, Ferdy W H; Burdorf, Alex; Schuring, Merel

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with lower socioeconomic status are at increased risk of involuntary exit from paid employment. To give sound advice for primary prevention in the workforce, insight is needed into the role of mediating factors between socioeconomic status and labour force participation. Therefore, it is aimed to investigate the influence of health status, lifestyle-related factors and work characteristics on educational differences in exit from paid employment. 14,708 Dutch employees participated in a ten-year follow-up study during 1999-2008. At baseline, education, self-perceived health, lifestyle (smoking, alcohol, sports, BMI) and psychosocial (demands, control, rewards) and physical work characteristics were measured by questionnaire. Employment status was ascertained monthly based on tax records. The relation between education, health, lifestyle, work-characteristics and exit from paid employment through disability benefits, unemployment, early retirement and economic inactivity was investigated by competing risks regression analyses. The mediating effects of these factors on educational differences in exit from paid employment were tested using a stepwise approach. Lower educated workers were more likely to exit paid employment through disability benefits (SHR:1.84), unemployment (SHR:1.74), and economic inactivity (SHR:1.53) but not due to early retirement (SHR:0.92). Poor or moderate health, an unhealthy lifestyle, and unfavourable work characteristics were associated with disability benefits and unemployment, and an unhealthy lifestyle with economic inactivity. Educational differences in disability benefits were explained for 40% by health, 31% by lifestyle, and 12% by work characteristics. For economic inactivity and unemployment, up to 14% and 21% of the educational differences could be explained, particularly by lifestyle-related factors. There are educational differences in exit from paid employment, which are partly mediated by health, lifestyle and work

  16. The benefits of paid maternity leave for mothers' post-partum health and wellbeing: Evidence from an Australian evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, Belinda; Strazdins, Lyndall; Martin, Bill

    2017-06-01

    This paper investigates the health effects of the introduction of a near universal paid parental leave (PPL) scheme in Australia, representing a natural social policy experiment. Along with gender equity and workforce engagement, a goal of the scheme (18 weeks leave at the minimum wage rate) was to enhance the health and wellbeing of mothers and babies. Although there is evidence that leave, especially paid leave, can benefit mothers' health post-partum, the potential health benefits of implementing a nationwide scheme have rarely been investigated. The data come from two cross-sectional surveys of mothers (matched on their eligibility for paid parental leave), 2347 mother's surveyed pre-PPL and 3268 post-PPL. We investigated the scheme's health benefits for mothers, and the extent this varied by pre-birth employment conditions and job characteristics. Overall, we observed better mental and physical health among mothers after the introduction of PPL, although the effects were small. Post-PPL mothers on casual (insecure) contracts before birth had significantly better mental health than their pre-PPL counterparts, suggesting that the scheme delivered health benefits to mothers who were relatively disadvantaged. However, mothers on permanent contracts and in managerial or professional occupations also had significantly better mental and physical health in the post-PPL group. These mothers were more likely to combine the Government sponsored leave with additional, paid, employer benefits, enabling a longer paid leave package post-partum. Overall, the study provides evidence that introducing paid maternity leave universally delivers health benefits to mothers. However the modest 18 week PPL provision did little to redress health inequalities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Why are women more likely than men to extend paid work? The impact of work-family life history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, Naomi

    2014-03-01

    Extending working life beyond the state pension age is a key European Union policy. In the UK, women are more likely to extend paid work than men, indicating that factors other than the state pension age play a role in working longer. Women are less able to build pension income due to their role as carer within the family. It, therefore, follows that gender inequalities over the life course continue into older age to influence need, capacity and desire to undertake paid work after state pension age. This paper explores how work, marital and fertility history impact upon the likelihood of extending employment. It uses the British Household Panel Survey's retrospective data from the first 14 waves to summarise work-family histories, and logistic regression to understand the impact of work and family histories on extending paid work. Findings show that, on the one hand, women are extending paid work for financial reasons to make up for 'opportunity costs' as a result of their caring role within the family, with short breaks due to caring, lengthy marriages, divorcing and remaining single with children all being important. Yet, there is also evidence of 'status maintenance' from working life, with the women most likely to extend paid work, also those with the highest work orientation, prior to state pension age. But lengthy dis-attachment (due to caring) from the labour market makes extending working life more difficult. This has implications for policy strategies to entice women into paid work to make up for low independent financial resources.

  18. Determinants for employer-paid health insurance coverage: a population-based study of the Danish labour force

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ann Demant; Søgaard, Rikke

    2013-01-01

    determinants for employer-paid health insurance coverage. Because the policy change affected only people who were part of the labour force and because the public sector at that time had no tradition of providing fringe benefits, the analysis was restricted to the private labour force. METHOD: The analysis...... employer-paid health insurance coverage. RESULTS: The individuals who were most likely to be insured were those employed in foreign companies as mid-level managers within the field of building and construction. Other important variables were the number of persons employed in a company, gender, ethnicity...

  19. Paid Sick Leave and Risks of All-Cause and Cause-Specific Mortality among Adult Workers in the USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Kim

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The USA is one of only a few advanced economies globally that does not guarantee its workers paid sick leave. While there are plausible reasons why paid sick leave may be linked to mortality, little is known empirically about this association. Methods: In a pooled USA nationally-representative longitudinal sample of 57,323 working adults aged 18–85 years from the National Health Interview Surveys 2000–2002, paid sick leave was examined as a predictor of all-cause and cause-specific mortality. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate the impact of paid sick leave on mortality. Results: Having paid sick leave through one’s job was associated with 10% (hazards ratio, HR = 0.90; 95% CI = 0.81–0.996; p = 0.04, 14% (HR = 0.86; 95% CI = 0.74–0.99; p = 0.04, and 22% (HR = 0.78; 95% CI = 0.65–0.94; p = 0.01 significantly lower hazards of all-cause mortality after mean follow-up times of 11.1, 6.5, and 4.5 years, respectively. This study further identified associations of paid sick leave with 24% (HR = 0.76; 95% CI = 0.59–0.98; p = 0.03, and 35% (HR = 0.65; 95% CI = 0.44–0.95; p = 0.03 lower hazards of dying from heart diseases and unintentional injuries, respectively. Conclusions: To the author’s knowledge, this study provides the first empirical evidence on the linkages between paid sick leave and mortality and supports protective effects, particularly against heart diseases and unintentional injuries. The most salient association corresponded to a lag period of just less than five years. Social policies that mandate paid sick leave may help to reduce health inequities and alleviate the population burden of mortality among working adults in the USA.

  20. Latent profiles of perceived time adequacy for paid work, parenting, and partner roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soomi; Almeida, David M; Davis, Kelly D; King, Rosalind B; Hammer, Leslie B; Kelly, Erin L

    2015-10-01

    This study examined feelings of having enough time (i.e., perceived time adequacy) in a sample of employed parents (N = 880) in information technology and extended-care industries. Adapting a person-centered latent profile approach, we identified 3 profiles of perceived time adequacy for paid work, parenting, and partner roles: family time protected, family time sacrificed, and time balanced. Drawing upon the conservation of resources theory (Hobfòll, 1989), we examined the associations of stressors and resources with the time adequacy profiles. Parents in the family time sacrificed profile were more likely to be younger, women, have younger children, work in the extended-care industry, and have nonstandard work schedules compared to those in the family time protected profile. Results from multinomial logistic regression analyses revealed that, with the time balanced profile as the reference group, having fewer stressors and more resources in the family context (less parent-child conflict and more partner support), work context (longer company tenure, higher schedule control and job satisfaction), and work-family interface (lower work-to-family conflict) was linked to a higher probability of membership in the family time protected profile. By contrast, having more stressors and fewer resources, in the forms of less partner support and higher work-to-family conflict, predicted a higher likelihood of being in the family time sacrificed profile. Our findings suggest that low work-to-family conflict is the most critical predictor of membership in the family time protected profile, whereas lack of partner support is the most important factor to be included in the family time sacrificed profile. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Latent Profiles of Perceived Time Adequacy for Paid Work, Parenting, and Partner Roles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soomi; Almeida, David M.; Davis, Kelly D.; King, Rosalind B.; Hammer, Leslie B.; Kelly, Erin L.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined feelings of having enough time (i.e., perceived time adequacy) in a sample of employed parents (N=880) in information technology and extended-care industries. Adapting a person-centered latent profile approach, we identified three profiles of perceived time adequacy for paid work, parenting, and partner roles: Family Time Protected, Family Time Sacrificed, and Time Balanced. Drawing upon the Conservation of Resources theory (Hobfòll, 1989), we examined the associations of stressors and resources with the time adequacy profiles. Parents in the Family Time Sacrificed profile were more likely to be younger, women, have younger children, work in the extended-care industry, and have nonstandard work schedules compared to those in the Family Time Protected profile. Results from multinomial logistic regression analyses revealed that, with the Time Balanced profile as the reference group, having fewer stressors and more resources in the family context (less parent-child conflict and more partner support), work context (longer company tenure, higher schedule control and job satisfaction), and work-family interface (lower work-to-family conflict) was linked to a higher probability of membership in the Family Time Protected profile. By contrast, having more stressors and fewer resources, in the forms of less partner support and higher work-to-family conflict, predicted a higher likelihood of being in the Family Time Sacrificed profile. Our findings suggest that low work-to-family conflict is the most critical predictor of membership in the Family Time Protected profile, whereas lack of partner support is the most important factor to be included in the Family Time Sacrificed profile. PMID:26075739

  2. National stereotypes of older people's competence are related to older adults' participation in paid and volunteer work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Catherine E; Skirbekk, Vegard

    2013-11-01

    Why are older people perceived as more competent in some countries relative to others? In the current study, we investigate the extent to which national variation in perceptions of older people's competence is systematically related to national variation in the extent to which older people participate in paid and volunteer work. We used multilevel regression to analyze data from the European Social Survey and test the relationship between perceptions of older people's competence and older people's participation in paid and volunteer work across 28 countries. We controlled for a number of potentially confounding variables, including life expectancy as well as the gender ratio and average education of the older population in each country. We controlled for the average objective cognitive abilities of the older population in a subsample of 11 countries. Older people were perceived as more competent in countries in which more older people participated in paid or volunteer work, independent of life expectancy and the average education, gender makeup, and average cognitive abilities of the older population. The results suggest that older people's participation in paid and volunteer work is related to perceptions of older people's competence independent of older people's actual competence.

  3. The influence of chronic health problems and work-related factors on loss of paid employment among older workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leijten, F.R.M.; Wind, A. de; Heuvel, S.G. van den; Ybema, J.F.; Beek, A.J. van der; Robroek, S.J.W.; Burdorf, A.

    2015-01-01

    Background With an ageing society and increasing retirement ages, it is important to understand how employability can be promoted in older workers with health problems. The current study aimed to determine whether (1) different chronic health problems predict transitions from paid employment to

  4. 20 CFR 411.510 - How is the State VR agency paid under the Ticket to Work program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How is the State VR agency paid under the Ticket to Work program? 411.510 Section 411.510 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION THE TICKET TO WORK AND SELF-SUFFICIENCY PROGRAM Employment Network Payment Systems § 411.510 How is the State...

  5. Is Date Rape Justifiable? The Effects of Dating Activity, Who Initiated, Who Paid, and Men's Attitudes toward Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muehlenhard, Charlene L.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Examined justifiability of date rape under various circumstances among male undergraduates. Rape was rated as significantly more justifiable if the couple went to the man's apartment rather than to a religious function, if the woman asked the man out, and if the man paid all the dating expenses. Differences between traditional and nontraditional…

  6. Determinants of Job Satisfaction across the EU-15: A Comparison of Self-Employed and Paid Employees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M. Millan; A.R. Thurik (Roy); S.J.A. Hessels (Jolanda); R. Aguado (Rafael)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractJob satisfaction of self-employed and paid-employed workers is analyzed using the European Community Household Panel for the EU-15 covering the years 1994-2001. We distinguish between two types of job satisfaction, i.e. job satisfaction in terms of type of work and job satisfaction in

  7. 29 CFR 553.51 - Records to be kept for employees paid pursuant to section 7(k).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...(k). 553.51 Section 553.51 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION... GOVERNMENTS General Recordkeeping § 553.51 Records to be kept for employees paid pursuant to section 7(k). For each employee subject to the partial overtime exemption in section 7(k) of the Act, a public agency...

  8. 76 FR 54409 - Determining the Amount of Taxes Paid for Purposes of the Foreign Tax Credit; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 [Docket No. REG-126519-11] RIN 1545-BK41 Determining the Amount of Taxes Paid for Purposes of the Foreign Tax Credit; Correction Correction Proposed Rule document 2011-22067 was inadvertently published in the Rules section of the issue of...

  9. The impact of a regulatory change on the fees paid to the auditor: a look at Dutch and German evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekel, D.N.; Georgakopoulos, G.; Sotiropoulos, I.; Vasileiou, K.Z.

    2009-01-01

    In this study an analysis is made on the impact of the transition to IFRS (International Financial Reporting Standards) for first-time IFRS users on the fees paid to auditors. This was tested on Dutch and German data collected partially by hand and partially via Datastream. Due to previous research

  10. 26 CFR 1.170A-2 - Amounts paid to maintain certain students as members of the taxpayer's household.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... organization to provide educational opportunities for pupils or students placed in private homes by such... deduction under section 170 would be allowed for amounts paid for books, tuition, food, clothing... educational opportunities for children it places in private homes. In order to implement the program, the...

  11. Cut points for identifying clinically significant diabetes distress in adolescents with type 1 diabetes using the PAID-T

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagger, Virginia; Hendrieckx, Christel; Cameron, Fergus

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To establish cut point(s) for the Problem Areas in Diabetes-teen version (PAID-T) scale to identify adolescents with clinically meaningful, elevated diabetes distress. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Data were available from the Diabetes Management and Impact for Long-term Empowerment...

  12. 26 CFR 1.901-2T - Income, war profits, or excess profits tax paid or accrued (temporary).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... amount of tax paid. (3) Direct investment. The U.S. party's proportionate share of the foreign payment or... controlled for U.S. tax purposes: (i) The classification of the SPV (or an entity that has a direct or... of the SPV for one or more tax years during which the arrangement is in effect. (C) Definitions. The...

  13. 20 CFR 404.1265 - Addition of interest to contributions-for wages paid prior to 1987.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... wages paid prior to 1987. 404.1265 Section 404.1265 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION... to pay its contributions to the appropriate Federal Reserve bank or branch (see § 404.1262), when due... first wage report filed after notification of the underpayment by the Social Security Administration, or...

  14. 20 CFR 404.1262 - Manner of payment of contributions by State-for wages paid prior to 1987.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manner of payment of contributions by State-for wages paid prior to 1987. 404.1262 Section 404.1262 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY... contributions, the State shall deposit its payment at the specific Federal Reserve bank or branch designated by...

  15. Combining informal care and paid work : The use of work arrangements by working adult-child caregivers in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oldenkamp, Marloes; Bultmann, Ute; Wittek, Rafael P. M.; Stolk, Ronald P.; Hagedoorn, Mariet; Smidt, Nynke

    An increasing number of people combine paid work with the provision of informal care for a loved one. This combination of work and care may cause difficulties, necessitating adaptations at work, i.e. work arrangements. The present study explores what types of work arrangements are used by working

  16. 41 CFR 301-11.100 - What will I be paid for lodging under Lodgings-plus per diem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... lodging under Lodgings-plus per diem? 301-11.100 Section 301-11.100 Public Contracts and Property... 11-PER DIEM EXPENSES Lodgings-Plus Per Diem § 301-11.100 What will I be paid for lodging under Lodgings-plus per diem? When travel is more than 12 hours and overnight lodging is required you are...

  17. The benefits of paid employment among persons with common mental health problems: Evidence for the selection and causation mechanism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Schuring (Merel); S.J.W. Robroek (Suzan); A. Burdorf (Alex)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractObjectives The aims of this study were to (i) investigate the impact of paid employment on self-rated health, self-esteem, mastery, and happiness among previously unemployed persons with common mental health problems, and (ii) determine whether there are educational inequalities in these

  18. 26 CFR 1.855-1 - Dividends paid by regulated investment company after close of taxable year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dividends paid by regulated investment company after close of taxable year. 1.855-1 Section 1.855-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Regulated Investment Companies and...

  19. 26 CFR 1.858-1 - Dividends paid by a real estate investment trust after close of taxable year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dividends paid by a real estate investment trust after close of taxable year. 1.858-1 Section 1.858-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Real Estate Investment Trusts § 1...

  20. A panel data analysis of the effects of wages, standard hours and unionisation on paid overtime work in Britain"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalwij, A.S.; Gregory, M.

    2004-01-01

    This study examines the effects of the basic wage rate, standard working hours and unionisation on paid overtime work in Britain using individual-level data from the New Earnings Survey over the period 1975-2001. For this purpose we estimate a panel data model. We show that to obtain consistent

  1. The impact of term-time paid work on academic performance in nursing students: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamonson, Yenna; Everett, Bronwyn; Koch, Jane; Andrew, Sharon; Davidson, Patricia M

    2012-05-01

    Nursing students in higher education are spending more time in paid employment despite evidence that this can impact negatively on academic performance. To examine the effect of paid work on academic performance in undergraduate nursing students. Descriptive, correlational survey with longitudinal follow-up. Nursing students in metropolitan Sydney, Australia. First year nursing students surveyed at baseline were followed up at the end of the final year of their nursing program to examine factors influencing academic performance. Of the 566 Year 1 nursing students who were surveyed in the second semester of their Bachelor of Nursing program, 182 students (32%) completed the follow-up survey in Year 3. The percentage of students engaging in paid work during term-time had increased (pstudents' GPA in their final year. Taking into account demographic factors, the mean hours spent in paid work during term-time had a negative impact on nursing students' GPA (pstudents as students and employees and therefore not endanger their academic performance. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Paid Educational Leave and Self-Directed Learning: Implications for Legislation on the Learning Leave Scheme in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jeong Rok; Park, Cho Hyun; Jo, Sung Jun

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purposes of this study are to explore paid educational leave (PEL), self-directed learning (SDL) and the relationship between them; and to identify the implications for legislation on the learning leave scheme in South Korea. Design/Methodology/Approach: The research method of the study is a literature review. Articles were identified…

  3. The influence of chronic health problems and work-related factors on loss of paid employment among older workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leijten, Fenna R M; de Wind, Astrid; van den Heuvel, Swenne G; Ybema, J.F.; van der Beek, Allard J; Robroek, Suzan J W; Burdorf, Alex

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: With an ageing society and increasing retirement ages, it is important to understand how employability can be promoted in older workers with health problems. The current study aimed to determine whether (1) different chronic health problems predict transitions from paid employment to

  4. The influence of chronic health problems and work-related factors on loss of paid employment among older workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.R.M. Leijten (Fenna); A. de Wind (Astrid); S.G. van den Heuvel (Swenneke); J.F. Ybema (Jan Fekke); A.J. van der Beek (Allard); S.J.W. Robroek (Suzan); A. Burdorf (Alex)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBackground With an ageing society and increasing retirement ages, it is important to understand how employability can be promoted in older workers with health problems. The current study aimed to determine whether (1) different chronic health problems predict transitions from paid

  5. Paid maternity leave and childhood vaccination uptake: Longitudinal evidence from 20 low-and-middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajizadeh, Mohammad; Heymann, Jody; Strumpf, Erin; Harper, Sam; Nandi, Arijit

    2015-09-01

    The availability of maternity leave might remove barriers to improved vaccination coverage by increasing the likelihood that parents are available to bring a child to the clinic for immunizations. Using information from 20 low-and-middle-income countries (LMICs) we estimated the effect of paid maternity leave policies on childhood vaccination uptake. We used birth history data collected via Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) to assemble a multilevel panel of 258,769 live births in 20 countries from 2001 to 2008; these data were merged with longitudinal information on the number of full-time equivalent (FTE) weeks of paid maternity leave guaranteed by each country. We used Logistic regression models that included country and year fixed effects to estimate the impact of increases in FTE paid maternity leave policies in the prior year on the receipt of the following vaccines: Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) commonly given at birth, diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis (DTP, 3 doses) commonly given in clinic visits and Polio (3 doses) given in clinic visits or as part of campaigns. We found that extending the duration of paid maternity leave had a positive effect on immunization rates for all three doses of the DTP vaccine; each additional FTE week of paid maternity leave increased DTP1, 2 and 3 coverage by 1.38 (95% CI = 1.18, 1.57), 1.62 (CI = 1.34, 1.91) and 2.17 (CI = 1.76, 2.58) percentage points, respectively. Estimates were robust to adjustment for birth characteristics, household-level covariates, attendance of skilled health personnel at birth and time-varying country-level covariates. We found no evidence for an effect of maternity leave on the probability of receiving vaccinations for BCG or Polio after adjustment for the above-mentioned covariates. Our findings were consistent with the hypothesis that more generous paid leave policies have the potential to improve DTP immunization coverage. Further work is needed to understand the health effects of

  6. Critérios de autoria em trabalhos científicos: um assunto polêmico e delicado Authorship criteria for scientific papers: a polemic and delicate subject

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosangela Monteiro

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo discute aspectos relacionados à autoria em publicações científicas, responsabilidades inerentes, práticas não éticas e critérios para sua definição. Além disso, o artigo leva a uma reflexão do papel dos editores de revistas científicas na coibição de desvios de autoria, enfatizando a importância do assunto e divulgando critérios éticos para sua determinação.Aspects related to the authorship of scientific publications, inherent responsibilities, unethical practices and criteria for definition are discussed in this article. Moreover, the article presents a reflection on the role of editors of scientific journals in respect to inpproper authorship, reinforcing the importance of the issue and suggesting ethical criteria for its determination.

  7. Considerações sobre as relações entre autoria, dança, cinema e videodança | Considerations on the relationship between authorship, dance, film and videodance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Cerbino

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Resumo Este texto parte das aproximações entre dança, videodança e cinema para discutir a questão de autoria. A partir de uma breve historiografia desses fazeres artísticos, aponta possíveis entendimentos para os desdobramentos atuais acerca do hibridismo nas artes, e as perspectivas de Vilem Flusser, Roland Barthes e Walter Benjamim para se pensar a obra de arte. Palavras-chave autoria; dança; cinema; videodança. Abstract This text looks into the similarities among dance, videodance and cinema to discuss the matter of authorship. From a brief historiography of these artistic manifestations, it suggests possible understandings of hybridity on current developments in the arts, and the perspectives of Vilem Flusser, Roland Barthes and Walter Benjamin to think about the art work. Keywords authorship; dance; cinema; videodance.

  8. Systematic notes on Asian birds. 40. The authorship of the new bird names proposed in the ‘Memoir of the Life of Raffles’ by his widow, Lady Sophia Raffles (1830)

    OpenAIRE

    Bruce, M.D.

    2003-01-01

    When Lady Sophia Raffles published her biography of her late husband, Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles, in 1830, she included a catalogue of zoological specimens based on the collections brought back by Raffles from Java and Sumatra. However, the catalogue was included without indication of its authorship. In the case of the birds, it has been attributed to either Vigors alone or Vigors & Horsfield. For about a century names were credited to Vigors alone but this was changed to Vigors & Horsfield....

  9. Autores e autoria em periódicos brasileiros de ciência da informaçãoAuthors and authorship in brazilian information science journals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria del Carmen Rivera Bohn

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses issues of authorship. It presents the analysis of 86 journal articles with 1528 bibliographical entries. The articles were all published in 2001 in four Brazilian journals of Information Science. Several characteristics of the authors were considered. Among them are the authors’ academic qualification, function and job held; individual and joint authorship, language of publication, papers published by sex and nationality and self-citation. Data show that the most significant number of papers are published by the academic community; they also show that publishing partnerships are more common among members of the same academic institution and that the male contribution to publications has lately increased. The analysis furthermore shows that self-citations privilege papers given at academic events and articles. However the preferred citations in articles are book chapters, journal articles and electronic texts. Finally, data show that most of the referred bibliography is recent, but they also show a certain degree of inbreeding since there are few references of interdisciplinary nature.Este artigo discute questões de autoria. Para isto foram analisados, 86 artigos com 1528 referências bibliográficas, publicados no ano de 2001 em quatro periódicos brasileiros da área de Ciência da Informação. A análise considerou várias características dos autores como: titulação, função desempenhada, autoria individual e em parceria, língua de publicação dos textos, contribuição dos autores por sexo e nacionalidade e autocitação de suas publicações. Os dados mostram que a produção acadêmica continua sendo mais significativa entre os docentes; que as parcerias se fazem dentro das próprias instituições; que há uma tendência para a produção do sexo masculino ser mais significativa; que os autores quando se autocitam privilegiam apresentações em eventos e artigos, sendo os outros formatos menos citados. No

  10. Scientific authorship and collaboration network analysis on malaria research in Benin: papers indexed in the web of science (1996-2016).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azondekon, Roseric; Harper, Zachary James; Agossa, Fiacre Rodrigue; Welzig, Charles Michael; McRoy, Susan

    2018-01-01

    To sustain the critical progress made, prioritization and a multidisciplinary approach to malaria research remain important to the national malaria control program in Benin. To document the structure of the malaria collaborative research in Benin, we analyze authorship of the scientific documents published on malaria from Benin. We collected bibliographic data from the Web Of Science on malaria research in Benin from January 1996 to December 2016. From the collected data, a mulitigraph co-authorship network with authors representing vertices was generated. An edge was drawn between two authors when they co-author a paper. We computed vertex degree, betweenness, closeness, and eigenvectors among others to identify prolific authors. We further assess the weak points and how information flow in the network. Finally, we perform a hierarchical clustering analysis, and Monte-Carlo simulations. Overall, 427 publications were included in this study. The generated network contained 1792 authors and 116,388 parallel edges which converted in a weighted graph of 1792 vertices and 95,787 edges. Our results suggested that prolific authors with higher degrees tend to collaborate more. The hierarchical clustering revealed 23 clusters, seven of which form a giant component containing 94% of all the vertices in the network. This giant component has all the characteristics of a small-world network with a small shortest path distance between pairs of three, a diameter of 10 and a high clustering coefficient of 0.964. However, Monte-Carlo simulations suggested our observed network is an unusual type of small-world network. Sixteen vertices were identified as weak articulation points within the network. The malaria research collaboration network in Benin is a complex network that seems to display the characteristics of a small-world network. This research reveals the presence of closed research groups where collaborative research likely happens only between members. Interdisciplinary

  11. 'It is hard for mums to put themselves first': how mothers diagnosed with breast cancer manage the sociological boundaries between paid work, family and caring for the self.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenzie, Catherine Ruth

    2014-09-01

    This paper aims to increase understanding of how mothers diagnosed with breast cancer while in the paid workforce experience and manage their multiple demands of taking care of themselves, their children and their paid work. In-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 32 women who were mothers of dependent children and in the paid workforce at the time of their breast cancer diagnosis. The sample includes women living in urban and rural Australia. The study found that after a breast cancer diagnosis, participants tended to prioritise their health and wellbeing over paid work. Yet dominance of gendered identity meant that they tended to place the needs of family, especially children, above their own health and wellbeing. The key factors that influenced mothers' decisions to continue in, return to, or leave paid work after a breast cancer diagnosis included: a change in perspective regarding what was important in their lives; level of support from the workplace and home; the extent to which participating in paid work was a financial necessity; the extent to which their identity was connected to paid work, and; ongoing level of pain or fatigue. The paper concludes that using the sociological concepts of the fateful moment, boundary maintenance and a feminist ethic of care produces a more nuanced understanding of women's participation in paid work after breast cancer than examining paid workforce participation, or unpaid responsibilities and mothering, separately. The nature of the permeability or malleability of boundaries between work, family and taking care of the self affects women's participation in paid work during and/or after breast cancer treatment. Increased boundary permeability or malleability brought about more by cooperation than conflict facilitated positive experiences of re-negotiating boundaries, whereas increased permeability or malleability brought about more by conflict than cooperation created difficulties for women in finding an

  12. Analysis of Co-Authorship Indicators, Betweenness Centrality and Structural Holes of the Iranian Nanotechnology Researchers in Science Citation Index (1991-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hassanzadeh

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to investigate Iranian papers on nanotechnology area against some scientometrics indicators such as most prolific, most cited and so on. The statistical population were all papers have been published by Iranian researchers on nanotechnology in the Science Citation Index (SCI from 1991 to 7 August 2011 (4605 records that has been done with the aim of identifying, the most prolific, most cited and most effect of Iranian nanotechnology scientists. The results showed that the collaborative index in per-document was 3.39. The highest collaborative index was in 1997 with six authors by per-document. Iranian nanotechnology researchers' degree of collaboration was 0.96 this indicates, greater tendency of nanotechnology authors towards co-authorship. Considering total collaboration coefficient (0.64, nanotechnology authors have shown tendency to production of scientific collaborative document. The highest collaboration coefficient (0.83 And the lowest collaboration coefficient (0.5 have been allocated to the 1997 and 1991 respectively.

  13. Original articles published in Revista Española de Enfermedades Digestivas (1993-1998): authorship, interval between acceptance and publication, and bibliographic references.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acea Nebril, B; Figueira Moure, A; Gómez Freijoso, C

    2000-09-01

    To study changes in authorship, interval between acceptance and publication, and bibliographic references of original articles published in Revista Española de Enfermedades Digestivas (REED) between 1993 and 1998. This was a descriptive retrospective study of 359 original research articles published in REED between 1993 and 1998. The variables assessed were: number of authors (author/article index), interval between acceptance of the manuscript and publication in the journal, and degree of obsolescence of articles based on the age of the references cited (Burton-Kleber and Price indexes). The author/article index was 6.1, and increased from 5.9 in 1993 to 6.5 in 1998. The interval between acceptance and publication increased from 251 days to 436 days in this period (p < 0.0001). English was the language of publication used most commonly, followed by Spanish (10.7%). Citations to Spanish references decreased from 12.5% in 1993 to 8.7% in 1998. The half-life of articles was 7 years, and Price index was 41.5%. REED's bibliometric characteristics are similar to those of other national journals, but this study shows changes in bibliographic indicators from 1993 to 1998; increases in the number of authors per article, the interval to publication, the use of foreign references and the degree of obsolescence.

  14. A gender gap in the dermatology literature? Cross-sectional analysis of manuscript authorship trends in dermatology journals during 3 decades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feramisco, Jamison D; Leitenberger, Justin J; Redfern, Shelley I; Bian, Aihua; Xie, Xian-Jin; Resneck, Jack S

    2009-01-01

    Despite a dramatic influx of female dermatologists during the last 30 years, women in academic dermatology departments remain relatively clustered in junior faculty positions. Research in other specialties showing a disparity in the academic productivity of women has led to many hypotheses regarding factors that may place them at a competitive disadvantage. It is unknown, however, whether similar differences in academic productivity might also serve as barriers to advancement in dermatology, or whether any productivity gap actually exists in this specialty that experienced a more substantial entry of women. Because publication in peer-reviewed journals is one of the core measures of academic productivity used in the promotion process, we evaluated trends in the prevalence of female authorship in top dermatology journals during the last 3 decades. We conducted an observational study of trends in the sex distribution of US authors in 3 prestigious general dermatology journals (in 1976, 1986, 1996, and 2006) and 3 subspecialty dermatology journals (in 2006 only). Journals were chosen based on published impact factors and citation half-lives. During the last 3 decades, the proportion of women authoring manuscripts in the 3 major general dermatology journals increased from 12% to 48% of US-affiliated first authors (P job descriptions or opportunities, differences in career aspirations, a lack of institutional support or flexibility, or gender bias) may be associated with the ongoing reduced advancement of women to senior academic dermatology ranks relative to their male colleagues, and further research is warranted to explore these possibilities.

  15. 26 CFR 31.3402(g)-3 - Wages paid through an agent, fiduciary, or other person on behalf of two or more employers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wages paid through an agent, fiduciary, or other person on behalf of two or more employers. 31.3402(g)-3 Section 31.3402(g)-3 Internal Revenue... Source § 31.3402(g)-3 Wages paid through an agent, fiduciary, or other person on behalf of two or more...

  16. Well-Being, Involvement in Paid Work and Division of Child-Care in Parents of Children with Intellectual Disabilities in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, M. B.; Hwang, C. P.

    2006-01-01

    Background: The aim of the study was to compare mothers' and fathers' involvement in paid work and child-care in families of children with intellectual disability (ID) and control families and to test if differences in well-being between mothers and fathers of children with ID can be explained by differences in involvement in paid work and…

  17. The benefits of paid employment among persons with common mental health problems: evidence for the selection and causation mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuring, Merel; Robroek, Suzan Jw; Burdorf, Alex

    2017-11-01

    Objectives The aims of this study were to (i) investigate the impact of paid employment on self-rated health, self-esteem, mastery, and happiness among previously unemployed persons with common mental health problems, and (ii) determine whether there are educational inequalities in these effects. Methods A quasi-experimental study was performed with a two-year follow-up period among unemployed persons with mental health problems. Eligible participants were identified at the social services departments of five cities in The Netherlands when being diagnosed with a common mental disorder, primarily depression and anxiety disorders, in the past 12 months by a physician (N=749). Employment status (defined as paid employment for ≥12 hours/week), mental health [Short Form 12 (SF-12)], physical health (SF-12), self-esteem, mastery, and happiness were measured at baseline, after 12 months and 24 months. The repeated-measurement longitudinal data were analyzed using a hybrid method, combining fixed and random effects. The regression coefficient was decomposed into between- and within-individual associations, respectively. Results The between-individuals associations showed that persons working ≥12 hours per week reported better mental health (b=26.7, SE 5.1), mastery (b=2.7, SE 0.6), self-esteem (b=5.7, SE 1.1), physical health (b=14.6, SE 5.6) and happiness (OR 7.7, 95% CI 2.3-26.4). The within-individual associations showed that entering paid employment for ≥12 hours per week resulted in better mental health (b=16.3, SE 3.4), mastery (b=1.7, SE 0.4), self-esteem (b=3.4, SE 0.7), physical health (b=9.8, SE 2.9), and happiness (OR 3.1, 95% CI 1.4-6.9). Among intermediate- and high-educated persons, entering paid employment had significantly larger effect on mental health than among low-educated persons. Conclusions This study provides evidence that entering paid employment has a positive impact on self-reported health; thus work should be considered as an important

  18. From paid work to volunteerism during one case of natural disaster: interacting micro and macro level transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzozowski, Jennifer Colleen

    2013-01-01

    To examine micro and macro influences on transitions from paid work to volunteerism. Narrative life stories from the people of Chile after a natural disaster. Personal reflection on lived experiences in work transitions and theoretical concepts in occupational transitions. Tensions at the micro and macro levels influence transitions and decisions to make significant transitions in work. Unexpected and unanticipated work transitions open the door to personal reflection and in this case an individual's sense of perceived inaction on the institutional level directed action on the individual level. Thus, confirming suggestion that a dialectical relationship of mutual influence exists between micro and macro level occupational transitions when unanticipated major life and work transitions transpire.

  19. [Labor regularization of health workers paid with funds from the Mexican System for Social Protection in Health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigenda, Gustavo; Ruiz-Larios, José Arturo; Aguilar-Martínez, Matilde Elizabeth; Bejarano-Arias, Rosa

    2012-01-01

    The process of regularization of workers paid by the Social Protection Health System of Mexico is described and analyzed. Primary and secondary data collected by the external evaluation of the Mexican System for Social Protection in Health in 2009 were used. The regularization clearly improved the labor conditions of workers contracted by the system but a broader systemic implication of regularization does not seem to be necessarily positive. It is important to consider the need to guarantee that this type of changes in the contractual conditions of workers benefit all actors, particularly the insured population.

  20. Well-being, involvement in paid work and division of child-care in parents of children with intellectual disabilities in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, M B; Hwang, C P

    2006-12-01

    The aim of the study was to compare mothers' and fathers' involvement in paid work and child-care in families of children with intellectual disability (ID) and control families and to test if differences in well-being between mothers and fathers of children with ID can be explained by differences in involvement in paid work and child-care. Mothers and fathers of 179 children with ID and 196 typically developing children answered mailed surveys on their involvement in paid work, child-care tasks and well-being. Only two-parent families were included. The results show main effects for gender of the parent and presence of a child with ID on involvement in paid work and well-being. Interaction effects indicate that mothers of children with ID are more affected than fathers in their participation in paid work and well-being. A positive relation between level of participation in paid work and well-being was found for both mothers and fathers. No difference in division of child-care tasks was found between families of children with ID and control families. Differences in involvement in paid work and child-care in families of children with ID only explained 5% of the variance in the difference between mothers' and fathers' well-being. Families with children with ID differ from control families in that the parents are less involved in paid work and have lower levels of well-being. A positive relation between involvement in paid work and well-being was found.

  1. Enabling policy planning and innovation management through patent information and co-authorship network analyses: a study of tuberculosis in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcellos, Alexandre Guimarães; Morel, Carlos Medicis

    2012-01-01

    New tools and approaches are necessary to facilitate public policy planning and foster the management of innovation in countries' public health systems. To this end, an understanding of the integrated way in which the various actors who produce scientific knowledge and inventions in technological areas of interest operate, where they are located and how they relate to one another is of great relevance. Tuberculosis has been chosen as a model for the present study as it is a current challenge for Brazilian research and innovation. Publications about tuberculosis written by Brazilian authors were accessed from international databases, analyzed, processed with text searching tools and networks of coauthors were constructed and visualized. Patent applications about tuberculosis in Brazil were retrieved from the Brazilian National Institute of Industrial Property (INPI) and the European Patent Office databases, through the use of International Patent Classification and keywords and then categorized and analyzed. Brazilian authorship of articles about tuberculosis jumped from 1% in 1995 to 5% in 2010. Article production and patent filings of national origin have been concentrated in public universities and research institutions while the participation of private industry in the filing of Brazilian patents has remained limited. The goals of national patenting efforts have still not been reached, as up to the present none of the applications filed have been granted a patent. The analysis of all this data about TB publishing and patents clearly demonstrates the importance of maintaining the continuity of Brazil's production development policies as well as government support for infrastructure projects to be employed in transforming the potential of research. This policy, which already exists for the promotion of new products and processes that, in addition to bringing diverse economic benefits to the country, will also contribute to effective dealing with public health

  2. Enabling policy planning and innovation management through patent information and co-authorship network analyses: a study of tuberculosis in Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Guimarães Vasconcellos

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: New tools and approaches are necessary to facilitate public policy planning and foster the management of innovation in countries' public health systems. To this end, an understanding of the integrated way in which the various actors who produce scientific knowledge and inventions in technological areas of interest operate, where they are located and how they relate to one another is of great relevance. Tuberculosis has been chosen as a model for the present study as it is a current challenge for Brazilian research and innovation. METHODOLOGY: Publications about tuberculosis written by Brazilian authors were accessed from international databases, analyzed, processed with text searching tools and networks of coauthors were constructed and visualized. Patent applications about tuberculosis in Brazil were retrieved from the Brazilian National Institute of Industrial Property (INPI and the European Patent Office databases, through the use of International Patent Classification and keywords and then categorized and analyzed. RESULTS/CONCLUSIONS: Brazilian authorship of articles about tuberculosis jumped from 1% in 1995 to 5% in 2010. Article production and patent filings of national origin have been concentrated in public universities and research institutions while the participation of private industry in the filing of Brazilian patents has remained limited. The goals of national patenting efforts have still not been reached, as up to the present none of the applications filed have been granted a patent. The analysis of all this data about TB publishing and patents clearly demonstrates the importance of maintaining the continuity of Brazil's production development policies as well as government support for infrastructure projects to be employed in transforming the potential of research. This policy, which already exists for the promotion of new products and processes that, in addition to bringing diverse economic benefits to the country

  3. Co-authorship network analysis: a powerful tool for strategic planning of research, development and capacity building programs on neglected diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Medicis Morel

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: New approaches and tools were needed to support the strategic planning, implementation and management of a Program launched by the Brazilian Government to fund research, development and capacity building on neglected tropical diseases with strong focus on the North, Northeast and Center-West regions of the country where these diseases are prevalent. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Based on demographic, epidemiological and burden of disease data, seven diseases were selected by the Ministry of Health as targets of the initiative. Publications on these diseases by Brazilian researchers were retrieved from international databases, analyzed and processed with text-mining tools in order to standardize author- and institution's names and addresses. Co-authorship networks based on these publications were assembled, visualized and analyzed with social network analysis software packages. Network visualization and analysis generated new information, allowing better design and strategic planning of the Program, enabling decision makers to characterize network components by area of work, identify institutions as well as authors playing major roles as central hubs or located at critical network cut-points and readily detect authors or institutions participating in large international scientific collaborating networks. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Traditional criteria used to monitor and evaluate research proposals or R&D Programs, such as researchers' productivity and impact factor of scientific publications, are of limited value when addressing research areas of low productivity or involving institutions from endemic regions where human resources are limited. Network analysis was found to generate new and valuable information relevant to the strategic planning, implementation and monitoring of the Program. It afforded a more proactive role of the funding agencies in relation to public health and equity goals, to scientific capacity building

  4. Scientific publications and research groups on alcohol consumption and related problems worldwide: authorship analysis of papers indexed in PubMed and Scopus databases (2005 to 2009).

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Alcaide, Gregorio; Castelló-Cogollos, Lourdes; Castellano-Gómez, Miguel; Agullo-Calatayud, Víctor; Aleixandre-Benavent, Rafael; Alvarez, Francisco Javier; Valderrama-Zurián, Juan Carlos

    2013-01-01

    The research of alcohol consumption-related problems is a multidisciplinary field. The aim of this study is to analyze the worldwide scientific production in the area of alcohol-drinking and alcohol-related problems from 2005 to 2009. A MEDLINE and Scopus search on alcohol (alcohol-drinking and alcohol-related problems) published from 2005 to 2009 was carried out. Using bibliometric indicators, the distribution of the publications was determined within the journals that publish said articles, specialty of the journal (broad subject terms), article type, language of the publication, and country where the journal is published. Also, authorship characteristics were assessed (collaboration index and number of authors who have published more than 9 documents). The existing research groups were also determined. About 24,100 documents on alcohol, published in 3,862 journals, and authored by 69,640 authors were retrieved from MEDLINE and Scopus between the years 2005 and 2009. The collaboration index of the articles was 4.83 ± 3.7. The number of consolidated research groups in the field was identified as 383, with 1,933 authors. Documents on alcohol were published mainly in journals covering the field of "Substance-Related Disorders," 23.18%, followed by "Medicine," 8.7%, "Psychiatry," 6.17%, and "Gastroenterology," 5.25%. Research on alcohol is a consolidated field, with an average of 4,820 documents published each year between 2005 and 2009 in MEDLINE and Scopus. Alcohol-related publications have a marked multidisciplinary nature. Collaboration was common among alcohol researchers. There is an underrepresentation of alcohol-related publications in languages other than English and from developing countries, in MEDLINE and Scopus databases. Copyright © 2012 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  5. Co-authorship Network Analysis: A Powerful Tool for Strategic Planning of Research, Development and Capacity Building Programs on Neglected Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morel, Carlos Medicis; Serruya, Suzanne Jacob; Penna, Gerson Oliveira; Guimarães, Reinaldo

    2009-01-01

    Background New approaches and tools were needed to support the strategic planning, implementation and management of a Program launched by the Brazilian Government to fund research, development and capacity building on neglected tropical diseases with strong focus on the North, Northeast and Center-West regions of the country where these diseases are prevalent. Methodology/Principal Findings Based on demographic, epidemiological and burden of disease data, seven diseases were selected by the Ministry of Health as targets of the initiative. Publications on these diseases by Brazilian researchers were retrieved from international databases, analyzed and processed with text-mining tools in order to standardize author- and institution's names and addresses. Co-authorship networks based on these publications were assembled, visualized and analyzed with social network analysis software packages. Network visualization and analysis generated new information, allowing better design and strategic planning of the Program, enabling decision makers to characterize network components by area of work, identify institutions as well as authors playing major roles as central hubs or located at critical network cut-points and readily detect authors or institutions participating in large international scientific collaborating networks. Conclusions/Significance Traditional criteria used to monitor and evaluate research proposals or R&D Programs, such as researchers' productivity and impact factor of scientific publications, are of limited value when addressing research areas of low productivity or involving institutions from endemic regions where human resources are limited. Network analysis was found to generate new and valuable information relevant to the strategic planning, implementation and monitoring of the Program. It afforded a more proactive role of the funding agencies in relation to public health and equity goals, to scientific capacity building objectives and a more

  6. The academic effects of after-school paid and unpaid work among 14-year-old students in TIMSS countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, David; Pong, Suet-Ling

    2009-01-01

    What it means to be a 'student' varies within and between countries. Apart from the wide variety of school types and school quality that is experienced by young people, there also is, accompanying increased rates of school participation, a growing population of students who work part-time. The theoretical and actual consequences of student work have long been in dispute. This article reformulates the dispute as an empirical question that can be addressed using cross-national testing data and student background information from the Trends in International Math and Science Study (TIMSS). Drawing information from 20 countries with distinctive proportions of students who reported paid and unpaid work, this study first compares their academic achievement in each country. Next, regression analysis is used to control for students' home resources, and estimates are made of the effects of work and the differences in these effects cross-nationally. Finally, hierarchical linear models are estimated in each country so as to control for school effects, and to take into account the fact that working students may be clustered in lower-achieving schools. The results show that work after school, whether paid or unpaid, never positively affects academic achievement. However, after controlling for home resources and school effects, work negatively affects achievement only in certain countries. The article concludes with a discussion of the ways to interpret international differences in the effect of students' work.

  7. Iranian kidney market in limbo: a commentary on "The ambiguous lessons of the Iranian model of paid living kidney donation".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soofi, Hojjat

    2016-06-01

    Sigrid Fry-Revere's The Kidney Sellers: A Journey of Discovery in Iran, an allegedly first-hand examination of the Iranian paid kidney donation model, has been criticized by Koplin in an essay formerly published in the Monash Bioethics Review. Koplin especially challenges Fry-Revere's claim that financially compensating kidney vendors might facilitate altruistic kidney donation. The current situation in Iran, according to Koplin, suggests that the market model has undermined altruistic donation. On this point, this commentary tries to show that healthcare policymakers in Iran no longer see the Iranian paid kidney donation model as a sustainable and ethically justifiable status quo. Briefly touching on the criticisms that have been made even by some positive commentators of the Iranian model, this commentary aims to call attention to the fact that the current dynamic within healthcare policymaking in Iran seeks primarily to decrease its reliance on the organ market instead of revising and modifying it. This complicates the plausibility of any kind of extrapolation, replication or extracting empirical support from the Iranian model to create organ markets in other countries, for example, as Fry-Revere suggests to conduct a trial of a financially incentivized kidney donation scheme in the US. The conclusion is that the Iranian healthcare system should tackle the organ shortage through increasing altruistic living and postmortem kidney donations. This might also provide, finally, a space for conducting extensive and long-term follow-up studies on well-being, satisfaction and social integration of Iranian kidney vendors.

  8. The Greek concept of egkíklios paideía and its diffusion in the Hellenistic era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Spinelli

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper is about the concept of egkíklios paideía, used in ancient Greece to define the children’s (paidós school term (egkíklios. The goals of the syllabus used to be, on the one hand, enabling the children to use the intellect, and, on the other hand, professional, social and human amendment. The paper uses two sources. First, the ancient philosophers. Second, other educational conceptions spread all over the Greek civilization in the Hellenistic age. Concerning the ancient philosophers, the paper analyzes a single dictum attributed to three different philosophers: Gorgias, Aristippus and Bion. The subject of the dictum is a comparison between, on the one hand, philosophy and Penelope, and, on the other hand, the other disciplines of the syllabus and Penelope’s servants. Concerning the Hellenistic diffusion, the paper deals with Filo, Quintilian and Clement of Alexandria. Regarding these writers, the paper aims to show an overturn: among the Greeks, philosophy used to be the master (the déspoina; later, it became the servant (the doulís

  9. WP 22 - A panel data analysis of the effects of wages, standard hours and unionisation on paid overtime work in Britain

    OpenAIRE

    Adriaan Kalwij; Gregory, M.

    2004-01-01

    This study examines the effects of the basic wage rate, standard working hours and unionisation on paid overtime work in Britain using individual-level data from the New Earnings Survey over the period 1975-2001. For this purpose we estimate a panel data model. We show that to obtain consistent estimates it is important to allow for both the censoring of paid overtime hours at zero and for correlations between the explanatory variables and unobserved individual specific effects. The main empi...

  10. Paid staff or volunteers - does it make a difference? The impact of staffing on child outcomes for children attending community-based programmes in South Africa and Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, Mark; Sherr, Lorraine; Macedo, Ana; Hunt, Xanthe; Skeen, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    Globally, and in low and middle income countries (LMIC) specifically, there is a critical shortage of workers. The use of volunteers to support such care delivery systems has been examined, there is scant literature on the impact of volunteers on child outcome in high human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-affected communities. To examine the differential impact of paid versus volunteer workforce in Community Based Organisations (CBOs) providing care to children and families affected by the HIV epidemic in South Africa and Malawi on child outcomes over time. This study compared child outcomes for 989 consecutive children attending CBOs (0.7% refusal) at baseline and 854 at follow-up (86.3% response rate). Children attending CBOs with paid staff had higher self-esteem, fewer emotional/behavioural problems and less perceived stigma. Likewise, children attending CBOs with paid staff had fewer educational risks, and 20 heightened cognitive performance, and the digit-span memory test. After controlling for outcome at baseline, gender, age, HIV status, and disability, attending a CBO with paid staff remained a significant independent predictor of higher self-esteem scores, less perceived stigma, as well as fewer educational risks and better performance on the drawing test. We found no associations between CBO attendance - paid or volunteer - and children's depressive and trauma symptoms. Our findings show that in order to most optimally impact on child outcome 30 community-based workers (CBWs) should ideally be paid with trained staff. Specialised input for more severe child difficulties is needed.

  11. [Socio-demographic and health conditions associated with paid work in adults (50-69 years) in Greater Metropolitan Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Camila Menezes Sabino de; Mambrini, Juliana Vaz de Melo; Sampaio, Rosana Ferreira; Macinko, James; Lima-Costa, Maria Fernanda

    2015-08-01

    Factors associated with paid work were examined in a probabilistic sample of 3,320 adults (50-69 years) in Greater Metropolitan Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Prevalence of paid work was 62.8% in men and 35.8% in women. For both men and women, paid work was positively associated with schooling and negatively associated with self-rated health. The probability of having paid work was higher for single women and those who knew someone that had suffered discrimination at the workplace. For men, prevalence of paid work varied from 67.2% in those with ≥ 8 years of schooling and better self-rated health, as compared to 37.8% in those with less schooling and poor self-rated health (PR = 0.56; 95%CI: 0.37-0.87). In women, the corresponding prevalence rates were 42.1% and 3.6% (PR = 0.09; 95%CI: 0.03-0.26). For women with little schooling and poor self-rated health, the likelihood of having paid work was ten times lower than for their male counterparts.

  12. Negotiating the boundary between paid and unpaid hospice workers: a qualitative study of how hospice volunteers understand their work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field-Richards, Sarah E; Arthur, Antony

    2012-12-01

    To explore the nurse-volunteer relationship in a day hospice. Underpinned by an interpretive approach, face-to-face semistructured interviews were conducted with 12 day hospice volunteers. The nature and dynamics of the relationship between nursing staff and volunteers within the day hospice were characterized by increasing formality and changes in the division of labor, which challenged smooth working relationships. Volunteers see their role as becoming increasingly formalized partly as a response to increasing administrative demands on hospice nurses. The willingness of volunteers to take on new roles is variable. For volunteers to feel secure and valued and working relationships to remain strong, the process of how boundaries between paid and unpaid workers are negotiated needs to be transparent.

  13. The effects of California's paid family leave program on mothers' leave-taking and subsequent labor market outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossin-Slater, Maya; Ruhm, Christopher J; Waldfogel, Jane

    2013-01-01

    This analysis uses March Current Population Survey data from 1999 to 2010 and a differences-in-differences approach to examine how California's first in the nation paid family leave (PFL) program affected leave-taking by mothers following childbirth, as well as subsequent labor market outcomes. We obtain robust evidence that the California program doubled the overall use of maternity leave, increasing it from an average of three to six weeks for new mothers--with some evidence of particularly large growth for less advantaged groups. We also provide evidence that PFL increased the usual weekly work hours of employed mothers of 1- to 3-year-old children by 10 to 17 percent and that their wage incomes may have risen by a similar amount.

  14. Combining informal care and paid work: The use of work arrangements by working adult-child caregivers in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldenkamp, Marloes; Bültmann, Ute; Wittek, Rafael P M; Stolk, Ronald P; Hagedoorn, Mariët; Smidt, Nynke

    2018-01-01

    An increasing number of people combine paid work with the provision of informal care for a loved one. This combination of work and care may cause difficulties, necessitating adaptations at work, i.e. work arrangements. The present study explores what types of work arrangements are used by working caregivers, and which caregiver, care and work characteristics are associated with the use of these work arrangements. Within the Lifelines Informal Care Add-on Study (Lifelines ICAS), data on 965 Dutch informal caregivers in the North of the Netherlands were collected between May 2013 and July 2014 (response rate 48%), and data on 333 working adult-child caregivers (aged 26-68 years, 82% female) were used in this study. A small majority (56%) of the working caregivers used one or more work arrangement(s): taking time off (41%), individual agreements with supervisor (30%), formal care leave arrangement (13%), and reduction in paid work hours (6%). Logistic regression analyses showed that long working hours (OR 1.06, 95% CI 1.01-1.08), and the experience of more health problems (OR 2.54, 95% CI 1.56-4.05) or a disrupted schedule due to caregiving (OR 2.50, 95% CI 1.66-3.78) increased the chance to have used one or more work arrangements. Lower educated working caregivers were less likely to have used a formal care leave arrangement (tertiary vs. primary education OR 2.75, 95% CI 1.13-6.67; tertiary vs. secondary education OR 1.27, 95% CI 1.27-5.09). Policy makers should inform working caregivers about the availability of the different work arrangements, with specific attention for low educated working caregivers. Employers need to consider a more caregiver-friendly policy, as almost half of the working adult-child caregivers did not use any work arrangement. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Subject and authorship of records related to the Organization for Tropical Studies (OTS in BINABITROP, a comprehensive database about Costa Rican biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julián Monge-Nájera

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available BINABITROP is a bibliographical database of more than 38 000 records about the ecosystems and organisms of Costa Rica. In contrast with commercial databases, such as Web of Knowledge and Scopus, which exclude most of the scientific journals published in tropical countries, BINABITROP is a comprehensive record of knowledge on the tropical ecosystems and organisms of Costa Rica. We analyzed its contents in three sites (La Selva, Palo Verde and Las Cruces and recorded scientific field, taxonomic group and authorship. We found that most records dealt with ecology and systematics, and that most authors published only one article in the study period (1963-2011. Most research was published in four journals: Biotropica, Revista de Biología Tropical/ International Journal of Tropical Biology and Conservation, Zootaxa and Brenesia. This may be the first study of a such a comprehensive database for any case of tropical biology literature.BINABITROP es una base de datos bibliográfica con más de 38 000 registros sobre los ecosistemas y organismos de Costa Rica. En contraste con bases de datos comerciales como Web of Knowledge y Scopus, que excluyen a la mayoría de las revistas científicas publicadas en los países tropicales, BINABITROP registra casi por completo la literatura biológica sobre Costa Rica. Analizamos los registros de La Selva, Palo Verde y Las Cruces. Hallamos que la mayoría de los registros corresponden a estudios sobre ecología y sistemática; que la mayoría de los autores sólo registraron un artículo en el período de estudio (1963-2011 y que la mayoría de la investigación formalmente publicada apareció en cuatro revistas: Biotropica, Revista de Biología Tropical/International Journal of Tropical Biology, Zootaxa y Brenesia. Este parece ser el primer estudio de una base de datos integral sobre literatura de biología tropical.

  16. Como fazer uma sociologia da singularidade? Autoria e campo literário How to make sociology of singularity? Authorship and literary field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Borges Leão

    2009-10-01

    article establishes a possible dialogue between the comprehensive approach of the sociologist Nathalie Heinich and the science of literary works designed by Pierre Bourdieu. Keywords: Literary field. Singularity. Literary authorship. Author’s right. Literary institutions.

  17. 59 - 62 lawan paid

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMIN

    crops) release some phytotoxins into soil which adversely affect the germination and yield of crops. (Kaletha et al., 1996; Kumar et al., 2006). Such type of tree crop interactions called phytochemical ecology/ecological biochemistry. Eucalyptus species belongs to the family. Myraceae, mostly found in tropical regions and is a.

  18. 59 - 62 lawan paid

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMIN

    Accepted: May, 2011. ISSN 2006 - 6996. EFFECTS OF ALLELOCHEMICALS OF SOME EUCALYPTUS SPECIES ON. GERMINATION AND RADICLE GROWTH OF ..... Oyun, M. B. (2006): Allelopathic potentialities of Gliricidia sepium and Acacia auriculiformis on the germination and seedling vigour of maize (Zea mays L.).

  19. 48 - 51 Falaki paid

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMIN

    increasing consumption and demand for wheat in. Nigeria was largely due to increase and expansion in bread and pasta industries, and for the manufacture of crackers, noodles etc. Presently, domestic wheat demand in the country is far more than local production; consequently 90-95% of wheat consumed is imported ...

  20. 26 - 31 Bello paid

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMIN

    (Psidium guajava) and bush mango (Irvingia gabonnensis) fruits were studied. Catechol at concentration of 20 mM was used as a ... MATERIALS AND METHODS. Extraction of PPO. Fruits were sliced horizontally into ... suspension was centrifuged at 10000rpm for 30 minutes at 40C, and the homogenate contained the.

  1. 56 - 58 Jimoh paid

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMIN

    of these elements in beverages, water, food, plant and soil is thus of outmost importance and is currently the subject of studies by various reasearchers (Saud and AL-Oud,2003; WHO,1998a,b). The objective of this work was to determine the mineral composition of different sorghum cultivars. MATERIALS AND METHODS.

  2. Effects of preventive versus "on-demand" nutritional support on paid labour productivity, physical exercise and performance status during PEG-interferon-containing treatment for hepatitis C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huisman, Ellen J; van Meer, Suzanne; van Hoek, Bart; van Soest, Hanneke; van Nieuwkerk, Karin M J; Arends, Joop E; Siersema, Peter D; van Erpecum, Karel J

    2016-04-01

    Deterioration of nutritional status during PEG-interferon containing therapy for chronic hepatitis C can be ameliorated by preventive nutritional support. We aimed to explore whether such support also affects paid labour productivity, physical exercise and performance status. In this prospective randomized controlled trial (J Hepatol 2012;57:1069-75), 53 patients with chronic hepatitis C had been allocated to "on demand" support (n=26: nutritional intervention if weight loss>5%) or preventive support (n=27: regular dietary advice plus energy- and protein-rich evening snack) during PEG-interferon-containing therapy. Paid labour productivity, physical exercise and performance status were evaluated at baseline, after 24 and (if applicable) after 48 weeks of treatment. At baseline, 46% of patients performed paid labour and 62% performed some kind of physical exercise. Furthermore, most patients were able to carry out normal activity with only minor symptoms of disease (mean Karnofsky performance score: 94). Decreases of paid labour productivity (-21% vs. -70%, P=0.003), physical exercise activity (-43% vs. -87%, P=0.005) and Karnofsky performance scores (-12% vs. -24%, Pnutritional support were even more pronounced after 48 weeks. Preventive nutritional support markedly ameliorates decreases of paid labour productivity, physical exercise and performance status during PEG-interferon-containing treatment for chronic hepatitis C. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Housework, paid work and psychiatric symptoms Trabalho doméstico, trabalho assalariado e sintomas psiquiátricos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilma S Santana

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the hypothesis that work burden, the simultaneous engagement in paid work and unpaid family housework, is a potential risk factor for psychiatric symptoms among women. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out with 460 women randomly selected from a poor area of the city of Salvador, Brazil. Women between 18 to 70 years old, who reported having a paid occupation or were involved in unpaid domestic activities for their families, were eligible. Work burden-related variables were defined as: a double work shift, i.e., simultaneous engagement in a paid job plus unpaid housework; and b daily working time. Psychiatric symptoms were collected through a validated questionnaire, the QMPA. RESULTS: Positive, statistically significant associations between high (>7 symptoms QMPA scores and either double work shift (prevalence ratio -- PR=2.04, 95% confidence interval -- CI: 1.16, 2.29 or more than 10 hours of daily work time (PR=2.29, 95% CI: 1.96, 3.43 were found after adjustment for age, marital status and number of pre-school children. CONCLUSIONS: Major correlates of high QMPA scores are work burden variables. Being married or having pre-school children are also associated with high QMPA scores only when associated with work burden.OBJETIVO: Avaliar a hipótese de que a dupla carga de trabalho é um fator de risco potencial para sintomas psiquiátricos em mulheres. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal realizado com 460 mulheres aleatoriamente selecionadas de uma área pobre da cidade de Salvador, BA, Brasil. Foram selecionadas mulheres entre 18 e 70 anos de idade, que referiram ter ocupação paga ou estar envolvidas com trabalho doméstico não remunerado para as suas famílias. A sobrecarga de trabalho foi analisada como: a dupla jornada de trabalho, i.e., envolvimento simultâneo em trabalho pago e trabalho não pago para a família; e b duração da jornada diária total de trabalho. Os sintomas psiquiátricos foram registrados

  4. Authorship Confirmation and Copyright Transfer

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    figures and any later errata, is transferred to the Indian Academy of Sciences, for both online and print versions. ... work after publication by the Indian Academy of Sciences, in whole or in part, in any or all of the following ways ... b) Inclusion in a thesis or dissertation for a research degree of any institution. c) Presentations in ...

  5. Migrant women’s employment in paid reproductive work through the crisis: the case of Italy (2007-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Di Bartolomeo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Paid reproductive work, especially in the case of cleaning and home-care for elderly people, is an important sector for foreign women in Italy. For this reason, since the beginning of the current economic crisis, scholars have wondered about the impact of the recession on migrant domestic workers. They have looked particularly at possible competition with Italian women entering the sector for lack of better alternatives. Our paper takes this discussion a step further by assessing the overall changes affecting migrant women in the Italian labour market, 2007-2012. We will look at how their position has been transformed, by taking both an ethnic perspective, in relation to Italian women, and a gender perspective, in relation to migrant men. By way of a conclusion, the argument will be made that there is a substantial lack of competition between Italian and foreign women in the care and domestic sector due to differences in their earnings, hours of work and activities.

  6. Comparison of compensation paid scientists and engineers in research and development. DOE national survey of compensation. 1977 data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-03-01

    This study compares the characteristics and compensation of DOE contractor-operated laboratories with those reported in the ''1977 National Survey of Compensation Paid Scientists and Engineers Engaged in Research and Development Activities''. The report forms and procedures used in the National Survey were used by DOE Laboratories for their participation in the National Survey. The data are as of September 1, 1977, for educational institutions and August 1, 1977, for all other participants. Total survey representation decreased again this year, and industry participation continued to lead Survey representation. The number of scientists and engineers in the survey decreased by 2,206 employees; 5,243 of this decrease occurred in Federal Labs, while employment at DOE Labs increased 1,843. Characteristics such as salary levels, degree levels, maturity, etc., of DOE laboratories are compared with National Survey patterns. In addition to statistical data for 1977, significant differences from last year's Survey are presented for comparative analysis. 20 figures, 16 tables. (RWR)

  7. Relationship between price paid for off-trade alcohol, alcohol consumption and income in England: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Mike J; Parry, Alexander M H; Weston, Adam R W; Seretis, Dionysis; Zauter-Tutt, Maria; Hussain, Abrar; Mostajabi, Pardis; Sanatinia, Rahil; North, Bernard

    2012-01-01

    In order to examine the potential impact of an increase in the minimum price per unit of alcohol to 50 pence ($0.78), we examined drinking patterns and household incomes of people who purchase alcohol in England at above and below this price. Cross-sectional survey of 515 members of the public in seven towns and cities in the south of England. The primary outcome was whether the participant had purchased alcohol at price paid per unit of alcohol was 53.1 pence (range 16.4-297.0 pence). Those buying alcohol at price. The odds ratio (OR) of a person on low income with high-risk drinking purchasing alcohol at price was 0.51 (95% CI = 0.30-0.87) compared with all other participants. These data suggest that an increase in the minimum price of alcohol to 50 pence price per unit is only likely to disproportionately affect people on low incomes if their alcohol consumption is excessive.

  8. Developing Social Capital In ‘Learning Borderlands’: Has the Federal Government's budget delivered for low-paid Australian workers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maree Keating

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The 2011 Australian federal budget confirmed generous funding for language, literacy and numeracy programs as well as skills recognition and training for older workers as part of a strategy to upgrade workforce skills. In considering possible responses to the announcement, many Australian adult education theorists and practitioners weighed up the contexts in which such programs could build the resources and increase the options of vulnerable workers. One such group of workers, retrenched factory workers, have benefitted from participation in union-run, integrated post-retrenchment programs, which have incorporated access to language, literacy and numeracy as well as vocational education and training programs. Such programs can build on the existing social capital amongst close-knit groups of workers as they develop the confidence to transform their work identities. This article draws on results from a study with a group of retrenched textile workers who accessed broad-based post-retrenchment support and subsequently participated in a high number of vocational education and training (VET courses before finding ongoing employment. The study suggests that VET participation plays a limited role in broadening the employment opportunities for retrenched factory workers who move into low-paid occupations. Whilst VET participation alongside other factors supported entry into some occupations, it played no role in supporting most workers in their transitions into non-manufacturing jobs.

  9. The influence of psychiatric morbidity on return to paid work after stroke in younger adults: the Auckland Regional Community Stroke (ARCOS) Study, 2002 to 2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glozier, Nick; Hackett, Maree L; Parag, Varsha; Anderson, Craig S

    2008-05-01

    Few data exist on the determinants of return to paid work after stroke, yet participation in employment is vital to a person's mental well-being and role in society. This study aimed to determine the frequency and determinants of return to work, in particular the effect of early psychiatric morbidity, in a population-based study of stroke survivors. The third Auckland Regional Community Stroke (ARCOS) study was a prospective, population-based, stroke incidence study undertaken in Auckland, New Zealand during 2002 to 2003. After a baseline assessment early after stroke, data were collected on all survivors at 1 and 6 months follow-up. Multiple variable logistic regression was used to determine predictors of return to paid work. Data are reported with odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Among 1423 patients registered with first-ever strokes, there were 210 previously in paid employment who survived to 6 months, of whom 155 (74%) completed the GHQ-28 and 112 (53%) had returned to paid work. Among those cognitively competent, psychiatric morbidity at 28 days was a strong independent predictor of not returning to work (Odds Ratio 0.39; 95% CI 0.22 to 0.80). Non-New Zealand European ethnicity (OR 0.40; 95% CI 0.17 to 0.91), prior part-time, as opposed to full-time, employment 0.36 (0.15 to 0.89), and not being functionally independent soon after the stroke 0.28 (0.13 to 0.59) were the other independent age- and gender-adjusted predictors of not successfully returning to paid work. About half of previously employed people return to paid employment after stroke, with psychiatric morbidity and physical disability being independent, yet potentially treatable, determinants of this outcome. Appropriate management of both emotional and physical sequelae would appear necessary for optimizing recovery and return to work in younger adults after stroke.

  10. Género, trabajos y salud en España Gender, paid work, domestic chores and health in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucía Artazcoz

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se revisan las diferencias y desigualdades de género existentes en España en el trabajo remunerado y en el doméstico, se analizan el impacto de ambos tipos de trabajo en la salud y se describen las principales estrategias políticas de la Unión Europea (UE y España para alcanzar la igualdad de género en el trabajo. En España la tasa de actividad femenina es significativamente más baja que en otros países de la UE. En el mercado laboral existe una segregación horizontal -hombres y mujeres trabajan en distintos sectores- y vertical -ellos ocupan los puestos de categoría superior-, causa de las diferencias de género en las condiciones de empleo y en la exposición a riesgos laborales. La precariedad laboral es significativamente más alta en las mujeres (un 19% de paro en las mujeres frente a un 9% en los hombres, así como la contratación temporal. Ellos están más expuestos a riesgos físicos y padecen más accidentes laborales; ellas lo están más a riesgos psicosociales, sobre todo las trabajadoras manuales. Las mujeres continúan asumiendo la mayor parte del trabajo del hogar, aun estando ocupadas, lo que es causa de efectos negativos en su salud. La UE ha establecido entre sus prioridades aumentar el empleo femenino, lo que significa que en el período 2000-2010 España debe crear 3 millones de puestos para las mujeres y facilitar la conciliación de la vida laboral y familiar. Avanzar hacia la igualdad de género en el trabajo requiere políticas de empleo decididas que garanticen la igualdad de oportunidades para ambos sexos en el empleo, así como la corresponsabilidad de los hombres en las tareas del hogar. En España, además, es urgente incrementar significativamente los recursos públicos para el cuidado de los niños y otras personas dependientes del hogar.The present study reviews gender-related differences and inequalities in paid work and domestic chores in Spain. The impact of both types of work on

  11. Within-couple specialisation in paid work: A long-term pattern? A dual trajectory approach to linking lives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langner, Laura Antonia

    2015-06-01

    Research on the division of labour has mainly focussed on transitions between individuals' labour market states during the first years of parenthood. A common conclusion has been that couples specialize--women in unpaid and men in paid work--either due to gender ideologies or a comparative advantage in the labour market. But what happens later in life? The German Socio-Economic Panel now provides researchers with a continuous measure of working hours across decades of couples' lives, enabling a dual trajectory analysis to explore couples' long-term specialisation patterns. I focus on the career trajectories of West German couples, and specifically, due to the relatively low institutional and normative support for female employment during its members' early years, on the 1956-65 female birth cohort. Even in this setting and with a conservative estimate, a surprisingly small number of couples--only a fifth--adopt full specialisation in later life. A sizable proportion--a third--moves into dual full-time employment. This trend is even more common among highly educated couples: half of those couples move into dual full-time employment. I find that highly educated women are not only less likely to permanently specialise but also more likely to try working full-time, possibly because their partners' comparative advantages are lower. But despite high opportunity costs, 45% of highly educated parents never try to pursue a dual career either because of a satiation of material wants or because of low societal support for maternal employment. The latter phenomenon is further underscored by the finding that many couples' increase in working hours occurs only when a youngest child is a teenager. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Redes sociais em linguagens documentais: uma análise de coautoria a partir da realidade brasileiraSocial networks in indexing languages: a co-authorship analysis from the Brazilian reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leilah Santiago Bufrem

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available As redes sociais medem a colaboração científica entre pesquisadores, instituições e países, tornando visível o comportamento investigativo de dado campo. Linguagem documental é uma temática abordada fundamentalmente no campo da organização e representação da informação. Este trabalho apresenta a formação de redes sociais relacionadas ao tema linguagem documental a partir dos currículos disponibilizados na Plataforma Lattes. Foram realizadas análises de coautoria entre os pesquisadores e as instituições, além do levantamento dos periódicos que são mais utilizados para comunicação das pesquisas, bem como das áreas de conhecimento que abarcam investigações de linguagens documentais. Constatou-se que o índice de coautoria é alto, mas que as redes sociais do respectivo tema são concebidas de maneira localizada.Social networks can measure the scientific collaboration among researchers, institutions and countries, making visible the investigative behavior of any field. Indexing language is a theme primarily approached by the area of information organization and representation. This paper presents theformation of social networks related to the indexing language theme using the available curricula on the Lattes Platform. Co-authorship analyses were done for researchers and institutions, as well as information about the journals most used to communicate the theme and knowledge areas that deal with investigations of indexing languages. It was found that co-authorship index is high, but the social networks of the respective theme are designed in a localized way.

  13. 42 CFR 137.100 - May a Self-Governance Tribe retain and spend interest earned on any funds paid under a compact or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false May a Self-Governance Tribe retain and spend... OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Funding Interest Or Other Income on Transfers § 137.100 May a Self-Governance Tribe retain and spend interest earned on any funds paid under a compact...

  14. 38 CFR 8.15 - Provision for paid-up insurance; other than 5-year level premium term or limited convertible 5...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... right to dividends. The insured may at any time surrender the paid-up policy for its cash value or... insurance; other than 5-year level premium term or limited convertible 5-year level premium term policies. 8... than 5-year level premium term or limited convertible 5-year level premium term policies. If a National...

  15. Gender Discrimination in Death Reportage: Reconnoitering Disparities through a Comparative Analysis of Male and Female Paid Obituaries of Pakistani English Newspapers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhry, Sajid M.; Christopher, Anne A.; Krishnasamy, Hariharan A/L N.

    2014-01-01

    The study examines the issue of gender discrimination in the post death scenario of obituarial discourse. It aims to identify the way Pakistani newspaper obituaries recognize and project males and females after their deaths. A total of 601 paid obituaries published in a year's time span in Pakistani English newspapers were evaluated for the…

  16. 26 CFR 1.217-2 - Deduction for moving expenses paid or incurred in taxable years beginning after December 31, 1969.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... expenses set forth in subparagraphs (A) through (D) of section 217(b)(1) attributable to the taxpayer alone... attributable to property sold, purchased, or leased by the taxpayer alone, the same type of expenses paid or... (for example, recent high school or college graduates), or individuals who are reentering the labor...

  17. 20 CFR 404.1272 - Refund or recomputation of overpayments which are not adjustable-for wages paid prior to 1987.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Refund or recomputation of overpayments which are not adjustable-for wages paid prior to 1987. 404.1272 Section 404.1272 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL... the appropriate Federal Reserve bank or branch (see § 404.1262), and no adjustment in the amount of...

  18. 20 CFR 404.1263 - When fractional part of a cent may be disregarded-for wages paid prior to 1987.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When fractional part of a cent may be disregarded-for wages paid prior to 1987. 404.1263 Section 404.1263 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY... contributions to a Federal Reserve bank or branch, a State may disregard a fractional part of a cent unless it...

  19. 26 CFR 1.263(a)-5 - Amounts paid or incurred to facilitate an acquisition of a trade or business, a change in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... stock to fund future growth. Y pays $5,000,000 in professional fees for investment banking services... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Amounts paid or incurred to facilitate an... transactions. 1.263(a)-5 Section 1.263(a)-5 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE...

  20. 26 CFR 48.6416(c)-1 - Credit for tax paid on tires or, prior to January 1, 1984, inner tubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...(a) on the sale (before April 1, 1983) of the automobile truck. If the tires or inner tubes sold on... allowable against the tax imposed on the sale of the automobile truck. (c) Tires or tubes manufactured by... credit against tax on sale of taxable article. If tax has been paid under section 4071 on the sale, or...

  1. Increased Duration of Paid Maternity Leave Lowers Infant Mortality in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: A Quasi-Experimental Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandi, Arijit; Hajizadeh, Mohammad; Harper, Sam; Koski, Alissa; Strumpf, Erin C; Heymann, Jody

    2016-03-01

    Maternity leave reduces neonatal and infant mortality rates in high-income countries. However, the impact of maternity leave on infant health has not been rigorously evaluated in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). In this study, we utilized a difference-in-differences approach to evaluate whether paid maternity leave policies affect infant mortality in LMICs. We used birth history data collected via the Demographic and Health Surveys to assemble a panel of approximately 300,000 live births in 20 countries from 2000 to 2008; these observational data were merged with longitudinal information on the duration of paid maternity leave provided by each country. We estimated the effect of an increase in maternity leave in the prior year on the probability of infant (maternity was associated with 7.9 fewer infant deaths per 1,000 live births (95% CI 3.7, 12.0), reflecting a 13% relative reduction. Reductions in infant mortality associated with increases in the duration of paid maternity leave were concentrated in the post-neonatal period. Estimates were robust to adjustment for individual, household, and country-level characteristics, although there may be residual confounding by unmeasured time-varying confounders, such as coincident policy changes. More generous paid maternity leave policies represent a potential instrument for facilitating early-life interventions and reducing infant mortality in LMICs and warrant further discussion in the post-2015 sustainable development agenda. From a policy planning perspective, further work is needed to elucidate the mechanisms that explain the benefits of paid maternity leave for infant mortality.

  2. [The relationship between casual paid work, the use of psychoactive substances and school problems among upper secondary school students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazur, Joanna; Małkowska-Szkutnik, Agnieszka; Tabak, Izabela

    2012-01-01

    The issue of casual work is rarely mentioned in Poland in the studies of adolescent health and its determinants. The article includes a preliminary analysis of the links among work, psychoactive substance abuse and school problems in older adolescents. The examined data relate to the age-homogenous group of 989 upper secondary-school students surveyed in 2011.The questions were derived from the Polish version of the CHIP-AE (Child Health and Illness Profile - Adolescent Edition) questionnaire. Cigarette smoking, mild and strong alcoholic drinks consumption and marihuana use were analysed with regard to the preceding month. A combined index - a scale of psychoactive substance use (SUSP) was calculated from the perspective of the entire life. The other index - a scale of the intensity of school problems (SNPS) was built around four questions about the occurrence of such problems within the preceding month. Within the examined group, 27.2% of the surveyed admitted to working outside their household. One in five worked for more than 10 hours a week. Working adolescents significantly more often used psychoactive substances than their non-working peers. The risk of a significant threat from psychoactive substances rose twofold in the comparison of working and non-working youth - OR=1.99 [95% CI(OR): 1,44-2,74]. Correspondingly, there was an increase in the risk of intensified school problems (SNPS) - OR=2.25 [95% CI(OR): 1,64-3,08].Working more than 10 hours a week results both risk factors rising to 2.34 and 2.70 respectively. Over threefold rise in the frequency of neglecting work or its bad performance was identified (OR=3.19; [95% CI(OR): 1,90-5,36]), when comparing the adolescents with the smallest and the biggest intensity of school. problems in the working group. Upper secondary school students undertaking paid work outside their household are in the risk group for psychoactive substance use and school problems. It is advisable to conduct deeper research on the

  3. MARKETING RESEARCHES OF THE POPULATIONS HEALTH STATE AS A FACTOR OF DEMAND FORMATION IN THE MARKET OF PAID MEDICAL SERVICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataliia Hrechanyk

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The state of health of the population is one of the most important indicators of the well-being of the nation. Important directions of health care reform are optimization of management, rational distribution of limited financial resources, efficient use of material resources, introduction of health insurance, restructuring of treatment and preventive care to the people. Marketing of medical services market is one of the most complex types of marketing. Because it is medical services that are connected with the protection and maintenance of the most important values ​​of a person - life and health. The market for medical services is a combination of socio-economic relations in the healthcare sector. The most important components of the analysis of any market, including the market of medical services, are marketing research, which is a systematic collection, processing, analysis of data and information in order to formulate proposals for effective activities on it. In the field of public health, marketing can be defined as a complex process of planning, economic substantiation and management of the process of provision of medical services, the formation of a pricing policy of the medical-preventive process, ensuring effective communication with patients. The purpose of the study is to identify the health of the population and determine the demand factors for paid health services and their demand. The main task set before market research on the health of the population is the formation and provision of benefits to consumers that meet their needs for qualified medical care and quality of life. The research methods used in the work are based on probabilistic, stratified, quota, representative samples for the entire population of Ivano-Frankivsk and Ivano-Frankivsk region. The obtained results allow us to give a realistic assessment of the main trends and allow us to assess the potential of socio-economic adaptation of the population in the

  4. Who paid taxes in XVIIth century Castile? The incidence of the taxes levied upon wine in Madrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ignacio ANDRÉS UCENDO

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false ES X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabla normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi; mso-fareast-language:EN-US;} The hegemony of indirect taxation was one of the main hallmarks of the Castilian fiscal system during the Early Modern Period. It is commonly acknowledged that the burden of such taxation fell squarely upon the consumers and the aim of this essay is to analyze who really paid the taxes collected upon wine in XVIIth century Madrid. First part shows how the growing fiscal burden collected upon wine caused the development of a massive fraud which harmed the members of the publicans’ guild and the Crown and City Treasuries, benefiting all those who could sell wine in the black market. Second part indicates that in spite of the continuous introduction of taxes on wine in Madrid during the century the consumption levels of this beverage (in «per capita» terms experienced a rather moderate fall. It could be argued that thanks to the development of fraud the city consumers could buy cheap wine in the black market, but the evidence offered here suggests that this was not the case. In fact, the wine sold in the black market was only 5-10% cheaper than that sold legally by the members of the publicans’ guild. As showed in third part, the prices of the wine sold both in the legal and black markets in XVIIth century Madrid rose always well

  5. Educational differences in trajectories of self-rated health before, during, and after entering or leaving paid employment in the European workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuring, Merel; Robroek, Suzan J W; Lingsma, Hester F; Burdorf, Alex

    2015-09-01

    This study aimed to investigate (i) the influence of entering or leaving paid employment on self-rated health trajectories before, during, and after this transition and (ii) educational differences in these health trajectories. In this prospective study, we used yearly measurements of self-rated health from the European Community Household Panel (ECHP) to establish how health is affected by employment transitions in or out of the workforce due to early retirement, unemployment or economic inactivity. Trajectories of self-rated health were analyzed among 136 556 persons with low, intermediate, or high educational level by repeated-measures logistic regression with generalized estimating equations. Among low-educated workers, ill-health partly prompted their voluntary labor force exit through early retirement and becoming economically inactive, but thereafter these exit routes seemed to prevent further deterioration of their health. In contrast, among higher educated workers, early retirement had an adverse effect on their self-rated health. Becoming unemployed had adverse effects on self-rated health among all educational levels. Entering paid employment was predetermined by self-rated health improvement in the preceding years among intermediate and high educated workers, whereas, among low-educated workers, self-rated health improved in the year of entering paid employed and continued to improve in the following years. Prolonging working life may have both adverse and beneficial effects on self-rated health. Health inequalities may increase when every person, independent of educational level, must perform paid employment until the same age before being able to retire.

  6. Paid employment and common mental disorders in 50-64-year olds: analysis of three cross-sectional nationally representative survey samples in 1993, 2000 and 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, G; Di Gessa, G; Corna, L M; Glaser, K; Stewart, R

    2017-08-24

    Associations between employment status and mental health are well recognised, but evidence is sparse on the relationship between paid employment and mental health in the years running up to statutory retirement ages using robust mental health measures. In addition, there has been no investigation into the stability over time in this relationship: an important consideration if survey findings are used to inform future policy. The aim of this study is to investigate the association between employment status and common mental disorder (CMD) in 50-64-year old residents in England and its stability over time, taking advantage of three national mental health surveys carried out over a 14-year period. Data were analysed from the British National Surveys of Psychiatric Morbidity of 1993, 2000 and 2007. Paid employment status was the primary exposure of interest and CMD the primary outcome - both ascertained identically in all three surveys (CMD from the revised Clinical Interview Schedule). Multivariable logistic regression models were used. The prevalence of CMD was higher in people not in paid employment across all survey years; however, this association was only present for non-employment related to poor health as an outcome and was not apparent in those citing other reasons for non-employment. Odds ratios for the association between non-employment due to ill health and CMD were 3.05 in 1993, 3.56 in 2000, and 2.80 in 2007, after adjustment for age, gender, marital status, education, social class, housing tenure, financial difficulties, smoking status, recent physical health consultation and activities of daily living impairment. The prevalence of CMD was higher in people not in paid employment for health reasons, but was not associated with non-employment for other reasons. Associations had been relatively stable in strength from 1993 to 2007 in those three cross-sectional nationally representative samples.

  7. Is being in paid work beyond state pension age beneficial for health? Evidence from England using a life-course approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Gessa, Giorgio; Corna, Laurie M; Platts, Loretta G; Worts, Diana; McDonough, Peggy; Sacker, Amanda; Price, Debora; Glaser, Karen

    2017-05-01

    Given the current policy emphasis in many Western societies on extending working lives, we investigated the health effects of being in paid work beyond state pension age (SPA). Until now, work has largely focused on the health of those who exit the labour force early. Our data come from waves 2-4 of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing, including the life history interview at wave 3. Using logistic and linear regression models, we assessed the longitudinal associations between being in paid work beyond SPA and 3 measures of health (depression, a latent measure of somatic health and sleep disturbance) among men aged 65-74 and women aged 60-69. Our analyses controlled for baseline health and socioeconomic characteristics, as well as for work histories and health in adulthood and childhood. Approximately a quarter of women and 15% of men were in paid work beyond SPA. Descriptive bivariate analyses suggested that men and women in paid work were more likely to report better health at follow-up. However, once baseline socioeconomic characteristics as well as adulthood and baseline health and labour market histories were accounted for, the health benefits of working beyond SPA were no longer significant. Potential health benefits of working beyond SPA need to be considered in the light of the fact that those who report good health and are more socioeconomically advantaged are more likely to be working beyond SPA to begin with. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  8. Veiksniai, įtakojantys PAID klausimyne atsispindintį 1 tipo cukriniu diabetu sergančių pacientų patiriamo distreso lygį

    OpenAIRE

    Petraitytė, Karolina

    2016-01-01

    Author: Karolina Petraitytė Title: Factors influencing the level of diabetes related distress measured by PAID questionnaire in patients with type 1 diabetes. Aim: To evaluate factors that have influence on diabetes related emotional distress in young (18 – 25 years old) patients with type 1 diabetes. Objectives: 1. To distinguish the gender differences in diabetes related emotional distress level in patients with type 1 diabetes. 2. To identify a relationship between diabetes...

  9. Uudised : Urmas Alenderile pühendatud festival Paides. Heiki Mätlik kirjutab Bachist. Ungari muusika Balti misjonikeskuses. Hans van Manen lavastas Pärti

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2000-01-01

    25. nov. Paides toimuvast U. Alenderi loomingule pühendatud muusikafestival-konkursist Alenderfest "Südame hääl". Ilmus H. Mätliku kolmeosaline traktaat Bachi lautomuusika interpretatsioonist ja arranzheerimisest kitarrile. 20. okt. Balti misjonikeskuses toimuvast ungari pärimusmuusikakontserdist. H. van Manen kasutab uue lühiballettide kava "Tantsu laureaadid" lavastuses A. Pärdi teost "Spiegel im Spiegel"

  10. Identifying the important factors associated with teaching sex education to people with intellectual disability: A cross-sectional survey among paid care staff†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaafsma, Dilana; Kok, Gerjo; Stoffelen, Joke M. T.; Van Doorn, Paulien; Curfs, Leopold M. G.

    2014-01-01

    Background Sex education programs have been developed with paid care staff as sex educators. However, no information is available about whether these programs are being delivered. Method The aim of this study was to investigate whether paid care staff working in an organisation specialised in the care of people with mild to moderate intellectual disability teach sex education or not. An online questionnaire was therefore constructed to assess the important factors associated with teaching sex education. Results Of the 163 staff members who completed the questionnaire, 39% provided sex education. Results show that it was mainly provided reactively. The main factor was the perceived social norm towards teaching sex education. Conclusions If we want paid care staff to teach sex education reactively, then we need to focus on changing the perceived social norm. However, if we want them to teach sex education proactively, a new needs assessment should be conducted in order to identify the important factors to motivate and enable them to provide sex education.

  11. Graikiško Odarion’o (1604 šv. Kazimiero garbei autorystės problema | The problem of the authorship of the Greek Odarion to Saint Casimirus (1604

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Veteikis

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The present article focuses on the question of the authorship of the Greek Odarion to St. Casimirus, one of the most outstanding pieces of Greek poetry in Early Modern Lithuania, recently famed for its dual versification. This amusing piece of work, located in the collection of the panegyrical texts to the same saint, carrying the title THEATRVM S. CASIMIRI, IN QVO IPSIVS PROSAPIA, VITA, MIRACVLA, & illustris pompa in solemni eiusdem apotheoseos instauratione, Vilnae Lithuaniae Metropoli V. Id. Maij, Anno D[omi]ni M. DC. IV. instituta graphice proponuntur. […] Editum ibidem [sc. Vilnae], eodem anno [sc. 1604], operis Typographicis Academiae SOCIETATIS IESV, was performed orally during the solemnities that took place 10–12 May in 1604 in Vilnius due to the recent canonization of this saint. The true author of this collection is actually unknown and the same is applicable to the Odarion. Gregorius Swięcicki, the member of Vilnius chapter, whose name appears in several parts of the convolute (especially, under the short introductory letter Author Lectori, is generally being taken as an author’s name for the whole printed collection (including Odarion. This position was recently questioned due to the detection of one more important part of the convolute, the so-called Pompa Casimiriana written by certain Quirinus Cnoglerus Austrius. The main idea of this article is to reveal the complicated cultural, educational and confessional surroundings of such a litterary composition as Odarion and give several suggestions concerning the personalities who might be called its authors. First of them is Austrian “philhelenic” humanist and probably convertite Quirinus Cnogler, the author of the panegyrical oration (sermo panegyricus Pompa Casimiriana (s. l., s. a. [=Vilnae 1604?] and a number of occasional, publicistical, polemical writings of different scope. Another “candidate” is Swedish poet Laurentius Boierus (1561–1619, the author of

  12. Undisclosed U.S. Detention Sites Overseas: Background and Legal Issues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Elsea, Jennifer K; Kim, Julie

    2006-01-01

    .... detention facility at the Guantanamo Bay Naval Station confirmed the existence of secret U.S. prison facilities abroad, the subject of previously unsubstantiated media allegations and investigations by foreign governments and human rights bodies...

  13. Aggregation of thrombin-derived C-terminal fragments as a previously undisclosed host defense mechanism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrlova, Jitka; Hansen, Finja C; van der Plas, Mariena J A

    2017-01-01

    Effective control of endotoxins and bacteria is crucial for normal wound healing. During injury, the key enzyme thrombin is formed, leading to generation of fibrin. Here, we show that human neutrophil elastase cleaves thrombin, generating 11-kDa thrombin-derived C-terminal peptides (TCPs), which ...

  14. O cavalete, a tela e o branco: introdução à autoria na rede eletrônica The rack, the screen, the memory: considerations on authorship in the net

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucília Maria Sousa Romão

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo discute a autoria na rede eletrônica, focando especialmente a questão da memória, do arquivo e do sujeito. À luz da Análise do Discurso de matriz francesa e apoiada no conceito de heterogeneidade enunciativa (Authier-Revuz, analiso um corpus lingüístico coletado em 2004, em um blog político de nome Mexidão. A análise indicia, provisoriamente, que a topologia do hipertexto, a rapidez dos acessos e a estrutura textual do diário íntimo eletrônico criam a imagem de um sujeito-navegador em permanente trânsito.The present article discusses the authorship in the electronic net, especially focusing the subject of the memory, of the file and of the subject. To the light of the Analysis of the Discursive of French and leaning head office in the heterogeneity concept (Authier-Revuz, I analyze a linguistic corpus collected in 2004, in a political blog of name Mexidão. The analysis indicates, provisorily, that the topology of the hipertext, the speed of the accesses and the textual structure of the electronic intimate diary create the image of a subject-navigator in permanent traffic.

  15. Informal care and sleep disturbance among caregivers in paid work: Longitudinal analyses from a large community-based Swedish cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacco, Lawrence B; Leineweber, Constanze; Platts, Loretta G

    2017-12-08

    To examine cross-sectionally and prospectively whether informal caregiving is related to sleep disturbance among caregivers in paid work. Participants (N=21 604) in paid work from the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health. Sleeping problems were measured with a validated scale of sleep disturbance (Karolinska Sleep Questionnaire). Random-effects modelling was used to examine the cross-sectional association between informal caregiving (self-reports: none, up to 5h per week, over 5h per week) and sleep disturbance. Potential socio-demographic and health confounders were controlled for and interactions between caregiving and gender included. Longitudinal random-effects modelling of the effects of changes in reported informal caregiving upon sleep disturbance and change in sleep disturbance were performed. In multivariate analyses controlling for socio-demographics, health factors and work hours, informal caregiving was associated cross-sectionally with sleep disturbance in a dose-response relationship (compared to no caregiving, up to 5h of caregiving: β = .03; 95% CI: .01; .06, over 5h: β = .08; 95% CI: .02; .13), results which varied by gender. Cessation of caregiving was associated with reductions in sleep disturbance (β = -.08; 95% CI: -.13; -.04). This study provides evidence for a causal association of provision of informal care upon subjective sleep disturbance. Even low intensity care provision was related to sleep disturbance among this sample of carers in paid work. The results highlight the importance of addressing sleep disturbance in caregivers. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press [on behalf of the Sleep Research Society].

  16. Sick leave among people in paid work after age 65: A Swedish population-based study covering 1995, 2000, 2005 and 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrants, K; Marklund, S; Kjeldgård, L; Head, J; Alexanderson, K

    2017-09-01

    Extending working life into older age groups is discussed in many countries. However, there is no knowledge about how this affects rates of sick leave. The aim of this work was to investigate rates of sick leave among people in paid work after retirement age and if such rates have changed over time. Swedish nationwide register data on people aged >65 years and living in Sweden in 1995, 2000, 2005 and 2010 were analysed. All people with a sufficiently high work income to be eligible for public sick leave benefits were included. The proportions in paid work and compensated rates of sick leave for people aged 66-70 and ≥71 were analysed by sex, educational level, country of birth, living area, and employment type and sector. The percentage of people in paid work at ages 66-70 years increased from aged ≥71 years from 2.7% in 1995 to 3.5% in 2010. The rates of sick leave among working people aged 66-70 years were 3.3% in 1995 and 2.4% in 2010 and for people aged ≥71 years the rates of sick leave were 2.2% in 1995 and 0.2% in 2010. Women had higher rates of sick leave than men in 2005 and 2010, but lower in 1995 and 2000. In 2010, the rates of sick leave were similar between employees and the self-employed, and higher among employees in the public sector than among employees in the private sector. Rates of sick leave among workers aged >65 years were lower in 2010 than in 1995, despite much higher rates of labour market participation in 2010.

  17. Influence of an Interdisciplinary Re-employment Programme Among Unemployed Persons with Mental Health Problems on Health, Social Participation and Paid Employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlier, Bouwine E; Schuring, Merel; Burdorf, Alex

    2018-03-01

    Purpose To evaluate the influence of an interdisciplinary re-employment programme on labour force participation and perceived health among unemployed persons with common mental health problems. In addition, the influence of entering paid employment on self-rated physical health and mental health was investigated. Methods In this quasi-experimental study with 2 years follow up, 869 persons were enrolled after referral to an interdisciplinary re-employment programme (n = 380) or regular re-employment programme (n = 489). The propensity score technique was used to account for observed differences between the intervention and control group. The intervention programme was provided by an interdisciplinary team, consisting of mental health care professionals as well as employment specialists. Mental health problems were addressed through cognitive counselling and individual tailored job-search support was provided by an employment professional. Primary outcome measures were paid employment and voluntary work. Secondary outcome measures were self-rated mental and physical health, measured by the Short Form 12 Health Survey, and anxiety and depressive symptoms, measured by the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale. Changes in labour force participation and health were examined with repeated-measures logistic regression analyses by the generalized estimating equations method. Results The interdisciplinary re-employment programme did not have a positive influence on entering employment or physical or mental health among unemployed persons with mental health problems. After 2 years, 10% of the participants of the intervention programme worked fulltime, compared to 4% of the participants of the usual programmes (adjusted OR 1.65). The observed differences in labour force participation were not statistically significant. However, among persons who entered paid employment, physical health improved (+16%) and anxiety and depressive symptoms decreased (-15%), whereas

  18. The price of a drink: levels of consumption and price paid per unit of alcohol by Edinburgh's ill drinkers with a comparison to wider alcohol sales in Scotland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Heather; Gill, Jan; Chick, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    Aim To compare alcohol purchasing and consumption by ill drinkers in Edinburgh with wider alcohol sales in Scotland. Design Cross-sectional. Setting Two hospitals in Edinburgh in 2008/09. Participants A total of 377 patients with serious alcohol problems; two-thirds were in-patients with medical, surgical or psychiatric problems due to alcohol; one-third were out-patients. Measurements Last week's or typical weekly consumption of alcohol: type, brand, units (1 UK unit 8 g ethanol), purchase place and price. Findings Patients consumed mean 197.7 UK units/week. The mean price paid per unit was £0.43 (lowest £0.09/unit) (£1 = 1.6 US$ or 1.2€), which is below the mean unit price, £0.71 paid in Scotland in 2008. Of units consumed, 70.3% were sold at or below £0.40/unit (mid-range of price models proposed for minimum pricing legislation by the Scottish Government), and 83% at or below £0.50/unit proposed by the Chief Medical Officer of England. The lower the price paid per unit, the more units a patient consumed. A continuous increase in unit price from lower to higher social status, ranked according to the Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation (based on postcode), was not seen; patients residing in postcodes in the mid-quintile paid the highest price per unit. Cheapness was quoted commonly as a reason for beverage choice; ciders, especially ‘white’ cider, and vodka were, at off-sales, cheapest per unit. Stealing alcohol or drinking alcohol substitutes was only very rarely reported. Conclusions Because patients with serious alcohol problems tend to purchase very cheap alcohol, elimination of the cheapest sales by minimum price or other legislation might reduce their consumption. It is unknown whether proposed price legislation in Scotland will encourage patients with serious alcohol problems to start stealing alcohol or drinking substitutes or will reduce the recruitment of new drinkers with serious alcohol problems and produce predicted longer-term gains in

  19. Broadcasting behavior change: a comparison of the effectiveness of paid and unpaid media to increase folic acid awareness, knowledge, and consumption among Hispanic women of childbearing age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Alina L; Prue, Christine E; Daniel, Katherine Lyon

    2007-04-01

    Awareness about folic acid's effectiveness in reducing the risk of certain birth defects has increased among women in the United States; however, few Hispanic women are consuming enough folic acid daily. A 1998 survey conducted by the Gallup Organization for the National March of Dimes Birth Defects Foundation found that English-speaking Hispanic women had lower folic acid awareness (53% vs. 72%) and lower daily consumption (29% vs. 33%) than non-Hispanic White women. In 1999, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) conducted baseline surveys with Spanish-speaking Hispanic women in selected U.S. markets to measure folic acid awareness, knowledge, and consumption. A Spanish-language public service announcement (PSA) volunteer campaign and a paid Spanish-language media and community education campaign were conducted in 2000 and 2002, respectively. Comparisons of postcampaign surveys indicate that the paid media campaign was significantly more effective than the PSA campaign in increasing folic acid awareness, knowledge, and consumption among Spanish-speaking Hispanic women.

  20. Changes in use of types of tobacco products by pack sizes and price segments, prices paid and consumption following the introduction of plain packaging in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scollo, Michelle; Zacher, Meghan; Coomber, Kerri; Bayly, Megan; Wakefield, Melanie

    2015-04-01

    To describe changes among smokers in use of various types of tobacco products, reported prices paid and cigarette consumption following the standardisation of tobacco packaging in Australia. National cross-sectional telephone surveys of adult smokers were conducted from April 2012 (6 months before transition to plain packaging (PP)) to March 2014 (15 months afterwards). Multivariable logistic regression assessed changes in products, brands and pack types/sizes; multivariable linear regression examined changes in inflation-adjusted prices paid and reported cigarette consumption between the pre-PP and three subsequent periods-the transition phase, PP year 1 and PP post-tax (post a 12.5% tax increase in December 2013). The proportion of current smokers using roll-your-own (RYO) products fluctuated over the study period. Proportions using value brands of factory-made (FM) cigarettes increased from pre-PP (21.4%) to PP year 1 (25.5%; p=0.002) and PP post-tax (27.8%; pIntroduction of PP was associated with an increase in use of value brands, likely due to increased numbers available and smaller increases in prices for value relative to premium brands. Reported consumption declined following the December 2013 tax increase. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  1. Autoria no ensino de química: análise de textos escritos por alunos de graduação Authorship in chemistry teaching: analysis of texts written by undergraduate students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Nobre de Abreu Ferreira

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A utilização de textos de divulgação científica no ensino formal tem sido discutida por pesquisadores da área de educação em ciências. Tais discussões sugerem que esses textos podem funcionar como instrumento de motivação em sala de aula, organizando explicações e estimulando debates. Nesta perspectiva, foi aplicada uma proposta de ensino pautada no uso de capítulos do livro Tio Tungstênio: Memórias de uma Infância Química, de Oliver Sacks. A proposta, que envolveu a produção de textos, pelos estudantes, sobre conteúdos do livro, foi aplicada em uma disciplina do Ensino Superior de química. Os textos foram analisados segundo a Análise do Discurso de linha francesa, especificamente com relação à noção de autoria.The use of popular science texts in formal education has been discussed by researchers in the field of Science Education. Such discussions suggest that these texts can be an instrument of motivation in the classroom organizing explanations and stimulating discussions. Thus, a teaching proposal was implemented based on the book Uncle Tungsten: Memories of a Chemical Boyhood, by Oliver Sacks. The study involved the production of texts by undergraduate students about some chapters of that book. The texts were analyzed from the perspective of French Discourse Analysis, specifically according to the concept of authorship.

  2. Eduquito: ferramentas de autoria e de colaboração acessíveis na perspectiva da web 2.0 Eduquito: accessible authorship and collaboration tools from the perspective of web 2.0

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucila Maria Costi Santarosa

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available o Eduquito, ambiente digital/virtual de aprendizagem desenvolvido pela equipe de pesquisadores do NIEE/UFRGS, busca apoiar processos de inclusão sociodigital, por ser projetado em sintonia com os princípios de acessibilidade e de desenho universal, normatizados pela WAI/W3C. O desenvolvimento da plataforma digital/virtual acessível e os resultados da utilização por pessoas com deficiências são discutidos, revelando um processo permanente de verificação e de validação dos recursos e da funcionalidade do ambiente Eduquito junto a diversidade humana. Apresentamos e problematizamos duas ferramentas de autoria individual e coletiva - a Oficina Multimídia e o Bloguito, um blog acessível -, novos recursos do ambiente Eduquito que emergem da aplicabilidade do conceito de pervasividade, buscando instituir espaços de letramento e impulsionar práticas de mediação tecnológica para a inclusão sociodigital no contexto da Web 2.0.the Eduquito, a digital/virtual learning environment developed by a NIEE / UFRGS team of researchers, seeks to support processes of socio-digital inclusion, and for that reason it was devised according to accessibility principles and universal design systematized by WAI/W3C. We discuss the development of a digital/virtual accessible platform and the results of its use by people with special needs, revealing an ongoing process of verification and validation of features and functionality of the Eduquito environment considering human diversity. We present and question two individual and collective authorship tools - the Multimedia Workshop and Bloguito, an accessible blog - new features of Eduquito Environment that emerge from the applicability of the concept of pervasiveness, in order to establish literacy spaces and boost technological mediation for socio-digital inclusion in the Web 2.0 context.

  3. LA CONSTRUCCIÓN DE LA IDENTIDAD PERSONAL Y EL DESARROLLO DE LA AUTO-AUTORÍA. THE CONSTRUCTION OF THE PERSONAL IDENTITY AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE SELF-AUTHORSHIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiza Bontempo e Silva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo se propone justificar la relevancia de analizar el vínculo entre la identidad y la auto-autoría. Entendiendo la identidad, con base en las propuestas de Giddens (1997 y Ricoeur (1996, como una construcción narrativa realizada a partir de una reflexión del individuo sobre su propia biografía. En concordancia con el abordaje de Baxter Magolda (2004, entendemos la auto-autoría como la capacidad del individuo de dar sentido a sus experiencias basándose en sus propios valores y creencias. Así, argumentamos sobre las ventajas de esta integración para entender a los jóvenes, y tratamos de mostrar que el análisis de las creencias epistemológicas del individuo es fundamental para comprender la construcción de su identidad entendida como un proceso reflexivo.This article intends to justify the importance of analyzing the link between identity and selfauthorship. Understanding identity, based on Giddens' (1997 and Ricoeur's (1996 proposal,as a narrative construction starting from a reflection of the individual on his own biography. In accordance with Baxter Magolda's approach (2004, self-authorship is understood as the ability the individual has to make sense of his experiences based on his own values and beliefs. Thus, we argue about the advantages of this integration to understand the young people, and we attempt to show that the analysis of epistemological beliefs of the individual is fundamental to understanding the construction of his identity as a reflective process.

  4. A more than one-hundred-fold higher per capita rate of authorship of five democratic nations versus their relatively undemocratic neighboring nations among 6,437 articles in 14 medical journals: does democracy and civil liberties promote intellectual creativity and medical research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappell, Mitchell S

    2009-08-01

    The aim of this work is to compare medical research productivity between democratic countries and their relatively undemocratic neighbors to identify mechanisms to promote medical research. Country of authorship was determined manually for articles published in 14 medical journals in 2005, and compared pairwise for democracies vs. relatively undemocratic nations: Israel vs. the rest of the Middle East; Japan vs. Russia; South Korea vs. North Korea; and Taiwan or Hong Kong vs. Mainland China. Democracies were quantitatively defined according to the Freedom House Index and the Economist's Index of Democracy. The frequency of publication of Israeli authors of unsolicited articles (excludes editorials) was found to be 1.08%, while its percentage of the world population is only .11% (OR = 9.97, 95%-ORCI: 4.30-23.1, P favoritism: the relative frequency (RF) of Israeli authors of unsolicited articles was significantly higher than the RF of Israeli authors of solicited articles (i.e., invited editorials) (1.08% vs. 0.13%, OR = 8.38, 95%-ORCI = 1.46-48.1, P = 0.007); and was significantly higher than the RF of Israeli editorial board members (1.08% vs. 0.08%, OR = 13.0, 95%-ORCI = 2.27-74.7, P < 0.0001). Contrariwise, the frequency of publication of authors from the Middle East excluding Israel was 0.30%, while its percentage of the world population is 4.04% (OR = 0.071, 95%-ORCI = 0.04-0.12, P < 0.0001). The OR of Israeli authorship was incredibly 140.4-fold higher than the OR of the MEEI! The OR of authors of other democratic countries was also more than 100-fold the OR of authors of their undemocratic neighbors: Japan (OR = 4.93, 95%-ORCI = 3.82-6.36, P < 0.0001) vs. Russia (OR = 0.005, 95%-ORCI = 0.00-0.06, P < 0.0001); South Korea (OR = 3.48, 95%-ORCI = 2.29-5.31, P < 0.0001) vs. North Korea (OR < 0.36, 95%-ORCI = 0.00-0.35, P < 0.0001); Taiwan (OR = 5.12, 95%-ORCI = 2.85-9.19, P < 0.0001) or Hong Kong (OR = 9.21, 95%-ORCI = 3.51-24.2, P < 0.0001) vs. Mainland China

  5. Gender Discrimination in Death Reportage: Reconnoitering Disparities through a Comparative Analysis of Male and Female Paid Obituaries of Pakistani English Newspapers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajid M. Chaudhry

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The study examines the issue of gender discrimination in the post death scenario of obituarial discourse. It aims to identify the way Pakistani newspaper obituaries recognize and project males and females after their deaths. A total of 601 paid obituaries published in a year’s time span in Pakistani English newspapers were evaluated for the purpose. 10 qualitative interviews were also conducted to supplement the findings and discussion. Quantification of the data suggests that males not only get more obituaries but also get added projection when compared to females. To understand the reasons behind this varied treatment, the participants’ responses were analyzed. The findings reveal that the observed differences in the death reportage of both genders do not purely fall in the line of gender discrimination. Males get situational advantage due to the factors like familial traditions, religious beliefs, cultural traditions and socio-economic environments.

  6. A STUDY REGARDING THE LEVEL OF TRUST THE YOUNG ROMANIAN CONSUMER HAS IN PAID MEDIA AS OPPOSED TO THAT IN EARNED MEDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIHAIL-CRISTIAN DIŢOIU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Along with the evolution of the Internet and with its growing capacity to impose itself on the population, the consumer has become stronger through the simplification of access to information. Thus, 24 hours out of 24 hours, Internet users from all around the world are searching for relevant information about the product they desire. This is also the reason why organizations are striving to be as present as ever in the online medium, interacting with their consumers, monitoring the information dissipated by them on the Internet about their products, and measuring the effects they have produced. The media available to an organization is represented by: paid media, owned media and earned media. The problem that is raised is that of a correct management by the marketers so that the investment in one type of media will also pursue the conversion in another type of media, thus resulting, through the help of consumers, a chain. When a consumer wants to buy a product, he needs relevant information in order to make a decision. The information about the product is analyzed based on source credibility, which is seen as a perception of the degree of the consumer’s trust. The present study tries to investigate the level of trust the young Romanian consumer has in paid media and earned media during the buying process. The study is conducted on a group of young Romanian people, with ages ranging from 18 to 24 years, from urban backgrounds. In order to observe if there exists a difference in the perception of media based on the type of medium the subject finds himself in, the survey has been conducted online, as well as offline.

  7. Female sex work and international sport events - no major changes in demand or supply of paid sex during the 2010 Soccer World Cup: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Important unanswered questions remain on the impact of international sporting events on the sex industry. Speculation about increased demand and supply of sex work often generates significant attention, but also additional funding for HIV programmes. This study assessed whether changes occurred in the demand and supply of paid sex during the 2010 Soccer World Cup in South Africa. Methods Trained sex worker interviewers conducted face-to-face semi-structured interviews among consenting female sex workers during May-September 2010. Using bivariate analyses we compared supply, demand, sexual risk-taking, and police and health services contact pre-World Cup, to levels during the World Cup and after the event. Results No increases were detected in indicators of sex work supply, including the proportion of sex workers newly arrived in the city ( 92.4% in all phases). Health-care utilisation decreased non-significantly from the pre- to during World Cup period (62.4% to 57.0%; P = 0.075). Across all periods, about thirty percent of participants had interacted with police in the preceding month, two thirds of whom had negative interactions. Conclusions Contrary to public opinion, no major increases were detected in the demand or supply of paid sex during the World Cup. Although the study design employed was unable to select population-based samples, these findings do not support the public concern and media speculation prior to the event, but rather signal a missed opportunity for public health action. Given the media attention on sex work, future sporting events offer strategic opportunities to implement services for sex workers and their clients, especially as health service utilisation might decrease in this period. PMID:22967260

  8. Lay workers in directly observed treatment (DOT) programmes for tuberculosis in high burden settings: Should they be paid? A review of behavioural perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kironde, Samson; Bajunirwe, Francis

    2002-08-01

    The current global tuberculosis (TB) epidemic has pressured health care managers, particularly in developing countries, to seek for alternative, innovative ways of delivering effective treatment to the large number of TB patients diagnosed annually. One strategy employed is direct observation of treatment (DOT) for all patients. In high-burden settings innovation with this strategy has resulted into the use of lay community members to supervise TB patients during the duration of anti-TB treatment. However, community involvement in health programmes is not a simple matter. There is often a need for continued motivation of community members in order to ensure sustainability of such projects. Lay workers may demand payment for work done particularly if this takes up a reasonable proportion of their time. TB treatment, by its very nature, lasts for a considerable period and this paper seeks to examine behavioural perspectives that attempt to address the issue of whether lay workers in such programmes should be paid for their services. The theories explored suggest intrinsic and extrinsic motivation as factors that lead people to volunteer for health programmes. Intrinsic motivation encompasses such feelings as empathy and altruism as well as other factors such as religious and cultural conviction. The authors argue however that in high-burden TB settings, these factors alone may be inadequate to provide continued motivation for lay worker involvement in health programmes. Extrinsic motivators, of which money is the strongest example, then also serve to keep sustained interest particularly in resource-limited settings where people expect payment for work done. The debate on whether lay workers in health programmes should be paid is thus compounded by issues such as what factors one believes are responsible for motivation in particular contextual settings; how long lay persons are expected to perform tasks at hand; the capacity that exists to pay them and the

  9. A systematic review evaluating the impact of paid home carer training, supervision, and other interventions on the health and well-being of older home care clients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Claudia; Cenko, Blerta; Dow, Briony; Rapaport, Penny

    2017-04-01

    Interventions to support and skill paid home carers and managers could potentially improve health and well-being of older home care clients. This is the first systematic review of interventions to improve how home carers and home care agencies deliver care to older people, with regard to clients' health and well-being and paid carers' well-being, job satisfaction, and retention. We reviewed 10/731 papers found in the electronic search (to January 2016) fitting predetermined criteria, assessed quality using a checklist, and synthesized data using quantitative and qualitative techniques. Ten papers described eight interventions. The six quantitative evaluations used diverse outcomes that precluded meta-analysis. In the only quantitative study (a cluster Randomized Controlled Trial), rated higher quality, setting meaningful goals, carer training, and supervision improved client health-related quality of life. The interventions that improved client outcomes comprised training with additional implementation, such as regular supervision and promoted care focused around clients' needs and goals. In our qualitative synthesis of four studies, intervention elements carers valued were greater flexibility to work to a needs-based rather than a task-based model, learning more about clients, and improved communication with management and other workers. There is a dearth of evidence regarding effective strategies to improve how home care is delivered to older clients, particularly those with dementia. More research in this sector including feasibility testing of the first home care intervention trials to include health and life quality outcomes for clients with more severe dementia is now needed.

  10. The relationships of self-efficacy, physical activity, and paid work to health-related quality of life among patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andenæs, Randi; Bentsen, Signe Berit; Hvinden, Kari; Fagermoen, May Solveig; Lerdal, Anners

    2014-01-01

    Although chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) primarily affects the lungs, it is regarded as a systemic disorder associated with comorbidity and physical deterioration, which often results in reduced levels of health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Self-efficacy is an important concept in self-management, which is vital for improving HRQoL in patients with COPD. The purpose of this study was to examine how general self-efficacy, leisure time physical activity, and sociodemographic variables such as employment status are related to the physical and mental health components of HRQoL in patients with COPD. In this cross-sectional study, 97 COPD patients (54.6% male, mean age 64.6 years, standard deviation [SD] 9.5) beginning a pulmonary rehabilitation program completed three self-report questionnaires: the short form (SF)-12v2 Health Survey as a measure of HRQoL; the General Self-Efficacy Scale; and a standardized instrument measuring regular leisure time physical activity. The physical health component median score was 31.3 (interquartile range [IQR] 16.3) and the mental health component median score was 45.9 (IQR 21.5). Two sets of linear regression analyses were performed, one predicting physical health and the other predicting mental health. The first analysis showed that better physical health was directly related to being in paid work (P-value work status, physical activity, or self-efficacy. In the second analysis, better mental health was directly related to living with a partner, being physically active, and having higher self-efficacy (P-value efficacy has differential relationships to the two dimensions of HRQoL. Our results indicate that general self-efficacy, physical activity, and paid work might be important factors for improving HRQoL of persons with COPD, and should be taken into consideration in pulmonary rehabilitation.

  11. 67 - 71 Ndana - evaluation paid

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMIN

    flash point, pour point, cloud point, colour, viscosity, diesel index, aniline point, calorific value and distillation. The comparison of these properties with diesel shows that density, carbon residue, acid value, sulphur content and calorific value of biodiesel are lower than diesel fuel. For biodiesel, acid value is an indicator of the ...

  12. 52 - 55 Indabawa - Antibacterial paid

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMIN

    Kola nut) against. Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi, Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae was studied. Results showed that alcohol extract of Garcinia kola was active against Staphylococcus aureus and. Klebsiella pneumoniae ...

  13. 98 - 104 TJ - Accepted paid

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMIN

    distributions, they are at risk of local catastrophe leading to global extinction. ... shapes are similar. Allometry is the study of the relationship between size and shape, first outlined by. Otto Snell in 1892 and Julian Huxley in 1932. Allometry is a well-known .... Changes in weather and climate even in small degree may lead to ...

  14. 98 - 104 TJ - Accepted paid

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMIN

    particular species abundance, composition etc or in form of studying species ... physics law of life and evolution. Application of constructal .... a well-known study in biology for practical applications to the differential growth rates of the parts of a living organism's body. One application is in the study of various insect species ...

  15. 36 - 39 Falodun - Anticancer paid

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMIN

    Geoffrey and Kirby 1996). Cancer is a dreadful ... human papillomavirus (HPV) are leading risk factors for cancer in low- and middle-income countries. ..... the Control of Protozoa disease with reference to Malaria. Transaction of the Royal. Society of ...

  16. 105 - 109 Falodun - Phyto paid

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMIN

    hexane, ethylacetate and butanol fractions. The ethylacetate fraction was subjected to preliminary thin layer chromatographic analysis using different solvent systems. The spots were visualized by UV lamp, concentrated sulphuric acid and ferric chloride. Determination of antioxidant activity. The antioxidant activity of G. kola ...

  17. [Evaluation on intervention project of mental health promotion in paid blood donors with HIV/AIDS infected adults in Anhui countryside].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Puyu; Tao, Fangbiao; Sun, Ying; Hao, Jiahu

    2011-05-01

    To evaluate the effect of intervention project of mental health promotion in paid blood donors with AIDS/HIV infected adults in Anhui countryside. About 41 HIV/AIDS infected adults were invited to take part in the intervention project. The project was put into practice by ways of multimedia course and group participation with the handbook of mental health promotion intervention for HIV/AIDS infected adults. All participants (41 intervention objects and 21 control objects) completed an anonymous questionnaire before and after the intervention. Depression, anxiety, self-esteem and coping style were evaluated by Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, Self-Rating Anxiety Scale, Self-Esteem Scale and Simplified Coping Style Questionnaire. There were 35.5% of the 62 blood donors without taking any education. There were 46.7% of them need to partially or completely rely on government grants and loans. Before intervention the rates of depression and anxiety, the scores of positive coping, negative coping and self-esteem were not significantly different between study group and control group (P > 0.05). After intervention the rates of depression and anxiety in study group were lower than those in control group and with significant difference. The scores of positive coping and self-esteem in study group were higher than those in control group, but the score of negative coping was contrary to them (P self-esteem (P Age was the influence factor for the intervention on depression, negative coping. Level of education was the influence factor for the intervention on depression, anxiety and self-esteem intervention. Gender was the influence factor for the intervention on positive coping. All objects reported that they liked the intervention project of mental health promotion and liked the interactive form of education. Psychological intervention to improve the response capacity and mental health of paid blood donors with HIV/AIDS infected adults in countryside has a

  18. Injuries Reported and Recorded for Adults with Intellectual Disabilities Who Live with Paid Support in Scotland: a Comparison with Scottish Adults in the General Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petropoulou, Evangelia; Finlayson, Janet; Hay, Margaret; Spencer, Wendy; Park, Richard; Tannock, Hugh; Galbraith, Erin; Godwin, Jon; Skelton, Dawn A

    2016-02-10

    Providers of supported living services to adults with intellectual disabilities (IDs) in the United Kingdom have procedures in place to monitor injuries; this provides opportunity to learn about the injuries being reported and recorded. The aim was to determine the incidence, causes and types of injuries experienced by 593 adults with intellectual disabilities who live with paid support in a 12-month period. Injury data, collected via a standard electronic injury monitoring system, were compared with data collected for a matched sample of the general population in the same year. The adults with intellectual disabilities experienced a higher rate of injury. Falls were the commonest cause of injury for both samples, but significantly more so for the adults with intellectual disabilities. The higher rate of injuries, particularly minor injuries, being reported suggests a culture of injury reporting and recording within these supported living services. Electronic injury monitoring is recommended for organizations providing supported living services for adults with intellectual disabilities. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Gino Germani y la Biblioteca de Psicología Social y Sociología de Paidós

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Arbeláez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo realiza un análisis de la labor editorial desarrollada por Gino Germani en la Biblioteca de Psicología Social y Sociología de Paidós, con el fin de ver cómo, por medio de ésta, Germani, al poner en circulación toda una gama de textos (por primera vez traducidos a lengua hispana de carácter interdisciplinar, empírico y anglosajón, logra constituir en América Latina un público lector especializado en ciencias sociales que tendrá empatía con su propuesta de una renovación intelectual de la sociología. Lo cual hace que, doce años después de iniciado su proyecto editorial, con la edición de su libro La sociología científica, él y su texto se sitúen en el centro de atención de la disciplina en América Latina y se conviertan en una referencia obligada de esta nueva orientación sociológica en la región, la sociología científica.

  20. An analysis on social cost benefit of city gas safety supervision system - concentrated on estimating the intended amount paid about gas safety of households using city gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Yong Sung [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea)

    1999-04-01

    With the increase of convenient and clean gas fuel consumption, the danger of gas safety accident is also increasing. Therefore, now is the time for requiring many thoughtful concerns and cares for the prevention of gas accident. In this study, the perception of city gas end users on use of city gas was studied and the economic value of improving gas safety was estimated by examining the intended amount paid for improving safety of city gas use. Although most of city gas end-users perceive that gas use is generally safe, they are concerned about a possibility of dander of accidents happened without any notice. On the other hand, about 97% of households using city gas know checking gas safety at a minimum, but only 60% among them are implementing self-checkup. The economic benefit of improving gas safety of city gas end-users in Korea is estimated from the lowest of 121.47 billion to the highest of 317.97 billion annually. (author). 38 refs., 5 figs., 45 tabs.