Random networks of Boolean cellular automata
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Miranda, Enrique [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, San Carlos de Bariloche (Argentina). Centro Atomico Bariloche
1990-01-01
Some recent results about random networks of Boolean automata -the Kauffman model- are reviewed. The structure of configuration space is explored. Ultrametricity between cycles is analyzed and the effects of noise in the dynamics are studied. (Author).
Random networks of Boolean cellular automata
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Miranda, Enrique
1990-01-01
Some recent results about random networks of Boolean automata -the Kauffman model- are reviewed. The structure of configuration space is explored. Ultrametricity between cycles is analyzed and the effects of noise in the dynamics are studied. (Author)
What is Cortinarius cylindripes Kauffman?
Bendiksen, Egil; Bendiksen, Katriina; Brandrud, Tor Erik
1992-01-01
Type studies have shown that Cortinarius cylindripes Kauffman should be reduced to a synonym of C. collinitus (Sow.: Fr.) S.F. Gray. Contradictions between the protologue of C. cylindripes and the type material are discussed. For C. cylindripes a new lectotype is indicated.
Goodstein, R L
2007-01-01
This elementary treatment by a distinguished mathematician employs Boolean algebra as a simple medium for introducing important concepts of modern algebra. Numerous examples appear throughout the text, plus full solutions.
Colored Kauffman homology and super-A-polynomials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nawata, Satoshi; Ramadevi, P.; Zodinmawia
2014-01-01
We study the structural properties of colored Kauffman homologies of knots. Quadruple-gradings play an essential role in revealing the differential structure of colored Kauffman homology. Using the differential structure, the Kauffman homologies carrying the symmetric tensor products of the vector representation for the trefoil and the figure-eight are determined. In addition, making use of relations from representation theory, we also obtain the HOMFLY homologies colored by rectangular Young tableaux with two rows for these knots. Furthermore, the notion of super-A-polynomials is extended in order to encompass two-parameter deformations of PSL(2,ℂ) character varieties
The Kauffman bracket and the Jones polynomial in quantum gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Griego, J.
1996-01-01
In the loop representation the quantum states of gravity are given by knot invariants. From general arguments concerning the loop transform of the exponential of the Chern-Simons form, a certain expansion of the Kauffman bracket knot polynomial can be formally viewed as a solution of the Hamiltonian constraint with a cosmological constant in the loop representation. The Kauffman bracket is closely related to the Jones polynomial. In this paper the operation of the Hamiltonian on the power expansions of the Kauffman bracket and Jones polynomials is analyzed. It is explicitly shown that the Kauffman bracket is a formal solution of the Hamiltonian constraint to third order in the cosmological constant. We make use of the extended loop representation of quantum gravity where the analytic calculation can be thoroughly accomplished. Some peculiarities of the extended loop calculus are considered and the significance of the results to the case of the conventional loop representation is discussed. (orig.)
Boolean reasoning the logic of boolean equations
Brown, Frank Markham
2012-01-01
A systematic treatment of Boolean reasoning, this concise, newly revised edition combines the works of early logicians with recent investigations, including previously unpublished research results. Brown begins with an overview of elementary mathematical concepts and outlines the theory of Boolean algebras. Two concluding chapters deal with applications. 1990 edition.
Free Boolean Topological Groups
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ol’ga Sipacheva
2015-11-01
Full Text Available Known and new results on free Boolean topological groups are collected. An account of the properties that these groups share with free or free Abelian topological groups and properties specific to free Boolean groups is given. Special emphasis is placed on the application of set-theoretic methods to the study of Boolean topological groups.
Solomon, Alan D
2012-01-01
REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Boolean Algebra includes set theory, sentential calculus, fundamental ideas of Boolean algebras, lattices, rings and Boolean algebras, the structure of a Boolean algebra, and Boolean
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Korshunov, A D
2003-01-01
Monotone Boolean functions are an important object in discrete mathematics and mathematical cybernetics. Topics related to these functions have been actively studied for several decades. Many results have been obtained, and many papers published. However, until now there has been no sufficiently complete monograph or survey of results of investigations concerning monotone Boolean functions. The object of this survey is to present the main results on monotone Boolean functions obtained during the last 50 years
Tucker, Jerry H.; Tapia, Moiez A.; Bennett, A. Wayne
1988-01-01
The concept of Boolean integration is developed, and different Boolean integral operators are introduced. Given the changes in a desired function in terms of the changes in its arguments, the ways of 'integrating' (i.e. realizing) such a function, if it exists, are presented. The necessary and sufficient conditions for integrating, in different senses, the expression specifying the changes are obtained. Boolean calculus has applications in the design of logic circuits and in fault analysis.
Interpolative Boolean Networks
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vladimir Dobrić
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Boolean networks are used for modeling and analysis of complex systems of interacting entities. Classical Boolean networks are binary and they are relevant for modeling systems with complex switch-like causal interactions. More descriptive power can be provided by the introduction of gradation in this model. If this is accomplished by using conventional fuzzy logics, the generalized model cannot secure the Boolean frame. Consequently, the validity of the model’s dynamics is not secured. The aim of this paper is to present the Boolean consistent generalization of Boolean networks, interpolative Boolean networks. The generalization is based on interpolative Boolean algebra, the [0,1]-valued realization of Boolean algebra. The proposed model is adaptive with respect to the nature of input variables and it offers greater descriptive power as compared with traditional models. For illustrative purposes, IBN is compared to the models based on existing real-valued approaches. Due to the complexity of the most systems to be analyzed and the characteristics of interpolative Boolean algebra, the software support is developed to provide graphical and numerical tools for complex system modeling and analysis.
Properties of Boolean orthoposets
Tkadlec, Josef
1993-10-01
A Boolean orthoposet is the orthoposet P fulfilling the following condition: If a, b ∈ P and a ∧ b = 0, then a ⊥ b. This condition seems to be a sound generalization of distributivity in orthoposets. Also, the class of (orthomodular) Boolean orthoposets may play an interesting role in quantum logic theory. This class is wide enough and, on the other hand, enjoys some properties of Boolean algebras. In this paper we summarize results on Boolean orthoposets involving distributivity, set representation, properties of the state space, existence of Jauch-Piron states, and results concerning orthocompleteness and completion.
Hildreth, Charles R.
1983-01-01
This editorial addresses the issue of whether or not to provide free-text, keyword/boolean search capabilities in the information retrieval mechanisms of online public access catalogs and discusses online catalogs developed prior to 1980--keyword searching, phrase searching, and precoordination and postcoordination. (EJS)
Algebraic partial Boolean algebras
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Smith, Derek
2003-01-01
Partial Boolean algebras, first studied by Kochen and Specker in the 1960s, provide the structure for Bell-Kochen-Specker theorems which deny the existence of non-contextual hidden variable theories. In this paper, we study partial Boolean algebras which are 'algebraic' in the sense that their elements have coordinates in an algebraic number field. Several of these algebras have been discussed recently in a debate on the validity of Bell-Kochen-Specker theorems in the context of finite precision measurements. The main result of this paper is that every algebraic finitely-generated partial Boolean algebra B(T) is finite when the underlying space H is three-dimensional, answering a question of Kochen and showing that Conway and Kochen's infinite algebraic partial Boolean algebra has minimum dimension. This result contrasts the existence of an infinite (non-algebraic) B(T) generated by eight elements in an abstract orthomodular lattice of height 3. We then initiate a study of higher-dimensional algebraic partial Boolean algebras. First, we describe a restriction on the determinants of the elements of B(T) that are generated by a given set T. We then show that when the generating set T consists of the rays spanning the minimal vectors in a real irreducible root lattice, B(T) is infinite just if that root lattice has an A 5 sublattice. Finally, we characterize the rays of B(T) when T consists of the rays spanning the minimal vectors of the root lattice E 8
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Antonio AIZPURU; Antonio GUTI(E)RREZ-D(A)VILA
2004-01-01
In this paper we will study some families and subalgebras ( ) of ( )(N) that let us characterize the unconditional convergence of series through the weak convergence of subseries ∑i∈A xi, A ∈ ( ).As a consequence, we obtain a new version of the Orlicz-Pettis theorem, for Banach spaces. We also study some relationships between algebraic properties of Boolean algebras and topological properties of the corresponding Stone spaces.
Computational complexity of Boolean functions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Korshunov, Aleksei D [Sobolev Institute of Mathematics, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)
2012-02-28
Boolean functions are among the fundamental objects of discrete mathematics, especially in those of its subdisciplines which fall under mathematical logic and mathematical cybernetics. The language of Boolean functions is convenient for describing the operation of many discrete systems such as contact networks, Boolean circuits, branching programs, and some others. An important parameter of discrete systems of this kind is their complexity. This characteristic has been actively investigated starting from Shannon's works. There is a large body of scientific literature presenting many fundamental results. The purpose of this survey is to give an account of the main results over the last sixty years related to the complexity of computation (realization) of Boolean functions by contact networks, Boolean circuits, and Boolean circuits without branching. Bibliography: 165 titles.
Cryptographic Boolean functions and applications
Cusick, Thomas W
2009-01-01
Boolean functions are the building blocks of symmetric cryptographic systems. Symmetrical cryptographic algorithms are fundamental tools in the design of all types of digital security systems (i.e. communications, financial and e-commerce).Cryptographic Boolean Functions and Applications is a concise reference that shows how Boolean functions are used in cryptography. Currently, practitioners who need to apply Boolean functions in the design of cryptographic algorithms and protocols need to patch together needed information from a variety of resources (books, journal articles and other sources). This book compiles the key essential information in one easy to use, step-by-step reference. Beginning with the basics of the necessary theory the book goes on to examine more technical topics, some of which are at the frontier of current research.-Serves as a complete resource for the successful design or implementation of cryptographic algorithms or protocols using Boolean functions -Provides engineers and scient...
Geometric Operators on Boolean Functions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Frisvad, Jeppe Revall; Falster, Peter
In truth-functional propositional logic, any propositional formula represents a Boolean function (according to some valuation of the formula). We describe operators based on Decartes' concept of constructing coordinate systems, for translation of a propositional formula to the image of a Boolean...... function. With this image of a Boolean function corresponding to a propositional formula, we prove that the orthogonal projection operator leads to a theorem describing all rules of inference in propositional reasoning. In other words, we can capture all kinds of inference in propositional logic by means...... of a few geometric operators working on the images of Boolean functions. The operators we describe, arise from the niche area of array-based logic and have previously been tightly bound to an array-based representation of Boolean functions. We redefine the operators in an abstract form to make them...
A Note on the PageRank of Undirected Graphs
Grolmusz, Vince
2012-01-01
The PageRank is a widely used scoring function of networks in general and of the World Wide Web graph in particular. The PageRank is defined for directed graphs, but in some special cases applications for undirected graphs occur. In the literature it is widely noted that the PageRank for undirected graphs are proportional to the degrees of the vertices of the graph. We prove that statement for a particular personalization vector in the definition of the PageRank, and we also show that in gene...
Much Ado about Babies, Murky Bathwater, and Trickle-Down Politics: A Reply to Kauffman. Commentary.
Goetz, Lori
1990-01-01
In response to Kauffman (EC 221 675), the article challenges the following: that the Regular Education Initiative (REI) is a Reagan-Bush plot to cut the costs of special education; that REI is value-driven with placement as the only consideration; and that REI is intended to do away with special education and strengthen regular education. (DB)
Computing preimages of Boolean networks.
Klotz, Johannes; Bossert, Martin; Schober, Steffen
2013-01-01
In this paper we present an algorithm based on the sum-product algorithm that finds elements in the preimage of a feed-forward Boolean networks given an output of the network. Our probabilistic method runs in linear time with respect to the number of nodes in the network. We evaluate our algorithm for randomly constructed Boolean networks and a regulatory network of Escherichia coli and found that it gives a valid solution in most cases.
Feedback topology and XOR-dynamics in Boolean networks with varying input structure
Ciandrini, L.; Maffi, C.; Motta, A.; Bassetti, B.; Cosentino Lagomarsino, M.
2009-08-01
We analyze a model of fixed in-degree random Boolean networks in which the fraction of input-receiving nodes is controlled by the parameter γ . We investigate analytically and numerically the dynamics of graphs under a parallel XOR updating scheme. This scheme is interesting because it is accessible analytically and its phenomenology is at the same time under control and as rich as the one of general Boolean networks. We give analytical formulas for the dynamics on general graphs, showing that with a XOR-type evolution rule, dynamic features are direct consequences of the topological feedback structure, in analogy with the role of relevant components in Kauffman networks. Considering graphs with fixed in-degree, we characterize analytically and numerically the feedback regions using graph decimation algorithms (Leaf Removal). With varying γ , this graph ensemble shows a phase transition that separates a treelike graph region from one in which feedback components emerge. Networks near the transition point have feedback components made of disjoint loops, in which each node has exactly one incoming and one outgoing link. Using this fact, we provide analytical estimates of the maximum period starting from topological considerations.
Feedback topology and XOR-dynamics in Boolean networks with varying input structure.
Ciandrini, L; Maffi, C; Motta, A; Bassetti, B; Cosentino Lagomarsino, M
2009-08-01
We analyze a model of fixed in-degree random Boolean networks in which the fraction of input-receiving nodes is controlled by the parameter gamma. We investigate analytically and numerically the dynamics of graphs under a parallel XOR updating scheme. This scheme is interesting because it is accessible analytically and its phenomenology is at the same time under control and as rich as the one of general Boolean networks. We give analytical formulas for the dynamics on general graphs, showing that with a XOR-type evolution rule, dynamic features are direct consequences of the topological feedback structure, in analogy with the role of relevant components in Kauffman networks. Considering graphs with fixed in-degree, we characterize analytically and numerically the feedback regions using graph decimation algorithms (Leaf Removal). With varying gamma , this graph ensemble shows a phase transition that separates a treelike graph region from one in which feedback components emerge. Networks near the transition point have feedback components made of disjoint loops, in which each node has exactly one incoming and one outgoing link. Using this fact, we provide analytical estimates of the maximum period starting from topological considerations.
Boolean-Valued Belief Functions
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Kramosil, Ivan
2002-01-01
Roč. 31, č. 2 (2002), s. 153-181 ISSN 0308-1079 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1030803 Institutional research plan: AV0Z1030915 Keywords : Dempster-Schafer theory * Boolean algebra Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.241, year: 2002
Optical programmable Boolean logic unit.
Chattopadhyay, Tanay
2011-11-10
Logic units are the building blocks of many important computational operations likes arithmetic, multiplexer-demultiplexer, radix conversion, parity checker cum generator, etc. Multifunctional logic operation is very much essential in this respect. Here a programmable Boolean logic unit is proposed that can perform 16 Boolean logical operations from a single optical input according to the programming input without changing the circuit design. This circuit has two outputs. One output is complementary to the other. Hence no loss of data can occur. The circuit is basically designed by a 2×2 polarization independent optical cross bar switch. Performance of the proposed circuit has been achieved by doing numerical simulations. The binary logical states (0,1) are represented by the absence of light (null) and presence of light, respectively.
Boolean gates on actin filaments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Siccardi, Stefano; Tuszynski, Jack A.; Adamatzky, Andrew
2016-01-01
Actin is a globular protein which forms long polar filaments in the eukaryotic cytoskeleton. Actin networks play a key role in cell mechanics and cell motility. They have also been implicated in information transmission and processing, memory and learning in neuronal cells. The actin filaments have been shown to support propagation of voltage pulses. Here we apply a coupled nonlinear transmission line model of actin filaments to study interactions between voltage pulses. To represent digital information we assign a logical TRUTH value to the presence of a voltage pulse in a given location of the actin filament, and FALSE to the pulse's absence, so that information flows along the filament with pulse transmission. When two pulses, representing Boolean values of input variables, interact, then they can facilitate or inhibit further propagation of each other. We explore this phenomenon to construct Boolean logical gates and a one-bit half-adder with interacting voltage pulses. We discuss implications of these findings on cellular process and technological applications. - Highlights: • We simulate interaction between voltage pulses using on actin filaments. • We use a coupled nonlinear transmission line model. • We design Boolean logical gates via interactions between the voltage pulses. • We construct one-bit half-adder with interacting voltage pulses.
Boolean gates on actin filaments
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Siccardi, Stefano, E-mail: ssiccardi@2ssas.it [The Unconventional Computing Centre, University of the West of England, Bristol (United Kingdom); Tuszynski, Jack A., E-mail: jackt@ualberta.ca [Department of Oncology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada); Adamatzky, Andrew, E-mail: andrew.adamatzky@uwe.ac.uk [The Unconventional Computing Centre, University of the West of England, Bristol (United Kingdom)
2016-01-08
Actin is a globular protein which forms long polar filaments in the eukaryotic cytoskeleton. Actin networks play a key role in cell mechanics and cell motility. They have also been implicated in information transmission and processing, memory and learning in neuronal cells. The actin filaments have been shown to support propagation of voltage pulses. Here we apply a coupled nonlinear transmission line model of actin filaments to study interactions between voltage pulses. To represent digital information we assign a logical TRUTH value to the presence of a voltage pulse in a given location of the actin filament, and FALSE to the pulse's absence, so that information flows along the filament with pulse transmission. When two pulses, representing Boolean values of input variables, interact, then they can facilitate or inhibit further propagation of each other. We explore this phenomenon to construct Boolean logical gates and a one-bit half-adder with interacting voltage pulses. We discuss implications of these findings on cellular process and technological applications. - Highlights: • We simulate interaction between voltage pulses using on actin filaments. • We use a coupled nonlinear transmission line model. • We design Boolean logical gates via interactions between the voltage pulses. • We construct one-bit half-adder with interacting voltage pulses.
Reliable dynamics in Boolean and continuous networks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ackermann, Eva; Drossel, Barbara; Peixoto, Tiago P
2012-01-01
We investigate the dynamical behavior of a model of robust gene regulatory networks which possess ‘entirely reliable’ trajectories. In a Boolean representation, these trajectories are characterized by being insensitive to the order in which the nodes are updated, i.e. they always go through the same sequence of states. The Boolean model for gene activity is compared with a continuous description in terms of differential equations for the concentrations of mRNA and proteins. We found that entirely reliable Boolean trajectories can be reproduced perfectly in the continuous model when realistic Hill coefficients are used. We investigate to what extent this high correspondence between Boolean and continuous trajectories depends on the extent of reliability of the Boolean trajectories, and we identify simple criteria that enable the faithful reproduction of the Boolean dynamics in the continuous description. (paper)
Quantum algorithms for testing Boolean functions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Erika Andersson
2010-06-01
Full Text Available We discuss quantum algorithms, based on the Bernstein-Vazirani algorithm, for finding which variables a Boolean function depends on. There are 2^n possible linear Boolean functions of n variables; given a linear Boolean function, the Bernstein-Vazirani quantum algorithm can deterministically identify which one of these Boolean functions we are given using just one single function query. The same quantum algorithm can also be used to learn which input variables other types of Boolean functions depend on, with a success probability that depends on the form of the Boolean function that is tested, but does not depend on the total number of input variables. We also outline a procedure to futher amplify the success probability, based on another quantum algorithm, the Grover search.
GLOBAL CONVERGENCE FOR THE XOR BOOLEAN NETWORKS
Ho, Juei-Ling
2009-01-01
Shih and Ho have proved a global convergent theorem for boolean network: if a map from $\\{0,1\\}^{n}$ to itself defines a boolean network has the conditions: (1) each column of the discrete Jacobian matrix of each element of $\\{0,1\\}^{n}$ is either a unit vector or a zero vector; (2) all the boolean eigenvalues of the discrete Jacobian matrix of this map evaluated at each element of $\\{0,1\\}^{n}$ are zero, then it has a unique fixed point and this boolean network is global convergent to the fi...
Rational Verification in Iterated Electric Boolean Games
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Youssouf Oualhadj
2016-07-01
Full Text Available Electric boolean games are compact representations of games where the players have qualitative objectives described by LTL formulae and have limited resources. We study the complexity of several decision problems related to the analysis of rationality in electric boolean games with LTL objectives. In particular, we report that the problem of deciding whether a profile is a Nash equilibrium in an iterated electric boolean game is no harder than in iterated boolean games without resource bounds. We show that it is a PSPACE-complete problem. As a corollary, we obtain that both rational elimination and rational construction of Nash equilibria by a supervising authority are PSPACE-complete problems.
Boolean integral calculus for digital systems
Tucker, J. H.; Tapia, M. A.; Bennett, A. W.
1985-01-01
The concept of Boolean integration is introduced and developed. When the changes in a desired function are specified in terms of changes in its arguments, then ways of 'integrating' (i.e., realizing) the function, if it exists, are presented. Boolean integral calculus has applications in design of logic circuits.
On Boolean functions with generalized cryptographic properties
Braeken, A.; Nikov, V.S.; Nikova, S.I.; Preneel, B.; Canteaut, A.; Viswanathan, K.
2004-01-01
By considering a new metric, we generalize cryptographic properties of Boolean functions such as resiliency and propagation characteristics. These new definitions result in a better understanding of the properties of Boolean functions and provide a better insight in the space defined by this metric.
Bounds for percolation thresholds on directed and undirected graphs
Hamilton, Kathleen; Pryadko, Leonid
2015-03-01
Percolation theory is an efficient approach to problems with strong disorder, e.g., in quantum or classical transport, composite materials, and diluted magnets. Recently, the growing role of big data in scientific and industrial applications has led to a renewed interest in graph theory as a tool for describing complex connections in various kinds of networks: social, biological, technological, etc. In particular, percolation on graphs has been used to describe internet stability, spread of contagious diseases and computer viruses; related models describe market crashes and viral spread in social networks. We consider site-dependent percolation on directed and undirected graphs, and present several exact bounds for location of the percolation transition in terms of the eigenvalues of matrices associated with graphs, including the adjacency matrix and the Hashimoto matrix used to enumerate non-backtracking walks. These bounds correspond t0 a mean field approximation and become asymptotically exact for graphs with no short cycles. We illustrate this convergence numerically by simulating percolation on several families of graphs with different cycle lengths. This research was supported in part by the NSF Grant PHY-1416578 and by the ARO Grant W911NF-11-1-0027.
Mining TCGA data using Boolean implications.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Subarna Sinha
Full Text Available Boolean implications (if-then rules provide a conceptually simple, uniform and highly scalable way to find associations between pairs of random variables. In this paper, we propose to use Boolean implications to find relationships between variables of different data types (mutation, copy number alteration, DNA methylation and gene expression from the glioblastoma (GBM and ovarian serous cystadenoma (OV data sets from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA. We find hundreds of thousands of Boolean implications from these data sets. A direct comparison of the relationships found by Boolean implications and those found by commonly used methods for mining associations show that existing methods would miss relationships found by Boolean implications. Furthermore, many relationships exposed by Boolean implications reflect important aspects of cancer biology. Examples of our findings include cis relationships between copy number alteration, DNA methylation and expression of genes, a new hierarchy of mutations and recurrent copy number alterations, loss-of-heterozygosity of well-known tumor suppressors, and the hypermethylation phenotype associated with IDH1 mutations in GBM. The Boolean implication results used in the paper can be accessed at http://crookneck.stanford.edu/microarray/TCGANetworks/.
Stability of Boolean multilevel networks.
Cozzo, Emanuele; Arenas, Alex; Moreno, Yamir
2012-09-01
The study of the interplay between the structure and dynamics of complex multilevel systems is a pressing challenge nowadays. In this paper, we use a semiannealed approximation to study the stability properties of random Boolean networks in multiplex (multilayered) graphs. Our main finding is that the multilevel structure provides a mechanism for the stabilization of the dynamics of the whole system even when individual layers work on the chaotic regime, therefore identifying new ways of feedback between the structure and the dynamics of these systems. Our results point out the need for a conceptual transition from the physics of single-layered networks to the physics of multiplex networks. Finally, the fact that the coupling modifies the phase diagram and the critical conditions of the isolated layers suggests that interdependency can be used as a control mechanism.
Totally optimal decision trees for Boolean functions
Chikalov, Igor; Hussain, Shahid; Moshkov, Mikhail
2016-01-01
We study decision trees which are totally optimal relative to different sets of complexity parameters for Boolean functions. A totally optimal tree is an optimal tree relative to each parameter from the set simultaneously. We consider the parameters
Representing Boolean Functions by Decision Trees
Chikalov, Igor
2011-01-01
A Boolean or discrete function can be represented by a decision tree. A compact form of decision tree named binary decision diagram or branching program is widely known in logic design [2, 40]. This representation is equivalent to other forms
Situated learning theory: adding rate and complexity effects via Kauffman's NK model.
Yuan, Yu; McKelvey, Bill
2004-01-01
For many firms, producing information, knowledge, and enhancing learning capability have become the primary basis of competitive advantage. A review of organizational learning theory identifies two approaches: (1) those that treat symbolic information processing as fundamental to learning, and (2) those that view the situated nature of cognition as fundamental. After noting that the former is inadequate because it focuses primarily on behavioral and cognitive aspects of individual learning, this paper argues the importance of studying learning as interactions among people in the context of their environment. It contributes to organizational learning in three ways. First, it argues that situated learning theory is to be preferred over traditional behavioral and cognitive learning theories, because it treats organizations as complex adaptive systems rather than mere information processors. Second, it adds rate and nonlinear learning effects. Third, following model-centered epistemology, it uses an agent-based computational model, in particular a "humanized" version of Kauffman's NK model, to study the situated nature of learning. Using simulation results, we test eight hypotheses extending situated learning theory in new directions. The paper ends with a discussion of possible extensions of the current study to better address key issues in situated learning.
Evolution of egoism on semi-directed and undirected Barabási-Albert networks
Lima, F. W. S.
2015-05-01
Through Monte Carlo simulations, we study the evolution of the four strategies: Ethnocentric, altruistic, egoistic and cosmopolitan in one community of individuals. Interactions and reproduction among computational agents are simulated on undirected and semi-directed Barabási-Albert (BA) networks. We study the Hammond-Axelrod (HA) model on undirected and semi-directed BA networks for the asexual reproduction case. With a small modification in the traditional HA model, our simulations showed that egoism wins, differently from other results found in the literature where ethnocentric strategy is common. Here, mechanisms such as reciprocity are absent.
Information encryption systems based on Boolean functions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Aureliu Zgureanu
2011-02-01
Full Text Available An information encryption system based on Boolean functions is proposed. Information processing is done using multidimensional matrices, performing logical operations with these matrices. At the basis of ensuring high level security of the system the complexity of solving the problem of building systems of Boolean functions that depend on many variables (tens and hundreds is set. Such systems represent the private key. It varies both during the encryption and decryption of information, and during the transition from one message to another.
Beyond-CMOS Device Benchmarking for Boolean and Non-Boolean Logic Applications
Pan, Chenyun; Naeemi, Azad
2017-01-01
The latest results of benchmarking research are presented for a variety of beyond-CMOS charge- and spin-based devices. In addition to improving the device-level models, several new device proposals and a few majorly modified devices are investigated. Deep pipelining circuits are employed to boost the throughput of low-power devices. Furthermore, the benchmarking methodology is extended to interconnect-centric analyses and non-Boolean logic applications. In contrast to Boolean circuits, non-Bo...
A complexity theory based on Boolean algebra
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Skyum, Sven; Valiant, Leslie
1985-01-01
A projection of a Boolean function is a function obtained by substituting for each of its variables a variable, the negation of a variable, or a constant. Reducibilities among computational problems under this relation of projection are considered. It is shown that much of what is of everyday rel...
Evolutionary Algorithms for Boolean Queries Optimization
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Húsek, Dušan; Snášel, Václav; Neruda, Roman; Owais, S.S.J.; Krömer, P.
2006-01-01
Roč. 3, č. 1 (2006), s. 15-20 ISSN 1790-0832 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1ET100300414 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : evolutionary algorithms * genetic algorithms * information retrieval * Boolean query Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics
Boolean Queries Optimization by Genetic Algorithms
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Húsek, Dušan; Owais, S.S.J.; Krömer, P.; Snášel, Václav
2005-01-01
Roč. 15, - (2005), s. 395-409 ISSN 1210-0552 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1ET100300414 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : evolutionary algorithms * genetic algorithms * genetic programming * information retrieval * Boolean query Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research
Practical algorithms for linear boolean-width
ten Brinke, C.B.; van Houten, F.J.P.; Bodlaender, H.L.
2015-01-01
In this paper, we give a number of new exact algorithms and heuristics to compute linear boolean decompositions, and experimentally evaluate these algorithms. The experimental evaluation shows that significant improvements can be made with respect to running time without increasing the width of the
Practical algorithms for linear Boolean-width
ten Brinke, C.B.; van Houten, F.J.P.; Bodlaender, H.L.
2015-01-01
In this paper, we give a number of new exact algorithms and heuristics to compute linear boolean decompositions, and experimentally evaluate these algorithms. The experimental evaluation shows that significant improvements can be made with respect to running time without increasing the width of the
Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation, Kansas City, MO.
The Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation began surveying Kansas City area teens during the 1984-85 school year. The Kauffman Teen Survey now addresses two sets of issues for teens. Teen Health Behaviors, addressed in this report, have been a focus of the survey since its inception. The report focuses on teen use of alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs in…
Undirected learning styles and academic risk: Analysis of the impact of stress, strain and coping.
Kimatian, Stephen; Lloyd, Sara; Berger, Jeffrey; Steiner, Lorraine; McKay, Robert; Schwengal, Deborah
2017-01-01
Learning style inventories used in conjunction with a measure of academic achievement consistently show an association of meaning directed learning patterns with academic success, but have failed to show a clear association of undirected learning styles with academic failure. Using survey methods with anesthesia residents, this study questioned whether additional assessment of factors related to stress, strain, and coping help to better define the association between undirected learning styles and academic risk. Pearson chi squared tests. 296 subjects were enrolled from eight institutions with 142 (48%) completing the study. American Board of Anesthesiologists In Training Examinations (ITE) percentiles (ITE%) were used as a measure of academic achievement. The Vermunt Inventory of Learning Styles (ILS) was used to identify four learning patterns and 20 strategies, and the Osipow Stress Inventory-Revised (OSI-R) was used as a measure of six scales of occupational stress, four of personal strain, and four coping resources. Two learning patterns had significant relationship with ITE scores. As seen in previous studies, Meaning Directed Learning was beneficial for academic achievement while Undirected Learning was the least beneficial. Higher scores on Meaning Directed Learning correlated positively with higher ITE scores while higher Undirected and lower Meaning Directed patterns related negatively to ITE%. OSI-R measures of stress, strain and coping indicated that residents with Undirected learning patterns had higher scores on three scales related to stress, and 4 related to strain, while displaying lower scores on two scales related to coping. Residents with higher Meaning Directed patterns scored lower on two scales of stress and two scales of strain, with higher scores on two scales for coping resources. Low Meaning Directed and high Undirected learning patterns correlated with lower ITE percentiles, higher scores for stress and strain, and lower coping resources
Estimating the impact of structural directionality: How reliable are undirected connectomes?
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Penelope Kale
2018-06-01
Full Text Available Directionality is a fundamental feature of network connections. Most structural brain networks are intrinsically directed because of the nature of chemical synapses, which comprise most neuronal connections. Because of the limitations of noninvasive imaging techniques, the directionality of connections between structurally connected regions of the human brain cannot be confirmed. Hence, connections are represented as undirected, and it is still unknown how this lack of directionality affects brain network topology. Using six directed brain networks from different species and parcellations (cat, mouse, C. elegans, and three macaque networks, we estimate the inaccuracies in network measures (degree, betweenness, clustering coefficient, path length, global efficiency, participation index, and small-worldness associated with the removal of the directionality of connections. We employ three different methods to render directed brain networks undirected: (a remove unidirectional connections, (b add reciprocal connections, and (c combine equal numbers of removed and added unidirectional connections. We quantify the extent of inaccuracy in network measures introduced through neglecting connection directionality for individual nodes and across the network. We find that the coarse division between core and peripheral nodes remains accurate for undirected networks. However, hub nodes differ considerably when directionality is neglected. Comparing the different methods to generate undirected networks from directed ones, we generally find that the addition of reciprocal connections (false positives causes larger errors in graph-theoretic measures than the removal of the same number of directed connections (false negatives. These findings suggest that directionality plays an essential role in shaping brain networks and highlight some limitations of undirected connectomes. Most brain networks are inherently directed because of the nature of chemical synapses
Classical Boolean logic gates with quantum systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Renaud, N; Joachim, C
2011-01-01
An analytical method is proposed to implement any classical Boolean function in a small quantum system by taking the advantage of its electronic transport properties. The logical input, α = {α 1 , ..., α N }, is used to control well-identified parameters of the Hamiltonian of the system noted H 0 (α). The logical output is encoded in the tunneling current intensity passing through the quantum system when connected to conducting electrodes. It is demonstrated how to implement the six symmetric two-input/one-output Boolean functions in a quantum system. This system can be switched from one logic function to another by changing its structural parameters. The stability of the logic gates is discussed, perturbing the Hamiltonian with noise sources and studying the effect of decoherence.
Totally optimal decision trees for Boolean functions
Chikalov, Igor
2016-07-28
We study decision trees which are totally optimal relative to different sets of complexity parameters for Boolean functions. A totally optimal tree is an optimal tree relative to each parameter from the set simultaneously. We consider the parameters characterizing both time (in the worst- and average-case) and space complexity of decision trees, i.e., depth, total path length (average depth), and number of nodes. We have created tools based on extensions of dynamic programming to study totally optimal trees. These tools are applicable to both exact and approximate decision trees, and allow us to make multi-stage optimization of decision trees relative to different parameters and to count the number of optimal trees. Based on the experimental results we have formulated the following hypotheses (and subsequently proved): for almost all Boolean functions there exist totally optimal decision trees (i) relative to the depth and number of nodes, and (ii) relative to the depth and average depth.
Boolean representations of simplicial complexes and matroids
Rhodes, John
2015-01-01
This self-contained monograph explores a new theory centered around boolean representations of simplicial complexes leading to a new class of complexes featuring matroids as central to the theory. The book illustrates these new tools to study the classical theory of matroids as well as their important geometric connections. Moreover, many geometric and topological features of the theory of matroids find their counterparts in this extended context. Graduate students and researchers working in the areas of combinatorics, geometry, topology, algebra and lattice theory will find this monograph appealing due to the wide range of new problems raised by the theory. Combinatorialists will find this extension of the theory of matroids useful as it opens new lines of research within and beyond matroids. The geometric features and geometric/topological applications will appeal to geometers. Topologists who desire to perform algebraic topology computations will appreciate the algorithmic potential of boolean represent...
Improved Lower Bounds on the Price of Stability of Undirected Network Design Games
Bilò, Vittorio; Caragiannis, Ioannis; Fanelli, Angelo; Monaco, Gianpiero
Bounding the price of stability of undirected network design games with fair cost allocation is a challenging open problem in the Algorithmic Game Theory research agenda. Even though the generalization of such games in directed networks is well understood in terms of the price of stability (it is exactly H n , the n-th harmonic number, for games with n players), far less is known for network design games in undirected networks. The upper bound carries over to this case as well while the best known lower bound is 42/23 ≈ 1.826. For more restricted but interesting variants of such games such as broadcast and multicast games, sublogarithmic upper bounds are known while the best known lower bound is 12/7 ≈ 1.714. In the current paper, we improve the lower bounds as follows. We break the psychological barrier of 2 by showing that the price of stability of undirected network design games is at least 348/155 ≈ 2.245. Our proof uses a recursive construction of a network design game with a simple gadget as the main building block. For broadcast and multicast games, we present new lower bounds of 20/11 ≈ 1.818 and 1.862, respectively.
Optimal stabilization of Boolean networks through collective influence
Wang, Jiannan; Pei, Sen; Wei, Wei; Feng, Xiangnan; Zheng, Zhiming
2018-03-01
Boolean networks have attracted much attention due to their wide applications in describing dynamics of biological systems. During past decades, much effort has been invested in unveiling how network structure and update rules affect the stability of Boolean networks. In this paper, we aim to identify and control a minimal set of influential nodes that is capable of stabilizing an unstable Boolean network. For locally treelike Boolean networks with biased truth tables, we propose a greedy algorithm to identify influential nodes in Boolean networks by minimizing the largest eigenvalue of a modified nonbacktracking matrix. We test the performance of the proposed collective influence algorithm on four different networks. Results show that the collective influence algorithm can stabilize each network with a smaller set of nodes compared with other heuristic algorithms. Our work provides a new insight into the mechanism that determines the stability of Boolean networks, which may find applications in identifying virulence genes that lead to serious diseases.
Large Sets in Boolean and Non-Boolean Groups and Topology
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ol’ga V. Sipacheva
2017-10-01
Full Text Available Various notions of large sets in groups, including the classical notions of thick, syndetic, and piecewise syndetic sets and the new notion of vast sets in groups, are studied with emphasis on the interplay between such sets in Boolean groups. Natural topologies closely related to vast sets are considered; as a byproduct, interesting relations between vast sets and ultrafilters are revealed.
Weimer-Jehle, Wolfgang
2008-06-01
Cross-impact analysis is the name for a familiar method for multidisciplinary systems analysis in social sciences and management sciences, especially in technology foresight, technology assessment and scenario planning. A recently proposed form of cross-impact analysis, CIB, may be of interest for physicists, sociophysicists and complex network researchers because the CIB concept reveals considerable relations to some concepts of these research fields. This article describes the basics of CIB analysis framework, its applications in the social sciences, and its relations to the equilibrium points of pair interaction systems, random graphs, and generalized Kauffman nets. Therefore CIB can be seen as a merger of concepts originating in utterly different scientific fields. This may prove to be fruitful for both sides: For sociophysicists as an example of the application of complex network concepts in the social sciences and for cross-impact practitioners as a source of theoretical insights in the background of their tool.
Vector Boolean Functions: applications in symmetric cryptography
Álvarez Cubero, José Antonio
2015-01-01
Esta tesis establece los fundamentos teóricos y diseña una colección abierta de clases C++ denominada VBF (Vector Boolean Functions) para analizar funciones booleanas vectoriales (funciones que asocian un vector booleano a otro vector booleano) desde una perspectiva criptográfica. Esta nueva implementación emplea la librería NTL de Victor Shoup, incorporando nuevos módulos que complementan a las funciones de NTL, adecuándolas para el análisis criptográfico. La clase fundamental que representa...
Boolean Factor Analysis by Attractor Neural Network
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Frolov, A. A.; Húsek, Dušan; Muraviev, I. P.; Polyakov, P.Y.
2007-01-01
Roč. 18, č. 3 (2007), s. 698-707 ISSN 1045-9227 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1ET100300419; GA ČR GA201/05/0079 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : recurrent neural network * Hopfield-like neural network * associative memory * unsupervised learning * neural network architecture * neural network application * statistics * Boolean factor analysis * dimensionality reduction * features clustering * concepts search * information retrieval Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 2.769, year: 2007
The Boolean algebra and central Galois algebras
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
George Szeto
2001-01-01
Full Text Available Let B be a Galois algebra with Galois group G, Jg={b∈B∣bx=g(xb for all x∈B} for g∈G, and BJg=Beg for a central idempotent eg. Then a relation is given between the set of elements in the Boolean algebra (Ba,≤ generated by {0,eg∣g∈G} and a set of subgroups of G, and a central Galois algebra Be with a Galois subgroup of G is characterized for an e∈Ba.
Efficient Instantiation of Parameterised Boolean Equation Systems to Parity Games
Kant, Gijs; van de Pol, Jan Cornelis; Wijs, A.J.; Bošnački, D.; Edelkamp, S.
Parameterised Boolean Equation Systems (PBESs) are sequences of Boolean fixed point equations with data variables, used for, e.g., verification of modal μ-calculus formulae for process algebraic specifications with data. Solving a PBES is usually done by instantiation to a Parity Game and then
Boolean orthoposets and two-valued states on them
Tkadlec, Josef
1992-06-01
A Boolean orthoposet (see e.g. [2]) is the orthoposet P fulfilling the following condition: If a, b ∈ P and a ∧ b = 0 then a⊥ b. This condition seems to be a sound generalization of distributivity in orthoposets (see e.g. [8]). Also, the class of (orthomodular) Boolean orthoposets may play an interesting role in quantum logic theory. This class is wide enough (see [4,3]) and on the other hand, enjoys some properties of Boolean algebras [4,8,5]. In quantum logic theory an important role is played by so-called Jauch-Piron states [1,6,7]. In this paper we clarify the connection between Boolean orthoposets and orthoposets with "enough" two-valued Jauch-Piron states. Further, we obtain a characterization of Boolean orthoposets in terms of two-valued states.
An adaptable Boolean net trainable to control a computing robot
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lauria, F. E.; Prevete, R.; Milo, M.; Visco, S.
1999-01-01
We discuss a method to implement in a Boolean neural network a Hebbian rule so to obtain an adaptable universal control system. We start by presenting both the Boolean neural net and the Hebbian rule we have considered. Then we discuss, first, the problems arising when the latter is naively implemented in a Boolean neural net, second, the method consenting us to overcome them and the ensuing adaptable Boolean neural net paradigm. Next, we present the adaptable Boolean neural net as an intelligent control system, actually controlling a writing robot, and discuss how to train it in the execution of the elementary arithmetic operations on operands represented by numerals with an arbitrary number of digits
Evolutionary Algorithms for Boolean Functions in Diverse Domains of Cryptography.
Picek, Stjepan; Carlet, Claude; Guilley, Sylvain; Miller, Julian F; Jakobovic, Domagoj
2016-01-01
The role of Boolean functions is prominent in several areas including cryptography, sequences, and coding theory. Therefore, various methods for the construction of Boolean functions with desired properties are of direct interest. New motivations on the role of Boolean functions in cryptography with attendant new properties have emerged over the years. There are still many combinations of design criteria left unexplored and in this matter evolutionary computation can play a distinct role. This article concentrates on two scenarios for the use of Boolean functions in cryptography. The first uses Boolean functions as the source of the nonlinearity in filter and combiner generators. Although relatively well explored using evolutionary algorithms, it still presents an interesting goal in terms of the practical sizes of Boolean functions. The second scenario appeared rather recently where the objective is to find Boolean functions that have various orders of the correlation immunity and minimal Hamming weight. In both these scenarios we see that evolutionary algorithms are able to find high-quality solutions where genetic programming performs the best.
Representing Boolean Functions by Decision Trees
Chikalov, Igor
2011-01-01
A Boolean or discrete function can be represented by a decision tree. A compact form of decision tree named binary decision diagram or branching program is widely known in logic design [2, 40]. This representation is equivalent to other forms, and in some cases it is more compact than values table or even the formula [44]. Representing a function in the form of decision tree allows applying graph algorithms for various transformations [10]. Decision trees and branching programs are used for effective hardware [15] and software [5] implementation of functions. For the implementation to be effective, the function representation should have minimal time and space complexity. The average depth of decision tree characterizes the expected computing time, and the number of nodes in branching program characterizes the number of functional elements required for implementation. Often these two criteria are incompatible, i.e. there is no solution that is optimal on both time and space complexity. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011.
Message passing for quantified Boolean formulas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang, Pan; Ramezanpour, Abolfazl; Zecchina, Riccardo; Zdeborová, Lenka
2012-01-01
We introduce two types of message passing algorithms for quantified Boolean formulas (QBF). The first type is a message passing based heuristics that can prove unsatisfiability of the QBF by assigning the universal variables in such a way that the remaining formula is unsatisfiable. In the second type, we use message passing to guide branching heuristics of a Davis–Putnam–Logemann–Loveland (DPLL) complete solver. Numerical experiments show that on random QBFs our branching heuristics give robust exponential efficiency gain with respect to state-of-the-art solvers. We also manage to solve some previously unsolved benchmarks from the QBFLIB library. Apart from this, our study sheds light on using message passing in small systems and as subroutines in complete solvers
Synthesizing biomolecule-based Boolean logic gates.
Miyamoto, Takafumi; Razavi, Shiva; DeRose, Robert; Inoue, Takanari
2013-02-15
One fascinating recent avenue of study in the field of synthetic biology is the creation of biomolecule-based computers. The main components of a computing device consist of an arithmetic logic unit, the control unit, memory, and the input and output devices. Boolean logic gates are at the core of the operational machinery of these parts, and hence to make biocomputers a reality, biomolecular logic gates become a necessity. Indeed, with the advent of more sophisticated biological tools, both nucleic acid- and protein-based logic systems have been generated. These devices function in the context of either test tubes or living cells and yield highly specific outputs given a set of inputs. In this review, we discuss various types of biomolecular logic gates that have been synthesized, with particular emphasis on recent developments that promise increased complexity of logic gate circuitry, improved computational speed, and potential clinical applications.
Multipath Detection Using Boolean Satisfiability Techniques
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fadi A. Aloul
2011-01-01
Full Text Available A new technique for multipath detection in wideband mobile radio systems is presented. The proposed scheme is based on an intelligent search algorithm using Boolean Satisfiability (SAT techniques to search through the uncertainty region of the multipath delays. The SAT-based scheme utilizes the known structure of the transmitted wideband signal, for example, pseudo-random (PN code, to effectively search through the entire space by eliminating subspaces that do not contain a possible solution. The paper presents a framework for modeling the multipath detection problem as a SAT application. It also provides simulation results that demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed scheme in detecting the multipath components in frequency-selective Rayleigh fading channels.
Synthesizing Biomolecule-based Boolean Logic Gates
Miyamoto, Takafumi; Razavi, Shiva; DeRose, Robert; Inoue, Takanari
2012-01-01
One fascinating recent avenue of study in the field of synthetic biology is the creation of biomolecule-based computers. The main components of a computing device consist of an arithmetic logic unit, the control unit, memory, and the input and output devices. Boolean logic gates are at the core of the operational machinery of these parts, hence to make biocomputers a reality, biomolecular logic gates become a necessity. Indeed, with the advent of more sophisticated biological tools, both nucleic acid- and protein-based logic systems have been generated. These devices function in the context of either test tubes or living cells and yield highly specific outputs given a set of inputs. In this review, we discuss various types of biomolecular logic gates that have been synthesized, with particular emphasis on recent developments that promise increased complexity of logic gate circuitry, improved computational speed, and potential clinical applications. PMID:23526588
The Boolean algebra of Galois algebras
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lianyong Xue
2003-02-01
Full Text Available Let B be a Galois algebra with Galois group G, Jg={bÃ¢ÂˆÂˆB|bx=g(xbÃ¢Â€Â‰for allÃ¢Â€Â‰xÃ¢ÂˆÂˆB} for each gÃ¢ÂˆÂˆG, and BJg=Beg for a central idempotent eg, Ba the Boolean algebra generated by {0,eg|gÃ¢ÂˆÂˆG}, e a nonzero element in Ba, and He={gÃ¢ÂˆÂˆG|eeg=e}. Then, a monomial e is characterized, and the Galois extension Be, generated by e with Galois group He, is investigated.
Optical reversible programmable Boolean logic unit.
Chattopadhyay, Tanay
2012-07-20
Computing with reversibility is the only way to avoid dissipation of energy associated with bit erase. So, a reversible microprocessor is required for future computing. In this paper, a design of a simple all-optical reversible programmable processor is proposed using a polarizing beam splitter, liquid crystal-phase spatial light modulators, a half-wave plate, and plane mirrors. This circuit can perform 16 logical operations according to three programming inputs. Also, inputs can be easily recovered from the outputs. It is named the "reversible programmable Boolean logic unit (RPBLU)." The logic unit is the basic building block of many complex computational operations. Hence the design is important in sense. Two orthogonally polarized lights are defined here as two logical states, respectively.
Boolean Operations with Prism Algebraic Patches
Bajaj, Chandrajit; Paoluzzi, Alberto; Portuesi, Simone; Lei, Na; Zhao, Wenqi
2009-01-01
In this paper we discuss a symbolic-numeric algorithm for Boolean operations, closed in the algebra of curved polyhedra whose boundary is triangulated with algebraic patches (A-patches). This approach uses a linear polyhedron as a first approximation of both the arguments and the result. On each triangle of a boundary representation of such linear approximation, a piecewise cubic algebraic interpolant is built, using a C1-continuous prism algebraic patch (prism A-patch) that interpolates the three triangle vertices, with given normal vectors. The boundary representation only stores the vertices of the initial triangulation and their external vertex normals. In order to represent also flat and/or sharp local features, the corresponding normal-per-face and/or normal-per-edge may be also given, respectively. The topology is described by storing, for each curved triangle, the two triples of pointers to incident vertices and to adjacent triangles. For each triangle, a scaffolding prism is built, produced by its extreme vertices and normals, which provides a containment volume for the curved interpolating A-patch. When looking for the result of a regularized Boolean operation, the 0-set of a tri-variate polynomial within each such prism is generated, and intersected with the analogous 0-sets of the other curved polyhedron, when two prisms have non-empty intersection. The intersection curves of the boundaries are traced and used to decompose each boundary into the 3 standard classes of subpatches, denoted in, out and on. While tracing the intersection curves, the locally refined triangulation of intersecting patches is produced, and added to the boundary representation. PMID:21516262
A transition calculus for Boolean functions. [logic circuit analysis
Tucker, J. H.; Bennett, A. W.
1974-01-01
A transition calculus is presented for analyzing the effect of input changes on the output of logic circuits. The method is closely related to the Boolean difference, but it is more powerful. Both differentiation and integration are considered.
Algebraic model checking for Boolean gene regulatory networks.
Tran, Quoc-Nam
2011-01-01
We present a computational method in which modular and Groebner bases (GB) computation in Boolean rings are used for solving problems in Boolean gene regulatory networks (BN). In contrast to other known algebraic approaches, the degree of intermediate polynomials during the calculation of Groebner bases using our method will never grow resulting in a significant improvement in running time and memory space consumption. We also show how calculation in temporal logic for model checking can be done by means of our direct and efficient Groebner basis computation in Boolean rings. We present our experimental results in finding attractors and control strategies of Boolean networks to illustrate our theoretical arguments. The results are promising. Our algebraic approach is more efficient than the state-of-the-art model checker NuSMV on BNs. More importantly, our approach finds all solutions for the BN problems.
Nonlinear threshold Boolean automata networks and phase transitions
Demongeot, Jacques; Sené, Sylvain
2010-01-01
In this report, we present a formal approach that addresses the problem of emergence of phase transitions in stochastic and attractive nonlinear threshold Boolean automata networks. Nonlinear networks considered are informally defined on the basis of classical stochastic threshold Boolean automata networks in which specific interaction potentials of neighbourhood coalition are taken into account. More precisely, specific nonlinear terms compose local transition functions that define locally t...
1990-06-01
The objective of this thesis research is to create a tutorial for teaching aspects of undirected graphs in discrete math . It is one of the submodules...of the Discrete Math Tutorial (DMT), which is a Computer Aided Instructional (CAI) tool for teaching discrete math to the Naval Academy and the
1990-06-01
The objective of this thesis research is to create a tutorial for teaching aspects of undirected graphs in discrete math . It is one of the submodules...of the Discrete Math Tutorial (DMT), which is a Computer Aided Instructional (CAI) tool for teaching discrete math to the Naval Academy and the
Synchronization in an array of coupled Boolean networks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li, Rui; Chu, Tianguang
2012-01-01
This Letter presents an analytical study of synchronization in an array of coupled deterministic Boolean networks. A necessary and sufficient criterion for synchronization is established based on algebraic representations of logical dynamics in terms of the semi-tensor product of matrices. Some basic properties of a synchronized array of Boolean networks are then derived for the existence of transient states and the upper bound of the number of fixed points. Particularly, an interesting consequence indicates that a “large” mismatch between two coupled Boolean networks in the array may result in loss of synchrony in the entire system. Examples, including the Boolean model of coupled oscillations in the cell cycle, are given to illustrate the present results. -- Highlights: ► We analytically study synchronization in an array of coupled Boolean networks. ► The study is based on the algebraic representations of logical dynamics. ► A necessary and sufficient algebraic criterion for synchronization is established. ► It reveals some basic properties of a synchronized array of Boolean networks. ► A large mismatch between two coupled networks may result in the loss of synchrony.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Orgeta Gjermëni
2017-10-01
Full Text Available This article aims to provide new results about the intraday degree sequence distribution considering phone call network graph evolution in time. More specifically, it tackles the following problem. Given a large amount of landline phone call data records, what is the best way to summarize the distinct number of calling partners per client per day? In order to answer this question, a series of undirected phone call network graphs is constructed based on data from a local telecommunication source in Albania. All network graphs of the series are simplified. Further, a longitudinal temporal study is made on this network graphs series related to the degree distributions. Power law and log-normal distribution fittings on the degree sequence are compared on each of the network graphs of the series. The maximum likelihood method is used to estimate the parameters of the distributions, and a Kolmogorov–Smirnov test associated with a p-value is used to define the plausible models. A direct distribution comparison is made through a Vuong test in the case that both distributions are plausible. Another goal was to describe the parameters’ distributions’ shape. A Shapiro-Wilk test is used to test the normality of the data, and measures of shape are used to define the distributions’ shape. Study findings suggested that log-normal distribution models better the intraday degree sequence data of the network graphs. It is not possible to say that the distributions of log-normal parameters are normal.
Song, H. Francis; Wang, Xiao-Jing
2014-12-01
Small-world networks—complex networks characterized by a combination of high clustering and short path lengths—are widely studied using the paradigmatic model of Watts and Strogatz (WS). Although the WS model is already quite minimal and intuitive, we describe an alternative formulation of the WS model in terms of a distance-dependent probability of connection that further simplifies, both practically and theoretically, the generation of directed and undirected WS-type small-world networks. In addition to highlighting an essential feature of the WS model that has previously been overlooked, namely the equivalence to a simple distance-dependent model, this alternative formulation makes it possible to derive exact expressions for quantities such as the degree and motif distributions and global clustering coefficient for both directed and undirected networks in terms of model parameters.
Equivalence Checking of Combinational Circuits using Boolean Expression Diagrams
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hulgaard, Henrik; Williams, Poul Frederick; Andersen, Henrik Reif
1999-01-01
The combinational logic-level equivalence problem is to determine whether two given combinational circuits implement the same Boolean function. This problem arises in a number of CAD applications, for example when checking the correctness of incremental design changes (performed either manually...... or by a design automation tool).This paper introduces a data structure called Boolean Expression Diagrams (BEDs) and two algorithms for transforming a BED into a Reduced Ordered Binary Decision Diagram (OBDD). BEDs are capable of representing any Boolean circuit in linear space and can exploit structural...... similarities between the two circuits that are compared. These properties make BEDs suitable for verifying the equivalence of combinational circuits. BEDs can be seen as an intermediate representation between circuits (which are compact) and OBDDs (which are canonical).Based on a large number of combinational...
Exploiting Surroundedness for Saliency Detection: A Boolean Map Approach.
Zhang, Jianming; Sclaroff, Stan
2016-05-01
We demonstrate the usefulness of surroundedness for eye fixation prediction by proposing a Boolean Map based Saliency model (BMS). In our formulation, an image is characterized by a set of binary images, which are generated by randomly thresholding the image's feature maps in a whitened feature space. Based on a Gestalt principle of figure-ground segregation, BMS computes a saliency map by discovering surrounded regions via topological analysis of Boolean maps. Furthermore, we draw a connection between BMS and the Minimum Barrier Distance to provide insight into why and how BMS can properly captures the surroundedness cue via Boolean maps. The strength of BMS is verified by its simplicity, efficiency and superior performance compared with 10 state-of-the-art methods on seven eye tracking benchmark datasets.
A Boolean Approach to Airline Business Model Innovation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hvass, Kristian Anders
Research in business model innovation has identified its significance in creating a sustainable competitive advantage for a firm, yet there are few empirical studies identifying which combination of business model activities lead to success and therefore deserve innovative attention. This study...... analyzes the business models of North America low-cost carriers from 2001 to 2010 using a Boolean minimization algorithm to identify which combinations of business model activities lead to operational profitability. The research aim is threefold: complement airline literature in the realm of business model...... innovation, introduce Boolean minimization methods to the field, and propose alternative business model activities to North American carriers striving for positive operating results....
Refinement monoids, equidecomposability types, and boolean inverse semigroups
Wehrung, Friedrich
2017-01-01
Adopting a new universal algebraic approach, this book explores and consolidates the link between Tarski's classical theory of equidecomposability types monoids, abstract measure theory (in the spirit of Hans Dobbertin's work on monoid-valued measures on Boolean algebras) and the nonstable K-theory of rings. This is done via the study of a monoid invariant, defined on Boolean inverse semigroups, called the type monoid. The new techniques contrast with the currently available topological approaches. Many positive results, but also many counterexamples, are provided.
On Kolmogorov's superpositions and Boolean functions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Beiu, V.
1998-12-31
The paper overviews results dealing with the approximation capabilities of neural networks, as well as bounds on the size of threshold gate circuits. Based on an explicit numerical (i.e., constructive) algorithm for Kolmogorov's superpositions they will show that for obtaining minimum size neutral networks for implementing any Boolean function, the activation function of the neurons is the identity function. Because classical AND-OR implementations, as well as threshold gate implementations require exponential size (in the worst case), it will follow that size-optimal solutions for implementing arbitrary Boolean functions require analog circuitry. Conclusions and several comments on the required precision are ending the paper.
Optimization-Based Approaches to Control of Probabilistic Boolean Networks
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Koichi Kobayashi
2017-02-01
Full Text Available Control of gene regulatory networks is one of the fundamental topics in systems biology. In the last decade, control theory of Boolean networks (BNs, which is well known as a model of gene regulatory networks, has been widely studied. In this review paper, our previously proposed methods on optimal control of probabilistic Boolean networks (PBNs are introduced. First, the outline of PBNs is explained. Next, an optimal control method using polynomial optimization is explained. The finite-time optimal control problem is reduced to a polynomial optimization problem. Furthermore, another finite-time optimal control problem, which can be reduced to an integer programming problem, is also explained.
Confluence of an extension of combinatory logic by Boolean constants
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Czajka, Łukasz
2017-01-01
We show confluence of a conditional term rewriting system CL-pc1, which is an extension of Combinatory Logic by Boolean constants. This solves problem 15 from the RTA list of open problems. The proof has been fully formalized in the Coq proof assistant....
On the Road to Genetic Boolean Matrix Factorization
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Snášel, V.; Platoš, J.; Krömer, P.; Húsek, Dušan; Frolov, A.
2007-01-01
Roč. 17, č. 6 (2007), s. 675-688 ISSN 1210-0552 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : data mining * genetic algorithms * Boolean factorization * binary data * machine learning * feature extraction Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science Impact factor: 0.280, year: 2007
Document Ranking in E-Extended Boolean Logic
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Holub, M.; Húsek, Dušan; Pokorný, J.
1996-01-01
Roč. 4, č. 7 (1996), s. 3-17 ISSN 1310-0513. [Annual Colloquium on IR Research /19./. Aberdeen, 08.04.1997-09.04.1997] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA102/94/0728 Keywords : information retrieval * document ranking * extended Boolean logic
Free Boolean algebras over unions of two well orderings
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Bonnet, R.; Faouzi, L.; Kubiś, Wieslaw
2009-01-01
Roč. 156, č. 7 (2009), s. 1177-1185 ISSN 0166-8641 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : Well quasi orderings * Poset algebras * Superatomic Boolean algebras * Compact distributive lattices Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.441, year: 2009
Boolean comparative analysis of qualitative data : a methodological note
Romme, A.G.L.
1995-01-01
This paper explores the use of Boolean logic in the analysis of qualitative data, especially on the basis of so-called process theories. Process theories treat independent variables as necessary conditions which are binary rather than variable in nature, while the dependent variable is a final
Parallel object-oriented term rewriting : the booleans
Rodenburg, P.H.; Vrancken, J.L.M.
As a first case study in parallel object-oriented term rewriting, we give two implementations of term rewriting algorithms for boolean terms, using the parallel object-oriented features of the language Pool-T. The term rewriting systems are specified in the specification formalism
A Construction of Boolean Functions with Good Cryptographic Properties
2014-01-01
be subject to a penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. 1. REPORT...2008, LNCS 5350, Springer–Verlag, 2008, pp. 425–440. [10] C. Carlet and K. Feng, “An Infinite Class of Balanced Vectorial Boolean Functions with Optimum
Boolean network representation of contagion dynamics during a financial crisis
Caetano, Marco Antonio Leonel; Yoneyama, Takashi
2015-01-01
This work presents a network model for representation of the evolution of certain patterns of economic behavior. More specifically, after representing the agents as points in a space in which each dimension associated to a relevant economic variable, their relative "motions" that can be either stationary or discordant, are coded into a boolean network. Patterns with stationary averages indicate the maintenance of status quo, whereas discordant patterns represent aggregation of new agent into the cluster or departure from the former policies. The changing patterns can be embedded into a network representation, particularly using the concept of autocatalytic boolean networks. As a case study, the economic tendencies of the BRIC countries + Argentina were studied. Although Argentina is not included in the cluster formed by BRIC countries, it tends to follow the BRIC members because of strong commercial ties.
Boolean Functions with a Simple Certificate for CNF Complexity
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Čepek, O.; Kučera, P.; Savický, Petr
2012-01-01
Roč. 160, 4-5 (2012), s. 365-382 ISSN 0166-218X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0545 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GP201/07/P168; GA ČR(CZ) GAP202/10/1188 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : Boolean functions * CNF representations Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.718, year: 2012
Elements of Boolean-Valued Dempster-Shafer Theory
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Kramosil, Ivan
2000-01-01
Roč. 10, č. 5 (2000), s. 825-835 ISSN 1210-0552. [SOFSEM 2000 Workshop on Soft Computing. Milovy, 27.11.2000-28.11.2000] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/00/1489 Institutional research plan: AV0Z1030915 Keywords : Boolean algebra * belief function * Dempster-Shafer theory * Dempster combination rule * nonspecifity degree Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics
Boolean Models of Biological Processes Explain Cascade-Like Behavior.
Chen, Hao; Wang, Guanyu; Simha, Rahul; Du, Chenghang; Zeng, Chen
2016-01-29
Biological networks play a key role in determining biological function and therefore, an understanding of their structure and dynamics is of central interest in systems biology. In Boolean models of such networks, the status of each molecule is either "on" or "off" and along with the molecules interact with each other, their individual status changes from "on" to "off" or vice-versa and the system of molecules in the network collectively go through a sequence of changes in state. This sequence of changes is termed a biological process. In this paper, we examine the common perception that events in biomolecular networks occur sequentially, in a cascade-like manner, and ask whether this is likely to be an inherent property. In further investigations of the budding and fission yeast cell-cycle, we identify two generic dynamical rules. A Boolean system that complies with these rules will automatically have a certain robustness. By considering the biological requirements in robustness and designability, we show that those Boolean dynamical systems, compared to an arbitrary dynamical system, statistically present the characteristics of cascadeness and sequentiality, as observed in the budding and fission yeast cell- cycle. These results suggest that cascade-like behavior might be an intrinsic property of biological processes.
SETS, Boolean Manipulation for Network Analysis and Fault Tree Analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Worrell, R.B.
1985-01-01
Description of problem or function - SETS is used for symbolic manipulation of set (or Boolean) equations, particularly the reduction of set equations by the application of set identities. It is a flexible and efficient tool for performing probabilistic risk analysis (PRA), vital area analysis, and common cause analysis. The equation manipulation capabilities of SETS can also be used to analyze non-coherent fault trees and determine prime implicants of Boolean functions, to verify circuit design implementation, to determine minimum cost fire protection requirements for nuclear reactor plants, to obtain solutions to combinatorial optimization problems with Boolean constraints, and to determine the susceptibility of a facility to unauthorized access through nullification of sensors in its protection system. 4. Method of solution - The SETS program is used to read, interpret, and execute the statements of a SETS user program which is an algorithm that specifies the particular manipulations to be performed and the order in which they are to occur. 5. Restrictions on the complexity of the problem - Any properly formed set equation involving the set operations of union, intersection, and complement is acceptable for processing by the SETS program. Restrictions on the size of a set equation that can be processed are not absolute but rather are related to the number of terms in the disjunctive normal form of the equation, the number of literals in the equation, etc. Nevertheless, set equations involving thousands and even hundreds of thousands of terms can be processed successfully
Controllability and observability of Boolean networks arising from biology
Li, Rui; Yang, Meng; Chu, Tianguang
2015-02-01
Boolean networks are currently receiving considerable attention as a computational scheme for system level analysis and modeling of biological systems. Studying control-related problems in Boolean networks may reveal new insights into the intrinsic control in complex biological systems and enable us to develop strategies for manipulating biological systems using exogenous inputs. This paper considers controllability and observability of Boolean biological networks. We propose a new approach, which draws from the rich theory of symbolic computation, to solve the problems. Consequently, simple necessary and sufficient conditions for reachability, controllability, and observability are obtained, and algorithmic tests for controllability and observability which are based on the Gröbner basis method are presented. As practical applications, we apply the proposed approach to several different biological systems, namely, the mammalian cell-cycle network, the T-cell activation network, the large granular lymphocyte survival signaling network, and the Drosophila segment polarity network, gaining novel insights into the control and/or monitoring of the specific biological systems.
3D Boolean operations in virtual surgical planning.
Charton, Jerome; Laurentjoye, Mathieu; Kim, Youngjun
2017-10-01
Boolean operations in computer-aided design or computer graphics are a set of operations (e.g. intersection, union, subtraction) between two objects (e.g. a patient model and an implant model) that are important in performing accurate and reproducible virtual surgical planning. This requires accurate and robust techniques that can handle various types of data, such as a surface extracted from volumetric data, synthetic models, and 3D scan data. This article compares the performance of the proposed method (Boolean operations by a robust, exact, and simple method between two colliding shells (BORES)) and an existing method based on the Visualization Toolkit (VTK). In all tests presented in this article, BORES could handle complex configurations as well as report impossible configurations of the input. In contrast, the VTK implementations were unstable, do not deal with singular edges and coplanar collisions, and have created several defects. The proposed method of Boolean operations, BORES, is efficient and appropriate for virtual surgical planning. Moreover, it is simple and easy to implement. In future work, we will extend the proposed method to handle non-colliding components.
Iajya, Victor; Lacetera, Nicola; Macis, Mario; Slonim, Robert
2013-12-01
In many low- and middle-income countries blood donations per capita are substantially lower than in advanced economies. In these countries blood supply is mostly collected through directed donations from relatives and friends to individuals needing transfusions or to replace blood used in emergencies. The World Health Organization considers this method of blood supply inefficient compared to undirected voluntary donations. To examine methods to motivate undirected voluntary donations, we ran a large-scale, natural field experiment in Argentina, testing the effectiveness of information, social and financial incentives. We find that only higher-valued financial incentives generated more donations, increasing with the value of the reward. These incentives did not create adverse selection in the safety or usability of the donated blood. We discuss the implications of our findings for researchers interested in understanding motivations for pro-social behavior and for health agencies and policymakers concerned with the current and growing shortages in blood supply in low- and middle-income countries. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
On the Computation of Comprehensive Boolean Gröbner Bases
Inoue, Shutaro
We show that a comprehensive Boolean Gröbner basis of an ideal I in a Boolean polynomial ring B (bar A,bar X) with main variables bar X and parameters bar A can be obtained by simply computing a usual Boolean Gröbner basis of I regarding both bar X and bar A as variables with a certain block term order such that bar X ≫ bar A. The result together with a fact that a finite Boolean ring is isomorphic to a direct product of the Galois field mathbb{GF}_2 enables us to compute a comprehensive Boolean Gröbner basis by only computing corresponding Gröbner bases in a polynomial ring over mathbb{GF}_2. Our implementation in a computer algebra system Risa/Asir shows that our method is extremely efficient comparing with existing computation algorithms of comprehensive Boolean Gröbner bases.
The mathematics of a quantum Hamiltonian computing half adder Boolean logic gate
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dridi, G; Julien, R; Hliwa, M; Joachim, C
2015-01-01
The mathematics behind the quantum Hamiltonian computing (QHC) approach of designing Boolean logic gates with a quantum system are given. Using the quantum eigenvalue repulsion effect, the QHC AND, NAND, OR, NOR, XOR, and NXOR Hamiltonian Boolean matrices are constructed. This is applied to the construction of a QHC half adder Hamiltonian matrix requiring only six quantum states to fullfil a half Boolean logical truth table. The QHC design rules open a nano-architectronic way of constructing Boolean logic gates inside a single molecule or atom by atom at the surface of a passivated semi-conductor. (paper)
The mathematics of a quantum Hamiltonian computing half adder Boolean logic gate.
Dridi, G; Julien, R; Hliwa, M; Joachim, C
2015-08-28
The mathematics behind the quantum Hamiltonian computing (QHC) approach of designing Boolean logic gates with a quantum system are given. Using the quantum eigenvalue repulsion effect, the QHC AND, NAND, OR, NOR, XOR, and NXOR Hamiltonian Boolean matrices are constructed. This is applied to the construction of a QHC half adder Hamiltonian matrix requiring only six quantum states to fullfil a half Boolean logical truth table. The QHC design rules open a nano-architectronic way of constructing Boolean logic gates inside a single molecule or atom by atom at the surface of a passivated semi-conductor.
Buscema, Massimo; Asadi-Zeydabadi, Masoud; Lodwick, Weldon; Breda, Marco
2016-04-01
Significant applications such as the analysis of Alzheimer's disease differentiated from dementia, or in data mining of social media, or in extracting information of drug cartel structural composition, are often modeled as graphs. The structural or topological complexity or lack of it in a graph is quite often useful in understanding and more importantly, resolving the problem. We are proposing a new index we call the H0function to measure the structural/topological complexity of a graph. To do this, we introduce the concept of graph pruning and its associated algorithm that is used in the development of our measure. We illustrate the behavior of our measure, the H0 function, through different examples found in the appendix. These examples indicate that the H0 function contains information that is useful and important characteristics of a graph. Here, we restrict ourselves to undirected.
The value of less connected agents in Boolean networks
Epstein, Daniel; Bazzan, Ana L. C.
2013-11-01
In multiagent systems, agents often face binary decisions where one seeks to take either the minority or the majority side. Examples are minority and congestion games in general, i.e., situations that require coordination among the agents in order to depict efficient decisions. In minority games such as the El Farol Bar Problem, previous works have shown that agents may reach appropriate levels of coordination, mostly by looking at the history of past decisions. Not many works consider any kind of structure of the social network, i.e., how agents are connected. Moreover, when structure is indeed considered, it assumes some kind of random network with a given, fixed connectivity degree. The present paper departs from the conventional approach in some ways. First, it considers more realistic network topologies, based on preferential attachments. This is especially useful in social networks. Second, the formalism of random Boolean networks is used to help agents to make decisions given their attachments (for example acquaintances). This is coupled with a reinforcement learning mechanism that allows agents to select strategies that are locally and globally efficient. Third, we use agent-based modeling and simulation, a microscopic approach, which allows us to draw conclusions about individuals and/or classes of individuals. Finally, for the sake of illustration we use two different scenarios, namely the El Farol Bar Problem and a binary route choice scenario. With this approach we target systems that adapt dynamically to changes in the environment, including other adaptive decision-makers. Our results using preferential attachments and random Boolean networks are threefold. First we show that an efficient equilibrium can be achieved, provided agents do experimentation. Second, microscopic analysis show that influential agents tend to consider few inputs in their Boolean functions. Third, we have also conducted measurements related to network clustering and centrality
Bebop to the Boolean boogie an unconventional guide to electronics
Maxfield, Clive
2003-01-01
From reviews of the first edition:""If you want to be reminded of the joy of electronics, take a look at Clive (Max) Maxfield's book Bebop to the Boolean Boogie.""--Computer Design ""Lives up to its title as a useful and entertaining technical guide....well-suited for students, technical writers, technicians, and sales and marketing people.""--Electronic Design""Writing a book like this one takes audacity! ... Maxfield writes lucidly on a variety of complex topics without 'writing down' to his audience."" --EDN""A highly readable, well-illustrated guided tour
Two Expectation-Maximization Algorithms for Boolean Factor Analysis
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Frolov, A. A.; Húsek, Dušan; Polyakov, P.Y.
2014-01-01
Roč. 130, 23 April (2014), s. 83-97 ISSN 0925-2312 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP202/10/0262 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0070; GA MŠk(CZ) EE.2.3.20.0073 Program:ED Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : Boolean Factor analysis * Binary Matrix factorization * Neural networks * Binary data model * Dimension reduction * Bars problem Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science Impact factor: 2.083, year: 2014
A boolean optimization method for reloading a nuclear reactor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Misse Nseke, Theophile.
1982-04-01
We attempt to solve the problem of optimal reloading of fuel assemblies in a PWR, without any assumption on the fuel nature. Any loading is marked by n 2 boolean variables usub(ij). The state of the reactor is characterized by his Ksub(eff) and the related power distribution. The resulting non-linear allocation problems are solved throught mathematical programming technics combining the simplex algorithm and an extension of the Balas-Geoffrion's one. Some optimal solutions are given for PWR with assemblies of different enrichment [fr
Complexity classifications for different equivalence and audit problems for Boolean circuits
BÃ¶hler, Elmar; Creignou, Nadia; Galota, Matthias; Reith, Steffen; Schnoor, Henning; Vollmer, Heribert
2010-01-01
We study Boolean circuits as a representation of Boolean functions and conskier different equivalence, audit, and enumeration problems. For a number of restricted sets of gate types (bases) we obtain efficient algorithms, while for all other gate types we show these problems are at least NP-hard.
BEAT: A Web-Based Boolean Expression Fault-Based Test Case Generation Tool
Chen, T. Y.; Grant, D. D.; Lau, M. F.; Ng, S. P.; Vasa, V. R.
2006-01-01
BEAT is a Web-based system that generates fault-based test cases from Boolean expressions. It is based on the integration of our several fault-based test case selection strategies. The generated test cases are considered to be fault-based, because they are aiming at the detection of particular faults. For example, when the Boolean expression is in…
Boolean models of biosurfactants production in Pseudomonas fluorescens.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Adrien Richard
Full Text Available Cyclolipopeptides (CLPs are biosurfactants produced by numerous Pseudomonas fluorescens strains. CLP production is known to be regulated at least by the GacA/GacS two-component pathway, but the full regulatory network is yet largely unknown. In the clinical strain MFN1032, CLP production is abolished by a mutation in the phospholipase C gene (plcC and not restored by plcC complementation. Their production is also subject to phenotypic variation. We used a modelling approach with Boolean networks, which takes into account all these observations concerning CLP production without any assumption on the topology of the considered network. Intensive computation yielded numerous models that satisfy these properties. All models minimizing the number of components point to a bistability in CLP production, which requires the presence of a yet unknown key self-inducible regulator. Furthermore, all suggest that a set of yet unexplained phenotypic variants might also be due to this epigenetic switch. The simplest of these Boolean networks was used to propose a biological regulatory network for CLP production. This modelling approach has allowed a possible regulation to be unravelled and an unusual behaviour of CLP production in P. fluorescens to be explained.
Efficient Instantiation of Parameterised Boolean Equation Systems to Parity Games
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gijs Kant
2012-10-01
Full Text Available Parameterised Boolean Equation Systems (PBESs are sequences of Boolean fixed point equations with data variables, used for, e.g., verification of modal mu-calculus formulae for process algebraic specifications with data. Solving a PBES is usually done by instantiation to a Parity Game and then solving the game. Practical game solvers exist, but the instantiation step is the bottleneck. We enhance the instantiation in two steps. First, we transform the PBES to a Parameterised Parity Game (PPG, a PBES with each equation either conjunctive or disjunctive. Then we use LTSmin, that offers transition caching, efficient storage of states and both distributed and symbolic state space generation, for generating the game graph. To that end we define a language module for LTSmin, consisting of an encoding of variables with parameters into state vectors, a grouped transition relation and a dependency matrix to indicate the dependencies between parts of the state vector and transition groups. Benchmarks on some large case studies, show that the method speeds up the instantiation significantly and decreases memory usage drastically.
Complex network analysis of state spaces for random Boolean networks
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shreim, Amer [Complexity Science Group, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, T2N 1N4 (Canada); Berdahl, Andrew [Complexity Science Group, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, T2N 1N4 (Canada); Sood, Vishal [Complexity Science Group, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, T2N 1N4 (Canada); Grassberger, Peter [Complexity Science Group, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, T2N 1N4 (Canada); Paczuski, Maya [Complexity Science Group, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, T2N 1N4 (Canada)
2008-01-15
We apply complex network analysis to the state spaces of random Boolean networks (RBNs). An RBN contains N Boolean elements each with K inputs. A directed state space network (SSN) is constructed by linking each dynamical state, represented as a node, to its temporal successor. We study the heterogeneity of these SSNs at both local and global scales, as well as sample to-sample fluctuations within an ensemble of SSNs. We use in-degrees of nodes as a local topological measure, and the path diversity (Shreim A et al 2007 Phys. Rev. Lett. 98 198701) of an SSN as a global topological measure. RBNs with 2 {<=} K {<=} 5 exhibit non-trivial fluctuations at both local and global scales, while K = 2 exhibits the largest sample-to-sample (possibly non-self-averaging) fluctuations. We interpret the observed 'multi scale' fluctuations in the SSNs as indicative of the criticality and complexity of K = 2 RBNs. 'Garden of Eden' (GoE) states are nodes on an SSN that have in-degree zero. While in-degrees of non-GoE nodes for K > 1 SSNs can assume any integer value between 0 and 2{sup N}, for K = 1 all the non-GoE nodes in a given SSN have the same in-degree which is always a power of two.
Complex network analysis of state spaces for random Boolean networks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shreim, Amer; Berdahl, Andrew; Sood, Vishal; Grassberger, Peter; Paczuski, Maya
2008-01-01
We apply complex network analysis to the state spaces of random Boolean networks (RBNs). An RBN contains N Boolean elements each with K inputs. A directed state space network (SSN) is constructed by linking each dynamical state, represented as a node, to its temporal successor. We study the heterogeneity of these SSNs at both local and global scales, as well as sample to-sample fluctuations within an ensemble of SSNs. We use in-degrees of nodes as a local topological measure, and the path diversity (Shreim A et al 2007 Phys. Rev. Lett. 98 198701) of an SSN as a global topological measure. RBNs with 2 ≤ K ≤ 5 exhibit non-trivial fluctuations at both local and global scales, while K = 2 exhibits the largest sample-to-sample (possibly non-self-averaging) fluctuations. We interpret the observed 'multi scale' fluctuations in the SSNs as indicative of the criticality and complexity of K = 2 RBNs. 'Garden of Eden' (GoE) states are nodes on an SSN that have in-degree zero. While in-degrees of non-GoE nodes for K > 1 SSNs can assume any integer value between 0 and 2 N , for K = 1 all the non-GoE nodes in a given SSN have the same in-degree which is always a power of two
Adapted Boolean network models for extracellular matrix formation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wollbold Johannes
2009-07-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Due to the rapid data accumulation on pathogenesis and progression of chronic inflammation, there is an increasing demand for approaches to analyse the underlying regulatory networks. For example, rheumatoid arthritis (RA is a chronic inflammatory disease, characterised by joint destruction and perpetuated by activated synovial fibroblasts (SFB. These abnormally express and/or secrete pro-inflammatory cytokines, collagens causing joint fibrosis, or tissue-degrading enzymes resulting in destruction of the extra-cellular matrix (ECM. We applied three methods to analyse ECM regulation: data discretisation to filter out noise and to reduce complexity, Boolean network construction to implement logic relationships, and formal concept analysis (FCA for the formation of minimal, but complete rule sets from the data. Results First, we extracted literature information to develop an interaction network containing 18 genes representing ECM formation and destruction. Subsequently, we constructed an asynchronous Boolean network with biologically plausible time intervals for mRNA and protein production, secretion, and inactivation. Experimental gene expression data was obtained from SFB stimulated by TGFβ1 or by TNFα and discretised thereafter. The Boolean functions of the initial network were improved iteratively by the comparison of the simulation runs to the experimental data and by exploitation of expert knowledge. This resulted in adapted networks for both cytokine stimulation conditions. The simulations were further analysed by the attribute exploration algorithm of FCA, integrating the observed time series in a fine-tuned and automated manner. The resulting temporal rules yielded new contributions to controversially discussed aspects of fibroblast biology (e.g., considerable expression of TNF and MMP9 by fibroblasts stimulation and corroborated previously known facts (e.g., co-expression of collagens and MMPs after TNF
Simulating Quantitative Cellular Responses Using Asynchronous Threshold Boolean Network Ensembles
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shah Imran
2011-07-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background With increasing knowledge about the potential mechanisms underlying cellular functions, it is becoming feasible to predict the response of biological systems to genetic and environmental perturbations. Due to the lack of homogeneity in living tissues it is difficult to estimate the physiological effect of chemicals, including potential toxicity. Here we investigate a biologically motivated model for estimating tissue level responses by aggregating the behavior of a cell population. We assume that the molecular state of individual cells is independently governed by discrete non-deterministic signaling mechanisms. This results in noisy but highly reproducible aggregate level responses that are consistent with experimental data. Results We developed an asynchronous threshold Boolean network simulation algorithm to model signal transduction in a single cell, and then used an ensemble of these models to estimate the aggregate response across a cell population. Using published data, we derived a putative crosstalk network involving growth factors and cytokines - i.e., Epidermal Growth Factor, Insulin, Insulin like Growth Factor Type 1, and Tumor Necrosis Factor α - to describe early signaling events in cell proliferation signal transduction. Reproducibility of the modeling technique across ensembles of Boolean networks representing cell populations is investigated. Furthermore, we compare our simulation results to experimental observations of hepatocytes reported in the literature. Conclusion A systematic analysis of the results following differential stimulation of this model by growth factors and cytokines suggests that: (a using Boolean network ensembles with asynchronous updating provides biologically plausible noisy individual cellular responses with reproducible mean behavior for large cell populations, and (b with sufficient data our model can estimate the response to different concentrations of extracellular ligands. Our
Boolean modeling in systems biology: an overview of methodology and applications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, Rui-Sheng; Albert, Réka; Saadatpour, Assieh
2012-01-01
Mathematical modeling of biological processes provides deep insights into complex cellular systems. While quantitative and continuous models such as differential equations have been widely used, their use is obstructed in systems wherein the knowledge of mechanistic details and kinetic parameters is scarce. On the other hand, a wealth of molecular level qualitative data on individual components and interactions can be obtained from the experimental literature and high-throughput technologies, making qualitative approaches such as Boolean network modeling extremely useful. In this paper, we build on our research to provide a methodology overview of Boolean modeling in systems biology, including Boolean dynamic modeling of cellular networks, attractor analysis of Boolean dynamic models, as well as inferring biological regulatory mechanisms from high-throughput data using Boolean models. We finally demonstrate how Boolean models can be applied to perform the structural analysis of cellular networks. This overview aims to acquaint life science researchers with the basic steps of Boolean modeling and its applications in several areas of systems biology. (paper)
Griffin: A Tool for Symbolic Inference of Synchronous Boolean Molecular Networks
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Stalin Muñoz
2018-03-01
Full Text Available Boolean networks are important models of biochemical systems, located at the high end of the abstraction spectrum. A number of Boolean gene networks have been inferred following essentially the same method. Such a method first considers experimental data for a typically underdetermined “regulation” graph. Next, Boolean networks are inferred by using biological constraints to narrow the search space, such as a desired set of (fixed-point or cyclic attractors. We describe Griffin, a computer tool enhancing this method. Griffin incorporates a number of well-established algorithms, such as Dubrova and Teslenko's algorithm for finding attractors in synchronous Boolean networks. In addition, a formal definition of regulation allows Griffin to employ “symbolic” techniques, able to represent both large sets of network states and Boolean constraints. We observe that when the set of attractors is required to be an exact set, prohibiting additional attractors, a naive Boolean coding of this constraint may be unfeasible. Such cases may be intractable even with symbolic methods, as the number of Boolean constraints may be astronomically large. To overcome this problem, we employ an Artificial Intelligence technique known as “clause learning” considerably increasing Griffin's scalability. Without clause learning only toy examples prohibiting additional attractors are solvable: only one out of seven queries reported here is answered. With clause learning, by contrast, all seven queries are answered. We illustrate Griffin with three case studies drawn from the Arabidopsis thaliana literature. Griffin is available at: http://turing.iimas.unam.mx/griffin.
Boolean Algebra Application in Analysis of Flight Accidents
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Casandra Venera BALAN
2015-12-01
Full Text Available Fault tree analysis is a deductive approach for resolving an undesired event into its causes, identifying the causes of a failure and providing a framework for a qualitative and quantitative evaluation of the top event. An alternative approach to fault tree analysis methods calculus goes to logical expressions and it is based on a graphical representation of the data structure for a logic - based binary decision diagram representation. In this analysis, such sites will be reduced to a minimal size and arranged in the sense that the variables appear in the same order in each path. An event can be defined as a statement that can be true or false. Therefore, Boolean algebra rules allow restructuring of a Fault Tree into one equivalent to it, but simpler.
Logical Attractors: a Boolean Approach to the Dynamics of Psychosis
Kupper, Z.; Hoffmann, H.
A Boolean modeling approach to attractors in the dynamics of psychosis is presented: Kinetic Logic, originating from R. Thomas, describes systems on an intermediate level between a purely verbal, qualitative description and a description using nonlinear differential equations. With this method we may model impact, feedback and temporal evolution, as well as analyze the resulting attractors. In our previous research the method has been applied to general and more specific questions in the dynamics of psychotic disorders. In this paper a model is introduced that describes different dynamical patterns of chronic psychosis in the context of vocational rehabilitation. It also shows to be useful in formulating and exploring possible treatment strategies. Finally, some of the limitations and benefits of Kinetic Logic as a modeling tool for psychology and psychiatry are discussed.
Unlimited multistability and Boolean logic in microbial signalling
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kothamachu, Varun B; Feliu, Elisenda; Cardelli, Luca
2015-01-01
The ability to map environmental signals onto distinct internal physiological states or programmes is critical for single-celled microbes. A crucial systems dynamics feature underpinning such ability is multistability. While unlimited multistability is known to arise from multi-site phosphorylation...... seen in the signalling networks of eukaryotic cells, a similarly universal mechanism has not been identified in microbial signalling systems. These systems are generally known as two-component systems comprising histidine kinase (HK) receptors and response regulator proteins engaging in phosphotransfer...... further prove that sharing of downstream components allows a system with n multi-domain hybrid HKs to attain 3n steady states. We find that such systems, when sensing distinct signals, can readily implement Boolean logic functions on these signals. Using two experimentally studied examples of two...
Minimum energy control and optimal-satisfactory control of Boolean control network
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li, Fangfei; Lu, Xiwen
2013-01-01
In the literatures, to transfer the Boolean control network from the initial state to the desired state, the expenditure of energy has been rarely considered. Motivated by this, this Letter investigates the minimum energy control and optimal-satisfactory control of Boolean control network. Based on the semi-tensor product of matrices and Floyd's algorithm, minimum energy, constrained minimum energy and optimal-satisfactory control design for Boolean control network are given respectively. A numerical example is presented to illustrate the efficiency of the obtained results.
Vectorial Resilient PC(l) of Order k Boolean Functions from AG-Codes
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Hao CHEN; Liang MA; Jianhua LI
2011-01-01
Propagation criteria and resiliency of vectorial Boolean functions are important for cryptographic purpose (see [1- 4, 7, 8, 10, 11, 16]). Kurosawa, Stoh [8] and Carlet [1]gave a construction of Boolean functions satisfying PC(l) of order k from binary linear or nonlinear codes. In this paper, the algebraic-geometric codes over GF(2m) are used to modify the Carlet and Kurosawa-Satoh's construction for giving vectorial resilient Boolean functions satisfying PC(l) of order k criterion. This new construction is compared with previously known results.
Expected Number of Fixed Points in Boolean Networks with Arbitrary Topology.
Mori, Fumito; Mochizuki, Atsushi
2017-07-14
Boolean network models describe genetic, neural, and social dynamics in complex networks, where the dynamics depend generally on network topology. Fixed points in a genetic regulatory network are typically considered to correspond to cell types in an organism. We prove that the expected number of fixed points in a Boolean network, with Boolean functions drawn from probability distributions that are not required to be uniform or identical, is one, and is independent of network topology if only a feedback arc set satisfies a stochastic neutrality condition. We also demonstrate that the expected number is increased by the predominance of positive feedback in a cycle.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vogl, C.; Grillitsch, B.; Wytek, R.; Spieser, O.H.; Scholz, W.
1999-12-01
An automated, personal computer-based video-processing, object-recognition, and object-tracing system was used to record and analyze undirected spontaneous locomotor behavior of small groups of undisturbed zebra fish (Brachydanio rerio) in laboratory tanks. The primary data provided by the monitoring system were the individually assigned, time-stamped coordinates of the fish in two-dimensional projection. Secondary parameters (position, velocity of movement in the horizontal and the vertical direction, and temporal intraindividual and interindividual association) were calculated. The computed parameters offered a multidimensional description of spontaneous undirected swimming behavior of the fish and proved to be largely independent of water temperature, length, weight, and sex ratio of the zebra fish within the standardized range, but varied significantly with the feeding regime, time of day, number of fish per tank, and batch. Statistical characteristics of the behavioral parameters confirmed them as being appropriate for parametric statistical analyses.
Interpolation of the discrete logarithm in a finite field of characteristic two by Boolean functions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Brandstaetter, Nina; Lange, Tanja; Winterhof, Arne
2005-01-01
We obtain bounds on degree, weight, and the maximal Fourier coefficient of Boolean functions interpolating the discrete logarithm in finite fields of characteristic two. These bounds complement earlier results for finite fields of odd characteristic....
Sensitivity analysis of efficient solution in vector MINMAX boolean programming problem
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vladimir A. Emelichev
2002-11-01
Full Text Available We consider a multiple criterion Boolean programming problem with MINMAX partial criteria. The extreme level of independent perturbations of partial criteria parameters such that efficient (Pareto optimal solution preserves optimality was obtained.
Totally Optimal Decision Trees for Monotone Boolean Functions with at Most Five Variables
Chikalov, Igor; Hussain, Shahid; Moshkov, Mikhail
2013-01-01
In this paper, we present the empirical results for relationships between time (depth) and space (number of nodes) complexity of decision trees computing monotone Boolean functions, with at most five variables. We use Dagger (a tool for optimization
Boolean and advanced searching for EDGAR data on www.sec.gov
Securities and Exchange Commission — This search allows users to enter complex boolean queries to access all but the most recent day's EDGAR filings on www.sec.gov. Filings are from 1994 to present.
Circulant Matrices and Affine Equivalence of Monomial Rotation Symmetric Boolean Functions
2015-01-01
degree of the MRS is, we have a similar result as [40, Theorem 1.1] for n = 4p (p prime), or squarefree integers n, which along with our Theorem 5.2...Boolean functions: Construction and analysis in terms of algebraic immunity, in: H. Gilbert, H. Handschuh (Eds.), Fast Software Encryption, in: LNCS...vol. 1403, Springer-Verlag, 1998, pp. 475–488. [20] J.E. Fuller, Analysis of affine equivalent Boolean functions for cryptography (Ph.D. thesis
Totally Optimal Decision Trees for Monotone Boolean Functions with at Most Five Variables
Chikalov, Igor
2013-01-01
In this paper, we present the empirical results for relationships between time (depth) and space (number of nodes) complexity of decision trees computing monotone Boolean functions, with at most five variables. We use Dagger (a tool for optimization of decision trees and decision rules) to conduct experiments. We show that, for each monotone Boolean function with at most five variables, there exists a totally optimal decision tree which is optimal with respect to both depth and number of nodes.
An Attractor-Based Complexity Measurement for Boolean Recurrent Neural Networks
Cabessa, Jérémie; Villa, Alessandro E. P.
2014-01-01
We provide a novel refined attractor-based complexity measurement for Boolean recurrent neural networks that represents an assessment of their computational power in terms of the significance of their attractor dynamics. This complexity measurement is achieved by first proving a computational equivalence between Boolean recurrent neural networks and some specific class of -automata, and then translating the most refined classification of -automata to the Boolean neural network context. As a result, a hierarchical classification of Boolean neural networks based on their attractive dynamics is obtained, thus providing a novel refined attractor-based complexity measurement for Boolean recurrent neural networks. These results provide new theoretical insights to the computational and dynamical capabilities of neural networks according to their attractive potentialities. An application of our findings is illustrated by the analysis of the dynamics of a simplified model of the basal ganglia-thalamocortical network simulated by a Boolean recurrent neural network. This example shows the significance of measuring network complexity, and how our results bear new founding elements for the understanding of the complexity of real brain circuits. PMID:24727866
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nicole Geberzahn
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Birdsong is a popular model system in research areas such as vocal communication, neuroethology or neuroendocrinology of behaviour. As most research has been conducted on species with male-only song production, the hormone-dependency of male song is well established. However, female singing and its mechanisms are poorly understood. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We characterised the song and its endocrine correlates of blue-capped cordon-bleus (Uraeginthus cyanocephalus, a species in which both sexes sing. Like other estrildids, they produce directed song during courtship and undirected (or solitary song in isolation, i.e. when the mate is not visible or absent. We compare solitary song of blue-capped cordon-bleus to published descriptions of the song of its relative, the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata. Solitary song of cordon-bleus shared some overall song features with that of zebra finches but differed in spectro-temporal song features, sequential stereotypy and sequential organisation. The song of cordon-bleus was dimorphic with respect to the larger size of syllable repertoires, the higher song duration and the lower variability of pitch goodness (measuring the pureness of harmonic sounds in males. However, in both sexes the overall plasma testosterone concentrations were low (ca. 300 pg/ml and did not correlate with the sexually dimorphic song motor pattern. Despite such low concentrations, the increase in the rate of solitary song coincided with an increase in the level of testosterone. Furthermore, the latency to start singing after the separation from the mate was related to hormone levels. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings suggest that the occurrence of solitary song but not its motor pattern might be under the control of testosterone in female and male cordon-bleus.
Graphene-based non-Boolean logic circuits
Liu, Guanxiong; Ahsan, Sonia; Khitun, Alexander G.; Lake, Roger K.; Balandin, Alexander A.
2013-10-01
Graphene revealed a number of unique properties beneficial for electronics. However, graphene does not have an energy band-gap, which presents a serious hurdle for its applications in digital logic gates. The efforts to induce a band-gap in graphene via quantum confinement or surface functionalization have not resulted in a breakthrough. Here we show that the negative differential resistance experimentally observed in graphene field-effect transistors of "conventional" design allows for construction of viable non-Boolean computational architectures with the gapless graphene. The negative differential resistance—observed under certain biasing schemes—is an intrinsic property of graphene, resulting from its symmetric band structure. Our atomistic modeling shows that the negative differential resistance appears not only in the drift-diffusion regime but also in the ballistic regime at the nanometer-scale—although the physics changes. The obtained results present a conceptual change in graphene research and indicate an alternative route for graphene's applications in information processing.
Boolean network model of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa quorum sensing circuits.
Dallidis, Stylianos E; Karafyllidis, Ioannis G
2014-09-01
To coordinate their behavior and virulence and to synchronize attacks against their hosts, bacteria communicate by continuously producing signaling molecules (called autoinducers) and continuously monitoring the concentration of these molecules. This communication is controlled by biological circuits called quorum sensing (QS) circuits. Recently QS circuits and have been recognized as an alternative target for controlling bacterial virulence and infections without the use of antibiotics. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a Gram-negative bacterium that infects insects, plants, animals and humans and can cause acute infections. This bacterium has three interconnected QS circuits that form a very complex and versatile QS system, the operation of which is still under investigation. Here we use Boolean networks to model the complete QS system of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and we simulate and analyze its operation in both synchronous and asynchronous modes. The state space of the QS system is constructed and it turned out to be very large, hierarchical, modular and scale-free. Furthermore, we developed a simulation tool that can simulate gene knock-outs and study their effect on the regulons controlled by the three QS circuits. The model and tools we developed will give to life scientists a deeper insight to this complex QS system.
Modeling integrated cellular machinery using hybrid Petri-Boolean networks.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Natalie Berestovsky
Full Text Available The behavior and phenotypic changes of cells are governed by a cellular circuitry that represents a set of biochemical reactions. Based on biological functions, this circuitry is divided into three types of networks, each encoding for a major biological process: signal transduction, transcription regulation, and metabolism. This division has generally enabled taming computational complexity dealing with the entire system, allowed for using modeling techniques that are specific to each of the components, and achieved separation of the different time scales at which reactions in each of the three networks occur. Nonetheless, with this division comes loss of information and power needed to elucidate certain cellular phenomena. Within the cell, these three types of networks work in tandem, and each produces signals and/or substances that are used by the others to process information and operate normally. Therefore, computational techniques for modeling integrated cellular machinery are needed. In this work, we propose an integrated hybrid model (IHM that combines Petri nets and Boolean networks to model integrated cellular networks. Coupled with a stochastic simulation mechanism, the model simulates the dynamics of the integrated network, and can be perturbed to generate testable hypotheses. Our model is qualitative and is mostly built upon knowledge from the literature and requires fine-tuning of very few parameters. We validated our model on two systems: the transcriptional regulation of glucose metabolism in human cells, and cellular osmoregulation in S. cerevisiae. The model produced results that are in very good agreement with experimental data, and produces valid hypotheses. The abstract nature of our model and the ease of its construction makes it a very good candidate for modeling integrated networks from qualitative data. The results it produces can guide the practitioner to zoom into components and interconnections and investigate them
Autonomous Modeling, Statistical Complexity and Semi-annealed Treatment of Boolean Networks
Gong, Xinwei
This dissertation presents three studies on Boolean networks. Boolean networks are a class of mathematical systems consisting of interacting elements with binary state variables. Each element is a node with a Boolean logic gate, and the presence of interactions between any two nodes is represented by directed links. Boolean networks that implement the logic structures of real systems are studied as coarse-grained models of the real systems. Large random Boolean networks are studied with mean field approximations and used to provide a baseline of possible behaviors of large real systems. This dissertation presents one study of the former type, concerning the stable oscillation of a yeast cell-cycle oscillator, and two studies of the latter type, respectively concerning the statistical complexity of large random Boolean networks and an extension of traditional mean field techniques that accounts for the presence of short loops. In the cell-cycle oscillator study, a novel autonomous update scheme is introduced to study the stability of oscillations in small networks. A motif that corrects pulse-growing perturbations and a motif that grows pulses are identified. A combination of the two motifs is capable of sustaining stable oscillations. Examining a Boolean model of the yeast cell-cycle oscillator using an autonomous update scheme yields evidence that it is endowed with such a combination. Random Boolean networks are classified as ordered, critical or disordered based on their response to small perturbations. In the second study, random Boolean networks are taken as prototypical cases for the evaluation of two measures of complexity based on a criterion for optimal statistical prediction. One measure, defined for homogeneous systems, does not distinguish between the static spatial inhomogeneity in the ordered phase and the dynamical inhomogeneity in the disordered phase. A modification in which complexities of individual nodes are calculated yields vanishing
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wensheng Guo
Full Text Available In biological systems, the dynamic analysis method has gained increasing attention in the past decade. The Boolean network is the most common model of a genetic regulatory network. The interactions of activation and inhibition in the genetic regulatory network are modeled as a set of functions of the Boolean network, while the state transitions in the Boolean network reflect the dynamic property of a genetic regulatory network. A difficult problem for state transition analysis is the finding of attractors. In this paper, we modeled the genetic regulatory network as a Boolean network and proposed a solving algorithm to tackle the attractor finding problem. In the proposed algorithm, we partitioned the Boolean network into several blocks consisting of the strongly connected components according to their gradients, and defined the connection between blocks as decision node. Based on the solutions calculated on the decision nodes and using a satisfiability solving algorithm, we identified the attractors in the state transition graph of each block. The proposed algorithm is benchmarked on a variety of genetic regulatory networks. Compared with existing algorithms, it achieved similar performance on small test cases, and outperformed it on larger and more complex ones, which happens to be the trend of the modern genetic regulatory network. Furthermore, while the existing satisfiability-based algorithms cannot be parallelized due to their inherent algorithm design, the proposed algorithm exhibits a good scalability on parallel computing architectures.
The spruce budworm and forest: a qualitative comparison of ODE and Boolean models
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Raina Robeva
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Boolean and polynomial models of biological systems have emerged recently as viable companions to differential equations models. It is not immediately clear however whether such models are capable of capturing the multi-stable behaviour of certain biological systems: this behaviour is often sensitive to changes in the values of the model parameters, while Boolean and polynomial models are qualitative in nature. In the past few years, Boolean models of gene regulatory systems have been shown to capture multi-stability at the molecular level, confirming that such models can be used to obtain information about the system’s qualitative dynamics when precise information regarding its parameters may not be available. In this paper, we examine Boolean approximations of a classical ODE model of budworm outbreaks in a forest and show that these models exhibit a qualitative behaviour consistent with that derived from the ODE models. In particular, we demonstrate that these models can capture the bistable nature of insect population outbreaks, thus showing that Boolean models can be successfully utilized beyond the molecular level.
Sun, Mengyang; Cheng, Xianrui; Socolar, Joshua E S
2013-06-01
A common approach to the modeling of gene regulatory networks is to represent activating or repressing interactions using ordinary differential equations for target gene concentrations that include Hill function dependences on regulator gene concentrations. An alternative formulation represents the same interactions using Boolean logic with time delays associated with each network link. We consider the attractors that emerge from the two types of models in the case of a simple but nontrivial network: a figure-8 network with one positive and one negative feedback loop. We show that the different modeling approaches give rise to the same qualitative set of attractors with the exception of a possible fixed point in the ordinary differential equation model in which concentrations sit at intermediate values. The properties of the attractors are most easily understood from the Boolean perspective, suggesting that time-delay Boolean modeling is a useful tool for understanding the logic of regulatory networks.
Acoustic logic gates and Boolean operation based on self-collimating acoustic beams
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang, Ting; Xu, Jian-yi; Cheng, Ying; Liu, Xiao-jun; Guo, Jian-zhong
2015-01-01
The reveal of self-collimation effect in two-dimensional (2D) photonic or acoustic crystals has opened up possibilities for signal manipulation. In this paper, we have proposed acoustic logic gates based on the linear interference of self-collimated beams in 2D sonic crystals (SCs) with line-defects. The line defects on the diagonal of the 2D square SCs are actually functioning as a 3 dB splitter. By adjusting the phase difference between two input signals, the basic Boolean logic functions such as XOR, OR, AND, and NOT are achieved both theoretically and experimentally. Due to the non-diffracting property of self-collimation beams, more complex Boolean logic and algorithms such as NAND, NOR, and XNOR can be realized by cascading the basic logic gates. The achievement of acoustic logic gates and Boolean operation provides a promising approach for acoustic signal computing and manipulations
On the Boolean extension of the Birnbaum importance to non-coherent systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aliee, Hananeh; Borgonovo, Emanuele; Glaß, Michael; Teich, Jürgen
2017-01-01
The Birnbaum importance measure plays a central role in reliability analysis. It has initially been introduced for coherent systems, where several of its properties hold and where its computation is straightforward. This work introduces a Boolean expression for the notion of criticality that allows the seamless extension of the Birnbaum importance to non-coherent systems. As a key feature, the novel definition makes the computation and encoding straightforward with well-established techniques such as Binary Decision Diagrams (BDDs) or Fault Trees (FTs). Several examples and a case study illustrate the findings. - Highlights: • We propose a Boolean expression for the notion of criticality in coherent and non-coherent systems. • The notion is connected with the Birnbaum importance measure. • The connection with Andrew's and Beeson extension is discussed. • The Boolean expression allows straightforward encoding in Binary Decision Diagrams.
Mechanical system reliability analysis using a combination of graph theory and Boolean function
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tang, J.
2001-01-01
A new method based on graph theory and Boolean function for assessing reliability of mechanical systems is proposed. The procedure for this approach consists of two parts. By using the graph theory, the formula for the reliability of a mechanical system that considers the interrelations of subsystems or components is generated. Use of the Boolean function to examine the failure interactions of two particular elements of the system, followed with demonstrations of how to incorporate such failure dependencies into the analysis of larger systems, a constructive algorithm for quantifying the genuine interconnections between the subsystems or components is provided. The combination of graph theory and Boolean function provides an effective way to evaluate the reliability of a large, complex mechanical system. A numerical example demonstrates that this method an effective approaches in system reliability analysis
Improving the quantum cost of reversible Boolean functions using reorder algorithm
Ahmed, Taghreed; Younes, Ahmed; Elsayed, Ashraf
2018-05-01
This paper introduces a novel algorithm to synthesize a low-cost reversible circuits for any Boolean function with n inputs represented as a Positive Polarity Reed-Muller expansion. The proposed algorithm applies a predefined rules to reorder the terms in the function to minimize the multi-calculation of common parts of the Boolean function to decrease the quantum cost of the reversible circuit. The paper achieves a decrease in the quantum cost and/or the circuit length, on average, when compared with relevant work in the literature.
Lavrova, Anastasia I; Postnikov, Eugene B; Zyubin, Andrey Yu; Babak, Svetlana V
2017-04-01
We consider two approaches to modelling the cell metabolism of 6-mercaptopurine, one of the important chemotherapy drugs used for treating acute lymphocytic leukaemia: kinetic ordinary differential equations, and Boolean networks supplied with one controlling node, which takes continual values. We analyse their interplay with respect to taking into account ATP concentration as a key parameter of switching between different pathways. It is shown that the Boolean networks, which allow avoiding the complexity of general kinetic modelling, preserve the possibility of reproducing the principal switching mechanism.
Characterizing short-term stability for Boolean networks over any distribution of transfer functions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Seshadhri, C.; Smith, Andrew M.; Vorobeychik, Yevgeniy; Mayo, Jackson R.; Armstrong, Robert C.
2016-01-01
Here we present a characterization of short-term stability of random Boolean networks under arbitrary distributions of transfer functions. Given any distribution of transfer functions for a random Boolean network, we present a formula that decides whether short-term chaos (damage spreading) will happen. We provide a formal proof for this formula, and empirically show that its predictions are accurate. Previous work only works for special cases of balanced families. Finally, it has been observed that these characterizations fail for unbalanced families, yet such families are widespread in real biological networks.
Mcclenny, Levi D; Imani, Mahdi; Braga-Neto, Ulisses M
2017-11-25
Gene regulatory networks govern the function of key cellular processes, such as control of the cell cycle, response to stress, DNA repair mechanisms, and more. Boolean networks have been used successfully in modeling gene regulatory networks. In the Boolean network model, the transcriptional state of each gene is represented by 0 (inactive) or 1 (active), and the relationship among genes is represented by logical gates updated at discrete time points. However, the Boolean gene states are never observed directly, but only indirectly and incompletely through noisy measurements based on expression technologies such as cDNA microarrays, RNA-Seq, and cell imaging-based assays. The Partially-Observed Boolean Dynamical System (POBDS) signal model is distinct from other deterministic and stochastic Boolean network models in removing the requirement of a directly observable Boolean state vector and allowing uncertainty in the measurement process, addressing the scenario encountered in practice in transcriptomic analysis. BoolFilter is an R package that implements the POBDS model and associated algorithms for state and parameter estimation. It allows the user to estimate the Boolean states, network topology, and measurement parameters from time series of transcriptomic data using exact and approximated (particle) filters, as well as simulate the transcriptomic data for a given Boolean network model. Some of its infrastructure, such as the network interface, is the same as in the previously published R package for Boolean Networks BoolNet, which enhances compatibility and user accessibility to the new package. We introduce the R package BoolFilter for Partially-Observed Boolean Dynamical Systems (POBDS). The BoolFilter package provides a useful toolbox for the bioinformatics community, with state-of-the-art algorithms for simulation of time series transcriptomic data as well as the inverse process of system identification from data obtained with various expression
The Concept of the "Imploded Boolean Search": A Case Study with Undergraduate Chemistry Students
Tomaszewski, Robert
2016-01-01
Critical thinking and analytical problem-solving skills in research involves using different search strategies. A proposed concept for an "Imploded Boolean Search" combines three unique identifiable field types to perform a search: keyword(s), numerical value(s), and a chemical structure or reaction. The object of this type of search is…
Application of fuzzy logic to Boolean models for digital soil assessment
Gruijter, de J.J.; Walvoort, D.J.J.; Bragato, G.
2011-01-01
Boolean models based on expert knowledge are often used to classify soils into a limited number of classes of a difficult-to-measure soil attribute. Although the primary data used for these classifications contain information on whether the soil is a typical class member or a boundary case between
Boolean logic and character state identity: pitfalls of character coding in metazoan cladistics
Jenner, Ronald A.
2002-01-01
A critical study of the morphological data sets used for the most recent analyses of metazoan cladistics exposes a rather cavalier attitude towards character coding. Binary absence/presence coding is ubiquitous, but without any explicit justification. This uncompromising application of Boolean logic
A new separation algorithm for the Boolean quadric and cut polytopes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sørensen, Michael Malmros; Letchford, Adam N.
2014-01-01
A separation algorithm is a procedure for generating cutting planes. Up to now, only a few polynomial-time separation algorithms were known for the Boolean quadric and cut polytopes. These polytopes arise in connection with zero–one quadratic programming and the max-cut problem, respectively. We...
Analysis and control of Boolean networks a semi-tensor product approach
Cheng, Daizhan; Li, Zhiqiang
2010-01-01
This book presents a new approach to the investigation of Boolean control networks, using the semi-tensor product (STP), which can express a logical function as a conventional discrete-time linear system. This makes it possible to analyze basic control problems.
Describing the What and Why of Students' Difficulties in Boolean Logic
Herman, Geoffrey L.; Loui, Michael C.; Kaczmarczyk, Lisa; Zilles, Craig
2012-01-01
The ability to reason with formal logic is a foundational skill for computer scientists and computer engineers that scaffolds the abilities to design, debug, and optimize. By interviewing students about their understanding of propositional logic and their ability to translate from English specifications to Boolean expressions, we characterized…
Complete ccc Boolean algebras, the order sequential topology, and a problem of von Neumann
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Balcar, Bohuslav; Jech, Thomas; Pazák, Tomáš
2005-01-01
Roč. 37, č. 6 (2005), s. 885-898 ISSN 0024-6093 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506; CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : Boolean algebras * Maharam submeasure * weak distributivity * independent reals Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.477, year: 2005
Using Vector and Extended Boolean Matching in an Expert System for Selecting Foster Homes.
Fox, Edward A.; Winett, Sheila G.
1990-01-01
Describes FOCES (Foster Care Expert System), a prototype expert system for choosing foster care placements for children which integrates information retrieval techniques with artificial intelligence. The use of prototypes and queries in Prolog routines, extended Boolean matching, and vector correlation are explained, as well as evaluation by…
Characterization of Boolean Algebras in Terms of Certain States of Jauch-Piron Type
Matoušek, Milan; Pták, Pavel
2015-12-01
Suppose that L is an orthomodular lattice (a quantum logic). We show that L is Boolean exactly if L possesses a strongly unital set of weakly Jauch-Piron states, or if L possesses a unital set of weakly positive states. We also discuss some general properties of Jauch-Piron-like states.
Finite size effects and symmetry breaking in the evolution of networks of competing Boolean nodes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu, M; Bassler, K E
2011-01-01
Finite size effects on the evolutionary dynamics of Boolean networks are analyzed. In the model considered, Boolean networks evolve via a competition between nodes that punishes those in the majority. Previous studies have found that large networks evolve to a statistical steady state that is both critical and highly canalized, and that the evolution of canalization, which is a form of robustness found in genetic regulatory networks, is associated with a particular symmetry of the evolutionary dynamics. Here, it is found that finite size networks evolve in a fundamentally different way than infinitely large networks do. The symmetry of the evolutionary dynamics of infinitely large networks that selects for canalizing Boolean functions is broken in the evolutionary dynamics of finite size networks. In finite size networks, there is an additional selection for input-inverting Boolean functions that output a value opposite to the majority of input values. The reason for the symmetry breaking in the evolutionary dynamics is found to be due to the need for nodes in finite size networks to behave differently in order to cooperate so that the system collectively performs as efficiently as possible. The results suggest that both finite size effects and symmetry are fundamental for understanding the evolution of real-world complex networks, including genetic regulatory networks.
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Kramosil, Ivan
2001-01-01
Roč. 5, č. 1 (2001), s. 45-57 ISSN 1432-7643 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1030803 Institutional research plan: AV0Z1030915 Keywords : first-order predicate calculus * standard semantics * Boolean-like semantics * frequentistic semantics * completness theorems Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics
User Practices in Keyword and Boolean Searching on an Online Public Access Catalog.
Ensor, Pat
1992-01-01
Discussion of keyword and Boolean searching techniques in online public access catalogs (OPACs) focuses on a study conducted at Indiana State University that examined users' attitudes toward searching on NOTIS (Northwestern Online Total Integrated System). Relevant literature is reviewed, and implications for library instruction are suggested. (17…
An Efficient Algorithm for Computing Attractors of Synchronous And Asynchronous Boolean Networks
Zheng, Desheng; Yang, Guowu; Li, Xiaoyu; Wang, Zhicai; Liu, Feng; He, Lei
2013-01-01
Biological networks, such as genetic regulatory networks, often contain positive and negative feedback loops that settle down to dynamically stable patterns. Identifying these patterns, the so-called attractors, can provide important insights for biologists to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying many coordinated cellular processes such as cellular division, differentiation, and homeostasis. Both synchronous and asynchronous Boolean networks have been used to simulate genetic regulatory networks and identify their attractors. The common methods of computing attractors are that start with a randomly selected initial state and finish with exhaustive search of the state space of a network. However, the time complexity of these methods grows exponentially with respect to the number and length of attractors. Here, we build two algorithms to achieve the computation of attractors in synchronous and asynchronous Boolean networks. For the synchronous scenario, combing with iterative methods and reduced order binary decision diagrams (ROBDD), we propose an improved algorithm to compute attractors. For another algorithm, the attractors of synchronous Boolean networks are utilized in asynchronous Boolean translation functions to derive attractors of asynchronous scenario. The proposed algorithms are implemented in a procedure called geneFAtt. Compared to existing tools such as genYsis, geneFAtt is significantly faster in computing attractors for empirical experimental systems. Availability The software package is available at https://sites.google.com/site/desheng619/download. PMID:23585840
Ostrowski, M; Paulevé, L; Schaub, T; Siegel, A; Guziolowski, C
2016-11-01
Boolean networks (and more general logic models) are useful frameworks to study signal transduction across multiple pathways. Logic models can be learned from a prior knowledge network structure and multiplex phosphoproteomics data. However, most efficient and scalable training methods focus on the comparison of two time-points and assume that the system has reached an early steady state. In this paper, we generalize such a learning procedure to take into account the time series traces of phosphoproteomics data in order to discriminate Boolean networks according to their transient dynamics. To that end, we identify a necessary condition that must be satisfied by the dynamics of a Boolean network to be consistent with a discretized time series trace. Based on this condition, we use Answer Set Programming to compute an over-approximation of the set of Boolean networks which fit best with experimental data and provide the corresponding encodings. Combined with model-checking approaches, we end up with a global learning algorithm. Our approach is able to learn logic models with a true positive rate higher than 78% in two case studies of mammalian signaling networks; for a larger case study, our method provides optimal answers after 7min of computation. We quantified the gain in our method predictions precision compared to learning approaches based on static data. Finally, as an application, our method proposes erroneous time-points in the time series data with respect to the optimal learned logic models. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Exact sampling from conditional Boolean models with applications to maximum likelihood inference
Lieshout, van M.N.M.; Zwet, van E.W.
2001-01-01
We are interested in estimating the intensity parameter of a Boolean model of discs (the bombing model) from a single realization. To do so, we derive the conditional distribution of the points (germs) of the underlying Poisson process. We demonstrate how to apply coupling from the past to generate
Veliz-Cuba, Alan; Aguilar, Boris; Hinkelmann, Franziska; Laubenbacher, Reinhard
2014-06-26
A key problem in the analysis of mathematical models of molecular networks is the determination of their steady states. The present paper addresses this problem for Boolean network models, an increasingly popular modeling paradigm for networks lacking detailed kinetic information. For small models, the problem can be solved by exhaustive enumeration of all state transitions. But for larger models this is not feasible, since the size of the phase space grows exponentially with the dimension of the network. The dimension of published models is growing to over 100, so that efficient methods for steady state determination are essential. Several methods have been proposed for large networks, some of them heuristic. While these methods represent a substantial improvement in scalability over exhaustive enumeration, the problem for large networks is still unsolved in general. This paper presents an algorithm that consists of two main parts. The first is a graph theoretic reduction of the wiring diagram of the network, while preserving all information about steady states. The second part formulates the determination of all steady states of a Boolean network as a problem of finding all solutions to a system of polynomial equations over the finite number system with two elements. This problem can be solved with existing computer algebra software. This algorithm compares favorably with several existing algorithms for steady state determination. One advantage is that it is not heuristic or reliant on sampling, but rather determines algorithmically and exactly all steady states of a Boolean network. The code for the algorithm, as well as the test suite of benchmark networks, is available upon request from the corresponding author. The algorithm presented in this paper reliably determines all steady states of sparse Boolean networks with up to 1000 nodes. The algorithm is effective at analyzing virtually all published models even those of moderate connectivity. The problem for
Quantum algorithms on Walsh transform and Hamming distance for Boolean functions
Xie, Zhengwei; Qiu, Daowen; Cai, Guangya
2018-06-01
Walsh spectrum or Walsh transform is an alternative description of Boolean functions. In this paper, we explore quantum algorithms to approximate the absolute value of Walsh transform W_f at a single point z0 (i.e., |W_f(z0)|) for n-variable Boolean functions with probability at least 8/π 2 using the number of O(1/|W_f(z_{0)|ɛ }) queries, promised that the accuracy is ɛ , while the best known classical algorithm requires O(2n) queries. The Hamming distance between Boolean functions is used to study the linearity testing and other important problems. We take advantage of Walsh transform to calculate the Hamming distance between two n-variable Boolean functions f and g using O(1) queries in some cases. Then, we exploit another quantum algorithm which converts computing Hamming distance between two Boolean functions to quantum amplitude estimation (i.e., approximate counting). If Ham(f,g)=t≠0, we can approximately compute Ham( f, g) with probability at least 2/3 by combining our algorithm and {Approx-Count(f,ɛ ) algorithm} using the expected number of Θ( √{N/(\\lfloor ɛ t\\rfloor +1)}+√{t(N-t)}/\\lfloor ɛ t\\rfloor +1) queries, promised that the accuracy is ɛ . Moreover, our algorithm is optimal, while the exact query complexity for the above problem is Θ(N) and the query complexity with the accuracy ɛ is O(1/ɛ 2N/(t+1)) in classical algorithm, where N=2n. Finally, we present three exact quantum query algorithms for two promise problems on Hamming distance using O(1) queries, while any classical deterministic algorithm solving the problem uses Ω(2n) queries.
Cordón García, Oscar; Moya Anegón, Félix de; Zarco Fernández, Carmen
2000-01-01
[ES] Although the fuzzy retrieval model constitutes a powerful extension of the boolean one, being able to deal with the imprecision and subjectivity existing in the Information Retrieval process, users are not usually able to express their query requirements in the form of an extended boolean query including weights. To solve this problem, different tools to assist the user in the query formulation have been proposed. In this paper, the genetic algorithm-programming technique is considered t...
A short Boolean derivation of mean failure frequency for any (also non-coherent) system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schneeweiss, Winfrid G.
2009-01-01
For stationary repairable systems it is shown that the probabilistic weights for the individual components' mean failure frequencies (MFFs) that can be added to yield the system's MFF are found easily from the first step of the Boolean fault tree function's Shannon decomposition. This way one finds a general theory of a system's MFF and the case of coherence covered in standard textbooks is shown to be a subcase. Unfortunately, elegant rules for calculating system MFF from any polynomial form of the fault tree's Boolean function are only known for the coherent case, but repeated here, because they are not yet found in many textbooks. An example known from literature is treated extensively with great care.
Velderraín, José Dávila; Martínez-García, Juan Carlos; Álvarez-Buylla, Elena R
2017-01-01
Mathematical models based on dynamical systems theory are well-suited tools for the integration of available molecular experimental data into coherent frameworks in order to propose hypotheses about the cooperative regulatory mechanisms driving developmental processes. Computational analysis of the proposed models using well-established methods enables testing the hypotheses by contrasting predictions with observations. Within such framework, Boolean gene regulatory network dynamical models have been extensively used in modeling plant development. Boolean models are simple and intuitively appealing, ideal tools for collaborative efforts between theorists and experimentalists. In this chapter we present protocols used in our group for the study of diverse plant developmental processes. We focus on conceptual clarity and practical implementation, providing directions to the corresponding technical literature.
CIRCUIT IMPLEMENTATION OF VHDL-DESCRIPTIONS OF SYSTEMS OF PARTIAL BOOLEAN FUNCTIONS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P. N. Bibilo
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Method for description of incompletely specified (partial Boolean functions in VHDL is proposed. Examples of synthesized VHDL models of partial Boolean functions are presented; and the results of experiments on circuit implementation of VHDL descriptions of systems of partial functions. The realizability of original partial functions in logical circuits was verified by formal verification. The results of the experiments show that the preliminary minimization in DNF class and in the class of BDD representations for pseudo-random systems of completely specified functions does not improve practically (and in the case of BDD sometimes worsens the results of the subsequent synthesis in the basis of FPGA unlike the significant efficiency of these procedures for the synthesis of benchmark circuits taken from the practice of the design.
Realization of a quantum Hamiltonian Boolean logic gate on the Si(001):H surface.
Kolmer, Marek; Zuzak, Rafal; Dridi, Ghassen; Godlewski, Szymon; Joachim, Christian; Szymonski, Marek
2015-08-07
The design and construction of the first prototypical QHC (Quantum Hamiltonian Computing) atomic scale Boolean logic gate is reported using scanning tunnelling microscope (STM) tip-induced atom manipulation on an Si(001):H surface. The NOR/OR gate truth table was confirmed by dI/dU STS (Scanning Tunnelling Spectroscopy) tracking how the surface states of the QHC quantum circuit on the Si(001):H surface are shifted according to the input logical status.
Web-page Prediction for Domain Specific Web-search using Boolean Bit Mask
Sinha, Sukanta; Duttagupta, Rana; Mukhopadhyay, Debajyoti
2012-01-01
Search Engine is a Web-page retrieval tool. Nowadays Web searchers utilize their time using an efficient search engine. To improve the performance of the search engine, we are introducing a unique mechanism which will give Web searchers more prominent search results. In this paper, we are going to discuss a domain specific Web search prototype which will generate the predicted Web-page list for user given search string using Boolean bit mask.
Identification of control targets in Boolean molecular network models via computational algebra.
Murrugarra, David; Veliz-Cuba, Alan; Aguilar, Boris; Laubenbacher, Reinhard
2016-09-23
Many problems in biomedicine and other areas of the life sciences can be characterized as control problems, with the goal of finding strategies to change a disease or otherwise undesirable state of a biological system into another, more desirable, state through an intervention, such as a drug or other therapeutic treatment. The identification of such strategies is typically based on a mathematical model of the process to be altered through targeted control inputs. This paper focuses on processes at the molecular level that determine the state of an individual cell, involving signaling or gene regulation. The mathematical model type considered is that of Boolean networks. The potential control targets can be represented by a set of nodes and edges that can be manipulated to produce a desired effect on the system. This paper presents a method for the identification of potential intervention targets in Boolean molecular network models using algebraic techniques. The approach exploits an algebraic representation of Boolean networks to encode the control candidates in the network wiring diagram as the solutions of a system of polynomials equations, and then uses computational algebra techniques to find such controllers. The control methods in this paper are validated through the identification of combinatorial interventions in the signaling pathways of previously reported control targets in two well studied systems, a p53-mdm2 network and a blood T cell lymphocyte granular leukemia survival signaling network. Supplementary data is available online and our code in Macaulay2 and Matlab are available via http://www.ms.uky.edu/~dmu228/ControlAlg . This paper presents a novel method for the identification of intervention targets in Boolean network models. The results in this paper show that the proposed methods are useful and efficient for moderately large networks.
Complete CCC Boolean Algebras, the order Sequential Topology, and a Problem of von Neumann
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Balcar, Bohuslav; Jech, Thomas; Pazák, Tomáš
2005-01-01
Roč. 37, č. 6 (2005), s. 885-898 ISSN 0024-6093 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA201/02/0857; GA ČR(CZ) GA201/03/0933 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : Boolean algebra * Maharam submeasure * weak distributivity Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.477, year: 2005
THE METHOD OF CONSTRUCTING A BOOLEAN FORMULA OF A POLYGON IN THE DISJUNCTIVE NORMAL FORM
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. A. Butov
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The paper focuses on finalizing the method of finding a polygon Boolean formula in disjunctive normal form, described in the previous article [1]. An improved method eliminates the drawback asso-ciated with the existence of a class of problems for which the solution is only approximate. The pro-posed method always allows to find an exact solution. The method can be used, in particular, in the systems of computer-aided design of integrated circuits topology.
Comparison of Seven Methods for Boolean Factor Analysis and Their Evaluation by Information Gain
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Frolov, A.; Húsek, Dušan; Polyakov, P.Y.
2016-01-01
Roč. 27, č. 3 (2016), s. 538-550 ISSN 2162-237X R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED1.1.00/02.0070 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : associative memory * bars problem (BP) * Boolean factor analysis (BFA) * data mining * dimension reduction * Hebbian learning rule * information gain * likelihood maximization (LM) * neural network application * recurrent neural network * statistics Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science Impact factor: 6.108, year: 2016
Recurrent Neural Network Based Boolean Factor Analysis and its Application to Word Clustering
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Frolov, A. A.; Húsek, Dušan; Polyakov, P.Y.
2009-01-01
Roč. 20, č. 7 (2009), s. 1073-1086 ISSN 1045-9227 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0567 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : recurrent neural network * Hopfield-like neural network * associative memory * unsupervised learning * neural network architecture * neural network application * statistics * Boolean factor analysis * concepts search * information retrieval Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 2.889, year: 2009
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jens Christian Claussen
2017-06-01
Full Text Available The analysis of microbiome compositions in the human gut has gained increasing interest due to the broader availability of data and functional databases and substantial progress in data analysis methods, but also due to the high relevance of the microbiome in human health and disease. While most analyses infer interactions among highly abundant species, the large number of low-abundance species has received less attention. Here we present a novel analysis method based on Boolean operations applied to microbial co-occurrence patterns. We calibrate our approach with simulated data based on a dynamical Boolean network model from which we interpret the statistics of attractor states as a theoretical proxy for microbiome composition. We show that for given fractions of synergistic and competitive interactions in the model our Boolean abundance analysis can reliably detect these interactions. Analyzing a novel data set of 822 microbiome compositions of the human gut, we find a large number of highly significant synergistic interactions among these low-abundance species, forming a connected network, and a few isolated competitive interactions.
Detecting small attractors of large Boolean networks by function-reduction-based strategy.
Zheng, Qiben; Shen, Liangzhong; Shang, Xuequn; Liu, Wenbin
2016-04-01
Boolean networks (BNs) are widely used to model gene regulatory networks and to design therapeutic intervention strategies to affect the long-term behaviour of systems. A central aim of Boolean-network analysis is to find attractors that correspond to various cellular states, such as cell types or the stage of cell differentiation. This problem is NP-hard and various algorithms have been used to tackle it with considerable success. The idea is that a singleton attractor corresponds to n consistent subsequences in the truth table. To find these subsequences, the authors gradually reduce the entire truth table of Boolean functions by extending a partial gene activity profile (GAP). Not only does this process delete inconsistent subsequences in truth tables, it also directly determines values for some nodes not extended, which means it can abandon the partial GAPs that cannot lead to an attractor as early as possible. The results of simulation show that the proposed algorithm can detect small attractors with length p = 4 in BNs of up to 200 nodes with average indegree K = 2.
PATHLOGIC-S: a scalable Boolean framework for modelling cellular signalling.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Liam G Fearnley
Full Text Available Curated databases of signal transduction have grown to describe several thousand reactions, and efficient use of these data requires the development of modelling tools to elucidate and explore system properties. We present PATHLOGIC-S, a Boolean specification for a signalling model, with its associated GPL-licensed implementation using integer programming techniques. The PATHLOGIC-S specification has been designed to function on current desktop workstations, and is capable of providing analyses on some of the largest currently available datasets through use of Boolean modelling techniques to generate predictions of stable and semi-stable network states from data in community file formats. PATHLOGIC-S also addresses major problems associated with the presence and modelling of inhibition in Boolean systems, and reduces logical incoherence due to common inhibitory mechanisms in signalling systems. We apply this approach to signal transduction networks including Reactome and two pathways from the Panther Pathways database, and present the results of computations on each along with a discussion of execution time. A software implementation of the framework and model is freely available under a GPL license.
Exploring candidate biological functions by Boolean Function Networks for Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Maria Simak
Full Text Available The great amount of gene expression data has brought a big challenge for the discovery of Gene Regulatory Network (GRN. For network reconstruction and the investigation of regulatory relations, it is desirable to ensure directness of links between genes on a map, infer their directionality and explore candidate biological functions from high-throughput transcriptomic data. To address these problems, we introduce a Boolean Function Network (BFN model based on techniques of hidden Markov model (HMM, likelihood ratio test and Boolean logic functions. BFN consists of two consecutive tests to establish links between pairs of genes and check their directness. We evaluate the performance of BFN through the application to S. cerevisiae time course data. BFN produces regulatory relations which show consistency with succession of cell cycle phases. Furthermore, it also improves sensitivity and specificity when compared with alternative methods of genetic network reverse engineering. Moreover, we demonstrate that BFN can provide proper resolution for GO enrichment of gene sets. Finally, the Boolean functions discovered by BFN can provide useful insights for the identification of control mechanisms of regulatory processes, which is the special advantage of the proposed approach. In combination with low computational complexity, BFN can serve as an efficient screening tool to reconstruct genes relations on the whole genome level. In addition, the BFN approach is also feasible to a wide range of time course datasets.
PARAMETER ESTIMATION IN NON-HOMOGENEOUS BOOLEAN MODELS: AN APPLICATION TO PLANT DEFENSE RESPONSE
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Maria Angeles Gallego
2014-11-01
Full Text Available Many medical and biological problems require to extract information from microscopical images. Boolean models have been extensively used to analyze binary images of random clumps in many scientific fields. In this paper, a particular type of Boolean model with an underlying non-stationary point process is considered. The intensity of the underlying point process is formulated as a fixed function of the distance to a region of interest. A method to estimate the parameters of this Boolean model is introduced, and its performance is checked in two different settings. Firstly, a comparative study with other existent methods is done using simulated data. Secondly, the method is applied to analyze the longleaf data set, which is a very popular data set in the context of point processes included in the R package spatstat. Obtained results show that the new method provides as accurate estimates as those obtained with more complex methods developed for the general case. Finally, to illustrate the application of this model and this method, a particular type of phytopathological images are analyzed. These images show callose depositions in leaves of Arabidopsis plants. The analysis of callose depositions, is very popular in the phytopathological literature to quantify activity of plant immunity.
Stochastic Boolean networks: An efficient approach to modeling gene regulatory networks
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Liang Jinghang
2012-08-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Various computational models have been of interest due to their use in the modelling of gene regulatory networks (GRNs. As a logical model, probabilistic Boolean networks (PBNs consider molecular and genetic noise, so the study of PBNs provides significant insights into the understanding of the dynamics of GRNs. This will ultimately lead to advances in developing therapeutic methods that intervene in the process of disease development and progression. The applications of PBNs, however, are hindered by the complexities involved in the computation of the state transition matrix and the steady-state distribution of a PBN. For a PBN with n genes and N Boolean networks, the complexity to compute the state transition matrix is O(nN22n or O(nN2n for a sparse matrix. Results This paper presents a novel implementation of PBNs based on the notions of stochastic logic and stochastic computation. This stochastic implementation of a PBN is referred to as a stochastic Boolean network (SBN. An SBN provides an accurate and efficient simulation of a PBN without and with random gene perturbation. The state transition matrix is computed in an SBN with a complexity of O(nL2n, where L is a factor related to the stochastic sequence length. Since the minimum sequence length required for obtaining an evaluation accuracy approximately increases in a polynomial order with the number of genes, n, and the number of Boolean networks, N, usually increases exponentially with n, L is typically smaller than N, especially in a network with a large number of genes. Hence, the computational efficiency of an SBN is primarily limited by the number of genes, but not directly by the total possible number of Boolean networks. Furthermore, a time-frame expanded SBN enables an efficient analysis of the steady-state distribution of a PBN. These findings are supported by the simulation results of a simplified p53 network, several randomly generated networks and a
Qubits and quantum Hamiltonian computing performances for operating a digital Boolean 1/2-adder
Dridi, Ghassen; Faizy Namarvar, Omid; Joachim, Christian
2018-04-01
Quantum Boolean (1 + 1) digits 1/2-adders are designed with 3 qubits for the quantum computing (Qubits) and 4 quantum states for the quantum Hamiltonian computing (QHC) approaches. Detailed analytical solutions are provided to analyse the time operation of those different 1/2-adder gates. QHC is more robust to noise than Qubits and requires about the same amount of energy for running its 1/2-adder logical operations. QHC is faster in time than Qubits but its logical output measurement takes longer.
2017-09-01
satisfying the strict avalanche criterion,” Discrete Math ., vol. 185, pp. 29–39, 1998. [2] R.C. Bose, “On some connections between the design of... Discrete Appl. Math ., vol. 149, pp. 73–86, 2005. [11] T.W. Cusick and P. Stănică, Cryptographic Boolean Functions and Applications, 2nd ed., San Diego...Stănică, “Bisecting binomial coefficients,” Discrete Appl. Math ., vol. 227, pp. 70–83, 2017. [28] T. Martinsen, W. Meidl, and P. Stănică, “Generalized
Construction of a fuzzy and all Boolean logic gates based on DNA
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
M. Zadegan, Reza; Jepsen, Mette D E; Hildebrandt, Lasse
2015-01-01
to the operation of the six Boolean logic gates AND, NAND, OR, NOR, XOR, and XNOR. The logic gate complex is shown to work also when implemented in a three-dimensional DNA origami box structure, where it controlled the position of the lid in a closed or open position. Implementation of multiple microRNA sensitive...... DNA locks on one DNA origami box structure enabled fuzzy logical operation that allows biosensing of complex molecular signals. Integrating logic gates with DNA origami systems opens a vast avenue to applications in the fields of nanomedicine for diagnostics and therapeutics....
Variances as order parameter and complexity measure for random Boolean networks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Luque, Bartolo; Ballesteros, Fernando J; Fernandez, Manuel
2005-01-01
Several order parameters have been considered to predict and characterize the transition between ordered and disordered phases in random Boolean networks, such as the Hamming distance between replicas or the stable core, which have been successfully used. In this work, we propose a natural and clear new order parameter: the temporal variance. We compute its value analytically and compare it with the results of numerical experiments. Finally, we propose a complexity measure based on the compromise between temporal and spatial variances. This new order parameter and its related complexity measure can be easily applied to other complex systems
Security analysis of boolean algebra based on Zhang-Wang digital signature scheme
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zheng, Jinbin
2014-01-01
In 2005, Zhang and Wang proposed an improvement signature scheme without using one-way hash function and message redundancy. In this paper, we show that this scheme exits potential safety concerns through the analysis of boolean algebra, such as bitwise exclusive-or, and point out that mapping is not one to one between assembly instructions and machine code actually by means of the analysis of the result of the assembly program segment, and which possibly causes safety problems unknown to the software
Variances as order parameter and complexity measure for random Boolean networks
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Luque, Bartolo [Departamento de Matematica Aplicada y EstadIstica, Escuela Superior de Ingenieros Aeronauticos, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Plaza Cardenal Cisneros 3, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Ballesteros, Fernando J [Observatori Astronomic, Universitat de Valencia, Ed. Instituts d' Investigacio, Pol. La Coma s/n, E-46980 Paterna, Valencia (Spain); Fernandez, Manuel [Departamento de Matematica Aplicada y EstadIstica, Escuela Superior de Ingenieros Aeronauticos, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Plaza Cardenal Cisneros 3, Madrid 28040 (Spain)
2005-02-04
Several order parameters have been considered to predict and characterize the transition between ordered and disordered phases in random Boolean networks, such as the Hamming distance between replicas or the stable core, which have been successfully used. In this work, we propose a natural and clear new order parameter: the temporal variance. We compute its value analytically and compare it with the results of numerical experiments. Finally, we propose a complexity measure based on the compromise between temporal and spatial variances. This new order parameter and its related complexity measure can be easily applied to other complex systems.
Efficient Multi-Valued Bounded Model Checking for LTL over Quasi-Boolean Algebras
Andrade, Jefferson O.; Kameyama, Yukiyoshi
2012-01-01
Multi-valued Model Checking extends classical, two-valued model checking to multi-valued logic such as Quasi-Boolean logic. The added expressivity is useful in dealing with such concepts as incompleteness and uncertainty in target systems, while it comes with the cost of time and space. Chechik and others proposed an efficient reduction from multi-valued model checking problems to two-valued ones, but to the authors' knowledge, no study was done for multi-valued bounded model checking. In thi...
A quantum speedup in machine learning: finding an N-bit Boolean function for a classification
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yoo, Seokwon; Lee, Jinhyoung; Bang, Jeongho; Lee, Changhyoup
2014-01-01
We compare quantum and classical machines designed for learning an N-bit Boolean function in order to address how a quantum system improves the machine learning behavior. The machines of the two types consist of the same number of operations and control parameters, but only the quantum machines utilize the quantum coherence naturally induced by unitary operators. We show that quantum superposition enables quantum learning that is faster than classical learning by expanding the approximate solution regions, i.e., the acceptable regions. This is also demonstrated by means of numerical simulations with a standard feedback model, namely random search, and a practical model, namely differential evolution. (paper)
Assessment of Electronic Circuits Reliability Using Boolean Truth Table Modeling Method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
EI-Shanshoury, A.I.
2011-01-01
This paper explores the use of Boolean Truth Table modeling Method (BTTM) in the analysis of qualitative data. It is widely used in certain fields especially in the fields of electrical and electronic engineering. Our work focuses on the evaluation of power supply circuit reliability using (BTTM) which involves systematic attempts to falsify and identify hypotheses on the basis of truth tables constructed from qualitative data. Reliability parameters such as the system's failure rates for the power supply case study are estimated. All possible state combinations (operating and failed states) of the major components in the circuit were listed and their effects on overall system were studied
Continuous time Boolean modeling for biological signaling: application of Gillespie algorithm.
Stoll, Gautier; Viara, Eric; Barillot, Emmanuel; Calzone, Laurence
2012-08-29
Mathematical modeling is used as a Systems Biology tool to answer biological questions, and more precisely, to validate a network that describes biological observations and predict the effect of perturbations. This article presents an algorithm for modeling biological networks in a discrete framework with continuous time. There exist two major types of mathematical modeling approaches: (1) quantitative modeling, representing various chemical species concentrations by real numbers, mainly based on differential equations and chemical kinetics formalism; (2) and qualitative modeling, representing chemical species concentrations or activities by a finite set of discrete values. Both approaches answer particular (and often different) biological questions. Qualitative modeling approach permits a simple and less detailed description of the biological systems, efficiently describes stable state identification but remains inconvenient in describing the transient kinetics leading to these states. In this context, time is represented by discrete steps. Quantitative modeling, on the other hand, can describe more accurately the dynamical behavior of biological processes as it follows the evolution of concentration or activities of chemical species as a function of time, but requires an important amount of information on the parameters difficult to find in the literature. Here, we propose a modeling framework based on a qualitative approach that is intrinsically continuous in time. The algorithm presented in this article fills the gap between qualitative and quantitative modeling. It is based on continuous time Markov process applied on a Boolean state space. In order to describe the temporal evolution of the biological process we wish to model, we explicitly specify the transition rates for each node. For that purpose, we built a language that can be seen as a generalization of Boolean equations. Mathematically, this approach can be translated in a set of ordinary differential
Strahler, Alan H.; Jupp, David L. B.
1990-01-01
Geometric-optical discrete-element mathematical models for forest canopies have been developed using the Boolean logic and models of Serra. The geometric-optical approach is considered to be particularly well suited to describing the bidirectional reflectance of forest woodland canopies, where the concentration of leaf material within crowns and the resulting between-tree gaps make plane-parallel, radiative-transfer models inappropriate. The approach leads to invertible formulations, in which the spatial and directional variance provides the means for remote estimation of tree crown size, shape, and total cover from remotedly sensed imagery.
Security analysis of boolean algebra based on Zhang-Wang digital signature scheme
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zheng, Jinbin, E-mail: jbzheng518@163.com [School of Mathematics and Computer Science, Long Yan University, Longyan 364012 (China)
2014-10-06
In 2005, Zhang and Wang proposed an improvement signature scheme without using one-way hash function and message redundancy. In this paper, we show that this scheme exits potential safety concerns through the analysis of boolean algebra, such as bitwise exclusive-or, and point out that mapping is not one to one between assembly instructions and machine code actually by means of the analysis of the result of the assembly program segment, and which possibly causes safety problems unknown to the software.
Li, X Y; Yang, G W; Zheng, D S; Guo, W S; Hung, W N N
2015-04-28
Genetic regulatory networks are the key to understanding biochemical systems. One condition of the genetic regulatory network under different living environments can be modeled as a synchronous Boolean network. The attractors of these Boolean networks will help biologists to identify determinant and stable factors. Existing methods identify attractors based on a random initial state or the entire state simultaneously. They cannot identify the fixed length attractors directly. The complexity of including time increases exponentially with respect to the attractor number and length of attractors. This study used the bounded model checking to quickly locate fixed length attractors. Based on the SAT solver, we propose a new algorithm for efficiently computing the fixed length attractors, which is more suitable for large Boolean networks and numerous attractors' networks. After comparison using the tool BooleNet, empirical experiments involving biochemical systems demonstrated the feasibility and efficiency of our approach.
Boolean logic analysis for flow regime recognition of gas–liquid horizontal flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ramskill, Nicholas P; Wang, Mi
2011-01-01
In order to develop a flowmeter for the accurate measurement of multiphase flows, it is of the utmost importance to correctly identify the flow regime present to enable the selection of the optimal method for metering. In this study, the horizontal flow of air and water in a pipeline was studied under a multitude of conditions using electrical resistance tomography but the flow regimes that are presented in this paper have been limited to plug and bubble air–water flows. This study proposes a novel method for recognition of the prevalent flow regime using only a fraction of the data, thus rendering the analysis more efficient. By considering the average conductivity of five zones along the central axis of the tomogram, key features can be identified, thus enabling the recognition of the prevalent flow regime. Boolean logic and frequency spectrum analysis has been applied for flow regime recognition. Visualization of the flow using the reconstructed images provides a qualitative comparison between different flow regimes. Application of the Boolean logic scheme enables a quantitative comparison of the flow patterns, thus reducing the subjectivity in the identification of the prevalent flow regime
On the number of different dynamics in Boolean networks with deterministic update schedules.
Aracena, J; Demongeot, J; Fanchon, E; Montalva, M
2013-04-01
Deterministic Boolean networks are a type of discrete dynamical systems widely used in the modeling of genetic networks. The dynamics of such systems is characterized by the local activation functions and the update schedule, i.e., the order in which the nodes are updated. In this paper, we address the problem of knowing the different dynamics of a Boolean network when the update schedule is changed. We begin by proving that the problem of the existence of a pair of update schedules with different dynamics is NP-complete. However, we show that certain structural properties of the interaction diagraph are sufficient for guaranteeing distinct dynamics of a network. In [1] the authors define equivalence classes which have the property that all the update schedules of a given class yield the same dynamics. In order to determine the dynamics associated to a network, we develop an algorithm to efficiently enumerate the above equivalence classes by selecting a representative update schedule for each class with a minimum number of blocks. Finally, we run this algorithm on the well known Arabidopsis thaliana network to determine the full spectrum of its different dynamics. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Attractor-Based Obstructions to Growth in Homogeneous Cyclic Boolean Automata.
Khan, Bilal; Cantor, Yuri; Dombrowski, Kirk
2015-11-01
We consider a synchronous Boolean organism consisting of N cells arranged in a circle, where each cell initially takes on an independently chosen Boolean value. During the lifetime of the organism, each cell updates its own value by responding to the presence (or absence) of diversity amongst its two neighbours' values. We show that if all cells eventually take a value of 0 (irrespective of their initial values) then the organism necessarily has a cell count that is a power of 2. In addition, the converse is also proved: if the number of cells in the organism is a proper power of 2, then no matter what the initial values of the cells are, eventually all cells take on a value of 0 and then cease to change further. We argue that such an absence of structure in the dynamical properties of the organism implies a lack of adaptiveness, and so is evolutionarily disadvantageous. It follows that as the organism doubles in size (say from m to 2m) it will necessarily encounter an intermediate size that is a proper power of 2, and suffers from low adaptiveness. Finally we show, through computational experiments, that one way an organism can grow to more than twice its size and still avoid passing through intermediate sizes that lack structural dynamics, is for the organism to depart from assumptions of homogeneity at the cellular level.
Boolean network model for cancer pathways: predicting carcinogenesis and targeted therapy outcomes.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Herman F Fumiã
Full Text Available A Boolean dynamical system integrating the main signaling pathways involved in cancer is constructed based on the currently known protein-protein interaction network. This system exhibits stationary protein activation patterns--attractors--dependent on the cell's microenvironment. These dynamical attractors were determined through simulations and their stabilities against mutations were tested. In a higher hierarchical level, it was possible to group the network attractors into distinct cell phenotypes and determine driver mutations that promote phenotypic transitions. We find that driver nodes are not necessarily central in the network topology, but at least they are direct regulators of central components towards which converge or through which crosstalk distinct cancer signaling pathways. The predicted drivers are in agreement with those pointed out by diverse census of cancer genes recently performed for several human cancers. Furthermore, our results demonstrate that cell phenotypes can evolve towards full malignancy through distinct sequences of accumulated mutations. In particular, the network model supports routes of carcinogenesis known for some tumor types. Finally, the Boolean network model is employed to evaluate the outcome of molecularly targeted cancer therapies. The major find is that monotherapies were additive in their effects and that the association of targeted drugs is necessary for cancer eradication.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yih-Lon Lin
2013-01-01
Full Text Available If the given Boolean function is linearly separable, a robust uncoupled cellular neural network can be designed as a maximal margin classifier. On the other hand, if the given Boolean function is linearly separable but has a small geometric margin or it is not linearly separable, a popular approach is to find a sequence of robust uncoupled cellular neural networks implementing the given Boolean function. In the past research works using this approach, the control template parameters and thresholds are restricted to assume only a given finite set of integers, and this is certainly unnecessary for the template design. In this study, we try to remove this restriction. Minterm- and maxterm-based decomposition algorithms utilizing the soft margin and maximal margin support vector classifiers are proposed to design a sequence of robust templates implementing an arbitrary Boolean function. Several illustrative examples are simulated to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed method by comparing our results with those produced by other decomposition methods with restricted weights.
Lee, Nigel; Firmin, Meaghan; Gao, Yu; Kildea, Sue
2018-07-01
Clinicians hand position and advised pushing techniques may impact on rates of perineal injury. To assess the association of four techniques used in management of second stage with risk of moderate and severe perineal injury. Retrospective cross-sectional study. A metropolitan maternity hospital and a private maternity hospital in Brisbane, Australia. Term women with singleton, cephalic presentation experiencing a non-operative vaginal birth from January 2011 to December 2016. The research sites perinatal database recorded data on clinicians approach to instructing women during second stage and hand position at birth. Women were identified from matching the inclusion criteria (n = 26,393) then grouped based on combinations of hands-on, hand- poised, directed and undirected pushing. The associations with perineal injury were estimated using odds ratios obtained by multivariate analysis. Primary outcomes were the risk of moderate and severe perineal injury. The significance was set at 0.001. In Nulliparous women there was no difference in the risk of moderate or severe perineal injury between the different techniques. In multiparous women the use of a hands-on/directed approach was associated with a significant increase in the risk of moderate (AOR 1.18, 95% CI 1.10-1.27, p < 0.001) and severe perineal injury (AOR 1.50, 95% CI 1.20-1.88, p < 0.001) compared to hands-poised/undirected. A hands poised/undirected approach could be utilised in strategies for the prevention of moderate and severe perineal injury. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Super-transient scaling in time-delay autonomous Boolean network motifs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
D' Huys, Otti, E-mail: otti.dhuys@phy.duke.edu; Haynes, Nicholas D. [Department of Physics, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Lohmann, Johannes [Department of Physics, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Institut für Theoretische Physik, Technische Universität Berlin, Hardenbergstraße 36, 10623 Berlin (Germany); Gauthier, Daniel J. [Department of Physics, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Department of Physics, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States)
2016-09-15
Autonomous Boolean networks are commonly used to model the dynamics of gene regulatory networks and allow for the prediction of stable dynamical attractors. However, most models do not account for time delays along the network links and noise, which are crucial features of real biological systems. Concentrating on two paradigmatic motifs, the toggle switch and the repressilator, we develop an experimental testbed that explicitly includes both inter-node time delays and noise using digital logic elements on field-programmable gate arrays. We observe transients that last millions to billions of characteristic time scales and scale exponentially with the amount of time delays between nodes, a phenomenon known as super-transient scaling. We develop a hybrid model that includes time delays along network links and allows for stochastic variation in the delays. Using this model, we explain the observed super-transient scaling of both motifs and recreate the experimentally measured transient distributions.
Fisher information at the edge of chaos in random Boolean networks.
Wang, X Rosalind; Lizier, Joseph T; Prokopenko, Mikhail
2011-01-01
We study the order-chaos phase transition in random Boolean networks (RBNs), which have been used as models of gene regulatory networks. In particular we seek to characterize the phase diagram in information-theoretic terms, focusing on the effect of the control parameters (activity level and connectivity). Fisher information, which measures how much system dynamics can reveal about the control parameters, offers a natural interpretation of the phase diagram in RBNs. We report that this measure is maximized near the order-chaos phase transitions in RBNs, since this is the region where the system is most sensitive to its parameters. Furthermore, we use this study of RBNs to clarify the relationship between Shannon and Fisher information measures.
Quantum tests for the linearity and permutation invariance of Boolean functions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hillery, Mark [Department of Physics, Hunter College of the City University of New York, 695 Park Avenue, New York, New York 10021 (United States); Andersson, Erika [SUPA, School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh EH14 4AS (United Kingdom)
2011-12-15
The goal in function property testing is to determine whether a black-box Boolean function has a certain property or is {epsilon}-far from having that property. The performance of the algorithm is judged by how many calls need to be made to the black box in order to determine, with high probability, which of the two alternatives is the case. Here we present two quantum algorithms, the first to determine whether the function is linear and the second to determine whether it is symmetric (invariant under permutations of the arguments). Both require order {epsilon}{sup -2/3} calls to the oracle, which is better than known classical algorithms. In addition, in the case of linearity testing, if the function is linear, the quantum algorithm identifies which linear function it is. The linearity test combines the Bernstein-Vazirani algorithm and amplitude amplification, while the test to determine whether a function is symmetric uses projective measurements and amplitude amplification.
The pseudo-Boolean optimization approach to form the N-version software structure
Kovalev, I. V.; Kovalev, D. I.; Zelenkov, P. V.; Voroshilova, A. A.
2015-10-01
The problem of developing an optimal structure of N-version software system presents a kind of very complex optimization problem. This causes the use of deterministic optimization methods inappropriate for solving the stated problem. In this view, exploiting heuristic strategies looks more rational. In the field of pseudo-Boolean optimization theory, the so called method of varied probabilities (MVP) has been developed to solve problems with a large dimensionality. Some additional modifications of MVP have been made to solve the problem of N-version systems design. Those algorithms take into account the discovered specific features of the objective function. The practical experiments have shown the advantage of using these algorithm modifications because of reducing a search space.
Lima, Ricardo
2016-06-16
This paper addresses the solution of a cardinality Boolean quadratic programming problem using three different approaches. The first transforms the original problem into six mixed-integer linear programming (MILP) formulations. The second approach takes one of the MILP formulations and relies on the specific features of an MILP solver, namely using starting incumbents, polishing, and callbacks. The last involves the direct solution of the original problem by solvers that can accomodate the nonlinear combinatorial problem. Particular emphasis is placed on the definition of the MILP reformulations and their comparison with the other approaches. The results indicate that the data of the problem has a strong influence on the performance of the different approaches, and that there are clear-cut approaches that are better for some instances of the data. A detailed analysis of the results is made to identify the most effective approaches for specific instances of the data. © 2016 Springer Science+Business Media New York
Lima, Ricardo; Grossmann, Ignacio E.
2016-01-01
This paper addresses the solution of a cardinality Boolean quadratic programming problem using three different approaches. The first transforms the original problem into six mixed-integer linear programming (MILP) formulations. The second approach takes one of the MILP formulations and relies on the specific features of an MILP solver, namely using starting incumbents, polishing, and callbacks. The last involves the direct solution of the original problem by solvers that can accomodate the nonlinear combinatorial problem. Particular emphasis is placed on the definition of the MILP reformulations and their comparison with the other approaches. The results indicate that the data of the problem has a strong influence on the performance of the different approaches, and that there are clear-cut approaches that are better for some instances of the data. A detailed analysis of the results is made to identify the most effective approaches for specific instances of the data. © 2016 Springer Science+Business Media New York
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chao Luo
Full Text Available A novel algebraic approach is proposed to study dynamics of asynchronous random Boolean networks where a random number of nodes can be updated at each time step (ARBNs. In this article, the logical equations of ARBNs are converted into the discrete-time linear representation and dynamical behaviors of systems are investigated. We provide a general formula of network transition matrices of ARBNs as well as a necessary and sufficient algebraic criterion to determine whether a group of given states compose an attractor of length[Formula: see text] in ARBNs. Consequently, algorithms are achieved to find all of the attractors and basins in ARBNs. Examples are showed to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed scheme.
Strahler, Alan H.; Li, Xiao-Wen; Jupp, David L. B.
1991-01-01
The bidirectional radiance or reflectance of a forest or woodland can be modeled using principles of geometric optics and Boolean models for random sets in a three dimensional space. This model may be defined at two levels, the scene includes four components; sunlight and shadowed canopy, and sunlit and shadowed background. The reflectance of the scene is modeled as the sum of the reflectances of the individual components as weighted by their areal proportions in the field of view. At the leaf level, the canopy envelope is an assemblage of leaves, and thus the reflectance is a function of the areal proportions of sunlit and shadowed leaf, and sunlit and shadowed background. Because the proportions of scene components are dependent upon the directions of irradiance and exitance, the model accounts for the hotspot that is well known in leaf and tree canopies.
Programming Cell Adhesion for On-Chip Sequential Boolean Logic Functions.
Qu, Xiangmeng; Wang, Shaopeng; Ge, Zhilei; Wang, Jianbang; Yao, Guangbao; Li, Jiang; Zuo, Xiaolei; Shi, Jiye; Song, Shiping; Wang, Lihua; Li, Li; Pei, Hao; Fan, Chunhai
2017-08-02
Programmable remodelling of cell surfaces enables high-precision regulation of cell behavior. In this work, we developed in vitro constructed DNA-based chemical reaction networks (CRNs) to program on-chip cell adhesion. We found that the RGD-functionalized DNA CRNs are entirely noninvasive when interfaced with the fluidic mosaic membrane of living cells. DNA toehold with different lengths could tunably alter the release kinetics of cells, which shows rapid release in minutes with the use of a 6-base toehold. We further demonstrated the realization of Boolean logic functions by using DNA strand displacement reactions, which include multi-input and sequential cell logic gates (AND, OR, XOR, and AND-OR). This study provides a highly generic tool for self-organization of biological systems.
Recurrent-neural-network-based Boolean factor analysis and its application to word clustering.
Frolov, Alexander A; Husek, Dusan; Polyakov, Pavel Yu
2009-07-01
The objective of this paper is to introduce a neural-network-based algorithm for word clustering as an extension of the neural-network-based Boolean factor analysis algorithm (Frolov , 2007). It is shown that this extended algorithm supports even the more complex model of signals that are supposed to be related to textual documents. It is hypothesized that every topic in textual data is characterized by a set of words which coherently appear in documents dedicated to a given topic. The appearance of each word in a document is coded by the activity of a particular neuron. In accordance with the Hebbian learning rule implemented in the network, sets of coherently appearing words (treated as factors) create tightly connected groups of neurons, hence, revealing them as attractors of the network dynamics. The found factors are eliminated from the network memory by the Hebbian unlearning rule facilitating the search of other factors. Topics related to the found sets of words can be identified based on the words' semantics. To make the method complete, a special technique based on a Bayesian procedure has been developed for the following purposes: first, to provide a complete description of factors in terms of component probability, and second, to enhance the accuracy of classification of signals to determine whether it contains the factor. Since it is assumed that every word may possibly contribute to several topics, the proposed method might be related to the method of fuzzy clustering. In this paper, we show that the results of Boolean factor analysis and fuzzy clustering are not contradictory, but complementary. To demonstrate the capabilities of this attempt, the method is applied to two types of textual data on neural networks in two different languages. The obtained topics and corresponding words are at a good level of agreement despite the fact that identical topics in Russian and English conferences contain different sets of keywords.
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Frolov, A. A.; Húsek, Dušan; Muraviev, I. P.; Polyakov, P.Y.
2010-01-01
Roč. 73, č. 7-9 (2010), s. 1394-1404 ISSN 0925-2312 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/09/1079; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0567 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : Boolean factor analysis * Hopfield neural Network * unsupervised learning * dimension reduction * data mining Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science Impact factor: 1.429, year: 2010
Zhu, Zheng; Andresen, Juan Carlos; Janzen, Katharina; Katzgraber, Helmut G.
2013-03-01
We study the equilibrium and nonequilibrium properties of Boolean decision problems with competing interactions on scale-free graphs in a magnetic field. Previous studies at zero field have shown a remarkable equilibrium stability of Boolean variables (Ising spins) with competing interactions (spin glasses) on scale-free networks. When the exponent that describes the power-law decay of the connectivity of the network is strictly larger than 3, the system undergoes a spin-glass transition. However, when the exponent is equal to or less than 3, the glass phase is stable for all temperatures. First we perform finite-temperature Monte Carlo simulations in a field to test the robustness of the spin-glass phase and show, in agreement with analytical calculations, that the system exhibits a de Almeida-Thouless line. Furthermore, we study avalanches in the system at zero temperature to see if the system displays self-organized criticality. This would suggest that damage (avalanches) can spread across the whole system with nonzero probability, i.e., that Boolean decision problems on scale-free networks with competing interactions are fragile when not in thermal equilibrium.
Zhu, Zheng; Andresen, Juan Carlos; Moore, M. A.; Katzgraber, Helmut G.
2014-02-01
We study the equilibrium and nonequilibrium properties of Boolean decision problems with competing interactions on scale-free networks in an external bias (magnetic field). Previous studies at zero field have shown a remarkable equilibrium stability of Boolean variables (Ising spins) with competing interactions (spin glasses) on scale-free networks. When the exponent that describes the power-law decay of the connectivity of the network is strictly larger than 3, the system undergoes a spin-glass transition. However, when the exponent is equal to or less than 3, the glass phase is stable for all temperatures. First, we perform finite-temperature Monte Carlo simulations in a field to test the robustness of the spin-glass phase and show that the system has a spin-glass phase in a field, i.e., exhibits a de Almeida-Thouless line. Furthermore, we study avalanche distributions when the system is driven by a field at zero temperature to test if the system displays self-organized criticality. Numerical results suggest that avalanches (damage) can spread across the whole system with nonzero probability when the decay exponent of the interaction degree is less than or equal to 2, i.e., that Boolean decision problems on scale-free networks with competing interactions can be fragile when not in thermal equilibrium.
Proposal for nanoscale cascaded plasmonic majority gates for non-Boolean computation.
Dutta, Sourav; Zografos, Odysseas; Gurunarayanan, Surya; Radu, Iuliana; Soree, Bart; Catthoor, Francky; Naeemi, Azad
2017-12-19
Surface-plasmon-polariton waves propagating at the interface between a metal and a dielectric, hold the key to future high-bandwidth, dense on-chip integrated logic circuits overcoming the diffraction limitation of photonics. While recent advances in plasmonic logic have witnessed the demonstration of basic and universal logic gates, these CMOS oriented digital logic gates cannot fully utilize the expressive power of this novel technology. Here, we aim at unraveling the true potential of plasmonics by exploiting an enhanced native functionality - the majority voter. Contrary to the state-of-the-art plasmonic logic devices, we use the phase of the wave instead of the intensity as the state or computational variable. We propose and demonstrate, via numerical simulations, a comprehensive scheme for building a nanoscale cascadable plasmonic majority logic gate along with a novel referencing scheme that can directly translate the information encoded in the amplitude and phase of the wave into electric field intensity at the output. Our MIM-based 3-input majority gate displays a highly improved overall area of only 0.636 μm 2 for a single-stage compared with previous works on plasmonic logic. The proposed device demonstrates non-Boolean computational capability and can find direct utility in highly parallel real-time signal processing applications like pattern recognition.
Damage Spreading in Spatial and Small-world Random Boolean Networks
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lu, Qiming [Fermilab; Teuscher, Christof [Portland State U.
2014-02-18
The study of the response of complex dynamical social, biological, or technological networks to external perturbations has numerous applications. Random Boolean Networks (RBNs) are commonly used a simple generic model for certain dynamics of complex systems. Traditionally, RBNs are interconnected randomly and without considering any spatial extension and arrangement of the links and nodes. However, most real-world networks are spatially extended and arranged with regular, power-law, small-world, or other non-random connections. Here we explore the RBN network topology between extreme local connections, random small-world, and pure random networks, and study the damage spreading with small perturbations. We find that spatially local connections change the scaling of the relevant component at very low connectivities ($\\bar{K} \\ll 1$) and that the critical connectivity of stability $K_s$ changes compared to random networks. At higher $\\bar{K}$, this scaling remains unchanged. We also show that the relevant component of spatially local networks scales with a power-law as the system size N increases, but with a different exponent for local and small-world networks. The scaling behaviors are obtained by finite-size scaling. We further investigate the wiring cost of the networks. From an engineering perspective, our new findings provide the key design trade-offs between damage spreading (robustness), the network's wiring cost, and the network's communication characteristics.
An Improvement to a Multi-Client Searchable Encryption Scheme for Boolean Queries.
Jiang, Han; Li, Xue; Xu, Qiuliang
2016-12-01
The migration of e-health systems to the cloud computing brings huge benefits, as same as some security risks. Searchable Encryption(SE) is a cryptography encryption scheme that can protect the confidentiality of data and utilize the encrypted data at the same time. The SE scheme proposed by Cash et al. in Crypto2013 and its follow-up work in CCS2013 are most practical SE Scheme that support Boolean queries at present. In their scheme, the data user has to generate the search tokens by the counter number one by one and interact with server repeatedly, until he meets the correct one, or goes through plenty of tokens to illustrate that there is no search result. In this paper, we make an improvement to their scheme. We allow server to send back some information and help the user to generate exact search token in the search phase. In our scheme, there are only two round interaction between server and user, and the search token has [Formula: see text] elements, where n is the keywords number in query expression, and [Formula: see text] is the minimum documents number that contains one of keyword in query expression, and the computation cost of server is [Formula: see text] modular exponentiation operation.
Efficient Multi-Valued Bounded Model Checking for LTL over Quasi-Boolean Algebras
Andrade, Jefferson O.; Kameyama, Yukiyoshi
Multi-valued Model Checking extends classical, two-valued model checking to multi-valued logic such as Quasi-Boolean logic. The added expressivity is useful in dealing with such concepts as incompleteness and uncertainty in target systems, while it comes with the cost of time and space. Chechik and others proposed an efficient reduction from multi-valued model checking problems to two-valued ones, but to the authors' knowledge, no study was done for multi-valued bounded model checking. In this paper, we propose a novel, efficient algorithm for multi-valued bounded model checking. A notable feature of our algorithm is that it is not based on reduction of multi-values into two-values; instead, it generates a single formula which represents multi-valuedness by a suitable encoding, and asks a standard SAT solver to check its satisfiability. Our experimental results show a significant improvement in the number of variables and clauses and also in execution time compared with the reduction-based one.
The boolean algebra with restricted variables as a tool for fault tree modularization
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Caldarola, L.; Wickenhaeuser, A.
1981-08-01
The number of minimal cut sets (m.c.s.) of very complex and highly interconnected fault trees can become extremely large (e.g. more than 10 7 ). In this case the usual analytical approach of dissecting the fault tree TOP variable into m.c.s. is not only computationally prohibitively expensive, but also meaningless because it does not offer any synthetic overview of system behavior. The method proposed in this paper overcomes the deficiencies of the analytical method. It is shown that, by applying boolean algebra with restricted variables (b.a.w.r.v.), the concept of fault tree modularization can be straightforwardly extended from a single gate to a set of gates. Thus, large fault trees are divided into smaller fault trees (modules), which are connected to each other according to a simple scheme. This scheme is represented by a block diagram in which each block is a module. The modules are analyzed separately by the m.c.s. method, and the results are combined according of the TOP event. The method allows the calculation of very large fault trees in a short time and offers a synthetic overview of systems behavior through the block diagram. Numerical examples are also included. Calculations have been carried out by using the computer code MUSTAMO, which is based on the theory developed in this paper. (orig.) [de
Attractor controllability of Boolean networks by flipping a subset of their nodes
Rafimanzelat, Mohammad Reza; Bahrami, Fariba
2018-04-01
The controllability analysis of Boolean networks (BNs), as models of biomolecular regulatory networks, has drawn the attention of researchers in recent years. In this paper, we aim at governing the steady-state behavior of BNs using an intervention method which can easily be applied to most real system, which can be modeled as BNs, particularly to biomolecular regulatory networks. To this end, we introduce the concept of attractor controllability of a BN by flipping a subset of its nodes, as the possibility of making a BN converge from any of its attractors to any other one, by one-time flipping members of a subset of BN nodes. Our approach is based on the algebraic state-space representation of BNs using semi-tensor product of matrices. After introducing some new matrix tools, we use them to derive necessary and sufficient conditions for the attractor controllability of BNs. A forward search algorithm is then suggested to identify the minimal perturbation set for attractor controllability of a BN. Next, a lower bound is derived for the cardinality of this set. Two new indices are also proposed for quantifying the attractor controllability of a BN and the influence of each network variable on the attractor controllability of the network and the relationship between them is revealed. Finally, we confirm the efficiency of the proposed approach by applying it to the BN models of some real biomolecular networks.
Prescribed burning impact on forest soil properties--a Fuzzy Boolean Nets approach.
Castro, Ana C Meira; Paulo Carvalho, Joao; Ribeiro, S
2011-02-01
The Portuguese northern forests are often and severely affected by wildfires during the Summer season. These occurrences significantly affect and negatively impact all ecosystems, namely soil, fauna and flora. In order to reduce the occurrences of natural wildfires, some measures to control the availability of fuel mass are regularly implemented. Those preventive actions concern mainly prescribed burnings and vegetation pruning. This work reports on the impact of a prescribed burning on several forest soil properties, namely pH, soil moisture, organic matter content and iron content, by monitoring the soil self-recovery capabilities during a one year span. The experiments were carried out in soil cover over a natural site of Andaluzitic schist, in Gramelas, Caminha, Portugal, which was kept intact from prescribed burnings during a period of four years. Soil samples were collected from five plots at three different layers (0-3, 3-6 and 6-18) 1 day before prescribed fire and at regular intervals after the prescribed fire. This paper presents an approach where Fuzzy Boolean Nets (FBN) and Fuzzy reasoning are used to extract qualitative knowledge regarding the effect of prescribed fire burning on soil properties. FBN were chosen due to the scarcity on available quantitative data. The results showed that soil properties were affected by prescribed burning practice and were unable to recover their initial values after one year. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Neutral space analysis for a Boolean network model of the fission yeast cell cycle network
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gonzalo A Ruz
2014-01-01
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Interactions between genes and their products give rise to complex circuits known as gene regulatory networks (GRN that enable cells to process information and respond to external stimuli. Several important processes for life, depend of an accurate and context-specific regulation of gene expression, such as the cell cycle, which can be analyzed through its GRN, where deregulation can lead to cancer in animals or a directed regulation could be applied for biotechnological processes using yeast. An approach to study the robustness of GRN is through the neutral space. In this paper, we explore the neutral space of a Schizosaccharomyces pombe (fission yeast cell cycle network through an evolution strategy to generate a neutral graph, composed of Boolean regulatory networks that share the same state sequences of the fission yeast cell cycle. RESULTS: Through simulations it was found that in the generated neutral graph, the functional networks that are not in the wildtype connected component have in general a Hamming distance more than 3 with the wildtype, and more than 10 between the other disconnected functional networks. Significant differences were found between the functional networks in the connected component of the wildtype network and the rest of the network, not only at a topological level, but also at the state space level, where significant differences in the distribution of the basin of attraction for the G1 fixed point was found for deterministic updating schemes. CONCLUSIONS: In general, functional networks in the wildtype network connected component, can mutate up to no more than 3 times, then they reach a point of no return where the networks leave the connected component of the wildtype. The proposed method to construct a neutral graph is general and can be used to explore the neutral space of other biologically interesting networks, and also formulate new biological hypotheses studying the functional networks in the
Coded diffraction system in X-ray crystallography using a boolean phase coded aperture approximation
Pinilla, Samuel; Poveda, Juan; Arguello, Henry
2018-03-01
Phase retrieval is a problem present in many applications such as optics, astronomical imaging, computational biology and X-ray crystallography. Recent work has shown that the phase can be better recovered when the acquisition architecture includes a coded aperture, which modulates the signal before diffraction, such that the underlying signal is recovered from coded diffraction patterns. Moreover, this type of modulation effect, before the diffraction operation, can be obtained using a phase coded aperture, just after the sample under study. However, a practical implementation of a phase coded aperture in an X-ray application is not feasible, because it is computationally modeled as a matrix with complex entries which requires changing the phase of the diffracted beams. In fact, changing the phase implies finding a material that allows to deviate the direction of an X-ray beam, which can considerably increase the implementation costs. Hence, this paper describes a low cost coded X-ray diffraction system based on block-unblock coded apertures that enables phase reconstruction. The proposed system approximates the phase coded aperture with a block-unblock coded aperture by using the detour-phase method. Moreover, the SAXS/WAXS X-ray crystallography software was used to simulate the diffraction patterns of a real crystal structure called Rhombic Dodecahedron. Additionally, several simulations were carried out to analyze the performance of block-unblock approximations in recovering the phase, using the simulated diffraction patterns. Furthermore, the quality of the reconstructions was measured in terms of the Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR). Results show that the performance of the block-unblock phase coded apertures approximation decreases at most 12.5% compared with the phase coded apertures. Moreover, the quality of the reconstructions using the boolean approximations is up to 2.5 dB of PSNR less with respect to the phase coded aperture reconstructions.
Lovrics, Anna
2014-11-14
We have assembled a network of cell-fate determining transcription factors that play a key role in the specification of the ventral neuronal subtypes of the spinal cord on the basis of published transcriptional interactions. Asynchronous Boolean modelling of the network was used to compare simulation results with reported experimental observations. Such comparison highlighted the need to include additional regulatory connections in order to obtain the fixed point attractors of the model associated with the five known progenitor cell types located in the ventral spinal cord. The revised gene regulatory network reproduced previously observed cell state switches between progenitor cells observed in knock-out animal models or in experiments where the transcription factors were overexpressed. Furthermore the network predicted the inhibition of Irx3 by Nkx2.2 and this prediction was tested experimentally. Our results provide evidence for the existence of an as yet undescribed inhibitory connection which could potentially have significance beyond the ventral spinal cord. The work presented in this paper demonstrates the strength of Boolean modelling for identifying gene regulatory networks.
Ari, Eszter; Ittzés, Péter; Podani, János; Thi, Quynh Chi Le; Jakó, Eena
2012-04-01
Boolean analysis (or BOOL-AN; Jakó et al., 2009. BOOL-AN: A method for comparative sequence analysis and phylogenetic reconstruction. Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 52, 887-97.), a recently developed method for sequence comparison uses the Iterative Canonical Form of Boolean functions. It considers sequence information in a way entirely different from standard phylogenetic methods (i.e. Maximum Parsimony, Maximum-Likelihood, Neighbor-Joining, and Bayesian analysis). The performance and reliability of Boolean analysis were tested and compared with the standard phylogenetic methods, using artificially evolved - simulated - nucleotide sequences and the 22 mitochondrial tRNA genes of the great apes. At the outset, we assumed that the phylogeny of Hominidae is generally well established, and the guide tree of artificial sequence evolution can also be used as a benchmark. These offer a possibility to compare and test the performance of different phylogenetic methods. Trees were reconstructed by each method from 2500 simulated sequences and 22 mitochondrial tRNA sequences. We also introduced a special re-sampling method for Boolean analysis on permuted sequence sites, the P-BOOL-AN procedure. Considering the reliability values (branch support values of consensus trees and Robinson-Foulds distances) we used for simulated sequence trees produced by different phylogenetic methods, BOOL-AN appeared as the most reliable method. Although the mitochondrial tRNA sequences of great apes are relatively short (59-75 bases long) and the ratio of their constant characters is about 75%, BOOL-AN, P-BOOL-AN and the Bayesian approach produced the same tree-topology as the established phylogeny, while the outcomes of Maximum Parsimony, Maximum-Likelihood and Neighbor-Joining methods were equivocal. We conclude that Boolean analysis is a promising alternative to existing methods of sequence comparison for phylogenetic reconstruction and congruence analysis. Copyright Â© 2012 Elsevier Inc. All
Loke, Desmond; Skelton, Jonathan M; Chong, Tow-Chong; Elliott, Stephen R
2016-12-21
One of the requirements for achieving faster CMOS electronics is to mitigate the unacceptably large chip areas required to steer heat away from or, more recently, toward the critical nodes of state-of-the-art devices. Thermal-guiding (TG) structures can efficiently direct heat by "meta-materials" engineering; however, some key aspects of the behavior of these systems are not fully understood. Here, we demonstrate control of the thermal-diffusion properties of TG structures by using nanometer-scale, CMOS-integrable, graphene-on-silica stacked materials through finite-element-methods simulations. It has been shown that it is possible to implement novel, controllable, thermally based Boolean-logic and spike-timing-dependent plasticity operations for advanced (neuromorphic) computing applications using such thermal-guide architectures.
Szejka, Agnes; Drossel, Barbara
2010-02-01
We study the evolution of Boolean networks as model systems for gene regulation. Inspired by biological networks, we select simultaneously for robust attractors and for the ability to respond to external inputs by changing the attractor. Mutations change the connections between the nodes and the update functions. In order to investigate the influence of the type of update functions, we perform our simulations with canalizing as well as with threshold functions. We compare the properties of the fitness landscapes that result for different versions of the selection criterion and the update functions. We find that for all studied cases the fitness landscape has a plateau with maximum fitness resulting in the fact that structurally very different networks are able to fulfill the same task and are connected by neutral paths in network (“genotype”) space. We find furthermore a connection between the attractor length and the mutational robustness, and an extremely long memory of the initial evolutionary stage.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mikko Niilo-Rämä
2014-06-01
Full Text Available A novel estimator for estimating the mean length of fibres is proposed for censored data observed in square shaped windows. Instead of observing the fibre lengths, we observe the ratio between the intensity estimates of minus-sampling and plus-sampling. It is well-known that both intensity estimators are biased. In the current work, we derive the ratio of these biases as a function of the mean length assuming a Boolean line segment model with exponentially distributed lengths and uniformly distributed directions. Having the observed ratio of the intensity estimators, the inverse of the derived function is suggested as a new estimator for the mean length. For this estimator, an approximation of its variance is derived. The accuracies of the approximations are evaluated by means of simulation experiments. The novel method is compared to other methods and applied to real-world industrial data from nanocellulose crystalline.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shohag Barman
Full Text Available Inferring a gene regulatory network from time-series gene expression data in systems biology is a challenging problem. Many methods have been suggested, most of which have a scalability limitation due to the combinatorial cost of searching a regulatory set of genes. In addition, they have focused on the accurate inference of a network structure only. Therefore, there is a pressing need to develop a network inference method to search regulatory genes efficiently and to predict the network dynamics accurately.In this study, we employed a Boolean network model with a restricted update rule scheme to capture coarse-grained dynamics, and propose a novel mutual information-based Boolean network inference (MIBNI method. Given time-series gene expression data as an input, the method first identifies a set of initial regulatory genes using mutual information-based feature selection, and then improves the dynamics prediction accuracy by iteratively swapping a pair of genes between sets of the selected regulatory genes and the other genes. Through extensive simulations with artificial datasets, MIBNI showed consistently better performance than six well-known existing methods, REVEAL, Best-Fit, RelNet, CST, CLR, and BIBN in terms of both structural and dynamics prediction accuracy. We further tested the proposed method with two real gene expression datasets for an Escherichia coli gene regulatory network and a fission yeast cell cycle network, and also observed better results using MIBNI compared to the six other methods.Taken together, MIBNI is a promising tool for predicting both the structure and the dynamics of a gene regulatory network.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Piriou, Pierre-Yves; Faure, Jean-Marc; Lesage, Jean-Jacques
2017-01-01
This paper presents a modeling framework that permits to describe in an integrated manner the structure of the critical system to analyze, by using an enriched fault tree, the dysfunctional behavior of its components, by means of Markov processes, and the reconfiguration strategies that have been planned to ensure safety and availability, with Moore machines. This framework has been developed from BDMP (Boolean logic Driven Markov Processes), a previous framework for dynamic repairable systems. First, the contribution is motivated by pinpointing the limitations of BDMP to model complex reconfiguration strategies and the failures of the control of these strategies. The syntax and semantics of GBDMP (Generalized Boolean logic Driven Markov Processes) are then formally defined; in particular, an algorithm to analyze the dynamic behavior of a GBDMP model is developed. The modeling capabilities of this framework are illustrated on three representative examples. Last, qualitative and quantitative analysis of GDBMP models highlight the benefits of the approach.
Ye, Weiming; Li, Pengfei; Huang, Xuhui; Xia, Qinzhi; Mi, Yuanyuan; Chen, Runsheng; Hu, Gang
2010-10-01
Exploring the principle and relationship of gene transcriptional regulations (TR) has been becoming a generally researched issue. So far, two major mathematical methods, ordinary differential equation (ODE) method and Boolean map (BM) method have been widely used for these purposes. It is commonly believed that simplified BMs are reasonable approximations of more realistic ODEs, and both methods may reveal qualitatively the same essential features though the dynamical details of both systems may show some differences. In this Letter we exhaustively enumerated all the 3-gene networks and many autonomous randomly constructed TR networks with more genes by using both the ODE and BM methods. In comparison we found that both methods provide practically identical results in most of cases of steady solutions. However, to our great surprise, most of network structures showing periodic cycles with the BM method possess only stationary states in ODE descriptions. These observations strongly suggest that many periodic oscillations and other complicated oscillatory states revealed by the BM rule may be related to the computational errors of variable and time discretizations and rarely have correspondence in realistic biology transcriptional regulatory circuits.
Nonvolatile “AND,” “OR,” and “NOT” Boolean logic gates based on phase-change memory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Li, Y.; Zhong, Y. P.; Deng, Y. F.; Zhou, Y. X.; Xu, L.; Miao, X. S., E-mail: miaoxs@mail.hust.edu.cn [Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics (WNLO), Huazhong University of Science and Technology (HUST), Wuhan 430074 (China); School of Optical and Electronic Information, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)
2013-12-21
Electronic devices or circuits that can implement both logic and memory functions are regarded as the building blocks for future massive parallel computing beyond von Neumann architecture. Here we proposed phase-change memory (PCM)-based nonvolatile logic gates capable of AND, OR, and NOT Boolean logic operations verified in SPICE simulations and circuit experiments. The logic operations are parallel computing and results can be stored directly in the states of the logic gates, facilitating the combination of computing and memory in the same circuit. These results are encouraging for ultralow-power and high-speed nonvolatile logic circuit design based on novel memory devices.
Nonvolatile “AND,” “OR,” and “NOT” Boolean logic gates based on phase-change memory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li, Y.; Zhong, Y. P.; Deng, Y. F.; Zhou, Y. X.; Xu, L.; Miao, X. S.
2013-01-01
Electronic devices or circuits that can implement both logic and memory functions are regarded as the building blocks for future massive parallel computing beyond von Neumann architecture. Here we proposed phase-change memory (PCM)-based nonvolatile logic gates capable of AND, OR, and NOT Boolean logic operations verified in SPICE simulations and circuit experiments. The logic operations are parallel computing and results can be stored directly in the states of the logic gates, facilitating the combination of computing and memory in the same circuit. These results are encouraging for ultralow-power and high-speed nonvolatile logic circuit design based on novel memory devices
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mahdieh Saadat Foomani
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Hazardous wastes include numerous kinds of discarded chemicals and other wastes generated from industrial, commercial, and institutional activities. These types of waste present immediate or long-term risks to humans, animals, plants, or the environment and therefore require special handling for safe disposal. Landfills that can accept hazardous wastes are excavated or engineered sites where these special types of waste can be disposed of securely. Since landfills are permanent sites, special attention must be afforded in selecting the location. This paper investigated the use of the Boolean theory and Fuzzy logic in combination with Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP methods by applying GIS and IDRISI software for the selection of a hazardous waste landfill site in the Iranian province of Hormozgan. The best location was determined via the Fuzzy and the Boolean methodologies. By collating the area selected for the hazardous waste landfill, this study found that Fuzzy logic with an AND operator had the best options for this purpose. In the end, the most suitable area for a hazardous waste landfill was about 1.6 km2 which was obtained by employing Fuzzy in combination with AHP and by using an AND operator. In addition, all the fundamental criteria affecting the landfill location were considered.
Fusama, Mie; Miura, Yasushi; Yukioka, Kumiko; Kuroiwa, Takanori; Yukioka, Chikako; Inoue, Miyako; Nakanishi, Tae; Murata, Norikazu; Takai, Noriko; Higashi, Kayoko; Kuritani, Taro; Maeda, Keiji; Sano, Hajime; Yukioka, Masao; Nakahara, Hideko
2015-09-01
To evaluate whether the psychological state is related to the Boolean-based definition of patient global assessment (PGA) remission in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Patients with RA who met the criteria of swollen joint count (SJC) ≤ 1, tender joint count (TJC) ≤ 1 and C-reactive protein (CRP) ≤ 1 were divided into two groups, PGA remission group (PGA ≤ 1 cm) and non-remission group (PGA > 1 cm). Anxiety was evaluated utilizing the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-Anxiety (HADS-A), while depression was evaluated with HADS-Depression (HADS-D) and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Comparison analyses were done between the PGA remission and non-remission groups in HADS-A, HADS-D and CES-D. Seventy-eight patients met the criteria for SJC ≤ 1, TJC ≤ 1 and CRP ≤ 1. There were no significant differences between the PGA remission group (n = 45) and the non-remission group (n = 33) in age, sex, disease duration and Steinbrocker's class and stage. HADS-A, HADS-D and CES-D scores were significantly lower in the PGA remission group. Patients with RA who did not meet the PGA remission criteria despite good disease condition were in a poorer psychological state than those who satisfied the Boolean-based definition of clinical remission. Psychological support might be effective for improvement of PGA, resulting in the attainment of true remission.
Bossi, Giulia; Marcato, Gianluca; Gottardi, Guido; Borgatti, Lisa
2016-04-01
When designing the geotechnical model of a landslide the information to define the soil profile within the slope is usually inferred from a small amount of data. This is particularly true for large landslides where the study area is vast and the variability of terrains is high. In this framework, a method allowing the best locations for further field investigation campaigns to be identified would be extremely useful. The Boolean Stochastic Generation method (BoSG), which randomly generates different soil distributions of two definite soil types in both 2D and 3D models, is a newly developed algorithm that can guide in this process. In this work the method has been applied to the Mortisa landslide case study, which is located in the Cortina d'Ampezzo valley (Veneto, Italy), part of the Dolomites UNESCO World Heritage list. The mudslide is 3.5 km long, stretching from 1750 to 1300 m a.s.l., and is located in a highly antrophized area where is damaging some buildings and a national road with its almost continuous movements. In fact, from year 2008, GNSS surveys recorded rates of displacements reaching 1.2 m/year in the most active parts of the landslide; the movements occur on a slip surfaces are located between 20 and 50 m below the surface. From the borecores some wooden samples were extracted allowing to reconstruct the sequence of events that led to the development of the present-day Mortisa slope. Interdigitated layers of gravel in a silty clay matrix originated from subsequent earth and debris flows events since the Lateglacial compose the landslide body, a condition that is particularly apt to be investigated with BoSG. A BoSG run for the Mortisa landslide was performed calculating 1200 soil configurations and using laboratory test parameters for the silty-clay matrix. The results were stacked in a tridimensional matrix in order to calculate the mean and the standard deviation (SD) of displacements for each element of the model mesh. In this way maps of the SD
Caglar, Mehmet Umut; Pal, Ranadip
2011-03-01
Central dogma of molecular biology states that ``information cannot be transferred back from protein to either protein or nucleic acid''. However, this assumption is not exactly correct in most of the cases. There are a lot of feedback loops and interactions between different levels of systems. These types of interactions are hard to analyze due to the lack of cell level data and probabilistic - nonlinear nature of interactions. Several models widely used to analyze and simulate these types of nonlinear interactions. Stochastic Master Equation (SME) models give probabilistic nature of the interactions in a detailed manner, with a high calculation cost. On the other hand Probabilistic Boolean Network (PBN) models give a coarse scale picture of the stochastic processes, with a less calculation cost. Differential Equation (DE) models give the time evolution of mean values of processes in a highly cost effective way. The understanding of the relations between the predictions of these models is important to understand the reliability of the simulations of genetic regulatory networks. In this work the success of the mapping between SME, PBN and DE models is analyzed and the accuracy and affectivity of the control policies generated by using PBN and DE models is compared.
Bugs, Cristhian A; Librelotto, Giovani R; Mombach, José C M
2011-12-22
We introduce a method to analyze the states of regulatory Boolean models that identifies important network states and their biological influence on the global network dynamics. It consists in (1) finding the states of the network that are most frequently visited and (2) the identification of variable and frozen nodes of the network. The method, along with a simulation that includes random features, is applied to the study of stomata closure by abscisic acid (ABA) in A. thaliana proposed by Albert and coworkers. We find that for the case of study, that the dynamics of wild and mutant networks have just two states that are highly visited in their space of states and about a third of all nodes of the wild network are variable while the rest remain frozen in True or False states. This high number of frozen elements explains the low cardinality of the space of states of the wild network. Similar results are observed in the mutant networks. The application of the method allowed us to explain how wild and mutants behave dynamically in the SS and determined an essential feature of the activation of the closure node (representing stomata closure), i.e. its synchronization with the AnionEm node (representing anion efflux at the plasma membrane). The dynamics of this synchronization explains the efficiency reached by the wild and each of the mutant networks. For the biological problem analyzed, our method allows determining how wild and mutant networks differ 'phenotypically'. It shows that the different efficiencies of stomata closure reached among the simulated wild and mutant networks follow from a dynamical behavior of two nodes that are always synchronized. Additionally, we predict that the involvement of the anion efflux at the plasma membrane is crucial for the plant response to ABA. The algorithm used in the simulations is available upon request.
Lu, Jiao Yang; Zhang, Xin Xing; Huang, Wei Tao; Zhu, Qiu Yan; Ding, Xue Zhi; Xia, Li Qiu; Luo, Hong Qun; Li, Nian Bing
2017-09-19
The most serious and yet unsolved problems of molecular logic computing consist in how to connect molecular events in complex systems into a usable device with specific functions and how to selectively control branchy logic processes from the cascading logic systems. This report demonstrates that a Boolean logic tree is utilized to organize and connect "plug and play" chemical events DNA, nanomaterials, organic dye, biomolecule, and denaturant for developing the dual-signal electrochemical evolution aptasensor system with good resettability for amplification detection of thrombin, controllable and selectable three-state logic computation, and keypad lock security operation. The aptasensor system combines the merits of DNA-functionalized nanoamplification architecture and simple dual-signal electroactive dye brilliant cresyl blue for sensitive and selective detection of thrombin with a wide linear response range of 0.02-100 nM and a detection limit of 1.92 pM. By using these aforementioned chemical events as inputs and the differential pulse voltammetry current changes at different voltages as dual outputs, a resettable three-input biomolecular keypad lock based on sequential logic is established. Moreover, the first example of controllable and selectable three-state molecular logic computation with active-high and active-low logic functions can be implemented and allows the output ports to assume a high impediment or nothing (Z) state in addition to the 0 and 1 logic levels, effectively controlling subsequent branchy logic computation processes. Our approach is helpful in developing the advanced controllable and selectable logic computing and sensing system in large-scale integration circuits for application in biomedical engineering, intelligent sensing, and control.
Uezu, Tatsuya; Kiyokawa, Shuji
2016-06-01
We investigate the supervised batch learning of Boolean functions expressed by a two-layer perceptron with a tree-like structure. We adopt continuous weights (spherical model) and the Gibbs algorithm. We study the Parity and And machines and two types of noise, input and output noise, together with the noiseless case. We assume that only the teacher suffers from noise. By using the replica method, we derive the saddle point equations for order parameters under the replica symmetric (RS) ansatz. We study the critical value αC of the loading rate α above which the learning phase exists for cases with and without noise. We find that αC is nonzero for the Parity machine, while it is zero for the And machine. We derive the exponents barβ of order parameters expressed as (α - α C)bar{β} when α is near to αC. Furthermore, in the Parity machine, when noise exists, we find a spin glass solution, in which the overlap between the teacher and student vectors is zero but that between student vectors is nonzero. We perform Markov chain Monte Carlo simulations by simulated annealing and also by exchange Monte Carlo simulations in both machines. In the Parity machine, we study the de Almeida-Thouless stability, and by comparing theoretical and numerical results, we find that there exist parameter regions where the RS solution is unstable, and that the spin glass solution is metastable or unstable. We also study asymptotic learning behavior for large α and derive the exponents hat{β } of order parameters expressed as α - hat{β } when α is large in both machines. By simulated annealing simulations, we confirm these results and conclude that learning takes place for the input noise case with any noise amplitude and for the output noise case when the probability that the teacher's output is reversed is less than one-half.
Assignment of stock keeping units to parallel undirectional picking
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Matthews, Jason
2015-05-01
Full Text Available An order picking system consisting of a number of parallel unidirectional picking lines is investigated. Stock keeping units (SKUs that are grouped by product type into distributions (DBNs are assigned daily to available picking lines. A mathematical programming formulation and its relaxations is presented. A greedy insertion and a greedy phased insertion are further introduced to obtain feasible results within usable computation times for all test cases. The walking distance of the pickers was shown to decrease by about 22 per cent compared with the current assignment approach. However, product handling and operational risk increases.
Undirected visual attention to advertising : a segment-level analysis
Rosbergen, Edward; Pieters, Rik; Wedel, Michel
1995-01-01
The paper considers a (static) portfolio system that satisfies adding-up contraints and the gross substitution theorem. The paper shows the relationship of the two conditions to the weak dominant diagonal property of the matrix of interest rate elasticities. This enables to investigate the impact of
Detecting Statistically Significant Communities of Triangle Motifs in Undirected Networks
2016-04-26
Systems, Statistics & Management Science, University of Alabama, USA. 1 DISTRIBUTION A: Distribution approved for public release. Contents 1 Summary 5...13 5 Application to Real Networks 18 5.1 2012 FBS Football Schedule Network... football schedule network. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 14 Stem plot of degree-ordered vertices versus the degree for college football
Stochastic Pseudo-Boolean Optimization
2011-07-31
16 polyominoes. Given this notation, we provide the following nonlinear mixed integer programming (MIP) formulation of the exact tiling problem: PNL ...ri, cj ≥ 0 ∀ i, j, p, q, k. 8.3.3 Linear Set Partitioning Formulation We use value disjunctions to reformulate PNL as a linear MIP that can be
Generalized Boolean Functions as Combiners
2017-06-01
of large runs of ones [6]. The fifth test is the Binary Rank Matrix test. This test looks at the rank of disjoint sub- matrices of the entire sequence...matrices to be of size 32x32. The sub-matrices are filled in row by row from the original 17 sequence. The rank for each sub- matrix is then computed...amLeng t h : 57 #LFSRS 58 f o r i in range ( 0 , l en ( l f s r s ) ) : 59 x i = reduce ( lambda x , y : x^y , map ( lambda x : l f s r s [ i
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Murilo Rezende Melo
2006-08-01
review of results for adequate laboratory section test release. Analysis of these results using Boolean rules is an interesting alternative to reduce the number of results that require manual review. MATERIAL AND METHOD: We evaluated the utilization of Boolean rules using Instrument Manager software and Architect analyzer, mainly performing sex and thyroid hormones measurement. The intervention was evaluated on: a number of rules and its easiness of construction; b blind comparison of results evaluation by clinical pathologist (printed results and set of rules in 940 consecutive tests. RESULTS: Rule creation was a complex and arduous task, especially due to hormonal profiles with several different request patterns. It was necessary to use a set of 153 Boolean (if…then rules, in a specific order. This set of rules agreed with expert opinion in 97.9% (920 tests. Rules hold 25 tests (2.7% and the clinical pathologist only nine tests. There was discordance in 20 cases; rules did not hold only two cases: a beta-hCG in a male patient (that prompted the creation of a new rule and a complete thyroid profile lacking only TSH request (pathologist opted to review the original request. CONCLUSION: Creation of an efficient set of Boolean rules proved to be a complex task requiring both technical and logics knowledge, but allowing optimization of laboratory workload. We achieved excellent concordance between the set of rules and clinical pathologist manual review, in a safe, fast and low cost system.
Financing Child Care. A Public Policy Report from the Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation. Winter 2002.
Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation, Kansas City, MO.
This public policy report focuses on financing child care in the United States. The report contains brief articles on the following topics: (1) child care wages in comparison to other positions; (2) benefits to businesses when employees have high-quality child care; (3) resources for funding early education systems; (4) comparison of the cost of…
Braggion, F. (Fabio); Dwarkasing, M. (Mintra); S. Ongena (Steven)
2017-01-01
textabstractWe empirically test if household wealth inequality affects borrowing constraints of young entrepreneurs. We construct a measure of wealth inequality at the US county level based on the distribution of financial rents in 2004. We find that in more unequal areas, entrepreneurs are less
On boolean combinations forming piecewise testable languages
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Masopust, Tomáš; Thomazo, M.
2017-01-01
Roč. 682, June 19 (2017), s. 165-179 ISSN 0304-3975 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : automata * language s * k-piecewise testability Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Computer sciences, information science, bioinformathics (hardware development to be 2.2, social aspect to be 5.8) Impact factor: 0.698, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S030439751730066X
Boolean integration. [applied to switching network synthesis
Tucker, J. H.; Tapia, M. A.; Bennett, A. W.
1976-01-01
This paper presents the necessary and sufficient conditions for a given differential expression to be compatibly integrable and it presents the necessary and sufficient conditions for a given expression to be exactly integrable. Methods are given for integrating a differential expression when it is exactly integrable and when it is compatibly integrable. The physical interpretation is given of the integral of order k, of a differential expression, and it is shown that any differential expression of the proper form is integrable by parts.
Image Filtering with Boolean and Statistical Operators.
1983-12-01
S3(2) COMPLEX AMAT(256, 4). BMAT (256. 4). CMAT(256. 4) CALL IOF(3. MAIN. AFLNM. DFLNI, CFLNM. MS., 82, S3) CALL OPEN(1.AFLNM* 1.IER) CALL CHECKC!ER...RDBLK(2. 6164. MAT. 16, IER) CALL CHECK(IER) DO I K-1. 4 DO I J-1.256 CMAT(J. K)-AMAT(J. K)’. BMAT (J. K) I CONTINUE S CALL WRBLK(3. 164!. CMAT. 16. IER
Pseudo Boolean Programming for Partially Ordered Genomes
Angibaud, Sébastien; Fertin, Guillaume; Thévenin, Annelyse; Vialette, Stéphane
Comparing genomes of different species is a crucial problem in comparative genomics. Different measures have been proposed to compare two genomes: number of common intervals, number of adjacencies, number of reversals, etc. These measures are classically used between two totally ordered genomes. However, genetic mapping techniques often give rise to different maps with some unordered genes. Starting from a partial order between genes of a genome, one method to find a total order consists in optimizing a given measure between a linear extension of this partial order and a given total order of a close and well-known genome. However, for most common measures, the problem turns out to be NP-hard. In this paper, we propose a (0,1)-linear programming approach to compute a linear extension of one genome that maximizes the number of common intervals (resp. the number of adjacencies) between this linear extension and a given total order. Next, we propose an algorithm to find linear extensions of two partial orders that maximize the number of adjacencies.
Boolean Approach to Dichotomic Quantum Measurement Theories
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nagata, K. [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Nakamura, T. [Keio University, Yokohama (Japan); Batle, J. [Universitat de les Illes Balears, Balearic Islands (Spain); Abdalla, S. [King Abdulaziz University Jeddah, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Farouk, A. [Al-Zahra College for Women, Muscat (Egypt)
2017-02-15
Recently, a new measurement theory based on truth values was proposed by Nagata and Nakamura [Int. J. Theor. Phys. 55, 3616 (2016)], that is, a theory where the results of measurements are either 0 or 1. The standard measurement theory accepts a hidden variable model for a single Pauli observable. Hence, we can introduce a classical probability space for the measurement theory in this particular case. Additionally, we discuss in the present contribution the fact that projective measurement theories (the results of which are either +1 or −1) imply the Bell, Kochen, and Specker (BKS) paradox for a single Pauli observable. To justify our assertion, we present the BKS theorem in almost all the two-dimensional states by using a projective measurement theory. As an example, we present the BKS theorem in two-dimensions with white noise. Our discussion provides new insight into the quantum measurement problem by using this measurement theory based on the truth values.
Co-occurrence rate networks: towards separate training for undirected graphical models
Zhu, Zhemin
2015-01-01
Dependence is a universal phenomenon which can be observed everywhere. In machine learning, probabilistic graphical models (PGMs) represent dependence relations with graphs. PGMs find wide applications in natural language processing (NLP), speech processing, computer vision, biomedicine, information
Convergence speed of consensus problems over undirected scale-free networks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sun Wei; Dou Li-Hua
2010-01-01
Scale-free networks and consensus behaviour among multiple agents have both attracted much attention. To investigate the consensus speed over scale-free networks is the major topic of the present work. A novel method is developed to construct scale-free networks due to their remarkable power-law degree distributions, while preserving the diversity of network topologies. The time cost or iterations for networks to reach a certain level of consensus is discussed, considering the influence from power-law parameters. They are both demonstrated to be reversed power-law functions of the algebraic connectivity, which is viewed as a measurement on convergence speed of the consensus behaviour. The attempts of tuning power-law parameters may speed up the consensus procedure, but it could also make the network less robust over time delay at the same time. Large scale of simulations are supportive to the conclusions. (general)
Product shipping information using graceful labeling on undirected tree graph approach
Kuan, Yoong Kooi; Ghani, Ahmad Termimi Ab
2017-08-01
Product shipping information is the related information of an ordered product that ready to be shipped to the foreign customer's company, where the information represents as an irrefutable proof in black and white to the local manufacturer by E-mails. This messy and unordered list of information is stored in E-mail folders by the people incharge, which do not function in collating the information properly. So, in this paper, an algorithm is proposed on how to rearrange the messy information from the sequence of a path graph structure into a concise version of a caterpillar graph with achieving the concept of graceful labeling. The final graceful caterpillar graph consists of the full listed information together with the numbering, which able to assist people get the information fleetly for shipping arrangement procedure.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tegos, Stergios; Demetriadis, Stavros N.; Papadopoulos, Pantelis M.
2016-01-01
Conversational agents that draw on the framework of academically productive talk (APT) have been lately shown to be effective in helping learners sustain productive forms of peer dialogue in diverse learning settings. Yet, literature suggests that more research is required on how learners respond...
Georgious, I. T.; Sun, C. T.
1992-01-01
The history of temperature rise due to internal dissipation of mechanical energy in insulated off-axis uniaxial specimens of the unidirectional thermoplastic composite (AS4/PEEK) has been measured. The experiment reveals that the rate of temperature rise is a polynomial function of stress amplitude: It consists of a quadratic term and a sixth power term. This fact implies that the specific heat of the composite depends on the stretching its microstructure undergoes during deformation. The Einstein theory for specific heat is used to explain the dependence of the specific heat on the stretching of the microstructure.
Affine Equivalence and Constructions of Cryptographically Strong Boolean Functions
2013-09-01
Math. Dissertation Supervisor Jon T. Butler Distinguished Professor Department of Elec. and Comp. Eng. David R. Canright Associate Professor...Linear structures in blockciphers,” in Advances in Cryptology, EU- ROCRYPT’87, ser. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, D. Chaum and W. L. Price, Eds
ZKBoo: Faster Zero-Knowledge for Boolean Circuits
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Giacomelli, Irene; Madsen, Jesper; Orlandi, Claudio
2016-01-01
variants of IKOS, which highlights their pros and cons for practically rele- vant soundness parameters; ◦ A generalization and simplification of their approach, which leads to faster Σ-protocols (that can be made non-interactive using the Fiat-Shamir heuristic) for state- ments of the form “I know x...
Boolean Operations, Joins, and the Extended Low Hierarchy
Hemaspaandra, Lane A.; Jiang, Zhigen; Rothe, Joerg; Watanabe, Osamu
1999-01-01
We prove that the join of two sets may actually fall into a lower level of the extended low hierarchy than either of the sets. In particular, there exist sets that are not in the second level of the extended low hierarchy, EL_2, yet their join is in EL_2. That is, in terms of extended lowness, the join operator can lower complexity. Since in a strong intuitive sense the join does not lower complexity, our result suggests that the extended low hierarchy is unnatural as a complexity measure. We...
Discovery of Boolean metabolic networks: integer linear programming based approach.
Qiu, Yushan; Jiang, Hao; Ching, Wai-Ki; Cheng, Xiaoqing
2018-04-11
Traditional drug discovery methods focused on the efficacy of drugs rather than their toxicity. However, toxicity and/or lack of efficacy are produced when unintended targets are affected in metabolic networks. Thus, identification of biological targets which can be manipulated to produce the desired effect with minimum side-effects has become an important and challenging topic. Efficient computational methods are required to identify the drug targets while incurring minimal side-effects. In this paper, we propose a graph-based computational damage model that summarizes the impact of enzymes on compounds in metabolic networks. An efficient method based on Integer Linear Programming formalism is then developed to identify the optimal enzyme-combination so as to minimize the side-effects. The identified target enzymes for known successful drugs are then verified by comparing the results with those in the existing literature. Side-effects reduction plays a crucial role in the study of drug development. A graph-based computational damage model is proposed and the theoretical analysis states the captured problem is NP-completeness. The proposed approaches can therefore contribute to the discovery of drug targets. Our developed software is available at " http://hkumath.hku.hk/~wkc/APBC2018-metabolic-network.zip ".
Further Results on Constructions of Generalized Bent Boolean Functions
2016-03-01
China; 2Naval Postgraduate School, Applied Mathematics Department, Monterey, CA 93943, USA; 3Science and Technology on Communication Security...in 1976 as an interesting combinatorial object with the important property of having op- timal nonlinearity [1]. Since bent functions have many...77–94 10 Zhao Y, Li H L. On bent functions with some symmet- ric properties. Discret Appl Math, 2006, 154: 2537– 2543
Reconfigurable Boolean logic using magnetic single-electron transistors
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Gonzalez-Zalba, M.F.; Ciccarelli, C.; Zarbo, Liviu; Irvine, A.C.; Campion, R.C.; Gallagher, B. L.; Jungwirth, Tomáš; Ferguson, A.J.; Wunderlich, Joerg
2015-01-01
Roč. 10, č. 4 (2015), e0125142 E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LM2011026; GA ČR GB14-37427G EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 268066 - 0MSPIN Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : single-electron transitor * reconfigurable logic * ferromagnetic semiconductor Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.057, year: 2015
Marking for Structure using Boolean Feedback | Louw | Journal for ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
This paper presents evidence that marking student texts with well considered checklists is more effective than marking by hand. An experiment conducted on first-year students illustrated that the checklists developed to mark introductions, conclusions and paragraphs yielded better revision results than handwritten ...
On bent and semi-bent quadratic Boolean functions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Charpin, P.; Pasalic, Enes; Tavernier, C.
2005-01-01
correlation and high nonlinearity. We say that such a sequence is generated by a semi-bent function. Some new families of such function, represented by f(x) = Sigma(i=1)(n-1/2) c(i)Tr(x(2t+1)), n odd and c(i) is an element of F-2, have recently (2002) been introduced by Khoo et al. We first generalize......The maximum-length sequences, also called m-sequences, have received a lot of attention since the late 1960s. In terms of linear-feedback shift register (LFSR) synthesis they are usually generated by certain power polynomials over a finite field and in addition are characterized by a low cross...... their results to even n. We further investigate the conditions on the choice of ci for explicit definitions of new infinite families having three and four trace terms. Also, a class of nonpermutation polynomials whose composition with a quadratic function yields again a quadratic semi-bent function is specified...
1983-10-01
UNLIMITED. It ’Partially supported by Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Cientifico e Tecnologico - CNPq, Brazil. Reproduction in whole or in part is...Desenvolvimento Cientifico e Tecnologico - CNPq, Brazil. Reproduction in whole or in part is per- mitted for any purpose of the United States Goverment
Finding small OBDDs for incompletely specified truth tables is hard
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Miltersen, Peter Bro; Kristensen, Jesper Torp
2006-01-01
We present an efficient reduction mapping undirected graphs G with n = 2^k vertices for integers k to tables of partially specified Boolean functions g: {0,1}^(4k+1) -> {0,1,*} so that for any integer m, G has a vertex colouring using m colours if and only if g has a consistent ordered binary dec...... decision diagram with at most (2m + 2)n^2 + 4n decision nodes. From this it follows that the problem of finding a minimum-sized consistent OBDD for an incompletely specified truth table is NP-hard and also hard to approximate....
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data in this accession was collected over twenty years in forty different cruises conducted between May 1971 and October 1991. The real time data of water...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Augustine Y. Dzathor
2013-07-01
Full Text Available This study attempts to revive and clarify the debate on ‘the entrepreneurial man’. We longitudinally examined the effects of seven founding-owner-operator characteristics (prior industry experience, level of formal education, age, gender, ethnicity and time committed to business operations on nascent venture performance. Our results indicate that owner work experience, level of education and hours worked in the business have significant effect on nascent venture performance, while inadequate owner reputation and luck of ethnic social capital may negatively affect nascent venture performance. Our findings also suggest that characteristic of the ‘entrepreneurial man’ are dynamic and leans towards a temporal contingency model. Different entrepreneur characteristics seem to assume prominence in firm performance at different times in a nascent venture’s life trajectory.
Counting and classifying attractors in high dimensional dynamical systems.
Bagley, R J; Glass, L
1996-12-07
Randomly connected Boolean networks have been used as mathematical models of neural, genetic, and immune systems. A key quantity of such networks is the number of basins of attraction in the state space. The number of basins of attraction changes as a function of the size of the network, its connectivity and its transition rules. In discrete networks, a simple count of the number of attractors does not reveal the combinatorial structure of the attractors. These points are illustrated in a reexamination of dynamics in a class of random Boolean networks considered previously by Kauffman. We also consider comparisons between dynamics in discrete networks and continuous analogues. A continuous analogue of a discrete network may have a different number of attractors for many different reasons. Some attractors in discrete networks may be associated with unstable dynamics, and several different attractors in a discrete network may be associated with a single attractor in the continuous case. Special problems in determining attractors in continuous systems arise when there is aperiodic dynamics associated with quasiperiodicity of deterministic chaos.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Givens, W.W.; Caldwell, R.L.; Mills, W.R. Jr.
1975-01-01
A description is given of a method of assaying for uranium in the formations traversed by a borehole, which comprises: 1) locating a pulsed neutron source and a neutron detector in a borehole at the level of a formation of interest suspected of containing uranium; 2) operating the neutron source cyclically with the time between each neutron burst being sufficient to allow neutrons from the source to disappear but being long enough to allow the delayed neutrons resulting from the neutron fission of uranium to appear at the detector; 3) detecting neutrons with the detector, as a result of the irradiation of the formations with the neutrons from the source, and obtaining measurements of the quantity of neutrons detected between neutron bursts only at a time period when neutrons from the source have disappeared but, while delayed fission neutrons from uranium may be emitted. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Grillitsch, B.; Vogl, C.; Wytek, R.
1999-12-01
Spontaneous locomotor behavior of semiadult zebra fish (Brachydanio rerio) was recorded under sublethal short-term exposure to the anionic technical surfactant, linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (C{sub 10-13}-LAS) and cadmium in single compound tests using an automated video-monitoring and object-tracing system. Vertical position and swimming velocity in the horizontal and vertical directions were used as behavioral measurement parameters. Data were analyzed by different statistical methods. In pairwise comparisons, consistent, statistically significant, and toxicant-induced alterations of locomotor behavior were observed only for test concentrations, which also caused aspectoric symptoms of intoxication. This comparatively low sensitivity of the behavioral indication criteria was related to high variation in the measurement parameters and corresponding high, minimum detectable, statistically significant, and toxicant-induced deviations. In contrast, results obtained by regression analysis showed significant trends in locomotor activity over the range of toxicant concentrations tested. Thus, the findings support the inappropriateness of no observed effect concentrations and the lowest observed effect concentrations as summary measures of toxicity and indicate that the regression analysis approach is superior to the analysis of variance approach.
What Is the Unit of Visual Attention? Object for Selection, but Boolean Map for Access
Huang, Liqiang
2010-01-01
In the past 20 years, numerous theories and findings have suggested that the unit of visual attention is the object. In this study, I first clarify 2 different meanings of unit of visual attention, namely the unit of access in the sense of measurement and the unit of selection in the sense of division. In accordance with this distinction, I argue…
Continuous time Boolean modeling for biological signaling: application of Gillespie algorithm.
Stoll, Gautier; Viara, Eric; Barillot, Emmanuel; Calzone, Laurence
2012-01-01
Abstract Mathematical modeling is used as a Systems Biology tool to answer biological questions, and more precisely, to validate a network that describes biological observations and predict the effect of perturbations. This article presents an algorithm for modeling biological networks in a discrete framework with continuous time. Background There exist two major types of mathematical modeling approaches: (1) quantitative modeling, representing various chemical species concentrations by real...
Yu, Ruomeng; Wu, Wenzhuo; Pan, Caofeng; Wang, Zhaona; Ding, Yong; Wang, Zhong Lin
2015-02-04
Using polarization charges created at the metal-cadmium sulfide interface under strain to gate/modulate electrical transport and optoelectronic processes of charge carriers, the piezo-phototronic effect is applied to process mechanical and optical stimuli into electronic controlling signals. The cascade nanowire networks are demonstrated for achieving logic gates, binary computations, and gated D latches to store information carried by these stimuli. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Efficient Solving of Large Non-linear Arithmetic Constraint Systems with Complex Boolean Structure
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Fränzle, M.; Herde, C.; Teige, T.; Ratschan, Stefan; Schubert, T.
2007-01-01
Roč. 1, - (2007), s. 209-236 ISSN 1574-0617 Grant - others:AVACS(DE) SFB/TR 14 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : interval-based arithmetic constraint solving * SAT modulo theories Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics
Gao, Guoyou; Jiang, Chunsheng; Chen, Tao; Hui, Chun
2018-05-01
Industrial robots are widely used in various processes of surface manufacturing, such as thermal spraying. The established robot programming methods are highly time-consuming and not accurate enough to fulfil the demands of the actual market. There are many off-line programming methods developed to reduce the robot programming effort. This work introduces the principle of several based robot trajectory generation strategy on planar surface and curved surface. Since the off-line programming software is widely used and thus facilitates the robot programming efforts and improves the accuracy of robot trajectory, the analysis of this work is based on the second development of off-line programming software Robot studio™. To meet the requirements of automotive paint industry, this kind of software extension helps provide special functions according to the users defined operation parameters. The presented planning strategy generates the robot trajectory by moving an orthogonal surface according to the information of coating surface, a series of intersection curves are then employed to generate the trajectory points. The simulation results show that the path curve created with this method is successive and smooth, which corresponds to the requirements of automotive spray industrial applications.
Computing the Algebraic Immunity of Boolean Functions on the SRC-6 Reconfigurable Computer
2012-03-01
INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE...BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR...additional amount of logic and delay is negligible for a four-input transeunt triangle, the increases become overwhelming for significantly larger
Evaluation of an automatic weighting in a Boolean retrieval system with thesaurus, 2
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ebinuma, Yukio
1980-01-01
Ranking performances created by the weighting of search terms are manifested with the same search topics and data files as in the test for the weighting of index terms. Weighted looser queries evince favourable retrieval performances on an average, though these are slightly inferior to conventional man prepared medium and tighter queries. The weight generation sample taken from a data file for over two months can be applied roughly to weighting in another data file. Degrees of improvement in precision and loss in recall at each ranked score position in other weight applied outputs are estimated from rank-precision curves for some weight generation samples. This relevance ranking scheme results in a considerable benefit in most of retrievals but is inferior to the weighting of index terms in view of applicability and ranking performances. (author)
From Boolean logic to switching circuits and automata. Towards modern information technology
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Stankovic, Radomir S. [Nis Univ. (RS). Dept. of Computer Science; Astola, Jaakko [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland). Dept. of Signal Processing
2011-07-01
Logic networks and automata are facets of digital systems. The change of the design of logic networks from skills and art into a scientific discipline was possible by the development of the underlying mathematical theory called the Switching Theory. The fundamentals of this theory come from the attempts towards an algebraic description of laws of thoughts presented in the works by George J. Boole and the works on logic by Augustus De Morgan. As often the case in engineering, when the importance of a problem and the need for solving it reach certain limits, the solutions are searched by many scholars in different parts of the word, simultaneously or at about the same time, however, quite independently and often unaware of the work by other scholars. The formulation and rise of Switching Theory is such an example. This book presents a brief account of the developments of Switching Theory and highlights some less known facts in the history of it. The readers will find the book a fresh look into the development of the field revealing how difficult it has been to arrive at many of the concepts that we now consider obvious. Researchers in the history or philosophy of computing will find this book a valuable source of information that complements the standard presentations of the topic. (orig.)
Boolean Reasoning and Informed Search in the Minimization of Logic Circuits
1992-03-01
between a symbolic representation of a PLA using Os and is and the physical layout of the function. 2. Computer-aided design (CAD) tools have made it easy...Svoboda, Antonin and Donnamaie White. Advanced Logical Circuit Design Tech- niques. New York: Garland STPM Press, 1979. [Tison 67] Tison, Pierre
LTREE - a lisp-based algorithm for cutset generation using Boolean reduction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Finnicum, D.J.; Rzasa, P.W.
1985-01-01
Fault tree analysis is an important tool for evaluating the safety of nuclear power plants. The basic objective of fault tree analysis is to determine the probability that an undesired event or combination of events will occur. Fault tree analysis involves four main steps: (1) specifying the undesired event or events; (2) constructing the fault tree which represents the ways in which the postulated event(s) could occur; (3) qualitative evaluation of the logic model to identify the minimal cutsets; and (4) quantitative evaluation of the logic model to determine the probability that the postulated event(s) will occur given the probability of occurrence for each individual fault. This paper describes a LISP-based algorithm for the qualitative evaluation of fault trees. Development of this algorithm is the first step in a project to apply expert systems technology to the automation of the fault tree analysis process. The first section of this paper provides an overview of LISP and its capabilities, the second section describes the LTREE algorithm and the third section discusses the on-going research areas
A Logical Deduction Based Clause Learning Algorithm for Boolean Satisfiability Problems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Qingshan Chen
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Clause learning is the key component of modern SAT solvers, while conflict analysis based on the implication graph is the mainstream technology to generate the learnt clauses. Whenever a clause in the clause database is falsified by the current variable assignments, the SAT solver will try to analyze the reason by using different cuts (i.e., the Unique Implication Points on the implication graph. Those schemes reflect only the conflict on the current search subspace, does not reflect the inherent conflict directly involved in the rest space. In this paper, we propose a new advanced clause learning algorithm based on the conflict analysis and the logical deduction, which reconstructs a linear logical deduction by analyzing the relationship of different decision variables between the backjumping level and the current decision level. The logical deduction result is then added into the clause database as a newly learnt clause. The resulting implementation in Minisat improves the state-of-the-art performance in SAT solving.
Bent and bent(4) spectra of Boolean functions over finite fields
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Anbar Meidl, Nurdagül; Meidl, Wilfried
2017-01-01
For c is an element of F(2)n, a c-bent4 function f from the finite field F(2)n to F-2 is a function with a fiat spectrum with respect to the unitary transform V-f(c), which is designed to describe the component functions of modified planar functions. For c = 0 the transform V-f(c) reduces to the ...... a cubic monomial. We show that it is c-bent(4) only for c = 1, the function is then called negabent, which shows that non-quadratic functions exhibit a different behaviour. (C) 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved....
Gschwind, Michael K [Chappaqua, NY
2011-03-01
Mechanisms for implementing a floating point only single instruction multiple data instruction set architecture are provided. A processor is provided that comprises an issue unit, an execution unit coupled to the issue unit, and a vector register file coupled to the execution unit. The execution unit has logic that implements a floating point (FP) only single instruction multiple data (SIMD) instruction set architecture (ISA). The floating point vector registers of the vector register file store both scalar and floating point values as vectors having a plurality of vector elements. The processor may be part of a data processing system.
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Hill, Justin
2003-01-01
...., a logical OR, AND, or a majority vote of the classifiers in the system). An established method for evaluating a classifier is measuring some aspect of its Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC...
Lovrics, Anna; Gao, Yu; Juhá sz, Bianka; Bock, Istvá n; Byrne, Helen M; Dinnyé s, Andrá s; Ková cs, Krisztiá n A
2014-01-01
with the five known progenitor cell types located in the ventral spinal cord. The revised gene regulatory network reproduced previously observed cell state switches between progenitor cells observed in knock-out animal models or in experiments where
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Richard J. Epstein
2009-08-01
Full Text Available Two problems now threaten the future of anticancer drug development: (i the information explosion has made research into new target-specific drugs more duplication-prone, and hence less cost-efficient; and (ii high-throughput genomic technologies have failed to deliver the anticipated early windfall of novel first-in-class drugs. Here it is argued that the resulting crisis of blockbuster drug development may be remedied in part by innovative exploitation of informatic power. Using scenarios relating to oncology, it is shown that rapid data-mining of the scientific literature can refine therapeutic hypotheses and thus reduce empirical reliance on preclinical model development and early-phase clinical trials. Moreover, as personalised medicine evolves, this approach may inform biomarker-guided phase III trial strategies for noncytotoxic (antimetastatic drugs that prolong patient survival without necessarily inducing tumor shrinkage. Though not replacing conventional gold standards, these findings suggest that this computational research approach could reduce costly ‘blue skies’ R&D investment and time to market for new biological drugs, thereby helping to reverse unsustainable drug price inflation.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Richard J. Epstein
2009-01-01
Full Text Available Two problems now threaten the future of anticancer drug development: (i the information explosion has made research into new target-specific drugs more duplication-prone, and hence less cost-efficient; and (ii high-throughput genomic technologies have failed to deliver the anticipated early windfall of novel first-in-class drugs. Here it is argued that the resulting crisis of blockbuster drug development may be remedied in part by innovative exploitation of informatic power. Using scenarios relating to oncology, it is shown that rapid data-mining of the scientific literature can refine therapeutic hypotheses and thus reduce empirical reliance on preclinical model development and early-phase clinical trials. Moreover, as personalised medicine evolves, this approach may inform biomarker-guided phase III trial strategies for noncytotoxic (antimetastatic drugs that prolong patient survival without necessarily inducing tumor shrinkage. Though not replacing conventional gold standards, these findings suggest that this computational research approach could reduce costly ‘blue skies’ R&D investment and time to market for new biological drugs, thereby helping to reverse unsustainable drug price inflation.
2015-12-24
manufacturing today (namely, the 14nm FinFET silicon CMOS technology). The JPEG algorithm is selected as a motivational example since it is widely...TIFF images of a U.S. Air Force F-16 aircraft provided by the University of Southern California Signal and Image Processing Institute (SIPI) image...silicon CMOS technology currently in high volume manufac- turing today (the 14 nm FinFET silicon CMOS technology). The main contribution of this
The Boolean Algebra of Cubical Areas as a Tensor Product in the Category of Semilattices with Zero
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nicolas Ninin
2014-10-01
Full Text Available In this paper we describe a model of concurrency together with an algebraic structure reflecting the parallel composition. For the sake of simplicity we restrict to linear concurrent programs i.e. the ones with no loops nor branching. Such programs are given a semantics using cubical areas. Such a semantics is said to be geometric. The collection of all these cubical areas enjoys a structure of tensor product in the category of semi-lattice with zero. These results naturally extend to fully fledged concurrent programs up to some technical tricks.
The Logical Properties of Lower and Upper Approximation Operations in Rough Sets%粗集中上下近似运算的逻辑性质
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
祝峰; 何华灿
2000-01-01
In this paper,we discuss the logical properties of rough sets through topological boolean algebras and closure topological boolean algebras.We get representation theorems of finite topological boolean algebras and closure topological boolean algebras under the upper-lower relation condition,which establish the relationship between topological boolean algebras or closure topological boolean algebras and rough sets in the general sets are similar to the Stone's representation theorem of boolean algebras.
secretor status of sickle cell disease patients in Zaria, Kaduna State
African Journals Online (AJOL)
olayemitoyin
Secretor enzyme) and to products that reside on ... associated with non ABH secretors are autoimmune diseases ... 1980., Kauffman et al, 1996), dental caries and abscess ... lung, liver, bone, skin, and kidneys (Hiran, 2005). ... reaction to occur.
Zohuri, Bahman
2017-01-01
This book provides a technical approach to a Business Resilience System with its Risk Atom and Processing Data Point based on fuzzy logic and cloud computation in real time. Its purpose and objectives define a clear set of expectations for Organizations and Enterprises so their network system and supply chain are totally resilient and protected against cyber-attacks, manmade threats, and natural disasters. These enterprises include financial, organizational, homeland security, and supply chain operations with multi-point manufacturing across the world. Market shares and marketing advantages are expected to result from the implementation of the system. The collected information and defined objectives form the basis to monitor and analyze the data through cloud computation, and will guarantee the success of their survivability's against any unexpected threats. This book will be useful for advanced undergraduate and graduate students in the field of computer engineering, engineers that work for manufacturing com...
Hariharan, S.; Karthikeyan, B.
2018-03-01
In the evolution of nanotechnology research for smart and precise sensor fabrication, here we report the implementation of simple logic gate operations performing by luminescent nanostructures in biomolecule environment based on photoluminescence (PL) technique. This present work deals with the luminescence property of α-Bi2O3 and Ag modified α-Bi2O3 nanostructures for D-glucose and Bovine serum albumin (BSA) sensing applications. These nanostructures are prepared by simple co-precipitation method and their morphology are examined using transmission electron microscope (TEM). We explore the PL characteristics of the prepared nanostructures and observe their change in PL intensity in the presence of D-glucose and BSA molecules. Enhancement in PL intensity is observed in the presence of D-glucose and BSA. Based on the PL response of prepared nanostructures in the biomolecule environment, we demonstrate biophotonic logic gates including YES, PASS 0, OR and INHIBIT gates.
PREFACE: Complex Networks: from Biology to Information Technology
Barrat, A.; Boccaletti, S.; Caldarelli, G.; Chessa, A.; Latora, V.; Motter, A. E.
2008-06-01
networks consists of an overview of recent studies on hierarchical networks of phase oscillators. By analysing the evolution of the synchronous dynamics, one can infer details about the underlying network topology. Thus a connection between the dynamical and topological properties of the system is established. The paper Network synchronisation: optimal and pessimal scale-free topologies by Donetti et al explores an optimisation algorithm to study the properties of optimally synchronisable unweighted networks with scale-free degree distribution. It is shown that optimisation leads to a tendency towards disassortativity while networks that are optimally 'un-synchronisable' have a highly assortative string-like structure. The paper Critical line in undirected Kauffman Boolean networks—the role of percolation by Fronczak and Fronczak demonstrates that the percolation underlying the process of damage spreading impacts the position of the critical line in random boolean networks. The critical line results from the fact that the ordered behaviour of small clusters shields the chaotic behaviour of the giant component. In Impact of the updating scheme on stationary states of networks, Radicchi et al explore an interpolation between synchronous and asynchronous updating in a one-dimensional chain of Ising spins to locate a phase transition between phases with an absorbing and a fluctuating stationary state. The properties of attractors in the yeast cell-cycle network are also shown to depend sensitively on the updating mode. As this last contribution shows, a large part of the theoretical activity in the field can be applied to the study of biological systems. The section Biological Applications brings together the following contributions: In Applying weighted network measures to microarray distance matrices, Ahnert et al present a new approach to the analysis of weighted networks, which provides a generalisation to any network measure defined on unweighted networks. The
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Blanca, Ernest
1974-10-01
Alpha-numeric boolean expressions, written in the form of sums of products and/or products of sums with many brackets, may be minimized in two steps: syntaxic recognition analysis using precedence operator grammar, syntaxic reduction analysis. These two phases of execution and the different programs of the corresponding machine algorithm are described. Examples of minimization of alpha-numeric boolean expressions written with the help of brackets, utilisation note of the program CHOPIN and theoretical considerations related to language, grammar, precedence operator grammar, sequential systems, boolean sets, boolean representations and treatments of boolean expressions, boolean matrices and their use in grammar theory, are discussed and described. (author) [fr
Theory and calculus of cubical complexes
Perlman, M.
1973-01-01
Combination switching networks with multiple outputs may be represented by Boolean functions. Report has been prepared which describes derivation and use of extraction algorithm that may be adapted to simplification of such simultaneous Boolean functions.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Finn Verner; Lauritzen, Steffen Lilholt
2001-01-01
This article describes the basic ideas and algorithms behind specification and inference in probabilistic networks based on directed acyclic graphs, undirected graphs, and chain graphs.......This article describes the basic ideas and algorithms behind specification and inference in probabilistic networks based on directed acyclic graphs, undirected graphs, and chain graphs....
External Memory Algorithms for Diameter and All-Pair Shortest-Paths on Sparse Graphs
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Arge, Lars; Meyer, Ulrich; Toma, Laura
2004-01-01
We present several new external-memory algorithms for finding all-pairs shortest paths in a V -node, Eedge undirected graph. For all-pairs shortest paths and diameter in unweighted undirected graphs we present cache-oblivious algorithms with O(V · E B logM B E B) I/Os, where B is the block-size a...
Chinese Postman Problem on edge-colored multigraphs
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gutin, Gregory; Jones, Mark; Sheng, Bin
2017-01-01
It is well-known that the Chinese Postman Problem on undirected and directed graphs is polynomial-time solvable. We extend this result to edge-colored multigraphs. Our result is in sharp contrast to the Chinese Postman Problem on mixed graphs, i.e., graphs with directed and undirected edges, for ...
Khovanov-Rozansky Graph Homology and Composition Product
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wagner, Emmanuel
2008-01-01
In analogy with a recursive formula for the HOMFLY-PT polynomial of links given by Jaeger, we give a recursive formula for the graph polynomial introduced by Kauffman and Vogel. We show how this formula extends to the Khovanov–Rozansky graph homology.......In analogy with a recursive formula for the HOMFLY-PT polynomial of links given by Jaeger, we give a recursive formula for the graph polynomial introduced by Kauffman and Vogel. We show how this formula extends to the Khovanov–Rozansky graph homology....
Southwest Energy Innovation Forum: Summary Report
Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation, 2010
2010-01-01
The Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation, Arizona State University (ASU), and U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Research Projects Agency-Energy (ARPA-E) co-convened a conference on Energy Innovation in the Southwest region of the United States that included participation by entrepreneurs, state government officials, representatives of academia,…
Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation, Kansas City, MO.
For some time the Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation has been studying the attributes that characterize effective nonprofit organizations. These attributes were identified after a review of the literature, discussions with national leaders, meetings with administrators and funders of nonprofit organizations, and the information from case studies by…
Project Choice: Lessons Learned.
Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation, Kansas City, MO.
Project Choice began with a simple goal: to increase the number of inner-city students who graduate from high school on time and become productive members of society. To that end, Ewing M. Kauffman, his Foundation, and associates designed and implemented a program that promised postsecondary education or training to some students in the Kansas…
A Clean Energy Roadmap: Forging the Path Ahead
Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation, 2010
2010-01-01
In 2010, the Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation co-convened three cross-sector summits to develop recommendations for growing energy innovation in the United States. The first summit was held in Washington, D.C., on May 7, 2010, in partnership with the White House. Gallup and the city of Omaha, Nebraska, hosted the second summit on June 16, 2010,…
Random complex automata: Analogy with spin glasses
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Flyvbjerg, H.
1986-12-01
Ab initio properties of random networks of automata have been studied statistically. A strikingly high degree of similarity is demonstrated between the multivalley structure of the basins of attraction of Kauffman's model and that of infinite range spin glasses. Results from simulations as well as exact analytical results are presented. (orig.)
Both Suspension and Alternatives Work, Depending on One's Aim
Bear, George G.
2012-01-01
In this commentary on the special series, I argue that whereas a zero-tolerance approach to school discipline is "something stupid" (Kauffman & Brigham, 2000) the use of suspension might not be. Despite its limitations, suspension and other forms of punishment serve as effective deterrents of behavior problems for most children, especially when…
Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation, 2011
2011-01-01
An August 2010 Harris Interactive[R] survey, commissioned by the Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation, posed questions about entrepreneurship to 5,077 U.S. young people ages eight to twenty-four. The results show that business ownership continues to capture the imaginations of America's youth, particularly for those who know a successful entrepreneur…
On the use of spin glass concepts in random automata networks
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Miranda, E N; Parga, N
1988-06-01
We apply concepts and techniques developed in the context of the mean-field theory of spin glasses to networks of random automata. This approach, proposed recently by Derrida and Flyvbjerg, may be useful in understanding the multivalley structure of the Kauffman model.
A fitness landscape approach to technological complexity, modularity, and vertical disintegration
Frenken, K.
2006-01-01
The biological evolution of complex organisms, in which the functioning of genes is interdependent, has been analysed as "hill-climbing" on NK fitness landscapes through random mutation and natural selection [Kauffman, S.A., 1993. The Origins of Order. Self-organization and Selection in Evolution.
To assess diversity of Salmonella enterica serotypes present in poultry and their environment from Southern Brazil, the Kauffman-White-LeMinor (KWL) scheme was used to serotype a total of 155 isolates. Isolates were then re-examined with nested PCR and sequencing of the dkgB-linked Intergenic Sequ...
GraDit: graph-based data repair algorithm for multiple data edits rule violations
Ode Zuhayeni Madjida, Wa; Gusti Bagus Baskara Nugraha, I.
2018-03-01
Constraint-based data cleaning captures data violation to a set of rule called data quality rules. The rules consist of integrity constraint and data edits. Structurally, they are similar, where the rule contain left hand side and right hand side. Previous research proposed a data repair algorithm for integrity constraint violation. The algorithm uses undirected hypergraph as rule violation representation. Nevertheless, this algorithm can not be applied for data edits because of different rule characteristics. This study proposed GraDit, a repair algorithm for data edits rule. First, we use bipartite-directed hypergraph as model representation of overall defined rules. These representation is used for getting interaction between violation rules and clean rules. On the other hand, we proposed undirected graph as violation representation. Our experimental study showed that algorithm with undirected graph as violation representation model gave better data quality than algorithm with undirected hypergraph as representation model.
Smarandachely k-Constrained Number of Paths and Cycles
Devadas Rao, P.; Sooryanarayana, B.; Jayalakshmi, M.
2009-01-01
All the graphs considered in this paper are simple, finite and undirected. For standard terminology and notations we refer [1], [3]. There are several types of graph labelings studied by various authors.
On the Convergence of Piecewise Linear Strategic Interaction Dynamics on Networks
Gharesifard, Bahman; Touri, Behrouz; Basar, Tamer; Shamma, Jeff S.
2015-01-01
We prove that the piecewise linear best-response dynamical systems of strategic interactions are asymptotically convergent to their set of equilibria on any weighted undirected graph. We study various features of these dynamical systems, including
Communication on the structure of biological networks
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Introduction. Over the past few years, network science has drawn attention from a large number of ... The qualitative properties of biological networks cannot ... Here, we study the underlying undirected structure of empirical biological networks.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Cynthia A Kelm-Nelson
Full Text Available Little is known about the neural mechanisms that ensure appropriate vocal behaviors within specific social contexts. Male songbirds produce spontaneous (undirected songs as well as female-directed courtship songs. Opioid neuropeptide activity in specific brain regions is rewarding, at least in mammals, and past studies suggest that the opioid met-enkephalin in such areas is more tightly linked to undirected than female-directed song. Recent data using a song-associated place preference paradigm further suggest that production of undirected but not directed song is tightly linked to intrinsic reward. Opioids have analgesic properties. Therefore, if production of undirected song is closely linked to opioid-mediated reward, the production of undirected but not directed song should be associated with analgesia. Consistent with this prediction, in male starlings we identified a positive correlation between analgesia (decreased reactivity to a hot water bath and undirected song (in non-breeding season condition males in affiliative flocks but not female-directed song (in breeding season condition males presented with females. When breeding condition males were divided according to social status, a negative correlation was found in subordinate males (i.e. males that failed to acquire a nest box. These data are consistent with the hypotheses 1 that the production of undirected song is facilitated or maintained by opioids (and/or other neuromodulators that also induce analgesia and 2 that production of female-directed song is not linked in the same way to release of the same neuromodulators. Results also demonstrate a link between analgesia and song in subordinate individuals lacking a nesting territory within the breeding season. Overall, the findings indicate that distinct neural mechanisms regulate communication in different social contexts and support the working hypothesis that undirected but not directed song is tightly linked to opioid release.
Wang, Rong; Wang, Li; Yang, Yong; Li, Jiajia; Wu, Ying; Lin, Pan
2016-11-01
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most common childhood neuropsychiatric disorder and affects approximately 6 -7 % of children worldwide. Here, we investigate the statistical properties of undirected and directed brain functional networks in ADHD patients based on random matrix theory (RMT), in which the undirected functional connectivity is constructed based on correlation coefficient and the directed functional connectivity is measured based on cross-correlation coefficient and mutual information. We first analyze the functional connectivity and the eigenvalues of the brain functional network. We find that ADHD patients have increased undirected functional connectivity, reflecting a higher degree of linear dependence between regions, and increased directed functional connectivity, indicating stronger causality and more transmission of information among brain regions. More importantly, we explore the randomness of the undirected and directed functional networks using RMT. We find that for ADHD patients, the undirected functional network is more orderly than that for normal subjects, which indicates an abnormal increase in undirected functional connectivity. In addition, we find that the directed functional networks are more random, which reveals greater disorder in causality and more chaotic information flow among brain regions in ADHD patients. Our results not only further confirm the efficacy of RMT in characterizing the intrinsic properties of brain functional networks but also provide insights into the possibilities RMT offers for improving clinical diagnoses and treatment evaluations for ADHD patients.
Lattices with unique complements
Saliĭ, V N
1988-01-01
The class of uniquely complemented lattices properly contains all Boolean lattices. However, no explicit example of a non-Boolean lattice of this class has been found. In addition, the question of whether this class contains any complete non-Boolean lattices remains unanswered. This book focuses on these classical problems of lattice theory and the various attempts to solve them. Requiring no specialized knowledge, the book is directed at researchers and students interested in general algebra and mathematical logic.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
José Jairo Soriano Méndez
2012-06-01
Full Text Available This paper proposes the analysis and design of a Temperature Fuzzy controller using concresor based on Boolean relations (CBR. Firstly, presents the design of a Boolean controller. Later, fuzzy controller is designed based on Boolean controller raised previously. The control surfaces with and without simplification, show the features of proposes methodology. Additionally we analyze the effects of the simplifications made in the control rules.
Data Centre Infrastructure & Data Storage @ Facebook
CERN. Geneva; Garson, Matt; Kauffman, Mike
2018-01-01
Several speakers from the Facebook company will present their take on the infrastructure of their Data Center and Storage facilities, as follows: 10:00 - Facebook Data Center Infrastructure, by Delfina Eberly, Mike Kauffman and Veerendra Mulay Insight into how Facebook thinks about data center design, including electrical and cooling systems, and the technology and tooling used to manage data centers. 11:00 - Storage at Facebook, by Matt Garson An overview of Facebook infrastructure, focusing on different storage systems, in particular photo/video storage and storage for data analytics. About the speakers Mike Kauffman, Director, Data Center Site Engineering Delfina Eberly, Infrastructure, Site Services Matt Garson, Storage at Facebook Veerendra Mulay, Infrastructure
Nova Nayarit-Ballesteros; María Salud Rubio-Lozano; Enrique Delgado-Suárez; Danilo Méndez-Medina; Diego Braña-Varela; Oscar Rodas-Suárez
2016-01-01
Objective. To determine the serotype and antibiotic resistance profile of Salmonella spp. isolated from retail ground beef in Mexico City. Materials and methods. A total of 100 samples of ground beef were analyzed. The pathogen was isolated by conventional methods and confirmed by PCR (invA gene, 284 bp). The antibiotic resistance profile was determined by the Kirby-Bauer method while serotyping was performed according to the Kauffman-White scheme. Results. We isolated a total of 19 strains o...
Removal of Invasive Fire-Prone Grasses to Increase Training Lands in the Pacific
2008-09-01
Boone Kauffman. U.S. Forest Service. Pacific Northwest Research Center. Hilo . Hawaii . SWCA, Inc. 39 SWCA also acknowledges Amy Brown Curtis...Marine Corps Base Hawaii (MCBH), Marine Corps Training Area Bellows (MCTAB), Army installations Makua Valley, Schofield Barracks, Pohakuloa Training...Area, the Hawaii Army National Guard facility at Diamond Head Crater, and at the Naval Magazine on the Island of Guam. Invasive, fire-prone
Bypassing BDD Construction for Reliability Analysis
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Williams, Poul Frederick; Nikolskaia, Macha; Rauzy, Antoine
2000-01-01
In this note, we propose a Boolean Expression Diagram (BED)-based algorithm to compute the minimal p-cuts of boolean reliability models such as fault trees. BEDs make it possible to bypass the Binary Decision Diagram (BDD) construction, which is the main cost of fault tree assessment....
Combining Decision Diagrams and SAT Procedures for Efficient Symbolic Model Checking
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Williams, Poul Frederick; Biere, Armin; Clarke, Edmund M.
2000-01-01
In this paper we show how to do symbolic model checking using Boolean Expression Diagrams (BEDs), a non-canonical representation for Boolean formulas, instead of Binary Decision Diagrams (BDDs), the traditionally used canonical representation. The method is based on standard fixed point algorithm...
Classical databases and knowledge organization
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hjørland, Birger
2015-01-01
This paper considers classical bibliographic databases based on the Boolean retrieval model (such as MEDLINE and PsycInfo). This model is challenged by modern search engines and information retrieval (IR) researchers, who often consider Boolean retrieval a less efficient approach. The paper...
The Compositional Rule of Inference and Zadeh’s Extension Principle for Non-normal Fuzzy Sets
van den Broek, P.M.; Noppen, J.A.R.; Castillo, Oscar
2007-01-01
Defining the standard Boolean operations on fuzzy Booleans with the compositional rule of inference (CRI) or Zadeh's extension principle gives counter-intuitive results. We introduce and motivate a slight adaptation of the CRI, which only effects the results for non-normal fuzzy sets. It is shown
Predecessor and permutation existence problems for sequential dynamical systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Barrett, C. L. (Christopher L.); Hunt, H. B. (Harry B.); Marathe, M. V. (Madhav V.); Rosenkrantz, D. J. (Daniel J.); Stearns, R. E. (Richard E.)
2002-01-01
A class of finite discrete dynamical systems, called Sequential Dynamical Systems (SDSs), was introduced in BMR99, BR991 as a formal model for analyzing simulation systems. An SDS S is a triple (G, F,n ),w here (i) G(V,E ) is an undirected graph with n nodes with each node having a state, (ii) F = (fi, fi, . . ., fn), with fi denoting a function associated with node ui E V and (iii) A is a permutation of (or total order on) the nodes in V, A configuration of an SDS is an n-vector ( b l, bz, . . ., bn), where bi is the value of the state of node vi. A single SDS transition from one configuration to another is obtained by updating the states of the nodes by evaluating the function associated with each of them in the order given by n. Here, we address the complexity of two basic problems and their generalizations for SDSs. Given an SDS S and a configuration C, the PREDECESSOR EXISTENCE (or PRE) problem is to determine whether there is a configuration C' such that S has a transition from C' to C. (If C has no predecessor, C is known as a garden of Eden configuration.) Our results provide separations between efficiently solvable and computationally intractable instances of the PRE problem. For example, we show that the PRE problem can be solved efficiently for SDSs with Boolean state values when the node functions are symmetric and the underlying graph is of bounded treewidth. In contrast, we show that allowing just one non-symmetric node function renders the problem NP-complete even when the underlying graph is a tree (which has a treewidth of 1). We also show that the PRE problem is efficiently solvable for SDSs whose state values are from a field and whose node functions are linear. Some of the polynomial algorithms also extend to the case where we want to find an ancestor configuration that precedes a given configuration by a logarithmic number of steps. Our results extend some of the earlier results by Sutner [Su95] and Green [@87] on the complexity of
A family of mixed graphs with large order and diameter 2
Araujo Pardo, Gabriela; Balbuena Martínez, Maria Camino Teófila; Miller, Mirka; Zdimalova, Maria
2017-01-01
A mixed regular graph is a connected simple graph in which each vertex has both a fixed outdegree (the same indegree) and a fixed undirected degree. A mixed regular graphs is said to be optimal if there is not a mixed regular graph with the same parameters and bigger order. We present a construction that provides mixed graphs of undirected degree qq, directed degree View the MathML sourceq-12 and order 2q22q2, for qq being an odd prime power. Since the Moore bound for a mixed graph with th...
Multilayer Neural Networks with Extensively Many Hidden Units
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rosen-Zvi, Michal; Engel, Andreas; Kanter, Ido
2001-01-01
The information processing abilities of a multilayer neural network with a number of hidden units scaling as the input dimension are studied using statistical mechanics methods. The mapping from the input layer to the hidden units is performed by general symmetric Boolean functions, whereas the hidden layer is connected to the output by either discrete or continuous couplings. Introducing an overlap in the space of Boolean functions as order parameter, the storage capacity is found to scale with the logarithm of the number of implementable Boolean functions. The generalization behavior is smooth for continuous couplings and shows a discontinuous transition to perfect generalization for discrete ones
Minimal cut-set methodology for artificial intelligence applications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Weisbin, C.R.; de Saussure, G.; Barhen, J.; Oblow, E.M.; White, J.C.
1984-01-01
This paper reviews minimal cut-set theory and illustrates its application with an example. The minimal cut-set approach uses disjunctive normal form in Boolean algebra and various Boolean operators to simplify very complicated tree structures composed of AND/OR gates. The simplification process is automated and performed off-line using existing computer codes to implement the Boolean reduction on the finite, but large tree structure. With this approach, on-line expert diagnostic systems whose response time is critical, could determine directly whether a goal is achievable by comparing the actual system state to a concisely stored set of preprocessed critical state elements
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Worrell, R.B.
1985-05-01
The Set Equation Transformation System (SETS) is used to achieve the symbolic manipulation of Boolean equations. Symbolic manipulation involves changing equations from their original forms into more useful forms - particularly by applying Boolean identities. The SETS program is an interpreter which reads, interprets, and executes SETS user programs. The user writes a SETS user program specifying the processing to be achieved and submits it, along with the required data, for execution by SETS. Because of the general nature of SETS, i.e., the capability to manipulate Boolean equations regardless of their origin, the program has been used for many different kinds of analysis
Quantum Random Networks for Type 2 Quantum Computers
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Allara, David L; Hasslacher, Brosl
2006-01-01
Random boolean networks (RBNs) have been studied theoretically and computationally in order to be able to use their remarkable self-healing and large basins of altercation properties as quantum computing architectures, especially...
Savage, Leonard J
1972-01-01
Classic analysis of the foundations of statistics and development of personal probability, one of the greatest controversies in modern statistical thought. Revised edition. Calculus, probability, statistics, and Boolean algebra are recommended.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Shannon's special talents in mathematics and engineering were evident right from childhood. His best subjects in ... studied symbolic logic and Boolean algebra, and he now realized ... tributions to the area of artificial intelligence. He wrote a ...
SAT-Based Software Certification
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Chaki, Sagar
2006-01-01
... predicate abstraction and validated by generating and proving verification conditions. In addition, the first part of the report proposes the use of theorem provers based on Boolean propositional satisfiability (SAT...
Topological Aspects of Information Retrieval.
Egghe, Leo; Rousseau, Ronald
1998-01-01
Discusses topological aspects of theoretical information retrieval, including retrieval topology; similarity topology; pseudo-metric topology; document spaces as topological spaces; Boolean information retrieval as a subsystem of any topological system; and proofs of theorems. (LRW)
A programmable artificial retina
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bernard, T.M.; Zavidovique, B.Y.; Devos, F.J.
1993-01-01
An artificial retina is a device that intimately associates an imager with processing facilities on a monolithic circuit. Yet, except for simple environments and applications, analog hardware will not suffice to process and compact the raw image flow from the photosensitive array. To solve this output problem, an on-chip array of bare Boolean processors with halftoning facilities might be used, providing versatility from programmability. By setting the pixel memory size to 3 b, the authors have demonstrated both the technological practicality and the computational efficiency of this programmable Boolean retina concept. Using semi-static shifting structures together with some interaction circuitry, a minimal retina Boolean processor can be built with less than 30 transistors and controlled by as few as 6 global clock signals. The successful design, integration, and test of such a 65x76 Boolean retina on a 50-mm 2 CMOS 2-μm circuit are presented
Von-Neumann and Beyond: Memristor Architectures
Naous, Rawan
2017-01-01
and probabilistic analysis for Boolean logic operators and correspondingly incorporate them into arithmetic blocks. Gate- and system-level accuracy of operation is presented to convey configurability and the different effects that the unreliability of the underlying
Jauch-Piron logics with finiteness conditions
Rogalewicz, Vladimír
1991-04-01
We show that there are no non-Boolean block-finite orthomodular posets possessing a unital set of Jauch-Piron states. Thus, an orthomodular poset representing a quantum physical system must have infinitely many blocks.
CBP Customs Rulings Online Search System (CROSS)
Department of Homeland Security — CROSS is a searchable database of CBP rulings that can be retrieved based on simple or complex search characteristics using keywords and Boolean operators. CROSS has...
Bergstra, J.A.; Ponse, A.
2011-01-01
Sequential propositional logic deviates from conventional propositional logic by taking into account that during the sequential evaluation of a propositional statement, atomic propositions may yield different Boolean values at repeated occurrences. We introduce "free valuations" to capture this
Proposition algebra with projective limits
Bergstra, J.A.; Ponse, A.
2008-01-01
Sequential propositional logic deviates from ordinary propositional logic by taking into account that during the sequential evaluation of a proposition, atomic propositions may yield different Boolean values at repeated occurrences. We introduce `free reactive valuations' to capture this dynamics of
Combinatorial optimization in foundry practice
Antamoshkin, A. N.; Masich, I. S.
2016-04-01
The multicriteria mathematical model of foundry production capacity planning is suggested in the paper. The model is produced in terms of pseudo-Boolean optimization theory. Different search optimization methods were used to solve the obtained problem.
Bibliographic Instruction in the 21st Century.
Poirier, Gayle
2000-01-01
Discusses bibliographic instruction in libraries. Topics include a history of bibliographic instruction; the Internet and electronic searching; librarians' use of technology; defining information needs; locating and accessing information, including classification systems and Boolean searching; evaluating information; using and communication…
Timing robustness in the budding and fission yeast cell cycles.
Mangla, Karan; Dill, David L; Horowitz, Mark A
2010-01-01
Robustness of biological models has emerged as an important principle in systems biology. Many past analyses of Boolean models update all pending changes in signals simultaneously (i.e., synchronously), making it impossible to consider robustness
A Year's Turning: Young People Writing.
Hansen, I. V., Ed.
This book is an anthology of unedited verse and prose written by 14- and 15-year-old students. The book is intended for teachers in training, for their tutors, and for all teachers of English. The verses are classified as undirected and directed poems about nature, places, war, the Egyptian Tomb, up and back again, and people. The prose is…
A nonlinear merging protocol for consensus in multi-agent systems on signed and weighted graphs
Feng, Shasha; Wang, Li; Li, Yijia; Sun, Shiwen; Xia, Chengyi
2018-01-01
In this paper, we investigate the multi-agent consensus for networks with undirected graphs which are not connected, especially for the signed graph in which some edge weights are positive and some edges have negative weights, and the negative-weight graph whose edge weights are negative. We propose a novel nonlinear merging consensus protocol to drive the states of all agents to converge to the same state zero which is not dependent upon the initial states of agents. If the undirected graph whose edge weights are positive is connected, then the states of all agents converge to the same state more quickly when compared to most other protocols. While the undirected graph whose edge weights might be positive or negative is unconnected, the states of all agents can still converge to the same state zero under the premise that the undirected graph can be divided into several connected subgraphs with more than one node. Furthermore, we also discuss the impact of parameter r presented in our protocol. Current results can further deepen the understanding of consensus processes for multi-agent systems.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Chechik, Shiri; Wulff-Nilsen, Christian
2016-01-01
A spanner if of a weighted undirected graph G is a "sparse" subgraph that approximately preserves distances between every pair of vertices in G. We refer to if as a δ-spanner of G for some parameter δ ≥ 1 if the distance in H between every vertex pair is at most a factor δ bigger than in G. In th...
Metalearning Capacity and Threshold Concept Engagement
Ward, Sophie C.; Meyer, Jan H. F.
2010-01-01
This study aims to further our understanding of metalearning activity through the analysis of qualitative data gathered from 370 first-year microeconomics students in three UK universities. The students were asked to produce undirected reflective essays in response to a personal "learning profile" generated before, and after, the…
Extending Student Knowledge and Interest through Super-Curricular Activities
Zetie, K. P.
2018-01-01
Any teacher of physics is likely to consider super-curricular reading as an important strategy for successful students. However, there are many more ways to extend a student's interest in a subject than reading books, and undirected reading (such as providing a long out of date reading list) is not likely to be as helpful as targeted or directed…
Analysis of protein-protein interaction networks by means of annotated graph mining algorithms
Rahmani, Hossein
2012-01-01
This thesis discusses solutions to several open problems in Protein-Protein Interaction (PPI) networks with the aid of Knowledge Discovery. PPI networks are usually represented as undirected graphs, with nodes corresponding to proteins and edges representing interactions among protein pairs. A large
Efficient heuristics for the Rural Postman Problem | Groves | ORiON
African Journals Online (AJOL)
A local search framework for the (undirected) Rural Postman Problem (RPP) is presented in this paper. The framework allows local search approaches that have been applied successfully to the well–known Travelling Salesman Problem also to be applied to the RPP. New heuristics for the RPP, based on this framework, ...
Graph Sampling for Covariance Estimation
Chepuri, Sundeep Prabhakar; Leus, Geert
2017-01-01
specialize for undirected circulant graphs in that the graph nodes leading to the best compression rates are given by the so-called minimal sparse rulers. A near-optimal greedy algorithm is developed to design the subsampling scheme for the non
An Inference Language for Imaging
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pedemonte, Stefano; Catana, Ciprian; Van Leemput, Koen
2014-01-01
We introduce iLang, a language and software framework for probabilistic inference. The iLang framework enables the definition of directed and undirected probabilistic graphical models and the automated synthesis of high performance inference algorithms for imaging applications. The iLang framewor...
Solid-phase extraction procedures in systematic toxicological analysis
Franke, J.P.; de Zeeuw, R.A
1998-01-01
In systematic toxicological analysis (STA) the substance(s) present is (are) not known at the start of the analysis. in such an undirected search the extraction procedure cannot be directed to a given substance but must be a general procedure where a compromise must be reached in that the substances
Visualizing White Matter Structure of the Brain using Dijkstra's Algorithm
Everts, Maarten H.; Bekker, Henk; Roerdink, Jos B. T. M.; Zinterhof, P; Loncaric, S; Uhl, A; Carini, A
2009-01-01
An undirected weighted graph may be constructed from diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging data. Every node represents a voxel and the edge weights between nodes represent the white matter connectivity between neighboring voxels. In this paper we propose and test a new method for calculating
The hamiltonian index of a graph and its branch-bonds
Xiong, Liming; Broersma, Haitze J.; Li, Xueliang; Li, Xueliang; Li, MingChu
2004-01-01
Let G be an undirected and loopless finite graph that is not a path. The smallest integer m such that the iterated line graph Lm(G) is hamiltonian is called the hamiltonian index of G, denoted by h(G). A reduction method to determine the hamiltonian index of a graph G with h(G) ≤ 2 is given here. We
A Distributed Spanning Tree Algorithm
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Johansen, Karl Erik; Jørgensen, Ulla Lundin; Nielsen, Sven Hauge
We present a distributed algorithm for constructing a spanning tree for connected undirected graphs. Nodes correspond to processors and edges correspond to two-way channels. Each processor has initially a distinct identity and all processors perform the same algorithm. Computation as well...
A group-strategyproof cost sharing mechanism for the Steiner forest game
Könemann, J.; Leonardi, S.; Schäfer, G.; Zwam, van S.H.M.
2008-01-01
We consider a game-theoretical variant of the Steiner forest problem in which each player $j$, out of a set of $k$ players, strives to connect his terminal pair $(s_j, t_j)$ of vertices in an undirected, edge-weighted graph $G$. In this paper we show that a natural adaptation of the primal-dual
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ottosen, Thorsten Jørgen; Vomlel, Jiri
2010-01-01
Whenever objects and their interaction is modelled via undirected graphs, it is often of great interest to know the cliques of the graph. For several problems the graph changes frequently over time, and we therefore seek methods for updating the information about the cliques in a dynamic fashion ...
BDgraph: An R Package for Bayesian Structure Learning in Graphical Models
Mohammadi, A.; Wit, E.C.
2017-01-01
Graphical models provide powerful tools to uncover complicated patterns in multivariate data and are commonly used in Bayesian statistics and machine learning. In this paper, we introduce an R package BDgraph which performs Bayesian structure learning for general undirected graphical models with
In the business of learning : approaches to learning of undergraduate students in business
Hooijer, J.G.
2010-01-01
Three approaches to learning are distinguished in the learning literature: a surface, deep and strategic approach to learning. The surface approach to learning is characterized as undirected rote learning, motivated by a fear of failure. The deep approach to learning is characterized as interested
Space-efficient path-reporting approximate distance oracles
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Elkin, Michael; Neiman, Ofer; Wulff-Nilsen, Christian
2016-01-01
We consider approximate path-reporting distance oracles, distance labeling and labeled routing with extremely low space requirements, for general undirected graphs. For distance oracles, we show how to break the nlogn space bound of Thorup and Zwick if approximate paths rather than distances need...
A distributed spanning tree algorithm
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Johansen, Karl Erik; Jørgensen, Ulla Lundin; Nielsen, Svend Hauge
1988-01-01
We present a distributed algorithm for constructing a spanning tree for connected undirected graphs. Nodes correspond to processors and edges correspond to two way channels. Each processor has initially a distinct identity and all processors perform the same algorithm. Computation as well as comm...
Deep Belief Networks for dimensionality reduction
Noulas, A.K.; Kröse, B.J.A.
2008-01-01
Deep Belief Networks are probabilistic generative models which are composed by multiple layers of latent stochastic variables. The top two layers have symmetric undirected connections, while the lower layers receive directed top-down connections from the layer above. The current state-of-the-art
Goyal, N.; Olver, N.K.; Shepherd, F.B.
2013-01-01
We consider the following network design problem. We are given an undirected graph G = (V,E) with edge costs c(e) and a set of terminal nodes W ⊆ V. A hose demand matrix is any symmetric matrix D, indexed by the terminals, such that for each i ∈ W, Σ
Approximability of Robust Network Design
Olver, N.K.; Shepherd, F.B.
2014-01-01
We consider robust (undirected) network design (RND) problems where the set of feasible demands may be given by an arbitrary convex body. This model, introduced by Ben-Ameur and Kerivin [Ben-Ameur W, Kerivin H (2003) New economical virtual private networks. Comm. ACM 46(6):69-73], generalizes the
Colouring and knot polynomials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Welsh, D.J.A.
1991-01-01
These lectures will attempt to explain a connection between the recent advances in knot theory using the Jones and related knot polynomials with classical problems in combinatorics and statistical mechanics. The difficulty of some of these problems will be analysed in the context of their computational complexity. In particular we shall discuss colourings and groups valued flows in graphs, knots and the Jones and Kauffman polynomials, the Ising, Potts and percolation problems of statistical physics, computational complexity of the above problems. (author). 20 refs, 9 figs
Decoherence, determinism and chaos revisited
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Noyes, H.P.
1994-11-15
We suggest that the derivation of the free space Maxwell Equations for classical electromagnetism, using a discrete ordered calculus developed by L.H. Kauffman and T. Etter, necessarily pushes the discussion of determinism in natural science down to the level of relativistic quantum mechanics and hence renders the mathematical phenomena studied in deterministic chaos research irrelevant to the question of whether the world investigated by physics is deterministic. We believe that this argument reinforces Suppes` contention that the issue of determinism versus indeterminism should be viewed as a Kantian antinomy incapable of investigation using currently available scientific tools.
More than the sum of the parts: Nested analysis in action
Kauffman, Craig
2012-01-01
After reading Lieberman’s (2005) article on nested analysis, I was eager to test the purported benefits by adopting this multi-method approach in my dissertation research (Kauffman 2012). After using it, I am even more convinced of Lieberman’s assertion that both quantitative and qualitative methodologies “can inform each other to the extent that the analytic payoff is greater than the sum of the parts” (2005: 436). My purpose here is to provide an example of nested analysis in action to illu...
Decoherence, determinism and chaos revisited
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Noyes, H.P.
1994-01-01
We suggest that the derivation of the free space Maxwell Equations for classical electromagnetism, using a discrete ordered calculus developed by L.H. Kauffman and T. Etter, necessarily pushes the discussion of determinism in natural science down to the level of relativistic quantum mechanics and hence renders the mathematical phenomena studied in deterministic chaos research irrelevant to the question of whether the world investigated by physics is deterministic. We believe that this argument reinforces Suppes' contention that the issue of determinism versus indeterminism should be viewed as a Kantian antinomy incapable of investigation using currently available scientific tools
Chaotic behavior in the disorder cellular automata
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ko, J.-Y.; Hung, Y.-C.; Ho, M.-C.; Jiang, I-M.
2008-01-01
Disordered cellular automata (DCA) represent an intermediate class between elementary cellular automata and the Kauffman network. Recently, Rule 126 of DCA has been explicated: the system can be accurately described by a discrete probability function. However, a means of extending to other rules has not been developed. In this investigation, a density map of the dynamical behavior of DCA is formulated based on Rule 22 and other totalistic rules. The numerical results reveal excellent agreement between the model and original automata. Furthermore, the inhomogeneous situation is also discussed
The future of Catholic health care: observations from an Orthodox Christian perspective.
Cozby, Dimitri
1999-04-01
The author reflects on the future of Catholic health care by looking at the essays in this volume by Dennis Brodeur, Clarke E. Cochran, and Christopher J. Kauffman. The author argues that (1) Roman Catholic teaching on the Trinity is defective, yielding an inadequate model of society, (2) Roman Catholic teaching on the Incarnation is defective, yielding an impoverished understanding of the "sacramental," and (3) the institutional orientation of Roman Catholicism combined with the lack of true sacramental vision makes it nearly impossible for Roman Catholic theory to criticize the current structure of health care financing.
Heuristics in Conflict Resolution
Drescher, Christian; Gebser, Martin; Kaufmann, Benjamin; Schaub, Torsten
2010-01-01
Modern solvers for Boolean Satisfiability (SAT) and Answer Set Programming (ASP) are based on sophisticated Boolean constraint solving techniques. In both areas, conflict-driven learning and related techniques constitute key features whose application is enabled by conflict analysis. Although various conflict analysis schemes have been proposed, implemented, and studied both theoretically and practically in the SAT area, the heuristic aspects involved in conflict analysis have not yet receive...
Bent functions results and applications to cryptography
Tokareva, Natalia
2015-01-01
Bent Functions: Results and Applications to Cryptography offers a unique survey of the objects of discrete mathematics known as Boolean bent functions. As these maximal, nonlinear Boolean functions and their generalizations have many theoretical and practical applications in combinatorics, coding theory, and cryptography, the text provides a detailed survey of their main results, presenting a systematic overview of their generalizations and applications, and considering open problems in classification and systematization of bent functions. The text is appropriate for novices and advanced
A Comparative study of two methodologies for large binary datasets analysis.
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Frolov, A.; Húsek, Dušan; Polyakov, P.Y.; Řezanková, H.
2012-01-01
Roč. 22, č. 6 (2012), s. 565-582 ISSN 1210-0552 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP202/10/0262 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0070 Program:ED Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : dimension reduction * statistics * data mining * Boolean factor analysis * Boolean matrix factorization * information gain * likelihood-maximization * bars problem Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science Impact factor: 0.362, year: 2012
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jean-François Degbomont
2010-10-01
Full Text Available This paper addresses the symbolic representation of non-convex real polyhedra, i.e., sets of real vectors satisfying arbitrary Boolean combinations of linear constraints. We develop an original data structure for representing such sets, based on an implicit and concise encoding of a known structure, the Real Vector Automaton. The resulting formalism provides a canonical representation of polyhedra, is closed under Boolean operators, and admits an efficient decision procedure for testing the membership of a vector.
Data structures theory and practice
Berztiss, A T
1971-01-01
Computer Science and Applied Mathematics: Data Structures: Theory and Practice focuses on the processes, methodologies, principles, and approaches involved in data structures, including algorithms, decision trees, Boolean functions, lattices, and matrices. The book first offers information on set theory, functions, and relations, and graph theory. Discussions focus on linear formulas of digraphs, isomorphism of digraphs, basic definitions in the theory of digraphs, Boolean functions and forms, lattices, indexed sets, algebra of sets, and order pair and related concepts. The text then examines
Importance analysis based on logical differential calculus and Binary Decision Diagram
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zaitseva, Elena; Levashenko, Vitaly; Kostolny, Jozef
2015-01-01
System availability evaluation, sensitivity analysis, Importance Measures, and optimal design are important issues that have become research topics for reliability engineering. There are different mathematical approaches to the development of these topics. The structure function based approach is one of them. Structure function enables one to analyse a system of any complexity. But computational complexity of structure function based methods is time consuming for large-scale networks. We propose to use two mathematical approaches for decision to this problem for system importance analysis. The first of them is Direct Partial Boolean Derivative. New equations for calculating the Importance Measures are developed in terms of these derivatives. The second is Binary Decision Diagram (BDD), that supports efficient manipulation of Boolean algebra. Two algorithms for calculating Direct Partial Boolean Derivative based on BDD of structure function are proposed in this paper. The experimental results show the efficiency of new algorithms for calculating Direct Partial Boolean Derivative and Importance Measures. - Highlights: • New approach for calculation of Importance Measures is proposed. • Direct Partial Boolean Derivatives are used for calculation of Importance Measures. • New equations for Importance Measures are obtained. • New algorithm to calculate Direct Partial Boolean Derivatives by BDD is developed
Is Your Gut Conscious? Is an Extraterrestrial?
Vos Post, Jonathan
2011-10-01
This paper speculates on questions intending to be taken scientifically rather than metaphysically: "Can the human gut (enteric nervous system) be conscious?"; "Can your immune system think?"; "Could consciousness be coded in DNA?"; "What do we mean when asserting that an Extraterrestrial is Thinking, or is Conscious? We explore through reference to theory, experiment, and computational models by Christof Koch (Caltech), Barbara Wold (Caltech), and Stuart Kauffman (University of Calgary, Tampere University of Technology, Santa Fe Institute). We use a tentative new definition of thinking, designed to be applicable for humans, cetecea, corvids, artificial intelligences, and extraterrestrial intelligences of any substrate (i.e. Life as We Do Not Know It): "Thinking is the occurrence, transformation, and storage in a mind or brain (or simulation thereof) of information-bearing structures (representations) of one kind or another, such as thoughts, concept, percepts, ideas, impressions, notions, rules, schemas, images, phantasms, or subpersonal representations." We use the framework for Consciousness developed by Francis Crick and Christof Koch. We try to describe scientific goals, but discuss Philosophy sufficient to avoid naïve philosophical category errors (thus are careful not to conflate thought, consciousness, and language) Penrose, Hameroff, and Kauffman speculate (differently) that CNS consciousness is a macroscopic quantum phenomenon. Might intestinal, immune system, or genetic regulatory network dynamics exhibit emergent cooperative quantum effects? The speculations are in the context of Evolution by Natural Selection, presumed to operate throughout the Cosmos, and recent work in the foundations of Computational Biology and Quantum Mechanics.
Earthquake Complex Network Analysis Before and After the Mw 8.2 Earthquake in Iquique, Chile
Pasten, D.
2017-12-01
The earthquake complex networks have shown that they are abble to find specific features in seismic data set. In space, this networkshave shown a scale-free behavior for the probability distribution of connectivity, in directed networks and theyhave shown a small-world behavior, for the undirected networks.In this work, we present an earthquake complex network analysis for the large earthquake Mw 8.2 in the north ofChile (near to Iquique) in April, 2014. An earthquake complex network is made dividing the three dimensional space intocubic cells, if one of this cells contain an hypocenter, we name this cell like a node. The connections between nodes aregenerated in time. We follow the time sequence of seismic events and we are making the connections betweennodes. Now, we have two different networks: a directed and an undirected network. Thedirected network takes in consideration the time-direction of the connections, that is very important for the connectivityof the network: we are considering the connectivity, ki of the i-th node, like the number of connections going out ofthe node i plus the self-connections (if two seismic events occurred successive in time in the same cubic cell, we havea self-connection). The undirected network is made removing the direction of the connections and the self-connectionsfrom the directed network. For undirected networks, we are considering only if two nodes are or not connected.We have built a directed complex network and an undirected complex network, before and after the large earthquake in Iquique. We have used magnitudes greater than Mw = 1.0 and Mw = 3.0. We found that this method can recognize the influence of thissmall seismic events in the behavior of the network and we found that the size of the cell used to build the network isanother important factor to recognize the influence of the large earthquake in this complex system. This method alsoshows a difference in the values of the critical exponent γ (for the probability
Social context-induced song variation affects female behavior and gene expression.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sarah C Woolley
2008-03-01
Full Text Available Social cues modulate the performance of communicative behaviors in a range of species, including humans, and such changes can make the communication signal more salient. In songbirds, males use song to attract females, and song organization can differ depending on the audience to which a male sings. For example, male zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata change their songs in subtle ways when singing to a female (directed song compared with when they sing in isolation (undirected song, and some of these changes depend on altered neural activity from a specialized forebrain-basal ganglia circuit, the anterior forebrain pathway (AFP. In particular, variable activity in the AFP during undirected song is thought to actively enable syllable variability, whereas the lower and less-variable AFP firing during directed singing is associated with more stereotyped song. Consequently, directed song has been suggested to reflect a "performance" state, and undirected song a form of vocal motor "exploration." However, this hypothesis predicts that directed-undirected song differences, despite their subtlety, should matter to female zebra finches, which is a question that has not been investigated. We tested female preferences for this natural variation in song in a behavioral approach assay, and we found that both mated and socially naive females could discriminate between directed and undirected song-and strongly preferred directed song. These preferences, which appeared to reflect attention especially to aspects of song variability controlled by the AFP, were enhanced by experience, as they were strongest for mated females responding to their mate's directed songs. We then measured neural activity using expression of the immediate early gene product ZENK, and found that social context and song familiarity differentially modulated the number of ZENK-expressing cells in telencephalic auditory areas. Specifically, the number of ZENK-expressing cells in the
Fault tree analysis with multistate components
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Caldarola, L.
1979-02-01
A general analytical theory has been developed which allows one to calculate the occurence probability of the top event of a fault tree with multistate (more than states) components. It is shown that, in order to correctly describe a system with multistate components, a special type of Boolean algebra is required. This is called 'Boolean algebra with restrictions on varibales' and its basic rules are the same as those of the traditional Boolean algebra with some additional restrictions on the variables. These restrictions are extensively discussed in the paper. Important features of the method are the identification of the complete base and of the smallest irredundant base of a Boolean function which does not necessarily need to be coherent. It is shown that the identification of the complete base of a Boolean function requires the application of some algorithms which are not used in today's computer programmes for fault tree analysis. The problem of statistical dependence among primary components is discussed. The paper includes a small demonstrative example to illustrate the method. The example includes also statistical dependent components. (orig.) [de
Generalized fault tree analysis combined with state analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Caldarola, L.
1980-02-01
An analytical theory has been developed which allows one to calculate the occurrence probability of the top event of a fault tree with multistate (two or more than two states) components. It is shown that, in order to correctly describe a system with multistate components, a special type of boolean algebra is required. This is called 'boolean algebra with restrictions on variables' and its basic rules are the same as those of the traditional boolean algebra with some additional restrictions on the variables. These restrictions are extensively discussed in the paper. It is also shown that the boolean algebra with restrictions on variables facilitates the task of formally combining fault tree analysis with state analysis. The computer program MUSTAFA 1 based on the above theory has been developed. It can analyse fault trees of system containing statistically independent as well as dependent components with two or more than two states. MUSTAFA 1 can handle coherent as well as non coherent boolean functions. (orig.) 891 HP/orig. 892 MB [de
Dynamic behaviors in directed networks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Park, Sung Min; Kim, Beom Jun
2006-01-01
Motivated by the abundance of directed synaptic couplings in a real biological neuronal network, we investigate the synchronization behavior of the Hodgkin-Huxley model in a directed network. We start from the standard model of the Watts-Strogatz undirected network and then change undirected edges to directed arcs with a given probability, still preserving the connectivity of the network. A generalized clustering coefficient for directed networks is defined and used to investigate the interplay between the synchronization behavior and underlying structural properties of directed networks. We observe that the directedness of complex networks plays an important role in emerging dynamical behaviors, which is also confirmed by a numerical study of the sociological game theoretic voter model on directed networks
Chemical Graph Transformation with Stereo-Information
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, Jakob Lykke; Flamm, Christoph; Merkle, Daniel
2017-01-01
Double Pushout graph transformation naturally facilitates the modelling of chemical reactions: labelled undirected graphs model molecules and direct derivations model chemical reactions. However, the most straightforward modelling approach ignores the relative placement of atoms and their neighbo......Double Pushout graph transformation naturally facilitates the modelling of chemical reactions: labelled undirected graphs model molecules and direct derivations model chemical reactions. However, the most straightforward modelling approach ignores the relative placement of atoms...... and their neighbours in space. Stereoisomers of chemical compounds thus cannot be distinguished, even though their chemical activity may differ substantially. In this contribution we propose an extended chemical graph transformation system with attributes that encode information about local geometry. The modelling...... of graph transformation, but we here propose a framework that also allows for partially specified stereoinformation. While there are several stereochemical configurations to be considered, we focus here on the tetrahedral molecular shape, and suggest general principles for how to treat all other chemically...
The Vulnerability of Some Networks including Cycles via Domination Parameters
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tufan Turaci
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Let G=(V(G,E(G be an undirected simple connected graph. A network is usually represented by an undirected simple graph where vertices represent processors and edges represent links between processors. Finding the vulnerability values of communication networks modeled by graphs is important for network designers. The vulnerability value of a communication network shows the resistance of the network after the disruption of some centers or connection lines until a communication breakdown. The domination number and its variations are the most important vulnerability parameters for network vulnerability. Some variations of domination numbers are the 2-domination number, the bondage number, the reinforcement number, the average lower domination number, the average lower 2-domination number, and so forth. In this paper, we study the vulnerability of cycles and related graphs, namely, fans, k-pyramids, and n-gon books, via domination parameters. Then, exact solutions of the domination parameters are obtained for the above-mentioned graphs.
Markov Networks in Evolutionary Computation
Shakya, Siddhartha
2012-01-01
Markov networks and other probabilistic graphical modes have recently received an upsurge in attention from Evolutionary computation community, particularly in the area of Estimation of distribution algorithms (EDAs). EDAs have arisen as one of the most successful experiences in the application of machine learning methods in optimization, mainly due to their efficiency to solve complex real-world optimization problems and their suitability for theoretical analysis. This book focuses on the different steps involved in the conception, implementation and application of EDAs that use Markov networks, and undirected models in general. It can serve as a general introduction to EDAs but covers also an important current void in the study of these algorithms by explaining the specificities and benefits of modeling optimization problems by means of undirected probabilistic models. All major developments to date in the progressive introduction of Markov networks based EDAs are reviewed in the book. Hot current researc...
Synchronization of complex delayed dynamical networks with nonlinearly coupled nodes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu Tao; Zhao Jun; Hill, David J.
2009-01-01
In this paper, we study the global synchronization of nonlinearly coupled complex delayed dynamical networks with both directed and undirected graphs. Via Lyapunov-Krasovskii stability theory and the network topology, we investigate the global synchronization of such networks. Under the assumption that coupling coefficients are known, a family of delay-independent decentralized nonlinear feedback controllers are designed to globally synchronize the networks. When coupling coefficients are unavailable, an adaptive mechanism is introduced to synthesize a family of delay-independent decentralized adaptive controllers which guarantee the global synchronization of the uncertain networks. Two numerical examples of directed and undirected delayed dynamical network are given, respectively, using the Lorenz system as the nodes of the networks, which demonstrate the effectiveness of proposed results.
Distributed processing in receivers based on tensor for cooperative communications systems
Igor FlÃvio SimÃes de Sousa
2014-01-01
In this dissertation, we present a distributed data estimation and detection approach for the uplink of a network that uses CDMA at transmitters (users). The analyzed network can be represented by an undirected and connected graph, where the nodes use a distributed estimation algorithm based on consensus averaging to perform joint channel and symbol estimation using a receiver based on tensor signal processing. The centralized receiver, developed for a central base station, and the distribute...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Agreste, Santa; De Meo, Pasquale; Fiumara, Giacomo
2017-01-01
Detecting communities in graphs is a fundamental tool to understand the structure of Web-based systems and predict their evolution. Many community detection algorithms are designed to process undirected graphs (i.e., graphs with bidirectional edges) but many graphs on the Web-e.g., microblogging ...... the best trade-off between accuracy and computational performance and, therefore, it has to be considered as a promising tool for Web Data Analytics purposes....
Image Based Biomarker of Breast Cancer Risk: Analysis of Risk Disparity Among Minority Populations
2014-03-01
cluster locations. In the undirected strategy, the PDF is uniform within the entire volume of the breast , while in...stereoscopic breast biopsy images (13, 14). Each cluster in the database is stored as a 3D binary volume, with a voxel value of ‘1’ representing...AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-09-1-0062 TITLE: Image Based Biomarker of Breast Cancer
Understanding the Fundamental Roles of Momentum and Vorticity Injections in Flow Control
2016-09-02
impact a wide range of applications, including the analysis of biological and social networks, study of traffic flows, and design of robust power grids...graph sparsification, we orient the edges of the original weighted undirected graph G with N vertices and M edges. We can represent any directed graph...a vertical tail using synthetic jet actuators. AIAA Journal 52 (4). Robinson, K., Cohen, T. & Colijn, C. 2012 The dynamics of sexual contact networks
Transcending the limits. The psychology of risk
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Renn, O.
1993-01-01
As long as communication and learning remains a undirectional process, the public will continue to refuse plans for carrying out conflicts and to communicate about risk. Public awareness and common sense cannot replace science and politics but they certainly can enrich them. At the same time, the public will to accept rational concepts for decision-making should increase if the deciders take the criteria and demands of the public seriously. (orig.) [de
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cao, Qian; Song, Y. D.; Guerrero, Josep M.
2016-01-01
This paper proposes a distributed algorithm for coordination of flywheel energy storage matrix system (FESMS) cooperated with wind farm. A simple and distributed ratio consensus algorithm is proposed to solve FESMS dispatch problem. The algorithm is based on average consensus for both undirected...... and unbalanced directed graphs. Average consensus is guaranteed in unbalanced digraphs by updating the weight matrix with both its row sums and column sums being 1. Simulation examples illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed control method....
Decomposing Oriented Graphs into Six Locally Irregular Oriented Graphs
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bensmail, Julien; Renault, Gabriel
2016-01-01
An undirected graph G is locally irregular if every two of its adjacent vertices have distinct degrees. We say that G is decomposable into k locally irregular graphs if there exists a partition E1∪E2∪⋯∪Ek of the edge set E(G) such that each Ei induces a locally irregular graph. It was recently co...
Crawling Facebook for Social Network Analysis Purposes
Catanese, Salvatore A.; De Meo, Pasquale; Ferrara, Emilio; Fiumara, Giacomo; Provetti, Alessandro
2011-01-01
We describe our work in the collection and analysis of massive data describing the connections between participants to online social networks. Alternative approaches to social network data collection are defined and evaluated in practice, against the popular Facebook Web site. Thanks to our ad-hoc, privacy-compliant crawlers, two large samples, comprising millions of connections, have been collected; the data is anonymous and organized as an undirected graph. We describe a set of tools that w...
Structure Learning of Linear Bayesian Networks in High-Dimensions
Aragam, Nikhyl Bryon
2015-01-01
Research into graphical models is a rapidly developing enterprise, garnering significant interest from both the statistics and machine learning communities. A parallel thread in both communities has been the study of low-dimensional structures in high-dimensional models where $p\\gg n$. Recently, there has been a surge of interest in connecting these threads in order to understand the behaviour of graphical models in high-dimensions. Due to their relative simplicity, undirected models such as ...
Hahn, Allison H; Merullo, Devin P; Spool, Jeremy A; Angyal, Caroline S; Stevenson, Sharon A; Riters, Lauren V
2017-03-27
Vocal communication is required for successful social interactions in numerous species. During the breeding season, songbirds produce songs that are reinforced by behavioral consequences (e.g., copulation). However, some songbirds also produce songs not obviously directed at other individuals. The consequences maintaining or reinforcing these songs are less obvious and the neural mechanisms associated with undirected communication are not well-understood. Previous studies indicate that undirected singing is intrinsically rewarding and mediated by opioid or dopaminergic systems; however, endocannabinoids are also involved in regulating reward and singing behavior. We used a conditioned place preference paradigm to examine song-associated reward in European starlings and quantitative real-time PCR to measure expression of endocannabinoid-related neural markers (CB 1 , FABP7, FABP5, FAAH, DAGLα), in brain regions involved in social behavior, reward and motivation (ventral tegmental area [VTA], periaqueductal gray [PAG], and medial preoptic nucleus [POM]), and a song control region (Area X). Our results indicate that starlings producing high rates of song developed a conditioned place preference, suggesting that undirected song is associated with a positive affective state. We found a significant positive relationship between song-associated reward and CB 1 receptors in VTA and a significant negative relationship between song-associated reward and CB 1 in PAG. There was a significant positive relationship between reward and the cannabinoid transporter FABP7 in POM and a significant negative relationship between reward and FABP7 in PAG. In Area X, FABP5 and DAGLα correlated positively with singing. These results suggest a role for endocannabinoid signaling in vocal production and reward associated with undirected communication. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Parameterized Algorithms for Survivable Network Design with Uniform Demands
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bang-Jensen, Jørgen; Klinkby Knudsen, Kristine Vitting; Saurabh, Saket
2018-01-01
problem in combinatorial optimization that captures numerous well-studied problems in graph theory and graph algorithms. Consequently, there is a long line of research into exact-polynomial time algorithms as well as approximation algorithms for various restrictions of this problem. An important...... that SNDP is W[1]-hard for both arc and vertex connectivity versions on digraphs. The core of our algorithms is composed of new combinatorial results on connectivity in digraphs and undirected graphs....
The Value of Information in Distributed Decision Networks
2016-03-04
formulation, and then we describe the various results at- tained. 1 Mathematical description of Distributed Decision Network un- der Information...Constraints We now define a mathematical framework for networks. Let G = (V,E) be an undirected random network (graph) drawn from a known distribution pG, 1...to any linear, combinatorial problem like shortest path optimization, and, further, so long as the original combinatorial problem can be solved in
Reward and vocal production: song-associated place preference in songbirds.
Riters, Lauren V; Stevenson, Sharon A
2012-05-15
Vocal production is crucial for successful social interactions in multiple species. Reward can strongly influence behavior; however, the extent to which reward systems influence vocal behavior is unknown. In songbirds, singing occurs in different contexts. It can be spontaneous and undirected (e.g., song produced alone or as part of a large flock) or directed towards a conspecific (e.g., song used to attract a mate or influence a competitor). In this study, we developed a conditioned place preference paradigm to measure reward associated with different types of singing behavior in two songbird species. Both male zebra finches and European starlings developed a preference for a chamber associated with production of undirected song, suggesting that the production of undirected song is tightly coupled to intrinsic reward. In contrast, neither starlings nor zebra finches developed a place preference in association with directed song; however, male starlings singing directed song that failed to attract a female developed a place aversion. Unsuccessful contact calling behavior was also associated with a place aversion. These findings suggest that directed vocal behavior is not tightly linked to intrinsic reward but may be externally reinforced by social interactions. Data across two species thus support the hypothesis that the production of undirected but not directed song is tightly coupled to intrinsic reward. This study is the first to identify song-associated reward and suggests that reward associated with vocal production differs depending upon the context in which communication occurs. The findings have implications for understanding what motivates animals to engage in social behaviors and ways in which distinct reward mechanisms function to direct socially appropriate behaviors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Approximate distance oracles for planar graphs with improved query time-space tradeoff
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wulff-Nilsen, Christian
2016-01-01
We consider approximate distance oracles for edge-weighted n-vertex undirected planar graphs. Given fixed ϵ > 0, we present a (1 + ϵ)-approximate distance oracle with O(n(log log n)2) space and O((loglogr?,)3) query time. This improves the previous best product of query time and space...... of the oracles of Thorup (FOCS 2001, J. ACM 2004) and Klein (SODA 2002) from O(nlogn) to O(n(loglogn)5)....
On the deployment of agents by binary information
De Persis, Claudio; Cao, Ming; Ceragioli, Francesca
2011-01-01
We study the problem of deploying on a line a group of N agents with kinematic continuous-time model x˙i = ui , i = 1,...,N , (1) with xi ,ui ∈ R. The agents are connected through an undirected chain graph G = (V ,E ), with V = {1,2,...,N} and E = {(1,2),...,(i,i + 1),...,(N − 1,N)}. Moreover, we
Plan Recognition using Statistical Relational Models
2014-08-25
corresponding undirected model can be significantly more complex since there is no closed form solution for the maximum-likelihood set of parameters unlike in...algorithm did not scale to larger training sets, and the overall results are still not competitive with BALPs. 5In directed models, a closed form solution...opinions of ARO, DARPA, NSF or any other government agency. References Albrecht DW, Zukerman I, Nicholson AE. Bayesian models for keyhole plan
Genus of total graphs from rings: A survey
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
T. Tamizh Chelvam
2018-04-01
Full Text Available Let R be a commutative ring. The total graph T Γ ( R of R is the undirected graph with vertex set R and two distinct vertices x and y are adjacent if x + y is a zero divisor in R . In this paper, we present a survey of results on the genus of T Γ ( R and three of its generalizations. Keywords: Commutative ring, Total graph, Cayley graph, Genus, Planar
Kinerja Lingkungan Terhadap Return on Asset Melalui Corporate Social Responsibility Discloure
Restuningdiah, Nurika
2010-01-01
The purpose of this research was to examine the impact of environmental perfor-mance to Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) disclosure, the impact of CSR disclosure toReturn on Asset, and the undirect impact of of environmental performance to Return onAsset through CSR disclosure. Path Analysis of 18 public companies listed in Indonesia StockExchange and participated in the Proper Program from 2007 -2008 through a judgment sam-pling technique indicated that environmental performance had a p...
Network similarity and statistical analysis of earthquake seismic data
Deyasi, Krishanu; Chakraborty, Abhijit; Banerjee, Anirban
2016-01-01
We study the structural similarity of earthquake networks constructed from seismic catalogs of different geographical regions. A hierarchical clustering of underlying undirected earthquake networks is shown using Jensen-Shannon divergence in graph spectra. The directed nature of links indicates that each earthquake network is strongly connected, which motivates us to study the directed version statistically. Our statistical analysis of each earthquake region identifies the hub regions. We cal...
An exact method for solving logical loops in reliability analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Matsuoka, Takeshi
2009-01-01
This paper presents an exact method for solving logical loops in reliability analysis. The systems that include logical loops are usually described by simultaneous Boolean equations. First, present a basic rule of solving simultaneous Boolean equations. Next, show the analysis procedures for three-component system with external supports. Third, more detailed discussions are given for the establishment of logical loop relation. Finally, take up two typical structures which include more than one logical loop. Their analysis results and corresponding GO-FLOW charts are given. The proposed analytical method is applicable to loop structures that can be described by simultaneous Boolean equations, and it is very useful in evaluating the reliability of complex engineering systems.
Logic-based aggregation methods for ranking student applicants
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Milošević Pavle
2017-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we present logic-based aggregation models used for ranking student applicants and we compare them with a number of existing aggregation methods, each more complex than the previous one. The proposed models aim to include depen- dencies in the data using Logical aggregation (LA. LA is a aggregation method based on interpolative Boolean algebra (IBA, a consistent multi-valued realization of Boolean algebra. This technique is used for a Boolean consistent aggregation of attributes that are logically dependent. The comparison is performed in the case of student applicants for master programs at the University of Belgrade. We have shown that LA has some advantages over other presented aggregation methods. The software realization of all applied aggregation methods is also provided. This paper may be of interest not only for student ranking, but also for similar problems of ranking people e.g. employees, team members, etc.
Maiorana-McFarland class: Degree optimization and algebraic properties
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pasalic, Enes
2006-01-01
degree of functions in the extended Maiorana-McFarland (MM) class (nonlinear resilient functions F : GF (2)(n) -> GF (2)(m) derived from linear codes). We also show that in the Boolean case, the same subclass seems not to have an optimized algebraic immunity, hence not providing a maximum resistance......In this paper, we consider a subclass of the Maiorana-McFarland class used in the design of resilient nonlinear Boolean functions. We show that these functions allow a simple modification so that resilient Boolean functions of maximum algebraic degree may be generated instead of suboptimized degree...... in the original class. Preserving a high-nonlinearity value immanent to the original construction method, together with the degree optimization gives in many cases functions with cryptographic properties superior to all previously known construction methods. This approach is then used to increase the algebraic...
Search for Directed Networks by Different Random Walk Strategies
Zhu, Zi-Qi; Jin, Xiao-Ling; Huang, Zhi-Long
2012-03-01
A comparative study is carried out on the efficiency of five different random walk strategies searching on directed networks constructed based on several typical complex networks. Due to the difference in search efficiency of the strategies rooted in network clustering, the clustering coefficient in a random walker's eye on directed networks is defined and computed to be half of the corresponding undirected networks. The search processes are performed on the directed networks based on Erdös—Rényi model, Watts—Strogatz model, Barabási—Albert model and clustered scale-free network model. It is found that self-avoiding random walk strategy is the best search strategy for such directed networks. Compared to unrestricted random walk strategy, path-iteration-avoiding random walks can also make the search process much more efficient. However, no-triangle-loop and no-quadrangle-loop random walks do not improve the search efficiency as expected, which is different from those on undirected networks since the clustering coefficient of directed networks are smaller than that of undirected networks.
Pleasure seeking and birdsong.
Riters, Lauren V
2011-10-01
Songbirds sing at high rates within multiple contexts, suggesting that they are highly motivated to communicate and that the act of singing itself may be rewarding. Little is known about the neural regulation of the motivation to communicate. Dopamine and opioid neuropeptides play a primary role in reward seeking and sensory pleasure. In songbirds, these neurochemicals are found within brain regions implicated in both motivation and reward, including the medial preoptic nucleus (mPOA) and ventral tegmental area (VTA). Several lines of research indicate that dopamine and opioids in these regions play a role in birdsong that differs depending upon whether song is used to attract females (female-directed song) or is not directed towards other individuals (undirected song). Evidence is reviewed supporting the hypotheses: (1) that distinct patterns of dopamine activity influence the motivation to produce undirected and female-directed song, (2) that undirected communication is intrinsically reinforced by immediate release of opioids induced by the act of singing, and (3) that directed communication is socially reinforced by opioids released as part of social interactions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Extracting weights from edge directions to find communities in directed networks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lai, Darong; Lu, Hongtao; Nardini, Christine
2010-01-01
Community structures are found to exist ubiquitously in real-world complex networks. We address here the problem of community detection in directed networks. Most of the previous literature ignores edge directions and applies methods designed for community detection in undirected networks, which discards valuable information and often fails when different communities are defined on the basis of incoming and outgoing edges. We suggest extracting information about edge directions using a PageRank random walk and translating such information into edge weights. After extraction we obtain a new weighted directed network in which edge directions can then be safely ignored. We thus transform community detection in directed networks into community detection in reweighted undirected networks. Such an approach can benefit directly from the large volume of algorithms for the detection of communities in undirected networks already developed, since it is not obvious how to extend these algorithms to account for directed networks and the procedure is often difficult. Validations on synthetic and real-world networks demonstrate that the proposed framework can effectively detect communities in directed networks
The role of motivation and reward neural systems in vocal communication in songbirds.
Riters, Lauren V
2012-04-01
Many vertebrates are highly motivated to communicate, suggesting that the consequences of communication may be rewarding. Past studies show that dopamine and opioids in the medial preoptic nucleus (mPOA) and ventral tegmental area (VTA) play distinct roles in motivation and reward. In songbirds, multiple lines of recent evidence indicate that the roles of dopamine and opioid activity in mPOA and VTA in male birdsong differ depending upon whether song is used to attract females (sexually-motivated) or is produced spontaneously (undirected). Evidence is reviewed supporting the hypotheses that (1) mPOA and VTA interact to influence the context in which a male sings, (2) distinct patterns of dopamine activity underlie the motivation to produce sexually-motivated and undirected song, (3) sexually-motivated communication is externally reinforced by opioids released as part of social interactions, and (4) undirected communication is facilitated and rewarded by immediate opioid release linked to the act of singing. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Effect of interaction strength on robustness of controlling edge dynamics in complex networks
Pang, Shao-Peng; Hao, Fei
2018-05-01
Robustness plays a critical role in the controllability of complex networks to withstand failures and perturbations. Recent advances in the edge controllability show that the interaction strength among edges plays a more important role than network structure. Therefore, we focus on the effect of interaction strength on the robustness of edge controllability. Using three categories of all edges to quantify the robustness, we develop a universal framework to evaluate and analyze the robustness in complex networks with arbitrary structures and interaction strengths. Applying our framework to a large number of model and real-world networks, we find that the interaction strength is a dominant factor for the robustness in undirected networks. Meanwhile, the strongest robustness and the optimal edge controllability in undirected networks can be achieved simultaneously. Different from the case of undirected networks, the robustness in directed networks is determined jointly by the interaction strength and the network's degree distribution. Moreover, a stronger robustness is usually associated with a larger number of driver nodes required to maintain full control in directed networks. This prompts us to provide an optimization method by adjusting the interaction strength to optimize the robustness of edge controllability.
High speed all optical logic gates based on quantum dot semiconductor optical amplifiers.
Ma, Shaozhen; Chen, Zhe; Sun, Hongzhi; Dutta, Niloy K
2010-03-29
A scheme to realize all-optical Boolean logic functions AND, XOR and NOT using semiconductor optical amplifiers with quantum-dot active layers is studied. nonlinear dynamics including carrier heating and spectral hole-burning are taken into account together with the rate equations scheme. Results show with QD excited state and wetting layer serving as dual-reservoir of carriers, as well as the ultra fast carrier relaxation of the QD device, this scheme is suitable for high speed Boolean logic operations. Logic operation can be carried out up to speed of 250 Gb/s.
Disjoint sum expansion method in FTA
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ruan Keqiang
1987-01-01
An expansion formula for transforming boolean algebraic expressions into disjoint form was proved. Based on this expansion formula, a method for transforming system failure function into disjoint form was devised. The fact that the expansion can be done for several elements simulatneously makes the method flexible and fast. Some examples from fault tree analysis (FTA) and network analysis were examined by the new method to show its algorithm and its merit. Besides, by means of the proved expansion formula some boolean algebraic relations can proved very easily
Bessiere, Pierre; Ahuactzin, Juan Manuel; Mekhnacha, Kamel
2013-01-01
Probability as an Alternative to Boolean LogicWhile logic is the mathematical foundation of rational reasoning and the fundamental principle of computing, it is restricted to problems where information is both complete and certain. However, many real-world problems, from financial investments to email filtering, are incomplete or uncertain in nature. Probability theory and Bayesian computing together provide an alternative framework to deal with incomplete and uncertain data. Decision-Making Tools and Methods for Incomplete and Uncertain DataEmphasizing probability as an alternative to Boolean
Symmetric Logic Synthesis with Phase Assignment
Benschop, N. F.
2001-01-01
Decomposition of any Boolean Function BF_n of n binary inputs into an optimal inverter coupled network of Symmetric Boolean functions SF_k (k \\leq n) is described. Each SF component is implemented by Threshold Logic Cells, forming a complete and compact T-Cell Library. Optimal phase assignment of input polarities maximizes local symmetries. The "rank spectrum" is a new BF_n description independent of input ordering, obtained by mapping its minterms onto an othogonal n \\times n grid of (transi...
Banach spaces of continuous functions as dual spaces
Dales, H G; Lau, A T -M; Strauss, D
2016-01-01
This book gives a coherent account of the theory of Banach spaces and Banach lattices, using the spaces C_0(K) of continuous functions on a locally compact space K as the main example. The study of C_0(K) has been an important area of functional analysis for many years. It gives several new constructions, some involving Boolean rings, of this space as well as many results on the Stonean space of Boolean rings. The book also discusses when Banach spaces of continuous functions are dual spaces and when they are bidual spaces.
No-cloning theorem on quantum logics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Miyadera, Takayuki; Imai, Hideki
2009-01-01
This paper discusses the no-cloning theorem in a logicoalgebraic approach. In this approach, an orthoalgebra is considered as a general structure for propositions in a physical theory. We proved that an orthoalgebra admits cloning operation if and only if it is a Boolean algebra. That is, only classical theory admits the cloning of states. If unsharp propositions are to be included in the theory, then a notion of effect algebra is considered. We proved that an atomic Archimedean effect algebra admitting cloning operation is a Boolean algebra. This paper also presents a partial result, indicating a relation between the cloning on effect algebras and hidden variables.
Orthogonal Algorithm of Logic Probability and Syndrome-Testable Analysis
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
1990-01-01
A new method,orthogonal algoritm,is presented to compute the logic probabilities(i.e.signal probabilities)accurately,The transfer properties of logic probabilities are studied first,which are useful for the calculation of logic probability of the circuit with random independent inputs.Then the orthogonal algoritm is described to compute the logic probability of Boolean function realized by a combinational circuit.This algorithm can make Boolean function “ORTHOGONAL”so that the logic probabilities can be easily calculated by summing up the logic probabilities of all orthogonal terms of the Booleam function.
Modeling digital switching circuits with linear algebra
Thornton, Mitchell A
2014-01-01
Modeling Digital Switching Circuits with Linear Algebra describes an approach for modeling digital information and circuitry that is an alternative to Boolean algebra. While the Boolean algebraic model has been wildly successful and is responsible for many advances in modern information technology, the approach described in this book offers new insight and different ways of solving problems. Modeling the bit as a vector instead of a scalar value in the set {0, 1} allows digital circuits to be characterized with transfer functions in the form of a linear transformation matrix. The use of transf
Ramsey Results for Cycle Spectra
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Brandt, S.; Joos, F.; Muttel, J.
2013-01-01
Let C(G) denote the set of lengths of cycles of a graph G of order n and let (G) over bar denote the complement of G. We show that if n >= 6, then C(G) boolean OR C((G) over bar) contains all odd l with 3......Let C(G) denote the set of lengths of cycles of a graph G of order n and let (G) over bar denote the complement of G. We show that if n >= 6, then C(G) boolean OR C((G) over bar) contains all odd l with 3...
On automatic synthesis of analog/digital circuits
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Beiu, V.
1998-12-31
The paper builds on a recent explicit numerical algorithm for Kolmogorov`s superpositions, and will show that in order to synthesize minimum size (i.e., size-optimal) circuits for implementing any Boolean function, the nonlinear activation function of the gates has to be the identity function. Because classical and--or implementations, as well as threshold gate implementations require exponential size, it follows that size-optimal solutions for implementing arbitrary Boolean functions can be obtained using analog (or mixed analog/digital) circuits. Conclusions and several comments are ending the paper.
Implementing size-optimal discrete neural networks require analog circuitry
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Beiu, V.
1998-12-01
This paper starts by overviewing results dealing with the approximation capabilities of neural networks, as well as bounds on the size of threshold gate circuits. Based on a constructive solution for Kolmogorov`s superpositions the authors show that implementing Boolean functions can be done using neurons having an identity transfer function. Because in this case the size of the network is minimized, it follows that size-optimal solutions for implementing Boolean functions can be obtained using analog circuitry. Conclusions and several comments on the required precision are ending the paper.
On Computational Power of Quantum Read-Once Branching Programs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Farid Ablayev
2011-03-01
Full Text Available In this paper we review our current results concerning the computational power of quantum read-once branching programs. First of all, based on the circuit presentation of quantum branching programs and our variant of quantum fingerprinting technique, we show that any Boolean function with linear polynomial presentation can be computed by a quantum read-once branching program using a relatively small (usually logarithmic in the size of input number of qubits. Then we show that the described class of Boolean functions is closed under the polynomial projections.
On a hierarchy of Booleanfunctions hard to compute in constant depth
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Anna Bernasconi
2001-12-01
Full Text Available Any attempt to find connections between mathematical properties and complexity has a strong relevance to the field of Complexity Theory. This is due to the lack of mathematical techniques to prove lower bounds for general models of computation. This work represents a step in this direction: we define a combinatorial property that makes Boolean functions `` hard '' to compute in constant depth and show how the harmonic analysis on the hypercube can be applied to derive new lower bounds on the size complexity of previously unclassified Boolean functions.
Algebraic and stochastic coding theory
Kythe, Dave K
2012-01-01
Using a simple yet rigorous approach, Algebraic and Stochastic Coding Theory makes the subject of coding theory easy to understand for readers with a thorough knowledge of digital arithmetic, Boolean and modern algebra, and probability theory. It explains the underlying principles of coding theory and offers a clear, detailed description of each code. More advanced readers will appreciate its coverage of recent developments in coding theory and stochastic processes. After a brief review of coding history and Boolean algebra, the book introduces linear codes, including Hamming and Golay codes.
The zonal satellite problem. III Symmetries
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mioc V.
2002-01-01
Full Text Available The two-body problem associated with a force field described by a potential of the form U =Sum(k=1,n ak/rk (r = distance between particles, ak = real parameters is resumed from the only standpoint of symmetries. Such symmetries, expressed in Hamiltonian coordinates, or in standard polar coordinates, are recovered for McGehee-type coordinates of both collision-blow-up and infinity-blow-up kind. They form diffeomorphic commutative groups endowed with a Boolean structure. Expressed in Levi-Civita’s coordinates, the problem exhibits a larger group of symmetries, also commutative and presenting a Boolean structure.
Learning Read-constant Polynomials of Constant Degree modulo Composites
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Chattopadhyay, Arkadev; Gavaldá, Richard; Hansen, Kristoffer Arnsfelt
2011-01-01
Boolean functions that have constant degree polynomial representation over a fixed finite ring form a natural and strict subclass of the complexity class \\textACC0ACC0. They are also precisely the functions computable efficiently by programs over fixed and finite nilpotent groups. This class...... is not known to be learnable in any reasonable learning model. In this paper, we provide a deterministic polynomial time algorithm for learning Boolean functions represented by polynomials of constant degree over arbitrary finite rings from membership queries, with the additional constraint that each variable...
Logical design for computers and control
Dodd, Kenneth N
1972-01-01
Logical Design for Computers and Control Logical Design for Computers and Control gives an introduction to the concepts and principles, applications, and advancements in the field of control logic. The text covers topics such as logic elements; high and low logic; kinds of flip-flops; binary counting and arithmetic; and Boolean algebra, Boolean laws, and De Morgan's theorem. Also covered are topics such as electrostatics and atomic theory; the integrated circuit and simple control systems; the conversion of analog to digital systems; and computer applications and control. The book is recommend
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gómez Giraldo Luis Jair
2012-05-01
Full Text Available La biodiversidad es un suceso ecológico realmente sorprendente en tanto existe una extraordinaria homogeneidad química y bioquímica de base, en todos los seres vivos. Se considera que se dan por lo menos tres fenómenos que la explican: la evolución darwiniana, es decir, la evolución ramificada; el «acoplamiento estructural» según lo define H. Maturana; y, por último, los fenómenos termodinámicos, tal como los expone S. Kauffman con apoyo en los conceptos de “organización” y “organización propagativa diversificadota”, y los interpretan E. D. Schneider y J. J. Kay a partir de la Tierra como sistema termodinámico. Su importancia explicativa en la crisis ambiental, manifiesta entre otros sucesos en el calentamiento global, es de gran relevancia.
Origin of life experts might find inspiration at CERN
Katarina Anthony & Anaïs Schaeffer
2011-01-01
“How did life appear on Earth?” That was the unanswered question on attendees’ minds at a single-day workshop held at CERN, 20 May. The brainstorming session featured experts from the biology field and CERN physicists. Although the million-dollar question wasn't answered, the group explored the possibility of organising a large-scale research project that could do just that. Darwin’s vision of "descent with modification" from his "B" notebook. According to workshop chair Stuart Kauffman, an American theoretical biologist, currently Finland Distinguished Professor (FiDiPro) at the Tampere University of Technology: “The Origin of Life problem began with Louis Pasteur, who refused to believe in the ‘spontaneous generation principle’ of life. All life, he said, comes from life. This left Pasteur in a conundrum: how did life start in the first place?” As a renowne...
Salmonella epidemiology: A whirlwind of change.
Besser, John M
2018-05-01
The field of infectious disease epidemiology for Salmonella and other enteric pathogens is undergoing some of the most profound changes since the time of Kauffman and White. Rapid advances in "big data" technologies such as genomics and metagenomics are making it possible to monitor and control salmonellosis in new and exciting ways. Epidemiological methods are becoming increasingly robust through the routine use of standardized hypothesis-generating questionnaires, iterative open-ended interviewing, informational trace-backs and new modeling techniques for describing the attribution of disease to food sources. In addition, Salmonella epidemiology is facing important challenges and new opportunities due to the rapid adoption of culture independent diagnostic test panels by clinical laboratories. Where is this unprecedented wave of change taking us? This chapter will examine emerging trends in Salmonella epidemiology, and take a peek into the not-so-distant future. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Lubricant Performance and Evaluation.
1987-06-01
Robert E. Kauffman * University of Day..on Research InstituteI Dayton, Ohio 4546; Jun 1987 S U- 4BD Interim Technical Report For Period17 June 1985...InI 133 43-.-l 311 u0.C ) 4- ta 0 0)0 m~tO tD r-ww D Chm4- -4 CD ") I-MW--- L)Ci 00 LnCD 0000004.4.(AJC cctO 0~ CO 4 LAU, CL 4) 4i M0 m 0 cmi CA...L)E- CP L) C,1-4 P)1- lz 1 0 "’ dccE-4 C") LA tD wx I ( :D W wI 363 0 -4 0) %0 0** *A ONV 9) kn k )4) 12LnA 4-4 0 0m - O .Dt-C%0 ~ 0 -0 *-LA .h %D
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nova Nayarit-Ballesteros
2016-05-01
Full Text Available Objective. To determine the serotype and antibiotic resistance profile of Salmonella spp. isolated from retail ground beef in Mexico City. Materials and methods. A total of 100 samples of ground beef were analyzed. The pathogen was isolated by conventional methods and confirmed by PCR (invA gene, 284 bp. The antibiotic resistance profile was determined by the Kirby-Bauer method while serotyping was performed according to the Kauffman-White scheme. Results. We isolated a total of 19 strains of Lomita (6, Derby (4, Senftenberg (2, Javiana and Cannsttat (1 and undeter- mined (5 serotypes. The strains showed a high resistance rate to ampicillin (18/19, carbenicillin (16/19, tetracyclin (13/19, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (13/19. Multidrug resistance was observed in 14 isolates. Conclusions. Several Salmonella spp. serotypes of public health significance are circulating in ground beef sold in the major Mexican city. Some of these strains are multi-drug resistance.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gomez Giraldo; Luis Jair
2011-01-01
Biodiversity is a really surprising ecological event, as long as there is an extraordinary chemical and biochemical homogeneity at the very foundation of all living beings. It is believed that there are at least three phenomena that may explain it: Darwinian evolution, that is a kind of ramifying evolution; structural coupling, as defined by H. Maturana; and, finally, thermodynamical phenomena, as presented by S. Kauffman leaning on the concepts of organization and a propagating organization that diversifies, and they are all interpreted by E. D. Schneider and J. J. Kay from the idea of Earth as a thermodynamical system. The explanatory importance of this idea in the current environmental crisis, evident in other events such as global warming, is of great relevance.
Is international conservation aid enough?
Law, Elizabeth A.
2016-02-01
Bare et al (2015 Environ. Res. Lett. 10 125010) ask an important question: is international conservation enough? Since the 1990’s international conservation donors have spent over 3.4 billion on biodiversity conservation related projects in sub-Saharan Africa. Both donors and recipients have a right to know if this is effective. Surprisingly, this question is rarely asked. It is a difficult question—involving many rival social, environmental, and economic explanations. Bare, Kauffman and Miller uncover some interesting associations, supporting existing hypotheses and proposing their own: that conservation aid alone is insufficient to mitigate drivers of deforestation (and in some cases may even exacerbate forest loss). This controversial result warrants further investigation—but what is needed now is nuance and robustness in further analyses, to have more confidence in the critique and it’s implications for international conservation aid.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Baggesen, Dorte Lau; Nielsen, L.R.; Sørensen, Gitte
2007-01-01
Aims: To analyse the relative importance of different biological and technical factors on the analytical sensitivity of conventional culture methods for detection of Salmonella Dublin in cattle faeces. Methods and Results: Faeces samples collected from six adult bovines from different salmonella...... novobiocin, followed by combinations of culture media (three types) and selective media (two types). The sensitivity of each combination and sources of variation in detection were determined by a generalized linear mixed model using a split-plot design. Conclusions: Biological factors, such as faecal origin...... and S. Dublin strain influenced the sensitivity more than technical factors. Overall, the modified semisolid Rappaport Vassiliadis (MSRV)-culture medium had the most reliable detection capability, whereas detection with selenite cystine broth and Mueller Kauffman tetrathionate broth combinations varied...
Connections among quantum logics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lock, P.F.; Hardegree, G.M.
1985-01-01
This paper gives a brief introduction to the major areas of work in quantum event logics: manuals (Foulis and Randall) and semi-Boolean algebras (Abbott). The two theories are compared, and the connection between quantum event logics and quantum propositional logics is made explicit. In addition, the work on manuals provides us with many examples of results stated in Part I. (author)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fränzle, Martin; Herde, Christian
2003-01-01
We investigate the problem of generalizing acceleration techniques as found in recent satisfiability engines for conjunctive normal forms (CNFs) to linear constraint systems over the Booleans. The rationale behind this research is that rewriting the propositional formulae occurring in e.g. bounde...
Long multiplication by instruction sequences with backward jump instructions
Bergstra, J.A.; Middelburg, C.A.
2013-01-01
For each function on bit strings, its restriction to bit strings of any given length can be computed by a finite instruction sequence that contains only instructions to set and get the content of Boolean registers, forward jump instructions, and a termination instruction. Backward jump instructions
r-Universal reversible logic gates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vos, A de; Storme, L
2004-01-01
Reversible logic plays a fundamental role both in ultra-low power electronics and in quantum computing. It is therefore important to know which reversible logic gates can be used as building block for the reversible implementation of an arbitrary boolean function and which cannot
New Approaches to Practical Secure Two-Party Computation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nordholt, Peter Sebastian
all practical protocols with malicious security were based on Yao’s garbled circuits. We report on an implementation of this protocol demonstrating its high efficiency. For larger circuits it evaluates 20000 Boolean gates per second. As an example, evaluating one oblivious AES encryption (around 34000...
Reconfigurable Magnetic Logic Combined with Nonvolatile Memory Writing
Luo, Zhaochu
2016-11-16
In the magnetic logic, four basic Boolean logic operations can be programmed by a magnetic bit at room temperature with a high output ratio (>103%). In the same clock cycle, benefiting from the built-in spin Hall effect, logic results can be directly written into magnetic bits using an all-electric method.
Fuzzy Information Retrieval Using Genetic Algorithms and Relevance Feedback.
Petry, Frederick E.; And Others
1993-01-01
Describes an approach that combines concepts from information retrieval, fuzzy set theory, and genetic programing to improve weighted Boolean query formulation via relevance feedback. Highlights include background on information retrieval systems; genetic algorithms; subproblem formulation; and preliminary results based on a testbed. (Contains 12…
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Frolov, A. A.; Húsek, Dušan; Polyakov, P.Y.
-, č. 3 (2014), s. 3-11 ISSN 1999-8554 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : boolean factor analysis * attractor neural network * likelihood function maximization * KEGG database Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science http://www.radiotec.ru/ cat alog.php? cat =jr7&art=14354
Visualisation of unbuilt buildings in their landscape
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Howard, Robert; Petersen, Ernst Steffen
1999-01-01
Computer modelling can provide better information on building projects presented in two dimensional drawings but never built. A cemetery project in Denmark was formed as a solid model in its sloping landscape using Softimage. Boolean operations were used to position walls at a given height above...
on the use of ashenhurst decomposition chart as an alternative to ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Dr Obe
1997-09-01
Sep 1, 1997 ... ABSTRACT. The non-uniqueness of a multiplexer implementation of a Boolean function results from the partition of the function variables into data select and data input variables. This partition affects critically the cost and structure of the final multiplexer realisation. Hence the central problem in the ...
Binary Positive Semidefinite Matrices and Associated Integer Polytopes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Letchford, Adam N.; Sørensen, Michael Malmros
2012-01-01
We consider the positive semidefinite (psd) matrices with binary entries, along with the corresponding integer polytopes. We begin by establishing some basic properties of these matrices and polytopes. Then, we show that several families of integer polytopes in the literature-the cut, boolean qua...
Probably Almost Bayes Decisions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Anoulova, S.; Fischer, Paul; Poelt, S.
1996-01-01
discriminant functions for this purpose. We analyze this approach for different classes of distribution functions of Boolean features:kth order Bahadur-Lazarsfeld expansions andkth order Chow expansions. In both cases, we obtain upper bounds for the required sample size which are small polynomials...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alesso, H.P.; Lappa, D.A.; Smith, C.F.; Sacks, I.J.
1983-01-01
The rich diversity of ideas and techniques for analyzing interconnected systems interaction has presented the NRC with the problem of identifying methods appropriate for their own review and audit. This report presents the findings of a preliminary study using the Digraph Matrix Analysis method to evaluate interconnected systems interactions for the safety injection system of Indian Point-3. The analysis effort in this study was subjected to NRC constraints regarding the use of Boolean logic, the construction of simplified plant representations or maps, and the development of heuristic measures as specified by the NRC. The map and heuristic measures were found to be an unsuccessful approach. However, from the effort to model and analyze the Indian Point-3 safety injection system, including Boolean logic in the model, singleton and doubleton cut-sets were identified. It is recommended that efforts excluding Boolean logic and utilizing the NRC heuristic measures not be pursed further and that the Digraph Matrix approach (or other comparable risk assessment technique) with Boolean logic included to conduct the audit of the Indian Point-3 systems interaction study
Inference in hybrid Bayesian networks
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lanseth, Helge; Nielsen, Thomas Dyhre; Rumí, Rafael
2009-01-01
Since the 1980s, Bayesian Networks (BNs) have become increasingly popular for building statistical models of complex systems. This is particularly true for boolean systems, where BNs often prove to be a more efficient modelling framework than traditional reliability-techniques (like fault trees...... decade's research on inference in hybrid Bayesian networks. The discussions are linked to an example model for estimating human reliability....
Shamshirband, Shahaboddin; Banjanovic-Mehmedovic, Lejla; Bosankic, Ivan; Kasapovic, Suad; Abdul Wahab, Ainuddin Wahid Bin
2016-01-01
Intelligent Transportation Systems rely on understanding, predicting and affecting the interactions between vehicles. The goal of this paper is to choose a small subset from the larger set so that the resulting regression model is simple, yet have good predictive ability for Vehicle agent speed relative to Vehicle intruder. The method of ANFIS (adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system) was applied to the data resulting from these measurements. The ANFIS process for variable selection was implemented in order to detect the predominant variables affecting the prediction of agent speed relative to intruder. This process includes several ways to discover a subset of the total set of recorded parameters, showing good predictive capability. The ANFIS network was used to perform a variable search. Then, it was used to determine how 9 parameters (Intruder Front sensors active (boolean), Intruder Rear sensors active (boolean), Agent Front sensors active (boolean), Agent Rear sensors active (boolean), RSSI signal intensity/strength (integer), Elapsed time (in seconds), Distance between Agent and Intruder (m), Angle of Agent relative to Intruder (angle between vehicles °), Altitude difference between Agent and Intruder (m)) influence prediction of agent speed relative to intruder. The results indicated that distance between Vehicle agent and Vehicle intruder (m) and angle of Vehicle agent relative to Vehicle Intruder (angle between vehicles °) is the most influential parameters to Vehicle agent speed relative to Vehicle intruder.
Sequences of measures on atomic subalgebras of P(N) | Aizpuru ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Sequences of measures on atomic subalgebras of P(N). Antonio Aizpuru, Antonio Gutierrez-D´avila. Abstract. A vector form of Phillips' theorem, for atomic Boolean algebras with countably many atoms, is given. As a consequence we obtain a new characterization of weak compact sets of σ-additive measures. Quaestiones ...
Learning context conditions for BDI plan selection
Singh, D.; Sardina, S.; Padgham, L.; Airiau, S.; van der Hoek, W.; Kaminka, G.A.; Lespérance, Y.; Luck, M.; Sen, S.
2010-01-01
An important drawback to the popular Belief, Desire, and Intentions (BDI) paradigm is that such systems include no element of learning from experience. In particular, the so-called context conditions of plans, on which the whole model relies for plan selection, are restricted to be boolean formulas
Rational approximations and quantum algorithms with postselection
Mahadev, U.; de Wolf, R.
2015-01-01
We study the close connection between rational functions that approximate a given Boolean function, and quantum algorithms that compute the same function using post-selection. We show that the minimal degree of the former equals (up to a factor of 2) the minimal query complexity of the latter. We
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Christiansen, Mikkel; Fleury, Emmanuel
2004-01-01
benefits of the IDD structure are that it provides access to boolean algebra over filters, efficient classification time, and potentially a compact representation. Results from the empirical evaluation shows that IDDs are scalable in terms of memory usage: a 50,000 rule filter requires only 3MB of memory...
A Deterministic Approach to the Synchronization of Cellular Automata
Garcia, J.; Garcia, P.
2011-01-01
In this work we introduce a deterministic scheme of synchronization of linear and nonlinear cellular automata (CA) with complex behavior, connected through a master-slave coupling. By using a definition of Boolean derivative, we use the linear approximation of the automata to determine a function of coupling that promotes synchronization without perturbing all the sites of the slave system.
Fail-safe logic elements for use with reactor safety systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bobis, J.P.; McDowell, W.P.
1976-01-01
A complete fail-safe trip circuit is described which utilizes fail-safe logic elements. The logic elements used are analog multipliers and active bandpass filter networks. These elements perform Boolean operations on a set of AC signals from the output of a reactor safety-channel trip comparator
On the Equational Definition of the Least Prefixed Point
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Santocanale, Luigi
2003-01-01
We propose a method to axiomatize by equations the least prefixed point of an order preserving function. We discuss its domain of application and show that the Boolean modal μ-calculus has a complete equational axiomatization. The method relies on the existence of a “closed structure” and its rel...
Handelman's hierarchy for the maximum stable set problem
Laurent, M.; Sun, Z.
2014-01-01
The maximum stable set problem is a well-known NP-hard problem in combinatorial optimization, which can be formulated as the maximization of a quadratic square-free polynomial over the (Boolean) hypercube. We investigate a hierarchy of linear programming relaxations for this problem, based on a
A Study of Search Intermediary Working Notes: Implications for IR System Design.
Spink, Amanda; Goodrum, Abby
1996-01-01
Reports findings from an exploratory study investigating working notes created during encoding and external storage (EES) processes by human search intermediaries (librarians at the University of North Texas) using a Boolean information retrieval (IR) system. Implications for the design of IR interfaces and further research is discussed.…
On hardness of multilinearization, and VNP-completeness in characteristics 2
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Hrubeš, Pavel
2016-01-01
Roč. 9, č. 1 (2016), č. článku 1. ISSN 1942-3454 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 339691 - FEALORA Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : boolean formula * complexity measure Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics http://dl.acm.org/ citation .cfm?doid=3007903.2940323
Better Size Estimation for Sparse Matrix Products
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Amossen, Rasmus Resen; Campagna, Andrea; Pagh, Rasmus
2010-01-01
We consider the problem of doing fast and reliable estimation of the number of non-zero entries in a sparse Boolean matrix product. Let n denote the total number of non-zero entries in the input matrices. We show how to compute a 1 ± ε approximation (with small probability of error) in expected t...
On the complexity of computing two nonlinearity measures
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Find, Magnus Gausdal
2014-01-01
We study the computational complexity of two Boolean nonlinearity measures: the nonlinearity and the multiplicative complexity. We show that if one-way functions exist, no algorithm can compute the multiplicative complexity in time 2O(n) given the truth table of length 2n, in fact under the same ...
Information Resources Usage in Project Management Digital Learning System
Davidovitch, Nitza; Belichenko, Margarita; Kravchenko, Yurii
2017-01-01
The article combines a theoretical approach to structuring knowledge that is based on the integrated use of fuzzy semantic network theory predicates, Boolean functions, theory of complexity of network structures and some practical aspects to be considered in the distance learning at the university. The paper proposes a methodological approach that…
Introducing Online Bibliographic Service to its Users: The Online Presentation
Crane, Nancy B.; Pilachowski, David M.
1978-01-01
A description of techniques for introducing online services to new user groups includes discussion of terms and their definitions, evolution of online searching, advantages and disadvantages of online searching, production of the data bases, search strategies, Boolean logic, costs and charges, "do's and don'ts," and a user search questionnaire. (J…
Using the Perceptron Algorithm to Find Consistent Hypotheses
Anthony, M.; Shawe-Taylor, J.
1993-01-01
The perceptron learning algorithm yields quite naturally an algorithm for finding a linearly separable boolean function consistent with a sample of such a function. Using the idea of a specifying sample, we give a simple proof that this algorithm is not efficient, in general.
On the Combinatorics of SAT and the Complexity of Planar Problems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Talebanfard, Navid
In this thesis we study several problems arising in Boolean satisfiability ranging from lower bounds for SAT algorithms and proof systems to extremal properties of formulas. The first problem is about construction of hard instances for k-SAT algorithms. For PPSZ algorithm [40] we give the first...
Whose side are you on? : Finding solutions in a biased search-tree
Heule, M.J.H.; Van Maaren, H.
2008-01-01
We introduce a new jump strategy for look-ahead based satisfiability (Sat) solvers that aims to boost their performance on satisfiable formulae, while maintaining their behavior on unsatisfiable instances. Direction heuristics select which Boolean value to assign to a decision variable. They are
Gaussian width bounds with applications to arithmetic progressions in random settings
J. Briët (Jop); S. Gopi (Sivakanth)
2017-01-01
textabstractMotivated by two problems on arithmetic progressions (APs)—concerning large deviations for AP counts in random sets and random differences in Szemer´edi’s theorem— we prove upper bounds on the Gaussian width of the image of the n-dimensional Boolean hypercube under a mapping ψ : Rn →
Topology of Document Retrieval Systems.
Everett, Daniel M.; Cater, Steven C.
1992-01-01
Explains the use of a topological structure to examine the closeness between documents in retrieval systems and analyzes the topological structure of a vector-space model, a fuzzy-set model, an extended Boolean model, a probabilistic model, and a TIRS (Topological Information Retrieval System) model. Proofs for the results are appended. (17…
Classes of feedforward neural networks and their circuit complexity
Shawe-Taylor, John S.; Anthony, Martin H.G.; Kern, Walter
1992-01-01
This paper aims to place neural networks in the context of boolean circuit complexity. We define appropriate classes of feedforward neural networks with specified fan-in, accuracy of computation and depth and using techniques of communication complexity proceed to show that the classes fit into a
Decoding Reed-Muller Codes beyond Half the Minimum Distance
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Heydtmann, Agnes Eileen; Jakobsen, Thomas
1999-01-01
vanishing when evaluated at points in $\\ff^m_2$ joint with the corresponding received bits. To obtain a list of codewords closest to the received word we need to factor $Q$ considered as an element of the quotient ring of boolean polynomials which is not a unique factorization domain. Therefore we introduce...
Sequential, progressive, equal-power, reflective beam-splitter arrays
Manhart, Paul K.
2017-11-01
The equations to calculate equal-power reflectivity of a sequential series of beam splitters is presented. Non-sequential optical design examples are offered for uniform illumination using diode lasers. Objects created using Boolean operators and Swept Surfaces can create objects capable of reflecting light into predefined elevation and azimuth angles. Analysis of the illumination patterns for the array are also presented.
Expression and cut parser for CMS event data
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lista, Luca; Jones, Christopher D; Petrucciani, Giovanni
2010-01-01
We present a parser to evaluate expressions and Boolean selections that is applied on CMS event data for event filtering and analysis purposes. The parser is based on Boost Spirit grammar definition, and uses Reflex dictionaries for class introspection. The parser allows for a natural definition of expressions and cuts in users' configurations, and provides good runtime performance compared to other existing parsers.
Weak Distributivity. A Problem of von Neumann and the Mystery of Measurability
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Balcar, Bohuslav; Jech, Thomas
2006-01-01
Roč. 12, č. 2 (2006), s. 241-266 ISSN 1079-8986 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA100190509 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : Boolean algebra * weak distributivity * submeasure Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.525, year: 2006
Algebraic characterizations of measure algebras
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Jech, Thomas
2008-01-01
Roč. 136, č. 4 (2008), s. 1285-1294 ISSN 0002-9939 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100190509 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : Von - Neumann * sequential topology * Boolean-algebras * Souslins problem * Submeasures Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.584, year: 2008
How to Circumvent Church Numerals
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Goldberg, Mayer; Torgersen, Mads
2002-01-01
In this work we consider a standard numeral system in the lambda-calculus, and the elementary arithmetic and Boolean functions and predicates defined on this numeral system, and show how to construct terms that "circumvent" or "defeat" these functions: The equality predicate is satisfied when com...
Solving a discrete model of the lac operon using Z3
Gutierrez, Natalia A.
2014-05-01
A discrete model for the Lcac Operon is solved using the SMT-solver Z3. Traditionally the Lac Operon is formulated in a continuous math model. This model is a system of ordinary differential equations. Here, it was considerated as a discrete model, based on a Boolean red. The biological problem of Lac Operon is enunciated as a problem of Boolean satisfiability, and it is solved using an STM-solver named Z3. Z3 is a powerful solver that allows understanding the basic dynamic of the Lac Operon in an easier and more efficient way. The multi-stability of the Lac Operon can be easily computed with Z3. The code that solves the Boolean red can be written in Python language or SMT-Lib language. Both languages were used in local version of the program as online version of Z3. For future investigations it is proposed to solve the Boolean red of Lac Operon using others SMT-solvers as cvc4, alt-ergo, mathsat and yices.
On algorithmic equivalence of instruction sequences for computing bit string functions
Bergstra, J.A.; Middelburg, C.A.
2015-01-01
Every partial function from bit strings of a given length to bit strings of a possibly different given length can be computed by a finite instruction sequence that contains only instructions to set and get the content of Boolean registers, forward jump instructions, and a termination instruction. We
On algorithmic equivalence of instruction sequences for computing bit string functions
Bergstra, J.A.; Middelburg, C.A.
2014-01-01
Every partial function from bit strings of a given length to bit strings of a possibly different given length can be computed by a finite instruction sequence that contains only instructions to set and get the content of Boolean registers, forward jump instructions, and a termination instruction. We
Subject Retrieval from Full-Text Databases in the Humanities
East, John W.
2007-01-01
This paper examines the problems involved in subject retrieval from full-text databases of secondary materials in the humanities. Ten such databases were studied and their search functionality evaluated, focusing on factors such as Boolean operators, document surrogates, limiting by subject area, proximity operators, phrase searching, wildcards,…
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Balcar, B.; Doucha, Michal; Hrušák, M.
2015-01-01
Roč. 32, č. 1 (2015), s. 69-81 ISSN 0167-8094 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100190902 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : forcing * Boolean algebras * base tree Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.614, year: 2015 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11083-013-9316-2
Duration Calculus: Logical Foundations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Michael Reichhardt; Chaochen, Zhou
1997-01-01
The Duration Calculus (abbreviated DC) represents a logical approach to formal design of real-time systems, where real numbers are used to model time and Boolean valued functions over time are used to model states and events of real-time systems. Since it introduction, DC has been applied to many...
Quantum Probability Zero-One Law for Sequential Terminal Events
Rehder, Wulf
1980-07-01
On the basis of the Jauch-Piron quantum probability calculus a zero-one law for sequential terminal events is proven, and the significance of certain crucial axioms in the quantum probability calculus is discussed. The result shows that the Jauch-Piron set of axioms is appropriate for the non-Boolean algebra of sequential events.
A New One-Pass Transformation into Monadic Normal Form
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Danvy, Olivier
2003-01-01
We present a translation from the call-by-value λ-calculus to monadic normal forms that includes short-cut boolean evaluation. The translation is higher-order, operates in one pass, duplicates no code, generates no chains of thunks, and is properly tail recursive. It makes a crucial use of symbolic...
Developing and Testing an Online Tool for Teaching GIS Concepts Applied to Spatial Decision-Making
Carver, Steve; Evans, Andy; Kingston, Richard
2004-01-01
The development and testing of a Web-based GIS e-learning resource is described. This focuses on the application of GIS for siting a nuclear waste disposal facility and the associated principles of spatial decision-making using Boolean and weighted overlay methods. Initial student experiences in using the system are analysed as part of a research…
Some open problems in noncommutative probability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kruszynski, P.
1981-01-01
A generalization of probability measures to non-Boolean structures is discussed. The starting point of the theory is the Gleason theorem about the form of measures on closed subspaces of a Hilbert space. The problems are formulated in terms of probability on lattices of projections in arbitrary von Neumann algebras. (Auth.)
Request language of the JINR information retrieval system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arnaudov, D.D.; Kozhenkova, Z.I.
1975-01-01
A classification of operating languages of information retreival systems (IRS) is given. A justification is made for the selection of the descriptor no-grammar language for coding documents and queries in the JINR IRS. A Boolean form query minimization algorithm is applied
Trcka, N.; Andova, S.; McIver, A.; D'Argenio, P.; Cuijpers, P.J.L.; Markovski, J.; Morgan, C.; Núñez, M.
2009-01-01
We first study labeled transition systems with explicit successful termination. We establish the notions of strong, weak, and branching bisimulation in terms of boolean matrix theory, introducing thus a novel and powerful algebraic apparatus. Next we consider Markov reward chains which are
Creating Büchi automata for multi-valued model checking
Vijzelaar, Stefan J.J.; Fokkink, Wan J.
2017-01-01
In explicit state model checking of linear temporal logic properties, a Büchi automaton encodes a temporal property. It interleaves with a Kripke model to form a state space, which is searched for counterexamples. Multi-valued model checking considers additional truth values beyond the Boolean true
Analysis of signature wrapping attacks and countermeasures
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gajek, Sebastian; Jensen, Meiko; Liao, Lijun
2009-01-01
In recent research it turned out that Boolean verification, of digital signatures in the context of WSSecurity, is likely to fail: If parts of a SOAP message, are signed and the signature verification applied to, the whole document returns true, then nevertheless the, document may have been...
Dadgour, Hamed F.; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa; Banerjee, Kaustav
2010-01-01
. While this in itself is a major improvement, its implications for minimizing Boolean functions using Karnaugh maps (K-maps) are even more significant. In the standard K-map technique, which is used in digital circuit design, adjacent "1s" (minterms