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Sample records for undiluted human cervicovaginal

  1. A self-sampling method to obtain large volumes of undiluted cervicovaginal secretions.

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    Boskey, Elizabeth R; Moench, Thomas R; Hees, Paul S; Cone, Richard A

    2003-02-01

    Studies of vaginal physiology and pathophysiology sometime require larger volumes of undiluted cervicovaginal secretions than can be obtained by current methods. A convenient method for self-sampling these secretions outside a clinical setting can facilitate such studies of reproductive health. The goal was to develop a vaginal self-sampling method for collecting large volumes of undiluted cervicovaginal secretions. A menstrual collection device (the Instead cup) was inserted briefly into the vagina to collect secretions that were then retrieved from the cup by centrifugation in a 50-ml conical tube. All 16 women asked to perform this procedure found it feasible and acceptable. Among 27 samples, an average of 0.5 g of secretions (range, 0.1-1.5 g) was collected. This is a rapid and convenient self-sampling method for obtaining relatively large volumes of undiluted cervicovaginal secretions. It should prove suitable for a wide range of assays, including those involving sexually transmitted diseases, microbicides, vaginal physiology, immunology, and pathophysiology.

  2. Human cervicovaginal fluid biomarkers to predict term and preterm labor

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    Heng, Yujing J.; Liong, Stella; Permezel, Michael; Rice, Gregory E.; Di Quinzio, Megan K. W.; Georgiou, Harry M.

    2015-01-01

    Preterm birth (PTB; birth before 37 completed weeks of gestation) remains the major cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality. The current generation of biomarkers predictive of PTB have limited utility. In pregnancy, the human cervicovaginal fluid (CVF) proteome is a reflection of the local biochemical milieu and is influenced by the physical changes occurring in the vagina, cervix and adjacent overlying fetal membranes. Term and preterm labor (PTL) share common pathways of cervical ripening, myometrial activation and fetal membranes rupture leading to birth. We therefore hypothesize that CVF biomarkers predictive of labor may be similar in both the term and preterm labor setting. In this review, we summarize some of the existing published literature as well as our team's breadth of work utilizing the CVF for the discovery and validation of putative CVF biomarkers predictive of human labor. Our team established an efficient method for collecting serial CVF samples for optimal 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis resolution and analysis. We first embarked on CVF biomarker discovery for the prediction of spontaneous onset of term labor using 2D-electrophoresis and solution array multiple analyte profiling. 2D-electrophoretic analyses were subsequently performed on CVF samples associated with PTB. Several proteins have been successfully validated and demonstrate that these biomarkers are associated with term and PTL and may be predictive of both term and PTL. In addition, the measurement of these putative biomarkers was found to be robust to the influences of vaginal microflora and/or semen. The future development of a multiple biomarker bed-side test would help improve the prediction of PTB and the clinical management of patients. PMID:26029118

  3. The microstructure and bulk rheology of human cervicovaginal mucus are remarkably resistant to changes in pH.

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    Wang, Ying-Ying; Lai, Samuel K; Ensign, Laura M; Zhong, Weixi; Cone, Richard; Hanes, Justin

    2013-12-09

    The protective barrier, lubricant, and clearance functions of mucus are intimately coupled to its microstructure and bulk rheology. Mucus gels consist of a network of mucin biopolymers along with lipids, salts, and other proteins and exhibit similar biochemical and physical properties across diverse mucosal surfaces. Nevertheless, mucus is exposed to a broad range of pH values throughout the human body. Protein functions are typically sensitive to small changes in pH, and prior investigations using reconstituted, purified mucin gels suggested mucus undergoes a transition from a low-viscosity liquid at neutral pH to a highly viscoelastic solid at low pH. We sought to determine whether those observations hold for fresh, minimally perturbed human mucus ex vivo by using different-sized muco-inert nanoparticles to probe microstructure and cone-and-plate rheometry to measure bulk rheology. We demonstrate that both the microstructure and bulk rheology of fresh, undiluted, and minimally perturbed cervicovaginal mucus exhibit relatively minor changes from pH 1-2 to 8-9, in marked contrast with the pH sensitivity of purified mucin gels. Our work also suggests additional components in mucus secretions, typically eliminated during mucin purification and reconstitution, may play an important role in maintaining the protective properties of mucus.

  4. Cervicovaginal microbiota composition correlates with the acquisition of high-risk human papillomavirus types.

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    Huang, Xiaojie; Li, Chao; Li, Fang; Zhao, Junwei; Wan, Xiaoping; Wang, Kai

    2018-02-26

    High-risk (hr) human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is closely associated with the clinical conditions of both squamous intraepithelial lesions (SILs) and cervical carcinoma. However, it remains unclear what factors determine the type of hrHPV infection. Here, we have comprehensively investigated the bacterial composition of the cervicovaginal microbiota of 280 women infected with one type of hrHPV (HPV 16, 52 or 58) by the pyrosequencing of barcoded 16S rRNA genes. Differential microbiota composition was observed among various SIL groups and within the subgroups of each group. This result showed that it is not the microbiota diversity or the common microbiota, but rather agents that are specific to each SIL that might have a positive influence on the acquisition of hrHPV types, independent of abundance. Specifically, a composition of Oribacterium, Lachnobacterium and Thermus in the cervicovaginal microbiota is more likely to be associated with HPV 16, while a composition of Motilibacter in the cervicovaginal microbiota is more likely to be associated with HPV 52, and a composition of Litorilinea and Paludibaculum with a concomitant paucity of L. iners in the cervicovaginal microbiota is more likely to be associated with HPV 58. Furthermore, functional predictions regarding infectious diseases and cancer-related genes disclosed significant differences (p composition of the cervicovaginal microbiota and the type of hrHPV acquired. © 2018 UICC.

  5. IgG antibodies against human papillomavirus type 16 E7 proteins in cervicovaginal washing fluid from patients with cervical neoplasia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tjiong, M. Y.; ter Schegget, J.; Tjiong-A-Hung, S. P.; Out, T. A.; van der Vange, N.; Burger, M. P. M.; Struyk, L.

    2000-01-01

    Little information is available about the cervicovaginal mucosal antibodies against human papillomavirus (HPV) proteins. In this study specific IgG antibodies against HPV 16 E7 protein were determined in paired samples of cervicovaginal washing fluid and serum from patients with cervical cancer (n =

  6. Temporal expression of antioxidants in human cervicovaginal fluid associated with spontaneous labor.

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    Heng, Yujing Jan; Di Quinzio, Megan Katherine Waterhouse; Permezel, Michael; Rice, Gregory Edward; Georgiou, Harry Michael

    2010-10-01

    Proteomic analysis of human cervicovaginal fluid (CVF) by 2D electrophoresis revealed significant differential expression of several major antioxidant enzymes during late pregnancy and term labor. Temporal quantitative changes of total antioxidant capacity (TAC), Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase (Cu,Zn SOD) and thioredoxin-1 (Trx-1) with impending term labor were investigated, and the potential of these biomarkers as individual and multiple predictors of labor was determined. The TAC of CVF (n = 193) was 8-fold significantly lower in labor, and approximately 2-fold significantly lower at 0-7, 8-14, 15-21, and 22-28 days, compared with >or=29 days prior to labor onset (p labor (p labor (p = 0.002). The combination of TAC and Cu,Zn SOD produced the best predictive efficacy with 74% sensitivity and 95% specificity to predict term labor within 3 days of onset. These findings suggest that labor is associated with increased oxidative stress well before its onset and is reflected in the human CVF. The biomarkers identified in this study could serve as predictors of labor and offer potential strategies for novel therapeutics.

  7. Randomization modeling to ascertain clustering patterns of human papillomavirus types detected in cervicovaginal samples in the United States.

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    Troy David Querec

    Full Text Available Detection of multiple human papillomavirus (HPV types in the genital tract is common. Associations among HPV types may impact HPV vaccination modeling and type replacement. The objectives were to determine the distribution of concurrent HPV type infections in cervicovaginal samples and examine type-specific associations. We analyzed HPV genotyping results from 32,245 cervicovaginal specimens collected from women aged 11 to 83 years in the United States from 2001 through 2011. Statistical power was enhanced by combining 6 separate studies. Expected concurrent infection frequencies from a series of permutation models, each with increasing fidelity to the real data, were compared with the observed data. Statistics were computed based on the distributional properties of the randomized data. Concurrent detection occurred more than expected with 0 or ≥3 HPV types and less than expected with 1 and 2 types. Some women bear a disproportionate burden of the HPV type prevalence. Type associations were observed that exceeded multiple hypothesis corrected significance. Multiple HPV types were detected more frequently than expected by chance and associations among particular HPV types were detected. However vaccine-targeted types were not specifically affected, supporting the expectation that current bivalent/quadrivalent HPV vaccination will not result in type replacement with other high-risk types.

  8. Antibodies against human papillomavirus type 16 and 18 E6 and E7 proteins in cervicovaginal washings and serum of patients with cervical neoplasia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tjiong, M. Y.; Zumbach, K.; Schegget, J. T.; van der Vange, N.; Out, T. A.; Pawlita, M.; Struyk, L.

    2001-01-01

    Serum antibodies against the E6 and E7 proteins of human papillomavirus (HPV) 16 and 18 are associated with cervical cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of local antibodies against HPV in cervicovaginal washings (CWs). In this study antibodies against the native HPV16 and

  9. Inhibition of HIV transmission in human cervicovaginal explants and humanized mice using CD4 aptamer-siRNA chimeras

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    Wheeler, Lee Adam; Trifonova, Radiana; Vrbanac, Vladimir; Basar, Emre; McKernan, Shannon; Xu, Zhan; Seung, Edward; Deruaz, Maud; Dudek, Tim; Einarsson, Jon Ivar; Yang, Linda; Allen, Todd M.; Luster, Andrew D.; Tager, Andrew M.; Dykxhoorn, Derek M.; Lieberman, Judy

    2011-01-01

    The continued spread of the HIV epidemic underscores the need to interrupt transmission. One attractive strategy is a topical vaginal microbicide. Sexual transmission of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) in mice can be inhibited by intravaginal siRNA application. To overcome the challenges of knocking down gene expression in immune cells susceptible to HIV infection, we used chimeric RNAs composed of an aptamer fused to an siRNA for targeted gene knockdown in cells bearing an aptamer-binding receptor. Here, we showed that CD4 aptamer-siRNA chimeras (CD4-AsiCs) specifically suppress gene expression in CD4+ T cells and macrophages in vitro, in polarized cervicovaginal tissue explants, and in the female genital tract of humanized mice. CD4-AsiCs do not activate lymphocytes or stimulate innate immunity. CD4-AsiCs that knock down HIV genes and/or CCR5 inhibited HIV infection in vitro and in tissue explants. When applied intravaginally to humanized mice, CD4-AsiCs protected against HIV vaginal transmission. Thus, CD4-AsiCs could be used as the active ingredient of a microbicide to prevent HIV sexual transmission. PMID:21576818

  10. The Cervicovaginal Microbiota and Its Associations With Human Papillomavirus Detection in HIV-Infected and HIV-Uninfected Women

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    Reimers, Laura L.; Mehta, Supriya D.; Massad, L. Stewart; Burk, Robert D.; Xie, Xianhong; Ravel, Jacques; Cohen, Mardge H.; Palefsky, Joel M.; Weber, Kathleen M.; Xue, Xiaonan; Anastos, Kathryn; Minkoff, Howard; Atrio, Jessica; D'Souza, Gypsyamber; Ye, Qian; Colie, Christine; Zolnik, Christine P.; Spear, Gregory T.; Strickler, Howard D.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is characterized by low abundance of Lactobacillus species, high pH, and immune cell infiltration and has been associated with an increased risk of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. We molecularly assessed the cervicovaginal microbiota over time in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–infected and HIV-uninfected women to more comprehensively study the HPV-microbiota relationship, controlling for immune status. Methods. 16S ribosomal RNA gene amplicon pyrosequencing and HPV DNA testing were conducted annually in serial cervicovaginal lavage specimens obtained over 8–10 years from African American women from Chicago, of whom 22 were HIV uninfected, 22 were HIV infected with a stable CD4+ T-cell count of > 500 cells/mm3, and 20 were HIV infected with progressive immunosuppression. Vaginal pH was serially measured. Results. The relative abundances of Lactobacillus crispatus and other Lactobacillus species were inversely associated with vaginal pH (all P < .001). High (vs low) L. crispatus relative abundance was associated with decreased HPV detection (odds ratio, 0.48; 95% confidence interval, .24–.96; Ptrend = .03) after adjustment for repeated observation and multiple covariates, including pH and study group. However, there were no associations between HPV and the relative abundance of Lactobacillus species as a group, nor with Lactobacillus gasseri, Lactobacillus iners, and Lactobacillus jensenii individually. Conclusions. L. crispatus may have a beneficial effect on the burden of HPV in both HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected women (independent of pH). PMID:27521363

  11. M48U1 and Tenofovir combination synergistically inhibits HIV infection in activated PBMCs and human cervicovaginal histocultures.

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    Musumeci, Giuseppina; Bon, Isabella; Lembo, David; Cagno, Valeria; Re, Maria Carla; Signoretto, Caterina; Diani, Erica; Lopalco, Lucia; Pastori, Claudia; Martin, Loïc; Ponchel, Gilles; Gibellini, Davide; Bouchemal, Kawthar

    2017-02-01

    Microbicides are considered a promising strategy for preventing human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) transmission and disease. In this report, we first analyzed the antiviral activity of the miniCD4 M48U1 peptide formulated in hydroxyethylcellulose (HEC) hydrogel in activated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) infected with R5- and X4-tropic HIV-1 strains. The results demonstrate that M48U1 prevented infection by several HIV-1 strains including laboratory strains, and HIV-1 subtype B and C strains isolated from the activated PBMCs of patients. M48U1 also inhibited infection by two HIV-1 transmitted/founder infectious molecular clones (pREJO.c/2864 and pTHRO.c/2626). In addition, M48U1 was administered in association with tenofovir, and these two antiretroviral drugs synergistically inhibited HIV-1 infection. In the next series of experiments, we tested M48U1 alone or in combination with tenofovir in HEC hydrogel with an organ-like structure mimicking human cervicovaginal tissue. We demonstrated a strong antiviral effect in absence of significant tissue toxicity. Together, these results indicate that co-treatment with M48U1 plus tenofovir is an effective antiviral strategy that may be used as a new topical microbicide to prevent HIV-1 transmission.

  12. Enhanced Trapping of HIV-1 by Human Cervicovaginal Mucus Is Associated with Lactobacillus crispatus-Dominant Microbiota.

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    Nunn, Kenetta L; Wang, Ying-Ying; Harit, Dimple; Humphrys, Michael S; Ma, Bing; Cone, Richard; Ravel, Jacques; Lai, Samuel K

    2015-10-06

    Cervicovaginal mucus (CVM) can provide a barrier that precludes HIV and other sexually transmitted virions from reaching target cells in the vaginal epithelium, thereby preventing or reducing infections. However, the barrier properties of CVM differ from woman to woman, and the causes of these variations are not yet well understood. Using high-resolution particle tracking of fluorescent HIV-1 pseudoviruses, we found that neither pH nor Nugent scores nor total lactic acid levels correlated significantly with virus trapping in unmodified CVM from diverse donors. Surprisingly, HIV-1 was generally trapped in CVM with relatively high concentrations of d-lactic acid and a Lactobacillus crispatus-dominant microbiota. In contrast, a substantial fraction of HIV-1 virions diffused rapidly through CVM with low concentrations of d-lactic acid that had a Lactobacillus iners-dominant microbiota or significant amounts of Gardnerella vaginalis, a bacterium associated with bacterial vaginosis. Our results demonstrate that the vaginal microbiota, including specific species of Lactobacillus, can alter the diffusional barrier properties of CVM against HIV and likely other sexually transmitted viruses and that these microbiota-associated changes may account in part for the elevated risks of HIV acquisition linked to bacterial vaginosis or intermediate vaginal microbiota. Variations in the vaginal microbiota, especially shifts away from Lactobacillus-dominant microbiota, are associated with differential risks of acquiring HIV or other sexually transmitted infections. However, emerging evidence suggests that Lactobacillus iners frequently colonizes women with recurring bacterial vaginosis, raising the possibility that L. iners may not be as protective as other Lactobacillus species. Our study was designed to improve understanding of how the cervicovaginal mucus barrier against HIV may vary between women along with the vaginal microbiota and led to the finding that the vaginal microbiota

  13. Prevalence and sociodemographic correlates of cervicovaginal human papillomavirus (HPV) carriage in a cross-sectional, multiethnic, community-based female Asian population.

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    Khoo, Su Pei; Bhoo-Pathy, Nirmala; Yap, Siew Hwei; Anwar Shafii, Mohd Khairul; Hairizan Nasir, Nazrilla; Belinson, Jerome; Subramaniam, ShriDevi; Goh, Pik Pin; Zeng, Ming; Tan, Hong Dong; Gravitt, Patti; Woo, Yin Ling

    2017-11-27

    Cervical cancer is a largely preventable disease, and the strategic implementation of a cervical cancer prevention programme is partly dependent on the impact of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection interpreted within the context of the country's sociodemographic attributes. The objective of this study is to determine the prevalence of cervicovaginal HPV infection among a healthy, community-based, multiethnic Malaysian population. The HPV prevalence was subsequently correlated to the individual's sociodemographics and sexual/reproductive history. Of significance, the observed prevalence captured was in a birth cohort not included in the national school-based HPV vaccination programme. This was a cross-sectional study where 1293 healthy women aged between 18 and 60 years were recruited via convenience sampling from five community-based clinics in Selangor, Malaysia. Cervicovaginal self-samples were obtained and DNA was extracted for HPV detection and genotyping. A comprehensive questionnaire was administered to determine the sociodemographics and behavioural patterns of participants. The median age at enrolment was 37 years old (IQR: 30-47). In total, 86/1190 (7.2%) of the samples collected were positive for HPV infection, with the highest HPV prevalence (11.9%) detected in the subgroup of 18-24 years old. The top three most prevalent HPV genotypes were HPV 16, 52 and 58. The independent risk factors associated with higher rates of HPV infection included Indian ethnicity, widowed status and women with partners who are away from home for long periods and/or has another sexual partner. The overall prevalence of HPV infection in this Malaysian multiethnic population was 7.2%, with 6.5% being high-risk genotypes. The top three most common high-risk HPV types were HPV 16, 52 and 58. This information is important for the planning of primary (HPV vaccination) and secondary (screening) cervical cancer prevention programmes in Malaysia. © Article author(s) (or their

  14. Human telomerase RNA gene (TERC) gain and polysomy of chromosome 3 in cervicovaginal liquid-based pap preparations: a fluorescence in situ hybridization study.

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    Sui, W; Ou, M; Chen, J; Yu, J; Zhang, Y; Lan, H; Huang, H; Dai, Y

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE. This study investigated human telomerase RNA gene (TERC) gain and polysomy of chromosome 3 in cervicovaginal liquid-based pap preparations in Guilin, China, and assessed the relationship between FISH findings and clinical diagnoses. METHODS. Slides prepared from 63 liquid-based preparations with cytologic diagnoses of negative for squamous intraepithelial lesion or malignancy (NILM n = 9), atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS, n = 18), low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL, n = 14), high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL, n = 9), and cervical squamous cell carcinoma (SCCA, n = 13) were analyzed for TERC gain and polysomy of chromosome 3 using a commercially available two-color FISH probe. The results of the cytologic analysis and those of concurrent or subsequent biopsies, when available, were compared with the FISH findings. The Mann-Whitney test was used to assess associations between FISH findings and diagnoses. RESULTS. TERC gain and polysomy of chromosome 3 were significantly associated with the cytologic diagnosis (p? 0.001). Patients with HSIL or SCCA cytology diagnoses had a significantly higher percentage of cells with TERC gain and polysomy of chromosome 3 than did patients with NILM, ASCUS or LSIL cytologic diagnoses. Those abnormal cases with CIN1 histological diagnosis had a significantly lower percentage of cells with TERC gain and polysomy of chromosome 3 than did patients with a CIN2, CIN3 and SCCA histological diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS. TERC gain and polysomy of chromosome 3 may be important associated genetic events in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and carcinoma. FISH is a potential tool for the diagnoses of uterine cervix disease.

  15. TSPY4 is a novel sperm-specific biomarker of semen exposure in human cervicovaginal fluids; potential use in HIV prevention and contraception studies.

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    Jacot, Terry A; Zalenskaya, Irina; Mauck, Christine; Archer, David F; Doncel, Gustavo F

    2013-09-01

    Developing an objective, reliable method to determine semen exposure in cervicovaginal fluids is important for accurately studying the efficacy of vaginal microbicides and contraceptives. Y-chromosome biomarkers offer better stability, sensitivity, and specificity than protein biomarkers. TSPY4 belongs to the TSPY (testis-specific protein Y-encoded) family of homologous genes on the Y-chromosome. Using a multiplex PCR amplifying TSPY4, amelogenin, and Sex-determining region in the Y chromosome (SRY), our objective was to determine whether a gene in the TSPY family was a more sensitive marker of semen exposure in cervicovaginal fluids than SRY. The multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was developed using sperm and vaginal epithelial (female) DNA. Diluted sperm DNA and mixed male/female DNA was used to determine the sensitivity of the multiplex PCR. Potential interference of TSPY4 amplification by components in cervicovaginal and seminal fluids was determined. TSPY4 and SRY amplification was also investigated in women participating in a separate IRB-approved clinical study in which cervicovaginal swab DNA was collected before semen exposure and at various time points after exposure. TSPY4, SRY, and amelogenin were amplified in sperm DNA, but only amelogenin in female DNA. The limit of sperm DNA from which TSPY4 could be amplified was lower than SRY (4 pg vs 80 pg). TSPY4 could also be amplified from mixed male/female DNA. Amplification was not affected by cervicovaginal and seminal components. Using cervicovaginal swab DNA from three women before and after semen exposure, TSPY4 was detected up to 72 h post exposure while SRY detection was observed up to 24-48 h. TSPY4 was detected up to 7 days post exposure in one out of three women. We have demonstrated that TSPY4 is a new sensitive, and sperm-specific biomarker. The multiplex PCR incorporating this new biomarker has potential to be an objective measure for determining semen exposure in clinical trials of

  16. The effects of intracrystalline and surface-bound proteins on the attachment of calcium oxalate monohydrate crystals to renal cells in undiluted human urine.

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    Grover, Phulwinder K; Thurgood, Lauren A; Wang, Tingting; Ryall, Rosemary L

    2010-03-01

    To compare the binding to Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK)-II cells of: (i) inorganic calcium oxalate monohydrate (iCOM) crystals and COM crystals precipitated from urine containing different concentrations of protein; and (ii) urinary COM crystals containing intracrystalline and intracrystalline + surface-bound protein. Urinary COM crystals were generated in sieved (sCOM), centrifuged and filtered (cfCOM), and ultrafiltered (ufCOM) portions of a pooled human urine and their adhesion to MDCK-II cells was compared using six different ultrafiltered urine samples as the binding medium. Crystal matrix extract (CME) was prepared by demineralizing calcium oxalate crystals precipitated from human urine and used to prepare COM crystals with intracrystalline, and intracrystalline + surface-bound CME at protein concentrations of 0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.5 and 5.0 mg/L. The amount of protein associated with the crystals was qualitatively assessed by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western blotting, using prothrombin fragment 1 (PTF1) as a marker. Protein concentration was determined in sieved, centrifuged and filtered, and ultrafiltered fractions of 10 additional urine samples. The median crystal attachment in the six urine types decreased in the order iCOM > ufCOM > cfCOM = sCOM, in inverse proportion to the concentration of protein in the solution or urine from which they were precipitated. sCOM and cfCOM crystals bound approximately 23% less than iCOM crystals. The attachment of COM crystals generated in the presence of increasing concentrations of CME proteins was unaffected up to a concentration of 5 mg/L, but binding of crystals containing the same concentrations of intracrystalline + surface-bound proteins decreased proportionally at protein concentrations from 0 to 5.0 mg/L. Inorganic COM crystals bind significantly more strongly to MDCK-II cells than urinary crystals precipitated from sieved, centrifuged and filtered, and ultrafiltered urine

  17. Cervicovaginal Safety of the Formulated, Biguanide-Based Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1) Inhibitor NB325 in a Murine Model

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    Lozenski, Karissa; Kish-Catalone, Tina; Pirrone, Vanessa; Rando, Robert F.; Labib, Mohamed; Wigdahl, Brian; Krebs, Fred C.

    2011-01-01

    Vaginal microbicides that reduce or eliminate the risk of HIV-1 sexual transmission must do so safely without adversely affecting the integrity of the cervicovaginal epithelium. The present studies were performed to assess the safety of the biguanide-based antiviral compound NB325 in a formulation suitable for topical application. Experiments were performed using a mouse model of cervicovaginal microbicide application, which was previously shown to be predictive of topical agent toxicity revealed in microbicide clinical trials. Mice were exposed vaginally to unformulated NB325 or NB325 formulated in the hydroxyethyl cellulose “universal placebo.” Following exposures to formulated 1% NB325 for 10 min to 24 h, the vaginal and cervical epithelia were generally intact, although some areas of minimal vaginal epithelial damage were noted. Although formulated NB325 appeared generally safe for application in these studies, the low but observable level of toxicity suggests the need for improvements in the compound and/or formulation. PMID:22131821

  18. Correlation between levels of human papillomavirus (HPV)-16 and 18 antibodies in serum and cervicovaginal secretions in girls and women vaccinated with the HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwarz, Tino F; Kocken, Mariëlle; Petäjä, Tiina

    2010-01-01

    This pooled analysis of data from four Phase III clinical trials was undertaken to assess the correlation between levels of anti-human papillomavirus (HPV)-16/18 antibodies in serum and cervicovaginal secretions (CVS) in girls and women vaccinated with the HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine. Serum...... and CVS samples were collected from a subset of women aged 10-65 years (N=350) at pre-specified time-points from 7 to 36 months post-vaccination. Anti-HPV-16/18 antibody levels in serum and CVS were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Pearson correlation coefficients between serum and CVS...... antibody levels, standardized for total immunoglobulin G, were calculated at each time-point in women with detectable antibodies in both serum and CVS. All subjects had seroconverted at Month 7 and remained seropositive through Month 36 for both antigens. Geometric mean titers of anti-HPV-16/18 antibodies...

  19. Printed glycan array: antibodies as probed in undiluted serum and effects of dilution.

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    Shilova, Nadezhda; Navakouski, Maxim; Khasbiullina, Nailya; Blixt, Ola; Bovin, Nicolai

    2012-04-01

    Using printed glycan array (PGA) we compared the results of antibody profiling in undiluted, moderately (1:15) and highly (1:100) diluted human blood serum. Undiluted serum is suitable for studying blood as a tissue in its native state, whereas to study the serum of newborns or small animals one usually has to dilute the starting material in order to have sufficient volume for PGA experimentation. The PGA used in this study allows for the use of whole serum without modifications to the protocol, and the background is surprisingly low. Antibodies profiles observed in undiluted serum versus 1:15 dilution were similar, with only a limited number of new signals identified in the undiluted serum. However, unexpected irregularities were found when IgG and IgM are measured separately, namely, at a 1:15 dilution more intensive IgG signals for many glycans are observed. We believe that in conditions of moderate dilution IgG and IgM antibodies can compete with each other for antigen and as a result, the higher affinity anti-glycan IgGs give rise to more intense signals. Therefore depending on the purpose, different dilutions of serum will be optimal: in competitive 1:15 conditions the observed IgG/IgM ratio corresponds to their titer, whereas at 1:100 dilution the measured ratio corresponds to real molar concentration of IgG and IgM.

  20. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) types 101 and 103 Isolated from Cervicovaginal Cells Lack an E6 Open Reading Frame (ORF) and are Related to Gamma-Papillomaviruses

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    Chen, Zigui; Schiffman, Mark; Herrero, Rolando; DeSalle, Rob; Burk, Robert D.

    2007-01-01

    Complete genomes of HPV101 and HPV103 were PCR amplified and cloned from cervicovaginal cells of a 34-year-old female with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 (CIN 3) and a 30-year-old female with a normal Pap test, respectively. HPV101 and HPV103 contain 4 early genes (E7, E1, E2 and E4) and 2 late genes (L2 and L1), but both lack the canonical E6 ORF. Pairwise alignment similarity of the L1 ORF nucleotide sequences of HPV101 and HPV103 indicated that they are at least 30 % dissimilar to each other and all known PVs. However, similarities of the other ORFs (E7, E1, E2, and L2) indicated that HPV101 and HPV103 are most related to each other. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that these two types form a monophyletic clade, clustering together with the gamma- and pi-PV groups. These data demonstrated that HPV genomes closely related to papillomaviruses identified from cutaneous epithelia can be isolated from the genital mucosal region. Moreover, this is the first report of HPVs lacking an E6 ORF and phylogenetic evidence suggests this occurred subsequent to their emergence from the gamma-/pi-PVs. PMID:17125811

  1. Correlation between levels of human papillomavirus (HPV)-16 and 18 antibodies in serum and cervicovaginal secretions in girls and women vaccinated with the HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Tino F; Kocken, Mariëlle; Petäjä, Tiina; Einstein, Mark H; Spaczynski, Marek; Louwers, Jacqueline A; Pedersen, Court; Levin, Myron; Zahaf, Toufik; Poncelet, Sylviane; Hardt, Karin; Descamps, Dominique; Dubin, Gary

    2010-12-01

    This pooled analysis of data from four Phase III clinical trials was undertaken to assess the correlation between levels of anti-human papillomavirus (HPV)-16/18 antibodies in serum and cervicovaginal secretions (CVS) in girls and women vaccinated with the HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine. Serum and CVS samples were collected from a subset of women aged 10-65 years (N=350) at pre-specified time-points from 7 to 36 months post-vaccination. Anti-HPV-16/18 antibody levels in serum and CVS were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Pearson correlation coefficients between serum and CVS antibody levels, standardized for total immunoglobulin G, were calculated at each time-point in women with detectable antibodies in both serum and CVS. All subjects had seroconverted at Month 7 and remained seropositive through Month 36 for both antigens. Geometric mean titers of anti-HPV-16/18 antibodies in serum were substantially higher at all time-points than those in a control group of women who had cleared a natural HPV infection in another trial. In women with detectable antibodies in both serum and CVS, good correlation was seen between HPV-16/18 antibody levels at all time-points (Pearson correlation coefficient: 0.84-0.92 for HPV-16 and 0.90-0.91 for HPV-18). The strong correlation between levels of HPV-16/18 antibodies in serum and CVS up to 36 months post-vaccination in girls and women vaccinated with the HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine supports transudation of serum antibodies as the mechanism by which antibodies are introduced into CVS. These CVS antibodies may play a role in the protective efficacy of this vaccine.

  2. High rate psychrophilic anaerobic digestion of undiluted dairy cow feces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massé, Daniel I; Saady, Noori M Cata

    2015-01-01

    Novel high rate psychrophilic (20°C) anaerobic digestion (PAD) of undiluted cow feces (11.5-13.5% total solids) was demonstrated using sequence batch reactor in long-term operation with successive cycles of 21days treatment cycle length (TCL). At organic loading rates (OLR) 9.0, 10.0, 11.0 and 12.0g TCOD kg(-1) inoculum d(-1) average specific methane yield (SMY) was 154.0±11.7, 152.1±12.2, 126.0±2.8 and 116.0±6.1NL CH4 per kg of VS fed, respectively. Volatile solids removal averaged around 31.7±3.3%, 32.2±1.0%, 27.9±2.2% and 23.4±0.5%, respectively. Substrate-to-inoculum ratio (SIR; wet-mass basis) ranged between 1.17±0.06 and 1.43±0.05. Concentration of volatile fatty acids in the bioreactors during the TCL indicated that hydrolysis was the rate limiting reaction. High rate PAD of undiluted cow feces is possible at OLR (g TCOD kg(-1) inoculum d(-1)) 9.0 and 10.0 with a TCL of 21days; however, OLR of 11.0 and 12.0 are also possible but require longer TCL to maintain the SMY. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Electromembrane extraction of stimulating drugs from undiluted whole blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jamt, Ragnhild Elén Gjulem; Gjelstad, Astrid; Eibak, Lars Erik Eng

    2012-01-01

    For the first time, electromembrane extraction (EME) of six basic drugs of abuse from undiluted whole blood and post mortem blood in a totally stagnant system is reported. Cathinone, methamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxy-amphetamine (MDA), 3,4-methylenedioxy-methamphet-amine (MDMA), ketamine and 2......,5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine (DOI) were extracted from the whole blood sample, through a supported liquid membrane (SLM) consisting of 1-ethyl-2-nitrobenzene (ENB) immobilized in the pores of a hollow fiber, and into an aqueous acceptor solution inside the lumen of the hollow fiber. The SLM acts as a barrier......-mass spectrometry, LC-MS. Recoveries in the range 10-30% were obtained from 80 µl whole blood within 5 min extraction time and an applied voltage of 15V across the SLM. The optimized technique was tested on real forensic whole blood samples taken from three forensic autopsy cases and on five forensic whole blood...

  4. [Pilot tests using molecular diagnostic assay cervicovaginal infection during pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrán-Montoya, J; Escudero-Gontes, S; Martínez-Huerta, N E; Ávila-Vergara, M A; Morales-Hernández, V; Canchola-Sotelo, C; Palacios-González, B; Vadillo-Ortega, F

    2016-08-01

    The prevalence of cervicovaginal infections during pregnancy has been associated with adverse perinatal outcomes however, the actual approach used for diagnosis is not effective. The aim of this study was to compare the diagnosis of vaginal infections in pregnant women using clinical, molecular diagnostic and traditional microbiological culture in a pilot study, to determine the prevalence and association with the development of preterm labor. We performed a nested cross-sectional study composed by 54 women in a cohort of pregnant women in Mexico City. Cervicovaginal infections were evaluated by clinical methods, microbiology culture and a commercially available molecular biology test. Prevalence of cervicovaginal infections during pregnancy was estimated between 28% and 50% according to methodologies. Considering the clinical diagnosis of preterm labor as the gold standard, all diagnostic tests were poor as predictors of preterm labor. Traditional approaches to establish the significance of cervicovaginal infection in pregnancy are exhausted, so be sought new ways to understand this complex relationship. Meanwhile it is recommended to continue to use traditional methods to identify infections during pregnancy in both knowledge of new methods aimed at understanding these relationships are sophisticated.

  5. The Effects of TCu-380 on Cervicovaginal Flora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mine Kanat Pektaş

    2007-12-01

    CONCLUSIONS: Being consistent with the literature, it can be suggested that the copper IUD causes the predominance of anaerobic species in the cervicovaginal flora. This clinically insignificant condition can be attributed to the copper content or threads of the IUDs. Yet there is no evidence that the prevalance of pelvic infections is influenced by the use of IUDs.

  6. Cervicovaginal Smear Findings of Endometrial Serous Carcinoma: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Figen Barut

    2008-08-01

    Although cervicovaginal smear generally is not a sensitive screening test for endometrial carcinomas, it played an important role in determining serous carcinoma. This may be related with advanced stage and/or aggressive features of the neoplastic process.

  7. Distinct Effects of the Cervicovaginal Microbiota and Herpes Simplex Type 2 Infection on Female Genital Tract Immunology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, B; Gajer, P; Yi, T J; Ma, B; Humphrys, M S; Thomas-Pavanel, J; Chieza, L; Janakiram, P; Saunders, M; Tharao, W; Huibner, S; Shahabi, K; Ravel, J; Kaul, R

    2017-05-01

    Genital inflammation is a key determinant of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission, and may increase HIV-susceptible target cells and alter epithelial integrity. Several genital conditions that increase HIV risk are more prevalent in African, Caribbean, and other black (ACB) women, including bacterial vaginosis and herpes simplex virus type-2 (HSV-2) infection. Therefore, we assessed the impact of the genital microbiota on mucosal immunology in ACB women and microbiome-HSV-2 interactions. Cervicovaginal secretions and endocervical cells were collected by cytobrush and Instead Softcup, respectively. T cells and dendritic cells were assessed by flow cytometry, cytokines by multiplex enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and the microbiota by 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid gene sequencing. The cervicovaginal microbiota of 51 participants were composed of community state types (CSTs) showing diversity (20/51; 39%) or predominated by Lactobacillus iners (22/51; 42%), L. crispatus (7/51; 14%), or L. gasseri (2/51; 4%). High-diversity CSTs and specific bacterial phyla (Gardnerella vaginalis and Prevotella bivia) were strongly associated with cervicovaginal inflammatory cytokines, but not with altered endocervical immune cells. However, cervical CD4+ T-cell number was associated with HSV-2 infection and a distinct cytokine profile. This suggests that the genital microbiota and HSV-2 infection may influence HIV susceptibility through independent biological mechanisms. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. The effects of TCu-380A on cervicovaginal flora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanat-Pektas, Mine; Ozat, Mustafa; Gungor, Tayfun

    2008-05-01

    This study aims to identify the alterations in cervicovaginal flora after insertion of TCu 380A which is a popular type of copper IUD. Among the women who visited the Department of Family Planning in our hospital during 1 month, 100 subjects who preferred IUDs for contraception and who had no history of local or systemic antibiotic use were considered eligible candidates. Anaerobic colonies, especially Gram-positive cocci and Gram-negative bacilli were isolated at significantly higher rates after the insertion of TCu-380A. Aerobic colonies were isolated relatively less. It can be suggested that copper IUD causes the predominance of anaerobic species in the cervicovaginal flora, which is consistent with the literature. This clinically insignificant condition can be attributed to the copper content or threads of the IUDs. Yet there is no evidence that the prevalance of pelvic infections is influenced by the use of IUDs.

  9. Nanoparticles in cigarette smoke; real-time undiluted measurements by a scanning mobility particle sizer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, W.D. van; Gopal, S.R.; Scheepers, P.T.J.

    2011-01-01

    Cigarette smoke is a complex mixture of smoke constituents, often characterised by size-resolved particle distributions. Since descriptions of ultrafine particles <50 nm are absent, our aim was to explore the existence of these nanoparticles in fresh and undiluted cigarette smoke. We measured

  10. Herpes Simplex Virus Type-2 Cervicovaginal Shedding Among Women Living With HIV-1 and Receiving Antiretroviral Therapy in Burkina Faso: An 8-Year Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Andrea J; Nagot, Nicolas; Weiss, Helen A; Konate, Issouf; Kania, Dramane; Segondy, Michel; Meda, Nicolas; van de Perre, Philippe; Mayaud, Philippe

    2016-03-01

    The impact of antiretroviral therapy (ART) on herpes simplex virus type-2 (HSV-2) replication is unclear. The aim of this study was to assess factors associated with cervicovaginal HSV-2 DNA shedding and genital ulcer disease (GUD) in a cohort of women living with human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) in Burkina Faso. Participants were screened for cervicovaginal HSV-2 DNA, GUD, cervicovaginal and systemic HIV-1 RNA, and reproductive tract infections every 3-6 months over 8 years. Associations with HSV-2 shedding and quantity were examined using random-effects logistic and linear regression, respectively. Of the 236 women with data on HSV-2 shedding, 151 took ART during the study period. Cervicovaginal HSV-2 DNA was detected in 42% of women (99 of 236) in 8.2% of visits (151 of 1848). ART was associated with a reduction in the odds of HSV-2 shedding, which declined for each year of ART use (odds ratio [OR], 0.74; 95% confidence interval [CI], .59-.92). In the multivariable model, the impact of ART was primarily associated with suppression of systemic HIV-1 RNA (adjusted OR, 0.32; 95% CI, .15-.67). A reduction in the odds of GUD was also observed during ART, mainly in those with HIV-1 suppression (adjusted OR, 0.53; 95% CI, .25-1.11). ART is strongly associated with a decrease in cervicovaginal HSV-2 shedding, and the impact was sustained over several years. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  11. Lower Levels of Cervicovaginal Tryptophan Are Associated With Natural Clearance of Chlamydia in Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Stephen J; Olson, Kristin M; Barnes, Stephen; Wilson, Landon S; Berryhill, Taylor F; Bakshi, Rakesh; Brown, LaDraka' T; Press, Christen G; Geisler, William M

    2017-06-15

    Chlamydiatrachomatis (Ct) infection causes significant morbidity. In vitro studies demonstrate that Ct growth inhibition occurs by interferon-gamma (IFN-γ)-mediated depletion of intracellular tryptophan, and some Ct strains utilize extracellular indole to restore tryptophan levels. Whether tryptophan levels are associated with Ct infection clearance in humans remains unknown. We evaluated tryptophan, indole, and IFN-γ levels in cervicovaginal lavages from women with either naturally cleared or persisting Ct infection. Women who cleared infection had significantly lower tryptophan levels and trended toward lower IFN-γ levels compared to women with persisting infection. Due to its volatility, indole was not measurable in either group. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. An Evaluation of the Cobas4800 HPV Test on Cervico-Vaginal Specimens in Liquid versus Solid Transport Media.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongxue Luo

    Full Text Available Determine the ability of the Cobas 4800 assay to detect high-risk human papillomavirus (HrHPV and high-grade cervical lesions when using cervico-vaginal samples applied to liquid medium and solid media cards compared to a direct cervical sample.Two cervico-vaginal specimens (pseudo self-collected were obtained from 319 women. One was applied to an iFTA Card (FTA then the brush placed in liquid-based medium (LSELF; the other was applied to a new solid media: POI card (POI. The clinical performance of Cobas4800 assay using the three aforementioned specimens was compared to direct collected endocervical specimens in liquid media (LDOC.The overall agreements of HrHPV detection were 84.2% (LSELF vs. LDOC, 81.0% (FTA vs. LDOC, and 82.3% (POI vs. LDOC. LSELF, FTA and POI identified 98.0%, 79.6%, and 97.5% positive cases of LDOC. Sensitivity to identify CIN2+ were 98.4% (LSELF, 73.8% (FTA, 95.1% (POI, and 93.4% (LDOC respectively. FTA had 78.1% and 90.4% agreement with the LSELF samples for all HrHPV and HPV16/18 detection respectively, while POI had 91.6% for both.Cobas4800 HPV test combined with cervico-vaginal specimens applied to both liquid media and POI solid card are accurate to detect HrHPV infection and high-grade cervical lesions as compared with direct endocervical samples in liquid media.

  13. Evaluation of cervicovaginal smear results at postmenopausal period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sefa Kelekci

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the statistical analysis of cervicovaginal smear results at postmenopausal period accompanied by literature. Cervicovaginal smear results of 894 postmenopausal women were evaluated retrospectively according to the 2001 Bethesda system (BS in Adana Numune Training and Research Hospital of Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinic from 2007–2010. The study found, normal results on 287 patients (32.1%, benign findings on 556 patients (62.2%, abnormal epithelial cell changes on 48 patients (5.36% and malignant changes on 3 patients (0.33%. The abnormal epithelial changes were observed to be atypical cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US for 22 patients (2.46%, low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL for 11 patients (1.23%, high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion(HSIL for 7 patients (0.78%, findings that cannot exclude a high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (ASC-H for 6 patients (0.55% and atypical glandular cells-not otherwise specified (AGC-NOS for 2 patients (0.22%. Malignant results were 2 squamous cell carcinomas (SCC (0.22% and 1 adenocarcinoma (ACC (0.11%. Cervical cancer screening programs should be expanded and Pap smear screening should be applied to all postmenopausal women. The longer time span involved from premalignant lesions to cancer improves our chance for the diagnosis and treatment. As the incidence of invasive cancer increases in menopausal period, gynecological smear examination and regular check-up are crucial. A high rate of abnormalities of epithelial cells was detected in this study.

  14. STUDY OF EFFECTIVE TIME OF UNDILUTED FIXINGSOLUTIONS INLIGHTENING OF THE HIGH DENSITY PERIAPICAL RADIOGRAPHS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A ZAMANI NASER

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Dental radiographs are occationally too dark because of different reasons such as over exposure, high concen-tration of developing solution and over development. Different chemicals are used to lighten these radiographs. In this research the undiluted fixed solution for the first time are tested and efficiency time of this solution in reducing the density of dark radiographs were evaluated. Method: Use of a dry mandible containing some teeth and 98 E speed periapical radiographs were prepared as foolow: A film wasexposed with 0.4 S... as positive control (ideal. 97 films were exposed with 1.8 S (dark and unreadable. Out of 97, one radiograph kept as positive control and remaining films prepared for study. All of radiographs developed and fixed with automatic processor in the same conditio. Out of 96 dark radiograph, 3 was used for pilot study and inserted in the undiluted fixing solution in different time. (2.5, 3 and 3.5 hrs. The result of pilot study showed that aii3 radiographs showed reductionin density and radiographs with her reduction time was closest to positive control for density and diognostic quality and radiograph with 2.5 hrs reduction time and 3.5 hre became darker and lighter as compared to positive control. The remaining 93 high density radiographs were divided into 3 groups, 31 in each group (group 1,2 and 3 first group 2.5 hrs, second 3 hrs and the third group 3.5 hrs were kept in undiluted fixed solution. for this, disposable glasses were used and in each glass a radiograph were inserted. The research time was spring and the temperature was about 2609 (without coolant. Evaluation of radiographs: For evaluation of radiographs 2 methods were used: First method used was: Densitometry: By this method the density of total lightened radiographs, positive control and negative control were determined. Another method was determined diagnostic quality of radiographs visually by radiologists, throng this way: Special

  15. Detection of GBV-C/HGV RNA in cervico-vaginal smears from healthy individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Angelica Ehara Watanabe

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the sexual transmission of GBV-C/HGV, through RNA detection in cervicovaginal smears. Therefore the GBV-C/HGV RNA in cervicovaginal smears from apparently healthy women was investigated using routine proceedings for prophylactic screening to cervical cancer. GBV-C/HGV RNA was detected by reverse transcriptase and polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. Only one woman presented co-infection with human papilloma virus (HPV. The GBV-C/HGV RNA was detected in 13/73 (17.57% healthy women and it's prevalence in participating women between 28-43 years old was 53.85%. No association was found with GBV-C/HGV for the age of first sexual intercourse and number of pregnancies. In GBV-C/HGV RNA positive women, 69.23% were married. In conclusion, the present findings show that cervical and vaginal specimens could contain the GBV-C/HGV RNA.O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar a transmissão sexual de GBV-C/HBV, através da detecção do RNA viral em raspados cérvico-vaginais. Portanto, a presença do RNA GBV-C/HGV foi investigada em raspados cérvico-vaginais em mulheres aparentemente saudáveis que realizaram exames preventivos para câncer cervical. GBV-C/HGV RNA foi detectado por reação de transcriptase reversa e reação em cadeia da polimerase (RT-PCR. Apenas uma mulher apresentou a co-infecção com o papiloma vírus humano (HPV. O RNA GBV-C/HGV foi detectado em 13/73 (17,57% mulheres saudáveis e sua prevalência entre participantes da idade de 28-43 anos foi de 53,85%. Não foi observada relação entre a presença do RNA GBV-C/HGV com a idade de primeira relação sexual, nem com o número de gestações. Entre as mulheres que apresentavam o RNA viral, 69,23% eram casadas. O presente estudo demonstrou que secreções cérvico-vaginais podem conter o RNA viral GBV-C/HBV.

  16. Cervicovaginal anastomosis by Gore-Tex in Mullerian agenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei, Zahra; Omidvar, Azizeh; Niroumanesh, Shirin; Omidvar, Azadeh

    2015-02-01

    To determine usage of polytetrafluoroethylene, Gore-Tex, as a stent in patients with congenital cervicovaginal agenesis. Follow-up study. Tertiary center referral hospital. Eight patients with Mullerian agenesis who had congenital cervical agenesis, associated with partial or complete vaginal aplasia. Laparoscopic uterovaginal anastomosis with placement of a polytetrafluoroethylene stent for reconstruction of cervical agenesis. In cases associated with vaginal agenesis, modified McIndoe vaginoplasty was done concomitantly. Eight patients with cervical agenesis who had partial and complete vaginal aplasia underwent vaginoplasty. Mean (SD) follow-up after surgery (3 years old). All patients except three of them, (62.5 %) experienced relief of abdominal pain and regular menstruation. Due to ascending infection three of them (37.5 %) needed reoperation. So, they underwent laparotomy. Two of these three patients had total abdominal hysterectomy and one case tolerated resection of right obstructed side of didelphys uterus, then she became pregnant spontaneously. Four out of these eight cases were married and the others were single. One out of our married patients conceived three times. Her first pregnancy was aborted. She delivered two alive babies after inserting transabdominal Shirodkar suture in her other pregnancies. Uterovaginal anastomosis assisted laparoscopy with polytetrafluoroethylene (Gore-Tex) is effective and hopeful to relieve patients' symptoms, menstruation regularity, and saving fertility. If ascending infection threatening health happens, hysterectomy will be recommended.

  17. Antimicrobial activity of Lactobacillus against microbial flora of cervicovaginal infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subramanyam Dasari

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the probiotic nature of Lactobacillus in preventing cervical pathogens by studying the effectiveness of antimicrobial activity against vaginal pathogens. Methods: Lactobacilli were isolated from healthy vaginal swabs on selective media and different pathogenic bacteria were isolated by using different selective media. The Lactobacillus strains were tested for the production of hydrogen peroxide and antimicrobial compounds along with probiotic properties. Results: Of the 10 isolated Lactobacillus strains, strain 1, 3 and 6 are high hydrogen peroxide producers and the rest were low producers. Results of pH and amines tests indicated that pH increased with fishy odour in the vaginal fluids of cervicovaginal infection patients when compared with vaginal fluids of healthy persons. The isolates were found to be facultative anaerobic, Gram-positive, non-spore-forming, non-capsule forming and catalase-negative bacilli. The results of antimicrobial activity of compounds indicated that 280 and 140 µg/mL was the minimum concentration to inhibit the growth of both pathogens and test organisms respectively. Conclusions: The results demonstrated that Lactobacillus producing antimicrobial compounds inhibits the growth of cervical pathogens, revealing that the hypothesis of preventing vaginal infection by administering probiotic organisms has a great appeal to patients, which colonize the vagina to help, restore and maintain healthy vagina.

  18. Fertility of undiluted ram epididymal spermatozoa stored for several days at 4°C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abella, D Fernández; Da Costa, M; Guérin, Y; Dacheux, J L

    2015-02-01

    In vitro preservation of the male gamete is a challenge in the development of artificial insemination techniques for domestic animals. Specific strategies and diluents have been developed for the preservation of the fertilizing ability of the semen for each species. However, the epididymal medium has been demonstrated to be the best sperm environment to maintain sperm viability over several days and weeks for mammals. The aims of this study were to evaluate the motility and in vivo fertility of ram epididymal spermatozoa when the semen was stored for up to 4 days at 4°C undiluted in epididymal plasma. The study was undertaken with two ovine breeds (Ile de France and Corriedale). The motility of epididymal spermatozoa was better preserved in the undiluted epididymal fluid than when epididymal spermatozoa were diluted in classic ovine extender such as skim milk. During storage, the decrease in the percentage of motile sperm was lower if the epididymal spermatozoa were collected immediately after epididymal sampling than 24 h after castration or animal death. The fertility obtained after cryopreservation of the stored sperm and subsequent intrauterine insemination ranged from 55% to 24% following 24 to 96-h sperm storage. There was a linear regression relationship between fertility and the number of motile sperm inseminated for both breeds. These results show that it is possible to keep epididymal sperm motile and fertile for several days without dilution. Such a method of sperm preservation could be a final possibility for animals of high genetic value or for endangered species when the collection of semen before death of the animal is not possible.

  19. Role of Lactobacilli and Lactoferrin in the Mucosal Cervicovaginal Defense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piera Valenti

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The innate defense system of the female mucosal genital tract involves a close and complex interaction among the healthy vaginal microbiota, different cells, and various proteins that protect the host from pathogens. Vaginal lactobacilli and lactoferrin represent two essential actors in the vaginal environment. Lactobacilli represent the dominant bacterial species able to prevent facultative and obligate anaerobes outnumber in vaginal microbiota maintaining healthy microbial homeostasis. Several mechanisms underlie the protection exerted by lactobacilli: competition for nutrients and tissue adherence, reduction of the vaginal pH, modulation of immunity, and production of bioactive compounds. Among bioactive factors of cervicovaginal mucosa, lactoferrin, an iron-binding cationic glycoprotein, is a multifunctional glycoprotein with antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, and antiparasitic activities, recently emerging as an important modulator of inflammation. Lactobacilli and lactoferrin are largely under the influence of female hormones and of paracrine production of various cytokines. Lactoferrin is strongly increased in lower genital tract mucosal fluid of women affected by Neisseria gonorrheae, Chlamydia trachomatis, and Trichomonas vaginalis infections promoting both innate and adaptive immune responses. In vaginal dysbiosis characterized by low amounts of vaginal lactobacilli and increased levels of endogenous anaerobic bacteria, the increase in lactoferrin could act as an immune modulator assuming the role normally played by the healthy microbiota in vaginal mucosa. Then lactoferrin and lactobacilli may be considered as biomarkers of altered microbial homeostasis at vaginal level. Considering the shortage of effective treatments to counteract recurrent and/or antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections, the intravaginal administration of lactobacilli and lactoferrin could be a novel efficient therapeutic strategy and a valuable tool to restore

  20. Synthesis of Fine Mo2C Powder from Prereduced Mo in Undiluted CH4 Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetinkaya, S.; Eroglu, S.

    2017-10-01

    The carburization behavior of prereduced Mo was investigated in undiluted CH4 flow at 900-1000 K. Prior to the experiments, equilibrium thermodynamic analysis was carried out in the Mo-C-H system. The products were characterized by mass measurement, x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy techniques. A single Mo2C phase was obtained within 45 min, 5 min, and 2.5 min at 900 K, 950 K, and 1000 K, respectively, at CH4 contents higher than the predicted ones. The reasons for this behavior were discussed in terms of CH4 stability, open tube flow, and self-created atmosphere in the powder bed. The fractional conversion-time curves indicated that the carburization kinetics followed a linear rate law. The Mo2C crystallite size (26-37 nm) and platelet thickness (50-100 nm) were found to be smaller than those of the parent Mo phase. These findings were attributable to the defects formed as a result of stresses associated with the reduction and the carburization.

  1. Analysis for lead in undiluted whole blood by tantalum ribbon atomic absorption spectrophotometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Therrell, B L; Drosche, J M; Dziuk, T W

    1978-07-01

    We describe a modified tantalum ribbon atomic absorption procedure for determining lead in undiluted whole blood. An instrumentation Laboratory (I.L.) Model 151 atomic absorption spectrophotometer equipped with an I.L. Model 355 Flameless Sampler was used. The Flameless Sampler was slightly modified to include three-cycle operation instead of the normal two cycles. This modified single-beam system, equipped with background correction, allows 5-microliter specimens of whole blood to be quickly and accurately analyzed. No sample preparation other than vortex mixing is involved and method reliability has been demonstrated during an extended period of successful participation in proficiency testing studies conducted by the Center for Disease Control. This tantalum ribbon methodology has further been demonstrated to be effective both as a primary screening procedure and as a confirmatory procedure, when coupled with erythrocyte protoporphyrin determinations, in screening over 300 000 clients during a three-year period of use in the Early and Periodic Screening, Diagnosis and Treatment (EPSDT) Program in Texas.

  2. Cervicovaginal atresia with hematometra: restoring menstrual and sexual function by utero-coloneovaginoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisku, Sundeep; Varghese, Lilly; Kekre, Aruna; Sen, Sudipta; Karl, Sampath; Mathai, John; Thomas, Reju Joseph; Barla, Ravi Kishore

    2014-10-01

    Cervicovaginal atresia is a rare Mullerian anomaly. The management of cervicovaginal atresia has evolved from historical recommendations of hysterectomy to various reconstructive procedures more recently. The latter carries a risk of significant morbidity and unknown fertility. We present our experience in the management of this complex anomaly. Twenty patients with cervicovaginal atresia were operated in our hospital from January 2004 through December 2013. The details of their anatomical variations and functional outcomes were analyzed. Eighteen out of twenty patients had cervical agenesis. Two patients had cervical hypoplasia. All patients underwent utero-coloneovaginoplasty. Post operatively, all patients have regular menstrual cycles. One patient is married, sexually active and has satisfactory coital function. One patient had a bowel anastomotic leak that required a diversion ileostomy. Two patients developed mild stenosis. One patient has mild neovaginal mucosal prolapse. No patient has developed pyometra. Patients with cervicovaginal atresia need to be counselled about the various reconstructive options available and the potential risks. Social and economic factor play a significant role in determining the plan of management. For patients from conservative societies, utero-coloneovaginoplasty provides a safe conduit for the passage of menstrual flow and coitus, at the cost of permanent infertility.

  3. Immunoglobulin Concentrations and Antigen-Specific Antibody Levels in Cervicovaginal Lavages of Rhesus Macaques Are Influenced by the Stage of the Menstrual Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, F. Xusheng; Ma, Zhongmin; Rourke, Tracy; Srinivasan, Seema; McChesney, Michael; Miller, Christopher J.

    1999-01-01

    The levels of antigen-specific antibodies (Abs) and immunoglobulins in the cervical mucus of women vary with the menstrual cycle; the highest levels occur during menses, and the lowest occur during the periovulatory period. The rhesus macaque is a widely used animal model of female genital tract immunity. We sought to determine whether rhesus macaques have a cyclical pattern of changing cervicovaginal Ab and immunoglobulin levels that is similar to that of the human female. This study examined the relationship of the stages of the menstrual cycle to genital mucosal and systemic immunoglobulin concentrations and Ab levels in rhesus macaques. In all seven rhesus macaques studied, the immunoglobulins G and A and some antibodies in cervicovaginal lavages varied with the stages of the menstrual cycle, and in many cases this variation reached the level of statistical significance. In a pattern similar to that of women, the highest levels of Abs and immunoglobulins occurred during menses, and the lowest levels occurred around the time of ovulation. However, the Ab and immunoglobulin levels in serum and rectal lavages did not change with the menstrual cycle stage. The results of this study are consistent with the hypothesis that the ovarian hormones that drive the menstrual cycle influence genital tract immunity in female primates. PMID:10569744

  4. Mini-laparotomic Colpotomy for a Cervicovaginal Leiomyoma: Preservation of hymenal integrity

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    Ibrahim Yalçin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Leiomyomas are the most common benign tumors of the uterus. Removal of the prolapsed pedunculated submucous myoma represents a distinct entity. Evaluation and treatment of such cases may need intervention via the hymen.Mini-laparotomic management of a pedunculated submucous myoma while preserving hymen integrity in a virginal patient is described as a safe alternative.. Case: A 30-year old, nulliparous virgin woman admitted to the outpatient- clinic with the complaint of irregular menstrual bleeding ongoing for three months. Pelvic ultrasound revealed a 5×6 cm solid mass in the cervico-vaginal location that filled the vaginal margins. Due to the patient’s consistent desire for preserving hymenal integrity, mini-laparotomic colpotomy was performed and the mass was removed successfully. Conclusion: Mini-laparotomic colpotomy, preserving hymen integrity, provides excellent visualization and it is a convenient and effective tool in the management of a cervicovaginal pedunculated submucous myoma

  5. Uterine conserving surgery in a case of cervicovaginal agenesis with unicornuate uterus

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    Vineet Mishra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of cervicovaginal agenesis with unicornuate uterus is a very rare mullerian anomaly. Its true incidence is still unknown. The presence of functioning unicornuate uterus poses a great challenge for a gynecologist because a successful repair could restore normal menses and may preserve a patient′s fertility. Hence, we report a case of 16-year-old unmarried female who presented with chief complaints of primary amenorrhea with cyclical lower abdominal pain. On clinical and radiological evaluation, she was diagnosed with complete cervicovaginal agenesis with right unicornuate uterus (hematometra and hematosalpinx. She underwent vaginoplasty (McIndoes method along with uterovaginal anastomosis by neocervix formation, in order to preserve her uterus. On follow-up, her vagina was completely healed, and she was menstruating normally.

  6. Split thickness skin graft for cervicovaginal reconstruction in congenital atresia of cervix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuyin; Han, Tiantian; Ding, Jingxin; Hua, Keqin

    2015-10-01

    To introduce a new technique that combines laparoscopic and vaginal cervicovaginal reconstruction using split thickness skin graft in patients with congenital atresia of the cervix. Video article introducing a new surgical technique. University hospital. A 16-year-old patient with congenital cervical atresia, vaginal dysgenesis, and ovarian endometrial cyst. An original technique of combined laparoscopic and vaginal cervicovaginal reconstruction using split thickness skin graft for cervicovaginal reconstruction. A midline incision at the vaginal introitus was made, and a 9-cm canal was made between the bladder and the rectum using sharp and blunt dissection along the anatomic vaginal route, with the aid of laparoscopy to ensure correct orientation. A 14 × 12 cm split thickness skin graft was harvested from the right lateral thigh. By laparoscopy, the level of the lowest pole of the uterine cavity was exposed and the cervix was incised by shape dissection. The proximal segment of the harvested skin to the lower uterine segment was secured, and the distal segment was sutured with the upper margin of vulva vaginally. Surgical technique reports in anonymous patients are exempted from ethical approval by the Institutional Review Board. The patient gave consent to use the video in the article. The procedure was successfully completed. Since February 2013, our experiences of combined laparoscopic and vaginal cervicovaginal reconstruction using split thickness skin graft in 10 patients with congenital atresia of cervix were positive, with successful results and without complications or cervical, or vaginal stenosis. Our technique is feasible and safe for congenital atresia of cervix, with successful results and without complications or cervical or vaginal stenosis. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Cervico-vaginal foetal fibronectin: A predictor of cervical response at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Méthodologie: Vingt patients (20) soignées dans une institution de la santé tertière du sud ouest du Nigeria entre mars et mai 2003 étaient randomisés pour la maturation cervicale à travers soit Misoprostol intravaginal soit Foley Catheter transcervical. Sécrétions cervico-vaginal ont été évaluées pour la présence de FNF ...

  8. Diversity of cervicovaginal microbiota associated with female lower genital tract infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Zongxin; Liu, Xia; Chen, Xiaoyi; Zhu, Haibin; Nelson, Karen E; Xia, Yaxian; Li, Lanjuan; Xiang, Charlie

    2011-04-01

    The female genital tract (FGT) harbors very large numbers of bacterial species that are known to play an important role on vaginal health. Previous studies have focused on bacterial diversity in the vagina, but little is known about the ectocervical microbiota associated with FGT infections. In our study, vaginal swabs and ectocervical swabs were collected from 100 participants in China, including 30 women with bacterial vaginosis (BV; BV group), 22 women with cervicitis (Cer group), 18 women with BV in combination with cervicitis (BC group) and 30 healthy control women (CN group). The diversity and richness of cervicovaginal microbiota were investigated with culture-independent polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and quantitative PCR (qPCR) targeting 11 microorganisms that have been associated with FGT infections. Despite significant interpersonal variations, the PCR-DGGE profiles revealed that vaginal microbiota and ectocervical microbiota were clearly much more complex in the BV group, while the ectocervical microbiota showed no significant difference between healthy and diseased participants. Using species-specific qPCR, BV and cervicitis were significantly associated with a dramatic decrease in Lactobacillus species (p  0.05) in ectocervical microbiota. The total numbers of bacteria were significantly lower in the ectocervix as compared in the vagina (p microbiota from participants with BV in combination with cervicitis was quite different from that of participants with BV or cervicitis alone. Our study demonstrated that the cervicovaginal microbiota was actively involved in the process of FGT infections. The predominant bacteria of the cervicovaginal communities were clearly associated with BV; however, there was not sufficient evidence that the ectocervical microbiota is directly involved in the development of cervicitis.

  9. Lactobacillus-dominated cervicovaginal microbiota associated with reduced HIV/STI prevalence and genital HIV viral load in African women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borgdorff, Hanneke; Tsivtsivadze, Evgeni; Verhelst, Rita; Marzorati, Massimo; Jurriaans, Suzanne; Ndayisaba, Gilles F.; Schuren, Frank H.; van de Wijgert, Janneke H. H. M.

    2014-01-01

    Cervicovaginal microbiota not dominated by lactobacilli may facilitate transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs), as well as miscarriages, preterm births and sepsis in pregnant women. However, little is known about the exact nature of the microbiological changes that cause

  10. Lactobacillus-dominated cervicovaginal microbiota associated with reduced HIV/STI prevalence and genital HIV viral load in african women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borgdorff, H.; Tsivtsivadze, E.; Verhelst, R.; Marzorati, M.; Jurriaans, S.; Ndayisaba, G.F.; Schuren, F.H.; Wijgert, J.H.H.M. van de

    2014-01-01

    Cervicovaginal microbiota not dominated by lactobacilli may facilitate transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs), as well as miscarriages, preterm births and sepsis in pregnant women. However, little is known about the exact nature of the microbiological changes that cause

  11. The impact of hormonal contraception and pregnancy on sexually transmitted infections and on cervicovaginal microbiota in african sex workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borgdorff, Hanneke; Verwijs, Marijn C.; Wit, Ferdinand W. N. M.; Tsivtsivadze, Evgeni; Ndayisaba, Gilles F.; Verhelst, Rita; Schuren, Frank H.; van de Wijgert, Janneke H. H. M.

    2015-01-01

    The observed association between Depo-Provera injectable use and increased HIV acquisition may be caused by hormone-induced increased susceptibility to other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) or changes in the cervicovaginal microbiota (VMB), accompanied by genital immune activation and/or

  12. Effect of genital herpes on cervicovaginal HIV shedding in women co-infected with HIV AND HSV-2 in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Jim; Riedner, Gabriele; Maboko, Leonard; Hoelscher, Michael; Weiss, Helen A; Lyamuya, Eligius; Mabey, David; Rusizoka, Mary; Belec, Laurent; Hayes, Richard

    2013-01-01

    To compare the presence and quantity of cervicovaginal HIV among HIV seropositive women with clinical herpes, subclinical HSV-2 infection and without HSV-2 infection respectively; to evaluate the association between cervicovaginal HIV and HSV shedding; and identify factors associated with quantity of cervicovaginal HIV. Four groups of HIV seropositive adult female barworkers were identified and examined at three-monthly intervals between October 2000 and March 2003 in Mbeya, Tanzania: (1) 57 women at 70 clinic visits with clinical genital herpes; (2) 39 of the same women at 46 clinic visits when asymptomatic; (3) 55 HSV-2 seropositive women at 60 clinic visits who were never observed with herpetic lesions; (4) 18 HSV-2 seronegative women at 45 clinic visits. Associations of genital HIV shedding with HIV plasma viral load (PVL), herpetic lesions, HSV shedding and other factors were examined. Prevalence of detectable genital HIV RNA varied from 73% in HSV-2 seronegative women to 94% in women with herpetic lesions (geometric means 1634 vs 3339 copies/ml, p = 0.03). In paired specimens from HSV-2 positive women, genital HIV viral shedding was similar during symptomatic and asymptomatic visits. On multivariate regression, genital HIV RNA (log10 copies/mL) was closely associated with HIV PVL (β = 0.51 per log10 copies/ml increase, 95%CI:0.41-0.60, pgenital HIV than the presence of herpetic lesions. These data support a role of HSV-2 infection in enhancing HIV transmissibility.

  13. Peptide-derivatized SB105-A10 dendrimer inhibits the infectivity of R5 and X4 HIV-1 strains in primary PBMCs and cervicovaginal histocultures.

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    Isabella Bon

    Full Text Available Peptide dendrimers are a class of molecules that exhibit a large array of biological effects including antiviral activity. In this report, we analyzed the antiviral activity of the peptide-derivatized SB105-A10 dendrimer, which is a tetra-branched dendrimer synthetized on a lysine core, in activated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs that were challenged with reference and wild-type human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 strains. SB105-A10 inhibited infections by HIV-1 X4 and R5 strains, interfering with the early phases of the viral replication cycle. SB105-A10 targets heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs and, importantly, the surface plasmon resonance (SPR assay revealed that SB105-A10 strongly binds gp41 and gp120, most likely preventing HIV-1 attachment/entry through multiple mechanisms. Interestingly, the antiviral activity of SB105-A10 was also detectable in an organ-like structure of human cervicovaginal tissue, in which SB105-A10 inhibited the HIV-1ada R5 strain infection without altering the tissue viability. These results demonstrated the strong antiviral activity of SB105-A10 and suggest a potential microbicide use of this dendrimer to prevent the heterosexual transmission of HIV-1.

  14. Genital involvement in pemphigus vulgaris (PV): correlation with clinical and cervicovaginal Pap smear findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavala, Mukaddes; Topaloğlu Demir, Filiz; Zindanci, Ilkin; Can, Burce; Turkoğlu, Zafer; Zemheri, Ebru; Cam, Osman Halit; Teksen, Ahmet

    2015-10-01

    The frequency of genital involvement in pemphigus vulgaris (PV) has not been clearly defined. We sought to evaluate the frequency of cervical, vaginal, and vulvar involvement in PV and to determine their association with genital symptoms, clinical involvement, and cytological status. The current study's sample included 34 female patients with PV. Gynecologic and ear, nose, and throat examinations and indirect immunofluorescence analyses were performed, and Pap smears were collected. Genital involvement was observed in 44.1% of patients. It was significantly associated with disease severity and clinical involvement. Pharyngeal involvement was observed in 61.8% of patients and was the second-most frequently involved mucosal region. Genital involvement was significantly associated with nasal mucosa involvement. Cervicovaginal Pap smears showed acantholytic cells of PV in 35.3% of patients. The sample size is small. Genital involvement in PV is not rare. Genital mucosa is the most affected mucosal region after oral and pharyngeal mucosa. Furthermore, genital involvement is significantly associated with nasal involvement and genital symptoms. The need for complete gynecologic evaluations of patients with PV, nasal involvement, and genital symptoms is emphasized. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Cervicovaginal colposcopic lesions associated with five Nonoxynol-9 vaginal spermicide formulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwood, Bryna; Meyn, Leslie A.; Ballagh, Susan A.; Raymond, Elizabeth G.; Archer, David F.; Creinin, Mitchell D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare the colposcopic appearance of the cervico-vaginal epithelium with spermicide use versus condom use in a low risk population. Study Design This was an ancillary study of a trial comparing the efficacy of 5 nonoxynol-9 (N-9) spermicides. A cohort of women using condoms without spermicide served as a control group. Colposcopic examinations were performed during product use to identify genital lesions. Results One hundred fifty-one participants had ≥1 follow-up examinations. At baseline, study groups differed only by the prevalence of baseline lesions. New lesions were identified at 49% of follow-up visits. Controlling for the presence of a baseline lesion, compared to condom use none of the spermicides were associated with an increase in new lesions (overall OR 0.8, 95% CI 0.4-1.6, p=0.5); and lesions characterized by epithelial disruption were less frequent with spermicide use (overall OR 0.3, 95% CI 0.1-0.6, pspermicides were less likely to have lesions with epithelial disruption, and equally likely to have any new lesion compared to condom use. PMID:18166301

  16. Cervicovaginal colposcopic lesions associated with 5 nonoxynol-9 vaginal spermicide formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwood, Bryna; Meyn, Leslie A; Ballagh, Susan A; Raymond, Elizabeth G; Archer, David F; Creinin, Mitchell D

    2008-01-01

    This study was undertaken to compare the colposcopic appearance of the cervicovaginal epithelium with spermicide use vs condom use in a low-risk population. This was an ancillary study of a trial comparing the efficacy of 5 nonoxynol-9 spermicides. A cohort of women who used condoms without spermicide served as a control group. Colposcopic examinations were performed during product use to identify genital lesions. One hundred fifty-one participants had 1 or more follow-up examinations. At baseline, study groups differed only by the prevalence of baseline lesions. New lesions were identified at 49% of follow-up visits. Controlling for the presence of a baseline lesion, compared with condom use none of the spermicides were associated with an increase in new lesions (overall odds ratio, 0.8; 95% CI, 0.4-1.6; P = .5); and lesions characterized by epithelial disruption were less frequent with spermicide use (overall odds ratio, 0.3; 95% CI, 0.1-0.6; P spermicides were less likely to have lesions with epithelial disruption, and equally likely to have any new lesion compared with condom use.

  17. The Role of Cationic Polypeptides in Modulating HIV-1 Infection of the Cervicovaginal Mucosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Liese Cole

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The mucosa and overlying fluid of the female reproductive tract (FRT are portals for the heterosexual transmission of HIV-1. Toward the ongoing development of topically applied microbicides and mucosal vaccines against HIV-1, it is evermore important to understand how the dynamic FRT mucosa is involved in controlling transmission and infection of HIV-1. Cationic peptides and proteins are the principal innate immune effector molecules of mucosal surfaces, and interact in a combinatorial fashion to modulate HIV-1 infection of the cervix and vagina. While cationic peptides and proteins have historically been categorized as antimicrobial or have other host-benefitting roles, an increasing number of these molecules have been found to augment HIV-1 infection and potentially antagonize host defense. Complex environmental factors such as hormonal fluctuations and/or bacterial and viral co-infections provide additional challenges to both experimentation and interpretation of results. In the context of heterosexual transmission of HIV-1, this review explores how various cationic peptides and proteins participate in modulating host defense against HIV-1 of the cervicovaginal mucosa.

  18. Effect of genital herpes on cervicovaginal HIV shedding in women co-infected with HIV AND HSV-2 in Tanzania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim Todd

    Full Text Available To compare the presence and quantity of cervicovaginal HIV among HIV seropositive women with clinical herpes, subclinical HSV-2 infection and without HSV-2 infection respectively; to evaluate the association between cervicovaginal HIV and HSV shedding; and identify factors associated with quantity of cervicovaginal HIV.Four groups of HIV seropositive adult female barworkers were identified and examined at three-monthly intervals between October 2000 and March 2003 in Mbeya, Tanzania: (1 57 women at 70 clinic visits with clinical genital herpes; (2 39 of the same women at 46 clinic visits when asymptomatic; (3 55 HSV-2 seropositive women at 60 clinic visits who were never observed with herpetic lesions; (4 18 HSV-2 seronegative women at 45 clinic visits. Associations of genital HIV shedding with HIV plasma viral load (PVL, herpetic lesions, HSV shedding and other factors were examined.Prevalence of detectable genital HIV RNA varied from 73% in HSV-2 seronegative women to 94% in women with herpetic lesions (geometric means 1634 vs 3339 copies/ml, p = 0.03. In paired specimens from HSV-2 positive women, genital HIV viral shedding was similar during symptomatic and asymptomatic visits. On multivariate regression, genital HIV RNA (log10 copies/mL was closely associated with HIV PVL (β = 0.51 per log10 copies/ml increase, 95%CI:0.41-0.60, p<0.001 and HSV shedding (β = 0.24 per log10 copies/ml increase, 95% CI:0.16-0.32, p<0.001 but not the presence of herpetic lesions (β = -0.10, 95%CI:-0.28-0.08, p = 0.27.HIV PVL and HSV shedding were more important determinants of genital HIV than the presence of herpetic lesions. These data support a role of HSV-2 infection in enhancing HIV transmissibility.

  19. A comparative analysis of conventional and SurePath liquid-based cervicovaginal cytology: A study of 140 cases

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    Jyotsna Sharma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The role of Papanicolaou (Pap test in cervical cancer screening need not be overemphasized. While most Western countries have adopted the liquid-based cytology (LBC, which is considered superior, many developing countries are still using the conventional Pap smear (CPS technique. Objective: To compare the staining and cytomorphological features on conventional versus liquid-based cervicovaginal smears. Materials and Methods: One hundred and forty cervicovaginal smears prepared by the standard conventional and LBC techniques were interpreted as per the Bethesda system of reporting cervicovaginal smears. Twelve parameters were studied, compared, and statistically analyzed. A P value <0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results: 129/140 (92% of CPSs and 130/140 (93% LBC smears were satisfactory. LBC had a significantly shorter screening time (2.0 ± 0.08 vs 4.0 ± 0.65 and better representative material than that of CPS (50% vs 42%. Neutrophils were significantly more in CPS than LBC (96% vs 92% with a P value <0.05 while hemorrhagic background and red blood cells (RBCs were more prominent in CPS. LBC showed significant artifactual changes in squamous epithelial cells. Epithelial abnormalities ranging from atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS to high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL were seen in 3% (4 and 2% (2 of CPSs and LBCs, respectively. Organisms were better picked up in CPS (99% in CPS vs 73% LBC with a value of P = 0.0001. Conclusion: Although a shorter screening time and cleaner background are the major advantages of LBC, CPS is not inferior to LBC. Considering the high cost, rather than the advantages associated with LBC, we feel that CPS is a better option for developing countries.

  20. Vaginal Lactobacillus Inhibits HIV-1 Replication in Human Tissues Ex Vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ñahui Palomino, Rogers A.; Zicari, Sonia; Vanpouille, Christophe; Vitali, Beatrice; Margolis, Leonid

    2017-01-01

    Lactobacillus species, which dominate vaginal microbiota of healthy reproductive-age women, lower the risks of sexually transmitted infections, including the risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) acquisition. The exact mechanisms of this protection remain to be understood. Here, we investigated these mechanisms in the context of human cervico-vaginal and lymphoid tissues ex vivo. We found that all six Lactobacillus strains tested in these systems significantly suppressed HIV type-1 (HIV-1) infection. We identified at least three factors that mediated this suppression: (i) Acidification of the medium. The pH of the undiluted medium conditioned by lactobacilli was between 3.8 and 4.6. Acidification of the culture medium with hydrochloric acid (HCl) to this pH in control experiments was sufficient to abrogate HIV-1 replication. However, the pH of the Lactobacillus-conditioned medium (CM) diluted fivefold, which reached ∼6.9, was also suppressive for HIV-1 infection, while in control experiments HIV-1 infection was not abrogated when the pH of the medium was brought to 6.9 through the use of HCl. This suggested the existence of other factors responsible for HIV-1 inhibition by lactobacilli. (ii) Lactic acid. There was a correlation between the concentration of lactic acid in the Lactobacillus-CM and its ability to suppress HIV-1 infection in human tissues ex vivo. Addition of lactic acid isomers D and L to tissue culture medium at the concentration that corresponded to their amount released by lactobacilli resulted in HIV-1 inhibition. Isomer L was produced in higher quantities than isomer D and was mostly responsible for HIV-1 inhibition. These results indicate that lactic acid, in particular its L-isomer, inhibits HIV-1 independently of lowering of the pH. (iii) Virucidal effect. Incubation of HIV-1 in Lactobacillus-CM significantly suppressed viral infectivity for human tissues ex vivo. Finally, lactobacilli adsorb HIV-1, serving as a sink decreasing the

  1. Safety analysis of the diaphragm in combination with lubricant or acidifying microbicide gels: effects on markers of inflammation and innate immunity in cervicovaginal fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Deborah J; Williams, D'Nyce L; Ballagh, Susan A; Barnhart, Kurt; Creinin, Mitchell D; Newman, Daniel R; Bowman, Frederick P; Politch, Joseph A; Duerr, Ann C; Jamieson, Denise J

    2009-02-01

    Diaphragms are being considered for use with vaginal microbicide gels to provide enhanced protection against sexually transmitted pathogens. The purpose of this study was to determine whether use of a diaphragm with microbicide or placebo gel causes cervicovaginal inflammation or perturbations in cervicovaginal immune defense. Eighty-one non-pregnant women were randomized into three groups and instructed to use Milex (CooperSurgical, Inc., Trumbull, CT, USA)diaphragms overnight for 14 days in combination with one of the two acid-buffering microbicide gels [ACIDFORM (Instead Inc., La Jolla, CA, USA) or BufferGel(trade mark) (BG; ReProtect Inc., Baltimore, Maryland)] or placebo gel (K-Y Jelly); Personal Products Inc., Raritan, NJ, USA). Cervicovaginal lavages (CVLs) were performed prior to study entry and on days 8 and 16. Nine soluble mediators of vaginal inflammation or immune defense were measured in CVLs by Bio-Plex or ELISA. Use of diaphragms with placebo or microbicide gel was not associated with increased levels of inflammation markers. Concentrations of secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI) were markedly reduced in the BG group. Daily use of a diaphragm with placebo or acidifying microbicide gel did not cause cervicovaginal inflammation. However, diaphragm/BG use was associated with markedly reduced levels of SLPI, an important mediator of innate immune defense. Further studies are warranted to establish the safety of diaphragm/microbicide gel combinations.

  2. The Cervicovaginal Microbiota in Women Notified for Chlamydia trachomatis Infection: A Case-Control Study at the Sexually Transmitted Infection Outpatient Clinic in Amsterdam, The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Veer, Charlotte; Bruisten, Sylvia M.; van der Helm, Jannie J.; de Vries, Henry J. C.; van Houdt, Robin

    2017-01-01

    Background. Increasing evidence suggests that the cervicovaginal microbiota (CVM) plays an important role in acquiring sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Here we study the CVM in a population of women notified by a sex partner for Chlamydia trachomatis infection. Methods. We included 98 women

  3. IPA Analysis of Cervicovaginal Fluid from Precancerous Women Points to the Presence of Biomarkers for the Precancerous State of Cervical Carcinoma

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    Xaveer Van Ostade

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Despite large gaps in our knowledge on the intracellular mechanism leading to cervical cancer, the pathways induced by oncogenic high-risk Human Papilloma Virus (HPV and those finally causing cervical cancer are increasingly being unraveled. Assuming that precancerous tissue is recognized and lysed by the immune system—which is in many cases incomplete because of the counteraction by the HPV virus—we hypothesize that several intracellular factors, involved in induction and development of precancerous lesions and/or cervical cancer are being released into the cervicovaginal fluid (CVF. These factors can then be seen as markers for the precancerous state, and when they persist they are indicative for an increased risk for cervical carcinoma. In a previous study, we analyzed the proteomic profiles of six CVF samples from women with different stages of precancerous lesions and compared these with the CVF proteomes from healthy women. Here, we extend these observations by investigating these proteomes by Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA. We show that proteins in CVF from precancerous women are clearly more involved in pathways that make up the ‘hallmarks of cancer’, as compared to CVF proteins from healthy persons. Moreover, after literature search, proteins classified by IPA in the ‘cancer’ category, were more correlated with cervical cancer when they originated from CVF from precancerous women. Many of these proteins formed a network with angiotensin II as central mediator. The search for ‘network biomarkers’, rather than single biomarkers, could drastically increase specificity, sensitivity and prognostic value of cervical cancer diagnosis, making use of an easy to handle fluid, the CVF.

  4. Unique Insights in the Cervicovaginal Lactobacillus iners and L. crispatus Proteomes and Their Associations with Microbiota Dysbiosis.

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    Hanneke Borgdorff

    Full Text Available A Lactobacillus-dominated cervicovaginal microbiota (VMB protects women from adverse reproductive health outcomes, but the role of L. iners in the VMB is poorly understood. Our aim was to explore the association between the cervicovaginal L. iners and L. crispatus proteomes and VMB composition.The vaginal proteomes of 50 Rwandan women at high HIV risk, grouped into four VMB groups (based on 16S rDNA microarray results, were investigated by mass spectrometry using cervicovaginal lavage (CVL samples. Only samples with positive 16S results for L. iners and/or L. crispatus within each group were included in subsequent comparative protein analyses: Lactobacillus crispatus-dominated VMB cluster (with 16S-proven L. iners (ni = 0, and with 16S-proven L. crispatus (nc = 5, L. iners-dominated VMB cluster (ni = 11, nc = 4, moderate dysbiosis (ni = 12, nc = 2; and severe dysbiosis (ni = 8, nc = 2. The relative abundances of proteins that were considered specific for L. iners and L. crispatus were compared among VMB groups.Forty Lactobacillus proteins were identified of which 7 were specific for L. iners and 11 for L. crispatus. The relative abundances of L. iners DNA starvation/stationary phase protection protein (DPS, and the glycolysis enzymes glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH and glucose-6-phosphate isomerase (GPI, were significantly decreased in women with L. iners-containing dysbiosis compared to women with a L. iners-dominated VMB, independent of vaginal pH and L. iners abundance. Furthermore, L. iners DPS, GAPDH, GPI, and fructose-bisphosphate aldolase (ALDO were significantly negatively associated with vaginal pH. Glycolysis enzymes of L. crispatus showed a similar negative, but nonsignificant, trend related to dysbiosis.Most identified Lactobacillus proteins had conserved intracellular functions, but their high abundance in CVL supernatant might imply an additional extracellular (moonlighting role. Our findings suggest that these

  5. Colonization of the cervicovaginal space with Gardnerella vaginalis leads to local inflammation and cervical remodeling in pregnant mice.

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    Luz-Jeannette Sierra

    Full Text Available The role of the cervicovaginal (CV microbiome in regulating cervical function during pregnancy is poorly understood. Gardnerella vaginalis (G. vaginalis is the most common bacteria associated with the diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis (BV. While BV has been associated with preterm birth (PTB, clinical trials targeting BV do not decrease PTB rates. It remains unknown if G. vaginalis is capable of triggering molecular, biomechanical and cellular events that could lead to PTB. The objective of this study was to determine if cervicovaginal colonization with G. vaginalis, in pregnant mice, induced cervical remodeling and modified cervical function. CD-1 timed-pregnant mice received a 5X108 CFU/mL intravaginal inoculation of G. vaginalis or control on embryonic day 12 (E12 and E13. On E15, the mice were sacrificed and cervicovaginal fluid (CVF, amniotic fluid (AF, cervix, uterus, placentas and fetal membranes (FM were collected. Genomic DNA was isolated from the CVF, placenta, uterus and FM and QPCR was performed to confirm colonization. IL-6 was measured in the CVF and AF and soluble e-cadherin (seCAD was assessed in the CVF by ELISA. RNA was extracted from the cervices to evaluate IL-10, IL-8, IL-1β, TNF-α, Tff-1, SPINK-5, HAS-1 and LOX expression via QPCR. Mucicarmine and trichrome staining was used to assess cervical mucin and collagen. Biomechanical properties of the cervix were studied using quasi-static tensile load-to-failure biomechanical tests. G. vaginalis successfully colonized the CV space. This colonization induced immune responses (increased IL-6 levels in CVF and AF, increased mRNA expression of cervical cytokines, altered the epithelial barrier (increased seCAD in the CVF, induced cervical remodeling (increased mucin production, altered collagen and altered cervical biomechanical properties (a decrease in biomechanical modulus and an increase in maximum strain. The ability of G. vaginalis to induce these molecular, immune, cellular

  6. Studying the Effects of Reproductive Hormones and Bacterial Vaginosis on the Glycome of Lavage Samples from the Cervicovaginal Cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Linlin; Koppolu, Sujeethraj; Chappell, Catherine; Moncla, Bernard J.; Hillier, Sharon L.; Mahal, Lara K.

    2015-01-01

    The cervicovaginal fluid (CVF) coating the vaginal epithelium is an important immunological mediator, providing a barrier to infection. Glycosylation of CVF proteins, such as mucins, IgG and S-IgA, plays a critical role in their immunological functions. Although multiple factors, such as hormones and microflora, may influence glycosylation of the CVF, few studies have examined their impact on this important immunological fluid. Herein we analyzed the glycosylation of cervicovaginal lavage (CVL) samples collected from 165 women under different hormonal conditions including: (1) no contraceptive, post-menopausal, (2) no contraceptive, days 1-14 of the menstrual cycle, (3) no contraceptive, days 15-28 of the menstrual cycle, (4) combined-oral contraceptive pills for at least 6 months, (5) depo-medroxyprogesterone acetate (Depo-Provera) injections for at least 6 months, (6) levonorgestrel IUD for at least 1 month. Glycomic profiling was obtained using our lectin microarray system, a rapid method to analyze carbohydrate composition. Although some small effects were observed due to hormone levels, the major influence on the glycome was the presence of an altered bacterial cohort due to bacterial vaginosis (BV). Compared to normal women, samples from women with BV contained lower levels of sialic acid and high-mannose glycans in their CVL. The change in high mannose levels was unexpected and may be related to the increased risk of HIV-infection observed in women with BV, as high mannose receptors are a viral entry pathway. Changes in the glycome were also observed with hormonal contraceptive use, in a contraceptive-dependent manner. Overall, microflora had a greater impact on the glycome than hormonal levels, and both of these effects should be more closely examined in future studies given the importance of glycans in the innate immune system. PMID:25993513

  7. Isothermal Reaction of NiO Powder with Undiluted CH4 at 1000 K to 1300 K (727 °C to 1027 °C)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altay, Melek Cumbul; Eroglu, Serafettin

    2017-08-01

    In this study, isothermal reaction behavior of loose NiO powder in a flowing undiluted CH4 atmosphere at the temperature range 1000 K to 1300 K (727 °C to 1027 °C) is investigated. Thermodynamic analyses at this temperature range revealed that single phase Ni forms at the input n_{CH}_{4}^{o} + n_{NiO}^{o}) (n_{CH}_{4}^{{o} + n_{NiO}^{o}) mole fractions ( X_{CH}_{4} ) between 0.2 and 0.5. It was also predicted that free C co-exists with Ni at X_{{{{CH}}_{ 4} }} values higher than 0.5. The experiments were carried out as a function of temperature, time, and CH4 flow rate. Mass measurement, XRD and SEM-EDX were used to characterize the products at various stages of the reaction. At 1200 K and 1300 K (927 °C and 1027 °C), the reaction of NiO with undiluted CH4 essentially consisted of two successive distinct stages: NiO reduction and pyrolytic C deposition on pre-reduced Ni particles. At 1200 K (927 °C), 1100 K (827 °C), and 1000 K (727 °C), complete oxide reduction was observed within 7.5, 17.5, and 45 minutes, respectively. It was suggested that NiO was essentially reduced to Ni by a CH4 decomposition product, H2. Possible reactions leading to NiO reduction were suggested. An attempt was made to describe the NiO reduction kinetics using nucleation-growth and geometrical contraction models. It was observed that the extent of NiO reduction and free C deposition increased with the square root of CH4 flow rate as predicted by a mass transport theory. A mixed controlling mechanism, partly chemical kinetics and partly external gaseous mass transfer, was responsible for the overall reaction rate. The present study demonstrated that the extent of the reduction can be determined quantitatively using the XRD patterns and also using a formula theoretically derived from the basic XRD data.

  8. Prevalence and significance of psammoma bodies in cervicovaginal smears in a cervical cancer screening program with emphasis on a case of primary bilateral ovarian psammocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pusiol Teresa

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of our study was to determine the prevalence and significance of psammoma bodies (PBs in the cervicovaginal smears of the screening population of Trento district (Italy, with the description of the cytological presentation of an asymptomatic bilateral ovarian psammocarcinoma. Methods From 1993 to 2006, women with PBs detected on consecutively screened cervical smears were identified from the computerized pathology database of Rovereto Hospital. The follow-up period was set from the time of cytological diagnosis to May 31st, 2007. Clinical information was obtained from retrospective review of women's medical records. The source of PBs was identified with adequate diagnostic procedures. Results PBs were found in six of the 201,231 Papanicolaou screening smears (0.0029%. Benign conditions (intrauterine device, inclusion ovarian cysts and ovarian cystoadenofibroma with PBs were found in four patients. In two cases, PBs were associated with malignant cells; a bilateral ovarian malignancy was diagnosed in both cases, a serous adenocarcinoma and a psammocarcinoma. Conclusion PBs in the cervicovaginal smears are a rare finding, associated more often with benign conditions than with malignancies. Moreover, to our knowledge, our case of primary ovarian psammocarcinoma is the first report in which the presence of malignant cells and PBs in the cervicovaginal and endometrial smears represents the first manifestation of disease.

  9. Acellular porcine small intestinal submucosa graft for cervicovaginal reconstruction in eight patients with malformation of the uterine cervix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Jing-Xin; Chen, Xiao-Jun; Zhang, Xu-Yin; Zhang, Ying; Hua, Ke-Qin

    2014-04-01

    Can surgical reconstruction of the cervix and vagina in patients be achieved using an acellular porcine small intestinal submucosa (SIS) graft? Our experiences of combined laparoscopic and vaginal cervicovaginal reconstruction using an SIS graft in eight patients were positive, with successful reconstruction and no complications, cervical stenosis or vaginal stenosis. In patients with agenesis and dysgenesis of the uterine cervix and vagina, surgical reconstruction of the internal genitalia is a challenging problem for gynecologists. Hysterectomy with the creation of an artificial vagina was the treatment of choice in the 1990s. Recently, conservative management has been gradually adopted to avoid extirpation of the uterus, including the canalization techniques, the uterovaginal anastomosis and the reconstruction of cervical and vaginal agenesis with some autologous tissues. This prospective observational study from January 2012 to March 2013 included 8 patients aged 10-18 years with malformation of the cervix (1 with cervical agenesis, 1 with a cervical body consisting of a fibrous band and 6 with obstruction of the cervical os) and vagina (4 with complete vaginal aplasia and 4 with a 1-3 cm long vaginal pouch) diagnosed by physical examination and magnetic resonance imaging. Eight patients underwent combined laparoscopic and vaginal cervicovaginal reconstruction using an SIS graft during the end of menstruation. A T-shaped intrauterine device connected with a 14-French Foley catheter was inserted into the uterine cavity to keep the newly created cervix patent, and then a permanent lower uterine cerclage was placed. Patients were assessed post-operatively at 1, 2, 4, 6, 12 and 15 months, and data on menstruation and the morphology of the neovagina and cervix were recorded. The mean ± SD age of the patients was 14.5 ± 2.8 (10-18) years. All patients had a history of cyclic abdominal pain, and the average delay in diagnosis was 4.5 ± 4.0 (0-12) months. One

  10. [Usefulness assessment of selected proinflammatory cytokines' level in cervico-vaginal fluid of pregnant women as an early marker of preterm delivery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinka, Jarosław; Wasiela, Małgorzata; Sobala, Wojciech; Brzezińska-Błaszczyk, Ewa

    2005-09-01

    Recent studies have suggested that proinflammatory cytokines might play a crucial role in the mechanism of preterm labour and delivery. The main aim of this prospective study was to evaluate the usefulness of selected proinflammatory cytokines' (IL-1 alpha, IL-1 beta, IL-6 and IL-8) levels in cervico-vaginal fluid of pregnant women as an early marker of preterm delivery. Cervico-vaginal fluids were obtained from 107 pregnant women at 22 to 34 weeks' gestation, including 61 women with threatened preterm labour (TPL) and 46 women with physiological course of pregnancy (reference group). Those samples were analyzed for the concentrations of selected cytokines using standard enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay technique (ELISA). Lower genital tract microbiology was diagnosed using Gram stain method according to Spiegel's criteria and by culture. Mean gestational age at the time of sampling was 28.6 weeks. Mean time between sampling and delivery was 8,24 weeks in TPL group and 10.2 weeks in reference group. BV was diagnosed in 25.2% of subjects under study. M. hominis and U. urealyticum were diagnosed more frequently among women from TPL group (25.9% vs 14.9% and 36.2% vs 17.0%, respectively). Out of 107 women 15 (14.0%) delivered before 37th week of gestation. The rate of preterem delivery was significantly higher in threatened preterm labour group--21.3% is comparison to reference group--4.3%. Median cervico-vaginal concentration of IL-1 alpha, IL-1 beta, IL-6 and IL-8 did not differ between preterm and term delivery group. Only women with lower genital tract infection and one cytokine's low concentration (below 25th percentile) presented a higher risk of preterm delivery--OR=2,91. If IL-1 alpha and IL-1 beta concentrations were below 25th percentile, the calculated risk of preterm delivery was OR = 4.65. The highest risk was noted for women with lower genital tract infection and low cervico-vaginal concentrations of IL-1 alpha and IL-8--OR = 8.0 (3.20-20.01). The early

  11. Comparison of Cervicovaginal Cytopathological Samples Collected in Basic Health Units and in Private Clinics in the Midwest of Santa Catarina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallazem, Bárbara; Dambrós, Bibiana Paula; Gamba, Conrado de Oliveira; Perazzoli, Marcelo; Kirschnick, Alexandre

    2018-02-01

     To compare the quality of cervicovaginal samples obtained from basic health units (BHUs) of the Unified Health System (SUS) and those obtained from private clinics to screen precursor lesions of cervical cancer.  It was an intervention study whose investigated variables were: adequacy of the samples; presence of epithelia in the samples, and cytopathological results. A total of 940 forms containing the analysis of the biological samples were examined: 470 forms of women attended at BHUs of the SUS and 470 forms of women examined in private clinics in January and February of 2016.  All the unsatisfactory samples were collected at BHUs and corresponded to 4% of the total in this sector ( p  private clinics ( p  private system and SUS, respectively. Less serious lesions corresponded to 0.89% of the samples from the SUS and 2.56% of the tests from the private sector; more serious lesions were not represented in the samples obtained from BHUs, whereas the percentage was 1.49% in private institutions.  Unsatisfactory cervical samples were observed only in exams performed at the SUS. There is a need for guidance and training of professionals who perform this procedure to achieve higher reliability in the results and more safety for women who undergo this preventive test. Thieme Revinter Publicações Ltda Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

  12. Attribution of 12 High-Risk Human Papillomavirus Genotypes to Infection and Cervical Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joura, Elmar A.; Ault, Kevin A.; Bosch, F. Xavier

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We estimated the prevalence and incidence of 14 human papillomavirus (HPV) types (6/11/16/18/31/33/35/39/45/51/52/56/58/59) in cervicovaginal swabs, and the attribution of these HPV types in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), and adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS), using predefined a...

  13. Endometritis Increases Pro-inflammatory Cytokines in Follicular Fluid and Cervico-vaginal Mucus in the Buffalo Cow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boby, Jones; Kumar, Harendra; Gupta, Harihar Prasad; Jan, Mustapha Hussain; Singh, Sanjay Kumar; Patra, Manas Kumar; Nandi, Sukdeb; Abraham, Asha; Krishnaswamy, Narayanan

    2017-07-03

    Emerging evidence shows that some of the pro-inflammatory cytokines are elevated not only in the endometrium but also in the follicular fluid of cows with endometritis. Developing a cervico-vaginal mucus (CVM) based test has the potential for becoming a pen-side test because of the ease of sample collection. The present study describes the results of two different experiments. The first experiment was conducted to investigate the influence of endometritis on the proinflammatory cytokines of follicular fluid based on the reproductive tracts of buffalo collected at a slaughter house Buffalo genitalia were categorized into purulent endometritis (PE), cytological endometritis (CE), and non-endometritis (NE) based on the white-side test and endometrial cytology, respectively (n = 14/group). Each group was subdivided into follicular and mid-luteal stage (n = 7/stage) and the follicular fluid was collected from the largest follicle. Second experiment was done to study the difference in the levels of proinflammatory cytokines in the CVM of repeat breeders with subclinical endometritis presented to the clinic. CVM was collected from the repeaters (n = 10) and non-repeaters (n = 10) through aseptic trans-vaginal aspiration. The pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and TNFα were quantitated through bovine specific ELISA kits. Significantly higher concentrations of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-8, IL-6, and TNFα) along with low intra-follicular estradiol in buffaloes of PE and CE groups suggest that endometritis impedes the follicular steroidogenesis. Significantly higher concentration of IL-1β and TNF-α in the CVM of repeaters indicate their potential as a pen-side diagnostic test for CE.

  14. Detection, quantification and genotyping of Herpes Simplex Virus in cervicovaginal secretions by real-time PCR: a cross sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natividad-Sancho Angels

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV Genital Ulcer Disease (GUD is an important public health problem, whose interaction with HIV results in mutually enhancing epidemics. Conventional methods for detecting HSV tend to be slow and insensitive. We designed a rapid PCR-based assay to quantify and type HSV in cervicovaginal lavage (CVL fluid of subjects attending a Genito-Urinary Medicine (GUM clinic. Vaginal swabs, CVL fluid and venous blood were collected. Quantitative detection of HSV was conducted using real time PCR with HSV specific primers and SYBR Green I. Fluorogenic TaqMan Minor Groove Binder (MGB probes designed around a single base mismatch in the HSV DNA polymerase I gene were used to type HSV in a separate reaction. The Kalon test was used to detect anti-HSV-2 IgG antibodies in serum. Testing for HIV, other Sexually Transmitted Infections (STI and related infections was based on standard clinical and laboratory methods. Results Seventy consecutive GUM clinic attendees were studied. Twenty-seven subjects (39% had detectable HSV DNA in CVL fluid; HSV-2 alone was detected in 19 (70% subjects, HSV-1 alone was detected in 4 (15% subjects and both HSV types were detected in 4 (15% subjects. Eleven out of 27 subjects (41% with anti-HSV-2 IgG had detectable HSV-2 DNA in CVL fluid. Seven subjects (10% were HIV-positive. Three of seven (43% HIV-infected subjects and two of five subjects with GUD (40% were secreting HSV-2. None of the subjects in whom HSV-1 was detected had GUD. Conclusion Quantitative real-time PCR and Taqman MGB probes specific for HSV-1 or -2 were used to develop an assay for quantification and typing of HSV. The majority of subjects in which HSV was detected had low levels of CVL fluid HSV, with no detectable HSV-2 antibodies and were asymptomatic.

  15. [Impact of threatened preterm labor and lower genital tract biocenosis on the concentrations of selected proinflammatory cytokines in cervicovaginal fluid of pregnant women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinka, Jarosław; Wasiela, Małgorzata; Brzezińska-Błaszczyk, Ewa

    2003-10-01

    Recent studies have suggested that proinflammatory cytokines might play a crucial role in the mechanism of preterm labour and delivery. Lower genital tract infection could also influence the cytokines levels. The main aim of this study was to compare the concentrations of interleukin (IL)-1 alpha, IL-1 beta, IL-6 and IL-8 in cervicovaginal fluid of pregnant women with threatened preterm labour (TPL) with group of women with normal course of pregnancy (reference group) and to determine impact of lower genital tract microflora on cytokines concentration. Cervicovaginal fluids were obtained by lavage from 40 pregnant women at 22 to 34 weeks' gestation. Those samples were analyzed for the concentrations of selected cytokines using standard enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay technique. Lower genital tract microbiology was diagnosed using Gram stain method according to Spiegel's criteria. TPL was defined as uterine contractions treated by tocolysis. Threatened preterm labour (TPL) was diagnosed in 22 (55.0%) cases. Mean gestational age at the time of cytokines measurement was 28.6 weeks. Mean concentrations of IL-1 alpha, IL-1 beta and IL-8 measured in cervicovaginal fluid of pregnant women with TPL and in reference group were similar (89.43 vs. 91.17 pg/ml; 42.05 vs. 41.01 pg/ml and 621.8 vs. 697.8 pg/ml, respectively). Vaginal levels of IL-6 was higher among women with preterm labour (21.1 pg/ml vs. 13.9 pg/ml) as compared to reference group. Bacterial vaginosis (BV) was diagnosed in 11 women (27.5%) while grade I microflora in 19 (47.5%). There was a positive correlation between BV and IL-1 alpha and IL-1 beta concentration but no with IL-6 and IL-8. Vaginal levels of IL-6 were found to be significantly elevated among women with threatened preterm labour while IL-1 alpha and IL-1 beta among women with BV. The usefulness of cytokines measurement in cervicovaginal fluid of pregnant women for prediction of preterm delivery should be clarified in further after excluding

  16. Self-collected cervicovaginal sampling for site-of-care primary HPV-based cervical cancer screening: a pilot study in a rural underserved Greek population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatzistamatiou, Kimon; Chatzaki, Εkaterini; Constantinidis, Τheocharis; Nena, Evangelia; Tsertanidou, Athena; Agorastos, Theodoros

    2017-11-01

    In the present pilot study, the feasibility of a site-of-care cervicovaginal self-sampling methodology for HPV-based screening was tested in 346 women residing in underserved rural areas of Northern Greece. These women provided self-collected cervicovaginal sample along with a study questionnaire. Following molecular testing, using the cobas ® HPV Test, Roche ® , HPV positive women, were referred to colposcopy and upon abnormal findings, to biopsy and treatment. Participation rate was 100%. Regular pap-test examination was reported for 17.1%. Among hrHPV testing, 11.9% were positive and colposcopy/biopsy revealed 2 CIN3 cases. Non-compliance was the most prevalent reason for no previous attendance. Most women reported non-difficulty and non-discomfort in self-sampling (77.6% and 82.4%, respectively). They would choose self-sampling over clinician-sampling (86.2%), and should self-sampling being available, they would test themselves more regularly (92.3%). In conclusion, self-sampling is feasible and well-accepted for HPV-based screening, and could increase population coverage in underserved areas, helping towards successful prevention.

  17. HIV-neutralizing activity of cationic polypeptides in cervicovaginal secretions of women in HIV-serodiscordant relationships.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline Levinson

    Full Text Available HIV exposed seronegative (HESN women represent the population most in need of a prophylactic antiviral strategy. Mucosal cationic polypeptides can potentially be regulated for this purpose and we here aimed to determine their endogenous expression and HIV neutralizing activity in genital secretions of women at risk of HIV infection.Cervicovaginal secretions (CVS of Kenyan women in HIV-serodiscordant relationships (HESN, n = 164; HIV seropositive, n = 60 and low-risk controls (n = 72 were assessed for the cationic polypeptides HNP1-3, LL-37 and SLPI by ELISA and for HIV neutralizing activity by a PBMC-based assay using an HIV primary isolate. Median levels of HNP1-3 and LL-37 in CVS were similar across study groups. Neither HSV-2 serostatus, nor presence of bacterial vaginosis, correlated with levels of HNP1-3 or LL-37 in the HESN women. However, an association with their partner's viral load was observed. High viral load (>10,000 HIV RNA copies/ml plasma correlated with higher levels of HNP1-3 and LL-37 (p = 0.04 and 0.03, respectively. SLPI was most abundant in the low-risk group and did not correlate with male partner's viral load in the HESN women. HIV neutralizing activity was found in CVS of all study groups. In experimental studies, selective depletion of cationic polypeptides from CVS rendered the remaining CVS fraction non-neutralizing, whereas the cationic polypeptide fraction retained the activity. Furthermore, recombinant HNP1-3 and LL-37 could induce neutralizing activity when added to CVS lacking intrinsic activity.These findings show that CVS from HESN, low-risk, and HIV seropositive women contain HIV neutralizing activity. Although several innate immune proteins, including HNP1-3 and LL-37, contribute to this activity these molecules can also have inflammatory properties. This balance is influenced by hormonal and environmental factors and in the present HIV serodiscordant couple cohort study we show that a partner

  18. HIV-Neutralizing Activity of Cationic Polypeptides in Cervicovaginal Secretions of Women in HIV-Serodiscordant Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levinson, Pauline; Choi, Robert Y.; Cole, Amy L.; Hirbod, Taha; Rhedin, Samuel; Payne, Barbara; Guthrie, Brandon L.; Bosire, Rose; Cole, Alexander M.; Farquhar, Carey; Broliden, Kristina

    2012-01-01

    Background HIV exposed seronegative (HESN) women represent the population most in need of a prophylactic antiviral strategy. Mucosal cationic polypeptides can potentially be regulated for this purpose and we here aimed to determine their endogenous expression and HIV neutralizing activity in genital secretions of women at risk of HIV infection. Methodology/Principal Findings Cervicovaginal secretions (CVS) of Kenyan women in HIV-serodiscordant relationships (HESN, n = 164; HIV seropositive, n = 60) and low-risk controls (n = 72) were assessed for the cationic polypeptides HNP1–3, LL-37 and SLPI by ELISA and for HIV neutralizing activity by a PBMC-based assay using an HIV primary isolate. Median levels of HNP1–3 and LL-37 in CVS were similar across study groups. Neither HSV-2 serostatus, nor presence of bacterial vaginosis, correlated with levels of HNP1–3 or LL-37 in the HESN women. However, an association with their partner's viral load was observed. High viral load (>10,000 HIV RNA copies/ml plasma) correlated with higher levels of HNP1–3 and LL-37 (p = 0.04 and 0.03, respectively). SLPI was most abundant in the low-risk group and did not correlate with male partner's viral load in the HESN women. HIV neutralizing activity was found in CVS of all study groups. In experimental studies, selective depletion of cationic polypeptides from CVS rendered the remaining CVS fraction non-neutralizing, whereas the cationic polypeptide fraction retained the activity. Furthermore, recombinant HNP1–3 and LL-37 could induce neutralizing activity when added to CVS lacking intrinsic activity. Conclusions/Significance These findings show that CVS from HESN, low-risk, and HIV seropositive women contain HIV neutralizing activity. Although several innate immune proteins, including HNP1–3 and LL-37, contribute to this activity these molecules can also have inflammatory properties. This balance is influenced by hormonal and environmental factors and in the

  19. Protection of cynomolgus macaque against cervicovaginal transmission of SIVmac251 by the spermicide benzalkonium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tévi-Benissan, C; Makuva, M; MorelliA; Georges-Courbot, M C; Matta, M; Georges, A; Bélec, L

    2000-06-01

    We evaluated the potential effectiveness of a spermicide cationic surfactant, benzalkonium chloride (BZK), to prevent the transmission of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) after intravaginal inoculation in 12 cynomolgus macaques. The inoculation procedure involved deposition of 6.7 ivag-AID50 of cell-free SIVmac251 into the receiving vagina, four times over a 2-week period, at the end of the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. Six randomly selected females received vaginally foam containing BZK (7.37%, wt/wt) before each inoculation (BZK group), whereas the remaining were not pretreated (control group). In controls, 5 animals presented persistent SIV infection and 1 had a transient viremia. The number of uninfected animals was higher in the BZK group (6 of 6) than in controls (0 of 6). These findings demonstrate that BZK placed in the vaginal receptacle prior to SIV inoculation provides a significant protection in vivo. The wide spectrum of antimicrobial activities of BZK (including HIV) in addition to its efficiency to block the transmucosal passage of SIV in the macaque model qualifies this drug as an attractive topical microbicide to prevent sexually transmitted infections in humans.

  20. Free microvascular transfer of the vermiform appendix and colon for creation of a uterovaginal fistula: a new technique for cervicovaginal reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Chuan-Fei; Wang, Chin-Jung; Lee, Chyi-Long; Chen, Hung-Chi; Soong, Yung-Kuei

    2008-01-01

    To report a new technique for creating a uterovaginal fistula in a patient with vaginal dysgenesis, an atretic cervix, and a functional endometrium. Case report. University tertiary care hospital. A patient with an atretic cervix, dysplastic vagina, and a functional uterus. Creation of a neocervix by partial resection of the septum within a didelphic uterus and an uterovaginal fistula by the free microvascular transfer of a vermiform appendix and an 8-cm segment of ascending colon. Clinical follow-up examination to verify restoration of the outflow of menstrual blood and patency of the uterovaginal fistula. The patient commenced menstrual bleeding 8 weeks postoperatively, after which she had regular menstrual cycles. The uterovaginal fistula was patent at the 3-year follow-up examination. Free microvascular transfer of the appendix and ascending colon for creation of an uterovaginal fistula is an improved and superior technique for cervicovaginal reconstruction, with excellent long-term results.

  1. The Cervicovaginal Microbiota in Women Notified for Chlamydia trachomatis Infection: A Case-Control Study at the Sexually Transmitted Infection Outpatient Clinic in Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Veer, Charlotte; Bruisten, Sylvia M; van der Helm, Jannie J; de Vries, Henry J C; van Houdt, Robin

    2017-01-01

     Increasing evidence suggests that the cervicovaginal microbiota (CVM) plays an important role in acquiring sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Here we study the CVM in a population of women notified by a sex partner for Chlamydia trachomatis infection.  We included 98 women who were contact-traced by C. trachomatis-positive sex partners at the STI outpatient clinic in Amsterdam, the Netherlands, and analyzed their cervicovaginal samples and clinical data. CVMs were characterized by sequencing the V3/V4 region of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene and by hierarchical clustering. Characteristics associating with C. trachomatis infection were examined using bivariable and multivariable logistic regression analysis.  The CVM was characterized for 93 women, of whom 52 tested C. trachomatis positive and 41 C. trachomatis negative. We identified 3 major CVM clusters. Clustered CVM predominantly comprised either diverse anaerobic bacteria (n = 39 [42%]), Lactobacillus iners (n = 32 [34%]), or Lactobacillus crispatus (n = 22 [24%]). In multivariable analysis, we found that CVM was significantly associated with C. trachomatis infection (odds ratio [OR], 4.2 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 1.2-15.4] for women with diverse anaerobic CVM and OR, 4.4 [95% CI, 1.3-15.6], for women with L. iners-dominated CVM, compared with women with L. crispatus-dominated CVM), as was younger age (OR, 3.1 [95% CI, 1.1-8.7] for those ≤21 years old) and reporting a steady sex partner (OR, 3.6 [95% CI, 1.4-9.4]).  Women who tested positive for Chlamydia trachomatis infection after having been contact-traced by a chlamydia-positive partner were more likely to have CVM dominated by L. iners or by diverse anaerobic bacteria, than by L. crispatus. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Human papillomavirus vaccination induces neutralising antibodies in oral mucosal fluids

    OpenAIRE

    Handisurya, A; Schellenbacher, C; Haitel, A; Senger, T; Kirnbauer, R

    2016-01-01

    Background: Mucosal human papillomaviruses (HPV) are a major cause of cancers and papillomas of the anogenital and oropharyngeal tract. HPV-vaccination elicits neutralising antibodies in sera and cervicovaginal secretions and protects uninfected individuals from persistent anogenital infection and associated diseases caused by the vaccine-targeted HPV types. Whether immunisation can prevent oropharyngeal infection and diseases and whether neutralising antibodies represent the correlate of pro...

  3. Detection of microbial invasion of the amniotic cavity by analysis of cervicovaginal proteins in women with preterm labor and intact membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combs, C Andrew; Garite, Thomas J; Lapidus, Jodi A; Lapointe, Jerome P; Gravett, Michael; Rael, Julie; Amon, Erol; Baxter, Jason K; Brady, Kim; Clewell, William; Eddleman, Keith A; Fortunato, Stephen; Franco, Albert; Haas, David M; Heyborne, Kent; Hickok, Durlin E; How, Helen Y; Luthy, David; Miller, Hugh; Nageotte, Michael; Pereira, Leonardo; Porreco, Richard; Robilio, Peter A; Simhan, Hyagriv; Sullivan, Scott A; Trofatter, Kenneth; Westover, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Microbial invasion of the amniotic cavity (MIAC) is common in early preterm labor and is associated with maternal and neonatal infectious morbidity. MIAC is usually occult and is reliably detected only with amniocentesis. We sought to develop a noninvasive test to predict MIAC based on protein biomarkers in cervicovaginal fluid (CVF) in a cohort of women with preterm labor (phase 1) and to validate the test in an independent cohort (phase 2). This was a prospective study of women with preterm labor who had amniocentesis to screen for MIAC. MIAC was defined by positive culture and/or 16S ribosomal DNA results. Nine candidate CVF proteins were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Logistic regression was used to identify combinations of up to 3 proteins that could accurately classify the phase 1 cohort (N = 108) into those with or without MIAC. The best models, selected by area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver operating characteristic curve in phase 1, included various combinations of interleukin (IL)-6, chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 1 (CXCL1), alpha fetoprotein, and insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1. Model performance was then tested in the phase 2 cohort (N = 306). MIAC was present in 15% of cases in phase 1 and 9% in phase 2. A 3-marker CVF model using IL-6 plus CXCL1 plus insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 had AUC 0.87 in phase 1 and 0.78 in phase 2. Two-marker models using IL-6 plus CXCL1 or alpha fetoprotein plus CXCL1 performed similarly in phase 2 (AUC 0.78 and 0.75, respectively), but were not superior to CVF IL-6 alone (AUC 0.80). A cutoff value of CVF IL-6 ≥463 pg/mL (which had 81% sensitivity in phase 1) predicted MIAC in phase 2 with sensitivity 79%, specificity 78%, positive predictive value 38%, and negative predictive value 97%. High levels of IL-6 in CVF are strongly associated with MIAC. If developed into a bedside test or rapid laboratory assay, cervicovaginal IL-6 might be useful in selecting patients in

  4. Cervicovaginal Bacteriology and Antibiotic Sensitivity Patterns among Women with Premature Rupture of Membranes in Mulago Hospital, Kampala, Uganda: A Cross-Sectional Study

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    Milton W. Musaba

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. A 2013 Cochrane review concluded that the choice of antibiotics for prophylaxis in PROM is not clear. In Uganda, a combination of oral erythromycin and amoxicillin is the 1st line for prophylaxis against ascending infection. Our aim was to establish the current cervicovaginal bacteriology and antibiotic sensitivity patterns. Methods. Liquor was collected aseptically from the endocervical canal and pool in the posterior fornix of the vagina using a pipette. Aerobic cultures were performed on blood, chocolate, and MacConkey agar and incubated at 35–37°C for 24–48 hrs. Enrichment media were utilized to culture for GBS and facultative anaerobes. Isolates were identified using colonial morphology, gram staining, and biochemical analysis. Sensitivity testing was performed via Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion and dilution method. Pearson’s chi-squared (χ2 test and the paired t-test were applied, at a P value of 0.05. Results. Thirty percent of the cultures were positive and over 90% were aerobic microorganisms. Resistance to erythromycin, ampicillin, cotrimoxazole, and ceftriaxone was 44%, 95%, 96%, and 24%, respectively. Rupture of membranes (>12 hrs, late preterm, and term PROM were associated with more positive cultures. Conclusion. The spectrum of bacteria associated with PROM has not changed, but resistance to erythromycin and ampicillin has increased.

  5. Serial Cervicovaginal exposures with Replication-deficient SIVsm induce higher Dendritic Cell (pDC) and CD4+ T-Cell Infiltrates not associated with prevention but a More Severe SIVmac251 Infection of Rhesus Macaques

    Science.gov (United States)

    ABDULHAQQ, Shaheed A.; MARTINEZ, Melween I.; KANG, Guobin; FOULKES, Andrea S.; RODRIGUEZ, Idia V.; NICHOLS, Stephanie M.; HUNTER, Meredith; SARIOL, Carlos A.; RUIZ, Lynnette A.; ROSS, Brian N.; YIN, Xiangfan; SPEICHER, David W.; HAASE, Ashley T.; MARX, Preston A.; LI, Qinsheng; KRAISELBURD, Edmundo N.; MONTANER, Luis J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Intravaginal exposure to SIV acutely recruits IFN-α producing plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC) and CD4+ T-lymphocyte targets to the endocervix of nonhuman primates. We tested the impact of repeated cervicovaginal exposures to noninfectious, defective SIV particles over 72 hrs on a subsequent cervicovaginal challenge with replication-competent SIV. Methods 34 Female Indian Rhesus macaques were given a three-day, twice-daily vaginal exposures to either SIVsmB7, a replication-deficient derivative of SIVsmH3 produced by a CEMX174 cell clone (n=16), or to CEM supernatant controls (n=18). On the fourth day, animals were either euthanized to assess cervicovaginal immune cell infiltration or intravaginally challenged with SIVmac251. Challenged animals were tracked for plasma viral load and CD4 counts and euthanized at 42 days post infection. Results At the time of challenge, macaques exposed to SIVsmB7, had higher levels of cervical CD123 pDCs (p=0.032) and CD4+ T-Cells (p=0.036) than those exposed to CEM control. Vaginal tissues showed a significant increase in CD4+ T-Cell infiltrates (p=0.048), and a trend towards increased CD68+ cellular infiltrates. After challenge, 12 SIVsmB7-treated macaques showed 2.5-fold greater daily rate of CD4 decline (p=0.0408), and viral load rise (p=0.0036) as compared to 12 control animals. Conclusions Repeated non-productive exposure to viral particles within a short daily timeframe did not protect against infection in spite of pDC recruitment, resulting instead in an accelerated CD4+ T-Cell loss with an increased rate of viral replication PMID:24226059

  6. Randomized Cross-Sectional Study to Compare HIV-1 Specific Antibody and Cytokine Concentrations in Female Genital Secretions Obtained by Menstrual Cup and Cervicovaginal Lavage.

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    Derseree Archary

    Full Text Available Optimizing methods for genital specimen collection to accurately characterize mucosal immune responses is a priority for the HIV prevention field. The menstrual cup (MC has been proposed as an alternative to other methods including cervicovaginal lavage (CVL, but no study has yet formally compared these two methods.Forty HIV-infected, antiretroviral therapy-naïve women from the CAPRISA 002 acute HIV infection cohort study were randomized to have genital fluid collected using the MC with subsequent CVL, or by CVL alone. Qualitative data, which assessed levels of comfort and acceptability of MC using a 5-point Likert scale, was collected. Luminex multiplex assays were used to measure HIV-specific IgG against multiple gene products and 48 cytokines.The majority (94% of participants indicated that insertion, wearing and removal of the MC was comfortable. Nineteen MCs with 18 matching, subsequent CVLs and 20 randomized CVLs were available for analysis. Mucosal IgG responses against four HIV-antigens were detected in 99% of MCs compared to only 80% of randomized CVLs (p = 0.029. Higher specific antibody activity and total antibodies were observed in MCs compared to CVL (all p<0.001. In MCs, 42/48 (88% cytokines were in the detectable range in all participants compared to 27/48 (54% in CVL (p<0.001. Concentrations of 22/41 cytokines (53.7% were significantly higher in fluid collected by MC. Both total IgG (r = 0.63; p = 0.005 and cytokine concentrations (r = 0.90; p<0.001 correlated strongly between MC and corresponding post-MC CVL.MC sampling improves the detection of mucosal cytokines and antibodies, particularly those present at low concentrations. MC may therefore represent an ideal tool to assess immunological parameters in genital secretions, without interfering with concurrent collection of conventional CVL samples.

  7. Randomized Cross-Sectional Study to Compare HIV-1 Specific Antibody and Cytokine Concentrations in Female Genital Secretions Obtained by Menstrual Cup and Cervicovaginal Lavage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archary, Derseree; Liebenberg, Lenine J; Werner, Lise; Tulsi, Sahil; Majola, Nelisile; Naicker, Nivashnee; Dlamini, Sarah; Hope, Thomas J; Samsunder, Natasha; Abdool Karim, Salim S; Morris, Lynn; Passmore, Jo-Ann S; Garrett, Nigel J

    2015-01-01

    Optimizing methods for genital specimen collection to accurately characterize mucosal immune responses is a priority for the HIV prevention field. The menstrual cup (MC) has been proposed as an alternative to other methods including cervicovaginal lavage (CVL), but no study has yet formally compared these two methods. Forty HIV-infected, antiretroviral therapy-naïve women from the CAPRISA 002 acute HIV infection cohort study were randomized to have genital fluid collected using the MC with subsequent CVL, or by CVL alone. Qualitative data, which assessed levels of comfort and acceptability of MC using a 5-point Likert scale, was collected. Luminex multiplex assays were used to measure HIV-specific IgG against multiple gene products and 48 cytokines. The majority (94%) of participants indicated that insertion, wearing and removal of the MC was comfortable. Nineteen MCs with 18 matching, subsequent CVLs and 20 randomized CVLs were available for analysis. Mucosal IgG responses against four HIV-antigens were detected in 99% of MCs compared to only 80% of randomized CVLs (p = 0.029). Higher specific antibody activity and total antibodies were observed in MCs compared to CVL (all p<0.001). In MCs, 42/48 (88%) cytokines were in the detectable range in all participants compared to 27/48 (54%) in CVL (p<0.001). Concentrations of 22/41 cytokines (53.7%) were significantly higher in fluid collected by MC. Both total IgG (r = 0.63; p = 0.005) and cytokine concentrations (r = 0.90; p<0.001) correlated strongly between MC and corresponding post-MC CVL. MC sampling improves the detection of mucosal cytokines and antibodies, particularly those present at low concentrations. MC may therefore represent an ideal tool to assess immunological parameters in genital secretions, without interfering with concurrent collection of conventional CVL samples.

  8. Cryopreservation of Human Mucosal Leukocytes.

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    Sean M Hughes

    Full Text Available Understanding how leukocytes in the cervicovaginal and colorectal mucosae respond to pathogens, and how medical interventions affect these responses, is important for developing better tools to prevent HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. An effective cryopreservation protocol for these cells following their isolation will make studying them more feasible.To find an optimal cryopreservation protocol for mucosal mononuclear leukocytes, we compared cryopreservation media and procedures using human vaginal leukocytes and confirmed our results with endocervical and colorectal leukocytes. Specifically, we measured the recovery of viable vaginal T cells and macrophages after cryopreservation with different cryopreservation media and handling procedures. We found several cryopreservation media that led to recoveries above 75%. Limiting the number and volume of washes increased the fraction of cells recovered by 10-15%, possibly due to the small cell numbers in mucosal samples. We confirmed that our cryopreservation protocol also works well for both endocervical and colorectal leukocytes. Cryopreserved leukocytes had slightly increased cytokine responses to antigenic stimulation relative to the same cells tested fresh. Additionally, we tested whether it is better to cryopreserve endocervical cells on the cytobrush or in suspension.Leukocytes from cervicovaginal and colorectal tissues can be cryopreserved with good recovery of functional, viable cells using several different cryopreservation media. The number and volume of washes has an experimentally meaningful effect on the percentage of cells recovered. We provide a detailed, step-by-step protocol with best practices for cryopreservation of mucosal leukocytes.

  9. Cryopreservation of Human Mucosal Leukocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Sean M; Shu, Zhiquan; Levy, Claire N; Ferre, April L; Hartig, Heather; Fang, Cifeng; Lentz, Gretchen; Fialkow, Michael; Kirby, Anna C; Adams Waldorf, Kristina M; Veazey, Ronald S; Germann, Anja; von Briesen, Hagen; McElrath, M Juliana; Dezzutti, Charlene S; Sinclair, Elizabeth; Baker, Chris A R; Shacklett, Barbara L; Gao, Dayong; Hladik, Florian

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how leukocytes in the cervicovaginal and colorectal mucosae respond to pathogens, and how medical interventions affect these responses, is important for developing better tools to prevent HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. An effective cryopreservation protocol for these cells following their isolation will make studying them more feasible. To find an optimal cryopreservation protocol for mucosal mononuclear leukocytes, we compared cryopreservation media and procedures using human vaginal leukocytes and confirmed our results with endocervical and colorectal leukocytes. Specifically, we measured the recovery of viable vaginal T cells and macrophages after cryopreservation with different cryopreservation media and handling procedures. We found several cryopreservation media that led to recoveries above 75%. Limiting the number and volume of washes increased the fraction of cells recovered by 10-15%, possibly due to the small cell numbers in mucosal samples. We confirmed that our cryopreservation protocol also works well for both endocervical and colorectal leukocytes. Cryopreserved leukocytes had slightly increased cytokine responses to antigenic stimulation relative to the same cells tested fresh. Additionally, we tested whether it is better to cryopreserve endocervical cells on the cytobrush or in suspension. Leukocytes from cervicovaginal and colorectal tissues can be cryopreserved with good recovery of functional, viable cells using several different cryopreservation media. The number and volume of washes has an experimentally meaningful effect on the percentage of cells recovered. We provide a detailed, step-by-step protocol with best practices for cryopreservation of mucosal leukocytes.

  10. Atypical endometrial cells and atypical glandular cells favor endometrial origin in Papanicolaou cervicovaginal tests: Correlation with histologic follow-up and abnormal clinical presentations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longwen Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The 2001 Bethesda system recommends further classifying atypical glandular cells (AGCs as either endocervical or endometrial origin. Numerous studies have investigated the clinical significance of AGC. In this study, we investigated the incidence of clinically significant lesions among women with liquid-based Papanicolaou cervicovaginal (Pap interpretations of atypical endometrial cells (AEMs or AGC favor endometrial origin (AGC-EM. More importantly, we correlated patients of AEM or AGC-EM with their clinical presentations to determine if AEM/AGC-EM combined with abnormal vaginal bleeding is associated with a higher incidence of significant endometrial pathology. All liquid-based Pap tests with an interpretation of AEM and AGC-EM from July, 2004 through June, 2009 were retrieved from the database. Women with an interpretation of atypical endocervical cells, AGC, favor endocervical origin or AGC, favor neoplastic were not included in the study. The most severe subsequent histologic diagnoses were recorded for each patient. During this 5-year period, we accessioned 332,470 Pap tests of which 169 (0.05% were interpreted as either AEM or AGC-EM. Of the 169 patients, 133 had histologic follow-up within the health care system. The patients ranged in age from 21 to 71 years old (mean 49.7. On follow-up histology, 27 (20.3% had neoplastic/preneoplastic uterine lesions. Among them, 20 patients were diagnosed with adenocarcinoma (18 endometrial, 1 endocervical, and 1 metastatic colorectal, 3 with atypical endometrial hyperplasia, and 4 with endometrial hyperplasia without atypia. All patients with significant endometrial pathology, except one, were over 40 years old, and 22 of 25 patients reported abnormal vaginal bleeding at the time of endometrial biopsy or curettage. This study represents a large series of women with liquid-based Pap test interpretations of AEM and AGC-EM with clinical follow-up. Significant preneoplastic or neoplastic endometrial

  11. Antibody complement-mediated hemolytic studies with kodecytes reveal that human complement utilized in the classical pathway is more stable than generally accepted.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Holly; Bovin, Nicolai; Henry, Stephen

    2016-10-01

    Complement has significant status in the field of transfusion medicine. The accepted stability profile of complement is based on historical studies of diluted human serum hemolyzing rabbit heterophile antibody-sensitized sheep red blood cells (RBCs). Contemporary tools are available to reevaluate these historical observations using human heterophile antibodies, undiluted serum, and antigen-modified human RBCs. Human RBCs were made into "animal-like" kodecytes with heterophile Galα3Galβ4GlcNAcβ function-spacer-lipid constructs. These α-Gal-kodecytes were prepared with an antigen dilution capable of consistently producing 50% antibody-mediated hemolysis against human α1-3galactose heterophile antibodies and undiluted standardized serum. Standardized human serum aliquots from a two-donor pool stored at -85, -20, 4, 22, and 37°C for durations of up to 150 days were evaluated for loss of hemolytic activity. Where practical methodologic procedures were aligned with historical studies. Comparison of the historical assay with the α-Gal-kodecyte assay against complement activity standards showed concordance. However, in most scenarios complement was found to be more than twice as stable as generally accepted. At least 60% of complement hemolytic activity was observed in serum stored at 22°C for 1 week or 2 months at 4°C. No loss of hemolytic activity was observed after 5 months' storage at temperatures below -20°C. An alternative method using undiluted serum and modified human RBCs observed that classical-pathway complement hemolytic activity in stored human serum is at least twice as stable as previously accepted. © 2016 AABB.

  12. Human cathelicidin production by the cervix.

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    Lorraine Frew

    Full Text Available hCAP18/LL-37 is the sole human cathelicidin; a family of host defence peptides with key roles in innate host defence. hCAP18/LL-37 is expressed primarily by neutrophils and epithelial cells, but its production and function in the lower genital tract is largely uncharacterised. Despite the significant roles for cathelicidin in multiple organs and inflammatory processes, its impact on infections that could compromise fertility and pregnancy is unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate cathelicidin production, regulation and function in the cervix. hCAP18/LL-37 was found to be present in cervicovaginal secretions collected from women in the first trimester of pregnancy and to be expressed at significantly higher levels in samples from women with alterations in vaginal bacterial flora characteristic of bacterial vaginosis. In endocervical epithelial cell lines, expression of the gene encoding hCAP18/LL-37 (CAMP was not affected by TLR agonists, but was found to be up-regulated by both 1, 25 hydroxyvitamin D3 and 25 hydroxyvitamin D3. However, no association was found between serum levels of vitamin D and hCAP18/LL-37 concentrations in cervicovaginal secretions (n = 116. Exposure to synthetic LL-37 had a pro-inflammatory effect on endocervical epithelial cell lines, increasing secretion of inflammatory cytokine IL-8. Together these data demonstrate inducible expression of hCAP18/LL-37 in the female lower reproductive tract in vivo and suggest the capacity for this peptide to modulate host defence to infection in this system. Further investigation will elucidate the effects of hCAP18/LL-37 on the physiology and pathophysiology of labour, and may lead to strategies for the prevention of infection-associated preterm birth.

  13. The Mucosal Innate Immune Response in Primary Human Papillomavirus Infection: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardella, Barbara; Iacobone, Anna Daniela; Musacchi, Valentina; Calvino, Isabel Giacoma; De Amici, Mara; Torre, Cristina; Bogliolo, Stefano; Spinillo, Arsenio

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the mucosal immune response in women affected by primary human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, in comparison with HPV-negative women with no previous history of HPV. A case-control study comparing the activity of myeloperoxidase (MPO) and lactoferrin (LF) between 19 HPV-positive and 19 HPV-negative women matched for age. Plasmatic and cervicovaginal levels of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) exhibiting MPO and LF receptors were measured using cytofluorimetric analysis and expressed as mean of percentages. Cervicovaginal levels of MPO-/LF- PMN were lower among HPV-negative women, with a mean rate of 18.81% (SD, 21.38), as opposed to a mean rate of 35.56% (SD, 21.02) (P = 0.020) in HPV-positive women. A similar significant difference was not proven in plasma. The mean rates of plasmatic levels of MPO-/LF- PMN were 36.21% (SD, 16.87) and 36.93% (SD, 10.54) (P = 0.875) in cases and controls, respectively. All patients were evaluated 1 year later, and only 6 cases became negative. The presence of MPO-/LF- PMN has been considered as a marker of lower rate of apoptosis of HPV-infected cells. This could explain why HPV-positive women are less capable to deal with a primary infection.

  14. Validade da citologia cervicovaginal na detecção de lesões pré-neoplásicas e neoplásicas de colo de útero

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinho Adriana de Araujo

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: O exame colpocitológico ou teste de Papanicolaou permite o diagnóstico precoce do câncer de colo do útero. O êxito no rastreamento desta doença dependerá, além de outros fatores, da acuidade diagnóstica do exame colpocitológico. Objetivos: Avaliar a acurácia diagnóstica da citologia cervicovaginal na detecção de lesões cervicais através da comparação citoistopatológica. Material e métodos: Avaliou-se o grau de concordância entre os exames citológico e histopatológico de 373 pacientes atendidas em um hospital universitário no período de 1990 a 1997 e foram calculados os indicadores: sensibilidade, especificidade, valores preditivos positivos e negativos e as taxas de falsos positivos e falsos negativos do exame. Resultados: A taxa bruta de concordância citoistopatológica foi de 65,1%. A sensibilidade do exame foi alta (96,0%, no entanto sua especificidade foi baixa (51,5%, significando a inclusão de muitos resultados falsos positivos. A taxa de falsos positivos foi de 48,4%, enquanto a de falsos negativos foi de 4%. Discussão: Apesar de a sensibilidade do teste ser alta, sua especificidade é baixa, significando que muitas mulheres seriam falsamente diagnosticadas como doentes, levando a um número elevado de resultados falsos positivos e custos desnecessários, além do potencial caráter iatrogênico que esta ação poderia assumir. No entanto, um exame altamente sensível é o teste de escolha para programas de rastreamento de câncer cervical na população feminina. Conclusões: Para garantir a acuidade diagnóstica do teste de Papanicolaou são essenciais atividades de controle de qualidade nos laboratórios, tanto do procedimento colpocitológico quanto do histopatológico, permitindo, assim, o êxito na detecção precoce e no tratamento das lesões cervicais.

  15. Intravaginal immunization of mice with recombinant Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium expressing human papillomavirus type 16 antigens as a potential route of vaccination against cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echchannaoui, Hakim; Bianchi, Matteo; Baud, David; Bobst, Martine; Stehle, Jean-Christophe; Nardelli-Haefliger, Denise

    2008-05-01

    Cervical cancer, the second leading cause of cancer deaths in women, is the consequence of high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infections. Toward the development of therapeutic vaccines that can induce both innate and adaptive mucosal immune responses, we analyzed intravaginal (ivag) vaccine delivery of live attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium expressing HPV16L1 as a model antigen. Innate immune responses were examined in cervicovaginal tissues by determining gene expression patterns by microarray analysis using nylon membranes imprinted with cDNA fragments coding for inflammation-associated genes. At 24 h, a wide range of genes, including those for chemokines and Th1- and Th2-type cytokine and chemokine receptors were up-regulated in mice ivag immunized with Salmonella compared to control mice. However, the majority of transcripts returned to their steady-state levels 1 week after immunization, suggesting a transient inflammatory response. Indeed, cervicovaginal histology of immunized mice showed a massive, but transient, infiltration of macrophages and neutrophils, while T cells were still increased after 7 days. Ivag immunization also induced humoral and antitumor immune responses, i.e., serum and vaginal anti-HPV16VLP antibody titers similar to those induced by oral immunization, and significant protection in tumor protection experiments using HPV16-expressing C3 tumor cells. These results show that ivag immunization with live attenuated Salmonella expressing HPV16 antigens modulates the local mucosal gene expression pattern into a transient proinflammatory profile, elicits strong systemic and mucosal immunity against HPV16, and confers protection against HPV16 tumor cells subcutaneously implanted in mice. Examination of the efficacy with which ivag HPV16E7E6 Salmonella induces regression of tumors located in cervicovaginal tissue is warranted.

  16. was treated with pure, unprocessed, undiluted honey mixed with ghee

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Background: Options available for local management of burns include occlusive dressing and delayed skin grafting, open method and immediate excision followed by immediate skin grafting. Methods: A randomised controlled clinical trial was conducted in Mulago Hospital, Kampala to compare. Honey-Ghee dressing and ...

  17. Comparison of cervicovaginal proinflammatory cytokine with fetal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Egyptian Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 28, No 1 (2010) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  18. Etiología de la infección cérvico vaginal en pacientes del Hospital Juárez de México Etiology of cervicovaginal infection in Mexican women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocío Flores-Paz

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Conocer la etiología de la infección cérvico vaginal, con el fin de establecer un diagnóstico acertado que permita ofrecer a las pacientes el tratamiento más apropiado. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: De enero de 1995 a diciembre de 1999 se realizó un estudio bacteriológico a 6 811 muestras de exudado cérvico vaginal de pacientes del Hospital Juárez de México, de la Ciudad de México, con edades comprendidas entre los 13 y los 65 años, que referían leucorrea, prurito, hiperemia y dolor abdominal bajo. RESULTADOS: La frecuencia de infección por cada germen fue G vaginalis, 22.65%, Candida spp, 19.13%, C albicans, 7.8%, T vaginalis, 1.5%, Streptococcus del grupo D, 11.78%, Streptococcus b haemolyticus, 4.59%, E coli, 13.46%, Klebsiella ssp, 2.0%, además de otras enterobacterias menos frecuentes como Citrobacter spp, Enterobacter spp, Pseudomonas spp, M morganii y P mirabilis. El 2.9% presentó anaerobios siempre asociados con G vaginalis. Se aislaron Neisseria spp y N weaveri en 0.15% de las muestras. La N gonorrhoeae no se encontró en ningún caso. Datos comparativos indican que, tanto Streptococcus hemoliticos como E coli tuvieron un marcado incremento en los dos últimos años, siendo el de esta última estadísticamente significativo (pOBJECTIVE: To identify the etiologic agents of cervicovaginal infection in order to establish an accurate diagnosis and proper treatment. MATERIAL AND METHODS: From January 1995 to December 1999, bacteriological studies were done in cervical discharge specimens from 6 811 patients aged 13 to 65 years, seen at Hospital Juarez in Mexico City. All patients had leucorrhea, pruritus, hyperemia, and abdominal pain. Statistical significance was assessed using the chi-squared test. RESULTS: The frequencies of infectious agents were as follows: G. vaginalis, 22.65%, Candida spp, 19.13%, C. albicans, 7.8%, T. vaginalis, 1.5%, Streptococcus group D, 11.78%, Streptococcus b hemolytic, 4.59%, E. coli, 13

  19. Noble polymeric surface conjugated with zwitterionic moieties and antibodies for the isolation of exosomes from human serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Gahee; Yoo, Chang Eun; Kim, Myoungsoon; Kang, Hyun Ju; Park, Donghyun; Lee, Myoyong; Huh, Nam

    2012-10-17

    New zwitterionic polymer-coated immunoaffinity beads were developed to resist nonspecific protein adsorption from undiluted human serum for diagnostic applications of exosomes. A zwitterionic sulfobetaine monomer with an amine functional group was employed for simple surface chemistry and antifouling properties. An exosomal biomarker protein, epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM), was selected as a target molecule in this work. The beads were coated with polyacrylic acids (PAA) for increasing biorecognition sites, and protein G was then conjugated with carboxylic acid groups on the surfaces for controlling EpCAM antibody orientation. The remaining free carboxylic acid groups were modified with sulfobetaine moieties, and anti-EpCAM antibody was finally introduced. The amount of anti-EpCAM on the beads was increased by 40% when compared with PAA-uncoated beads. The surfaces of the beads exhibited near-net-zero charge, and nonspecific protein adsorption was effectively suppressed by sulfobetaine moieties. EpCAM was captured from undiluted human serum with almost the same degree of efficiency as from PBS buffer solution using the newly developed immunoaffinity beads.

  20. A human papillomavirus (HPV) in vitro neutralization assay that recapitulates the in vitro process of infection provides a sensitive measure of HPV L2 infection-inhibiting antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Patricia M; Pang, Yuk-Ying S; Kines, Rhonda C; Thompson, Cynthia D; Lowy, Douglas R; Schiller, John T

    2012-07-01

    Papillomavirus L2-based vaccines have generally induced low-level or undetectable neutralizing antibodies in standard in vitro assays yet typically protect well against in vivo experimental challenge in animal models. Herein we document that mice vaccinated with an L2 vaccine comprising a fusion protein of the L2 amino acids 11 to 88 of human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16), HPV18, HPV1, HPV5, and HPV6 were uniformly protected from cervicovaginal challenge with HPV16 pseudovirus, but neutralizing antibodies against HPV16, -31, -33, -45, or -58 were rarely detected in their sera using a standard in vitro neutralization assay. To address this discrepancy, we developed a neutralization assay based on an in vitro infectivity mechanism that more closely mimics the in vivo infectious process, specifically by spaciotemporally separating primary and secondary receptor engagement and correspondingly by altering the timing of exposure of the dominant L2 cross-neutralizing epitopes to the antibodies. With the new assay, titers in the 100 to 10,000 range were measured for most sera, whereas undetectable neutralizing activities were observed with the standard assay. In vitro neutralizing titers measured in the serum of mice after passive transfer of rabbit L2 immune serum correlated with protection from cervicovaginal challenge of the mice. This "L2-based" in vitro neutralization assay should prove useful in critically evaluating the immunogenicity of L2 vaccine candidates in preclinical studies and future clinical trials.

  1. Rapid Detection of Clostridium botulinum Toxins A, B, E, and F in Clinical Samples, Selected Food Matrices, and Buffer Using Paramagnetic Bead-Based Electrochemiluminescence Detection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rivera, Victor R; Gamez, Frank J; Keener, William K; White, Jill A; Poli, Mark A

    2006-01-01

    Sensitive and specific electrochemiluminescence (ECL) assays were used to detect Clostridium botulinum neurotoxins serotypes A, B, E, and F in undiluted human serum, undiluted human urine, assay buffer, and selected food matrices...

  2. Stability of anti-immunotherapeutic antibodies in frozen human serum samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaut, Lydia; Laurent, Nathalie; Kentsch, Kerstin; Spindeldreher, Sebastian; Deckert-Salva, Fabienne

    2014-05-01

    To generate exhaustive data on the stability of human anti-immunotherapeutic antibodies. Samples collected from over 100 different subjects at various timepoints were analyzed shortly after serum collection using specific ELISAs and re-analyzed after long-term storage or multiple cycles of freeze-thaw. The general acceptance criteria for incurred sample reanalysis for ligand-binding assays were applied, as well as alternative stricter acceptance criteria promoted by various white papers. Anti-immunotherapeutic antibodies are stable in undiluted serum samples stored at -80°C for at least 3.5 years and 3-12 freeze-thaw cycles. Samples were selected to cover the heterogeneity of the polyclonal human immune response, therefore this stability data can be extended to all anti-vaccine and anti-drug antibodies.

  3. [Presence of human Herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) in women attending a clinic for cervico-uterine cancer control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echániz Aviles, G; Conde Gonzalez, C; Tamayo Legorreta, E; Cruz Valdez, A; Hernández Nevarez, P; Calderón Jaimes, E

    1992-10-01

    For this prospective study, 284 women were recruited who attended a cancer detection (Papanicolaou testing) program and appeared to be healthy. The objective was to obtain cervicovaginal samples from this group and culture them on human foreskin fibroblasts to isolate and identify Herpes simplex virus by immunofluorescence with monoclonal antibodies. A total of 12 women (4.2%) were positive for the virus; upon comparison of various sociodemographic factors in positive and negative culture patients, it was possible to establish certain associations as follows: The presence of Herpes simplex virus type 2 was related to age, start of sexual life, number of sex partners, lower education and minimum income. Other markers observed in infected women were mucopurulent cervicitis, typical and non-typical confluent ulcerations and minor disruptions of the epithelium. The knowledge of this subclinical or somewhat asymptomatic Herpes prevalence should be considered to prevent further spread among couples and also to avoid the risk of reactivation in pregnant women.

  4. Human Papillomaviruses: Genetic Basis of Carcinogenicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burk, Robert D.; Chen, Zigui; Van Doorslaer, Koenraad

    2009-01-01

    Persistent infection by specific oncogenic human papillomaviruses (HPVs) is established as the necessary cause of cervix cancer. DNA sequence differences between HPV genomes determine whether an HPV has the potential to cause cancer. Of the more than 100 HPV genotypes characterized at the genetic level, at least 15 are associated, to varying degrees, with cervical cancer. Classification based on nucleotide similarity places nearly all HPVs that infect the cervicovaginal area within the α-PV genus. Within this genus, phylogenetic trees inferred from the entire viral genome cluster all cancer-causing types together, suggesting the existence of a common ancestor for the oncogenic HPVs. However, in separate trees built from the early open reading frames (ORFs; i.e. E1, E2, E6, E7) or the late ORFs (i.e. L1, L2), the carcinogenic potential sorts with the early region of the genome, but not the late region. Thus, genetic differences within the early region specify the pathogenic potential of α-HPV infections. Since the HPV genomes are monophyletic and sites are highly correlated across the genome, diagnosis of oncogenic types and non-oncogenic types can be accomplished using any region across the genome. Here we review our current understanding of the evolutionary history of the oncogenic HPVs, in particular, we focus on the importance of viral genome heterogeneity and discuss the genetic basis for the oncogenic phenotype in some but not all α-PVs. PMID:19684441

  5. Molecular tests for human papillomavirus (HPV, Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae in liquid-based cytology specimen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vigliotti Veronica S

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Laboratory detection of Human papillomavirus (HPV, Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae in liquid-based cervicovaginal cytology specimens is now based on identification of the DNA sequences unique to these infectious agents. However, current commercial test kits rely on nucleotide probe hybridization to determine DNA sequences, which may lead to diagnostic errors due to cross-reactivity. The aim of this study was to find a practical approach to perform automated Sanger DNA sequencing in clinical laboratories for validation of the DNA tests for these three infectious agents. Methods A crude proteinase K digestate of 5% of the cells collected in a liquid-based cervicovaginal cytology specimen was used for the detection of DNA molecules specific for HPV, C trachomatis and N gonorrhoeae, and for preparation of materials suitable for direct automated DNA sequencing. Several sets of commercially available polymerase chain reaction (PCR primers were used to prepare nested PCR amplicons for direct DNA sequencing. Results Some variants of HPV-16 and HPV-31 were found to share an at least 34-base long sequence homology downstream of the GP5+ binding site, and all HPV-6 and HPV-11 variants shared an upstream 34-base sequence including part of the GP5+ primer. Accurate HPV genotyping frequently required more than 34-bases for sequence alignments to distinguish some of the HPV genotype variants with closely related sequences in this L1 gene hypervariable region. Using the automated Sanger DNA sequencing method for parallel comparative studies on split samples and to retest the residues of samples previously tested positive for C trachomatis and/or for N gonorrhoeae, we also found false-negative and false-positive results as reported by two commercial nucleic acid test kits. Conclusion Identification of a signature DNA sequence by the automated Sanger method is useful for validation of HPV genotyping and for molecular testing of

  6. Neurotoxicity of hexachlorophene in humans. II. A clinicopathological study of 46 premature infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuman, R M; Leech, R W; Alvord, E C

    1975-05-01

    To assess neurotoxic effects of hexachlorophene in the human population previously shown to be most at risk, a blind clinicopathological analysis was made of all premature infants under 1,400 gm birth weight who survived at least four days and were examined by autopsy over a 7.5-year period. Repeated whole-body bathing of premature newborn infants in 3% hexachlorophene-bearing soap (undiluted pHisoHex) shows a significant statistical association with a vacuolar encephalopathy of the brain stem reticular formation. The prevalence of the vacuolar encephalopathy in premature infants on whom we have adequate brain stem histological information appears to be related to the number of exposures to hexachlorophene, the concentration of hexachlorophene, the thoroughness of rinsing, and other factors (including exposure to ultraviolet light).

  7. Just add water: Accuracy of analysis of diluted human milk samples using mid-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R W; Adamkin, D H; Farris, A; Radmacher, P G

    2017-01-01

    To determine the maximum dilution of human milk (HM) that yields reliable results for protein, fat and lactose when analyzed by mid-infrared spectroscopy. De-identified samples of frozen HM were obtained. Milk was thawed and warmed (40°C) prior to analysis. Undiluted (native) HM was analyzed by mid-infrared spectroscopy for macronutrient composition: total protein (P), fat (F), carbohydrate (C); Energy (E) was calculated from the macronutrient results. Subsequent analyses were done with 1 : 2, 1 : 3, 1 : 5 and 1 : 10 dilutions of each sample with distilled water. Additional samples were sent to a certified lab for external validation. Quantitatively, F and P showed statistically significant but clinically non-critical differences in 1 : 2 and 1 : 3 dilutions. Differences at higher dilutions were statistically significant and deviated from native values enough to render those dilutions unreliable. External validation studies also showed statistically significant but clinically unimportant differences at 1 : 2 and 1 : 3 dilutions. The Calais Human Milk Analyzer can be used with HM samples diluted 1 : 2 and 1 : 3 and return results within 5% of values from undiluted HM. At a 1 : 5 or 1 : 10 dilution, however, results vary as much as 10%, especially with P and F. At the 1 : 2 and 1 : 3 dilutions these differences appear to be insignificant in the context of nutritional management. However, the accuracy and reliability of the 1 : 5 and 1 : 10 dilutions are questionable.

  8. Effect of periodontal dressings on human gingiva fibroblasts in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eber, R.M.; Shuler, C.F.; Buchanan, W.; Beck, F.M.; Horton, J.E.

    1989-01-01

    In vitro cytotoxicity studies of periodontal dressings have not generally produced a result consistent with in vivo observations. These prior in vitro studies have not used human intraoral cell lines. We tested the effects of two eugenol containing and two non-eugenol periodontal dressings on cultured human gingival fibroblasts (HGF) (ATCC No. 1292). Replicate HGF cultures grown in microtiter plates were exposed to stock, 1:4 and 1:16 dilutions of extracts made from each of the four periodontal dressings. The HGF cultures were pulse labelled with tritiated thymidine (3HTdR) after 24, 48, and 72 hours. Incorporations of the labelled thymidine were measured using liquid scintillation counting and expressed as counts per minute. The results showed that undiluted extracts from all four periodontal dressings totally inhibited 3HTdR uptake (P less than 0.05). The 1:4 dilution of eugenol dressings inhibited 3HTdR uptake significantly more than non-eugenol dressings (P less than 0.05). Interestingly, at 72 hours the 1:16 dilution of the non-eugenol dressings caused significantly increased 3HTdR uptake which was not observed with the eugenol dressings. The present results suggest that the use of a human fibroblastic cell line for testing the effects of periodontal dressings may provide information about the relative biological effects of these dressings. Using this cell line, we have found that eugenol dressings inhibit fibroblast proliferation to a greater extent than non-eugenol dressings

  9. Acquisition of new infection and clearance of type-specific human papillomavirus infections in female students in Busan, South Korea: a follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jin-Kyoung; Ju, Young-Hee; Franceschi, Silvia; Quint, Wim; Shin, Hai-Rim

    2008-01-30

    Little is known about the natural history of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in Asian women. A follow-up study was conducted, with exfoliated cervicovaginal cells self-collected from, and questionnaires administered to 197 female students, aged 17-26 years, who had been already examined one and half years before. The presence of 25 HPV types was evaluated by a polymerase chain reaction-based assay. The acquisition of new infection for any HPV type among 171 female students at risk who were negative at baseline, 60% of whom had remained as virgins, was 17.5% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 11.8-23.2). Among individual types, HPV16, 18 and 35 showed the highest rate of new infection. Women who had had first sexual intercourse (OR = 2.9; 95% CI: 1.0-8.8), or had changed sexual partners (OR = 2.9; 95% CI: 0.9-9.3) during the follow-up period showed a higher risk of new HPV infection than women who had remained virgins since baseline. The rate of new infection also tended to be higher in those who started, or continued smoking during the follow-up period, than in nonsmokers. Clearance of HPV infections since baseline examination was 80.6% (95% CI: 67.6-93.5), and did not differ between high-risk and low-risk HPV types or between single- and multiple-type infections. This study shows that the acquisition of new HPV infection among young women in the Republic of Korea is high and also the clearance is frequent. Self-collection of cervicovaginal cells is applicable to follow-up studies that include virgins.

  10. Human papillomavirus vaccination induces neutralising antibodies in oral mucosal fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handisurya, A; Schellenbacher, C; Haitel, A; Senger, T; Kirnbauer, R

    2016-02-16

    Mucosal human papillomaviruses (HPV) are a major cause of cancers and papillomas of the anogenital and oropharyngeal tract. HPV-vaccination elicits neutralising antibodies in sera and cervicovaginal secretions and protects uninfected individuals from persistent anogenital infection and associated diseases caused by the vaccine-targeted HPV types. Whether immunisation can prevent oropharyngeal infection and diseases and whether neutralising antibodies represent the correlate of protection, is still unclear. We determined IgG and neutralising antibodies against low-risk HPV6 and high-risk HPV16/18 in sera and oral fluids from healthy females (n=20) before and after quadrivalent HPV-vaccination and compared the results with non-vaccinated controls. HPV-vaccination induced type-specific antibodies in sera and oral fluids of the vaccinees. Importantly, the antibodies in oral fluids were capable of neutralising HPV pseudovirions in vitro, indicating protection from infection. The increased neutralising antibody levels against HPV16/18 in sera and oral fluids post-vaccination correlated significantly within an individual. We provide experimental proof that HPV-vaccination elicits neutralising antibodies to the vaccine-targeted types in oral fluids. Hence, immunisation may confer direct protection against type-specific HPV infection and associated diseases of the oropharyngeal tract. Measurement of antibodies in oral fluids represents a suitable tool to assess vaccine-induced protection within the mucosal milieu of the orophayrynx.

  11. Human papillomavirus vaccination induces neutralising antibodies in oral mucosal fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handisurya, A; Schellenbacher, C; Haitel, A; Senger, T; Kirnbauer, R

    2016-01-01

    Background: Mucosal human papillomaviruses (HPV) are a major cause of cancers and papillomas of the anogenital and oropharyngeal tract. HPV-vaccination elicits neutralising antibodies in sera and cervicovaginal secretions and protects uninfected individuals from persistent anogenital infection and associated diseases caused by the vaccine-targeted HPV types. Whether immunisation can prevent oropharyngeal infection and diseases and whether neutralising antibodies represent the correlate of protection, is still unclear. Methods: We determined IgG and neutralising antibodies against low-risk HPV6 and high-risk HPV16/18 in sera and oral fluids from healthy females (n=20) before and after quadrivalent HPV-vaccination and compared the results with non-vaccinated controls. Results: HPV-vaccination induced type-specific antibodies in sera and oral fluids of the vaccinees. Importantly, the antibodies in oral fluids were capable of neutralising HPV pseudovirions in vitro, indicating protection from infection. The increased neutralising antibody levels against HPV16/18 in sera and oral fluids post-vaccination correlated significantly within an individual. Conclusions: We provide experimental proof that HPV-vaccination elicits neutralising antibodies to the vaccine-targeted types in oral fluids. Hence, immunisation may confer direct protection against type-specific HPV infection and associated diseases of the oropharyngeal tract. Measurement of antibodies in oral fluids represents a suitable tool to assess vaccine-induced protection within the mucosal milieu of the orophayrynx. PMID:26867163

  12. Aggregation of biopharmaceuticals in human plasma and human serum: implications for drug research and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvinte, Tudor; Palais, Caroline; Green-Trexler, Erin; Gregory, Sonia; Mach, Henryk; Narasimhan, Chakravarthy; Shameem, Mohammed

    2013-01-01

    Analytical methods based on light microscopy, 90° light-scattering and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) allowed the characterization of aggregation that can occur when antibodies are mixed with human plasma. Light microscopy showed that aggregates formed when human plasma was mixed with 5% dextrose solutions of Herceptin(®) (trastuzumab) or Avastin(®) (bevacizumab) but not Remicade(®) (infliximab). The aggregates in the plasma-Herceptin(®)-5% dextrose solution were globular, size range 0.5-9 μm, with a mean diameter of 4 μm. The aggregates in the plasma-Avastin(®)-5% dextrose samples had a mean size of 2 μm. No aggregation was observed when 0.9% NaCl solutions of Herceptin(®), Avastin(®) and Remicade(®) were mixed with human plasma. 90° light-scattering measurements showed that aggregates were still present 2.5 h after mixing Herceptin(®) or Avastin(®) with 5% dextrose-plasma solution. A SPR method was utilized to qualitatively describe the extent of interactions of surface-bound antibodies with undiluted human serum. Increased binding was observed in the case of Erbitux(®) (cetuximab), whereas no binding was measured for Humira(®) (adalimumab). The binding of sera components to 13 monoclonal antibodies was measured and correlated with known serum binding properties of the antibodies. The data presented in this paper provide analytical methods to study the intrinsic and buffer-dependent aggregation tendencies of therapeutic proteins when mixed with human plasma and serum.

  13. Evaluation of an immunoassay for human-specific quantitation of therapeutic antibodies in serum samples from non-human primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubenrauch, Kay; Wessels, Uwe; Lenz, Helmut

    2009-05-01

    Pharmacokinetic characterization of therapeutic antibodies plays an important role during preclinical and clinical development. However, accurate pharmacokinetic evaluation of therapeutic antibodies in serum samples from non-human primates is often complicated by insufficient specificity of the assays to measure drug levels. The present paper describes the use of a murine monoclonal antibody in an immunoassay format to specifically and quantitatively measure human therapeutic antibodies in serum from non-human primates. This murine antibody is directed against a unique epitope on the constant region CH2 domain of all isotypes of human immunoglobulin G (IgG). The antibody, designated anti-human Fcgamma-pan: R10Z8E9, does not cross-react with serum from mouse, rat, and the non-human primates marmoset, rhesus macaque, cynomolgus monkey and baboon when using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) or surface plasmon resonance technology (Biacore) format for measurement of the therapeutic antibody. Use of the antibody anti-human Fcgamma-pan: R10Z8E9 as capturing and detection reagent allowed human-specific quantitation of total therapeutic antibody anti-IGF-1R in spiked cynomolgus monkey serum via a Sandwich ELISA format. In contrast, a commercially available polyclonal antibody (PAB) directed to the Fcgamma fragment of human IgG only specifically measured the therapeutic antibody in buffer samples, but not in serum from cynomolgus monkeys. This generic human IgG assay was already applied in several pharmacokinetic studies in cynomolgus monkeys to determine serum levels of different therapeutic antibodies, including the anti-IGF-1R. Validation of the assay for a humanized IgG1 therapeutic antibody against a membrane protein revealed a lower limit of quantitation of 8 ng/mL in undiluted serum. Intra-assay and inter-assay precision was characterized by a coefficient of variation of less than 10% and accuracy was within 15%. Dilutional linearity was evidenced by a

  14. Cervico-vaginal monitoring in pregnancy in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonietta Cavallaro

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Reproductive tract infections (RTIs in pregnancy are an important cause of fetal and neonatal morbidity, sometimes with serious complications. Chlamydia trachomatis causes ectopic pregnancy, conjunctivitis, pneumonia and RTIs in newborn babies. Listeria monocytogenes and Streptococcus agalactiae can give neonatal sepsis and meningitis, and Trichomonas vaginalis causes premature birth. Objectives To update local epidemiology of RTIs in pregnancy in order to to implement efficacious screening and prevention programs. Methods Between January- December 2006, at the Padua’s Hospital Microbiology and Virology Service,we investigated 2000 asimptomatic pregnant women, 18-45 years old, Italian and foreigners.We collected vaginal and cervical swabs for the microscopy, the culture for Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Trichomonas vaginalis, Mycoplasma spp., Streptococcus agalactiae, Listeria monocytogenes, and other bacteria and yeasts, and for the molecular assay for Chlamydia trachomatis. Results The prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis and Trichomonas vaginalis in our population were 2.06% and 0.20%, respectively. Neisseria gonorrhoeae was not detected. Sexually transmitted infections (STIs were more frequent among foreigners, and in women aged 18-30.The prevalence of Streptococcus agalactiae was 8.69% for Italian, and 7.54% for foreigners.We didn’t find any case of maternal colonization by Listeria monocytogenes. Conclusions From the obtained results ideas have emerged to arrange a qualitative and quantitative optimization of the diagnosis of RTIs, implementing diagnostic paths based on the different typologies of patients and on the local epidemiology. The cultural research of Listeria monocytogenes takes a long time, perhaps a molecular one, because of fastness and sensitivity, could be more useful.

  15. Uterus Dysplasia Associated with Cervico-Vaginal Agenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mahdavi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Müllerian ducts can form upper parts of normal female reproductive system and any failure in ductal fusion may result in to müllerian duct anomalies (MDA. We present a case of MDA and a uterus dysplasia with no evidence of cervical or upper vaginal tissue. This case showes the role of magnetic resonace imaging (MRI on MDA diagnosis and urges the need for a unified reliable and practical classification more compatible with clinical practice.

  16. The Stability of Complement-Mediated Bactericidal Activity in Human Serum against Salmonella

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Shaughnessy, Colette M.; Cunningham, Adam F.; MacLennan, Calman A.

    2012-01-01

    The complement cascade includes heat-labile proteins and care is required when handling serum in order to preserve its functional integrity. We have previously used a whole human serum bactericidal assay to show that antibody and an intact complement system are required in blood for killing of invasive isolates of Salmonella. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the conditions under which human serum can be stored and manipulated while maintaining complement integrity. Serum bactericidal activity against Salmonella was maintained for a minimum of 35 days when stored at 4°C, eight days at 22°C and 54 hours at 37°C. Up to three freeze-thaw cycles had no effect on the persistence of bactericidal activity and hemolytic complement assays confirmed no effect on complement function. Delay in the separation of serum for up to four days from clotted blood stored at 22°C did not affect bactericidal activity. Dilution of serum resulted in an increased rate of loss of bactericidal activity and so serum should be stored undiluted. These findings indicate that the current guidelines concerning manipulation and storage of human serum to preserve complement integrity and function leave a large margin for safety with regards to bactericidal activity against Salmonella. The study provides a scheme for determining the requirements for serum handling in relation to functional activity of complement in other systems. PMID:23145102

  17. In Vitro Quantified Determination of β-Amyloid 42 Peptides, a Biomarker of Neuro-Degenerative Disorders, in PBS and Human Serum Using a Simple, Cost-Effective Thin Gold Film Biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Yifan; Molazemhosseini, Alireza; Liu, Chung Chiun

    2017-07-20

    A simple in vitro biosensor for the detection of β-amyloid 42 in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) and undiluted human serum was fabricated and tested based on our platform sensor technology. The bio-recognition mechanism of this biosensor was based on the effect of the interaction between antibody and antigen of β-amyloid 42 to the redox couple probe of K₄Fe(CN)₆ and K₃Fe(CN)₆. Differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) served as the transduction mechanism measuring the current output derived from the redox coupling reaction. The biosensor was a three-electrode electrochemical system, and the working and counter electrodes were 50 nm thin gold film deposited by a sputtering technique. The reference electrode was a thick-film printed Ag/AgCl electrode. Laser ablation technique was used to define the size and structure of the biosensor. Cost-effective roll-to-roll manufacturing process was employed in the fabrication of the biosensor, making it simple and relatively inexpensive. Self-assembled monolayers (SAM) of 3-Mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) was employed to covalently immobilize the thiol group on the gold working electrode. A carbodiimide conjugation approach using N -(3-dimethylaminopropyl)- N '-ethylcarbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC) and N -hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) was undertaken for cross-linking antibody of β-amyloid 42 to the carboxylic groups on one end of the MPA. The antibody concentration of β-amyloid 42 used was 18.75 µg/mL. The concentration range of β-amyloid 42 in this study was from 0.0675 µg/mL to 0.5 µg/mL for both PBS and undiluted human serum. DPV measurements showed excellent response in this antigen concentration range. Interference study of this biosensor was carried out in the presence of Tau protein antigen. Excellent specificity of this β-amyloid 42 biosensor was demonstrated without interference from other species, such as T-tau protein.

  18. Sacha Inchi Oil (Plukenetia volubilis L.), effect on adherence of Staphylococus aureus to human skin explant and keratinocytes in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Aspajo, German; Belkhelfa, Haouaria; Haddioui-Hbabi, Laïla; Bourdy, Geneviève; Deharo, Eric

    2015-08-02

    intensity. Bactericidal effect was determined by colony counting on trypticase soy agar. Laboratory assays showed that SIO and CocO, tested undiluted, were not cytotoxic on keratinocytes nor human explants and were not bactericidal neither. SIO was more active as antiadherent (preventive) than CocO on keratinocytes. There was no significant difference between detachment effects (curative) of both oils on keratinocytes but SIO was almost 5 times more active on the detachment of S. aureus from human skin explants. From that study it can be concluded that the use of SIO on dermal cells is safe and efficient in the inhibition of S. aureus adherence. Our results tend to support the traditional use of undiluted SIO in skin care. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Sexual transmission of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Paiva

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1 is endemic in many parts of the world and is primarily transmitted through sexual intercourse or from mother to child. Sexual transmission occurs more efficiently from men to women than women to men and might be enhanced by sexually transmitted diseases that cause ulcers and result in mucosal ruptures, such as syphilis, herpes simplex type 2 (HSV-2, and chancroid. Other sexually transmitted diseases might result in the recruitment of inflammatory cells and could increase the risk of HTLV-1 acquisition and transmission. Additionally, factors that are associated with higher transmission risks include the presence of antibodies against the viral oncoprotein Tax (anti-Tax, a higher proviral load in peripheral blood lymphocytes, and increased cervicovaginal or seminal secretions. Seminal fluid has been reported to increase HTLV replication and transmission, whereas male circumcision and neutralizing antibodies might have a protective effect. Recently, free virions were discovered in plasma, which reveals a possible new mode of HTLV replication. It is unclear how this discovery might affect the routes of HTLV transmission, particularly sexual transmission, because HTLV transmission rates are significantly higher from men to women than women to men.

  20. Sexual transmission of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiva, Arthur; Casseb, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is endemic in many parts of the world and is primarily transmitted through sexual intercourse or from mother to child. Sexual transmission occurs more efficiently from men to women than women to men and might be enhanced by sexually transmitted diseases that cause ulcers and result in mucosal ruptures, such as syphilis, herpes simplex type 2 (HSV-2), and chancroid. Other sexually transmitted diseases might result in the recruitment of inflammatory cells and could increase the risk of HTLV-1 acquisition and transmission. Additionally, factors that are associated with higher transmission risks include the presence of antibodies against the viral oncoprotein Tax (anti-Tax), a higher proviral load in peripheral blood lymphocytes, and increased cervicovaginal or seminal secretions. Seminal fluid has been reported to increase HTLV replication and transmission, whereas male circumcision and neutralizing antibodies might have a protective effect. Recently, free virions were discovered in plasma, which reveals a possible new mode of HTLV replication. It is unclear how this discovery might affect the routes of HTLV transmission, particularly sexual transmission, because HTLV transmission rates are significantly higher from men to women than women to men.

  1. Association of High-Risk Human Papillomavirus with Genital Tract Mucosal Immune Factors In HIV-Infected Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Niall; Huber, Ashley; Lo, Yungtai; Castle, Philip E.; Kemal, Kimdar; Burk, Robert D.; Strickler, Howard D.; Einstein, Mark H.; Young, Mary; Anastos, Kathryn; Herold, Betsy C.

    2015-01-01

    Problem High-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) is prevalent in HIV-infected women and may be associated with mucosal changes that promote HIV replication. Method of Study Innate immune molecules, antimicrobial activity, HIV RNA, and HPV DNA genotypes were measured in a cross-sectional study of 128 HIV-infected women categorized into HPV-16 (n=8), other HR-HPV (n=41), and non-HR-HPV controls (n=79). Results Compared to controls, HR-HPV groups had higher plasma viral loads (p=0.004), lower CD4 cells (p=0.02), more genital tract HIV RNA (p=0.03), greater number of different HPV types (p<0.001), higher cervicovaginal lavage (CVL) IL-1α (p=0.03) and human beta defensin 2 (HBD2) (p=0.049), and less anti-HIVBal activity (p=0.03). HPV-16 remained significantly associated with higher HBD2 (p=0.03), higher IL-1α (p=0.009), and lower anti-HIVBaL activity (p=0.03) compared to controls after adjusting for plasma viral load and CD4 T cell count. Conclusion HR-HPV is associated with mucosal changes in HIV-infected women that could adversely impact genital tract health. PMID:26685115

  2. Semi-continuous methane production from undiluted brown algae using a halophilic marine microbial community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Toyokazu; Kita, Akihisa; Okamura, Yoshiko; Aki, Tsunehiro; Matsumura, Yukihiko; Tajima, Takahisa; Kato, Junichi; Nakashimada, Yutaka

    2016-01-01

    Acclimated marine sediment-derived culture was used for semi-continuous methane production from materials equivalent to raw brown algae, without dilution of salinity and without nutrient supply, under 3 consecutive conditions of varying organic loading rates (OLRs) and hydraulic retention time (HRT). Methane production was stable at 2.0gVS/kg/day (39-day HRT); however, it became unstable at 2.9gVS/kg/day (28-day HRT) due to acetate and propionate accumulation. OLR subsequently decreased to 1.7gVS/kg/day (46-day HRT), stabilizing methane production beyond steady state. Methane yield was above 300mL/g VS at all OLRs. These results indicated that the acclimated marine sediment culture was able to produce methane semi-continuously from raw brown algae without dilution and nutrient supply under steady state. Microbial community analysis suggested that hydrogenotrophic methanogens predominated among archaea during unstable methane production, implying a partial shift of the methanogenic pathway from acetoclastic methanogenesis to acetate oxidation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Micro-electromembrane extraction across free liquid membranes. Extractions of basic drugs from undiluted biological samples

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kubáň, Pavel; Boček, Petr

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 1337, Apr (2014), s. 32-39 ISSN 0021-9673 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-05762S Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : micro-electromembrane extraction * free liquid membranes * biological samples Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 4.169, year: 2014

  4. Micro-electromembrane extraction across free liquid membranes. Extractions of basic drugs from undiluted biological samples

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kubáň, Pavel; Boček, Petr

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 1337, Apr (2014), s. 32-39 ISSN 0021-9673 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-05762S Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : micro-electromembrane extraction * free liquid membranes * biological samples Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry , Separation Impact factor: 4.169, year: 2014

  5. Genotypic characterisation of human papillomavirus infections among persons living with HIV infection; a case-control study in Kumasi, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yar, Denis Dekugmen; Salifu, Samson Pandam; Darko, Samuel Nkansah; Annan, Augustina Angelina; Gyimah, Akosua Adumea; Buabeng, Kwame Ohene; Owusu-Dabo, Ellis

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study is to describe the burden of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection among women living with HIV and non-infected women in Ghana. A case-control study was conducted involving 107 women living with HIV aged between 18 and 59 years (cases) and 100 non-HIV-infected apparently healthy women (controls) who were recruited from the Kumasi South Hospital, from July to December, 2014. Cervicovaginal swabs were taken from study participants to characterise 28 high- and low-risk HPV genotypes using a multiplex real-time PCR. The overall mean age for the participants was 40.10 ± 9.76 years. The prevalence of high-risk (hr)-HPV genotypes was significantly higher among the cases than the controls (77.4% vs. 41.6%, P < 0.0001). Overall, HPV 58 and 54 were the most predominant high-risk (18.8%) and low-risk (15.0%) genotypes detected. The two most common hr-HPV genotype isolates were 58 (18.8%) and 35 (15.9%) with 58 being the most prevalent among age group 35-44 years compared with hr-HPV 16, 18, 35 and 45, found predominantly among 18-34 age group. Significant variations exist in HPV genotypes among HIV-infected and uninfected women. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR (EGFR AND HUMAN PAPILLOMAVIRUS (HPV L1 CAPSID PROTEIN IN CERVICAL SQUAMOUS INTRAEPITHELIAL LESIONS

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    Balan Raluca

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed the immunohistochemical pattern of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR in cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions (SILs in correlation with L1 HPV capsid protein, in order to determine the relationship between EGFR expression and the infection status of human papillomavirus (HPV. The study included 40 cases, 24 LSIL (low grade SIL (CIN1, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and 16 HSIL (high grade SIL (6 cases of CIN2 and 10 cases of CIN3. The immunoexpression of L1 HPV protein was assessed on conventional cervico-vaginal smears and EGFR was immunohistochemically evaluated on the corresponding cervical biopsies. The HPV L1 capsid protein was expressed in 45.83% of LSIL and 25% of HSIL. EGFR was overexpressed in 62,4% of HSIL (58,4% CIN2 and 41,6% CIN3 and 37,6% LSIL. The immunoexpression of L1 HPV has clinical application in the progression assessment of the cervical precancerous lesions without a correlation to the grade of the cervical SIL. EGFR is expressed by all proliferating squamous epithelial cells, thus corresponding with the grade of SIL. The evaluation of EGFR status, correlated with L1 HPV protein expression, can provide useful data of progression risk of cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions

  7. Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma with mucinous metaplasia on the sole associated with high-risk human papillomavirus type 18.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caputo, Valentina; Colombi, Roberto; Ribotta, Marisa; Rongioletti, Franco

    2011-05-01

    A case of superficially invasive cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the sole containing numerous mucin-producing vacuolated cells resembling "signet-ring" cells is reported. The 2 cellular components of the tumor, both squamous and mucinous, were atypical with pleomorphic nuclei, and expressed the same immunophenotype, consistent in weak and focal positivity for cytokeratin 5/6 and epithelial membrane antigen (EMA) and weak cytoplasmic and nuclear positivity for p16. Real-time PCR genotyping demonstrated the presence of high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) type 18. We diagnose our case as "cutaneous SCC with mucinous metaplasia" and discuss the differential diagnoses with other skin tumors exhibiting mucin-containing cells, in particular with adenosquamous carcinoma and mucoepidermoid carcinoma. Although HPV 18 is not uncommon in cervico-vaginal pathology, where is often associated with mucinous adenocarcinoma or adenosquamous carcinoma of the cervix, its detection has been rarely reported in cutaneous SCC. In our case, the association of mucinous metaplasia and oncogenic high-risk HPV 18 in a cutaneous SCC may be of interest to the dermatopathologist. Further observations need to confirm whether the histopathologic finding of mucinous metaplasia in an atypical squamous cell proliferation could be a clue for investigating the presence of oncogenic high-risk HPV infection, with particular regard to HPV 18 subtype.

  8. Improvement of Gynecological Screening of Female Renal Transplant Recipients by Self-Sampling for Human Papillomavirus Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinten, Floor; Hilbrands, Luuk B; Meeuwis, Kim A; van Bergen-Verkuyten, Muriël C; Slangen, Brigitte F; van Rossum, Michelle M; Rahamat-Langendoen, Janette; Massuger, Leon F; de Hullu, Joanne A; Melchers, Willem J

    2017-01-01

    Female renal transplant recipients (RTRs) have increased risk for developing human papillomavirus (HPV)-related (pre)malignancies of the lower genital tract. Annual cervical screening is advised for RTRs, but the participation rate is low. The aim of this study is to investigate whether HPV self-sampling is suitable for gynecological screening of RTRs to increase participation rate. A large cohort of 253 RTRs was investigated for the prevalence of HPV. All participants received a device for a cervicovaginal self-sample. Questionnaires were sent to assess the experience with this device. High-risk (hrHPV) presence was determined with the SPF10-LiPA25 system and GP5+/6+ PCR. HrHPV-positive patients underwent gynecological examination. More than 90% of the patients rated their experience with the self-sample device as good to excellent, and 77% preferred self-sampling over a physician taken sample. Approximately thirty-five of 217 women tested hrHPV positive with SPF10- LiPA25, and 22 tested positive with the GP5+/6+ PCR. Eleven hrHPV-positive patients had clinically relevant gynecological abnormalities, and they all tested positive with GP5+/6+ PCR. Self-sampling is clinically applicable in a gynecological screening and is preferred by female RTRs. Therefore, self-sampling could be implemented with the aim to increase the participation rate of female RTRs in yearly gynecological screening.

  9. The influence of indoxyl sulfate and ammonium on the autofluorescence of human urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perinchery, Sandeep Menon; Kuzhiumparambil, Unnikrishnan; Vemulpad, Subramanyam; Goldys, Ewa M

    2010-01-15

    Despite biological variability the spectral characteristics of undiluted human urine show relatively low autofluorescence at short UV (250-300nm) excitation. However with dilution the fluorescence intensity remarkably increases. This paper examines the mechanisms behind this effect, by using excitation-emission matrices. Corrections for the inner filter effect were made for improved understanding of the spectral patterns. We focused on three major fluorophores (tryptophan, indoxyl sulfate and 5-hydroxyindole-3-acetate) that are excited at these wavelengths, and whose content in urine is strongly linked with various health conditions. Their fluorescence was studied both individually and in combinations. We also examined the effect of ammonium on the fluorescence of these major fluorophores individually and in combinations. Through these studies we have identified the leading effects that reduce the UV fluorescence, namely higher concentration of indoxyl sulfate producing the inner filter effect and concentration quenching and quenching of fluorophores by ammonium. This result will assist in broader utilisation of UV fluorescence in medical diagnostics.

  10. Recovery of Drug Delivery Nanoparticles from Human Plasma Using an Electrokinetic Platform Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibsen, Stuart; Sonnenberg, Avery; Schutt, Carolyn; Mukthavaram, Rajesh; Yeh, Yasan; Ortac, Inanc; Manouchehri, Sareh; Kesari, Santosh; Esener, Sadik; Heller, Michael J

    2015-10-01

    The effect of complex biological fluids on the surface and structure of nanoparticles is a rapidly expanding field of study. One of the challenges holding back this research is the difficulty of recovering therapeutic nanoparticles from biological samples due to their small size, low density, and stealth surface coatings. Here, the first demonstration of the recovery and analysis of drug delivery nanoparticles from undiluted human plasma samples through the use of a new electrokinetic platform technology is presented. The particles are recovered from plasma through a dielectrophoresis separation force that is created by innate differences in the dielectric properties between the unaltered nanoparticles and the surrounding plasma. It is shown that this can be applied to a wide range of drug delivery nanoparticles of different morphologies and materials, including low-density nanoliposomes. These recovered particles can then be analyzed using different methods including scanning electron microscopy to monitor surface and structural changes that result from plasma exposure. This new recovery technique can be broadly applied to the recovery of nanoparticles from high conductance fluids in a wide range of applications. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Improvement in the performance of external quality assessment in Korean HIV clinical laboratories using unrecalcified human plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin-Sook; Kee, Mee-Kyung; Choi, Byeong-Sun; Kim, Chan-Wha; Kim, Hyon-Suk; Kim, Sung Soon

    2012-01-01

    The external quality assessment schemes (EQAS) organizer provides a suitable program to monitor and improve the quality of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing laboratories with EQAS panels prepared under various conditions. The aim of the current study was to investigate the effects of human plasma samples on the EQAS results of HIV obtained from hospital-based clinical laboratories. From 2007 to 2009, HIV EQAS panels consisted of four to six samples that consisted of undiluted positive and negative samples and were provided to laboratories twice per year. Up until the first half EQAS in 2008, EQAS panel materials were obtained by converting acid citrate dextrose treated plasma to serum via chemical treatment with CaCl2. Beginning with the second EQAS in 2008, all materials were prepared without the defibrination process. Approximately 300 HIV clinical laboratories participated in this program. The overall performance of clinical laboratories was shown to be improved when using unrecalcified plasma panels compared with recalcified panels. Significant differences were observed in EIA analyses of plasma for both positive (plaboratories.

  12. Human papillomavirus (HPV) perinatal transmission and risk of HPV persistence among children: Design, methods and preliminary results of the HERITAGE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trottier, Helen; Mayrand, Marie-Hélène; Coutlée, François; Monnier, Patricia; Laporte, Louise; Niyibizi, Joseph; Carceller, Ana-Maria; Fraser, William D; Brassard, Paul; Lacroix, Jacques; Francoeur, Diane; Bédard, Marie-Josée; Girard, Isabelle; Audibert, François

    2016-12-01

    Perinatal route of transmission of human papillomavirus (HPV) has been demonstrated in several small studies. We designed a large prospective cohort study (HERITAGE) to better understand perinatal HPV. The objective of this article is to present the study design and preliminary data. In the first phase of the study, we recruited 167 women in Montreal, Canada, during the first trimester of pregnancy. An additional 850 are currently being recruited in the ongoing phase. Cervicovaginal samples were obtained from mothers in the first trimester and tested for HPV DNA from 36 mucosal genotypes (and repeated in the third trimester for HPV-positive mothers). Placental samples were also taken for HPV DNA testing. Conjunctival, oral, pharyngeal and genital samples were collected for HPV DNA testing in children of HPV-positive mothers at every 3-6 months from birth until 2 years of age. Blood samples were collected in mother and children for HPV serology testing. We found a high prevalence of HPV in pregnant women (45%[95%CI:37-53%]) and in placentas (14%[8-21%]). The proportion of HPV positivity (any site) among children at birth/3-months was 11%[5-22%]. HPV was detected in children in multiple sites including the conjunctiva (5%[10-14%]). The ongoing HERITAGE cohort will help provide a better understanding of perinatal HPV. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. A new method for isolation of interstitial fluid from human solid tumors applied to proteomic analysis of ovarian carcinoma tissue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanne Haslene-Hox

    Full Text Available Major efforts have been invested in the identification of cancer biomarkers in plasma, but the extraordinary dynamic range in protein composition, and the dilution of disease specific proteins make discovery in plasma challenging. Focus is shifting towards using proximal fluids for biomarker discovery, but methods to verify the isolated sample's origin are missing. We therefore aimed to develop a technique to search for potential candidate proteins in the proximal proteome, i.e. in the tumor interstitial fluid, since the biomarkers are likely to be excreted or derive from the tumor microenvironment. Since tumor interstitial fluid is not readily accessible, we applied a centrifugation method developed in experimental animals and asked whether interstitial fluid from human tissue could be isolated, using ovarian carcinoma as a model. Exposure of extirpated tissue to 106 g enabled tumor fluid isolation. The fluid was verified as interstitial by an isolated fluid:plasma ratio not significantly different from 1.0 for both creatinine and Na(+, two substances predominantly present in interstitial fluid. The isolated fluid had a colloid osmotic pressure 79% of that in plasma, suggesting that there was some sieving of proteins at the capillary wall. Using a proteomic approach we detected 769 proteins in the isolated interstitial fluid, sixfold higher than in patient plasma. We conclude that the isolated fluid represents undiluted interstitial fluid and thus a subproteome with high concentration of locally secreted proteins that may be detected in plasma for diagnostic, therapeutic and prognostic monitoring by targeted methods.

  14. In vitro cytotoxicity of white MTA, MTA Fillapex® and Portland cement on human periodontal ligament fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshino, Patrícia; Nishiyama, Celso Kenji; Modena, Karin Cristina da Silva; Santos, Carlos Ferreira; Sipert, Carla Renata

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the in vitro cytotoxicity of white mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), MTA Fillapex® and Portland cement (PC) on human cultured periodontal ligament fibroblasts. Periodontal ligament fibroblast culture was established and the cells were used for cytotoxic tests after the fourth passage. Cell density was set at 1.25 X10 4 cells/well in 96-well plates. Endodontic material extracts were prepared by placing sealer/cement specimens (5x3mm) in 1mL of culture medium for 72 h. The extracts were then serially two-fold diluted and inserted into the cell-seeded wells for 24, 48 and 72 h. MTT assay was employed for analysis of cell viability. Cell supernatants were tested for nitric oxide using the Griess reagent system. MTA presented cytotoxic effect in undiluted extracts at 24 and 72 h. MTA Fillapex® presented the highest cytotoxic levels with important cell viability reduction for pure extracts and at ½ and ¼ dilutions. In this study, PC did not induce alterations in fibroblast viability. Nitric oxide was detected in extract-treated cell supernatants and also in the extracts only, suggesting presence of nitrite in the soluble content of the tested materials. In the present study, MTA Fillapex displayed the highest cytotoxic effect on periodontal ligament fibroblasts followed by white MTA and PC.

  15. Innate immunity in the vagina (Part II): Anti-HIV activity and antiviral content of human vaginal secretions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Mickey V; Ghosh, Mimi; Fahey, John V; Ochsenbauer, Christina; Rossoll, Richard M; Wira, Charles R

    2014-07-01

    Whether the concentrations of antiviral proteins, and anti-HIV activity, within human vaginal secretions change across the menstrual cycle is unknown. Using a menstrual cup, vaginal secretions from pre-menopausal women were recovered at the proliferative (d6-8), mid-cycle (d13-15), and secretory (d21-23) stages of the menstrual cycle. Antiviral protein concentration was determined by ELISA, and anti-HIV activity assessed using the TZM-bl reporter cell line. CCL20, RANTES, elafin, HBD2, SDF-1α, and IL-8 levels were detectable in the secretions. Vaginal secretions had anti-HIV activity against specific clade B strains of HIV, with significant inhibition of IIIB and increased infectivity of transmitted/founder CH077.t. No significant differences in either antiviral protein concentration or anti-HIV activity with respect to menstrual cycle stage were measured, but marked differences were observed in both parameters over the course of the cycle between different women and in consecutive cycles from the same woman. The vagina contains a complement of antiviral proteins. The variation in anti-HIV activity demonstrates that immune protection in the vagina is not constant. Intra- and interindividual variations suggest that factors in addition to sex hormones influence antiviral protection. Lastly, the menstrual cup is a new model for recovering undiluted vaginal secretions from women throughout their reproductive life. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Immunity in the Vagina (Part II): Anti-HIV Activity and Antiviral Content of Human Vaginal Secretions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Mickey V.; Ghosh, Mimi; Fahey, John V.; Ochsenbauer, Christina; Rossoll, Richard M.; Wira, Charles R.

    2015-01-01

    Problem Whether the concentrations of antiviral proteins, and anti-HIV activity, within human vaginal secretions changes across the menstrual cycle is unknown. Method of Study Using a menstrual cup, vaginal secretions from premenopausal women were recovered at the proliferative (d6–8), mid-cycle (d13–15) and secretory (d21–23) stages of the menstrual cycle. Antiviral protein concentration was determined by ELISA, and anti-HIV activity assessed using the TZM-bl reporter cell line. Results CCL20, RANTES, elafin, HBD2, SDF-1α and IL-8 levels were detectable in the secretions. Vaginal secretions had anti-HIV activity against specific clade B strains of HIV, with significant inhibition of IIIB and increased infectivity of transmitted/founder CH077.t. No significant differences in either antiviral protein concentration or anti-HIV activity with respect to menstrual cycle stage were measured, but marked differences were observed in both parameters over the course of the cycle between different women, and in consecutive cycles from the same woman. Conclusion The vagina contains a complement of antiviral proteins. The variation in anti-HIV activity demonstrates that immune protection in the vagina is not constant. Intra- and inter-individual variations suggest that factors in addition to sex hormones influence antiviral protection. Lastly, the menstrual cup is a new model for recovering undiluted vaginal secretions from women throughout their reproductive life. PMID:24806967

  17. Gene Expression Profiling of Human Vaginal Cells In Vitro Discriminates Compounds with Pro-Inflammatory and Mucosa-Altering Properties: Novel Biomarkers for Preclinical Testing of HIV Microbicide Candidates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina A Zalenskaya

    Full Text Available Inflammation and immune activation of the cervicovaginal mucosa are considered factors that increase susceptibility to HIV infection. Therefore, it is essential to screen candidate anti-HIV microbicides for potential mucosal immunomodulatory/inflammatory effects prior to further clinical development. The goal of this study was to develop an in vitro method for preclinical evaluation of the inflammatory potential of new candidate microbicides using a microarray gene expression profiling strategy.To this end, we compared transcriptomes of human vaginal cells (Vk2/E6E7 treated with well-characterized pro-inflammatory (PIC and non-inflammatory (NIC compounds. PICs included compounds with different mechanisms of action. Gene expression was analyzed using Affymetrix U133 Plus 2 arrays. Data processing was performed using GeneSpring 11.5 (Agilent Technologies, Santa Clara, CA.Microarraray comparative analysis allowed us to generate a panel of 20 genes that were consistently deregulated by PICs compared to NICs, thus distinguishing between these two groups. Functional analysis mapped 14 of these genes to immune and inflammatory responses. This was confirmed by the fact that PICs induced NFkB pathway activation in Vk2 cells. By testing microbicide candidates previously characterized in clinical trials we demonstrated that the selected PIC-associated genes properly identified compounds with mucosa-altering effects. The discriminatory power of these genes was further demonstrated after culturing vaginal cells with vaginal bacteria. Prevotella bivia, prevalent bacteria in the disturbed microbiota of bacterial vaginosis, induced strong upregulation of seven selected PIC-associated genes, while a commensal Lactobacillus gasseri associated to vaginal health did not cause any changes.In vitro evaluation of the immunoinflammatory potential of microbicides using the PIC-associated genes defined in this study could help in the initial screening of candidates prior

  18. Human papillomavirus andChlamydia trachomatisinfection in gyneco-obstetric outpatients from a mexican hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conde-Ferráez, Laura; Martíez, Jorge Ramiro Carrillo; Ayora-Talavera, Guadalupe; Losa, María Del Refugio González

    2017-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) and Chlamydia trachomatis are the most frequent sexually transmitted infections, usually asymptomatic. Persistent infection with high-risk HPV types and other cofactors such as the concomitant infection with C. trachomatis can represent a higher risk to develop cervical lesions; therefore, screening with sensitive methods could aid to identify women at risk. The aim is to determine the prevalence and concurrence of both infections, detected with in-house molecular methods, and to identify the risk factors associated to the infections in Mexican women. This was a cross-sectional study including gynaecological-obstetrical medical outpatients from a Social Security Hospital in Southeast Mexico. After informed consent, cervicovaginal samples were collected and tested for HPV and C. trachomatis using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). HPV positives were further tested for high-risk HPV16, 18, 58 and low-risk 11 using real-time PCR. All methods employed were in-house. Data analyses included odds ratios (OR), Chi-square and linear regressions. Women included were 233, aging 15-49 (mean 30 years), 52.8% were pregnant. For HPV and C. trachomatis testing, 230 samples were adequate, resulting in 48 (20.9%) and 15 (6.5%) positives, respectively; 4 (1.7%) were positive to both. The most frequent genotype identified was HPV58 (25% of typified samples). C. trachomatis positives were 73% asymptomatic, none had pelvic inflammatory disease or infertility histories. The only variable associated to HPV infection was the history of previous sexually transmitted disease (OR = 3.69,P= 0.0019). More than 25% of the population was infected with either agent. We successfully used in-house molecular methodologies for diagnosis and typing, showing HPV and C. trachomatis prevalence consistent to previous reports. Concomitant infections were found, HPV high-risk types were involved in half of these cases, representing a higher risk.

  19. Human papillomavirus and Chlamydia trachomatis infection in gyneco-obstetric outpatients from a mexican hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Conde-Ferráez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Human papillomavirus (HPV and Chlamydia trachomatis are the most frequent sexually transmitted infections, usually asymptomatic. Persistent infection with high-risk HPV types and other cofactors such as the concomitant infection with C. trachomatis can represent a higher risk to develop cervical lesions; therefore, screening with sensitive methods could aid to identify women at risk. Aims: The aim is to determine the prevalence and concurrence of both infections, detected with in-house molecular methods, and to identify the risk factors associated to the infections in Mexican women. Subjects and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study including gynaecological-obstetrical medical outpatients from a Social Security Hospital in Southeast Mexico. After informed consent, cervicovaginal samples were collected and tested for HPV and C. trachomatis using polymerase chain reaction (PCR. HPV positives were further tested for high-risk HPV16, 18, 58 and low-risk 11 using real-time PCR. All methods employed were in-house. Data analyses included odds ratios (OR, Chi-square and linear regressions. Results: Women included were 233, aging 15–49 (mean 30 years, 52.8% were pregnant. For HPV and C. trachomatis testing, 230 samples were adequate, resulting in 48 (20.9% and 15 (6.5% positives, respectively; 4 (1.7% were positive to both. The most frequent genotype identified was HPV58 (25% of typified samples. C. trachomatis positives were 73% asymptomatic, none had pelvic inflammatory disease or infertility histories. The only variable associated to HPV infection was the history of previous sexually transmitted disease (OR = 3.69,P= 0.0019. Conclusions: More than 25% of the population was infected with either agent. We successfully used in-house molecular methodologies for diagnosis and typing, showing HPV and C. trachomatis prevalence consistent to previous reports. Concomitant infections were found, HPV high-risk types were involved in half of these

  20. Prevent cervical cancer by screening with reliable human papillomavirus detection and genotyping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ge, Shichao; Gong, Bo; Cai, Xushan; Yang, Xiaoer; Gan, Xiaowei; Tong, Xinghai; Li, Haichuan; Zhu, Meijuan; Yang, Fengyun; Zhou, Hongrong; Hong, Guofan

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of cervical cancer is expected to rise sharply in China. A reliable routine human papillomavirus (HPV) detection and genotyping test to be supplemented by the limited Papanicolaou cytology facilities is urgently needed to help identify the patients with cervical precancer for preventive interventions. To this end, we evaluated a nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) protocol for detection of HPV L1 gene DNA in cervicovaginal cells. The PCR amplicons were genotyped by direct DNA sequencing. In parallel, split samples were subjected to a Digene HC2 HPV test which has been widely used for “cervical cancer risk” screen. Of the 1826 specimens, 1655 contained sufficient materials for analysis and 657 were truly negative. PCR/DNA sequencing showed 674 infected by a single high-risk HPV, 188 by a single low-risk HPV, and 136 by multiple HPV genotypes with up to five HPV genotypes in one specimen. In comparison, the HC2 test classified 713 specimens as infected by high-risk HPV, and 942 as negative for HPV infections. The high-risk HC2 test correctly detected 388 (57.6%) of the 674 high-risk HPV isolates in clinical specimens, mislabeled 88 (46.8%) of the 188 low-risk HPV isolates as high-risk genotypes, and classified 180 (27.4%) of the 657 “true-negative” samples as being infected by high-risk HPV. It was found to cross-react with 20 low-risk HPV genotypes. We conclude that nested PCR detection of HPV followed by short target DNA sequencing can be used for screening and genotyping to formulate a paradigm in clinical management of HPV-related disorders in a rapidly developing economy

  1. A new approach to predict human intestinal absorption using porcine intestinal tissue and biorelevant matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerhout, Joost; van de Steeg, Evita; Grossouw, Dimitri; Zeijdner, Evelijn E; Krul, Cyrille A M; Verwei, Miriam; Wortelboer, Heleen M

    2014-10-15

    of 12 are within 3-fold difference), compared to Caco-2 Papp values (4 out of 12 are within 3-fold difference). In addition, for the selected hydrophilic compounds a significant increase in the permeability was observed from duodenum to ileum. Finally, this study indicated that porcine jejunal tissue segments can be used with undiluted luminal samples to predict human intestinal permeability and the effect of biorelevant matrices on this. In conclusion, viable porcine intestinal tissue mounted in the InTESTine™ system can be applied as a reliable tool for the assessment of intestinal permeability in the absence and presence of biorelevant samples. This would enable an accessible opportunity for a reliable prediction of human intestinal absorption, and the effect of luminal compounds such as digested foods, early in drug development. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. More Human than Human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, David

    2017-07-01

    Within the literature surrounding nonhuman animals on the one hand and cognitively disabled humans on the other, there is much discussion of where beings that do not satisfy the criteria for personhood fit in our moral deliberations. In the future, we may face a different but related problem: that we might create (or cause the creation of) beings that not only satisfy but exceed these criteria. The question becomes whether these are minimal criteria, or hierarchical, such that those who fulfill them to greater degree should be afforded greater consideration. This article questions the validity and necessity of drawing divisions among beings that satisfy the minimum requirements for personhood; considering how future beings-intelligent androids, synthezoids, even alternate-substrate sentiences-might fit alongside the "baseline" human. I ask whether these alternate beings ought to be considered different to us, and why this may or may not matter in terms of a notion of "human community." The film Blade Runner, concerned in large part with humanity and its key synthezoid antagonist Roy Batty, forms a framing touchstone for my discussion. Batty is stronger, faster, more resilient, and more intelligent than Homo sapiens. His exploits, far beyond the capability of normal humans, are contrasted with his frailty and transient lifespan, his aesthetic appreciation of the sights he has seen, and his burgeoning empathy. Not for nothing does his creator within the mythos term him "more human than human."

  3. Interference by human anti-mouse antibodies in CA 125 assay after immunoscintigraphy: anti-idiotypic antibodies not neutralized by mouse IgG but removed by chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turpeinen, U; Lehtovirta, P; Alfthan, H; Stenman, U H

    1990-07-01

    Falsely increased concentrations of the ovarian carcinoma-associated antigen, CA 125, were measured by a monoclonal antibody (MAb)-based double determinant immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) in patients who developed antibodies to mouse immunoglobulins (IgGs) after receiving injections of the same MAb as is used in the CA 125 IRMA. Addition of undiluted mouse serum or purified mouse IgG to the assay mixture failed to eliminate the falsely increased CA 125 concentrations in most of the samples, owing to the presence of anti-idiotype antibody. Because of their anti-idiotypic nature, the human anti-mouse antibodies (HAMAS) had only little effect on other immunometric assays, and this effect could be completely eliminated by addition of mouse IgG. To eliminate the effect of HAMA on the CA 125 assay, we studied the ability of various chromatographic methods to separate the interfering HAMA from CA 125. For measuring HAMA in serum and chromatographic fractions we developed a time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay. Adequate separation of CA 125 and HAMA was achieved by affinity chromatography of patients' sera with solid-phase Protein A, Protein G, cation-exchange chromatography on Mono S, and gel filtration on Superose 6. These results demonstrate that the interference can effectively be removed by rather simple chromatographic procedures.

  4. Interference by human anti-mouse antibodies in CA 125 assay after immunoscintigraphy: Anti-idiotypic antibodies not neutralized by mouse IgG but removed by chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turpeinen, U.; Lehtovirta, P.; Alfthan, H.; Stenman, U.H. (Helsinki Univ. Central Hospital (Finland))

    1990-07-01

    Falsely increased concentrations of the ovarian carcinoma-associated antigen, CA 125, were measured by a monoclonal antibody (MAb)-based double determinant immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) in patients who developed antibodies to mouse immunoglobulins (IgGs) after receiving injections of the same MAb as is used in the CA 125 IRMA. Addition of undiluted mouse serum or purified mouse IgG to the assay mixture failed to eliminate the falsely increased CA 125 concentrations in most of the samples, owing to the presence of anti-idiotype antibody. Because of their anti-idiotypic nature, the human anti-mouse antibodies (HAMAS) had only little effect on other immunometric assays, and this effect could be completely eliminated by addition of mouse IgG. To eliminate the effect of HAMA on the CA 125 assay, we studied the ability of various chromatographic methods to separate the interfering HAMA from CA 125. For measuring HAMA in serum and chromatographic fractions we developed a time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay. Adequate separation of CA 125 and HAMA was achieved by affinity chromatography of patients' sera with solid-phase Protein A, Protein G, cation-exchange chromatography on Mono S, and gel filtration on Superose 6. These results demonstrate that the interference can effectively be removed by rather simple chromatographic procedures.

  5. Functional and structural changes in human erythrocyte surface after irradiation by UV waves of various wavelengths. Report 1. Expression of ABO and rhesus system antigen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samoylova, K.A.; Klimova, K.N.; Priezzheva, L.S.; Artsishevskaya, R.A.

    1983-12-01

    To determine whether shortwave UV (SUV) radiation causes changes in the external surface of human erythrocytes, modifying the expression of the ABO and Rh system antigens known to be related to the surface of the cells, work was performed on erythrocytes in a structurally prepared erythrocyte mass from the blood of 23 donors stabilized by glugicir or heparin. Three series of experiments were performed: on isolated erythrocytes, before irradiation thrice washed to remove plasma with isotonic NaCl 0.9% and resuspended at 5 x 10/sup 7/ cells per mililiter; on erythrocytes diluted to 5 x 10/sup 7/ cells per mililiter; and on erythrocytes on the undiluted erythrocyte mass about 7.5 x 10/sup 9/ cells per mililiter. SUV radiation at 254 nm was used at a power of 4.1 W/m/sup 2/ for 1 to 60 minutes. The agglutinating activity of the ABO and Rh antigens was then studied. Two to three hours after exposure to 248, 620, 1240 and 2480 J/m/sup 2/, the degree of hemolysis of isolated erythrocytes increased by 5,10,18 and 28%. Changes were also observed in agglutinating activity of ABO antigens. The agglutinating activity of A and B antigens increased by an average factor of 2 - H antigens by a factor of 4. SUV radiation did not cause any reliable activation of the Rh antigen. 14 references.

  6. Interference by human anti-mouse antibodies in CA 125 assay after immunoscintigraphy: Anti-idiotypic antibodies not neutralized by mouse IgG but removed by chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turpeinen, U.; Lehtovirta, P.; Alfthan, H.; Stenman, U.H.

    1990-01-01

    Falsely increased concentrations of the ovarian carcinoma-associated antigen, CA 125, were measured by a monoclonal antibody (MAb)-based double determinant immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) in patients who developed antibodies to mouse immunoglobulins (IgGs) after receiving injections of the same MAb as is used in the CA 125 IRMA. Addition of undiluted mouse serum or purified mouse IgG to the assay mixture failed to eliminate the falsely increased CA 125 concentrations in most of the samples, owing to the presence of anti-idiotype antibody. Because of their anti-idiotypic nature, the human anti-mouse antibodies (HAMAS) had only little effect on other immunometric assays, and this effect could be completely eliminated by addition of mouse IgG. To eliminate the effect of HAMA on the CA 125 assay, we studied the ability of various chromatographic methods to separate the interfering HAMA from CA 125. For measuring HAMA in serum and chromatographic fractions we developed a time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay. Adequate separation of CA 125 and HAMA was achieved by affinity chromatography of patients' sera with solid-phase Protein A, Protein G, cation-exchange chromatography on Mono S, and gel filtration on Superose 6. These results demonstrate that the interference can effectively be removed by rather simple chromatographic procedures

  7. Variability of human immunodeficiency virus-1 in the female genital reservoir during genital reactivation of herpes simplex virus type 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeGoff, J; Roques, P; Jenabian, M-A; Charpentier, C; Brochier, C; Bouhlal, H; Gresenguet, G; Frost, E; Pepin, J; Mayaud, P; Belec, L

    2015-09-01

    Clinical and subclinical genital herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) reactivations have been associated with increases in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 genital shedding. Whether HSV-2 shedding contributes to the selection of specific genital HIV-1 variants remains unknown. We evaluated the genetic diversity of genital and blood HIV-1 RNA and DNA in 14 HIV-1/HSV-2-co-infected women, including seven with HSV-2 genital reactivation, and seven without as controls. HIV-1 DNA and HIV-1 RNA env V1-V3 sequences in paired blood and genital samples were compared. The HSV-2 selection pressure on HIV was estimated according to the number of synonymous substitutions (dS), the number of non-synonymous substitutions (dN) and the dS/dN ratio within HIV quasi-species. HIV-1 RNA levels in cervicovaginal secretions were higher in women with HSV-2 replication than in controls (p0.02). Plasma HIV-1 RNA and genital HIV-1 RNA and DNA were genetically compartmentalized. No differences in dS, dN and the dS/dN ratio were observed between the study groups for either genital HIV-1 RNA or plasma HIV-1 RNA. In contrast, dS and dN in genital HIV-1 DNA were significantly higher in patients with HSV-2 genital reactivation (p genital HIV-1 DNA was slightly higher in patients with HSV-2 genital replication, indicating a trend for purifying selection (p 0.056). HSV-2 increased the genetic diversity of genital HIV-1 DNA. These observations confirm molecular interactions between HSV-2 and HIV-1 at the genital tract level. Copyright © 2015 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Calibrated kallikrein generation in human plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biltoft, D; Sidelmann, J J; Olsen, L F

    2016-01-01

    generation method as a template. RESULTS: A suitable kallikrein specific fluorogenic substrate was identified (KM=0.91mM, kcat=19s(-1)), and kallikrein generation could be measured in undiluted plasma when silica was added as activator. Disturbing effects, including substrate depletion and the inner......-filter effect, however, affected the signal. These problems were corrected for by external calibration with α2-macroglobulin-kallikrein complexes. Selectivity studies of the substrate, experiments with FXII and PK depleted plasmas, and plasma with high or low complement C1-esterase inhibitor activity indicated...

  9. Solar thermal evaporation of human urine for nitrogen and phosphorus recovery in Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonini, Samantha, E-mail: sam_antonini@uni-bonn.de; Nguyen, Phong Thanh; Arnold, Ute; Eichert, Thomas; Clemens, Joachim

    2012-01-01

    A No Mix sanitation system was installed in a dormitory at the University of Can Tho in Vietnam, with the objective of recycling nutrients from source separated urine. This paper presents a pilot scale evaporation technology, and investigates the feasibility of recovering nitrogen and phosphorus from human urine by solar still for use as fertilizer. After 26 days of sun exposure, 360 g of solid fertilizer material was recovered from 50 L undiluted urine. This urine-derived fertilizer was mainly composed of sodium chloride, and had phosphorus and nitrogen contents of almost 2%. When tested with maize and ryegrass, the urine fertilizer led to biomass yields and phosphorus and nitrogen uptakes comparable to those induced by a commercial mineral fertilizer. Urine acidification with sulfuric or phosphoric acid prior treatment reduced nitrogen losses, improved the nutrient content of the generated fertilizers, and induced higher biomass yields and nitrogen and phosphorus uptakes than the commercial mineral fertilizer. However, acidification is not recommended in developing countries due to additional costs and handling risks. The fate of micropollutants and the possibility of separating sodium chloride from other beneficial nutrients require further investigation. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 360 g of fertilizer was derived from 50 L urine by solar evaporative distillation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The fertilizer contained 90% sodium chloride, 3% sulfur, 2% nitrogen, 2% phosphorus. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It induced biomass yields comparable to those produced by a commercial fertilizer. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Urine acidification improved the nutrient content of the generated fertilizers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Acidification is not recommended for use in developing countries (costs, safety).

  10. Solar thermal evaporation of human urine for nitrogen and phosphorus recovery in Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonini, Samantha; Nguyen, Phong Thanh; Arnold, Ute; Eichert, Thomas; Clemens, Joachim

    2012-01-01

    A No Mix sanitation system was installed in a dormitory at the University of Can Tho in Vietnam, with the objective of recycling nutrients from source separated urine. This paper presents a pilot scale evaporation technology, and investigates the feasibility of recovering nitrogen and phosphorus from human urine by solar still for use as fertilizer. After 26 days of sun exposure, 360 g of solid fertilizer material was recovered from 50 L undiluted urine. This urine-derived fertilizer was mainly composed of sodium chloride, and had phosphorus and nitrogen contents of almost 2%. When tested with maize and ryegrass, the urine fertilizer led to biomass yields and phosphorus and nitrogen uptakes comparable to those induced by a commercial mineral fertilizer. Urine acidification with sulfuric or phosphoric acid prior treatment reduced nitrogen losses, improved the nutrient content of the generated fertilizers, and induced higher biomass yields and nitrogen and phosphorus uptakes than the commercial mineral fertilizer. However, acidification is not recommended in developing countries due to additional costs and handling risks. The fate of micropollutants and the possibility of separating sodium chloride from other beneficial nutrients require further investigation. - Highlights: ► 360 g of fertilizer was derived from 50 L urine by solar evaporative distillation. ► The fertilizer contained 90% sodium chloride, 3% sulfur, 2% nitrogen, 2% phosphorus. ► It induced biomass yields comparable to those produced by a commercial fertilizer. ► Urine acidification improved the nutrient content of the generated fertilizers. ► Acidification is not recommended for use in developing countries (costs, safety).

  11. Human engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Seong Hwan; Park, Bum; Gang, Yeong Sik; Gal, Won Mo; Baek, Seung Ryeol; Choe, Jeong Hwa; Kim, Dae Sung

    2006-07-01

    This book mentions human engineering, which deals with introduction of human engineering, Man-Machine system like system design, and analysis and evaluation of Man-Machine system, data processing and data input, display, system control of man, human mistake and reliability, human measurement and design of working place, human working, hand tool and manual material handling, condition of working circumstance, working management, working analysis, motion analysis working measurement, and working improvement and design in human engineering.

  12. Glycogen Levels in Undiluted Genital Fluid and Their Relationship to Vaginal pH, Estrogen, and Progesterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirmonsef, Paria; Hotton, Anna L; Gilbert, Douglas; Gioia, Casey J; Maric, Danijela; Hope, Thomas J; Landay, Alan L; Spear, Gregory T

    2016-01-01

    Colonization of the female lower genital tract with Lactobacillus provides protection against STIs and adverse pregnancy outcomes. Growth of genital Lactobacillus is postulated to depend on epithelial cell-produced glycogen. However, the amount of cell-free glycogen in genital fluid available for utilization by Lactobacillus is not known. Eighty-five genital fluid samples from 7 pre-menopausal women taken over 4-6 weeks were obtained using the Instead SoftCup® (EvoFem, Inc., San Diego, CA, USA) by consented donors. Cell-free glycogen and glucose in genital fluids and estrogen and progesterone in blood were quantified. Glycogen ranged from 0.1-32 μg/μl. There were significant differences between women in glycogen over the observation period. There was a strong negative correlation between glycogen and vaginal pH (r = -0.542, pfree glycogen levels were significantly negatively associated with both vaginal pH and progesterone (p free glycogen levels. Cell-free glycogen concentrations can be very high, up to 3% of genital fluid, and are strongly associated with acidic vaginal pH. However, the fluctuations in glycogen levels in individuals and differences between individuals do not appear to be associated with estrogen.

  13. Magnetic permeability based diagnostic test for the determination of the canine C-reactive protein concentration in undiluted whole blood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibraimi, Filiz; Kriz, Kirstin [Department of Pure and Applied Biochemistry, Lund University, P.O. Box 124, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); LifeAssays AB, IDEON Science Park, SE-223 70 Lund (Sweden); Merin, Henrik [Malmoe Animal Hospital, P.O. Box 9090, SE-213 63 Malmoe (Sweden); Kriz, Dario [Department of Pure and Applied Biochemistry, Lund University, P.O. Box 124, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); LifeAssays AB, IDEON Science Park, SE-223 70 Lund (Sweden)], E-mail: dario.kriz@euris.org

    2009-05-15

    We describe an one-step 11-min magnetic permeability based two-site immunoassay for C-reactive protein (CRP) utilizing polyclonal anti-canine CRP antibody conjugated dextran iron oxide nanoparticles (79 nm) as superparamagnetic labels and polyclonal anti-canine CRP conjugated silica microparticles (15 to 40 {mu}m) as carriers. An inductance based magnetic permeability reader was used to detect the target analyte, CRP, in 10 {mu}L whole blood samples, by measuring the magnetic permeability increase of the silica microparticle sediment due to immuno complex superparamagnetic nanoparticles. Measurements on standards showed a linear response between 0 and 17.5 mg/L CRP. Measurements performed on 16 whole blood samples from mixed breeds showed good correlation with a commercially available ELISA assay.

  14. Biogas production from undiluted chicken manure and maize silage: A study of ammonia inhibition in high solids anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Chen; Cao, Weixing; Banks, Charles J; Heaven, Sonia; Liu, Ronghou

    2016-10-01

    The feasibility of co-digestion of chicken manure (CM) and maize silage (MS) without water dilution was investigated in 5-L digesters. Specific methane production (SMP) of 0.309LCH4g(-1) volatile solids (VS) was achieved but only at lower %CM. Above a critical threshold for total ammonia nitrogen (TAN), estimated at 7gNL(-1), VFA accumulated with a characteristic increase in acetic acid followed by its reduction and an increase in propionic acid. During this transition the predominant methanogenic pathway was hydrogenotrophic. Methanogenesis was completely inhibited at TAN of 9gNL(-1). The low digestibility of the mixed feedstock led to a rise in digestate TS and a reduction in SMP over the 297-day experimental period. Methanogenesis appeared to be failing in one digester but was recovered by reducing the %CM. Co-digestion was feasible with CM ⩽20% of feedstock VS, and the main limiting factor was ammonia inhibition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Human rights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaay Fortman, B. de

    2006-01-01

    Human rights reflect a determined effort to protect the dignity of each and every human being against abuse of power. This endeavour is as old as human history. What is relatively new is the international venture for the protection of human dignity through internationally accepted legal standards

  16. Human reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Embrey, D.E.

    1987-01-01

    Concepts and techniques of human reliability have been developed and are used mostly in probabilistic risk assessment. For this, the major application of human reliability assessment has been to identify the human errors which have a significant effect on the overall safety of the system and to quantify the probability of their occurrence. Some of the major issues within human reliability studies are reviewed and it is shown how these are applied to the assessment of human failures in systems. This is done under the following headings; models of human performance used in human reliability assessment, the nature of human error, classification of errors in man-machine systems, practical aspects, human reliability modelling in complex situations, quantification and examination of human reliability, judgement based approaches, holistic techniques and decision analytic approaches. (UK)

  17. Simple BASIC program for calculating the cervicovaginal FNP and for estimating the sample size of the number of cervicovaginal smears to be rescreened.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, J W; Fung, C H

    1999-01-01

    To guide cytotechnologists and pathologists in calculating the false negative proportion, or rate, and the number of Papanicolaou smears to be reevaluated for a meaningful assessment of screening performance, a computer program written in BASIC was prepared, based on several recent publications in the field of cytopathology. A complete program listing and sample runs to help users be cognizant of the necessary inputs to run the program. The output from the program gives the results of the various calculations. Since the tedious manual calculations are handled by the computer program, it is more likely for those involved in the interpretation of Papanicolaou smears to follow the approaches suggested by experts in these two areas.

  18. Human Rights, Human Needs, Human Development, Human Security

    OpenAIRE

    Gasper, D.R.

    2007-01-01

    Human rights, human development and human security form increasingly important, partly interconnected, partly competitive and misunderstood ethical and policy discourses. Each tries to humanize a pre-existing and unavoidable major discourse of everyday life, policy and politics; each has emerged within the United Nations world; each relies implicitly on a conceptualisation of human need; each has specific strengths. Yet mutual communication, understanding and co-operation are deficient, espec...

  19. Human niche, human behaviour, human nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Agustin

    2017-10-06

    The concept of a 'human nature' or 'human natures' retains a central role in theorizing about the human experience. In Homo sapiens it is clear that we have a suite of capacities generated via our evolutionary past, and present, and a flexible capacity to create and sustain particular kinds of cultures and to be shaped by them. Regardless of whether we label these capacities 'human natures' or not, humans occupy a distinctive niche and an evolutionary approach to examining it is critical. At present we are faced with a few different narratives as to exactly what such an evolutionary approach entails. There is a need for a robust and dynamic theoretical toolkit in order to develop a richer, and more nuanced, understanding of the cognitively sophisticated genus Homo and the diverse sorts of niches humans constructed and occupied across the Pleistocene, Holocene, and into the Anthropocene. Here I review current evolutionary approaches to 'human nature', arguing that we benefit from re-framing our investigations via the concept of the human niche and in the context of the extended evolutionary synthesis (EES). While not a replacement of standard evolutionary approaches, this is an expansion and enhancement of our toolkit. I offer brief examples from human evolution in support of these assertions.

  20. Human microbiomics

    OpenAIRE

    Rajendhran, J.; Gunasekaran, P.

    2010-01-01

    The sequencing of the human genome has driven the study of human biology in a significant way and enabled the genome-wide study to elucidate the molecular basis of complex human diseases. Recently, the role of microbiota on human physiology and health has received much attention. The influence of gut microbiome (the collective genomes of the gut microbiota) in obesity has been demonstrated, which may pave the way for new prophylactic and therapeutic strategies such as bacteriotherapy. The sig...

  1. Human Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.R. Gasper (Des)

    2009-01-01

    textabstract‘Human development’ language spread gradually in circles of national and international development policy and planning from the 1970s and acquired a definitive form in the 1990s in the United Nations Development Programme’s Human Development Reports (HDRs). Human development was defined

  2. Human Smuggling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siegel - Rozenblit, Dina; Zaitch, Damian

    2014-01-01

    Human smuggling is based on a consensus between smuggler, smuggled, and his/her family (which usually guarantees or effectuates payment). However, unauthorized immigrants are violating immigration laws and human smugglers are profiting from enabling illegal immigration. Both human smuggling and its

  3. Bacterial vaginosis, human papilloma virus and herpes viridae do not predict vaginal HIV RNA shedding in women living with HIV in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessman, Maria; Thorsteinsson, Kristina; Jensen, Jørgen S; Storgaard, Merete; Rönsholt, Frederikke F; Johansen, Isik S; Pedersen, Gitte; Nørregård Nielsen, Lars; Bonde, Jesper; Katzenstein, Terese L; Weis, Nina; Lebech, Anne-Mette

    2017-05-31

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) has been found to be associated with HIV acquisition and transmission. This is suggested to be due to higher HIV RNA levels in cervicovaginal fluids in women living with HIV (WLWH) with BV, as bacteria associated with BV may induce viral replication and shedding in the genital tract despite undetectable HIV RNA plasma viral load. We examined the prevalence and diagnostic predictors of BV and HIV-1 RNA vaginal shedding in women living with HIV (WLWH) in Denmark, taking into account the presence of human papillomavirus (HPV) and herpes viridae. WLWH between 18-51 years were recruited from six Departments of Infectious Diseases in Denmark during enrolment in the SHADE cohort; a prospective cohort study of WLWH attending regular outpatient care. BV was diagnosed by microscopy of vaginal swabs and PCR was used for detection of BV-associated bacteria, HPV, herpes viridae, and vaginal HIV viral load. Median age of the 150 included women was 41 years; ethnicity was predominantly White (35%) or Black (47%). The majority (96%) was on ART and had undetectable (85%) plasma HIV RNA (<40 copies/mL). BV was diagnosed in 32%. Overall, 11% had detectable vaginal HIV RNA. Both before and after adjustment for BV, age, ethnicity, plasma HIV RNA, CD4 cell count, herpes viridae and HPV, we found no significant predictors of HIV RNA vaginal shedding. In well-treated WLWH, BV, herpes viridae or HPV do not predict vaginal HIV RNA shedding. This implies that HIV shedding does not seem to be increased by BV.

  4. Human intrusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hora, S.; Neill, R.; Williams, R.; Bauser, M.; Channell, J.

    1993-01-01

    This paper focused on the possible approaches to evaluating the impacts of human intrusion on nuclear waste disposal. Several major issues were reviewed. First, it was noted that human intrusion could be addressed either quantitatively through performance assessments or qualitatively through design requirements. Second, it was decided that it was impossible to construct a complete set of possible future human intrusion scenarios. Third, the question of when the effect of possible human intrusion should be considered, before or after site selection was reviewed. Finally, the time frame over which human intrusion should be considered was discussed

  5. Impact of DNA extraction, sample dilution, and reagent contamination on 16S rRNA gene sequencing of human feces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velásquez-Mejía, Eliana P; de la Cuesta-Zuluaga, Jacobo; Escobar, Juan S

    2018-01-01

    Culture-independent methods have granted the possibility to study microbial diversity in great detail, but technical issues pose a threat to the accuracy of new findings. Biases introduced during DNA extraction can result in erroneous representations of the microbial community, particularly in samples with low microbial biomass. We evaluated the DNA extraction method, initial sample biomass, and reagent contamination on the assessment of the human gut microbiota. Fecal samples of 200 mg were subjected to 1:10 serial dilutions; total DNA was obtained using two commercial kits and the microbiota assessed by 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequencing. In addition, we sequenced multiple technical controls. The two kits were efficient in extracting DNA from samples with as low as 2 mg of feces. However, in instances of lower biomass, only one kit performed well. The number of reads from negative controls was negligible. Both DNA extraction kits allowed inferring microbial consortia with similar membership but different abundances. Furthermore, we found differences in the taxonomic profile of the microbial community. Unexpectedly, the effect of sample dilution was moderate and did not introduce severe bias into the microbial inference. Indeed, the microbiota inferred from fecal samples was distinguishable from that of negative controls. In most cases, samples as low as 2 mg did not result in a dissimilar representation of the microbial community compared with the undiluted sample. Our results indicate that the gut microbiota inference is not much affected by contamination with laboratory reagents but largely impacted by the protocol to extract DNA.

  6. Quantification of elutable substances from methacrylate based sealers and their cytotoxicity effect on with human gingival fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furche, S; Hickel, R; Reichl, F X; van Landuyt, K; Shehata, M; Durner, J

    2013-06-01

    Previous studies have shown that resin composites may cause persistent inflammation of oral or pulpal tissues as well as cell death through eluted substances. The aim of this study was to investigate the leaching of ingredients from commercial dental fissure sealers as well as their cytotoxic effects on human gingival fibroblast (HGF). The sealers tested were: Helioseal(®) F, Helioseal(®) Refill, Fissurit(®) F, Grandio(®) Seal, Ultraseal XT(®) plus and Delton(®) FS. Ten discs of each sealer were respectively immersed in methanol or water and incubated at 37°C. The eluates were analysed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry at day 1, 3 and 7. In the XTT-test, eight discs of each fissure sealer were immersed into medium. The eluates of the respective sealer were mixed and used undiluted and diluted with medium. HGF were incubated with the dilutions at 37°C for 24h. Then XTT-salt was added and the XTT-formazan formation was quantified. In eluates from polymerized sealers, comonomers (triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA)) and additives were found (e.g. camphorquinone (CQ), butylated hydroxytoluene, triphenylstibane). 7 d after the beginning of the experiments the highest amount of TEGDMA was found in the aqueous eluate from Grandio(®) Seal (9944.31 (2250.56) μmol/l). The most cytotoxic eluate found in the XTT-test was from Fissurit(®) F (EC50 value at 27.13 (7.04)%; (mean(SD)). Because of the use of sealers in preventative dental medicine it should be taken into account that substances like TEGDMA or CQ, that are often causing allergic reactions, are elutable. Before using the sealers patients should be asked for allergic reactions to these substances. Copyright © 2013 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Human Technology and Human Affects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fausing, Bent

    2009-01-01

    Human Technology and Human Affects  This year Samsung introduced a mobile phone with "Soul". It was made with a human touch and included itself a magical touch. Which function does technology and affects get in everyday aesthetics like this, its images and interactions included this presentation...

  8. Human Rights/Human Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canning, Cynthia

    1978-01-01

    The faculty of Holy Names High School developed an interdisciplinary human rights program with school-wide activities focusing on three selected themes: the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights, in conjunction with Human Rights Week; Food; and Women. This article outlines major program activities. (SJL)

  9. Human evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Llamas, Bastien; Willerslev, Eske; Orlando, Ludovic Antoine Alexandre

    2017-01-01

    The field of human ancient DNA (aDNA) has moved from mitochondrial sequencing that suffered from contamination and provided limited biological insights, to become a fully genomic discipline that is changing our conception of human history. Recent successes include the sequencing of extinct hominins......, and true population genomic studies of Bronze Age populations. Among the emerging areas of aDNA research, the analysis of past epigenomes is set to provide more new insights into human adaptation and disease susceptibility through time. Starting as a mere curiosity, ancient human genetics has become...

  10. Human Rights, Human Needs, Human Development, Human Security - Relationships between four international human discourses.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.R. Gasper (Des)

    2007-01-01

    markdownabstractAbstract: Human rights, human development and human security form increasingly important, partly interconnected, partly competitive and misunderstood ethical and policy discourses. Each tries to humanize a pre-existing and unavoidable major discourse of everyday life, policy and

  11. Human Rights and Human Nature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittorio Possenti

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available There seems to be two different versions of human rights in Western tradition: say Rationalistic and Christian; the former adopted in revolutionary France, the latter highly developed in Renaissance Spain. Current relativistic criticisms attempt to deny the universality of human rights alleging that this theory has been created in Western countries or it has no strong justification, and therefore cannot have universal approach; but this objection can be dismissed with an alternative justification of human rights.

  12. Think Human

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Charlotte Marie Bisgaard

    2013-01-01

    years' campaigns suggests that the theory of communication underlying the campaign has its basis in mechanical action rather than in human communication. The practice of 'Communication design' is investigated in relation to this metaphorical 'machine thinking' model of communication and contrasted...... with the human-centered theory of communication advocated by integrationism....

  13. Human trichuriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Betson, Martha; Søe, Martin Jensen; Nejsum, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Human trichuriasis is a neglected tropical disease which affects hundreds of millions of people worldwide and is particularly prevalent among children living in areas where sanitation is poor. This review examines the current knowledge on the taxonomy, genetics and phylogeography of human Trichuris...

  14. Human kapital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grosen, Anders; Nielsen, Peder Harbjerg

    2007-01-01

    finansiel og human kapital. Den traditionelle rådgivnings snævre synsvinkel kan føre til forkerte investeringsråd. Der skal derfor opfordres til, at de finansielle virksomheder i tilrettelæggelsen af deres rådgivning af private kunder systematisk inddrager den humane kapitals størrelse og karakteristika i...

  15. Digital Humanities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brügger, Niels

    2016-01-01

    Digital humanities is an umbrella term for theories, methodologies, and practices related to humanities scholarship that use the digital computer as an integrated and essential part of its research and teaching activities. The computer can be used for establishing, finding, collecting, and preser......Digital humanities is an umbrella term for theories, methodologies, and practices related to humanities scholarship that use the digital computer as an integrated and essential part of its research and teaching activities. The computer can be used for establishing, finding, collecting......, and preserving material to study, as an object of study in its own right, as an analytical tool, or for collaborating, and for disseminating results. The term "digital humanities" was coined around 2001, and gained currency within academia in the following years. However, computers had been used within...

  16. Human Technology and Human Affects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fausing, Bent

    2009-01-01

    - is the prophecy. This personification or anthropomorphism is important for the branding of new technology. The technology is seen as creating a technotranscendens towards a more qualified humanity, which is in contact with the fundamental human values like intuition, vision, and sensing; all the qualities...

  17. Immunoperoxidase staining for involucrin: a potential diagnostic aid in cervicovaginal pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warhol, M J; Antonioli, D A; Pinkus, G S; Burke, L; Rice, R H

    1982-12-01

    Involucrin, a protein subunit of keratinocyte cross-linked envelopes, is a distinctive marker for suprabasal differentiation in stratified squamous epithelium. Immunoperoxidase staining for involucrin was used to evaluate paraffin sections of tissue obtained by colposcopically directed biopsies of infectious, metaplastic, and dysplastic lesions of the cervix and vagina. Areas of normal squamous epithelium, papillary and flat condyloma acuminatum, and mature and immature squamous metaplasia showed positive staining in 99 per cent of samples lacking significant inflammation and in 60 per cent of those with moderate or severe inflammation. In contrast, only 19 per cent of the squamous cell dysplasias, even those without much inflammation, showed positive staining, and no area with moderate or severe inflammation showed positive staining. These findings indicate that expression of involucrin is modulated by cellular pathologic features and microenvironment. We suggest that immunoperoxidase staining for involucrin may be useful in distinguishing mild dysplasia from immature metaplasia and flat condyloma in some biopsy specimens in which routine histologic examination yields an indeterminate diagnosis.

  18. Exploring a Road Map to Counter Misconceptions About the Cervicovaginal Microbiome and Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Macklaim, Jean M.; Cohen, Craig R.; Donders, Gilbert; Gloor, Gregory B.; Hill, Janet E.; Parham, Groesbeck P.; Ravel, Jacques; Spear, Gregory; van de Wijgert, Janneke; Reid, Gregor

    2012-01-01

    Urogenital diseases, especially infection and cancer, are major causes of death and morbidity in females. Yet, millions of women in the developing world have no access to basic urogynecological care, and the diagnosis and treatment of widespread aberrant bacterial conditions (bacterial vaginosis

  19. Human Computation

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2008-01-01

    What if people could play computer games and accomplish work without even realizing it? What if billions of people collaborated to solve important problems for humanity or generate training data for computers? My work aims at a general paradigm for doing exactly that: utilizing human processing power to solve computational problems in a distributed manner. In particular, I focus on harnessing human time and energy for addressing problems that computers cannot yet solve. Although computers have advanced dramatically in many respects over the last 50 years, they still do not possess the basic conceptual intelligence or perceptual capabilities...

  20. Association of cervical precancer with human papillomavirus types other than 16 among HIV co-infected women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massad, L. Stewart; Xie, Xianhong; Burk, Robert D.; D'Souza, Gypsyamber; Darragh, Teresa M.; Minkoff, Howard; Colie, Christine; Burian, Pamela; Palefsky, Joel; Atrio, Jessica; Strickler, Howard D.

    2016-01-01

    Background HIV-seropositive women face high risk for infection with oncogenic human papillomavirus (oncHPV) types, abnormal Pap test results, and precancer, but cervical cancer risk is only modestly increased. Human papillomavirus (HPV)16 is highly oncogenic but only weakly associated with HIV status and immunosuppression, suggesting HPV16 may have a greater innate ability to evade host immune surveillance than other oncHPV types, which in turn should result in a greater relative increase in the prevalence of other oncHPV types among women with cervical precancer. Objective We sought to assess whether the underrepresentation of HPV16 among HIV-seropositive relative to HIV-seronegative women remains among those with cervical precancers. Study Design HIV-seropositive and HIV-seronegative women in the Women's Interagency HIV Study were screened for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) grade ≥3 (CIN3+). DNA from >40 HPV types was detected by polymerase chain reaction in cervicovaginal lavage specimens obtained at the visit at which CIN3+ was diagnosed. Results HPV16 was detected in 13 (62%) of 21 HIV-seronegative women with CIN3+ but only 44 (29%) of 154 HIV-seropositive women with CIN3+ (P = .01). The lower prevalence of HPV16 in CIN3+ among HIV-seropositive women persisted after controlling for covariates (odds ratio [OR], 0.25; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.08–0.78). The prevalence of other members of the HPV16-related alpha-9 oncHPV clade as a group was similar in HIV-infected and uninfected women with CIN3+ (OR, 1.02; 95% CI, 0.53–1.94). The prevalence of non-alpha-9 oncHPV types was increased in HIV-seropositive vs HIV-seronegative women with CIN3+ (OR, 3.9; 95% CI, 1.3–11.8). Conclusion The previously demonstrated increase in CIN3+ incidence among HIV-seropositive women is associated with lower HPV16 and higher non-alpha-9 oncHPV prevalence. This is consistent with prior reports that HIV has a weak effect on infection by HPV16 relative to other onc

  1. Self-sampling for human papillomavirus DNA detection: a preliminary study of compliance and feasibility in BOLIVIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surriabre, Pedro; Allende, Gustavo; Prado, Marcela; Cáceres, Leyddy; Bellot, Diego; Torrico, Andrea; Ustariz, Karina; Rojas, Shirley; Barriga, Jaime; Calle, Pamela; Villarroel, Ligia; Yañez, Rosse Mary; Baay, Marc; Rodriguez, Patricia; Fontaine, Véronique

    2017-12-22

    Cervical cancer incidence and mortality rates in Bolivia are among the highest in Latin America. This investigation aims to evaluate the possibility of using simple devices, e.g. a cotton swab and a glass slide, for self-sampling in order to detect human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA by PCR in cervico-vaginal cells. In the first phase of our study we evaluated the use of a glass slide as a transport medium for cervical cells. A physician took paired-cervical samples from 235 women. One sample was transported in Easyfix® solution and the other sample was smeared over a glass slide. Both were further analyzed and compared for human DNA recovery and HPV detection. A kappa value was determined to evaluate the agreement between the HPV DNA detection rates. In the second phase of the study, 222 women from the urban, peri-urban and rural regions of Cochabamba were requested to perform self-sampling using the following devices: a cotton swab combined with a glass slide, and a vaginal tampon. Women gave their opinion about the self-sampling technique. Finally, the agreement for high risk-HPV detection between self- and physician-collected samples was performed in 201 samples in order to evaluate the self-sampling technique. Firstly, the comparison between Easyfix® solution and the glass slide to transport clinical samples gave a good agreement for HPV DNA detection (κ = 0.71, 95% CI 0.60-0.81). Secondly, self-sampling, especially with cotton swab combined with glass slide, would generally be preferred over clinician sampling for a screening program based on HPV detection. Finally, we showed a good agreement between self- and physician collected samples for high risk-HPV detection (κ = 0.71, 95% CI 0.55-0.88). Simple devices such as a cotton swab and a glass slide can be used to perform self-sampling and HPV DNA detection. Furthermore, most Bolivian women preferred self-sampling over clinician-sampling for cervical cancer screening.

  2. Human mycoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tasić Siniša B.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungi are an independent group of plant kingdom which members do not contain chlorophyll and have no capability of photo synthesizing, meaning that they can not synthesize nutritive compounds, so they exist as the saprophytes or parasites of plants, animals and humans. Between 50.000 and 100.000 species are known, but only about 100 species cause diseases (mycoses of humans or animals, while many other cause diseases of plants. Only the dermatophytes and species of genus Candida are usually transferable from human to human. The importance of fungi was certainly less than that of the bacteria and viruses for the time being, but their role as the opportunist pathogens is unavoiding, especially for immunocompromised patients. Incidence of fungal infections grows steadily, even in the countries with high level of general and health culture. Diagnosis and therapy of fungal infections are many times unadequate. Prophylaxis is still an object of discussion.

  3. Human Toxicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jolliet, Olivier; Fantke, Peter

    2015-01-01

    This chapter reviews the human toxicological impacts of chemicals and how to assess these impacts in life cycle impact assessment (LCIA), in order to identify key processes and pollutants. The complete cause-effect pathway – from emissions of toxic substances up to damages on human health...... and their coverage in LCIA methods. Section 4 provides an overview of the main LCIA methods available to address human toxicological impacts. Section 5 presents the range of variation of factor across chemicals, the main sources of uncertainty and good interpretation practice of results from human toxicity...... all chemicals and impact pathways characterizes the contribution of each factor to the total variation of 10–12 orders of magnitude in impacts per kg across all chemicals. This large variation between characterisation factors for different chemicals as well as the 3 orders of magnitude uncertainty...

  4. Human Cloning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Johnson, Judith A; Williams, Erin D

    2006-01-01

    .... Scientists in other labs, including Harvard University and the University of California at San Francisco, intend to produce cloned human embryos in order to derive stem cells for medical research...

  5. Human phantom

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1973-01-01

    This human phantom has been received by CERN on loan from the State Committee of the USSR for the Utilization of Atomic Energy. It is used by the Health Physics Group to study personel radiation doses near the accelerators.

  6. Human brucellosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franco, María Pía; Mulder, Maximilian; Gilman, Robert H.; Smits, Henk L.

    2007-01-01

    Human brucellosis still presents scientists and clinicians with several challenges, such as the understanding of pathogenic mechanisms of Brucella spp, the identification of markers for disease severity, progression, and treatment response, and the development of improved treatment regimens.

  7. Human Echolocation

    OpenAIRE

    Teng, Santani

    2013-01-01

    The use of active natural echolocation as a mobility aid for blind humans has received increased scientific and popular attention in recent years (Engber, 2006; Kreiser, 2006; NPR, 2011), in part due to a focus on several blind individuals who have developed remarkable expertise. However, perhaps surprisingly, the history of empirical human echolocation research is not much younger than the era of echolocation research (cf. Griffin, 1958). Nevertheless, compared to its bat and cetacean count...

  8. Human cognition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norman, D.A.

    1982-01-01

    The study of human cognition encompasses the study of all mental phenomena, from the receipt and interpretation of sensory information to the final control of the motor system in the performance of action. The cognitive scientist examines all intermediary processes, including thought, decision making, and memory and including the effects of motivation, states of arousal and stress, the study of language, and the effects of social factors. The field therefore ranges over an enormous territory, covering all that is known or that should be known about human behavior. It is not possible to summarize the current state of knowledge about cognition with any great confidence that we know the correct answer about any aspect of the work. Nontheless, models provide good characterizations of certain aspects of the data and situations. Even if these models should prove to be incorrect, they do provide good approximate descriptions of people's behavior in some situations, and these approximations will still apply even when the underlying theories have changed. A quick description is provided of models within a number of areas of human cognition and skill and some general theoretical frameworks with which to view human cognition. The frameworks are qualitative descriptions that provide a way to view the development of more detailed, quantitative models and, most important, a way of thinking about human performance and skill

  9. Beyond Humanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Capurro, Rafael

    2012-01-01

    In the first part of this paper a short history of Western humanisms (Socrates, Pico della Mirandola, Descartes, Kant) is presented. As far as these humanisms rest on a fixation of the ‘humanum’ they are metaphysical, although they might radically differ from each other. The second part deals with the present debate on trans- and posthumanism in the context of some breath-taking developments in science and technology.Angeletics, a theory of messengers and messages, intends to give an answer t...

  10. Human vulnerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Siqueira, José Eduardo; Segre, Marco

    2008-01-01

    We consider essential when addressing human vulnerability, to perceive it under two diverse prisms, therefore, complementary: the individual and the collective. The first part will present the human being as the protagonist isolated from this circumstance and it will be performed in the first person, in a nearly colloquial manner. One's vulnerability, while a part of a social network, will be addressed in the second part of the text. It will not be difficult to realize how the individual on the condition of autonomous being or integrated element in a wide social network dies of the same illness, which seems to be a strong characteristic of post-modernity.

  11. Printed glycan array

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shilova, Nadezhda; Navakouski, Maxim; Khasbiullina, Nailya

    2012-01-01

    Using printed glycan array (PGA) we compared the results of antibody profiling in undiluted, moderately (1:15) and highly (1:100) diluted human blood serum. Undiluted serum is suitable for studying blood as a tissue in its native state, whereas to study the serum of newborns or small animals one...... usually has to dilute the starting material in order to have sufficient volume for PGA experimentation. The PGA used in this study allows for the use of whole serum without modifications to the protocol, and the background is surprisingly low. Antibodies profiles observed in undiluted serum versus 1......:15 dilution were similar, with only a limited number of new signals identified in the undiluted serum. However, unexpected irregularities were found when IgG and IgM are measured separately, namely, at a 1:15 dilution more intensive IgG signals for many glycans are observed. We believe that in conditions...

  12. Nothing Human

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wharram, C. C.

    2014-01-01

    In this essay C. C. Wharram argues that Terence's concept of translation as a form of "contamination" anticipates recent developments in philosophy, ecology, and translation studies. Placing these divergent fields of inquiry into dialogue enables us read Terence's well-known statement "I am a human being--I deem nothing…

  13. Human waste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amin, Md Nurul; Kroeze, Carolien; Strokal, Maryna

    2017-01-01

    Many people practice open defecation in south Asia. As a result, lot of human waste containing nutrients such as nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) enter rivers. Rivers transport these nutrients to coastal waters, resulting in marine pollution. This source of nutrient pollution is, however, ignored in

  14. Human Trafficking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, David McKay

    2011-01-01

    The shadowy, criminal nature of human trafficking makes evaluating its nature and scope difficult. The U.S. State Department and anti-trafficking groups estimate that worldwide some 27 million people are caught in a form of forced servitude today. Public awareness of modern-day slavery is gaining momentum thanks to new abolitionist efforts. Among…

  15. Human Rights and Human Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Javadi

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper firstly explores some theories of Human Rights justification and then assents to the theory that Human Rights is based on justified moral values. In order to justify moral values, Aristotle’s approach called “Function Argument” is reviewed. Propounding this argument, the writer attempts to show that all analysis of human identity will directly contribute to the man’s view of his rights. Not only Human rights is really determined by human function or human distinguishing characteristic i.e. human identity, but in the world of knowledge the proper method to know human rights is to know human being himself. n cloning violates man’s rights due to two reasons: damage of human identity and violation of the right to be unique. Attempting to clarify the nature of human cloning, this article examines the aspects to be claimed to violate human rights and evaluates the strength of the reasons for this claim. این مقاله پس از بررسی اجمالی برخی از نظریه‌های توجیه حقوق بشر، نظریة ابتنای آن بر ارزش‌های اخلاقی موجّه را می‌پذیرد. دربارة چگونگی توجیه ارزش اخلاقی، رویکرد ارسطو که به «برهان ارگن» موسوم است، مورد بحث و بررسی قرار می‌گیرد. مؤلف با طرح این برهان می‌کوشد نشان دهد ارائه هرگونه تحلیل از هویت انسان در نگرش آدمی به حقوق خود تأثیر مستقیم خواهد گذاشت. حقوق آدمی نه فقط از ناحیة کارویژه یا فصل ممیز وی (هویت انسان تعیّن واقعی می‌گیرد، بلکه در عالم معرفت هم راه درست شناخت حقوق بشر، شناخت خود انسان است.

  16. Efficient Inhibition of HIV Replication in the Gastrointestinal and Female Reproductive Tracts of Humanized BLT Mice by EFdA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uma Shanmugasundaram

    Full Text Available The nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI 4'-ethynyl-2-fluoro-2'-deoxyadenosine (EFdA in preclinical development exhibits improved safety and antiviral activity profiles with minimal drug resistance compared to approved NRTIs. However, the systemic antiviral efficacy of EFdA has not been fully evaluated. In this study, we utilized bone marrow/liver/thymus (BLT humanized mice to investigate the systemic effect of EFdA treatment on HIV replication and CD4+ T cell depletion in the peripheral blood (PB and tissues. In particular, we performed a comprehensive analysis of the female reproductive tract (FRT and gastrointestinal (GI tract, major sites of transmission, viral replication, and CD4+ T cell depletion and where some current antiretroviral drugs have a sub-optimal effect.EFdA treatment resulted in reduction of HIV-RNA in PB to undetectable levels in the majority of treated mice by 3 weeks post-treatment. HIV-RNA levels in cervicovaginal lavage of EFdA-treated BLT mice also declined to undetectable levels demonstrating strong penetration of EFdA into the FRT. Our results also demonstrate a strong systemic suppression of HIV replication in all tissues analyzed. In particular, we observed more than a 2-log difference in HIV-RNA levels in the GI tract and FRT of EFdA-treated BLT mice compared to untreated HIV-infected control mice. In addition, HIV-RNA was also significantly lower in the lymph nodes, liver, lung, spleen of EFdA-treated BLT mice compared to untreated HIV-infected control mice. Furthermore, EFdA treatment prevented the depletion of CD4+ T cells in the PB, mucosal tissues and lymphoid tissues.Our findings indicate that EFdA is highly effective in controlling viral replication and preserving CD4+ T cells in particular with high efficiency in the GI and FRT tract. Thus, EFdA represents a strong potential candidate for further development as a part of antiretroviral therapy regimens.

  17. Human Rights, Human Needs, Human Development, Human Security : Relationships between four international 'human' discourses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.R. Gasper (Des)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractHuman rights, human development and human security form increasingly important, partly interconnected, partly competitive and misunderstood ethical and policy discourses. Each tries to humanize a pre-existing and unavoidable major discourse of everyday life, policy and politics; each

  18. Characterisation of the human uterine microbiome in non-pregnant women through deep sequencing of the V1-2 region of the 16S rRNA gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Verstraelen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. It is widely assumed that the uterine cavity in non-pregnant women is physiologically sterile, also as a premise to the long-held view that human infants develop in a sterile uterine environment, though likely reflecting under-appraisal of the extent of the human bacterial metacommunity. In an exploratory study, we aimed to investigate the putative presence of a uterine microbiome in a selected series of non-pregnant women through deep sequencing of the V1-2 hypervariable region of the 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA gene.Methods. Nineteen women with various reproductive conditions, including subfertility, scheduled for hysteroscopy and not showing uterine anomalies were recruited. Subjects were highly diverse with regard to demographic and medical history and included nulliparous and parous women. Endometrial tissue and mucus harvesting was performed by use of a transcervical device designed to obtain endometrial biopsy, while avoiding cervicovaginal contamination. Bacteria were targeted by use of a barcoded Illumina MiSeq paired-end sequencing method targeting the 16S rRNA gene V1-2 region, yielding an average of 41,194 reads per sample after quality filtering. Taxonomic annotation was pursued by comparison with sequences available through the Ribosomal Database Project and the NCBI database.Results. Out of 183 unique 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequences, 15 phylotypes were present in all samples. In some 90% of the women included, community architecture was fairly similar inasmuch B. xylanisolvens, B. thetaiotaomicron, B. fragilis and an undetermined Pelomonas taxon constituted over one third of the endometrial bacterial community. On the singular phylotype level, six women showed predominance of L. crispatus or L. iners in the presence of the Bacteroides core. Two endometrial communities were highly dissimilar, largely lacking the Bacteroides core, one dominated by L. crispatus and another consisting of a highly diverse community, including

  19. Human Rights in the Humanities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harpham, Geoffrey

    2012-01-01

    Human rights are rapidly entering the academic curriculum, with programs appearing all over the country--including at Duke, Harvard, Northeastern, and Stanford Universities; the Massachusetts Institute of Technology; the Universities of Chicago, of Connecticut, of California at Berkeley, and of Minnesota; and Trinity College. Most of these…

  20. Human reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bubb, H.

    1992-01-01

    This book resulted from the activity of Task Force 4.2 - 'Human Reliability'. This group was established on February 27th, 1986, at the plenary meeting of the Technical Reliability Committee of VDI, within the framework of the joint committee of VDI on industrial systems technology - GIS. It is composed of representatives of industry, representatives of research institutes, of technical control boards and universities, whose job it is to study how man fits into the technical side of the world of work and to optimize this interaction. In a total of 17 sessions, information from the part of ergonomy dealing with human reliability in using technical systems at work was exchanged, and different methods for its evaluation were examined and analyzed. The outcome of this work was systematized and compiled in this book. (orig.) [de

  1. Human Rights

    OpenAIRE

    Schlundt, Marie Gertz

    2011-01-01

    The project intends to investigate to what extent and under what conditions, United Nations human rights conventions have been internalized in the minimally democratic and isolated state of the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (DPRK). The ‘spiral model’ of Risse et al (1999) will be used as the theoretical framework for the project. This framework sets out to understand the process of socialization by which principled ideas held by individuals become norms in the sense of collective unde...

  2. Human settlements

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Niekerk, Cornelia W

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available vulnerability. These factors are location specific, related to particular local climate, topology and human settlement patterns.” (Department of Environmental Affairs 2014b, p.6).Urban settlements across Africa are experiencing immense changes at a swift rate... CSIR calculations based on latest census figures of each SADC country (projected figures used in case of missing census data, e.g. Angola). Urbanisation rates used as reported by UN ESA (2014). Calculations exclude Mauritius and Seychelles. C H A P...

  3. Human paleoneurology

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    The book presents an integrative review of paleoneurology, the study of endocranial morphology in fossil species. The main focus is on showing how computed methods can be used to support advances in evolutionary neuroanatomy, paleoanthropology and archaeology and how they have contributed to creating a completely new perspective in cognitive neuroscience. Moreover, thanks to its multidisciplinary approach, the book addresses students and researchers approaching human paleoneurology from different angles and for different purposes, such as biologists, physicians, anthropologists, archaeologists

  4. Human universe

    CERN Document Server

    Cox, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Human life is a staggeringly strange thing. On the surface of a ball of rock falling around a nuclear fireball in the blackness of a vacuum the laws of nature conspired to create a naked ape that can look up at the stars and wonder where it came from. What is a human being? Objectively, nothing of consequence. Particles of dust in an infinite arena, present for an instant in eternity. Clumps of atoms in a universe with more galaxies than people. And yet a human being is necessary for the question itself to exist, and the presence of a question in the universe - any question - is the most wonderful thing. Questions require minds, and minds bring meaning. What is meaning? I don't know, except that the universe and every pointless speck inside it means something to me. I am astonished by the existence of a single atom, and find my civilisation to be an outrageous imprint on reality. I don't understand it. Nobody does, but it makes me smile. This book asks questions about our origins, our destiny, and our place i...

  5. The impact of a quadrivalent human papillomavirus (types 6, 11, 16, 18) virus-like particle vaccine in European women aged 16 to 24

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Majewski, S; Bosch, F X; Dillner, J

    2009-01-01

    -associated cervico-genital lesions in a broad population of sexually active European women. METHODS: Female subjects (N = 9265) aged 16-24 with four or fewer lifetime sexual partners were enrolled and randomized to quadrivalent HPV vaccine or placebo. Subjects underwent cervicovaginal sampling for HPV DNA detection...... that quadrivalent HPV 6/11/16/18 vaccination programs in 16- to 24-year-old European women can be beneficial. NCT0009252, NCT00092534, NCT00092495....

  6. Introduction: Digital Humanities, Public Humanities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Christie

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available NANO: New American Notes Online: An Interdisciplinary Academic Journal for Big Ideas in a Small World. This special issue shows how both public and digital humanities research can be rendered more persuasive through engagement with cultures beyond the academy. More specifically, the aim of this special issue is to demonstrate how investments in technologies and computation are not necessarily antithetical to investments in critical theory and social justice.

  7. Human Computing, Virtual Humans and Artificial Imperfection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruttkay, Z.M.; Reidsma, Dennis; Nijholt, Antinus; Quek, F.; Yang, Y.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we raise the issue whether imperfections, characteristic of human-human communication, should be taken into account when developing virtual humans. We argue that endowing virtual humans with the imperfections of humans can help making them more ‘comfortable’ to interact with. That is,

  8. Human Capital, (Human) Capabilities and Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Grange, L.

    2011-01-01

    In this article I initiate a debate into the (de)merits of human capital theory and human capability theory and discuss implications of the debate for higher education. Human capital theory holds that economic growth depends on investment in education and that economic growth is the basis for improving the quality of human life. Human capable…

  9. Human steroidogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Claus Y; Ezcurra, Diego

    2014-01-01

    to the rupture of the follicle wall and the release of an oocyte. The administration of gonadotropins in controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) leads to supraphysiological steroid concentrations of a very different profile compared with those seen during natural cycles. It has been suggested that these high...... reviews current knowledge of the regulation of progesterone in the human ovary during the follicular phase and highlights areas where knowledge remains limited. In this review, we provide in-depth information outlining the regulation and function of gonadotropins in the complicated area of steroidogenesis...

  10. Humanizing Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Tanya Søndergaard

    2015-01-01

    The article proposes the urban digital gallery as an opportunity to explore the relationship between ‘human’ and ‘technology,’ through the programming of media architecture. It takes a curatorial perspective when proposing an ontological shift from considering media facades as visual spectacles...... agency and a sense of being by way of dematerializing architecture. This is achieved by way of programming the symbolic to provide new emotional realizations and situations of enlightenment in the public audience. This reflects a greater potential to humanize the digital in media architecture....

  11. [Human microsporidiosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcay, L

    2001-05-01

    This review shows the Microsporidia as unicellular protozoa strictly intracellular eukaryotic parasites of animals and humans. These study concerns life cycles, cytology, host-parasite relationships in animal models experimentally infected with microsporidia from human feces, demonstrating the host-inespecificity and visceral dissemination with histopathological studies in digestive, tract, kidney, liver, spleen, brain, heart, pancreas, thyroid, suprarenal glands. It is presented the microsporidiosis in Venezuela in immunocompetent patients and immunodeficients HIV+, with diarrheic syndromes with keratoconjuntivitis microsporidial punctata diffuse and with disseminated microsporidia in urine, tracheobronchial sputum, nasal and pharyngeal exudates. Also we have found the microsporidia in river and lake waters and in animals relationed with the man: dogs, cats, pigs, monkeys, donkeys, guts. The patients are treated specially with Albendazole and also with Trimethoprim-Sulphametoxazol for the children until two years of age. We use as laboratory diagnosis the technique of Kinyoun stain, in support of the acid resistance property of these parasites, and also the Chromotrope staining. Our recommendations for a proper identification of the Microspora species, should be done with Electron Microscopy and the TCR reaction.

  12. A Single-Use, In Vitro Biosensor for the Detection of T-Tau Protein, A Biomarker of Neuro-Degenerative Disorders, in PBS and Human Serum Using Differential Pulse Voltammetry (DPV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Yifan; Molazemhosseini, Alireza; Liu, Chung Chiun

    2017-02-19

    A single-use, in vitro biosensor for the detection of T-Tau protein in phosphate-buffer saline (PBS) and undiluted human serum was designed, manufactured, and tested. Differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) served as the transduction mechanism. This biosensor consisted of three electrodes: working, counter, and reference electrodes fabricated on a PET sheet. Both working and counter electrodes were thin gold film, 10 nm in thickness. Laser ablation technique was used to define the size and structure of the biosensor. The biosensor was produced using cost-effective roll-to-roll process. Self-assembled monolayers (SAM) of 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) were employed to covalently immobilize the anti-T-Tau (T-Tau antibody) on the gold working electrode. A carbodiimide conjugation approach using N-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-N'-ethylcarbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC) and N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) cross-linked anti-T-Tau to the carboxylic groups on one end of the MPA. A T-Tau protein ladder with six isoforms was used in this study. The anti-T-Tau concentration used was 500,000 pg/mL. The T-Tau protein concentration ranged from 1000 pg/mL to 100,000 pg/mL. DPV measurements showed excellent responses, with a good calibration curve. Thus, a practical tool for simple detection of T-Tau protein, a biomarker of neuro-degenerative disorders, has been successfully developed. This tool could also be extended to detect other biomarkers for neuro-degenerative disorders, such as P-Tau protein and β-amyloid 42.

  13. NATO Human View Architecture and Human Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handley, Holly A. H.; Houston, Nancy P.

    2010-01-01

    The NATO Human View is a system architectural viewpoint that focuses on the human as part of a system. Its purpose is to capture the human requirements and to inform on how the human impacts the system design. The viewpoint contains seven static models that include different aspects of the human element, such as roles, tasks, constraints, training and metrics. It also includes a Human Dynamics component to perform simulations of the human system under design. One of the static models, termed Human Networks, focuses on the human-to-human communication patterns that occur as a result of ad hoc or deliberate team formation, especially teams distributed across space and time. Parameters of human teams that effect system performance can be captured in this model. Human centered aspects of networks, such as differences in operational tempo (sense of urgency), priorities (common goal), and team history (knowledge of the other team members), can be incorporated. The information captured in the Human Network static model can then be included in the Human Dynamics component so that the impact of distributed teams is represented in the simulation. As the NATO militaries transform to a more networked force, the Human View architecture is an important tool that can be used to make recommendations on the proper mix of technological innovations and human interactions.

  14. The Digital Humanities as a Humanities Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, Patrik

    2012-01-01

    This article argues that the digital humanities can be seen as a humanities project in a time of significant change in the academy. The background is a number of scholarly, educational and technical challenges, the multiple epistemic traditions linked to the digital humanities, the potential reach of the field across and outside the humanities,…

  15. Assessment of high-risk human papillomavirus infections using clinician- and self-collected cervical sampling methods in rural women from far western Nepal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek C Johnson

    Full Text Available Nepal has one of the highest cervical cancer rates in South Asia. Only a few studies in populations from urban areas have investigated type specific distribution of human papillomavirus (HPV in Nepali women. Data on high-risk HPV (HR-HPV types are not currently available for rural populations in Nepal. We aimed to assess the distribution of HR- HPV among rural Nepali women while assessing self-collected and clinician-collected cervico-vaginal specimens as sample collection methods for HPV screening.Study participants were recruited during a health camp conducted by Nepal Fertility Care Center in Achham District of rural far western Nepal. Women of reproductive age completed a socio-demographic and clinical questionnaire, and provided two specimens; one cervical-vaginal specimen using a self-collection method and another cervical specimen collected by health camp auxiliary nurse midwives during a pelvic examination. All samples were tested for 14 different HR-HPV mRNA and also specific for HPV16/18/45 mRNA.Of 261 women with both clinician- and self-collected cervical samples, 25 tested positive for HR-HPV, resulting in an overall HR-HPV prevalence of 9.6% (95% confidence Interval [CI]: 6.3-13.8. The overall Kappa value assessing agreement between clinician- and self-collected tests was 0.62 (95% CI: 0.43-0.81, indicating a "good" level of agreement. Abnormal cytology was reported for 8 women. One woman identified with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC, and 7 women with high grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL. Seven of the 8 women tested positive for HR-HPV (87.5% in clinician-collected samples and 6 in self-collected samples (75.0%.This is the first study to assess HR-HPV among rural Nepali women. Self-collected sampling methods should be the subject of additional research in Nepal for screening HR-HPV, associated with pre-cancer lesions and cancer, in women in rural areas with limited access to health services.

  16. Comparison of the immunogenicity and safety of Cervarix and Gardasil human papillomavirus (HPV) cervical cancer vaccines in healthy women aged 18-45 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einstein, Mark H; Baron, Mira; Levin, Myron J; Chatterjee, Archana; Edwards, Robert P; Zepp, Fred; Carletti, Isabelle; Dessy, Francis J; Trofa, Andrew F; Schuind, Anne; Dubin, Gary

    2009-10-01

    This observer-blind study compared the prophylactic human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines, Cervarix (GlaxoSmithKline) and Gardasil (Merck), by assessing immunogenicity and safety through one month after completion of the three-dose vaccination course. Women (n = 1106) were stratified by age (18-26, 27-35, 36-45 years) and randomized (1:1) to receive Cervarix (Months 0, 1, 6) or Gardasil (Months 0, 2, 6). At Month 7 after first vaccination, all women in the according-to-protocol cohort who were seronegative/DNA negative before vaccination for the HPV type analyzed had seroconverted for HPV-16 and HPV-18 serum neutralizing antibodies, as measured by pseudovirion-based neutralization assay (PBNA), except for two women aged 27-35 years in the Gardasil group who did not seroconvert for HPV-18 (98%). Geometric mean titers of serum neutralizing antibodies ranged from 2.3-4.8-fold higher for HPV-16 and 6.8-9.1-fold higher for HPV-18 after vaccination with Cervarix compared with Gardasil, across all age strata. In the total vaccinated cohort (all women who received at least one vaccine dose, regardless of their serological and DNA status prior to vaccination), Cervarix induced significantly higher serum neutralizing antibody titers in all age strata (p HPV-16 and -18 neutralizing antibodies in cervicovaginal secretions and circulating HPV-16 and -18 specific memory B-cell frequencies were also higher after vaccination with Cervarix compared with Gardasil. Both vaccines were generally well tolerated. The incidence of unsolicited adverse events was comparable between vaccinated groups. The incidence of solicited symptoms was generally higher after Cervarix, injection site reactions being most common. However, compliance rates with the three-dose schedules were similarly high (>or= 84%) for both vaccines. Although the importance of differences in magnitude of immune response between these vaccines is unknown, they may represent determinants of duration of protection against HPV

  17. Impact of collection method on assessment of semen HIV RNA viral load.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brendan J W Osborne

    Full Text Available The blood HIV RNA viral load is the best-defined predictor of HIV transmission, in part due to ease of measurement and the correlation of blood and genital tract (semen or cervico-vaginal viral load, although recent studies found semen HIV RNA concentration to be a stronger predictor of HIV transmission. There is currently no standardized method for semen collection when measuring HIV RNA concentration. Therefore, we compared two collection techniques in order to study of the impact of antiretroviral therapy on the semen viral load.Semen was collected by masturbation from HIV-infected, therapy-naïve men who have sex with men (MSM either undiluted (Visit 1 or directly into transport medium (Visit 2. Seminal plasma was then isolated, and the HIV RNA concentration obtained with each collection technique was measured and corrected for dilution if necessary. Collection of semen directly into transport medium resulted in a median HIV RNA viral load that was 0.4 log10 higher than undiluted samples.The method of semen collection is an important consideration when quantifying the HIV RNA viral load in this compartment.

  18. Modern Human Engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Byeong Yong; Lee Dong Kyeong

    2005-08-01

    These are the titles of each chapter. They are as in the following; design of human-centerdness, human machine system, information processing process, sense of human, user interface, elements of human body, vital dynamics, measurement of reaction of human body, estimation and management of working environment, mental characteristic of human, human error, group, organization and leadership, safety supervision, process analysis, time studying, work sampling, work factor and methods time measurement, introduction of muscular skeletal disease and program of preventive management.

  19. Functionalized ultra-low fouling carboxy- and hydroxy-functional surface platforms: Functionalization capacity, biorecognition capability and resistance to fouling from undiluted biological media

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vaisocherová, Hana; Ševců, Veronika; Adam, Pavel; Špačková, Barbora; Hegnerová, Kateřina; de los Santos Pereira, Andres; Rodriguez-Emmenegger, Cesar; Riedel, Tomáš; Houska, Milan; Brynda, Eduard; Homola, Jiří

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 51, 15 January (2014), s. 150-157 ISSN 0956-5663 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP205/12/G118; GA MŠk EE2.3.30.0029 Institutional support: RVO:67985882 ; RVO:61389013 Keywords : Low-fouling coatings * Polymer brushes * Surface chemistry Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering; CD - Macromolecular Chemistry (UMCH-V) Impact factor: 6.409, year: 2014

  20. The effect of parenteral alimentation fluid, undiluted with saline or fresh sera, on the growth of Candida albicans in vitro at 37 degrees C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederer, T; Rippon, J; Baldwin, S; Pachman, L M

    1975-02-28

    Parenteral alimentation is often complicated by Candida albicans infection which may be fatal. This study investigated the effect of alimentation fluid (Aminosol) on C. albicans' growth in vitro. It was found that concentrated Aminosol (1400 millisomoles) maintained C. albicans in a viable state but inhibited replication. Dilution of alimentation fluid to physiological concentrations (300 milliosmoles) with either saline or aged pooled normal sera promoted in vitro growth of C. albicans which was equivalent to that obtained in BHI broth and was slightly less than that obtained in Sabouraud's broth. The effects of fresh sera with full complement activity were also investigated. In fresh sera appropriately diluted with physiological saline, some clumping of the yeasts was observed and all formed germ tubes. Growth as defined by budding or the formation of hyphae was inhibited. When Aminosol was diluted to 300 milliosomoles with fresh sera, all yeasts were noted to be in clumps with germ tubes as well as continually growing hyphae. Growth was approximately equal to that seen in Aminosol similarly diluted with saline.

  1. Supported liquid membrane extraction coupled in-line to commercial capillary electrophoresis for rapid determination of formate in undiluted blood samples

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pantůčková, Pavla; Kubáň, Pavel; Boček, Petr

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 1299, JUL (2013), s. 33-39 ISSN 0021-9673 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-05762S Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : capillary electrophoresis * supported liquid membranes * methanol intoxication Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 4.258, year: 2013

  2. Ultralow Fouling and Functionalizable Surface Chemistry Based on a Zwitterionic Polymer Enabling Sensitive and Specific Protein Detection in Undiluted Blood Plasma

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vaisocherová, Hana; Piliarik, Marek; Homola, Jiří; Yang, W.; Zhang, Z.; Cao, Z.; Cheng, G.; Jiang, S.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 80, č. 20 (2008), s. 7894-79001 ISSN 0003-2700 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN200670701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20670512 Keywords : zwitterionic poly(carboxybetaine) * ultra low fouling * blood plasma Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 5.712, year: 2008

  3. Highly efficient extraction and selective separation of uranium (VI) from transition metals using new class of undiluted ionic liquids based on H-phosphonate anions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarrougui, Ramzi; Mdimagh, Raouf; Raouafi, Nourreddine

    2018-01-15

    In this paper, we report the development of an environmental friendly process to decontaminate uranium-containing ores and nuclear wastes by using non-fluorinated ionic liquids (ILs). The main advantages of this extraction process are the absence of any organic diluent and extra extraction agents added to the organic phase. Moreover, the process is cost-effective and maybe applied as a sustainable hydrometallurgical method to recover uranium. The distribution ratio (D U ) and the extraction efficiency (%E) of uranium(VI) (UO 2 2+ ) were found to be dependent on the acidity of the aqueous phase, the extraction time, the alkyl chain length in the ILs, the concentration of the aqueous feed and molar quantity of ILs. The D U value is higher than 600 and the %E is equal to 98.6% when [HNO 3 ]=7M. The extraction reactions follows a neutral partition or ionic exchange mechanism depending on nitric acid concentration. The nature of bonding in the extracted complexes was investigated by spectroscopic techniques. The potential use of Mor 1-8 -OP for the separation of UO 2 2+ from a mixture containing transition metal ions M n+ was also examined. The UO 2 2+ ions were separated and extracted efficiently. These ILs are promising candidates for the recovery and separation of uranium. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Expert Assessment of Human-Human Stigmergy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Parunak, H. Van Dyke

    2005-01-01

    Human-Human Stigmergy is pervasive. A wide range of pre-computer social systems fit the pattern of stigmergic coordination, and have provided a rich set of metaphors on which a diverse set of computer-enabled systems for enabling human...

  5. Expression of Genes for Drug Transporters in the Human Female Genital Tract and Modulatory Effect of Antiretroviral Drugs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolin Hijazi

    Full Text Available Anti-retroviral (ARV -based microbicides are one of the strategies pursued to prevent HIV-1 transmission. Delivery of ARV drugs to subepithelial CD4+ T cells at concentrations for protection is likely determined by drug transporters expressed in the cervicovaginal epithelium. To define the role of drug transporters in mucosal disposition of topically applied ARV-based microbicides, these must be tested in epithelial cell line-based biopharmaceutical assays factoring the effect of relevant drug transporters. We have characterised gene expression of influx and efflux drug transporters in a panel of cervicovaginal cell lines and compared this to expression in cervicovaginal tissue. We also investigated the effect of dapivirine, darunavir and tenofovir, currently at advanced stages of microbicides development, on expression of drug transporters in cell lines. Expression of efflux ABC transporters in cervical tissue was best represented in HeLa, Ect1/E6E7 and End1/E6E7 cell lines. Expression of influx OCT and ENT transporters in ectocervix matched expression in Hela while expression of influx SLCO transporters in vagina was best reflected in VK2/E6E7 cell line. Stimulation with darunavir and dapivirine upregulated MRP transporters, including MRP5 involved in transport of tenofovir. Dapivirine also significantly downregulated tenofovir substrate MRP4 in cervical cell lines. Treatment with darunavir and dapivirine showed no significant effect on expression of BCRP, MRP2 and P-glycoprotein implicated in efflux of different ARV drugs. Darunavir strongly induced expression in most cell lines of CNT3 involved in cell uptake of nucleotide/nucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitors and SLCO drug transporters involved in cell uptake of protease inhibitors. This study provides insight into the suitability of cervicovaginal cell lines for assessment of ARV drugs in transport kinetics studies. The modulatory effect of darunavir and dapivirine on

  6. The golden triangle of human dignity: human security, human development and human rights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaay Fortman, B. de

    2004-01-01

    The success or failure of processes of democratization cannot be detached from processes of development related to the aspirations of people at the grassroots. Human rights, in a more theoretical terminology, require human development in order to enhance human security.

  7. Human Rights, Human Security and Political Theologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Lorite Escorihuela

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Human rights, particularly in the form of international human rights law, intersect with religion and peace at foundational levels, as symbolically highlighted by the 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR. The Preamble to the Declaration proclaims in its very first line that respect for human dignity is the foundation of peace, and proceeds to declare that freedom of belief, alongside freedom of speech and freedom from fear, are the highest aspirations of humankind. One could similarly highlight the special relationship between the project of human rights, peace and religion, particularly religious tolerance, in the texts of the universal, as well as regional, human rights instruments adopted since 1948, as well as the text of the Charter of the United Nations of 1945. The relationship between contemporary human rights, on the one hand, and religion and peace on the other, is arguably determined by the structure of international human rights law as a political discourse, which describes the relationship between individuals, society and the State. The visible influence of social contract theory on the wording of the Universal Declaration reminds us that from its inception, the project of human rights is intimately linked to religious diversity (because of the birth of modern sovereignty in European wars of religion and evangelical imperialism and peace (because of the connection that the Declaration draws between the stability of States and respect for the human dignity of citizens. Against this known conceptual and historical backdrop, this paper starts with the displacement, at the global level, of human rights by the ambiguous discourse of "human security," since the early 1990s. A general idea is that "human security", which has rapidly evolved to become an organizing principle of policy-making for governments as well as non-governmental and inter-governmental organizations, constitutes an alternative, sometimes deliberately

  8. Taking the "human" out of human rights

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, John

    2011-01-01

    Human rights are universally acknowledged to be important, although they are, of course, by no means universally respected. This universality has helped to combat racism and sexism and other arbitrary and vicious forms of discrimination. Unfortunately, as we shall see, the universality of human rights is both too universal and not universal enough. It is time to take the "human" out of human rights. Indeed, it is very probable that in the future there will be no more humans as we know them no...

  9. Localizing human rights

    OpenAIRE

    Feyter, De, Koen

    2007-01-01

    International human rights lawyers tend to focus on establishing the universality of human rights rather than on improving the usefulness of human rights in addressing local problems. This paper draws attention to the need to make human rights more locally relevant, particularly in a context of economic globalisation. Human rights can be made more locally relevant by interpreting existing global norms in the light of needs identified by community organisations, and by developing human rights ...

  10. Human factors in training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutton, J.W.; Brown, W.R.

    1981-01-01

    The Human Factors concept is a focused effort directed at those activities which require human involvement. Training is, by its nature, an activity totally dependent on the Human Factor. This paper identifies several concerns significant to training situations and discusses how Human Factor awareness can increase the quality of learning. Psychology in the training arena is applied Human Factors. Training is a method of communication represented by sender, medium, and receiver. Two-thirds of this communications model involves the human element directly

  11. Engineered human vaccines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandhu, J.S. (Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, Ontario (Canada). Div. of Immunology and Neurobiology)

    1994-01-01

    The limitations of human vaccines in use at present and the design requirements for a new generation of human vaccines are discussed. The progress in engineering of human vaccines for bacteria, viruses, parasites, and cancer is reviewed, and the data from human studies with the engineered vaccines are discussed, especially for cancer and AIDS vaccines. The final section of the review deals with the possible future developments in the field of engineered human vaccines and the requirement for effective new human adjuvants.

  12. Human-machine interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsythe, J Chris [Sandia Park, NM; Xavier, Patrick G [Albuquerque, NM; Abbott, Robert G [Albuquerque, NM; Brannon, Nathan G [Albuquerque, NM; Bernard, Michael L [Tijeras, NM; Speed, Ann E [Albuquerque, NM

    2009-04-28

    Digital technology utilizing a cognitive model based on human naturalistic decision-making processes, including pattern recognition and episodic memory, can reduce the dependency of human-machine interactions on the abilities of a human user and can enable a machine to more closely emulate human-like responses. Such a cognitive model can enable digital technology to use cognitive capacities fundamental to human-like communication and cooperation to interact with humans.

  13. The Human/Machine Humanities: A Proposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ollivier Dyens

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available What does it mean to be human in the 21st century? The pull of engineering on every aspect of our lives, the impact of machines on how we represent ourselves, the influence of computers on our understanding of free-will, individuality and species, and the effect of microorganisms on our behaviour are so great that one cannot discourse on humanity and humanities without considering their entanglement with technology and with the multiple new dimensions of reality that it opens up. The future of humanities should take into account AI, bacteria, software, viruses (both organic and inorganic, hardware, machine language, parasites, big data, monitors, pixels, swarms systems and the Internet. One cannot think of humanity and humanities as distinct from technology anymore.

  14. Special Section: Human Rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frydenlund, Knut; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Eleven articles examine human rights in Europe. Topics include unemployment, human rights legislation, role of the Council of Europe in promoting human rights, labor unions, migrant workers, human dignity in industralized societies, and international violence. Journal available from Council of Europe, Directorate of Press and Information, 67006…

  15. Scalability of human models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodarius, C.; Rooij, L. van; Lange, R. de

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this work was to create a scalable human occupant model that allows adaptation of human models with respect to size, weight and several mechanical parameters. Therefore, for the first time two scalable facet human models were developed in MADYMO. First, a scalable human male was

  16. Preference for human eyes in human infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupierrix, Eve; de Boisferon, Anne Hillairet; Méary, David; Lee, Kang; Quinn, Paul C; Di Giorgio, Elisa; Simion, Francesca; Tomonaga, Masaki; Pascalis, Olivier

    2014-07-01

    Despite evidence supporting an early attraction to human faces, the nature of the face representation in neonates and its development during the first year after birth remain poorly understood. One suggestion is that an early preference for human faces reflects an attraction toward human eyes because human eyes are distinctive compared with other animals. In accord with this proposal, prior empirical studies have demonstrated the importance of the eye region in face processing in adults and infants. However, an attraction for the human eye has never been shown directly in infants. The current study aimed to investigate whether an attraction for human eyes would be present in newborns and older infants. With the use of a preferential looking time paradigm, newborns and 3-, 6-, 9-, and 12-month-olds were simultaneously presented with a pair of nonhuman primate faces (chimpanzees and Barbary macaques) that differed only by the eyes, thereby pairing a face with original nonhuman primate eyes with the same face in which the eyes were replaced by human eyes. Our results revealed that no preference was observed in newborns, but a preference for nonhuman primate faces with human eyes emerged from 3months of age and remained stable thereafter. The findings are discussed in terms of how a preference for human eyes may emerge during the first few months after birth. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. ISS Payload Human Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellenberger, Richard; Duvall, Laura; Dory, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    The ISS Payload Human Factors Implementation Team (HFIT) is the Payload Developer's resource for Human Factors. HFIT is the interface between Payload Developers and ISS Payload Human Factors requirements in SSP 57000. ? HFIT provides recommendations on how to meet the Human Factors requirements and guidelines early in the design process. HFIT coordinates with the Payload Developer and Astronaut Office to find low cost solutions to Human Factors challenges for hardware operability issues.

  18. Twelve-Month Antiretroviral Therapy Suppresses Plasma and Genital Viral Loads but Fails to Alter Genital Levels of Cytokines, in a Cohort of HIV-Infected Rwandan Women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ondoa, Pascale; Gautam, Raju; Rusine, John; Lutter, Rene; Jurriaans, Suzanne; Kootstra, Neeltje; Karita, Etienne; van de Wijgert, Janneke

    2015-01-01

    Genital viral load (GVL) is the main determinant of sexual transmission of human immune-deficiency virus (HIV). The effect of antiretroviral therapy (ART) on local cervico-vaginal immunological factors associated with GVL is poorly described. We aimed to identify the risk factors of detectable GVL,

  19. High-risk human papillomavirus detection in self-sampling compared to physician-taken smear in a responder population of the Dutch cervical screening: Results of the VERA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketelaars, P J W; Bosgraaf, R P; Siebers, A G; Massuger, L F A G; van der Linden, J C; Wauters, C A P; Rahamat-Langendoen, J C; van den Brule, A J C; IntHout, J; Melchers, W J G; Bekkers, R L M

    2017-08-01

    In 2017 the cervical cancer screening program in The Netherlands will be revised. Cervical smears will primarily be tested for the presence of high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) instead of cytology, and vaginal self-sampling will be offered to non-responders. This includes a potential risk that part of the women who would otherwise opt for a cervical smear will wait for self-sampling. However, self-sampling for hrHPV in a responder population has never been studied yet. The aim of this study was to investigate the applicability and accuracy of self-sampling in detecting hrHPV in a screening responder population. A total of 2049 women, aged 30-60years, participating in the screening program in The Netherlands were included from April 2013 to May 2015. After they had their cervical smear taken, women self-collected a cervicovaginal sample with a brush-based device, the Evalyn Brush. Both the cervical smear and self-sample specimen were tested with the COBAS 4800 HPV platform. The hrHPV prevalence was 8.0% (95% CI 6.9-9.2) among the physician-taken samples, and 10.0% (95% CI 8.7-11.3) among the self-samples. There was 96.8% (95% CI 96.0-97.5) concordance of hrHPV prevalence between self-samples and physician-taken samples. Women in our study evaluated self-sampling as convenient (97.1%), user-friendly (98.5%), and 62.8% preferred self-sampling over a physician-taken sampling for the next screening round. In conclusion, self-sampling showed high concordance with physician-taken sampling for hrHPV detection in a responder screening population and highly acceptable to women. Implementation of HPV-self-sampling for the responder population as a primary screening tool may be considered. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Economics of human trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheaton, Elizabeth M; Schauer, Edward J; Galli, Thomas V

    2010-01-01

    Because freedom of choice and economic gain are at the heart of productivity, human trafficking impedes national and international economic growth. Within the next 10 years, crime experts expect human trafficking to surpass drug and arms trafficking in its incidence, cost to human well-being, and profitability to criminals (Schauer and Wheaton, 2006: 164-165). The loss of agency from human trafficking as well as from modern slavery is the result of human vulnerability (Bales, 2000: 15). As people become vulnerable to exploitation and businesses continually seek the lowest-cost labour sources, trafficking human beings generates profit and a market for human trafficking is created. This paper presents an economic model of human trafficking that encompasses all known economic factors that affect human trafficking both across and within national borders. We envision human trafficking as a monopolistically competitive industry in which traffickers act as intermediaries between vulnerable individuals and employers by supplying differentiated products to employers. In the human trafficking market, the consumers are employers of trafficked labour and the products are human beings. Using a rational-choice framework of human trafficking we explain the social situations that shape relocation and working decisions of vulnerable populations leading to human trafficking, the impetus for being a trafficker, and the decisions by employers of trafficked individuals. The goal of this paper is to provide a common ground upon which policymakers and researchers can collaborate to decrease the incidence of trafficking in humans.

  1. Human dignity, bioethics, and human rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häyry, Matti; Takala, Tuija

    2005-09-01

    The authors analyse and assess the Universal Draft Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights published by UNESCO. They argue that the Draft has two main weaknesses. It unnecessarily confines the scope of bioethics to life sciences and their practical applications. And it fails to spell out the intended role of human dignity in international ethical regulation.

  2. The diagnostic power of cervico-vaginal fluid prolactin in the diagnosis of premature rupture of membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kariman, N; Hedayati, M; Alavi Majd, Sh

    2012-01-01

    Background Premature rupture of membranes (PROM) is one of the most common complications of pregnancy that has a major impact on pregnancy outcomes. A diagnostic tool that is non-invasive, specific and quick is needed to predict PROM. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic power of the vaginal washing fluid prolactin for the diagnosis of premature rupture of membranes and to determine cut-off values. Methods A total of 114 pregnant women were recruited in this diagnostic trial. The PROM group consisted of 54 pregnant women between 20 and 41 weeks of gestation with diagnosis of confirmed PROM [amniotic fluid pooling (+) and Nitrazine paper test (+) and fernt test (+)]. The control group consisted of 60 pregnant women between 20 and 41 weeks of gestation without any complaint or complication. All patients underwent speculum examination for amniotic fluid pooling, nitrazine paper test, fern test, vaginal washing fluid prolactin sampling. Results Vaginal fluid concentrations of prolactin was significantly different between the two groups (P < 0.001). The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values and accuracy were 87.03%, 75.0%, 75.80%, 86.53% and 83.33% in detecting PROM by evaluation of vaginal fluid prolactin concentration with a cut-off value of 9.50 µIU/ml, respectively. Conclusions The prolactin levels in the washing fluid of the posterior vaginal fornix in our experience is reliable and non-invasive diagnostic tests of PROM. PMID:23115716

  3. Global Law: Humanism and Human Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leilane Serratine Grubba

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the ideal of human rights before globalizatórios inflows. It begins with a general statement about the legal globalization, comparing it with the Global Law in the political and economic implications. Later, it approaches the ideal predicted with transnationalism. Proposes a reflection on the present Human Rights. Also, rethinks the lines of the complex web of Global Law, its institutions and its actors, which circulate between the public and private plans. There is no sense in space maintenance of the ideal of human rights only in the state or territory in international treaties originally linked to the states.

  4. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Why get vaccinated?HPV vaccine prevents infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) types that are associated with cause ... at http://www.cdc.gov/hpv. HPV Vaccine (Human Papillomavirus) Information Statement. U.S. Department of Health and ...

  5. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search The CDC Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Note: Javascript is disabled or is ... 6348 Email CDC-INFO U.S. Department of Health & Human Services HHS/Open USA.gov TOP

  6. Human bites (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human bites present a high risk of infection. Besides the bacteria which can cause infection, there is ... the wound extends below the skin. Anytime a human bite has broken the skin, seek medical attention.

  7. Human Parainfluenza Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search The CDC Human Parainfluenza Viruses (HPIVs) Note: Javascript is disabled or ... CDC.gov . Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Human parainfluenza viruses (HPIVs) commonly cause respiratory illnesses in ...

  8. Human Use Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Human land uses may have major impacts on ecosystems, affecting biodiversity, habitat, air and water quality. The human use index (also known as U-index) is the...

  9. HPV (Human Papillomavirus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women HPV (human papillomavirus) Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ... outside of the body. To Learn More About HPV Human Papillomavirus Vaccine More in For Women Medication ...

  10. Statement on Human Cloning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for the Advancement of Science Statement on Human Cloning Tweet The American Association for the Advancement of ... for this statement on human cloning. Ban Reproductive Cloning AAAS endorses a legally enforceable ban on efforts ...

  11. ECONOMICS OF HUMAN RESOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IOANA - JULIETA JOSAN

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to analyze human resources in terms of quantitative and qualitative side with special focus on the human capital accumulation influence. The paper examines the human resources trough human capital accumulation in terms of modern theory of human resources, educational capital, health, unemployment and migration. The findings presented in this work are based on theoretical economy publications and data collected from research materials. Sources of information include: documents from organizations - the EUROSTAT, INSSE - studies from publications, books, periodicals, and the Internet. The paper describes and analyzes human resources characteristics, human resource capacities, social and economic benefits of human capital accumulation based on economy, and the government plans and policies on health, education and labor market.

  12. Evaluating human genetic diversity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    This book assesses the scientific value and merit of research on human genetic differences--including a collection of DNA samples that represents the whole of human genetic diversity--and the ethical...

  13. Human Use Index (Future)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Human land uses may have major impacts on ecosystems, affecting biodiversity, habitat, air and water quality. The human use index (also known as U-index) is the...

  14. Human Computer Music Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Dannenberg, Roger B.

    2012-01-01

    Human Computer Music Performance (HCMP) is the study of music performance by live human performers and real-time computer-based performers. One goal of HCMP is to create a highly autonomous artificial performer that can fill the role of a human, especially in a popular music setting. This will require advances in automated music listening and understanding, new representations for music, techniques for music synchronization, real-time human-computer communication, music generation, sound synt...

  15. Human papillomavirus molecular biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, Mallory E; Munger, Karl

    Human papillomaviruses are small DNA viruses with a tropism for squamous epithelia. A unique aspect of human papillomavirus molecular biology involves dependence on the differentiation status of the host epithelial cell to complete the viral lifecycle. A small group of these viruses are the etiologic agents of several types of human cancers, including oral and anogenital tract carcinomas. This review focuses on the basic molecular biology of human papillomaviruses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Human Resource Management System

    OpenAIRE

    Navaz, A. S. Syed; Fiaz, A. S. Syed; Prabhadevi, C.; Sangeetha, V.; Gopalakrishnan, S.

    2013-01-01

    The paper titled HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM is basically concerned with managing the Administrator of HUMAN RESOURCE Department in a company. A Human Resource Management System, refers to the systems and processes at the intersection between human resource management and information technology. It merges HRM as a discipline and in particular its basic HR activities and processes with the information technology field, whereas the programming of data processing systems evolved into standa...

  17. Human Machine Learning Symbiosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Kenneth R.; Hoque, Md Tamjidul; Williams, Kim H.

    2017-01-01

    Human Machine Learning Symbiosis is a cooperative system where both the human learner and the machine learner learn from each other to create an effective and efficient learning environment adapted to the needs of the human learner. Such a system can be used in online learning modules so that the modules adapt to each learner's learning state both…

  18. Humanities Review Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Humanities Review Journal is published in June and December by Humanities Research Forum. The Journal publishes original, well-researched papers, review essays, interviews, resume, and commentaries, which offer new insights into the various disciplines in the Humanities. The focus is on issues about Africa.

  19. A Human Rights Glossary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flowers, Nancy

    1998-01-01

    Presents a human rights glossary that includes definitions of basic terms, treaties, charters, and groups/organizations that have been featured in previous articles in this edition of "Update on Law-Related Education"; the human rights terms have been compiled as part of the celebration of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights…

  20. Has Human Evolution Stopped?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan R. Templeton

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available It has been argued that human evolution has stopped because humans now adapt to their environment via cultural evolution and not biological evolution. However, all organisms adapt to their environment, and humans are no exception. Culture defines much of the human environment, so cultural evolution has actually led to adaptive evolution in humans. Examples are given to illustrate the rapid pace of adaptive evolution in response to cultural innovations. These adaptive responses have important implications for infectious diseases, Mendelian genetic diseases, and systemic diseases in current human populations. Moreover, evolution proceeds by mechanisms other than natural selection. The recent growth in human population size has greatly increased the reservoir of mutational variants in the human gene pool, thereby enhancing the potential for human evolution. The increase in human population size coupled with our increased capacity to move across the globe has induced a rapid and ongoing evolutionary shift in how genetic variation is distributed within and among local human populations. In particular, genetic differences between human populations are rapidly diminishing and individual heterozygosity is increasing, with beneficial health effects. Finally, even when cultural evolution eliminates selection on a trait, the trait can still evolve due to natural selection on other traits. Our traits are not isolated, independent units, but rather are integrated into a functional whole, so selection on one trait can cause evolution to occur on another trait, sometimes with mildly maladaptive consequences.

  1. Intervention and Human Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Arthur J.

    1988-01-01

    Defends the right of nations to criticize human rights violations within other nations. Pointing out that the human rights protections cannot be left to domestic jurisdiction, Goldberg cites numerous treaties and declarations which make human rights protection a matter of international law. (GEA)

  2. From Human Past to Human Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert G. Bednarik

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper begins with a refutation of the orthodox model of final Pleistocene human evolution, presenting an alternative, better supported account of this crucial phase. According to this version, the transition from robust to gracile humans during that period is attributable to selective breeding rather than natural selection, rendered possible by the exponential rise of culturally guided volitional choices. The rapid human neotenization coincides with the development of numerous somatic and neural detriments and pathologies. Uniformitarian reasoning based on ontogenic homology suggests that the cognitive abilities of hominins are consistently underrated in the unstable orthodoxies of Pleistocene archaeology. A scientifically guided review establishes developmental trajectories defining recent changes in the human genome and its expressions, which then form the basis of attempts to extrapolate from them into the future. It is suggested that continuing and perhaps accelerating unfavorable genetic changes to the human species, rather than existential threats such as massive disasters, pandemics, or astrophysical events, may become the ultimate peril of humanity.

  3. The Human Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fausing, Bent

    towards this very special and lost humanity. Without the technology, no special humanity is the prophecy. This personification or anthropomorphism is important for the branding of new technology. The technology is seen as creating a technotranscendens towards a more qualified humanity, which is in contact...... with fundamental human values like intuition, vision and sensing; all the qualities the technology, the industrialisation and rationalisation, or in short modernity, has been criticized for having taken away from human existence. What technology has taken away now comes back through new technology as an aid...

  4. [Human factors in medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarovici, M; Trentzsch, H; Prückner, S

    2017-01-01

    The concept of human factors is commonly used in the context of patient safety and medical errors, all too often ambiguously. In actual fact, the term comprises a wide range of meanings from human-machine interfaces through human performance and limitations up to the point of working process design; however, human factors prevail as a substantial cause of error in complex systems. This article presents the full range of the term human factors from the (emergency) medical perspective. Based on the so-called Swiss cheese model by Reason, we explain the different types of error, what promotes their emergence and on which level of the model error prevention can be initiated.

  5. Situating Human Sexual Conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Heather

    2017-11-01

    Conditioning is often thought of as a basic, automatic learning process that has limited applicability to higher-level human behavior. In addition, conditioning is seen as separable from, and even secondary to, "innate" processes. These ideas involve some misconceptions. The aim of this article is to provide a clearer, more refined sense of human sexual conditioning. After providing some background information and reviewing what is known from laboratory conditioning studies, human sexual conditioning is compared to sexual conditioning in nonhumans, to "innate" sexual responding, and to other types of human learning processes. Recommendations for moving forward in human sexual conditioning research are included.

  6. Integrated Environmental Modelling: Human decisions, human challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glynn, Pierre D.

    2015-01-01

    Integrated Environmental Modelling (IEM) is an invaluable tool for understanding the complex, dynamic ecosystems that house our natural resources and control our environments. Human behaviour affects the ways in which the science of IEM is assembled and used for meaningful societal applications. In particular, human biases and heuristics reflect adaptation and experiential learning to issues with frequent, sharply distinguished, feedbacks. Unfortunately, human behaviour is not adapted to the more diffusely experienced problems that IEM typically seeks to address. Twelve biases are identified that affect IEM (and science in general). These biases are supported by personal observations and by the findings of behavioural scientists. A process for critical analysis is proposed that addresses some human challenges of IEM and solicits explicit description of (1) represented processes and information, (2) unrepresented processes and information, and (3) accounting for, and cognizance of, potential human biases. Several other suggestions are also made that generally complement maintaining attitudes of watchful humility, open-mindedness, honesty and transparent accountability. These suggestions include (1) creating a new area of study in the behavioural biogeosciences, (2) using structured processes for engaging the modelling and stakeholder communities in IEM, and (3) using ‘red teams’ to increase resilience of IEM constructs and use.

  7. Western humanism, African humanism and work organisations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H J Pietersen

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Comparison of Western (WH and African humanism (AH shows overlapping and complementary approaches to human nature in work organisations. The extant literature is conceptually, empirically and methodologically inadequate, and fails to consider 21st century employment realities. Shortcomings of WH and AH are presented. A dynamic and mutualistic approach to human nature, that includes both self-assertive (individualist and self transcending (collectivist tendencies, is briefly outlined. It provides a more comprehensive approach to humanism, for better understanding of human behaviour at work. There is currently too much rhetoric in the field. More research, especially the use of qualitative and narrative interpretive methodologies is required. Opsomming Vergelyking van Westerse (WH met Afrika (AH opvattings oor humanisme in werkorganisasies toon, verskille ten spyt, dat oorvleueling en aanvullende benaderingsmoontlikhede bestaan. Die betrokke literatuur is tans konseptueel, empiries en metodologies onvoldoende. Moderne indiensnemingsrealiteite word ook nie verreken nie. Tekortkominge in beide Westerse en Afrika humanisme word aangetoon. Navolging van ’n dinamiese en resiprokale benadering wat beide self-gelding (individualisties en self-transendering (kollektiwisties in menslike natuur insluit, word voorgehou as ’n meer omvattende beskouing wat ’n beter begrip van gedrag in werkorganisasies bied. Daar is heelwat retoriek in aansprake betreffende Afrika humanisme. Verdere navorsing, veral begronde en interpreterende studies, is noodsaaklik.

  8. Integrated Environmental Modelling: human decisions, human challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glynn, Pierre D.

    2015-01-01

    Integrated Environmental Modelling (IEM) is an invaluable tool for understanding the complex, dynamic ecosystems that house our natural resources and control our environments. Human behaviour affects the ways in which the science of IEM is assembled and used for meaningful societal applications. In particular, human biases and heuristics reflect adaptation and experiential learning to issues with frequent, sharply distinguished, feedbacks. Unfortunately, human behaviour is not adapted to the more diffusely experienced problems that IEM typically seeks to address. Twelve biases are identified that affect IEM (and science in general). These biases are supported by personal observations and by the findings of behavioural scientists. A process for critical analysis is proposed that addresses some human challenges of IEM and solicits explicit description of (1) represented processes and information, (2) unrepresented processes and information, and (3) accounting for, and cognizance of, potential human biases. Several other suggestions are also made that generally complement maintaining attitudes of watchful humility, open-mindedness, honesty and transparent accountability. These suggestions include (1) creating a new area of study in the behavioural biogeosciences, (2) using structured processes for engaging the modelling and stakeholder communities in IEM, and (3) using ‘red teams’ to increase resilience of IEM constructs and use.

  9. Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus and Human Metapneumovirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Helena Antoniassi da Silva

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV and the human metapneumovírus (hMPV are main etiological agents of acute respiratory infections (ARI. The ARI is an important cause of childhood morbidity and mortality worldwide.  hRSV and hMPV are members of the Paramyxoviridae. They are enveloped, non-segmented viruses, with negative-sense single stranded genomes. Respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV is the best characterized agent viral of this group, associated with respiratory diseases in lower respiratory tract. Recently, a new human pathogen belonging to the subfamily Pneumovirinae was identified, the human metapneumovirus (hMPV, which is structurally similar to the hRSV, in genomic organization, viral structure, antigenicity and clinical symptoms.  The subfamily Pneumovirinae contains two genera: genus Pneumovirus contains hRSV, the bovine (bRSV, as well as the ovine and caprine respiratory syncytial virus and pneumonia virus of mice, the second genus Metapneumovirus, consists of avian metapneumovirus (aMPV and human metapneumovirus (hMPV. In this work, we present a brief narrative review of the literature on important aspects of the biology, epidemiology and clinical manifestations of infections by two respiratory viruses.

  10. Humanities, Digital Humanities, Media studies, Internet studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brügger, Niels

    Todays expanding digital landscape constitutes an important research object as well as the research environment for the Humanities at the beginning of the 21st century. Taking this state of affairs as a starting point this inaugural lecture presents a vision for how the digital affects the interp......Todays expanding digital landscape constitutes an important research object as well as the research environment for the Humanities at the beginning of the 21st century. Taking this state of affairs as a starting point this inaugural lecture presents a vision for how the digital affects...... the interplay between four areas which until now to a certain extent have been separated: Traditional Hu- manities, Digital Humanities, Media studies, and Internet studies. The vision is followed by an outline of how it can be unfolded in concrete activities, in the form of research projects, research...

  11. Human organ markets and inherent human dignity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKellar, Calum

    2014-01-01

    It has been suggested that human organs should be bought and sold on a regulated market as any other material property belongingto an individual. This would have the advantage of both addressing the grave shortage of organs available for transplantation and respecting the freedom of individuals to choose to do whatever they want with their body parts. The old arguments against such a market in human organs are, therefore, being brought back into question. The article examines the different arguments both in favour and against the sale of human organs. It concludes that the body and any of its elements is a full expression of the whole person. As such, they cannot have a price if the individual is to retain his or her full inherent dignity and if society is to retain and protect this very important concept.

  12. Human Performance in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Patricia M.; Fiedler, Edna

    2010-01-01

    Human factors is a critical discipline for human spaceflight. Nearly every human factors research area is relevant to space exploration -- from the ergonomics of hand tools used by astronauts, to the displays and controls of a spacecraft cockpit or mission control workstation, to levels of automation designed into rovers on Mars, to organizational issues of communication between crew and ground. This chapter focuses more on the ways in which the space environment (especially altered gravity and the isolated and confined nature of long-duration spaceflight) affects crew performance, and thus has specific novel implications for human factors research and practice. We focus on four aspects of human performance: neurovestibular integration, motor control and musculo-skeletal effects, cognitive effects, and behavioral health. We also provide a sampler of recent human factors studies from NASA.

  13. Managing human performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bishop, J.; LaRhette, R.

    1988-01-01

    Evaluating human error or human performance problems and correcting the root causes can help preclude recurrence. The Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO), working with several members and participant utilities in an extended pilot program, has developed a nonpunitive program designed to identify, evaluate, and correct situations that cause human performance errors. The program is called the Human Performance Evaluation System (HPES). Its primary goal is to improve human reliability in overall nuclear plant operations by reducing human error through correction of the conditions that cause the errors. Workers at participating nuclear utilities are encouraged to report their errors and a specially trained plant coordinator investigates and recommends actions to correct the root causes of these errors

  14. The Human Cell Atlas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regev, Aviv; Teichmann, Sarah A; Lander, Eric S; Amit, Ido; Benoist, Christophe; Birney, Ewan; Bodenmiller, Bernd; Campbell, Peter; Carninci, Piero; Clatworthy, Menna; Clevers, Hans; Deplancke, Bart; Dunham, Ian; Eberwine, James; Eils, Roland; Enard, Wolfgang; Farmer, Andrew; Fugger, Lars; Göttgens, Berthold; Hacohen, Nir; Haniffa, Muzlifah; Hemberg, Martin; Kim, Seung; Klenerman, Paul; Kriegstein, Arnold; Lein, Ed; Linnarsson, Sten; Lundberg, Emma; Lundeberg, Joakim; Majumder, Partha; Marioni, John C; Merad, Miriam; Mhlanga, Musa; Nawijn, Martijn; Netea, Mihai; Nolan, Garry; Pe'er, Dana; Phillipakis, Anthony; Ponting, Chris P; Quake, Stephen; Reik, Wolf; Rozenblatt-Rosen, Orit; Sanes, Joshua; Satija, Rahul; Schumacher, Ton N; Shalek, Alex; Shapiro, Ehud; Sharma, Padmanee; Shin, Jay W; Stegle, Oliver; Stratton, Michael; Stubbington, Michael J T; Theis, Fabian J; Uhlen, Matthias; van Oudenaarden, Alexander; Wagner, Allon; Watt, Fiona; Weissman, Jonathan; Wold, Barbara; Xavier, Ramnik; Yosef, Nir

    2017-12-05

    The recent advent of methods for high-throughput single-cell molecular profiling has catalyzed a growing sense in the scientific community that the time is ripe to complete the 150-year-old effort to identify all cell types in the human body. The Human Cell Atlas Project is an international collaborative effort that aims to define all human cell types in terms of distinctive molecular profiles (such as gene expression profiles) and to connect this information with classical cellular descriptions (such as location and morphology). An open comprehensive reference map of the molecular state of cells in healthy human tissues would propel the systematic study of physiological states, developmental trajectories, regulatory circuitry and interactions of cells, and also provide a framework for understanding cellular dysregulation in human disease. Here we describe the idea, its potential utility, early proofs-of-concept, and some design considerations for the Human Cell Atlas, including a commitment to open data, code, and community.

  15. Bursty human dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Karsai, Márton; Kaski, Kimmo

    2018-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive overview on emergent bursty patterns in the dynamics of human behaviour. It presents common and alternative understanding of the investigated phenomena, and points out open questions worthy of further investigations. The book is structured as follows. In the introduction the authors discuss the motivation of the field, describe bursty phenomena in case of human behaviour, and relate it to other disciplines. The second chapter addresses the measures commonly used to characterise heterogeneous signals, bursty human dynamics, temporal paths, and correlated behaviour. These definitions are first introduced to set the basis for the discussion of the third chapter about the observations of bursty human patterns in the dynamics of individuals, dyadic interactions, and collective behaviour. The subsequent fourth chapter discusses the models of bursty human dynamics. Various mechanisms have been proposed about the source of the heterogeneities in human dynamics, which leads to the in...

  16. Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus and Human Metapneumovirus

    OpenAIRE

    Luciana Helena Antoniassi da Silva; Fernando Rosado Spilki; Adriana Gut Lopes Riccetto; Emilio Elias Baracat; Clarice Weis Arns

    2009-01-01

    The human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) and the human metapneumovírus (hMPV) are main etiological agents of acute respiratory infections (ARI). The ARI is an important cause of childhood morbidity and mortality worldwide.  hRSV and hMPV are members of the Paramyxoviridae. They are enveloped, non-segmented viruses, with negative-sense single stranded genomes. Respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) is the best characterized agent viral of this group, associated with respiratory diseases in...

  17. Human resource management

    OpenAIRE

    Šrolová, Tereza

    2012-01-01

    Human resource management is a deliberate approach to managing people who are employed in a particular organization and under the management leadership contribute to achieving organizational goals with their performance. Managing people is associated with personal strategy and policy,which have an important role in working with human resources. This issue is concerned in thesis. In the context of human resource management also deals with the culture of the organization and its influence on pe...

  18. The Humanities Matter! Infographic

    OpenAIRE

    Terras, M. M.; Priego, E.; Liu, A.; Rockwell, G.; Sinclair, S.; Henseler, C.; Thomas, L.

    2013-01-01

    The Humanities are academic disciplines that seek to understand and interpret the human experience, from individuals to entire cultures, engaging in the discovery, preservation, and communication of the past and present record to enable a deeper understanding of contemporary society. The Humanities encompass literature, classics, ancient and modern languages, history, philoso - phy, media studies, the fine and performing arts, and other related subjects. It can be a challenge to show the bene...

  19. Biological Races in Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Templeton, Alan R.

    2013-01-01

    Races may exist in humans in a cultural sense, but biological concepts of race are needed to access their reality in a non-species-specific manner and to see if cultural categories correspond to biological categories within humans. Modern biological concepts of race can be implemented objectively with molecular genetic data through hypothesis-testing. Genetic data sets are used to see if biological races exist in humans and in our closest evolutionary relative, the chimpanzee. Using the two m...

  20. The human genome project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worton, R.

    1996-01-01

    The Human Genome Project is a massive international research project, costing 3 to 5 billion dollars and expected to take 15 years, which will identify the all the genes in the human genome - i.e. the complete sequence of bases in human DNA. The prize will be the ability to identify genes causing or predisposing to disease, and in some cases the development of gene therapy, but this new knowledge will raise important ethical issues

  1. Modern Human Capital Management

    OpenAIRE

    Feldberger, Madita

    2008-01-01

    Title: Modern Human Capital Management Seminar date: 30th of May 2008 Course: Master thesis in Business Administration, 15 ECTS Authors: Madita Feldberger Supervisor: Lars Svensson Keywords: Human capital, SWOT Analysis, Strategic Map, Balanced Scorecard Research Problem: Despite of the success of Human Capital Management (HCM) in research it did not arrive yet in the HR departments of many companies. Numerous firms even have problems to set their strategic goals with focus on HR. The HR Bala...

  2. Human hemoglobin genetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honig, G.R.; Adams, J.G.

    1986-01-01

    This book contains the following 10 chapters: Introduction; The Human Hemoglobins; The Human Globin Genes; Hemoglobin Synthesis and Globin Gene Expression; The Globin Gene Mutations - A. Mechanisms and Classification; The Globin Gene Mutations - B. Their Phenotypes and Clinical Expression; The Genetics of the Human Globin Gene Loci: Formal Genetics and Gene Linkage; The Geographic Distribution of Globin Gene Variation; Labortory Identification, Screening, Education, and Counseling for Abnormal Hemoglobins and Thalassemias; and Approaches to the Treatment of the Hemoglobin Disorders.

  3. Dogs catch human yawns

    OpenAIRE

    Joly-Mascheroni, Ramiro M.; Senju, Atsushi; Shepherd, Alex J.

    2008-01-01

    This study is the first to demonstrate that human yawns are possibly contagious to domestic dogs (Canis familiaris). Twenty-nine dogs observed a human yawning or making control mouth movements. Twenty-one dogs yawned when they observed a human yawning, but control mouth movements did not elicit yawning from any of them. The presence of contagious yawning in dogs suggests that this phenomenon is not specific to primate species and may indicate that dogs possess the capacity for a rudimentary f...

  4. Human babesiosis: Recent discoveries

    OpenAIRE

    Mitrović Sanja M.; Kranjčić-Zec Ivana F.; Arsić-Arsenijević Valentina S.; Džamić Aleksandar M.; Radonjić Ivana V.

    2004-01-01

    Introduction Babesiosis is caused by intraerythrocytic parasites of the genus Babesia, which is a common animal infection worldwide. This protozoa requires both a competent vertebrate and a nonvertebrate host (Ixodes sp. etc.) to maintain the transmission cycle. Human babesiosis Human babesiosis is predominantly caused by Babesia microti (rodent-borne piroplasm, an emerging zoonosis in humans in North America) and by Babesia divergens (bovine pathogen, in Europe). Occasionally, infection in A...

  5. Are human rights universal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurbuchen, Simone

    2010-12-01

    It is often held that the universality of human rights can best be defended on the basis of the idea of an "overlapping consensus". This paper contends that some of the most prominent philosophical human rights conceptions that have recently been proposed ("basis-driven" conceptions) cannot be reconciled with this idea. It is however possible to sketch an alternative strategy for defending the universality of human rights.

  6. [Human physiology: kidney].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natochin, Iu V

    2010-01-01

    The content of human physiology as an independent part of current physiology is discussed. Substantiated is the point that subjects of human physiology are not only special sections of physiology where functions are inherent only in human (physiology of intellectual activity, speech, labor, sport), but also in peculiarities of functions, specificity of regulation of each of physiological systems. By the example of physiology of kidney and water-salt balance there are shown borders of norm, peculiarities of regulation in human, new chapters of renal physiology which have appeared in connection with achievements of molecular physiology.

  7. The psychology of humanness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslam, Nick; Loughnan, Steve; Holland, Elise

    2013-01-01

    This chapter explores the ways in which the concept of "humanness" illuminates a wide and fascinating variety of psychological phenomena. After introducing the concept--everyday understandings of what it is to be human--we present a model of the diverse ways in which humanness can be denied to people. According to this model people may be perceived as lacking uniquely human characteristics, and thus likened to animals, or as lacking human nature, and thus likened to inanimate objects. Both of these forms of dehumanization occur with varying degrees of subtlety, from the explicit uses of derogatory animal metaphors, to stereotypes that ascribe lesser humanness or simpler minds to particular groups, to nonconscious associations between certain humans and nonhumans. After reviewing research on dehumanization through the lens of our model we examine additional topics that the psychology of humanness clarifies, notably the perception of nonhuman animals and the objectification of women. Humanness emerges as a concept that runs an integrating thread through a variety of research literatures.

  8. Humanity at the Edge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Mette N.; Gjødsbøl, Iben M.; Dam, Mie S.

    2017-01-01

    At the heart of anthropology and the social sciences lies a notion of human existence according to which humans and animals share the basic need for food, but only humans have the capacity for morality. Based on fieldwork in a pig laboratory, a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), and a dementia ...... human and animal value and agency with approaches that focus on human experience and virtue ethics, we argue that ‘the human’ at stake in the moral laboratory of feeding precarious lives puts ‘the human’ in anthropology at disposal for moral experimentation.......At the heart of anthropology and the social sciences lies a notion of human existence according to which humans and animals share the basic need for food, but only humans have the capacity for morality. Based on fieldwork in a pig laboratory, a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), and a dementia...... nursing home, we follow practices of feeding precarious lives lacking most markers of human personhood, including the exercise of moral judgment. Despite the absence of such markers, laboratory researchers and caregivers in these three sites do not abstain from engaging in questions about the moral status...

  9. Human target acquisition performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teaney, Brian P.; Du Bosq, Todd W.; Reynolds, Joseph P.; Thompson, Roger; Aghera, Sameer; Moyer, Steven K.; Flug, Eric; Espinola, Richard; Hixson, Jonathan

    2012-06-01

    The battlefield has shifted from armored vehicles to armed insurgents. Target acquisition (identification, recognition, and detection) range performance involving humans as targets is vital for modern warfare. The acquisition and neutralization of armed insurgents while at the same time minimizing fratricide and civilian casualties is a mounting concern. U.S. Army RDECOM CERDEC NVESD has conducted many experiments involving human targets for infrared and reflective band sensors. The target sets include human activities, hand-held objects, uniforms & armament, and other tactically relevant targets. This paper will define a set of standard task difficulty values for identification and recognition associated with human target acquisition performance.

  10. Human Capital Overview

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McCarthy, Ellen E

    2007-01-01

    ...: To provide an agile, adaptive, integrated, and innovative defense intelligence workforce through a deliberate process identifying, implementing, and directing human capital organizational, doctrinal...

  11. Human Performance Research Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Biochemistry:Improvements in energy metabolism, muscular strength and endurance capacity have a basis in biochemical and molecular adaptations within the human body....

  12. Application of Zeeman graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry with high-frequency modulation polarization for the direct determination of aluminum, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, mercury, manganese, nickel, lead, and thallium in human blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanenko, Natalya B; Solovyev, Nikolay D; Ivanenko, Anatoly A; Ganeev, Alexander A

    2012-10-01

    Determination of aluminum (Al), beryllium (Be), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), mercury (Hg), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), and thallium (Tl) concentrations in human blood using high-frequency modulation polarization Zeeman graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) was performed. No sample digestion was used in the current study. Blood samples were diluted with deionized water or 0.1 % (m/v) Triton X-100 solution for Tl. Dilution factors ranged from 1/5 per volume for Be and Tl to 1/20 per volume for Cd and Pb. For Tl, Cd, and Hg, noble metals (gold, platinum, rhodium, etc.) were applied as surface modifiers. To mitigate chloride interference, 2 % (m/v) solution of NH(4)NO(3) was used as matrix modifier for Tl and Ni assessment. The use of Pd(NO(3))(2) as oxidative modifier was necessary for blood Hg and Tl measurement. Validation of the methods was performed by analyzing two-level reference material Seronorm. The precision of the designed methods as relative SD was between 4 and 12 % (middle of a dynamic range) depending on the element. For additional validation, spiked blood samples were analyzed. Limits of detection (LoDs, 3σ, n = 10) for undiluted blood samples were 2.0 μg L(-1) for Al, 0.08 μg L(-1) for Be, 0.10 μg L(-1) for Cd, 2.2 μg L(-1) for Cr, 7 μg L(-1) for Hg, 0.4 μg L(-1) for Mn, 2.3 μg L(-1) for Ni, 3.4 μg L(-1) for Pb, and 0.5 μg L(-1) for Tl. The LoDs achieved allowed determination of Al, Cd, Cr, Mn, Ni, and Pb at both toxic and background levels. Be, Hg, and Tl could be reliably measured at toxic levels only. The methods developed are used for clinical diagnostics and biological monitoring of work-related exposure.

  13. Developing Human Resources through Actualizing Human Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarken, Rodney H.

    2012-01-01

    The key to human resource development is in actualizing individual and collective thinking, feeling and choosing potentials related to our minds, hearts and wills respectively. These capacities and faculties must be balanced and regulated according to the standards of truth, love and justice for individual, community and institutional development,…

  14. Challenges for Virtual Humans in Human Computing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reidsma, Dennis; Ruttkay, Z.M.; Huang, T; Nijholt, Antinus; Pantic, Maja; Pentland, A.

    The vision of Ambient Intelligence (AmI) presumes a plethora of embedded services and devices that all endeavor to support humans in their daily activities as unobtrusively as possible. Hardware gets distributed throughout the environment, occupying even the fabric of our clothing. The environment

  15. Health and Humanity: Humanities 401 Syllabus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snowden, Fraser; Taylor, Maxine

    A syllabus for the "Health and Humanities" interdisciplinary course at Northwestern State University, Louisiana, is presented. An introduction suggests that with the proliferation of technological advances in the field of health care, there is a need for reconsideration of many moral, ethical, legal, and humanistic questions. Information…

  16. Humanities in the field of Human Motricity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Franco Puttini

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This letter to the editor of the Journal Motricity seeks to promote the epistemological discussion of the science of motor and/or human movement from the philosophy of values focusing on the neutrality and interdisciplinary researcher in the sociocultural field of physical education knowledge area.

  17. SERUM BETA HUMAN CHORIONIC GONADOTROPHIN IN HUMAN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives To determine whether raised levels of serum Beta -HCG) are associated with higher grade and Human Chorionic Gonadotrophin ( -HCG in higher category tumors and whether in patients with raised levels of -HCG their sera the rise (above normal range) and the fall (to normal) in levels would correspond with ...

  18. Skin and the non-human human

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rösing, Lilian Munk

    2013-01-01

    ) article 'Visualizing the mind: Looking at Titian's Flaying of Marsyas', addressing features of the painting not commented on by Hart, and supplementing Hart's (Kleinian) theoretical frame by involving Didier Anzieu's 'skin ego', Slavoj Zizek's concept of the 'non-human', Giorgio Agamben's term...

  19. Training Humans for the Human Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    Advisors (CULADS-UK); Human Terrain Analysis ( HTA ); Socio-cultural Analysis; Target Audience Analy- sis (TAA); “Influence”; the list is long. As... attention and resources, or lack of them, devoted to it by command. This is further evidenced by the fact that the basic principles of understanding

  20. Miniatlas of Human Security

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank; Human Security Report Project

    2008-01-01

    An at-a-glance illustrated guide to global and regional trends in human insecurity, the miniAtlas provides a succinct introduction to today's most pressing security challenges. It maps political violence, the links between poverty and conflict, assaults on human rights including the use of child soldiers and the causes of war and peace.

  1. Biodemography of human ageing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaupel, James W

    2010-01-01

    Human senescence has been delayed by a decade. This finding, documented in 1994 and bolstered since, is a fundamental discovery about the biology of human ageing, and one with profound implications for individuals, society and the economy. Remarkably, the rate of deterioration with age seems...

  2. Human-centred Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bason, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Design approaches are now being applied all over the world as a powerful approach to innovating public policies and services. Christian Bason, author of Leading public design: Discovering human-centred governance, argues that by bringing design methods into play, public managers can lead change...... with citizens at the centre, and discover a new model for steering public organisations: human-centred governance....

  3. Humane Education Projects Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junior League of Ogden, UT.

    This handbook was developed to promote interest in humane education and to encourage the adoption of humane education projects. Although specifically designed to assist Junior Leagues in developing such projects, the content should prove valuable to animal welfare organizations, zoos, aquariums, nature centers, and other project-oriented groups…

  4. Fungi that Infect Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, Julia R; Hube, Bernhard; Puccia, Rosana; Casadevall, Arturo; Perfect, John R

    2017-06-01

    Fungi must meet four criteria to infect humans: growth at human body temperatures, circumvention or penetration of surface barriers, lysis and absorption of tissue, and resistance to immune defenses, including elevated body temperatures. Morphogenesis between small round, detachable cells and long, connected cells is the mechanism by which fungi solve problems of locomotion around or through host barriers. Secretion of lytic enzymes, and uptake systems for the released nutrients, are necessary if a fungus is to nutritionally utilize human tissue. Last, the potent human immune system evolved in the interaction with potential fungal pathogens, so few fungi meet all four conditions for a healthy human host. Paradoxically, the advances of modern medicine have made millions of people newly susceptible to fungal infections by disrupting immune defenses. This article explores how different members of four fungal phyla use different strategies to fulfill the four criteria to infect humans: the Entomophthorales, the Mucorales, the Ascomycota, and the Basidiomycota. Unique traits confer human pathogenic potential on various important members of these phyla: pathogenic Onygenales comprising thermal dimorphs such as Histoplasma and Coccidioides ; the Cryptococcus spp. that infect immunocompromised as well as healthy humans; and important pathogens of immunocompromised patients- Candida , Pneumocystis , and Aspergillus spp. Also discussed are agents of neglected tropical diseases important in global health such as mycetoma and paracoccidiomycosis and common pathogens rarely implicated in serious illness such as dermatophytes. Commensalism is considered, as well as parasitism, in shaping genomes and physiological systems of hosts and fungi during evolution.

  5. Methods in human cytogenetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 4, discusses the various techniques used in the study human cytogenetics. The methods are discussed in historical order, from direct methods to tissue culture techniques, prenatal studies, meiotic studies, sex chromatin techniques, banding techniques, prophase banding and replication studies. Nomenclature of human chromosomes and quantitative methods are also mentioned. 60 refs., 3 figs.

  6. Humanities in the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poli, Rosario, Comp.

    One of eighteen in a series, this annotated bibliography includes 64 publications that deal with the humanities and humanizing formal instruction at all instructional levels. Citations include recent ERIC documents, journal articles, and books. Others in the series are: SO 002 222 and SO 002 224. (DJB)

  7. Teaching Human Rights Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Howard R.

    1985-01-01

    The international community has developed a system of human rights law relevant to many areas of legal encounter, which American law schools have been slow to incorporate into curricula. Teaching human rights law provides an opportunity for law schools to enrich the learning process and contribute creatively to the respect for rights in society.…

  8. Human Mind Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Tom

    2016-01-01

    When students generate mind maps, or concept maps, the maps are usually on paper, computer screens, or a blackboard. Human Mind Maps require few resources and little preparation. The main requirements are space where students can move around and a little creativity and imagination. Mind maps can be used for a variety of purposes, and Human Mind…

  9. Quantifying Human Performance Reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askren, William B.; Regulinski, Thaddeus L.

    Human performance reliability for tasks in the time-space continuous domain is defined and a general mathematical model presented. The human performance measurement terms time-to-error and time-to-error-correction are defined. The model and measurement terms are tested using laboratory vigilance and manual control tasks. Error and error-correction…

  10. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of genital human papillomavirus infection in young women. New England Journal of Medicine 2006; 354(25):2645–2654. [PubMed Abstract] Chaturvedi ... trial of a human papillomavirus type 16 vaccine. New England Journal of Medicine 2002; 347(21):1645-1651. [PubMed Abstract] Petrosky ...

  11. Introduction to human factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winters, J.M.

    1988-03-01

    Some background is given on the field of human factors. The nature of problems with current human/computer interfaces is discussed, some costs are identified, ideal attributes of graceful system interfaces are outlined, and some reasons are indicated why it's not easy to fix the problems

  12. Global Journal of Humanities

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Homepage Image. Global Journal of Humanities is aimed at promoting reasearch in all areas of Humanities including philosophy, languages, linguistics, literature, history, fine/applied arts, theater arts, architecture, etc. Visit the Global Journal Series website here: http://www.globaljournalseries.com/ ...

  13. Damping Effect of Humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lars

    Passive humans (sitting or standing) might well be present on flooring-systems, footbridges or other structures that carry humans. An active croud of people might generate structural vibrations, and these might be problematic. The passive crowd of people, however, will interact with the structura...

  14. Modeling human color categorization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broek, Egon; Schouten, Th.E.; Kisters, P.M.F.

    A unique color space segmentation method is introduced. It is founded on features of human cognition, where 11 color categories are used in processing color. In two experiments, human subjects were asked to categorize color stimuli into these 11 color categories, which resulted in markers for a

  15. Human Simulated Diving Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, David S.; Speck, Dexter F.

    1979-01-01

    This report details several simulated divinq experiments on the human. These are suitable for undergraduate or graduate laboratories in human or environmental physiology. The experiment demonstrates that a diving reflex is precipitated by both facial cooling and apnea. (Author/RE)

  16. Human Rights, History of

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Baets, Antoon; Wright, James

    2015-01-01

    In this article, six basic debates about human rights are clarified from a historical perspective: the origin of human rights as moral rights connected to the natural law doctrine and opposed to positive rights; the wave of criticism of their abstract and absolute character by nineteenth-century

  17. Assessment of Human Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mount, Frances; Foley, Tico

    1999-01-01

    Human Factors Engineering, often referred to as Ergonomics, is a science that applies a detailed understanding of human characteristics, capabilities, and limitations to the design, evaluation, and operation of environments, tools, and systems for work and daily living. Human Factors is the investigation, design, and evaluation of equipment, techniques, procedures, facilities, and human interfaces, and encompasses all aspects of human activity from manual labor to mental processing and leisure time enjoyments. In spaceflight applications, human factors engineering seeks to: (1) ensure that a task can be accomplished, (2) maintain productivity during spaceflight, and (3) ensure the habitability of the pressurized living areas. DSO 904 served as a vehicle for the verification and elucidation of human factors principles and tools in the microgravity environment. Over six flights, twelve topics were investigated. This study documented the strengths and limitations of human operators in a complex, multifaceted, and unique environment. By focusing on the man-machine interface in space flight activities, it was determined which designs allow astronauts to be optimally productive during valuable and costly space flights. Among the most promising areas of inquiry were procedures, tools, habitat, environmental conditions, tasking, work load, flexibility, and individual control over work.

  18. Manage "Human Capital" Strategically

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odden, Allan

    2011-01-01

    To strategically manage human capital in education means restructuring the entire human resource system so that schools not only recruit and retain smart and capable individuals, but also manage them in ways that support the strategic directions of the organization. These management practices must be aligned with a district's education improvement…

  19. Translating the human microbiome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brown, J.; Vos, de W.M.; Distefano, P.S.; Doré, J.; Huttenhower, C.; Knight, R.; Lawley, T.D.; Raes, J.; Turnbaugh, P.

    2013-01-01

    Over the past decade, an explosion of descriptive analyses from initiatives, such as the Human Microbiome Project (HMP) and the MetaHIT project, have begun to delineate the human microbiome. Inhabitants of the intestinal tract, nasal passages, oral cavities, skin, gastrointestinal tract and

  20. Dynamics of human movement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopman, Hubertus F.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    The part of (bio)mechanics that studies the interaction of forces on the human skeletal system and its effect on the resulting movement is called rigid body dynamics. Some basic concepts are presented: A mathematical formulation to describe human movement and how this relates on the mechanical loads

  1. Incorporating Human Interindividual Biotransformation ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The protection of sensitive individuals within a population dictates that measures other than central tendencies be employed to estimate risk. The refinement of human health risk assessments for chemicals metabolized by the liver to reflect data on human variability can be accomplished through (1) the characterization of enzyme expression in large banks of human liver samples, (2) the employment of appropriate techniques for the quantification and extrapolation of metabolic rates derived in vitro, and (3) the judicious application of physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling. While in vitro measurements of specific biochemical reactions from multiple human samples can yield qualitatively valuable data on human variance, such measures must be put into the perspective of the intact human to yield the most valuable predictions of metabolic differences among humans. For quantitative metabolism data to be the most valuable in risk assessment, they must be tied to human anatomy and physiology, and the impact of their variance evaluated under real exposure scenarios. For chemicals metabolized in the liver, the concentration of parent chemical in the liver represents the substrate concentration in the MichaelisMenten description of metabolism. Metabolic constants derived in vitro may be extrapolated to the intact liver, when appropriate conditions are met. Metabolic capacity Vmax; the maximal rate of the reaction) can be scaled directly to the concentration

  2. Urbanization and human rights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mihr, A.

    Urban governance on the basis of human rights can help to set up problem solving mechanisms to guarantee social peace, economic growth and political participation.If states both integrate more in international or regional human rights regime and give more autonomy to urban governments and local

  3. Denialism and Human Rights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moerland, Roland; Nelen, Hans; Willems, Jan CM

    2016-01-01

    The safeguarding of human rights remains highly problematic, despite the proliferation of human rights instruments and the many actions taken by a variety of actors, such as governmental and non-governmental organizations, (individual) states and the international community over the past decades.

  4. Human gliomas contain morphine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Peter; Rasmussen, Mads; Zhu, Wei

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Morphine has been found in cancer cell lines originating from human and animal cells. Thus, it became important to demonstrate whether or not actual tumours contain this opiate alkaloid. MATERIAL/METHODS: Human glioma tissues were biochemically treated to isolate and separate endogeno...... of the solutions used in the study nor was it present as a residual material in blank HPLC runs. CONCLUSIONS: Morphine is present in human gliomas, suggesting that it may exert an action that effects tumour physiology/pathology.......BACKGROUND: Morphine has been found in cancer cell lines originating from human and animal cells. Thus, it became important to demonstrate whether or not actual tumours contain this opiate alkaloid. MATERIAL/METHODS: Human glioma tissues were biochemically treated to isolate and separate endogenous...

  5. Refractoriness in human atria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skibsbye, Lasse; Jespersen, Thomas; Christ, Torsten

    2016-01-01

    rhythm and chronic atrial fibrillation tissues and was neither affected by changes in frequency (1 vs. 3Hz). CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest a preferentially voltage-dependent, rather than time-dependent, effect with respect to refractoriness at physiologically relevant rates in human atria. However...... drugs. Cardiomyocyte excitability depends on availability of sodium channels, which involves both time- and voltage-dependent recovery from inactivation. This study therefore aims to characterise how sodium channel inactivation affects refractoriness in human atria. METHODS AND RESULTS: Steady......-state activation and inactivation parameters of sodium channels measured in vitro in isolated human atrial cardiomyocytes were used to parameterise a mathematical human atrial cell model. Action potential data were acquired from human atrial trabeculae of patients in either sinus rhythm or chronic atrial...

  6. Waste - the human factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaren, D.J.

    1993-01-01

    Waste is a human concept, referring to things that have no use to human beings and arising entirely from human activities. It is the useless residue of any human process that affects the economy or environment. The changes brought about by the industrial revolution are enormous; fossil fuels, not just photosynthesis, now provide energy and wastes at rates far exceeding the capacity of the ecosystem to absorb or recycle. Three major problems face the Planet: accelerated population growth, accelerated use of resources for energy and industry, and the disproportionate use of resources and waste between the northern and southern parts of the Planet. Knowledge and science are in a position to provide both human creativity and the directed technology to take remedial action and rediscover harmony between nature and mankind. Only social and political will is lacking

  7. The human cell atlas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Regev, Aviv; Teichmann, Sarah A.; Lander, Eric S.

    2017-01-01

    The recent advent of methods for high-throughput single-cell molecular profiling has catalyzed a growing sense in the scientific community that the time is ripe to complete the 150-year-old effort to identify all cell types in the human body. The Human Cell Atlas Project is an international...... collaborative effort that aims to define all human cell types in terms of distinctive molecular profiles (such as gene expression profiles) and to connect this information with classical cellular descriptions (such as location and morphology). An open comprehensive reference map of the molecular state of cells...... in healthy human tissues would propel the systematic study of physiological states, developmental trajectories, regulatory circuitry and interactions of cells, and also provide a framework for understanding cellular dysregulation in human disease. Here we describe the idea, its potential utility, early...

  8. Designing Human Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Jesper

    Research Initiative supporting Roskilde University’s new Humanities and Technology bachelor programme (‘HumTek’), and its three dimensions: Design, Humanities, and Technology. The research initiative involves 70 researchers from different departments and research groups at Roskilde University through...... a shared interdisciplinary research and educational collaboration. As a creative research initiative it focuses on change and innovative thinking. The innovativeness is a result of the strongly interdisciplinary perspective which is at the heart of Designing Human Technologies. Designing Human Technologies......Design is increasingly becoming a part of the university curriculum and research agenda. The keynote present and discuss Designing Human Technologies – an initiative aiming at establishing a design oriented main subject area alongside traditional main subject areas such as Natural Science...

  9. Human female meiosis revised

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Capalbo, Antonio; Hoffmann, Eva R.; Cimadomo, Danilo

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND The unbalanced transmission of chromosomes in human gametes and early preimplantation embryos causes aneuploidy, which is a major cause of infertility and pregnancy failure. A baseline of 20% of human oocytes are estimated to be aneuploid and this increases exponentially from 30 to 35...... a systematic search in PubMed Central of the primary literature from 1990 through 2016 following the PRISMA guidelines, using MeSH terms related to human aneuploidy. For model organism research, we conducted a literature review based on references in human oocytes manuscripts and general reviews related...... to chromosome segregation in meiosis and mitosis. OUTCOMES Advances in genomic and imaging technologies are allowing unprecedented insight into chromosome segregation in human oocytes. This includes the identification of a novel chromosome segregation error, termed reverse segregation, as well as sister...

  10. The Human Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fausing, Bent

     Bent Fausing  "The Humane Technology", abstract (for The Two Cultures: Balancing Choices and Effects Oxford University July 20-26, 2008). The paper will investigate the use of technology in everyday aesthetics such as TV-commercials for mobile phones for Nokia, which slogan is, as it is well known......, "Nokia - connecting people". Which function does this technology get in narratives, images, interactions and affects here?      The mobile phone and its digital camera are depicted as being able to make a unique human presence and interaction. The medium, the technology is a necessary helper to get...... towards this very special and lost humanity. Without the technology, no special humanity is the prophecy. This personification or anthropomorphism is important for the branding of new technology. The technology is seen as creating a technotranscendens towards a more qualified humanity, which is in contact...

  11. Dogs catch human yawns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joly-Mascheroni, Ramiro M; Senju, Atsushi; Shepherd, Alex J

    2008-10-23

    This study is the first to demonstrate that human yawns are possibly contagious to domestic dogs (Canis familiaris). Twenty-nine dogs observed a human yawning or making control mouth movements. Twenty-one dogs yawned when they observed a human yawning, but control mouth movements did not elicit yawning from any of them. The presence of contagious yawning in dogs suggests that this phenomenon is not specific to primate species and may indicate that dogs possess the capacity for a rudimentary form of empathy. Since yawning is known to modulate the levels of arousal, yawn contagion may help coordinate dog-human interaction and communication. Understanding the mechanism as well as the function of contagious yawning between humans and dogs requires more detailed investigation.

  12. Managing human performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strucic, M.; Kavsek, D.

    2004-01-01

    Human performance remains a significant factor for management attention not only from a reactor safety perspective, but also from a financial one. Recent significant events analysis shows that human errors are still dominant causes and contributors to them. An analysis of significant events in nuclear industry occurred through 15-years period revealed that three of four significant events were triggered by human error, although the number of events have dropped by more than a factor of four. A number of human performance breakdowns occurred in the application of errorprevention techniques. These included a lack of pre-job briefs, inadequate turnover of tasks, ineffective use of peer checking, inadequate procedure adherence, and failure to apply a questioning attitude when unexpected changes were encountered in the task. Attempts by the industry to improve human performance have traditionally focused at the worker level. However, human error occurs within the context of the organization, which can either foster or resist human error. The greatest room for improvement lies not only in the continued improvement of front-line worker performance but more so in the identification and elimination of weaknesses in the organizational and managerial domains that contributes to worker performance at the job site. Based on mentioned analysis, other industrial sources and own operating experience, NPP Krsko is paying more attention to improve human performance among own as well as contractor workers. Through series of programs and activities, such as Reactivity Management Program, Safety Culture Program, Self-assessment Program, Corrective Action Program, Plant Performance Monitoring Program, developed in last few years, and through new procedures, written guides and publications, training and management efforts, number of human errors is going to be reduced. Involvement of higher levels of NPP Krsko organization in promotion and use of Human Performance techniques is

  13. A safety assessment of branched chain saturated alcohols when used as fragrance ingredients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belsito, D.; Bickers, D.; Bruze, M.

    2010-01-01

    The Branched Chain Saturated Alcohol (BCSA) group of fragrance ingredients was evaluated for safety. In humans, no evidence of skin irritation was found at concentrations of 2-10%. Undiluted, 11 materials evaluated caused moderate to severe eye irritation. As current end product use levels...

  14. Human factors information system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodman, P.C.; DiPalo, C.A.

    1991-01-01

    Nuclear power plant safety is dependent upon human performance related to plant operations. To provide improvements in human performance, data collection and assessment play key roles. This paper reports on the Human factors Information System (HFIS) which is designed to meet the needs of the human factors specialists of the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission. These specialists identify personnel errors and provide guidance designed to prevent such errors. HFIS is a simple and modular system designed for use on a personal computer. It is designed to contain four separate modules that provide information indicative of program or function effectiveness as well as safety-related human performance based on programmatic and performance data. These modules include the Human Factors Status module; the Regulatory Programs module; the Licensee Event Report module; and the Operator Requalification Performance module. Information form these modules can either be used separately or can be combined due to the integrated nature of the system. HFIS has the capability, therefore, to provide insights into those areas of human factors that can reduce the probability of events caused by personnel error at nuclear power plants and promote the health and safety of the public. This information system concept can be applied to other industries as well as the nuclear industry

  15. Human Milk Banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haiden, Nadja; Ziegler, Ekhard E

    2016-01-01

    Human milk banks play an essential role by providing human milk to infants who would otherwise not be able to receive human milk. The largest group of recipients are premature infants who derive very substantial benefits from it. Human milk protects premature infants from necrotizing enterocolitis and from sepsis, two devastating medical conditions. Milk banks collect, screen, store, process, and distribute human milk. Donating women usually nurse their own infants and have a milk supply that exceeds their own infants' needs. Donor women are carefully selected and are screened for HIV-1, HIV-2, human T-cell leukemia virus 1 and 2, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and syphilis. In the milk bank, handling, storing, processing, pooling, and bacterial screening follow standardized algorithms. Heat treatment of human milk diminishes anti-infective properties, cellular components, growth factors, and nutrients. However, the beneficial effects of donor milk remain significant and donor milk is still highly preferable in comparison to formula. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Genetics of human hydrocephalus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Michael A.; Rigamonti, Daniele

    2006-01-01

    Human hydrocephalus is a common medical condition that is characterized by abnormalities in the flow or resorption of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), resulting in ventricular dilatation. Human hydrocephalus can be classified into two clinical forms, congenital and acquired. Hydrocephalus is one of the complex and multifactorial neurological disorders. A growing body of evidence indicates that genetic factors play a major role in the pathogenesis of hydrocephalus. An understanding of the genetic components and mechanism of this complex disorder may offer us significant insights into the molecular etiology of impaired brain development and an accumulation of the cerebrospinal fluid in cerebral compartments during the pathogenesis of hydrocephalus. Genetic studies in animal models have started to open the way for understanding the underlying pathology of hydrocephalus. At least 43 mutants/loci linked to hereditary hydrocephalus have been identified in animal models and humans. Up to date, 9 genes associated with hydrocephalus have been identified in animal models. In contrast, only one such gene has been identified in humans. Most of known hydrocephalus gene products are the important cytokines, growth factors or related molecules in the cellular signal pathways during early brain development. The current molecular genetic evidence from animal models indicate that in the early development stage, impaired and abnormal brain development caused by abnormal cellular signaling and functioning, all these cellular and developmental events would eventually lead to the congenital hydrocephalus. Owing to our very primitive knowledge of the genetics and molecular pathogenesis of human hydrocephalus, it is difficult to evaluate whether data gained from animal models can be extrapolated to humans. Initiation of a large population genetics study in humans will certainly provide invaluable information about the molecular and cellular etiology and the developmental mechanisms of human

  17. Human pancreas development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Rachel E; Berry, Andrew A; Strutt, James P; Gerrard, David T; Hanley, Neil A

    2015-09-15

    A wealth of data and comprehensive reviews exist on pancreas development in mammals, primarily mice, and other vertebrates. By contrast, human pancreatic development has been less comprehensively reviewed. Here, we draw together those studies conducted directly in human embryonic and fetal tissue to provide an overview of what is known about human pancreatic development. We discuss the relevance of this work to manufacturing insulin-secreting β-cells from pluripotent stem cells and to different aspects of diabetes, especially permanent neonatal diabetes, and its underlying causes. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  18. Human Computer Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhagwani, Akhilesh; Sengar, Chitransh; Talwaniper, Jyotsna; Sharma, Shaan

    2012-08-01

    The paper basically deals with the study of HCI (Human computer interaction) or BCI(Brain-Computer-Interfaces) Technology that can be used for capturing brain signals and translating them into commands that allow humans to control (just by thinking) devices such as computers, robots, rehabilitation technology and virtual reality environments. The HCI is based as a direct communication pathway between the brain and an external device. BCIs are often aimed at assisting, augmenting, or repairing human cognitive or sensory-motor functions.The paper also deals with many advantages of BCI Technology along with some of its applications and some major drawbacks.

  19. Factoring humans into procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luna, S.F.; Sturdivant, M.H.; McKay, R.C.

    1988-01-01

    INPO statistics on reported events in nuclear power plants rank deficient procedures as the largest single cause of human performance errors. Human factors principles used to improve the effectiveness of the control room operator can also improve the usability of written procedures. This human factors approach treats each page or complement of pages as a display. Four techniques for applying this approach are reviewed in this paper: (1) presenting information in small blocks (or fields), (2) presenting information consistently, (3) using the mental templates of the performer, and (4) matching the physical features of the plant. A final section offers examples in which combinations of these techniques are used

  20. Avian and human metapneumovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broor, Shobha; Bharaj, Preeti

    2007-04-01

    Pneumovirus infection remains a significant problem for both human and veterinary medicine. Both avian pneumovirus (aMPV, Turkey rhinotracheitis virus) and human metapneumovirus (hMPV) are pathogens of birds and humans, which are associated with respiratory tract infections. Based on their different genomic organization and low level of nucleotide (nt) and amino acid (aa) identity with paramyxoviruses in the genus Pneumovirus, aMPV and hMPV have been classified into a new genus referred to as Metapneumovirus. The advancement of our understanding of pneumovirus biology and pathogenesis of pneumovirus disease in specific natural hosts can provide us with strategies for vaccine formulations and combined antiviral and immunomodulatory therapies.

  1. Oncogenic human papillomaviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Alison A

    2017-10-19

    Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are an ancient group of viruses with small, double-stranded DNA circular genomes. They are species-specific and have a strict tropism for mucosal and cutaneous stratified squamous epithelial surfaces of the host. A subset of these viruses has been demonstrated to be the causative agent of several human cancers. Here, we review the biology, natural history, evolution and cancer association of the oncogenic HPVs.This article is part of the themed issue 'Human oncogenic viruses'. © 2017 The Authors.

  2. Human Genome Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Block, S. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Cornwall, J. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Dally, W. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Dyson, F. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Fortson, N. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Joyce, G. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Kimble, H. J. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Lewis, N. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Max, C. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Prince, T. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Schwitters, R. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Weinberger, P. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Woodin, W. H. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office

    1998-01-04

    The study reviews Department of Energy supported aspects of the United States Human Genome Project, the joint National Institutes of Health/Department of Energy program to characterize all human genetic material, to discover the set of human genes, and to render them accessible for further biological study. The study concentrates on issues of technology, quality assurance/control, and informatics relevant to current effort on the genome project and needs beyond it. Recommendations are presented on areas of the genome program that are of particular interest to and supported by the Department of Energy.

  3. Aluminium in human sweat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minshall, Clare; Nadal, Jodie; Exley, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    It is of burgeoning importance that the human body burden of aluminium is understood and is measured. There are surprisingly few data to describe human excretion of systemic aluminium and almost no reliable data which relate to aluminium in sweat. We have measured the aluminium content of sweat in 20 healthy volunteers following mild exercise. The concentration of aluminium ranged from 329 to 5329μg/L. These data equate to a daily excretion of between 234 and 7192μg aluminium and they strongly suggest that perspiration is the major route of excretion of systemic aluminium in humans. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. Human exposure to aluminium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exley, Christopher

    2013-10-01

    Human activities have circumvented the efficient geochemical cycling of aluminium within the lithosphere and therewith opened a door, which was previously only ajar, onto the biotic cycle to instigate and promote the accumulation of aluminium in biota and especially humans. Neither these relatively recent activities nor the entry of aluminium into the living cycle are showing any signs of abating and it is thus now imperative that we understand as fully as possible how humans are exposed to aluminium and the future consequences of a burgeoning exposure and body burden. The aluminium age is upon us and there is now an urgent need to understand how to live safely and effectively with aluminium.

  5. Human dignity and bioethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjanović Miloš

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available By opening the field of bioethics followed a new wave of intense debate on the theological, philosophical and legal significance of the concept of human dignity . Exactly ten years ago (December 2003 American bioethicist Ruth Maclin has proposed to divest ourselves of the concept of human dignity because it is vague, useless and redundant and that, without any loss, we can replace it by the ethical principle of personal autonomy. Her article was followed by harsh reactions and opposite views. What is this term in so broad, almost inflationary and opposite use is not a reason to deprive him, but, on the contrary, it shows how important it is and that it should be determined at least outline. As universal values and general concept, the human dignity has no pre-defined and narrow, precise meaning. It is more an evaluation horizon, the guiding principle and regulatory ideas that must constantly define and codify by many guaranted human rights and fundamental freedoms. As generic notion of each reasonable law, it is their foundation and a common denominator, legitimising basis of natural but also of positive law. As intrinsic and static value which means the humaneness, the humanity it is absolute, inherent to every human being without distinction and conditioning, as a unique and unrepeatable creation. In this meaning, the dignity is the obligation and limitation of the state, society and each of us. As an ethical and dynamic category, it is not given to us, but it is assign to us, and it is not in us, but always before us, as a guide of our actions in accordance with virtues, to treat ourselves, each other and the nature in a human way. The century in which we live is named the century of molecular biology and genetic engineering because of the enormous potential but also risks to human dignity. Because of that human dignity has become a central principle in all international documents relating to the human genome, genetics and bioethics, adopted

  6. Propelling medical humanities in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Wei

    2017-05-23

    Advances in the study of the medical humanities and medical humanities education have been made over the past few decades. Many influential journals have published articles examining the role of medical humanities and medical humanities education, the development and evaluation of medical humanities, and the design of a curriculum for medical humanities education in Western countries. However, most articles related to medical humanities in China were published in Chinese, moreover, researchers have worked in relative isolation and published in disparate journals, so their work has not been systematically presented to and evaluated by international readers. The six companion articles featured in this issue describe the current status and challenge of medical humanities and medical humanities education in China in the hope of providing international readers with a novel and meaningful glimpse into medical humanities in China. This Journal is calling for greater publication of research on medical humanities and medical humanities education to propel medical humanities in China.

  7. Bridging Humanism and Behaviorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Lily

    1980-01-01

    Humanistic behaviorism may provide the necessary bridge between behaviorism and humanism. Perhaps the most humanistic approach to teaching is to learn how certain changes will help students and how these changes can be accomplished. (Author/MLF)

  8. Humanism vs. Behaviorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Madeline

    1977-01-01

    Author argues that humanism and behaviorism are not necessarily exclusive of one another, and that principles of behaviorism, when thoughtfully applied, can lead to the achievement of humanistic goals. (RW)

  9. Human Bond Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prasad, Ramjee

    2016-01-01

    Modern dexterous communication technology is progressively enabling humans to communicate their information through them with speech (aural) and media (optical) as underpinning essence. Humans realize this kind of aural and optical information by their optical and auditory senses. However, due...... to certain constraints, the ability to incorporate the other three sensory features namely, olfactory, gustatory, and tactile are still far from reality. Human bond communication is a novel concept that incorporates olfactory, gustatory, and tactile that will allow more expressive and holistic sensory...... information exchange through communication techniques for more human sentiment centric communication. This concept endorses the need of inclusion of other three senses and proposes an innovative approach of holistic communication for future communication network....

  10. Visible Human Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Catalog & Services History of Medicine Online Exhibitions & Digital Projects Information for Publishers Visit the Library Research at NLM Human Genome Resources Biomedical Research & Informatics Environmental Health & Toxicology Health Services Research & Public Health ...

  11. Extraterritorial Human Rights Obligations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amsinck Boie, Hans Nikolaj; Torp, Kristian

    The book addresses the issue of corporate respect for human rights by examining if and how states are obligated to ensure that corporations originating from their jurisdiction respect human rights when they operate abroad. The existence of such a duty is much debated by academics at national...... and international level, and in an attempt to bring something new to the table, the book examines both if states have extraterritorial obligations in regard to their corporations and what can be required of states under such an obligation. The complex issue of states and corporate respect for human rights cannot...... adequately be addressed without including the approach to the problem taken in practice; Corporate Social Responsibility, CSR. The book therefore draws upon the concept of CSR and the approaches developed here and discusses whether states may utilize the CSR-based concept of human rights due diligence...

  12. Human response to vibration

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mansfield, Neil J

    2005-01-01

    .... Vibration measurements and standards are also addressed. This book meets the needs of those requiring knowledge of human response to vibration in order to make practical improvements to physical working environments...

  13. Will Technology Humanize Us?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snider, Robert C.

    1972-01-01

    The author considers the question of whether technology will cause humanization or dehumanization in the schools. He concludes that we can not stop tecchnology; we can only give it direction and purpose. (Author/MS)

  14. Human Papillomavirus (HPV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prevention Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share HPV (Human Papillomavirus) Vaccine: What You Need to Know ( ... men get cancer and other diseases from HPV. HPV vaccine HPV vaccine is approved by FDA and ...

  15. Human Research Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Strategically, the HRP conducts research and technology development that: 1) enables the development or modification of Agency-level human health and performance...

  16. HUMAN CAPITAL INVESTMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ph. D. Student Ioana - Julieta Josan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Once with the development of the human capital theory, the education received an economic value. Leading theorists and specialists in the field have shown that the remarkable economic effects of the investments in education influence the chances of acquiring a job and earnings, demonstrating how the theory justifies such an investment. At the hand, the allocation of resources in human capital brings performance and benefits to companies investing in their employees. Also, the investment in human capital is strategic for any country that seeks to create a knowledge economy. Considering the above arguments, the aim of this paper is to highlight the characteristics of investment in human capital, the types of investment, the factors of education investment and the entities interested in investing and their benefits.

  17. BIOETHICS AND HUMAN CLONING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Željko Kaluđerović

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the authors analyze the process of negotiating and beginning of the United Nations Declaration on Human Cloning as well as the paragraphs of the very Declaration. The negotiation was originally conceived as a clear bioethical debate that should have led to a general agreement to ban human cloning. However, more often it had been discussed about human rights, cultural, civil and religious differences between people and about priorities in case of eventual conflicts between different value systems. In the end, a non-binding Declaration on Human Cloning had been adopted, full of numerous compromises and ambiguous formulations, that relativized the original intention of proposer states. According to authors, it would have been better if bioethical discussion and eventual regulations on cloning mentioned in the following text had been left over to certain professional bodies, and only after the public had been fully informed about it should relevant supranational organizations have taken that into consideration.

  18. Spaceflight Versus Human Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Stephanie

    2013-09-01

    Spaceflight is challenging. Human spaceflight is far more challenging,.Those familiar with spaceflight recognize that human spaceflight is more than tacking an environmental control system on an existing spacecraft, that there are a number of serious technical challenges involved in sending people out into space and bringing them back home safely.The return trip, bringing the crew back to the surface of the earth safely, is more than just an additional task, it's the new imperative. Differences between manned and unmanned spaceflight are more than technical. The human element forces a change in philosophy, a mindset that will likely touch every aspect of flight from launch through mission and return. Seasoned space professionals used to the paradigms and priorities of unmanned flight need to be cognizant of these differences and some of the implications, perhaps most especially because mission success and human safety priorities are sometimes contradictory.

  19. Human Factors Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose: The purpose of the Human Factors Laboratory is to further the understanding of highway user needs so that those needs can be incorporated in roadway design,...

  20. Human factors in aviation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Salas, Eduardo; Maurino, Daniel E

    2010-01-01

    .... HFA offers a comprehensive overview of the topic, taking readers from the general to the specific, first covering broad issues, then the more specific topics of pilot performance, human factors...

  1. Human Capital Tracking Tool -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — AVS is now required to collect, track, and report on data from the following Flight, Business and Workforce Plan. The Human Resource Management’s Performance Target...

  2. Viruses and human cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallo, R.C.; Haseltine, W.; Klein, G.; Zur Hausen, H.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains papers on the following topics: Immunology and Epidemiology, Biology and Pathogenesis, Models of Pathogenesis and Treatment, Simian and Bovine Retroviruses, Human Papilloma Viruses, EBV and Herpesvirus, and Hepatitis B Virus.

  3. Human Reliability Program Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodin, Michael

    2012-09-25

    This presentation covers the high points of the Human Reliability Program, including certification/decertification, critical positions, due process, organizational structure, program components, personnel security, an overview of the US DOE reliability program, retirees and academia, and security program integration.

  4. Human Power Empirically Explored

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, A.J.

    2011-01-01

    Harvesting energy from the users’ muscular power to convert this into electricity is a relatively unknown way to power consumer products. It nevertheless offers surprising opportunities for product designers; human-powered products function independently from regular power infrastructure, are

  5. Extraterritorial Human Rights Obligations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amsinck Boie, Hans Nikolaj; Torp, Kristian

    adequately be addressed without including the approach to the problem taken in practice; Corporate Social Responsibility, CSR. The book therefore draws upon the concept of CSR and the approaches developed here and discusses whether states may utilize the CSR-based concept of human rights due diligence...... and international level, and in an attempt to bring something new to the table, the book examines both if states have extraterritorial obligations in regard to their corporations and what can be required of states under such an obligation. The complex issue of states and corporate respect for human rights cannot......The book addresses the issue of corporate respect for human rights by examining if and how states are obligated to ensure that corporations originating from their jurisdiction respect human rights when they operate abroad. The existence of such a duty is much debated by academics at national...

  6. Human Assisted Assembly Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CALTON,TERRI L.; PETERS,RALPH R.

    2000-01-01

    Automatic assembly sequencing and visualization tools are valuable in determining the best assembly sequences, but without Human Factors and Figure Models (HFFMs) it is difficult to evaluate or visualize human interaction. In industry, accelerating technological advances and shorter market windows have forced companies to turn to an agile manufacturing paradigm. This trend has promoted computerized automation of product design and manufacturing processes, such as automated assembly planning. However, all automated assembly planning software tools assume that the individual components fly into their assembled configuration and generate what appear to be a perfectly valid operations, but in reality the operations cannot physically be carried out by a human. Similarly, human figure modeling algorithms may indicate that assembly operations are not feasible and consequently force design modifications; however, if they had the capability to quickly generate alternative assembly sequences, they might have identified a feasible solution. To solve this problem HFFMs must be integrated with automated assembly planning to allow engineers to verify that assembly operations are possible and to see ways to make the designs even better. Factories will very likely put humans and robots together in cooperative environments to meet the demands for customized products, for purposes including robotic and automated assembly. For robots to work harmoniously within an integrated environment with humans the robots must have cooperative operational skills. For example, in a human only environment, humans may tolerate collisions with one another if they did not cause much pain. This level of tolerance may or may not apply to robot-human environments. Humans expect that robots will be able to operate and navigate in their environments without collisions or interference. The ability to accomplish this is linked to the sensing capabilities available. Current work in the field of cooperative

  7. Evolution and human sexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Peter B

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this review is to put core features of human sexuality in an evolutionary light. Toward that end, I address five topics concerning the evolution of human sexuality. First, I address theoretical foundations, including recent critiques and developments. While much traces back to Darwin and his view of sexual selection, more recent work helps refine the theoretical bases to sex differences and life history allocations to mating effort. Second, I consider central models attempting to specify the phylogenetic details regarding how hominin sexuality might have changed, with most of those models honing in on transitions from a possible chimpanzee-like ancestor to the slightly polygynous and long-term bonded sociosexual partnerships observed among most recently studied hunter-gatherers. Third, I address recent genetic and physiological data contributing to a refined understanding of human sexuality. As examples, the availability of rapidly increasing genomic information aids comparative approaches to discern signals of selection in sexuality-related phenotypes, and neuroendocrine studies of human responses to sexual stimuli provide insight into homologous and derived mechanisms. Fourth, I consider some of the most recent, large, and rigorous studies of human sexuality. These provide insights into sexual behavior across other national samples and on the Internet. Fifth, I discuss the relevance of a life course perspective to understanding the evolution of human sexuality. Most research on the evolution of human sexuality focuses on young adults. Yet humans are sexual beings from gestation to death, albeit in different ways across the life course, and in ways that can be theoretically couched within life history theory. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. The human oncogenic viruses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luderer, A.A.; Weetall, H.H

    1986-01-01

    This book contains eight selections. The titles are: Cytogenetics of the Leukemias and Lymphomas; Cytogenetics of Solid Tumors: Renal Cell Carcinoma, Malignant Melanoma, Retinoblastoma, and Wilms' Tumor; Elucidation of a Normal Function for a Human Proto-Oncogene; Detection of HSV-2 Genes and Gene Products in Cervical Neoplasia; Papillomaviruses in Anogennital Neoplasms; Human Epstein-Barr Virus and Cancer; Hepatitis B Virus and Hepatocellular Carcinoma; and Kaposi's Sarcoma: Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and Associated Viruses.

  9. Human Germline Genome Editing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormond, Kelly E; Mortlock, Douglas P; Scholes, Derek T; Bombard, Yvonne; Brody, Lawrence C; Faucett, W Andrew; Garrison, Nanibaa' A; Hercher, Laura; Isasi, Rosario; Middleton, Anna; Musunuru, Kiran; Shriner, Daniel; Virani, Alice; Young, Caroline E

    2017-08-03

    With CRISPR/Cas9 and other genome-editing technologies, successful somatic and germline genome editing are becoming feasible. To respond, an American Society of Human Genetics (ASHG) workgroup developed this position statement, which was approved by the ASHG Board in March 2017. The workgroup included representatives from the UK Association of Genetic Nurses and Counsellors, Canadian Association of Genetic Counsellors, International Genetic Epidemiology Society, and US National Society of Genetic Counselors. These groups, as well as the American Society for Reproductive Medicine, Asia Pacific Society of Human Genetics, British Society for Genetic Medicine, Human Genetics Society of Australasia, Professional Society of Genetic Counselors in Asia, and Southern African Society for Human Genetics, endorsed the final statement. The statement includes the following positions. (1) At this time, given the nature and number of unanswered scientific, ethical, and policy questions, it is inappropriate to perform germline gene editing that culminates in human pregnancy. (2) Currently, there is no reason to prohibit in vitro germline genome editing on human embryos and gametes, with appropriate oversight and consent from donors, to facilitate research on the possible future clinical applications of gene editing. There should be no prohibition on making public funds available to support this research. (3) Future clinical application of human germline genome editing should not proceed unless, at a minimum, there is (a) a compelling medical rationale, (b) an evidence base that supports its clinical use, (c) an ethical justification, and (d) a transparent public process to solicit and incorporate stakeholder input. Copyright © 2017 American Society of Human Genetics. All rights reserved.

  10. ELECTRONIC HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. M. Panneerselvam

    2017-01-01

    Electronic Human Resource Management is an essence the revolution of human resource functions to management and employees. These functions are typically used via intranet and web technology. This helps the organization to improve their standards where they can able to review and forward. All those documents can be viewed within a fraction of second with help of client and server links. The phenomenon of E- HRM deserves closer and more fundamental roots to HR activity. The E-HRM develops and b...

  11. Urbanization and human rights

    OpenAIRE

    Mihr, A.

    2010-01-01

    Urban governance on the basis of human rights can help to set up problem solving mechanisms to guarantee social peace, economic growth and political participation.If states both integrate more in international or regional human rights regime and give more autonomy to urban governments and local authorities, many of these issues of urbanization can be solved. Where people organize themselves on local levels and in neighborhood initiatives, new forms of governance mechanisms evolve. These mecha...

  12. Human Factors Review Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paramore, B.; Peterson, L.R.

    1985-12-01

    ''Human Factors'' is concerned with the incorporation of human user considerations into a system in order to maximize human reliability and reduce errors. This Review Plan is intended to assist in the assessment of human factors conditions in existing DOE facilities. In addition to specifying assessment methodologies, the plan describes techniques for improving conditions which are found to not adequately support reliable human performance. The following topics are addressed: (1) selection of areas for review describes techniques for needs assessment to assist in selecting and prioritizing areas for review; (2) human factors engineering review is concerned with optimizing the interfaces between people and equipment and people and their work environment; (3) procedures review evaluates completeness and accuracy of procedures, as well as their usability and management; (4) organizational interface review is concerned with communication and coordination between all levels of an organization; and (5) training review evaluates training program criteria such as those involving: trainee selection, qualification of training staff, content and conduct of training, requalification training, and program management

  13. Human Factors Review Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paramore, B.; Peterson, L.R. (eds.)

    1985-12-01

    ''Human Factors'' is concerned with the incorporation of human user considerations into a system in order to maximize human reliability and reduce errors. This Review Plan is intended to assist in the assessment of human factors conditions in existing DOE facilities. In addition to specifying assessment methodologies, the plan describes techniques for improving conditions which are found to not adequately support reliable human performance. The following topics are addressed: (1) selection of areas for review describes techniques for needs assessment to assist in selecting and prioritizing areas for review; (2) human factors engineering review is concerned with optimizing the interfaces between people and equipment and people and their work environment; (3) procedures review evaluates completeness and accuracy of procedures, as well as their usability and management; (4) organizational interface review is concerned with communication and coordination between all levels of an organization; and (5) training review evaluates training program criteria such as those involving: trainee selection, qualification of training staff, content and conduct of training, requalification training, and program management.

  14. A WORLD BEYOND HUMAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Abram

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available From an initial project to investigate the relationship between magic and traditional medicine as practiced by shamans in Southern rural Asia, the focus of attention gradually shifted to an awareness of the negotiation traditional medicine people or shamans exert between the human community and the larger community of beings. This attentiveness to a more-than-human world does not occur at a supernatural domain above nature or inside her personal self but is the result of the shaman’s special ability to project her consciousness horizontally to other forms of sensibility with which human existence is interwoven. The ecological function of the shaman is to maintain a constant balance between what is taken and what is given from the human community to the larger community. The spirits of indigenous cultures are not defined in opposition to materiality but are essentially those modes of intelligence or awareness that do not possess a human form. By exploring different landscapes, and the sensibility living in them, a new sensitivity is awoken that allows for communication with those intelligences. However, the drowning of these other voices in Western culture, which reduces otherness to an object, creates an uneasiness that is hardly perceived except as an inability to interact with anything more-than-human and its dire consequences in the form of “civilization’s” destructive behavior.

  15. Human Performance Evaluation System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardwick, R.J. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Operating nuclear power plants requires high standards of performance, extensive training and responsive management. Despite our best efforts inappropriate human actions do occur, but they can be managed. An extensive review of License Event Reports (LERs) was conducted which indicated continual inadequacy in human performance and in evaluation of root causes. Of some 31,000 LERs, about 5,000 or 16% were directly attributable to inappropriate actions. A recent analysis of 87 Significant Event Reports (issued by INPO in 1983) identified inappropriate actions as being the most frequent root cause (44% of the total). A more recent analysis of SERs issued in 1983 and 1984 indicate that 52% of the root causes were attributed to human performance. The Human Performance Evaluation System (HPES) is a comprehensive, coordinated utility/industry system for evaluating and reporting human performance situtations. HPES is a result of the realization that current reporting system provide limited treatment of human performance and rarely provide adequate information about root causes of inappropriate actions by individuals. The HPES was implemented to identify and eliminate root causes of inappropriate actions

  16. Cytokines in human milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garofalo, Roberto

    2010-02-01

    Epidemiologic studies conducted in the past 30 years to investigate the protective functions of human milk strongly support the notion that breastfeeding prevents infantile infections, particularly those affecting the gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts. However, more recent clinical and experimental observations also suggest that human milk not only provides passive protection, but also can directly modulate the immunological development of the recipient infant. The study of this remarkable defense system in human milk has been difficult because of its biochemical complexity, the small concentration of certain bioactive components, the compartmentalization of some of these agents, the dynamic quantitative and qualitative changes of milk during lactation, and the lack of specific reagents to quantify these agents. However, a host of bioactive substances, including hormones, growth factors, and immunological factors such as cytokines, have been identified in human milk. Cytokines are pluripotent polypeptides that act in autocrine/paracrine fashions by binding to specific cellular receptors. They operate in networks and orchestrate the development and functions of immune system. Several different cytokines and chemokines have been discovered in human milk in the past years, and the list is growing very rapidly. This article will review the current knowledge about the increasingly complex network of chemoattractants, activators, and anti-inflammatory cytokines present in human milk and their potential role in compensating for the developmental delay of the neonate immune system. Copyright 2010. Published by Mosby, Inc.

  17. Deuteronomy and Human Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Braulik

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available If one compares the articles of the "Universal Declaration of Human Rights" dated December 10th, 1948, with the regulations of the book of Deuteronomy, one detects a surprising abundance of correspondences, or at least of similar tendencies, between them. As the social theorists of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, the architects of the catalogue of Human Rights, knew the Scripture very well. References to Deuteronomy are historically well probable and factually hardly coincidental. Deuteronomy rightly boasts about its social laws (4:8 that are unique in the Ancient Near East. The paper orientates itself to the short formula of Human Rights and at the same time to the normative basic character of each human right, as it is formulated in the first article of the declaration: "liberty", "equality", "fraternity". Each of these basic categories are concretised in terms of several Deuteronomic regulations and prove themselves to be central matters of concern within the YHWH religion. Finally, it is outlined how the connection between Deuteronomy and modem expressions of human rights might be explained, and further it is shown what actually makes up the peculiarity of biblical thinking on human rights.

  18. Habitability and Human Factors Contributions to Human Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumaya, Jennifer Boyer

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the work of the Habitability and Human Factors Branch in support of human space flight in two main areas: Applied support to major space programs, and Space research. The field of Human Factors applies knowledge of human characteristics for the design of safer, more effective, and more efficient systems. This work is in several areas of the human space program: (1) Human-System Integration (HSI), (2) Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle, (3) Extravehicular Activity (EVA), (4) Lunar Surface Systems, (5) International Space Station (ISS), and (6) Human Research Program (HRP). After detailing the work done in these areas, the facilities that are available for human factors work are shown.

  19. Human behavior and human performance: Psychomotor demands

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    The results of several experiments are presented in abstract form. These studies are critical for the interpretation and acceptance of flight based science to be conducted by the Behavior and Performance project. Some representative titles are as follow: External audio for IBM/PC compatible computers; A comparative assessment of psychomotor performance (target prediction by humans and macaques); Response path (a dependent measure for computer maze solving and other tasks); Behavioral asymmetries of psychomotor performance in Rhesus monkey (a dissociation between hand preference and skill); Testing primates with joystick based automated apparatus; and Environmental enrichment and performance assessment for ground or flight based research with primates;

  20. Human bites - self-care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bites - human - self-care ... Human bites can occur in 2 ways: If someone bites you If your hand comes into contact ... bite to express anger or other negative feelings. Human bites may be more dangerous than animal bites. ...

  1. Testing for Human Immunodeficiency Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Physicians patient education Fact Sheet PFS005: Testing for Human Immunodeficiency Virus AUGUST 2015 • Reasons for Getting Tested • ... HIV Testing • For More Information • Glossary Testing for Human Immunodeficiency Virus Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is the ...

  2. Microtubule organization during human parthenogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terada, Yukihiro; Hasegawa, Hisataka; Ugajin, Tomohisa; Murakami, Takashi; Yaegashi, Nobuo; Okamura, Kunihiro

    2009-04-01

    In human fertilization, the sperm centrosome plays a crucial role as a microtubule organizing center (MTOC). We studied microtubule organization during human parthenogenesis, which occurs when a human egg undergoes cleavage without a sperm centrosome. Multiple cytoplasmic asters were organized in the human oocyte after parthenogenetic activation, indicating that multiple MTOC are present in the human oocyte cytoplasm and function like a human sperm centrosome during parthenogenesis.

  3. Towards a better understanding of human smuggling

    OpenAIRE

    Heckmann, Friedrich

    2007-01-01

    Contents: What is human smuggling?; How can we know about human smuggling?; Human smuggling as a migration phenomenon; Human smuggling as a business; The social organizing of human smuggling; Fighting against human smuggling.

  4. Why Geo-Humanities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graells, Robert Casals i.; Sibilla, Anna; Bohle, Martin

    2016-04-01

    Anthropogenic global change is a composite process. It consists of societal processes (in the 'noosphere') and natural processes (in the 'bio-geosphere'). The 'noosphere' is the ensemble of social, cultural or political insights ('shared subjective mental concepts') of people. Understanding the composite of societal and natural processes ('human geo-biosphere intersections'), which shapes the features of anthropogenic global change, would benefit from a description that draws equally on natural sciences, social sciences and humanities. To that end it is suggested to develop a concept of 'geo-humanities': This essay presents some aspects of its scope, discussing "knowledge that is to manage", "intentions that are to shape", "choices that are to justify" and "complexity that is to handle". Managing knowledge: That people understand anthropogenic global change requires their insights into how 'human geosphere intersections' function. Insights are formed ('processed') in the noosphere by means of interactions between people. Understanding how 'human geosphere intersections' functions combines scientific, engineering and economic studies with studies of the dynamics of the noosphere. Shaping intentions: During the last century anthropogenic global change developed as the collateral outcome of humankind's accumulated actions. It is caused by the number of people, the patterns of their consumption of resources, and the alterations of their environments. Nowadays, anthropogenic global chance is either an intentional negligence or a conscious act. Justifying choices: Humanity has alternatives how to alter Earth at planetary scale consciously. For example, there is a choice to alter the geo-biosphere or to adjust the noosphere. Whatever the choice, it will depend on people's world-views, cultures and preferences. Thus beyond issues whether science and technology are 'sound' overarching societal issues are to tackle, such as: (i) how to appropriate and distribute natural

  5. Human rights and citizenship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojić-Mitrović Marta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The phenomenon of universal human rights, as described in the Universal declaration of human rights in 1948 doesn’t seem to be able to exert itself as truly universal. For this, there are two reasons: one is politico-legal in nature, and the other is conceptual. From a politico-legal point of view, human rights are a practice which is perceived as law, a precedent which is still taking place, the illusion of law, a custom practice by a few which aims to become the law of all, practice/”law” which came into being as the consequence of specific historical and political circumstances but strives to impose itself as a kind of universal logos, independent from the geopolitical relations of power. From the conceptual point of view, human rights as they have been determined, are inextricably bound up with the concept of citizenship, but the nation-state is not the universally optimal polis/social order, through which a universal human whose rights are to be protected can be defined. Human rights, as they are defined, are too culturally and historically specific in order to become universal. As an example, I will give the different treatment received by persons of different citizenship in situations in which their lives are in peril. It turns out that human rights are less (or not at all protected if the persons in need aren’t perceived as fullfledged members of the group, and hence, cannot fully participate in political life. That is to say, people who are perceived as non-citizens or whose citizenship is perceived as less valuable, and especially those whose existence has been reduced to survival are being politically dehumanized. Human rights remain reserved for so-called active citizens, those who have influence over matters of public importance, which points us to the conclusion that the practice of protecting human rights is completely politicized. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 177027: Multietnicitet, multikulturalnost

  6. HUMAN HERPESVIRUS 6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jožica Marin

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. Human herpesvirus 6 belongs to betaherpesviruses. This is a lymphotropic virus which is widely spread in a population. The most frequent way of virus transmission is by saliva. For this reason the first contact usally occurs early in a childhood period. Clinical manifestation might be expressed as exanthem subitum or roseola infantum. In adults primary infections are a rare event while virus reactivation might be very frequent.Conclusions. Human herpesvirus 6 is believed to be the most neurotropic among all herpesviruses. It even can cause central nervous system disease in an immunocompetent person. The most important role of human herpesvirus 6 is in provoking complications in HIV-infected individuals and in patients after organ transplantations, as it causes immunosupression even more severe. The possible connection of human herpesvirus 6 with multiple sclerosis, chronic fatigue syndrome and some neoplasmas remains to be clarified. Human herpesvirus 6 infection can be most easily diagnosed by serological methods; the virus could be detected by monoclonal antibodies and by the use of the methods of molecular biology.

  7. Humanity and Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Kun Lin

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available So far our open access publishing company MDPI (Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute has published mainly science, medicine and technology journals. To become a multidisciplinary publisher, we launched the journal Sustainability [1]. More recently, we started to run several social science journals, including Societies [2], Religions [3], Administrative Sciences [4] and Behavioral Sciences [5]. Today we published the first paper [6] of the inaugural issue of Humanities (ISSN 2076-0787. This will be an international open access journal, publishing scholarly papers of high quality across all humanities disciplines. As a publisher, I would like to publish journals surrounding the topics of sustainability and I believe the humanities as a discipline of academic studies are very important. As a scientist, I believed science and technology will only benefit human beings. I was raised in a small village, living a very primitive life in a peasant family: no electricity, no machines, of course no TV and no refrigerator. Now, the life of my children is completely different. Even my own life has completely changed. I have witnessed very rapid changes: more and more machines are used to consume mineral resources and energy and to pollute the environment, in order to produce more and more powerful machines (we are also launching a journal titled Machines, in which the relationship between Man and machine should be an interesting topic.. Machines are more and more like human individuals consuming resources themselves (we are launching a journal titled Resources. [...

  8. Human hybrid hybridoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiebout, R.F.; van Boxtel-Oosterhof, F.; Stricker, E.A.M.; Zeijlemaker, W.P.

    1987-01-01

    Hybrid hybridomas are obtained by fusion of two cells, each producing its own antibody. Several authors have reported the construction of murine hybrid hybridomas with the aim to obtain bispecific monoclonal antibodies. The authors have investigated, in a model system, the feasibility of constructing a human hybrid hybridoma. They fused two monoclonal cell lines: an ouabain-sensitive and azaserine/hypoxanthine-resistant Epstein-Barr virus-transformed human cell line that produces an IgG1kappa antibody directed against tetanus toxiod and an azaserine/hypoxanthine-sensitive and ouabain-resistant human-mouse xenohybrid cell line that produces a human IgG1λ antibody directed against hepatitis-B surface antigen. Hybrid hybridoma cells were selected in culture medium containing azaserine/hypoxanthine and ouabain. The hybrid nature of the secreted antibodies was analyzed by means of two antigen-specific immunoassay. The results show that it is possible, with the combined use of transformation and xenohybridization techniques, to construct human hybrid hybridomas that produce bispecific antibodies. Bispecific antibodies activity was measured by means of two radioimmunoassays

  9. Philosophical foundations of human rights

    CERN Document Server

    Liao, Matthew S

    2015-01-01

    What makes something a human right? What is the relationship between the moral foundations of human rights and human rights law? What are the difficulties of appealing to human rights? This book offers the first comprehensive survey of current thinking on the philosophical foundations of human rights. Divided into four parts, this book focusses firstly on the moral grounds of human rights, for example in our dignity, agency, interests or needs. 'Secondly, it looks at the implications that different moral perspectives on human rights bear for human rights law and politics. Thirdly, it discusses specific and topical human rights including freedom of expression and religion, security, health and more controversial rights such as a human right to subsistence. The final part discusses nuanced critical and reformative views on human rights from feminist, Kantian and relativist perspectives among others. The essays represent new and canonical research by leading scholars in the field. Each part is comprised of a set...

  10. Infants' Responses to Real Humans and Representations of Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heron, Michelle; Slaughter, Virginia

    2010-01-01

    Infants' responses to typical and scrambled human body shapes were assessed in relation to the realism of the human body stimuli presented. In four separate experiments, infants were familiarized to typical human bodies and then shown a series of scrambled human bodies on the test. Looking behaviour was assessed in response to a range of different…

  11. Cardiovascular Deconditioning in Humans: Human Studies Core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Gordon

    1999-01-01

    Major cardiovascular problems, secondary to cardiovascular deconditioning, may occur on extended space missions. While it is generally assumed that the microgravity state is the primary cause of cardiovascular deconditioning, sleep deprivation and disruption of diurnal rhythms may also play an important role. Factors that could be modified by either or both of these perturbations include: autonomic function and short-term cardiovascular reflexes, vasoreactivity, circadian rhythm of cardiovascular hormones (specifically the renin-angiotensin system) and renal sodium handling and hormonal influences on that process, venous compliance, cardiac mass, and cardiac conduction processes. The purpose of the Human Studies Core is to provide the infrastructure to conduct human experiments which will allow for the assessment of the likely role of such factors in the space travel associated cardiovascular deconditioning process and to develop appropriate countermeasures. The Core takes advantage of a newly-created Intensive Physiologic Monitoring (IPM) Unit at the Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA, to perform these studies. The Core includes two general experimental protocols. The first protocol involves a head down tilt bed-rest study to simulate microgravity. The second protocol includes the addition of a disruption of circadian rhythms to the simulated microgravity environment. Before and after each of these environmental manipulations, the subjects will undergo acute stressors simulating changes in volume and/or stress, which could occur in space and on return to Earth. The subjects are maintained in a rigidly controlled environment with fixed light/dark cycles, activity pattern, and dietary intake of nutrients, fluids, ions and calories.

  12. Movement coordination in applied human-human and human-robot interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schubö, Anna; Vesper, Cordula; Wiesbeck, Mathey

    2007-01-01

    and describing human-human interaction in terms of goal-oriented movement coordination is considered an important and necessary step for designing and describing human-robot interaction. In the present scenario, trajectories of hand and finger movements were recorded while two human participants performed......The present paper describes a scenario for examining mechanisms of movement coordination in humans and robots. It is assumed that coordination can best be achieved when behavioral rules that shape movement execution in humans are also considered for human-robot interaction. Investigating...... coordination were affected. Implications for human-robot interaction are discussed....

  13. Scientists and Human Rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makdisi, Yousef

    2012-02-01

    The American Physical Society has a long history of involvement in defense of human rights. The Committee on International Freedom of Scientists was formed in the mid seventies as a subcommittee within the Panel On Public Affairs ``to deal with matters of an international nature that endangers the abilities of scientists to function as scientists'' and by 1980 it was established as an independent committee. In this presentation I will describe some aspects of the early history and the impetus that led to such an advocacy, the methods employed then and how they evolved to the present CIFS responsibility ``for monitoring concerns regarding human rights for scientists throughout the world''. I will also describe the current approach and some sample cases the committee has pursued recently, the interaction with other human rights organizations, and touch upon some venues through which the community can engage to help in this noble cause.

  14. Human spermatogonial markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Kopylow, Kathrein; Spiess, Andrej-Nikolai

    2017-12-01

    In this review, we provide an up-to-date compilation of published human spermatogonial markers, with focus on the three nuclear subtypes A dark , A pale and B. In addition, we have extended our recently published list of putative spermatogonial markers with protein expression and RNA-sequencing data from the Human Protein Atlas and supported these by literature evidence. Most importantly, we have put substantial effort in acquiring a comprehensive list of new and potentially interesting markers by refiltering the raw data of 15 published germ cell expression datasets (four human, eleven rodent) and subsequent building of intersections to acquire a robust, cross-species set of spermatogonia-enriched or -specific transcripts. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Human spermatogonial markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrein von Kopylow

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this review, we provide an up-to-date compilation of published human spermatogonial markers, with focus on the three nuclear subtypes Adark, Apale and B. In addition, we have extended our recently published list of putative spermatogonial markers with protein expression and RNA-sequencing data from the Human Protein Atlas and supported these by literature evidence. Most importantly, we have put substantial effort in acquiring a comprehensive list of new and potentially interesting markers by refiltering the raw data of 15 published germ cell expression datasets (four human, eleven rodent and subsequent building of intersections to acquire a robust, cross-species set of spermatogonia-enriched or -specific transcripts.

  16. Is human fecundity changing?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smarr, Melissa M; Sapra, Katherine J; Gemmill, Alison

    2017-01-01

    Fecundity, the biologic capacity to reproduce, is essential for the health of individuals and is, therefore, fundamental for understanding human health at the population level. Given the absence of a population (bio)marker, fecundity is assessed indirectly by various individual-based (e.g. semen...... in semen quality and fertility rates in some global regions among other changes, the question as to whether human fecundity is changing needs investigation. We review existing data and novel methodological approaches aimed at answering this question from a transdisciplinary perspective. The existing...... literature is insufficient for answering this question; we provide an overview of currently available resources and novel methods suitable for delineating temporal patterns in human fecundity in future research....

  17. Philanthropy and Human Rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Øjvind

    2013-01-01

    in Germany, England, France and USA. In each tradition is developed special features of the concept of philanthropy. The four traditions are summarized in the UN universal human rights, which has become the common normative reference for global philanthropy. In this way philanthropy has become, in a modern......, and normally utilized to promote one’s own prestige in the city-state. In Roman context, universal humanism, humanitas, was invented. This universal perspective was also supported by Christianity. It is this universal concept of philanthropy which is the foundation for the different philanthropic traditions...... sense, a charitable act with the aim to promote human happiness independent of gender, class, race, etc. This is the genealogy of the modern understanding of philanthropy, which will be developed in this paper....

  18. (Human) Resourcing For CI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Frances; S., Jacob; Kofoed, Lise Busk

    2005-01-01

    challenging in organizations involved in change processes such as Continuous Improvement (CI), as the technical skills traditionally valued are no longer adequate. These companies are faced with the question: “What competencies should our employees possess in order to contribute to our success, given......More and more, the ability to compete in today’s market is viewed as being dependent on human capital. One of the most challenging aspects of human resource management involves supplying the organization with the human capital necessary to fulfill its objectives. This task becomes especially...... the change processes in which we are engaged?” Without a clear picture of the types of competencies required to implement CI, it is impossible for companies to make informed decisions regarding recruitment, hiring, and training of their workforce. The objective of this paper is therefore to define...

  19. HUMAN MISSION OF EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Miovska Spaseva

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the complex role and great responsibility of the education today in development of the moral strength and human values of the children and youth. At the beginning of the article the author reconsiders the pedagogical ideas of Maria Montessori and her concept of education for peace as an instrument for reconstruction of the society and for improvement of the human living. Than the analysis of the moral values in the contemporary society is made and several issues and dilemmas are discussed referring the value disorientation of the youth and the importance of the models of adult’s moral behavior in their search for personal identity. On the basis of this analysis, the human dimension of the education is elaborated enhancing the need for its understanding as support of development, which is based on several crucial elements: love, freedom and spirit of community.

  20. Human Systems Design Criteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jens

    1982-01-01

    This paper deals with the problem of designing more humanised computer systems. This problem can be formally described as the need for defining human design criteria, which — if used in the design process - will secure that the systems designed get the relevant qualities. That is not only...... the necessary functional qualities but also the needed human qualities. The author's main argument is, that the design process should be a dialectical synthesis of the two points of view: Man as a System Component, and System as Man's Environment. Based on a man's presentation of the state of the art a set...... of design criteria is suggested and their relevance discussed. The point is to focus on the operator rather than on the computer. The crucial question is not to program the computer to work on its own conditions, but to “program” the operator to function on human conditions....

  1. Human factors guides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penington, J.

    1995-10-01

    This document presents human factors guides, which have been developed in order to provide licensees of the AECB with advice as to how to address human factors issues within the design and assessment process. This documents presents the results of a three part study undertaken to develop three guides which are enclosed in this document as Parts B, C and D. As part of the study human factors standards, guidelines, handbooks and other texts were researched, to define those which would be most useful to the users of the guides and for the production of the guides themselves. Detailed specifications were then produced to outline the proposed contents and format of the three guides. (author). 100 refs., 3 tabs., 11 figs

  2. Human-Forest Relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ritter, Eva; Dauksta, D.

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between human beings and forests has been important for the development of society. It is based on various productive, ecological, social and cultural functions of forests. The cultural functions, including the spiritual and symbolic role of forests, are often not addressed...... problems. To achieve a deeper understanding of the dependency of society on forests, it is necessary to recognise the role of forests in our consciousness of being human. Giving a historical overview about the cultural bonds between people and forests, the first part of the paper puts focus on non......-productive aspects in human–forest relationships. Through history, forest values have changed and new functions have emerged. Industrialisation and urbanisation have contributed to an alienation from nature and weakened the connection of humans to forests. The consequences of these changes for the development...

  3. Abortion and human rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Dorothy

    2010-10-01

    Abortion has been a reality in women's lives since the beginning of recorded history, typically with a high risk of fatal consequences, until the last century when evolutions in the field of medicine, including techniques of safe abortion and effective methods of family planning, could have ended the need to seek unsafe abortion. The context of women's lives globally is an important but often ignored variable, increasingly recognised in evolving human rights especially related to gender and reproduction. International and regional human rights instruments are being invoked where national laws result in violations of human rights such as health and life. The individual right to conscientious objection must be respected and better understood, and is not absolute. Health professional organisations have a role to play in clarifying responsibilities consistent with national laws and respecting reproductive rights. Seeking common ground using evidence rather than polarised opinion can assist the future focus. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Social cognition in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frith, Christopher; Frith, Uta

    2007-01-01

    We review a diversity of studies of human social interaction and highlight the importance of social signals. We also discuss recent findings from social cognitive neuroscience that explore the brain basis of the capacity for processing social signals. These signals enable us to learn about...... the world from others, to learn about other people, and to create a shared social world. Social signals can be processed automatically by the receiver and may be unconsciously emitted by the sender. These signals are non-verbal and are responsible for social learning in the first year of life. Social...... signals can also be processed consciously and this allows automatic processing to be modulated and overruled. Evidence for this higher-level social processing is abundant from about 18 months of age in humans, while evidence is sparse for non-human animals. We suggest that deliberate social signalling...

  5. Human gene essentiality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartha, István; di Iulio, Julia; Venter, J Craig; Telenti, Amalio

    2018-01-01

    A gene can be defined as essential when loss of its function compromises viability of the individual (for example, embryonic lethality) or results in profound loss of fitness. At the population level, identification of essential genes is accomplished by observing intolerance to loss-of-function variants. Several computational methods are available to score gene essentiality, and recent progress has been made in defining essentiality in the non-coding genome. Haploinsufficiency is emerging as a critical aspect of gene essentiality: approximately 3,000 human genes cannot tolerate loss of one of the two alleles. Genes identified as essential in human cell lines or knockout mice may be distinct from those in living humans. Reconciling these discrepancies in how we evaluate gene essentiality has applications in clinical genetics and may offer insights for drug development.

  6. Defining Human Enhancement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordberg, Ana

    2017-01-01

    Emerging technologies open the prospect of extraordinary interventions on the human body. These may go beyond what is strictly necessary to sustain health and well-being. While responding to social and ethical challenges of such advances, the Law simultaneously faces the challenge of reflecting...... on the legitimacy to legislate and on whether the existing legal framework is appropriate to address the various concerns. In order to do so, it is crucial to establish clear legal definitions. Precise distinctions between interventions on the human body are intrinsically difficult to formulate. However, subject......-matter definitions are vital legal tools to determine what is currently regulated in established fields of law and whether there is room for a new legal field – Enhancement Law. This paper provides a reflection on the relevance of establishing a legal definition of human enhancement and to what extent different...

  7. Human-Robot Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochlis-Zumbado, Jennifer; Sandor, Aniko; Ezer, Neta

    2012-01-01

    Risk of Inadequate Design of Human and Automation/Robotic Integration (HARI) is a new Human Research Program (HRP) risk. HRI is a research area that seeks to understand the complex relationship among variables that affect the way humans and robots work together to accomplish goals. The DRP addresses three major HRI study areas that will provide appropriate information for navigation guidance to a teleoperator of a robot system, and contribute to the closure of currently identified HRP gaps: (1) Overlays -- Use of overlays for teleoperation to augment the information available on the video feed (2) Camera views -- Type and arrangement of camera views for better task performance and awareness of surroundings (3) Command modalities -- Development of gesture and voice command vocabularies

  8. Adhesion of Human Probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus to Cervical and Vaginal Cells and Interaction with Vaginosis-Associated Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Coudeyras

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The ability of a probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain (Lcr35 to adhere to cervical and vaginal cells and to affect the viability of two main vaginosis-associated pathogens, Prevotella bivia, Gardnerella vaginalis, as well as Candida albicans was investigated. Methods. Adhesion ability was determined in vitro with immortalized epithelial cells from the endocervix, ectocervix, and vagina. Coculture experiments were performed to count viable pathogens cells in the presence of Lcr35. Results. Lcr35 was able to specifically and rapidly adhere to the three cell lines. In coculture assays, a decrease in pathogen cell division rate was observed as from 4 hours of incubation and bactericidal activity after a longer period of incubation, mostly with P. bivia. Conclusion. The ability of Lcr35 to adhere to cervicovaginal cells and its antagonist activities against vaginosis-associated pathogens suggest that this probiotic strain is a promising candidate for use in therapy.

  9. The Human Centrifuge

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Loon, Jack J. W. A.

    2009-01-01

    Life on Earth has developed at unit gravity, 9.81 m/s2, which was a major factor especially when vertebrates emerged from water onto land in the late Devonian, some 375 million years ago. But how would nature have evolved on a larger planet? We are able to address this question simply in experiments using centrifuges. Based on these studies we have gained valuable insights in the physiological process in plants and animals. They adapt to a new steady state suitable for the high-g environments applied. Information on mammalian adaptations to hyper-g is interesting or may be even vital for human space exploration programs. It has been shown in long duration animal hypergravity studies, ranging from snails, rats to primates, that various structures like muscles, bones, neuro-vestibular, or the cardio-vascular system are affected. However, humans have never been exposed to a hyper-g environment for long durations. Centrifuge studies involving humans are mostly in the order of hours. The current work on human centrifuges are all focused on short arm systems to apply short periods of artificial gravity in support of long duration space missions in ISS or to Mars. In this paper we will address the possible usefulness of a large human centrifuge on Earth. In such a centrifuge a group of humans can be exposed to hypergravity for, in principle, an unlimited period of time like living on a larger planet. The input from a survey under scientists working in the field of gravitational physiology, but also other disciplines, will be discussed.

  10. When computers were human

    CERN Document Server

    Grier, David Alan

    2013-01-01

    Before Palm Pilots and iPods, PCs and laptops, the term ""computer"" referred to the people who did scientific calculations by hand. These workers were neither calculating geniuses nor idiot savants but knowledgeable people who, in other circumstances, might have become scientists in their own right. When Computers Were Human represents the first in-depth account of this little-known, 200-year epoch in the history of science and technology. Beginning with the story of his own grandmother, who was trained as a human computer, David Alan Grier provides a poignant introduction to the wider wo

  11. Human migraine models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Helle Klingenberg

    2001-01-01

    The need for experimental models is obvious. In animal models it is possible to study vascular responses, neurogenic inflammation, c-fos expression etc. However, the pathophysiology of migraine remains unsolved, why results from animal studies not directly can be related to the migraine attack......, which is a human experience. A set-up for investigations of experimental headache and migraine in humans, has been evaluated and headache mechanisms explored by using nitroglycerin and other headache-inducing agents. Nitric oxide (NO) or other parts of the NO activated cascade seems to be responsible...... for the induced headache and migraine. Perspectives are discussed....

  12. Human MSH2 protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Chapelle, Albert; Vogelstein, Bert; Kinzler, Kenneth W.

    1997-01-01

    The human MSH2 gene, responsible for hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer, was identified by virtue of its homology to the MutS class of genes, which are involved in DNA mismatch repair. The sequence of cDNA clones of the human gene are provided, and the sequence of the gene can be used to demonstrate the existence of germ line mutations in hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) kindreds, as well as in replication error.sup.+ (RER.sup.+) tumor cells.

  13. Handbook of human computation

    CERN Document Server

    Michelucci, Pietro

    2013-01-01

    This volume addresses the emerging area of human computation, The chapters, written by leading international researchers, explore existing and future opportunities to combine the respective strengths of both humans and machines in order to create powerful problem-solving capabilities. The book bridges scientific communities, capturing and integrating the unique perspective and achievements of each. It coalesces contributions from industry and across related disciplines in order to motivate, define, and anticipate the future of this exciting new frontier in science and cultural evolution. Reade

  14. Ayahuasca and human destiny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Dennis J

    2005-06-01

    In this essay, the author shares his personal reflections gleaned from a lifetime of research with ayahuasca, and speculates on the societal, political, planetary, and evolutionary implications of humanity's aeons-old symbiosis with this shamanic plant. The thesis is developed that at this critical historical juncture, ayahuasca has developed a strategy to broadcast its message to a wider world--a reflection of the urgent need to avert global ecological catastrophe. While ayahuasca has much to teach us, the critical question is, will humanity hear it, and heed it, in time?

  15. Human performance measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, T.G.

    1988-01-01

    This paper outlines several theoretical and practical issues that must be resolved if credible human performance assessment systems for nuclear power generating stations are to be achieved. Theoretical issues involve mechanisms of human behavior, performance indicators, performance measures and logic models. Practical issues involve objective safety criteria, objective performance data, sampling and validation. Each issue is defined and its present state of resolution is discussed. New initiatives of the U.S. regulatory authority to address some of the issues are introduced. Issues not yet addressed by means of those initiatives are also identified

  16. Human Environmental Disease Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taboureau, Olivier; Audouze, Karine

    2017-01-01

    by computational biology. We developed a human environmental disease network (EDN) to explore and suggest novel disease-disease and chemical-disease relationships. The presented scored EDN model is built upon the integration on systems biology and chemical toxicology using chemical contaminants information......During the past decades, many epidemiological, toxicological and biological studies have been performed to assess the role of environmental chemicals as potential toxicants for diverse human disorders. However, the relationships between diseases based on chemical exposure have been rarely studied...

  17. Models of human operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knee, H.E.; Schryver, J.C.

    1991-01-01

    Models of human behavior and cognition (HB and C) are necessary for understanding the total response of complex systems. Many such models have come available over the past thirty years for various applications. Unfortunately, many potential model users remain skeptical about their practicality, acceptability, and usefulness. Such hesitancy stems in part to disbelief in the ability to model complex cognitive processes, and a belief that relevant human behavior can be adequately accounted for through the use of commonsense heuristics. This paper will highlight several models of HB and C and identify existing and potential applications in attempt to dispel such notions. (author)

  18. Human spinal motor control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Bo

    2016-01-01

    interneurons and exert a direct (willful) muscle control with the aid of a context-dependent integration of somatosensory and visual information at cortical level. However, spinal networks also play an important role. Sensory feedback through spinal circuitries is integrated with central motor commands...... the central motor command by opening or closing sensory feedback pathways. In the future, human studies of spinal motor control, in close collaboration with animal studies on the molecular biology of the spinal cord, will continue to document the neural basis for human behavior. Expected final online...

  19. Nature of Human Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos López Dawson

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In the formation of a new Constitution the constituents will require to know or reach an agreement on the nature of human rights; then, to determine how the State will enforce the respect to those rights. To do so, it is necessary to resort to the history and evolution of these rights, and the present work aims to contribute to an efficient productive debate about the nature of human rights, so that citizens can decide on the understanding that this is a thoughtful democratic and humanistic founded decision. The analysis is in the actual technical-ideological republican system which correspond to the current state of international law

  20. Human experimentation in Judaism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosner, F

    2000-01-01

    The supreme value of human life, the sanctity of human life, and the obligation of patients to accept standard efficacious medical therapy are axiomatic Judaic principles. If a seriously and/or terminally ill patient has already received all standard treatments and is asked to consider experimental therapy that may prolong his or her life or may hasten death, he or she is allowed but not required to accept the treatment. Healthy people may volunteer to participate in research studies that involve little or no risk.

  1. The human myotendinous junction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, A B; Larsen, M; Mackey, Abigail

    2015-01-01

    The myotendinous junction (MTJ) is a specialized structure in the musculotendinous system, where force is transmitted from muscle to tendon. Animal models have shown that the MTJ takes form of tendon finger-like processes merging with muscle tissue. The human MTJ is largely unknown and has never...... been described in three dimensions (3D). The aim of this study was to describe the ultrastructure of the human MTJ and render 3D reconstructions. Fourteen subjects (age 25 ± 3 years) with isolated injury of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL), scheduled for reconstruction with a semitendinosus...

  2. Business and Human Rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhmann, Karin

    This article analyses the United Nations (UN) Guidelines on Business and Human Rights adopted in 2011 by the UN Human Rights Council from the perspective of Transnational Business Governance Interactions (TBGI) analytical framework (Eberlein et al. 2014). The article identifies and discusses...... that the UN Guiding Principles are unique in several respects of relevance to transnational business governance interaction and indicate the relevance of the TBGI approach to public regulatory transnational business governance initiatives. The analysis of the Guiding Principles as interactional transnational...... business governance suggests that this form of governance offers prospects for public institutions as a means towards regulating global sustainability concerns....

  3. Human Dignity – Constitutional Principle of Fundamental Human Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucian Pop

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available As a constitutional principle of the human rights, the human dignity is a supreme value, a norm and a right, thus that the reconfiguration of protection standards of fundamental human rights is made by cohesion of the legal, social and moral dimensions of human dignity. With this article, the author argues that legal meaning, social meaning and moral meaning of human dignity, are centerpiece of protection of freedom under law.

  4. Human Modeling For Ground Processing Human Factors Engineering Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Donald; Stambolian, Damon; Henderson, Gena; Barth, Tim

    2011-01-01

    There have been many advancements and accomplishments over that last few years using human modeling for human factors engineering analysis for design of spacecraft and launch vehicles. The key methods used for this are motion capture and computer generated human models. The focus of this paper is to explain the different types of human modeling used currently and in the past at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) currently, and to explain the future plans for human modeling for future spacecraft designs.

  5. Making IBM's Computer, Watson, Human

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachlin, Howard

    2012-01-01

    This essay uses the recent victory of an IBM computer (Watson) in the TV game, "Jeopardy," to speculate on the abilities Watson would need, in addition to those it has, to be human. The essay's basic premise is that to be human is to behave as humans behave and to function in society as humans function. Alternatives to this premise are considered…

  6. Human Rights: The Essential Reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devine, Carol; Hansen, Carol Rae; Wilde, Ralph; Bronkhorst, Daan; Moritz, Frederic A.; Rolle, Baptiste; Sherman, Rebecca; Southard, Jo Lynn; Wilkinson, Robert; Poole, Hilary, Ed.

    This reference work documents the history of human rights theory, explains each article of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, explores the contemporary human rights movement, and examines the major human rights issues facing the world today. This book is the first to combine historical and contemporary perspectives on these critical…

  7. The Case for the Humanities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cary, Michael S.

    1981-01-01

    Describes the current impoverishment of the humanities and the gulf separating the humanities from the sciences. Discusses the need for adequate humanities instruction at the elementary-secondary level. Suggests that humanities teachers rediscover the Italian Renaissance spirit to improve their teaching. (SB)

  8. Animal and human influenzas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiris, M; Yen, H-L

    2014-08-01

    Influenza type A viruses affect humans and other animals and cause significant morbidity, mortality and economic impact. Influenza A viruses are well adapted to cross species barriers and evade host immunity. Viruses that cause no clinical signs in wild aquatic birds may adapt in domestic poultry to become highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses which decimate poultry flocks. Viruses that cause asymptomatic infection in poultry (e.g. the recently emerged A/H7N9 virus) may cause severe zoonotic disease and pose a major pandemic threat. Pandemic influenza arises at unpredictable intervals from animal viruses and, in its global spread, outpaces current technologies for making vaccines against such novel viruses. Confronting the threat of influenza in humans and other animals is an excellent example of a task that requires a One Health approach. Changes in travel, trade in livestock and pets, changes in animal husbandry practices, wet markets and complex marketing chains all contribute to an increased risk of the emergence of novel influenza viruses with the ability to cross species barriers, leading to epizootics or pandemics. Coordinated surveillance at the animal- human interface for pandemic preparedness, risk assessment, risk reduction and prevention at source requires coordinated action among practitioners in human and animal health and the environmental sciences. Implementation of One Health in the field can be challenging because of divergent short-term objectives. Successful implementation requires effort, mutual trust, respect and understanding to ensure that long-term goals are achieved without adverse impacts on agricultural production and food security.

  9. Human Work Interaction Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book constitutes the thoroughly refereed post-conference proceedings of the Third IFIP WG 13.6 Working Conference on Human Work Interaction Design, HWID 2012, held in Copenhagen, Denmark, in December 2012. The 16 revised papers presented were carefully selected for inclusion in this volume...

  10. Dermatophilus congolensis human infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towersey, L; Martins, E de C; Londero, A T; Hay, R J; Soares Filho, P J; Takiya, C M; Martins, C C; Gompertz, O F

    1993-08-01

    Four cases of human dermatophilosis observed in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, are reported. Data that suggest nail infection by Dermatophilus congolensis are presented. The clinical spectrum of the disease ranged from an asymptomatic infection to a pustular eruption. Our findings suggest that epidermal Langerhans cells play a role in the pathogenesis of the infection.

  11. Inconvenient Human Rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Natasha

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Following an increase in Roma migration under the European “freedom of movement” laws, Swedish municipalities initiated more than 80 evictions of informal Roma settlements on the grounds of poor sanitation between 2013 and 2016. These evictions echo policies from earlier in the 20th century, when Roma living in Sweden were often marginalized through the denial of access to water and sanitation facilities. The recent Swedish evictions also follow similar government actions across Europe, where Roma settlements are controlled through the denial of access to water and sanitation. However, access to water and sanitation—central aspects of human health—are universal human rights that must be available to all people present in a jurisdiction, regardless of their legal status. The evictions described here violated Sweden’s obligations under both European and international human rights law. More positive government responses are required, such as providing shelters or camping sites, setting up temporary facilities, and directly engaging with communities to address water and sanitation issues. The authors conclude by providing guidance on how states and municipalities can meet their human rights obligations with respect to water and sanitation for vulnerable Roma individuals and informal settlements in their communities. PMID:29302163

  12. Assessment of human exposures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebret, E. [RIVM-National Inst. of Public Health and Environmental Protection (Netherlands)

    1995-12-31

    This article describes some of the features of the assessment of human exposure to environmental pollutants in epidemiological studies. Since exposure assessment in air pollution epidemiology studies typically involve professionals from various backgrounds, interpretation of a concepts like `exposure` may vary. A brief descriptions is therefore given by way of introduction

  13. Human herpesviruses and MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Tove

    2007-01-01

    Environmental factors operate on a background of genetic susceptibility in MS pathogenesis; the human herpesviruses (HHV) are likely candidates for such factors. HHV share a number of properties: they are almost ubiquitous, they are highly prevalent worldwide, they all cause latent infections...

  14. Human social genomics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven W Cole

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A growing literature in human social genomics has begun to analyze how everyday life circumstances influence human gene expression. Social-environmental conditions such as urbanity, low socioeconomic status, social isolation, social threat, and low or unstable social status have been found to associate with differential expression of hundreds of gene transcripts in leukocytes and diseased tissues such as metastatic cancers. In leukocytes, diverse types of social adversity evoke a common conserved transcriptional response to adversity (CTRA characterized by increased expression of proinflammatory genes and decreased expression of genes involved in innate antiviral responses and antibody synthesis. Mechanistic analyses have mapped the neural "social signal transduction" pathways that stimulate CTRA gene expression in response to social threat and may contribute to social gradients in health. Research has also begun to analyze the functional genomics of optimal health and thriving. Two emerging opportunities now stand to revolutionize our understanding of the everyday life of the human genome: network genomics analyses examining how systems-level capabilities emerge from groups of individual socially sensitive genomes and near-real-time transcriptional biofeedback to empirically optimize individual well-being in the context of the unique genetic, geographic, historical, developmental, and social contexts that jointly shape the transcriptional realization of our innate human genomic potential for thriving.

  15. Pesticides and Human Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... X Y Z A-Z Index Health & Environment Human Health Animal Health Safe Use Practices Food Safety Environment Air Water Soil Wildlife Plants Pest ... our environment When pesticides are used on the food we eat The risk of health problems depends not only on how toxic the ingredients are ( ...

  16. Fighting for the Humanities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Cary

    2012-01-01

    The question, "Who will bankroll poetry?", succinctly embodies what is now a widespread recognition that the humanities may have more to lose in the current budget wars than either the sciences or a number of technical fields. The only budget war that can unite individuals, rather than divide them, is one arguing that too much is being…

  17. HUMAN PARAGONIMIASIS IN AFRICA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Emmanuel Ameh

    this disease, training of technicians in anti-tuberculosis centers would be the most realistic attitude to detect mycobacteria and/or Paragonimus eggs during the same sputum examination. Key words: Paragonimus spp., Africa, human paragonimiasis, intermediate hosts, tuberculosis. Résumé. Une revue sur la paragonimose ...

  18. Human Actions Made Tangible

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buur, Jacob; Caglio, Agnese; Jensen, Lars Christian

    2014-01-01

    , a method developed to engage people from different backgrounds in collaboratively analysing videos with the help of physical objects. We will present one of these tools, Action Scrabble, for analysing temporal organisation of human actions. We work with a case of skilled forklift truck driving...

  19. Narratology beyond the Human

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Herman

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This essay uses Lauren Groff’s 2011 short story “Above and Below” to explore aspects of a narratology beyond the human, considering how ideas developed by scholars of narrative bear on questions about the nature and scope of human-animal relationships in the larger biosphere. Bringing Groff’s text into dialogue with the concept of “self-narratives” as developed by Kenneth J. Gergen and Mary M. Gergen, anthropological research on the ontologies projected by the members of different cultures, and ideas from literary narratology, I discuss how the structure and narration of Groff’s story reveal a fault line between two competing ontologies in the culture of modernity, one parsimonious and the other prolific when it comes to allocating possibilities for selfhood across species lines. More generally, in addition to illuminating how a given self-narrative locates the human agent in a transspecies constellation of selves, a narratology beyond the human can assist with the construction of new, more sustainable individual and collective self-narratives that situate the self within wider webs of creatural life.

  20. Cultivating human nature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derksen, Maarten

    2007-01-01

    Evolutionary psychology claims to offer a unified perspective on human nature and culture, which can serve to further the integration of psychology and the social sciences. I describe four approaches to evolutionary psychology, and note increasing attention to the agency of the individual in

  1. Radiation and human health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gofman, J.W.

    1981-01-01

    A review of a book dealing with the estimation of human health effects of radiation is presented. Risk assessment for carcinogenesis is based on the author's own method of statistics so that standard statistical methods cannot be applied. Several examples of the author's fallacies are discussed in this book review

  2. Human Rights in Prisons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jefferson, Andrew M.; Gaborit, Liv Stoltze

    Drawing on participatory action research conducted in Sierra Leone, Kosovo and the Philippines, Human Rights in Prisons analyses encounters between rights-based non-governmental organisations and prisons. It explores the previously under-researched perspectives of prison staff and prisoners...

  3. Designers of Human Settlements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cliff, Ursula

    1976-01-01

    Reviewed herein are the ideas of nine men who have addressed themselves to the problems of human settlements in this century. The ideas reviewed include those of Arnold Toynbee, Lewis Mumford, Hassan Fathy, Buckminster Fuller, Constantinos Doxiadis, Charles Correa, Paul Mwaluko, Robert McNamara and John F. C. Turner. (BT)

  4. Selenium and Human Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Abedi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Selenium is an essential element for human health and it is toxic at high concentrations. Selenium is a constituent component of selenoproteins that have enzymatic and structural roles in human biochemistry. Selenium is a best antioxidant and catalyst for production of thyroid hormone. This element has the key role in the immune function; prevention of AIDS progression and the deactivity of toxins. Furthermore, selenium is essential for sperm motility and can reduce abortions. Selenium deficiency was also associated with adverse mood states. The findings regarding cardiovascular disease risk related to selenium deficiency is unclear, though other conditions such as vascular inflammation, oxidative stress and selenium deficiency can cause this disease too. Moreover, consuming of 60 mg of selenium per day may be associated with reduction of cancer risk. In this study, a review of studies has been performed on the biochemical function of selenium toxicity, and its effects on human health. Furthermore, certain identified cancers associated with selenium have been discussed to absorb more attention to the status of this element and also as a guide for further studies. Selenium plays the dual character (useful and harmful in human health, and then it is necessary to determine the concentration of this element in body fluids and tissues. An appropriate method for routine measurement of selenium in clinical laboratories is electro thermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS with very low detection limit and good precision.

  5. Human Work Interaction Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gonçalves, Frederica; Campos, Pedro; Clemmensen, Torkil

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we review research in the emerging practice and research field of Human Work Interaction Design (HWID). We present a HWID framework, and a sample of 54 HWID related papers from workshops, conferences and journals from the period 2009–2014. We group the papers into six topical group...

  6. Human Work Interaction Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopes, Arminda; Ørngreen, Rikke

    This book constitutes the thoroughly refereed post-conference proceedings of the Third IFIP WG 13.6 Working Conference on Human Work Interaction Design, HWID 2012, held in Copenhagen, Denmark, in December 2012. The 16 revised papers presented were carefully selected for inclusion in this volume. ...

  7. IN HUMAN RESEARCH PROPOSALS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These researchers tested the effect of. Hallucinogenic ... stories illustrating human cruelty as well as strong advocacy for the ... Experiments must be strictly beneficial to individuals,their communities, or the society in general. Same experiments previously conducted on animals and the natural history of the disease must be ...

  8. Human Relations-skolen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheuer, Steen

    2014-01-01

    , men også arbejdssociologien, arbejdspsykologien og human resource development. Den første retning udsprang af de såkaldte Hawthorne-eksperimenter og psykologen Elton Mayos bearbejdelse af resultaterne derfra. Den anden er en løsere gruppering bestående af navne som Abraham Maslow og Frederick Herzberg...

  9. Mimicking human texture classification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rogowitz, B.E.; van Rikxoort, Eva M.; van den Broek, Egon; Pappas, T.N.; Schouten, Theo E.; Daly, S.J.

    2005-01-01

    In an attempt to mimic human (colorful) texture classification by a clustering algorithm three lines of research have been encountered, in which as test set 180 texture images (both their color and gray-scale equivalent) were drawn from the OuTex and VisTex databases. First, a k-means algorithm was

  10. Haptic Physical Human Assistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keemink, Arvid Quintijn Leon

    2017-01-01

    This dissertation covers three aspects of upper-extremity exoskeleton design: 1) Kinematics & motion: How to support the full range of motion of the human shoulder? We present a 2D visualization method that can show coupling between the range of motion (ROM) of rotations of the glenohumeral joint.

  11. Soil Borne Human Diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeffery, Simon; Van der Putten, Wim H.

    2011-01-01

    Soils are home to a remarkable array of biodiversity with some estimates stating that 25% of the Earth’s species find their home in the soil. Of these organisms, the vast majority are not of any threat to human health, but rather function to provide numerous ecosystem services which emerge through

  12. Human Systems Roadmap Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-09

    identification of suspected false accounts. • Automatic identification of viral photos and videos • Transitioned to SOCOM Open Source Environment... VIDEO AND AUDIO MILITARY RELEVANT TRANSDISCIPLINARY RESEARCH ON NEW THREAT ACTORS, CRISIS RESPONSE, AND HUMAN SECURITY NEEDS IN CYBER AND REAL...devices and tactics to augment tactical edge soldiers with information analysis on-demand in dynamic environments. Content-Based Text & Video

  13. Studying Human Origins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corbey, Raymond; Roebroeks, Wil

    2001-01-01

    This history of human origin studies covers a wide range of disciplines. This important new study analyses a number of key episodes from palaeolithic archaeology, palaeoanthropology, primatology and evolutionary theory in terms of various ideas on how one should go about such reconstructions and

  14. Human and Organizational Factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eshiett, P.B.S.

    2016-01-01

    The Human and Organizational Factors Approach to Industrial Safety (HOFS) consists of identifying and putting in place conditions which encourage a positive contribution from operators (individually and in a team) with regards to industrial safety. The knowledge offered by the HOFS approach makes it possible better to understand what conditions human activity and to act on the design of occupational situations and the organization, in the aim of creating the conditions for safe work. Efforts made in this area can also lead to an improvement in results in terms of the quality of production or occupational safety (incidence and seriousness rates) (Daniellou, F., et al., 2011). Research on industrial accidents shows that they rarely happen as a result of a single event, but rather emerge from the accumulation of several, often seemingly trivial, malfunctions, misunderstandings, incorrect assumptions and other issues. The nuclear community has established rigorous international safety standards and concepts to ensure the protection of people and the environment from harmful effects of ionizing radiation (IAEA, 2014). A review of major human induced disasters in a number of countries and in different industries yields insights into several of the human and organizational factors involved in their occurrence. Some of these factors relate to failures in: • Design or technology; • Training; • Decision making; • Communication; • Preparation for the unexpected; • Understanding of organizational interdependencies

  15. Human memory search

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davelaar, E.J.; Raaijmakers, J.G.W.; Hills, T.T.; Robbins, T.W.; Todd, P.M.

    2012-01-01

    The importance of understanding human memory search is hard to exaggerate: we build and live our lives based on what whe remember. This chapter explores the characteristics of memory search, with special emphasis on the use of retrieval cues. We introduce the dependent measures that are obtained

  16. Marketing Human Resource Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Eric, Ed.

    1994-01-01

    Describes three human resource development activities: training, education, and development. Explains marketing from the practitioners's viewpoint in terms of customer orientation; external and internal marketing; and market analysis, research, strategy, and mix. Shows how to design, develop, and implement strategic marketing plans and identify…

  17. Synthesizing Humanism and Behaviorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linder, Steven

    The old argument of humanism versus behaviorism is slowly being replaced by a synthesis of these two foundations of thought. This slow professional recognition of synthesis is due to three basic shortcomings in the professional community rather than extreme differences in ideological thought. They are: (1) psychological terminology being equated…

  18. Human Learning and Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, David A.

    2012-01-01

    This innovative textbook is the first to integrate learning and memory, behaviour, and cognition. It focuses on fascinating human research in both memory and learning (while also bringing in important animal studies) and brings the reader up to date with the latest developments in the subject. Students are encouraged to think critically: key…

  19. Human perspectives in horticulture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles A. Lewis

    1977-01-01

    Gardening produces not only vegetables and flowers, but also social and behavioral benefits. In low-income housing sites in New York, Philadelphia, and Chicago, gardening programs have resulted in reduced vandalism, new neighborliness, cleaned and painted buildings and streets, and other improvements. The human response to plants, and the qualities of plants that...

  20. Human Resource Outsourcing Success

    OpenAIRE

    Hasliza Abdul-Halim; Elaine Ee; T. Ramayah; Noor Hazlina Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    The existing literature on partnership seems to take the relationship between partnership quality and outsourcing success for granted. Therefore, this article aims at examining the role of service quality in strengthening the relationship between partnership quality and human resource (HR) outsourcing success. The samples were obtained from 96 manufacturing organizations in Penang, Malaysia. The results showed that par...

  1. Human genome I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    An international conference, Human Genome I, was held Oct. 2-4, 1989 in San Diego, Calif. Selected speakers discussed: Current Status of the Genome Project; Technique Innovations; Interesting regions; Applications; and Organization - Different Views of Current and Future Science and Procedures. Posters, consisting of 119 presentations, were displayed during the sessions. 119 were indexed for inclusion to the Energy Data Base

  2. Human health and groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    The high quality of most groundwaters, consequent upon the self-purification capacity of subsurface strata, has long been a key factor in human health and wellbeing. More than 50% of the world’s population now rely on groundwater for their supply of drinking water – and in most circumstances a prope...

  3. Human Performance Westinghouse Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Gutierrez, A.; Gil, C.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the Program consists in the excellence actuation, achieving the client success with a perfect realisation project. This program consists of different basic elements to reduce the human mistakes: the HuP tools, coaching, learning clocks and iKnow website. There is, too, a document file to consult and practice. All these elements are expounded in this paper.

  4. Human automation integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barnes, M.; Cosenzo, K.; Galster, s.; Hollnagel, E.; Miller, C.; Parasuraman, R.; Reising, J.; Taylor, R.; Breda, L. van

    2007-01-01

    Many versions of future concept of operations (CONOPS) rely heavily on UMVs. The pressure to take the human out of immediate control of these vehicles is being driven by several factors. These factors include a reduction in cost for the production and maintenance of the vehicle, operational

  5. Biotechnologies and Human Dignity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet, William; Masciulli, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the authors review some contemporary cases where biotechnologies have been employed, where they have had global implications, and where there has been considerable debate. The authors argue that the concept of dignity, which lies at the center of such documents as the 2005 Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights, the…

  6. Genomics of human longevity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slagboom, P. E.; Beekman, M.; Passtoors, W. M.; Deelen, J.; Vaarhorst, A. A.M.; Boer, J. M.; Van Den Akker, E. B.; Van Heemst, D.; De Craen, A. J.M.; Maier, A. B.; Rozing, M.; Mooijaart, S. P.; Heijmans, B. T.; Westendorp, R. G.J.

    2011-01-01

    In animal models, single-gene mutations in genes involved in insulin/IGF and target of rapamycin signalling pathways extend lifespan to a considerable extent. The genetic, genomic and epigenetic influences on human longevity are expected to be much more complex. Strikingly however, beneficial

  7. Computational human body models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wismans, J.S.H.M.; Happee, R.; Dommelen, J.A.W. van

    2005-01-01

    Computational human body models are widely used for automotive crashsafety research and design and as such have significantly contributed to a reduction of traffic injuries and fatalities. Currently crash simulations are mainly performed using models based on crash-dummies. However crash dummies

  8. Tackling Human Rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLester, Susan

    2005-01-01

    In 2003, four high school students from the Tashkent International School in the capital city confronted the issue of their nation's human rights problems head on by researching the topic and publishing their findings on the Web. The site, "Uzbekistan: Opaque Reality," was created as an entry for the non-profit Global SchoolNet's Doors…

  9. Healthy human gut phageome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manrique, Pilar; Bolduc, Benjamin; Walk, Seth T.; Oost, van der John; Vos, de Willem M.; Young, Mark J.

    2016-01-01

    The role of bacteriophages in influencing the structure and function of the healthy human gut microbiome is unknown. With few exceptions, previous studies have found a high level of heterogeneity in bacteriophages from healthy individuals. To better estimate and identify the shared phageome of

  10. Human Babesiosis, Bolivia, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrielli, Simona; Totino, Valentina; Macchioni, Fabio; Zuñiga, Freddy; Rojas, Patricia; Lara, Yuni; Roselli, Mimmo; Bartoloni, Alessandro; Cancrini, Gabriella

    2016-08-01

    To investigate human babesiosis in the Bolivian Chaco, in 2013 we tested blood samples from 271 healthy persons living in 2 rural communities in this region. Microscopy and PCR indicated that 3.3% of persons were positive for Babesia microti parasites (US lineage); seroprevalence was 45.7%. Appropriate screening should mitigate the risk for transfusion-associated babesiosis.

  11. Human-Robot Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandor, Aniko; Cross, E. Vincent, II; Chang, Mai Lee

    2015-01-01

    Human-robot interaction (HRI) is a discipline investigating the factors affecting the interactions between humans and robots. It is important to evaluate how the design of interfaces affect the human's ability to perform tasks effectively and efficiently when working with a robot. By understanding the effects of interface design on human performance, workload, and situation awareness, interfaces can be developed to appropriately support the human in performing tasks with minimal errors and with appropriate interaction time and effort. Thus, the results of research on human-robot interfaces have direct implications for the design of robotic systems. For efficient and effective remote navigation of a rover, a human operator needs to be aware of the robot's environment. However, during teleoperation, operators may get information about the environment only through a robot's front-mounted camera causing a keyhole effect. The keyhole effect reduces situation awareness which may manifest in navigation issues such as higher number of collisions, missing critical aspects of the environment, or reduced speed. One way to compensate for the keyhole effect and the ambiguities operators experience when they teleoperate a robot is adding multiple cameras and including the robot chassis in the camera view. Augmented reality, such as overlays, can also enhance the way a person sees objects in the environment or in camera views by making them more visible. Scenes can be augmented with integrated telemetry, procedures, or map information. Furthermore, the addition of an exocentric (i.e., third-person) field of view from a camera placed in the robot's environment may provide operators with the additional information needed to gain spatial awareness of the robot. Two research studies investigated possible mitigation approaches to address the keyhole effect: 1) combining the inclusion of the robot chassis in the camera view with augmented reality overlays, and 2) modifying the camera

  12. Pragmatic Challenges to Human Rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaumburg-Müller, Sten

    2007-01-01

    Pragmatism offers a platform for posing relevant questions. This article uses a pragmatic point of departure to question a natural law conception of human rights and to take a closer look at three pressing human rights problems: The human rights situation in states with little or no state capacity......; the revision and adaptation of human rights law; and the not straightforward relationship betweemn human rights and democracy....

  13. Human - computer interaction: communication aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Burauskas, Gytis

    2009-01-01

    The subject of this work is communication of human-computer interaction. The objective is to analyze the human-computer interaction from the communication perspective. The main goals are: to review and analyze the conception and evolution of human-computer interaction, to find out the application possibilities of human-computer interaction in communication field; to analyze the process of human-computer interaction design, its characteristics and communication aspects; to formulate and argue ...

  14. Human nature, human culture: the case of cultural evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewens, Tim

    2017-10-06

    In recent years, far from arguing that evolutionary approaches to our own species permit us to describe the fundamental character of human nature, a prominent group of cultural evolutionary theorists has instead argued that the very idea of 'human nature' is one we should reject. It makes no sense, they argue, to speak of human nature in opposition to human culture. The very same sceptical arguments have also led some thinkers-usually from social anthropology-to dismiss the intimately related idea that we can talk of human culture in opposition to human nature. How, then, are we supposed to understand the cultural evolutionary project itself, whose proponents seem to deny the distinction between human nature and human culture, while simultaneously relying on a closely allied distinction between 'genetic' (or sometimes 'organic') evolution and 'cultural' evolution? This paper defends the cultural evolutionary project against the charge that, in refusing to endorse the concept of human nature, it has inadvertently sabotaged itself.

  15. [Tuberculosis and human rights].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Hideaki; Inagaki, Tomokazu; Toyoda, Emiko; Kawabe, Yoshiko; Fujiwara, Keiko; Masuyama, Hidenori; Takahashi, Shigeru

    2005-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) patients must be hospitalized while the smear of sputum is positive because TB spreads through air. Cooperation of a patient is important in order to complete the treatment of TB. However, a small number of patients are noncooperative for the treatment and may sometimes refuse it. At this symposium, we discussed about whether we could restrict the human rights of noncooperative TB patients. Although the patients' human rights must be protected, we also have to protect the human rights of people who may receive TB infection. The balance of the both people's rights is fully considered in the TB control policy. It is epoch-making that the TB society took up the theme about the human rights' restriction of TB patients. Five speakers presented their papers from each position. There were presentations about the scientific evidence of isolation, the actual cases, the situation of the United States, and the legal view on the human rights' restriction of TB patients. The present situation and the legal problems in Japan became clear at this symposium. We need further discussion about the human rights' restriction of TB patients for the revision of the Tuberculosis Protection Act and have to obtain the national consensus on it. 1. The evidence for isolation: Emiko TOYODA (International Medical Center of Japan) To determine appropriate periods of respiratory isolation, available biological, clinical, and epidemiological issues and data were studied. Although absolute lack of infectiousness requires consecutive culture negative and it takes too long and impractical periods. There seems to be no established evidence for noncontagiousness after 2 to 3 weeks effective treatment. Practically conversion to 3 negative consecutive smear results may used as a surrogate for noninfectiousness, even though a small risk of transmission still be present. Chemical isolation has been more important and administration with DOT should be indicated to keep compliance. 2

  16. Human mammary microenvironment better regulates the biology of human breast cancer in humanized mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Ming-Jie; Wang, Jue; Xu, Lu; Zha, Xiao-Ming; Zhao, Yi; Ling, Li-Jun; Wang, Shui

    2015-02-01

    During the past decades, many efforts have been made in mimicking the clinical progress of human cancer in mouse models. Previously, we developed a human breast tissue-derived (HB) mouse model. Theoretically, it may mimic the interactions between "species-specific" mammary microenvironment of human origin and human breast cancer cells. However, detailed evidences are absent. The present study (in vivo, cellular, and molecular experiments) was designed to explore the regulatory role of human mammary microenvironment in the progress of human breast cancer cells. Subcutaneous (SUB), mammary fat pad (MFP), and HB mouse models were developed for in vivo comparisons. Then, the orthotopic tumor masses from three different mouse models were collected for primary culture. Finally, the biology of primary cultured human breast cancer cells was compared by cellular and molecular experiments. Results of in vivo mouse models indicated that human breast cancer cells grew better in human mammary microenvironment. Cellular and molecular experiments confirmed that primary cultured human breast cancer cells from HB mouse model showed a better proliferative and anti-apoptotic biology than those from SUB to MFP mouse models. Meanwhile, primary cultured human breast cancer cells from HB mouse model also obtained the migratory and invasive biology for "species-specific" tissue metastasis to human tissues. Comprehensive analyses suggest that "species-specific" mammary microenvironment of human origin better regulates the biology of human breast cancer cells in our humanized mouse model of breast cancer, which is more consistent with the clinical progress of human breast cancer.

  17. The Universal Declaration on the Human Genome and Human Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayor, Federico

    2003-01-01

    Since 1985, UNESCO studies ethical questions arising in genetics. In 1992, I established the International Bioethics Committee at UNESCO with the mission to draft the Universal Declaration on the Human Genome and Human Rights, which was adopted by UNESCO in 1997 and the United Nations in 1998. The Declaration relates the human genome with human dignity, deals with the rights of the persons concerned by human genome research and provides a reference legal framework for both stimulating the ethical debate and the harmonization of the law worldwide, favouring useful developments that respect human dignity.

  18. Accidents and human factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishiwaki, Y.; Kawai, H.; Morishima, H.; Terano, T.; Sugeno, M.

    1984-01-01

    When the TMI accident occurred it was 4 a.m., an hour when the error potential of the operators would have been very high. The frequency of car and train accidents in Japan is also highest between 4 a.m. and 6 a.m. The error potential may be classified into five phases corresponding to the electroencephalogramic pattern (EEG). At phase 0, when the delta wave appears, a person is unconscious and in deep sleep; at phase I, when the theta wave appears, he is very tired, sleepy and subnormal; at phase II, when the alpha wave appears, he is normal, relaxed and passive; at phase III, when the beta wave appears, he is normal, clear-minded and active; at phase IV, when the strong beta or epileptic wave appears, he is hypernormal, excited and incapable of normal judgement. Should an accident occur at phase II, the brain condition may jump to phase IV. At this phase the error or accident potential is maximum. The response of the human brain to different types of noises and signals may vary somewhat for different individuals and for different groups of people. Therefore, the possibility that such differences in brain functions may influence the mental structure would be worthy of consideration in human factors and in the design of man-machine systems. Human reliability and performance would be affected by many factors: medical, physiological and psychological, etc. The uncertainty involved in human factors may not necessarily be probabilistic, but fuzzy. Therefore, it would be important to develop a theory by which both non-probabilistic uncertainties, or fuzziness, of human factors and the probabilistic properties of machines can be treated consistently. From the mathematical point of view, probabilistic measure is considered a special case of fuzzy measure. Therefore, fuzzy set theory seems to be an effective tool for analysing man-machine systems. To minimize human error and the possibility of accidents, new safety systems should not only back up man and make up for his

  19. Human Integration Design Processes (HIDP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the Human Integration Design Processes (HIDP) document is to provide human-systems integration design processes, including methodologies and best practices that NASA has used to meet human systems and human rating requirements for developing crewed spacecraft. HIDP content is framed around human-centered design methodologies and processes in support of human-system integration requirements and human rating. NASA-STD-3001, Space Flight Human-System Standard, is a two-volume set of National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Agency-level standards established by the Office of the Chief Health and Medical Officer, directed at minimizing health and performance risks for flight crews in human space flight programs. Volume 1 of NASA-STD-3001, Crew Health, sets standards for fitness for duty, space flight permissible exposure limits, permissible outcome limits, levels of medical care, medical diagnosis, intervention, treatment and care, and countermeasures. Volume 2 of NASASTD- 3001, Human Factors, Habitability, and Environmental Health, focuses on human physical and cognitive capabilities and limitations and defines standards for spacecraft (including orbiters, habitats, and suits), internal environments, facilities, payloads, and related equipment, hardware, and software with which the crew interfaces during space operations. The NASA Procedural Requirements (NPR) 8705.2B, Human-Rating Requirements for Space Systems, specifies the Agency's human-rating processes, procedures, and requirements. The HIDP was written to share NASA's knowledge of processes directed toward achieving human certification of a spacecraft through implementation of human-systems integration requirements. Although the HIDP speaks directly to implementation of NASA-STD-3001 and NPR 8705.2B requirements, the human-centered design, evaluation, and design processes described in this document can be applied to any set of human-systems requirements and are independent of reference

  20. Human biology of taste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravina, Stephen A; Yep, Gregory L; Khan, Mehmood

    2013-01-01

    Taste or gustation is one of the 5 traditional senses including hearing, sight, touch, and smell. The sense of taste has classically been limited to the 5 basic taste qualities: sweet, salty, sour, bitter, and umami or savory. Advances from the Human Genome Project and others have allowed the identification and determination of many of the genes and molecular mechanisms involved in taste biology. The ubiquitous G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) make up the sweet, umami, and bitter receptors. Although less clear in humans, transient receptor potential ion channels are thought to mediate salty and sour taste; however, other targets have been identified. Furthermore, taste receptors have been located throughout the body and appear to be involved in many regulatory processes. An emerging interplay is revealed between chemical sensing in the periphery, cortical processing, performance, and physiology and likely the pathophysiology of diseases such as diabetes.

  1. Human corneal epithelial subpopulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Chris Bath

    2013-01-01

    subpopulations in human corneal epithelium using a combination of laser capture microdissection and RNA sequencing for global transcriptomic profiling. We compared dissociation cultures, using either expansion on γ-irradiated NIH/3T3 feeder cells in serum-rich medium or expansion directly on plastic in serum......-free EpiLife medium, using a range of physiologically relevant oxygen concentrations (2%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20%). Using immunocytochemistry and advanced fluorescence microscopy, cells were characterized regarding growth, cell cycle distribution, colony-forming efficiency (CFE), phenotypes...... was not dependent on the system used for propagation (Bath et al. 2013a). Laser capture microdissection was used to isolate cellular subpopulations in situ from the spatially defined differentiation pathway in human corneal epithelium according to an optimized protocol for maintenance of expression profiles...

  2. Secure Distributed Human Computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentry, Craig; Ramzan, Zulfikar; Stubblebine, Stuart

    In Peha’s Financial Cryptography 2004 invited talk, he described the Cyphermint PayCash system (see www.cyphermint.com), which allows people without bank accounts or credit cards (a sizeable segment of the U.S. population) to automatically and instantly cash checks, pay bills, or make Internet transactions through publicly-accessible kiosks. Since PayCash offers automated financial transactions and since the system uses (unprotected) kiosks, security is critical. The kiosk must decide whether a person cashing a check is really the person to whom the check was made out, so it takes a digital picture of the person cashing the check and transmits this picture electronically to a central office, where a human worker compares the kiosk’s picture to one that was taken when the person registered with Cyphermint. If both pictures are of the same person, then the human worker authorizes the transaction.

  3. Sleep and Human Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mander, Bryce A.; Winer, Joseph R.; Walker, Matthew P.

    2017-01-01

    Older adults do not sleep as well as younger adults. Why? What alterations in sleep quantity and quality occur as we age, and are there functional consequences? What are the underlying neural mechanisms that explain age-related sleep disruption? This review tackles these questions. First, we describe canonical changes in human sleep quantity and quality in cognitively normal older adults. Second, we explore the underlying neurobiological mechanisms that may account for these human sleep alterations. Third, we consider the functional consequences of age-related sleep disruption, focusing on memory impairment as an exemplar. We conclude with a discussion of a still-debated question: do older adults simply need less sleep, or rather, are they unable to generate the sleep that they still need? PMID:28384471

  4. Hauntings of Human Nature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clasen, Mathias

    2017-01-01

    The central conflicts of Stephen King’s horror novel The Shining are rooted in human nature and reflect evolutionarily recurrent adaptive problems—the problem of balancing conflicting evolved motives, such as motives for selfish status striving versus motives for affiliative nurturing behavior...... the psychological underpinnings of the novel and the crucial function of the supernatural elements in the meaning structure of the novel. Hence we need an evolutionary psychological perspective which builds on recent findings in the sciences of human nature to account for the novel’s meaning, effects, and continued......, and the problem of surviving the hostile forces of nature. Moreover, the supernatural elements of the novel resonate with evolved intuitions about non-material, moral forces at work in the world. That is why the novel continues to engage readers worldwide. Most critics, however, have overlooked or distorted...

  5. [PALEOPATHOLOGY OF HUMAN REMAINS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minozzi, Simona; Fornaciari, Gino

    2015-01-01

    Many diseases induce alterations in the human skeleton, leaving traces of their presence in ancient remains. Paleopathological examination of human remains not only allows the study of the history and evolution of the disease, but also the reconstruction of health conditions in the past populations. This paper describes the most interesting diseases observed in skeletal samples from the Roman Imperial Age necropoles found in urban and suburban areas of Rome during archaeological excavations in the last decades. The diseases observed were grouped into the following categories: articular diseases, traumas, infections, metabolic or nutritional diseases, congenital diseases and tumours, and some examples are reported for each group. Although extensive epidemiological investigation in ancient skeletal records is impossible, the palaeopathological study allowed to highlight the spread of numerous illnesses, many of which can be related to the life and health conditions of the Roman population.

  6. Hyaluronan in human malignancies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sironen, R.K. [Institute of Clinical Medicine, Pathology and Forensic Medicine, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 1627, FI-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Department of Pathology, Kuopio University Hospital, P.O. Box 1777, FI-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Tammi, M.; Tammi, R. [Institute of Biomedicine, Anatomy, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 1627, FI-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Auvinen, P.K. [Department of Oncology, Kuopio University Hospital, P.O. Box 1777, FI-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Anttila, M. [Institute of Clinical Medicine, Pathology and Forensic Medicine, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 1627, FI-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Kuopio University Hospital, P.O. Box 1777, FI-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Kosma, V-M., E-mail: Veli-Matti.Kosma@uef.fi [Institute of Clinical Medicine, Pathology and Forensic Medicine, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 1627, FI-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Department of Pathology, Kuopio University Hospital, P.O. Box 1777, FI-70211 Kuopio (Finland)

    2011-02-15

    Hyaluronan, a major macropolysaccharide in the extracellular matrix of connective tissues, is intimately involved in the biology of cancer. Hyaluronan accumulates into the stroma of various human tumors and modulates intracellular signaling pathways, cell proliferation, motility and invasive properties of malignant cells. Experimental and clinicopathological evidence highlights the importance of hyaluronan in tumor growth and metastasis. A high stromal hyaluronan content is associated with poorly differentiated tumors and aggressive clinical behavior in human adenocarcinomas. Instead, the squamous cell carcinomas and malignant melanomas tend to have a reduced hyaluronan content. In addition to the stroma-cancer cell interaction, hyaluronan can influence stromal cell recruitment, tumor angiogenesis and epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Hyaluronan receptors, hyaluronan synthases and hyaluronan degrading enzymes, hyaluronidases, are involved in the modulation of cancer progression, depending on the tumor type. Furthermore, intracellular signaling and angiogenesis are affected by the degradation products of hyaluronan. Hyaluronan has also therapeutic implications since it is involved in multidrug resistance.

  7. Animals, Humans and Sociability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrica Tedeschi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses animal studies from the point of view of sociability as an “inter-subjective field of action” and as an agent and builder of society (“doing society”. In sociology, the zoological connection has availed of the theory of borders and critical realism, but, above all, of constructionism, in its interactionist and ethno-methodological sense and both focused on social micro-interaction. The construction of the identity of social actors (both human and animal is especially evident in interaction regarding play, games, sport, daily life and work. In these spheres, analyses shed light on ambivalent and contradictory human experiences that clash with the dominant culture, while highlighting practical resistance against speciesism, which it is well worth to bring to the attention of future research, using open, mixed methodologies.

  8. Human freedom and enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilinger, Jan-Christoph; Crone, Katja

    2014-02-01

    Ideas about freedom and related concepts like autonomy and self-determination play a prominent role in the moral debate about human enhancement interventions. However, there is not a single understanding of freedom available, and arguments referring to freedom are simultaneously used to argue both for and against enhancement interventions. This gives rise to misunderstandings and polemical arguments. The paper attempts to disentangle the different distinguishable concepts, classifies them and shows how they relate to one another in order to allow for a more structured and clearer debate. It concludes in identifying the individual underpinnings and the social conditions of choice and decision-making as particularly salient dimensions of freedom in the ethical debate about human enhancement.

  9. Posthumanism: beyond humanism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valera, Luca

    2014-01-01

    The focal point of posthumanism consists not as such in an a-critical acceptance of the technological promises - like there is for transhumanism - but in a total contamination and hybridization of human beings with other living beings and machines (these are the two main forms of contamination). The change of perspective untaken by posthumanism would be, thus, a paradigmatic shift in anthropology. As with ecologism, posthumanism, in order to obtain total contamination and man's openness to otherness, proposes the elimination and the fluidification of boundaries, thus even denying man's identity, and, with it, the very possibility of openness. However, by denying the identity, one denies the condition of possibility of thought, just as it has been manifested in history until now: hence we understand how, primarily, posthumanism is not configured as an adequate philosophical reflection, but as a narrative that takes origin from certain requirements, which are eminently human, and that discloses its deeply anthropogenic roots.

  10. Hyaluronan in human malignancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sironen, R.K.; Tammi, M.; Tammi, R.; Auvinen, P.K.; Anttila, M.; Kosma, V-M.

    2011-01-01

    Hyaluronan, a major macropolysaccharide in the extracellular matrix of connective tissues, is intimately involved in the biology of cancer. Hyaluronan accumulates into the stroma of various human tumors and modulates intracellular signaling pathways, cell proliferation, motility and invasive properties of malignant cells. Experimental and clinicopathological evidence highlights the importance of hyaluronan in tumor growth and metastasis. A high stromal hyaluronan content is associated with poorly differentiated tumors and aggressive clinical behavior in human adenocarcinomas. Instead, the squamous cell carcinomas and malignant melanomas tend to have a reduced hyaluronan content. In addition to the stroma-cancer cell interaction, hyaluronan can influence stromal cell recruitment, tumor angiogenesis and epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Hyaluronan receptors, hyaluronan synthases and hyaluronan degrading enzymes, hyaluronidases, are involved in the modulation of cancer progression, depending on the tumor type. Furthermore, intracellular signaling and angiogenesis are affected by the degradation products of hyaluronan. Hyaluronan has also therapeutic implications since it is involved in multidrug resistance.

  11. Business and Human Rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhmann, Karin

    2015-01-01

    This article analyses the United Nations (UN) Guidelines on Business and Human Rights adopted in 2011 by the UN Human Rights Council from the perspective of transnational business governance interactions (TBGI) analytical framework.1 The article identifies and discusses dimensions of interaction...... and components of regulatory governance which characterize the Guiding Principles, focusing in particular on rule formation and implementation. The article notes that the Guiding Principles actively enrolled other actors for the rule-making process, ensuring support in a politically and legally volatile field...... in several areas of relevance to transnational business governance interaction and indicates the relevance of the TBGI approach to public regulatory transnational business governance initiatives. The analysis of the Guiding Principles as interactional transnational business governance suggests that this form...

  12. Evaluating Human Rights INGOs

    OpenAIRE

    Graffeo, Elizabeth Marie

    2010-01-01

    Over the past several decades, the numbers of international nongovernmental organizations (INGOs) that focus on tackling human rights issues have grown rapidly. These organizations operate internationally and work with governments, legislatures, social movement leaders, activists, donors, and individual citizens. As the number of operating INGOs has risen dramatically, researchers have simultaneously begun to investigate the possibility of creating a global civil society that would govern its...

  13. Prostitution and Human Trafficking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Luccitelli

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The author analyses the activity of an association: the Community Pope John XXIII, where he works on the liberation of thousands of victims of human trafficking and the fight against prostitution. More specifically, he describes the methods of intervention and provides some data about people who are trafficked for and clients of prostitutes. In conclusion, some legislation models about prostitution in Europe are briefly discussed.

  14. Prostitution and Human Trafficking

    OpenAIRE

    Luca Luccitelli

    2015-01-01

    The author analyses the activity of an association: the Community Pope John XXIII, where he works on the liberation of thousands of victims of human trafficking and the fight against prostitution. More specifically, he describes the methods of intervention and provides some data about people who are trafficked for and clients of prostitutes. In conclusion, some legislation models about prostitution in Europe are briefly discussed.

  15. Human Islet Amyloid Polypeptide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kosicka, Iga

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus type II is a metabolic disease affecting millions of people worldwide. The disease is associated with occurence of insoluble, fibrillar, protein aggregates in islets of Langerhans in the pancreas - islet amyloid. The main constituent of these protein fibers is the human islet...... of diabetes type II, while revealing the structure(s) of islet amyloid fibrils is necessary for potential design of therapeutic agents....

  16. Misanthropy without Humanity

    OpenAIRE

    Tyler, TRJ

    2014-01-01

    Representations of misanthropy have frequently attributed it to one or both of two motivations. On the one hand, the misanthrope is often depicted as being ruled by passion, their intense, emotional abhorrence of humanity the result of personal affronts or misfortunes, like Shakespeare’s Timon of Athens. On the other, the misanthrope will be portrayed as guided by unbending principle, their reasoned disdain deriving from a high-minded moral code, like Molière’s Alceste. The videogame Plague I...

  17. Wilhelm Roepke: Economic humanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Božo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the basic ideas of the great German thinker Wilhelm Roepke advocated a free market acting in a particular social context (comprising of market insti­tutions, and a particular system of values created within the society and not by the market itself. He substantiated why free market economy has to be supplemented with a particular social ethics. He argued in favor of a society that defends and advances human liberty.

  18. Glycogen metabolism in humans ? ??

    OpenAIRE

    Adeva-Andany, Mar?a M.; Gonz?lez-Luc?n, Manuel; Donapetry-Garc?a, Crist?bal; Fern?ndez-Fern?ndez, Carlos; Ameneiros-Rodr?guez, Eva

    2016-01-01

    In the human body, glycogen is a branched polymer of glucose stored mainly in the liver and the skeletal muscle that supplies glucose to the blood stream during fasting periods and to the muscle cells during muscle contraction. Glycogen has been identified in other tissues such as brain, heart, kidney, adipose tissue, and erythrocytes, but glycogen function in these tissues is mostly unknown. Glycogen synthesis requires a series of reactions that include glucose entrance into the cell through...

  19. Ecotoxicology of human pharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fent, Karl; Weston, Anna A; Caminada, Daniel

    2006-02-10

    Low levels of human medicines (pharmaceuticals) have been detected in many countries in sewage treatment plant (STP) effluents, surface waters, seawaters, groundwater and some drinking waters. For some pharmaceuticals effects on aquatic organisms have been investigated in acute toxicity assays. The chronic toxicity and potential subtle effects are only marginally known, however. Here, we critically review the current knowledge about human pharmaceuticals in the environment and address several key questions. What kind of pharmaceuticals and what concentrations occur in the aquatic environment? What is the fate in surface water and in STP? What are the modes of action of these compounds in humans and are there similar targets in lower animals? What acute and chronic ecotoxicological effects may be elicited by pharmaceuticals and by mixtures? What are the effect concentrations and how do they relate to environmental levels? Our review shows that only very little is known about long-term effects of pharmaceuticals to aquatic organisms, in particular with respect to biological targets. For most human medicines analyzed, acute effects to aquatic organisms are unlikely, except for spills. For investigated pharmaceuticals chronic lowest observed effect concentrations (LOEC) in standard laboratory organisms are about two orders of magnitude higher than maximal concentrations in STP effluents. For diclofenac, the LOEC for fish toxicity was in the range of wastewater concentrations, whereas the LOEC of propranolol and fluoxetine for zooplankton and benthic organisms were near to maximal measured STP effluent concentrations. In surface water, concentrations are lower and so are the environmental risks. However, targeted ecotoxicological studies are lacking almost entirely and such investigations are needed focusing on subtle environmental effects. This will allow better and comprehensive risk assessments of pharmaceuticals in the future.

  20. Den humane teknologi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fausing, Bent

    2008-01-01

    Artiklen undersøger hverdagsæstetikkens forestillinger om teknologi i tv-reklamer, nærmere bestemt to mobiltelefoner fra Nokia. Nokias slogan er som bekendt: "Nokia -connecting people". Hvilken funktion tilskrives denne succes-teknologi via billeder, narrativer, lyde, interaktioner og affekter? M...... så ofte nævnte post-humane tilstand, er konklusionen. Udgivelsesdato: 14.9.08...