... causes learning disabilities. But researchers do have some theories as to why they develop, including: Genetic influences. Experts have noticed that learning disabilities tend to run in families and they ...
... children under 18 years of age have some type of learning disability. × Definition Learning disabilities are disorders that affect the ... children under 18 years of age have some type of learning disability. View Full Definition Treatment The most common treatment ...
O'Brien, Gregory; Pearson, Joanne
In this article a short overview is given of the relationship between autism and learning disability. Autism exists with any level of intelligence, but many individuals with autism suffer also from learning disability. Although both disorders show overlap in some behaviours they are different in many aspects. Are they distinct syndromes which…
... for information on learning disabilities. Learn more about: Auditory Processing Disorder Dyscalculia Dysgraphia Dyslexia Dyspraxia Language Processing Disorder Non-Verbal Learning Disabilities Visual Perceptual/Visual Motor Deficit Memory ADHD Executive Functioning Parents LD/ADHD Basics Assessment & ...
... disability compensation to Persian Gulf War veterans with a qualifying chronic disability that became manifest during service in Southwest Asia during the Persian Gulf War, or became manifest to a degree of... as the Veterans Education and Benefits Expansion Act of 2001], 147 Cong. Rec. S13,235, S13,238 (Dec...
Plomin, Robert; Kovas, Yulia
The authors reviewed recent quantitative genetic research on learning disabilities that led to the conclusion that genetic diagnoses differ from traditional diagnoses in that the effects of relevant genes are largely general rather than specific. This research suggests that most genes associated with common learning disabilities--language impairment, reading disability, and mathematics disability--are generalists in 3 ways. First, genes that affect common learning disabilities are largely the same genes responsible for normal variation in learning abilities. Second, genes that affect any aspect of a learning disability affect other aspects of the disability. Third, genes that affect one learning disability are also likely to affect other learning disabilities. These quantitative genetic findings have far-reaching implications for molecular genetics and neuroscience as well as psychology. Copyright 2005 APA, all rights reserved.
... CONTACT: Nancy Copeland, Consultant, Regulations Staff (211D), Compensation and Pension Service, Veterans... after the 1991 Gulf War, involved conducting detailed examinations and medical histories of veterans..., Claims, Disability benefits, Health care, Pensions, Radioactive materials, Veterans, Vietnam. Dated...
Dr. Geetha Gopinath,; Tintu Mathew,
Abstract This paper deals with the Etiology and Types of Learning disabilities. Learning disabilities are actually a failure on the part of the child who lacks adequate intelligence, maturation level, cultural background and educational experience to learn a scholastic skill. Such disabilities can only be determined by a psychologist, a paediatrician, or a psychiatrist. People with these disorders can find difficulty to learn as quickly as others who are not aff...
Gauthier-Vasserot, Alexandra; Thauvin-Robinet, Christel; Bruel, Ange-Line; Duffourd, Yannis; St-Onge, Judith; Jouan, Thibaud; Rivière, Jean-Baptiste; Heron, Delphine; Donadieu, Jean; Bellanné-Chantelot, Christine; Briandet, Claire; Huet, Frédéric; Kuentz, Paul; Lehalle, Daphné; Duplomb-Jego, Laurence; Gautier, Elodie; Maystadt, Isabelle; Pinson, Lucile; Amram, Daniel; El Chehadeh, Salima; Melki, Judith; Julia, Sophia; Faivre, Laurence; Thevenon, Julien
Neutropenia can be qualified as congenital when of neonatal onset or when associated with extra-hematopoietic manifestations. Overall, 30% of patients with congenital neutropenia (CN) remain without a molecular diagnosis after a multidisciplinary consultation and tedious diagnostic strategy. In the rare situations when neutropenia is identified and associated with intellectual disability (ID), there are few diagnostic hypotheses to test. This retrospective multicenter study reports on a clinically heterogeneous cohort of 10 unrelated patients with CN associated with ID and no molecular diagnosis prior to whole-exome sequencing (WES). WES provided a diagnostic yield of 40% (4/10). The results suggested that in many cases neutropenia and syndromic manifestations could not be assigned to the same molecular alteration. Three sub-groups of patients were highlighted: (i) severe, symptomatic chronic neutropenia, detected early in life, and related to a known mutation in the CN spectrum (ELANE); (ii) mild to moderate benign intermittent neutropenia, detected later, and associated with mutations in genes implicated in neurodevelopmental disorders (CHD2, HUWE1); and (iii) moderate to severe intermittent neutropenia as a probably undiagnosed feature of a newly reported syndrome (KAT6A). Unlike KAT6A, which seems to be associated with a syndromic form of CN, the other reported mutations may not explain the entire clinical picture. Although targeted gene sequencing can be discussed for the primary diagnosis of severe CN, we suggest that performing WES for the diagnosis of disorders associating CN with ID will not only provide the etiological diagnosis but will also pave the way towards personalized care and follow-up. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
... of someone with a learning disability. For this reason, learning disability assessment must take into account whether a student is bilingual or a second language learner. Below are some common learning disabilities and ...
This current response to a reprinted 1968 article by Ray Barsch (EC 602 662) focuses on legal aspects of learning disabilities, especially problems in implementing IDEA (the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act) and continuing controversies concerning definition, evaluation, instructional intervention, and placement or service delivery…
Jukes, Mark; Aspinall, Susan-Louise
Leadership is seen as critical for the transformation of learning disability services and has been further emphasised since the publication of Transforming Care, the Department of Health's response to the review of events at Winterbourne View. What is clear within learning disability nursing and services is the demand for leadership in the quest for improving the quality and effectiveness of services across health and social care. This article discusses the challenges for the undergraduate learning disability nurse with the recommendation to pursue a framework that promotes and focuses on integrating knowledge transfer into services for people with a learning disability. It explores practice change using the Promoting Action on Research Implementation in Health Services (PARiHS) framework, and the example of the involvement of service users in practitioner training on the Mental Capacity Act 2005 and consent and capacity to consent for treatment.
André Rodrigues Olivera
Full Text Available ABSTRACT CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Type 2 diabetes is a chronic disease associated with a wide range of serious health complications that have a major impact on overall health. The aims here were to develop and validate predictive models for detecting undiagnosed diabetes using data from the Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil and to compare the performance of different machine-learning algorithms in this task. DESIGN AND SETTING: Comparison of machine-learning algorithms to develop predictive models using data from ELSA-Brasil. METHODS: After selecting a subset of 27 candidate variables from the literature, models were built and validated in four sequential steps: (i parameter tuning with tenfold cross-validation, repeated three times; (ii automatic variable selection using forward selection, a wrapper strategy with four different machine-learning algorithms and tenfold cross-validation (repeated three times, to evaluate each subset of variables; (iii error estimation of model parameters with tenfold cross-validation, repeated ten times; and (iv generalization testing on an independent dataset. The models were created with the following machine-learning algorithms: logistic regression, artificial neural network, naïve Bayes, K-nearest neighbor and random forest. RESULTS: The best models were created using artificial neural networks and logistic regression. These achieved mean areas under the curve of, respectively, 75.24% and 74.98% in the error estimation step and 74.17% and 74.41% in the generalization testing step. CONCLUSION: Most of the predictive models produced similar results, and demonstrated the feasibility of identifying individuals with highest probability of having undiagnosed diabetes, through easily-obtained clinical data.
Olivera, André Rodrigues; Roesler, Valter; Iochpe, Cirano; Schmidt, Maria Inês; Vigo, Álvaro; Barreto, Sandhi Maria; Duncan, Bruce Bartholow
Type 2 diabetes is a chronic disease associated with a wide range of serious health complications that have a major impact on overall health. The aims here were to develop and validate predictive models for detecting undiagnosed diabetes using data from the Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) and to compare the performance of different machine-learning algorithms in this task. Comparison of machine-learning algorithms to develop predictive models using data from ELSA-Brasil. After selecting a subset of 27 candidate variables from the literature, models were built and validated in four sequential steps: (i) parameter tuning with tenfold cross-validation, repeated three times; (ii) automatic variable selection using forward selection, a wrapper strategy with four different machine-learning algorithms and tenfold cross-validation (repeated three times), to evaluate each subset of variables; (iii) error estimation of model parameters with tenfold cross-validation, repeated ten times; and (iv) generalization testing on an independent dataset. The models were created with the following machine-learning algorithms: logistic regression, artificial neural network, naïve Bayes, K-nearest neighbor and random forest. The best models were created using artificial neural networks and logistic regression. -These achieved mean areas under the curve of, respectively, 75.24% and 74.98% in the error estimation step and 74.17% and 74.41% in the generalization testing step. Most of the predictive models produced similar results, and demonstrated the feasibility of identifying individuals with highest probability of having undiagnosed diabetes, through easily-obtained clinical data.
Background: Undiagnosed diabetes mellitus cases are at higher risk for diabetic related complications. In low-income African countries, patients with undiagnosed diabetes mellitus account for 75% of diabetes cases. Psychiatric disorders have a greater impact on the global burden of diseases and disability associated with ...
Handler, Sheryl M; Fierson, Walter M; Section on Ophthalmology
Learning disabilities constitute a diverse group of disorders in which children who generally possess at least average intelligence have problems processing information or generating output. Their etiologies are multifactorial and reflect genetic influences and dysfunction of brain systems. Reading disability, or dyslexia, is the most common learning disability. It is a receptive language-based learning disability that is characterized by difficulties with decoding, fluent word recognition, rapid automatic naming, and/or reading-comprehension skills. These difficulties typically result from a deficit in the phonologic component of language that makes it difficult to use the alphabetic code to decode the written word. Early recognition and referral to qualified professionals for evidence-based evaluations and treatments are necessary to achieve the best possible outcome. Because dyslexia is a language-based disorder, treatment should be directed at this etiology. Remedial programs should include specific instruction in decoding, fluency training, vocabulary, and comprehension. Most programs include daily intensive individualized instruction that explicitly teaches phonemic awareness and the application of phonics. Vision problems can interfere with the process of reading, but children with dyslexia or related learning disabilities have the same visual function and ocular health as children without such conditions. Currently, there is inadequate scientific evidence to support the view that subtle eye or visual problems cause or increase the severity of learning disabilities. Because they are difficult for the public to understand and for educators to treat, learning disabilities have spawned a wide variety of scientifically unsupported vision-based diagnostic and treatment procedures. Scientific evidence does not support the claims that visual training, muscle exercises, ocular pursuit-and-tracking exercises, behavioral/perceptual vision therapy, "training" glasses
Klug Marilyn G
Full Text Available Abstract Background Tourette Syndrome (TS is a neurodevelopmental disorder of childhood. Learning disabilities are frequently comorbid with TS. Using the largest sample of TS patients ever reported, we sought to identify differences between subjects with TS only and subjects with TS and a comorbid learning disability. Methods We used the Tourette Syndrome International Consortium database (TIC to compare subjects with comorbid Tourette Syndrome and learning disabilities (TS + LD to subjects who did not have a comorbid learning disability (TS - LD. The TIC database contained 5,500 subjects. We had usable data on 5,450 subjects. Results We found 1,235 subjects with TS + LD. Significant differences between the TS + LD group and the TS - LD group were found for gender (.001, age onset (.030, age first seen (.001, age at diagnosis (.001, prenatal problems (.001, sibling or other family member with tics (.024, two or more affected family members (.009, and severe tics (.046. We used logistic modeling to identify the optimal prediction model of group membership. This resulted in a five variable model with the epidemiologic performance characteristics of accuracy 65.2% (model correctly classified 4,406 of 5,450 subjects, sensitivity 66.1%, and specificity 62.2%. Conclusion Subjects with TS have high prevalence rates of comorbid learning disabilities. We identified phenotype differences between the TS - LD group compared to TS + LD group. In the evaluation of subjects with TS, the presence of a learning disability should always be a consideration. ADHD may be an important comorbid condition in the diagnosis of LD or may also be a potential confounder. Further research on etiology, course and response to intervention for subjects with TS only and TS with learning disabilities is needed.
... trouble putting their thoughts on paper Leave sentences unfinished or leave out words Auditory Processing Disorder Also ... trained to guide your learning in ways that work best for you. One way kids with learning ...
Underpinning the technical gaze that dominates learning disabilities theory and practice is the assumption that learning disabilities are a pathology that resides in the heads of individual students, with the corollary that remedial efforts also focus on what goes on in the heads of students classified as learning disabled. This article begins…
Mason, Tom; Phipps, Dianne; Melling, Kat
This article reports on a study carried out on the role constructs of forensic and nonforensic Learning Disability Nursing in relation to six binary themes. The aims were to identify if there were differences in perceptions of forensic learning disability nurses and nonforensic learning disability nurses in relation to the six binary themes of the…
Zavala, Jesus; Mims, Joan
The study compared 10 learning disabled and 10 non-learning disabled limited English proficient Mexican American elementary grade children. Six tests were identified as predicting learning disabilities including the Prueba de Lectura y Lenguaje Escrito and the Test of Nonverbal Intelligence. (Author/DB)
Heisler, Alice B.
Emotional development from infancy to adolescence is traced and the effects of psychosocial issues on a child with a learning disability are considered for five of E. Erikson's seven proposed stages (trust, autonomy, initiative, industry, adolescence). The need for intervention and parent counseling at each state is emphasized. (CL)
Nolan, John D.; Driscoll, Rosemary L.
Memory storage and retrieval of learning disabled (LD) and normal children at two age levels (8-9 years and 11-12 years) were compared using a multitrial free recall paradigm. Stimuli were two lists of 20 high frequency nouns. Each child was tested individually on both lists on different days; one presentation was blocked, one random with…
Amerikaner, Martin J.; Omizo, Michael M.
The parents of 90 children (30 each of learning disabled, emotionally disturbed, and normal children five-14 years old) completed The Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scales. Results provided partial support for the hypotheses on family interaction with implications for assessing and intervening in problems identified as learning…
Kenyon, Elinor; Beail, Nigel; Jackson, Tom
Studies have focused on the experience of diagnosis from the perspectives of parents of children with learning disabilities, but there has been limited methodologically rigorous investigation into the experience for the person themselves. Eight participants were recruited from a range of different backgrounds. Interviews were analysed using…
J Gordon Millichap
Neurophysiological mechanisms by which epilepsy may interfere with learning ability are reviewed from the Department of Clinical Neurophysiology, Mauds ley Hospital, and Department of Psychology, Middlesex Hospital, London, England.
Could learning disability nurses hold the key to a new direction of care and leadership? Jim Blair, writing in Learning Disability Practice, says there must be a response to the inquiry into premature deaths of people with learning disabilities. One way for a new form of leadership could be band 8 nurses practising at consultant level. With their experiences of caring for people with learning disabilities, nurse consultants can shape service delivery and pathways to enhance quality of care, reduce poor practices and avoidable deaths.
Zysberg, Leehu; Kasler, Jon
The literature is conflicted around the subject of the emotional abilities of individuals with Specific Learning Disabilities (SLDs): While many claim cognitive challenges are associated with emotional difficulties, some suggest emotional and interpersonal abilities are not compromised in such disorders and may help individuals compensate and cope effectively with the challenges they meet in learning environments. Two studies explored differences in emotional intelligence (EI) between young adults with and without SLD. Two samples (matched on gender, approximate age, and program of study; n = 100, and unmatched; n = 584) of college students took self-report and performance-based tests of EI (Ability-EI) as well as a measure of self-esteem and demographics associated with college performance (e.g.: SAT scores, gender, etc.). The results showed that while SAT scores and ability emotional intelligence (Ability-EI) were associated with college GPA, Ability-EI did not differ between the two groups, while self-report measures of EI and self-esteem did show differences, with the group with learning disabilities ranking lower. The effects remained stable when we controlled for demographics and potential intervening factors. The results suggest that EI may play a protective role in the association between background variables and college attainment in students with SLD. The results may provide a basis for interventions to empower students with SLD in academia.
Testa, Renée; Pantelis, Christos; Fontenelle, Leonardo F
Our objective was to describe the prevalence, comorbidity, and neuropsychological profiles of children with hoarding and learning disabilities. From 61 children with learning disabilities, 16.4% exhibited hoarding as a major clinical issue. Although children with learning disabilities and hoarding displayed greater rates of obsessive-compulsive disorder (30%) as compared to those with learning disabilities without hoarding (5.9%), the majority of patients belonging to the former group did not display obsessive-compulsive disorder diagnosis. When learning disability patients with hoarding were compared to age-, sex-, and IQ-matched learning disability subjects without hoarding, hoarders exhibited a slower learning curve on word list-learning task. In conclusion, salient hoarding behaviors were found to be relatively common in a sample of children with learning disabilities and not necessarily associated with obsessive-compulsive disorder, supporting its nosological independence. It is unclear whether underlying cognitive features may play a major role in the development of hoarding behaviors in children with learning disabilities.
Md. Anwarul Azim Majumder
Full Text Available Md. Anwarul Azim Majumder1, Sayeeda Rahman2, Urban JA D’Souza3, Gad Elbeheri4, Khalid Bin Abdulrahman5, M Muzaherul Huq61,2Department of Clinical Sciences, School of Life Sciences, University of Bradford, West Yorkshire, Bradford, UK; 3School of Medicine, University Malaysia Sabah, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia; 4Centre for Child Evaluation and Teaching, Kuwait; 5College of Medicine, Al-Imam University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 6Centre for Medical Education (CME, Mohakhali, Dhaka, BangladeshAbstract: Learning disabilities (LDs represent the largest group of disabilities in higher education (HE institutes, including medical schools, and the numbers are continuing to rise. The worrying concern is that two-thirds to half of these students with LDs remain undiagnosed when they start their undergraduate education and may even graduate without having their disabilities diagnosed. These students struggle with their academic abilities, receive poor grades and, as a result, develop lower perceptions of their intellectual abilities than do those students without LDs. All these ultimately hamper their professional practice, employment, and career progression. Appropriate and adequate educational policies, provisions, and practices help students to progress satisfactorily. In Asian countries, public and professional awareness about LDs is low, supportive provisions are limited, legislations are inadequate, data are scarce, and equal-opportunity/widening-participation policies are not implemented effectively in the HE sector. This article discusses the issues related to LDs in medical education and draws policy, provision, and practice implications to identify, assess, and support students with LDs in medical schools, particularly in an Asian context.Keywords: medical education, learning disabilities, dyslexia, Asia
Drucker, Howard; And Others
Discrimination is discussed as it applies to the exclusion of racial minorities in classes for children with learning disabilities. The authors contend that this type of racial discrimination is prevalent nationwide (as illustrated by results of a national survey), and that the definition of learning disabilities and how it is operationalized has…
Sparks, Richard L.
Conventional wisdom in education has suggested that students who are classified as learning disabled (LD) will exhibit inordinate difficulties learning a foreign language (FL). Even when not explicitly stated, the notion that those classified as LD have a disability for FL learning is implied. However, while beliefs about this purported disability…
Full Text Available This paper concentrates on the Montessori philosophy and examines how this learning theory currently gives credence to cognitive processes of the mind, as suitable intervention used to the training of children with learning disabilities. Furthermore, Montessori’s system and materials in combination with the support of new technologies as well as their implementation on various kinds of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs have great successes regarding the support of disability and the enhancement of learning process.
People with learning disabilities have poorer health than the general population and experience health inequalities - partly as a result of problems with accessing health services. Health services have a duty to address health inequalities, by making reasonable adjustments to their services so they are more accessible to people with learning disabilities, but this does not always happen. Failure to make reasonable adjustments can have significant adverse effects for people with learning disabilities and their families. Nurses are well placed to implement reasonable adjustments, many of which are simple to do and can save lives.
Background: The term "intellectual disability" is increasingly used to refer to people with learning disabilities in British learning disability policy, practice and research. This change is undoubtedly a reflection of the changing international context. The inclusion of the term "intellectual disability" has been particularly…
Dodiuk-Gad, R; Lerner, M; Breznitz, Z; Cohen-Barak, E; Ziv, M; Shani-Adir, A; Amichai, B; Zlotogorski, A; Shalev, S; Rozenman, D
Neuropsychiatric features and intellectual difficulties have been reported in studies of Darier's disease. Learning disabilities have never been reported or evaluated systematically in these patients. To assess the prevalence of learning disabilities in 76 patients with Darier's disease, and cognitive functioning in 19 of them. The data were collected by two methods: a questionnaire, as part of a larger study on the clinical characteristics of 76 patients; and neuropsychological measures for the assessment of learning disabilities in 19 of them. Thirty-one of the 76 patients reported learning disabilities (41%) and 56 (74%) reported a family history of learning disabilities. Significant differences were found between the 19 patients evaluated on cognitive tasks and a control group of 42 skilled learners on subtraction and multiplication tasks. Six (32%) of the 19 were identified as having reading difficulties and five (26%) exhibited low performance on the Concentration Performance Test. All patients had general cognitive ability in the average range. Findings suggest an association between Darier's disease and learning disabilities, a heretofore unreported association, pointing to the need to obtain personal and family history of such disabilities in order to refer cases of clinical concern for further study. © 2013 The Authors Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology © 2013 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.
Reading affects a plethora of areas in life. Students with learning disabilities often fall into this category due to a lack of practice with reading and less time to focus on building skills. This paper examines the background, the relationship between reading and learning disabilities, the characteristics of students with learning disabilities…
Bishara, Saied; Kaplan, Shani
The goal of the research was to examine executive functioning and figurative language comprehension among students with learning disabilities as compared to students without learning disabilities. As part of the research, we examined 20 students with learning disabilities and 21 students with no learning disabilities, both groups of students…
The thesis focuses on adolescents with specific learning disabilities in the milieu of secondary schools. It is divided into a theoretical part and an empirical part. The first part introduces a topic of specific learning disabilities in the developmental stage of adolescence. It first describes the most relevant aspects of adolescent development. The attention is then paid to typical manifestations of specific learning disabilities in adolescence, and also to secondary symptoms usually conne...
Mazzocco, Michele M. M.; And Others
This paper reviews ongoing research designed to specify the cognitive, behavioral, and neuroanatomical phenotypes of specific genetic etiologies of learning disability. The genetic disorders at the focus of the research include reading disability, neurofibromatosis type 1, Tourette syndrome, and fragile X syndrome. Implications for identifying…
Bazna, Maysaa; Reid, D. Kim
Learning disabilities education in Kuwait grew from Kuwaiti's wholesale importation of the Western, medical model of disability--a model basically incompatible with Kuwaiti culture. Conflicting factors include its problematic normal/abnormal binary, its assumption that the "deficit" is located in the student and the segregation of…
... feel frustrated with schoolwork, which can lead to low self-esteem, depression, and other problems. 1 Usually, experts work ... child with a learning disability may struggle with low self-esteem, frustration, and other problems. Mental health professionals can ...
No One Knows is concerned about people with learning disabilities and difficulties who get into trouble with the police and who enter the criminal justice system. The terms 'learning difficulties' and 'learning difficulties' are often used interchangeably to describe people with an intellectual disability, excluding those who, for example, have dyslexia or Asperger syndrome. No One Knows, however, has adopted a more inclusive approach and has included in its remit offenders with learning disabilities as defined by the World Health Organization as well as those with a broader range of learning difficulties. Although there is some discrepancy on prevalence, it is clear that high numbers of people with learning disabilities and difficulties are caught up in the criminal justice system. Once in the criminal justice system it is unlikely that an individual with learning disabilities or difficulties will be identified or that their support needs will be met. This causes difficulties for the individual concerned and for the staff who work with them, who receive little or no training for working with this group of people. The question of whether people with learning disabilities (meaning intellectual disabilities) should be diverted from the criminal justice system is considered.
Ali, Syed Asif; Soomro, Safeeullah; Memon, Abdul Ghafoor; Baqi, Abdul
There are various types of disability egress in world like blindness, deafness, and Physical disabilities. It is quite difficult to deal with people with disability. Learning disability (LD) is types of disability totally different from general disability. To deal children with learning disability is difficult for both parents and teacher. As parent deal with only single child so it bit easy. But teacher deals with different students at a time so its more difficult to deal with group of stude...
DeFries, J. C.; And Others
Results obtained from the center's six research projects are reviewed, including research on psychometric assessment of twins with reading disabilities, reading and language processes, attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder and executive functions, linkage analysis and physical mapping, computer-based remediation of reading disabilities, and…
Bush, Clifford L.; Andrews, Robert C.
This dictionary was compiled to serve teachers in the fields of reading and learning disabilities. The entries are alphabetized and include terms from related disciplines; measurement, evaluation, and statistics; linguistics; library science; psychology and learning; education; and medicine, particularly dealing with vision, sensory, and motor…
Talbot, Jenny; Riley, Chris
The prevalence of offenders with learning difficulties and learning disabilities is not agreed upon. What is clear, however, is that, regardless of actual numbers, many offenders have learning difficulties that reduce their ability to cope within the criminal justice system, for example, not understanding fully what is happening to them in court…
Learning disability nurses have a key role in addressing the health inequalities experienced by people with learning disabilities. People with learning disabilities are less likely to participate in bowel screening than other sectors of the population, despite there being evidence of this population being at an increased risk of developing bowel cancer. There are a range of barriers at individual and systemic levels that impact on participation in bowel screening by people with learning disabilities. Actions to address these barriers have been identified in the literature and learning disability nurses are a key agent of change in enabling people with learning disabilities to participate in the national screening programmes.
Hayes, Marnell L.
Written for adults with learning disabilities, this book is based on the premise that learning disabilities are not outgrown and thus adults need to learn practical strategies and coping mechanisms. Some of the topics addressed in the book are: what a learning disability (LD) is, terminology, inheritance of LD, kinds of LD, discovering the…
American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry (NJ1), 2011
Parents are often worried when their child has learning problems in school. There are many reasons for school failure, but a common one is a specific learning disability. Children with learning disabilities can have intelligence in the normal range but the specific learning disability may make teachers and parents concerned about their general…
Meister Eduardo Kaehler
Full Text Available With this article we intend to demonstrate the importance of evaluation and follow up of children with learning disabilities, through a multidisciplinary team. As well as to establish the need of intervention. We evaluate 69 children, from Aline Picheth Public School, in Curitiba, attending first or second grade of elementary school, through general and evolutionary neurological examination, pediatric checklist symptoms, and social, linguistic and psychological (WISC-III, Bender Infantile and WPPSI-figures evaluation. The incidence was higher in boys (84,1%, familiar history of learning disabilities was found in 42%, and writing abnormalities in 56,5%. The most frequent diagnosis was attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder, in 39,1%. With this program, we aimed to reduce the retention taxes and stress the importance of this evaluation, and, if necessary, multidisciplinar intervention in the cases of learning disabilities.
A majority of studies on learning disabilities have focused on elementary grades. Although problems with learning disabilities are life-affecting only a few studies focus on deficits in adults. In this study adults with isolated mathematical disabilities (n = 101) and adults with combined mathematical and reading disabilities (n = 130) solved…
Fahey, David A.
Provides an overview of some of the more common psychological theories and behavioral variables associated with learning disabilities. Reviews Adlerian Rational Emotive and behavioral and hypnotherapy approaches as intervention strategies for the counselor confronted with learning disabled students. (LLL)
Learning disabilities severely deteriorate the life of many NF1 patients. However, the pathogenic process for NF1-associated learning disabilities has not been fully understood and an effective therapy is not available...
Learning disabilities severely deteriorate the life of many NFI patients. However, the pathogenic process for NFI-associated learning disabilities has not been fully understood and an effective therapy is not available...
Garbutt, Ruth; Tattersall, John; Dunn, Jo; Boycott-Garnett, Rachel
This is an article that talks about our research about sex and relationships for people with learning disabilities. It talks about how people with learning disabilities have been fully involved in the research. (Contains 2 footnotes.)
Learning disabilities severely deteriorate the life of many NF1 patients. However, the pathogenic process for NF1-associated learning disabilities has not been fully understood and an effective therapy is not available...
Hussein, S; Manthorpe, J
The life expectancy of people with learning disabilities has increased substantially. Services for older people with learning disabilities are provided by various sectors and practitioners (generic health and social care, or specialist learning disability or old age). The literature suggests that practitioners do not feel well-equipped to support people with learning disabilities as they grow older, and older people's services do not always have the opportunity to share experiences and skills...
This diploma thesis deals with the topic of specific learning disability. In the theoretical part I define the term specific learning disability and I mention the related terms. I deal with the history, types and causes of specific learning disability, further I describe the possibilities of diagnostics and re-education concerning specific learning disability. I also attend to the situation of a pupil in the family and school background. The main attention is especially paid to teaching forei...
Sociological approaches to the understanding of learning disabilities are perhaps not as fully developed as they might be. Wittgenstein's notion of the language game is elucidated, and its relevance to the analysis of learning disabilities as a social phenomenon is explained. This gives some insight into an alternative conception of what learning disabilities might be, and why people who are classified as having learning disabilities continue, to some extent, to be excluded from full participation in society.
Caemmerer, Jacqueline M.; Cawthon, Stephanie W.; Bond, Mark
Approximately half of students who are deaf or hard of hearing (DHH) have a co-occurring disability. Although assessing as well as diagnosing learning disabilities (LDs) is particularly difficult in this population, it is important to properly identify students who may be eligible for academic interventions or accommodations. This study analyzed…
Kavale, Kenneth A.; Spaulding, Lucinda S.; Beam, Andrea P.
Unlike other special education categories defined in U.S. law (Individuals with Disabilities Education Act), the definition of specific learning disability (SLD) has not changed since first proposed in 1968. Thus, although the operational definition of SLD has responded to new knowledge and understanding about the construct, the formal definition…
Shulman, Shmuel; And Others
Coping styles of 50 learning-disabled and non-learning-disabled adolescents and their parents were compared. Learning-disabled adolescents showed less ability to appraise a source of stress and to seek information about their stressful situations and showed greater pessimism about academic concerns. Coping patterns of parents did not clearly…
... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Specific learning disabilities. 300.307 Section 300.307... Educational Placements Additional Procedures for Identifying Children with Specific Learning Disabilities § 300.307 Specific learning disabilities. (a) General. A State must adopt, consistent with § 300.309...
Bane, Geraldine; Deely, Marie; Donohoe, Brian; Dooher, Martin; Flaherty, Josephine; Iriarte, Edurne Garcia; Hopkins, Rob; Mahon, Ann; Minogue, Ger; Mc Donagh, Padraig; O'Doherty, Siobhain; Curry, Martin; Shannon, Stephen; Tierney, Edel; Wolfe, Marie
This study explored the perspectives of people with learning disabilities on relationships and supports in the Republic of Ireland. A national research network consisting of 21 researchers with learning disabilities, 12 supporters, and 7 university researchers conducted the study. Researchers with learning disabilities and their supporters ran 16…
Gartland, Debi; Strosnider, Roberta
This is an official document of the National Joint Committee on Learning Disabilities (NJCLD), of which Council for Learning Disabilities is a long-standing, active member. With this position paper, NJCLD advocates for the implementation of high-quality education standards (HQES) for students with learning disabilities (LD) and outlines the…
Menon K. P., Seema
The study aims to find out the awareness on learning disabilities among elementary school teachers. The sample for the present study consisted of 500 elementary school teachers of Kerala. In this study the investigator used an Awareness Test on Learning Disabilities to measure the Awareness on Learning Disabilities among Elementary School…
Bonti, Eleni; Bampalou, Christina E.; Kouimtzi, Eleni M.; Kyritsis, Zacharias
The purpose of this study is to investigate the reasons why Greek young adults with Specific Learning Disabilities (SLD) seek learning assessments. The study sample consisted of 106 adults meeting Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders criteria for SLD. Data were collected through self-report records (clinical interview) of adults…
Benton, Curtis D., Jr.
In the rebuttal to charges made by Nathan Flax, an optometrist, regarding the joint organizational statement of three medical associations concerning treatment of dyslexia and related learning disabilities, the author discusses the five controversial points and largely reaffirms the statement's conclusions. (MC)
MacInnes, Maryhelen; Broman, Clifford L.
It is well established that children and adolescents with learning disabilities are more likely to experience depressed mood than are their peers. Many scholars explain this relationship as resulting from low self-esteem, stress, or social isolation. However, little work has explored whether this relationship continues to exist into young…
Foster, Liam; Boxall, Kathy
Background: People (with and without learning disabilities) are living longer. Demographic ageing creates challenges and the leading policy response to these challenges is "active ageing". "Active" does not just refer to the ability to be physically and economically active, but also includes ongoing social and civic engagement…
Conderman, Greg; Koman, Kara; Schibelka, Mary; Higgin, Karen; Cooper, Cody; Butler, Jordyn
Learning strategy instruction is an evidence-based practice for teaching adolescents with mild disabilities. However, researchers have not developed strategies for every content area or skill. Therefore, teachers need to be able develop strategies based on the needs of their students. This article reviews the process for developing and teaching…
Presents findings from several sources that give results of research in megavitamin nutritional therapy. Examines vitamin therapy in learning disabilities in general, schizophrenia, autism, mental retardation and Down's syndrome, and hyperkinesis. Concludes that holistic approach to treatment is needed and that vitamin therapy, if proven…
Swanson, H. Lee, Ed.; Harris, Karen R., Ed.; Graham, Steve, Ed.
Widely regarded as the standard reference in the field, this comprehensive handbook presents state-of-the-art knowledge about the nature and classification of learning disabilities (LD), their causes, and how individuals with these difficulties can be identified and helped to succeed. Best practices are described for supporting student performance…
In East Asia, Taiwan is one of only a few countries that has a clear definition of learning disabilities (LD) as well as operational criteria for the identification of LD. In Taiwan, special education services for students with LD are mandated in the Special Education Act of 1984. According to the official statistics from the Taiwanese Special…
Vigilante, Florence Wexler
Addresses problem areas encountered by families with learning-disabled children: parental self-blame and mourning, family life, the child's biological-psychological-social growth, and the child's achievement of independence. Argues that social workers have skills needed for effective remedial intervention. (RH)
Johnson, Lynn S.; And Others
The impact of group hypnotic and self-hypnotic training on the academic performance and self-esteem of learning disabled children was explored. Three hypnotic training sessions and instructions for six weeks of daily self-hypnotic practice containing suggestions for imagery related to improvement in these areas were given to 15 children, their…
Chen, Charles P.; Chan, Janice
Learning disabilities (LDs) describe a number of disorders that affect the way information is acquired, retained, organized, and understood. This article aims to address the critical issue of improving the career well-being of LD youth. It first examines several critical issues that affect LD high school students/youth in their career development.…
McKenna, Gregory S.
The primary purpose of this report is to explore within the Canadian context the relationship between Self-Reported Learning Disabilities (SRLD) and low literacy performance using the Canadian portion of the public data set from the 2003 International Adult Literacy and Life Skills Survey (IALSS). Two primary research questions related to SRLD…
Many people with learning disabilities are frequently excluded from active involvement in research and, as a result, along with researchers, have questioned research processes. These discussions have influenced how research is undertaken by, and with, people who have learning disabilities. Learning disability research is now increasingly framed as inclusive. This article explores the development of inclusive learning disability research by tracing its background and influences, identifying key characteristics and highlighting some of the challenges in its application. It demonstrates how inclusive research can give people with learning disabilities a voice that will help to inform practice.
Sun, Lei; Wallach, Geraldine P.
This article takes readers along the pathway of language learning and disorders across childhood and adolescence, highlighting the complex relationship between early (preschool) language disorders and later (school age) learning disabilities. The discussion starts with a review of diagnostic labels widely used in schools and other professional…
Mammarella, Irene C.; Ghisi, Marta; Bomba, Monica; Bottesi, Gioia; Caviola, Sara; Broggi, Fiorenza; Nacinovich, Renata
The main goal of the present study was to shed further light on the psychological characteristics of children with different learning disability profiles aged between 8 and 11 years, attending from third to sixth grade. Specifically, children with nonverbal learning disabilities (NLD), reading disabilities (RD), or a typical development (TD) were…
Marita, Samantha; Hord, Casey
Recent educational policy has raised the standards that all students, including students with disabilities, must meet in mathematics. To examine the strategies currently used to support students with learning disabilities, the authors reviewed literature from 2006 to 2014 on mathematics interventions for students with learning disabilities. The 12…
Gonen, Ayala; Grinberg, Keren
Background: Learning disabilities (LD) are lifelong disabilities that affect all facets of a person's life. Aim: Identifying the relationship between academic students' attitudes toward learning disability, self-image, and selected factors. Methods: A questionnaire was distributed to 213 students from an academic center in Israel. Two different…
There are a number of disabilities that music educators may never encounter among their students in the music classroom; however, all music educators will have students with learning disabilities. Students with learning disabilities may have a variety of "presenting problems" that limit their academic and social success in the music classroom. The…
Agarwal, K N; Agarwal, D K; Upadhyay, S K; Singh, M
In rural primary school children observed for two years, 12.97 per cent of those having IQ greater than or equal to 90 were found to have poor achievement in arithmetic test and teacher's assessment. These learning disabled children had impaired perceptual maturity and conceptual grasp as observed on MISIC (Indian modification of WISC), Bender Gestalt test and Piaget's test. On WISC Bannatyne categories learning disabled children scored highest in verbal conceptualization (similarities, vocabulary, comprehension), followed by spatial (picture completion, object assembly, block design) and sequencing (arithmetic, digit span, coding) abilities. These children on Bender Gestalt test made more errors particularly distortions (distortion of parts, incorrect number of dots, shape of design lost etc). They also showed delayed development on Piagetian tasks class inclusion, conservation (for length, substance, liquid and number) ordinal relation and one to one correspondence. These observations indicate impaired perceptual maturity, conception and information processing deficit.
Casas, Ana Miranda; Castellar, Rosa García
In the first part of this article, we describe the basic objectives of the math curriculum in Spain as well as the basic contents, teacher resources, and obstacles perceived in mathematics instruction. Second, we briefly describe the concept of learning disabilities (LD) as they are currently defined in Spain. As stated in the recent educational reform, a student with LD is any student with special educational needs. The emphasis is placed on the educational resources that these students need in order to achieve the curricular objectives that correspond to their age group or grade. Third, we comment specifically on the educational services model and the evaluation and instructional procedures for students with math learning disabilities. Finally, we describe some lines of research that have appeared in the last few years in Spain that have led to the development of new evaluation and intervention procedures for students with LD in computation and problem solving.
The thesis discusses the findings of researches on pupils with learning disabilities, specific learning disabilities and severe specific learning disabilities. The thesis includes experts’ findings on emotions and their impact on an individual’s functioning. It also explains certain concepts such as learning disabilities, general learning disabilities, specific learning disabilities and severe specific learning disabilities. The thesis discusses the significance of successful psychosocial adj...
McCoy, Thomasin E; Conrad, Amy L; Richman, Lynn C; Nopoulos, Peg C; Bell, Edward F
The purpose of this study was to evaluate immediate auditory and visual memory processes in learning disability subtypes of 40 children born preterm. Three subgroups of children were examined: (a) primary language disability group (n = 13), (b) perceptual-motor disability group (n = 14), and (c) no learning disability diagnosis group without identified language or perceptual-motor learning disability (n = 13). Between-group comparisons indicate no significant differences in immediate auditory or visual memory performances between language and perceptual-motor learning disability groups. Within-group comparisons revealed that both learning disability groups performed significantly lower on a task of immediate memory when the mode of stimulus presentation and mode of response were visual.
Nganji, Julius T.; Brayshaw, Mike
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to address how virtual learning environments (VLEs) can be designed to include the needs of learners with multiple disabilities. Specifically, it employs AI to show how specific learning materials from a huge repository of learning materials can be recommended to learners with various disabilities. This is…
Güven, N. Dilsad; Argün, Ziya
Teaching responsive to the needs of students with learning disabilities (LD) can be provided through understanding students' conceptions and their ways of learning. The current research, as a case study based on qualitative design, aimed to investigate the conceptions of students with learning disabilities with regard to the different…
This article appraises the report Strengthening the Commitment, which is a UK-wide review of learning disabilities nursing by the UK's four chief nursing officers. Strengthening the Commitment has strategic importance in reviewing progress in the care of people with learning disabilities in the UK. It also has a role in helping to guide future strategies and initiatives addressing the continuing health inequalities experienced by people with learning disabilities throughout the UK.
Cavagna, Lorenzo; Codullo, Veronica; Ghio, Stefano; Scirè, Carlo Alberto; Guzzafame, Eleonora; Scelsi, Laura; Rossi, Silvia; Montecucco, Carlomaurizio; Caporali, Roberto
Abstract Among different subgroups of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), those associated with connective tissue diseases (CTDs) have distinct hemodynamic and prognostic features; a correct etiologic diagnosis is thus mandatory. To estimate frequency and prognosis of previously undiagnosed CTDs in a suspect idiopathic (i) PAH cohort. Consecutive patients with PAH confirmed by right heart catheterization referred at the Cardiology Division of our Hospital without a previous rheumatological assessment or the occurrence of other conditions explaining PAH were checked for CTD by a clinical, laboratory, and instrumental evaluation. Survival in each group has also been analyzed. In our study 17 of 49 patients were classified as CTD-PAH, corresponding to a prevalence (95% CI) of 34.7% (21.7–49.6%). ANA positivity had 94% (71.3–99.9%) sensitivity and 78.1% (60–90.7%) specificity for a diagnosis of CTD-PAH; Raynaud phenomenon (RP) showed 83.3% (51.6–97.9%) sensitivity and 100% (90.5–100%) specificity for the diagnosis of Systemic Sclerosis (SSc)-PAH. At diagnosis, SSc patients were older and had a lower creatinine clearance compared with iPAH and other CTD-PAH. After a median follow-up of 44 (2–132) months, 18 of 49 (36.7%) patients died: 31.2% in the iPAH group, 20% in the CTD-, and 58.3% in the SSc-PAH group. Mortality was significantly higher in SSc-PAH (HR 3.32, 1.11–9.95, P <0.05) versus iPAH. We show a high prevalence of undiagnosed CTDs in patients with iPAH without a previous rheumatological assessment. All patients with RP were diagnosed with SSc. Our data stress the importance of a rheumatological assessment in PAH, especially because of the unfavorable prognostic impact of an associated SSc. PMID:27684814
Learning Disability Quarterly, 1999
This document offers a framework for use by education agencies in developing rules and guidelines for use of paraprofessionals within programs serving individuals with learning disabilities. Separate sections address principles, definitions, ethical responsibilities, education requirements for paraprofessionals, roles and responsibilities of…
Lau, Won-Fong K.; Ortega, Karina; Sharkey, Jill
Students with learning disabilities have been found to lack self-awareness about their disability, likely contributing to several challenges they experience, such as social skill deficits. At the same time, there is limited research investigating interventions to effectively increase disability self-awareness among this population. The current…
Marriott, Anna; Turner, Sue; Giraud-Saunders, Alison
People with learning disabilities have poorer health than their non-disabled peers, and are less likely to access screening services than the general population. The National Development Team for Inclusion and the Norah Fry Research Centre developed a toolkit and guidance to improve uptake of five national (English) screening programmes (one of which is delivered through local programmes), based on work to improve access by people with learning disabilities in the south west peninsula of the UK. This article describes the findings in relation to the five English screening programmes and suggests ways to improve uptake of cancer screening by people with learning disabilities.
Witten, Barbara J.
The article describes the nature of learning disabilities, notes the characteristics that learning disabled clients may exhibit (including academic, perceptual, and motor problems), and considers the factors relevant to rehabilitation planning and counseling (including the importance of a holistic approach featuring remediation, compensation, and…
Craig, Leam A.; Hutchinson, Roger B.
While the literature on the assessment, treatment and management of non-learning disabled sexual offenders is well established, it is only in recent years that researchers and clinicians have focused on sexual offenders with learning disabilities. In contrast to mainstream sex offender treatment programmes, there are few evaluated community-based…
Zitani, E. Alfredo
Learning disability is seen to be a dissociative disorder (school shock) similar to shell shock in wartime. The shell shock model is explained to focus diagnosis and treatment of learning disabilities around the dynamics of the predisposing unconscious conflict, the dynamics in the environment, the mechanism which allows these two conditions to…
This study examined the unanticipated effects that children with learning disabilities have on the life of their families. Eleven parents of students aged 8 to 16 years old participated in two separate focus group interviews. Findings showed that children with learning disabilities had a range of effects on their families. These included family…
Bond, Rebecca J.; Hurst, Jenni
It is seen as increasingly important for people with learning disabilities to be supported to live independently and manage their own self care, productivity and leisure activities. This qualitative study explored the experiences of nine adults with mild learning disabilities who lived alone with minimal support. Their narratives were analysed…
Horn, Jaime Helena; Moss, Duncan
Research has identified the collective experiences of oppression, stigma and isolation in the lives of people with learning disabilities. Against the backdrop of social and cultural processes that shape and limit the life experiences of people with learning disabilities, the authors are interested in how the individual develops a sense of self and…
Curtis, Mary G.
Dr. Tanis Bryan graduated from Northwestern University during the beginning of the field of learning disabilities. From this beginning, Tanis has provided invaluable insight into the field through her desire to understand the social dimensions of learning disabilities. The author wishes to thank Tanis for her assistance with this interview.
Barsch, Ray H.
This article, originally published in 1968, examines learning disabilities from the perspectives of history, disciplines (calling for interdisciplinary convergence), education (viewing learning disabilities as a concept rather than a category), teacher preparation, province (evaluating the appropriateness of various delivery systems), and time…
Johnsen, E P; Tracy, D B
36 learning disabled high school subjects rated themselves lower on academic, psychomotor, and verbal performance on a social comparisons task than a control group of 53 nonexceptional peers. Learning disabled students tended to see themselves as less able in most areas involving school achievement but not in areas involving extracurricular activities.
A large percent of the population is affected by learning disabilities, which significantly impacts individuals and families. Much research has been done to identify effective ways to best help the students with learning disabilities. One of the more promising strategies is the use of visual supports to enhance these students' understanding…
Siegel, Linda S.
In response to a previous article, the paper stresses that, in addition to theory development, the field of learning disabilities needs to resolve definitional issues involving disability specificity, intelligence, measurement concepts, and the continua of abilities. Suggestions for developing operational definitions of both learning disabilities…
Mangina, Constantine A; Beuzeron-Mangina, Helen
This research pursues the crucial question of the differentiation of preadolescents with "Pure" ADHD, comorbid ADHD with learning disabilities, "Pure" learning disabilities and age-matched normal controls. For this purpose, Topographic Mapping of Event-Related Brain Potentials (ERPs) to a Memory Workload Paradigm with visually presented words, Bilateral Electrodermal Activity during cognitive workload and Mangina-Test performance were used. The analysis of Topographic distribution of amplitudes revealed that normal preadolescents were significantly different from "Pure" ADHD (Plearning disabilities (Plearning disabilities (Plearning disabilities have shown a marked reduction of prefrontal and frontal negativities (N450). As for the "Pure" Learning Disabled preadolescents, very small positivities (P450) in prefrontal and frontal regions were obtained as compared to the other pathological groups. Bilateral Electrodermal Activity during cognitive workload revealed a significant main effect for groups (P<0.00001), Left versus Right (P=0.0029) and sessions (P=0.0136). A significant main effect for the Mangina-Test performance which separated the four groups was found (P<0.000001). Overall, these data support the existence of clear differences and similarities between the pathological preadolescent groups as opposed to age-matched normal controls. The psychophysiological differentiation of these groups, provides distinct biological markers which integrate central, autonomic and neuropsychometric variables by targeting the key features of these pathologies for diagnosis and intervention strategies and by providing knowledge for the understanding of normal neurocognitive processes and functions.
Northway, Ruth; Parker, Michelle; James, Neil; Davies, Lynsey; Johnson, Kaye; Wilson, Sally
Whilst there is a need to develop the research base within learning disability nursing it is also significant that currently there is little published data as to how research is taught to this group of nurses. To increase understanding of how research is currently taught to learning disability nurses within the UK. A survey design was used. The research was undertaken at a conference held in the UK in March 2014. 310 learning disability nurses attending the conference of which 212 completed the free text question. This comprised student nurses (n=158), registered nurses working in practice settings (n=25) and registered nurses working in educational institutions (n=24). Five participants did not specify their background. Participants were invited to complete a questionnaire that included a free text question regarding the teaching of research to learning disability nurses: it is the responses to this question that are reported in this paper. Responses were transcribed and thematically analysed. Eight themes emerged: Teaching approach--the good and the bad; finding the right level; right from the start; we need more time; generic versus specialist; there's not enough; getting research into practice; and what should we focus on? Variations exist in terms of the timing of research education, the teaching approaches used, and hence the quality of student experience. Of particular concern is the apparent gap between research teaching and the use of research in practice, and the reported lack of support for research within practice settings. However, enthusiasm for research is evident and hence recommendations are made both to enhance teaching and to strengthen links with practice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lloyd, Jennifer L.; Coulson, Neil S.
Research suggests that the uptake of cervical screening by women with intellectual disabilities (commonly known as learning disabilities within UK policy frameworks, practice areas and health services) is poor compared to women without intellectual disabilities. The present study explored learning disability nurses' experiences of supporting women…
Oliver, J M; Cole, N H; Hollingsworth, H
A family history of learning problems as provided on a specially designed questionnaire by maternal report was examined in families of 101 children with learning disabilities and 171 children without disabilities. Diagnoses of learning disabilities followed the U.S. Office of Education definition. Students were selected from the Special School District of St. Louis County and the Pattonville School District. A life history of developmental risk factors in the child subject was also examined in the same two groups. Learning disabilities were found to be strongly familial. In principle, the definition of learning disabilities excluded from the study children with problems attributable to child rearing, emotional, or motivational factors. The report of a family history of learning problems is therefore interpreted as consistent with, although not unequivocally supportive of, genetic factors as determinants. Among developmental factors, only male gender proved to have a significant association with learning disabilities.
Gibbs, Mike; Priest, Helena
Using Kolb's experiential learning cycle as a framework, this paper will describe the facilitation of an experiential learning journey by a small group of learning disability nursing students in the UK, studying the physical health care needs of people with learning disabilities. Highlighted are the problems faced by people with learning disabilities in accessing primary health care services and some of the policy drivers for these services. This is then followed by an account of an educational process designed both to support learning about physical health and to enhance engagement and motivation of learning disability nursing students. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
This article discusses the author's use of reflexivity in trying to gain a better understanding of ageing in older people with learning disabilities. In the general population ageing is viewed in rather negative terms and as a significant life transition. However, for some older people with learning disabilities this transition may go unnoticed because of their past negative life experiences and lack of opportunities. Reflexivity has the potential to provide nurses with greater understanding of the personal perspectives of older people with learning disabilities.
Tiekstra, Marlous; Hessels, Marco G P; Minnaert, Alexander E M G
Scores on a learning potential test (the Hessels Analogical Reasoning Test) were examined to assess how to provide a better estimate of the learning capacity of students with mild intellectual disabilities compared to IQ scores. As a criterion, a dynamic test of chemistry learning was used. 46
Abreu-Ellis, Carla; Ellis, Jason; Hayes, Richard
This paper discusses the results of the Learning and Study Strategies Inventory (LASSI) administered to college students in order to identify similarities and differences between time of diagnosis of a learning disability and the development of learning strategies related to will, self-regulation, and skill components. Findings indicate that early…
Cavioni, Valeria; Grazzani, Ilaria; Ornaghi, Veronica
This paper discusses the key role of social and emotional learning programmes for children with Learning Disability (LD). The first part of the paper discusses the difficulties students with learning disability may encounter in their education, such as issues related to peer group acceptance, friendship and social isolation, low self-efficacy and…
Williams, Tracy M.
This paper synthesizes literature which relates to the successful transition of students with learning disabilities upon leaving high school. The first section defines transition and analyzes the components of transition as outlined by the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act. The second section reviews issues related to students with…
Roth, Froma P.
The literature on oral narrative comprehension, memory, and production abilities of language-learning-disabled students is reviewed. The relationship of these abilities to academic success is noted. (Author/DB)
Szymanski, Edna Mora; And Others
Introduces ecological framework for assessment and rehabilitation planning of learning disabled persons to facilitate integration of information and perspectives. Operationalizes framework through four dimensions: individual attributes; environmental attributes; nature, quality, and sequence of interactions; and perceptions of involved…
A former teacher of learning disabled adolescents describes how logo-therapy, an approach which stresses responsibility for one's self, can help students gain new attitudes towards themselves, their peers, and their goals. Examples of circle sessions are offered. (CL)
Learning problems occur in about 5% of school-aged children. Learning disabilities are specific and life-long but present with different school problems at different ages, depending on such factors as age, medical history, family history, and intelligence quotient. Proper individualized diagnosis and treatment plans are necessary to remediate these problems and to offer adequate coping strategies. Many children who have learning problems can be classified into one of two major categories: the dyslexia group or the nonverbal learning disability group. The role of the medical professional is important to guide parents in the diagnostic and therapeutic process.
Fernández-Prieto, I; Caprile, C; Tinoco-González, D; Ristol-Orriols, B; López-Sala, A; Póo-Argüelles, P; Pons, F; Navarra, J
The nonverbal learning disability (NLD) is a neurological dysfunction that affects cognitive functions predominantly related to the right hemisphere such as spatial and abstract reasoning. Previous evidence in healthy adults suggests that acoustic pitch (i.e., the relative difference in frequency between sounds) is, under certain conditions, encoded in specific areas of the right hemisphere that also encode the spatial elevation of external objects (e.g., high vs. low position). Taking this evidence into account, we explored the perception of pitch in preadolescents and adolescents with NLD and in a group of healthy participants matched by age, gender, musical knowledge and handedness. Participants performed four speeded tests: a stimulus detection test and three perceptual categorization tests based on colour, spatial position and pitch. Results revealed that both groups were equally fast at detecting visual targets and categorizing visual stimuli according to their colour. In contrast, the NLD group showed slower responses than the control group when categorizing space (direction of a visual object) and pitch (direction of a change in sound frequency). This pattern of results suggests the presence of a subtle deficit at judging pitch in NLD along with the traditionally-described difficulties in spatial processing. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Padhy, Susanta Kumar; Goel, Sonu; Das, Shyam Sinder; Sarkar, Siddharth; Sharma, Vijaylaxmi; Panigrahi, Mahima
To assess the prevalence and patterns of learning disabilities (LD) in school going children in a northern city of India. The present cross-sectional study comprised of three-staged screening procedure for assessing learning disabilities of 3rd and 4th grade students studying in government schools. The first stage comprised of the teacher identifying at-risk student. In the second stage, teachers assessed at-risk students using Specific Learning Disability-Screening Questionnaire (SLD-SQ). The third stage comprised of assessment of the screen positive students using Brigance Diagnostic Inventory (BDI) part of NIMHANS Index of Specific Learning Disabilities for identifying the cases of LD. A total of 1211 (33.6%) children out of the total screened (n = 3600) were identified as at-risk by the teachers at the first stage. Of them, 360 were found to screen positive on the second stage using SLD-SQ. The most common deficits were missing out words or sentences while reading, misplacing letters or words while reading or writing, and making frequent mistake in spelling while writing or reading. Of these, 108 children were confirmed to have learning disability on the third stage using BDI, which represented 3.08% of the total population. Learning disability is an important concern in young school aged children. Early identification of such students can help in early institution of intervention and suitable modifications in teaching techniques.
Health inequalities start early in life for people with learning disabilities. In the UK, they can arise from various barriers that people experience when trying to access care that should be appropriate, timely and effective. Inequalities in health care are likely to result in many NHS organisations breaching their legal responsibilities, as outlined in the Disability Discrimination Acts 1995 and 2005, the Equality Act 2010 and the Mental Capacity Act 2005 (Emerson and Baines 2010). This article seeks to help nurses, healthcare professionals and hospital managers ensure that better services are delivered by encouraging them to explore how reasonable adjustments can improve outcomes for people with learning disabilities.
Learning Disabilities: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 2012
The National Joint Committee on Learning Disabilities (NJCLD) affirms that the construct of learning disabilities represents a valid, unique, and heterogeneous group of disorders, and that recognition of this construct is essential for sound policy and practice. An extensive body of scientific research on learning disabilities continues to support…
Full Text Available CAPTCHA is one of the most common solutions to check if the user trying to enter a Website is a real person or an automated piece of software. This challenge-response test, implemented in many Internet Websites, emphasizes the gaps between accessibility and security on the Internet, as it poses an obstacle for the learning-impaired in the reading and comprehension of what is presented in the test. Various types of CAPTCHA tests have been developed in order to address accessibility and security issues. The objective of this study is to investigate how the differences between various CAPTCHA tests affect user experience among populations with and without learning disabilities. A questionnaire accompanied by experiencing five different tests was administered to 212 users, 60 of them with learning disabilities. Response rates for each test and levels of success were collected automatically. Findings suggest that users with learning disabilities have more difficulties in solving the tests, especially those with distorted texts, have more negative attitudes towards the CAPTCHA tests, but the response time has no statistical difference from users without learning disabilities. These insights can help to develop and implement solutions suitable for many users and especially for population with learning disabilities.
Taking public transit can make anyone nervous, especially in a large or medium-sized city where there are many different bus lines going many different places. The author's daughter, Anna, has multiple learning disabilities and may never learn to drive, but she wants to be as independent as possible so the author taught her to ride the bus. This…
Rotatori, Anthony J.; And Others
A school-based diet program for learning disabled children stresses modifying eating behavior by learning alternative ways of interacting with the environment. Techniques stress the importance of self regulation, strategies for self monitoring, the establishment of realistic weight goals, use of stimulus control procedures, increased physical…
Masoura, Elvira V.
Research findings concerning working memory impairment of children with learning disabilities, poor readers, and individuals with severe learning difficulties are examined within the framework of working memory. Results from developmental and experimental studies indicate a close link between the function of working memory and performance on…
Kourea, Lefki; Gibson, Lenwood; Werunga, Robai
As student populations are becoming more diverse in ability and ethnicity across American classrooms, teachers are faced with instructional challenges in meeting their students' learning needs. Challenges are heightened for general and special education teachers who teach students with learning disabilities (LD) and have a culturally and…
Reichman, Julie; Healey, William C.
A review of research on the relationship of otitis media (ear infection) and learning/language/hearing disorders revealed that incidence of otitis media was twice as common in learning disabled as nonLD students; and that, in general, otitis-prone children scored below controls with frequent evidence of performance deficits. (CL)
This article provides an introduction to theoretical ideas and practices from the so-called "philosophers of difference"--Foucault, Derrida, and Deleuze and Guattari--as an invitation to think differently about the construction of learning disability and to envision new forms of learning. Two key concepts, Foucault's transgression and…
Peck, D G
This paper will primarily examine four concepts: emotional learning disabilities, adolescence, self-esteem, and the social-psychological concept of "significant others." Problems of definition will be discussed, with a literature review, and an attempt will be made to integrate all four of the above-mentioned concepts. The emphasis will be in applying a sociological perspective to an educational and growing problem: how do we (sic) educate students with some type of learning disability? What, if any, extra-curricular factors potentially affect in school learning behavior(s) of adolescents?
Boyle, Joseph R.
Students with learning disabilities lack effective note-taking skills for a variety of reasons. Despite the important role that notes play in helping students to understand lecture content information and serving as documents for later review, many students with learning disabilities are simply not effective note-takers. Many of these students…
Floyd, Frank J; Olsen, Darren L
Family interactions are potential contexts for children with intellectual and learning disabilities to develop skillful social behaviors needed to relate effectively with peers. This study examined problem solving interactions within families of elementary school-age children (7-11 years) with intellectual disability (n = 37), specific learning disabilities (n =48), and without disabilities (n = 22). After accounting for group differences in children's behaviors and peer acceptance, across all groups, mothers' behaviors that encouraged egalitarian problem solving predicted more engaged and skillful problem solving by the children. However, mothers' controlling, directive behaviors predicted fewer of these behaviors by the children. Fathers' behaviors had mixed associations with the children's actions, possibly because they were reactive to children's unengaged and negative behaviors. For the children, greater involvement, more facilitative behaviors, and less negativity with their families were associated with greater acceptance from their peers, supporting family-peer linkages for children at risk for peer rejection.
Sharifa Z. Williams
Full Text Available Many large provider networks are investing heavily in preventing disease within the communities that they serve. We explore the potential benefits and challenges associated with tackling depression at the community level using a unique dataset designed for one such provider network. The economic costs of having depression (increased medical care use, lower quality of life, and decreased workplace productivity are among the highest of any disease. Depression often goes undiagnosed, yet many believe that depression can be treated or prevented altogether. We explore the prevalence, distribution, economic burden, and the psychosocial and economic factors associated with undiagnosed depression in a lower-income neighborhood in northern Manhattan. Even using state-of-the art data to “diagnose” the risk factors within a community, it can be challenging for provider networks to act against such risk factors.
McKenzie, Karen; Michie, Amanda; Murray, Aja; Hales, Charlene
The study assessed the validity of an intellectual disability screening tool, the Learning Disability Screening Questionnaire (LDSQ), in three forensic settings: a community intellectual disability forensic service; a forensic in-patient secure unit and a prison, using data for 94 individuals. A significant positive relationship was found between full scale IQ and LDSQ score, indicating convergent validity. Discriminative validity was indicated by, firstly, a significant difference in the LDSQ scores between those with and without an intellectual disability, with those with a diagnosis of intellectual disability, scoring significantly lower. Secondly, a ROC analysis indicated that the sensitivity and specificity of the LDSQ were both above 80%. The screening tool was found to have lower sensitivity in the forensic populations than was obtained in the original community standardisation sample, but had slightly higher specificity. Limitations and implications of the study are discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Tuffrey-Wijne, Irene; Bernal, Jane; Hubert, Jane; Butler, Gary; Hollins, Sheila
Cancer incidence among people with learning disabilities is rising. There have been no published studies of the needs and experiences of people with learning disabilities and cancer, from their own perspective. To provide insight into the experiences and needs of people with learning disabilities who have cancer. Prospective qualitative study, using ethnographic methods. Participants' homes, hospitals, nursing homes, and hospices in London and surrounding areas. The participants were 13 people with learning disabilities ranging from mild to severe, who had a cancer diagnosis. The main method of data collection was participant observation (over 250 hours). The median length of participation was 7 months. Participants' cancer experiences were shaped by their previous experience of life, which included deprivation, loneliness, and a lack of autonomy and power. They depended on others to negotiate contact with the outside world, including the healthcare system. This could lead to delayed cancer diagnosis and a lack of treatment options being offered. Most participants were not helped to understand their illness and its implications. Doctors did not make an assessment of capacity, but relied on carers' opinions. Urgent action is warranted by findings of late diagnosis, possible discrimination around treatment options, and lack of patient involvement and assessment of capacity in decision making. There are significant gaps in knowledge and training among most health professionals, leading to disengaged services that are unaware of the physical, emotional, and practical needs of people with learning disabilities, and their carers.
Jan Doolittle Wilson
Full Text Available In 1975, Congress enacted a law eventually known as the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA, which ensures that children with disabilities receive a free, appropriate, public education. Since then, scholarly and popular debates about the effectiveness of inclusive education have proliferated and typically focus on the ability or inability of students with disabilities to succeed in so-called regular classrooms. These debates reflect widespread assumptions that the regular classroom is rightly the province of nondisabled students and a neutral, value-free space that students with disabilities invade and disrupt via their very presence and their costly needs for adaptation. But as many scholars in the field of Disability Studies in Education (DSE have argued, these discussions often fail to recognize that the space of the regular classroom, far from neutral, is constructed for a nondisabled, neurotypical, white, male, middle-class "norm" that neither reflects nor accommodates the wide range of diverse learners within it, regardless of whether these learners have been diagnosed with a disability. A DSE perspective sees the educational environment, not students with disabilities, as the "problem" and calls for a Universal Design for Learning approach to education, or the design of instructional materials and activities that allows the learning goals to be achievable by individuals with wide differences in their abilities and backgrounds. Agreeing with this DSE perspective, this article uses an autoethnographic approach to reexamine inclusive education and to consider how university classrooms, pedagogy, and curricular materials can be improved in order to accommodate all students, not just those with disabilities. Ultimately, the article argues that Universal Design for Learning has the potential to radically transform the meaning of inclusive education and the very concept of disability.
Force, Crista Marie
Scientific discovery is at the heart of solving many of the problems facing contemporary society. Scientists are retiring at rates that exceed the numbers of new scientists. Unfortunately, scientific careers still appear to be outside the reach of most individuals with learning disabilities. The purpose of this research was to better understand the methods by which successful learning disabled scientists have overcome the barriers and challenges associated with their learning disabilities in their preparation and performance as scientists. This narrative inquiry involved the researcher writing the life stories of four scientists. These life stories were generated from extensive interviews in which each of the scientists recounted their life histories. The researcher used narrative analysis to "make sense" of these learning disabled scientists' life stories. The narrative analysis required the researcher to identify and describe emergent themes characterizing each scientist's life. A cross-case analysis was then performed to uncover commonalities and differences in the lives of these four individuals. Results of the cross-case analysis revealed that all four scientists had a passion for science that emerged at an early age, which, with strong drive and determination, drove these individuals to succeed in spite of the many obstacles arising from their learning disabilities. The analysis also revealed that these scientists chose careers based on their strengths; they actively sought mentors to guide them in their preparation as scientists; and they developed coping techniques to overcome difficulties and succeed. The cross-case analysis also revealed differences in the degree to which each scientist accepted his or her learning disability. While some demonstrated inferior feelings about their successes as scientists, still other individuals revealed feelings of having superior abilities in areas such as visualization and working with people. These individuals revealed
Solvoll, Betty-Ann; Hall, Elisabeth; Støre Brinchmann, Berit
Background: Healthcare providers caring for learning-disabled individuals in institutions face challenges of what is right or wrong in their daily work. Serving this group, it is of utmost importance for the healthcare staff to raise awareness and to understand how ethical values are at stake....... Research question: What ethical challenges are discussed among healthcare providers working with adults with learning disabilities? Research design: The study had a qualitative and investigative design. Participants and research context: The study was conducted in a community institution for adults...... with learning disabilities. Participants were healthcare providers joining regular focused group discussions. Two groups participated and each group consisted of six participants. The conversations were taped and transcribed. Ethical considerations: The study was reported to Norwegian Social Science Data...
Full Text Available School failure is one of the more complex, more difficult and unfortunately frequent problem that modern school meets. Many factors can cause school failure, such as: child development characteristics, family and school-originated factors. The purpose of the research is analysis of the specific learning problems in students with a mild intellectual disability. For our research we used ACADIA test, which contains 13 subtests for assessing the overall individual functioning. The research involved 144 students. We divided the sample into two groups, children with intellectual disability (our target group and control group. We found that generally all students with the intellectual disability have special learning problems. According to individual subtests analysis we concluded that the ability for visual association is best developed among these students while on the subtest for auditory memory they achieved worse results. With the analysis of the control group we found that 13.75% of the students have special learning problems.
Reynolds, Fiona; Stanistreet, Debbi; Elton, Peter
Background Several studies in the UK have suggested that women with learning disabilities may be less likely to receive cervical screening tests and a previous local study in had found that GPs considered screening unnecessary for women with learning disabilities. This study set out to ascertain whether women with learning disabilities are more likely to be ceased from a cervical screening programme than women without; and to examine the reasons given for ceasing women with learning disabilities. It was carried out in Bury, Heywood-and-Middleton and Rochdale. Methods Carried out using retrospective cohort study methods, women with learning disabilities were identified by Read code; and their cervical screening records were compared with the Call-and-Recall records of women without learning disabilities in order to examine their screening histories. Analysis was carried out using case-control methods – 1:2 (women with learning disabilities: women without learning disabilities), calculating odds ratios. Results 267 women's records were compared with the records of 534 women without learning disabilities. Women with learning disabilities had an odds ratio (OR) of 0.48 (Confidence Interval (CI) 0.38 – 0.58; X2: 72.227; p.value learning disabilities. Conclusion The reasons given for ceasing and/or not screening suggest that merely being coded as having a learning disability is not the sole reason for these actions. There are training needs among smear takers regarding appropriate reasons not to screen and providing screening for women with learning disabilities. PMID:18218106
Full Text Available This paper explores the current rising rates of online learning in higher education. It examines how disability is activated differently online and the impact of this on learning and teaching through the internet and the accessibility of two of the most popular learning management systems, Blackboard and Moodle, and the different approaches, benefits and problems associated with each system. It then explores the eLearning environment beyond the structure of a LMS to a broader digital campus that includes social networks, video hosting sites and micro blogging, where students and staff are increasingly expanding the learning and social environment in higher education. It also questions the legal and moral responsibilities of universities to make all their online activities accessible to all students, regardless of disability.
Nicolielo-Carrilho, Ana Paola; Hage, Simone Rocha de Vasconcellos
to check the use of metacognitive reading strategies in children with learning disabilities and determine whether there is a relationship between their use and text comprehension. the study was conducted on 30 children, aged 8 to 12 years, of both genders, divided into experimental group (EG) - 15 children with learning disabilities; and control group (CG) - 15 children without disability. All children were submitted to the Reading Strategies Scale and Prolec text comprehension subtest. The sample was described in mean, median, minimum and maximum values. Comparative analysis was performed between the groups using the Mann-Whitney test. The degree of correlation between variables was verified by Spearman Correlation Analysis. The significance level was set at 5%. across the total scores of the scale, EG performance was lower in all descriptive measures, with a significant difference compared to CG. The EG achieved a performance close to children without difficulties only in global strategies. The correlation between the use of metacognitive strategies and reading comprehension was positive. children with learning disabilities showed deficits in the use of metacognitive reading strategies when compared to children without learning disabilities. The better the performance in reading strategies, the better textual comprehension was and vice versa, suggesting that metacognitive reading skills contribute to reading comprehension.
This study explored the effects of peer tutoring on the acquisition of single-digit addition facts in primary-aged students with learning disabilities and their cross-age tutors, and it investigated the relative effectiveness of two tutoring procedures, as follows: a counting-on approach (Method A) and a rote-memorization approach (Method B). Method C, a no-treatment control condition was included. Results strongly support the use of peer tutoring for students with learning disabilities. No significant differences were found for tutors or between Method A and Method B tutees.
Garvey, Frank; Wigram, Tony; Balakumar, Thanusha
People with learning disabilities often experience health inequalities and barriers to healthcare services as a result of poor communication and discriminatory attitudes. We developed an educational package for healthcare staff as well as an attitude questionnaire to measure the impact of this training; the questionnaire is called the Attitudes of Secondary Healthcare Personnel Toward People with Severe Learning Disabilities (ASH-LD). This article describes the process of designing and piloting the ASH-LD questionnaire, and how it will be used to measure the effect of the planned training on staff attitudes.
Howe, Phill; Hancox, Linda
People with learning disabilities often experience health inequalities and poorer health than the general population. This article describes the development of an exercise group for people with learning disabilities in North Devon.
J Gordon Millichap
Full Text Available The frequency of specific leaning disabilities (SLD in neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1 was determined in a cohort of 81 patients (43 males, 38 females; mean age 11 years 6 months; age range 8-16 followed at Children's Hospital, Westmead, NSW, Australia.
Full Text Available This paper discusses the key role of social and emotional learning programmes for children with Learning Disability (LD. The first part of the paper discusses the difficulties students with learning disability may encounter in their education, such as issues related to peer group acceptance, friendship and social isolation, low self-efficacy and self-esteem, and externalized and internalized behavior problems. The relationship between social and emotional learning programmes and learning disability is then discussed, underlining the benefits of social and emotional learning for students with LD. The paper concludes by highlighting the need for universal social and emotional learning as a vehicle for the academic and social inclusion of students with LD.
Koch, Lynn C.; Mamiseishvili, Ketevan; Wilkins, Melissa J.
Purpose: The enrollment of students with psychiatric disabilities in U.S. postsecondary institutions is on the rise. However, research is lacking in terms of how these students fare in comparison to other students with hidden disabilities (e.g., learning disabilities [LDs], attention deficit disorders [ADDs]) whose enrollment in postsecondary…
Murray, Christopher; Flannery, Brigid K.; Wren, Carol
This investigation examined university staff members' attitudes towards students with learning disabilities (LD) at the postsecondary level. Although prior research has examined university faculty perceptions of students with LD, little is known about staff members' attitudes and perceptions. A survey instrument was administered to approximately…
Tolar, Tammy D.; Fuchs, Lynn; Fletcher, Jack M.; Fuchs, Douglas; Hamlett, Carol L.
Three cohorts of third-grade students (N = 813) were evaluated on achievement, cognitive abilities, and behavioral attention according to contrasting research traditions in defining math learning disability (LD) status: low achievement versus extremely low achievement and IQ-achievement discrepant versus strictly low-achieving LD. We use methods…
Thompson, Trevor; Lamont-Robinson, Catherine; Williams, Val
Attitudinal objectives are difficult to formulate, teach and assess; yet good attitudes are fundamental to good practice. For instance, studies highlight negative attitudes to disability in the medical student community that contrast with the self-conceptions of disabled persons. This study was designed to better understand attitudinal learning, inadequately addressed by contemporary programmes, through the application of Mezirow's 'transformative learning theory' (TLT) to a novel educational intervention. Participating students went to sea, for voyages of 5-7 days, in tall ships operated by the Jubilee Sailing Trust. Each student was buddied with another sailor living with disability. Disabilities included cerebral palsy, loss of sight, loss of limbs and paraplegia. Students recorded their experiences using audio diaries, written logs, formal voyage reports and art work and in post-voyage seminars. The data were analysed using interpretive phenomenological analysis, and the results are considered under five themes suggested by Mezirow. Sixteen students were recruited, with four students sailing on each of four separate voyages. Each student recorded audio-diary entries, which had a total duration of between 10 and 212 minutes. For seven of the 16 students, the five key elements of TLT were demonstrable, suggesting that transformative learning, as described by Mezirow, was occurring. Drawing on diverse qualitative data, insights into different aspects of this transformation are provided. TLT can be used to characterise, and thus design, educational interventions to meet attitudinal learning objectives. Students can be helped to discover their less helpful frames of reference. In safe environments these frames can be challenged and subjected to personal and communal reflection. Drawing on audio diaries and other evidence, and in answer to critiques of contemporary medical teaching on disability, we demonstrate such transformation in students 'at sea with
Cowen, R J; Harway, N I
39 visually and nonvisually perceptually impaired 8- to 11-yr.-old boys with learning disabilities were compared with a control group of 35 "normal" learners on the Rod-and-frame and Children's Embedded-figures Tests. Previous findings of greater field dependence of learning disabled children are confounded because the experimental tasks involved visual perception. In our study the 27 "visuals" were more field-dependent than either the 12 "nonvisuals" or the controls. The latter groups did not differ significantly from one another, which may in part be a function of the small sample of nonvisual children identified. Alternative explanations, e.g., the visual nature of the field-dependence measures and the lack of reading difficulty of the nonvisual group, are considered. For the visually disabled Ss only Vocabulary scores, suggesting that among such children those with higher verbal intelligence may be more field-independent.
Butler, Deborah L.
This article describes strategic content learning (SCL), a strategies-training model that integrates cognitive, behavioral, sociocultural, and constructivist learning theories. The theoretical rationale for SCL is provided, followed by a review of research documenting SCL efficacy for postsecondary students with learning disabilities. Preliminary…
Shamir, Adina; Lazerovitz, Tamar
The purpose of the current study was to investigate the effect of a peer mediation intervention on self-regulated learning of students with learning disabilities. The research captured both process and outcomes of peer tutoring following the tutors' experience of the intervention programme. Tutors' self-regulated learning was measured by…
Young, Glenn; Gerber, Paul J.; Reder, Stephen; Cooper, Richard
The four papers that make up this document report on poverty issues as they pertain to adults with learning disabilities. "Programmatic Response to Welfare Clients with Learning Disabilities" (Glenn Young) describes steps in the Learning Disabilities Initiative that works with federal agencies, states, local governments, and nonprofit…
Bentley, Sarah; Nicholls, Rickie; Price, Maxine; Wilkinson, Aaron; Purcell, Matthew; Woodhall, Martin; Walmsley, Jan
We are five young people with learning disabilities who found out about the history of hospitals for people with learning disabilities in our area, and made a film about the project. The project taught us what life had been like for some people with learning disabilities only 30 years ago. It was very different to our lives; we have more choice,…
This research aimed to illuminate the experiences of adults with learning disabilities of the reflecting team, in the context of their systemic family therapy. Five adults with learning disabilities were recruited from one community learning disability team. A qualitative design using interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) was appropriate…
Background: It is now expected that projects addressing the lives of people with learning disabilities include people with learning disabilities in the research process. In the past, such research often excluded people with learning disabilities, favouring the opinions of family members, carers and professionals. The inclusion of the voices of…
The central purpose of this study was to analyze the dynamics of handwriting movements in real time for Spanish students in early grades with and without learning disabilities. The sample consisted of 120 children from Grades 1 through 3 (primary education), classified into two groups: with learning disabilities and without learning disabilities.…
Mafuba, Kay; Gates, Bob
International studies have shown poor uptake of public health initiatives by people with learning disabilities. In addition, studies have shown that people with learning disabilities experience poor access to public health services. The contribution of community learning disability nurses in meeting the public health needs of people with learning…
Hewitt, Olivia; Clarke, Angela
Background: More people with a learning disability are becoming parents. Little is known about the lived experiences of the children who have a parent with a learning disability. Methods: This study uses interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) to understand the lived experiences of people who have a parent with a learning disability. Five…
Herron, Daniel; Priest, Helena M.; Read, Sue
Background: There has been an increase in inclusive research in the learning disability field; however, this has not been reflected within learning disability and dementia research, where little is known from the perspective of people with learning disabilities. This paper will define inclusive research, explore reasons for the dearth of inclusive…
Monda-Amaya, Lisa E.; Dieker, Lisa; Reed, Fran
A study investigated the effectiveness of a program that provided systematic training and support to ensure the successful inclusion of 5 seventh-grade students with learning disabilities into a general-education setting co-taught by general and special educators. A self-monitoring system was implemented to provide support to students. (Author/CR)
Tudway, Jeremy A.; Darmoody, Malcolm
Assessment and treatment of adults with learning disabilities who commit sexual offences presents a number of challenges. Much of the professional forensic and psychiatric literature on work with this group concentrates on the development of interventions based on theoretical models of sexual offending originating from the mainstream criminal…
Passolunghi, Maria Chiara
Emotional and cognitive factors were examined in 18 children with mathematical learning disabilities (MLD), compared with 18 normally achieving children, matched for chronological age, school level, gender and verbal IQ. Working memory, short-term memory, inhibitory processes, speed of processing and level of anxiety in mathematics were assessed…
Background: There is very little research on how and when siblings understand that they have a brother or sister with a learning disability. Research regarding young children's understanding of intelligence, suggests that they may not develop a clear understanding of ability until about 7 years of age. Method: Through interviewing parents and then…
Tormanen, Minna R. K.; Takala, Marjatta; Sajaniemi, Nina
This study examined whether audiovisual computer training without linguistic material had a remedial effect on different learning disabilities, like dyslexia and ADD (Attention Deficit Disorder). This study applied a pre-test-intervention-post-test design with students (N = 62) between the ages of 7 and 19. The computer training lasted eight weeks…
Mallett, Christopher A.
Adolescents becoming formally involved with a juvenile court because of school-related behavior and discipline problems is a phenomenon known as the school-to-prison pipeline. Adolescents with learning disabilities are disproportionately represented within this pipeline. A study was conducted to review the outcomes for a population of youthful…
Swanson, H. Lee
The role of subvocalization in 12 learning disabled (LD) adolescent readers' comprehension difficulties was studied. Nondisabled and LD readers were compared on silent reading and listening comprehension of noun lexical, verb lexical, semantic, and inferential sentences under conditions of suppressed and nonsuppressed subvocalization. (Author/SW)
Orosco, Michael John; O'Connor, Rollanda
This case study describes the culturally responsive instruction of one special education teacher with Latino English language learners (ELLs) with learning disabilities in an urban elementary school setting. This study was situated in a social constructivist research based framework. In investigating this instruction with ELLs, this study focused…
Lambie, Glenn W.; Milsom, Amy
Students diagnosed with learning disabilities experience many challenges that school counselors may address through narrative therapy. Narrative therapy is a postmodern, social constructionist approach based on the theoretical construct that individuals create their notions of truth and meaning of life through interpretive stories. This article…
Miller, Rhonda D.
English language learners (ELLs) with learning disabilities (LD) can find navigating the content areas quite difficult due to challenges involving limitations in English language proficiency, gaps in English academic vocabulary, difficulties with working memory and long-term memory, and limited background knowledge on content area topics. However,…
Solvoll, Betty-Ann; Hall, Elisabeth; Støre Brinchmann, Berit
Background: Healthcare providers caring for learning-disabled individuals in institutions face challenges of what is right or wrong in their daily work. Serving this group, it is of utmost importance for the healthcare staff to raise awareness and to understand how ethical values are at stake...
Reiff, Henry B.; Gerber, Paul J.
This study examined cognitive correlates of social perception in 32 learning-disabled elementary students. Three subtests of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised and the Profile of Nonverbal Sensitivity were used as measures. Subtests for Picture Arrangement and Comprehension seemed to have an inherent relation to social perceptual…
Friend, Marilyn; Bauwens, Jeanne
The article explores characteristics of resistance by general educators to special education consultation programs. It offers teachers of learning disabled students strategies for managing specific types of resistance as well as a general plan for minimizing resistance as well as suggestions for evaluating the impact of resistance management…
Bates, Claire; Terry, Louise; Popple, Keith
Background: Love is important aspect of life, including to people with learning disabilities both historically and more recently. Participants value the companionship, support and social status associated with a partner. Relationships are considered mechanisms to meet certain needs including feeling loved, company, intimacy and enabling…
Masterson, Julie J.; And Others
Children (ages 9-13) with language-learning disabilities were administered 5 types of verbal analogies: synonyms, antonyms, linear order, category membership, and functional relationship. Subjects performed worse than mental age-matched children on all types of analogies and performed worse than language age-matched children on all types except…
Susla, Brenda M.
The social and emotional development needs of fourth and fifth grade students (N=16) with learning disabilities were addressed through development and implementation of a 12-week awareness program called "Pupils' Over-Whelming Esteem Rise" (Project POWER). This project targeted: (1) self-awareness; (2) social awareness; (3) coping, organizing,…
Price, Barrie Jo; Marsh, George E., II
The Coping Analysis Schedule for Educational Settings (CASES), an observation instrument to identify students' primary coping or interaction styles, was evaluated with 44 educable mentally retarded (EMR), learning disabled (LD), or normal children (7 to 11 years old). CASES is intended to be a quantitative tool for collecting the data required…
Background: Growing numbers of people with learning disabilities are now living into older age. This study aims to examine the state of knowledge about their lives and the challenges that ageing has for both family carers and policymakers and practitioners. Materials and Methods: The article synthesises existing research in the fields of learning…
Landers, Andrew James
Past research indicates that teachers' beliefs are influential in their decisions and behaviors in the classroom. Teachers are also influenced by the socioeconomic status of their students. The present study on beliefs and evaluation of knowledge about working with students with learning disabilities included kindergarten through 12th grade…
In the mid-1970s, Donald Hammill and his colleagues authored three scathing critiques of the two most trusted scientific traditions of learning disability treatment--movement education and psycholinguistic training (Hammill, 1972; Hammill & Larsen, 1974; Hammill, Goodman, & Wiederholt, 1974). These critical reviews of research rejected the older…
This publication contains self-esteem exercises and a learning disabilities (LD) curriculum for students with LD in adult basic education programs. The 37 student exercises are designed to build the self-esteem of students with LD. They include self-evaluations, profiles, and checklists. Topics covered are success, decision making, problem…
McClimens, Alex; Brennan, Siobhan; Hargreaves, Pauline
We undertook this project because we believed that hearing loss experienced by the target population was greater than the referral figures suggested. Therefore, we set up a trial service initiative designed to examine the efficacy of different referral routes into audiology services for adults with learning disability. This retrospective analysis…
In this research, we considered the different impact two methods of teaching had on pupils' ability to solve complex math problems. The methods considered were: self-regulated study and traditional teaching. We also examined the pedagogical consequences the differences made among the population of pupils with learning disabilities in special…
Bellanca, Faye Francesca; Pote, Helen
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), depression and general learning disabilities (LD) are common difficulties for British primary school children. It has been found that characteristics associated with these difficulties can result in negative attitudes and stigma from other children, causing problems with peer relationships.…
Tredinnick, Gerlind; Cocks, Naomi
This study investigated the effectiveness of a 1-day dysphagia training package delivered to support workers who work with adults with a learning disability. Thirty-eight support staff took part in this study. Twenty-five support staff received training, and 13 did not receive training and therefore acted as a control group. Three questionnaires…
Vogel, Susan A.; Adelman, Pamela B.
A follow-up study investigated outcomes for 53 college-able adults with learning disabilities compared to 41 typical peers 8-15 years after exiting college. No significant differences were found on educational attainment, employment rate, congruity between academic preparation and occupation, job satisfaction and maintenance, occupational status,…
Sheridan, Lynnaire; Kotevski, Suzanne
This research examines the learning experience of university students who were tutored by a teacher with quadriplegia mixed type cerebral palsy. It was inspired by Pritchard's [2010. "Disabled People as Culturally Relevant Teachers." "Journal of Social Inclusion" 1 (1): 43-51] argument that the presence of people with a…
Bailey, Frank S.; Yocum, Russell G.
The purpose of this personal experience as a narrative investigation is to describe how an auditory processing learning disability exacerbated--and how spirituality and religiosity relieved--suicidal ideation, through the lived experiences of an individual born and raised in the United States. The study addresses: (a) how an auditory processing…
Johnson, Lynn S.; And Others
Explored the impact of group hypnotic and self-hypnotic training on the academic performance and self-esteem of learning disabled (LD) children. Important predictors of self-esteem improvement were the child's hypnotic susceptibility score and self-hypnotic practice by children and parents. Hypnotherapy is of potential benefit to self-esteem…
Carmichael, Jessica A.; Fraccaro, Rebecca L.; Miller, Daniel C.; Maricle, Denise E.
Reading, writing, and math are academic skills involving a number of different executive functions, particularly working memory. Children with specific learning disabilities (SLD) may present myriad academic difficulties, depending on their specific area(s) of processing weakness. is study examined differences in academic achievement and working…
Rodríguez, Ashley; Rodríguez, Diane
As the demographics across the United States continues to change, specifically with increases in school age English Learners who speak a home language other than English, it is imperative that schools meet the diverse needs of these children. This article summarizes studies about English Learners with learning disabilities. It reports on the…
A nonverbal learning disability is believed to be caused by damage, disorder or destruction of neuronal white matter in the brain's right hemisphere and may be seen in persons experiencing a wide range of neurological diseases such as hydrocephalus and other types of brain injury (Harnadek & Rourke 1994). This article probes the relationship…
McNamara, John K.; Wong, Bernice
This study compared students with (n=20) and without (n=40) learning disabilities (LD) on their recall of academic information and information encountered in their everyday lives. Students with LD performed poorly on both types of recall, suggesting that they may have problems with retrieval and working memory. The availability of cues…
Burdette, Paula J.; Greer, Diana L.
While research has been conducted on parental involvement in K-12 online learning, none of this research relates specifically to the parents of students with disabilities. Thus, researchers developed a survey around the following constructs: parental roles, instruction and assessment, communication and support from the school, and parental…
Cole, Emma V.; Cawthon, Stephanie W.
The number of students with learning disabilities (SLD) at postsecondary institutions has tripled over the past three decades and now constitutes about 11% of undergraduate students (Joyce & Rossen, 2006; U.S. Department of Education, 2013). Research has found that SLD who use accommodations at their postsecondary institution are more…
Policies on the inclusion of students with special educational needs in mainstream classrooms have focused attention on how general education teachers perceive these students. Furthermore with specific learning disabilities forming a large group of diverse students, and teachers' attitudes often not changing over the career span, preparing…
Quick, Carol; Mandell, Colleen
The relationship between recurrent otitis media (middle ear infection characterized by the presence of middle ear fluid and possibly leading to a temporary conductive hearing loss) and learning disabilities (LD) is examined. Traditional treatment approaches (antibiotic medication and surgery) are reviewed. The definition of LD is presented and the…
This paper describes the once-weekly psychoanalytic psychotherapy of a girl, called Ellie, aged eight at the start of her treatment. Ellie had a learning disability and displayed difficult behaviour at school and at home. In her therapy, Ellie grew in emotional intelligence, more in touch with and able to express her feelings. Her behaviour…
Abrams, Jules C.
The article proposes a dynamic-developmental-interaction approach to individuals with learning disabilities (LD) which addresses the absence of certain fundamental ego skills. Emotional conomitants to LD (such as low frustration tolerance and overcompensation) are noted, and intervention techniques based on the dynamic-developmental interaction…
Dunn, Michael W.
A debate exists in the research community about replacing the traditional IQ/achievement discrepancy method for learning disability identification with a "response-to-intervention model". This new assessment paradigm uses a student's level of improvement with small-group or individual programming to determine a possible need for…
Capellini, Simone Aparecida; Coppede, Aline Cirelli; Valle, Talita Regina
fine motor function of school-aged children with dyslexia, learning disabilities and learning difficulties. this study aimed to characterize the fine motor, sensory and perceptive function of school-aged children with dyslexia, learning disabilities and learning difficulties and to correlate these results with the analysis of the children's handwriting. participants were 80 2nd to 4th graders, ranging in age from 7 to 12 years, of both genders, divided as follows: GI: composed of 20 students with dyslexia, GII: composed of 20 students with learning disabilities, GIII: composed of 20 students with learning difficulties and GIV: composed of 20 good readers. All of the children were submitted to an assessment of the fine motor, sensorial and perceptive functions using the Dysgraphia Scale. the results indicated that most groups presented a poor performance in tests of FMF7 (fingers opposition), S8 (graphestesia) and P1 (body imitation). GI and GII were the groups that presented the worst performance in most of the tests when compared to GIII and GIV. Regarding handwriting, it was observed that all of the children in GII are dysgraphics. the presence of motor, sensorial and perceptive alterations is a characteristic of children with learning disabilities and dyslexia. However this characteristic may or may not be found in children with learning difficulties, therefore motor, sensorial and perceptive alterations are responsible for the dysgraphic behavior observed in the children with learning disabilities of the present study.
Full Text Available Τhis study is a critical review of published scientific literature on the use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT, Virtual Reality, multimedia, music and their applications in children with special learning difficulties. Technology and music are two factors that are recognized as tools which ensure quality of life, success and access to knowledge and learning resources. In the following papers of the last decade (2006-2015 are proposed models of music therapy for students with special learning difficulties in a psycho educational setting. There are also defined future research perspectives concerning the applications of technology in this particular research field.
Fletcher, Jack M; Grigorenko, Elena L
Over the past 50 years, research on children and adults with learning disabilities has seen significant advances. Neuropsychological research historically focused on the administration of tests sensitive to brain dysfunction to identify putative neural mechanisms underlying learning disabilities that would serve as the basis for treatment. Led by research on classifying and identifying learning disabilities, four pivotal changes in research paradigms have produced a contemporary scientific, interdisciplinary, and international understanding of these disabilities. These changes are (1) the emergence of cognitive science, (2) the development of quantitative and molecular genetics, (3) the advent of noninvasive structural and functional neuroimaging, and (4) experimental trials of interventions focused on improving academic skills and addressing comorbid conditions. Implications for practice indicate a need to move neuropsychological assessment away from a primary focus on systematic, comprehensive assessment of cognitive skills toward more targeted performance-based assessments of academic achievement, comorbid conditions, and intervention response that lead directly to evidence-based treatment plans. Future research will continue to cross disciplinary boundaries to address questions regarding the interaction of neurobiological and contextual variables, the importance of individual differences in treatment response, and an expanded research base on (a) the most severe cases, (b) older people with LDs, and (c) domains of math problem solving, reading comprehension, and written expression. (JINS, 2017, 23, 930-940).
Evans, Teresa; Patel, Dilip R.
Math skills are necessary for success in the childhood educational and future adult work environment. This article reviews the changing terminology for specific learning disabilities (SLD) in math and describes the emerging genetics and neuroimaging studies that relate to individuals with math disability (MD). It is important to maintain a developmental perspective on MD, as presentation changes with age, instruction, and the different models (educational and medical) of identification. Intervention requires a systematic approach to screening and remediation that has evolved with more evidence-based literature. Newer directions in behavioral, educational and novel interventions are described. PMID:29441282
Soares, Neelkamal; Evans, Teresa; Patel, Dilip R
Math skills are necessary for success in the childhood educational and future adult work environment. This article reviews the changing terminology for specific learning disabilities (SLD) in math and describes the emerging genetics and neuroimaging studies that relate to individuals with math disability (MD). It is important to maintain a developmental perspective on MD, as presentation changes with age, instruction, and the different models (educational and medical) of identification. Intervention requires a systematic approach to screening and remediation that has evolved with more evidence-based literature. Newer directions in behavioral, educational and novel interventions are described.
Heltberg, Andreas Søndergaard; Andersen, John Sahl; Sandholdt, Håkon
AIMS: To investigate how self-reported risk factors (including socioeconomic status) predict undiagnosed, prevalent type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). To externally validate Leicester Risk Assessment Score (LRAS), Finnish Diabetes Risk Score (FINDRISC) and Danish Diabetes Risk Score (DDRS...... prediction models reporting ROC-curves for undiagnosed T2DM, pre-diabetes and SCORE. RESULTS: More than 20% of people with T2DM were undiagnosed. The 7 most important self-rated predictors in sequential order were high BMI, antihypertensive-therapy, age, cardiovascular disease, waist-circumference, fitness...... are important risk factors for undiagnosed T2DM. LRAS performed better than DDRS and FINDRISC in prediction of undiagnosed T2DM and SCORE≥5%. SCORE performed best in predicting pre-diabetes. Copyright © 2017 Primary Care Diabetes Europe. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserve...
Sagoo, G S; Mohammed, S; Barton, G; Norbury, G; Ahn, J W; Ogilvie, C M; Kroese, M
To undertake a cost-effectiveness analysis of using microarray comparative genomic hybridisation (array-CGH) as a first-line test versus as a second-line test for the diagnosis of causal chromosomal abnormalities in patients referred to a NHS clinical genetics service in the U.K. with idiopathic learning disability, developmental delay and/or congenital anomalies. A cost-effectiveness study was conducted. The perspective is that of a U.K. NHS clinical genetics service provider (with respect to both costs and outcomes). A cohort of patients (n = 1590) referred for array-CGH testing of undiagnosed learning disability and developmental delay by a single NHS regional clinical genetics service (South East Thames Regional Genetics Service), were split into a before-and-after design where 742 patients had array-CGH as a second-line test (before group-comparator intervention) and 848 patients had array-CGH as a first-line test (after group-evaluated intervention). The mean costs were calculated from the clinical genetics testing pathway constructed for each patient including the costs of genetic testing undertaken and clinical appointments scheduled. The outcome was the number of diagnoses each intervention produced so that a mean cost-per-diagnosis could be calculated. The cost effectiveness of the two interventions was calculated as an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio to produce an incremental cost-per-diagnosis (in 2013 GBP). Sensitivity analyses were conducted by altering both costs and effects to check the validity of the outcome. The incremental mean cost of testing patients using the first-line testing strategy was -GBP241.56 (95% CIs -GBP256.93 to -GBP226.19) and the incremental mean gain in the percentage diagnoses was 0.39% (95% CIs -2.73 to 3.51%), which equates to an additional 1 diagnosis per 256 patients tested. This cost-effectiveness study comparing these two strategies estimates that array-CGH first-line testing dominates second-line testing because it
Hearne, D; Stone, S
The field of learning disabilities, like education in the main, is undergoing calls for reform and restructuring, an upheaval brought on in great part by the forces of opposing paradigms--reductionism and constructivism. In reexamining our past, we must begin to address the failures of traditional deficit models and their abysmally low "cure" rate. Several new theories have arisen that challenge traditional practices in both general and special education classrooms. Particularly influential has been the work of Howard Gardner, whose theory of multiple intelligences calls for a restructuring of our schools to accommodate modes of learning and inquiry with something other than deficit approaches. At least some current research in the field of learning disabilities has begun to focus on creativity and nontraditional strengths and talents that have not been well understood or highly valued by the schools. In this article, we briefly summarize the findings in our search for the talents of students labeled learning disabled, evidence of their abilities, implications of these for the schools, and a beginning set of practical recommendations.
Much of what is communicated in the classroom is through nonverbal means. Sending appropriate nonverbal signals, as well as recognizing and interpreting the nonverbal signals of others, are essential features of the learning process. Students' abilities to encode and decode nonverbal communication have the potential to affect all aspects of their…
Terrazas-Arellanes, Fatima E.; Gallard M., Alejandro J.; Strycker, Lisa A.; Walden, Emily D.
The purpose of this study was to document the design, classroom implementation, and effectiveness of interactive online units to enhance science learning over 3 years among students with learning disabilities, English learners, and general education students. Results of a randomised controlled trial with 2,303 middle school students and 71…
Strobel, Wendy; Arthanat, Sajay; Bauer, Stephen; Flagg, Jennifer
The primary market research outlined in this paper was conducted by the Rehabilitation Engineering Research Center on Technology Transfer to identify critical technology needs for people with learning disabilities. Based on the research conducted, the underlying context of these technology needs is Universal Design for Learning (UDL). The paper…
Wight, Mary Caitlin S.
This examination of the literature on foreign, or second, language learning by native English-speaking students with disabilities addresses the benefits of language learning, the practices and policies of language exemption, the perceptions of students and educators regarding those practices, and available resources for supporting students with…
Saenz, Laura M.; Fuchs, Lynn S.; Fuchs, Douglas
This study assessed the effects of Peer-Assisted Learning Strategies (PALS), a reciprocal classwide peer-tutoring strategy, on the reading performance of native Spanish-speaking students with learning disabilities (LD) and their low-, average-, and high-achieving classroom peers. Participants were 132 native Spanish-speaking English language…
Kaczorowski, Tara; Raimondi, Sharon
In this paper, we describe a small case study exploring how four elementary students with mathematics learning disabilities utilized mobile technology (the eWorkbook) during core math instruction in a general education setting. The lead author designed the eWorkbook intervention to provide a flexible learning experience optimized for diverse…
Pintrich, P R; Anderman, E M; Klobucar, C
The present study examines several cognitive and motivational variables that distinguish children with learning disabilities (n = 19) from children without learning disabilities (n = 20). The total sample included 30 males and 9 females and was composed of white, fifth-grade students from a middle-class community in the Midwest. Results showed that although the students with learning disabilities displayed lower levels of metacognitive knowledge and reading comprehension, they did not differ from the students without learning disabilities on self-efficacy, intrinsic orientation, or anxiety. In addition, they did not show any signs of learned helplessness, although they did tend to attribute success and failure to external causes more often than the students without learning disabilities. Using a cluster analysis that grouped individuals, we found that differences in the motivational and cognitive variables cut across a priori categories of children with and without learning disabilities. Three clusters were formed: one with high comprehension, motivation, and metacognition (mostly children without learning disabilities); one with low levels of comprehension and metacognition but high intrinsic motivation (all children with learning disabilities); and one with low intrinsic motivation but average comprehension, metacognition, and attributional style (approximately equal numbers of children with and without learning disabilities). Implications for diagnosis and intervention for students with learning disabilities are discussed.
Dickinson, David L; Verbeek, Roelant L
Wage differential studies examining legally protected groups typically focus on gender or racial differences. Legislation also fully protects individuals with learning disabilities (LD). This article is the first to decompose wage differentials between adults with and without LD. An original data set of college graduates with documented LD was constructed, and these individuals were compared to a control group from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY). Our results show that much of the observed lower wages for individuals with LD is due to differences in productivity characteristics. However, there is an unexplained portion of the wage gap that could possibly be considered wage discrimination against individuals with LD. This possibility seems smaller due to the fact that the subsample of the employers who knew of the employee's learning disabilities did not appear to pay significantly lower wages to these individuals. Alternative hypotheses are discussed, as are sample-specific issues.
The increasing population of older people with learning disabilities may lead to higher demand for contact with registered nurses. To date, little research has been undertaken regarding the role of registered nurses in meeting the health and care needs of this client group. In this article, the author reports on the second stage of a three-stage research study that used six case studies to explore this issue. Implications for nursing were identified in areas such as health needs, record keeping, medication, advocacy, social aspects, ageing in place, percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) feeding, spirituality and end-of-life care. The author concludes that registered nurses will need to continue to remain up to date to meet the complex needs of older individuals with learning disabilities.
Claudia GRAU RUBIO
Full Text Available In this article, we describe the behavioral phenotype of individuals with Fragile X Syndrome and its impact in the educational scope. This syndrome is characterized by difficulties in sensory integration, cognitive deficits (verbal reasoning, abstract/ visual and cuantitative skills, short term memory, sequential processing, attention and executive processes, language disorders (phonetic-phonologicals, semanticals, morphosyntacticals and pragmaticals and communication disorders, social anxiety, general hyperarousal, autism, non autistic social difficulties, attention deficit and hyperactivity, and learning disabilities. The behavioral phenotype is highly variable and depends on sex, age, and mutation status (full mutation or premutation. The behavioural phenotype has important repercussions in education, as it enables us to understand the learning disabilities and to develop specific intervention strategies.
Goldberg, Renee L.; Zern, David S.
The study examined differences between 57 learning disabled (LD) and 24 non-LD college students on measures of psychoeducational assessment. In addition, differences between LD students with good and poor academic performance were studied, and coping strategies were identified for both sub-groups. A variety of standardized tests were administered…
Clegg, J A
Moving from an individual to a social focus will allow clinical psychologists working with people who have learning disabilities to address a wider range of difficulties experienced by this client group. Social constructionist theory may be a useful framework to facilitate such an approach, and is intellectually compatible with changes occurring in other related disciplines. Research relevant to this perspective is reviewed under four subheadings proposed by Doise. Implications for clinical practice are discussed by reference to two case studies.
Stirk, Steven; Field, Bryony; Black, Jessica
The Learning Disability Screening Questionnaire (LDSQ) has been shown to have high sensitivity and specificity to identify those who are likely to meet intellectual disability diagnostic criteria (McKenzie, et al. ). However, there is no independent research to date to support these findings. An archival research design was used, utilizing data from diagnostic tools including the LDSQ, Wechsler Adult Intelligence assessments and Adaptive Behavior Assessment System Second Edition (ABAS-II) scores. Sensitivity and specificity values derived here were lower than those reported by (McKenzie, et al. ). Only IQ, not adaptive/social functioning, was found to be an accurate predictor of the LDSQ score. Results indicate limited validity in using (McKenzie, et al. ) proposed cut-off scores. The authors have expressed caution around using the LDSQ in isolation to identify those with an intellectual disability. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Mirandola, Chiara; Losito, Nunzia; Ghetti, Simona; Cornoldi, Cesare
Research has shown that children with learning disabilities (LD) are less prone to evince associative illusions of memory as a result of impairments in their ability to engage in semantic processing. However, it is unclear whether this observation is true for scripted life events, especially if they include emotional content, or across a broad spectrum of learning disabilities. The present study addressed these issues by assessing recognition memory for script-like information in children with nonverbal learning disability (NLD), children with dyslexia, and typically developing children (N=51). Participants viewed photographs about 8 common events (e.g., family dinner), and embedded in each episode was either a negative or a neutral consequence of an unseen action. Children's memory was then tested on a yes/no recognition task that included old and new photographs. Results showed that the three groups performed similarly in recognizing target photographs, but exhibited differences in memory errors. Compared to other groups, children with NLD were more likely to falsely recognize photographs that depicted an unseen cause of an emotional seen event and associated more "Remember" responses to these errors. Children with dyslexia were equally likely to falsely recognize both unseen causes of seen photographs and photographs generally consistent with the script, whereas the other participant groups were more likely to falsely recognize unseen causes rather than script-consistent distractors. Results are interpreted in terms of mechanisms underlying false memories' formation in different clinical populations of children with LD. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Backenson, Erica M; Holland, Sara C; Kubas, Hanna A; Fitzer, Kim R; Wilcox, Gabrielle; Carmichael, Jessica A; Fraccaro, Rebecca L; Smith, Amanda D; Macoun, Sarah J; Harrison, Gina L; Hale, James B
Children with specific learning disabilities (SLD) have deficits in the basic psychological processes that interfere with learning and academic achievement, and for some SLD subtypes, these deficits can also lead to emotional and/or behavior problems. This study examined psychosocial functioning in 123 students, aged 6 to 11, who underwent comprehensive evaluations for learning and/or behavior problems in two Pacific Northwest school districts. Using concordance-discordance model (C-DM) processing strengths and weaknesses SLD identification criteria, results revealed working memory SLD (n = 20), processing speed SLD (n = 30), executive SLD (n = 32), and no disability groups (n = 41). Of the SLD subtypes, repeated measures MANOVA results revealed the processing speed SLD subtype exhibited the greatest psychosocial and adaptive impairment according to teacher behavior ratings. Findings suggest processing speed deficits may be behind the cognitive and psychosocial disturbances found in what has been termed "nonverbal" SLD. Limitations, implications, and future research needs are addressed. © Hammill Institute on Disabilities 2013.
Johnson, Samantha; Strauss, Victoria; Gilmore, Camilla; Jaekel, Julia; Marlow, Neil; Wolke, Dieter
Children born extremely preterm are at high risk for intellectual disability, learning disabilities, executive dysfunction and special educational needs, but little is understood about the comorbidity of intellectual and learning disabilities in this population. This study explored comorbidity in intellectual disability (ID) and learning disabilities (LD) in children born extremely preterm (EP; disabilities. LD were associated with a 3 times increased risk for SEN. However, EP children with ID alone had poorer neuropsychological abilities and curriculum-based attainment than children with no disabilities, yet there was no increase in SEN provision among this group. EP children are at high risk for comorbid intellectual and learning disabilities. Education professionals should be aware of the complex nature of EP children's difficulties and the need for multi-domain assessments to guide intervention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
The Spastic Society Of Karnataka , Bangalore
Study conducted by The Spastics Society of Karnataka on behalf of Azim Premji Foundation to assess the effectiveness of computers in enhancing learning for children with specific learning disabilities. Azim Premji Foundation is not liable for any direct or indirect loss or damage whatsoever arising from the use or access of any information, interpretation and conclusions that may be printed in this report.; Study to assess the effectiveness of computers in enhancing learning for children with...
Full Text Available A majority of studies on learning disabilities have focused on elementary grades. Although problems with learning disabilities are life-affecting only a few studies focus on deficits in adults. In this study adults with isolated mathematical disabilities (n=101 and adults with combined mathematical and reading disabilities (n=130 solved tests on procedural calculation and number knowledge, numerical facility and visuospatial skills. Metacognitive skilfulness was assessed through calibration measures, a questionnaire, stimulated recall, and thematic analyses after a qualitative interactive interview with a flexible agenda to discover the interviewee’s own framework of meanings and to avoid imposing the researcher’s structures and assumptions. In our dataset the isolated group (MD did worse than the comorbid group (M+RD on mental representation, dealing with contextual information and number knowledge. However the comorbid group did worse on the number sense tasks. No significant differences were found between the MD and M+RD adults for fact retrieval, procedural calculation and visuo spatial tasks. In addition adults with MD overestimated their mathematics results, whereas individuals with M+RD underestimated their results in the calibration task. Moreover, adults with M+RD thought that they were worse on the evaluation of the own results, the evaluation of the own capacities and on monitoring when things went wrong compared with adults in the M+RD group. Thematic analyses revealed that many adults had problems with planning and keeping track of steps and that supporting surroundings were important protective factors towards the chances of success. Consequences for the assessment of metacognition in adults and for the support of adults with mathematical disabilities are discussed.
A positive incident during a placement in a special school is used to illustrate that reflecting on positive incidents helps the student nurse to recognise good practice and personal strengths. The incident involving a child's achievement in mastering new communication skills led to improved understanding of the role of the special educational needs teacher and the speech and language therapist and the positive effect of early professional intervention. It also emphasised the benefits of Makaton and picture aids for children with communication problems. A major benefit of the placement experience was that it improved the student's confidence in approaching and interacting with children with special needs and speech difficulties. It also highlighted the value of nurses learning basic Makaton in order to enhance their communication skills. Using reflection to review positive experiences can be as effective in highlighting strengths and weaknesses as reflecting upon negative experiences.
Widodo Dwi Riyanto
Full Text Available The fact shows that students with learning disability need media of learning mathematics. The purpose of this study was to (1 develop interactive learning multimedia of power point, and (2 examine the effectiveness of power point in mathematics learning. The sample was a group of students in elementary school in Ngawi, East Java, Indonesia, especially those with learning disability. This study was a research and development comprising three stages: preliminary study, product development, and testing the effectiveness of the product. The data were collected through questionnaires, interviews and tests, then analyzed by descriptive qualitative, and t-test was to analize the effect of the product. In the development stage, the result showed that Experts validation is high as indicated by the mean score of 4.50 for the learning material, and the mean score of 4.44 for quality of the multimedia. The trial results showed that the quality of multimedia was very good as indicated by the mean score of 4.32. In term of the effectiveness of the product, the result from the t-test shows an increase of 14.27 (21.88%. This means that the interactive learning multimedia of power point improves the achievement of mathematic learning for students with learning disability in mathematics. Except where otherwise noted, content on this site is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
Full Text Available Many students with learning disabilities continue to struggle in the classrooms of our traditional school systems, where curriculum objectives usually take precedence over the natural processes of learning. In this article, I review and summarize what I have learned about learning through the observation and parenting of my 2 year old son. I reflect on the question: What do these lessons about natural learning teach me about instructing students with learning disabilities? While I conclude that students still need compensatory strategies, they also need the space to allow learning to move at its own pace, the freedom to make good and bad choices, honesty from educators, and they need to learn independence within structure.
Sullivan, Amanda L; Kohli, Nidhi; Farnsworth, Elyse M; Sadeh, Shanna; Jones, Leila
Accurate estimation of developmental trajectories can inform instruction and intervention. We compared the fit of linear, quadratic, and piecewise mixed-effects models of reading development among students with learning disabilities relative to their typically developing peers. We drew an analytic sample of 1,990 students from the nationally representative Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Cohort of 1998, using reading achievement scores from kindergarten through eighth grade to estimate three models of students' reading growth. The piecewise mixed-effects models provided the best functional form of the students' reading trajectories as indicated by model fit indices. Results showed slightly different trajectories between students with learning disabilities and without disabilities, with varying but divergent rates of growth throughout elementary grades, as well as an increasing gap over time. These results highlight the need for additional research on appropriate methods for modeling reading trajectories and the implications for students' response to instruction. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Meehan, William P; Mannix, Rebekah C; O'Brien, Michael J; Collins, Michael W
Previous studies suggest athletes underreport concussions. We sought to determine whether athletes in our clinics have sustained previous concussions that went undiagnosed. Multicentered cross sectional study. Two sport concussion clinics. Patients diagnosed with sport-related concussions or concussions with injury mechanisms and forces similar to those observed in sports were included. The proportion of patients who answered "yes" to the following question were defined as having a previously undiagnosed concussion: "Have you ever sustained a blow to the head which was NOT diagnosed as a concussion but was followed by one or more of the signs and symptoms listed in the Post Concussion Symptom Scale?" Of the 486 patients included in the final analysis, 148 (30.5%) patients reported a previously undiagnosed concussion. Athletes reporting previously undiagnosed concussions had a higher mean Post Concussion Symptom Scale (PCSS) score (33 vs 25; P concussions. Nearly one-third of athletes have sustained previously undiagnosed concussions, defined as a blow to the head followed by the signs and symptoms included in the PCSS. Furthermore, these previously undiagnosed concussions are associated with higher PCSS scores and higher loss of consciousness rates when future concussions occur. Many athletes have sustained previous blows to the head that result in the signs and symptoms of concussion but have not been diagnosed with a concussion. These injuries are associated with increased rates of loss of consciousness and higher symptom scale scores with future concussions.
Meehan, William P.; Mannix, Rebekah C.; O'Brien, Michael J.; Collins, Michael W.
Objective Previous studies suggest athletes underreport concussions. We sought to determine whether athletes in our clinics have sustained previous concussions that went undiagnosed. Design Multi-centered, cross sectional study. Setting Two sport concussion clinics. Patients Patients diagnosed with sport-related concussions or concussions with injury mechanisms and forces similar to those observed in sports were included. Main Outcome Measures The proportion of patients that answered “yes” to the following question were defined as having a previously undiagnosed concussion: “Have you ever sustained a blow to the head which was NOT diagnosed as a concussion but was followed by one or more of the signs and symptoms listed in the Post Concussion Symptom Scale.” Results Of the 486 patients included in the final analysis, 148 (30.5%) reported a previously undiagnosed concussion. Athletes reporting previously undiagnosed concussions had a higher mean Post Concussion Symptom Scale score (33 v. 25; p concussions. Conclusions Nearly one third of athletes have sustained previously undiagnosed concussions, defined as a blow to the head followed by the signs and symptoms included in the post concussion symptom scale. Furthermore, these previously undiagnosed concussions are associated with higher post concussion symptom scale scores and higher loss of consciousness rates when future concussions occur. PMID:23727697
Kitchens, Vivian D.; Deris, Aaron R.; Simon, Marilyn K.
Students with learning disabilities score lower than other at-risk groups on state standardized assessment tests. Educators are searching for intervention strategies to improve math achievement for students with learning disabilities. The study examined the effects of a mathematics intervention known as Cover, Copy, and Compare for learning basic…
Andre, Amael; Louvet, Benoit; Deneuve, Pascale
The aim of this research was to study the impact of cooperative learning on changes in cooperative behaviours and acceptance amongst pupils with learning disabilities related to risk-taking. One hundred and sixty-eight French first year middle school pupils participated in this study. Thirty-six pupils with learning disabilities were mainstreamed…
Smith, Sean J.; Burdette, Paula J.; Cheatham, Gregory A.; Harvey, Susan P.
This study, conducted by researchers at the Center on Online Learning and Students With Disabilities, investigated parent perceptions and experiences regarding fully online learning for their children with disabilities. Results suggest that with the growth in K-12 fully online learning experiences, the parent (or adult member) in students'…
Stetter, Maria Earman; Hughes, Marie Tejero
Reading comprehension is a crucial skill for academic success of all students. Very often, students with learning disabilities struggle with reading skills and since students learn new information in school by reading; these difficulties often increase the academic struggles students with learning disabilities face. The current study examined…
Mason, Tom; Phipps, Dianne
This paper reports on an investigation into the skills and competencies of forensic learning disability nurses in the United Kingdom. The two sample populations were forensic learning disability nurses from the high, medium, and low secure psychiatric services and non-forensic learning disability nurses from generic services. An information gathering schedule was used to collect the data; of 1200 schedules, 643 were returned for a response rate of 53.5%. The data identified the "top ten" problems that forensic learning disability nurses may encounter, the skills and competencies necessary to overcome them, and the areas that need to be developed in the future. The results indicated that the forensic learning disability nurses tended to focus on the physical aspects to the role whilst the non-forensic learning disability nurses tended to perceive the forensic role in relational terms. This has implications for practice, policy, and procedures.
Tolar, Tammy D; Fuchs, Lynn; Fletcher, Jack M; Fuchs, Douglas; Hamlett, Carol L
Three cohorts of third-grade students (N= 813) were evaluated on achievement, cognitive abilities, and behavioral attention according to contrasting research traditions in defining math learning disability (LD) status: low achievement versus extremely low achievement and IQ-achievement discrepant versus strictly low-achieving LD. We use methods from these two traditions to form math problem solving LD groups. To evaluate group differences, we used MANOVA-based profile and canonical analyses to control for relations among the outcomes and regression to control for group definition variables. Results suggest that basic arithmetic is the key distinguishing characteristic that separates low-achieving problem solvers (including LD, regardless of definition) from typically achieving students. Word problem solving is the key distinguishing characteristic that separates IQ-achievement-discrepant from strictly low-achieving LD students, favoring the IQ-achievement-discrepant students. © Hammill Institute on Disabilities 2014.
It is without doubt that people with learning difficulties are considered vulnerable and meeting the healthcare needs of this group in society is now recognised as a challenging task. This case study examines the implications of life with a stoma for one particular man with learning difficulties and reflects on the key issues that have influenced his care: stigma and isolation, general healthcare needs for people with learning disabilities and the association with stoma care, and the provision of care and whose role it is. Key findings include inconsistencies between primary, secondary and social care, resulting in lack of integration and flexibility in provision of care; lack of responsibility for care, with a 'pass the buck' response; lack of knowledge about stoma care in most care settings; and, as a stoma care nurse, the importance of personal instinct, along with persistence in advocating appropriate levels of care for vulnerable ostomists.
Taderera, Clever; Hall, Herna
Parenting children with learning disabilities requires a high level of knowledge and access to resources, information and services. In developing countries, however, these resources and services are not always available. Parents in Namibia, a developing country, therefore face challenges addressing children's learning and other developmental disabilities, including challenges related to preventative and supportive interventions. This research focuses on challenges faced by parents as they parent children with learning disabilities in Opuwo, Namibia. In-depth interviews were conducted with eight parents regarding the challenges they face in parenting their children with learning disabilities. Thematic analysis enabled the researchers to identify, analyse and report on themes that emerged from the qualitative interview data. Analysis of the interviews indicated that some participants had only a vague understanding of learning disabilities, as they did not have access to essential knowledge about this phenomenon. They also lacked an awareness of the availability of programmes, services and policies meant to benefit their children with learning disabilities. Participants voiced that they, their children with learning disabilities and community members have stereotypes and prejudices regarding learning disabilities. In this study, most of the children with learning disabilities were raised by single, unemployed parents who seemed to have access to less support from external sources than married couples parenting children with learning disabilities. These single parents are usually not married and because of lack of financial support from the other parent, the majority of them indicated that they struggle to meet the financial and material needs of their children. The researchers concluded that the participants in this study experience a range of challenges in parenting their children with learning disabilities. The main challenges emanate from financial instability, as
Orosco, Michael John; O'Connor, Rollanda
This case study describes the culturally responsive instruction of one special education teacher with Latino English language learners (ELLs) with learning disabilities in an urban elementary school setting. This study was situated in a social constructivist research based framework. In investigating this instruction with ELLs, this study focused on how one teacher's knowledge of culturally responsive pedagogy affected her special education instruction. Findings resulted in three major themes that were aligned with the current literature in this area: Cultural Aspects of Teaching Reading, Culturally Relevant Skills-Based Instruction, and Collaborative Agency Time. The results indicated that the success of special education with ELLs at the elementary education level might be dependent on how well the special education teacher integrates culturally responsive instruction with ELLs' cultural and linguistic needs. © Hammill Institute on Disabilities 2013.
Strydom, André; Al-Janabi, Tamara; Houston, Marie; Ridley, James
People with learning disabilities, particularly Down's syndrome, are at increased risk of dementia. At present, services and care tailored to people with both dementia and a learning disability are unsatisfactory. This article reviews the literature specific to dementia in people with learning disabilities, including: comprehensive screening, diagnosis, management, environmental considerations, end of life care and training issues for nursing staff. Recommendations for best practice and service improvement are made to improve the quality of life for individuals with dementia and learning disabilities, pre and post-diagnosis.
Germano, Giseli Donadon; Capellini, Simone Aparecida
To elaborate a procedure of metaphonological evaluation, and to characterize the performance of students with developmental dyslexia, learning disabilities and learning difficulties and good readers in this evaluation. Metaphonological abilities tests were elaborated based on the necessary skills for reading and writing development. Participants were 134 students from 3rd to 5th grades of elementary school of both genders, with ages between 7 and 13 years, divided into GI (20 students with developmental dyslexia), GII (20 students with learning disabilities), GIII (20 students with learning difficulties) and GIV (74 good readers). The assessment of metaphonological abilities - PROHFON - was applied. Students from GI and GII differed from GIV in most of the tests; GI differed from GII only in the phonemic synthesis and analysis test, and from GIII in abilities of deletion and combination of phonemes. GIII differed from GIV in counting, identification, rhyming, deletion, and combination abilities. Students with developmental dyslexia, learning disabilities and learning difficulties, and good readers showed similar performances in identification, counting and combining phonemes, rhyme and alliteration abilities. The groups differed from each other regarding syllabic (counting, identification, synthesis and analysis, deletion, combination) and phonemic (deletion, synthesis and analysis) abilities. The PROHFON contributed to characterize the metaphonological profile of students with different learning deficits.
Solvoll, Betty-Ann; Hall, Elisabeth O C; Brinchmann, Berit Støre
Healthcare providers caring for learning-disabled individuals in institutions face challenges of what is right or wrong in their daily work. Serving this group, it is of utmost importance for the healthcare staff to raise awareness and to understand how ethical values are at stake. What ethical challenges are discussed among healthcare providers working with adults with learning disabilities? The study had a qualitative and investigative design. The study was conducted in a community institution for adults with learning disabilities. Participants were healthcare providers joining regular focused group discussions. Two groups participated and each group consisted of six participants. The conversations were taped and transcribed. The study was reported to Norwegian Social Science Data Services and was approved by the regional ethics committee. Findings are presented in four themes: (a) feeling squeezed between conflicting actions, (b) being the client's spokesman, (c) searching shared responsibility, and (d) expecting immediate and fixed solutions. The healthcare providers wanted to be the clients' advocates. They felt obliged to speak up for the clients, however, seeking for someone with whom to share the heavily experienced responsibility. Data likewise revealed that the group discussions created expectations among the healthcare providers; they expected smart and final solutions to the problems they discussed. The discussion focuses on everyday ethical challenges, the meaning of being in-between and share responsibility, and the meaning of ethical sensitivity. Ethical challenges can be demanding for the staff; they might feel squeezed in-between contradictory attitudes or feel alone in decision-making. Frequent conversations about ethical challenges do not solve the ethical problems here-and-now, but they do visualize them. This also visualizes the staff's need for support. © The Author(s) 2014.
WA10 Working in partnership with people with learning disabilities: academics and people with learning disabilities working together to disseminate the findings of a confidential inquiry into deaths of people with learning disabilities through film.
In England, between 2010-2013, a Confidential Inquiry into premature Deaths of People with Learning Disabilities was commissioned by the Department of Health. This took place in SW England led by Norah Fry Research Centre at Bristol University. Findings from the investigations into 247 deaths included that men with learning disabilities die, on average 13 years sooner and women, on average 20 years sooner, than the general population. Over 1/3 (37%) were found to be avoidable, being amenable to good quality healthcare. A number of key recommendations were made which required understanding by a range of audiences including people with learning disabilities and their carers. This workshop will demonstrate how academics can work with actors with learning disabilities to disseminate research findings about a sensitive subject in a thought provoking and accessible way. Academics worked with the MISFITs theatre company to make a DVD about the findings and recommendations of the Confidential Inquiry. The DVD presents the findings of the Confidential Inquiry through the stories of John, Bill, Karen and Emily. It powerfully illustrates the importance of diagnosing and treating illness of people with learning disabilities in a timely and appropriate manner and highlights the measures that could be taken to reduce premature deaths in this population. The session provides an example of how the voices of people with learning disabilities can communicate research messages effectively to people with learning disabilities, health and social care practitioners and others who support the learning disability population. © 2015, Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Full Text Available This case can be placed in a neurologic classification. The patient is a child with learning disability in school activities. He was first referred to an audiological clinic because of a central auditory processing disorder (CAPD. His mother has noticed several hearing problems and this led us to the evaluations for his central auditory processing disorder. He has problems in hearing speech in noise and speech processing and need his friends repeat words during communication. no vestibular disorder was noticed nor any localization problem. The child has a good progress in school and only suffered problems in reading tasks. Intelligence quotient(IQ was also normal.
Mittan, Robert J.
This is a six part article intended to give parents the information and strategies they need to cope with their child with epilepsy who may have school learning problems. Epilepsy and seizures affect the classroom in unique ways that can make the learning experience especially challenging for some kids. Fortunately, much can be done to give the…
Bryant, D P; Bryant, B R
Cooperative learning (CL) is a common instructional arrangement that is used by classroom teachers to foster academic achievement and social acceptance of students with and without learning disabilities. Cooperative learning is appealing to classroom teachers because it can provide an opportunity for more instruction and feedback by peers than can be provided by teachers to individual students who require extra assistance. Recent studies suggest that students with LD may need adaptations during cooperative learning activities. The use of assistive technology adaptations may be necessary to help some students with LD compensate for their specific learning difficulties so that they can engage more readily in cooperative learning activities. A process for integrating technology adaptations into cooperative learning activities is discussed in terms of three components: selecting adaptations, monitoring the use of the adaptations during cooperative learning activities, and evaluating the adaptations' effectiveness. The article concludes with comments regarding barriers to and support systems for technology integration, technology and effective instructional practices, and the need to consider technology adaptations for students who have learning disabilities.
Foreign language (FL) requirements at postsecondary institutions remain a major hurdle for many students with learning disabilities (LD) as well as a significant portion of students without diagnosed LD. Many institutions have developed foreign language substitution (FLS) policies that allow students with LD to take alternate paths to meet the…
Barker, Trevor; Jones, Sara; Britton, Carol; Messer, David
This paper describes the different methods used to evaluate individually configurable multimedia materials developed for the Horizon project, a program designed to increase employment opportunities for students with disabilities or learning difficulties. The project established a working cafe/restaurant in East London staffed by the students. Part…
Jorgensen, Mary; Budd, Jillian; Fichten, Catherine S.; Nguyen, Mai N.; Havel, Alice
This study's goal was to compare aspects related to academic persistence of two groups of college students with non-visible disabilities: 110 Canadian two and four-year college students--55 with mental health related disabilities and 55 with Specific Learning Disorder (LD). Results show that students with mental health related disabilities were…
Nwachukwu, Bethel C.
There has been a push towards the education of students with Learning Disabilities in inclusive educational settings with their non-disabled peers. Zigmond (2003) stated that it is not the placement of students with disabilities in general education setting alone that would guarantee their successes; instead, the strategies teachers use to ensure that these children are being engaged and learning will enable them become successful. Despite the fact that there are several bodies of research on effective teaching of students with learning disabilities, special education teachers continue to have difficulties concerning the appropriate strategies for promoting student engagement and improving learning for students with learning disabilities placed in inclusive educational settings (Zigmond, 2003). This qualitative study interviewed and collected data from fifteen high performing special education teachers who were employed in a Southern state elementary school district to uncover the strategies they have found useful in their attempts to promote student engagement and attempts to improve student achievement for students with learning disabilities placed in inclusive educational settings. The study uncovered strategies for promoting engagement and improving learning outcomes for students with learning disabilities placed in inclusive classrooms. The findings showed that in order to actually reach the students with learning disabilities, special education teachers must go the extra miles by building rapport with the school communities, possess good classroom management skills, and become student advocates.
Mosby, Robert J.
The developmental bypass teaching technique (which provides students an opportunity to bypass their learning deficits) was studied with regard to social studies achievement and classroom behaviors in 50 learning disabled junior high school students. (Author/PHR)
Full Text Available In considering the role that technology and e-learning can play in helping students access higher education and an effective learning experience, a large amount of the current research and practice literature focuses almost exclusively on accessibility legislation, guidelines and standards, and the rules contained within them (Abascal et al., 2004; Chisholm & Brewer, 2005; Gunderson & May, 2005; Paolucci, 2004; Reed et al., 2004; Slatin, 2005. One of the major problems of such an approach is that it has drawn higher education practitioners into thinking that their objective is to comply with rules. I argue that it is not (Seale, 2006. The objective should be to address the needs of students. The danger of only focusing on rules is that it can constrain thinking and therefore practice. We need to expand our thinking beyond that of how to comply with rules, towards how to meet the needs of students with disabilities, within the local contexts that students and practitioners are working. In thinking about how to meet the needs of students with disabilities, practitioners will need to develop their own tools. These tools might be user case studies, evaluation methodologies or conceptualizations:
Koutsoftas, Anthony D; Petersen, Victoria
Cohesion refers to the linguistic elements of discourse that contribute to its continuity and is an important element to consider as part of written language intervention, especially in children with language learning disabilities (LLD). There is substantial evidence that children with LLD perform more poorly than typically developing (TD) peers on measures of cohesion in spoken language and on written transcription measures; however, there is far less research comparing groups on cohesion as a measure of written language across genres. The current study addresses this gap through the following two aims. First, to describe and compare cohesion in narrative and expository writing samples of children with and without language learning disabilities. Second, to relate measures of cohesion to written transcription and translation measures, oral language, and writing quality. Fifty intermediate-grade children produced one narrative and one expository writing sample from which measures of written cohesion were obtained. These included the frequency, adequacy and complexity of referential and conjunctive ties. Expository samples resulted in more complex cohesive ties and children with TD used more complex ties than peers with LLD. Different relationships among cohesion measures and writing were observed for narrative verse expository samples. Findings from this study demonstrate cohesion as a discourse-level measure of written transcription and how the use of cohesion can vary by genre and group (LLD, TD). Clinical implications for assessment, intervention, and future research are provided. © 2016 Royal College of Speech and Language Therapists.
Kennedy, Michael J; Deshler, Donald D; Lloyd, John Wills
The purpose of this experimental study is to investigate the effects of using content acquisition podcasts (CAPs), an example of instructional technology, to provide vocabulary instruction to adolescents with and without learning disabilities (LD). A total of 279 urban high school students, including 30 with LD in an area related to reading, were randomly assigned to one of four experimental conditions with instruction occurring at individual computer terminals over a 3-week period. Each of the four conditions contained different configurations of multimedia-based instruction and evidence-based vocabulary instruction. Dependent measures of vocabulary knowledge indicated that students with LD who received vocabulary instruction using CAPs through an explicit instructional methodology and the keyword mnemonic strategy significantly outperformed other students with LD who were taught using the same content, but with multimedia instruction that did not adhere to a specific theoretical design framework. Results for general education students mirrored those for students with LD. Students also completed a satisfaction measure following instruction with multimedia and expressed overall agreement that CAPs are useful for learning vocabulary terms. © Hammill Institute on Disabilities 2013.
Peake, Christian; Jiménez, Juan E; Rodríguez, Cristina; Bisschop, Elaine; Villarroel, Rebeca
Arithmetic word problem (AWP) solving is a highly demanding task for children with learning disabilities (LD) since verbal and mathematical information have to be integrated. This study examines specifically how syntactic awareness (SA), the ability to manage the grammatical structures of language, affects AWP solving. Three groups of children in elementary education were formed: children with arithmetic learning disabilities (ALD), children with reading learning disabilities (RLD), and children with comorbid arithmetic and reading learning disabilities (ARLD). Mediation analysis confirmed that SA was a mediator variable for both groups of children with reading disabilities when solving AWPs, but not for children in the ALD group. All groups performed below the control group in the problem solving task. When SA was controlled for, semantic structure and position of the unknown set were variables that affected both groups with ALD. Specifically, children with ALD only were more affected by the place of the unknown set. © Hammill Institute on Disabilities 2014.
Bloom, Elana; Heath, Nancy
Children with nonverbal learning disabilities (NVLD) have been found to be worse at recognizing facial expressions than children with verbal learning disabilities (LD) and without LD. However, little research has been done with adolescents. In addition, expressing and understanding facial expressions is yet to be studied among adolescents with LD…
Almond, Louise; Giles, Susan
The study examines 102 young people with Learning Disabilities (n = 51) and without a learning disability (NLD; n = 51) to explore ways in which LD young people with harmful sexual behaviours (HSB) should be recognized as a subgroup requiring specialized treatment and intervention. Throughout this comparison of perpetrator, victim and abuse…
Kitchens, Vivian D.
Students with learning disabilities score lower than other at-risk groups on state standardized assessment tests. Educators are searching for intervention strategies to improve math achievement for students with learning disabilities. Using the theoretical framework of behaviorism, the purpose of this quantitative one group pre post test design…
Pickar, Daniel B.; Tori, Christopher D.
Using a developmental perspective, this study contrasted learning and nonlearning disabled adolescents on three variables: Erikson's stages of psychosocial development; self-concept; and delinquent behavior. The results indicated that the learning disabled subjects, due to years of failing, were unable to develop a sense of industry and…
Heath, Nancy Lee; Wiener, Judith
Nonacademic subscales (social acceptance, athletic ability, physical appearance, and behavioral conduct) of the Self-Perception Profile for Learning Disabled Students and the Children's Depression Inventory were administered to 83 fifth graders and 88 eighth graders (66 with learning disabilities). Self-perceived social acceptance was related to…
This qualitative study explored the views of three learning disability nurses, and three district nurses, caring for people with learning disabilities at the end of their lives. Although they saw some good practice, the nurses identified several difficulties associated with end of life care.
Rayner, Kelly; Wood, Harry; Beail, Nigel
Although the development of secure attachments has been shown to be more problematic for people with learning disabilities, there is a shortage of research into the attachment experience of people with learning disabilities who have broken the law. The present study used thematic analysis to explore the attachment experiences of 10 men with…
Bender, William N.; Rosenkrans, Cecilia B.; Crane, Mary-Kay
Research is reviewed on stress, depression, and suicide among adolescents with learning disabilities from the risk resilience perspective. Adolescents with nonverbal learning disabilities and/or those who are less academically adept manifest higher rates of depression. Some evidence also exists to support an increased risk of suicide among this…
Freides, David; And Others
Twelve 6 to 10 year old boys with learning disability were blindly compared with paired controls on measures of postural and equilibrium reflexes as well as skills. Learning disabled children as a group showed significant deficits on all measures; a few, however, were totally without deficit. (Author/SBH)
Feurer, D. Paige; Andrews, Jac J. W.
This study examined school-related stress and depression in adolescents with and without learning disabilities. A total of 87 students (38 learning-disabled and 49 nondisabled) from secondary schools in Calgary completed questionnaires on depressive symptoms and on school-related stress. Results indicated that the adolescents with LD reported…
Smith, Shelley D.; Pennington, Bruce F.
Research in the genetics of behavioral traits, undertaken by family studies, twin studies, and adoption studies, has revealed information on normal variation in cognitive abilities as well as specific learning disabilities (primarily dyslexia). Genetic evaluation of learning disabled students have implications for counseling and recurrence risk…
Howarth, Sharon; Morris, David; Newlin, Meredith; Webber, Martin
People with learning disabilities are among the most socially excluded in society. There is a significant gap in research evidence showing how health and social care workers can intervene to improve the social participation of adults with learning disabilities. A systematic review and modified narrative synthesis was used to appraise the quality…
Jabareen-Taha, Samaher; Taha, Haitham
This article seeks to identify and review the basic characteristics of learning disability which are specifically mentioned in the literature. In addition, the article intends to conduct a brief analysis on learning disability policy in Israel and the differentiation problems at the level of awareness among the Arab society in Israel. Despite the…
Nind, Melanie; Chapman, Rohhss; Seale, Jane; Tilley, Liz
Background: This study explores the training involved when people with learning disabilities take their place in the community as researchers. This was a theme in a recent UK seminar series where a network of researchers explored pushing the boundaries of participatory research. Method: Academics, researchers with learning disabilities, supporters…
Weis, Robert; Erickson, Celeste P.; Till, Christina H.
Adolescents with learning disabilities disproportionately come from lower socioeconomic status backgrounds, show normative deficits in academic skills, and attend 2-year, public colleges instead of 4-year institutions. However, students with learning disabilities are well represented at the United States' most expensive and selective postsecondary…
Beckmann, Else; Minnaert, Alexander
Gifted students who also have learning disabilities (G/LD) are often overlooked when students are assessed either for giftedness or specific learning disabilities. The cognitive and non-cognitive characteristics of these G/LD students are habitually discussed only briefly alongside identification
Connor, David J.; Cavendish, Wendy
In this closing commentary to the special edition of "Learning Disability Quarterly" ("LDQ") on parent voice in educational decision making for students with learning disabilities, we briefly survey main topics from each article, illuminating important findings from the authors, along with several questions they raise, and…
Students with learning disabilities are suspended at disproportionate rates in schools. Although research has shown the ineffectiveness of suspension as a disciplinary tool, school administrators continue to use it to combat behavior infractions. This column presents a review of the literature on suspension for students with learning disabilities,…
Head, Annabel; Ellis-Caird, Helen; Rhodes, Louisa; Parkinson, Kathie
Background: People with learning disabilities are moving out of hospitals as part of the Transforming Care programme, although thus far their views on how they have experienced this have not been researched. Materials and Methods: A qualitative design was used to explore how people with learning disabilities experienced moving as part of…
Holly, Deirdre; Sharp, John
People with learning disabilities are at increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). Research suggests this may be due to inequalities in health status and inequities in the way health services respond to need. Little is known about the most effective way to improve health outcomes for people with learning disabilities. A previously developed…
Murders, Michael R.
The body of research concerning college students with learning disabilities is sparse relative to the percentage of college students with learning disabilities who attend college. Further, the majority of existing research fails to capture the student voice and the lived experiences of the students themselves. The purpose of this study was to…
Miller, Daniel C.; Maricle, Denise E.; Jones, Alicia M.
Processing Strengths and Weaknesses (PSW) models have been proposed as a method for identifying specific learning disabilities. Three PSW models were examined for their ability to predict expert identified specific learning disabilities cases. The Dual Discrepancy/Consistency Model (DD/C; Flanagan, Ortiz, & Alfonso, 2013) as operationalized by…
Witsø, Aud Elisabeth; Kittelsaa, Anna M.
Background: Living active adult lives is both a value and a right, but the right to do so is associated with restrictions among adults with learning disabilities. This research aimed to capture professionals' understanding and perception of active adult living for people with learning disabilities living in clustered housing in a Norwegian…
Cowdrey, Felicity A.; Walz, Linda
The evidence-base for exposure therapy in people with learning disabilities experiencing specific phobias is sparse. This case study describes the assessment, formulation and treatment of spider phobia in a woman with learning disabilities using an exposure-based intervention augmented with mindfulness practice and bereavement work. To evaluate…
Newberry, Gayle; Martin, Carol; Robbins, Lorna
Background: Not enough is currently known about how people with learning disabilities experience and understand the ageing process. This is particularly important as the population of older people with learning disabilities is growing due to increased life expectancy. This article draws on the first author's doctoral research study, which aimed to…
Carey, Eileen; Griffiths, Colin
This paper reflects the impact of policy and legislation in the context of how adults with learning disabilities make choices. Following an overview of policies which have improved choice for people with learning disability in the United Kingdom, this paper reviews "choice" in current Irish policy and legislation. This paper, while…
Lees, Carolyn; Poole, Helen; Brennan, Michelle; Irvine, Fiona
Background: The government alongside other health and social care organisation have identified the need to improve the care provided for people with learning disabilities. Materials and Methods: This service evaluation aimed to explore the experiences of people with learning disabilities and their carers who accessed community dental services…
Prangnell, Simon J.; Green, Karen
Dental anxiety is a common form of anxiety problem, and research suggests that more people with learning disabilities experience dental anxiety than in the general population. Very little work has been done to investigate effective non-medical approaches for supporting people with a learning disability and dental anxiety to access dental care.…
Fichten, Catherine S.; Ferraro, Vittoria; Asuncion, Jennison V.; Chwojka, Caroline; Barile, Maria; Nguyen, Mai N.; Klomp, Ryan; Wolforth, Joan
This study explored e-learning problems and solutions reported by 223 students with disabilities, 58 campus disability service providers, 28 professors, and 33 e-learning professionals from Canadian colleges and universities. All four groups indicated, via online questionnaires, problems with: accessibility of websites and course/learning…
Roberts, Helen; Ingold, Anne; Liabo, Kristin; Manzotti, Grazia; Reeves, David; Bradby, Hannah
Background: Young people with learning disabilities are frequently underrepresented in research accounts. This study describes the experiences of young people moving from the care system. Methods: We scoped the English and Swedish literature for first-hand accounts and interviewed four young people with learning disabilities leaving the English…
Johnson, Clair; Viljoen, Nina
Background: Systemic approaches can be useful in working with people with learning disabilities and their network. The evidence base for these approaches within the field of learning disabilities, however, is currently limited. Materials and Methods: This article presents part of a service evaluation of systemic consultations in a Community…
Cooper, Rosalind; Frearson, Julia
Background: Joe was referred to the Community Learning Disabilities Team (CLDT) for support around low mood and overeating. Initial formulation suggested compassion focused therapy (CFT) as an intervention. The evidence base for using CFT with people with learning disabilities is currently limited. Materials and Methods: Adaptations were made to…
Davys, Deborah; Mitchell, Duncan; Martin, Rachel
Background: There is little research that specifically relates to fathers of adults with a learning disability despite the social expectation that fathers will provide a supportive role over the lifespan. Methods: Semi-structured interviews were carried out with seven fathers of adults with a learning disability to explore their roles, needs and…
Goldsmith, Lesley; Woodward, Val; Jackson, Leigh; Skirton, Heather
This article is a report of a study of informed consent in people with a learning disability. The aims of the study were to explore the information needs of people with mild-to-moderate learning disabilities with respect to consent for blood tests and to identify ways of facilitating informed consent. The recent political agenda for social change in the UK has emphasized the right of people with a learning disability to have more autonomy and make their own decisions. As in other countries, there has also been a shift towards shared decision-making in healthcare practice. Qualitative study using an ethnographic approach. An ethnographic approach was used for this qualitative study. Phase 1 involved observation of six participants with a learning disability having a routine blood test in general practice, followed by semi-structured interviews with 14 participants with a learning disability in Phase 2. Data were collected between February 2009-February 2010. The data showed that consent procedures were often inadequate and provision of information to patients prior to a blood test was variable. People with a learning disability expressed clearly their information requirements when having a routine blood test; this included not wanting any information in some cases. Healthcare practitioners and people with a learning disability need to be familiar with current consent law in their own country to facilitate valid consent in the healthcare context. This study demonstrated the value of qualitative research in exploring the knowledge and attitudes of people with learning disability. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
VANDERMEERE, J; VREELING, HJ; SERGEANT, J
Motor presetting was investigated in hyperactive children, learning disabled children and normal controls. The reaction time of the hyperactive group was more sensitive to increases in interstimulus interval (event rate) than was that of the learning disabled and the controls. This finding indicates
Maag, John W.; And Others
This study compared prevalence of tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana use among 123 adolescents with learning disabilities (LD) and 138 nondisabled students. Only tobacco and marijuana use was proportionally higher for adolescents with learning disabilities. Scores on the Adolescent Drinking Index were reliable predictors of marijuana use for LD…
Mosby, Robert J.; Tharpe, Ken
The booklet describes a rationale for teaching junior high school level learning disabled (LD) students. The author discusses how to recognize an LD profile, how to screen for learning disabilities, and how to diagnose using the discrepancy model (chart illustrating the difference between I.Q. expectancy and actual performance). A description of…
This qualitative study aimed to add to the research on the self-concept of adults with mild learning disabilities and to generate a deeper understanding of their self-perceptions rather than draw generalised quantitative conclusions. Eight adults diagnosed with mild learning disabilities receiving support from a supported living project were…
Kokot, Shirley J.
This article reviews the identification of students with learning disabilities, gifted children, and problems facing the remediation of their difficulties. An outline is given of an approach that applies neuroscience to understanding and treating the root cause of learning disabilities. A case study of a child labeled dyslexic is presented.…
The aim of the current study is to examine differences in social anxiety between learning disabled (LD) and non-learning disabled (non-LD) students, taking into account educational placement. The present research is the first to consider the above relations among Christian Arab adolescents living in Israel as an Eastern collectivist minority. On…
Jacks, Kerrie Bryan; Keller, Martin E.
The staff of Adams High School (a private educational facility in New York City for adolescents with learning disabilities) describes its population as "students with a learning disability". Discusses the school's educational program, the principles upon which it is based, and the contributions of the school psychologist, the teaching…
Poch, Apryl L.
Anniversaries offer a time for reflection, celebration, validation, and sometimes, simply a candid conversation on the current state of a field. In the field of learning disabilities, anniversaries offer a time to consider how far the field has come and just how far is left to go to understand what a learning disability is. Definitional…
Smith, Donald E. P.; And Others
Repeated impedance measures were given over five weeks to 11 autistic, 20 learning-disabled, and 20 normal children. A repeated measures analysis of variance led to the conclusion that fluctuating, negative middle ear pressure greater than normal characterizes both autistic and learning-disabled children with the more abnormal pressures typical in…
The following article outlines the methodological approach used to include people with learning disabilities as active participants in an oral history produced in Australia. The history sought to document life inside Kew Cottages, Australia's oldest and largest specialised institution for people with learning disabilities. This work furthers…
Williams, Janet K.; And Others
Thirteen females with Turner syndrome, 13 females with nonverbal learning disabilities, and 14 males with nonverbal learning disabilities, ages 7-14, were taught via a cognitive behavioral modification approach to verbally mediate a spatial matching task. All three groups showed significant task improvement after the training, with no significant…
Brandt, Fred J.; Ellsworth, Nancy J.
Results of a study conducted of 12 self-contained special education high school classes (n=74 students) indicated that cooperative learning was more effective than traditional noncooperative learning in improving academic achievement in these students with learning disabilities. Increased self-esteem in cooperative learning students was not found.…
The neurocentric worldview that identifies the essence of the human being with the material brain has become a central paradigm in current academic discourse. Israeli researchers also seek to understand educational principles and processes via neuroscientific models. On this background, the article uncovers the central role that visual brain images play in the learning-disabilities field in Israel. It examines the place brain images have in the professional imagination of didactic-diagnosticians as well as their influence on the diagnosticians' clinical attitudes. It relies on two theoretical fields: sociology and anthropology of the body and sociology of neuromedical knowledge. The research consists of three methodologies: ethnographic observations, in-depth interviews, and rhetorical analysis of visual and verbal texts. It uncovers the various rhetorical and ideological functions of brain images in the field. It also charts the repertoire of rhetorical devices which are utilized to strengthen the neuroreducionist messages contained in the images.
The field of bilingual special education is currently plagued with contradictions resulting in a serious underrepresentation of emergent bilinguals with learning disabilities in professional science fields. This underrepresentation is due in large part to the fact that educational systems around the world are inadequately prepared to address the educational needs of these children; this inadequacy is rooted in a lack of understanding of the linguistic and cultural factors impacting learning. Accepting such a premise and assuming that children learn in unexpected ways when instructional practices attend to culture and language, this study documents a place-based learning experience integrating geoscience and literacy in a fourth-grade dual language classroom. Data sources include transcribed audio-taped conversations from learning experience sessions and interviews that took place as six focus children, who had been identified as having specific learning disabilities, read published science texts (i.e. texts unaltered linguistically or conceptually to meet the needs of the readers). My analysis revealed that participants generated responses that were often unexpected if solely analyzed from those Western scientific perspectives traditionally valued in school contexts. However, these responses were also full of purposeful and rich understandings that revealed opportunities for expansive learning. Adopting a cultural historical activity theory perspective, instructional tools such as texts, visuals, and questions were found to act as mediators impacting the learning in both activity systems: (a) teacher- researcher learning from children, and (b) children learning from teachers. I conclude by suggesting that there is a need to understand students' ways of knowing to their full complexity, and to deliberately recognize teachers as learners, researchers, and means to expansive learning patterns that span beyond traditional learning boundaries.
People with learning disabilities are often marginalised in healthcare, including in hospice settings, and as a result may not receive effective end of life care. Research in hospice settings has identified that many staff lack confidence, skills and knowledge in caring for people with learning disabilities, which can have a negative effect on the care these individuals receive. To address these issues, the author has proposed a service improvement initiative, which she developed as part of her learning disability nursing degree programme. This proposed initiative aimed to enhance end of life care for people with learning disabilities through the implementation of a community learning disability link nurse in the hospice setting. ©2018 RCN Publishing Company Ltd. All rights reserved. Not to be copied, transmitted or recorded in any way, in whole or part, without prior permission of the publishers.
Narimoto, Tadamasa; Matsuura, Naomi; Takezawa, Tomohiro; Mitsuhashi, Yoshinori; Hiratani, Michio
The authors investigated whether impaired spatial short-term memory exhibited by children with nonverbal learning disabilities is due to a problem in the encoding process. Children with or without nonverbal learning disabilities performed a simple spatial test that required them to remember 3, 5, or 7 spatial items presented simultaneously in random positions (i.e., spatial configuration) and to decide if a target item was changed or all items including the target were in the same position. The results showed that, even when the spatial positions in the encoding and probe phases were similar, the mean proportion correct of children with nonverbal learning disabilities was 0.58 while that of children without nonverbal learning disabilities was 0.84. The authors argue with the results that children with nonverbal learning disabilities have difficulty encoding relational information between spatial items, and that this difficulty is responsible for their impaired spatial short-term memory.
Richards, K. Andrew R.; Eberline, Andrew D.; Padaruth, Sookhenlall; Templin, Thomas J.
Service-learning has become a popular pedagogical tool to promote academic and civic learning. One form of service-learning provides physical activity for underrepresented community groups, including children with disabilities. Using experiential learning theory, the purpose of this descriptive case study was to evaluate college students'…
Geary, David C
Children's quantitative competencies upon entry into school can have lifelong consequences. Children who start behind generally stay behind, and mathematical skills at school completion influence employment prospects and wages in adulthood. I review the current debate over whether early quantitative learning is supported by (a) an inherent system for representing approximate magnitudes, (b) an attentional-control system that enables explicit processing of quantitative symbols, such as Arabic numerals, or (c) the logical problem-solving abilities that facilitate learning of the relations among numerals. Studies of children with mathematical learning disabilities and difficulties have suggested that each of these competencies may be involved, but to different degrees and at different points in the learning process. Clarifying how and when these competencies facilitate early quantitative learning and developing interventions to address their impact on children have the potential to yield substantial benefits for individuals and for society.
The increasing life expectancy of people with learning disabilities makes it imperative that families plan for the future. The number of people with learning disabilities over the age of 65 is predicted to double over the next two decades. The greatest increase in life expectancy will be amongst people with mild learning disabilities who will have…
Interstate Research Associates, Inc., Washington, DC.
This fact sheet providing general information about learning disabilities is presented in both English and Spanish versions. It begins with the federal definition of learning disabilities and a discussion of its implications followed by estimates of incidence. Typical characteristics of students with learning disabilities are then summarized as…
Pilling, Rachel F.
Equality of access to health care for adults with learning disability has been in the spotlight in the UK in recent years due to publication of several reports. Adults with learning disability are thought to account for a significant proportion of the diabetic population in the UK. A list of adults known to the learning disability health…
Britz, R.; Bester, M. J.; da Silva, A.; Motsoane, N. A.; Marx, J.; Naude, H.; Pretorius, E.
The use of pharmaceutical products such as Piracetam (Nootropil[R]) for the treatment of learning disabilities is becoming increasingly prevalent, and some studies have shown successful treatment of learning disabilities in children. This research article will discuss traditional uses of Piracetam, as well as uses in learning disabilities, with…
A person-oriented approach was used to examine the role of parenting in the associations between single learning disabilities and multiple learning disabilities and the adjustment difficulties in 8-11-year-olds. The results revealed that multiple, but not single, learning disabilities were associated with greater difficulties in emotional and…
Aguilar, Jessica M; Plante, Elena
Two studies examined learning of grammar-like visual sequences to determine whether a general deficit in statistical learning characterizes this population. Furthermore, we tested the hypothesis that difficulty in sustaining attention during the learning task might account for differences in statistical learning. In Study 1, adults with normal language (NL) or language-learning disability (LLD) were familiarized with the visual artificial grammar and then tested using items that conformed or deviated from the grammar. In Study 2, a 2nd sample of adults with NL and LLD were presented auditory word pairs with weak semantic associations (e.g., groom + clean) along with the visual learning task. Participants were instructed to attend to visual sequences and to ignore the auditory stimuli. Incidental encoding of these words would indicate reduced attention to the primary task. In Studies 1 and 2, both groups demonstrated learning and generalization of the artificial grammar. In Study 2, neither the NL nor the LLD group appeared to encode the words presented during the learning phase. The results argue against a general deficit in statistical learning for individuals with LLD and demonstrate that both NL and LLD learners can ignore extraneous auditory stimuli during visual learning.
Full Text Available Neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1 is a genetic condition generally associated with intellectual deficiency and learning disabilities. Although there have been groundbreaking advances in the understanding of the molecular, cellular, and neural systems underlying learning deficits associated to NF1 in animal models, much remains to be learned about the spectrum of neurocognitive phenotype associated with the NF1 clinical syndrome. In the present study, 32 children with NF1 ranging from 7 to 14 years were evaluated with neurocognitive tests dedicated to assess basic capacities which are involved in reading and mathematical achievement. Deficits in lexical and phonological strategies and poor number facts retrieval were found underlying reading and arithmetic disorders, respectively. Additionally, efficiencies in lexical/phonological strategies and mental arithmetic were significant predictors of individual differences in reading attainment and math. However, deficits in core numeric capacities were not found in the sample, suggesting that it is not responsible for calculation dysfluency. The estimated prevalence of Developmental Dyscalculia was 18.8%, and the male:female ratio was 5:1. On the other hand, the prevalence of Developmental Dyslexia was almost 3 times as high (50%, and no gender differences were found (male:female ratio=1:1. This study offers new evidence to the neurocognitive phenotype of NF1 contributing to an in depth understanding of this condition, but also to possible treatments for the cognitive deficits associated with NF1.
Anderson, Elizabeth Susan; Ford, Jenny; Thorpe, Lucy
This report outlines the action research used to develop a workshop for interprofessional student groups to enhance listening skills. The project aimed to enable students to reflect interprofessionally on the human factors central to effective communication using the power of storytelling by disabled people and their carers. Qualitative data from students and participating service users were collected using focus groups and one-to-one interviews over three pilot cycles. The results from each pilot informed the cyclical development of the project so that each stage of data collection informed the next stage. During the pilots, 20 interviews with service users were completed and a total of 109 students participated. Transcribed data were analysed using principles from grounded theory. Quantitative scored questions on students' learning were analysed using statistical package for the social sciences. Both students (health and social care) and users benefitted from the education process which delivered highly relevant explicit learning opportunities, with analysis of how to improve communication for safe practice. Students benefitted from meaningful interactions with service users who shared their experiences and gave feedback on students' communication skills. The final workshop design resulted in a learning model which reflects the human side of healthcare delivery.
The publication of the DSM-5 means changes in the classification and recommendations for diagnosis of specific learning disabilities. Dyslexia and dyscalculia have been reintroduced into the DSM. Three specific learning disorders - impairment in reading, impairment in the written expression, and impairment in mathematics, described by subskills - are now part of the DSM-5. Three subcomponents of the reading disorder are expressly differentiated: word reading accuracy, reading rate, and fluency and reading comprehension. Impaired subskills of the specific learning disorder with impairment in written expression are spelling accuracy, grammar and punctuation accuracy, and clarity and organization of written expression. Four subskills are found in the mathematics disorder: number sense, memorization of arithmetic facts, accurate or fluent calculation, and accurate math reasoning. Each impaired academic domain and subskill should be recorded. A description of the severity degree was also included. The diagnosis is based on a variety of methods, including medical history, clinical interview, school report, teacher evaluation, rating scales, and psychometric tests. The IQ discrepancy criterion was abandoned, though that of age or class discrepancy criterion was retained. The application of a discrepancy is recommended by 1 to 2.5 SD. All three specific developmental disorders are common (prevalence 5 %-15 %), occur early during the first years of formal schooling, and persist into adulthood.
Steele, Sara C
The study was undertaken to determine how position of informative context, rate of word presentation and part of speech impacted novel word learning during reading in children with language learning disability. Children with language learning disability (LLD; n = 13), age-matched peers (n = 13) and vocabulary-matched peers (n = 13) read four narrative passages containing 10 nouns and 10 verbs. Informative context provided clues to word meanings and was either adjacent or non-adjacent to the target words. Target words occurred either twice (low rate) or 5-times (high rate). Following reading, word learning was assessed using dynamic assessment, including oral definitions, contextual clues and forced choices. Overall, age-matched peers performed better than children with LLD and vocabulary-matched peers, who performed similarly. No effect was found for position of informative context; however, word learning improved with high rate of presentation for children with LLD. Nouns were easier to learn than verbs for all groups. Results indicated that children with LLD show limitations gaining semantic knowledge of novel words during reading, which could negatively impact their overall rate of vocabulary acquisition.
Marsden, Daniel; Giles, Rachel
Background People with learning disabilities experience significant inequalities in accessing healthcare. Legal frameworks, such as the Equality Act 2010, are intended to reduce such disparities in care, and require organisations to make 'reasonable adjustments' for people with disabilities, including learning disabilities. However, reasonable adjustments are often not clearly defined or adequately implemented in clinical practice. Aim To examine and synthesise the challenges in caring for people with learning disabilities to develop a framework for making reasonable adjustments for people with learning disabilities in hospital. This framework would assist ward staff in identifying and managing the challenges of delivering person-centred, safe and effective healthcare to people with learning disabilities in this setting. Method Fourth-generation evaluation, collaborative thematic analysis, reflection and a secondary analysis were used to develop a framework for making reasonable adjustments in the hospital setting. The authors attended ward manager and matron group meetings to collect their claims, concerns and issues, then conducted a collaborative thematic analysis with the group members to identify the main themes. Findings Four main themes were identified from the ward manager and matron group meetings: communication, choice-making, collaboration and coordination. These were used to develop the 4C framework for making reasonable adjustments for people with learning disabilities in hospital. Discussion The 4C framework has provided a basis for delivering person-centred care for people with learning disabilities. It has been used to inform training needs analyses, develop audit tools to review delivery of care that is adjusted appropriately to the individual patient; and to develop competencies for learning disability champions. The most significant benefit of the 4C framework has been in helping to evaluate and resolve practice-based scenarios. Conclusion Use of
Astrea, Guja; Battini, Roberta; Lenzi, Sara; Frosini, Silvia; Bonetti, Silvia; Moretti, Elena; Perazza, Silvia; Santorelli, Filippo M; Pecini, Chiara
Although the presence of cognitive deficits in Duchenne muscular dystrophy or myotonic dystrophy DM1 is well established in view of brain-specific expression of affected muscle proteins, in other neuromuscular disorders, such as congenital myopathies and limb-girdle muscular dystrophies, cognitive profiles are poorly defined. Also, there are limited characterization of the cognitive profile of children with congenital muscular dystrophies, notwithstanding the presence of cerebral abnormality in some forms, and in spinal muscular atrophies, with the exception of distal spinal muscular atrophy (such as the DYN1CH1- associated form). Starting from the Duchenne muscular dystrophy, which may be considered a kind of paradigm for the co-occurrence of learning disabilities in the contest of a progressive muscular involvement, the findings of neuropsychological (or cognitive) dysfunctions in several forms of neuromuscular diseases will be examined and reviewed.
Michaels, C R; Lewandowski, L J
This study examined parent reports of behavioral and family functioning for 59 boys with learning disabilities (LD) and 65 nondisabled boys (NLD) of ages 6 to 12 years. Parents completed the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and the Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scale (FACES III). Boys with LD were reported as having significantly more behavior problems of both the Internalizing and Externalizing types than NLD boys. Individual scales yielded group differences indicating higher scores (more problems) for the group with LD on the Hyperactive, Schizoid or Anxious, Depressed, and Obsessive Compulsive scales, but no differences on the Aggressive or Social Withdrawal scales. Furthermore, families of boys with LD tended to score more frequently in the extreme (disturbed) range of family functioning. However, boys of families in the extreme range did not have more behavior problems than the boys of other families. The findings suggest that a greater than average proportion of boys with LD are at risk for developing psychological adjustment problems.
Witte, R H; Philips, L; Kakela, M
Job satisfaction, as assessed via five scales that posed questions concerning colleagues, work, supervision, pay, and promotion, as well as overall total job satisfaction, was examined for 55 self-identified college graduates with learning disabilities (LD) and 55 control graduates matched by gender, major, degree, and graduation year. All participants graduated from a competitive midwestern university from 1987 to 1994 and represented advantaged groups when compared to both LD and non-LD populations. The graduates with LD required significantly more time to complete their degrees and showed significantly lower CPAs. Data analysis indicated that the graduates with LD perceived themselves as receiving significantly less pay and promotion opportunities, and reported less total job satisfaction, than graduates without LD. However, no significant salary differences between the groups were found. The implications of these findings are examined.
Mengue-Topio, Hursula; Courbois, Yannick; Farran, Emily K; Sockeel, Pascal
The ability to learn routes though a virtual environment (VE) and to make a novel shortcut between two locations was assessed in 18 adults with intellectual disability and 18 adults without intellectual disability matched on chronological age. Participants explored two routes (A ⇔ B and A ⇔ C) until they reached a learning criterion. Then, they were placed at B and were asked to find the shortest way to C (B ⇔ C, five trials). Participants in both groups could learn the routes, but most of the participants with intellectual disability could not find the shortest route between B and C. However, the results also revealed important individual differences within the intellectual disability group, with some participants exhibiting more efficient wayfinding behaviour than others. Individuals with intellectual disability may differ in the kind of spatial knowledge they extract from the environment and/or in the strategy they use to learn routes. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available In this study, children with a mathematical learning disability (=14 and age-matched peers without learning disabilities (=14 as well as their parents and teachers were interviewed on how they experienced playing an instrument (guitar, drum, flute, violin, trombone, horn, and piano and on what helped them using a qualitative interactive interview with a flexible agenda to discover the interviewee’s own framework of meanings. Thematic analyses mentioned intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, and self-efficacy as important. Some children with MLD were found to have a real musical talent and a very good musical ear and memory for sounds. However, all children with MLD seemed more dependent on the aid of parents, sibling, peers, and teachers. They had to study harder and needed more time to study, more practice, and a more structured approach.
Jingree, Treena; Finlay, W M L
Over the last decade the UK Government has made proposals to empower individuals with learning disabilities. Strategies have been implemented to reduce institutionalisation and social segregation. Consequently, some learning disability services are being phased out and the focus of care has moved away from institutions and into the community and family domain. Focusing on discourse as a site for social action and identity construction, we used critical discursive psychology to examine focus group discussions between family carers about facilitating the independence of adult family members with learning disabilities. Unlike official UK Government and learning disability services' constructions of empowerment policy, we found that parents invoked empowerment talk: (1) as a resource to construct the facilitation of independence as an abstract, irresponsible, politically correct professional trend; (2) dilemmatically with meritocratic or practical arguments to undermine notions of facilitating choices; and (3) as a resource to construct new service developments as contrary to the preferences of people with learning disabilities. Parents also described individuals with learning disabilities as unable to cope, and drew stark contrasts between their practice and those of service-professionals when expressing concerns about empowerment. We discuss possible implications of such discourses and contrasts on opportunities for empowering individuals with learning disabilities. © 2011 The Authors. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2011 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Full Text Available Learning disability includes wide range of educational problems which treating these problems need child's social, emotional and behavior treatment. As prevalence of learning disabilities among children and their difficulties, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of coping with stress training on social adjustment of students with learning disabilities. The statistical population consists of all boy student with learning disabilities in learning disabilities center, in which 34 students were selected by convenience sampling. The social adjustment questionnaire was used. The experimental group had coping strategies training in 9 sessions for 90 minutes every week. Covariance analysis was used to compare the scores. The results showed that there was significant difference in pretest and posttest of experimental group. The findings also indicated that coping strategies training increased social adjustment, affective and educational adjustments of experimental group in comparison of control group. Appropriate strategies can be used for dealing with stress in students with learning disabilities. Coping training can be used as supplemental program in schools and centers of learning disabilities to improve the adjustment problems of these students.
Tuffrey-Wijne, Irene; Butler, Gary
People with learning disabilities have been included in research as co-researchers since the 1990s. However, there is limited literature about the processes of involving people with learning disabilities in the more intellectual and analytical stages of the research process. To examine the potential contribution of people with learning disabilities to data analysis in qualitative research. This article is a reflection on one research experience. The two authors include one researcher with and one without learning disabilities. They each describe their experience and understanding of user involvement in analysing the data of an ethnographic study of people with learning disabilities who had cancer. The researcher with learning disabilities was given extensive vignettes and extracts from the research field notes, and was supported to extract themes, which were cross-compared with the analysis of other members of the research team. The researcher with learning disabilities coped well with the emotive content of the data and with the additional support provided, he was able to extract themes that added validity to the overall analysis. His contribution complemented those of the other members of the research team. There were unexpected benefits, in particular, in terms of a more reciprocal and supportive relationship between the two researchers. It is possible and valuable to extend involvement to data analysis, but to avoid tokenism and maintain academic rigour, there must be a clear rationale for such involvement. Extra support, time and costs must be planned for.
Parker, David R.; White, Cheri E.; Collins, Laura; Banerjee, Manju; McGuire, Joan M.
Today's college students are expected to utilize a variety of learning technologies to succeed in higher education. Students with learning disabilities (LD) and/or Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorders (ADHD) can encounter barriers to equal access and effective learning in this new digital environment, including the development of proficiency…
McMaster, Kristen Nyman; Fuchs, Douglas
This article reviews 15 research studies published from 1990 to 2000 examining effects of cooperative learning strategies on the academic achievement of students with learning disabilities. Despite design problems, the review finds that cooperative learning strategies that incorporate individual accountability and group rewards are likely to…
Guerrera, Claudia Patrizia
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of problem-based learning (PBL) with learning-disabled (LD) students. Twenty-four students (12 dyads) classified as LD and attending a school for the learning-disabled participated in the study. Students engaged in either a computer-based environment involving BioWorld, a hospital simulation designed to teach biology students problem-solving skills, or a paper-and-pencil version based on the computer program. A hybrid model of learning was adopted whereby students were provided with direct instruction on the digestive system prior to participating in a problem-solving activity. Students worked in dyads and solved three problems involving the digestive system in either a computerized or a paper-and-pencil condition. The experimenter acted as a coach to assist students throughout the problem-solving process. A follow-up study was conducted, one month later, to measure the long-term learning gains. Quantitative and qualitative methods were used to analyze three types of data: process data, outcome data, and follow-up data. Results from the process data showed that all students engaged in effective collaboration and became more systematic in their problem solving over time. Findings from the outcome and follow-up data showed that students in both treatment conditions, made both learning and motivational gains and that these benefits were still evident one month later. Overall, results demonstrated that the computer facilitated students' problem solving and scientific reasoning skills. Some differences were noted in students' collaboration and the amount of assistance required from the coach in both conditions. Thus, PBL is an effective learning approach with LD students in science, regardless of the type of learning environment. These results have implications for teaching science to LD students, as well as for future designs of educational software for this population.
Mazur, Artur; Jarochowicz, Sabina; Oltarzewski, Mariusz; Sykut-Cegielska, Jolanta; Gradowska, Wanda; Januszek-Trzciakowska, Aleksandra; O'Malley, Grace; Kwolek, Andrzej
Background: The aim of the study was to determine neurological and neuropsychiatric manifestations in a group of patients with previously undiagnosed or untreated phenylketonuria (PKU) in the south-eastern part of Poland. Methods: The study was conducted among 400 adults with severe intellectual disability who were born prior to neonatal screening…
Naseem, Mustafa; Shah, Altaf H; Khiyani, Muhammad Faheem; Khurshid, Zohaib; Zafar, Muhammad Sohail; Gulzar, Shabnam; AlJameel, AlBandary H; Khalil, Hesham S
The prevalence of oral diseases including dental caries and periodontal conditions is remarkably higher in people with disabilities. The provision of accessible oral health services for people with learning disabilities may be challenging. The objectives of the review were to identify barriers in accessing oral health care that persists within society, enabling or disabling people with learning disabilities. Using the Arksey O'Malley framework, a scoping review was conducted on PubMed/Medline, OVIDSP, and EMBASE. Studies were evaluated and short-listed based on the inclusion criteria, which consisted of: (1) study participants or population with learning disabilities, (2) aged 16 years or over, (3) reporting on access to oral health services, (4) published in the English language. Those that justified the inclusion criteria were carefully chosen after a blind peer-reviewed process when relevance and quality were debated. Nine studies were eventually included from searches. Tabulation of data was done under the heading of study type, outcomes, the year of publication and patient selection. The majority of studies provided a biomedical overview of access for adults with learning disabilities. The concept of access for people with disability is still ill-defined and obscure. Access to oral health care and needs of people with learning disabilities are complex and multi-facet.
Full Text Available We retrospectively collected data on the rate and type of psychiatric illness and behavioural problems on 143 adults with learning disability and epilepsy. 55% behavioural problems. 19% verbal aggression and temper tantrums, and 13% injurious behaviour. The overall rates of behavioural problems and different types of behaviours found in the current study cohort are similar to what was found before in learning disabled adults in general, as well as in epileptic and non-epileptic learning disabled adults. Psychiatric diagnosis was made in 12.6% combined diagnosis of schizophrenia, delusional disorder and schizo-affective disorder was most common (5% diagnosis of depressive episode (3% bipolar affective disorder.
MacArthur, Juliet; Brown, Michael; McKechanie, Andrew; Mack, Siobhan; Hayes, Matthew; Fletcher, Joan
To examine the role of learning disability liaison nurses in facilitating reasonable and achievable adjustments to support access to general hospital services for people with learning disabilities. Mixed methods study involving four health boards in Scotland with established Learning Disability Liaison Nurses (LDLN) Services. Quantitative data of all liaison nursing referrals over 18 months and qualitative data collected from stakeholders with experience of using the liaison services within the previous 3-6 months. Six liaison nurses collected quantitative data of 323 referrals and activity between September 2008-March 2010. Interviews and focus groups were held with 85 participants included adults with learning disabilities (n = 5), carers (n = 16), primary care (n = 39), general hospital (n = 19) and liaison nurses (n = 6). Facilitating reasonable and achievable adjustments was an important element of the LDLNs' role and focussed on access to information; adjustments to care; appropriate environment of care; ensuring equitable care; identifying patient need; meeting patient needs; and specialist tools/resources. Ensuring that reasonable adjustments are made in the general hospital setting promotes person-centred care and equal health outcomes for people with a learning disability. This view accords with 'Getting it right' charter produced by the UK Charity Mencap which argues that healthcare professionals need support, encouragement and guidance to make reasonable adjustments for this group. LDLNs have an important and increasing role to play in advising on and establishing adjustments that are both reasonable and achievable. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Shifrer, Dara; Callahan, Rebecca
Students identified with learning disabilities experience markedly lower levels of science and mathematics achievement than students who are not identified with a learning disability. Seemingly compounding their disadvantage, students with learning disabilities also complete more credits in non-core coursework-traditionally considered non-academic coursework-than students who are not identified with a learning disability. The Education Longitudinal Study of 2002, a large national dataset with both regular and special education high school students, is utilized to determine whether credit accumulation in certain types of non-core coursework, such as Technology and Communications courses, is associated with improved science and math course-taking outcomes for students with learning disabilities. Results show that credit accumulation in Technology and Communications coursework uniquely benefits the science course-taking, and comparably benefits the math course-taking, of students identified with learning disabilities in contrast to students who are not identified with a learning disability.
Ward-Lonergan, Jeannene M.; Liles, Betty Z.; Anderson, Angela M.
Listening comprehension and recall abilities for social studies lectures were examined and compared in 20 adolescent males with language-learning disabilities (LLD) and in 29 controls. Regardless of lecture type (comparison or causatory expository discourse structures) or question type (literal or inferential comprehension), the performance of the…
Full Text Available Background : Parents of children with specific learning disability (SpLD undergo stress in coping with their child′s condition. Aim : To measure the levels of anxiety and find out the cause of anxiety in mothers of children with SpLD at time of diagnosis. Settings and Design : Prospective rating-scale and interview-based study conducted in our clinic. Materials and Methods : One hundred mothers of children (70 boys, 30 girls with SpLD were interviewed using the Hamilton anxiety rating scale (HAM-A and a semi-structured questionnaire. Detailed clinical and demographic data of mothers were noted. Statistical Analysis : Chi-square test or unpaired student′s t-test was applied wherever applicable. Results : The mean age of mothers was 40.14 years (±SD 4.94, range 25.07-54.0, 73% belonged to upper or upper middle socioeconomic strata of society, 67% were graduates or postgraduates, 58% were full-time home-makers, and 33% lived in joint families. Levels of anxiety were absent in 24%, mild in 75%, and moderate in 1% of mothers. Their mean total anxiety score was 5.65 (±SD 4.75, range 0-21, mean psychic anxiety score was 3.92 (±SD 3.11, range 0-13, and mean somatic anxiety score was 1.76 (±SD 2.05, range 0-10. Their common worries were related to child′s poor school performance (95%, child′s future (90%, child′s behavior (51%, and visits to our clinic (31%. Conclusion : Most mothers of children with SpLD have already developed mild anxiety levels by the time this hidden disability is diagnosed. These anxieties should be addressed by counseling to ensure optimum rehabilitation of these children.
Boyle, Joseph R.
For middle school students with learning disabilities (LD), one major component of learning in content area classes, such as science, involves listening to lectures and recording notes. Lecture learning and note-taking are critical skills for students to succeed in these classes. Despite the importance of note-taking skills, no research has been…
Yasutake, David; Bryan, Tanis
This article reviews research on the influence of affect on thoughts, cognition, and behavior of students with learning disabilities and finds that induced positive affect leads to more accurate performance on math, greater learning of new vocabulary, and better performance on new learning tasks. (Author/DB)
Maehler, Claudia; Schuchardt, Kirsten
The criterion of discrepancy is used to distinguish children with learning disorders from children with intellectual disabilities. The justification of the criterion of discrepancy for the diagnosis of learning disorders relies on the conviction of fundamental differences between children with learning difficulties with versus without discrepancy…
Boyle, Joseph R.
As more secondary students with learning disabilities (LD) enroll in advanced content-area classes and are expected to pass state exams, they are faced with the challenge of mastering difficult concepts and abstract vocabulary while learning content. Once in these classes, students must learn from lectures that move at a quick pace, record…
Campbell, Joel C.; Howard, Vikki F.
Characteristics of secondary students with a learning disability in reading are reviewed, and the stages of reading development are outlined. Strategies for academic and social inclusion of these students are discussed, including peer tutoring, guided notes, cooperative learning, learning strategies, and teaching reading in the content area. (JDD)
Hori, Shigeo; Fujiwara, Mizuho
A survey of 364 Japanese adults over 60 with physical disabilities found that 87% have learning needs in the areas of health care, communication, and leisure activities. Instrumental/social learning ranked higher among those with serious activity limitations. Expressive/communicative learning was more important for those with moderate limitations.…
Teaching mathematics while learning from students' mistakes, errors and misconceptions, is most important for meaningful learning. This study was based on intervention programs prepared by preservice teachers. It aimed to examine their knowledge of assessment of errors in mathematics amongst pupils with learning disabilities, and their use as a…
Tolbert, Joshua B. L.; Lazarus, Belinda Davis; Killu, Kim
Successful inclusion of students with learning disabilities in foreign language courses has been problematic, likely due to factors such as heightened anxiety and individualized learning challenges which are characteristic of those with learning disabilities. These learning characteristics often necessitate that multisensory strategies be employed…
Coyle, C; Saunderson, W; Freeman, R
To examine the attitudes of dental students and social policy students towards learning disabilities in order to identify whether attitudinal differences exist and to suggest recommendations in the dental undergraduate curriculum commensurate with Government legislation in the United Kingdom. A cross-sectional survey of all undergraduate dental students at Queen's University, Belfast and all undergraduate social policy students at University of Ulster. A convenience sample of all undergraduate dental and social policy students was obtained. The students completed a questionnaire to assess attitude towards learning disability. The data were analysed using Cronbach's alpha, Student's t-test and analysis of variance (one-way fixed effect model). The level of statistical significance was set at 5%. The response rate was 83% for dental students and 97% for social policy students. Dental students had significantly lower mean scores and hence less favourable attitudes to learning disability compared with social policy students. Female dental students had significantly higher mean scores and hence more favourable attitudes to learning disability compared with male students. The findings show that dental undergraduates compared with social policy students had less favourable attitudes towards those with learning disability. Dental students should receive training in learning disability and undergraduate programmes should be conceptualised as a spiral curriculum. It is proposed that social policy theory should be introduced into undergraduate dental curricula, that early exposure to learning disability in a community setting should be incorporated into the first undergraduate years and in later undergraduate clinical years students should treat patients with learning disability in order to promote experiential learning and reflective practice.
Zirkel, Perry A.
Specific learning disability (SLD), although moderately declining in recent years, continues to be the largest of the eligibility classifications under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA; NCES, 2012). The recognition of response to intervention (RTI) in the 2004 amendments of the IDEA as an approach for identifying students with…
Barrett, Courtenay A.; Cottrell, Joseph M.; Newman, Daniel S.; Pierce, Benjamin G.; Anderson, Alisha
Approximately 2.4 million children receive special education services for specific learning disabilities (SLDs), and school psychologists are key contributors to the SLD eligibility decision-making process. The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (2004) enabled local education agencies to use response to intervention (RTI) instead of the…
Harding, Celia; Lindsay, Gemma; O'Brien, Aoife; Dipper, Lucy; Wright, Julie
There is a developing research base to support the rationale underpinning augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) for people with learning disabilities. However, there is a paucity of research examining the process involved in implementing AAC support for people who have profound disabilities. This paper seeks to explore the processes…
Reich, Christine A.
This study examined organizational change in science museums toward practices that are inclusive of people with disabilities. Guided by two overarching frameworks, organizational learning and the social model of disability, this study sought to answer the following: What are the contexts and processes that facilitate, sustain, or impede a science…
This article reviews critical issues with integrating different procedures for identifying children with specific learning disabilities permitted in the federal regulations of the 2004 Individual With Disabilities Education Act 2004. Theoretical differences between behavioral approaches that focus on recording behavioral responses based on…
Murphy, Melissa M.
The prevalence rate of mathematical learning disabilities (MLD) among children with fragile X syndrome who do not meet criteria for intellectual and developmental disabilities ([approximately equal to] 50% of female children) exceeds the rate reported in the general population. The purpose of this article is two-fold: (1) to review the findings on…
This article discusses the dilemmas encountered by non-disabled performance researchers and practitioners working with learning-disabled people. I demonstrate how the "accounts" of empirical social scientists informed my PARIP [practice-as-research-in-performance] project, "BluYesBlu," and how Judith Butler's reformulation of the concept of…
Alves, Kat D.; Kennedy, Michael J.; Brown, Tiara S.; Solis, Michael
"Reading comprehension" is difficult for many students with disabilities, including those with specific learning disabilities. However these students can be explicitly taught strategies to improve their comprehension abilities. One such strategy is teaching students story grammar in order to provide them with a framework for…
Floyd, Kim K.; Judge, Sharon L.
Despite the large increase of students with learning disabilities (LD) entering postsecondary institutions and the legislative emphasis on providing students with disabilities equal access to education, we have yet to develop comprehensive planning of accommodations for postsecondary students with LD in regard to assistive technology (AT). The…
The article examines the manner in which the learning-disabled subject is created as an object within contemporary psychiatric discourse by means of a genealogical analysis of the learning-disorders in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM). It investigates how this pathology was formed historically in the text, what metamorphoses it underwent, and their epistemic significance. First, the theoretical underpinnings of the sociological discourse on DSM are presented, giving a brief background of the DSM status in the Israeli context. Many problematic characteristics in the text are unveiled, by means of critiques from sociology, anthropology and discourse studies. Second, the changing definitions and conceptualizations of learning-disorders in the seven editions of the Manual and the accompanying case studies (1952-2013) are examined. It becomes apparent that the disorders have undergone changes that have enabled the biomedical paradigm to triumph. The implications of these transformations are addressed. © The Author(s) 2016.
Steele, Sara C; Watkins, Ruth V
This study investigated whether children with language learning disability (LLD) differed from typically-developing peers in their ability to learn meanings of novel words presented during reading. Fifteen 9-11-year-old children with LLD and 15 typically-developing peers read four passages containing 20 nonsense words. Word learning was assessed through oral definition and multiple-choice tasks. Variables were position of informative context, number of exposures, part of speech, and contextual clues. The LLD group scored lower than same-aged peers on oral definition (p < .001) and multiple-choice (p < .001) tasks. For both groups, there was no effect for position of informative context (p = .867) or number of exposures (p = .223). All children benefitted from contextual clues. The findings suggested difficulty inferring and recalling word meanings during reading and pointed to the need for vocabulary intervention in the upper elementary years for children with LLD.
Lawson, Janelle E; Cruz, Rebecca A; Knollman, Gregory A
Providing equal-status contact between those with and without disabilities can improve attitudes and reduce discrimination toward individuals with disabilities. This study investigated community service learning as a means by which to provide college students with equal-status contact with individuals with disabilities and increase their positive attitudes toward those with disabilities. A total of 166 college students in one university in the United States enrolled in an Introduction to Disability course received content on disability in society and participated in community service involving 20h of direct contact with individuals with disabilities. Findings indicated that college students who had prior contact with individuals with disabilities had more positive attitudes toward individuals with disabilities than college students who did not have prior contact at the start of the course. For the college students who did not have any prior contact, their attitudes toward individuals with disabilities became significantly more positive at the end of the community service learning course. Implications and suggestions for future research are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The self-esteem of 120 males with and without specific learning disabilities, at each of two levels of development (preadolescent and adolescent) was measured using Coopersmith Self-esteem Inventory. (MP)
Winne, Phillip H.; And Others
Using 60 fourth- to seventh-grade learning disabled (LD), normal, and gifted students, the comparability of representations of self-concept across groups was analyzed for the Sears and Coopersmith inventories. (Author/SW)
Tuffrey-Wijne, Irene; Bernal, Jane; Hubert, Jane; Butler, Gary; Hollins, Sheila
Growing numbers of people with learning disabilities are living longer and dying of age related illnesses such as cancer. To explore the experiences of people with learning disabilities who have cancer. The study used participant observation with 13 people with learning disabilities. All had a cancer diagnosis and 10 were terminally ill. Participants were visited regularly at home and in other settings, including hospitals. The main themes were: dependent lives; deprived lives; truth telling and understanding; the importance of families; inexperienced carers and unprepared services; and resilience. To understand the experiences of people with learning disabilities who are dying of cancer, it is important to understand their previous life experiences and key relationships. Healthcare professionals who treat people with respect, dignity and openness can make a positive difference to their care.
Codling, Mary; Knowles, Jane; Vevers, Ann
People with learning disabilities are living longer lives. Over the past few years, research has explored the needs of people with learning disabilities, their families and learning disability professionals in relation to end-of-life care and death. However, little is known about the needs of paid carers and their experience of end-of-life care. This article discusses the development, implementation and evaluation of a study day about end-of-life care that was delivered to paid carers on two separate occasions in Berkshire Healthcare NHS Foundation Trust. A total of 43 paid carers attended and the days were well evaluated. The need for further training for paid carers who work with people with learning disabilities at the end of life was highlighted.
Matthews, Dorothy; Gibson, Lynn; Regnard, Claud
The End of Life Care Strategy takes as inclusive an approach as possible, but can it make a difference for people with learning disabilities who are dying? Therefore we must ask ourselves 'Does one size fit all?'
Full Text Available A review of 23 studies investigating the prevalence of Behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD in the general and learning disability population and measures used to assess BPSD was carried out. BPSD are non-cognitive symptoms, which constitute as a major component of dementia regardless of its subtype Research has indicated that there is a high prevalence of BPSD in the general dementia population. There are limited studies, which investigate the prevalence of BPSD within individuals who have learning disabilities and dementia. Findings suggest BPSDs are present within individuals with learning disabilities and dementia. Future research should use updated tools for investigating the prevalence of BPSD within individuals with learning disabilities and dementia.
Devshi, Rajal; Shaw, Sarah; Elliott-King, Jordan; Hogervorst, Eef; Hiremath, Avinash; Velayudhan, Latha; Kumar, Satheesh; Baillon, Sarah; Bandelow, Stephan
A review of 23 studies investigating the prevalence of Behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) in the general and learning disability population and measures used to assess BPSD was carried out. BPSD are non-cognitive symptoms, which constitute as a major component of dementia regardless of its subtype Research has indicated that there is a high prevalence of BPSD in the general dementia population. There are limited studies, which investigate the prevalence of BPSD within individuals who have learning disabilities and dementia. Findings suggest BPSDs are present within individuals with learning disabilities and dementia. Future research should use updated tools for investigating the prevalence of BPSD within individuals with learning disabilities and dementia.
op 't Hof, Y.
This study had the two following objectives: (1) clinical, diagnostic classification of the syndrome of cluttering and particularly the difference in symptomatology between cluttering and stuttering and between cluttering and speaking problems associated with learning disability; (2) to contribute
Fusaro, Joseph A; Shibley, Ivan A; Wiley, David A
The No Child Left Behind Act mandates all students in schools receiving Title I funds show proficiency in reading by 2014. This stricture applies to students with diagnosed learning disabilities as well as to students without learning disabilities. Multiple regression analyses on data for seniors attending a Grade 9-12 predominately white, comprehensive vocational-technical school indicated that, when absenteeism, socioeconomic status, and sex were held constant, the 26 students with diagnosed learning disabilities scored 246.7 points lower on the Pennsylvania System of School Assessment Reading subtest (n = 107) and 214.4 points lower on the Pennsylvania System of School Assessment Mathematics subtest (n = 106) than students not so diagnosed, and the 27 students diagnosed with learning disabilities scored 126.3 points lower on the Writing subtest (n= 114) than students not so diagnosed.
van Drenth, Annemieke; van Essen, Mineke
In this article Copeland's model of visualising the classification of children with learning disabilities is applied in examining the development of special education schools in the Netherlands during the interwar period. Central are three intertwined social practices: the teacher's professionalism
Freund, Judith Horen; Elardo, Richard
The role of maternal behavior and family constellation factors as predictors of social competence was investigated with 17 learning disabled children (mean age 10 years) and their mothers. Journal availability: see EC 112 927. (DLS)
Mac Giolla Phadraig, Caoimhin; Dougall, Alison; Stapleton, Siobhan; McGeown, Danielle; Nunn, June; Guerin, Suzanne
Background: In Ireland, people with learning disabilities have poor oral health. This is in part due to inappropriate oral health services. Recognising the value of inclusive approaches to research and healthcare planning, this study sought to include a group of people with learning disabilities in priority setting for oral health services in…
McCorkindale, S; Fleming, M P; Martin, C R
WHAT IS KNOWN ABOUT THE SUBJECT?: People with learning disability are more likely than the general population to develop schizophrenia. Personal recovery philosophies are based on positive attitudes and an optimism that recognizes and values people and their strengths and capacity to achieve goals. Little is known from previous studies about the illness perceptions of learning disability practitioners who work with people that experience both a learning disability and schizophrenia. The illness beliefs of learning disability practitioners about schizophrenia may mediate the potential for social exclusion and limit recovery outcomes. WHAT THIS STUDY/PAPER ADDS TO EXISTING KNOWLEDGE?: The findings show that the illness beliefs of learning disability practitioners and support workers regarding schizophrenia are pessimistic in terms of the consequences for people with schizophrenia and learning disability and their relatives as well as the chronic course of the illness. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR CLINICAL PRACTICE?: This study identifies the nature of LD practitioner perceptions about schizophrenia and provides guidance about how personal recovery philosophies can be applied to the management of LD and schizophrenia. The beliefs of learning disability practitioners and support workers regarding schizophrenia need to be reframed to support better recovery outcomes and social inclusion for this group. The findings from this study can inform the development of training in bio-psycho-social models of schizophrenia, recovery approaches, family/carer interventions, clinical supervision, mentorship and reflection on clinical practice, which could be potentially useful strategies to help facilitate a reframing of beliefs. Background and purpose of study The prevalence of schizophrenia in people with learning disability is 3-4%. This is the first study to investigate the illness perceptions of learning disability (LD) practitioners towards people with schizophrenia. Methods
Drozd, Mary; Clinch, Christine
There is no published empirical research about the experiences of orthopaedic and trauma nurses who have cared for people with a learning disability. However, adults with a learning disability sustain more injuries, falls and accidents than the general population. Because of their increased health needs, there has been a corresponding increase in their numbers attending general/acute hospitals. The 6 Cs is a contemporary framework and has been used to gauge how orthopaedic and trauma nurses rate the Care, Communication, Competence, Commitment, Courage and Compassion for patients with a learning disability in orthopaedic and trauma hospital settings compared to patients without a learning disability. The aim of the study was to explore the experiences of orthopaedic and trauma nurses who have cared for people with a learning disability. The study is based on a descriptive survey design and used a questionnaire to elicit data from participants. A convenience sample of Registered Nurses completed a questionnaire. The study was explained to delegates attending a concurrent session on the topic of acute hospital care for people with a learning disability at a conference and the questionnaire was left on a table for participants to take if they wished. Questionnaires were returned anonymously. Of the participants who had completed the questionnaire 100% (n = 13) had cared for a patient with a learning disability. Using the 6 Cs as a framework suggested that care, communication and competence of nurses were worse for people with a learning disability than for people without a learning disability. Three main themes emerged regarding areas of good practices: (1) promoting a positive partnership with patients and carers; (2) modifying care and interventions; (3) supporting the healthcare team. There was evidence of good practices within orthopaedic and trauma settings such as the active involvement of family or a paid carer who is known to thepatient and the modification
DeLisa, Joel A; Lindenthal, Jacob Jay
Although progress has been made in diversifying medical school admissions and faculty, this has not extended to physicians with physical disabilities. To improve our understanding of medical students and physicians with physical and sensory disabilities, the authors propose systematically gathering information on the needs and experiences of four groups: physicians who had disabilities before beginning practice, physicians whose disabilities were incurred during their medical careers, physicians drawn from those two groups, and patients of physicians with disabilities. It is hoped these data would be used by counselors, administrators, and admissions committees in advising medical school applicants with disabilities and in revising institutional policies with a view to increasing matriculation and graduation rates of medical students with disabilities. © 2016 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
Whitington, Jane; Ma, Peng
People with learning disabilities often experience inequalities in accessing general health services. This group, their families and carers need access to effective palliative care when facing a life limiting illness. This article describes the development and implementation of a fast track referral pathway for people with learning disabilities at St Francis Hospice in Essex. Our aim is to share this pathway so others can replicate the collaborative working to improve access to palliative care services for this group.
Heikkilä, Riikka; Närhi, Vesa; Aro, Mikko; Ahonen, Timo
This work is an extension of a study by Waber, Wolff, Forbes, and Weiler (2000) in which the specificity of naming speed deficits to reading disability (RD) was examined. One hundred ninety-three children (ages 8 to 11) evaluated for learning disabilities were studied. It was determined how well rapid automatized naming (RAN) discriminated between different diagnostic groups (learning impaired [LI] with and without RD) from controls and from each other. Whereas Waber et al. concluded that RAN...
Conclusion: The researchers concluded that the participants in this study experience a range of challenges in parenting their children with learning disabilities. The main challenges emanate from financial instability, as well as lack of knowledge regarding services and programmes for children with learning disabilities. This lack of knowledge on the part of participants could indicate poor policy education by policy implementers at grass-roots level.
Owens, J; Jones, K; Marshman, Z
To conduct a user-friendly questionnaire survey of the oral health and service needs of adults with learning disabilities. Researchers collaborated with local self-advocacy services to develop a questionnaire adapted from one used in a regional postal survey. The questionnaire, which covered dental status, oral health and dental services use, was sent to a random sample of people from the learning disability case register. Of 2,000 questionnaires mailed, 117 were returned undelivered and 625 were completed (response rate 31.3%). The self-reported dental status of people with learning disabilities appeared similar to that of the 2008 postal survey of the general population in Sheffield. The major difference in dental status was 11.5% of people with learning disabilities wore upper dentures and 7.2% wore lower dentures, compared to 21.2% and 12.1% of the general population in Sheffield. Using the case register as a recruitment instrument may have excluded people with learning disabilities not registered. Time and finances only permitted one mailing. Analysis on the basis of deprivation could not be conducted. Contrary to current practice, it is possible to include people with learning disabilities in oral health surveys. A multidisciplinary team was essential for enabling the progression and implementation of inclusive research and for people with learning disabilities and their supporters to engage meaningfully. This level of collaboration appears necessary if we are committed to ensuring that people with learning disabilities and their supporters are made visible to policy and decision-makers. Copyright© 2017 Dennis Barber Ltd
Nuwagaba, Ephraim L; Rule, Peter N
Despite Uganda's progress in promoting affirmative action for persons with disabilities and its strategy of using microfinance to fight poverty, access to microfinance services by persons with disabilities is still problematic due to barriers, characterised by discrepancies between policies and practices. Regarding education, the affirmative action in favour of learners with disabilities has not translated into actual learning opportunities due to personal and environmental barriers. The study on which this article is based investigated the non-formal and informal adult learning practices regarding microfinance that persons with disabilities engaged in. This article seeks to illuminate the barriers that a person with a visual impairment encountered while learning about and engaging with microfinance and the strategies that he developed to overcome them. This was a case study, framed within the social model of disability and critical research paradigm. Data were collected through in-depth interviews of a person with visual impairment and observations of the environment in which adult learning and engagement with Savings and Credit Cooperative Organisations (SACCOs) occurred. Findings indicate that the person with a visual disability faced barriers to learning about microfinance services. He experienced barriers in an integrated manner and developed strategies to overcome these barriers. The barriers and strategies are theorised using the social model of disability. The case of a person with visual impairment suggests that persons with disabilities face multiple barriers regarding microfinance, including social, psychological and educational. However, his own agency and attitudes were also of importance as they influenced his learning. Viewing these barriers as blockades can lead to non-participation in learning and engagement with microfinance whereas viewing them as surmountable hurdles can potentially motivate participants to succeed in learning about and engaging
Trento, I.; Santucci, M.; Tula, S.; González, E.
The applied investigation and experimental development project described in this paper has been carried out by Grupo Ingeniería Clínica of the Universidad Tecnológica Nacional together with two Special Education Schools dependent on the Ministry of Education of Córdoba Province. Its aim is the development of computer access assistive tools for students with mobility limitations, and with or without intellectual problems that need adaptations to access to a computer in order to learn, communicate, work, etc. On the other hand, it demonstrates the benefits that the use of a computer gives to these students. The evaluation of their performance was made trough Dr. Marianne Frostig's Developmental Test of Visual Perception and reading and writing graphic tests, comparing the results of the tests made on paper with those made on computer. Thus, an interdisciplinary team was formed by Engineering, Psychology and Special Education professionals, and 40 students were evaluated. The design of the mouse and keyboard had some adaptations. At present, the rating test stage is being achieved, and the preliminary results allow us to anticipate that pupils with psychomotor disabilities may manifest their perceptual ripeness and reach education in a more efficient way through the use of informatics tools according to their needs and possibilities.
Moskal, Barbara M.; Wright, Lyndsey; Taylor, P. C.
Researchers have found that children with dyslexia reason differently with respect to language from those who do not have dyslexia. Dyslexic students' brains work differently than do students without dyslexia. Some researchers speculate that these differences provide dyslexic students with an advantage in science. The presentation will describe an outreach activity which developed and delivered instructional modules in physics to students in grades kindergarten through sixth. These modules were tested on thirty students who attended a summer camp designed for students who have been diagnosed with dyslexia. Eighty percent of students who have learning disabilities have dyslexia. Many of the students who attended this camp have experienced repeated failure in the traditional school system, which emphasizes literacy with little attention to science. A number of science and engineering professors collaborated with this camp to build instructional modules that were delivered one hour per day, during two weeks of this five week summer camp (ten hours of hands-on physics instruction). Both quantitative and qualitative data were collected with respect to the impact that this camp had on students' understanding and interests in science. The results of these efforts will be presented.
Kohli, Adarsh; Malhotra, Savita; Mohanty, Manju; Khehra, Nitasha; Kaur, Manreet
The public is gradually becoming aware of specific learning disabilities (SLDs), which are very often the cause of academic difficulties. The aim of the study was to assess the SLDs in the clinic population at the Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Clinic at the Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research (PGIMER), Chandigarh using the National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences SLD index and subsequently to assess the children's neuropsychological functions using a battery of tests. Thirty-five children in the age range of 7-14 years (both boys and girls) were recruited as the cohort, diagnosed clinically and assessed using the battery of tests for SLDs and neuropsychological tests consisting of the PGIMER memory scale for children, the Wisconsin card sorting test, the Bender visuo-motor gestalt test and Malin's intelligence scale for Indian children. The study revealed deficits in language and writing skills and impairments in specific areas of memory, executive functions and perceptuo-motor tasks. Identification of SLDs is useful in drawing up a treatment plan specific for a particular child.
Trento, I; Santucci, M; Tula, S; Gonzalez, E
The applied investigation and experimental development project described in this paper has been carried out by Grupo Ingenieria ClInica of the Universidad Tecnologica Nacional together with two Special Education Schools dependent on the Ministry of Education of Cordoba Province. Its aim is the development of computer access assistive tools for students with mobility limitations, and with or without intellectual problems that need adaptations to access to a computer in order to learn, communicate, work, etc. On the other hand, it demonstrates the benefits that the use of a computer gives to these students. The evaluation of their performance was made trough Dr. Marianne Frostig's Developmental Test of Visual Perception and reading and writing graphic tests, comparing the results of the tests made on paper with those made on computer. Thus, an interdisciplinary team was formed by Engineering, Psychology and Special Education professionals, and 40 students were evaluated. The design of the mouse and keyboard had some adaptations. At present, the rating test stage is being achieved, and the preliminary results allow us to anticipate that pupils with psychomotor disabilities may manifest their perceptual ripeness and reach education in a more efficient way through the use of informatics tools according to their needs and possibilities
Trento, I [Grupo Ingenieria ClInica, Universidad Tecnologica Nacional, Facultad Regional Cordoba. Av. M. Lopez esquina Cruz Roja, Ciudad Universitaria, 5012 Cordoba (Argentina); Santucci, M [Facultad de PsicologIa, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba. Ciudad Universitaria, 5012 Cordoba (Argentina); Tula, S [Escuela de Educacion Especial y Formacion Laboral Beatriz MartInez Allio. Av. M. Lopez N0 2620 Ciudad Universitaria, 5012 Cordoba (Argentina); Gonzalez, E [Grupo Ingenieria ClInica, Universidad Tecnologica Nacional, Facultad Regional Cordoba. Av. M. Lopez esquina Cruz Roja, Ciudad Universitaria, 5012 Cordoba (Argentina)
The applied investigation and experimental development project described in this paper has been carried out by Grupo Ingenieria ClInica of the Universidad Tecnologica Nacional together with two Special Education Schools dependent on the Ministry of Education of Cordoba Province. Its aim is the development of computer access assistive tools for students with mobility limitations, and with or without intellectual problems that need adaptations to access to a computer in order to learn, communicate, work, etc. On the other hand, it demonstrates the benefits that the use of a computer gives to these students. The evaluation of their performance was made trough Dr. Marianne Frostig's Developmental Test of Visual Perception and reading and writing graphic tests, comparing the results of the tests made on paper with those made on computer. Thus, an interdisciplinary team was formed by Engineering, Psychology and Special Education professionals, and 40 students were evaluated. The design of the mouse and keyboard had some adaptations. At present, the rating test stage is being achieved, and the preliminary results allow us to anticipate that pupils with psychomotor disabilities may manifest their perceptual ripeness and reach education in a more efficient way through the use of informatics tools according to their needs and possibilities.
Antonsson, H; Aström, S; Lundström, M; Graneheim, U H
Communicative difficulties affect interactions between people with learning disabilities and their carers. Despite such difficulties, however, some carers seem to interact successfully with people who have limited ability to communicate verbally and exhibit challenging behaviour. This study aims to illuminate skilled interaction among carers working in special accommodations for people with learning disabilities. Interactions between 16 caregivers and 11 residents with learning disabilities were recorded on video. Verbal and non-verbal interaction skills among the carers were identified. Four caring situations with people with learning disabilities were chosen to illuminate skilled interaction. The transcribed text was subjected to qualitative content analysis and core stories were created. The results show that skilled interaction between the carers and the people with learning disabilities is based upon being confirming, sharing daily life experience, giving time and space, and using congruent and distinct language. In this paper we present examples that offer concrete suggestions of how to promote successful interaction and create meaning in the shared day-to-day life in special accommodations for people with learning disabilities. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Nagarajappa, Ramesh; Tak, Mridula; Sharda, Archana J; Asawa, Kailash; Jalihal, Sagar; Kakatkar, Gauri
This study determines and compares the attitudes of dentists to the provision of care for people with learning disabilities according to gender, qualification, previous experience of treating patients with learning disabilities and work experience of dentists. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 247 dentists (166 men and 81 women) using a pretested structured questionnaire. This questionnaire assessed the respondent's attitude towards learning-disabled patients in five categories: beliefs about treating them, their capabilities, discrimination against these patients, their social behaviour and quality of care to be received by these patients. The information on dentist's gender, qualification, work experience and previous experience of treating patients with learning disabilities was also collected through questionnaire. The Student's t-test and anova test were used for statistical analysis. The mean attitude score was found to be 71.13 ± 8.97. A statistically significant difference was found in the mean attitude scores of dentists with work experience (p = 0.000). Study subjects with postgraduate qualification and previous experience of treating patients with learning disabilities had significantly greater mean attitude score than their counterparts (p = 0.000). The overall attitude of dentists towards provision of care for people with learning disabilities was favourable, which increased with higher qualification and past experience. © 2012 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences © 2012 Nordic College of Caring Science.
Lahane, Sandeep; Shah, Henal; Nagarale, Vivek; Kamath, Ravindra
To compare self-esteem and maternal attitude between children with learning disability and their unaffected siblings. This cross sectional study was conducted at a tertiary care hospital in an urban setting. It comprised of 31 pairs of children with a learning disability, their unaffected siblings and input from their mothers. All children were assessed with Rosenberg self-esteem scale. Mothers were asked to fill Index of parental attitude (IPA) and semi structured proforma with demographic data and questionnaire about her children with a learning disability and his/her unaffected sibling. Self-esteem was found to be lower in children with learning disability. They felt they do not have much to be proud of and have a fewer number of good qualities. They are also inclined to consider themselves as failures. In factors affecting self-esteem, index of parental attitude was found to be unfavorable towards children with learning disability. Mothers felt child was interfering with their activities and was getting on their nerves. In addition, they also felt that they do not understand their child, feel like they do not love their child and wished that child was more like others they know off. More academic failures, academic difficulties and negative school report were also perceived by mother as lowering child's self-esteem. Self-esteem was lower in children with learning disability. In factors affecting self-esteem maternal attitude, academic difficulties, academic failure and negative school reports was found to be unfavorable.
Davys, Deborah; Mitchell, Duncan; Haigh, Carol
This paper provides a review of the literature related to adult siblings of learning-disabled people. Siblings of learning-disabled people are often looked upon as next of kin when older parents die; however, there is little research regarding sibling views and wishes. A literature review of published peer-reviewed empirical research was undertaken. Electronic databases and citation tracking were used to collate data using key terms such as adult siblings and learning disability. Relevant articles were analysed, compared and contrasted. Six key themes emerged suggesting a varied impact of learning disability upon sibling lives in areas that include life choices, relationships, identity and future plans. Some siblings report a positive impact upon life, others state their lives are comparable with other adults who do not have a learning-disabled sibling and others still report a negative impact. Sibling roles and relationships are varied. Evidence suggests that sibling roles, relationships and experience are affected by life stage. Parents often have a primary care role for the disabled person, whilst siblings perform a more distant role; however, sibling involvement often rises when parents are no longer able to provide previous levels of support. Many factors appear to affect the sibling experience and uptake of roles including gender, life stage and circumstances, level of disability, health status and relationships between family members. Siblings are concerned about the future, particularly when parents are no longer able to provide support, and many appear to have expectations of future responsibilities regarding their disabled sibling. As siblings of people who have a learning disability are often expected by society to provide support, it is important that health and social care practitioners are aware of issues that may impact on this relationship. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
The aim of the study was to determine the level of functional independence in adult patients with previously undiagnosed or untreated phenylketonuria (PKU). The study was conducted among 400 intellectually impaired adult residents of Social Welfare Homes in South-Eastern Poland born prior to the introduction of neonatal PKU screening programs. PKU was screened by filter paper test using tandem mass spectrometry methods, and confirmed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometric analysis of PKU organic acids in urine. Degree of functional independence included the assessment of activities of daily living (Barthel Index) and measures of balance and gait (Tinetti scale). Eleven individuals with previously untreated PKU were identified whereby eight presented with moderate disability and three with mild disability. Six had a high risk of falls and five had a moderate risk of falls. This study indicates that there is considerable number of undiagnosed PKU patients within the Polish population who require assessment and management in order to reduce the impact of the neurological and neuropsychiatric problems associated with the condition. Appropriate therapy for those with undiagnosed PKU should, in particular, address the risk of falls.
Bøttcher, Louise; Dammeyer, Jesper
, preschool and early school age, to track the developmental trajectories of disability through the dialectical processes of cultural, social, individual, and biological processes. It discusses a number of themes that are relevant for the early development and support for children with various types......This book introduces current theories and research on disability, and builds on the premise that disability has to be understood from the dialectical dynamics of biology, psychology, and culture over time. Based on the newest empirical research on children with disabilities, the book overcomes...... the limitations of the medical and social models of disability by arguing for a dialectical biopsychosocial model. The proposed model builds on Vygotsky’s cultural-historical ideas of developmental incongruence, implying that the disability emerges from the misfit between individual abilities and the cultural...
Bøttcher, Louise; Dammeyer, Jesper
This book introduces current theories and research on disability, and builds on the premise that disability has to be understood from the dialectical dynamics of biology, psychology, and culture over time. Based on the newest empirical research on children with disabilities, the book overcomes...... and degrees of disability through the lens of Vygotsky’s cultural-historical developmental theories. Some of the themes discussed are inclusion, mental health, communication, aids and family life....... the limitations of the medical and social models of disability by arguing for a dialectical biopsychosocial model. The proposed model builds on Vygotsky’s cultural-historical ideas of developmental incongruence, implying that the disability emerges from the misfit between individual abilities and the cultural...
Colomo-Palacios, Ricardo; Paniagua-Martín, Fernando; García-Crespo, Ángel; Ruiz-Mezcua, Belén
Education for students with disabilities now takes place in a wide range of settings, thus, including a wider range of assistive tools. As a result of this, one of the most interesting application domains of technology enhanced learning is related to the adoption of learning technologies and designs for people with disabilities. Following this unstoppable trend, this paper presents MAS, a software platform aimed to help people with severe intellectual disabilities and cerebral paralysis in their learning processes. MAS, as a technology enhanced learning platform, provides several tools that supports learning and monitoring for people with special needs, including adaptative games, data processing and monitoring tools. Installed in a special needs education institution in Madrid, Spain, MAS provides special educators with a tool that improved students education processes.
Madaus, Joseph W.; McKeown, Kimberly; Gelbar, Nick; Banerjee, Manju
As colleges and universities offer more classes in both online and technology blended formats, students with learning disabilities (LD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) will face new learning demands. Compared to traditional face-to-face courses, online and blended courses require increased self-management and executive…
Madaus, Joseph W.; Banerjee, Manju; McKeown, Kimberly; Gelbar, Nicholas
As students with learning disabilities and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) participate in postsecondary education, they are likely to encounter a new learning medium that will need to be mastered--online and blended courses. Although many college-aged students have grown up using the Internet and other information technologies,…
Smith, Gregory Walter
The ill-effect of noise on human performance has been studied by researchers in the fields of cognitive psychology and education for almost a decade. The learning theory Cognitive Information Processing was applied to a new empirical study that builds upon past relevant research on (a) working memory and individuals with learning disabilities, and…
Bøttcher, Louise; Dammeyer, Jesper
, preschool and early school age, to track the developmental trajectories of disability through the dialectical processes of cultural, social, individual, and biological processes. It discusses a number of themes that are relevant for the early development and support for children with various types......This book introduces current theories and research on disability, and builds on the premise that disability has to be understood from the dialectical dynamics of biology, psychology, and culture over time. Based on the newest empirical research on children with disabilities, the book overcomes...
Azzopardi, Toni; Johnson, Amanda; Phillips, Kirrilee; Dickson, Cathy; Hengstberger-Sims, Cecily; Goldsmith, Mary; Allan, Trevor
To promote simulation as a learning strategy to support undergraduate nursing students with disabilities. Supporting undergraduate nursing students with disabilities has gained further momentum because of amendments to the Disability Discrimination Act in 2009. Providers of higher education must now ensure proactive steps to prevent discrimination against students with a disability are implemented to assist in course progression. Simulation allows for the impact of a student's disability to be assessed and informs the determination of reasonable adjustments to be implemented. Further suitable adjustments can then be determined in a safe environment and evaluated prior to scheduled placement. Auditing in this manner, offers a risk management strategy for all while maintaining the academic integrity of the program. Discursive. Low, medium and high fidelity simulation activities critically analysed and their application to support undergraduate nursing students with disabilities assessed. With advancing technology and new pedagogical approaches simulation as a learning strategy can play a significant role. In this role, simulation supports undergraduate nursing students with disabilities to meet course requirements, while offering higher education providers an important risk management strategy. The discussion recommends simulation is used to inform the determination of reasonable adjustments for undergraduate nursing students with disabilities as an effective, contemporary curriculum practice. Adoption of simulation, in this way, will meet three imperatives: comply with current legislative requirements, embrace advances in learning technologies and embed one of the six principles of inclusive curriculum. Achieving these imperatives is likely to increase accessibility for all students and offer students with a disability a supportive learning experience. Provides capacity to systematically assess, monitor, evaluate and support students with a disability. The students
Full Text Available Background and Aim: Learning disability is a term referes to a group of disorders manifesting listening, reading, writing, or mathematical problems. These children mostly have attention difficulties in classroom that leads to many learning problems. In this study we aimed to compare the auditory attention of 7 to 9 year old children with learning disability to non- learning disability age matched normal group.Methods: Twenty seven male 7 to 9 year old students with learning disability and 27 age and sex matched normal conrols were selected with unprobable simple sampling. 27 In order to evaluate auditory selective and divided attention, Farsi versions of speech in noise and dichotic digit test were used respectively.Results: Comparison of mean scores of Farsi versions of speech in noise in both ears of 7 and 8 year-old students in two groups indicated no significant difference (p>0.05 Mean scores of 9 year old controls was significant more than those of the cases only in the right ear (p=0.033. However, no significant difference was observed between mean scores of dichotic digit test assessing the right ear of 9 year-old learning disability and non learning disability students (p>0.05. Moreover, mean scores of 7 and 8 year- old students with learning disability was less than those of their normal peers in the left ear (p>0.05.Conclusion: Selective auditory attention is not affected in the optimal signal to noise ratio, while divided attention seems to be affected by maturity delay of auditory system or central auditory system disorders.
Geary, David C
Gersten, Jordan, and Flojo (in this issue) provide the beginnings of an essential bridge between basic research on mathematical disabilities (MD) in young children and the application of this research for the early identification and remediation of these forms of learning disability. As they acknowledge, the field of MD is in the early stages of development, and thus recommendations regarding identification measures and remedial techniques must be considered preliminary. I discuss the importance of maintaining a tight link between theoretical and empirical research on children's developing numerical, arithmetical, and mathematical competencies and future research on learning disabilities in mathematics. This link will provide the foundation for transforming experimental procedures into assessment measures, understanding the cognitive strengths and weaknesses of children with these forms of learning disability, and developing remedial approaches based on the pattern of cognitive strengths and weaknesses for individual children.
McArthur, Polly; Burch, Lillian; Moore, Katherine; Hodges, Mary Sue
This article describes interactive learning about independent living for people with disabilities and features the partnership of the College of Nursing and a Center for Independent Living (CIL). Using qualitative descriptive approach, students' written reflections were analyzed. Through "Xtreme Challenge," 82 undergraduate nursing students participated in aspects of independent living as well as identifying barriers. Students were engaged and learned to consider the person before the disability. Moreover, students valued the activity leaders' openness, which facilitated understanding the point of view of a person with disability. The value of partnership was evident as it allowed students to participate in active learning, which led to growth in the affective domain. Students became aware of potential education resources through the CIL. This article will guide educators in designing experiences that teach nursing care at the individual, family, and community level for people living with disabilities. © 2015 Association of Rehabilitation Nurses.
Abu Bakar, Nurul Farhana; Chen, Ai-Hong
Children with learning disabilities might have difficulties to communicate effectively and give reliable responses as required in various visual function testing procedures. The purpose of this study was to compare the testability of visual acuity using the modified Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) and Cambridge Crowding Cards, stereo acuity using Lang Stereo test II and Butterfly stereo tests and colour perception using Colour Vision Test Made Easy (CVTME) and Ishihara's Test for Colour Deficiency (Ishihara Test) between children in mainstream classes and children with learning disabilities in special education classes in government primary schools. A total of 100 primary school children (50 children from mainstream classes and 50 children from special education classes) matched in age were recruited in this cross-sectional comparative study. The testability was determined by the percentage of children who were able to give reliable respond as required by the respective tests. 'Unable to test' was defined as inappropriate response or uncooperative despite best efforts of the screener. The testability of the modified ETDRS, Butterfly stereo test and Ishihara test for respective visual function tests were found lower among children in special education classes ( P learning disabilities. Modifications of vision testing procedures are essential for children with learning disabilities.
English National Board for Nursing, Midwifery and Health Visiting, London.
A research project examined the current roles of learning disability nurses within multi-professional and multi-agency teams in a range of care settings in the United Kingdom (UK). It also studied the effectiveness of current educational provision for this branch of nursing, in terms of current roles and activities, and the perceived needs of…
Smith, Sally L.; Irvine, Sarah E.
Discusses the experiential learning and arts-based approach of the Lab School of Washington, DC, and describes projects that use technology as a valuable tool in teaching students with learning disabilities. Teaching approaches using the computer and specific software are matched with characteristics of learning disabilities and…
Beacroft, Monica; Dodd, Karen
An audit was conducted across Surrey to investigate pain recognition and management with people with learning disabilities. This section of the audit looked at what people with learning disabilities understood and experienced when they had pain compared to good practice from the literature. The results show that people with learning disabilities…
Lybarger, Pamela A.
The purpose of Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act (IDEIA) is to protect the rights of students with disabilities and to assure that all students receive equitable access to a free and appropriate public education; yet there are explicit exclusions written in the law for students who may have experienced environmental,…
Bollard, Martin; Lahiff, John; Parkes, Neville
There is limited evidence that explores how to effectively include people with learning disabilities in nurse education in the U.K. The majority of reported work relates to mental health nursing and social work training (Morgan and Jones, 2009). This paper specifically reports on the processes and activities undertaken by the authors with people with learning disabilities in the development of a new BSc learning disability nursing programme, a specific branch of nursing in the U.K. In doing so, findings and discussion from two separate projects involving students and people with learning disabilities will be integrated into the paper. EPICURE (Engagement, Processing, Interpretation, Critique, Usefulness, Relevance and Ethics (Stige et al. 2009) is adopted as a qualitative framework throughout the paper to evaluate the reported work that took place between September 2006 and October 2010. Suggestions are therefore made regarding the benefits and challenges of striving towards an inclusive approach to user involvement in nurse education, with particular reference to learning disability. The work presented in the paper demonstrates how through careful involvement of this population, deeper learning opportunities for all nursing students can be created. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sheehan, Rory; Gandesha, Aarti; Hassiotis, Angela; Gallagher, Pamela; Burnell, Matthew; Jones, Glyn; Kerr, Michael; Hall, Ian; Chaplin, Robert; Crawford, Michael J
To audit patient hospital records to evaluate the performance of acute general and mental health services in delivering inpatient care to people with learning disability and explore the influence of organisational factors on the quality of care they deliver. Nine acute general hospital Trusts and six mental health services. Adults with learning disability who received inpatient hospital care between May 2013 and April 2014. Data on seven key indicators of high-quality care were collected from 176 patients. These covered physical health/monitoring, communication and meeting needs, capacity and decision-making, discharge planning and carer involvement. The impact of services having an electronic system for flagging patients with learning disability and employing a learning disability liaison nurse was assessed. Indicators of physical healthcare (body mass index, swallowing assessment, epilepsy risk assessment) were poorly recorded in acute general and mental health inpatient settings. Overall, only 34 (19.3%) patients received any assessment of swallowing and 12 of the 57 with epilepsy (21.1%) had an epilepsy risk assessment. For most quality indicators, there was a non-statistically significant trend for improved performance in services with a learning disability liaison nurse. The presence of an electronic flagging system showed less evidence of benefit. Inpatient care for people with learning disability needs to be improved. The work gives tentative support to the role of a learning disability liaison nurse in acute general and mental health services, but further work is needed to confirm these benefits and to trial other interventions that might improve the quality and safety of care for this high-need group. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
Flick, Randall P; Lee, Kunmoo; Hofer, Ryan E; Beinborn, Charles W; Hambel, Ellen M; Klein, Melissa K; Gunn, Paul W; Wilder, Robert T; Katusic, Slavica K; Schroeder, Darrell R; Warner, David O; Sprung, Juraj
In prior work, children born to mothers who received neuraxial anesthesia for cesarean delivery had a lower incidence of subsequent learning disabilities compared with vaginal delivery. The authors speculated that neuraxial anesthesia may reduce stress responses to delivery, which could affect subsequent neurodevelopmental outcomes. To further explore this possibility, we examined the association between the use of neuraxial labor analgesia and development of childhood learning disabilities in a population-based birth cohort of children delivered vaginally. The educational and medical records of all children born to mothers residing in the area of 5 townships of Olmsted County, Minnesota from 1976 to 1982 and remaining in the community at age 5 years were reviewed to identify those with learning disabilities. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to compare the incidence of learning disabilities between children delivered vaginally with and without neuraxial labor analgesia, including analyses adjusted for factors of either potential clinical relevance or that differed between the 2 groups in univariate analysis. Of the study cohort, 4684 mothers delivered children vaginally, with 1495 receiving neuraxial labor analgesia. The presence of childhood learning disabilities in the cohort was not associated with use of labor neuraxial analgesia (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.05; 95%confidence interval, 0.85-1.31; P = 0.63). The use of neuraxial analgesia during labor and vaginal delivery was not independently associated with learning disabilities diagnosed before age 19 years. Future studies are needed to evaluate potential mechanisms of the previous finding indicating that the incidence of learning disabilities is lower in children born to mothers via cesarean delivery under neuraxial anesthesia compared with vaginal delivery.
Utay, Carol; Utay, Joe
Examined effects of combining cross-age tutoring, peer tutoring, cooperative learning, and computer-mediated writing in a peer-assisted learning package on writing skills of second through sixth graders with learning disabilities. Found that the treatment group enjoyed working with partners, asked each other for help, had friendships extending…
Methodologies of embodied learning, radical pedagogies and applied drama offer a lens through which to investigate the empowerment of young people with learning disabilities in Northern Ireland, thus counteracting more traditional, disempowering methods. According to Helen Nicholson, the "participatory, dialogic and dialectic qualities as…
Rodriguez, Anthony M.
Students with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) are routinely excluded from algebra and other high-level mathematics courses. High school students with IDD take courses in arithmetic and life skills rather than having an opportunity to learn algebra. Yet algebra skills can support the learning of money and budgeting skills. This…
Instructional leadership is the most important responsibility for principals and the most vulnerable students in need of productive instructional leadership are students of color with specific learning disabilities. Instructional leaders are challenged with creating supportive learning environments and school cultures that promotes the education…
Hollins, Nancy; Foley, Alan R.
Institutions of higher education are increasingly asking students to use the online environment, or virtual campus, when carrying out business related to college life. In this paper, we report findings from a study conducted to learn more about the experiences of college students with learning disabilities as they interacted with this virtual…
Osipova, Anna V.; Ricci, Leila A.; Menzies, Holly
Learning a foreign language is a critical skill in the current context of globalization and multicultural communication. Present secondary and post-secondary foreign language classes admit increasing numbers of students with learning disabilities (LD). Given the particular challenges faced by these students in the area of language processing,…
Shin, Mikyung; Bryant, Diane P.; Bryant, Brian R.; McKenna, John W.; Hou, Fangjuan; Ok, Min Wook
Many students with learning disabilities demonstrate difficulty in developing a conceptual understanding of mathematical topics. Researchers recommend using visual models to support student learning of the concepts and skills necessary to complete abstract and symbolic mathematical problems. Virtual manipulatives (i.e., interactive visual models)…
Brownlee, Phyllis Perdew
The author examines literature and research relating to the use of suggestopedia, suggestive-accelerative learning and teaching--SALT, with learning disabled children. Chapter I introduces the topic of suggestopedia with definitions of related terminology, and information on the purpose, significance, and limitations of the study to investigate…
Collison, Michele N. K.
The Alternative Learners Program at College Misericordia is described. The program was founded 10 years ago by Joseph P. Rogan, and was one of the first for learning-disabled students. Learning strategies include tutoring, note-taking services, and talking computers and calculators. (MLW)
Schiff, Rachel; Bauminger, Nirit; Toledo, Idit
Analogical reasoning--perceiving similarities in different situations and the transfer of such information--facilitates learning and understanding. However, children with learning disabilities (LD) typically demonstrate deficits in such information processing strategies. In this study, we investigated the analogical problem-solving differences…
Barbot, Baptiste; Krivulskaya, Suzanna; Hein, Sascha; Reich, Jodi; Thuma, Philip E.; Grigorenko, Elena L.
Differences in learning patterns of vocabulary acquisition in children at risk (+SRD) and not at risk (-SRD) for Specific Reading Disability (SRD) were examined using a microdevelopmental paradigm applied to the multi-trial Foreign Language Learning Task (FLLT; Baddeley et al., 1995). The FLLT was administered to 905 children from rural…
O'Connor, Rollanda E.; Jenkins, Joseph R.
This study examined what occurs in cooperative learning groups that include students with mild disabilities in grades 3-6. Teacher interviews were combined with observations of 10 special and 10 regular education students' behavior in cooperative learning groups which used the Cooperative Integrated Reading and Composition model. Results are…
Osipova, Anna V.; Ricci, Leila A.; Menzies, Holly
Learning a foreign language is a critical skill in the current context of globalization and multicultural communication. Present secondary and post-secondary foreign language classes admit increasing numbers of students with learning disabilities (LD). Given the particular challenges faced by these students in the area of language processing,…
Full Text Available Online learning has the potential to open doors to education for everyone who has access to the technology required to participate. Or does it? When it comes to social inclusion in online learning, who are the “haves” and who are the “have-nots?” Some online learning practices erect barriers to individuals with disabilities—uncaptioned videos are not accessible to students who are deaf, content presented only within graphic images is not accessible to individuals who are blind, unorganized content cluttered on a page creates barriers to some students with learning disabilities and attention deficits, web pages that require the use of a mouse are inaccessible to those who cannot operate a mouse. This article explores the question, “What online learning practices make social inclusion possible for individuals with disabilities?” The author answers this question with lessons learned from her own teaching experiences as well as those presented in research and practice literature. She also shares overall characteristics of distance learning programs that promote the social inclusion of students with disabilities in their courses. The author points out how making courses welcoming to, accessible to, and usable by individuals with disabilities may promote the social inclusion of other students as well. She recommends further dissemination and future research regarding inclusive practices in online learning.
Berch, Daniel B.
In this commentary, I examine some of the distinctive, foundational difficulties in learning fractions and other types of rational numbers encountered by students with a mathematical learning disability and how these differ from the struggles experienced by students classified as low achieving in math. I discuss evidence indicating that students…
Shaw, Donita Massengill; Disney, Laurel
The purpose of this study is to provide a deeper understanding of learning disabled young adults who struggle with low literacy skills in order to learn more about their literacy profiles and, from an emic perspective, understand the affective factors that may have influenced their attendance and persistence in a post-secondary residential…
Lodge, Keri-Michèle; Milnes, David; Gilbody, Simon M
Background Identifying patients with learning disabilities within primary care is central to initiatives for improving the health of this population. UK general practitioners (GPs) receive additional income for maintaining registers of patients with learning disabilities as part of the Quality and Outcomes Framework (QOF), and may opt to provide Directed Enhanced Services (DES), which requires practices to maintain registers of patients with moderate or severe learning disabilities and offer them annual health checks.Objectives This paper describes the development of a register of patients with moderate or severe learning disabilities at one UK general practice.Methods A Read code search of one UK general practice's electronic medical records was conducted in order to identify patients with learning disabilities. Confirmation of diagnoses was sought by scrutinising records and GP verification. Cross-referencing with the practice QOF register of patients with learning disabilities of any severity, and the local authority's list of clients with learning disabilities, was performed.Results Of 15 001 patients, 229 (1.5%) were identified by the Read code search as possibly having learning disabilities. Scrutiny of records and GP verification confirmed 64 had learning disabilities and 24 did not, but the presence or absence of learning disability remained unclear in 141 cases. Cross-referencing with the QOF register (n=81) and local authority list (n=49) revealed little overlap.Conclusion Identifying learning disability and assessing its severity are tasks GPs may be unfamiliar with, and relying on Read code searches may result in under-detection. Further research is needed to define optimum strategies for identifying, cross-referencing and validating practice-based registers of patients with learning disabilities.
Brooks, B A; Floyd, F; Robins, D L; Chan, W Y
Children with intellectual disability and specific learning disabilities often lack age-appropriate social skills, which disrupts their social functioning. Because of the limited effectiveness of classroom mainstreaming and social skills training for these children, it is important to explore alternative opportunities for social skill acquisition. Participation in social activities is positively related to children's social adjustment, but little is known about the benefits of activity participation for children with intellectual and specific learning disabilities. This study investigated the association between frequency and type of social activity participation and the social competence of 8-11-year-old children with intellectual disability (n = 40) and specific learning disabilities (n = 53), in comparison with typically developing peers (n = 24). More time involved in unstructured activities, but not structured activities, was associated with higher levels of social competence for all children. This association was strongest for children with intellectual disability, suggesting that participation in unstructured social activities was most beneficial for these children. Future research on the quality of involvement is necessary to further understand specific aspects of unstructured activities that might facilitate social development. © 2014 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
As a result of the complexity of needs that people with learning disabilities have, this group of people often come into contact with a range of different health professionals and different types of teams. Despite this, people with learning disabilities are not always given the opportunity to share their knowledge and experience of being at the ‘receiving end’ of care and treatment from different types of teams. This paper reports on a 14 month funded project in which people with learning dis...
Duggan, Ashley; Bradshaw, Ylisabyth S; Carroll, Shannon E; Rattigan, Sara H; Altman, Wayne
Patients with disabilities receive fewer health services than the general population, yet they have greater health needs. Similarly, physicians report limited training in disability. The current project examines medical students' learning about disability in a project using individuals with disabilities as medical educators. Family medicine clerkship students (N = 138) across an academic year were videotaped during interviews with standardized patient educators with disabilities and during feedback sessions following the interactions. Qualitative analysis of feedback transcripts identifies three primary areas of integrating learning, reflective practice, and disability: (1) learning how disability impacts the treatment plan, (2) self-reflection and recognizing attitudes about disability, and (3) learning about the practice of medicine generally from the disability exercise. Themes are identified within each of the primary learning areas. Medical student reflection provides evidence of learning to connect disability with pain, everyday life, and treatment. Medical students learned to recognize patients' expertise in their own condition and in health care navigation. Medical students also examined how their language implies attitude. The current investigation provided evidence of the ways examining disability can serve as a cornerstone for building relationship-centered patient care and encouraging reflective practice overall.
Nilsson, Lisbeth; Eklund, Mona; Nyberg, Per; Thulesius, Hans
The Driving to Learn project explored ways to help people with profound cognitive disabilities practice operating a joystick-operated powered wheelchair. The project used a grounded theory approach with constant comparative analysis and was carried out over 12 yr. The participants were 45 children and adults with profound cognitive disabilities. Reference groups included 17 typically developing infants and 64 participants with lesser degrees of cognitive disability. The data sources included video recordings, field notes, open interviews, and a rich mixture of literature. The findings that emerged yielded strategies for facilitating achievements, an 8-phase learning process, an assessment tool, and a grounded theory of deplateauing explaining the properties necessary for participants to exceed expected limitations and plateaus. Eight participants with profound cognitive disabilities reached goal-directed driving or higher. Participants were empowered by attaining increased control over tool use, improving their autonomy and quality of life.
Pizzamiglio, Maria Rosa; Piccardi, Laura; Bianchini, Filippo; Canzano, Loredana; Palermo, Liana; Fusco, Francesca; D'Antuono, Giovanni; Gelmini, Chiara; Garavelli, Livia; Ursini, Matilde Valeria
Studies suggest that genetic factors are associated with the etiology of learning disabilities. Incontinentia Pigmenti (IP, OMIM#308300), which is caused by mutations of the IKBKG/NEMO gene, is a rare X-linked genomic disorder (1:10000/20:000) that affects the neuroectodermal tissues. It always affects the skin and sometimes the hair, teeth, nails, eyes and central nervous system (CNS). Data from IP patients demonstrate the heterogeneity of the clinical phenotype; about 30% have CNS manifestations. This extreme variability suggests that IP patients might also have learning disabilities. However, no studies in the literature have evaluated the cognitive profile of IP patients. In fact, the learning disability may go unnoticed in general neurological analyses, which focus on major disabling manifestations of the CNS. Here, we investigated the neuropsychological outcomes of a selected group of IP-patients by focusing on learning disabilities. We enrolled 10 women with IP (7 without mental retardation and 3 with mild to severe mental retardation) whose clinical diagnosis had been confirmed by the presence of a recurrent deletion in the IKBKG/NEMO gene. The participants were recruited from the Italian patients' association (I.P.A.SS.I. Onlus). They were submitted to a cognitive assessment that included the Wechsler Adult Intelligence scale and a battery of tests examining reading, arithmetic and writing skills. We found that 7 patients had deficits in calculation/arithmetic reasoning and reading but not writing skills; the remaining 3 had severe to mild intellectual disabilities. Results of this comprehensive evaluation of the molecular and psychoneurological aspects of IP make it possible to place "learning disabilities" among the CNS manifestations of the disease and suggest that the IKBKG/NEMO gene is a genetic determinant of this CNS defect. Our findings indicate the importance of an appropriate psychoneurological evaluation of IP patients, which includes early
Maria Rosa Pizzamiglio
Full Text Available Studies suggest that genetic factors are associated with the etiology of learning disabilities. Incontinentia Pigmenti (IP, OMIM#308300, which is caused by mutations of the IKBKG/NEMO gene, is a rare X-linked genomic disorder (1:10000/20:000 that affects the neuroectodermal tissues. It always affects the skin and sometimes the hair, teeth, nails, eyes and central nervous system (CNS. Data from IP patients demonstrate the heterogeneity of the clinical phenotype; about 30% have CNS manifestations. This extreme variability suggests that IP patients might also have learning disabilities. However, no studies in the literature have evaluated the cognitive profile of IP patients. In fact, the learning disability may go unnoticed in general neurological analyses, which focus on major disabling manifestations of the CNS. Here, we investigated the neuropsychological outcomes of a selected group of IP-patients by focusing on learning disabilities. We enrolled 10 women with IP (7 without mental retardation and 3 with mild to severe mental retardation whose clinical diagnosis had been confirmed by the presence of a recurrent deletion in the IKBKG/NEMO gene. The participants were recruited from the Italian patients' association (I.P.A.SS.I. Onlus. They were submitted to a cognitive assessment that included the Wechsler Adult Intelligence scale and a battery of tests examining reading, arithmetic and writing skills. We found that 7 patients had deficits in calculation/arithmetic reasoning and reading but not writing skills; the remaining 3 had severe to mild intellectual disabilities. Results of this comprehensive evaluation of the molecular and psychoneurological aspects of IP make it possible to place "learning disabilities" among the CNS manifestations of the disease and suggest that the IKBKG/NEMO gene is a genetic determinant of this CNS defect. Our findings indicate the importance of an appropriate psychoneurological evaluation of IP patients, which
Miller, Zachary A; Mandelli, Maria Luisa; Rankin, Katherine P; Henry, Maya L; Babiak, Miranda C; Frazier, Darvis T; Lobach, Iryna V; Bettcher, Brianne M; Wu, Teresa Q; Rabinovici, Gil D; Graff-Radford, Neill R; Miller, Bruce L; Gorno-Tempini, Maria Luisa
Primary progressive aphasia is a neurodegenerative clinical syndrome that presents in adulthood with an isolated, progressive language disorder. Three main clinical/anatomical variants have been described, each associated with distinctive pathology. A high frequency of neurodevelopmental learning disability in primary progressive aphasia has been reported. Because the disorder is heterogeneous with different patterns of cognitive, anatomical and biological involvement, we sought to identify whether learning disability had a predilection for one or more of the primary progressive aphasia subtypes. We screened the University of California San Francisco Memory and Aging Center's primary progressive aphasia cohort (n = 198) for history of language-related learning disability as well as hand preference, which has associations with learning disability. The study included logopenic (n = 48), non-fluent (n = 54) and semantic (n = 96) variant primary progressive aphasias. We investigated whether the presence of learning disability or non-right-handedness was associated with differential effects on demographic, neuropsychological and neuroimaging features of primary progressive aphasia. We showed that a high frequency of learning disability was present only in the logopenic group (χ(2) = 15.17, P learning disability was associated with earlier onset of disease, more isolated language symptoms, and more focal pattern of left posterior temporoparietal atrophy. Non-right-handedness was instead over-represented in the semantic group, at nearly twice the prevalence of the general population (χ(2) = 6.34, P = 0.01). Within semantic variant primary progressive aphasia the right-handed and non-right-handed cohorts appeared homogeneous on imaging, cognitive profile, and structural analysis of brain symmetry. Lastly, the non-fluent group showed no increase in learning disability or non-right-handedness. Logopenic variant primary progressive aphasia and developmental dyslexia both
Ferri, B A; Gregg, N; Heggoy, S J
The purpose of this study was to analyze the assessment profiles of two groups of adults with learning disabilities. The first group comprised 48 adults (34 men and 14 women) demonstrating giftedness and a learning disability profile (G/LD). The second group of 46 adults (31 men and 15 women) demonstrated a learning disabled profile without giftedness (NG/LD). Both groups of participants were either attending or planning to attend college and sought testing at a university-affiliated learning disabilities center. Participants' mean age was 20 years, and all were White and from middle to upper-middle class backgrounds. Findings indicate that, as a group, the adults demonstrating a G/LD profile tended to be identified later and have more discrepancy among cognitive assessment profile scores than the NG/LD group. Cognitive subtest scores showed significant differences between the groups, but also several areas of weakness evident in both groups regardless of the presence of giftedness. These findings emphasize the importance of identifying the presence of learning disabilities among gifted populations.
Ginsburg, Faye; Rapp, Rayna
Our article draws on one aspect of our multi-sited long-term ethnographic research in New York City on cultural innovation and Learning Disabilities (LD). We focus on our efforts to help create two innovative transition programs that also became sites for our study when we discovered that young adults with disabilities were too often "transitioning to nowhere" as they left high school. Because of our stakes in this process as parents of children with learning disabilities as well as anthropologists, we have come to think of our method as entangled ethnography, bringing the insights of both insider and outsider perspectives into productive dialog, tailoring a longstanding approach in critical anthropology to research demedicalizing the experience of disability. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Russell, Amy M; Bryant, Louise; House, Allan
People with learning disabilities (LD) have poor physical and mental health when compared with the general population. They are also likely to find it more difficult than others to describe their symptoms adequately. It is therefore harder for healthcare workers to identify the health needs of those with learning disabilities, with the danger of some problems being left unrecognised. Practice registers record only a proportion of those who are eligible, making it difficult to target improvements in their health care. To test a Read Code search supporting the identification of people with a mild-to-moderate learning disability who are not currently on the learning disability register. An observational study in primary care in West Yorkshire. Read Code searches were created to identify individuals with a learning disability not on the LD register; they were field tested and further refined before testing in general practice. Diagnostic codes identified small numbers of individuals who should have been on the LD register. Functional and service use codes often created large numbers of false-positive results. The specific descriptive codes 'Learning difficulties' and 'Referral to learning disability team' needed follow-up review, and then identified some individuals with LD who were not on the register. The Read Code search supported practices to populate their registers and was quick to run and review, making it a viable choice to support register revalidation. However, it did not find large numbers of people eligible for the LD register who were previously unidentified by their practice, suggesting that additional complementary methods are required to support practices to validate their registers. © British Journal of General Practice 2017.
Background: Hypertension is an important cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide which often remains undiagnosed and subsequently untreated. Data from diverse populations on the prevalence of undiagnosed hypertension therefore become imperative. This study examined the prevalence and risk factors of ...
van Gent, R.; van Essen, L.E.; Rovers, M.M.; Kimpen, J.L.; van der Ent, C.K.; de Meer, G.
This study describes the impact of undiagnosed and diagnosed asthma on quality of life in schoolchildren aged 7-10 years and their caregivers in a cross-sectional community-based study. Diagnosed asthma was defined as the parents' confirmation of a physician's diagnosis of asthma. Undiagnosed asthma
Russak, Susie; Daniel Hellwing, Ariella
The present study examined three issues connected to the experiences of graduates with learning disabilities (LD) from a college of education (N = 45): support services that had been most beneficial during studies, positive and negative effects of the disability on personal, and professional life. Additionally, demographic data were collected. A…
Torrence, Jamie N.
The purpose of this quantitative survey study was to determine the influence of attitudes toward students with disabilities and counselor self-efficacy on school counselors' perceptions of preparedness to provide services to students with learning disabilities using the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB; Ajzen, 1985). One hundred and sixteen…
Jensen, Andreas Vestergaard; Faurholt-Jepsen, Daniel; Egelund, Gertrud Baunbæk
Background: Diabetes mellitus is an important risk factor for community-acquired pneumonia, whereas the prevalence of undiagnosed diabetes mellitus and prediabetes in patients with community-acquired pneumonia is largely unknown. We aimed to determine the prevalence of prediabetes, undiagnosed...... diabetes mellitus, and risk factors associated with undiagnosed diabetes mellitus in a large European community-acquired pneumonia cohort. Methods: This was a multicenter prospective cohort study of hospitals and private practices in Germany and Austria encompassing 1961 adults with community......-acquired pneumonia included in the German Community-Acquired Pneumonia Competence Network (CAPNETZ) study between 2007 and 2014. The prevalence of undiagnosed diabetes mellitus and prediabetes was estimated based on hemoglobin A1c measurements. Logistic regression was used to assess risk factors for undiagnosed...
In this study, a mixed methods approach was used to gather descriptive exploratory information regarding the teaching of science to middle grades students with learning disabilities within a general education classroom. The purpose of this study was to examine teachers' beliefs and their practices concerning providing equitable opportunities for students with learning disabilities in a general education science classroom. Equitable science teaching practices take into account each student's differences and uses those differences to inform instructional decisions and tailor teaching practices based on the student's individualized learning needs. Students with learning disabilities are similar to their non-disabled peers; however, they need some differentiation in instruction to perform to their highest potential achievement levels (Finson, Ormsbee, & Jensen, 2011). In the quantitative phase, the purpose of the study was to identify patterns in the beliefs of middle grades science teachers about the inclusion of students with learning disabilities in the general education classroom. In the qualitative phase, the purpose of the study was to present examples of instruction in the classrooms of science education reform-oriented middle grades science teachers. The quantitative phase of the study collected data from 274 sixth through eighth grade teachers in the State of Florida during the 2007--2008 school year using The Teaching Science to Students with Learning Disabilities Inventory. Overall, the quantitative findings revealed that middle grades science teachers held positive beliefs about the inclusion of students with learning disabilities in the general education science classroom. The qualitative phase collected data from multiple sources (interviews, classroom observations, and artifacts) to develop two case studies of reform-oriented middle grades science teachers who were expected to provide equitable science teaching practices. Based on their responses to The
Cash, Stefan; Shinnick-Page, Andrea
Nurses and other carers of people with learning disabilities must be able to manage choking events and perform basic life support effectively. UK guidelines for assessment of airway obstruction and for resuscitation do not take account of the specific needs of people with profound multiple learning disability. For example, they fail to account for inhibited gag and coughing reflexes, limited body movements or chest deformity. There are no national guidelines to assist in clinical decisions and training for nurses and carers. Basic life support training for students of learning disability nursing at Birmingham City University is supplemented to address these issues. The authors ask whether such training should be provided for all nurses including those caring for children and young people. They also invite comment and discussion on questions related to chest compression and training in basic life support for a person in a seated position.
Buck, Deborah; Smith, Monica; Appleton, Richard; Baker, Gus A; Jacoby, Ann
Few suitable instruments exist for use with people, especially children, with both epilepsy and learning disabilities. One such measure is the Epilepsy and Learning Disabilities Quality of Life scale (ELDQOL), which has recently undergone revision following feedback from relevant users. This article reports on the final psychometric testing phase of this scale. ELDQOL consists of 70 items covering seizure severity, seizure-related injuries, antiepileptic drug side effects, behavior, mood, physical, cognitive, and social functioning, parental concern, communication, overall quality of life, and overall health. Revalidation involved a qualitative phase, to ascertain users' opinions on the wording, coverage, and layout of the questionnaire, and a quantitative phase, to examine internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and validity. There is very good evidence of the reliability and validity of the final version of ELDQOL, making it a promising instrument for assessing quality of life in children/young adults with epilepsy and learning disabilities.
Nowicki, Elizabeth A; Brown, Jason D; Dare, Lynn
Reasons underlying the social exclusion of children with intellectual or learning disabilities are not entirely understood. Although it is important to heed the voices of children on this issue, it is also important to consider the degree to which these ideas are informed. The present authors invited educators to evaluate the content of children's ideas on the causes of social exclusion. Educators thematically sorted and rated children's ideas on why classmates with intellectual or learning disabilities are socially excluded. Sorted data were analysed with multidimensional scaling and hierarchical cluster analysis. Six thematic clusters were identified differing in content to those provided by children in an earlier study. Educators generally rated children's ideas as showing somewhat uninformed ideas about why social exclusion occurs. Educators indicated that children need to be better informed about intellectual and learning disabilities. Limitations and implications are discussed. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Harding, Celia; Cockerill, Helen
People who work with children who have neurological and learning disabilities frequently need to manage the health and emotional risks associated with eating, drinking and swallowing (dysphagia). Some approaches can support children to develop oral feeding competence or to maximise their ability to maintain some oral intake supplemented with tube feeding. However, some clinicians feel that oral-motor exercises can support eating and drinking skills as well as speech and language development, whereas there is little evidence to support this.The implied "beneficial" association between oral-motor exercises, speech and swallowing skills gives a false impression in terms of future outcomes for parents and carers of children with learning disabilities. This paper considers oral-motor approaches in the remediation of dysphagia and the need for a cultural shift away from this view. Realistic and useful outcomes for people with learning disabilities need to be an essential part of therapeutic intervention. © The Author(s) 2014.
Soukup, Monica; Feinstein, Sheryl
The purpose of the study was to ascertain methods of identification used by teachers of the deaf and hard of hearing who were working with students with learning disabilities, the training these teachers had received, and the accommodations and modifications they had implemented for their students. A 10-item survey was designed to solicit opinions and implementation procedures. Surveys went to teachers in a four-state region of the Midwest; 91 responded. Teachers indicated the use of various criteria to identify deaf and hard of hearing students with learning disabilities, and indicted that they incorporated a variety of accommodations to meet these students' needs. The survey showed that 50% of respondents did not feel adequately prepared to teach deaf and hard of hearing students with learning disabilities. Teachers expressed a desire for more training in identification, assessment, and intervention.
Hollingsworth, Lorna; Kalambouka, Afroditi
This article aims to increase the dental teams' awareness of communicating with people with learning disabilities who have additional communication impairments. The paper presents a brief account of the factors behind why some people with learning disabilities may find it difficult to verbally communicate, and highlights the importance of ensuring high levels of care for all patients. It provides an overview of the principles of communication development and some of the most commonly used augmentative and alternative communication approaches. The paper concludes with suggestions of simple communication techniques as well as practical ideas, which can be easily incorporated into daily general dental practice in order to increase opportunities for successful interactions and minimise communication breakdown. By becoming more aware of the range of communication methods used to support those who have learning disabilities, the dental team will be more able to provide a better experience to their patients and ensure that their needs are met.
Durand, Marie-Anne; Gates, Bob; Parkes, Georgina; Zia, Asif; Friedli, Karin; Barton, Garry; Ring, Howard; Oostendorp, Linda; Wellsted, David
Epilepsy is the most common neurological problem that affects people with learning disabilities. The high seizure frequency, resistance to treatments, associated skills deficit and co-morbidities make the management of epilepsy particularly challenging for people with learning disabilities. The Books Beyond Words booklet for epilepsy uses images to help people with learning disabilities manage their condition and improve quality of life. Our aim is to conduct a randomized controlled feasibility trial exploring key methodological, design and acceptability issues, in order to subsequently undertake a large-scale randomized controlled trial of the Books Beyond Words booklet for epilepsy. We will use a two-arm, single-centre randomized controlled feasibility design, over a 20-month period, across five epilepsy clinics in Hertfordshire, United Kingdom. We will recruit 40 eligible adults with learning disabilities and a confirmed diagnosis of epilepsy and will randomize them to use either the Books Beyond Words booklet plus usual care (intervention group) or to receive routine information and services (control group). We will collect quantitative data about the number of eligible participants, number of recruited participants, demographic data, discontinuation rates, variability of the primary outcome measure (quality of life: Epilepsy and Learning Disabilities Quality of Life scale), seizure severity, seizure control, intervention's patterns of use, use of other epilepsy-related information, resource use and the EQ-5D-5L health questionnaire. We will also gather qualitative data about the feasibility and acceptability of the study procedures and the Books Beyond Words booklet. Ethical approval for this study was granted on 28 April 2014, by the Wales Research Ethics Committee 5. Recruitment began on 1 July 2014. The outcomes of this feasibility study will be used to inform the design and methodology of a definitive study, adequately powered to determine the impact of
Teodiano Freire Bastos
Full Text Available Severe disabled children have little chance of environmental and social exploration and discovery, and due to this lack of interaction and independency, it may lead to an idea that they are unable to do anything by themselves. Trying to help these children on this situation, educational robotics can offer and aid, once it can give them a certain degree of independency in exploration of environment. The system developed in this work allows the child to transmit the commands to a robot. Sensors placed on the child’s body can obtain information from head movement or muscle signals to command the robot to carry out tasks. With the use of this system, the disabled children get a better cognitive development and social interaction, balancing in a certain way, the negative effects of their disabilities.
Magda Solange Vanzo Pestun
Full Text Available Nonverbal learning disabilities (NVLD, a clinical condition still little reported in Brazil, are characterized by damages in the visual spatial domains, visual motor integration, fine motor skills, math skills and social and emotional difficulties. Developmental Dyscalculia (DD is a neurodevelopmental disorder that affects basic arithmetic skills acquisition, including storage and recovery of arithmetic facts, calculation fluency and precision and number sense domain. Although both are persistent Math learning disorder/disability, they cause different damages. The objective of this case report is to describe, compare and analyze the neuropsychological profile of two Brazilian children with similar complaints but distinct diagnosis.
Ana Claudia Figueiredo Frizzo
Full Text Available The information presented in this paper demonstrates the author's experience in previews cross-sectional studies conducted in Brazil, in comparison with the current literature. Over the last ten years, AEP has been used in children with learning disabilities. This method is critical to analyze the quality of the processing in time and indicates the specific neural demands and circuits of the sensorial and cognitive process in this clinical population. Some studies with children with dyslexia and learning disabilities were shown here to illustrate the use of AEP in this population.
Savarimuthu, Darren; Bunnell, Toni
The aim of this paper was to promote the use of musical interventions with clients with learning disabilities. Musical interventions with this group of clients were found to be effective in reducing self-injurious behaviour, aggression and other behaviour, which challenge the service providers. Music was also found to have the potential to improve the communication skills of clients and to maintain their psychological well being. A review of the literature shows that music, though not widely used in the field of learning disabilities, can be an effective medium through which the quality of life of clients can be enhanced.
Janet N. Igbo
Full Text Available The study explored the perceived efficacy of teacher-made instructional materials in promoting learning among mathematics-disabled children in the primary school. One research question and one hypothesis were used to guide the study. The sample for the study comprised of 155 primary 5 mathematics-disabled pupils, and the study area was central education zone. Questionnaire was the instrument used for data collection. Mean, standard deviation, and t-test statistics were used in the analysis of the data. Results indicated that pupils prefer visual aids, recall better, learn faster, achieve more, and prefer contact with teacher-made instructional materials, among other items.
Yanes, Tatiane; Humphreys, Linda; McInerney-Leo, Aideen; Biesecker, Barbara
Little is known about the adaptive process and experiences of parents raising a child with an undiagnosed medical condition. The present study aims to assess how uncertainty, hope, social support, and coping efficacy contributes to adaptation among parents of children with an undiagnosed medical condition. Sixty-two parents of child affected by an undiagnosed medical condition for at least two years completed an electronically self-administered survey. Descriptive analysis suggested parents in this population had significantly lower adaptation scores when compared to other parents of children with undiagnosed medical conditions, and parents of children with a diagnosed intellectual and/or physical disability. Similarly, parents in this population had significantly lower hope, perceived social support and coping efficacy when compared to parents of children with a diagnosed medical condition. Multiple linear regression was used to identify relationships between independent variables and domains of adaptation. Positive stress response was negatively associated with emotional support (B = −0.045, p ≤ 0.05), and positively associated with coping efficacy (B = 0.009, p ≤ 0.05). Adaptive self-esteem was negatively associated with uncertainty towards one's social support (B = −0.248, p ≤ 0.05), and positively associated with coping efficacy (B = 0.007, p ≤ 0.05). Adaptive social integration was negatively associated with uncertainty towards one's social support (B-0.273, p ≤ 0.05), and positively associated with uncertainty towards child's health (B = 0.323, p ≤ 0.001), and affectionate support (B = 0.110, p ≤ 0.001). Finally, adaptive spiritual wellbeing was negatively associated with uncertainty towards one's family (B = −0.221, p ≤ 0.05). Findings from this study have highlighted the areas where parents believed additional support was required, and provided insight into factors that contribute to parental adaptation. PMID:28039658
Dodge, Katie M.
Students with learning disabilities, including a reading comprehension learning disability, are attending higher education institutions at an increasing rate. As a result, higher education institutions will need to be prepared to accommodate these students, especially with those accommodations perceived as most valuable by the students who use…
This article describes the development of a community-based sex offender treatment programme for learning disabled clients (CB-SOTP-LD), the Keep Safe Programme (KSP), by the Learning Disabilities Team of County Durham and Darlington Priority Services (CDDPS) NHS Trust. The aim of this paper, by the treatment lead, is to share experiences of…
Bent, Sarah; McShea, Lynzee; Brennan, Siobhan
Background: Hearing loss has a significant impact on living well and on communication in all adults, with the numbers affected increasing with age, and adults with learning disabilities being at particular risk. Methods: A review of the literature on hearing loss in older adults with learning disabilities was completed. Results: A significant…
Yilmaz, Atike; Kirimoglu, Hüseyin; Soyer, Fikret
This study was conducted in order to compare loneliness and social skill levels of children with specific learning disabilities in terms of participation in sports. For this study, a screening model was used. The study group was composed of 56 children who were aged between 7 and 14 years and diagnosed with a specific learning disability (30 boys…
Ziadat, Ayed H.; AL-Awan, Mohammad Soud A.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of Neurological Impress Method (NIM) on reading fluency of students with learning disabilities in Amman, Jordan. A sample of forty students (boys and girls) between the ages 10-12 years old with learning disabilities were selected from the Fourth Amman Educational Directorate in the Hashemite…
The aim of the study was to investigate differences in cognitive and metacognitive strategy use in the reading comprehension of narrative and expository texts among students with learning disabilities (SLD) and without learning disabilities (SWOLD). A total of 122 fifth and sixth graders took part in the study. Half of them (n = 61) were SLD…
Satsangi, Rajiv; Bouck, Emily C.
Secondary students with a learning disability in mathematics often struggle with the academic demands presented in advanced mathematics courses, such as algebra and geometry. With greater emphasis placed on problem solving and higher level thinking skills in these subject areas, students with a learning disability in mathematics often fail to keep…
Fleming, Madalay; Wated, Guillermo
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the mediating role of perceived stigma in the relationship between academic self-efficacy and academic performance among college students with learning disabilities and/or ADHD. Seventy-four college-aged participants with diagnosed learning disability or ADHD completed a perceived stigma scale…
L'Ecuyer, Kristine Marie
This dissertation presents a quantitative study of the attitudes of staff nurse preceptors toward nursing students with learning disabilities. There are an increased number of nursing students with learning disabilities. These students may have additional challenges in clinical settings, particularly if clinical settings do not understand or…
McCleary, Daniel F.; Rowlette, Emily Fuller; Pelchar, Taylor K.; Bain, Sherry K.
We investigated whether there was a noticeable shift in focus from general to specific learning disabilities, and in the types of articles (narrative or empirically based) in the Journal of Learning Disabilities (JLD) between 1995 to 2000. A pilot study had revealed an increase in empirically based articles and a shift toward specifically…
Moss, Lucy; Smith, Melanie; Wharton, Sarah; Hames, Annette
Chronic constipation is a common problem in people with learning disabilities. Treatment often involves dietary changes or long-term laxative use. The participants were five children with profound learning disabilities and additional physical difficulties. Their long-standing idiopathic constipation was managed by laxatives. Intervention lasted up…
BARSCH, RAY H.; BRYANT, N. DALE
PAPERS BY TWO SPEAKERS ARE PRESENTED, TOGETHER WITH BRIEF BIBLIOGRAPHIES (TOTALING 15 ITEMS) OF THEIR RECENT ARTICLES. "A PERSPECTIVE ON LEARNING DISABILITIES AND THE CONCEPT OF MOVEMENT EFFICIENCY" BY BARSCH, SURVEYS THE PROBLEM OF CLASSIFYING CHILDREN IN EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMS AND SUGGESTS THAT CLASSES FOR SPECIAL LEARNING DISABILITIES BE PART…
Coutinho, Martha J.; Oswald, Donald P.; Best, Al M.
A study involving 4,141 schools investigated gender and race/ethnicity disproportionality among students identified as having learning disabilities. There was a clear association between ethnicity and gender and the odds of being identified as a student with learning disabilities. School sociodemographic factors also associated with the proportion…
"Secret Loves, Hidden Lives?" was a piece of research which explored the lives and loves of gay, lesbian and bisexual people with learning disabilities. The research arguably influenced the development of policy in that same sex relationships were subsequently mentioned in English government policy on learning disability. The research…
Castles, Amy; Bailey, Carol; Gates, Bob; Sooben, Roja
It has been well documented that people with learning disabilities receive poor care in acute settings. Over the last few years, a number of learning disability liaison nurse services have developed in the United Kingdom as a response to this, but there has been a failure to systematically gather evidence as to their effectiveness. This article…
Sands, Catherine J. MacMillan
The booklet describes approaches to teaching learning disabled students introductory physical anthropology, as related by a professor involved in the Higher Education for Learning Disabled Students (HELDS) program. The author suggests ways to identify LD students through observation of short attention span, restlessness, and marked discrepancies…
Boxall, Kathy; Ralph, Sue
Although there is increasing interest in service user involvement in research, such involvement rarely extends to people with profound and multiple learning disabilities. New developments in visual methodologies offer the potential for people with profound and multiple learning disabilities to be included in research. At the same time, however,…
Fore, Cecil, III; Scheiwe, Kimberly; Burke, Mack D.; Boon, Richard T.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the direct instruction of story mapping in improving the reading comprehension for high school students with specific learning disabilities. The participants included four eleventh grade students with specific learning disabilities served for literature in a resource room in a public…
TITLE: Perception and coping with the specific learning disabilities impacts on everyday life of children with this diagnosis. ABSTRACT This text is focused on recognition of impacts of the specific learning disabilities on everyday life as the children with this diagnosis themselves see it and the strategies used by these children in order to cope with these disabilities. The theoretical part summarizes the necessary knowledge of the early school age developmental stage, the interaction of a...
Johnson, Evelyn S.
Learning disabilities (LDs) have long been presumed to be a neurological disorder resulting from a deficit in 1 or more cognitive processes. Although the emphasis on cognitive processing disorders has been included in the definition since the term was coined, and although it arguably represents the key distinguishing characteristic of LDs, it also…
Barker, Trevor; Jones, Sara; Britton, Carol; Messer, David
This paper describes Horizon, a European-funded project designed to increase employment opportunities for students with disabilities or learning difficulties. The project established a working cafe/restaurant (Cafe Horizon) in East London staffed by students. Part of the project involved the creation of multimedia units linked directly to Level 1…
I use my passion and skills as an artist to deal with my various disabilities resulting from brain tumour surgery. The "artvantages" of this approach have been many: improved self-esteem and a greater sense of wellbeing, to name just two. On reflection and after revisiting the experiences of my healing journey, I now know when this journey began.…
Apr 13, 1974 ... guage, reading, spelling, writing, arithmetic and motor co-ordination, as well as behaviour disabilities. Each child ... remedial reading books and many children were receiving individual remedial lessons. Two speech therapists .... and/or memory defects. They may therefore need remedial help in social and ...
Giangreco, Michael F.; Doyle, Mary Beth
Italy has a long history of including students with disabilities in general education classes. Their efforts offer unique perspectives and practices from which other countries may benefit. The article highlights four notable attributes about the Italian approach and discusses implications for American schools.
Marshall, Catherine A.; Juarez, Lourdes Garcia
Interviews with 52 Indigenous women with physical disabilities in Oaxaca, Mexico, indicated they had remarkably high levels of self-esteem and were content with their personal relationships, but struggled to find employment and education. The Women's International Leadership Institute (Tucson, Arizona) has provided training in leadership and…
Mendi, Engin; Bayrak, Coskun
Learning disabilities affect the ability of children to learn, despite their having normal intelligence. Assistive tools can highly increase functional capabilities of children with learning disorders such as writing, reading, or listening. In this article, we describe a text-to-audiovisual synthesizer that can serve as an assistive tool for such children. The system automatically converts an input text to audiovisual speech, providing synchronization of the head, eye, and lip movements of the three-dimensional face model with appropriate facial expressions and word flow of the text. The proposed system can enhance speech perception and help children having learning deficits to improve their chances of success.
Douglas, Scott; Falcão, William R; Bloom, Gordon A
The purpose of this study was to gain an understanding of the career development and learning pathways of Paralympic head coaches who previously competed as Paralympic athletes. Each coach participated in a semistructured interview. A thematic analysis of the data revealed three higher order themes, which were called becoming a coach, learning to coach, and lifelong learning and teaching. Across these themes, participants discussed interactions with other coaches and athletes with a disability, learning from mentors and coaching clinics, as well as limited formal educational opportunities they experienced transitioning from athlete to head coach. The findings revealed that they acquired most of their knowledge from a combination of knowledge gained as athletes and informal sources, including trial and error. They also stressed the need for enhanced recruiting of parasport coaches and parasport coach education opportunities that would enhance programs for athletes with physical disabilities, from grassroots to Paralympic levels.
Leo, Jennifer; Goodwin, Donna
Disability simulations have been used as a pedagogical tool to simulate the functional and cultural experiences of disability. Despite their widespread application, disagreement about their ethical use, value, and efficacy persists. The purpose of this study was to understand how postsecondary kinesiology students experienced participation in disability simulations. An interpretative phenomenological approach guided the study's collection of journal entries and clarifying one-on-one interviews with four female undergraduate students enrolled in a required adapted physical activity course. The data were analyzed thematically and interpreted using the conceptual framework of situated learning. Three themes transpired: unnerving visibility, negotiating environments differently, and tomorrow I'll be fine. The students described emotional responses to the use of wheelchairs as disability artifacts, developed awareness of environmental barriers to culturally and socially normative activities, and moderated their discomfort with the knowledge they could end the simulation at any time.
Roper, Emily Ann; Santiago, José A
Employing a grounded theory approach, the purpose of this study was to qualitatively examine the influence of service-learning (SL) on undergraduate kinesiology students' attitudes toward and experiences working with P-12 students with disabilities. Fourteen (9 female, 5 male) kinesiology students enrolled in an adapted physical education class participated in one of three focus group interviews regarding their experiences of working with P-12 students with disabilities. All interview data were analyzed following procedures outlined by Strauss and Corbin (1998). The following five themes represent the participants' experiences and attitudes toward P-12 students with disabilities after their involvement in a SL project: (a) initial reactions, (b) selection of P-12 students, (c) preconceived attitudes, (d) the benefits of SL, and (e) positive experience. All 14 of the participants who volunteered to share their experiences indicated that the SL experience positively affected their attitudes toward individuals with disabilities.
Colomo-Palacios, Ricardo; Paniagua-Martín, Fernando; García-Crespo, Ángel; Ruiz-Mezcua, Belén
Proceedings of: First International Conference on Reforming Education, Quality of Teaching and Technology-Enhanced Learning: Learning Technologies, Quality of Education, Educational Systems, Evaluation, Pedagogies (TECH-EDUCATION 2010), Athens, Greece, May, 19-21, 2010 Education for students with disabilities now takes place in a wide range of settings, thus, including a wider range of assistive tools. As a result of this, one of the most interesting application domains of technology enhan...
Hames, Annette; Carlson, Tracy
Research has identified that while people with learning disabilities often have greater health needs than the general population, they access primary care at the same rate or lower. Valuing people recommends that members of learning disability teams should take on a key role in supporting people with learning disabilities to access mainstream…
Crook, Bradley; Tomlins, Rose; Bancroft, Ann; Ogi, Laura
The importance of making research participation accessible for people with learning disabilities is emphasised in government and NHS research strategies. This evaluation explored the realities of this goal from the perceptions of people with learning disabilities and clinicians within an NHS learning disability service. People with learning…
Sparks, Richard L.
Despite the lack of empirical evidence, the term "foreign language learning disability" (FLLD) has become popular in the learning disabilities (LD) and foreign language literature. I contend that there is not a unique "disability" for foreign language learning and suggest instead that foreign language skills run along a continuum of very strong to…
Sharabi, Adi; Margalit, Malka
Positive and negative mood have often been considered indicators of wellbeing, affecting behavior and adjustment. This study evaluated the personal and familial predictors of positive and negative mood among 1,024 Israeli students (children with learning disabilities [LD]: 302 boys, 198 girls; children without LD: 308 boys, 216 girls). They were…
Eapen, Valsamma; Crncec, Rudi; McPherson, Sarah; Snedden, Corina
Tics are involuntary movements or sounds. Tourette syndrome is one of a family of tic disorders that affect around 1% of the population but which remains underrecognised in the community. In paediatric special education learning disability classes, the prevalence of individuals with tic disorders is around 20-45%--higher still in special education…
Stanley, Patricia D.; And Others
This study examined relationships between self-esteem, depression, and race in 70 learning disabled high school students (39 white and 31 black). Subjects were administered the Coopersmith Self Esteem Inventory and the Children's Depression Inventory. Statistical analysis indicated a significant sex by race interaction. Both white females and…
Goodman, Wendy; Leggett, Janice; Garrett, Tanya
Locus of control can be a useful measure of treatment outcome in offenders from the general population. However, there is little information regarding locus of control and offenders with learning disabilities. Existing measures of locus of control use complex language and abstract ideas that may not be accessible to individuals in this group. A…
This article describes a pilot project carried out at City University London, Department of Language and Communication Science, where adult service users with learning disabilities trained first-year speech and language therapy students. The training involved presentations by the service users on their involvement in interviewing support staff,…
Poorer outcomes for youth labeled with learning disabilities (LDs) are often attributed to the student's own deficiencies or cumulative disadvantage; but the more troubling possibility is that special education placement limits rather than expands these students' opportunities. Labeling theory partially attributes the poorer outcomes of…
Clarke, Zara Jane; Thompson, Andrew R.; Buchan, Linda; Combes, Helen
There are few measures of pain for people with limited ability to communicate. Eight parents of adults with a known learning disability and associated physical health complaint were interviewed to explore their experience of identifying and managing the pain felt by their children. The parents did not often perceive their son or daughter to be in…