WorldWideScience

Sample records for undeveloped fresh water

  1. Medium-sized water reactors for undeveloped regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osmachkin, V. S.

    2004-01-01

    In the new century the growth of population and an increasing of energy demands together with the difficulties of fossil fuel supply are expected. It is important to find optimal ways in solving such problems without the climate warming. The nuclear power having many advantages in comparison with fossil fuel technologies could play the great role in near future. The Medium-Sized Nuclear Reactors for production of electricity, heat and fresh water are considered as a main direction of nuclear power applications in the developing world It is important to discuss the requirements to such nuclear plants for using in the Countries with Small and Medium Electricity Grids. Particularly, cost-benefit analysis of construction NPP has to include assessment of all type risks and effectiveness of plant. In the paper an attention is paid on Water Reactors designed on the basis of navy technology. Such compact PWR built on special mills and placed on special floating vessel could be used in undeveloped regions. Total plant can be transported to any point of World Ocean and return back to mill for repair or decommissioning after exhaustion of lifetime. It is expected that such reactors with innovative design approach, provision of high safety and proper economic efficiency, based on leasing procedures, could be very attractive for medium-sized and developing countries.(author)

  2. Salty vs. Fresh Water

    KAUST Repository

    Peinemann, Klaus-Viktor

    2012-11-14

    One possibility of obtaining sustainable energy from seawater is the use of osmosis. The key to this technology is the development of efficient membranes which allow water to pass through, but not salt. © 2013 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  3. From fresh to marine waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gonçalves-Araujo, Rafael; Stedmon, Colin; Heim, Birgit

    2015-01-01

    and evaluates the behavior of DOM across the fresh water-marine gradient. Six fluorescent components (four humic-like; one marine humic-like; one protein-like) were identified by Parallel Factor Analysis (PARAFAC) with a clear dominance of allochthonous humic-like signals. Colored DOM (CDOM) and dissolved...... organic carbon (DOC) were highly correlated and had their distribution coupled with hydrographical conditions. Higher DOM concentration and degree of humification were associated with the low salinity waters of the Lena River. Values decreased towards the higher salinity Laptev Sea shelf waters. Results...... demonstrate different responses of DOM mixing in relation to the vertical structure of the water column, as reflecting the hydrographical dynamics in the region. Two mixing curves for DOM were apparent. In surface waters above the pycnocline there was a sharper decrease in DOM concentration in relation...

  4. Establishing the Global Fresh Water Sensor Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrand, Peter H.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents an approach to measuring the major components of the water cycle from space using the concept of a sensor-web of satellites that are linked to a data assimilation system. This topic is of increasing importance, due to the need for fresh water to support the growing human population, coupled with climate variability and change. The net effect is that water is an increasingly valuable commodity. The distribution of fresh water is highly uneven over the Earth, with both strong latitudinal distributions due to the atmospheric general circulation, and even larger variability due to landforms and the interaction of land with global weather systems. The annual global fresh water budget is largely a balance between evaporation, atmospheric transport, precipitation and runoff. Although the available volume of fresh water on land is small, the short residence time of water in these fresh water reservoirs causes the flux of fresh water - through evaporation, atmospheric transport, precipitation and runoff - to be large. With a total atmospheric water store of approx. 13 x 10(exp 12)cu m, and an annual flux of approx. 460 x 10(exp 12)cu m/y, the mean atmospheric residence time of water is approx. 10 days. River residence times are similar, biological are approx. 1 week, soil moisture is approx. 2 months, and lakes and aquifers are highly variable, extending from weeks to years. The hypothesized potential for redistribution and acceleration of the global hydrological cycle is therefore of concern. This hypothesized speed-up - thought to be associated with global warming - adds to the pressure placed upon water resources by the burgeoning human population, the variability of weather and climate, and concerns about anthropogenic impacts on global fresh water availability.

  5. Fresh water generators onboard a floating platform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tewari, P.K.; Verma, R.K.; Misra, B.M.; Sadhulkan, H.K.

    1997-01-01

    A dependable supply of fresh water is essential for any ocean going vessel. The operating and maintenance personnel on offshore platforms and marine structures also require a constant and regular supply of fresh water to meet their essential daily needs. A seawater thermal desalination unit onboard delivers good quality fresh water from seawater. The desalination units developed by Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) suitable for ocean going vessels and offshore platforms have been discussed. Design considerations of such units with reference to floating platforms and corrosive environments have been presented. The feasibility of coupling a low temperature vacuum evaporation (LTVE) desalination plant suitable for an onboard floating platform to a PHWR nuclear power plant has also been discussed. (author). 1 ref., 3 figs, 2 tabs

  6. Hot water, fresh beer, and salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, F.S.

    1990-01-01

    In the ''hot chocolate effect'' the best musical scales (those with the finest tone quality, largest range, and best tempo) are obtained by adding salt to a glass of hot water supersaturated with air. Good scales can also be obtained by adding salt to a glass of freshly opened beer (supersaturated with CO 2 ) provided you first (a) get rid of much of the excess CO 2 so as to produce smaller, hence slower, rising bubbles, and (b) get rid of the head of foam, which damps the standing wave and ruins the tone quality. Finally the old question, ''Do ionizing particles produce bubbles in fresh beer?'' is answered experimentally

  7. Distribution of water in fresh cod

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Charlotte Møller; Rinnan, A.

    2002-01-01

    Low-field (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) transverse relaxation was used to measure water mobility and distribution of water in fresh cod fillets. The NMR relaxations were analysed with the so-called SLICING method giving uni-exponential profiles from which the transverse relaxation time (T(2......)-values) and the relative sizes of the water populations were calculated. Two water populations with the T(2)-values of 50 and 94 ms were obtained. The shortest relaxation time was primarily found near the head, and water with the longest relaxation time was primarily found near the tail. This variation...... can he explained by the smaller muscle cells and muscle fibers in the tail, which may influence the distributions of water into the different pools. The amount of one of the water populations was correlated to the overall water content with a correlation coefficient of -0.94. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science...

  8. Spiniferites cruciformis: a fresh water dinoflagellate cyst?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouli, K; Brinkhuis, H; Dale, B

    2001-04-01

    Palynological studies of cored lacustrine sediments from the late Quaternary of Lake Kastoria, northern Greece, revealed a Late Glacial interval with abundant dinoflagellate cysts. Cyst assemblages include two identifiable species, Spiniferites cruciformis and Gonyaulax apiculata. The presence of the fresh water species G. apiculata is consistent with the lacustrine setting of these deposits, but that of S. cruciformis is anomalous. Previously, this species has only been recorded in abundance from presumed brackish marine sediments from the Black Sea and Marmara Sea sediments where geochemical data clearly record brackish salinities. Therefore, it has been regarded as a low salinity cyst type with a wide range of morphological variation that some workers have suggested to reflect salinity fluctuations. Specimens from Greece display only part of the range of morphological variability previously described from these (brackish) marine settings. Encountered morphological variation includes ellipsoidal/pentameral and cruciform endocyst shapes with rare intermediate shapes, and highly variable septa development. Specimens characterized by extremely reduced ornamentation known from (brackish) marine environments have not been recorded. Our records of S. cruciformis indicate that: (1) it could thrive in fresh water conditions; and (2) that apparently most of the strong morphological variations of the cysts are an intrinsic phenomenon for this taxon, and may only partly be linked to salinity variations as suggested earlier. We suggest that S. cruciformis essentially is a fresh water taxon, and that its records in (brackish) marine environments, with the exception of specimens with strongly reduced ornamentation, may be due to transportation, to short-lived fresh water surface conditions in such environments, or to tolerance of the species to brackish conditions.

  9. Reproduction of fresh water desalination installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slesarenko, V.N. [Maritime State Univ., Vladivostok (Russian Federation)

    2005-07-01

    This paper discussed ways to desalinate sea water for use at power plants. The advantages of different modes of installation in terms of hydrodynamics and heat exchange were presented along with the parameters that determine their perfection and profitability. In particular, the author used a thermodynamic and thermophysical approach to analyze thermal heat desalination schemes. The analysis estimated the efficiency of reproducing fresh water from the sea at thermal power stations located 10 to 30 km from bodies of salt water. It was shown that heat exchange constitutes the greatest expense of exergy in the desalination process. Three thermal schemes of desalination were compared for their exergy losses. The effect of thin-film on energy efficiency was discussed. An exergy efficiency of up to 90 per cent was found in thin-film evaporation equipment. 6 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs.

  10. Green and technical efficient growth in Danish fresh water aquaculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus

    2011-01-01

    growth can be achieved by introducing new environmentally friendly water purification systems in Danish fresh water aquaculture. Data Envelopment Analysis is used to investigate whether different water purification systems and farm size influence technical efficiency. The empirical results indicate...

  11. Toward an Improved Understanding of the Global Fresh Water Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrand, Peter H.

    2005-01-01

    The major components of the global fresh water cycle include the evaporation from the land and ocean surfaces, precipitation onto the Ocean and land surfaces, the net atmospheric transport of water from oceanic areas over land, and the return flow of water from the land back into the ocean. The additional components of oceanic water transport are few, principally, the mixing of fresh water through the oceanic boundary layer, transport by ocean currents, and sea ice processes. On land the situation is considerably more complex, and includes the deposition of rain and snow on land; water flow in runoff; infiltration of water into the soil and groundwater; storage of water in soil, lakes and streams, and groundwater; polar and glacial ice; and use of water in vegetation and human activities. Knowledge of the key terms in the fresh water flux budget is poor. Some components of the budget, e.g. precipitation, runoff, storage, are measured with variable accuracy across the globe. We are just now obtaining precise measurements of the major components of global fresh water storage in global ice and ground water. The easily accessible fresh water sources in rivers, lakes and snow runoff are only adequately measured in the more affluent portions of the world. presents proposals are suggesting methods of making global measurements of these quantities from space. At the same time, knowledge of the global fresh water resources under the effects of climate change is of increasing importance and the human population grows. This paper provides an overview of the state of knowledge of the global fresh water budget, evaluating the accuracy of various global water budget measuring and modeling techniques. We review the measurement capabilities of satellite instruments as compared with field validation studies and modeling approaches. Based on these analyses, and on the goal of improved knowledge of the global fresh water budget under the effects of climate change, we suggest

  12. Strategic interaction in undeveloped credit markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas Barnebeck; Malchow-Møller, Nikolaj

    2006-01-01

    This paper studies the strategic interaction between informal and formal lenders in undeveloped credit markets. In a model with adverse selection, loan seniority, market power, and differences in the cost of lending, it is shown that under general conditions a co-funding equilibrium will be a Nas...... evidence and the emerging discussion of how to best ensure financial viability and outreach of microfinance institutions......This paper studies the strategic interaction between informal and formal lenders in undeveloped credit markets. In a model with adverse selection, loan seniority, market power, and differences in the cost of lending, it is shown that under general conditions a co-funding equilibrium will be a Nash...

  13. Timescales of AMOC decline in response to fresh water forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Laura C.; Wood, Richard A.

    2017-12-01

    The Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) is predicted to weaken over the coming century due to warming from greenhouse gases and increased input of fresh water into the North Atlantic, however there is considerable uncertainty as to the amount and rate of AMOC weakening. Understanding what controls the rate and timescale of AMOC weakening may help to reduce this uncertainty and hence reduce the uncertainty surrounding associated impacts. As a first step towards this we consider the timescales associated with weakening in response to idealized freshening scenarios. Here we explore timescales of AMOC weakening in response to a freshening of the North Atlantic in a suite of experiments with an eddy-permitting global climate model (GCM). When the rate of fresh water added to the North Atlantic is small (0.1 Sv; 1 Sv =1× 10^6 m^3 /s), the timescale of AMOC weakening depends mainly on the rate of fresh water input itself and can be longer than a century. When the rate of fresh water added is large (≥ 0.3 Sv) however, the timescale is a few decades and is insensitive to the actual rate of fresh water input. This insensitivity is because with a greater rate of fresh water input the advective feedbacks become more important at exporting fresh anomalies, so the rate of freshening is similar. We find advective feedbacks from: an export of fresh anomalies by the mean flow; less volume import through the Bering Strait; a weakening AMOC transporting less subtropical water northwards; and anomalous subtropical circulations which amplify export of the fresh anomalies. This latter circulation change is driven itself by the presence of fresh anomalies exported from the subpolar gyre through geostrophy. This feedback has not been identified in previous model studies and when the rate of freshening is strong it is found to dominate the total export of fresh anomalies, and hence the timescale of AMOC decline. Although results may be model dependent, qualitatively

  14. Effects of direct transfer to fresh water on the haematological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Changes in blood parameters of Tilapia guineensis transferred directly from brackish water (salinity 14.5 ‰) to fresh water (0.12 ‰) was investigated to assess the effect of sudden change in environment on fish blood characteristics. The results obtained indicated significant reduction (p < 0.05) in mean values of ...

  15. Estimation of potential fresh water reserves in icebergs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Krass

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the forecast of the global shortage of fresh water it is expected that the global demand for drink‑ ing water will be increased up to 400 km3 per a year. As the main potential resources of drinking water it is proposed to use table Antarctic icebergs. Mathematical and phenomenological models of heat exchange between the icebergs and the environment, and a process of melting of ices floes in the warm sea water are discussed. The ablation processes on the daily and lower surfaces of icebergs at different modes of towing them to points of utilization is analyzed. The most optimal technology is to fill tankers with water taken from the freshwater layer under icebergs, and then subsequent delivery of the water to points of utilization. Using of the phenomenon of fresh-salt stratified Lake Vanda is considered as one of promising technologies of the industrial water production.

  16. Synergies between renewable energy and fresh water production. Scoping study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geurts, F.; Noothout, P.; Schaap, A. [Ecofys Netherlands, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2011-02-15

    The IEA Implementing Agreement for Renewable Energy Technology Deployment (IEA-RETD) investigated the opportunities for coupling renewable energy systems with fresh water supply systems. The four main conclusions of the scoping study, carried out by Ecofys, are: (1) Fresh water production based on desalination technologies provide most options for synergies with renewable energy production; (2) Linking desalination to renewable sources is currently not economically viable; (3) There is a large potential for small scale (decentralised) desalination plants; (4) Current commercially-sized desalination technologies are in need of a constant operation point. Reverse osmosis and thermal membrane technologies might give future synergies as deferrable load.

  17. Fog as a fresh-water resource: overview and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemm, Otto; Schemenauer, Robert S; Lummerich, Anne; Cereceda, Pilar; Marzol, Victoria; Corell, David; van Heerden, Johan; Reinhard, Dirk; Gherezghiher, Tseggai; Olivier, Jana; Osses, Pablo; Sarsour, Jamal; Frost, Ernst; Estrela, María J; Valiente, José A; Fessehaye, Gebregiorgis Mussie

    2012-05-01

    The collection of fog water is a simple and sustainable technology to obtain fresh water for afforestation, gardening, and as a drinking water source for human and animal consumption. In regions where fresh water is sparse and fog frequently occurs, it is feasible to set up a passive mesh system for fog water collection. The mesh is directly exposed to the atmosphere, and the foggy air is pushed through the mesh by the wind. Fog droplets are deposited on the mesh, combine to form larger droplets, and run down passing into a storage tank. Fog water collection rates vary dramatically from site to site but yearly averages from 3 to 10 l m(-2) of mesh per day are typical of operational projects. The scope of this article is to review fog collection projects worldwide, to analyze factors of success, and to evaluate the prospects of this technology.

  18. Fresh water distribution problematic in Nouakchott

    OpenAIRE

    BABAH, Isselmou A.; DEIDA, Mohamed F.; BLAKE, Gérard; FROELICH, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Because of its geographical location, Mauritania is characterized by an arid climate. The water resources are thus limited. The annual average rainfall calculated by M.Yeslem [1] over a 60-years period (1931-1991) is 112 mm. Nouakchott, the Mauritanian capital, knew an exceptional growth of the population, carrying it to more than 700 000 inhabitants in the year 2005 [2]. These brisk demographic trends generated a fast expansion of occupied space and a strong pressure on the social equipments...

  19. Innovative Fresh Water Production Process for Fossil Fuel Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James F. Klausner; Renwei Mei; Yi Li; Jessica Knight; Venugopal Jogi

    2005-09-01

    This project concerns a diffusion driven desalination (DDD) process where warm water is evaporated into a low humidity air stream, and the vapor is condensed out to produce distilled water. Although the process has a low fresh water to feed water conversion efficiency, it has been demonstrated that this process can potentially produce low cost distilled water when driven by low grade waste heat. This report describes the annual progress made in the development and analysis of a Diffusion Driven Desalination (DDD) system. A dynamic analysis of heat and mass transfer demonstrates that the DDD process can yield a fresh water production of 1.03 million gallon/day by utilizing waste heat from a 100 MW steam power plant based on a condensing steam pressure of only 3 Hg. The optimum operating condition for the DDD process with a high temperature of 50 C and sink temperature of 25 C has an air mass flux of 1.5 kg/m{sup 2}-s, air to feed water mass flow ratio of 1 in the diffusion tower, and a fresh water to air mass flow ratio of 2 in the condenser. Operating at these conditions yields a fresh water production efficiency (m{sub fW}/m{sub L}) of 0.031 and electric energy consumption rate of 0.0023 kW-hr/kg{sub fW}. Throughout the past year, the main focus of the desalination process has been on the direct contact condenser. Detailed heat and mass transfer analyses required to size and analyze these heat and mass transfer devices are described. The analyses agree quite well with the current data. Recently, it has been recognized that the fresh water production efficiency can be significantly enhanced with air heating. This type of configuration is well suited for power plants utilizing air-cooled condensers. The experimental DDD facility has been modified with an air heating section, and temperature and humidity data have been collected over a range of flow and thermal conditions. It has been experimentally observed that the fresh water production rate is enhanced when air

  20. [Fresh water macroinvertebrates of Costa Rica I].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Monika; Ramirez, Alonso; Hanson, Paul

    2010-12-01

    This is the first in a series of three volumes on the freshwater macroinvertebrates of Costa Rica. The present volume includes an introductory chapter summarizing the major types of freshwater environments, the biology of freshwater macroinvertebrates (habitats, food, respiration, osmoregulation, etc.), ecological and economic importance, conservation and a synopis of the major groups, followed by a simplified key. The next two chapters discuss collecting methods and biomonitoring. These are followed by chapters on mayflies (Ephemeroptera: 10 families), dragonflies (Odonata: 13 families), stoneflies (Plecoptera: 1 family) and caddisflies (Trichoptera: 15 families). Both in this volume and in those to follow, the chapters treating individual taxa include a summary of the natural history, importance, taxonomy, collecting methods, morphology and an illustrated key to the families; each family is discussed separately and an illustrated key to genera is provided; each chapter ends with a bibliography and a table listing all the genera with information on number of species, distribution, habitat and tolerance to water pollution. While the emphasis is on families and genera known from Costa Rica, additional taxa occurring elsewhere in Central America are mentioned. The present volume also includes numerous color plates of aquatic macroinvertebrates.

  1. Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in fresh water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    Japan Chemical Analysis Center has analysed the strontium-90 and Cesium-137 contents in fresh water from 7 prefectures in Japan by the commission of Science and Technology Agency of Japanese Government. The method described in ''Radioactivity Survey Data in Japan No. 43 (NIRS-RSD-43, 1977) was applied to the analysis of these two radionuclides in samples. (author)

  2. Assessment of the contamination of fresh water ecosystems by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper assessed reports and records of the contamination of fresh water ecosystem by pesticides and herbicides in irrigated rice fields and their effects on fish production. It highlights pesticides and herbicides application in agriculture in view of the transfer and degradation processes. The pesticides often remain ...

  3. Comparative Studies of two Fresh Water Snail Distributions and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Combinations of abiotic and biotic factors exert their influences on fecundity, hence population density of snail hosts living in fresh water. However, only few distinct relationships have been established in snail ecology due to lack of precise data and difficulty in defining and evaluating the significance of an individual ...

  4. Zoonotic helminths in fresh water snail ( Melanoides tuberculata ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We investigated 3 study sites of rural wetland communities of Ikpa, Ibikpe and Ikot Udo for helminth parasites using water snail Melanoides tuberculata fresh specimens. Parasitological gut examination were significant (p<0.05), and revealed that Ikpa community with 90.90% was hyper-endemic for schistosomiasis, while all ...

  5. Artisanal fisheries characteristics of the fresh water reaches of lower ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A frame survey of fishing communities was carried out, employing the complete census technique, to assess the artisanal fisheries characteristics of the fresh water reaches of lower nun river for a period of two year, Eleven Community lie along the stretch of the study area. The total number of 4718 fishers with 1645 canoe ...

  6. Low toxic corrosion inhibitors for aluminum in fresh water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, T. S.

    1978-01-01

    Combinations of chemical compounds that reportedly reduce the corrosion of aluminum in fresh water were evaluated. These included combinations of borates, nitrates, nitrites, phosphates, silicates, and mercaptobenzothiazole. Eight of fifty inhibitor combinations evaluated gave excellent corrosion protection and compared favorably with sodium chromate, which has generally been considered standard for many years.

  7. Chemical and quantitive study of hepatotoxins from fresh water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aghomotsegin

    2015-07-22

    Jul 22, 2015 ... http://www.academicjournals.org/AJB. African Journal of Biotechnology. Full Length Research Paper. Chemical and quantitive study of hepatotoxins from fresh water cyanobacteria on vertebrate animals. Al-layl, K.* and Mutwally, H. Biology Department, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Umm Al-Qura University, ...

  8. Theoretical considerations on the motion of salt and fresh water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schijf, J.B.; Schönfled, J.C.

    1953-01-01

    This paper gives a survey of the theoretical investigations in Holland on the motion of salt and fresh water in estuaries, locks, etc. The insight gained is set forth, and also questions yet unsolved are mentioned. First the long wave phenomena in the interface of two sharply separated liquids are

  9. Physico-chemical behavior of radionuclides in fresh water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Yuichiro; Ogawa, Yoshihiro; Honda, Yoshihide; Katsurayama, Kosuke.

    1980-01-01

    In order to elucidate the physico-chemical behavior of the radionuclides such as 60 Co, 106 Ru and 144 Ce in fresh water, the effects of aging of the radionuclides in fresh water on their physico-chemical states were studied by high-voltage paper electrophoresis, and were also investigated by paper chromatography for nitrosylruthenium complexes. 60 Co showed not only cationic species, but also electroneutral species with aging in fresh water. 106 Ru in the original form of chloro complexes showed relatively a large number of well-defined species, with aging in fresh water, the negatively charged forms decreased slowly with changing of electroneutral forms. 106 Ru in the binuclear complexes of nitrosylruthenium was separated into four anionic, one neutral and one cationic species. The cationic fraction decreased with increasing anionic and with changing neutral. By paper chromatographic separation, about 90% of Ru appeared with Rf 106 Ru in the nitrato complexes was separated into two anionic, one neutral and one cationic species. The cationic fraction decreased with changing both neutral and anionic. More than 95% of Ru appeare with R sub(f) 106 Ru in the nitro complexes was separated into more than several anionic, one neutral and cationic species. The dinitro species with R sub(f) >= 0.8 decreased with increasing mono- and nonnitro species with R sub(f) 144 Ce in the original dilute HCl solution showed initially cationic species. However, the electroneutral species was formed with aging in fresh water. Colloidal or particulate and more or less adsorbable species of 144 Ce were also found. (author)

  10. INNOVATIVE FRESH WATER PRODUCTION PROCESS FOR FOSSIL FUEL PLANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James F. Klausner; Renwei Mei; Yi Li; Mohamed Darwish; Diego Acevedo; Jessica Knight

    2003-09-01

    This report describes the annual progress made in the development and analysis of a Diffusion Driven Desalination (DDD) system, which is powered by the waste heat from low pressure condensing steam in power plants. The desalination is driven by water vapor saturating dry air flowing through a diffusion tower. Liquid water is condensed out of the air/vapor mixture in a direct contact condenser. A thermodynamic analysis demonstrates that the DDD process can yield a fresh water production efficiency of 4.5% based on a feed water inlet temperature of only 50 C. An example is discussed in which the DDD process utilizes waste heat from a 100 MW steam power plant to produce 1.51 million gallons of fresh water per day. The main focus of the initial development of the desalination process has been on the diffusion tower. A detailed mathematical model for the diffusion tower has been described, and its numerical implementation has been used to characterize its performance and provide guidance for design. The analysis has been used to design a laboratory scale diffusion tower, which has been thoroughly instrumented to allow detailed measurements of heat and mass transfer coefficient, as well as fresh water production efficiency. The experimental facility has been described in detail.

  11. Chemical interaction of fresh and saline waters with compacted bentonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muurinen, A.; Lehikoinen, J.; Melamed, A.; Pitkaenen, P.

    1996-01-01

    The interaction of compacted sodium bentonite with fresh and saline ground-water simulant was studied. The parameters varied in the experiments were the compositions of the solutions and oxygen and carbon dioxide content in the surroundings. The main interests of the study were the chemical changes in the experimental solution, bentonite porewater and bentonite together with the microstructural properties of bentonite. The major processes with fresh water were the diffusion of sodium, potassium, sulphate, bicarbonate and chloride from bentonite to the solution, and the diffusion of calcium and magnesium from the solution into bentonite. The major processes in the experiments with saline water were the diffusion of the sodium, magnesium, sulphate and bicarbonate from bentonite into the solution, and the diffusion of calcium from the solution into bentonite

  12. Thermodynamics of saline and fresh water mixing in estuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhilin; Savenije, Hubert H. G.

    2018-03-01

    The mixing of saline and fresh water is a process of energy dissipation. The freshwater flow that enters an estuary from the river contains potential energy with respect to the saline ocean water. This potential energy is able to perform work. Looking from the ocean to the river, there is a gradual transition from saline to fresh water and an associated rise in the water level in accordance with the increase in potential energy. Alluvial estuaries are systems that are free to adjust dissipation processes to the energy sources that drive them, primarily the kinetic energy of the tide and the potential energy of the river flow and to a minor extent the energy in wind and waves. Mixing is the process that dissipates the potential energy of the fresh water. The maximum power (MP) concept assumes that this dissipation takes place at maximum power, whereby the different mixing mechanisms of the estuary jointly perform the work. In this paper, the power is maximized with respect to the dispersion coefficient that reflects the combined mixing processes. The resulting equation is an additional differential equation that can be solved in combination with the advection-dispersion equation, requiring only two boundary conditions for the salinity and the dispersion. The new equation has been confronted with 52 salinity distributions observed in 23 estuaries in different parts of the world and performs very well.

  13. Copper toxicity to the fresh water snail, Lymnaea luteola

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, N.M.; Rao, P.V.

    1987-07-01

    Haemocyanins are found in arthropoda and mollusca and show a copper content characteristic for each phylum. Heavy metal accumulation by mollusks is widely reported. Approximately one third of the enzymes either required addition of a metal ion as a cofactor in order to exhibit maximum activity or contained a slightly bound metal ion which appeared to be involved in the catalytic process. Copper is the only metal which has been detected in significant amounts in amino oxidase. The present study is designed to evaluate the influence of such copper, which is of such common occurrence in biological material, on some of the lipolytic enzymes of fresh water pulmonate snail, Lymnaea luteola when added to ambient medium. The present study also highlights the possible detoxification mechanism prevailing in this fresh water mollusk.

  14. Identification of Corrosion Products Due to Seawater and Fresh Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gismelseed, A.; Elzain, M.; Yousif, A.; Al Rawas, A.; Al-Omari, I. A.; Widatallah, H.; Rais, A.

    2004-12-01

    Mössbauer and X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements were performed on corrosion products extracted from the inner surface of two different metal tubes used in a desalination plant in Oman. One of the tubes corroded due to the seawater while the second was corroded due to fresh water. The corrosion products thus resulted due to seawater were scrapped off in to two layers, the easily removable rust from the top is termed outer surface corrosion product and the strongly adhered rust as internal corrosion product. The Mössbauer spectra together with the XRD pattern of the outer surface showed the presence of magnetite (Fe3O4), akaganeite (β-FeOOH), lepidocrocite (γ-FeOOH), goethite (α-FeOOH) and hematite (Fe2O3). The inner surface however showed the presence of akaganite, goethite, and magnetite. On the other hand, the corrosion products due to the fresh water showed only the presence of goethite and magnetite. The mechanism of the corrosion process will be discussed based on the significant differences between the formation of the iron components of the corrosion products due to seawater and the fresh water.

  15. Innovative Fresh Water Production Process for Fossil Fuel Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James F. Klausner; Renwei Mei; Yi Li; Jessica Knight

    2006-09-29

    This project concerns a diffusion driven desalination (DDD) process where warm water is evaporated into a low humidity air stream, and the vapor is condensed out to produce distilled water. Although the process has a low fresh water to feed water conversion efficiency, it has been demonstrated that this process can potentially produce low cost distilled water when driven by low grade waste heat. This report summarizes the progress made in the development and analysis of a Diffusion Driven Desalination (DDD) system. Detailed heat and mass transfer analyses required to size and analyze the diffusion tower using a heated water input are described. The analyses agree quite well with the current data and the information available in the literature. The direct contact condenser has also been thoroughly analyzed and the system performance at optimal operating conditions has been considered using a heated water/ambient air input to the diffusion tower. The diffusion tower has also been analyzed using a heated air input. The DDD laboratory facility has successfully been modified to include an air heating section. Experiments have been conducted over a range of parameters for two different cases: heated air/heated water and heated air/ambient water. A theoretical heat and mass transfer model has been examined for both of these cases and agreement between the experimental and theoretical data is good. A parametric study reveals that for every liquid mass flux there is an air mass flux value where the diffusion tower energy consumption is minimal and an air mass flux where the fresh water production flux is maximized. A study was also performed to compare the DDD process with different inlet operating conditions as well as different packing. It is shown that the heated air/heated water case is more capable of greater fresh water production with the same energy consumption than the ambient air/heated water process at high liquid mass flux. It is also shown that there can be

  16. INNOVATIVE FRESH WATER PRODUCTION PROCESS FOR FOSSIL FUEL PLANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James F. Klausner; Renwei Mei; Yi Li; Jessica Knight

    2004-09-01

    An innovative Diffusion Driven Desalination (DDD) process was recently described where evaporation of mineralized water is driven by diffusion within a packed bed. The energy source to drive the process is derived from low pressure condensing steam within the main condenser of a steam power generating plant. Since waste heat is used to drive the process, the main cost of fresh water production is attributed to the energy cost of pumping air and water through the packed bed. This report describes the annual progress made in the development and analysis of a Diffusion Driven Desalination (DDD) system. A combined thermodynamic and dynamic analysis demonstrates that the DDD process can yield a fresh water production of 1.03 million gallon/day by utilizing waste heat from a 100 MW steam power plant based on a condensing steam pressure of only 3'' Hg. Throughout the past year, the main focus of the desalination process has been on the diffusion tower and direct contact condenser. Detailed heat and mass transfer analyses required to size and analyze these heat and mass transfer devices are described. An experimental DDD facility has been fabricated, and temperature and humidity data have been collected over a range of flow and thermal conditions. The analyses agree quite well with the current data and the information available in the literature. Direct contact condensers with and without packing have been investigated. It has been experimentally observed that the fresh water production rate is significantly enhanced when packing is added to the direct contact condensers.

  17. Increased salinization of fresh water in the Northeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushal, S.S.; Groffman, P.M.; Likens, G.E.; Belt, K.T.; Stack, W.P.; Kelly, V.R.; Band, L.E.; Fisher, G.T.

    2005-01-01

    Chloride concentrations are increasing at a rate that threatens the availability of fresh water in the northeastern United States. Increases in roadways and deicer use are now salinizing fresh waters, degrading habitat for aquatic organisms, and impacting large supplies of drinking water for humans throughout the region. We observed chloride concentrations of up to 25% of the concentration of seawater in streams of Maryland, New York, and New Hampshire during winters, and chloride concentrations remaining up to 100 times greater than unimpacted forest streams during summers. Mean annual chloride concentration increased as a function of impervious surface and exceeded tolerance for freshwater life in suburban and urban watersheds. Our analysis shows that if salinity were to continue to increase at its present rate due to changes in impervious surface coverage and current management practices, many surface waters in the northeastern United States would not be potable for human consumption and would become toxic to freshwater life within the next century. ?? 2005 by The National Academy of Sciences of the USA.

  18. Water quality of fresh water bodies in the lower Volta Basin: A case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was carried out on water from lakes Kasu and Nyafie, two of the fresh water bodies situated near Asutsuare, an agricultural town in the lower Volta basin of Ghana to determine the level of water quality parameters. To be able to this, water samples were taken from designated points in both lakes. Sampling was ...

  19. Development of analytical methods for iodine speciation in fresh water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takaku, Yuichi; Ohtsuka, Yoshihito; Hisamatsu, Shun'ichi

    2007-01-01

    Analytical methods for physicochemical speciation of iodine in fresh water samples were developed to elucidate its behavior in the environment. The methods combined inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) with size exclusion high performance liquid chromatography (SEC) or capillary electrophoresis (CE). Freshwater samples were collected from Lake Towada and rivers surrounding the lake. After filtration through a 0.45 μm pore size membrane filter, iodine in the water samples was pre-concentrated with an ultra-filtration filter which had a cut-off size of 10 kDa. The fraction with molecular size over 10 kDa was concentrated to 100 times in the original water, and then introduced into the SEC-ICP-MS. Molecular size chromatograms of all river and lake water samples showed two peaks for iodine concentrations: 40 kDa and 20 kDa. The method for separately determining two valence states of inorganic iodine, I - and IO 3 - , was also developed using the CE-ICP-MS system and it was successfully applied to the fresh water samples. Analysis results of surface water samples in Lake Towada and rivers surrounding the lake indicated that the chemical form of inorganic iodine in all samples was IO 3 - . Additional lake water samples were collected from Lake O-ike-higashi in the Juni-ko area at Shirakami-Sanchi, which is a UNESCO natural world heritage. The lake has a strong thermocline during all seasons; its bottom layer is in a highly reductive state. Depth profiles of I - and IO 3 - clearly showed that I - was not detected in the surface layer, but it was predominant in the bottom layer, and vice versa for IO 3 - . As this separation method is rapid and sensitive, it will be widely used in the future. (author)

  20. The bioconcentration of {sup 131}I in fresh water fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, K.N.; Cheung, T.; Young, E.C.M.; Luo, D.L. [City Univ. of Hong Kong, Kowloon (Hong Kong)

    1996-11-01

    The dynamic characteristics of the radionuclide concentration process in fresh water fish have been studied. The experimental data for the tilapias were fitted using a simple compartment model to get characteristics parameters such as concentration factors, elimination rate constants, and initial concentration rates, which are 3.08 Bq kg{sup {minus}1}/Bq L{sup {minus}1}, 0.00573 h{sup {minus}1}, and 12.42 Bq kg{sup {minus}1} h{sup {minus}1}, respectively. The relative concentrations of {sup 131}I in different parts, i.e., head, gills, flesh, bone and internal organs, of the tilapias are also determined, which are found to be 10.8, 15.4, 26.1, 11.0, and 37.0%, respectively. The effects of different factors on the transfer of radionuclides in fresh water fishes are also discussed. Experiments on the tilapias and the common carp show that the variation of concentration factors for different species may be significant even for the same radionuclide and the same ecological system. On the other hand, the variation in the concentration factors for the flesh of the tilapias is not significant for a certain range of {sup 131}I concentrations in the water. 12 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  1. The bioconcentration of 131I in fresh water fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, K.N.; Cheung, T.; Young, E.C.M.; Luo, D.L.

    1996-01-01

    The dynamic characteristics of the radionuclide concentration process in fresh water fish have been studied. The experimental data for the tilapias were fitted using a simple compartment model to get characteristics parameters such as concentration factors, elimination rate constants, and initial concentration rates, which are 3.08 Bq kg -1 /Bq L -1 , 0.00573 h -1 , and 12.42 Bq kg -1 h -1 , respectively. The relative concentrations of 131 I in different parts, i.e., head, gills, flesh, bone and internal organs, of the tilapias are also determined, which are found to be 10.8, 15.4, 26.1, 11.0, and 37.0%, respectively. The effects of different factors on the transfer of radionuclides in fresh water fishes are also discussed. Experiments on the tilapias and the common carp show that the variation of concentration factors for different species may be significant even for the same radionuclide and the same ecological system. On the other hand, the variation in the concentration factors for the flesh of the tilapias is not significant for a certain range of 131 I concentrations in the water. 12 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  2. Fresh Water Generation from Aquifer-Pressured Carbon Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aines, R D; Wolery, T J; Bourcier, W L; Wolfe, T; Haussmann, C

    2010-02-19

    Can we use the pressure associated with sequestration to make brine into fresh water? This project is establishing the potential for using brine pressurized by Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) operations in saline formations as the feedstock for desalination and water treatment technologies including reverse osmosis (RO) and nanofiltration (NF). Possible products are: Drinking water, Cooling water, and Extra aquifer space for CO{sub 2} storage. The conclusions are: (1) Many saline formation waters appear to be amenable to largely conventional RO treatment; (2) Thermodynamic modeling indicates that osmotic pressure is more limiting on water recovery than mineral scaling; (3) The use of thermodynamic modeling with Pitzer's equations (or Extended UNIQUAC) allows accurate estimation of osmotic pressure limits; (4) A general categorization of treatment feasibility is based on TDS has been proposed, in which brines with 10,000-85,000 mg/L are the most attractive targets; (5) Brines in this TDS range appear to be abundant (geographically and with depth) and could be targeted in planning future CCS operations (including site selection and choice of injection formation); and (6) The estimated cost of treating waters in the 10,000-85,000 mg/L TDS range is about half that for conventional seawater desalination, due to the anticipated pressure recovery.

  3. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY ON NATURAL NUTRITION OF FRESH-WATER FISH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Piria

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper offers the entire review on the research methodology in natural nutrition of fresh-water fish. The data on fresh-water fish nutrition, particularly on fish of lower economic value, is inadequate. Reviewing the literature on assesment of nutritional parameters, the authors obviously use differenet approaches and methods. This paper is about most frequently used parameteres in qualitative and quantitative analysis. The qualitative analysis of food structure is the overall list of determinable taxa (mostlyu species and genera. The quantitative analysis comprises the assessment of particular nutritional categories by nutritional indices and coefficients. Bio-identification and numeric data processing can have numerous drawbacsk such as effect of regurgitation or the degree of digestion of the prey. The analyses of those effects proceed through statistical data processing in order to include spatial distribution of certain prey categories as well. The importance of this data is to determine the nutritional needs of potential species for culture as well as to come up with new insights on a particular aquatic ecosystem.

  4. Limnological study of fresh water of rawal dam, islamabad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leghari, M.K.; Ghafar, S.A.

    2005-01-01

    The limnological study of Fresh water of Rawal Dam was carried out for the first time from June 2000 to May 2001 during Research Project. C-PMNHIBio(311). Data was collected on physico-chemical properties of the Fresh water and the Algal Flora. The fluctuations of temperature, pH, Dissolved oxygen, salinity, T.D.S., Total hardness etc., were studied. From algal flora, a total. 291 algal species were found to belong to 108 genera 10 Phylum. From Cyanophyta, 68 species belongs to 21 genera with 23.37%, Volvocophyta 107 species belongs to 40 genera with 36.77%, Chlorophyta 18 species belongs to 13 genera with 6.19%, Bacillariophyta 66 species 19 genera with 22.67%, Chrysophyta 3 species belongs to 2 genera with 1.03%, Xanthophyta 5 species belongs to 5 genera with 1.72%, Vaucheriophyta 1 species belongs to 1 genus with 0.34%, Euglenophyta 16 species belongs to 4 genera with 1.72%, Dinophyta 5 species belongs to 2 genera with 1.72%, Charophyta 2 species belong to 1 genus with 0.7%, were recorded and classified by latest classification according to Shameel (2001). The present work shows the changes in physico-chemical factor along with algal flora in Rawal Dam during collection period and co-relation of different factors. (author)

  5. Determining water content of fresh concrete by microwave reflection or transmission measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    In search of a rapid and accurate method for determining the water content of fresh concrete mixes, the microwave reflection and transmission properties of fresh concrete mixes were studied to determine the extent of correlation between each of these...

  6. Oil spill research : salt water and fresh water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodman, R.

    2006-01-01

    The difference in oil spill response activities between marine and freshwater environments were reviewed. Although containment, recovery and in-situ burning remain the same in both environments, the fate of oil is different due to water density and salinity considerations. The lower energy of lakes and the lack of major currents changes the advection of the oil. Rivers have high currents, and wind speed and direction are highly influenced by topographic effects. Tidal action is not a consideration for the inland situation, but water levels in rivers can change due to sudden rain events or the action of control devices upstream from the spill. Typically, the volume of oil released in freshwater environments is lower than in marine tanker situations, but spills from pipelines or a major train derailment can exceed 1000 m 3 . Since the use of water for human consumption and irrigation is another important factor in inland spills, it is important to have a means of obtaining information on the dynamics of spills and a system for archiving the response activities, such as the shoreline cleanup assessment technique (SCAT)and resulting cleanup. It was suggested that research studies must be undertaken to improve response strategies for freshwater spills. These include the dynamics of oil in freshwater environments such as rivers, lakes and sloughs; the role of oil-fine interactions in freshwater situations; the process involved in the formation of tar balls; and, the dynamics of oil in a freshwater situation. The response techniques that must be developed to improve the response to freshwater spills include techniques to remove oil from the bottom; techniques to filter and remove oil from the water column; and, development and testing of dispersants for freshwater environments

  7. Taking a systems-oriented view of phosphorous enrichment in fresh waters

    OpenAIRE

    Everard, Mark

    2001-01-01

    Eutrophication of fresh waters through anthropogenic enrichment by phosphorus is a global problem. The role of phosphorus enrichment in the formation of blooms of toxic blue-green algae (Cyanobacteria) in fresh waters is well established and of considerable concern in terms of human and animal health, loss of water resources and amenities, threats to fish stocks, and aesthetic considerations. Cultural eutrophication also poses threats to the ecosystem balance in fresh waters, with implication...

  8. I-131 Extraction from Fresh water and Sewage plant effluent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souti, Maria-Evangelia; Hormann, Volker; Toma, Edda; Fischer, Helmut W. [University of Bremen, Institute of Environmental Physics, Otto-Hahn-Alle 1, D-28359 Bremen (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    The amount of maximum I-131 body activity of a patient released from a hospital in Germany (250 MBq) is comparable to the yearly reported total release of I-131 from all commercial nuclear power plants to ambient air and water. A large fraction of the body activity will be excreted and find its way to surface waters, through the sewage system. Thus medical iodine is the major contributor to the environmental I-131 in surface waters. Due to the path it follows (patient-sewage-sewage plant-fresh water) it can form organic complexes and as a result its concentration of organic iodine is relatively high. Existing methods, focusing on the removal of mainly iodide (I{sup -}) and iodate (IO{sub 3}{sup -}), were found to be insufficient to successfully extract the iodine from environmental samples, leading to highly variable results depending on the contribution of organic iodine. The reported work is based on testing and modifying existing methods. In order to accomplish the highest iodine yield, the inorganic iodine extraction is followed by a supplementary procedure for additionally separating the iodine bound to dissolved organic matter. The results show only slight variations of the I-131 extraction yield which is close to 90%, constituting this method as appropriate for successfully extracting I-131 from environmental samples (WWTP effluent, river water, lake water). Another advantage of our method is its applicability to high volume samples (20 L, 50 L), making it possible for a gamma spectrometer to detect activities as low as 0.5 mBq/l. (authors)

  9. Analytical approach for predicting fresh water discharge in an estuary based on tidal water level observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cai, H.; Savenije, H.H.G.; Jiang, C.

    2014-01-01

    As the tidal wave propagates into an estuary, the tidally averaged water level tends to rise in landward direction due to the density difference between saline and fresh water and the asymmetry of the friction. The effect of friction on the residual slope is even more remarkable when accounting for

  10. Determination of trace metals in natural fresh waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holm, K.; Borg, H.; Korhonen, M.

    1989-06-01

    The determination method still most widely used is atomic absorption spectrometry with graphite furnace. The natural levels of several elements are however too low to be accurately determined without any preconcentration. Besides, in sea water, the high salt content causes matric effects, which require time consuming separation steps as solvent extraction or ion exchange. The report describes two procedures for preconcentration of fresh water samples, freeze-drying and replicate injections in the furnace, respectively. The procedures are designed to be used on a routine basis. All water samples are collected in polypropylene bottles which are soaked before use in HCl 1+1, rinsed and allowed to stand until use filled with 0.1 M HNO 3 . The samples are preserved by addition of conc. HNO 3 (2 ml/l, sub boiling distilled). In the freeze-drying procedure, the samples are weighed and frozen in the pre-weighed polypropylene sampling bottles and evaporated to about one tenth of the original volume in the vaccum chamber of a freeze dryer. The samples are then weighed again for determination of the concentration factor and alayzed by graphite furnace AAS. When using the other procedure, the water samples are directly injected into the frunace for several times (2-8) before atomization and measurement of the absorption signal. The drying and ashing step is allowed to proceed after every injection. Comparisons of the two procedures have shown good agreement. The advantage of the replicate injection technique is primarily that the concentration factor is more esily controlled and repeated than by the freeze drying procedure. Further, the latter procedure sometimes suffers from precipitates being formed during the evaporation,especially in humic waters rich in iron. (12 figs., 7 tabs., 14 refs.)

  11. Transfer factor for 137Cs in fresh water aquatic environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varughese, K.G.; Ramkumar, S.; John, Jaison T.; Rajan, M.P.; Gurg, R.P.

    2002-01-01

    137 Cs is one of the most abundant radionuclides produced in nuclear fission and due to its long radiological half-life and chemical similarity to potassium it has greater biological significance. Radioactive waste materials generated at nuclear facilities are generally disposed within the plant premises under its administrative control for effective radiation protection practices. However trace quantities of radionuclides are released into the environment through liquid and gaseous releases under the guidelines of regulatory agencies. The concentration of these radioactive elements in the environment is not detectable under normal circumstances due to the large dispersion and dilutions available in the environment. But these radionuclides can get accumulated in environmental matrices like silt, weed etc. and indicate the presence of radioactivity in the environment. This paper presents the results of a face-controlled studies conducted at Environmental Survey Laboratories at the Rajasthan Atomic Power Station (RAPS) and Kakrapar Atomic Power Station (KAPS) to estimate distribution of low-level radioactivity in the fresh water system. An attempt has been made to derive the Transfer Factor for 137 Cs in fish, weed, and silt and to evaluate the concentration of 137 Cs in water samples, which is otherwise not detectable under normal procedure of measurement. (author)

  12. Food Preference of Fresh-Water Invertebrates - Comparing Fresh and Decomposed Angiosperm and a Filamentous Alga

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kornijow, R.; Gulati, R.D.; Ozimek, T.

    1995-01-01

    1. Fresh and decomposed Mougeotia sp. (a filamentous green alga) and Elodea nuttallii (a vascular plant) were offered as food to three species of aquatic macroinvertebrates (Lymnnea peregra, Asellus meridianus and Endochironomus albipennis) to test: (i) if filamentous algae are preferred to aquatic

  13. The behavior of heavy oil in a fresh water lake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollebone, Bruce P.; Fieldhouse, B.; Sergey, G.; Wang, Zhendi; Yang, Chun; Lambert, P.; Landriault, Mike [Emergencies Science and Technology Section, Environment Canada (Canada)], email: bruce.hollebone@ec.gc.ca; Owens, E.H.; Parker, H.A. [Polaris Applied Sciences, Inc (United States)

    2011-07-01

    This study investigates the weathering process of a fresh water oil spill. The objective of this study is to gather information from samples collected at different stages of the spill to demonstrate the effects of aging and weathering on the oil's chemical and physical state. Samples from the impacted lake were taken at different periods of the year in which the spill happened. The samples were subjected to a series of chemical treatments to measure parameters like oil viscosities and densities, and hydrocarbon levels. Results showed that most samples went through a weathering process over the course of the year and, at a late stage of the study, spills took one of the following forms: either a large-flat conglomeration that appeared to be highly weathered and have limited mobility, or a small-spherical ball that was lightly weathered and had more mobility. Finally, it was mentioned that high levels of PAH might be detected in the lake for up to 10 years.

  14. Evaluation of white water reuse in the bleaching process for reducing fresh water consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, A A; Glória, P M; d'Angelo, J V H; Perissotto, D O; Lima, R A

    2007-01-01

    The main objective of this work is to study the technical viability of using the effluent generated in paper machines (white water) in the wash presses of the bleaching stage, reducing fresh water consumption. As a case study, the industrial process of Ripasa S.A. Celulose e Papel was evaluated. White water rate is about 700 m3/h and it is not possible to reuse all this volume in the bleaching stage without causing operational problems (fouling in tubes and clogging in the screens). A mass balance of the bleaching unit was developed in an electronic spreadsheet in order to evaluate the possibility of reducing fresh water consumption, using only a fraction of the available white water in the wash presses. To achieve this objective some physical-chemistry properties of the white water stream and of other streams of the process were determined. The maximum concentration of some non-process elements (Si, Ca, Mn and Fe), which could accumulate in the process, were determined in order to establish some parameters to allow process integration of the streams involved, considering operational constraints. The results obtained have shown that it is possible to reduce approximately by 13% the consumption of fresh water and this methodology has been satisfactory.

  15. Climatic impacts of fresh water hosing under Last Glacial Maximum conditions: a multi-model study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kageyama, M.; Merkel, U.; Otto-Bliesner, B.; Prange, M.; Abe-Ouchi, A.; Lohmann, G.; Ohgaito, R.; Roche, D.M.V.A.P.; Singarayer, J

    2013-01-01

    Fresh water hosing simulations, in which a fresh water flux is imposed in the North Atlantic to force fluctuations of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation, have been routinely performed, first to study the climatic signature of different states of this circulation, then, under present or

  16. Fresh water leaching of alkaline bauxite residue after sea water neutralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzies, Neal W; Fulton, Ian M; Kopittke, Rosemary A; Kopittke, Peter M

    2009-01-01

    Processing of bauxite to extract alumina produces a strongly alkaline waste, bauxite refining residue, which is commonly stored in engineered structures. Once full, these waste dumps must be revegetated. In many alumina refineries, the waste is separated into fine-textured red mud and coarse-textured residue sand (RS). The sand component has physical characteristics that make it a suitable plant growth medium, provided the adverse chemical characteristics can be addressed. Neutralization of the highly saline-sodic RS with sea water lowers pH, reduces Na saturation, and adds plant nutrients. However, sea water-neutralized RS remains saline sodic and needs fresh water leaching before use as a plant growth medium. Columns containing sea water-neutralized RS were leached with 30 m depth-equivalent of fresh water to evaluate the effects of rainfall on the RS and its leachate. Entrained cations were rapidly displaced by the fresh water, lowering salinity to non-plant-limiting levels (leaching increased pH (leachate pH increased from 8.0 to 10.1). This pH increase is attributed to the slow dissolution of the Na-containing mineral sodalite. Under the current experimental conditions, the application of 30 m depth-equivalent of leaching reduced the total RS sodalite content by <10%.

  17. Sensitivity of Legionella pneumophila to sunlight in fresh and marine waters.

    OpenAIRE

    Dutka, B J

    1984-01-01

    Studies were carried out to assess the sunlight sensitivity of Legionella pneumophila suspended in fresh and marine waters. Comparison studies on sunlight sensitivity of lake water bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Streptococcus faecalis, were also undertaken. The effects of full sunlight and polyacrylic-screened sunlight were monitored in the study. Results indicate that L. pneumophila cells are slightly more sensitive to sunlight in seawater than in fresh water. Enumera...

  18. On-line monitoring of water amount in fresh concrete by radioactive-wave method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemi, T.; Arai, M.; Enomoto, S.; Suzki, K.; Kumahara, Y.

    2003-01-01

    The committee on nondestructive inspection for steel reinforced concrete structures in the Federation of Construction Materials Industries, Japan has published a proposed standard for on-line monitoring of water amount in fresh concrete by the radioactive wave method. By applying a neutron technique, water amount in fresh concrete is estimated continuously from the energy consumption of neutron due to hydrogen. A standard is discussed along with results of verification tests. Thus, on-line monitoring for water amount is proposed

  19. Intake of 90Sr, 137Cs, 144Ce, 106Ru by fresh water organisms with food and water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marciulioniene, D.P.; Dusauskiene-Duz, R.F.; Polikarpov, G.G.

    1978-01-01

    Investigations of the water basins of various areas of Lithuania were carried out in 1973-1975. The investigations were performed to determine the role of food and water in accumulation of 90 Sr, 137 Cs, 144 Ce, 106 --Ru under experimental conditions by fresh water organisms (molluscs, larvae, insects, fishes) as well as 90 Sr in mollusc and fish organisms under natural conditions. It was found that the intake of the above radionuclides in fresh water organisms with radioactive food was less active and in smaller quantities than that with water. The accumulation levels of the radionuclides in fresh water organisms resulted from the radioactive food, depended on the physical and chemical state of the radionuclides and on the concentration of isotopic and nonisotopic carriers in water, food and in the very organism. Dependence of the accumulation coefficient (AC) of different radionuclides in fresh water organisms on the AC value in food as well as on the diet type was not determined

  20. Anaerobic ammonium oxidation by marine and fresh water planctomycete-like bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Jetten, M.S.M.; Sliekers, O.; Kuypers, M.; Dalsgaard, T.; Niftrik, L. van; Cirpus, I.; Pas-Schoonen, K. van de; Lavik, G.; Thamdrup, B.; Le Paslier, D.; Camp, S. op den; Hulth, S.; Nielen, L.P.; Abma, W.; Third, K.; Engström, P.; Kuenen, J.G.; Jørgensen, B.B.; Canfield, D.E.; Revsbech, N.P.; Fuerst, J.; Weissenbach, J.; Wagner, M.; Schmidt, I.; Schmid, M.; Strous, M.

    2003-01-01

    Recently, two fresh water species, 'Candidatus Brocadia anammoxidans' and 'Candidatus Kuenenia stuttgartiensis', and one marine species, 'Candidatus Scalindua sorokinii', of planctomycete anammox bacteria have been identified. 'Candidatus Scalindua sorokinii' was discovered in the Black Sea, and

  1. Cumulative impacts of hydroelectric development on the fresh water balance in Hudson Bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anctil, F.; Couture, R.

    1994-01-01

    A study is presented of the impacts of hydroelectric development on the surface water layer of Hudson Bay, including James Bay and the Foxe Basin. These impacts are directly related to the modifications in the fresh water balance of Hudson Bay and originate from the management of hydroelectric complexes. The fresh water balance is determined by identifying, at different scales, the modifications caused by each complex. The main inputs are the freezing and thawing of the ice cover, runoff water, and mass exchange at the air-water interface. Three spatial scales were used to obtain the resolution required to document the cumulative effects of fresh water balance modifications on the water surface layer, one each for Hudson Bay, Hudson Strait, and the Labrador Sea. Finally, the addition of the proposed Great Whale hydroelectric complex is examined from the available information and forecasts. 18 refs,. 6 figs., 1 tab

  2. Salt balance, fresh water residence time and budget for non ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water and salt budgets suggest that in order to balance the inflow and outflow of water at Makoba bay, there is net flux of water from the bay to the open ocean during wet season. Residual salt fluxes between the bay and the open ocean indicate advective salt export. Exchange of water between the bay with the open ocean ...

  3. Rainfall Distribution and the Possibility for Healthy and Fresh Drinking Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alif Noor Anna

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The information of rain water quality in Indonesia is rarely recorded, where as it is important for the region in which the source of fresh water is unavailable. Rain water composition is mostly ascertained by water vapour and ions which are available in the atmosphere during vapouration. In fact the rain water composition of coast region is sea water like and rain water chemical composition of urban are then become HNO3 and HSO4, while rain water of active vulcanic region eventuality has a high sulphur-wombed so that its quality sulphuric-acid. For the region in which the source of fresh water is unavailable the rain water is previously sterilized. Sterilization is consecutively done by adding salts, killing all bacteria, spores, and filltering.

  4. Groundwater flow cycling between a submarine spring and an inland fresh water spring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, J Hal; Verdi, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Spring Creek Springs and Wakulla Springs are large first magnitude springs that derive water from the Upper Floridan Aquifer. The submarine Spring Creek Springs are located in a marine estuary and Wakulla Springs are located 18 km inland. Wakulla Springs has had a consistent increase in flow from the 1930s to the present. This increase is probably due to the rising sea level, which puts additional pressure head on the submarine Spring Creek Springs, reducing its fresh water flow and increasing flows in Wakulla Springs. To improve understanding of the complex relations between these springs, flow and salinity data were collected from June 25, 2007 to June 30, 2010. The flow in Spring Creek Springs was most sensitive to rainfall and salt water intrusion, and the flow in Wakulla Springs was most sensitive to rainfall and the flow in Spring Creek Springs. Flows from the springs were found to be connected, and composed of three repeating phases in a karst spring flow cycle: Phase 1 occurred during low rainfall periods and was characterized by salt water backflow into the Spring Creek Springs caves. The higher density salt water blocked fresh water flow and resulted in a higher equivalent fresh water head in Spring Creek Springs than in Wakulla Springs. The blocked fresh water was diverted to Wakulla Springs, approximately doubling its flow. Phase 2 occurred when heavy rainfall resulted in temporarily high creek flows to nearby sinkholes that purged the salt water from the Spring Creek Springs caves. Phase 3 occurred after streams returned to base flow. The Spring Creek Springs caves retained a lower equivalent fresh water head than Wakulla Springs, causing them to flow large amounts of fresh water while Wakulla Springs flow was reduced by about half. Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  5. Iraq`s significant hydrocarbon potential remains relatively undeveloped

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    AL-Gailani, M. [GeoDesign Ltd., Kingston-upon-Thames (United Kingdom)

    1996-07-29

    Iraq is probably one of the least explored countries in the Middle East, despite the fact that it possesses one of the richest hydrocarbon basins in the world almost on a par to Saudi Arabia`s potential, if not more. The aim of this article is to state the facts about Iraq and focus on the huge but untapped and undeveloped hydrocarbon resources to the international oil community. Perhaps it is best to start by describing briefly the sedimentary and tectonic elements responsible for accumulating such large hydrocarbon resources. The paper describes the basin, tectonic elements, structural anomalies, deep drilling, source rocks, reservoir rocks, characteristics, and new reserves.

  6. Quantifying the Human Appropriation of Fresh Water by African Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Weiß

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Human appropriation of renewable freshwater (HARF is a measure for the influence of human activities on the global water cycle. It describes the fraction of accessible water that is directly used by human-dominated systems. We present a comprehensive model-based analysis of HARF for crop production on the African continent. Our analysis includes the components evapotranspiration from cropland ("green" water fluxes and water used for cropland irrigation (crop-related fraction of "blue" water fluxes. Model experiments were conducted for two scenarios with a time horizon of 2050, taking into account the combined effects of land-use change, climate change, and technological change. For the year 2000, evapotranspiration from Africa's rainfed cropland (green water flux is estimated to be 1085 km3/yr, whereas the abstraction of water for irrigation purposes from the renewable water resources (blue water flux is estimated to be approximately 180 km3/yr. According to the model experiments, between 2000-2050, an area between 1.25 million km2 and 1.56 million km2 of natural biomes will be converted to cropland. Consequently, for 2050, evapotranspiration from rainfed cropland is substantially greater than in 2000, ranging from 1870-2040 km3/yr, depending on the scenario, and irrigation abstraction increases up to 194-330 km3/yr. These findings point out the significant role of water appropriated for rainfed crop production in the continental water cycle, in contrast to the sum of water appropriated for irrigation. Furthermore, they suggest that it would be worthwhile to look for opportunities to reduce the amount of water evaporated and transpired from cropland to increase the "water productivity" of cropland. Finally, they indicate that under the given scenarios, this additional production is very likely to come at the cost of the extent of natural biomes and their associated ecosystem services.

  7. Fresh-water cementation of a 1,000-year-old oolite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halley, R. B.; Harris, P. M.

    1979-01-01

    Calcite cementation of aragonite ooid sand is producing oolite on Joulters Cays, Bahamas. During the last 1,000 years, calcite cement has formed at an average rate of between 27 and 55 cm3 /m3 /yr and is derived from dissolution of ooid aragonite in fresh water. The dissolution-reprecipitation of carbonate minerals in the aquifer results in ground waters of unusually high Sr content. Sea water and mixtures of fresh and sea water appear to inhibit cementation. A pronounced cement fabric change occurs across the water table and has produced an obvious petrographic record of fresh-water diagenesis. Above the water table, cement is typically near grain contact positions, where water is held by capillarity; below the water table, cement is more randomly distributed around grains. At the water table a transition zone, 1 meter thick, marks the boundary between cement textures. No porosity reduction is associated with cementation; calcite cement precipitation is apparently compensated by an equal or greater amount of aragonite dissolution in the interval undergoing cementation. Permeability is more variable above the water table than below it, reflecting early channelling of flow patterns in the vadose zone. Effective permeability below the water table is one to two orders of magnitude higher than above the water table because of entrained gas in the vadose zone. This permeability difference promotes preservation of unstable minerals above the water table and continued diagenetic alteration below the water table.

  8. Development of methods to measure virus inactivation in fresh waters.

    OpenAIRE

    Ward, R L; Winston, P E

    1985-01-01

    This study concerns the identification and correction of deficiencies in methods used to measure inactivation rates of enteric viruses seeded into environmental waters. It was found that viable microorganisms in an environmental water sample increased greatly after addition of small amounts of nutrients normally present in the unpurified seed virus preparation. This burst of microbial growth was not observed after seeding the water with purified virus. The use of radioactively labeled poliovi...

  9. Scarcity of Fresh Water Resources in the Ganges Delta of Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murshed, S. B.; Kaluarachchi, J. J.

    2017-12-01

    The Ganges Delta in Bangladesh is a classical example of water insecurity in a transboundary river basin where limitations in quantity, quality and timing of available water is producing disastrous conditions. Two opposite extreme water conditions, i.e., fresh water scarcity and floods are common in this region during dry and wet seasons, respectively. The purpose of this study is to manage fresh water requirement of people and environment considering the seasonal availability of surface water (SW) and ground water (GW). SW availability was analyzed by incoming stream flow including the effects of upstream water diversion, rainfall, temperature, evapotranspiration (ET). Flow duration curves (FDC), and rainfall and temperature elasticity are used to assess the change of incoming upstream flow. Groundwater data were collected from 285 piezometers and monitoring wells established by Bangladesh water development board. Variation of groundwater depth shows major withdrawals of GW are mostly concentrated in the north part of the study area. Irrigation is the largest sector of off-stream (irrigation, industrial and domestic) water use which occupies 82% SW and 17% GW of total water consumption. Although domestic water use is entirely depend on GW but arsenic pollution is limiting the GW use. FDC depicts a substantial difference between high flow threshold (20%) and low flow threshold (70%) in the Bangladesh part of Ganges River. A large variation of around 83% is observed for instream water volume between wet and dry seasons. The reduction of upstream fresh water flow increased the extent and intensity of salinity intrusion. Presently GW is also contaminated by saline water. This fresh water scarcity is reducing the livelihood options considerably and indirectly forcing population migration from the delta region. This study provides insight to the changes in hydrology and limitations to freshwater availability enabling better formulation of water resources management in

  10. Determination of selected heavy metals in inland fresh water of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... heavy metals were determined in freshwater from River Niger. Water samples were collected from both upstream and downstream along the mainstream drainage channel, traversing past the steel production industry Ajaokuta between 2003 and 2005. The water samples were digested according to standard methods and ...

  11. Measurement of 90Sr in fresh water samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belanova, A.; Meresova, J.; Svetlik, I.; Tomaskova, L.

    2008-01-01

    This preliminary study show new experimental approach to the determination of the radionuclide 90 Sr in water samples. The new method of dynamic windows utilizing liquid scintillation counting was applied on model and surface water samples. Our results show the demand of separation technique with significantly higher yields. (authors)

  12. Towards the proposal of an environmental quality standard for uranium in fresh water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beaugelin-Seiller, K.; Garnier-Laplace, J.; Gilbin, R.

    2009-01-01

    This report presents elements gathered by the IRSN to contribute to the determination of the standard of environmental quality related to uranium. After a presentation of values published by different bodies for the protection of the aquatic environment (water quality criteria), this report describes the determination of the fresh water chronic PNEC (Predicted No Effect Concentration) of uranium: method, available chronic eco-toxicity data and selection principles, PNEC obtained by applying safety factors or by statistical approach, PNEC per bio-availability domain, practical elements for a correct use of a PNEC. It finally proposes a PNEC for fresh water

  13. Hazardous substances in Europe's fresh and marine waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Collins, Robert; Brack, Werner; Lützhøft, Hans-Christian Holten

    , exposure can be linked to the presence of hazardous substances in water, through the ingestion of contaminated drinking water and the consumption of contaminated freshwater fish and seafood. The exceedance of regulatory levels in seafood is documented for several hazardous substances in the seas around...... to be effective in addressing the problems of complex chemical mixtures in European water bodies. In addition to the potential for adverse impacts upon human and ecosystem health, the presence of hazardous substances in drinking water supplies requires their removal. Alternatively, where the level of treatment...... involved is so high as to be uneconomic, a supply can be decommissioned. In both cases, significant costs are incurred. A key measure for reducing the level of purification required for Europe's drinking water is the establishment of safeguard or protection zones around the source. The creation...

  14. Fresh water disinfection by pulsed low electric field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, C; Xu, Y; Liu, Z; Yan, K

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a pulsed low electric field process for water disinfection. Electric intensity of 0.6–1.7 kV cm −1 is applied. Experiments are performed with a 1.2 L axis-cylinder reactor. A bipolar pulsed power source with pulsed width of 25 μs and frequency of 100–3000 Hz is used. Water conductivity of 3–200 μs cm −1 is investigated, which can significantly affect pulsed voltage-current waveforms and injected energy. Energy per pulse rises with increased water conductivity. The initial E. Coli density and water conductivity are two major factors influencing the disinfection. No disinfection effect is performed with deionized water of 3 μs cm −1 . When water conductivity is 25 μs cm −1 and bacteria density is 10 4 –10 6 cfu ml −1 , significant disinfection effect is observed. More than 99% of the cells can be disinfected with an energy density of less than 70 J ml −1 , while water temperature is below 30 °C.

  15. Occurrence of Legionella pneumophila and Hartmannella vermiformis in fresh water environments and their interactions in biofilms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiper, M.W.

    2006-01-01

    Legionella pneumophila, the causative agent of Legionnaires’ disease, is widespread in natural fresh water environments and is also frequently found in man-made water systems. Microbial biofilms and protozoa are known to play a major role in the proliferation of L. pneumophila. Biofilms provide

  16. A humane protocol for electro-stunning and killing of Nile tilapia in fresh water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lambooij, E.; Gerritzen, M.A.; Reimert, H.G.M.; Burggraaf, D.; Vis, van de J.W.

    2008-01-01

    Behavioural, neural and physiological parameters were scored after electro-stunning of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in three positions to an electric field in fresh water. An overall current density, 1.0 Arms/dm2, 50 Hz sinusoidal, applied for 1 s top-to-bottom in water (700 ¿S/cm), induced

  17. Cultivation of macroscopic marine algae and fresh water aquatic weeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryther, J.H.

    1982-02-01

    The ORCA clone of the red seaweed Gracilaria tikvahiae has been in culture continuously for over two years. Yield for the past year has averaged 12 g ash-free dry wt/m/sup 2/ .day (17.5 t/a.y) in suspended 2600-1 aluminum tank cultures with four exchanges of enriched seawater per day and continuous aeration. Yields from nonintensive pond-bottom culture, similar to commercial Gracilaria culture methods in Taiwan, averaged 3 g afdw/m/sup 2/.day in preliminary experiments. Rope and spray cultures were not successful. Yields of water hyacinths from March 1978 to March 1979 averaged 25 g afdw/m/sup 2/.day (37 t/a.y). Season, nutrient availability (form and quantity) and stand density were found to affect the relative proportions of structural and nonstructural tissue in water hyacinths and thereby significantly affect digestibility of and methane production by the plants. Pennywort (Hydrocotyle) grew poorly in winter and its annual yield averaged only one-third that of water hyacinth. Water lettuce (Pistia) appears more comparable to hyacinths in preliminary studies and its yields will be monitored throughout a complete year. Stable, continuous anaerobic digestion of both water hyacinths and Gracilaria has been maintained with an average gas production from both species of 0.4 1/g volatile solids at 60% methane.

  18. Determination of radium-226 in fresh water, using alpha spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byrakdar, M. E.

    2006-12-01

    Four radium isotopes are present in nature, i.e. Ra-223, Ra-224, Ra-226, and Ra-228. The first three are alpha emitters while the last is a beta emitter. Because of the importance of the determination of Alpha isotope emitters in pure water (drinking water), this work focuses on the determination of radium-226 as it has the longest half-life (1600 years, in comparison to 11.4 day, 3.66 days for Ra-223 and Ra-224, respectively) using Alpha spectroscopy. This method has the capability to be applied in sampling fields and low detection limit which in turn makes the analysis of low-level radioactive environmental water samples, with hardness does not exceed 40 French Degree, satisfying for health and environment control programmes. However, counting the samples using Alpha spectroscopy has to be immediate (or within 48 hours). (author)

  19. A study on evaluation and analytical methods for groundwater flow with considering sea/fresh-water boundary. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anezaki, S. [Taisei Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-03-01

    Sea/fresh-water boundary caused by density and concentration balance of sea-water and fresh-water is an important item for groundwater flow evaluation in deep underground near the coast. Also, in order to evaluate groundwater quality, it is important to understand the characteristics of sea/fresh-water boundary, for example boundary shape, salt distribution. In order to establish the evaluation and analytical methods for groundwater flow with considering sea/fresh-water boundary, we investigated the following items in this study. (1) Literature survey and data collection. (2) Investigation of analytical methods. (3) Planning of further study. (author). 78 refs.

  20. Development of methods to measure virus inactivation in fresh waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, R L; Winston, P E

    1985-11-01

    This study concerns the identification and correction of deficiencies in methods used to measure inactivation rates of enteric viruses seeded into environmental waters. It was found that viable microorganisms in an environmental water sample increased greatly after addition of small amounts of nutrients normally present in the unpurified seed virus preparation. This burst of microbial growth was not observed after seeding the water with purified virus. The use of radioactively labeled poliovirus revealed that high percentages of virus particles, sometimes greater than 99%, were lost through adherence to containers, especially in less turbid waters. This effect was partially overcome by the use of polypropylene containers and by the absence of movement during incubation. Adherence to containers clearly demonstrated the need for labeled viruses to monitor losses in this type of study. Loss of viral infectivity in samples found to occur during freezing was avoided by addition of broth. Finally, microbial contamination of the cell cultures during infectivity assays was overcome by the use of gentamicin and increased concentrations of penicillin, streptomycin, and amphotericin B.

  1. Proximate composition of fresh water bighead carp, Aristichthys ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2010-12-13

    Dec 13, 2010 ... Aristichthys nobilis value (as a food fish) has made it possible for it to be exported from its native country ... The live weight of the majority of fish usually consists of water, 70 to 80%; protein, 20 to 30% and lipid, 2 to 12% ..... aurata. Aquaculture, 17: 203-219. McComish TS, Anderson RO, Goff FG (1974).

  2. Proximate composition of fresh water bighead carp, Aristichthys ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seventy-six Bighead carp, Aristichthys nobilis, of different body sizes were selected for analysis of body composition parameters' variables in relation to body size and condition factor. Each fish was measured, weighed, dried and powdered for the analysis of water, ash, fat and protein contents. It was observed that for ...

  3. [Contamination of protozoa by enteroviruses in fresh water and sewages].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skachkov, M V; Al'misheva, A Sh; Plotnikov, A O; Nemtseva, N V; Skvortsov, V O

    2009-01-01

    To determine rate of infection of protozoa by enteroviruses to assess the potential role of protozoa as a natural reservoir of enteroviruses. The samples were collected from flowing and stagnant water reservoirs in Orenburg region in summer and autumn. The samples of sewages were taken in all stages of their treatment. Cultures of protozoa were isolated with micromanipulator equipped with micropipette, incubated on Pratt's medium at 25 degrees C and fed with Pseudomonas fluorescens culture. RNA of enteroviruses was detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Seventy-two protozoan species were found in Ural river, whereas 15 and 38 species were found in lakes and sewages respectively. Enteroviruses were detected by RT-PCR in 61.8% cultures of protozoa belonging to 23 species of flagellates, amoebae and ciliates isolated from natural water bodies undergoing anthropogenic impact as well as from sewages in all stages of their treatment. Predominant localization of enteroviruses in dominant taxons of protozoa (Paraphysomonas sp., Spumella sp., Petalomonas poosilla, Amoeba sp.) was noted. Obtained data confirm presence of enteroviruses in protozoa living both in flowing and stagnant recreation natural water bodies as well as in sewages and confirm the hypothesis of persistence of enteroviruses in protozoa and the reservoir role of the latter. Contingency of life cycles of viruses and protozoa allows to explain the seasonality of aseptic meningitis incidence caused by enteroviruses, which peaks in summer and autumn when protozoa massively multiply in water bodies.

  4. Daily basking patterns of the fresh-water turtle

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A single asbestos platform (25 X 25 X 25 cm) was situated at one end of the tank, allowing turtles to emerge completely from the water should they wish to bask. A heat lamp (Philips Infraphil 240 V, 150 W; Type. F/3379/F49) was positioned at varying heights above the platform (Table 1) illuminating it for 12 hours daily.

  5. Formation of trichloromethane in chlorinated water and fresh-cut produce and as a result of reacting with citric acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chlorine (sodium hypochlorite) is commonly used by the fresh produce industry to sanitize wash water, fresh and fresh-cut fruits and vegetables. However, possible formation of harmful chlorine by-products is a concern. The objectives of this study were to compare chlorine and chlorine dioxide in t...

  6. Developing the greatest Blue Economy: Water productivity, fresh water depletion, and virtual water trade in the Great Lakes basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, A. S.; Ruddell, B. L.; Mubako, S. T.

    2016-12-01

    The Great Lakes basin hosts the world's most abundant surface fresh water reserve. Historically an industrial and natural resource powerhouse, the region has suffered economic stagnation in recent decades. Meanwhile, growing water resource scarcity around the world is creating pressure on water-intensive human activities. This situation creates the potential for the Great Lakes region to sustainably utilize its relative water wealth for economic benefit. We combine economic production and trade datasets with water consumption data and models of surface water depletion in the region. We find that, on average, the current economy does not create significant impacts on surface waters, but there is some risk that unregulated large water uses can create environmental flow impacts if they are developed in the wrong locations. Water uses drawing on deep groundwater or the Great Lakes themselves are unlikely to create a significant depletion, and discharge of groundwater withdrawals to surface waters offsets most surface water depletion. This relative abundance of surface water means that science-based management of large water uses to avoid accidentally creating "hotspots" is likely to be successful in avoiding future impacts, even if water use is significantly increased. Commercial water uses are the most productive, with thermoelectric, mining, and agricultural water uses in the lowest tier of water productivity. Surprisingly for such a water-abundant economy, the region is a net importer of water-derived goods and services. This, combined with the abundance of surface water, suggests that the region's water-based economy has room to grow in the 21st century.

  7. Phase Change Material on Augmentation of Fresh Water Production Using Pyramid Solar Still

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ravishankara

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The augmentation of fresh water and increase in the solar still efficiency of a triangular pyramid is added with phase change material (PCM on the basin. Experimental studies were conducted and the effects of production of fresh water with and without PCM were investigated. Using paraffin as the PCM material, performance of the solar still were conducted on a hot, humid climate of Chennai (13°5′ 2" North, 80°16′ 12"East, India. The use of paraffin wax increases the latent heat storage so that the energy is stored in the PCM and in the absence of solar radiation it rejects its stored heat into the basin for further evaporation of water from the basin. Temperatures of water, Tw, Temperature of phase change material, TPCM, Temperature of cover, Tc were measured using thermocouple. Results show that there is an increase of maximum 20%, in productivity of fresh water with PCM. Keywords: fresh water production; PCM; thermal energy storage; phase change material

  8. Consumptive water use associated with food waste: case study of fresh mango in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridoutt, B. G.; Juliano, P.; Sanguansri, P.; Sellahewa, J.

    2009-07-01

    In many parts of the world, freshwater is already a scarce and overexploited natural resource, raising concerns about global food security and damage to freshwater ecosystems. This situation is expected to intensify with the FAO estimating that world food production must double by 2050. Food chains must therefore become much more efficient in terms of consumptive water use. For the small and geographically well-defined Australian mango industry, having an average annual production of 44 692 t of marketable fresh fruit, the average virtual water content (sum of green, blue and gray water) at orchard gate was 2298 l kg-1. However, due to wastage in the distribution and consumption stages of the product life cycle, the average virtual water content of one kg of Australian-grown fresh mango consumed by an Australian household was 5218 l. This latter figure compares to an Australian-equivalent water footprint of 217 l kg-1, which is the volume of direct water use by an Australian household having an equivalent potential to contribute to water scarcity. Nationally, distribution and consumption waste in the food chain of Australian-grown fresh mango to Australian households represented an annual waste of 26.7 Gl of green water and 16.6 Gl of blue water. These findings suggest that interventions to reduce food chain waste will likely have as great or even greater impact on freshwater resource availability as other water use efficiency measures in agriculture and food production.

  9. Lower Charles River Bathymetry: 108 Years of Fresh Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoder, M.; Sacarny, M.

    2017-12-01

    The Lower Charles River is a heavily utilized urban river that runs between Cambridge and Boston in Massachusetts. The recreational usage of the river is dependent on adequate water depths, but there have been no definitive prior studies on the sedimentation rate of the Lower Charles River. The river transitioned from tidal to a freshwater basin in 1908 due to the construction of the (old) Charles River Dam. Water surface height on the Lower Charles River is maintained within ±1 foot through controlled discharge at the new Charles River Dam. The current study area for historical comparisons is from the old Charles River Dam to the Boston University Bridge. This study conducted a bathymetric survey of the Lower Charles River, digitized three prior surveys in the study area, calculated volumes and depth distributions for each survey, and estimated sedimentation rates from fits to the volumes over time. The oldest chart digitized was produced in 1902 during dam construction deliberations. The average sedimentation rate is estimated as 5-10 mm/year, which implies 1.8-3.5 feet sedimentation since 1908. Sedimentation rates and distributions are necessary to develop comprehensive management plans for the river and there is evidence to suggest that sedimentation rates in the shallow upstream areas are higher than the inferred rates in the study area.

  10. Extraction of steviol glycosides from fresh Stevia using acidified water; comparison to hot water extraction, including purification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kootstra, A.M.J.; Huurman, Sander

    2017-01-01

    This report describes a practical comparison of an acidified water extraction of freshly harvested Stevia
    plants (the NewFoss method) to the hot water extraction of dried Stevia plants, the industry standard. Both
    extracts are subsequently purified using lab-/bench scale standard industrial

  11. Fluctuations of fresh-saline water interface and of water table induced by sea tides in unconfined aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levanon, Elad; Shalev, Eyal; Yechieli, Yoseph; Gvirtzman, Haim

    2016-10-01

    This study examines effects of tides on fluctuations of the fresh-saline water interface and the groundwater level in unconfined coastal aquifers using a two-dimensional numerical model. The time-lags of the simulated hydraulic heads and salinities fluctuations compared to sea level fluctuations are analyzed using cross-correlation analysis. The results show that both the fresh-saline water interface and the groundwater level are affected harmonically by sea tide fluctuations. However, significantly different time-lags are obtained between the hydraulic head in the deeper and upper parts of the aquifer, and between head and salinity in the fresh-saline water interface. The hydraulic head in the deeper part of the aquifer responses much faster to sea level fluctuations than in the upper part. Surprisingly, a similar difference is detected between the time-lag of the hydraulic head in the fresh-saline water interface and the time-lag of the salinity at the same location. Furthermore, the time-lag of the salinity in the fresh-saline water interface is similar to the time-lag of the water table. We suggest a comprehensive mechanism for tidal influence on the coastal groundwater system, in which two main processes act simultaneously. First, sea tide causes a pressure head wave which propagates into the saturated zone of the aquifer, governed by the diffusivity of the aquifer (Ks/Ss). Second, this pressure head wave is attenuated at the water table due to the unsaturated flow within the capillary fringe which occurs during groundwater level oscillations. Because the tidal forcing acts on the sea-floor boundary and the attenuation of the groundwater level due to capillary effect acts on the groundwater table, two dimensional distributions of time-lag and hydraulic head amplitude are created. The capillary effect in the unsaturated zone plays a key role not only in the water table fluctuations as shown previously, but also on the salinity fluctuations in the fresh

  12. Benthic plastic debris in marine and fresh water environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, Patricia L

    2015-08-01

    This review provides a discussion of the published literature concerning benthic plastic debris in ocean, sea, lake, estuary and river bottoms throughout the world. Although numerous investigations of shoreline, surface and near-surface plastic debris provide important information on plastic types, distribution, accumulation, and degradation, studies of submerged plastic debris have been sporadic in the past and have become more prominent only recently. The distribution of benthic debris is controlled mainly by combinations of urban proximity and its association with fishing-related activities, geomorphology, hydrological conditions, and river input. High density plastics, biofouled products, polymers with mineral fillers or adsorbed minerals, and plastic-metal composites all have the potential to sink. Once deposited on the bottoms of water basins and channels, plastics are shielded from UV light, thus slowing the degradation process significantly. Investigations of the interactions between benthic plastic debris and bottom-dwelling organisms will help shed light on the potential dangers of submerged plastic litter.

  13. The determination of radiocaesium in sea and fresh waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, C.W.

    1975-10-01

    The caesium is adsorbed on to a cartridge of silica gel impregnated with ammonium molybdophosphate from 50 litres of filtered water, adjusted to pH 2 with nitric acid. The cartridge is then placed in a well crystal detector and gamma counted. An additional separation step is required if zirconium-95/niobium-95 contamination has occurred, as shown by gamma spectrometric analysis of the cartridge. The measurement of caesium-137 and caesium-134 is by conventional γ-spectrometry. The output of the analysing system is ASCII paper tape, and a PDP-8 computer is used to convert this spectral information to activity of caesium-137 and -134 in pCi l -1 at the time of sample collection. (U.K.)

  14. A Liquid Desiccant Cycle for Dehumidification and Fresh Water Supply in Controlled Environment Agriculture

    KAUST Repository

    Lefers, Ryan

    2017-12-01

    Controlled environment agriculture allows the production of fresh food indoors from global locations and contexts where it would not otherwise be possible. Growers in extreme climates and urban areas produce food locally indoors, saving thousands of food import miles and capitalizing upon the demand for fresh, tasty, and nutritious food. However, the growing of food, both indoors and outdoors, consumes huge quantities of water - as much as 70-80% of global fresh water supplies. The utilization of liquid desiccants in a closed indoor agriculture cycle provides the possibility of capturing plant-transpired water vapor. The regeneration/desalination of these liquid desiccants offers the potential to recover fresh water for irrigation and also to re-concentrate the desiccants for continued dehumidification. Through the utilization of solar thermal energy, the process can be completed with a very small to zero grid-energy footprint. The primary research in this dissertation focused on two areas: the dehumidification of indoor environments utilizing liquid desiccants inside membrane contactors and the regeneration of these desiccants using membrane distillation. Triple-bore PVDF hollow fiber membranes yielded dehumidification permeance rates around 0.25-0.31 g m-2 h-1 Pa-1 in lab-scale trials. A vacuum membrane distillation unit utilizing PVDF fibers yielded a flux of 2.8-7.0 kg m-2 hr-1. When the membrane contactor dehumidification system was applied in a bench scale controlled environment agriculture setup, the relative humidity levels responded dynamically to both plant transpiration and dehumidification rates, reaching dynamic equilibrium levels during day and night cycles. In addition, recovered fresh water from distillation was successfully applied for irrigation of crops and concentrated desiccants were successfully reused for dehumidification. If applied in practice, the liquid desiccant system for controlled environment agriculture offers the potential to reduce

  15. Phenanthrene partitioning in sediment-surfactant-fresh/saline water systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Hongwen; Wu Wenling; Wang Lei

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of salinity on the effectiveness of surfactants in the remediation of sediments contaminated with phenanthrene (PHE). This is an example of a more general application of surfactants in removing hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs) from contaminated soil/sediment in saline environments via in-situ enhanced sorption or ex-situ soil washing. Salinity effects on surfactant micelle formation and PHE partitioning into solution surfactant micelles and sorbed surfactant were investigated. The critical micelle concentration of surfactants decreased, and PHE partition between surfactant micelles and water increased with increasing salinity. Carbon-normalized partition coefficients (K ss ) of PHE onto the sorbed cationic surfactant increased significantly with increasing salinity, which illustrates a more pronounced immobilization of PHE by cationic surfactant in a saline system. Reduction of PHE sorption by anionic surfactant was more pronounced in the saline system, indicating that the anionic surfactant has a higher soil washing effectiveness in saline systems. - The effectiveness of surfactant-enhanced remediation technology was promoted when applying it in estuarine environment with a higher salinity.

  16. Disposal of radioactive wastes into fresh water. Report of an ad hoc panel of experts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1963-01-01

    The fate of radionuclides introduced into fresh water will be influenced not only by the volume of the water available for dilution, but also by a number of other physical, chemical and biological factors like replacement of the water mass, turbulence and location of the currents, chemical composition of effluent and receiving water, suspended materials, thermal characteristics and density differences, precipitation and sedimentation, ion-exchange and adsorption, incorporation by living organisms, and special features characteristics of the type of water body involved, i.e. whether stream, lake, estuary or sub-surface.

  17. Notes on the fishes of western New Guinea III. The fresh water shark of Jamoer lake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boeseman, M.

    1964-01-01

    INTRODUCTION In 1954, during a visit to Hollandia, western New Guinea, it was rumoured that sharks had been observed in the fresh water of Jamoer Lake, at a distance by effluent river of about 130 km from the Arafoera Sea. For further information on the locality, including a map of the area, I refer

  18. Research notes : the pH of water in contact with fresh concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-02-01

    Fresh concrete can significantly change the pH of water. To study the impacts, the pH of a few drilled shaft pours on Bear Creek near Zigzag (US Highway 26, MP 42.6) were monitored in order to aid discussion on future similar work. The concrete was p...

  19. [Underwater dive in fresh water complicated by a cardiorespiratory arrest on obstructive shock].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourmanne, E; Jacobs, D; Caldow, M; El Kaissi, M

    2015-01-01

    We present the case of a french patient who dived in fresh water in Lac de l'Eau d'Heure on 8 December 2014. The 35 meters deep diving was complicated by an obstructive shock resulting from lung overpressure and decompression illness.

  20. Osmoregulatory physiology and rapid evolution of salinity tolerance in threespine stickleback recently introduced to fresh water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divino, Jeffrey N; Monette, Michelle Y.; McCormick, Stephen; Yancey, Paul H.; Flannery, Kyle G.; Bell, Michael A.; Rollins, Jennifer L.; von Hippel, Frank A.; Schultz, Eric T.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Post-Pleistocene diversification of threespine stickleback in fresh water offers a valuable opportunity to study how changes in environmental salinity shape physiological evolution in fish. In Alaska, the presence of both ancestral oceanic populations and derived landlocked populations, including recent lake introductions, allows us to examine rates and direction of evolution of osmoregulation following halohabitat transition.

  1. Properties of Concrete Exposed to Running Fresh Water for 24 Years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Eigil V.

    2008-01-01

    A total of nine concretes, comprising three cement types, incorporation of fly ash, superplasticized high strength concrete and high performance concrete with microsilica, have been monitored during 24 years of exposure to running fresh water under Danish outdoor climatic conditions....... The compressive strength development has been measured, and durability aspects have been assessed after 6 and 21 years of exposure, with very positive results....

  2. THE ACCOUNT OF DEVELOPMENT OF CROATIAN FRESH-WATER FISHERIES IN THE PERIOD 1938.-1995.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirko Turk

    1996-03-01

    Full Text Available The data on the production of fresh-water fish according to their categories; the data on pounds ackerage; fish yields per acre and needed reproductive fish amounts (fry for production of consumption fish have been presented in this account.

  3. Extraction of steviol glycosides from fresh Stevia using acidified water; clarification followed by ultrafiltration and nanofiltration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kootstra, A.M.J.; Elissen, H.J.H.; Huurman, Sander

    2016-01-01

    As part of the PPS Kleinschalige bioraffinage project (WP1b), fresh Stevia material was used in the extraction of steviol glycosides using water acidified through conversion of sugar by microorganisms naturally present on the plant. Two successive harvests from the same plot were used. Previous

  4. Decapod crustaceans in fresh waters of southeastern Bahia, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Alexandre Oliveira; Coelho, Petrônio Alves; Luz, Joaldo Rocha; dos Santos, José Tiago Almeida; Ferraz, Neyva Ribeiro

    2008-09-01

    A total of 117 species of freshwater decapod crustaceans are known from Brazil. Knowledge regarding the fauna of Decapoda from inland waters in the state of Bahia, northeast Brazil, is incipient. In spite of its wide territory and rich hydrographic net, only 13 species of limnetic decapods have been reported from that state. The objective of this contribution was to survey decapod crustaceans of some hydrographic basins in southeastern Bahia. The material described herein was obtained in samplings conducted between 1997 and 2005. Voucher specimens were deposited in the carcinological collections of the Museu de Zoologia, Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz, Ilhéus, Brazil, and Departamento de Oceanografia, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife, Brazil. A total of 13 species was collected. The carideans were represented by the atyids Atya scabra (Leach, 1815) and Potimirim potimirim (Müller, 1881) and the palaemonids Macrobrachium acanthurus (Wiegmann, 1836), M. amazonicum (Heller, 1862), M. carcinus (Linnaeus, 1758), M. heterochirus (Wiegmann, 1836), M. jelskii (Miers, 1877), M. olfersi (Wiegmann, 1836), and Palaemon (Palaemon) pandaliformis (Stimpson, 1871). The brachyurans were represented by the portunids Callinectes bocourti A. Milne-Edwards, 1879 and C. sapidus Rathbun, 1895, the trichodactylid Trichodactylus fluviatilis Latreille, 1828 and the panopeid Panopeus rugosus A. Milne-Edwards, 1881. Macrobrachium heterochirus represents a new record from Bahia, and M. amazonicum is reported for the first time in southeast Bahia. The occurrence of two extreme different forms of T. fluviatilis was observed. Form A is characterized by the frontal margin of carapace bordered by conspicuous granules, the anterolateral margin provided with developed teeth plus granules, and the posterolateral margin provided with granulation similar to that found on the front. In form B the frontal margin is smooth or has an inconspicuous granulation; the anterolateral margin is

  5. Water uptake by fresh Indonesian peat burning particles is limited by water-soluble organic matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing; Hapsari Budisulistiorini, Sri; Itoh, Masayuki; Lee, Wen-Chien; Miyakawa, Takuma; Komazaki, Yuichi; Qing Yang, Liu Dong; Kuwata, Mikinori

    2017-09-01

    The relationship between hygroscopic properties and chemical characteristics of Indonesian biomass burning (BB) particles, which are dominantly generated from peatland fires, was investigated using a humidified tandem differential mobility analyzer. In addition to peat, acacia (a popular species at plantation) and fern (a pioneering species after disturbance by fire) were used for experiments. Fresh Indonesian peat burning particles are almost non-hygroscopic (mean hygroscopicity parameter, κ stresses the importance of both the WSOC fraction and κ of the water-soluble fraction in determining the hygroscopicity of organic aerosol particles. Values of κ correlate positively (R = 0.89) with the fraction of m/z 44 ion signal quantified using a mass spectrometric technique, demonstrating the importance of highly oxygenated organic compounds to the water uptake by Indonesian BB particles. These results provide an experimentally validated reference for hygroscopicity of organics-dominated particles, thus contributing to more accurate estimation of environmental and climatic impacts driven by Indonesian BB particles on both regional and global scales.

  6. Strontium-90 sorption from fresh waters in the process of barium manganite modification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryzhen'kov, A.P.; Egorov, Yu.V.

    1995-01-01

    Strontium-90 extraction by barium manganite from fresh water (natural non-salty water in open ponds) may be increased adding to the solution the sulfate anion containing reagents that modify a sorbent and chemically bind a sorbate. Heterogeneous anion-exchanging reaction of barium manganite transformation into barium sulfate-manganese dioxide and simultaneous coprecipitation of strontium sulfate (microelement) occur as a result of it. 9 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  7. Biomimicry using Nano-Engineered Enhanced Condensing Surfaces for Sustainable Fresh Water Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Beaini, Sara

    2012-01-01

    Biomimicry offers innovative sustainable solutions for many dire resource-based challenges. The Namib Desert beetle (sp. Stenocara) invites us to explore how we can collect fresh water more energy-efficiently. The beetle's unique back features with alternating hydrophobic-hydrophilic regions, aid its survival in a water scarce desert environment. We investigated the feasibility for enhanced condensation by patterning a zinc oxide (ZnO) surface to mimic the beetle's back. ZnO was selected as t...

  8. Decapod crustaceans in fresh waters of southeastern Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Oliveira de Almeida

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available A total of 117 species of freshwater decapod crustaceans are known from Brazil. Knowledge regarding the fauna of Decapoda from inland waters in the state of Bahia, northeast Brazil, is incipient. In spite of its wide territory and rich hydrographic net, only 13 species of limnetic decapods have been reported from that state. The objective of this contribution was to survey decapod crustaceans of some hydrographic basins in southeastern Bahia. The material described herein was obtained in samplings conducted between 1997 and 2005. voucher specimens were deposited in the carcinological collections of the Museu de Zoologia, Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz, Ilhéus, Brazil, and Departamento de Oceanografia, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife, Brazil. A total of 13 species was collected. The carideans were represented by the atyids Atya scabra (Leach, 1815 and Potimirim potimirim (Müller, 1881 and the palaemonids Macrobrachium acanthurus (Wiegmann, 1836, M. amazonicum (Heller, 1862, M. carcinus (Linnaeus, 1758, M. heterochirus (Wiegmann, 1836, M. jelskii (Miers, 1877, M. olfersi (Wiegmann, 1836, and Palaemon (Palaemon pandaliformis (Stimpson, 1871. The brachyurans were represented by the portunids Callinectes bocourti A. Milne-Edwards, 1879 and C. sapidus Rathbun, 1895, the trichodactylid Trichodactylus fluviatilis Latreille, 1828 and the panopeid Panopeus rugosus A. Milne-Edwards, 1881. Macrobrachium heterochirus represents a new record from Bahia, and M. amazonicum is reported for the first time in southeast Bahia. The occurrence of two extreme different forms of T. fluviatilis was observed. Form A is characterized by the frontal margin of carapace bordered by conspicuous granules, the anterolateral margin provided with developed teeth plus granules, and the posterolateral margin provided with granulation similar to that found on the front. In form B the frontal margin is smooth or has an inconspicuous granulation; the anterolateral

  9. Location of leakages in the fresh water primary network distribution in the Nuclear Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, A.G.; Perez, G.V.; Rodriguez, A.F.

    1992-01-01

    In the hydraulic net of Nuclear Centre in Salazar, Mexico was necessary the application of radioactive traces after very much efforts for locating the situation of leaks of water and not obtain satisfactory results for other methods. It was injected a small quantity of 24 Na 2 CO 3 in aqueous solution in the tank discharge which stores the fresh water. After the running water movement was followed for gamma radiation detection omitted by the 24 Na in grave digged each 100 meters along the pipes. In this work is presented the methodology used to locate two water leaks and the corresponding safety radiological considerations. (Author)

  10. Heterogeneous photocatalytic disinfection of wash waters from the fresh-cut vegetable industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selma, María Victoria; Allende, Ana; López-Gálvez, Francisco; Conesa, María Angeles; Gil, María Isabel

    2008-02-01

    The effectiveness of photocatalytic disinfection for control of natural and potentially pathogenic microflora in wash waters used for fresh-cut vegetables was evaluated. Wash waters for lettuce, escarole, chicory, carrot, onion, and spinach from a fresh-cut vegetable processing plant were treated with a titanium dioxide (TiO2) photocatalytic system. The vegetable wash waters were impelled out with a pump at a flow rate of 1,000 liters/h and conducted through a stainless steel circuit to the filtration system to reach the TiO2 photocatalyst fiber, which was illuminated with a 40-W UV-C lamp. The microbial and physicochemical qualities of the wash water were analyzed. Heterogeneous photocatalysis was an effective disinfection method, reducing counts of bacteria, molds, and yeasts. Most of the treated wash waters had total bacteria reductions of 4.1 +/- 1.3 to 4.8 +/- 0.4 log CFU/ml after 10 min of treatment when compared with untreated water. Higher decontamination efficacy was observed in carrot wash water (6.2 +/- 0.1-log reductions), where turbidity and organic matter were lower than those in the wash waters for other vegetables. The tested heterogeneous photocatalytic system also was effective for reducing water turbidity, although chemical oxygen demand was unaffected after the treatments. The efficacy of the photocatalytic system for reducing microbial load depended on the physicochemical characteristics of the wash water, which depended on the vegetable being washed. The conclusions derived from this study illustrate that implementation of a heterogeneous photocatalytic system in the fresh-cut vegetable washing processes could allow the reuse of wash water.

  11. Low competitiveness of undeveloped areas: 'Narrow throat' of Serbian economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuković Darko

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Inconsistent development policy and traditionally inherited poverty, lack of adequate institutional support and the impact of the transition of Serbian economy are affected the deepening of the parameters of underdeveloped areas in Serbia (South Serbia and Stari Ras and appear of new underdeveloped area (Borski basen. These areas have very low competitiveness and represent bottleneck in the overall competitiveness of Serbian economy. Low Serbian competitiveness caused by many problems (corruption, ineffective legal system and weak protection of contracts, political instability and others, where undeveloped areas represent a special dimension of this problem, with their specific problems, current from almost every social standpoint. This paper explains the specific factors that are the largest source of uncompetitiveness underdeveloped areas, analyzing economic, demographic and socio-political factors, as well as infrastructure, unemployment and education. Results showed that these indicators of competitiveness in underdeveloped areas have far less values than the same indicators in other areas in Serbia. The major causes of low competitiveness of underdeveloped areas (except common with the Republic of Serbia are: low employment, low economic activity, low productivity, low investments, poor educational and demographic structure, underdeveloped infrastructure and socio-political uncertainty. At the end, the paper presents the measures and incentives which increase competitiveness of underdeveloped areas.

  12. Relative Recovery of Thermal Energy and Fresh Water in Aquifer Storage and Recovery Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miotliński, K; Dillon, P J

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between thermal energy and fresh water recoveries from an aquifer storage recovery (ASR) well in a brackish confined aquifer. It reveals the spatial and temporal distributions of temperature and conservative solutes between injected and recovered water. The evaluation is based on a review of processes affecting heat and solute transport in a homogeneous aquifer. In this simplified analysis, it is assumed that the aquifer is sufficiently anisotropic to inhibit density-affected flow, flow is axisymmetric, and the analysis is limited to a single ASR cycle. Results show that the radial extent of fresh water at the end of injection is greater than that of the temperature change due to the heating or cooling of the geological matrix as well as the interstitial water. While solutes progress only marginally into low permeability aquitards by diffusion, conduction of heat into aquitards above and below is more substantial. Consequently, the heat recovery is less than the solute recovery when the volume of the recovered water is lower than the injection volume. When the full volume of injected water is recovered the temperature mixing ratio divided by the solute mixing ratio for recovered water ranges from 0.95 to 0.6 for ratios of maximum plume radius to aquifer thickness of 0.6 to 4.6. This work is intended to assist conceptual design for dual use of ASR for conjunctive storage of water and thermal energy to maximize the potential benefits. © 2014, National Ground Water Association.

  13. Ozonated water extends the shelf life of fresh-cut lettuce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrán, David; Selma, María V; Marín, Alicia; Gil, María I

    2005-07-13

    The use of ozonated water as a sanitizer to extend the shelf life of fresh-cut lettuce and the effect on the antioxidant constituents (polyphenols and vitamin C) were investigated. Fresh-cut iceberg lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) was washed at 4 degrees C using three different ozonated water dips [10, 20, and 10 activated by ultraviolet C (UV-C) light mg L(-1) min total ozone dose], and the dips were compared with water and chlorine rinses. Treated lettuce was packaged in air or active modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) (4 kPa of O2 + 12 kPa of CO2 balanced with N2) and stored for 13 days at 4 degrees C. Despite its strong oxidizing activity, ozonated water did not stimulate the respiratory activity of fresh-cut lettuce. Moreover, ozonated water maintained the initial visual appearance of fresh-cut lettuce and controlled browning during storage in air. Initially, ozonated water and chlorine reduced the total mesophilic population by 1.6 and 2.1 log, respectively, when compared with water. Active MAP was effective in controlling total microbial growth, achieving 2.0 log reduction in relation to samples stored in air at the end of storage. On the other hand, active MAP caused a 2.0-3.5 reduction of coliforms on sanitized samples compared with water-washed samples. The most efficient treatments were ozone 20 and ozone 10 activated by UV-C, which were as effective as chlorine. Changes in individual phenolic compounds were independent of the washing treatments. In air, chlorogenic and isochlorogenic acid contents increased noticeably after 13 days while monocaffeoyltartaric and dicaffeoyltartaric acids remained unchanged. MAP effectively suppressed accumulation of caffeoylquinic derivatives, whereas caffeoyltartaric derivatives decreased during MAP storage to reach similar levels. The content of vitamin C (ascorbic acid and dehydroascorbic acid) decreased during storage, particularly under MAP. Ozonated water could be an alternative sanitizer to chlorine for fresh

  14. Salinization of a fresh palaeo-ground water resource by enhanced recharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaney, F W; Herczeg, A L; Walker, G R

    2003-01-01

    Deterioration of fresh ground water resources caused by salinization is a growing issue in many arid and semi-arid parts of the world. We discuss here the incipient salinization of a 10(4) km2 area of fresh ground water (Australia caused by widespread changes in land use. Ground water 14C concentrations and unsaturated zone Cl soil water inventories indicate that the low salinity ground water originated mainly from palaeo-recharge during wet climatic periods more than 20,000 years ago. However, much of the soil water in the 20 to 60 m thick unsaturated zone throughout the area is generally saline (>15,000 mg/L) because of relatively high evapotranspiration during the predominantly semiarid climate of the last 20,000 years. Widespread clearing of native vegetation over the last 100 years and replacement with crops and pastures leads to enhancement of recharge rates that progressively displace the saline soil-water from the unsaturated zone into the ground water. To quantify the impact of this new hydrologic regime, a one-dimensional model that simulates projected ground water salinities as a function of depth to ground water, recharge rates, and soil water salt inventory was developed. Results from the model suggest that, in some areas, the ground water salinity within the top 10 m of the water table is likely to increase by a factor of 2 to 6 during the next 100 years. Ground water quality will therefore potentially degrade beyond the point of usefulness well before extraction of the ground water exhausts the resource.

  15. Cultural Diversity of Los Angeles County Residents Using Undeveloped Natural Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick T. Tierney; Rene F. Dahl; Chavez Deborah J.

    1998-01-01

    A model of ethnic participation at undeveloped natural areas was developed and tested. The proposed model included the constructs of socio-economic status, perceived discrimination, assimilation, and ethnicity. Undeveloped natural areas were defined as being located outside of cities and primarily natural in composition. A telephone survey of a stratified random sample...

  16. Modelling the growth of Listeria monocytogenes in fresh green coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Eduardo H M; Kabuki, Dirce Y; Esper, Luciana M R; Sant'Ana, Anderson S; Kuaye, Arnaldo Y

    2009-09-01

    The behaviour of Listeria monocytogenes in the fresh coconut water stored at 4 degrees C, 10 degrees C and 35 degrees C was studied. The coconut water was aseptically extracted from green coconuts (Cocos nucifera L.) and samples were inoculated in triplicate with a mixture of 5 strains of L. monocytogenes with a mean population of approximately 3 log(10) CFU/mL. The kinetic parameters of the bacteria were estimated from the Baranyi model, and compared with predictions of the Pathogen Modelling Program so as to predict its behaviour in the beverage. The results demonstrated that fresh green coconut water was a beverage propitious for the survival and growth of L. monocytogenes and that refrigeration at 10 degrees C or 4 degrees C retarded, but did not inhibit, growth of this bacterium. Temperature abuse at 35 degrees C considerably reduced the lagtimes. The study shows that L. monocytogenes growth in fresh green coconut water is controlled for several days by storage at low temperature, mainly at 4 degrees C. Thus, for risk population this product should only be drunk directly from the coconut or despite the sensorial alterations should be consumed pasteurized.

  17. The model relationship of wastes for parameter design with green lean production of fresh water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mastiadi Tamjidillah

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Lean manufacturing is about eliminating waste including the seven traditional, this writing suggested an observation on no value added of seven wastes influencing the process of fresh water production. The relationship value among waste was statistically verified to create an approach for continuous improvement action. Thus, the main goal of this research is to develop a methodology of relationship among wastes and eliminate them. In relationship among wastes, it could be known that the high value indicating how often it happened in the production process gave direct cause in the system of fresh water treatment. A recommendation to reduce the highest value of waste is by doing improvement on parameter setting to obtain an optimum mixing model between water supply, alum and stroke pump with Taguchi method. The interaction of relationship among these seven types of waste can be portrayed using fishbone diagram and a relationship model among wastes using PLS smart (partial least squares. The final relationship model with the highest value of waste was analyzed using off-line quality control to upgrade the quality of fresh water used as the basis to eliminate waste and find out the optimal parameter of mixing process in accordance with the health standard.

  18. Global gray water footprint and water pollution levels related to anthropogenic nitrogen loads to fresh water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mekonnen, Mesfin; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert

    2015-01-01

    This is the first global assessment of nitrogen-related water pollution in river basins with a specification of the pollution by economic sector, and by crop for the agricultural sector. At a spatial resolution of 5 by 5 arc minute, we estimate anthropogenic nitrogen (N) loads to freshwater,

  19. Review: Impacts of permafrost degradation on inorganic chemistry of surface fresh water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Nicola; Salerno, Franco; Gruber, Stephan; Freppaz, Michele; Williams, Mark; Fratianni, Simona; Giardino, Marco

    2018-03-01

    Recent studies have shown that climate change is impacting the inorganic chemical characteristics of surface fresh water in permafrost areas and affecting aquatic ecosystems. Concentrations of major ions (e.g., Ca2 +, Mg2 +, SO42 -, NO3-) can increase following permafrost degradation with associated deepening of flow pathways and increased contributions of deep groundwater. In addition, thickening of the active layer and melting of near-surface ground ice can influence inorganic chemical fluxes from permafrost into surface water. Permafrost degradation has also the capability to modify trace element (e.g., Ni, Mn, Al, Hg, Pb) contents in surface water. Although several local and regional modifications of inorganic chemistry of surface fresh water have been attributed to permafrost degradation, a comprehensive review of the observed changes is lacking. The goal of this paper is to distil insight gained across differing permafrost settings through the identification of common patterns in previous studies, at global scale. In this review we focus on three typical permafrost configurations (pervasive permafrost degradation, thermokarst, and thawing rock glaciers) as examples and distinguish impacts on (i) major ions and (ii) trace elements. Consequences of warming climate have caused spatially-distributed progressive increases of major ion and trace element delivery to surface fresh water in both polar and mountain areas following pervasive permafrost degradation. Moreover, localised releases of major ions and trace elements to surface water due to the liberation of soluble materials sequestered in permafrost and ground ice have been found in ice-rich terrains both at high latitude (thermokarst features) and high elevation (rock glaciers). Further release of solutes and related transport to surface fresh water can be expected under warming climatic conditions. However, complex interactions among several factors able to influence the timing and magnitude of the impacts

  20. Study on transport safety of fresh MOX fuel. Performance of the cladding tube of fresh MOX fuel against external water pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Chihiro

    1999-01-01

    It is important to know the ability of the cladding tube for fresh MOX fuel against external water pressure when they were hypothetically sunk into the sea for unknown reasons. In order to evaluate the ability of cladding tubes for MOX fresh fuel against external water pressure, external water pressure tests were carried out. Resistible limit of cladding tubes against external water pressure is defined when cladding tubes are deformed largely due to buckling etc. The test results show cladding tube of BWR type can resist an external water pressure of 69 MPa (a depth of water of 7,000 m) and that of PWR type fuel can resist an external water pressure of 54 MPa (a depth of water of 5,500 m). Moreover, leak tightness is maintained at an external water pressure of 73 MPa (a depth of water of 7,400 m) for BWR type cladding tubes and at an external water pressure of 98 MPa (a depth of water of 10,000 m) for PWR type cladding tubes. (author)

  1. Global Gray Water Footprint and Water Pollution Levels Related to Anthropogenic Nitrogen Loads to Fresh Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekonnen, Mesfin M; Hoekstra, Arjen Y

    2015-11-03

    This is the first global assessment of nitrogen-related water pollution in river basins with a specification of the pollution by economic sector, and by crop for the agricultural sector. At a spatial resolution of 5 by 5 arc minute, we estimate anthropogenic nitrogen (N) loads to freshwater, calculate the resultant gray water footprints (GWFs), and relate the GWFs per river basin to runoff to calculate the N-related water pollution level (WPL) per catchment. The accumulated global GWF related to anthropogenic N loads in the period 2002-2010 was 13×10(12) m3/y. China contributed about 45% to the global total. Three quarters of the GWF related to N loads came from diffuse sources (agriculture), 23% from domestic point sources and 2% from industrial point sources. Among the crops, production of cereals had the largest contribution to the N-related GWF (18%), followed by vegetables (15%) and oil crops (11%). The river basins with WPL>1 (where the N load exceeds the basin's assimilation capacity), cover about 17% of the global land area, contribute about 9% of the global river discharge, and provide residence to 48% of the global population.

  2. On the substantion of permissible concentrations of plutonium isotopes in the water of fresh water and sea water NPP cooling reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grachev, M.I.; Gusev, D.I.; Stepanova, V.D.

    1985-01-01

    Substantiation of maximum permissible concentration (PC) of plutonium isotopes ( 238 Pu, 239 Pu, 240 Pu) in fresh and sea water cooling reservoirs of NPP with fast neutron reactors is given. The main criterion when calculating permissible plutonium content in water of surface reservoirs is the requirement not to exceed the established limits for radiation doses to persons resulted from water use. Data on coefficients of plutonium concentration in sea and fresh water hydrobionts are presented as well as on plutonium PC in water of fresh and sea water cooling reservoirs and bottom sediments of sea water cooling reservoirs. It is shown that doses to critical groups of population doesn't exceed potentially hazardous levels due to plutonium intake through food chains. But the calculation being carried out further should be corrected

  3. Fresh Water Generation from Aquifer-Pressured Carbon Storage: Annual Report FY09

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolery, T; Aines, R; Hao, Y; Bourcier, W; Wolfe, T; Haussman, C

    2009-11-25

    This project is establishing the potential for using brine pressurized by Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) operations in saline formations as the feedstock for desalination and water treatment technologies including reverse osmosis (RO) and nanofiltration (NF). The aquifer pressure resulting from the energy required to inject the carbon dioxide provides all or part of the inlet pressure for the desalination system. Residual brine is reinjected into the formation at net volume reduction, such that the volume of fresh water extracted balances the volume of CO{sub 2} injected into the formation. This process provides additional CO{sub 2} storage capacity in the aquifer, reduces operational risks (cap-rock fracturing, contamination of neighboring fresh water aquifers, and seismicity) by relieving overpressure in the formation, and provides a source of low-cost fresh water to offset costs or operational water needs. This multi-faceted project combines elements of geochemistry, reservoir engineering, and water treatment engineering. The range of saline formation waters is being identified and analyzed. Computer modeling and laboratory-scale experimentation are being used to examine mineral scaling and osmotic pressure limitations. Computer modeling is being used to evaluate processes in the storage aquifer, including the evolution of the pressure field. Water treatment costs are being evaluated by comparing the necessary process facilities to those in common use for seawater RO. There are presently limited brine composition data available for actual CCS sites by the site operators including in the U.S. the seven regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships (CSPs). To work around this, we are building a 'catalog' of compositions representative of 'produced' waters (waters produced in the course of seeking or producing oil and gas), to which we are adding data from actual CCS sites as they become available. Produced waters comprise the most common

  4. The concentration and isotopic composition of diffusible Nd in fresh and marine waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlqvist, Ralf; Andersson, Per S.; Ingri, Johan

    2005-04-01

    Variations in the Nd isotopic composition of ocean water through time, recorded in marine deposits, are suggested to document changes in erosional input and ocean circulation. Thus characterization of the dissolved Nd component in seawater is important. But few attempts have been made to directly measure truly dissolved Nd. Here we report Nd data, obtained using the technique of diffusive gradients in thin-films (DGT) designed to measure in situ, diffusible labile trace metals in aqueous solutions. The method samples free ions and possibly very small complexes. The concentration and isotopic composition of Nd in fresh, brackish and seawater have been determined with DGT, analyzed with thermal ionization mass-spectrometry, and compared with filtered and bulk water samples. Concentrations measured in water samples and with DGT show that the relative amount of diffusible Nd increases with salinity, from being about 10% in the fresh water to 42% in seawater. At each sampled site, the isotopic composition of Nd in the water shows a similar isotopic composition, within errors, with Nd sampled using the DGT method. These results indicate that there is a complete exchange between the particulate/colloidal fraction and the truly dissolved phase. Therefore our findings suggest that solute Nd reflects both the isotopic composition of the marine sediments and the bulk water.

  5. Surface Energy Balance of Fresh and Saline Waters: AquaSEBS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Abdelrady

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Current earth observation models do not take into account the influence of water salinity on the evaporation rate, even though the salinity influences the evaporation rate by affecting the density and latent heat of vaporization. In this paper, we adapt the SEBS (Surface Energy Balance System model for large water bodies and add the effect of water salinity to the evaporation rate. Firstly, SEBS is modified for fresh-water whereby new parameterizations of the water heat flux and sensible heat flux are suggested. This is achieved by adapting the roughness heights for momentum and heat transfer. Secondly, a salinity correction factor is integrated into the adapted model. Eddy covariance measurements over Lake IJsselmeer (The Netherlands are carried out and used to estimate the roughness heights for momentum (~0.0002 m and heat transfer (~0.0001 m. Application of these values over the Victoria and Tana lakes (freshwater in Africa showed that the calculated latent heat fluxes agree well with the measurements. The root mean-square of relative-errors (rRMSE is about 4.1% for Lake Victoria and 4.7%, for Lake Tana. Verification with ECMWF data showed that the salinity reduced the evaporation at varying levels by up to 27% in the Great Salt Lake and by 1% for open ocean. Our results show the importance of salinity to the evaporation rate and the suitability of the adapted-SEBS model (AquaSEBS for fresh and saline waters.

  6. Underwater Depth and Temperature Sensing Based on Fiber Optic Technology for Marine and Fresh Water Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duraibabu, Dinesh Babu; Leen, Gabriel; Toal, Daniel; Newe, Thomas; Lewis, Elfed; Dooly, Gerard

    2017-05-27

    Oceanic conditions play an important role in determining the effects of climate change and these effects can be monitored through the changes in the physical properties of sea water. In fact, Oceanographers use various probes for measuring the properties within the water column. CTDs (Conductivity, Temperature and Depth) provide profiles of physical and chemical parameters of the water column. A CTD device consists of Conductivity (C), Temperature (T) and Depth (D) probes to monitor the water column changes with respect to relative depth. An optical fibre-based point sensor used as a combined pressure (depth) and temperature sensor and the sensor system are described. Measurements accruing from underwater trials of a miniature sensor for pressure (depth) and temperature in the ocean and in fresh water are reported. The sensor exhibits excellent stability and its performance is shown to be comparable with the Sea-Bird Scientific commercial sensor: SBE9Plus.

  7. Underwater Depth and Temperature Sensing Based on Fiber Optic Technology for Marine and Fresh Water Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Babu Duraibabu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Oceanic conditions play an important role in determining the effects of climate change and these effects can be monitored through the changes in the physical properties of sea water. In fact, Oceanographers use various probes for measuring the properties within the water column. CTDs (Conductivity, Temperature and Depth provide profiles of physical and chemical parameters of the water column. A CTD device consists of Conductivity (C, Temperature (T and Depth (D probes to monitor the water column changes with respect to relative depth. An optical fibre-based point sensor used as a combined pressure (depth and temperature sensor and the sensor system are described. Measurements accruing from underwater trials of a miniature sensor for pressure (depth and temperature in the ocean and in fresh water are reported. The sensor exhibits excellent stability and its performance is shown to be comparable with the Sea-Bird Scientific commercial sensor: SBE9Plus.

  8. Physicochemical Characteristics of Pennar River, A Fresh Water Wetland in Kerala, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. V. Joseph

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Some physicochemical characteristics of a fresh water wetland were investigated. The analysis was carried out for a period of two years. Physical parameters such as colour, odour, temperature, electrical conductivity (EC total suspended solids (TSS total dissolved substances (TDS, total solids (TS, turbidity and chemical parameters such as pH, alkalinity, hardness, dissolved oxygen (DO, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD, chemical oxygen demand (COD, chloride, salinity, flouride, phosphate & nitrate were examined. Results of the study indicated that water in Pennar river is highly contaminated and not safe for drinking. Uncontrolled use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides, unscrupulous dumping of domestic wastes are the major causes of deterioration of water. Poor quality of drinking water was recorded as the major risk factor for the large-scale water-borne diseases in the area.

  9. Advanced Membrane Filtration Technology for Cost Effective Recovery of Fresh Water from Oil & Gas Produced Brine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David B. Burnett

    2004-09-29

    Produced water is a major waste generated at the oil and natural gas wells in the state of Texas. This water could be a possible source of new fresh water to meet the growing demands of the state after treatment and purification. Treatment of brine generated in oil fields or produced water with an ultrafiltration membranes were the subject of this thesis. The characterization of ultrafiltration membranes for oil and suspended solids removal of produced water, coupled with the reverse osmosis (RO) desalination of brine were studied on lab size membrane testing equipment and a field size testing unit to test whether a viable membrane system could be used to treat produced water. Oil and suspended solids were evaluated using turbidity and oil in water measurements taken periodically. The research considered the effect of pressure and flow rate on membrane performance of produced water treatment of three commercially available membranes for oily water. The study also analyzed the flux through the membrane and any effect it had on membrane performance. The research showed that an ultrafiltration membrane provided turbidity removal of over 99% and oil removal of 78% for the produced water samples. The results indicated that the ultrafiltration membranes would be asset as one of the first steps in purifying the water. Further results on selected RO membranes showed that salt rejection of greater than 97% could be achieved with satisfactory flux and at reasonable operating cost.

  10. Assessing climate change impacts on fresh water resources of the Athabasca River Basin, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Narayan Kumar; Du, Xinzhong; Wang, Junye

    2017-12-01

    Proper management of blue and green water resources is important for the sustainability of ecosystems and for the socio-economic development of river basins such as the Athabasca River Basin (ARB) in Canada. For this reason, quantifying climate change impacts on these water resources at a finer temporal and spatial scale is often necessary. In this study, we used a Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) to assess climate change impacts on fresh water resources, focusing explicitly on the impacts to both blue and green water. We used future climate data generated by the Canadian Center for Climate Modelling and Analysis Regional Climate Model (CanRCM4) with a spatial resolution of 0.22°×0.22° (~25km) for two emission scenarios (RCP 4.5 and 8.5). Results projected the climate of the ARB to be wetter by 21-34% and warmer by 2-5.4°C on an annual time scale. Consequently, the annual average blue and green water flow was projected to increase by 16-54% and 11-34%, respectively, depending on the region, future period, and emission scenario. Furthermore, the annual average green water storage at the boreal region was expected to increase by 30%, while the storage was projected to remain fairly stable or decrease in other regions, especially during the summer season. On average, the fresh water resources in the ARB are likely to increase in the future. However, evidence of temporal and spatial heterogeneity could pose many future challenges to water resource planners and managers. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Trace metals behaviour during salt and fresh water mixing in the Venice Lagoon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghermandi, G.; Campolieti, D.; Cecchi, R.; Costa, F.; Zaggia, L.; Zonta, R.

    1993-01-01

    Preliminary results of an investigation on trace metals behaviour in the estuarine system of the Dese River (Venice Lagoon) are described. Hydrodynamical and water chemical-physical measurements and PIXE concentrations analysis on size-fractionated samples emphasize the complexity of the processes occurring in the area of salt and fresh water mixing. Suspended load variations in the bottom layer of the water column, which may be mostly ascribed to resuspension, regulate the trace metal concentrations and seem to play a fundamental role in the transport of pollutants in shallow water areas of the estuary. The behaviour of dissolved metals is masked by the presence of suspended matter, but some relationships with chemical-physical variables are distinguishable, furnishing information on the processes affecting their concentration in the system. (orig.)

  12. Effects of Hot Water Immersion on Storage Quality of Fresh Broccoli Heads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huaqiang Dong

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Freshly harvested broccoli heads were immersed for 0, 1, 4 or 8 min into hot water at 45 °C, and then were hydrocooled rapidly for 10 min at 10 °C. Following these treatments, the broccoli were air-dried for 30 min, then packed in commercial polymeric film bags, and, finally, stored for 16 days at –1, 1, and 12 °C. The samples treated with hot water maintained high contents of chlorophyll concentrations, their yellowing rate was delayed, and fungal infection and chilling or freezing injury were inhibited markedly. Compared to non-heat-treated broccoli, a lower level of peroxidase activity with a relatively higher chlorophyll concentration was observed when broccoli were treated with hot water. Among these heat treatments, immersion in hot water for 4 min at 45 °C was the most effective for maintaining the quality of harvested broccoli heads.

  13. Comparative Study of Cadmiumand Arsenic Accumulation in Toothed Carp (Aphanius sophiaein Fresh and Salt Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoumeh Ariyaee

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anthropogenic activities release high concentrations of heavy metals into the aquatic ecosystems, which can be absorbed by the aquatic organisms. In this study, the accu-mulation of cadmium (Cd and arsenic (As was compared in liver, gill and muscle tissues of toothed carp (Aphanius sophiae in fresh and salt water. Methods: A total of 175 fish samples were collected from the Shoor River, Iran during the spring and summer of 2011. Samples were divided into two groups for salt and freshwater ex-periments. The individuals of each group were also divided into seven groups, a control group and the other six exposed to the concentrations of 5, 10 and 20 mg/L of arsenic and 5, 10 and 20 mg/L of cadmium. The liver, gills and muscle tissues of the specimens were dissected. The tissues were wet digested in acid and the concentrations of metals were measured using an ICP-OES instrument. Results: The concentrations of both metals were significantly different in various organs in both fresh and salt water and it were in order of liver > gill > muscle (P <0.001. Based on t-test results, no significant difference was observed between the concentrations of As in related tis-sues of fish cultivated in fresh and salt water. However, Cd accumulation was significantly higher in the tissues of fish specimens cultivated in freshwater (P <0.001. Conclusion: The bioaccumulation of Cd and As depends on organs, metals, and water condi-tion.

  14. Reduction of pesticide residues on fresh vegetables with electrolyzed water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Jianxiong; Wuyundalai; Liu, Haijie; Chen, Tianpeng; Zhou, Yanxin; Su, Yi-Cheng; Li, Lite

    2011-05-01

    Degradation of the 3 pesticides (acephate, omethoate, and dimethyl dichloroviny phosphate [DDVP]) by electrolyzed water was investigated. These pesticides were commonly used as broad-spectrum insecticides in pest control and high-residual levels had been detected in vegetables. Our research showed that the electrolyzed oxidizing (EO) water (pH 2.3, available chlorine concentration:70 ppm, oxidation-reduction potential [ORP]: 1170 mV) and the electrolyzed reducing (ER) water (pH 11.6, ORP: -860 mV) can reduce the pesticide residues effectively. Pesticide residues on fresh spinach after 30 min of immersion in electrolyzed water reduced acephate by 74% (EO) and 86% (ER), omethoate by 62% (EO) and 75% (ER), DDVP by 59% (EO) and 46% (ER), respectively. The efficacy of using EO water or ER water was found to be better than that of using tap water or detergent (both were reduced by more than 25%). Besides spinach, the cabbage and leek polluted by DDVP were also investigated and the degradation efficacies were similar to the spinach. Moreover, we found that the residual level of pesticide residue decreased with prolonged immersion time. Using EO or ER water to wash the vegetables did not affect the contents of Vitamin C, which inferred that the applications of EO or ER water to wash the vegetables would not result in loss of nutrition. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  15. FRESH-WATER GREEN ALGAE (CHLOROPHYTA AS A NATURAL PIGMENT FOR MOJOSARI DUCKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Indarsih

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available An experiment in a completely randomize design was undertaken to study the use of fresh-watergreen algae as a yolk coloring agent in Mojosari ducks during a laying period on productiveperformance and egg quality from 36 to 44 wk of age. A total of 80 thirty-six wk–old laying ducks weredivided into four dietary treatments and each of four replicates with 5 birds. Diets were formulated witha commercial concentrate, rice bran and yellow corn (2:4:4 according to a commercial standard diet asa control, and three other dietary treatments with 2, 4 or 8% of green algae were included. Fresh watergreen algae had a significant effect on the feed uptake, egg production, and feed conversion ratio (FCR(p<0.05. Egg production and FCR improved at added 2 and 4% green algae. No differences wereobserved in egg yolk index, albumen index, Haugh Unit, and egg shell thickness (P>0.05 except eggyolk color. The yolk color increased within 7 days after feeding with the test diets. The present studyindicated that fresh-water green algae could be used as a natural coloring agent in laying ducks and at8% of green algae showed the highest score of (Roche Yellow Color-15.

  16. Uptake, release, and incorporation of radioactive cadmium and mercury by the fresh water alga phormidium fragile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mostafa, I.Y.; Khalil, Z.

    1986-01-01

    The uptake of radioactive cadmium and mercury by the fresh water alga phormidium fragile was studied at different time intervals. Cadmium was taken up in amounts significantly greater than mercury and although the rate of uptake of both metals was more or less constant, the bound fraction of cadmium showed a continuous increase. It has also been found that cadmium is more readily released from the algal cells than mercury. Chromatographic analysis of the organic soluble fractions for both metals, the R values as well as their percentages of occurrence are presented and discussed.3 tab

  17. Carbon dioxide degassing in fresh and saline water I: Degassing performance of a cascade column

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moran, Damian

    2010-01-01

    A study was undertaken to measure carbon dioxide degassing in a cascade column operating with both fresh (0‰) and saline water (35‰ NaCl) at 15 °C. The cascade column contained bio-block type packing material, was 1.7 m long in each dimension, and was tested both with and without countercurrent air...... exchange. The CO2 concentration of the influent and effluent water was measured using submersible infrared CO2 probes over an influent range of 10-60 mg L−1 CO2. Carbon dioxide degassing was quantified in terms of the mass transfer coefficient (kLa, log concentration driving force divided by packing height...... to differences in the ionization fractions of inorganic carbon species in the effluent water. The results indicate that CO2 removal will be more problematic for saline or seawater recirculating systems compared to freshwater systems....

  18. Recovery of Fresh Water Resources from Desalination of Brine Produced During Oil and Gas Production Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David B. Burnett; Mustafa Siddiqui

    2006-12-29

    for the removal of hydrocarbons from produced water. The results of these experiments show that hydrocarbons from produced water can be reduced from 200 ppm to below 29 ppm level. Experiments were also done to remove the dissolved solids (salts) from the pretreated produced water using desalination membranes. Produced water with up to 45,000 ppm total dissolved solids (TDS) can be treated to agricultural water quality water standards having less than 500 ppm TDS. The Report also discusses the results of field testing of various process trains to measure performance of the desalination process. Economic analysis based on field testing, including capital and operational costs, was done to predict the water treatment costs. Cost of treating produced water containing 15,000 ppm total dissolved solids and 200 ppm hydrocarbons to obtain agricultural water quality with less than 200 ppm TDS and 2 ppm hydrocarbons range between $0.5-1.5 /bbl. The contribution of fresh water resource from produced water will contribute enormously to the sustainable development of the communities where oil and gas is produced and fresh water is a scarce resource. This water can be used for many beneficial purposes such as agriculture, horticulture, rangeland and ecological restorations, and other environmental and industrial application.

  19. Comparison of formation mechanism of fresh-water and salt-water lacustrine organic-rich shale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Senhu

    2017-04-01

    Based on the core and thin section observation, major, trace and rare earth elements test, carbon and oxygen isotopes content analysis and other geochemical methods, a detailed study was performed on formation mechanism of lacustrine organic-rich shale by taking the middle Permian salt-water shale in Zhungaer Basin and upper Triassic fresh-water shale in Ordos Basin as the research target. The results show that, the middle Permian salt-water shale was overall deposited in hot and dry climate. Long-term reductive environment and high biological abundance due to elevated temperature provides favorable conditions for formation and preservation of organic-rich shale. Within certain limits, the hotter climate, the organic-richer shale formed. These organic-rich shale was typically distributed in the area where palaeosalinity is relatively high. However, during the upper Triassic at Ordos Basin, organic-rich shale was formed in warm and moist environment. What's more, if the temperature, salinity or water depth rises, the TOC in shale decreases. In other words, relatively low temperature and salinity, stable lake level and strong reducing conditions benefits organic-rich shale deposits in fresh water. In this sense, looking for high-TOC shale in lacustrine basin needs to follow different rules depends on the palaeoclimate and palaeoenvironment during sedimentary period. There is reason to believe that the some other factors can also have significant impact on formation mechanism of organic-rich shale, which increases the complexity of shale oil and gas prediction.

  20. Decarb/Desal: Separation of Carbon Dioxide from Flue Gas with Simultaneous Fresh Water Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aines, R; Bourcier, W

    2009-10-21

    If fossil fuels continue to be a major part of the world's energy supply, effective means must be developed to deal with the carbon emissions. Geologic sequestration of supercritical CO{sub 2} is expected to play a major role in mitigating this problem. Separating carbon dioxide from other gases is the most costly aspect of schemes for geologic sequestration. That cost is driven by the complexity and energy intensity of current chemical-stripping methods for separating carbon dioxide. Our experience in water treatment technology indicated that an entirely new approach could be developed, taking advantage of water's propensity to separate gases that ionize in water (like CO{sub 2}) from those that do not (like N{sub 2}). Even though water-based systems might not have the extreme selectivity of chemicals like substituted amines used in industrial systems today, they have the potential to tolerate NO{sub x}, SO{sub x}, and particulates while also producing clean drinking water as a valuable byproduct. Lower capital cost, broader range of applicability, environmental friendliness, and revenue from a second product stream give this approach the potential to significantly expand the worldwide application of carbon separation for geologic sequestration. Here we report results for separation of CO{sub 2} from flue gas by two methods that simultaneously separate carbon dioxide and fresh water: ionic pumping of carbonate ions dissolved in water, and thermal distillation. The ion pumping method dramatically increases dissolved carbonate ion in solution and hence the overlying vapor pressure of CO{sub 2} gas, allowing its removal as a pure gas. We have used two common water treatment methods to drive the ion pumping approach, reverse osmosis and electrodialysis to produce pure CO{sub 2}. This novel approach to increasing the concentration of the extracted gas permits new approaches to treating flue gas, because the slightly basic water used as the extraction medium

  1. Reduction of organic trace compounds and fresh water consumption by recovery of advanced oxidation processes treated industrial wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierbaum, S; Öller, H-J; Kersten, A; Klemenčič, A Krivograd

    2014-01-01

    Ozone (O(3)) has been used successfully in advanced wastewater treatment in paper mills, other sectors and municipalities. To solve the water problems of regions lacking fresh water, wastewater treated by advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) can substitute fresh water in highly water-consuming industries. Results of this study have shown that paper strength properties are not impaired and whiteness is slightly impaired only when reusing paper mill wastewater. Furthermore, organic trace compounds are becoming an issue in the German paper industry. The results of this study have shown that AOPs are capable of improving wastewater quality by reducing organic load, colour and organic trace compounds.

  2. The minimization of the fresh water consumption for the paper chemicals; Tuoreveden kaeytoen minimointi paperikemikaalien kaeytoessae - MPKT 06

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryoesoe, K. [Lappeenranta Univ. of Technology (Finland). Dept. of Chemical Technology

    1998-12-31

    When reducing the consumption of fresh water in the paper making process there are two different things concerning the use of the paper chemicals. First, a lot of fresh water is needed for dilution and feed of the paper chemicals. Secondly, the decreased use of fresh water is often detrimental to the efficiency of the paper chemicals, which leads to an extended need of these chemicals and therefore also to an increased use of fresh water. The aim of this study is to find out the possibilities concerning the choice of chemicals, the internal purification of the circulation water and the feeding procedure of chemicals to decrease the amount of fresh water needed for the dilution and feed of paper chemicals without harmful effects to the efficiency of chemicals. It will be investigated, how the sensitiveness of paper chemicals for impurities of the dilution or feed water depends on their different properties. Also the feasibility to reduce the dosage or increase the concentration of the chemical solution, which is dosed to the process, will be examined. (orig.)

  3. Assessing Pesticide Contamination to Fresh Water in Some Agricultural Sites, Close to Oaxaca City, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomas, G.

    2002-12-01

    This study presents the results of a survey on pesticides in fresh water in shallow aquifers, rivers and dams in Zaachila, Tlacolula and Etla and agricultural valleys close to Oaxaca City, SW of Mexico. In the study zones, there are generalized uses of pesticides and the impact on the water resources by inadequate use of agricultural activities. Water is used for irrigation and drinking. Surveying criteria was to sample the aquifer (production wells), its water table (dig wells) and a regional water collector (Plan Benito Juarez Yuayapan dam). A total of 14 samples were analyzed for the identification and quantification of organochlorine and organophosphorous pesticides. Method was 508-EPA. Gas chromatographer was a 5890 series II Hewlett Packard, calibrated with several patterns. Results: 10 samples are contaminated with some pesticide of the used patterns; Dieldrin, Chlordano, Malathion, Mirex were not found; Traces of organophosphorus compounds were found in 8 samples, mainly Merphos, Parathion Ethylic and Disulfoton ; There was detected traces of world-forbidden insecticides as Metoxychlor, Parathion Ethylic and Disulfoton; and In one sample (Cuilapam well #1) DDT exceeds, the Mexican maximum limit for potable water (1 mg/l),

  4. A statistical analysis of the freshness of postharvest leafy vegetables with application of water based on chlorophyll fluorescence measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yichen Qiu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Vegetable freshness is very important for both restaurant and home consumers. In market, sellers frequently apply water to leafy vegetables to make them not lose weight and look fresh; however, these vegetables may not be stored for a long time as they appear. After a time limit, they may be quickly rotten. It is thus meaningful to investigate early and simple detection tools to measure leafy vegetable freshness while they are frequently applied water in selling. In this work, three types of newly harvested leafy vegetables were bought from a local farmer market and stored in the air with room temperature and roots submerging in water. Chlorophyll a fluorescence (ChlF from the vegetables was measured each half a day for three days. The obtained ChlF data were analyzed statistically and the correlation of ChlF parameters and vegetable freshness/storage time was obtained. The k-mean classification was also performed. It is found that Fo, Fj, Fm/Fo, and Fv/Fm can be used as an early detection tool to differentiate the freshness of leafy vegetables on which water is constantly applied in storage without visible difference. Keywords: Vegetable freshness, Chlorophyll fluorescence, Food measurement

  5. Uptake of 137Cs in cultured fresh water fish (Cyprinus carpio): physiological and histological effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vosniakos, F.; Kesidou, A.; Kalfa, A.; Moumtzis, A.; Karakoltsidis, P.

    1991-01-01

    An experiment was conducted in fresh-water fish (Cyprinus carpio) cultured, in small water tanks, artificially contaminated with radioactive 137 Cs (3000 Bq/1) to determine the uptake of 137 Cs and its physiological and histological effects in different fish organs. It was found that 137 Cs was located in muscular tissues, gills, head muscles, liver and kidneys. Moderate amounts were found in spleen, eyes, gonads, intestine and urinary bladder. It seems that sorption was of much less importance than ingestion in the uptake of 137 Cs. The histological examination in musculature tissue, revealed an acute hyperemia with focal haemorrages which may be due to allergic effects of 137 Cs. Hyperemia and focal fatty degeneration of hepatic cells was also noted in the liver which may be due to toxic effects of 137 Cs. Diffused hyperemia has also occurred in the brain and focal degeneration of epithelial cells of renal tubules. (Author)

  6. Pre-feasibility study of electron beam irradiation of fresh water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finshi V, Silvia.

    1997-01-01

    A technical/economic evaluation of electron beam irradiation for the decontamination of liquids in the country is presented. Irradiation of fresh water is evaluated for the production of drinking water as a replacement for chlorine disinfection, which can lead to the formation of tri halo methanes. that are carcinogenic compounds. The technical literature states that the percentage of microorganisms removed by electro beam irradiation is high and similar to that found with chlorine disinfection. From an economic point of view, irradiation technology is not presently competitive as an alternative to conventional chlorination in terms of processing costs (US$0.23/m 3 ) instead of US$0.013/m 3 for conventional chlorination. Nevertheless, irradiation costs decreased sharply when unit costs for the accelerator machine are decreased with a resulting drop in capital costs

  7. Introducing individual transferable quotas on nitrogen in Danish fresh water aquaculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus

    2012-01-01

    behavioral and technical assumptions, whilst keeping the overall pollution level of nitrogen constant. Furthermore, the effect of a catchment area restriction on nitrogen is analyzed to comply with the EU Water Framework Directive. The paper quantifies the gains of a policy change from a command and control...... system on nitrogen pollution. The regulatory change is analyzed using Data Envelopment Analysis to model the underlying production structure. The effect of allowing trading of nitrogen quotas on production and profitability is analyzed in a joint production model with good and bad output under different......The purpose of this paper is to investigate the potential gains from changing the existing regulatory framework for fresh water aquaculture production in Denmark. The regulatory framework is changed from an input regulation based on farm-specific feed quotas, to an individual transferable quota...

  8. Numerical modelling and hydrochemical characterisation of a fresh-water lens in the Belgian coastal plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenbohede, A.; Lebbe, L.

    2002-05-01

    The distribution of fresh and salt water in coastal aquifers is influenced by many processes. The influence of aquifer heterogeneity and human interference such as land reclamation is illustrated in the Belgian coastal plain where, around A.D. 1200, the reclamation of a tidally influenced environment was completed. The aquifer, which was filled with salt water, was thereafter freshened. The areal distribution of peat, clay, silt and sand influences the general flow and distribution of fresh and salt water along with the drainage pattern and results in the development of fresh-water lenses. The water quality in and around the fresh-water lenses below an inverted tidal channel ridge is surveyed. The hydrochemical evolution of the fresh water lens is reconstructed, pointing to cation exchange, solution of calcite and the oxidation of organic material as the major chemical reactions. The formation and evolution of the fresh water lens is modelled using a two-dimensional density-dependent solute transport model and the sensitivity of drainage and conductivities are studied. Drainage level mainly influences the depth of the fresh-water lens, whereas the time of formation is mainly influenced by conductivity. Résumé. La répartition de l'eau douce et de l'eau salée dans les aquifères littoraux est influencée par de nombreux mécanismes. L'influence de l'hétérogénéité de l'aquifère et des interférences anthropiques telles que la mise en valeur des terres est illustrée par la plaine côtière belge où, depuis l'an 1200, on a mis en valeur un environnement soumis aux marées. L'aquifère, qui contenait de l'eau salée, contient maintenant de l'eau douce. La distribution spatiale de tourbe, d'argile, de silt et de sable joue un rôle dans l'écoulement général et dans la répartition de l'eau douce et de l'eau salée le long du réseau de drainage et produit des lentilles d'eau douce. La qualité de l'eau dans et autour des lentilles d'eau douce sous une lev

  9. Technical-Economic Analysis of Photovoltaik Reverse Osmosis Planning for Fulfillment of Fresh Water System on Ro-Pax Ship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edi Jadmiko

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The need for fresh water in the world of industry is increasing with the rapid development of the global industry. The shipping industry is having a significant impact as part of a global industry concerning the sector of freshwater demand on ships. Freshwater supplies on ro-pax vessels are very important because they are the source of crew and passenger life when ships sail. Fulfillment of freshwater needs on a ro-pax vessel is made in a conventional system by filling clean water into a freshwater tank from the port. In this final project will be analyzed technical and economical on designing fresh water system using reverse osmosis system with solar panel as power supply and compare it with conventional system on ship KM. SABUK NUSANTARA 56. This Final Project includes installation design, size of fresh water tank, amount of cargo, investment cost and operational cost. The conclusion obtained in this final project is a reverse osmosis (RO system with solar panels as a very efficient power supply when applied to ro-pax ships such as ships KM SABUK NUSANTARA 56 because with this system the ship is able to produce their own fresh water, the size of the freshwater tank is smaller, for new shiploads can be increased. For the percentage of total cost of fresh water needs is dearer about 52 percent compared to conventional system and payload value increased 29.2 percent compared to conventional system.

  10. Distribution and the origin of trace elements in fresh waters in the Mikurajima Island

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanizaki, Y.; Nagatsuka, S. (Tokyo Metropolitan Isotope Research Center (Japan))

    1981-09-01

    The distribution and the origin of 21 elements in fresh waters in the Mikurajima Island were studied. The determination of these elements in stream water and rain water samples collected in the Island were carried out by using the thermal neutron activation method. The results are as follows: In the first place, it was concluded that a great portion of alkali and alkaline-earth elements in stream waters might be derived from sea salt. Meanwhile, the existence of trace elements such as Al, Fe, Mn, Sc, Sm, etc. might be explained by transfer from soil particle in the drainage basin. Furthermore, it seems that trace elements such as As, Co, Cr, Sb, V, W, etc. were supplied from airborne dust by precipitation. In the second place, in general, the contents of Cl, Na, Al and Sc in stream waters in the Island were higher by several times than those in the headwater areas of the Tamagawa river and the Arakawa river in the mainland. On the other hand, the contents of trace elements such as As, Sb, W, etc. in the Island were much lower than these in the mainland.

  11. Thermal imaging of levitated fresh and salt water drops during laser irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownell, Cody; Biggs, Harrison

    2017-11-01

    Simulation of high energy laser propagation and scattering in the maritime environment is problematic, due to the high likelihood of turbulence, fog, and rain or sea spray within the beam path. Considering large water drops (diameters of approximately 1-mm), such as those found in a light rain, an incident high energy laser will lead to rapid evaporation of the water drop as it traverses the beam path. In this work we present surface temperature measurements of a water drop obtained using a FLIR IR camera. The drop is acoustically levitated, and subject to a continuous wave laser with a wavelength of 1070-nm and a mean irradiance of approximately 800 W/cm2. These measurements show that the steady-state surface temperature of the drop is well below the saturation temperature, and for pure substances the equilibrium temperature decreases with decreasing drop volume similar to observations with smaller aqueous aerosols. Temperature non-uniformity within the drop is also assessed from statistics of the surface temperature fluctuations. Preliminary results from irradiated salt water drops show notably different behavior from fresh water drops, including temperature spikes as the drop volume decreases and occasional nucleate boiling. Acknowledge support from ONR #N00014-17-WX-00031.

  12. Advanced Membrane Filtration Technology for Cost Effective Recovery of Fresh Water from Oil & Gas Produced Brine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David B. Burnett

    2005-09-29

    This study is developing a comprehensive study of what is involved in the desalination of oil field produced brine and the technical developments and regulatory changes needed to make the concept a commercial reality. It was originally based on ''conventional'' produced water treatment and reviewed (1) the basics of produced water management, (2) the potential for desalination of produced brine in order to make the resource more useful and available in areas of limited fresh water availability, and (3) the potential beneficial uses of produced water for other than oil production operations. Since we have begun however, a new area of interest has appeared that of brine water treatment at the well site. Details are discussed in this technical progress report. One way to reduce the impact of O&G operations is to treat produced brine by desalination. The main body of the report contains information showing where oil field brine is produced, its composition, and the volume available for treatment and desalination. This collection of information all relates to what the oil and gas industry refers to as ''produced water management''. It is a critical issue for the industry as produced water accounts for more than 80% of all the byproducts produced in oil and gas exploration and production. The expense of handling unwanted waste fluids draws scarce capital away for the development of new petroleum resources, decreases the economic lifetimes of existing oil and gas reservoirs, and makes environmental compliance more expensive to achieve. More than 200 million barrels of produced water are generated worldwide each day; this adds up to more than 75 billion barrels per year. For the United States, the American Petroleum Institute estimated about 18 billion barrels per year were generated from onshore wells in 1995, and similar volumes are generated today. Offshore wells in the United States generate several hundred million barrels of

  13. A Preliminary Hydrochemical and Isotopic Study of Submarine Fresh Water in Lebanon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saad, Z.I.; Kazpard, V.

    2007-01-01

    The karstic aquifer system and the submarine springs in the Lebanese coast have been studied using chemical and isotopic methods in order to determine the different facies for submarine and groundwater springs. Chemical analysis showed that most submarine springs were derived from a Cenomanian - Turonian aquifer with a large influence for the bedrock type including calcite and dolomite. Different physical and chemical characteristics were obtained for some submarine samples located in the southern coast that showed high sulfate content. Isotopic data for δ1 8O / δ2 H showed that coastal freshwater are closer to the Mediterranean Meteoric Waterline (MMWL) than the submarine data. Submarine samples located in the southern part lied under the Global Meteoric Water Line indicating different characteristics from the fresh sources. The calculated percentage of freshwater in the submarine samples range from 10 to 96%, the highest percentage for M8 in Chekka region. Tritium values of submarine samples (ranging from 0.75 to 3.77 TU) were found comparable to the coastal freshwater samples (0.69 to 4.83 TU). Water are divided into two distinct groups: young meteoric water primarily the coastal freshwater and the submarine sample in Chekka region, and older water corresponding to other submarine samples.

  14. Improving the yield of fresh water in conventional solar still using low cost energy storage material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris Samuel, D.G.; Nagarajan, P.K.; Sathyamurthy, Ravishankar; El-Agouz, S.A.; Kannan, E.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Yield of fresh water from conventional solar still is improved by salt heat energy storage. • Experiments are conducted to analyze the performance. • Payback period of present model with salt heat energy storage is 4 months. - Abstract: As there is a larger need for drinking water, expensive methodologies are employed in order to get portable drinking water. This work aims at improving the yield of freshwater from a conventional solar still using the different low-cost energy storage material. Theoretical and experimental studies are carried out to analyze the performance of a single slope solar still. From this study, it is observed that the yield of freshwater from the solar still with spherical ball salt storage achieves the maximum yield of 3.7 kg/m 2 as compared to a conventional single slope solar still with sponge and without any storage material as 2.7 and 2.2 kg/m 2 respectively. The deviations between theoretical and experimental values for with spherical ball salt storage, with sponge and conventional solar still are found as 16.1%, 9.7% and 4.0% respectively. Payback period of the present solar still is found as 4.3 months as it is quicker than other conventional single slope solar still. Finally, single slope solar still with spherical ball heat storage gives low cost of water.

  15. Endoparasites of the fresh water fish Liza abu in Mosul, Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. F. Al-Taee

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Through examination of 176 samples of the fresh water fish Liza abu obtained from Tigers River in Mosul city 2005, the percentage of total internal parasites infection was 57.38%. They were the trematode larval stage Diplostumum spathaecum 44.88%; the cestode larval stage of Ligula intestinalis 32.95%, oocyst of Cryptosporidium spp. 28.97%, oocyst of Eimeria spp. 23.29%. Cryptosporidium was recorded for the first time in Mosul city during examination of intestinal contents. They appeared after staining with modified Zeihl- Neelsen as bright red spherical oocysts with a diameter of 3-7 µ. The effect of season on types of infection was also studied.

  16. Environmental methodology. Sampling and preparing fresh water organisms. Measuring of emitting radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foulquier, Luc; Philippot, J.C.; Baudin-Jaulent, Yvette.

    1982-05-01

    This paper provides some initial responses to questions asked by users of radioecological documents. By using aquatic plants and fish drawn ''in situ'' the authors' results often reveal very low activity levels; they make a point of knowing how to deal with such levels, since the fundamental objective is to interpret transfer mechanisms. The establishment of the environmental level of radioactivity requires that the write-ups produced demonstrate the use of reproducible methods, and contain results for which the extent of reliability is clearly specified. Aquatic plants and fish are, among all fresh water organisms, the most interesting links in the study of artificial and natural radioactivity. By systematically using concrete examples, this work reaffirms the precautions that should be taken in a site study. Once the objective is clearly defined, the properties to give to the sampling can be specified [fr

  17. Impacts of fresh and aged biochars on plant available water and water use efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ability of soils to hold sufficient plant available water (PAW) between rainfall events is critical to crop productivity. Most studies indicate that biochar amendments decrease soil bulk density and increase soil water retention. However, limited knowledge exists regarding biochars ability to in...

  18. Isolation, purification and identification of etiolation substrate from fresh-cut Chinese water-chestnut (Eleocharis tuberosa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yong-Gui; Li, Yi-Xiao; Yuan, Meng-Qi

    2015-11-01

    Fresh cut Chinese water-chestnut is a popular ready-to-eat fresh-cut fruit in China. However, it is prone to etiolation and the chemicals responsible for this process are not known yet. To address this problem, we extracted phytochemicals from etiolated Chinese water-chestnut and separated them using MPLC and column chromatography. Four compounds were obtained and their structures were determined by interpretation of UV, TLC, HPLC and NMR spectral data and by comparison with reported data. We identified these compounds as eriodictyol, naringenin, sucrose and ethyl D-glucoside. Among those, eriodictyol and naringenin were both isolated for the first time in fresh-cut Chinese water-chestnut and are responsible for the yellowing of this fruit cutting. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Fresh water seepage and pore water recycling on the seafloor: Sagami Trough subduction zone, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsunogai, U.; Ishibashi, J.; Wakita, H.; Gamo, T.; Masuzawa, T.; Nakatsuka, T.; Nojiri, Y.; Nakamura, T.

    1996-02-01

    We collected 19 samples of bottom sea water (including 8 samples of shimmering fluid), using the Japanese submersible Shinkai 2000, in the bathyal Calyptogena community area (the Hatsushima area) along Sagami Trough, at the northern end of the Philippine Sea plate, in order to clarify the source of fluid seepage. Shimmering fluid samples showed a maximum temperature of 11.6°C, which is about 9°C higher than the ambient sea water. The fluid chemistry of these samples is summarized as follows: (1) alkalinity, H 2S, SiO 2, NH 4, ΣCO 2 and CH 4 show enrichment and Cl, SO 4, K, Na, Mg and Ca show depletion compared with ambient sea water; (2) Cl depletion is about 20%; and (3) the content and 3He/4He ratio of dissolved helium show little anomaly compared with ambient sea water. The observed chemical composition and temperature of the fluid is well explained by mixing of sea water, pore water and land-derived groundwater with a temperature of about 40°C and a seeping flux of about 400 m 3 per day. A preliminary estimation of the global chemical flux implies that groundwater discharge to the ocean (including pore water recycling) is an important factor in controlling ocean chemistry.

  20. Microbial and chemical characterization of underwater fresh water springs in the Dead Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionescu, Danny; Siebert, Christian; Polerecky, Lubos; Munwes, Yaniv Y; Lott, Christian; Häusler, Stefan; Bižić-Ionescu, Mina; Quast, Christian; Peplies, Jörg; Glöckner, Frank Oliver; Ramette, Alban; Rödiger, Tino; Dittmar, Thorsten; Oren, Aharon; Geyer, Stefan; Stärk, Hans-Joachim; Sauter, Martin; Licha, Tobias; Laronne, Jonathan B; de Beer, Dirk

    2012-01-01

    Due to its extreme salinity and high Mg concentration the Dead Sea is characterized by a very low density of cells most of which are Archaea. We discovered several underwater fresh to brackish water springs in the Dead Sea harboring dense microbial communities. We provide the first characterization of these communities, discuss their possible origin, hydrochemical environment, energetic resources and the putative biogeochemical pathways they are mediating. Pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene and community fingerprinting methods showed that the spring community originates from the Dead Sea sediments and not from the aquifer. Furthermore, it suggested that there is a dense Archaeal community in the shoreline pore water of the lake. Sequences of bacterial sulfate reducers, nitrifiers iron oxidizers and iron reducers were identified as well. Analysis of white and green biofilms suggested that sulfide oxidation through chemolitotrophy and phototrophy is highly significant. Hyperspectral analysis showed a tight association between abundant green sulfur bacteria and cyanobacteria in the green biofilms. Together, our findings show that the Dead Sea floor harbors diverse microbial communities, part of which is not known from other hypersaline environments. Analysis of the water's chemistry shows evidence of microbial activity along the path and suggests that the springs supply nitrogen, phosphorus and organic matter to the microbial communities in the Dead Sea. The underwater springs are a newly recognized water source for the Dead Sea. Their input of microorganisms and nutrients needs to be considered in the assessment of possible impact of dilution events of the lake surface waters, such as those that will occur in the future due to the intended establishment of the Red Sea-Dead Sea water conduit.

  1. Microbial and chemical characterization of underwater fresh water springs in the Dead Sea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny Ionescu

    Full Text Available Due to its extreme salinity and high Mg concentration the Dead Sea is characterized by a very low density of cells most of which are Archaea. We discovered several underwater fresh to brackish water springs in the Dead Sea harboring dense microbial communities. We provide the first characterization of these communities, discuss their possible origin, hydrochemical environment, energetic resources and the putative biogeochemical pathways they are mediating. Pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene and community fingerprinting methods showed that the spring community originates from the Dead Sea sediments and not from the aquifer. Furthermore, it suggested that there is a dense Archaeal community in the shoreline pore water of the lake. Sequences of bacterial sulfate reducers, nitrifiers iron oxidizers and iron reducers were identified as well. Analysis of white and green biofilms suggested that sulfide oxidation through chemolitotrophy and phototrophy is highly significant. Hyperspectral analysis showed a tight association between abundant green sulfur bacteria and cyanobacteria in the green biofilms. Together, our findings show that the Dead Sea floor harbors diverse microbial communities, part of which is not known from other hypersaline environments. Analysis of the water's chemistry shows evidence of microbial activity along the path and suggests that the springs supply nitrogen, phosphorus and organic matter to the microbial communities in the Dead Sea. The underwater springs are a newly recognized water source for the Dead Sea. Their input of microorganisms and nutrients needs to be considered in the assessment of possible impact of dilution events of the lake surface waters, such as those that will occur in the future due to the intended establishment of the Red Sea-Dead Sea water conduit.

  2. Non-indigenous macroinvertebrate species in Lithuanian fresh waters, Part 1: Distributions, dispersal and future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arbačiauskas K

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Biological invasions are of increasing global concern. They impact on biodiversity and may result in high economic loss. This demands improvement in knowledge of the dynamics of species dispersal with the goal of preventing future invasions, and predicting and reducing undesirable impacts. This study reports on non-indigenous macroinvertebrate species (NIMS which have invaded Lithuanian fresh waters. Fifteen NIMS have been recorded during a 12-year study. They include one cnidarian, two molluscan and twelve crustacean species. The deliberate introduction of peracaridans and crayfish for fishery and aquaculture enhancement has substantially contributed to the current NIMS composition. Invaders of Ponto-Caspian origin are dominant, and the collector-gatherers are the largest group with respect to feeding mode. Current NIMS distributions, the history of their primary invasion and patterns of local dispersal are analysed. The main invasion vectors have been inland shipping and deliberate introductions, while secondary spread proceeded both naturally and by various human mediated vectors. The current distribution of most NIMS may remain constant in the future, whilst further expansion of a few NIMS, which possess good dispersal abilities and are well-adapted to freshwater environments, seems very probable. Using multivariate analysis of data from water bodies with established peracaridan invaders, allowed predictions on which unsurveyed water bodies could contain such invaders. Invasions of new NIMS and diversification of donor areas, pathways and vectors are considered.

  3. Strategies for safe exploitation of fresh water through multi-strainer skimming wells in saline groundwater areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alam, M.M.; Jaffery, H.M.; Hanif, M.

    2005-01-01

    Due to growing population of Pakistan, there is a tremendous pressure on our agriculture sector to increase its production to meet the food and fiber requirement. Water is a basic need to increase the agriculture production and to bring more areas under cultivation. The exploitation of groundwater resources is increasing because of limited surface water availability. Statistics indicated that number of public and private tube-wells have increased to more than 5 lacs. Over exploitations of groundwater caused a number of environmental problems including salt water intrusion and increase in the soil and groundwater salinity. A large number of fresh water tube-wells have started pumping saline groundwater in various parts of Pakistan indicating up-coning of saline groundwater in the relatively fresh water aquifers. Use of poor quality groundwater for irrigation is considered as one of the major causes of salinity in the areas of irrigated agriculture. Indiscriminate pumping of the groundwater of marginal quality through skimming fresh water overlain by saline groundwater can not be helpful in the long run. It can add to the root zone salinity and ultimately reduction of crops yield. Mona Reclamation Experimental Project (MREP) is conducting a collaborative research study on 'Root Zone Salinity Management using Fractional Skimming Wells with Pressurized Irrigation' under a research and studies portfolio of the country wide National Drainage Programme (NDP) MREP, IWMI Pakistan and Water Resources Research Institute of PARC are collaborators in this joint research effort. MREP is responsible to specifically address the objective of the study to identify and test a limited number of promising skimming well techniques in the shallow fresh water aquifers which could control the saline water up-coning phenomenon as a consequence of groundwater pumping. Detailed investigations have been done at various locations in the north-central part of Chaj Doab (Sargodha Region) in the

  4. Effects of water extract of propolis on fresh shibuta (Barbus grypus) fillets during chilled storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duman, Muhsine; Özpolat, Emine

    2015-12-15

    The present study examined the effects of water extract of propolis on the chemical, microbiological and sensory quality in vacuum-packed fresh shibuta (Barbus grypus) fillets during storage at 2°C. Treatments in the study included the following: control (P0) without extract of propolis, 0.1 (P1), 0.3 (P3) and 0.5 (P5) % (v/w) the water extract of propolis, respectively. After 24 days of storage, the total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N) values were 57.76, 44.66, 42.23 and 36.5mg/100g, and total viable counts (TVC) were 8.9, 8.3, 7.96 and 6.95logcfu/g, for water extract of propolis additions of 0.1 (P1), 0.3 (P3), 0.5 (P5) and 0 (control; P0) % (v/w), respectively. The highest acceptable TVB-N value was adopted as 30 mg/100g, corresponding to shelf lives of 9, 15, 18 and 21 days for P0, P1, P3 and P5, respectively. Addition of 0.1% water extract of propolis extended the product's shelf-life by approximately 6 days, whereas the 0.5% water extract of propolis resulted in a significant shelf-life extension of the shibuta fillets, i.e. by approximately 12 days, according to sensory data, as compared to the control sample. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Microbial and Chemical Characterization of Underwater Fresh Water Springs in the Dead Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionescu, Danny; Siebert, Christian; Polerecky, Lubos; Munwes, Yaniv Y.; Lott, Christian; Häusler, Stefan; Bižić-Ionescu, Mina; Quast, Christian; Peplies, Jörg; Glöckner, Frank Oliver; Ramette, Alban; Rödiger, Tino; Dittmar, Thorsten; Oren, Aharon; Geyer, Stefan; Stärk, Hans-Joachim; Sauter, Martin; Licha, Tobias; Laronne, Jonathan B.; de Beer, Dirk

    2012-01-01

    Due to its extreme salinity and high Mg concentration the Dead Sea is characterized by a very low density of cells most of which are Archaea. We discovered several underwater fresh to brackish water springs in the Dead Sea harboring dense microbial communities. We provide the first characterization of these communities, discuss their possible origin, hydrochemical environment, energetic resources and the putative biogeochemical pathways they are mediating. Pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene and community fingerprinting methods showed that the spring community originates from the Dead Sea sediments and not from the aquifer. Furthermore, it suggested that there is a dense Archaeal community in the shoreline pore water of the lake. Sequences of bacterial sulfate reducers, nitrifiers iron oxidizers and iron reducers were identified as well. Analysis of white and green biofilms suggested that sulfide oxidation through chemolitotrophy and phototrophy is highly significant. Hyperspectral analysis showed a tight association between abundant green sulfur bacteria and cyanobacteria in the green biofilms. Together, our findings show that the Dead Sea floor harbors diverse microbial communities, part of which is not known from other hypersaline environments. Analysis of the water’s chemistry shows evidence of microbial activity along the path and suggests that the springs supply nitrogen, phosphorus and organic matter to the microbial communities in the Dead Sea. The underwater springs are a newly recognized water source for the Dead Sea. Their input of microorganisms and nutrients needs to be considered in the assessment of possible impact of dilution events of the lake surface waters, such as those that will occur in the future due to the intended establishment of the Red Sea−Dead Sea water conduit. PMID:22679498

  6. Water Follies: Groundwater Pumping and the Fate of America's Fresh Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glennon, R.

    2002-12-01

    The next time you open a bottle of spring water, consider that it may have come from a well that is drying up a blue-ribbon trout stream. The next time you super-size a meal at McDonald's, note that the fries are all the same length. That's because the potato farmers irrigate their fields with groundwater from wells, some adjacent to nearby rivers. The next time you purchase gold jewelry, consider that it may have come from a mine that has pumped so much groundwater to de-water the gold-bearing rock that 60 to100 years will pass before the water table recovers. The next time you water your suburban lawn, pause to reflect on what that's doing to the nearby wetland. And the next time you visit Las Vegas and flip on the light in your hotel room, consider that the electricity may have been generated by a coal-fired power plant supplied by a slurry pipeline that uses groundwater critical to springs sacred to the Hopi people. These and countless other seemingly innocuous activities reflect our individual and societal dependence on groundwater that is hydrologically connected to surface water. Hydrologists understand that ground and surface water are interconnected, but frequently the legal rules governing water distinguish between ground and surface water. This has led to groundwater pumping that has dried up many rivers, particularly in the arid West. In Arizona, many once verdant streams have become desiccated sandboxes as city, mines, and farms pumped groundwater to such an extent that surface flows were totally depleted. The problem of the impact of groundwater pumping on the environment, however, is not confined to the arid West. It is an enormous national, indeed international problem. This presentation will focus on the United States and illustrate with examples from around the country the array of environmental problems caused by excessive groundwater pumping. The locations of these case studies range from Maine to California, from Minnesota to Florida, and from

  7. Carbon cycle. Sunlight controls water column processing of carbon in arctic fresh waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cory, Rose M; Ward, Collin P; Crump, Byron C; Kling, George W

    2014-08-22

    Carbon in thawing permafrost soils may have global impacts on climate change; however, the factors that control its processing and fate are poorly understood. The dominant fate of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) released from soils to inland waters is either complete oxidation to CO2 or partial oxidation and river export to oceans. Although both processes are most often attributed to bacterial respiration, we found that photochemical oxidation exceeds rates of respiration and accounts for 70 to 95% of total DOC processed in the water column of arctic lakes and rivers. At the basin scale, photochemical processing of DOC is about one-third of the total CO2 released from surface waters and is thus an important component of the arctic carbon budget. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  8. Comparative studies of metals in fish organs, sediments and water from Nigerian fresh water fish ponds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ipinmoroti, K.O.; Oshodi, A.A.; Owolabi, R.A.

    1997-01-01

    Fish samples (Illisha africana) were collected from six man-made fish pond in Edo and Ondo states, Nigeria. Some organs of the fish sediment and water from the fish habitat were analysed for Cd, Pb, Hg, Ca, Fe, Zn, Cu and Cr, Physico-chemical properties of water samples from the ponds were also re-corded. The concentration of the metals varied in the sediment water as well as in different organs of the fish. However, chromium was absent in all the samples. The descending order of metal concentration in fish organs was: gills intestine, head and muscle. To avoid harmful accumulation of these metals in the human system, the gills and the intestine should preferably be discarded while processing fish for consumption. The head with a relatively high concentration of calcium might be useful in feed formulation. (author)

  9. Water uptake and chemical composition of fresh aerosols generated in open burning of biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. Carrico

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available As part of the Fire Lab at Missoula Experiments (FLAME in 2006–2007, we examined hygroscopic properties of particles emitted from open combustion of 33 select biomass fuels. Measurements of humidification growth factors for subsaturated water relative humidity (RH conditions were made with a hygroscopic tandem differential mobility analyzer (HTDMA for dry particle sizes of 50, 100 and 250 nm. Results were then fit to a single-parameter model to obtain the hygroscopicity parameter, κ. Particles in freshly emitted biomass smoke exhibited a wide range of hygroscopicity (individual modes with 0<κ<1.0, spanning a range from the hygroscopicity of fresh diesel soot emissions to that of pure inorganic salts commonly found in the ambient aerosol. Smoke aerosols dominated by carbonaceous species typically had a unimodal growth factor with corresponding mean κ=0.1 (range of 0<κ<0.4. Those with a substantial inorganic mass fraction typically separated into less- and more-hygroscopic modes at high RH, the latter with mean κ=0.4 (range of 0.1<κ<1. The bimodal κ distributions were indicative of smoke chemical heterogeneity at a single particle size, whereas heterogeneity as a function of size was indicated by typically decreasing κ values with increasing dry particle diameters. Hygroscopicity varied strongly with biomass fuel type and, to a lesser extent, with combustion conditions. Among the most hygroscopic smokes were those from palmetto, rice straw, and sawgrass, while smoke particles from coniferous species such as spruces, firs, pines, and duffs were among the least hygroscopic. Overall, hygroscopicity decreased with increasing ratios of total carbon to inorganic ions as measured in PM2.5 filter samples. Despite aerosol heterogeneity, reconstructions of κ using PM2.5 bulk chemical composition data fell along a 1:1 line with measured ensemble κ values.

  10. Lime application methods, water and bottom soil acidity in fresh water fish ponds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Queiroz Julio Ferraz de

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Although some methods for determining lime requirement of pond soils are available and commonly used, there is still no consensus on whether it is more effective to apply liming materials to the bottoms of empty ponds or to wait and apply them over the water surface after ponds are filled. There is also little information on how deep lime reacts in pond sediment over time, and whether the depth of reaction is different when liming materials are applied to the water or to the soil. Therefore, three techniques for treating fish ponds with agricultural limestone were evaluated in ponds with clayey soils at a commercial fish farm. Amounts of agricultural limestone equal to the lime requirement of bottom soils were applied to each of three ponds by: direct application over the pond water surface; spread uniformly over the bottom of the empty pond; spread uniformly over the bottom of the empty pond followed by tilling of the bottom. Effectiveness of agricultural limestone applications did not differ among treatment methods. Agricultural limestone also reacted quickly to increase total alkalinity and total hardness of pond water to acceptable concentrations within 2 weeks after application. The reaction of lime to increase soil pH was essentially complete after one to two months, and lime had no effect below a soil depth of 8 cm. Tilling of pond bottoms to incorporate liming materials is unnecessary, and tilling consumes time and is an expensive practice; filled ponds can be limed effectively.

  11. Application of water-assisted ultraviolet light in combination of chlorine and hydrogen peroxide to inactivate Salmonella on fresh produce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Shuanghuan; Huang, Runze; Chen, Haiqiang

    2017-09-18

    With the demand for fresh produce increases in recent decades, concerns for microbiological safety of fresh produce are also raised. To identify effective ultraviolet (UV) light treatment for fresh produce decontamination, we first determined the effect of three forms of UV treatment, dry UV (samples were treated by UV directly), wet UV (samples were dipped in water briefly and then exposed to UV), and water-assisted UV (samples were treated by UV while being immersed in agitated water) on inactivation of Salmonella inoculated on tomatoes and fresh-cut lettuce. In general, the water-assisted UV treatment was found to be the most effective for both produce items. Chlorine and hydrogen peroxide were then tested to determine whether they could be used to enhance the decontamination efficacy of water-assisted UV treatment and prevent transfer of Salmonella via wash water by completely eliminating it. Neither of them significantly enhanced water-assisted UV inactivation of Salmonella on tomatoes. Chlorine significantly improved the decontamination effectiveness of the water-assisted UV treatment for baby-cut carrots and lettuce, but not for spinach. In general, the single water-assisted UV treatment and the combined treatment of water-assisted UV and chlorine were similar or more effective than the chlorine washing treatment. In most of the cases, no Salmonella was detected in the wash water when the single water-assisted UV treatment was used to decontaminate tomatoes. In a few cases when Salmonella was detected in the wash water, the populations were very low,≤2CFU/mL, and the wash water contained an extremely high level of organic load and soil level. Therefore, the single water-assisted UV treatment could potentially be used as an environmentally friendly and non-chemical alternative to chlorine washing for tomatoes after validation in industrial scale. For lettuce, spinach and baby-cut carrots, the combined treatment of water-assisted UV treatment and chlorine

  12. Cultivation of Microalgae Chlorella sp on Fresh Water and Waste Water of Tofu Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Widayat; Philia John; Wibisono Jessica

    2018-01-01

    Chlorella sp. is a microalgae that potential for food supplement, pharmaceuticals, animal feed, aqua culture and cosmetics. Chlorella sp. commonly growth in sea water. Indonesia as a producer of tofu generated more liquid waste. Nutrient that contained in the tofu wastewater are very useful for the production of microalgae. Cultivation carried out for 7 days at different percent volume of tofu liquid waste showed that the more volume of tofu liquid waste make them longer process decipherment ...

  13. Phosphorus dynamics in soils irrigated with reclaimed waste water or fresh water - A study using oxygen isotopic composition of phosphate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zohar, I.; Shaviv, A.; Young, M.; Kendall, C.; Silva, S.; Paytan, A.

    2010-01-01

    Transformations of phosphate (Pi) in different soil fractions were tracked using the stable isotopic composition of oxygen in phosphate (??18Op) and Pi concentrations. Clay soil from Israel was treated with either reclaimed waste water (secondary, low grade) or with fresh water amended with a chemical fertilizer of a known isotopic signature. Changes of ??18Op and Pi within different soil fractions, during a month of incubation, elucidate biogeochemical processes in the soil, revealing the biological and the chemical transformation impacting the various P pools. P in the soil solution is affected primarily by enzymatic activity that yields isotopic equilibrium with the water molecules in the soil solution. The dissolved P interacts rapidly with the loosely bound P (extracted by bicarbonate). The oxides and mineral P fractions (extracted by NaOH and HCl, respectively), which are considered as relatively stable pools of P, also exhibited isotopic alterations in the first two weeks after P application, likely related to the activity of microbial populations associated with soil surfaces. Specifically, isotopic depletion which could result from organic P mineralization was followed by isotopic enrichment which could result from preferential biological uptake of depleted P from the mineralized pool. Similar transformations were observed in both soils although transformations related to biological activity were more pronounced in the soil treated with reclaimed waste water compared to the fertilizer treated soil. ?? 2010 Elsevier B.V.

  14. Fresh water production from municipal waste water with RO membrane technology and its application for agriculture and industry in arid area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokoyama, F

    2015-01-01

    One of the biggest problems of the 21st century is the global water shortage. Therefore it is difficult to increase the quantity of conventional water resources such as surface water and groundwater for agriculture and industry in arid area. Technical advancement in water treatment membrane technology including RO membrane has been remarkable especially in recent years. As the pore size of RO membrane is less than one nanometer, it is possible to produce the fresh water, which satisfies the drinking water quality standards, with utilizing RO membrane. In this report a new fresh water resource from municipal waste water is studied to apply to the plant factory which is the water saving type agriculture and industry in arid area

  15. Investing in Undeveloped Land. Teachers Instructional Packet, TIP No. 9, Spring 1986.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas A and M Univ., College Station. Texas Real Estate Research Center.

    Part of a series of classroom aids designed for real estate instructors, this instructional packet was developed to help real estate students understand the opportunities and pitfalls associated with investments in undeveloped land, and ways to reduce the risk of ownership. A summary instructor's presentation is provided, which: (1) defines…

  16. Application of Artificial Neuro-Fuzzy Logic Inference System for Predicting the Microbiological Pollution in Fresh Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouharati, S.; Benmahammed, K.; Harzallah, D.; El-Assaf, Y. M.

    The classical methods for detecting the micro biological pollution in water are based on the detection of the coliform bacteria which indicators of contamination. But to check each water supply for these contaminants would be a time-consuming job and a qualify operators. In this study, we propose a novel intelligent system which provides a detection of microbiological pollution in fresh water. The proposed system is a hierarchical integration of an Artificial Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS). This method is based on the variations of the physical and chemical parameters occurred during bacteria growth. The instantaneous result obtained by the measurements of the variations of the physical and chemical parameters occurred during bacteria growth-temperature, pH, electrical potential and electrical conductivity of many varieties of water (surface water, well water, drinking water and used water) on the number Escherichia coli in water. The instantaneous result obtained by measurements of the inputs parameters of water from sensors.

  17. In-Situ Ion Analysis of Fresh Waters via an ISE Multiprobe and Artificial Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, A. V.; Hemond, H.

    2010-12-01

    The ecological and geochemical sciences stand to substantially gain from capability for comprehensive, real-time, in-situ characterization of the chemical constituents of natural waters, e.g. by facilitating rapid high-resolution adaptive sampling campaigns and avoiding the potential errors and high costs related to traditional grab sample collection, transportation and in-lab analysis. In-situ chemical instrumentation also promotes the goals of large-scale monitoring networks, such as CUASHI and WATERS, by reducing the financial and human resources overhead required for traditional sampling at this scale. Problems of environmental remediation and monitoring of industrial waste waters would additionally benefit from such instrumental capacity. We have pursued in-situ measurement of all major ions contributing to the charge makeup (>99%) of oxic natural fresh waters via an instrument combining an array of ion-selective electrode (ISE) hardware with an appropriate multivariate signal processing architecture. Commercially available electrochemical sensors promote low cost and a fast development schedule, as well as easy maintenance and reproduction. Data processing techniques are adapted from artificial intelligence and chemometrics to extract accurate information from the corresponding in-situ data matrix. This architecture takes into account temperature, conductivity, and non-linearity effects, as well as taking advantage of sensor cross-selectivities traditionally considered as interferences. Chemical and mathematical constraints, e.g. charge balance and total ionic strength, provide further system-level information. Maximizing data recovery from the sensor array allows use of the instrument without the standard additions or ionic strength adjustment traditionally-required with use of ISEs. Initial work demonstrates the effectiveness of this methodology at predicting inorganic cations (sodium, potassium, calcium, and ammonium ) and hydrogen ion in a simplified

  18. Cultivation of Microalgae Chlorella sp on Fresh Water and Waste Water of Tofu Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widayat; Philia, John; Wibisono, Jessica

    2018-02-01

    Chlorella sp. is a microalgae that potential for food supplement, pharmaceuticals, animal feed, aqua culture and cosmetics. Chlorella sp. commonly growth in sea water. Indonesia as a producer of tofu generated more liquid waste. Nutrient that contained in the tofu wastewater are very useful for the production of microalgae. Cultivation carried out for 7 days at different percent volume of tofu liquid waste showed that the more volume of tofu liquid waste make them longer process decipherment of polymer compounds in the waste, that's make the growth rate of Chlorella sp. are slowness. Variable of10%V has the fastest growth rate. While, 90% v/v variable has the highest concentration of algae. It shows that Chlorella sp. better to grows in tofu wastewater than seawater.

  19. Cultivation of Microalgae Chlorella sp on Fresh Water and Waste Water of Tofu Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widayat

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Chlorella sp. is a microalgae that potential for food supplement, pharmaceuticals, animal feed, aqua culture and cosmetics. Chlorella sp. commonly growth in sea water. Indonesia as a producer of tofu generated more liquid waste. Nutrient that contained in the tofu wastewater are very useful for the production of microalgae. Cultivation carried out for 7 days at different percent volume of tofu liquid waste showed that the more volume of tofu liquid waste make them longer process decipherment of polymer compounds in the waste, that’s make the growth rate of Chlorella sp. are slowness. Variable of10%V has the fastest growth rate. While, 90% v/v variable has the highest concentration of algae. It shows that Chlorella sp. better to grows in tofu wastewater than seawater.

  20. Using helicopter TEM to delineate fresh water and salt water zones in the aquifer beneath the Okavango Delta, Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podgorski, Joel E.; Kinzelbach, Wolfgang K. H.; Kgotlhang, Lesego

    2017-09-01

    The Okavango Delta is a vast wetland wilderness in the middle of the Kalahari Desert of Botswana. It is a largely closed hydrological system with most water leaving the delta by evapotranspiration. In spite of this, the channels and swamps of the delta remain surprisingly low in salinity. To help understand the hydrological processes at work, we reanalyzed a previous inversion of data collected from a helicopter transient electromagnetic (HTEM) survey of the entire delta and performed an inversion of a high resolution dataset recorded during the same survey. Our results show widespread infiltration of fresh water to as much as ∼200 m depth into the regional saline aquifer. Beneath the western delta, freshwater infiltration extends to only about 80 m depth. Hydrological modeling with SEAWAT confirms that this may be due to rebound of the regional saltwater-freshwater interface following the cessation of surface flooding over this part of the delta in the 1880s. Our resistivity models also provide evidence for active and inactive saltwater fingers to as much as ∼100 m beneath islands. These results demonstrate the great extent of freshwater infiltration across the delta and also show that all vegetated areas along the delta's channels and swamps are potential locations for transferring solutes from surface water to an aquifer at depth.

  1. Assessment of electrical stunning in fresh water of African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus) and chilling in ice water for loss of consciousness and sensibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lambooij, E.; Kloosterboer, R.J.; Gerritzen, M.A.; Vis, van de J.W.

    2006-01-01

    The overall objective of the study was to evaluate loss of consciousness and sensibility after electrical stunning in fresh water and live chilling in ice water for slaughter of African catfish using measurement of electrical brain and heart activity. To provoke immediate loss of consciousness and

  2. Using Snow Fences to Augument Fresh Water Supplies in Shallow Arctic Lakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuefer, Svetlana

    2013-03-31

    This project was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to address environmental research questions specifically related to Alaska's oil and gas natural resources development. The focus of this project was on the environmental issues associated with allocation of water resources for construction of ice roads and ice pads. Earlier NETL projects showed that oil and gas exploration activities in the U.S. Arctic require large amounts of water for ice road and ice pad construction. Traditionally, lakes have been the source of freshwater for this purpose. The distinctive hydrological regime of northern lakes, caused by the presence of ice cover and permafrost, exerts influence on lake water availability in winter. Lakes are covered with ice from October to June, and there is often no water recharge of lakes until snowmelt in early June. After snowmelt, water volumes in the lakes decrease throughout the summer, when water loss due to evaporation is considerably greater than water gained from rainfall. This balance switches in August, when air temperature drops, evaporation decreases, and rain (or snow) is more likely to occur. Some of the summer surface storage deficit in the active layer and surface water bodies (lakes, ponds, wetlands) is recharged during this time. However, if the surface storage deficit is not replenished (for example, precipitation in the fall is low and near‐surface soils are dry), lake recharge is directly affected, and water availability for the following winter is reduced. In this study, we used snow fences to augment fresh water supplies in shallow arctic lakes despite unfavorable natural conditions. We implemented snow‐control practices to enhance snowdrift accumulation (greater snow water equivalent), which led to increased meltwater production and an extended melting season that resulted in lake recharge despite low precipitation during the years of the experiment. For three years (2009

  3. Elimination of free-living amoebae in fresh water with pulsed electric fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernhes, M C; Benichou, A; Pernin, P; Cabanes, P A; Teissié, J

    2002-08-01

    This study investigates the effects of pulsed electric fields on the inactivation of trophozoite form of Naegleria lovaniensis Ar9M-1 in batch and flow processes, systematically examining the lethal effect of field strength, pulse duration, number of pulses, and pulse frequency. Our results show that amoebae eradication is modulated by pulse parameters, composition of the pulsing medium, and physiological state of the cells. Cell survival is not related to the energy delivered to the cell suspension during the electrical treatment. For a given energy a strong field applied for a short cumulative pulse duration affects viability more than a weak field with a long cumulative pulsation. We also determine the optimal electrical conditions to obtain an inactivation rate higher than 95% while using the least energy. Flow processes allow to treat large-scale volumes. Our results show that the most efficient flow process for amoeba eradication requires a field parallel to the flow. Pulsed electric fields are a new and attractive method for inactivating amoebae in large volumes of fresh water.

  4. Growth and reproductive performance by different feed types in fresh water angelfish (Pterophyllum scalare Schultze, 1823

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milad Kasiri

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available It is well established that reproduction is sensitive to the state of energy reserves, and that there is a balance between energy homeostasis and fertility. In this view, this study examined the effects of different diets on growth and reproductive performance of fresh water angelfish. Twenty four pairs of angelfish (weighing 3.58 ± 0.24 g were fed with four types of diets including live earth worm (LEW, dried Tubifex (DT, dried Gammarus (DG and prepared granulated feed (PGF, twice a day for 90 days. Reproductive parameters were measured between days 60 and 90. The significant increase in the gonadosomatic index (GSI, fecundity and hatchability brought about by the LEW were demonstrated by the higher number of spawned eggs and hatched larvae. The best growth observed significantly in PGF, and length of larvae was enhanced in this group, consequently. The numbers of dead and deformed fry were lower in the fish fed with PGF and LEW, but there was no significant difference among experimental groups. This study showed that breeders benefit from inclusion of prepared granulated feed and living earth worm during their growth and reproductive stages, and simultaneous using of them for achieving better results is suggested.

  5. A study on biological control of six fresh water snails of medical and veterinary importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd-Allah, Karim F; Negm-Eldin, Mohsen M; Saleh, Mohamed H; El-Hamshary, Azza M S; El-Gozamy, Bothina M R; Aly, Nagwa S M

    2009-04-01

    This study evaluated the molluscicidal effect of Commiphora mnolmol oil extract (Myrrh), on control of six fresh water snails (Lymnaea natalensis, Bulinus truncatus, Biomphalaria alexandrina, Physa acuta, Melania tuberculata and Cleopatra bulimoides). Also, the extract effect on the egg masses of L. natalensis, B. truncatus, B. alexandrina and Ph. acuta was evaluated. Snails and egg masses were exposed at 16-20 degrees C to various concentrations (conc.). LD50 after 24 hours expo-sure were 264/132, 283/195, 230/252, 200/224, 241/246 & 241/246 ppm for young/adult of L. natalensis, B. truncatus, B. alexandrina, Ph. acuta, M. tuberculata and C. bulimnoides respectively. LDtoo after 24 hours exposure were 400/400 for L. natalensis, B. truncatus, B. alexandrina, M. tuberculata and C. bulimoides, and 300/300 for Ph. acuta. Also, complete mortality (100%) was achieved for the egg masses of L. natalensis, B. truncatus, B. alexandrina and Ph. acuta at concentrations of 300, 200, 300 & 400 ppm respectively. Lower concentrations gave the same results after longer exposure. LD100 of C. molmol oil extract (Myrrh) had a rapid lethal effect on the six snail species and their egg masses in high conc. of 300 & 400 ppm. Commiphora molmol is a promising plant to be included with the candidate plant molluscicides. The oil extract of this plant showed a remarkable molluscicidal activity against used snail species.

  6. Transfer factors of radionuclides and elements in the terrestrial and fresh water environment of India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hegde, A.G.; Hemalatha, P.; Desai, M.V.M.

    2004-04-01

    This document presents the transfer factor values such as Bioaccumulation factors B p , Transfer coefficient K d , Soil to plant transfer coefficient B v etc. generated in the terrestrial and fresh water environmental matrices of India. This attempt is made with a view to provide site and species specific values in comparison with IAEA default values from Safety Series(SS) No.57 and IAEA Technical Report Series (TRS) No.364. Our recommended B p values for 137 Cs and 90 Sr are matching well with IAEA reported values. B p value for 228 Ra also match well with IAEA values. While the freshwater sediment K d values for 137 Cs is 5000 which is closer to TRS 364 value, 90 Sr K d value is lower than IAEA value. Natural radionuclides Ra, Th and U values are also found to be higher than IAEA values which indicates the site specificity. B p values for stable elements such as Cu, Pb, Mn and Cd are comparable with IAEA whereas the recommended K d value for Zn is higher than IAEA reported value. Transfer factors for cereals, pulses and vegetables are also tabulated in this report in comparison with IAEA reported values. (author)

  7. Carbon sequestration capacity of sediments, algae, and zooplankton from fresh water aquaculture ponds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anikuttan, K K; Adhikari, S; Kavitha, M; Jayasankar, P

    2016-07-01

    The contribution of aquaculture and allied activities to the emission of green house gases and consequently to global warming is an emerging concern among environmentalists in the recent past. However, there exists ample scope for aquaculture activities to sequester carbon and thus compensate for the carbon emissions linked to aquaculture. This article attempts to elucidate the carbon sequestration capacity of sediments, algae, and zooplankton from fresh water aquaculture ponds. The percent organic carbon in the pond sediments ranged from 0.39 to 1.31 with an average value of 0.912 ± 0.321 whereas the carbon sequestration capacity ranged from 0.442 to 1.882 MgC/ha (1 Mg = 10(6) g) with an average value of 1.018 ± 0.447 MgC/ha. In the case of zooplankton and algae from pond, the percent organic carbon was 7.688 ± 0.196 and 2.354 ± 0.047, respectively, whereas the total estimated carbon burial rate was 0.009 ± 0.005 and 0.150 ± 0.003 MgC/ha, respectively. These findings are discussed with the previous reports available at present and are found to be in comparable ranges.

  8. Bopyrid isopods parasitizing on the cultured fresh water prawn,Macrobrachiummalcolmsoniiin South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalakrishnan, A; Raja, K; Trilles, J P; Rajkumar, M; Rahman, M M; Saravanakumar, A

    2017-03-01

    The bopyrid isopods are common in wild Macrobrachium spp. but not common in aquaculture condition. This is the first study that reports the parasitizing of bopyrid isopods on the cultured M. malcolmsonii . Bopyrid isopod ( Probopyrus buitendijki ) was identified in the branchial cavities of the fresh water prawn, M. malcolmsonii from grow-out culture pond at Kuriyamangalam, India. Macrobrachium malcolmsonii is a new host for P. buitendijki . A total of 1323 M. malcolmsonii were checked for this study. The overall prevalence of the parasitic infestation was reached 46.2 %. The parasitic infection was higher in female (83 %) than in male (3.4 %). Highest prevalence of infestation was found in the median size group (7-8 cm) (58.7 %). Infected females were not berried unlike uninfected prawns. The parasites cause infertility and does not found any organ deformities due to the infestation. The parasite was inversely attached in the gill chamber with no lesion on the gill but the infected branchial chamber became bulged.

  9. Effect of a phenolic extract from olive vegetation water on fresh salmon steak quality during storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dino Miraglia

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the antioxidant and antimicrobial effects of a phenolic extract from olive vegetation water on fresh salmon steaks stored at 4°C under modified atmosphere. Twenty-four salmon steaks were respectively immersed in solutions of the diluted phenolic extract at 1.5 g/L (A, 3 g/L (B, and water only as a control (CTR, packaged within a protective atmosphere (70% carbon dioxide, 25% nitrogen and 5% oxygen and then stored at 4°C. After 2 h, and 3 and 6 days of storage, the fish samples were analysed for the total viable count, Enterobacteriaceae count, pH, colour (CIE L*a*b* colour system, phenolic composition, α- tocopherol content, antioxidant activity by 2,2- diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH˙ assay, and thiobarbituric reactive substances (TBARS. A 3 g/L phenolic extract contributed positively to the hygienic quality of the salmon by reducing the microbial growth during storage. The treated samples were slightly yellower than the CTR but only at the beginning of storage. The flesh contained 6.2% of the total polyphenols present in the initial solutions, with various percentages of the single fractions. After 6 days storage, the α- tocopherol content in the CTR and A samples was statistically lower than the B group that also showed the lowest DPPH˙ and TBARS values. In conclusion, the phenolic extract increased the microbiological quality and antioxidant concentration and decreased the lipid oxidation of salmon steaks during storage at 4°C under modified atmosphere.

  10. 75 FR 30850 - Final Supplementary Rules for Camping on Undeveloped Public Lands in Montana, North Dakota, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-02

    ... Supplementary Rules for Camping on Undeveloped Public Lands in Montana, North Dakota, and South Dakota AGENCY... personal property on undeveloped public lands managed by the BLM in Montana, North Dakota, and South Dakota... public lands throughout Montana, North Dakota, and South Dakota. These final supplementary rules will...

  11. Disinfection potential of ozone, ultraviolet-C and their combination in wash water for the fresh-cut vegetable industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selma, María V; Allende, Ana; López-Gálvez, Francisco; Conesa, María A; Gil, María I

    2008-09-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the disinfection efficacy of ozone (O(3)) and UV-C illumination (UV), and their combination (O(3)-UV) for reducing microbial flora of fresh-cut onion, escarole, carrot, and spinach wash waters collected from the industry. Furthermore, the influence of water physicochemical parameters on the decontamination efficacy and the effect of these technologies on physicochemical quality of wash water were analyzed. O(3), UV, and O(3)-UV were effective disinfection treatments on vegetable wash water, with a maximum microbial reduction of 6.6 log CFU mL(-1) after 60 min treatment with O(3)-UV. However, maximum total microbial reductions achieved by UV and O(3) treatments after 60 min were 4.0 and 5.9 log CFU mL(-1), lower than by O(3)-UV treatment. Furthermore, turbidity of wash water was reduced significantly by O(3) and O(3)-UV treatments, while UV treatment did not affect the physicochemical quality of the water. Conclusions derived from this study illustrate that O(3) and O(3)-UV are alternatives to other sanitizers used in the fresh-cut washing processes. The use of these technologies would allow less frequent changing of spent water and the use of much lower sanitizer doses. Nevertheless, in specific applications such as carrot wash water, where levels of undesirable microbial and chemical constituents are lower than other vegetable wash water, UV treatment could be an appropriate treatment considering cost-effectiveness criteria.

  12. Is the fresh water fish consumption a significant determinant of the internal exposure to perfluoroalkylated substances (PFAS)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denys, Sébastien; Fraize-Frontier, Sandrine; Moussa, Oumar; Le Bizec, Bruno; Veyrand, Bruno; Volatier, Jean-Luc

    2014-12-01

    PFAS are man-made compounds that are highly spread in the environment. Human dietary exposure to such contaminants is of high concern as they may accumulate in the food chain. Different studies already demonstrated the importance of the fish consumption in the dietary exposure of these molecules and the potential increase of internal doses of PFAS following the consumption of PFAS. However, so far few study aimed to study the link between the consumption of fresh water fishes and the internal exposure to PFAS. Objectives of this study were (i) to estimate the internal exposure of populations that are potentially high consumers of fresh water fishes and (ii) to determine whether the consumption of fish caught from fresh water is a significant determinant of the internal exposure of PFAS. In this work, a large sample of adult freshwater anglers from the French metropolitan population (478 individuals) was constituted randomly from participants lists of anglers associations. Questionnaires provided social and demographic information and diet information for each subject. In addition, analyses of blood serum samples provided the internal concentration of 14 PFAS. The survey design allowed to extrapolate the data obtained on the 478 individuals to the freshwater angler population. Descriptive data regarding internal levels of PFAS were discussed at the population level, whereas identification of the determinants were done at the 478 individuals level as sufficient contrast was required in terms of fresh water fish consumption. Only molecules for which the detection frequency were above 80% in blood were considered, i.e., PFOS, PFOA, PFHxS, PFNA, PFHpS, and PFDA. Distribution profiles showed log-normal distribution and PFOS and PFOA were the main contributors of the PFAS sum. For PFOS, the results obtained on the 478 individuals showed that upper percentiles were higher as compared to upper percentiles obtained on occidental general population. This confirmed an over

  13. Cereal Feeding in Fishes Nutrition for Fishery in Fresh Water from Banat Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitru Mnerie

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Fisheries have traditionally been managed by direct restrictions, including seasonal and area closures, minimum mesh size, and access limitations. In recent years, licensing and an individual quota system were introduced as effortcontrol measures, in order to bring fishing effort more in line with the available resources. The overall responsibility for fisheries policy in Romania falls under auspices of the Ministry of Agriculture, Forests and Rural Development through its Directorate of Fisheries. The major objectives of Romanian fisheries are to bring the national fisheries legislation closer to the European Union (EU Common Fisheries Policy (CFP and to set up the administrative capacity and institutional building needed to cope with EU accession in 2007. In June 2001, Romania completed negotiations with EU in the area of fisheries, accepting the entire acquis communautaire without requesting any derogation or transition periods. The European Fisheries Fund will support Romania as a new EU Member State to develop a competitive, modern and dynamic fisheries sector, based on sustainable fishing and aquaculture activities, while also taking account of other important aspects such as environmental protection, the demands of the consumers and the food industry. The program is also expected to increase the competitiveness of the fisheries sector, encourage job creation and promote the growth of the aquaculture industry. The paper shows some aspects about Romanian fishery policy, an important opportunity for development research in fishery in fresh water from Banat region. Also, it is presents some research results about using the cereal feeding as fish’s nutrition, in special for common carp.

  14. Non-thermal plasma-activated water inactivation of food-borne pathogen on fresh produce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Ruonan; Wang, Guomin; Tian, Ying; Wang, Kaile [Academy for Advanced Interdisciplinary Studies, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Zhang, Jue, E-mail: zhangjue@pku.edu.cn [Academy for Advanced Interdisciplinary Studies, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Fang, Jing [Academy for Advanced Interdisciplinary Studies, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2015-12-30

    Highlights: • We propose a new approach to treat S. aureus inoculated on strawberries by PAW. • PAW could inactivate S. aureus on strawberries via the Log Reduction results, further confirmed by CLSM and SEM. • The short-lived ROS in PAW are considered the most important agents in inactivation process. • No significant change was found in color, firmness and pH of the PAW treated strawberries. - Abstract: Non-thermal plasma has been widely considered to be an effective method for decontamination of foods. Recently, numerous studies report that plasma-activated water (PAW) also has outstanding antibacterial ability. This study presents the first report on the potential of PAW for the inactivation of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) inoculated on strawberries. PAW treatments achieved a reduction of S. aureus ranging from 1.6 to 2.3 log at day-0 storage, while 1.7 to 3.4 log at day-4 storage. The inactivation efficiency depended on the plasma-activated time for PAW generation and PAW-treated time of strawberries inoculated with S. aureus. LIVE/DEAD staining and scanning electron microscopy results confirm that PAW could damage the bacterial cell wall. Moreover, optical emission spectra and oxidation reduction potential results demonstrate the inactivation is mainly attributed to oxidative stress induced by reactive oxygen species in PAW. In addition, no significant change was found in color, firmness and pH of the PAW treated strawberries. Thus, PAW can be a promising alternative to traditional sanitizers applied in the fresh produce industry.

  15. Peroxidase production and ligninolytic potentials of fresh water bacteria Raoultella ornithinolytica and Ensifer adhaerens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayodeji O. Falade

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Interest in novel ligninolytic bacteria has remained topical due to, in part, the maneuverability of the bacterial genome. Conversely, the fungal genome lacks the dexterity for similar maneuverability thus, posing challenges in the fungal enzyme yield optimization process. Some impact of this situation includes the inability to commercialize the bio-catalytic process of lignin degradation by fungi. Consequently, this study assessed some fresh water bacteria isolates for ligninolytic and peroxidase properties through the utilization and degradation of model lignin compounds (guaiacol and veratryl alcohol and the decolourization of selected ligninolytic indicator dyes; Azure B (AZB, Remazol Brilliant Blue R (RBBR and Congo Red (CR. Bacterial strains with appreciable ligninolytic and peroxidase production potentials were identified through 16S rDNA sequence analysis and the nucleotide sequences deposited in the GenBank. About 5 isolates were positive for the degradation of both guaiacol (GA and veratryl alcohol (VA thus, accounting for about 17% of the test isolates. Similarly, AZB, RBBR and CR were respectively decolorized by 3, 2 and 5 bacterial strains thus, accounting for 10%, 7% and 17% of the test isolates. Two of the test bacterial strains were able to decolourize AZB, RBBR and CR respectively and these bacterial strains were identified as Raoultella ornithinolytica OKOH-1 and Ensifer adhaerens NWODO-2 with respective accession numbers as KX640917 and KX640918. Upon quantitation of the peroxidase activities; 5250 ± 0.00 U/L was recorded against Raoultella ornithinolytica OKOH-1 and 5833 ± 0.00 U/L against Ensifer adhaerens NWODO-2. The ligninolytic and dye decolourization properties of Raoultella ornithinolytica OKOH-1 and Ensifer adhaerens NWODO-2 marks for novelty particularly, as dyes with arene substituents were decolourized. Consequently, the potentials for the industrial applicability of these test bacterial strains abound as

  16. The Surface Water and Ocean Topography Mission: a mission concept to study the world's oceans and fresh water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaze, Parag; Albuys, Vincent; Esteban-Fernandez, Daniel; Lafon, Thierry; Lambin, Juliette; Mallet, Alain; Rodriguez, Ernesto

    2010-10-01

    The Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) is a planned satellite mission to study the world's oceans and terrestrial surface water bodies. The SWOT mission concept has been proposed jointly by the global Hydrology and Oceanography science communities to make the first global survey of the Earth's surface water, observe the fine details of the ocean's surface topography, and measure how water bodies change over time. SWOT was one of 15 missions listed in the 2007 National Research Council's Decadal Survey for Earth science as a mission that NASA should implement in the incoming decade. This mission concept builds upon the heritage of prior missions and technologies such as Topex/Poseidon, Jason-1/ 2, the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), and the initial development of the Wide Swatch Ocean Altimeter intended for the Ocean Surface Topography Mission/Jason-2. The key measurement capability for SWOT is provided by a Ka-band synthetic aperture radar interferometer (KaRIn). With an orbit altitude of 970 km, the KaRIn instrument provides a high-resolution swath width of 120 km enabling global coverage (~90%) of the world's ocean's and fresh water bodies. The KaRIn measurement is being designed to provide a spatial resolution of 1 km for the oceans (after on-board processing), and 100 m for land water, both at centimetric accuracy. An additional instrument suite similar to the Jason series will complement KaRIn: a Ku-band nadir altimeter, a Microwave Radiometer and Precision Orbit Determination (POD) systems. To enable this challenging measurement performance, the SWOT mission concept is designed to overcome several challenges, such as very high raw data rate (320 Mbps), large on-board data volumes, high power demand, stringent pointing and stability requirements, and ground data processing systems, to produce meaningful science data products to our user community. The SWOT mission concept is being developed as a cooperative effort between NASA and CNES. This

  17. Plastic Pollution at a Sea Turtle Conservation Area in NE Brazil: Contrasting Developed and Undeveloped Beaches.

    OpenAIRE

    SUL, J. A. I. do.; SANTOS, I. R.; FRIEDRICH, A. C.; MATTHIENSEN, A.; FILLMANN, G.

    2011-01-01

    Sea turtles are highly susceptible to plastic ingestion and entanglement. Beach debris were surveyed along the most important sea turtle nesting beaches in Brazil (Costa dos Coqueiros, Bahia State). No significant differences among developed and undeveloped beaches were observed in terms of total number of items. Local sources (tourism activities) represented 70% of debris on developed beaches, where cigarette butts, straws, paper fragments, soft plastic fragments, and food packaging...

  18. SEQUESTERING AGENTS FOR METAL IMMOBILIZATION APPLICATION TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF ACTIVE CAPS IN FRESH AND SALT WATER SEDIMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knox, A; Michael Paller, M

    2006-11-17

    This research evaluated the removal of inorganic contaminants by a variety of amendments and mixtures of amendments in fresh and salt water. A series of removal and retention batch experiments was conducted to identify the best treatment for metal removal. Metal removal by the amendments was evaluated by calculating the partition coefficient and percent removal. Retention of metals by the amendments was evaluated in retention (desorption) studies in which residue from the removal studies was extracted with 1 M MgCl{sub 2} solution. The results indicated that phosphate amendments, some organoclays (e.g., OCB-750), and the biopolymer, chitosan, are very effective in removal and retention of metals in both fresh and salt water. These amendments are being evaluated further as components in the development of active caps for sediment remediation.

  19. Using heat-pump for simultaneous air conditioning and fresh water production by membrane distillation: performance prediction

    OpenAIRE

    Diaby , Ahmadou ,; Byrne , Paul; Loulergue , Patrick; Balannec , Béatrice; Szymczyk , Anthony; Mare , Thierry; Sow , Ousmane

    2017-01-01

    International audience; The building sector accounts for 40% of the world’s energy consumption especially for air-conditioning and refrigeration. Furthermore, cold production is associated with hot air flowing out of the condensers responsible for the urban heat island effect. The proximity of buildings and their cooling equipment creates hot outdoor environment provoking higher cooling needs and lower performance of the air-conditioners.This waste heat might be used for fresh-water productio...

  20. Uptake of uranium by aquatic plants growing in fresh water ecosystem around uranium mill tailings pond at Jaduguda, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jha, V.N., E-mail: jhavn1971@gmail.com; Tripathi, R.M., E-mail: tripathirm@yahoo.com; Sethy, N.K., E-mail: sethybarc@rediffmail.com; Sahoo, S.K., E-mail: sksbarc@gmail.com

    2016-01-01

    Concentration of uranium was determined in aquatic plants and substrate (sediment or water) of fresh water ecosystem on and around uranium mill tailings pond at Jaduguda, India. Aquatic plant/substrate concentration ratios (CRs) of uranium were estimated for different sites on and around the uranium mill tailings disposal area. These sites include upstream and downstream side of surface water sources carrying the treated tailings effluent, a small pond inside tailings disposal area and residual water of this area. Three types of plant groups were investigated namely algae (filamentous and non-filamentous), other free floating & water submerged and sediment rooted plants. Wide variability in concentration ratio was observed for different groups of plants studied. The filamentous algae uranium concentration was significantly correlated with that of water (r = 0.86, p < 0.003). For sediment rooted plants significant correlation was found between uranium concentration in plant and the substrate (r = 0.88, p < 0.001). Both for other free floating species and sediment rooted plants, uranium concentration was significantly correlated with Mn, Fe, and Ni concentration of plants (p < 0.01). Filamentous algae, Jussiaea and Pistia owing to their high bioproductivity, biomass, uranium accumulation and concentration ratio can be useful for prospecting phytoremediation of stream carrying treated or untreated uranium mill tailings effluent. - Highlights: • Uranium mill tailings pond. • Jaduguda, India. • Fresh water plants. • Uranium uptake. • Relationship of uranium with stable elements.

  1. Acidic electrolyzed water as a novel transmitting medium for high hydrostatic pressure reduction of bacterial loads on shelled fresh shrimp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suping eDu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Acidic electrolyzed water (AEW, a novel non-thermal sterilization technology, is widely used in the food industry. In this study, we firstly investigated the effect of AEW as a new pressure transmitting medium for high hydrostatic pressure (AEW-HHP processing on microorganisms inactivation on shelled fresh shrimp. The optimal conditions of AEW-HHP for Vibrio parahaemolyticus inactivation on sterile shelled fresh shrimp were obtained using response surface methodology: NaCl concentration to electrolysis 1.5 g/L, treatment pressure 400 MPa, treatment time 10 min. Under the optimal conditions mentioned above, AEW dramatically enhanced the efficiency of HHP for inactivating V. parahaemolyticus and Listeria monocytogenes on artificially contaminated shelled fresh shrimp, and the log reductions were up to 6.08 and 5.71 log10 CFU/g respectively, while the common HHP could only inactivate the two pathogens up to 4.74 and 4.31 log10 CFU/g respectively. Meanwhile, scanning electron microscopy (SEM showed the same phenomenon. For the naturally contaminated shelled fresh shrimp, AEW-HHP could also significantly reduce the micro flora when examined using plate count and PCR-DGGE. There were also no significant changes, histologically, in the muscle tissues of shrimps undergoing the AEW-HHP treatment. In summary, using AEW as a new transmitting medium for HHP processing is an innovative non thermal technology for improving the food safety of shrimp and other aquatic products.

  2. Experimental investigation on a semi-circular trough-absorber solar still with baffles for fresh water production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sathyamurthy, Ravishankar; Nagarajan, P.K.; El-Agouz, S.A.; Jaiganesh, V.; Sathish Khanna, P.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Experiments are carried out to analyze the performance. • Baffles are placed in the absorber to increase the residence time of water with solar intensity. • Yield of fresh water from present solar still is 16.66% more than a conventional solar still. • Payback period of the present model is quicker. - Abstract: The main objective of this research is to increase the contact time of water in the basin to enhance yield of fresh water by using a semicircular absorber solar still with baffles. An experimental as well as theoretical investigation is carried out. The productivity and efficiency of present still are analyzed with the influence of the number baffles and the water flow rate. A good agreement between the experimental and theoretical results is observed. The results indicate that, the daily yield of present solar still is higher than that for conventional still approximately by 16.66%. The outlet water temperature present solar still is high subsequently, it can be coupled with multi-state of solar stills to increase productivity. Therefore, the present solar still can be sufficiently extended for other continuous solar desalination systems. Economic analysis concluded that, the payback period of the present model solar still is quicker while comparing it with other solar still

  3. Application of geothermal energy for heating and fresh water production in a brackish water greenhouse desalination unit. A case study from Algeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahmoudi, Hacene [Laboratory of Water and Environment, Hassiba Ben Bouali University, Chlef, P.O. Box 151 (Algeria); Faculty of Sciences and Engineering Sciences, Hassiba Ben Bouali University, Chlef (Algeria); Spahis, Nawel [Faculty of Sciences and Engineering Sciences, Hassiba Ben Bouali University, Chlef (Algeria); Goosen, Mattheus F. [Office of Research and Graduate Studies, Alfaisal University, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Ghaffour, Noreddine [Middle East Desalination Research Center, P.O. Box 21, P.C. 133, Muscat (Oman); Drouiche, Nadjib [Silicon Technology Development Unit (UDTS), 2 Bd Frantz Fanon BP399, Algiers (Algeria); Ouagued, Abdellah [Laboratory of Water and Environment, Hassiba Ben Bouali University, Chlef, P.O. Box 151 (Algeria)

    2010-01-15

    The aim of this paper was to outline a proposed a new brackish water greenhouse desalination unit powered by geothermal energy for the development of arid and relatively cold regions, using Algeria as a case study. Countries which have abundant sea/brackish water resources and good geothermal conditions are ideal candidates for producing fresh water from sea/brackish water. The establishment of human habitats in these arid areas strongly depends on availability of fresh water. The main advantage of using geothermal energy to power brackish water greenhouse desalination units is that this renewable energy source can provide power 24 h a day. This resource is generally invariant with less intermittence problems compared to other renewable resources such as solar or wind energy. Geothermal resources can both be used to heat the greenhouses and to provide fresh water needed for irrigation of the crops cultivated inside the greenhouses. A review of the geothermal potential in the case study country is also outlined. (author)

  4. Contrasting patterns in genetic diversity following multiple invasions of fresh and brackish waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, David W; Muirhead, James R; Heath, Daniel D; Macisaac, Hugh J

    2006-10-01

    of the two invading clades were found principally at recently invaded fresh and brackish water sites in Eastern Europe, and were characterized by higher genetic diversity than putative source populations. Further studies are required to determine if these represent novel genotypes. Our results confirm that biological invasions need not result in diminished genetic diversity, particularly if multiple source populations, each with distinctive genetic composition, contribute to the founding populations.

  5. Advective and atmospheric forced changes in heat and fresh water content in the Norwegian Sea, 1951-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mork, Kjell Arne; Skagseth, Øystein; Ivshin, Victor; Ozhigin, Vladimir; Hughes, Sarah L.; Valdimarsson, Hédinn

    2014-09-01

    Climate variability in the Norwegian Sea was investigated in terms of ocean heat and fresh water contents of Atlantic water above a reference surface, using hydrographic data during spring 1951-2010. The main processes acting on this variability were examined and then quantified. The area-averaged water mass cooled and freshened, but a deepening of the reference surface resulted in a positive trend in the heat content of 0.3 W m-2. Air-sea heat fluxes explained about half of the interannual variability in heat content. The effect of the advection of Atlantic and Arctic waters on the variability varied with time, apparently due to large-scale changes in the ocean circulation. The data are consistent with the explanation that changing wind patterns caused buffering and then release of Arctic water in the Iceland Sea during the late 1960s to early 1970s, and this caused large hydrographic changes in the Norwegian Sea.

  6. Relation between Enterococcus concentrations and turbidity in fresh and saline recreational waters, coastal Horry County, South Carolina, 2003–04

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landmeyer, James E.; Garigen, Thomas J.

    2016-06-24

    Bacteria related to the intestinal tract of humans and other warm-blooded animals have been detected in fresh and saline surface waters used for recreational purposes in coastal areas of Horry County, South Carolina, since the early 2000s. Specifically, concentrations of the facultative anaerobic organism, Enterococcus, have been observed to exceed the single-sample regulatory limit of 104 colony forming units per 100 milliliters of water. Water bodies characterized by these concentrations are identified on the 303(d) list for impaired water in South Carolina; moreover, because current analytical methods used to monitor Enterococcus concentrations take up to 1 day for results to become available, water-quality advisories are not reflective of the actual health risk.

  7. Bioavailability of calcium of fresh cheeses, enteral food and mineral water. A study with stable calcium isotopes in young adult women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dokkum, W. van; Guéronnière, V. dela; Schaafsma, G.; Bouley, C.; Luten, J.; Latgé, C.

    1996-01-01

    True fractional Ca absorption from six foods was measured in twelve normal healthy women, aged 20-29 years. The tested foods were commercially available fresh cheese, fresh cheese prepared by new technology and rich in Ca, similar cheese with added Fe, enteral food, mineral water alone and combined

  8. Hot and cold water infusion aroma profiles of Hibiscus sabdariffa: fresh compared with dried.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Rodrigues, M M; Balaban, M O; Marshall, M R; Rouseff, R L

    2011-03-01

    Calyxes from the Roselle plant (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) were used to prepare cold (22 °C for 4 h) and hot (98 °C for 16 min) infusions/teas from both fresh and dried forms. Aroma volatiles were extracted using static headspace SPME and analyzed using GC-MS and GC-O with 2 different columns (DB-5 and DB-Wax). Totals of 28, 25, 17, and 16 volatiles were identified using GC-MS in the dried hot extract (DHE), dried cold extract (DCE), fresh hot extract (FHE), and fresh cold extract (FCE) samples, respectively. In terms of total GC-MS peak areas DHE ≫ DCE > FHE ≫ FCE. Nonanal, decanal, octanal, and 1-octen-3-ol were among the major volatiles in all 4 beverage types. Thirteen volatiles were common to all 4 teas. Furfural and 5-methyl furfural were detected only in dried hibiscus beverages whereas linalool and 2-ethyl-1-hexanol were detected only in beverages from fresh hibiscus. In terms of aroma active volatiles, 17, 16, 13, and 10 aroma active volatiles were detected for DHE, DCE, FHE, and FCE samples, respectively. The most intense aroma volatiles were 1-octen-3-one and nonanal with a group of 4 aldehydes and 3 ketones common to all samples. Dried samples contained dramatically higher levels of lipid oxidation products such as hexanal, nonanal, and decanal. In fresh hibiscus extracts, linalool (floral, citrus) and octanal (lemon, citrus) were among the highest intensity aroma compounds but linalool was not detected in any of the dried hibiscus extracts. Hibiscus teas/infusions are one of the highest volume specialty botanical products in international commerce. The beverage is consumed for both sensory pleasure and health attributes and is prepared a number of ways throughout the world. Although color and taste attributes have been examined, little information is known about its aroma volatiles and no other study has compared extractions from both fresh and dried as well as extraction temperature differences. This is also, apparently, the first study to identify

  9. Current state of knowledge of the concentration of mercury and other heavy metals in fresh water fish in Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mancera Rodriguez, Nestor Javier; Alvarez Leon, Ricardo

    2006-01-01

    One of the most important environmental problems in the country refers to the indiscriminate use of chemical precursors in illicit activities, the use of heavy metals as mercury in mining activities, the spill of served waters and another type of compound related with the industrial activities of raw and the inadequate agricultural practices. This has led to chemical contamination especially by heavy metals, considered one of the most dangerous for the aquatic ecosystems and the present species in them. Fish have the capacity to store these compounds in their organism in a concentration higher than that in the surrounding environment (water), therefore, their concentration are important indicators of the contamination level, but also this implies that their consumption can become a serious health problem for the populations that feeds from them. The concentration of heavy metals in fish of fresh water is better known in the basin of the Magdalena river, especially in the region of the Mojana and in the marshes of the south of the department of Bolivar where the levels of contamination by mercury and other metals has been studied due to the development of multiple industrial activities, including gold mining and petrochemical industries. However, little is known in the country about the problem generated by the disposal heavy metals in rivers and lakes and their impact on the fish resource, deterioration of ecosystems and human health. Based in the current norms bio-assays have been used to check the effects of the aquatic contamination on fresh waters fish and the evaluation of at least three parameters (heavy metals, temperature, effluents) in eight species of fresh waters fish: carassius auratus, oreochromis spp., piractus brachypomus, prochilodus magdalenae, astyanax fasciatus, colossoma bidens, gambusia affinis and grundulus bogotensis

  10. Global Anthropogenic Phosphorus Loads to Fresh Water, Grey Water Footprint and Water Pollution Levels: A High-Resolution Global Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekonnen, M. M.; Hoekstra, A. Y. Y.

    2014-12-01

    We estimated anthropogenic phosphorus (P) loads to freshwater, globally at a spatial resolution level of 5 by 5 arc minute. The global anthropogenic P load to freshwater systems from both diffuse and point sources in the period 2002-2010 was 1.5 million tonnes per year. China contributed about 30% to this global anthropogenic P load. India was the second largest contributor (8%), followed by the USA (7%), Spain and Brazil each contributing 6% to the total. The domestic sector contributed the largest share (54%) to this total followed by agriculture (38%) and industry (8%). Among the crops, production of cereals had the largest contribution to the P loads (32%), followed by fruits, vegetables, and oil crops, each contributing about 15% to the total. We also calculated the resultant grey water footprints, and relate the grey water footprints per river basin to runoff to calculate the P-related water pollution level (WPL) per catchment.

  11. Current State of Knowledge of the Concentration of Mercury and Other Heavy Metals in Fresh Water Fish in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Néstor Javier Mancera-Rodríguez

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important environmental problems in the country refers to the indiscriminate use of chemical precursors in illicit activities, the use of heavy metals as mercury in mining activities, the spill of served waters and another type of compound related with the industrial activities of raw and the inadequate agricultural practices. This has led to chemical contamination especially by heavy metals, considered one of the most dangerous for the aquatic ecosystems and the present species in them. Fish have the capacity to store these compounds in their organism in a concentration higher important indicators of the contamination level, but also this implies that their consumption can become a serious health problem for the populations that feeds from them. The concentration of heavy metals in fish of fresh water is better known in the basin of the Magdalena river, especially in the region of the Mojana and in the marshes of the south of the Department of Bolivar where the levels of contamination by mercury and other metals has been studied due to the development of multiple industrial activities, including gold mining and petrochemical industries. However, little is known in the country about the problem generated by the disposal heavy metals in rivers and lakes and their impact on the fish resource, deterioration of ecosystems and human health. Based in the current norms bio-assays have been used to check the effects of the aquatic contamination on fresh waters fish and the evaluation of at least three parameters (heavy metals, temperature, effluents in eight species of fresh waters fish: Carassius auratus, Oreochromis spp., Piractus brachypomus, Prochilodus magdalenae, Astyanax fasciatus, Colossoma bidens, Gambusia affinis and Grundulus bogotensis.

  12. Hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects of Azolla microphylla based gold nanoparticles against acetaminophen induced toxicity in a fresh water common carp fish (Cyprinus carpio L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selvaraj Kunjiappan

    2015-04-01

    Conclusion: Azolla microphylla phytochemically synthesized GNaP protects liver against oxidative damage and tissue damaging enzyme activities and could be used as an effective protector against acetaminophen-induced hepatic damage in fresh water common carp fish.

  13. Monitoring water quality in Toronto's urban stormwater ponds: Assessing participation rates and data quality of water sampling by citizen scientists in the FreshWater Watch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Andrew B; Frost, Paul C

    2017-08-15

    From 2013 to 2015, citizen scientist volunteers in Toronto, Canada were trained to collect and analyze water quality in urban stormwater ponds. This volunteer sampling was part of the research program, FreshWater Watch (FWW), which aimed to standardize urban water sampling efforts from around the globe. We held training sessions for new volunteers twice yearly and trained a total of 111 volunteers. Over the course of project, ~30% of volunteers participated by collecting water quality data after the training session with 124 individual sampling events at 29 unique locations in Toronto, Canada. A few highly engaged volunteers were most active, with 50% of the samples collected by 5% of trainees. Stormwater ponds generally have poor water quality demonstrated by elevated phosphate concentrations (~30μg/L), nitrate (~427μg/L), and turbidity relative to Canadian water quality standards. Compared to other urban waterbodies in the global program, nutrient concentrations in Toronto's urban stormwater ponds were lower, while turbidity was not markedly different. Toronto FWW (FWW-TO) data was comparable to that measured by standard lab analyses and matched results from previous studies of stormwater ponds in Toronto. Combining observational and chemical data acquired by citizen scientists, macrophyte dominated ponds had lower phosphate concentrations while phytoplankton dominated ponds had lower nitrate concentrations, which indicates a potentially important and unstudied role of internal biogeochemical processes on pond nutrient dynamics. This experience in the FWW demonstrates the capabilities and constraints of citizen science when applied to water quality sampling. While analytical limits on in-field analyses produce higher uncertainty in water quality measurements of individual sites, rapid data collection is possible but depends on the motivation and engagement of the group of volunteers. Ongoing efforts in citizen science will thus need to address sampling effort

  14. Monitoring of the fresh water supply to the population of the Aral Sea zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khabirov, R.

    2002-01-01

    At the present the main water sources in the cities and settlements of the Aral Sea zone are the Amurdarya river, channels, as well as underground water existing at the territory of this region. The quality of surface water deteriorates every year due to the discharge of industrial and agricultural drain water to the Amurdarya river. Increasing water mineralization, as well as rise of pesticides and heavy metals in the water cause the special alarm. State (or centralized) water supply system covers 84 % of the need in water in the cities and 50 % in the rural area. The remaining volume of water is extracted from wells and is taken from surface water. The quality of water in the region varies from season to season; in spring surface water has the worst parameters. Absence of the good monitoring system is the handicap to achieve the stable quality of the drinking water during the year in the region, which use water from various water intakes. Bearing this in mind, in the republic at present serious step are taken towards for monitoring system development for both surface und underground water sources, which will allow to improve water resources management, to decrease substantially and later eliminate use of water which does not meet the republican standard of drinking water, to provide stable operation of water intakes. The leading role in the monitoring system development belongs to Special Inspection of Analytical Control and Scientific Research Institute 'VodGeo' under State Committee for Nature Protection of the Republic of Uzbekistan

  15. Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Arcobacter species in cow milk, water buffalo milk and fresh village cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yesilmen, Simten; Vural, Aydin; Erkan, Mehmet Emin; Yildirim, Ibrahim Halil

    2014-10-01

    In this study, the presence of Arcobacter spp. was examined in cow milk (n=50), water buffalo (WB) milk (n=50) and fresh village cheese (n=50) samples. The 16S rDNA-RFLP method was used for the identification of Arcobacter spp. The disc diffusion method was used to investigate the susceptibility of all strains identified to 18 different antimicrobial substances. The most commonly isolated Arcobacter species were found to be Arcobacter butzleri (38.89%), Arcobacter cryaerophilus (22.23%) and Arcobacter skirrowii (11.12%) in cow milk; A. cryaerophilus (33.33%), Arcobacter cibarius (20.83%) and A. butzleri (12.50%) in WB milk; and A. skirrowii (28.57%), A. butzleri (21.43%) and A. cryaerophilus (14.29%) in fresh village cheese. This is the first study to identify the presence of Arcobacter nitrofigilis, Arcobacter cloacae, Arcobacter halophilus, Arcobacter bivalviorum and A. cibarius species in analyzed samples. It was found that all of the A. cryaerophilus (n:16) isolates were resistant to cefoperazone, cloxacillin and penicillin G; all of the A. skirrowii (n:12) and A. butzleri (n:10) isolates were resistant to cefoperazone, tetracycline, ampicillin, erythromycin, cloxacillin and penicillin G. It was concluded that cow milk, WB milk and fresh village cheese samples are an important source of Arcobacter species and pose a risk to public health. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Fresh Kids: the efficacy of a Health Promoting Schools approach to increasing consumption of fruit and water in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurence, S; Peterken, R; Burns, C

    2007-09-01

    The Fresh Kids programme utilized the Health Promoting Schools (HPSs) framework to design a whole-of-school, multifaceted intervention targeting specific behaviours to promote healthy eating and reduce the risk factors associated with childhood obesity. The aim of the programme was to evaluate the effectiveness of the HPS framework to increase fruit and water consumption among primary school-aged children over a 2-year period. The study design was an interrupted time series. Four primary schools in the inner west of Melbourne, Australia, participated in the programme intervention. Baseline data were collected using a lunch box audit to assess the frequency of children with fresh fruit, water and sweet drinks, either brought from home or selected from canteen lunch orders. The lunch box audit was repeated periodically for up to 2 years following programme implementation to assess the sustainability of dietary changes. Across all participating schools, significant increases between 25 and 50% were observed in the proportion of children bringing fresh fruit. Similarly, all schools recorded increases between 15 and 60% in the proportion of students bringing filled water bottles to school and reductions between 8 and 38% in the proportion of children bringing sweet drinks. These significant changes in dietary patterns were sustained for up to 2 years following programme implementation. Targeting key nutrition behaviours and using the HPS framework is an effective and simple approach which could be readily implemented in similar childhood settings. Effective strategies include facilitating organizational change within the school; integrating curriculum activities; formalizing school policy and establishing project partnerships with local community nutrition and dietetic services.

  17. State-of-the-art radioecological models implemented in decision support systems for the management of the fresh water environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monte, Luigi

    2007-01-01

    The present lecture summarises the main results of a review and assessment of state-of-the-art models implemented in computerised decision support systems aimed at assisting the management of fresh water ecosystems contaminated by radioactive substances. The approaches of the various models to simulate the complex behaviour of radionuclides in the aquatic environment were discussed. A critical analysis of the whole sector was carried out in order to frame in a comprehensive perspective several complementary issues: model uncertainty, environmental variability, information incompleteness, multi-model approach, use of models for the decision making. (author)

  18. Determination of the metal balance shift induced in small fresh water fish by X-ray irradiation using PIXE analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yukawa, M.; Iso, H.; Kodama, K.; Imaseki, H.; Aoki, K.; Ishikawa, Y.

    2007-01-01

    The balance of essential elements in organisms can be changed by environmental stresses. A small fresh water fish, the medaka, was irradiated with X-rays (total dose: 17 Gy, which is not a lethal dose for this fish). Essential elements in the liver, gall bladder, kidney, spleen, heart and brain of the fish were measured by the particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) method and compared with those of a control fish. Various changes in the elemental balance shift were observed. The PIXE method can analyze many elements in a small sample simultaneously, and so the changes in elemental content induced by irradiation were readily determined. (author)

  19. Effect of Disinfectants on Preventing the Cross-Contamination of Pathogens in Fresh Produce Washing Water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Banach, J.L.; Sampers, I.; Haute, van S.; Fels, van der H.J.

    2015-01-01

    The potential cross-contamination of pathogens between clean and contaminated produce in the washing tank is highly dependent on the water quality. Process wash water disinfectants are applied to maintain the water quality during processing. The review examines the efficacy of process wash water

  20. Watershed: The Role of Fresh Water in the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Watershed describes the water crisis faced by Israel and the Occupied Palestinian Territories today — a crisis that will have much to do with the design and the success of the current peace proposals. The authors examine the geopolitics of water in the region, the economic importance, problems of water supply and water ...

  1. Evaluation of Hot Water, Gaseous Chlorine Dioxide, and Chlorine Treatments in Combination with an Edible Coating for Enhancing Safety, Quality, and Shelf Life of Fresh-Cut Cantaloupes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alicea, Cristina; Annous, Bassam A; Mendez, Daiza P; Burke, Angela; Orellana, Lynette E

    2018-04-01

    Fresh-cut cantaloupes have been implicated in numerous foodborne outbreaks of salmonellosis. Commercial aqueous wash treatments are limited in their ability to inactivate Salmonella enterica. Our objective was to evaluate the efficacy of hot water, gaseous chlorine dioxide, and chlorine on enhancing microbial safety and sensory qualities of fresh-cut cantaloupes. Cantaloupes were inoculated with an S. enterica cocktail (serovars Michigan, Mbandaka, and Poona) and treated with chlorine (200 ppm of free chlorine) for 40 min, 5 mg/L gaseous chlorine dioxide for 4.5 h, and hot water (76.1°C) for 3 min. Fresh-cut cantaloupes were prepared from treated whole cantaloupes and divided into two sets; one set of samples was treated with NatureSeal to evaluate its effect on shelf life and sensory quality and the second set (control) was packed without further treatment. Fresh-cut samples were stored at 4°C for up to 21 days. For the sensory quality parameters analyzed (color, water loss, and texture), the samples treated with NatureSeal had significantly better quality ( P < 0.05) than did the control samples. All treatments significantly reduced ( P < 0.05) the pathogen populations on the rind of the whole melons and on the fresh-cut samples prepared from the treated melons. All fresh-cut samples prepared from melons treated with hot water were negative for Salmonella throughout the storage period except for the samples treated with hot water and NatureSeal and evaluated on day 7. The fresh-cut samples prepared from melons treated with chlorine dioxide and chlorine were negative for Salmonella after 21 days of storage. These results provide a framework to producers of fresh-cut cantaloupes for the potential use of hot water as an intervention treatment in combination with NatureSeal for enhancing the microbiological safety and quality of this commodity.

  2. Ceriodaphnia dubia as a Potential Bio-Indicator for Assessing Acute Aluminum Oxide Nanoparticle Toxicity in Fresh Water Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakrashi, Sunandan; Dalai, Swayamprava; Humayun, Ahmed; Chakravarty, Sujay; Chandrasekaran, Natarajan; Mukherjee, Amitava

    2013-01-01

    Growing nanomaterials based consumer applications have raised concerns about their potential release into the aquatic ecosystems and the consequent toxicological impacts. So environmental monitoring of the nanomaterials in aqueous systems becomes imperative. The current study reveals the potential of Ceriodaphnia dubia (C. dubia) as a bio-indicator for aluminum oxide nanoparticles in a fresh water aquatic ecosystem where it occupies an important ecological niche as a primary consumer. This study aims to investigate the aluminium oxide nanoparticle induced acute toxicity on Ceriodaphnia dubia in a freshwater system. The bioavailability of the aluminum oxide nanoparticles has been studied with respect to their aggregation behavior in the system and correlated with the toxicity endpoints. The oxidative stress generated by the particles contributed greatly toward their toxicity. The crucial role of leached aluminium ion mediated toxicity in the later phases (48 h and 72 h) in conjunction with the effects from the nano-sized particles in the initial phases (24 h) puts forth the dynamics of nanotoxicity in the test system. The internalization of nanoparticles (both gross and systemic uptake) as substantiated through the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectral (ICP-OES) analysis was another major contributor toward acute toxicity. Concluding the present study, Ceriodaphnia dubia can be a promising candidate for bio-monitoring the aluminium oxide nanoparticles in a fresh water system. PMID:24040143

  3. Ceriodaphnia dubia as a potential bio-indicator for assessing acute aluminum oxide nanoparticle toxicity in fresh water environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunandan Pakrashi

    Full Text Available Growing nanomaterials based consumer applications have raised concerns about their potential release into the aquatic ecosystems and the consequent toxicological impacts. So environmental monitoring of the nanomaterials in aqueous systems becomes imperative. The current study reveals the potential of Ceriodaphnia dubia (C. dubia as a bio-indicator for aluminum oxide nanoparticles in a fresh water aquatic ecosystem where it occupies an important ecological niche as a primary consumer. This study aims to investigate the aluminium oxide nanoparticle induced acute toxicity on Ceriodaphnia dubia in a freshwater system. The bioavailability of the aluminum oxide nanoparticles has been studied with respect to their aggregation behavior in the system and correlated with the toxicity endpoints. The oxidative stress generated by the particles contributed greatly toward their toxicity. The crucial role of leached aluminium ion mediated toxicity in the later phases (48 h and 72 h in conjunction with the effects from the nano-sized particles in the initial phases (24 h puts forth the dynamics of nanotoxicity in the test system. The internalization of nanoparticles (both gross and systemic uptake as substantiated through the transmission electron microscopy (TEM and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectral (ICP-OES analysis was another major contributor toward acute toxicity. Concluding the present study, Ceriodaphnia dubia can be a promising candidate for bio-monitoring the aluminium oxide nanoparticles in a fresh water system.

  4. IAM strategy to keep our water services clean and fresh and reliable

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Manus, N

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the steady progress that the South African department of Water Affairs and Forestry (DWAF) has been making with formulating a national water services infrastructure asset management (IAM) strategy. A "scan" of the state of water...

  5. Uptake of uranium by aquatic plants growing in fresh water ecosystem around uranium mill tailings pond at Jaduguda, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, V N; Tripathi, R M; Sethy, N K; Sahoo, S K

    2016-01-01

    Concentration of uranium was determined in aquatic plants and substrate (sediment or water) of fresh water ecosystem on and around uranium mill tailings pond at Jaduguda, India. Aquatic plant/substrate concentration ratios (CRs) of uranium were estimated for different sites on and around the uranium mill tailings disposal area. These sites include upstream and downstream side of surface water sources carrying the treated tailings effluent, a small pond inside tailings disposal area and residual water of this area. Three types of plant groups were investigated namely algae (filamentous and non-filamentous), other free floating & water submerged and sediment rooted plants. Wide variability in concentration ratio was observed for different groups of plants studied. The filamentous algae uranium concentration was significantly correlated with that of water (r=0.86, pplants significant correlation was found between uranium concentration in plant and the substrate (r=0.88, pplants, uranium concentration was significantly correlated with Mn, Fe, and Ni concentration of plants (p<0.01). Filamentous algae, Jussiaea and Pistia owing to their high bioproductivity, biomass, uranium accumulation and concentration ratio can be useful for prospecting phytoremediation of stream carrying treated or untreated uranium mill tailings effluent. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Potential fresh water saving using greywater in toilet flushing in Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourad, Khaldoon A; Berndtsson, Justyna C; Berndtsson, Ronny

    2011-10-01

    Greywater reuse is becoming an increasingly important factor for potable water saving in many countries. Syria is one of the most water scarce countries in the Middle East. However, greywater reuse is still not common in the country. Regulations and standards for greywater reuse are not available. Recently, however, several stakeholders have started to plan for greywater reuse. The main objective of this paper is to evaluate the potential for potable water saving by using greywater for toilet flushing in a typical Syrian city. The Sweida city in the southern part of Syria was chosen for this purpose. Interviews were made in order to reflect the social acceptance, water consumption, and the percentage of different indoor water uses. An artificial wetland (AW) and a commercial bio filter (CBF) were proposed to treat the greywater, and an economic analysis was performed for the treatment system. Results show that using treated greywater for toilet flushing would save about 35% of the drinking water. The economic analyses of the two proposed systems showed that, in the current water tariff, the payback period for AW and CBF in block systems is 7 and 52 years, respectively. However, this period will reduce to 3 and 21 years, respectively, if full water costs are paid by beneficiaries. Hence, introducing artificial wetlands in order to make greywater use efficient appears to be a viable alternative to save potable water. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Increasing the technical and economic performance of wind diesel systems by including fresh water production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bindner, H.; Lundsager, P.

    1996-01-01

    In many remote regions of the world there is a lack of both electricity and potable water. In order to increase the standard of living and thus maintain the population both power and water have to be supplied at reasonable prices. A good option at many of these places are wind diesel systems...

  8. Iodine-125 in the fresh water environment in England; measurements along the pathway from sewage discharge to thyroid glands and determinations of absorbed dose to humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howe, J.R.; Bowlt, C.

    1992-01-01

    Iodine-125 has been measured in the fresh water supply in England, particularly in the Thames Valley. 125 I discarded into the sewage drainage system, travels in the liquid effluent into rivers. When mains water is abstracted downstream from such discharges low levels of 125 I ( 125 I. However it was never possible to establish more than a semi-quantitative relationship between their activity levels and those of their surroundings. In general, levels of 125 I have shown a 3-4 fold increase in the fresh water environment during the 1980's. (Author)

  9. Radioactivity of fresh water fish in Finland after the Chernobyl accident in 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saxen, R.; Rantavaara, A.

    1987-06-01

    The Chernobyl accident raised the deposition levels of radioactive substances in Finland. Fish were affected by radioactive substances in watersheds. Extensive study of areal and temporal changes in the radioactivity of freshwater fish was started soon after the accident. The aim of the study was to obtain new data on a situation involving fresh deposition and to estimate the importance of freshwater fish as a source of radiocesium for consumers. Attenuation was also paid to various factors affecting the radioactivity of fish. Samples were taken from about 200 lakes. In all, about 600 samples were analysed gammaspectrometrically. A few samples were also analysed radiochemically for beta-emitting 89 Sr and 90 Sr. The samples contained about ten different species of fish. The highest concentrations of radiocesium in fish were found in the areas of highest radioactive deposition in Finland. In areas with the same level of 137 Cs deposition, concentrations in fish depended on the size of the lake: the smaller the area of the lake in which the fish were caught the higher the concentration. Of the fish species studied, perches had the highest concentrations of radiocesium. Intake estimations were based on the average concentrations, weighted for catches, in each drainage area and in the whole country, and on the average intake of 137 Cs via freshwater fish. In Finland, the average intake of 137 Cs via freshwater fish in May-December 1986 was about 1200 Bq. The values obtained for different drainage basins varied from about 160 to 3400 Bq

  10. Biotic Ligand model : A tool for risk assessment of metals in Scandinavian fresh waters?

    OpenAIRE

    Hoppe, Sabina

    2016-01-01

    Products from iron and copper mining are among Sweden’s top exports. However, as the metals are excavated, they often end up in the aquatic environment where they can cause toxicity. To implement the Water Framework Directive (WFD) within the European Union, all member states must classify their waters and set local environmental quality standards (EQS). These EQS are used to set the maximum concentration of a metal allowed in water and can be set both by the Swedish EPA and EU. The WFD EQS a...

  11. Accumulation and distributions of {sup 137}Cs in fresh water snail Pila ampullacea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suseno, Heny, E-mail: henis@batan.go.id [Marine Radioecology Group, Center for Radiation Safety Technology and Metrology - National Nuclear Energy Agency, Jl. Lebak Bulus Raya No. 49, Kotak Pos 7043 JKSKL Jakarta Selatan 12070 (Indonesia)

    2014-10-24

    Pila ampullacea are found in tropical freshwaters of Indonesia. This snail exhibit several characteristics of ideal indicator organisms in order to understand the bioaccumulation of {sup 137}Cs. Biokinetic experiment was performaced in aquaria system and under influenced of concentration K{sup +} in water. The result of experiment shown that Under difference K{sup +} concentration in water, Pila ampullacea have capability to accumulated {sup 137}Cs with CF value range 8.95 to 12.52 ml.g{sup −1}. Both uptake and depuration rate were influenced by concentration of K{sup +} in water.

  12. Hand-held Device for Monitoring Dissolved Organics in Fresh and Recycled Water on ppb Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuiykov, Serge; Sexton, Brett; Hoobin, Pamela; Best, Michael; Marney, Donavan

    2011-09-01

    New hand-held robust UV255 sensor for the control of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in water has been developed by CSIRO. The device is designed for compact operation and simplified circuitry. UV 255 sensor exhibited a good liner response at low concentration range of DOC (<5 ppm) and has shown the detection limit less than 10 ppb of DOC. The current design allows for immersion of the sensor into a solution. The sensor can also be modified for flow-through applications by allowing water to flow through side arms. New sensor discriminates readily between various types of potable and recycled water.

  13. Biological responses to the chemical recovery of acidified fresh waters in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monteith, D.T.; Hildrew, A.G.; Flower, R.J.; Raven, P.J.; Beaumont, W.R.B.; Collen, P.; Kreiser, A.M.; Shilland, E.M.; Winterbottom, J.H.

    2005-01-01

    We report biological changes at several UK Acid Waters Monitoring Network lakes and streams that are spatially consistent with the recovery of water chemistry induced by reductions in acid deposition. These include trends toward more acid-sensitive epilithic diatom and macroinvertebrate assemblages, an increasing proportional abundance of macroinvertebrate predators, an increasing occurrence of acid-sensitive aquatic macrophyte species, and the recent appearance of juvenile (<1 year old) brown trout in some of the more acidic flowing waters. Changes are often shown to be directly linked to annual variations in acidity. Although indicative of biological improvement in response to improving water chemistry, 'recovery' in most cases is modest and very gradual. While specific ecological recovery endpoints are uncertain, it is likely that physical and biotic interactions are influencing the rate of recovery of certain groups of organisms at particular sites. - Recently observed changes in the species composition of UK lakes and streams are consistent with chemical recovery from acidification

  14. Novel Conductive Carbon Black and Polydimethlysiloxane ECG Electrode: A Comparison with Commercial Electrodes in Fresh, Chlorinated, and Salt Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Yeonsik; Bales, Justin R; Reyes, Bersain A; Molignano, Jennifer; Clement, Amanda L; Pins, George D; Florian, John P; Chon, Ki H

    2016-08-01

    In this study, we evaluated the performance of two novel conductive carbon black (CB) and polydimethlysiloxane (PDMS) bio-potential electrodes, with and without an integrated flexible copper mesh, against commercially available electrodes (Polar(®) textile, Silver-coated textile, and carbon rubber). The electrodes were tested in three types of water (fresh/unfiltered, chlorinated, and salt water). Our testing revealed that our CB/PDMS electrode with integrated copper mesh provided a high-fidelity ECG signal morphologies without any amplitude degradation in all of the types of water tested (N = 10). The non-meshed CB/PDMS electrodes were also subjected to a long-term durability test by the US Navy SCUBA divers during which the electrodes maintained ECG signal quality for a 6 h period of continuous use. The results of a material degradation analysis revealed the CB/PDMS composite material does not exhibit significant changes in physical integrity after prolonged exposure to the test conditions. The newly developed meshed CB/PDMS electrodes have the potential to be used in a wide variety of both dry and wet environments including the challenge of obtaining ECG signals in salt water environments.

  15. Bioaccumulation of {sup 226}Ra by plants growing in fresh water ecosystem around the uranium industry at Jaduguda, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jha, V.N., E-mail: jhavn1971@gmail.co [Environmental Assessment Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai-400085 (India); Tripathi, R.M., E-mail: tripathirm@yahoo.co [Environmental Assessment Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai-400085 (India); Sethy, N.K.; Sahoo, S.K.; Shukla, A.K.; Puranik, V.D. [Environmental Assessment Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai-400085 (India)

    2010-09-15

    A field study has been conducted to evaluate the {sup 226}Ra bioaccumulation among aquatic plants growing in the stream/river adjoining the uranium mining and ore-processing complex at Jaduguda, India. Two types of plant group have been investigated namely free floating algal species submerged into water and plants rooted in stream and riverbed. The highest {sup 226}Ra activity concentration (9850 Bq kg{sup -1}) was found in filamentous algae growing in the residual water of tailings pond. The concentration ratios of {sup 226}Ra in filamentous algae (activity concentration of {sup 226}Ra in plant Bq kg{sup -1} fresh weight/activity concentration of {sup 226}Ra in water Bq l{sup -1}) widely varied i.e. from 1.1 x 10{sup 3} to 8.6 x 10{sup 4}. Other aquatic plants were also showing wide variability in the {sup 226}Ra activity concentration. The ln-transformed filamentous algae {sup 226}Ra activity concentration was significantly correlated with that of ln-transformed water concentration (r = 0.89, p < 0.001). There was no correlation between the activity concentrations of {sup 226}Ra in stream/riverbed rooted plants and the substrate. For this group, correlation between {sup 226}Ra activity concentration and Mn, Fe, Cu concentration in plants were statistically significant.

  16. Effect of Disinfectants on Preventing the Cross-Contamination of Pathogens in Fresh Produce Washing Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L. Banach

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The potential cross-contamination of pathogens between clean and contaminated produce in the washing tank is highly dependent on the water quality. Process wash water disinfectants are applied to maintain the water quality during processing. The review examines the efficacy of process wash water disinfectants during produce processing with the aim to prevent cross-contamination of pathogens. Process wash water disinfection requires short contact times so microorganisms are rapidly inactivated. Free chlorine, chlorine dioxide, ozone, and peracetic acid were considered suitable disinfectants. A disinfectant’s reactivity with the organic matter will determine the disinfectant residual, which is of paramount importance for microbial inactivation and should be monitored in situ. Furthermore, the chemical and worker safety, and the legislative framework will determine the suitability of a disinfection technique. Current research often focuses on produce decontamination and to a lesser extent on preventing cross-contamination. Further research on a sanitizer’s efficacy in the washing water is recommended at the laboratory scale, in particular with experimental designs reflecting industrial conditions. Validation on the industrial scale is warranted to better understand the overall effects of a sanitizer.

  17. Effect of Disinfectants on Preventing the Cross-Contamination of Pathogens in Fresh Produce Washing Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banach, Jennifer L.; Sampers, Imca; Van Haute, Sam; van der Fels-Klerx, H.J. (Ine)

    2015-01-01

    The potential cross-contamination of pathogens between clean and contaminated produce in the washing tank is highly dependent on the water quality. Process wash water disinfectants are applied to maintain the water quality during processing. The review examines the efficacy of process wash water disinfectants during produce processing with the aim to prevent cross-contamination of pathogens. Process wash water disinfection requires short contact times so microorganisms are rapidly inactivated. Free chlorine, chlorine dioxide, ozone, and peracetic acid were considered suitable disinfectants. A disinfectant’s reactivity with the organic matter will determine the disinfectant residual, which is of paramount importance for microbial inactivation and should be monitored in situ. Furthermore, the chemical and worker safety, and the legislative framework will determine the suitability of a disinfection technique. Current research often focuses on produce decontamination and to a lesser extent on preventing cross-contamination. Further research on a sanitizer’s efficacy in the washing water is recommended at the laboratory scale, in particular with experimental designs reflecting industrial conditions. Validation on the industrial scale is warranted to better understand the overall effects of a sanitizer. PMID:26213953

  18. Direct-contact condensers for open-cycle OTEC applications: Model validation with fresh water experiments for structured packings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bharathan, D.; Parsons, B.K.; Althof, J.A.

    1988-10-01

    The objective of the reported work was to develop analytical methods for evaluating the design and performance of advanced high-performance heat exchangers for use in open-cycle thermal energy conversion (OC-OTEC) systems. This report describes the progress made on validating a one-dimensional, steady-state analytical computer of fresh water experiments. The condenser model represents the state of the art in direct-contact heat exchange for condensation for OC-OTEC applications. This is expected to provide a basis for optimizing OC-OTEC plant configurations. Using the model, we examined two condenser geometries, a cocurrent and a countercurrent configuration. This report provides detailed validation results for important condenser parameters for cocurrent and countercurrent flows. Based on the comparisons and uncertainty overlap between the experimental data and predictions, the model is shown to predict critical condenser performance parameters with an uncertainty acceptable for general engineering design and performance evaluations. 33 refs., 69 figs., 38 tabs.

  19. COMPARATIVE CHARACTERISTICS OF MORPHOMETRIC PARAMETERS OF MONKEY GOBY (NEOGOBIUS FLUVIATILIS PALLAS OF FRESH AND SALINE WATER RESERVOIRS IN UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. P. Onoprienko

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The representatives of Pisces family, namely Gobidae are an important component of aquatic ecosystems. With a wide range of adaptation, this group has mastered the different types of fish ponds from completely fresh to the ocean. However, some species are found both in one and in other waters, displaying different (and sometimes conflicting between a life strategy. Last relating to the four main components of the life of fish: water-salt metabolism, nutrition, respiration and reproduction. Mechanisms for implementing these different functions together. First, different concentrations of salts require different types of water- salt metabolism. Another equally important factor is the food base, which is also quite different, both in range and the nature of food. In the sea and reservoirs, over rivers, dissolved oxygen in the water is stratified, and very often in the summer and winter time is in short supply. For bulls, as the bottom of vertebrates, this fact is choking on a large scale. Moreover, in these bodies of water, there are a number of abiotic and biotic factors, which have different requirements in the process of reproduction. The totality of the above conditions vital for fish of Gobidae, makes the need for populations in the gene pool of potential adaptations to survive in those or other settings. Literature data of recent years, the enlargement of habitat bulls, indicating the presence of adaptations. In reservoirs in Ukraine in modern conditions the optimal conditions for Sandpiper observed in the Azov Sea. This contributes greatly to the optimal forage which has emerged over the last decade due to the desalination of sea and favorable conditions for reproduction. In the transition from marine to freshwater Sandpiper flagged fundamentally different and very diverse in every way possible. The difference in environmental conditions differently reflected in the life Bychkov fish, affecting their growth, development and other

  20. Regulation of surface and subterranean fresh water in the MERCOSUR regional integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso Maran de Oliveira1

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This work discusses the regulatory standardization among countries that are party to MERCOSUR. This standardization forms the legal and institutional framework for maintaining important and strategic water resources, which require such regulation in order to be preserved and protected for present and future generations. Due to the lack of general legislation relating to MERCOSUR’s water resources, it was necessary to study the main multilateral agreements among the MERCOSUR countries, such as the Amazon Cooperation Treaty and the River Plate Basin Treaty relating to surface water, and also the legal points included in a recent joint statement of the presidents of the Mercosur States regarding the Guarani Aquifer, which is an important resource for current and future generations of the MERCOSUR. The survey was developed using the hermeneutical method, based upon surveys and analysis of international legislation involving MERCOSUR member states, multilateral treaties relating to transboundary waters and groundwater zones and also included a search of bibliographic materials, books, journals, thematic maps, information and documents available on the Internet. The combination of the sparse legal rules covers most legal relationships between MERCOSUR member states relating to water.

  1. Perspectives on Temperature in the Pacific Northwest's Fresh Waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coutant, C.C.

    1999-06-01

    This report provides a perspective on environmental water temperatures in the Pacific Northwest as they relate to the establishment of water temperature standards by the state and their review by the US Environmental Protection Agency. It is a companion to other detailed reviews of the literature on thermal effects on organisms important to the region. Many factors, both natural and anthropogenic, affect water temperatures in the region. Different environmental zones have characteristic temperatures and mechanisms that affect them. There are specific biotic adaptations to environmental temperatures. Life-cycle strategies of salmonids, in particular, are attuned to annual temperature patterns. Physiological and behavioral requirements on key species form the basis of present water temperature criteria, but may need to be augmented with more concern for environmental settings. There are many issues in the setting of standards, and these are discussed. There are also issues in compliance. Alternative temperature-regulating mechanisms are discussed, as are examples of actions to control water temperatures in the environment. Standards-setting is a social process for which this report should provide background and outline options, alternatives, limitations, and other points for discussion by those in the region.

  2. Impact of fresh and saline water flooding on leaf gas exchange in two Italian provenances of Tamarix africana Poiret.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou Jaoudé, R; de Dato, G; Palmegiani, M; De Angelis, P

    2013-01-01

    In Mediterranean coastal areas, changes in precipitation patterns and seawater levels are leading to increased frequency of flooding and to salinization of estuaries and freshwater systems. Tamarix spp. are often the only woody species growing in such environments. These species are known for their tolerance to moderate salinity; however, contrasting information exists regarding their tolerance to flooding, and the combination of the two stresses has never been studied in Tamarix spp. Here, we analyse the photosynthetic responses of T. africana Poiret to temporary flooding (45 days) with fresh or saline water (200 mm) in two Italian provenances (Simeto and Baratz). The measurements were conducted before and after the onset of flooding, to test the possible cumulative effects of the treatments and effects on twig aging, and to analyse the responses of twigs formed during the experimental period. Full tolerance was evident in T. africana with respect to flooding with fresh water, which did not affect photosynthetic performances in either provenance. Saline flooding was differently tolerated by the two provenances. Moreover, salinity tolerance differently affected the two twig generations. In particular, a reduction in net assimilation rate (-48.8%) was only observed in Baratz twigs formed during the experimental period, compared to pre-existing twigs. This reduction was a consequence of non-stomatal limitations (maximum carboxylation rate and electron transport), probably as a result of higher Na transport to the twigs, coupled with reduced Na storage in the roots. © 2012 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  3. PVDF hollow fiber and nanofiber membranes for fresh water reclamation using membrane distillation

    KAUST Repository

    Francis, Lijo

    2013-11-26

    Polyvinylidene fluoride hollow fiber and nanofibrous membranes are engineered and successfully fabricated using dry-jet wet spinning and electrospinning techniques, respectively. Fabricated membranes are characterized for their morphology, average pore size, pore size distribution, nanofiber diameter distribution, thickness, and water contact angle. Direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) performances of the fabricated membranes have been investigated using a locally designed and fabricated, fully automated MD bench scale unit and DCMD module. Electrospun nanofibrous membranes showed a water flux as high as 36 L m-2 h-1 whereas hollow fiber membranes showed a water flux of 31.6 L m-2 h-1, at a feed inlet temperature of 80 °C and at a permeate inlet temperature of 20 °C.

  4. Introduction: achieving sustainable and adaptive fresh water management : Selective studies of international, European, Dutch and Chinese water law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rijswick, Marleen; Wouters, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    China and Europe face serious water challenges. Europe has developed a comprehensive and adaptive legal framework for addressing water-related management issues. China continues to go forward with its water management schemes. While China and Europe may seem unlikely comparative settings, this

  5. Subcritical hydrothermal liquefaction of barley straw in fresh water and recycled aqueous phase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Zhe; Toor, Saqib; Rosendahl, Lasse

    2014-01-01

    This project focuses on the investigation of addition of aqueous phase in the production of biofuel from biomass through hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) technology. Hydrothermal liquefaction is a wet thermal conversion process, which can convert all kinds of biomass to fuels. In this study, barley....... With the addition of recycling aqueous phase in HTL process, it is expected that the amount of the waste water and energy consumption can be reduced. The effect of water recirculation on product yield and properties was investigated in this study. The results showed that bio-oil yield was 34.85 wt% when the barley...

  6. Radioimmunoassay for arginine-vasotocin (AVT) in serum of Pekin ducks: AVT concentrations after adaptation to fresh water and salt water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moehring, J.; Schoun, J.; Simon-Oppermann, C.; Simon, E.

    1980-01-01

    A radioimmunoassay for arginine-vasotocin (AVT), the antidiuretic principle in birds, was developed using the high cross-reactivity of AVT with an AVP antiserum raised in rabbits. This assay is specific for the measurement of AVT in serum of birds. The sensitivity and precision is such that serum AVT concentrations above 0.5 fmol/ml can be measured quantitatively. A serum AVT concentration of 5.1 +- 1.4 fmol/ml was found in normally hydrated, fresh water adapted ducks with a serum osmolality of 293.7 +- 2.2 mosmol/kg. When the same animals were acutely hydrated, no or [de

  7. Surface energy balance of fresh and saline waters : AquaSEBS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abdelrady, A.R.; Timmermans, J.; Vekerdy, Z.; Salama, M.S.

    2016-01-01

    Current earth observation models do not take into account the influence of water salinity on the evaporation rate, even though the salinity influences the evaporation rate by affecting the density and latent heat of vaporization. In this paper, we adapt the SEBS (Surface Energy Balance System) model

  8. Radiative characteristics of ice-covered fresh- and brackish-water bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leppäranta, Matti

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The structure and optics of ice and snow overlying bodies of water were studied in the years 2000–2003. The data were collected in the northern temperate region (nine Estonian and Finnish lakes and one brackish water site, Santala Bay, in the Gulf of Finland. In the present paper we describe the results concerning the radiative characteristics of the system “snow + ice cover on the water”: albedo, attenuation of light, and planar and scalar irradiances through the ice. The basic data consist of irradiance measurements above and below ice cover for the PAR band of the solar spectrum (400–700 nm. Albedo varied across wide limits (0.20–0.70 for ice, 0.63–0.94 for snow, depending on the optical and physical properties of ice/snow and weather conditions. The vertically averaged light attenuation coefficient of the ice layer in the brackish waters of Santala Bay was higher than that in the lakes. The ratio of irradiance beneath the ice to incident irradiance increased 2.5–20 times after removing the snow, depending on the albedo and the thickness of ice and snow as well as on their optical properties. In the upper layer of water beneath the ice the ratio of planar to scalar quantum irradiances increased with depth (according to our earlier results obtained in summer this ratio decreased with increasing depth.

  9. Carbon dioxide degassing in fresh and saline water. II: Degassing performance of an air-lift

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moran, Damian

    2010-01-01

    A study was undertaken to measure the efficiency with which carbon dioxide was stripped from freshwater (0‰) and saline water (35‰ NaCl) passing through an air-lift at 15 °C. The air-lift was constructed of 50 mm (OD) PVC pipe submerged 95 cm in a tank, had an adjustable air injection rate, and c...

  10. Evaluation of the use of fresh water by four Egyptian farms applying integrated aquaculture – agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijden, van der P.G.M.; Nasr-Alla, A.; Kenawy, D.; El-Naggar, G.; Beveridge, M.

    2012-01-01

    This report describes a study done in 2010 by researchers of the WorldFish Center on water use in Egyptian farms that apply aquaculture – agriculture integration. Two of the four farms that were monitored derived the main income from farming and selling fish, the two other farms were mainly

  11. Reproduction of fresh water desalination installations. Paper no. IGEC-1-071

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slesarenko, V.N. [Maritime State Univ., Vladivostok (Russian Federation)]. E-mail: vslesarenko@mail.primorye.ru

    2005-07-01

    In this article we offer various opportunities of reproduction of sea water for power plants on desalination installations described by high thermal perfection a variants of such schemes. Advantages of modes of installations are shown from the point of view of hydrodynamics and heat exchange. The parameters determining their perfection and profitability are presented. (author)

  12. ARE MACRO AND MICRO ENVIRONMENT AFFECTING MANAGEMENT OF FRESH WATER RESOURCES? A CASE FROM IRAN WITH PESTLE ANALYSIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atighechian, Golrokh; Maleki, Mohammadreza; Aryankhesal, Aidin; Jahangiri, Katayoun

    2016-07-24

    Oil spill in fresh water can affect ecological processes and accordingly it can influence human health. Iran, due to having 58.8 % of the world oil reserves, is highly vulnerable to water contamination by oil products. The aim of this study was to determine environmental factors affecting the management of the oil spill into one of the river in Iran using the PESTLE analysis. This was a qualitative case study conducted in 2015 on an oil spill incident in Iran and its roots from a disaster management approach. Semi-structured interviews were conducted for data collection. Seventy managers and staffs with those responsible or involved in oil spill incident management were recruited to the study. Qualitative content analysis approach was employed for the data analysis. Document analysis was used to collect additional information. Findings of the present study indicated that different factors affected the management of the event of oil spill onto one of the central river and consequently the management of drink water resources. Using this analysis, managers can plan for such events and develop scenarios for them to have better performance for the future events.

  13. Studies on the behaviour of some radioactive pollutants into soil-fresh water environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sayed, M.S.

    1989-01-01

    The overwhelming increase in the use of nuclear power plants comes to cover many purposes, such as generating of electricity, desalination of sea water, and producing radioactive isotopes in large quantities. There is no doubt that the continuous increase in the production of radioisotope, presents an outstanding potential health hazard to man and its environment. Many radio-nuclide wastes, may be released to the environment from nuclear research reactors, hospitals, universities etc in large quantities and low radioactive level which can contaminate drinking and underground water, plants, animals and air. The present work includes introduction which is a literature survey of uses of natural minerals and clays in the treatment of low level radioactive wastes and the different chemical methods used for their treatment e.g. co-participation, adsorption chromatography, ion exchange , solvent extraction, coagulation and flocculation etc

  14. Floating nuclear power station of APWS-80 type for electricity generation and fresh water production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zverev, K.V.; Polunichev, V.I.; Sergeev, Yu.A.

    1997-01-01

    To solve the problem of seawater desalination and electric energy generation, the designing organizations of Russia have developed two variants of floating nuclear desalination plant. The KLT-40 type reactors, with maximum 160 MW thermal power, is used as the power source for such plant. Depending on the customer requirement one or two power unit could be installed in the floating desalination plant. There are APWS-80 with two reactors, producing 80,000 m 3 desalinated water per day and APWS-40 with one reactor, producing 40,000 m 3 desalinated water per day. The advantages of floating desalination plants are the possibility to build and test them at the ship-build plant of the supplier country and to hand them over on turnkey base. (author). 5 figs

  15. Evidence of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar fry movement between fresh water and a brackish environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taal, I; Rohtla, M; Saks, L; Svirgsden, R; Kesler, M; Matetski, L; Vetemaa, M

    2017-08-01

    This study reports descent of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar fry from their natal streams to brackish waters of the Baltic Sea and their use of this environment as an alternative rearing habitat before ascending back to freshwater streams. To the authors' knowledge, residency in a brackish environment has not previously been demonstrated in S. salar fry. Recruitment success and evolutionary significance of this alternative life-history strategy are presently not known. © 2017 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  16. Recycling of fresh concrete exceeding and wash water in concrete mixing plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Férriz Papí, J. A.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The exceeding concrete and washing equipment water are a matter to solve in concrete production. This paper explains several possibilities for recycling and analyses the products obtained with one recycling equipment. The objective of this work is to study the possibility to increase the percentage of recycling in new mixes. The developed study relates wash water density and fine particles content. Besides, mortar and concrete samples were tested introducing different quantities of these fine particles, substituting cement, sand or only as an addition. Consistency, compressive strength, setting time, absorption, and capillarity were tested. The results indicated an improvement of the studied properties in some percentages when substituting sand. It confirms the possibility to introduce larger quantities of wash water in new concrete mixes, with corrections in sand quantity depending on water density.Los hormigones frescos sobrantes y aguas procedentes de la limpieza de equipos son un inconveniente a resolver en las plantas de hormigón. Este artículo explica varias posibilidades de reciclado y analiza los productos obtenidos en un equipo reciclador concreto, con el objetivo de estudiar el incremento del porcentaje de reciclaje en nuevas amasadas. El estudio realizado relaciona la densidad del agua de lavado y el contenido de partículas finas. Además, ensaya muestras de mortero y hormigón realizando sustituciones de estas partículas finas por cemento, arena o simplemente como adición. Determina consistencia, resistencia a compresión, principio y fin de fraguado, absorción y capilaridad. Los resultados indicaron un incremento general de las propiedades estudiadas en algunos porcentajes de sustitución por arena. Ello confirma la posibilidad de introducir mayores cantidades de agua de lavado en nuevas amasadas de hormigón, mediante correcciones en la dosificación de arena en función de la densidad del agua.

  17. The clearwater consensus: the estimation of metal hazard in fresh water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diamond, Miriam L.; Gandhi, Nilima; Adams, William J.

    2010-01-01

    Background, aim, and scope Task Force 3 of the UNEP/SETAC Life Cycle Initiative has been working towards developing scientifically sound methods for quantifying impacts of substances released into the environment. The Clearwater Consensus follows from the Lausanne (Jolliet et al. Int J Life Cycle...... of the evaluative environment defined by the multimedia model, which is necessary because of the dependence of metal bioavailability on water chemistry....

  18. Urbanization accelerates long-term salinization and alkalinization of fresh water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushal, S.; Duan, S.; Doody, T.; Haq, S.; Smith, R. M.; Newcomer Johnson, T. A.; Delaney Newcomb, K.; Gorman, J. K.; Bowman, N.; Mayer, P. M.; Wood, K. L.; Belt, K.; Stack, W.

    2017-12-01

    Human dominated land-use increases transport a major ions in streams due to anthropogenic salts and accelerated weathering. We show long-term trends in calcium, magnesium, sodium, alkalinity, and hardness over 50 years in the Baltimore metropolitan region and elsewhere. We also examine how major ion concentrations have increased significantly with impervious surface cover in watersheds across land use. Base cations show strong relationships with acid anions, which illustrates the coupling of major biogeochemical cycles in urban watersheds over time. Longitudinal patterns in major ions can also show increasing trends from headwaters to coastal waters, which suggests coupled biogeochemical cycles over space. We present new results from manipulative experiments and long-term monitoring across different urban regions regarding patterns and processes of salinization and alkalinization. Overall, our work demonstrates that urbanization dramatically increases major ions, ionic strength, and pH over decades from headwaters to coastal waters, which impacts the integrity of aquatic life, infrastructure, drinking water, and coastal ocean alkalinization.

  19. A Fresh Perspective for Managing Water in California: Insights from Applying the European Water Framework Directive to the Russian River

    OpenAIRE

    Grantham, Ted; Christian-Smith, Juliet; Kondolf, G. Mathias; Scheuer, Stefan

    2008-01-01

    Throughout the world there is increasing public awareness of the importance of sustainable water management to meet both growing human demands and ecosystem needs. Predictions of increased climate variability and indicators of ecological and water quality deterioration have made water management a salient political issue, particularly in arid climate regions such as western North America and the Iberian Peninsula. In recent years, substantial effort has been focused on adopting sustainable wa...

  20. The comparative osmoregulatory ability of two water beetle genera whose species span the fresh-hypersaline gradient in inland waters (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae, Hydrophilidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Pallarés

    Full Text Available A better knowledge of the physiological basis of salinity tolerance is essential to understanding the ecology and evolutionary history of organisms that have colonized inland saline waters. Coleoptera are amongst the most diverse macroinvertebrates in inland waters, including saline habitats; however, the osmoregulatory strategies they employ to deal with osmotic stress remain unexplored. Survival and haemolymph osmotic concentration at different salinities were examined in adults of eight aquatic beetle species which inhabit different parts of the fresh-hypersaline gradient. Studied species belong to two unrelated genera which have invaded saline waters independently from freshwater ancestors; Nebrioporus (Dytiscidae and Enochrus (Hydrophilidae. Their osmoregulatory strategy (osmoconformity or osmoregulation was identified and osmotic capacity (the osmotic gradient between the animal's haemolymph and the external medium was compared between species pairs co-habiting similar salinities in nature. We show that osmoregulatory capacity, rather than osmoconformity, has evolved independently in these different lineages. All species hyperegulated their haemolymph osmotic concentration in diluted waters; those living in fresh or low-salinity waters were unable to hyporegulate and survive in hyperosmotic media (> 340 mosmol kg(-1. In contrast, the species which inhabit the hypo-hypersaline habitats were effective hyporegulators, maintaining their haemolymph osmolality within narrow limits (ca. 300 mosmol kg(-1 across a wide range of external concentrations. The hypersaline species N. ceresyi and E. jesusarribasi tolerated conductivities up to 140 and 180 mS cm(-1, respectively, and maintained osmotic gradients over 3500 mosmol kg(-1, comparable to those of the most effective insect osmoregulators known to date. Syntopic species of both genera showed similar osmotic capacities and in general, osmotic responses correlated well with upper salinity levels

  1. Uniquely significant fresh water fishes of Iran are exposure to environmental stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valeolahy, J.

    2000-01-01

    The native fishes of springs, Ghana ts and Caves of Iran are uniquely significant, since they are rear and, because of pollution, dryness, purposeful or accidental introduction of exotic species and over all, because of industrialization are in danger. The stock of valuable fishes of Iran are declining while they have not been completely identified. The stock of these fishes, particular y those of economic value, such as large Bar bus sp. at western part of Iran are declining. In an attempt fishes among the 140 station and average of three unit of effort for catch of fish in every station (total of 400 unit of effort) about 80 specimen of large Bar bus were caught. Fishes were caught by electroshock and various kind of net with mesh size of 2 cm to 4 cm. The Gamasib River was known to have large Carp, but this result showed that nowadays the stock of large Bar bus substantially damaged. The stock of: B. subquincunciatus and B. grypus severely damaged. The purpose of this paper is to describe those factors, which affect the stock and abundance of Iranian freshwater fishes, and to suggest measures for the conservation of this fauna. These factors include pre-industrial, and such factors related to industrialization and population increases as de vegetation, water abstracting, fishing, pollution and faun al introductions. Introduction of new species to increase fish production and exploit the fishery potential of water bodies, can be great utility; but has many hazardous impacts on native species, Biodiversity and Ecology of the Water bodies. Some aspect of theses impacts are outlined

  2. Business water footprint accounting. A tool to assess how production of goods and services impacts on fresh water resources worldwide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerbens-Leenes, Winnie; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert

    2008-01-01

    This report aims to identify the current state of business water accounting and to design an accounting method for the business water footprint (BWF). It answers the following questions: (i) What are the main developments in sustainable business performance so far? (ii) What is the current state of

  3. Using a Combination of Spectral and Textural Data to Measure Water-Holding Capacity in Fresh Chicken Breast Fillets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beibei Jia

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim here was to explore the potential of visible and near-infrared (Vis/NIR hyperspectral imaging (400–1000 nm to classify fresh chicken breast fillets into different water-holding capacity (WHC groups. Initially, the extracted spectra and image textural features, as well as the mixed data of the two, were used to develop partial least square-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA classification models. Smoothing, a first derivative process, and principle component analysis (PCA were carried out sequentially on the mean spectra of all samples to deal with baseline offsets and identify outlier data. Six samples located outside the confidence ellipses of 95% confidence level in the score plot were defined as outliers. A PLS-DA model based on the outlier-free spectra provided a correct classification rate (CCR value of 78% in the prediction set. Then, seven optimal wavelengths selected using a successive projections algorithm (SPA were used to develop a simplified PLS-DA model that obtained a slightly reduced CCR with a value of 73%. Moreover, the gray-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM was implemented on the first principle component image (with 98.13% of variance of the hyperspectral image to extract textural features (contrast, correlation, energy, and homogeneity. The CCR of the model developed using textural variables was less optimistic with a value of 59%. Compared to results of models based on spectral or textural data individually, the performance of the model based on the mixed data of optimal spectral and textural features was the best with an improved CCR of 86%. The results showed that the spectral and textural data of hyperspectral images together can be integrated in order to measure and classify the WHC of fresh chicken breast fillets.

  4. Occurrence and distribution of fresh-water molluscs in the Riacho Fundo Creek Basin, Brasilia, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins-Silva, M J; Barros, M

    2001-01-01

    To study the distribution of molluscs in the Riacho Fundo Creek (cerrado region of central Brazil), five creek sites were sampled once every two months for one year. Molluscs were sampled using standardized kick-net sampling. Four species of molluscs were found: Physella cubensis, Melanoides tuberculata, Biomphalaria straminea and Pisidium sp. The most abundant were P. cubensis and Pisidium sp. Physella cubensis was most abundant in the dry season and Pisidium sp. was most abundant in the rainy season, probably reflecting the rainy season increase of water currents.

  5. COMPARATIVE CHARACTERISTICS OF MORPHOMETRIC PARAMETERS OF MONKEY GOBY (NEOGOBIUS FLUVIATILIS PALLAS OF FRESH AND SALINE WATER RESERVOIRS IN UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onoprienko V.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The representatives of Pisces family, namely Gobidae are an important component of aquatic ecosystems. With a wide range of adaptation, this group has mastered the different types of fish ponds from completely fresh to the ocean. However, some species are found both in one and in other waters, displaying different (and sometimes conflicting between a life strategy. Last relating to the four main components of the life of fish: water-salt metabolism, nutrition, respiration and reproduction. Mechanisms for implementing these different functions together. First, different concentrations of salts require different types of water- salt metabolism. Another equally important factor is the food base, which is also quite different, both in range and the nature of food. In the sea and reservoirs, over rivers, dissolved oxygen in the water is stratified, and very often in the summer and winter time is in short supply. For bulls, as the bottom of vertebrates, this fact is choking on a large scale. Moreover, in these bodies of water, there are a number of abiotic and biotic factors, which have different requirements in the process of reproduction. The totality of the above conditions vital for fish of Gobidae, makes the need for populations in the gene pool of potential adaptations to survive in those or other settings. Literature data of recent years, the enlargement of habitat bulls, indicating the presence of adaptations. In reservoirs in Ukraine in modern conditions the optimal conditions for Sandpiper observed in the Azov Sea. This contributes greatly to the optimal forage which has emerged over the last decade due to the desalination of sea and favorable conditions for reproduction. In the transition from marine to freshwater Sandpiper flagged fundamentally different and very diverse in every way possible. The difference in environmental conditions differently reflected in the life Bychkov fish, affecting their growth, development and other

  6. Are Lead Exposures a Risk in European Fresh Waters? A Regulatory Assessment Accounting for Bioavailability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Adam; Wilson, Iain; Merrington, Graham; Chowdhury, M Jasim

    2018-01-01

    An indicative compliance assessment of the Europe-wide bioavailable lead Environmental Quality Standard of 1.2 µg L -1 (EQS) was undertaken against regulatory freshwater monitoring data from six European member states and FOREGS database. Bio-met, a user-friendly tool based upon Biotic Ligand Models (BLMs) was used to account for bioavailability, along with the current European Water Framework Directive lead dissolved organic carbon correction approach. The outputs from both approaches were compared to the BLM. Of the 9054 freshwater samples assessed only 0.6% exceeded the EQS of 1.2 µg L -1 after accounting for bioavailability. The data showed that ambient background concentrations of lead across Europe are unlikely to influence general compliance with the EQS, although there may be isolated local issues. The waters showing the greatest sensitivity to potential lead exposures are characterized by relatively low DOC (< 0.5 mg L -1 ), regardless of the pH and calcium concentrations.

  7. Concentration of radionuclides in fresh water fish downstream of Rancho Seco Nuclear Generating Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noshkin, V.E.; Eagle, R.J.; Dawson, J.M.; Brunk, J.L.; Wong, X.M.

    1984-01-01

    Fish were collected for radionuclide analysis over a 5-month period in 1984 from creeks downstream of the Rancho Seco Nuclear Generating Plant, which has been discharging quantities of some fission and activation products to the waterway since 1981. Among the fish, the bluegill was selected for intensive study because it is very territorial and the radionuclide concentrations detected should be representative of the levels in the local environment at the downstream locations sampled. Among the gamma-emitting radionuclides routinely released, only 134 Cs and 137 Cs were detected in the edible flesh of fish. Concentrations in the flesh of fish decreased with distance from the plant. The relationship between concentration and distance was determined to be exponential. Exponential equations were generated to estimate concentrations in fish at downstream locations where no site-specific information was available. Mean concentrations of 137 Cs in bluegill collected during April, May, July and August from specific downstream stations were not significantly different in spite of the release of 131 mCi to the creeks between April and August. The concentrations in fish are not responding to changes in water concentrations brought about by plant discharges. Diet appears to be a more significant factor than size or weight or water concentration in regulating body burdens of 137 Cs in these fish

  8. Family caregiver challenges in dementia care in a country with undeveloped dementia services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Xiao, Lily Dongxia; He, Guo-Ping; De Bellis, Anita

    2014-06-01

    To examine socially, culturally and politically constructed factors affecting family caregiver practice in dementia care, and to identify possible changes in a country with undeveloped dementia services. In China and many other low- and middle-income countries, social transformations are weakening the family care model, which has an impact on the population with dementia. Exploring the challenges that caregivers face may help the international healthcare community to improve dementia services. A double hermeneutic approach informed by Giddens' Structuration Theory was used. In-depth semi-structured interviews with 23 family caregivers of people with dementia were conducted in 2012. The interviews were audiotaped, transcribed and analysed. Analyses revealed three consequences of socially constructed factors in dementia care, which constrained caregiver practice. First, caregivers were unable to manage behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia. Untreated aggressive behaviours caused harm to the person with dementia and endangered the caregiver and the public. Second, the burden on the primary caregiver was evident and caregivers received limited support. Third, there was little coordination between primary and specialist care services for people with dementia. On critical reflection of potential changes that could improve dementia services, caregivers suggested that community nurses have a leading role in coordinating dementia services and supporting caregivers. Relying on family caregivers to care for people with dementia without the prevision of dementia services by the public healthcare system generates negative health outcomes for both care recipients and caregivers. The nursing workforce should be developed to support dementia services. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Comparative food-chain behavior and distribution of actinide elements in and around a contaminated fresh-water pond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garten, C.T. Jr.; Trabalka, J.R.; Bogle, M.A.

    1981-01-01

    The bioaccumulation of /sup 233/ /sup 234/U, /sup 238/U, /sup 238/Pu, /sup 239/ /sup 240/Pu, /sup 241/Am, and /sup 244/Cm in both native and introduced biota was studied at Pond 3513, a former low-level radioactive waste settling basin at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. This system, which was decommissioned in 1976 after more than 30 years use, contains approximately 5 Ci of /sup 239/ /sup 240/Pu; inventories of other actinide isotopes are considerably less. Significantly higher concentrations of actinides in fish that were allowed access to sediments indicated that sedimentary particulates may be the primary source of transuranics to biota in shallow fresh-water ecosystems. Our study determined habitat, in particular the degree of association of an organism with the sediment-water interface, to be the primary factor in controlling transuranic concentrations in aquatic biota. In most of the biological samples analyzed, excluding samples suspected of being contaminated by sediment, /sup 241/Am//sup 239/Pu, /sup 244/Cm//sup 239/Pu, and /sup 238/U//sup 239/Pu ratios were greater than the respective ratio in sediment while /sup 233/ /sup 234/U//sup 238/U, and /sup 239/ /sup 240/Pu//sup 238/Pu ratios were not different from the respective ratios in sediment. The relative uptake of actinides from contaminated sediment by aquatic and terrestrial biota at this site was U > Cm greater than or equal to Am > Pu. The relative extractability of actinides from shoreline sediment was U > Cm approx. = Am > Pu; we also observed the same relative ranking for sediment-water exchange in situ. Concentrations of transuranics in water, terrestrial vegetation, and vertebrate carcasses were less than 10% of the recommended public exposure maximum permissible concentration (MPC) of the ICRP.

  10. Comparative food-chain behavior and distribution of actinide elements in and around a contaminated fresh-water pond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garten, C.T. Jr.; Trabalka, J.R.; Bogle, M.A.

    1981-01-01

    The bioaccumulation of 233 234 U, 238 U, 238 Pu, 239 240 Pu, 241 Am, and 244 Cm in both native and introduced biota was studied at Pond 3513, a former low-level radioactive waste settling basin at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. This system, which was decommissioned in 1976 after more than 30 years use, contains approximately 5 Ci of 239 240 Pu; inventories of other actinide isotopes are considerably less. Significantly higher concentrations of actinides in fish that were allowed access to sediments indicated that sedimentary particulates may be the primary source of transuranics to biota in shallow fresh-water ecosystems. Our study determined habitat, in particular the degree of association of an organism with the sediment-water interface, to be the primary factor in controlling transuranic concentrations in aquatic biota. In most of the biological samples analyzed, excluding samples suspected of being contaminated by sediment, 241 Am/ 239 Pu, 244 Cm/ 239 Pu, and 238 U/ 239 Pu ratios were greater than the respective ratio in sediment while 233 234 U/ 238 U, and 239 240 Pu/ 238 Pu ratios were not different from the respective ratios in sediment. The relative uptake of actinides from contaminated sediment by aquatic and terrestrial biota at this site was U > Cm greater than or equal to Am > Pu. The relative extractability of actinides from shoreline sediment was U > Cm approx. = Am > Pu; we also observed the same relative ranking for sediment-water exchange in situ. Concentrations of transuranics in water, terrestrial vegetation, and vertebrate carcasses were less than 10% of the recommended public exposure maximum permissible concentration (MPC) of the ICRP

  11. Effects of water acidity and seasonal variability on the distribution of /sup 241/Am in the fresh water snail Lymnaea stagnalis L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiels, G.M.; Murray, C.N.; Vanderborght, O.L.J.

    1984-09-01

    Until now, the transuranic elements have only received scattered attention regarding their behavior in fresh waters. Nevertheless, an understanding of their bio-geochemistry in such media is required to develop a realistic assessment of the critical pathways leading to man. To evaluate the importance of the different routes, information is needed on the biokinetics of these radionuclides in selected biota and on the parameters which govern their accumulation. Therefore, an attempt was made to elucidate the effect of one of these parameters, namely water acidity, on the bioavailability of the transuranic /sup 241/Am for the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis L. It has been demonstrated that the fixation of the radionuclide in this laboratory-bred species undergoes seasonal changes, attaining a maximum in summer and a minimum in winter.

  12. Antibiotics, Antibiotic Resistance Genes, and Bacterial Community Composition in Fresh Water Aquaculture Environment in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Wenguang; Sun, Yongxue; Zhang, Tong; Ding, Xueyao; Li, Yafei; Wang, Mianzhi; Zeng, Zhenling

    2015-08-01

    Environmental antibiotic resistance has drawn increasing attention due to its great threat to human health. In this study, we investigated concentrations of antibiotics (tetracyclines, sulfonamides and (fluoro)quinolones) and abundances of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), including tetracycline resistance genes, sulfonamide resistance genes, and plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes, and analyzed bacterial community composition in aquaculture environment in Guangdong, China. The concentrations of sulfametoxydiazine, sulfamethazine, sulfamethoxazole, oxytetracycline, chlorotetracycline, doxycycline, ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, and enrofloxacin were as high as 446 μg kg(-1) and 98.6 ng L(-1) in sediment and water samples, respectively. The relative abundances (ARG copies/16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene copies) of ARGs (sul1, sul2, sul3, tetM, tetO, tetW, tetS, tetQ, tetX, tetB/P, qepA, oqxA, oqxB, aac(6')-Ib, and qnrS) were as high as 2.8 × 10(-2). The dominant phyla were Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Firmicutes in sediment samples and Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes in water samples. The genera associated with pathogens were also observed, such as Acinetobacter, Arcobacter, and Clostridium. This study comprehensively investigated antibiotics, ARGs, and bacterial community composition in aquaculture environment in China. The results indicated that fish ponds are reservoirs of ARGs and the presence of potential resistant and pathogen-associated taxonomic groups in fish ponds might imply the potential risk to human health.

  13. Investigation of the complexation of metal-ions by strong ligands in fresh and marine water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesavento, Maria; Biesuz, Raffaela; Profumo, Antonella; Soldi, Teresa

    2003-01-01

    The detection and investigation of metal ions bound in strong complexes in natural waters is a difficult task, due to low concentration of the metal ions themselves, and also of the strong ligands, which, moreover, are often not of a well-defined composition. Here, a method is proposed for the investigation of the speciation of metal ions in natural waters. It is based on the sorption of metal ions on strongly sorbing ion exchange resins, i.e. complexing resins. For this reason the method is called Resin Titration. It has been shown in previous investigations that the concentration of metal ion totally sorbed by a particular resin, and its reaction coefficient in the solution phase in the presence of the resin, can be determined from the sorption data using a simple relationship. Here, a data treatment (the Ruzic linearization method) is proposed for also determining the concentration of the ligands responsible for the complex in equilibrium with the resin. The method was applied to data obtained by Resin Titration of a freshwater and a seawater. Copper(II) and aluminium(III) were considered, using Chelex 100 as a titrant, due to its strong sorbing properties towards these metal ions. The results were: the total metal concentration in equilibrium with the resin, the side reaction coefficients, and the concentration of ligands. In all these cases the ligands forming very strong complexes were found to be at concentration lower than that of the metals. The Ruzic linearization method allows the determination of the concentration of the ligands forming very strong complexes in equilibrium with Chelex 100. The reaction coefficient was better determined by the calculation method previously proposed for RT. The ligands responsible for the strong complexes were found to be at low concentration, often lower than that of the metal ions considered. The metal in the original sample is partly bound to these ligands, since the complexes are very strong. Only a part of the metal

  14. DISTRIBUTION, RECENT MORTALITIES AND CONSERVATION MEASURES OF CRAYFISH IN HELLENIC FRESH WATERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KOUTRAKIS E.

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Freshwater crayfish are found in 20 out of 53 Prefectures of Greece (38% and they form isolated populations in relatively pristine water bodies. Three indigenous crayfish species (ICS occur in Greek waters: Astacus astacus, Astacus leptodactylus and Austropotamobius torrentium, as well as one non-indigenous crayfish species (NICS Pacifastacus leniusculus. Greece represents probably the most southern natural distribution limit for A. astacus and A. torrentium in the world. Concerning NICS, P. leniusculus was imported, at least in two cases, from Sweden and Germany during the early and late 1980’s respectively, in order to replace A. astacus stocks impoverished by human activities. Recently, Cherax quadricarinatus specimens have been seen in a restaurant’s aquarium and pet shop, raising fears about uncontrolled imports of alien pet species. During our 2004-2005 survey, we found that P. leniusculus established not only a thriving population in the artificial Lake Agra (Region of Central Macedonia, but also they co-occur with A. torrentium there. It is also suspected that A. astacus may co-occur there with these two species, as three large male specimens of A. astacus were caught in a creek close to the lake. Concerning A. leptodactylus, there are three sets of preserved samples from the River Evros (state border with Turkey in Thrace today, dated back to the 19th century, but no recent information about occurrence was available. But the accidental catch of six specimens of A. leptodactylus during May 2005 in that river re-documented the occurrence of the species. Finally, a deep-dwelling A. torrentium population with bluish legs was found to live in depths up to 7,800 meters inside the Aggitis Cave in northeastern Greece. There is a lot of work to be done on geographic distribution, population dynamics, genetics, reproduction, nutrition, diseases, and farming of crayfish species in Greece. Moreover, several actions should be undertaken to

  15. A Comparative Analysis of Hydrologic Response to Climate Change in Developed and Undeveloped Watersheds on the New Jersey Coastal Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daraio, J. A.

    2014-12-01

    Climate change is projected to have an impact on precipitation patterns across the Mid-Atlantic with the likelihood of an increase in the frequency and magnitude of extreme precipitation events. A greater proportion of total annual precipitation could fall in larger events with the potential to impact flooding, storm water infrastructure, and water supply. The watersheds of the coastal plain of New Jersey draining to the Atlantic and Delaware Bay have mild slopes are underlain by very sandy soils. These areas serve as sources of recharge to the Kirkwood-Cohansey aquifer, which is an important water supply for the region. The Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System (PRMS) was used to simulate the potential impacts of climate change on stream flow and groundwater recharge in two watersheds located within the New Jersey coastal plain. The Batsto River watershed includes parts of the Pinelands Reserve with relatively little development in some its headwater areas, primarily small towns and agricultural land use. The Maurice River watershed includes several urbanized areas along with some agricultural land, but population is expecting to increase within the next 10-20 years. The Maurice River basin is outside the Pinelands Reserve but has significant area that contains Pine Barrens. Models were calibrated using observed stream flow from USGS gages and gridded meteorological data from 1995-2002 and validated with observed data from 2002-2005. The calibrated models were forced using an ensemble of three bias-corrected downscaled climate projections (CMIP5, NOAA NCEP, and ECHAM) to assess and compare the potential response of these two watersheds. All meteorological data were obtained online from the GeoData Portal. Preliminary results indicate that climate change is likely to have a greater impact on stream flow in the developed Maurice River basin than in the undeveloped Batsto River basin. More detailed analyses of stream flow and the potential impacts on groundwater

  16. Utilizing Slurry and Carwash Wastewater as Fresh Water Replacement in Concrete Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahidan Shahiron

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The high demand for concrete production generates wastewater which causes environmental problems. However, if wastewater is able to be recycled as part of engineering construction materials, many benefits can be reaped. Unfortunately, the use of wastewater in manufacturing concrete is not common. Therefore, this research aims to identify the influence of using slurry water and car wash wastewater on concrete properties, focusing particularly on its mechanical properties. The basic characteristics of wastewater were studied according to USEPA method while the properties of concrete with wastewater were compared according to ASTM C1602 and BS EN 1008 standards. In this paper, the compressive strength, modulus of elasticity and tensile strength were examined in order to determine the mechanical properties of concrete. The wastewater was replaced in the concrete mix from 0% up to 40%. The results indicated that the characteristics of wastewater complied with the BS and ASTM standards. In addition, the results also recommended that the concrete mixture with 20% of wastewater has given the highest compressive strength and modulus of elasticity.

  17. NEW MEGALOCYTIVIRUS INFECTED TO THE CULTURED FRESH WATER GIANT GOURAMI, Osphronemus gouramy Lac. IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isti Koesharyani

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Giant gourami (Osphronemus gouramy Lac. is one of freshwater fish having high economic value and very popular in Indonesian food restaurant. This fish have been cultured throughout Indonesia. Since two years ago, cultured fish in ponds infected by unknown pathogenic agent and may cause diseased fish and mass mortality. Mass mortality of pond cultured giant gourami occurred in West Java, Central Java, and Bali-Indonesia. The symptoms of diseased fish are the body color becomes darker, resting on the water surface, and internal organs of fish characterized by enlargement of spleen. In the present study diseased fish samples were diagnose by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR techniques using specific primers of red sea bream iridovirus (RSIV and histopathologically analysis to determine the causative agent of mortality. Based on PCR analysis, show that all fish sampled were positive infected by megalocytivirus and infected fish mostly died. This is a new and first time reported virus infection in cultured giant gourami in Indonesia and it is proposed to be named as giant gourami iridovirus (GGIV.

  18. Comparative study of salinity tolerance of an oceanic sea skater, Halobates micans and its closely related fresh water species, Metrocoris histrio

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sekimoto, T.; Osumi, Y.; Shiraki, T.; Kobayashi, A.; Emi, K.; Nakajo, M.; Moku, M.; Košťál, Vladimír; Katagiri, C.; Harada, T.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 14 (2014), s. 1141-1148 ISSN 2150-4091 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : ocean ic sea skaters * fresh water halobatinae species * salinity tolerance Subject RIV: ED - Physiology http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=49746

  19. Satellite surface salinity maps to determine fresh water fluxes in the Arctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabarro, Carolina; Estrella, Olmedo; Emelianov, Mikhail; Ballabrera, Joaquim; Turiel, Antonio

    2017-04-01

    Salinity and temperature gradients drive the thermohaline circulation of the oceans, and play a key role in the ocean-atmosphere coupling. The strong and direct interactions between the ocean and the cryosphere (primarily through sea ice and ice shelves) are also a key ingredient of the thermohaline circulation. Recent observational studies have documented changes in upper Arctic Ocean hydrography [1, 2]. The ESA's Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission, launched in 2009, have the objective to measure soil moisture over the continents and sea surface salinity over the oceans [3]. However, SMOS is also making inroads in Cryospheric science, as the measurements of thin ice thickness and sea ice concentration. SMOS carries an innovative L-band (1.4 GHz, or 21-cm wavelength), passive interferometric radiometer (the so-called MIRAS) that measures the electromagnetic radiation emitted by the Earth's surface, at about 50 km spatial resolution wide swath (1200-km), and with a 3-day revisit time at the equator, but more frequently at the poles. Although the SMOS radiometer operating frequency offers almost the maximum sensitivity of the brightness temperature (TB) to sea surface salinity (SSS) variations, such sensitivity is rather low, even lower at cold waters [4]: 90% of ocean SSS values span a range of brightness temperatures of just 5K. This implies that the SMOS SSS retrieval requires a high performance of the MIRAS interferometric radiometer [5]. New algorithms, recently developed at the Barcelona Expert Center (BEC) to improve the quality of SMOS measurements [6], allow for the first time to derive cold-water SSS maps from SMOS data, and to observe the variability of the SSS in the higher north Atlantic and the Arctic Ocean. In this work, we will provide an assessment of the quality of these new SSS Arctic maps, and we will illustrate their potential to monitor the impact on ocean state of the discharges from the main rivers to the Arctic Ocean. Moreover

  20. Drinking water decontamination by biological denitrification using fresh bamboo as inoculum source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucco, Samuel; Padoin, Natan; Netto, Willibaldo Schmidell; Soares, Hugo Moreira

    2014-10-01

    Groundwater contamination is becoming a serious problem in many Brazilian regions. European countries started to deal with this issue in the 1980s, mainly caused by the extensive usage of nitrogenous fertilizers and the absence of domestic wastewater treatment. Due to its high solubility, nitrate readily passes through the soil and reaches the aquifer. Thereafter, this ion moves, following groundwater flow, and can be found several kilometers from the area where the pollution occurred. Concern about nitrate contamination is due to the link found between this contaminant and various human health diseases, such as methemoglobin and cancer. Studies carried out in France enabled the design and implementation of several biological denitrification plants throughout the country, in order to remove nitrate from its contaminated groundwater. Heterotrophic denitrification facilities shown to be adequate to treat high water flows with satisfactory nitrate removal efficiency, especially when static media supports are employed. The objective of this research was to evaluate the existence of denitrifying microorganisms in bamboo (Bambusa tuldóides) and verify the feasibility of their use to inoculate a pilot-scale fixed-bed bioreactor. The support material selected to fill the bioreactor bed was commercial polypropylene Pall rings, since such support has a high porosity associated with a wide superficial area. The bioreactor was able to produce and retain a large amount of cells. Using ethanol as carbon source, nitrate (N-NO3(-)) removal efficiency of the bioreactor stood around 80 % for a maximum nitrogen loading rate of approximately 6.5 mg N-NO3 (-) L(-1) h(-1).

  1. Phenotypic and Genetic Diversity of Aeromonas Species Isolated from Fresh Water Lakes in Malaysia.

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    Wei Ching Khor

    Full Text Available Gram-negative bacilli of the genus Aeromonas are primarily inhabitants of the aquatic environment. Humans acquire this organism from a wide range of food and water sources as well as during aquatic recreational activities. In the present study, the diversity and distribution of Aeromonas species from freshwater lakes in Malaysia was investigated using glycerophospholipid-cholesterol acyltransferase (GCAT and RNA polymerase sigma-factor (rpoD genes for speciation. A total of 122 possible Aeromonas strains were isolated and confirmed to genus level using the API20E system. The clonality of the isolates was investigated using ERIC-PCR and 20 duplicate isolates were excluded from the study. The specific GCAT-PCR identified all isolates as belonging to the genus Aeromonas, in agreement with the biochemical identification. A phylogenetic tree was constructed using the rpoD gene sequence and all 102 isolates were identified as: A. veronii 43%, A. jandaei 37%, A. hydrophila 6%, A. caviae 4%, A. salmonicida 2%, A. media 2%, A. allosaccharophila 1%, A. dhakensis 1% and Aeromonas spp. 4%. Twelve virulence genes were present in the following proportions--exu 96%, ser 93%, aer 87%, fla 83%, enolase 70%, ela 62%, act 54%, aexT 33%, lip 16%, dam 16%, alt 8% and ast 4%, and at least 2 of these genes were present in all 102 strains. The ascV, aexU and hlyA genes were not detected among the isolates. A. hydrophila was the main species containing virulence genes alt and ast either present alone or in combination. It is possible that different mechanisms may be used by each genospecies to demonstrate virulence. In summary, with the use of GCAT and rpoD genes, unambiguous identification of Aeromonas species is possible and provides valuable data on the phylogenetic diversity of the organism.

  2. Fate of parabens and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid in aquifer materials columns during step experiments with fresh and sea waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Ortiz, C. M.; Boluda-Botella, N.; Prats-Rico, D.; Sentana-Gadea, I.

    2018-02-01

    Coastal areas submitted to seawater intrusion and with discharges from urban and industrial wastewaters, municipal landfill leachates, rivers, recreational waters and other sources are sensitive to be polluted with parabens. Understanding the fate of these compounds in environmental studies, it requires previously the knowledge of the reactive processes in controlled conditions. In this research, laboratory columns experiments were carried out with a group of parabens (methyl-, ethyl-, propyl- and butylparaben) and their main degradation compound (4-hydroxybenzoic acid) to study mainly the dynamic sorption processes in different aquifer materials (100% sand and heterogeneous: 81% sand, 9% silt and 10% clay) and with fresh and sea waters, the end members of seawater intrusions. To the column hydrodynamic characterization, tracer assays with increase and decrease of salinity were performed, to obtain the mean residence time of each column and other transport parameters which allow us to compare parabens' sorption in different conditions. The results of the adsorption and desorption of parabens in the sand column demonstrated be fast and simultaneous, with a short delay and without influence of the water salinity. Very different results were found in the column experiments with heterogeneous material, where the presence of clay and organic matter increase the time of adsorption/desorption as the length of the alkyl chain paraben increased, according with their hydrophobicity. It should be noted that despite the quick desorption of the major quantities of parabens, the elution of their trace concentrations was very slow (for the seawater, the buthylparaben required a dimensionless time of 800). Planning the restoration of a coastal aquifer with freshwater, and in the conditions of the studied sand column experiment, it will need a dimensionless time of 160. However, it is necessary to take into account that the studied parabens and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid are

  3. Alaska North Slope National Energy Strategy initiative: Analysis of five undeveloped fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, C.P.; Allaire, R.B.; Doughty, T.C.; Faulder, D.D.; Irving, J.S.; Jamison, H.C.; White, G.J.

    1993-05-01

    The US Department of Energy was directed in the National Energy Strategy to establish a federal interagency task force to identify specific technical and regulatory barriers to the development of five undeveloped North Slope Alaska fields and make recommendations for their resolution. The five fields are West Sak, Point Thomson, Gwydyr Bay, Seal Island/Northstar, and Sandpiper Island. Analysis of environmental, regulatory, technical, and economic information, and data relating to the development potential of the five fields leads to the following conclusions: Development of the five fields would result in an estimated total of 1,055 million barrels of oil and 4.4 trillion cubic feet of natural gas and total investment of $9.4 billion in 1992 dollars. It appears that all five of the fields will remain economically marginal developments unless there is significant improvement in world oil prices. Costs of regulatory compliance and mitigation, and costs to reduce or maintain environmental impacts at acceptable levels influence project investments and operating costs and must be considered in the development decision making process. The development of three of the fields (West Sak, Point Thomson, and Gwydyr Bay) that are marginally feasible would have an impact on North Slope production over the period from about 2000 to 2014 but cannot replace the decline in Prudhoe Bay Unit production or maintain the operation of the Trans-Alaska Pipeline System (TAPS) beyond about 2014 with the assumption that the TAPS will shut down when production declines to the range of 400 to 200 thousand barrels of oil/day. Recoverable reserves left in the ground in the currently producing fields and soon to be developed fields, Niakuk and Point McIntyre, would range from 1 billion to 500 million barrels of oil corresponding to the time period of 2008 to 2014 based on the TAPS shutdown assumption

  4. Alaska North Slope National Energy Strategy initiative: Analysis of five undeveloped fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, C.P.; Allaire, R.B.; Doughty, T.C.; Faulder, D.D.; Irving, J.S.; Jamison, H.C.; White, G.J.

    1993-05-01

    The US Department of Energy was directed in the National Energy Strategy to establish a federal interagency task force to identify specific technical and regulatory barriers to the development of five undeveloped North Slope Alaska fields and make recommendations for their resolution. The five fields are West Sak, Point Thomson, Gwydyr Bay, Seal Island/Northstar, and Sandpiper Island. Analysis of environmental, regulatory, technical, and economic information, and data relating to the development potential of the five fields leads to the following conclusions: Development of the five fields would result in an estimated total of 1,055 million barrels of oil and 4.4 trillion cubic feet of natural gas and total investment of $9.4 billion in 1992 dollars. It appears that all five of the fields will remain economically marginal developments unless there is significant improvement in world oil prices. Costs of regulatory compliance and mitigation, and costs to reduce or maintain environmental impacts at acceptable levels influence project investments and operating costs and must be considered in the development decision making process. The development of three of the fields (West Sak, Point Thomson, and Gwydyr Bay) that are marginally feasible would have an impact on North Slope production over the period from about 2000 to 2014 but cannot replace the decline in Prudhoe Bay Unit production or maintain the operation of the Trans-Alaska Pipeline System (TAPS) beyond about 2014 with the assumption that the TAPS will shut down when production declines to the range of 400 to 200 thousand barrels of oil/day. Recoverable reserves left in the ground in the currently producing fields and soon to be developed fields, Niakuk and Point McIntyre, would range from 1 billion to 500 million barrels of oil corresponding to the time period of 2008 to 2014 based on the TAPS shutdown assumption.

  5. Effects of (60)Co gamma irradiation on behavior and gill histoarchitecture of giant fresh water prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (DE MAN).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stalin, A; Broos, K V; Sadiq Bukhari, A; Syed Mohamed, H E; Singhal, R K; Venu-babu, P

    2013-06-01

    Present study was designed to observe the effects of (60)Co gamma radiation in behavioral and histological changes in the gills of giant fresh water prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The adult prawns were irradiated with four different dose levels (3mGy, 30mGy, 300mGy and 3000mGy) and the control group (without irradiation) was maintained separately. Behavioral changes like hyperactivity, loss of balance, reduced swimming rate, slower rate of food intake and convulsions were observed in higher dose levels of 300mGy and 3000mGy. The histological alterations such as accumulated haemocytes in haemocoelic spaces, abnormal gill tips, lifted lamellar epithelium, swollen and fused lamellae, hyperplasic, necrotic, clavate-globate and complete disorganization of lamellae were observed in (60)Co gamma irradiated prawns. Significantly more considerable histological alterations were observed in the highest dose level of 3000mGy, but no mortality was evidenced. This study serves as biomonitoring tool to assess the radiation pollution in the aquatic environment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Qualitative toxicity assessment of silver nanoparticles on the fresh water bacterial isolates and consortium at low level of exposure concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Deepak; Kumari, Jyoti; Pakrashi, Sunandan; Dalai, Swayamprava; Raichur, Ashok M; Sastry, T P; Mandal, A B; Chandrasekaran, N; Mukherjee, Amitava

    2014-10-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) pose a high risk of exposure to the natural environment owing to their extensive usage in various consumer products. In the present study we attempted to understand the harmful effect of AgNPs at environmentally relevant low concentration levels (≤1ppm) towards two different freshwater bacterial isolates and their consortium. The standard plate count assay suggested that the AgNPs were toxic towards the fresh water bacterial isolates as well as the consortium, though toxicity was significantly reduced for the cells in the consortium. The oxidative stress assessment and membrane permeability studies corroborated with the toxicity data. The detailed electron microscopic studies suggested the cell degrading potential of the AgNPs, and the FT-IR studies confirmed the involvement of the surface groups in the toxic effects. No significant ion leaching from the AgNPs was observed at the applied concentration levels signifying the dominant role of the particle size, and size distribution in bacterial toxicity. The reduced toxicity for the cells in the consortium than the individual isolates has major significance in further studies on the ecotoxicity of the AgNPs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Cytological comparison of gill chloride cells and blood serum ion concentrations in kutum (Rutilus frisii kutum spawners from brackish (Caspian Sea and fresh water (Khoshkrood River environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghahremanzadeh Zahra

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The size and number of chloride cells and serum ion concentrations in kutum, Rutillus frisii kutum Nordman, from brackish (Caspian Sea and fresh water (Khoshkrood River environments were studied to gain a better understanding of osmoregulation in this species. Twenty mature kutum specimens were collected from the Caspian Sea (Anzali coasts, 8.49 ppt salinity and 12.4°C temperature and 20 specimens from Khoshkrood River (0.18 ppt salinity and 18°C temperature. Gill samples were analyzed histologically and concentrations of Na+, Cl- , K+, and Mg2+ ions were determined in the blood serum. Concentrations of Na+, Cl- , K+, and Mg2+ ions and osmotic pressure in mature kutum from brackish water were significantly higher than in specimens from fresh water. The average size and number of chloride cells in the fish from seawater were considerably larger than those from fresh water. The mean size of chloride cells was 6.89 ± 1.16 μm in brackish water samples and 5.1 ± 0.81 μm in river samples. The average number of chloride cells in brackish and river water samples were 16.92 and 6.57, respectively. The density and size of chloride cells increased with increases in salinity

  8. Combining satellite image data and field observations to characterize fresh-water carbonates in Kurkur Oasis, Southern Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaber, Ahmed; Khalaf, Fikry; Bastawisy, Mohamed; El-Baz, Farouk

    2018-03-01

    Several fresh-water carbonate deposits (tufa and travertine) were formed at different elevations within the Kurkur paleolake, 50 km west of Aswan, Egypt. Such paleolake was unique and confined in sag between the cuesta and the capping platform of Sin El-Kaddabaa Plateau. This work aims at integrating the remote sensing data together with the chemical and petrographic analyses to map and characterize these tufa and travertine deposits to define their paleo-depositional environment. A DEM with 2.5 m spatial resolution was generated from two ALOS/PRISM images to show geomorphological and hydrological parameters. In addition, full-polarimetric SAR data were used to investigate the scattering response of these tufa and travertine deposits. These deposits show a volume scattering response, with an increase in the pedestal height of the co- and cross-polarized signatures. The tufa and travertine deposits range from Pleistocene (older upper level) to Recent (younger lower level). The young tufa is hard, light brown porous and thinly-laminated, while the old tufa is generally coarse crystalline and consists of columnar pseudo denderitic calcite crystals. The travertine displays a stromatolitic fabric, where thin dark micritic algal laminae alternate with relatively thick calcitic bands (∼1 cm). Conducted XRD and chemical analyses reveal that these tufa and travertine are entirely composed of low magnesium calcite, with traces of quartz (<2%). Moreover, the δ13C and δ18O values suggest that the old tufa have been developed during warm pluvial periods, while the younger ones were precipitated in drier periods. Two hypotheses were introduced to explain the changes in the hydrological regime of Kurkur paleolake; the first proposes a hydrological breaching due to water overflow on the lake's low periphery areas that led to their desiccation (where the tufa and travertine were deposited) and the second is the possible integration into the regional drainage networks of the

  9. Assessing the Role of Dune Topography on a Fresh Water Lens of a Siliciclastic Barrier Along the Northern Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, C. P.; Carter, G. A.; Mooneyhan, D.

    2013-12-01

    Carlton P. Anderson, Gregory Carter, and David Mooneyhan University of Southern Mississippi Gulf Coast Geospatial Center Department of Geography and Geology Carlton.p.anderson@eagles.usm.edu The Mississippi-Alabama (MS-AL) barrier island chain consist of dynamic depositional landforms that constantly undergo changes in their evolutionary processes through changes in sea level, sediment supply, and weather events. These complex landscapes of the Northern Gulf of Mexico (NGOM) provide a chance to study their geomorphological progressions, which have been produced by sea level rise and fluvial processes throughout the Holocene. Studies on the freshwater lens of barriers have mainly concentrated on carbonate island settings with minimal focus to barriers with siliciclastic geology. The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship beach dune topography plays in the development and sustainability of the fresh water lens of Cat Island, Mississippi. Cat Island offers the opportunity to research a siliciclastic barrier along the NGOM where minimal anthropogenic activities have taken place. To determine the effect dune topography has on the fresh water lens, a transect of permanent water wells were used in conjunction with test wells at different sites throughout the north spit of the island, to establish the water table height above the ellipsoid (WGS 84), with vertical accuracies of 2 cm. Cross-sectional profiles of the dunes were also performed utilizing purposeful transects that intersected fresh water ponds in the dune-swale systems. These ponds provide water table elevations at the surface which were interpolated across the dunes for areas that lacked permanent well sites. To obtain survey-grade accuracies, a Trimble TSC3 receiver coupled with a R8 antennae RTK system were used. Salinity measurements were taken at test sites to determine the salt-to-freshwater interface. Results provide insights into how dune topography influences the fresh water lens of a

  10. Influence of aluminium on the restoration potential of a terrestrial vascular plant, Portulaca Oleracea L. as a biomonitoring tool of fresh water aquatic environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anandi, S; Thangavel, P; Subburam, V

    2002-08-01

    In the present study, the influence of aluminium on the regeneration potential of leaf and stem-cuttings of Portulaca oleracea was studied in order to identify a terrestrial plant species as an alternate biomonitoring tool of fresh water environment. The leaves and stem cuttings of the terrestrial plant, P. oleracea grew well in the distilled water producing adventitious and lateral roots. The aluminium treated leaves and stem cuttings showed a reduction in the growth of the adventitious and lateral roots and increase in the decay of leaves and stem cuttings with increasing aluminium concentration. The tolerance index calculated for the leaves and the stem cuttings showed that the leaves were more sensitive than stems to aluminium. Since all the parameters studied showed concentration dependent changes, the terrestrial plant, P oleracea can be considered a suitable 'biomonitoring tool' of fresh water environment besides its usage in the Al toxicity testing.

  11. 1D and 3D inversion of VES data to outline a fresh water zone floating over saline water body at the northwestern coast of Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usama Massoud

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Seawater intrusion is a widespread environmental problem in the Egyptian coastal aquifers. It affects the groundwater used in domestic and agricultural activities along these coasts. In this study, resistivity survey in the form of Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES was conducted at ZAWYET EL HAWALA cultivated site, northwest coast of Egypt to outline a freshwater zone overlies the main saltwater body, and to determine the most suitable location for drilling water well for irrigation purposes. The VES data were measured at 11 stations in the studied site. After processing, the data were inverted in 1-D and 3-D schemes and the final model was presented as resistivity slices with depth. The results indicate that the effect of saltwater intrusion was observed, as low resistivity values, at 7.5 m below ground surface (bgs at the northern part of the study area (toward the Mediterranean Sea, and extends southward with increasing depth covering the whole area at about 30 m bgs. The fresh water zone shows a minimum thickness of less than 7.5 m at the northern side and a maximum thickness of about 20 m at the southern side of the area. The proper site for drilling water well tap and the freshwater zone is the location of VES6 or VES9 with a maximum well depth of about 20 m bgs. The water withdrawal from the proposed well should be controlled not to raise the main saline water table in the well site. The main sources of the freshwater zone are the rainfall and surface runoff descending from the southern tableland. Excess rainfall and surface runoff can be avoided from direct discharge to the sea by collecting them in man-made outlined trenches and re-using the stored water in irrigation during the dry seasons.

  12. PENGARUH RASIO TEPUNG BERAS DAN AIR TERHADAP KARAKTERISTIK KULIT LUMPIA BASAH [Effect of Flour to Water Ratio on Characteristics of Fresh Rice-Based Spring Rolls Wrappers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Ingani Widjajaseputra1*

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Flour to water ratio in batter compositions affected water availability which was needed to provide physical and chemical changes during fresh rice-based spring rolls wrappers processing, such as gel forming of starches and heat-induced gels, flour’s components interactions in batter systems. Degree of water-starch, water-protein and protein–starch-water interactions were depend on water amount, temperature and duration of heating. The mechanical strength of spring rolls wrappers is one of problems when it is being used. The wrappers could be torn apart due to moisture absorption from the filling and the environment. The goal of this study was to determine the optimum flour to water ratio in formulation of fresh rice-based spring rolls wrappers. The investigation was provided by Randomized Completely Block Design with single factor and three replicates. The factor was rice flour to water ratio in six levels (3.0:4.5; 3.0:5.0;3.0:5.5; 3.0:6.0; 3.0:6.5; and 3.0:7.0 the data were analyzed by Analysis of Variance with 95% degree of confident. Flour to water ratio greatly influenced elongation at break which is important in the utilization of fresh rice-based spring rolls wrappers. Its ratio also influenced the size of swelled rice starch granules, pores size and moisture content of the products. Optimal ratio flour to water is 3.0:6.0 which produced the highest elongation at break.

  13. Mercury Biomagnification between Two Trophic Levels of a Grazing Food Chain (Plankton and Planktivorous Fish in a Fresh Water Ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Khoshnamvand

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Present study was carried out to track and calculate Biomagnification Factor (BMF of total mercury (T-Hg between two different trophic levels (i.e., plankton and a planktivorous fish in a fresh water grazing food chain. Methods: Experimental organisms were planktonic biomass and silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix as a planktivorous fish. Silver carp samples were obtained from randomly selected points from different sampling stations. The concentrations of T-Hg in collected samples were determined by Advanced Mercury Analyzer. Results: Means of T-Hg in planktonic biomass and muscle tissue of silver carp were 78.21 ± 3.13 and 367.12 ± 26.43 ng g-1 dry weights, respectively. Mean T-Hg in plankton, sampled fish during the study months and amongst the sampling stations did not show significant differences. The BMFHg(plankton-fish was differ among months; moreover, calculated BMF was greater than 1 during study months, which means biomagnification was occurring in SGR. The concentration of T-Hg in the muscle tissue of all fish samples that weighed more than 850 gr was higher than the acceptable limits based on EPA (300 ng g-1 and WHO (500 ng g-1 standards. The highest BMFHg was observed in August Conclusion: It seems that mercury pollution of SGR has a natural source. The calculated BMFs were greater than 1 and the concentrations of T-Hg in muscle tissues of those samples weighing more than 850 gr were higher than FAO and WHO standards. Therefore, consumption of the SGR's silver carp must be accompanied by serious health considerations.

  14. Enantioselective ecotoxicity of the herbicide dichlorprop and complexes formed with chitosan in two fresh water green algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Yuezhong; Chen, Hui; Yuan, Yuli; Xu, Dongmei; Kang, Xiaodong

    2011-04-01

    To reduce the leaching potential, to prevent groundwater contamination and to maintain the efficacy of a pesticide, natural polysaccharides have received increasing attention due to their biocompatibility and useful biological reactivity for controlled release formulations (CRFs) of pesticides. In this paper, the toxicities of the chiral herbicide dichlorprop (DCPP) and its complexes with chitosan molecules (DCPP-CS) and chitosan nanoparticles (DCPP-NP) to two different green algae were determined and compared. The inhibition rates of DCPP, DCPP-CS and DCPP-NP were determined at 24, 48, 72, 96, 120, 144, 168 h, and the results show that (S)-DCPP was more toxic to Chlorella vulgaris than (R)-DCPP, while the (R)-DCPP was more toxic to Scenedesmus obliquus than (S)-DCPP. The study also found that the chiral selectivity of DCPP to Chlorella vulgaris and Scenedesmus obliquus could be changed when DCPP was complexed with chitosan molecules (CS) or chitosan nanoparticles (NP). For Chlorella vulgaris, the order of inhibition was (R)-DCPP-CS > (S)-DCPP-CS and (R)-DCPP-NP > (S)-DCPP-NP; for Scenedesmus obliquus, the order was (S)-DCPP-CS > (R)-DCPP-CS and (S)-DCPP-NP > (R)-DCPP-NP. This phenomenon suggests that the enantioselective behaviors of chiral compounds might shift when interactions with other chiral receptors coexist in different biological environments. Additionally, chitosan molecules and chitosan nanoparticles also showed different toxicities, which could be ascribed to the difference in the physicochemical properties between CS and NP or the differences in the cell walls of the two fresh water green algae.

  15. Impact of commercial probiotics application on growth and production of giant fresh water prawn (Macrobrachium Rosenbergii De Man, 1879

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alokesh Kumar Ghosh

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to observe the impact of commercial probiotics application on growth and production performance of fresh water prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii from August 2011 to March 2012. There were four experimental groups viz (a control or without probiotics treated prawn (T1, (b feed probiotics- Zymetin (T2 treated prawn, (c soil probiotics- Super PS (T3 treated prawn and (d Both Zymetin and Super PS (T4 treated prawn. Twelve ponds (each 120 m2 were used where stocking density was 2/m2 for all treatments and control and each was triplicated. After pond preparation, prawn PL was reared in the nursery pond for 45 days to become juvenile. At the time of stocking in growout ponds, average body weight of juvenile prawn was 1.04 g. After eight months (240 days of culture, the mean final weight became 39.5 ± 12.03, 43.4 ± 14.91, 48.0 ± 16.73 and 51.6 ± 15.58 g in T1, T2, T3 and T4 respectively. Significance difference was found among all treatments and T4 showed highest growth. The SGR was found to be 1.50 ± 0.13, 1.53 ± 0.13, 1.58 ± 0.13 and 1.61 ± 0.11 (%BW/day in T1, T2, T3 and T4 respectively and the difference was significant. The survival rate did not differ significantly but highest survival rate was found in T4 (90%. The average FCR was significantly lowest in T4 (1.39 and highest in T1 (1.9. The net average production was found to be significantly higher in T4 (914 kg/ha which was 35% and 21 % higher than the control group (T1 and feed probiotics (T2 respectively. Water and soil quality parameters were measured and were within the culturable range. The production of probiotics treated ponds was always higher than without probiotics treated ponds but highest growth and production were found in T4 where Zymetin and Super PS were used combinedly. The results of this study can be applied in the farmer’s pond to increase the total production of prawn in the country.

  16. Fresh Crater

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    30 July 2004 This full-resolution (1.5 meters, 5 feet, per pixel) Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a fairly small, fresh meteor impact crater in far southeastern Arabia Terra. The crater's bowl, rim, and ejecta exhibit numerous boulders. The image covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) wide and is located near 6.9oS, 317.1oW. Sunlight illuminates the terrain from the left.

  17. Influence of insecticidal derivative (cartap hydrochloride) from the marine polycheate on certain enzyme systems of the fresh water fish Oreochromis mossambicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palanivelu, V; Vijayavel, K; Balasubramanian, S Ezhilarasi; Balasubramanian, M P

    2005-04-01

    The activities of phosphatases and transaminases were studied in muscle and liver of the fresh water fish, Oreochromis mossambicus on exposure to different sublethal concentrations (0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1 mgl(-1)) of cartap hydrochloride (insecticidal derivative from marine polycheate) for 96 h. There was an overall decrease in phosphatases and transaminases activity in muscle and liver of the fish subjected to cartap hydrochloride.

  18. DNA adduct measurements in zebra mussels, Dreissena polymorpha, Pallas. Potential use for genotoxicant biomonitoring of fresh water ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Goff, J; Gallois, J; Pelhuet, L; Devier, M H; Budzinski, H; Pottier, D; André, V; Cachot, J

    2006-08-12

    biomarker to monitor PAH-exposure and evaluate genotoxicity in fresh water ecosystems.

  19. Determination of metal balance shift induced in small fresh water fish by X-ray irradiation using PIXE analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yukawa, M.; Aoki, K.; Iso, H.; Kodama, K.; Imaseki, H.; Ishikawa, Y.

    2005-01-01

    In the environmental pollution studies, it is very important to detect not only pollutants but also changes induced in organisms in the environment with various environmental stresses such as heavy metal toxicity radiation and agricultural chemicals. In the latter, monitoring is carried out using biological indicators to find out the changes, which have wide spectra from visible like deformity of the body to invisible such as changes in some enzyme activities. Changes of the balance of essential elements could occur in organisms to deal with the stresses. If we detect an elemental balance shift, we may see the environmental pollution in its early stages. Moreover, in the actual environment, combined effects, additive or reductive with coexistent elements or other stresses, is an important subject for investigation. Therefore, measurement of many elements in the biological indicator's simultaneously and determination of the distribution in the organisms are useful in clarifying the action of pollutants at sublethal levels. A small fresh water fish, Medaka can be used as one of the biological-indicators for determination of water quality. In the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS), an inbred strain of Medaka Orizias laptipes was established and has been maintained for the research purposes. Since the genetic background of inbred animals is almost uniform, the individual deviation among animals is very small. This characteristic is very useful to investigate the physiological effects of environmental stresses. We have continued to investigate the balance shift of essential elements induced in the bodies of Medaka by several stresses. In this paper, elemental content in various organs of the X-ray irradiated fish determined by PIXE method are reported in comparison with that of the control fish to observe the effect of the X-rays. Body size of Medaka is about 3 cm long, and the internal organs are very small (about l mm on average). PIXE is the most

  20. Transmitted fresh water flow rate of reverse osmosis desalination system utilizing the static pressure head. Formulation of numerical results and comparison with experimental results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyatake, Osamu; Tagawa, Kotaro; Noda, Hidehiko [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan)

    1999-08-01

    Based on the authors' previous numerical results of a reverse osmosis desalination system for seawater or brackish water utilizing the static pressure head of seawater in a deep-sea region or brackish water in a vertical pit, a dimensionless expression is formulated to predict the transmitted fresh water flow rate from the geometry and the submerged depth of the device, the pure water permeability and the solute permeability of membrane, and the physical properties properties of seawater or brackish water. The derived expression is compared with experimental results obtained by field experiments carried out in the Sea of Japan and the East China with fair agreement and thus confirmed the applicability and usefulness of the expression. (author)

  1. Methodology for modeling the disinfection efficiency of fresh-cut leafy vegetables wash water applied on peracetic acid combined with lactic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Haute, S; López-Gálvez, F; Gómez-López, V M; Eriksson, Markus; Devlieghere, F; Allende, Ana; Sampers, I

    2015-09-02

    A methodology to i) assess the feasibility of water disinfection in fresh-cut leafy greens wash water and ii) to compare the disinfectant efficiency of water disinfectants was defined and applied for a combination of peracetic acid (PAA) and lactic acid (LA) and comparison with free chlorine was made. Standardized process water, a watery suspension of iceberg lettuce, was used for the experiments. First, the combination of PAA+LA was evaluated for water recycling. In this case disinfectant was added to standardized process water inoculated with Escherichia coli (E. coli) O157 (6logCFU/mL). Regression models were constructed based on the batch inactivation data and validated in industrial process water obtained from fresh-cut leafy green processing plants. The UV254(F) was the best indicator for PAA decay and as such for the E. coli O157 inactivation with PAA+LA. The disinfection efficiency of PAA+LA increased with decreasing pH. Furthermore, PAA+LA efficacy was assessed as a process water disinfectant to be used within the washing tank, using a dynamic washing process with continuous influx of E. coli O157 and organic matter in the washing tank. The process water contamination in the dynamic process was adequately estimated by the developed model that assumed that knowledge of the disinfectant residual was sufficient to estimate the microbial contamination, regardless the physicochemical load. Based on the obtained results, PAA+LA seems to be better suited than chlorine for disinfecting process wash water with a high organic load but a higher disinfectant residual is necessary due to the slower E. coli O157 inactivation kinetics when compared to chlorine. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Estimation of the depth to the fresh-water/salt-water interface from vertical head gradients in wells in coastal and island aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izuka, Scot K.; Gingerich, Stephen B.

    An accurate estimate of the depth to the theoretical interface between fresh, water and salt water is critical to estimates of well yields in coastal and island aquifers. The Ghyben-Herzberg relation, which is commonly used to estimate interface depth, can greatly underestimate or overestimate the fresh-water thickness, because it assumes no vertical head gradients and no vertical flow. Estimation of the interface depth needs to consider the vertical head gradients and aquifer anisotropy that may be present. This paper presents a method to calculate vertical head gradients using water-level measurements made during drilling of a partially penetrating well; the gradient is then used to estimate interface depth. Application of the method to a numerically simulated fresh-water/salt-water system shows that the method is most accurate when the gradient is measured in a deeply penetrating well. Even using a shallow well, the method more accurately estimates the interface position than does the Ghyben-Herzberg relation where substantial vertical head gradients exist. Application of the method to field data shows that drilling, collection methods of water-level data, and aquifer inhomogeneities can cause difficulties, but the effects of these difficulties can be minimized. Résumé Une estimation précise de la profondeur de l'interface théorique entre l'eau douce et l'eau salée est un élément critique dans les estimations de rendement des puits dans les aquifères insulaires et littoraux. La relation de Ghyben-Herzberg, qui est habituellement utilisée pour estimer la profondeur de cette interface, peut fortement sous-estimer ou surestimer l'épaisseur de l'eau douce, parce qu'elle suppose l'absence de gradient vertical de charge et d'écoulement vertical. L'estimation de la profondeur de l'interface requiert de prendre en considération les gradients verticaux de charge et l'éventuelle anisotropie de l'aquifère. Cet article propose une méthode de calcul des

  3. Heavy metals concentration in vegetables irrigated with contaminated and fresh water and estimation of their daily intakes in suburb areas of Hamadan, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seid-Mohammadi, Abdolmotaleb; Roshanaei, Ghodratollah; Asgari, Ghorban

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to estimate the level of heavy metals accumulate in vegetables irrigated with contaminated water compared with those irrigated with fresh water in Hamadan, west of Iran in 2012. Sixty samples of different vegetables i.e., parsley, tarragon, sweat basil and leek irrigated with contaminated water and thirty six samples from three different adjacent areas irrigated with fresh water as control were analyzed to determine heavy metals. The concentration of heavy metals i.e., lead, cadmium and chromium were achieved using atomic adsorption spectrophotometer. The mean concentration of lead, chromium and cadmium regardless of the kind of vegetables irrigated with contaminated water was 6.24, 1.57 and 0.15 mg/kg, respectively. Moreover, metals uptake differences by the vegetables were recognized to vegetable differences in tolerance to heavy metals. Based on the above concentrations the dietary intakes of metals through vegetables consumption were 0.004, 0.0008 and 6E-05 mg/day in infants for lead, chromium and cadmium, respectively. The high concentration of these heavy metals in some vegetables might be attributed due to the use of untreated sanitary and industrial wastewater by farmers for the irrigation of vegetable lands. Therefore, treating of these wastewater and bioremediation of excess metals from polluted vegetation land could be considered.

  4. Composite desiccant material "CaCl2/Vermiculite/Saw wood": a new material for fresh water production from atmospheric air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Manoj; Yadav, Avadhesh

    2017-09-01

    In this study a novel composite desiccant material "CaCl2/Vermiculite/Saw wood" have been synthesized and tested for the water generation from atmospheric air. The vermiculite- saw wood used as a host matrix and CaCl2 as a hygroscopic salt. A solar glass desiccant box type system with a collector area of 0.36 m2 has been used. Design parameters for water generation are height of glass from the desiccant material bed as 0.22 m, inclination in angle as 30º, the effective thickness of glass as 3 mm and number of glazing as single. It has been found that the concentration of calcium chloride is the most influencing factor for fresh water generation from atmospheric air. The maximum amount of water produced by using novel composite desiccant material is 195 ml/kg/day.

  5. Intra- and extracellular osmotic regulation in the hololimnetic Caridea and Anomura: a phylogenetic perspective on the conquest of fresh water by the decapod Crustacea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Faria, Samuel Coelho; Augusto, Alessandra Silva; McNamara, John Campbell

    2011-02-01

    We investigate extra- and intracellular osmoregulatory capability in two species of hololimnetic Caridea and Anomura: Macrobrachium brasiliense, a palaemonid shrimp, and Aegla franca, an aeglid anomuran, both restricted to continental waters. We also appraise the sharing of physiological characteristics by the hololimnetic Decapoda, and their origins and role in the conquest of fresh water. Both species survive salinity exposure well. While overall hyperosmoregulatory capability is weak in A. franca and moderate in M. brasiliense, both species strongly hyporegulate hemolymph [Cl(-)] but not osmolality. Muscle total free amino acids (FAA) increase slowly but markedly in response to the rapid rise in hemolymph osmolality consequent to hyperosmotic challenge: 3.5-fold in A. franca and 1.9-fold in M. brasiliense. Glycine, taurine, arginine, alanine and proline constitute ≈85% of muscle FAA pools in fresh water; taurine, arginine, alanine each contribute ≈22% in A. franca, while glycine predominates (70%) in M. brasiliense. These FAA also show the greatest increases on salinity challenge. Muscle FAA titers correlate strongly (R = 0.82) with hemolymph osmolalities across the main decapod sub/infraorders, revealing that marine species with high hemolymph osmolalities achieve isosmoticity of the intra- and extracellular fluids partly through elevated intracellular FAA concentrations; freshwater species show low hemolymph osmolalities and exhibit reduced intracellular FAA titers, consistent with isosmoticity at a far lower external osmolality. Given the decapod phylogeny adopted here and their multiple, independent invasions of fresh water, particularly by the Caridea and Anomura, our findings suggest that homoplastic strategies underlie osmotic and ionic homeostasis in the extant freshwater Decapoda.

  6. Mercúrio total em pescado de água-doce Total mercury in fresh-water fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Emi KITAHARA

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available O mercúrio total foi quantificado em 11 espécies de peixes de água-doce, originárias de diferentes procedências comerciais. O mercúrio vem sendo utilizado na agricultura, indústria, mineração, etc., e isso tem provocado drástico aumento desse metal no meio ambiente, atingindo em conseqüência a cadeia trófica. Nesse contexto, o homem, através do consumo de alimentos, principalmente pescado, torna-se vulnerável à ação tóxica do mercúrio. Os resultados obtidos para as espécies mandi - Pimelodus maculatus, tilápia - Tilapia sp, sagüiru - Cyphocharax modestus, lambari - Astyanax sp, sardela - Triportheus sp, traíra - Hoplias sp, curimbatá - Prochilodus sp e dourado - Salminus sp, comercializadas em São Paulo - SP, e para o jaraqui - Semaprochilodus insignis, curimatã - Prochilodus nigricans e matrinchã - Brycon sp, procedentes da Amazônia brasileira, variaram de 0,01 a 0,39mgHg/Kg. Os resultados observados, sob o ponto-de-vista de Saúde Pública, estão abaixo dos limites de tolerância brasileiros, de 0,5 e 1,0mgHg/Kg, para espécies não-predadoras e predadoras, respectivamente. Nas espécies de hábito alimentar carnívoro (traíra e dourado os teores de mercúrio foram de 0,26 a 0,39mgHg/Kg. A expectativa de ocorrência de espécies excessivamente contaminadas não se confirmou.Total mercury was quantified in 11 fresh-water fish species from different commercial origins. Mercury has been used in agriculture, industry, mining, etc. Consequently there was an increase of mercury discharge to environment, that enters into the throphic chain. In this context, the man, through the consumption of foods, mainly fishery products, turns vulnerable to mercury. The obtained results for mandi - Pimelodus maculatus, tilápia - Tilapia sp, sagüiru - Cyphocharax modestus, lambari- Astyanax sp, sardela - Triportheus sp, traíra - Hoplias sp, curimbatá - Prochilodus sp and dourado - Salminus sp, commercialized in São Paulo-SP, and

  7. Mapping the fresh-water aquifer structure of the Okavango Delta, Botswana, using seismic-reflection and seismic-refraction imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiser, Fabienne; Schmelzbach, Cedric; Podgorski, Joel E.; Horstmeyer, Heinrich; Green, Alan G.; Kalscheuer, Thomas; Maurer, Hansruedi; Kinzelbach, Wolfgang

    2013-04-01

    The Okavango Delta in Botswana is one of the world's great inland deltas. Situated within the semi-arid Kalahari Desert, it is one of the largest wetlands in Africa with an enormous biodiversity. Inversions of extensive airborne time-domain electromagnetic (TEM) data recorded across the Okavango Delta yield a general three-layer electrical resistivity model consisting of: (1) an upper resistive layer of dry and fresh-water saturated sands, (2) an intermediate conductive layer of clay or saline-water saturated sands and (3) a lower resistive layer of fresh-water saturated sands or crystalline basement. If the third layer comprises fresh water saturated sands, it would provide a new deep source of fresh water for the local population. In an attempt to constrain the interpretations of the second and third layers, two high-resolution seismic-reflection and seismic-refraction data sets were acquired at each of two locations: (i) Jedibe Island (Jao) situated near the estuary of the Okavango River and (ii) an area located near the western border of the delta (HR2). High-quality seismic-reflection images and first-arrival traveltime tomography models suggest a basement depth at Jao of around 115 m. Except for a transition from dry to saturated sands in the uppermost part, the sedimentary section at shallow to intermediate depths is practically featureless in the seismic data. The featureless seismic response is not consistent with the presence of horizontal boundaries between sand and clay layers, but is compatible with depth variations in salt content, the second of the two possible interpretations for the conductive layer at intermediate depths in the TEM model. The quality of the HR2 tomography models is somewhat inferior to the Jao models, with only poor constraints on the basement depth and velocities in the middle and lower parts of the sedimentary section. In contrast, the two HR2 seismic-reflection images appear to be of relatively high quality, revealing a number

  8. The content of 103Ru in components of fresh-water and adjoining to them ground ecosystems after accident on ChNPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarubin, O.L.

    2007-01-01

    The content of 103 Ru in components of various fresh-water reservoirs and coastal ecosystems of Ukraine was studied since 1986 till 1987. It is established, that the maximal content of 103 Ru in water's ecosystems was typical for the higher water's plants. The maximum of the content of 103 Ru in fishes is registered in cooling-pond of ChNPP. It is caused by the vast radionuclide pollution of cooling-pond during the active moment of accident. Probably, the main quantity of 103 Ru penetrates into organism of fishes on the trophic way. With increase if distance from ChNPP the content of 103 Ru in fishes decreases. Thus, the level of biological availability of 103 Ru for fishes increase. It is obvious, that it is caused by the sizes of the particles which have fallen in researched reservoirs and/or the physical and chemical form of 103 Ru finding of in the fallout

  9. Identifikasi Penyakit Aeromonad pada Budi Daya Ikan Air Tawar di Bali (IDENTIFICATION OF AEROMONAD DISEASE IN FRESH WATER AQUACULTURE IN DENPASAR, BALI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surya Amanu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Fresh water and marine fish horticulture in Bali is often harmed by the outbreak of diseases such asthose caused by Aeromonas sp (aeromonad disease.Aims ofstudy were 1 to find out the primary agent ofthe aeomonad disease in the fresh water aquaculture in Bali based on conventional and molecularidentification, 2 to find out the genetic variability of Aeromonas species, 3 to determine the effectiveantibiotic against the agent. Samples of fishes were collected from 5 different locations of fresh wateraquaculture that had high number of morbidity and mortality. Many different fishes which showed clinicalsign such as skin lesion and exophthalmus were collected.Aeromonas hydrophila and A. salmonicida wereisolated and identified from fishes, they were then identified molecularly with DNA extraction, DNAamplification in 16S rRNA gene, purification and sequencing. Sequences of both Aeromonas species fromdifferent location were analysed to create the phylogenetic tree with Maximum Parsimony and NeighborJoining method. Sensitivity of 5 antibiotics to both species of Aeromonas were done to determine the bestantibiotic against the disease. Aeromonad disease were found only in 3 regions in Bali. As many as 10isolates of A.salmonicida and 11 isolates of A.hydrophila were examined. The histopathological examinationshowed dermatitis, epicarditis, retinitis, liver and kidney congestion in fish.There were two clusters ofA.salmonicida, subspecies smithiaand subspecies achromogenes.Aeromomas hydrophyla had a close relationwith A. veronii.Aeromonas salmonicida subspecies salmonicida has not been found in Bali. Enrofloxacineand gentamycin was the best antibiotic for treating the Aeromonad disease which were more effective ascompared to3 other antibiot ics (Ampicillin, Doxycycline, and Eritromycin.

  10. Utilizing multichannel electrical resistivity methods to examine the dynamics of the fresh water-seawater interface in two Hawaiian groundwater systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimova, Natasha T.; Swarzenski, Peter W.; Dulaiova, Henrieta; Glenn, Craig R.

    2012-02-01

    Multichannel electrical resistivity (ER) measurements were conducted at two contrasting coastal sites in Hawaii to obtain new information on the spatial scales and dynamics of the fresh water-seawater interface and rates of coastal groundwater exchange. At Kiholo Bay (located on the dry, Kona side of the Big Island) and at a site in Maunalua Bay (Oahu), there is an evidence for abundant submarine groundwater discharge (SGD). However, the hydrologic and geologic controls on coastal groundwater discharge are likely to be different at these two sites. While at Kiholo Bay SGD is predominantly through lava tubes, at the Maunalua Bay site exchange occurs mostly through nearshore submarine springs. In order to calculate SGD fluxes, it is important to understand the spatial and temporal scales of coastal groundwater exchange. From ER time series data, subsurface salinity distributions were calculated using site-specific formation factors. A salinity mass balance box model was then used to calculate rates of point source (i.e., spatially discreet) and total fresh water discharge. From these data, mean SGD rates were calculated for Kiholo Bay (˜9,200 m3/d) and for the Maunalua Bay site (˜5,900 m3/d). While such results are on the same order of magnitude to geochemical tracer-derived SGD rates, the ER SGD rates provide enhanced details of coastal groundwater exchange that can enable a more cohesive whole watershed perspective.

  11. Synergetic effect of combined fumaric acid and slightly acidic electrolysed water on the inactivation of food-borne pathogens and extending the shelf life of fresh beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tango, C-N; Mansur, A-R; Kim, G-H; Oh, D-H

    2014-12-01

    To evaluate synergetic effect of slight acidic electrolysed water (SAEW) and fumaric acid (FA) on inactivation of total viable count (TVC) and Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Typhimurium in fresh beef and to study shelf life and sensory quality of beef. Inoculated samples was dipped for 1, 3 and 5 min and immersed at 25, 40 and 60°C in SAEW, strong acidic electrolysed water (StAEW) and SAWE + FA. Treated meat was air-packaged and stored at 4 or 10°C. During storage, sampling was performed at 2-day intervals for microbiological and sensory changes. TVC was decontaminated at 40°C for 3 min by more than 3·70 log CFU g(-1) , and examined pathogens were reduced by more than 2·60 log CFU g(-1) with SAEW + FA treatment. This treatment prolonged shelf life of beef meat up to 9 and 7 days when stored at 4 and 10°C, respectively. The combined treatment of SAEW + FA showed greater bactericidal effect and prolonged shelf life compared with individual treatments. Combined treatment of SAEW and FA can be a suitable hurdle technology reducing bacteria in fresh beef, substantially enhancing their microbial safety and decreasing pathogens growth during storage. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  12. A on-line method for the determination of lead and lead isotope ratios in fresh and saline waters by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halicz, Ludwik; Lam, J.W.H.; McLaren, J.W.

    1994-01-01

    A previously reported on-line ICP-MS method for the determination of lead and other trace elements in seawater has been re-examined to determine its suitability for the determination of lead isotope ratios ( 206 Pb/ 207 Pb and 207 Pb/ 208 Pb) in fresh and saline natural waters. A detection limit of 0.9 ng/1 for total lead (for a 5 ml sample) was achieved. Precision of isotope ratio data was 0.2-0.3% RSD at a Pb concentration of 1 μg/l, and was still better than 2% at concentrations of only 10-40 ng/1 in seawater certified reference materials (CRMs). For all three natural water CRMs examined, measured precision was very close to the limit predicted by counting statistics. (Author)

  13. Pleistocene paleo-groundwater as a pristine fresh water resource in southern Germany – evidence from stable and radiogenic isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geldern, Robert van; Baier, Alfons; Subert, Hannah L.; Kowol, Sigrid; Balk, Laura; Barth, Johannes A.C.

    2014-01-01

    Shallow groundwater aquifers are often influenced by anthropogenic contaminants or increased nutrient levels. In contrast, deeper aquifers hold potentially pristine paleo-waters that are not influenced by modern recharge. They thus represent important water resources, but their recharge history is often unknown. In this study groundwater from two aquifers in southern Germany were analyzed for their hydrogen and oxygen stable isotope compositions. One sampling campaign targeted the upper aquifer that is actively recharged by modern precipitation, whereas the second campaign sampled the confined, deep Benkersandstein aquifer. The groundwater samples from both aquifers were compared to the local meteoric water line to investigate sources and conditions of groundwater recharge. In addition, the deep groundwater was dated by tritium and radiocarbon analyses. Stable and radiogenic isotope data indicate that the deep-aquifer groundwater was not part of the hydrological water cycle in the recent human history. The results show that the groundwater is older than ∼20,000 years and most likely originates from isotopically depleted melt waters of the Pleistocene ice age. Today, the use of this aquifer is strictly regulated to preserve the pristine water. Clear identification of such non-renewable paleo-waters by means of isotope geochemistry will help local water authorities to enact and justify measures for conservation of these valuable resources for future generations in the context of a sustainable water management. - Highlights: • Groundwater from deep aquifer identified as paleo-water with age over 20,000 years. • Low stable isotope values indicate recharge during Pleistocene. • Shallow aquifer mirrors stable isotope signature of average modern precipitation. • Identification of non-renewable paleo-waters enhance sustainable water management. • Strict protection measures of authorities justified by isotope geochemistry

  14. Pleistocene paleo-groundwater as a pristine fresh water resource in southern Germany--evidence from stable and radiogenic isotopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Geldern, Robert; Baier, Alfons; Subert, Hannah L; Kowol, Sigrid; Balk, Laura; Barth, Johannes A C

    2014-10-15

    Shallow groundwater aquifers are often influenced by anthropogenic contaminants or increased nutrient levels. In contrast, deeper aquifers hold potentially pristine paleo-waters that are not influenced by modern recharge. They thus represent important water resources, but their recharge history is often unknown. In this study groundwater from two aquifers in southern Germany were analyzed for their hydrogen and oxygen stable isotope compositions. One sampling campaign targeted the upper aquifer that is actively recharged by modern precipitation, whereas the second campaign sampled the confined, deep Benkersandstein aquifer. The groundwater samples from both aquifers were compared to the local meteoric water line to investigate sources and conditions of groundwater recharge. In addition, the deep groundwater was dated by tritium and radiocarbon analyses. Stable and radiogenic isotope data indicate that the deep-aquifer groundwater was not part of the hydrological water cycle in the recent human history. The results show that the groundwater is older than ~20,000 years and most likely originates from isotopically depleted melt waters of the Pleistocene ice age. Today, the use of this aquifer is strictly regulated to preserve the pristine water. Clear identification of such non-renewable paleo-waters by means of isotope geochemistry will help local water authorities to enact and justify measures for conservation of these valuable resources for future generations in the context of a sustainable water management. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. A Green Preconcentration Method for Determination of Cobalt and Lead in Fresh Surface and Waste Water Samples Prior to Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeemullah; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Shah, Faheem; Afridi, Hassan Imran; Khan, Sumaira; Arian, Sadaf Sadia; Brahman, Kapil Dev

    2012-01-01

    Cloud point extraction (CPE) has been used for the preconcentration and simultaneous determination of cobalt (Co) and lead (Pb) in fresh and wastewater samples. The extraction of analytes from aqueous samples was performed in the presence of 8-hydroxyquinoline (oxine) as a chelating agent and Triton X-114 as a nonionic surfactant. Experiments were conducted to assess the effect of different chemical variables such as pH, amounts of reagents (oxine and Triton X-114), temperature, incubation time, and sample volume. After phase separation, based on the cloud point, the surfactant-rich phase was diluted with acidic ethanol prior to its analysis by the flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). The enhancement factors 70 and 50 with detection limits of 0.26 μg L−1 and 0.44 μg L−1 were obtained for Co and Pb, respectively. In order to validate the developed method, a certified reference material (SRM 1643e) was analyzed and the determined values obtained were in a good agreement with the certified values. The proposed method was applied successfully to the determination of Co and Pb in a fresh surface and waste water sample. PMID:23227429

  16. A Green Preconcentration Method for Determination of Cobalt and Lead in Fresh Surface and Waste Water Samples Prior to Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naeemullah

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cloud point extraction (CPE has been used for the preconcentration and simultaneous determination of cobalt (Co and lead (Pb in fresh and wastewater samples. The extraction of analytes from aqueous samples was performed in the presence of 8-hydroxyquinoline (oxine as a chelating agent and Triton X-114 as a nonionic surfactant. Experiments were conducted to assess the effect of different chemical variables such as pH, amounts of reagents (oxine and Triton X-114, temperature, incubation time, and sample volume. After phase separation, based on the cloud point, the surfactant-rich phase was diluted with acidic ethanol prior to its analysis by the flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS. The enhancement factors 70 and 50 with detection limits of 0.26 μg L−1 and 0.44 μg L−1 were obtained for Co and Pb, respectively. In order to validate the developed method, a certified reference material (SRM 1643e was analyzed and the determined values obtained were in a good agreement with the certified values. The proposed method was applied successfully to the determination of Co and Pb in a fresh surface and waste water sample.

  17. Changes in body weight and eye size in female European eel kept in fresh and salt water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Nowosad

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The eel is a catadromous fish which spends most of its life in freshwater and adults swim to the Sargasso Sea region to spawn. While preparing for the reproductive process, eels undergo a metamorphosis to become what is called silver eel; a process involving changes in the colour and weight of the body and an increase in the eye size. These are indicators of fish maturity and they facilitate the selection of fish for reproduction under controlled conditions. During this study, changes in the body weight (BW and eye size in female European eel were observed while being given weekly hormonal injections of 20 mg kg–1 carp pituitary homogenate and kept in 15°C freshwater and in 15°C saltwater with a salinity of 32-33‰. Fish kept in saltwater but not subjected to hormonal stimulation were used as a control group. Furthermore, after the experiment was finished, females in the control group were kept for next 5 months, with the same environmental parameters maintained. Differences between the treated groups were observed as early as week 4 of the experiment. An increase in fish BW was observed in fish kept both in salt and freshwater which were subjected to hormonal stimulation. On the other hand, changes in eye size were observed in the fish kept in saltwater, both in those hormonally stimulated and otherwise. The eye diameter in the fish kept in fresh after hormonal stimulation did not change significantly.

  18. The Availability And Legal Aspects of the Fresh Water Management in Brazil: A Path to Reach the 2030 Agenda

    OpenAIRE

    Fontes Filho, Cláudio Barbosa; Anjos, Ester Dorcas Ferreira dos

    2016-01-01

    This research has as object of analysis the availability and the aspects of water management in Brazil. The 2030 Agenda corresponds the set of programs, actions and policies that will guide the UN work and its member countries towards a sustainable development. This study is justified by the society and environment changes, which affect the relation between human being and water. This research intends to verify if the legal management instruments contemplated by our legislation meet the goals...

  19. A tentative assessment of cesium 137 direct and indirect transfer rates in a simplified fresh water food chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foulquier, Luc; Lambrechts, Alain.

    1982-08-01

    A comparison was made of the direct transfer of cesium from water to carps and the indirect transfer via the food. In a first experiment on chronic contamination of carps by water, the kinetics and distribution of cesium in the organs of the carps were studied. Equilibrium was not reached on the 56th day, 4% of the initial water activity had been retained by the carps and the concentration factor was below 10. The highest specific activities were found in the transit organs. In a second experiment, the water activity varied by alternating contamination and decontamination. A fluctuating equilibrium was reached on the 22nd day. The concentration factor was of the same order of magnitude than in the previous experiment. Indirect contamination of fish by ingestion of contaminated daphnids was studied in a third experiment. Cesium levels in carps increased with the cumulated activities in meals, and the uptake rate in fish was 4%. Both decorporation and biological half-lives (30-40 days) were independent of the contamination routes. The respective significance of the transfer pathways is discussed taking into account the biomass pyramids to be found in the nature. It is estimated that in a cesium environment, 70% of the carp activity should come from the diet and 30% from the water. The concentration factor would then be 75 instead of 22 when only direct transfer of cesium from water to fish is considered [fr

  20. Combined effects of thermosonication and slightly acidic electrolyzed water on the microbial quality and shelf life extension of fresh-cut kale during refrigeration storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansur, Ahmad Rois; Oh, Deog-Hwan

    2015-10-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of thermosonication combined with slightly acidic electrolyzed water (SAcEW) on the shelf life extension of fresh-cut kale during storage at 4 and 7 °C. Each kale (10 ± 0.2 g) was inoculated to contain approximately 6 log CFU/g of Listeria monocytogenes. Each inoculated or uninoculated samples was dip treated at 40 °C for 3 min with deionized water, thermosonication (400 W/L), SAcEW (5 mg/L), sodium chlorite (SC; 100 mg/L), sodium hypochlorite (SH; 100 mg/L), and thermosonication combined with SAcEW, SC, and SH (TS + SAcEW, TS + SC, and TS + SH, respectively). Growths of L. monocytogenes and spoilage microorganisms and changes in sensory (overall visual quality, browning, and off-odour) were evaluated. The results show that lag time and specific growth rate of each microorganism were not significantly (P > 0.05) affected by treatment and storage temperature. Exceeding the unacceptable counts of spoilage microorganisms did not always result in adverse effects on sensory attributes. This study suggests that TS + SAcEW was the most effective method to prolong the shelf life of kale with an extension of around 4 and 6 days at 4 and 7 °C, respectively, and seems to be a promising method for the shelf life extension of fresh produce. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Water, Rather than Temperature, Dominantly Impacts How Soil Fauna Affect Dissolved Carbon and Nitrogen Release from Fresh Litter during Early Litter Decomposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu Liao

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Longstanding observations suggest that dissolved materials are lost from fresh litter through leaching, but the role of soil fauna in controlling this process has been poorly documented. In this study, a litterbag experiment employing litterbags with different mesh sizes (3 mm to permit soil fauna access and 0.04 mm to exclude fauna access was conducted in three habitats (arid valley, ecotone and subalpine forest with changes in climate and vegetation types to evaluate the effects of soil fauna on the concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC and total dissolved nitrogen (TDN during the first year of decomposition. The results showed that the individual density and community abundance of soil fauna greatly varied among these habitats, but Prostigmata, Isotomidae and Oribatida were the dominant soil invertebrates. At the end of the experiment, the mass remaining of foliar litter ranged from 58% for shrub litter to 77% for birch litter, and the DOC and TDN concentrations decreased to 54%–85% and increased to 34%–269%, respectively, when soil fauna were not present. The effects of soil fauna on the concentrations of both DOC and TDN in foliar litter were greater in the subalpine forest (wetter but colder during the winter and in the arid valley (warmer but drier during the growing season, and this effect was positively correlated with water content. Moreover, the effects of fauna on DOC and TDN concentrations were greater for high-quality litter and were related to the C/N ratio. These results suggest that water, rather than temperature, dominates how fauna affect the release of dissolved substances from fresh litter.

  2. Environmental Guide Value (VGE) and specific reference values (QS) for uranium. Synthesis and elements for application to French fresh waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    This report proposes a synthesis of works performed to determine criteria of protection of continental aquatic ecosystems with respect to uranium. These works resulted in the determination of an environmental guide value (VGE) for the assessment of the ecological and chemical condition of waters. Other specific reference values have been determined to be used in risk assessment: average annual concentration, maximum admissible concentration. After a recall of the methodology adopted for the determination of VGE in the case of uranium, the report discusses the specific reference values in the case of uranium for different organisms, for predators, for the protection of human health against a risk of exposure by consumption of fished products or drinkable water. The determination of VGE and its application are reported, and its consistency with the criterion of radiation protection of the environment applied to water and sediments is discussed. The determination of specific reference values is then discussed

  3. Hydrogen production from inexhaustible supplies of fresh and salt water using microbial reverse-electrodialysis electrolysis cells

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Y.

    2011-09-19

    There is a tremendous source of entropic energy available from the salinity difference between river water and seawater, but this energy has yet to be efficiently captured and stored. Here we demonstrate that H(2) can be produced in a single process by capturing the salinity driven energy along with organic matter degradation using exoelectrogenic bacteria. Only five pairs of seawater and river water cells were sandwiched between an anode, containing exoelectrogenic bacteria, and a cathode, forming a microbial reverse-electrodialysis electrolysis cell. Exoelectrogens added an electrical potential from acetate oxidation and reduced the anode overpotential, while the reverse electrodialysis stack contributed 0.5-0.6 V at a salinity ratio (seawater:river water) of 50. The H(2) production rate increased from 0.8 to 1.6 m(3)-H(2)/m(3)-anolyte/day for seawater and river water flow rates ranging from 0.1 to 0.8 mL/ min. H(2) recovery, the ratio of electrons used for H(2) evolution to electrons released by substrate oxidation, ranged from 72% to 86%. Energy efficiencies, calculated from changes in salinities and the loss of organic matter, were 58% to 64%. By using a relatively small reverse electrodialysis stack (11 membranes), only ~1% of the produced energy was needed for pumping water. Although Pt was used on the cathode in these tests, additional tests with a nonprecious metal catalyst (MoS(2)) demonstrated H(2) production at a rate of 0.8 m(3)/m(3)/d and an energy efficiency of 51%. These results show that pure H(2) gas can efficiently be produced from virtually limitless supplies of seawater and river water, and biodegradable organic matter.

  4. Effects of cyanobacterial-driven pH increases on sediment nutrient fluxes and coupled nitrification-denitrification in a shallow fresh water estuary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Gao

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Summer cyanobacterial blooms caused an elevation in pH (9 to ~10.5 that lasted for weeks in the shallow and tidal-fresh region of the Sassafras River, a tributary of Chesapeake Bay (USA. Elevated pH promoted desorption of sedimentary inorganic phosphorus and facilitated conversion of ammonium (NH4+ to ammonia (NH3. In this study, we investigated pH effects on exchangeable NH4+ desorption, pore water diffusion and the flux rates of NH4+, soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP and nitrate (NO3, nitrification, denitrification, and oxygen consumption. Elevated pH enhanced desorption of exchangeable NH4+ through NH3 formation from both pore water and adsorbed NH4+ pools. Progressive penetration of high pH from the overlying water into sediment promoted the mobility of SRP and the release of total ammonium (NH4+ and NH3 into the pore water. At elevated pH levels, high sediment-water effluxes of SRP and total ammonium were associated with reduction of nitrification, denitrification and oxygen consumption rates. Alkaline pH and the toxicity of NH3 may inhibit nitrification in the thin aerobic zone, simultaneously constraining coupled nitrification–denitrification with limited NO3 supply and high pH penetration into the anaerobic zone. Geochemical feedbacks to pH elevation, such as enhancement of dissolved nutrient effluxes and reduction in N2 loss via denitrification, may enhance the persistence of cyanobacterial blooms in shallow water ecosystems.

  5. Comparison of Enterococcus qPCR analysis results from fresh and marine waters on two real-tme instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) will be recommending a quantitativ e polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) method targeting Enterococcus spp. as an option for monitoring recreational beach water quality. A practical consideration for widespread implementation of this o...

  6. Water Deficit Effect on Ratio of Seed to Berry Fresh Weight and Berry Weight Uniformity in Winegrape cv. Merlot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field-grown grapevines cv. Merlot (Vitis vinifera L.) were differentially irrigated in a randomized block design during two growing seasons to maintain a high or low level of vine water stress between fruit set and harvest. Detached berries from clusters harvested at maturity were individually weig...

  7. Experiences on reduction of reactor water silica and fresh resin leaching organics for Kuo-Sheng Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen, T-J.; Wang, C-H.

    2010-01-01

    The silica level in reactor water of Kuo-Sheng nuclear power plants has been slowly increased from 200 ppb to the high level above 500 ppb in recent years. The results obtained from steam/liquid mass balance calculation indicated that an increase of reactor water silica was mainly caused by continuing equilibrium leakage from deep bed condensate demineralizers, where the ion exchange zone was periodically disturbed by resin backwashing - scrubbing operation. The fastest and the most effective way to reduce the silica inventory in reactor system is to operate by continuously precoating of two sets of the reactor water clean up filter demineralizers to a lower effluent silica end point, and perhaps as frequently as three or four days. Leaching organic contaminants into feed water from the ion exchange resin becomes a key greater problem of current concern for the stable water quality promotion of condensate demineralizer. The presence of those impurities have practically been difficult to analyze by simple quality testing of the resin, and may result in as much as a hundred fold increase in chloride and sulfate in reactor water. As resin displacement with high leachable TOC, a repeated continuous soaking and effectively rinsing is required so that steady state TOC content less than 150 ppb should be achieved in an acceptably short period of time before put in-service. It is clear that cation resin containing high leachables generates high level of sulfates and sometimes also gives unexpected level of chlorides. The current TOC limits in condensate demineralizer effluent with 0.1 ppb become a significant experience to maintain reactor water soluble impurity in low levels. New resin should be subjected to TOC quality control testing prior to acceptance especially when first placed into service. TOC and organic chloride leachables for as-received virgin cation resin that are to be used in condensate polisher should be limited to be less than 100 mg-TOC and 0.5 mg-Cl per

  8. Application of human and animal viral microbial source tracking tools in fresh and marine waters from five different geographical areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusiñol, Marta; Fernandez-Cassi, Xavier; Hundesa, Ayalkibet; Vieira, Carmen; Kern, Anita; Eriksson, Irene; Ziros, Panos; Kay, David; Miagostovich, Marize; Vargha, Marta; Allard, Annika; Vantarakis, Apostolos; Wyn-Jones, Peter; Bofill-Mas, Sílvia; Girones, Rosina

    2014-08-01

    Integrated river basin management planning to mitigate the impacts of economic, demographic and climate change is an important issue for the future protection of water resources. Identifying sources of microbial contamination via the emerging science of Microbial Source Tracking (MST) plays a key role in risk assessment and the design of remediation strategies. Following an 18-month surveillance program within the EU-FP7-funded VIROCLIME project, specific MST tools were used to assess human markers such as adenoviruses (HAdV) and JC polyomaviruses (JCPyV) and porcine and bovine markers such as porcine adenoviruses (PAdV) and bovine polyomaviruses (BPyV) via quantification with real-time PCR to analyze surface water collected from five sites within different climatic zones: the Negro River (Brazil), Glafkos River (Greece), Tisza River (Hungary), Llobregat River (Spain) and Umeälven River (Sweden). The utility of the viral MST tools and the prevalence and abundance of specific human and animal viruses in the five river catchments and adjacent seawater, which is impacted by riverine contributions from the upstream catchments, were examined. In areas where no sanitation systems have been implemented, sewage can directly enter surface waters, and river water exhibited high viral loads; HAdV and JCPyV could be detected at mean concentrations of 10(5) and 10(4) Genome Copies/Liter (GC/L), respectively. In general, river water samples upstream of urban discharges presented lower human viral loads than downstream sampling sites, and those differences appeared to increase with urban populations but decrease in response to high river flow, as the elevated river water volume dilutes microbial loads. During dry seasons, river water flow decreases dramatically, and secondary effluents can represent the bulk of the riverine discharge. We also observed that ice cover that formed over the river during the winter in the studied areas in North Europe could preserve viral stability

  9. An assessment of heavy metal contamination in soils of fresh water aquifer system and evaluation of eco-toxicity by lithogenic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harichandan, R; Routroy, S; Mohanty, J K; Panda, C R

    2013-04-01

    The chemistry of heavy metals in sediments with respect to bio-availability and chemical reactivity is regulated by pH, texture, and organic matter contents of the sediments and specific binding form and coupled reactivity of the metals within. To focus on the metal distribution (Fe, Mn, Pb, Cd, Zn, Co, Cu, and Cr) and behavior in a fresh water aquifer system along with the ecological toxicity parameters, a four-step sequential extraction method was applied on 18 Eastern Ghats' type sediments from fluorosis-hit Nayagarh district, India. Geo-accumulation index of metals in the sediments indicates that they are practically uncontaminated and/or less contaminated with and Fe, Mn, and Cu; contaminated to moderately contaminated with Pb, Zn, and Cr; and strongly contaminated with Cd. Rather, more than 80 % recovered Cd metal concentration in sediments constitute the labile fractions. Temporal clustering of metal fractions indicates transition metal fraction distribution claiming the sediment pH regulation. Similarly, base metal distribution accounts for organic carbon and soil conductivity due to their greater availability in exchangeable and sulfide fractions. Correlation analysis and factor analysis scores demonstrate lack of inter-relationship between transition group and base metal fractions. High fluoride concentration in ground water is associated with high sodium-bicarbonate-iron affinity with elevated pH values (i.e., >7.0) and high positive factor score with the total iron concentration in ground water.

  10. Warm water treatment in combination with modified atmosphere packaging reduces undesirable effects of irradiation on the quality of fresh-cut iceberg lettuce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xuetong; Toivonen, Peter M A; Rajkowski, Kathleen T; Sokorai, Kimberly J B

    2003-02-26

    Fresh-cut iceberg lettuce dipped in either 5 or 47 degrees C water for 2 min was packaged in modified atmosphere film bags and then exposed to 0, 0.5, 1, or 2 kGy gamma-radiation. Dipping cut lettuce in 47 degrees C water for 2 min prior to irradiation reduced antioxidant and phenolic accumulations induced by irradiation. Irradiation at 2 kGy increased cellular leakage and sogginess of cut lettuce dipped in both temperatures. Samples irradiated at 0.5 and 1 kGy had similar firmness and vitamin C and antioxidant contents as the controls after 14 and 21 days of storage except 1 kGy samples dipped at 47 degrees C had lower antioxidant contents than controls at 14 days of storage. Lettuce dipped at 47 degrees C and irradiated at 0.5 and 1 kGy had better overall visual quality and less tissue browning than corresponding irradiated samples dipped at 5 degrees C. These results suggest lettuce treated with warm water and irradiated at 0.5 or 1 kGy had the best sensory quality without significant loss in texture, vitamin C, or total antioxidants.

  11. Influence of releases from a fresh water reservoir on the hydrochemistry of the Tinto River (SW Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cánovas, Carlos Ruiz; Olias, Manuel; Vazquez-Suñé, Enric; Ayora, Carlos; Nieto, Jose Miguel

    2012-01-01

    The Tinto River is an extreme case of pollution by acid mine drainage (AMD), with pH values below 3 and high sulphate, metal and metalloid concentrations along its main course. This study evaluates the impact of releases from a freshwater reservoir on the Tinto River, identifying the metal transport mechanisms. This information is needed to understand the water quality evolution in the long term, and involves the comprehension of interactions between AMD sources, freshwaters, particulate matter and sediments. This work proposes a methodology for quantifying the proportions in which the different sources are contributing. The method is based on the mass balance of solutes and accounts for the uncertainty of end-members. The impact of the releases from the Corumbel Reservoir on the hydrochemistry of the Tinto River was significant, accounting up to a 92% of river discharge. These releases provoked a sharp decrease in dissolved metal concentrations, especially for Fe (approximately 1000 fold) due to dilution and precipitation. Cadmium, Zn, Cu, Co, Ni and Al suffered a dilution to a 12–16 fold decrease while Ca, Sr, Na, Pb and Si were less affected (2–4 folds decrease). However, these releases also gave rise to an increase in particulate transport, mainly Fe, As, Cr, Ba, Pb and Ti, due to sediment remobilisation and Fe precipitation. Aluminium, Li, K, Si, Al, Ni and Sr, together with Cu were present in the particulate phase during the discharge peak. The proposed 2-component mixing model revealed the existence of non-conservative behaviour for Al, Ca, Li, Mn, Ni and Si as a consequence of the interactions between the acidic Tinto waters and the clay-rich reservoir sediments during the bottom outlet opening. These results were improved by a 3-component mixing model, introducing a new end-member to account the chemical dissolution of clay-rich sediments by acidic Tinto waters. - Highlights: ► We study the influence of freshwater releases on the acidic Tinto river

  12. Multi-isotope (C - O - S - H - B - Mg - Ca - Ba) and trace element variations along a vertical pore water profile across a brackish-fresh water transition, Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böttcher, Michael E.; Lapham, Laura; Gussone, Nikolaus; Struck, Ulrich; Buhl, Dieter; Immenhauser, Adrian; Moeller, Kirsten; Pretet, Chloé; Nägler, Thomas F.; Dellwig, Olaf; Schnetger, Bernhard; Huckriede, Hermann; Halas, Stan; Samankassou, Elias

    2013-04-01

    The Holocene Baltic Sea has been switched several times between fresh water and brackish water modes. Modern linear sedimentation rates, based on 210-Pb, 137-Cs, and Hg dating of surface sediments, are between 0.1 and 0.2 mm per year. The change in paleo-environmental conditions caused downcore gradients in the concentrations of dissolved species from modern brackish waters towards fresh paleo-pore waters, interrupted by the brief brackish Yoldia stage. These strong physico-chemical changes had consequences for e.g., microbial activity and further physical and chemical water-solid interactions associated with multiple stable isotope fractionation processes, and, in turn, have strong implications for isotope and trace element partitioning upon early diagenetic mineral (trans)formations. In this communication, we present the results from the first integrated multi-isotope and trace element investigation conducted in this type of salinity-gradient system. It is found that concentrations of conservative elements (e.g., Na, Cl) decrease with depth due to diffusion of ions from brackish waters into underlying fresh waters. This is associated with pronounced depletions in H-2 and O-18 of pore water with depth. Covariations of both isotope systems are close to the meteoric water line as defined by modern Baltic Sea surface waters. A downward increase and decrease of Ca and Mg concentrations, respectively, is associated with decreasing Ca-44 and Mg-26 isotope values. B-11 isotope values decrease in the limnic part of the sediments, too. On the other hand, an increase in Ba concentrations with depth is associated with an increase in Ba-137/134 isotope values. Microbial sulfate reduction and organic matter oxidation lead to an increase in DIC, but a decrease in sulfate concentrations and in C-13 contents of DIC with depth. Suess (1981) was probably the first to propose, that desorption of Ca and Ba from glacial sediments due to downward diffusing ions may be responsible for a

  13. A fresh look at road salt: aquatic toxicity and water-quality impacts on local, regional, and national scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsi, Steven R; Graczyk, David J; Geis, Steven W; Booth, Nathaniel L; Richards, Kevin D

    2010-10-01

    A new perspective on the severity of aquatic toxicity impact of road salt was gained by a focused research effort directed at winter runoff periods. Dramatic impacts were observed on local, regional, and national scales. Locally, samples from 7 of 13 Milwaukee, Wisconsin area streams exhibited toxicity in Ceriodaphnia dubia and Pimephales promelas bioassays during road-salt runoff. Another Milwaukee stream was sampled from 1996 to 2008 with 72% of 37 samples exhibiting toxicity in chronic bioassays and 43% in acute bioassays. The maximum chloride concentration was 7730 mg/L. Regionally, in southeast Wisconsin, continuous specific conductance was monitored as a chloride surrogate in 11 watersheds with urban land use from 6.0 to 100%. Elevated specific conductance was observed between November and April at all sites, with continuing effects between May and October at sites with the highest specific conductance. Specific conductance was measured as high as 30,800 μS/cm (Cl = 11,200 mg/L). Chloride concentrations exceeded U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) acute (860 mg/L) and chronic (230 mg/L) water-quality criteria at 55 and 100% of monitored sites, respectively. Nationally, U.S. Geological Survey historical data were examined for 13 northern and 4 southern metropolitan areas. Chloride concentrations exceeded USEPA water-quality criteria at 55% (chronic) and 25% (acute) of the 168 monitoring locations in northern metropolitan areas from November to April. Only 16% (chronic) and 1% (acute) of sites exceeded criteria from May to October. At southern sites, very few samples exceeded chronic water-quality criteria, and no samples exceeded acute criteria.

  14. Influence of releases from a fresh water reservoir on the hydrochemistry of the Tinto River (SW Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cánovas, Carlos Ruiz; Olias, Manuel; Vazquez-Suñé, Enric; Ayora, Carlos; Miguel Nieto, Jose

    2012-02-01

    The Tinto River is an extreme case of pollution by acid mine drainage (AMD), with pH values below 3 and high sulphate, metal and metalloid concentrations along its main course. This study evaluates the impact of releases from a freshwater reservoir on the Tinto River, identifying the metal transport mechanisms. This information is needed to understand the water quality evolution in the long term, and involves the comprehension of interactions between AMD sources, freshwaters, particulate matter and sediments. This work proposes a methodology for quantifying the proportions in which the different sources are contributing. The method is based on the mass balance of solutes and accounts for the uncertainty of end-members. The impact of the releases from the Corumbel Reservoir on the hydrochemistry of the Tinto River was significant, accounting up to a 92% of river discharge. These releases provoked a sharp decrease in dissolved metal concentrations, especially for Fe (approximately 1000 fold) due to dilution and precipitation. Cadmium, Zn, Cu, Co, Ni and Al suffered a dilution to a 12-16 fold decrease while Ca, Sr, Na, Pb and Si were less affected (2-4 folds decrease). However, these releases also gave rise to an increase in particulate transport, mainly Fe, As, Cr, Ba, Pb and Ti, due to sediment remobilisation and Fe precipitation. Aluminium, Li, K, Si, Al, Ni and Sr, together with Cu were present in the particulate phase during the discharge peak. The proposed 2-component mixing model revealed the existence of non-conservative behaviour for Al, Ca, Li, Mn, Ni and Si as a consequence of the interactions between the acidic Tinto waters and the clay-rich reservoir sediments during the bottom outlet opening. These results were improved by a 3-component mixing model, introducing a new end-member to account the chemical dissolution of clay-rich sediments by acidic Tinto waters. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Fresh produce and their soils accumulate cyanotoxins from irrigation water: Implications for public health and food security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seungjun; Jiang, Xuewen; Manubolu, Manjunath; Riedl, Ken; Ludsin, Stuart A; Martin, Jay F; Lee, Jiyoung

    2017-12-01

    Microcystin (MC), a hepatotoxin that can adversely affect human health, has become more prevalent in freshwater ecosystems worldwide, owing to an increase in toxic cyanobacteria blooms. While consumption of water and fish are well-documented exposure pathways of MCs to humans, less is known about the potential transfer to humans through consumption of vegetables that have been irrigated with MC-contaminated water. Likewise, the impact of MC on the performance of food crops is understudied. To help fill these information gaps, we conducted a controlled laboratory experiment in which we exposed lettuce, carrots, and green beans to environmentally relevant concentrations of MC-LR (0, 1, 5, and 10μg/L) via two irrigation methods (drip and spray). We used ELISA and LC-MS/MS to quantify MC-LR concentrations and in different parts of the plant (edible vs. inedible fractions), measured plant performance (e.g., size, mass, edible leaves, color), and calculated human exposure risk based on accumulation patterns. MC-LR accumulation was positively dose-dependent, with it being greater in the plants (2.2-209.2μg/kg) than in soil (0-19.4μg/kg). MC-LR accumulation varied among vegetable types, between plant parts, and between irrigation methods. MC-LR accumulation led to reduced crop growth and quality, with MC-LR persisting in the soil after harvest. Observed toxin accumulation patterns in edible fractions of plants also led to estimates of daily MC-LR intake that exceeded both the chronic reference dose (0.003μg/kg of body weight) and total daily intake guidelines (0.04μg/kg of body weight). Because the use of MC-contaminated water is common in many parts of the world, our collective findings highlight the need for guidelines concerning the use of MC-contaminated water in irrigation, as well as consumption of these crops. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Removal of Inorganic, Microbial, and Particulate Contaminants from a Fresh Surface Water: Village Marine Tec. Expeditionary Unit Water Purifier, Generation 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Village Marine Tec. Generation 1 Expeditionary Unit Water Purifier (EUWP) is a mobile skid-mounted system employing ultrafiltration (UF) and reverse osmosis (RO) to produce drinking water from a variety of different water quality sources. The UF components were evaluated to t...

  17. Accurate approach for determining fresh-water carbonate (H2CO3(*)) alkalinity, using a single H3PO4 titration point.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birnhack, Liat; Sabach, Sara; Lahav, Ori

    2012-10-15

    A new, simple and accurate method is introduced for determining H(2)CO(3)(*) alkalinity in fresh waters dominated by the carbonate weak-acid system. The method relies on a single H(3)PO(4) dosage and two pH readings (acidic pH value target: pH~4.0). The computation algorithm is based on the concept that the overall alkalinity mass of a solution does not change upon the addition of a non-proton-accepting species. The accuracy of the new method was assessed batch-wise with both synthetic and actual tap waters and the results were compared to those obtained from two widely used alkalinity analysis methods (titration to pH~4.5 and the Gran titration method). The experimental results, which were deliberately obtained with simple laboratory equipment (glass buret, general-purpose pH electrode, magnetic stirrer) proved the method to be as accurate as the conventional methods at a wide range of alkalinity values (20-400 mg L(-1) as CaCO(3)). Analysis of the relative error attained in the proposed method as a function of the target (acidic) pH showed that at the range 4.0pHalkalinity measurement is also described. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Modeling growth of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in fresh-cut lettuce treated with neutral electrolyzed water and under modified atmosphere packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posada-Izquierdo, Guiomar D; Pérez-Rodríguez, Fernando; López-Gálvez, Francisco; Allende, Ana; Gil, María I; Zurera, Gonzalo

    2014-05-02

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate and model the growth of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in fresh-cut lettuce submitted to a neutral electrolyzed water (NEW) treatment, packaged in passive modified atmosphere and subsequently stored at different temperatures (4, 8, 13, 16°C) for a maximum of 27 days. Results indicated that E. coli O157:H7 was able to grow at 8, 13, and 16°C, and declined at 4°C. However at 8°C, the lag time lasted 19 days, above the typical shelf-life time for this type of products. A secondary model predicting growth rate as a function of temperature was developed based on a square-root function. A comparison with literature data indicated that the growth predicted by the model for E. coli O157:H7 was again lower than those observed with other disinfection treatments or packaging conditions (chlorinated water, untreated product, NEW, etc.). The specific models here developed might be applied to predict growth in products treated with NEW and to improve existing quantitative risk assessments. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Developing a Model using High School Students for Restoring, Monitoring and Conducting Research in Fresh Water Wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blueford, J. R.

    2010-12-01

    Tule Ponds at Tyson Lagoon in eastern San Francisco Bay is one of the largest sag ponds created by the Hayward Fault that has not been destroyed by urbanization. In the 1990’s Alameda County Flood Control and Water Conservation District designed a constructed wetland to naturally filter stormwater before it entered Tyson Lagoon on its way to the San Francisco Bay. The Math Science Nucleus, a non profit organization, manages the facility that incorporates high school students through community service, service learning, and research. Students do a variety of tasks from landscaping to scientific monitoring. Through contracts and grants, we create different levels of competency that the students can participate. Engineers and scientists from the two agencies involved, create tasks that are needed to be complete for successful restoration. Every year the students work on different components of restoration. A group of select student interns (usually juniors and seniors) collects and records the data during the year. Some of these students are part of a paid internship to insure their regular attendance. Every year the students compile and discuss with scientists from the Math Science Nucleus what the data set might mean and how problems can be improved. The data collected helps determine other longer term projects. This presentation will go over the journey of the last 10 years to this very successful program and will outline the steps necessary to maintain a restoration project. It will also outline the different groups that do larger projects (scouts) and liaisons with schools that allow teachers to assign projects at our facility. The validity of the data obtained by students and how we standardize our data collection from soil analysis, water chemistry, monitoring faults, and biological observations will be discussed. This joint agency model of cooperation to provide high school students with a real research opportunity has benefits that allow the program to

  20. A molecular approach towards the taxonomy of fresh water prawns Macrobrachium striatum and M. equidens (Decapoda, Palaemonidae) using mitochondrial markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose, Deepak; Nidhin, B; Anil Kumar, K P; Pradeep, P J; Harikrishnan, M

    2016-07-01

    Genus Macrobrachium includes freshwater prawns which inhabit most diverse habitats ranging from low saline areas to inland hill streams and impounded water bodies. Being morphologically conserved, this genus has been exposed to severe disputes related to their taxonomy, systematics and phylogeny. Macrobrachium striatum and M. equidens represent two morphologically related congeneric species within this genus. Earlier, M. striatum was considered as a striped form of M. equidens. Though these species are now well-described morphologically and differentiated into two species, no molecular level investigation has been carried out in support of their speciation. We report a study on M. striatum and M. equidens with emphasis to their molecular data through mitochondrial markers (16S ribosomal RNA and cytochrome oxidase subunit I). Results obtained from developed molecular markers of the two species revealed considerable genetic differentiation between them. Phylogram generated using Minimum evolution and Neighbour joining analyses differentiated M. striatum and M. equidens as two independent species. Genetic distance data showed high interspecific divergence (ranging from 3.9% to 17.0% for 16S rRNA sequences and 13.8% to 21.0% for COI sequences) between M. striatum and M. equidens confirming the findings of phylogram. Hence, it could be delineated that M. striatum and M. equidens represent two distinct species within genus Macrobrachium with emphasis to their morphology and genetics.

  1. Effect of visible light on progressive dormancy of Escherichia coli cells during the survival process in natural fresh water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barcina, I.; Gonzalez, J.M.; Iriberri, J.; Egea, L.

    1989-01-01

    Some effects of visible light on the survival of Escherichia coli in waters of the Butron river were studied by comparing illuminated and nonilluminated systems. The following count methods were used: CFU on a selective medium (eosin-methylene blue agar), CFU on a medium of recuperation (Trypticase soy agar with yeast extract and glucose), number of metabolically active cells by reduction of 2-(p-iodophenyl)-3-(p-nitrophenyl)-5-phenyl tetrazolium chloride (INT) to INT-formazan, and total number of E. coli cells as determined by the acridine orange direct-count method. In the illuminated systems, decreases in CFU of E. coli and in the number of metabolically active cells were observed. However, no decline of the total number of E. coli cells was observed. By count methods, different stages of progressive dormancy of E. coli cells were determined to exist in illuminated systems. Culturable and recoverable cells were defined as viable cells, and metabolically active cells and morphologically intact cells were defined as somnicells. Indirect activity measurements were also done by using (14C)glucose. In illuminated systems, a decrease of glucose uptake by E. coli cells was observed throughout the experiments. The assimilated fraction of (14C)glucose decreased faster than the respired fraction in illuminated systems. The percentage of respired (14C)glucose (14CO2 production) with respect to the total glucose uptake increased throughout the experiments, and the percentage of assimilated glucose decreased. Therefore, the visible light was also responsible for an additional inhibition of biosynthetic processes.

  2. Effect of visible light on progressive dormancy of Escherichia coli cells during the survival process in natural fresh water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barcina, I.; Gonzalez, J.M.; Iriberri, J.; Egea, L.

    1989-01-01

    Some effects of visible light on the survival of Escherichia coli in waters of the Butron river were studied by comparing illuminated and nonilluminated systems. The following count methods were used: CFU on a selective medium (eosin-methylene blue agar), CFU on a medium of recuperation (Trypticase soy agar with yeast extract and glucose), number of metabolically active cells by reduction of 2-(p-iodophenyl)-3-(p-nitrophenyl)-5-phenyl tetrazolium chloride (INT) to INT-formazan, and total number of E. coli cells as determined by the acridine orange direct-count method. In the illuminated systems, decreases in CFU of E. coli and in the number of metabolically active cells were observed. However, no decline of the total number of E. coli cells was observed. By count methods, different stages of progressive dormancy of E. coli cells were determined to exist in illuminated systems. Culturable and recoverable cells were defined as viable cells, and metabolically active cells and morphologically intact cells were defined as somnicells. Indirect activity measurements were also done by using [14C]glucose. In illuminated systems, a decrease of glucose uptake by E. coli cells was observed throughout the experiments. The assimilated fraction of [14C]glucose decreased faster than the respired fraction in illuminated systems. The percentage of respired [14C]glucose (14CO2 production) with respect to the total glucose uptake increased throughout the experiments, and the percentage of assimilated glucose decreased. Therefore, the visible light was also responsible for an additional inhibition of biosynthetic processes

  3. Bioavailability of heavy metals in fresh water Tilapia nilotica (Oreachromis niloticus Linnaeus, 1758): potential risk to fishermen and consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sadaawy, Manal M; El-Said, Ghada F; Sallam, Neama A

    2013-01-01

    The study was undertaken to assess the accumulation of some heavy metals (Cr, Co, Cu, Ni, Zn, Pb and Cd) in different tissues (muscle, gills, heart, liver, brain, bone and skin) of Tilapia nilotica. It is one of the most edible fish species in Egypt and was collected from a commercial fish farm in order to evaluate their potential risk to fishermen and consumers. This fish farm is fed with discharged water containing agricultural, industrial, sewage and domestic wastes. The length-weight relation and condition factor calculation of Tilapia nilotica samples showed a significant linear regression (r(2) = 0.920) and an average condition factor of 4.1 g/cm(3). This indicated that the health status for the studied fish samples was good. Metal pollution index (MPI) values for the determined heavy metals in the different tissues reflected that the muscle was the only tissue that had the lowest content. Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake (PTWI) values for the investigated heavy metals were lower than those reported for the permissible limits. The data were evaluated by using ANOVA statistical analysis. For appraising the human health risk effects of heavy metals in fish muscle, estimated dietary intake (EDI) and hazard quotient (HQ) were determined. HQ levels indicated that Cr and Co were the only heavy metals among the determined ones that had values more than unity. Also, their relative contributions in fish consumptions were Cr> Co> Pb> Ni> Cu> Cd> Zn. The highest average HQ value of chromium determined in this study referred to the possible adverse effects of Cr on human health. Accordingly, the potential public health risks from dietary exposure to hazardous contaminants in fish species from fish farms must be continually subjected to research, regulation and debate.

  4. In-vitro study on calcium carbonate crystal growth mediated by organic matrix extracted from fresh water pearls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Yufei; Qiao Li; Feng Qingling

    2012-01-01

    For the purpose of studying the mediation of organic matrix on the crystallization of calcium carbonate, water soluble matrix (WSM), acid soluble matrix (ASM) and acid insoluble matrix (AIM) were extracted from aragonite pearls and vaterite pearls respectively. Then, in-vitro calcium carbonate crystallization experiments under the control of these six organic matrices were carried out in the present study. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was utilized to observe the morphology of CaCO 3 and Raman spectroscopy as a powerful technique was used to distinguish the crystal polymorph. Influences of the six kinds of organic matrices on the calcium carbonate crystal growth are proposed. ASM of vaterite pearls can induce vaterite to crystallize and WSM of aragonite pearls mediates to produce aragonite crystals. The single AIM membranes of the two pearls have no pronounced effect on the CaCO 3 crystallization. Additionally, the crystal size obtained with the additive of WSM of the two kinds of pearls is smaller than that with the additive of ASM. Moreover, self-assembly phenomenon in the biomineralization process and the distorted morphology calcite are observed. Current results demonstrate important aspects of matrix protein-controlled crystallization, which is beneficial to the understanding of nacre biomineralization mechanism. Further study of the precise control of these matrix proteins on CaCO 3 crystal growth is being processed. - Highlights: ► WSM, ASM and AIM are extracted from aragonite pearls and vaterite pearls. ► ASM of vaterite pearl induces vaterite. ► WSM of aragonite pearl mediates to produce aragonite. ► WSM can fine control crystal size smaller than that with the additive of ASM. ► Self-assembly and the distorted calcite existed in the mineralization process.

  5. Fresh Water River discharges as observed by SMOS in the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmedo, Estrella; Ballabrera-Poy, Joaquim; Turiel, Antonio

    2017-04-01

    The Bay of Bengal (BoB) and the Arabian Sea (AS) are two peculiar regions in the Indian Ocean exhibiting a wide range of Sea Surface Salinity (SSS) values. In the BoB, the strong summer monsoon rainfall and the continental run-offs into these semi-enclosed basins result in an intense dilution of the surface seawater in the northern part of the Bay, thereby inducing some of the lowest SSS water masses found in the tropical belt. In the AS, because of the intense variability associated with the monsoon cycle, water mass structure in the upper layers of the AS shows enormous variability in the space and time. As such, the role of the salinity in these regions is crucial in the ocean dynamics of these regions. After more than 7 years in orbit, the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission [1] continues to provide a series of salinity data that could be used to monitor the SSS variations in these climatically relevant regions, provided that systematic errors due to land contamination are reduced. Recently-developed algorithms for SSS retrieval [2] have improved the filtering criteria and the mitigation of the systematic bias, providing coherent SSS retrievals close to the land masses. In this work we have analyzed the SSS in 2-degree boxes located at the mouth of the main rivers in the BoB: Ganges-Brahmaputra, Irrawady, Mahanadi, Godovari; and in the AS: Indus. We have first tried to validate the SMOS salinity retrievals with in situ measurements. Since there is few available in situ data, we have also compared the climatological SSS behavior derived from SMOS with the ones provided by the World Ocean Atlas [3]. We have also compared the SMOS SSS data with historical data of discharges [4] and [5], ocean currents from the Ocean Surface Current Analyses Real-time (OSCAR) [6], Sea Surface Temperature from Operational Sea Surface Temperature and Sea Ice Analysis (OSTIA) [7],[8] and [9] and Chlorophyll data [10]. The conclusion of this work is that, when the proper

  6. Variability and uncertainty in water demand and water footprint assessments of fresh algae cultivation based on case studies from five climatic regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guieysse, Benoit; Béchet, Quentin; Shilton, Andy

    2013-01-01

    Using case studies from five typical climatic locations, this study revealed that current quantification of water demand (WD) and water footprint (WF) of freshwater algae cultivation in raceway ponds suffer from uncertainty and variability in the methodologies and assumptions used. Of particular concern, the WF metric had an intrinsically poor geographical resolution and could be biased towards high-productivity arid locations because local levels of water stress are not accounted for. Applying current methodologies could therefore cause the selection of locations that are neither economically viable nor environmentally sustainable. An improved methodology should utilize more accurate evaporation models, determine realistic limits for the maximum hydraulic retention times and process water recycling ratios, and apply weighting to the WF to reflect localized water stress or use an alternative metric such as the equivalent years of rainfall required to support a productivity of 1G J m(-2). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Monthly variation in the Bioaccumulation of heavy metals and other safety issues in some marine and fresh water fish species in Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arthur, W.

    2014-07-01

    Fish is one of the major sources of animal protein in Ghana and the fisheries industry is vital to the economy of the country. Unfortunately, most of the aquatic systems in Ghana are being polluted with domestic and industrial wastes which results in bioaccumulation of heavy metals in fish species. The traditional method for preserving fish in the country is by hot smoking or smoke drying, through freezing may be preferred where facilities are available. The presence of high levels of heavy metals in both fresh and smoked fish as well as other fish products is a matter of public health concern in Ghana. Variations in the level of bioaccumulation of heavy metals in both fresh and smoked marine fish, Sebastes marinus (red fish) and fresh water fish, Oreochromis niloticus (tilapia) caught off the coast of James Town in Accra and from the Volta river at Kpong respectively were monitored monthly from September 2013 to March 2014. Extension of two shelf life of the smoked fish species by gamma irradiation was also studied during 4 weeks of low temperature (5± 1 C ) storage by refrigeration. The total concentration of Iron (Fe), Zinc (Zn), Copper (Cu), Magnesium (Mg), Manganese (Mn), Cobalt (Co), Cadmium (Cd), Chromium (Cr), Arsenic (As) and Mercury (Hg) in the fish species as well as in their muscles, gills and bones were determined by Flame or Hydride Generation Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry. The moisture content, pH, sensory analysis and population of aerobic mesophiles (on PCA), yeast and moulds (on OGYE), Escherichia coli (on EMB), Staphylococcus aureus (on BPA) and Salmonella (on XLD) in fresh fish, and smoked fish after treatment with 1, 2 and 3kGy of gamma irradiation and during storage were determined. Four patterns in the bioaccumulation of heavy metals in both Sebastes marinus and Oreochromis niloticus were observed over the 6 months monitoring period. Fe, Cu, Co and Cr accumulated heavily in the fish species during September and October after which the

  8. Natural radionuclide dose and lifetime cancer risk due to ingestion of fish and water from fresh water reservoirs near the proposed uranium mining site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annamalai, Sathesh Kumar; Arunachalam, Kantha Deivi; Selvaraj, Rajaram

    2017-06-01

    Ten sampling locations in Nagarjuna Sagar Dam have been selected to assess the suitability of the reservoir water for human consumption. The sediment, water, and fish samples were collected and analyzed for radionuclide ( 238 U, 232 Th, 210 Po, 226 Ra, 210 Pb) and physicochemical parameters like pH, TOC, total hardness, alkalinity, DO, cation exchange capacity, and particle size. The spatial variations among the radionuclides ( 238 U, 232 Th, 210 Po, 226 Ra, 210 Pb) in water and bottom sediments of Nagarjuna Sagar Dam were determined. The uranium concentration in the sediment and water was in BDL (water samples of the analyzed radionuclides are 238 U-10 Bq/l, 210 Po-0.1 Bq/l, 226 Ra-1 Bq/l, and 210 Pb-0.1 Bq/l. The radionuclides in our water samples were approximately 50 times far below the recommended limit. The ingestion of water and fish would not pose any significant radiological impact on health or cancer risk to the public, implicating that the fishes from Nagarjuna Sagar Dam reservoir are safe for human consumption except the fisherman community.

  9. MIT jar test of the natural polymer chitosan with fresh pond water from the Cambridge Water Department, November-December 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murcott, S.; Harleman, D.R.F.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of the MIT (Massachusetts Institute of Technology) jar tests of chitosan using CWD (Cambridge Water Department Treatment Plant) water was to demonstrate the effectiveness of chitosan as a coagulant in drinking water applications. The approach was to compare the performance of the natural organic coagulant, chitosan, to the performance of alum and other chemical coagulants in terms of the parameters turbidity, color, pH and alkalinity. Twenty-five jar tests were conducted during November and December, 1992, at Parsons Laboratory, MIT, Cambridge, Massachusetts.

  10. Adsorptive removal of oil spill from oil-in-fresh water emulsions by hydrophobic alumina nanoparticles functionalized with petroleum vacuum residue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Camilo A; Cortés, Farid B; Nassar, Nashaat N

    2014-07-01

    Oil spills on fresh water can cause serious environmental and economic impacts onshore activities affecting those who exploit freshwater resources and grassland. Alumina nanoparticles functionalized with vacuum residue (VR) were used as a low-cost and high hydrophobic nanosorbents. The nanomaterial resulting showed high adsorption affinity and capacity of oil from oil-in-freshwater emulsion. The effects of the following variables on oil removal were investigated, namely: contact times, solution pH, initial oil concentrations, temperature, VR loadings and salinity. Kinetic studies showed that adsorption was fast and equilibrium was achieved in less than 30 min. The amount adsorbed of oil was higher for neutral system compared to acidic or basic medium. Increasing the VR loading on nanoparticle surface favored the adsorption. Results of this study showed that oil removal for all systems evaluated had better performance at pH value of 7 using nano-alumina functionalized with 4 wt% VR. Adsorption equilibrium and kinetics were evaluated using the Polanyi theory-based Dubinin-Ashtakhov (DA) model, and pseudo-first and pseudo-second order-models, respectively. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A direct estimate of poleward volume, heat and fresh water flux at 59.5°N between Greenland and Scotland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossby, Thomas; Reverdin, Gilles; Chafik, Leon; Søiland, Henrik

    2017-04-01

    The meridional overturning circulation (MOC) in the North Atlantic plays a major role in the transport of heat from low latitudes to high. In this study we combine recent measurements of currents from the surface to >700 m from a shipboard acoustic Doppler current profiler on the Nuka Arctica, a freighter in regular service between Greenland and Denmark with Argo profiles (to 2000 m) to estimate poleward volume, heat and freshwater flux at 59.5°N between Greenland and Scotland. For the period late 2012 to early 2016 the de-seasoned mean meridional overturning circulation reaches a 14.9±1.7 Sv maximum at the σθ = 27.55 kg m-3 isopycnal, which varies in depth from near the surface in the western Irminger Sea to 1000 m in Rockall Trough. The surface to bottom transport has a -0.44 Sv (southward) residual, which is not significantly different from zero. The total heat and fresh water fluxes across 59.5°N = 307 PW and 0.15 Sv, both with a 12% uncertainty principally due to uncertainties of the MOC. Comparing this ADCP dataset with an earlier one of comparable size from 1999-2002 (to 400 m depth only) shows strikingly similar transports in both west and east of the Reykjanes Ridge suggesting at least for these two periods 13 years apart very little difference in the strength of the MOC.

  12. Hollow fiber liquid phase microextraction combined with electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry for the speciation of arsenic (III) and arsenic (V) in fresh waters and human hair extracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang Hongmei [Department of Chemistry, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Hu Bin [Department of Chemistry, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China)], E-mail: binhu@whu.edu.cn; Chen Beibei; Xia Linbo [Department of Chemistry, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China)

    2009-02-16

    A new method of hollow fiber liquid phase microextraction (HF-LPME) using ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (APDC) as extractant combined with electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) using Pd as permanent modifier has been described for the speciation of As(III) and As(V). In a pH range of 3.0-4.0, the complex of As(III)-APDC complex can be extracted using toluene as the extraction solvent leaving As(V) in the aqueous layer. The post extraction organic phase was directly injected into ETAAS for the determination of As(III). To determine total arsenic in the samples, first As(V) was reduced to As(III) by L-cysteine, and then a microextraction method was performed prior to the determination of total arsenic. As(V) assay was based on subtracting As(III) form the total arsenic. All parameters, such as pH of solution, type of organic solvent, the amount of APDC, stirring rate and extraction time, affecting the separation of As(III) from As(V) and the extraction efficiency of As(III) were investigated, and the optimized extraction conditions were established. Under optimized conditions, a detection limit of 0.12 ng mL{sup -1} with enrichment factor of 78 was achieved. The relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) of the method for five replicate determinations of 5 ng mL{sup -1} As(III) was 8%. The developed method was applied to the speciation of As(III) and As(V) in fresh water and human hair extracts, and the recoveries for the spiked samples are 86-109%. In order to validate the developed method, three certified reference materials such as GBW07601 human hair, BW3209 and BW3210 environmental water were analyzed, and the results obtained were in good agreement with the certified values provided.

  13. Fixation and localisation of manganese in some soft water organisms: I - Distribution of 54Mn in an ecologic system in fresh water; II - study by biochemical fractionation of manganese contained by isolated plant cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnaval, Robert; Lachet, Bernard; Gagnaire, Janine; Fourcy, Andre; Neuburger, Michel; Fer, Andre

    1968-12-01

    After having recalled that Manganese 54, an irradiation product of 54 Fe, has a sufficiently long radioactive period to be detected in atmospheric fallouts of nuclear explosions, but also in radioactive wastes produced by research centres, and is generally produced by corrosion of any enclosure submitted to neutron irradiation, the authors report the experimental study of a radioactive pollution of fresh water when this radio-element is a component of this pollution. Different containers are considered. They contain either water and sediments, or water and organic compounds and aquatic plants, or water and sediments and aquatic plants. A solution of 54 MnCl 2 of radioactive pollution is introduced in these containers and the authors study the decrease of radioactivity in water with respect to the considered ecosystem, the 54 Mn concentration in aquatic living species, and the distribution of 54 Mn after 43 days. In a second part, they report the study of the distribution of cellular manganese in isolated biochemical fractions by using the Schmidt and Thannhauser method. Due to the low content, the detection of this mineral nutrient requires a highly sensitive method: dosing of natural manganese by radio-activation

  14. Causes of Late Pleistocene water level change in Lake Victoria, Equatorial East Africa, derived from clumped isotopes of land snails and fresh water mollusks. (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaarur, S.; Affek, H. P.; Tryon, C.; Peppe, D. J.; Faith, J.

    2013-12-01

    Carbonate clumped isotope thermometry is based on the dependence of 13C-18O bond abundance in the carbonate lattice (measured as Δ47) on the carbonate formation temperature. Most marine and freshwater biogenic carbonates are found to be in agreement with the clumped isotopes - temperature calibration. Clumped isotope thermometry is particularly useful in terrestrial environments where the interpretation of carbonate δ18O is limited due to difficulty in estimating the paleo-water isotopic composition. Clumped isotope-derived temperatures from land snails are generally higher than the ambient environmental temperatures, but show no evidence for disequilibrium. We attribute these higher body temperatures to snail eco-physiological adaptations through shell color, morphology, and behavior. We use the clumped isotope-derived temperatures in combination with shell δ18O to calculate snail body water δ18O composition. This parameter is interpreted as a paleo-hydrological indicator that reflects the isotopic composition of local precipitation modified by local evaporation. Rusinga and Mfangano Islands in Lake Victoria provide a unique opportunity to compare extant species of modern and fossil freshwater mollusks and land snails from the same location to examine lake paleo-hydrology. This location is particularly interesting as Lake Victoria itself is the main source of rain-water in the region such that the isotopic composition of land snail body water can be related back to the source waters. We combine clumped isotope and oxygen isotope measurements of both freshwater mollusks and land snails to examine the water balance of the lake, testing hypotheses about the mechanism of a significant rise in lake level in Lake Victoria ~35 - 40 ka BP. Outcrops of paleo-beach deposits ~18 m above the modern day lake level indicate high water stands at ~35-40 ka BP. Based on water balance models for Lake Victoria, an increase in lake level of this magnitude could be driven by local

  15. Regional-scale application of the decision support system MOIRA-PLUS: an example of assessment of the radiological impact of the Chernobyl accident on the fresh water ecosystem in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monte, Luigi

    2011-01-01

    The present work illustrates the customisation and application of the decision support system MOIRA-PLUS (a MOdel-based computerised system for management support to Identify optimal remedial strategies for Restoring radionuclide contaminated Aquatic ecosystems and drainage areas) to the fresh water environment in Italy. MOIRA-PLUS is aimed at evaluating the behaviour of radiocaesium and radiostrontium in fresh water ecosystems and at assessing the appropriateness of suitable strategies for the management of contaminated water bodies by the application of multi-attribute analysis techniques. MOIRA-PLUS can be applied to complex networks of lakes, rivers and tributaries and can be straightforwardly customised utilising data and information from readily accessible sources such as official websites provided by scientific or government organisations. The present work shows an application of the decision system to 10 lakes and 18 rivers in Italy contaminated with 137 Cs of Chernobyl origin. Site-specific values of some aggregated transfer parameters were estimated for the most important Italian lakes. Although high values of fish and water consumptions were hypothesised, very low doses to public from the fresh water pathway following the accident were calculated. - Research highlights: → MOIRA-PLUS is a computerised decision support system aimed at evaluating the behaviour of radiocaesium and radiostrontium in fresh water ecosystems and at assessing the appropriateness of suitable strategies for the management of the contaminated aquatic environment by the application of advanced multi-attribute analysis techniques. → MOIRA-PLUS (release 4.1.2) allows the user to customise the migration model for the assessment of the behaviour of radionuclides in complex networks of water systems including, for instance, a main watercourse and several tributaries of different order. → The test and the calibration of MOIRA-PLUS migration models applied to 18 rivers and 10 lakes in

  16. Unraveling Key Metabolomic Alterations in Wheat Embryos Derived from Freshly Harvested and Water-Imbibed Seeds of Two Wheat Cultivars with Contrasting Dormancy Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aayudh Das

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Untimely rains in wheat fields during harvest season can cause pre-harvest sprouting (PHS, which deteriorates the yield and quality of wheat crop. Metabolic homeostasis of the embryo plays a role in seed dormancy, determining the status of the maturing grains either as dormant (PHS-tolerant or non-dormant (PHS-susceptible. Very little is known for direct measurements of global metabolites in embryonic tissues of dormant and non-dormant wheat seeds. In this study, physiologically matured and freshly harvested wheat seeds of PHS-tolerant (cv. Sukang, dormant and PHS-susceptible (cv. Baegjoong, non-dormant cultivars were water-imbibed, and the isolated embryos were subjected to high-throughput, global non-targeted metabolomic profiling. A careful comparison of identified metabolites between Sukang and Baegjoong embryos at 0 and 48 h after imbibition revealed that several key metabolic pathways [such as: lipids, fatty acids, oxalate, hormones, the raffinose family of oligosaccharides (RFOs, and amino acids] and phytochemicals were differentially regulated between dormant and non-dormant varieties. Most of the membrane lipids were highly reduced in Baegjoong compared to Sukang, which indicates that the cell membrane instability in response to imbibition could also be a key factor in non-dormant wheat varieties for their untimely germination. This study revealed that several key marker metabolites (e.g., RFOs: glucose, fructose, maltose, and verbascose, were highly expressed in Baegjoong after imbibition. Furthermore, the data showed that the key secondary metabolites and phytochemicals (vitexin, chrysoeriol, ferulate, salidroside and gentisic acid, with known antioxidant properties, were comparatively low at basal levels in PHS-susceptible, non-dormant cultivar, Baegjoong. In conclusion, the results of this investigation revealed that after imbibition the metabolic homeostasis of dormant wheat is significantly less affected compared to non

  17. Responses of three very large inducible GTPases to bacterial and white spot syndrome virus challenges in the giant fresh water prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ying; Jin, Min; Yin, Shaowu; Ding, Zhengfeng; Wang, Wen; Ren, Qian

    2016-04-01

    Interferons (IFNs) are cytokines secreted by cells in response to invasion by pathogens, such as viruses, bacteria, parasites, or tumor cells. Very large inducible GTPases (VLIG) are the latest IFN-inducible GTPase family to be discovered and are the largest known GTPases of any species. However, VLIG proteins from invertebrates have yet to be characterized. In this study, three forms of VLIGs designated as MrVLIG1, MrVLIG2, and MrVLIG3 were cloned from the giant fresh water prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. MrVLIG1 has a 5445 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding an 1814-amino acid protein. The complete nucleotide sequence of MrVLIG2 cDNA is 7055 bp long consisting of a 5757 bp ORF encoding a protein with 1918 amino acids. The full length of the MrVLIG3 gene consists of 5511 bp with a 3909 bp ORF encoding a peptide with 1302 amino acids. BLASTP and phylogenetic tree analyses showed that the three MrVLIGs are clustered into one subgroup and, together with other vertebrate VLIGs, into a branch. Tissue distribution analysis indicated that the mRNAs of the three MrVLIGs were widely expressed in almost all detected tissues, including the hemocytes, heart, hepatopancreas, gills, stomach, and intestine, with the highest expression in the hepatopancreas. They were also detected in the intestine but with relatively low expression levels. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis showed that the mRNA transcripts of the MrVLIGs in the hepatopancreas were significantly expressed at various time points after infection with Vibrio parahaemolyticus and white spot syndrome virus. In summary, the three isoforms of VLIG genes participate in the innate immune response of the shrimps to bacterial and viral infections. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Biodegradability of unused lubricating brake fluids in fresh and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Proteus, Escherichia, Micrococcus, Arthrobacter, Enterobacter and Citrobacter was implicated in the biodegradation process in fresh water, while Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Staphylococcus, Enterobacter and Citrobacter was implicated in the marine water source. Similarly, the moulds encountered from the fresh water were, ...

  19. Effect of incorporation of natural chemicals in water ice-glazing on freshness and shelf-life of Pacific saury (Cololabis saira) during -18 °C frozen storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Haibo; Wang, Weihua; Chen, Wei; Tang, Haiqing; Jiang, Li; Yu, Zhifang

    2017-12-14

    Microbial spoilage and lipid oxidation are two major factors causing freshness deterioration of Pacific saury (Cololabis saira) during frozen storage. To provide a remedy, the effects of several natural chemicals incorporated alone or in combination in traditional water ice-glazing on the freshness and shelf-life of Pacific saury during frozen storage at -18 °C were investigated. Pacific sauries were subjected to individual quick freezing followed immediately by dipping into cold tap water (control) or solutions containing nisin, chitosan, phytic acid (single-factor experiment) or their combinations ((L 9 (3 4 ) orthogonal experiment) for 10 s at 1 °C and then packaged in polypropylene bags before frozen storage at -18 °C. The storage duration tested was up to 12 months. All ice-glazing treatments with individual chemicals could significantly (P shelf-life of Pacific saury could be extended up to 12 months at -18 °C. The study indicated that the combination treatment with natural chemicals could be commercially utilized to maintain the freshness and prolong the shelf-life of Pacific saury. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Differential expression of branchial Na+/K(+)-ATPase of two medaka species, Oryzias latipes and Oryzias dancena, with different salinity tolerances acclimated to fresh water, brackish water and seawater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Chao-Kai; Tsai, Shu-Chuan; Lee, Tsung-Han; Hwang, Pung-Pung

    2008-12-01

    Previous studies on non-diadromous euryhaline teleosts introduced a hypothesis that the lowest level of gill Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase (NKA) activity occurs in the environments with salinity close to the primary natural habitats of the studied species. To provide more evidence of the hypothesis, two medaka species, Oryzias latipes and O. dancena, whose primary natural habitats are fresh water (FW) and brackish water (BW) environments, respectively, were compared from levels of mRNA to cells in this study. The plasma osmolalities of O. latipes and O. dancena were lowest in the FW individuals. The muscle water contents of O. latipes decreased with elevated external salinities, but were constant among FW-, BW-, and seawater (SW)-acclimated O. dancena. Expression of NKA, the primary driving force of ion transporters in gill ionocytes, revealed different patterns in the two Oryzias species. The highest NKA alpha-subunit mRNA abundances were found in the gills of the SW O. latipes and the FW O. dancena, respectively. The pattern of NKA activity and alpha-subunit protein abundance in the gills of O. latipes revealed that the FW group was the lowest, while the pattern in O. dancena revealed that the BW group was the lowest. Immunohistochemical staining showed similar profiles of NKA immunoreactive (NKIR) cell activities (NKIR cell numberxcell size) in the gills of these two species among FW, BW, and SW groups. Taken together, O. latipes exhibited better hyposmoregulatory ability, while O. dancena exhibited better hyperosmoregulatory ability. Our results corresponding to the hypothesis indicated that the lowest branchial NKA activities of these two medaka species were found in the environments with salinities similar to their natural habitats.

  1. An assessment of the 210Po ingestion dose due to the consumption of agricultural, marine, fresh water and forest foodstuffs in Gudalore (India)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivakumar, R.

    2014-01-01

    The activity concentration of 210 Po in cereals, pulses, food materials of animal origin, vegetables and spices collected from Gudalore (India) has been estimated by radiochemical method. The activity concentration of 210 Po in cereals is found to vary from 124 to 604 mBq kg −1 . Raw rice registered the highest mean activity 504 ± 61 mBq kg −1 . In pulses 210 Po activity concentration varies from 42 to 320 mBq kg −1 and the highest activity is found in black lentil with the average value of 172 ± 38 mBq kg −1 . Leafy vegetables registered the highest 210 Po activity concentration (662–7336 mBq kg −1 ) and are followed by tuber vegetables (390–1269 mBq kg −1 ) and then by other vegetables (75–595 mBq kg −1 ). The higher concentration of 210 Po observed in leafy vegetables may be attributed to the dry deposition of 210 Po and other daughter products of 222 Rn on large leaf surfaces from the air. Among animal products fish of marine origin registered the highest 210 Po activity concentration 36,850–48,964 mBq kg −1 . The mean 210 Po activity concentration in coffee has been estimated as 7500 mBq kg −1 . The activity concentration of 210 Po in leaf and bark of tree Cinnamom zeylanicum, a popular spice, is found to vary from 3500 to 11,100 mBq kg −1 and 1600–3400 mBq kg −1 . The consumption of marine and fresh water fish contribute 60.7% (506.1 μSv y −1 ) to the total ingestion dose received. Cereals being consumed in a large scale, contribute 23.4% (194.9 μSv y −1 ) of the total ingestion dose received. The contribution from spices and leafy vegetables consumed is 5.8% (48.1 μSv y −1 ) and 6.5% (54.3 μSv y −1 ), respectively. The remaining 3.6% (30.0 μSv y −1 ) contribution to the total ingestion dose comes from other food materials and vegetables. - Highlights: • The activity concentration of 210 Po in different spices grown in the study area has been estimated. • The study

  2. Effect of ice storage on the functional properties of proteins from a few species of fresh water fish (Indian major carps) with special emphasis on gel forming ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Naresh Kumar; Elavarasan, K; Reddy, A Manjunatha; Shamasundar, B A

    2014-04-01

    In the present study the effect of ice storage on physico-chemical and functional properties of proteins from Indian major carps with special emphasis on gel forming ability have been assessed for a period of 22 days. The solubility profile of proteins in high ionic strength buffer and calcium adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) enzyme activity reduced significantly (p ice storage. The major protein fraction showed association-dissociation-denaturation phenomenon during ice storage as revealed by gel filtration profile and viscosity measurements. The gel forming ability of three fish species both in fresh and during different periods of ice storage was assessed by measuring the gel strength of heat induced gel. Among the three species the gel strength of the gel obtained from Catla catla and Cirrhinus mrigala was higher (586 and 561 g.cm) than the gel obtained from Labeo rohita (395 g.cm) in fresh condition. The gel forming ability of three species was significantly affected (p ice storage. The TVB-N values of fish meat as a function of ice storage was within the prescribed limit up to 17 days of the ice storage.

  3. Intelligent Fish Freshness Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Gholam Hosseini

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Fish species identification and automated fish freshness assessment play important roles in fishery industry applications. This paper describes a method based on support vector machines (SVMs to improve the performance of fish identification systems. The result is used for the assessment of fish freshness using artificial neural network (ANN. Identification of the fish species involves processing of the images of fish. The most efficient features were extracted and combined with the down-sampled version of the images to create a 1D input vector. Max-Win algorithm applied to the SVM-based classifiers has enhanced the reliability of sorting to 96.46%. The realisation of Cyranose 320 Electronic nose (E-nose, in order to evaluate the fish freshness in real-time, is experimented. Intelligent processing of the sensor patterns involves the use of a dedicated ANN for each species under study. The best estimation of freshness was provided by the most sensitive sensors. Data was collected from four selected species of fishes over a period of ten days. It was concluded that the performance can be increased using individual trained ANN for each specie. The proposed system has been successful in identifying the number of days after catching the fish with an accuracy of up to 91%.

  4. Potential cross-contamination of E. coli between lettuce and wash water simulating an industrial fresh-cut lettuce wash process

    OpenAIRE

    Holvoet, Kevin; Sampers, Imca; Van Haute, Sam; Jacxsens, Liesbeth; Uyttendaele, Mieke

    2012-01-01

    The aim was to provide information about E. coli contamination of washing water to prevent water becoming a vehicle for transfer of microbial contamination to lettuce and to get insight on the factors affecting proper water management. A lettuce wash process was simulated to determine (1) the ability to use “clean” water and the tolerable E. coli levels for “clean” water and its’ potential to respect it upon re-use of water in the first washing bath, (2) the need and effect of using potable w...

  5. Regression equations for estimation of annual peak-streamflow frequency for undeveloped watersheds in Texas using an L-moment-based, PRESS-minimized, residual-adjusted approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asquith, William H.; Roussel, Meghan C.

    2009-01-01

    Annual peak-streamflow frequency estimates are needed for flood-plain management; for objective assessment of flood risk; for cost-effective design of dams, levees, and other flood-control structures; and for design of roads, bridges, and culverts. Annual peak-streamflow frequency represents the peak streamflow for nine recurrence intervals of 2, 5, 10, 25, 50, 100, 200, 250, and 500 years. Common methods for estimation of peak-streamflow frequency for ungaged or unmonitored watersheds are regression equations for each recurrence interval developed for one or more regions; such regional equations are the subject of this report. The method is based on analysis of annual peak-streamflow data from U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging stations (stations). Beginning in 2007, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Texas Department of Transportation and in partnership with Texas Tech University, began a 3-year investigation concerning the development of regional equations to estimate annual peak-streamflow frequency for undeveloped watersheds in Texas. The investigation focuses primarily on 638 stations with 8 or more years of data from undeveloped watersheds and other criteria. The general approach is explicitly limited to the use of L-moment statistics, which are used in conjunction with a technique of multi-linear regression referred to as PRESS minimization. The approach used to develop the regional equations, which was refined during the investigation, is referred to as the 'L-moment-based, PRESS-minimized, residual-adjusted approach'. For the approach, seven unique distributions are fit to the sample L-moments of the data for each of 638 stations and trimmed means of the seven results of the distributions for each recurrence interval are used to define the station specific, peak-streamflow frequency. As a first iteration of regression, nine weighted-least-squares, PRESS-minimized, multi-linear regression equations are computed using the watershed

  6. Changes in the Lipid Fraction of Eel Gills after Ionizing Irradiation in Vivo and a Shift from Fresh to Sea Water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Heinz Johs. Max

    1975-01-01

    Sixteen eels were adapted to tap water for a week. Then eight of them were irradiated with 1000 R γ-radiation and four of the irradiated group and four of the nonirradiated control group were transferred to sea water. The rest remained in tap water. Three days later all were incubated with 14 C...... been irradiated and transferred to sea water. By measuring lipid biosynthesis in gill tissue it was thus possible to show an interaction between the effect of ionizing irradiation and the salinity of the environment, in agreement with previous biological findings....

  7. Carbon isotope analysis of dissolved organic carbon in fresh and saline (NaCl) water via continuous flow cavity ring-down spectroscopy following wet chemical oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conaway, Christopher; Thomas, Randal B.; Saad, Nabil; Thordsen, James J.; Kharaka, Yousif K.

    2015-01-01

    This work examines the performance and limitations of a wet chemical oxidation carbon analyser interfaced with a cavity ring-down spectrometer (WCO-CRDS) in a continuous flow (CF) configuration for measuring δ13C of dissolved organic carbon (δ13C-DOC) in natural water samples. Low-chloride matrix (22.5 µg C/aliquot) may be analysed. The WCO-CRDS approach requires more total carbon (µg C/aliquot) than conventional CF-isotope ratio mass spectrometer, but is nonetheless applicable to a wide range of DOC concentration and water types, including brackish water, produced water, and basinal brines.

  8. Study of criticality safety of fresh fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pesic, M.; Dasic, N.

    1998-01-01

    A study on criticality safety of fresh low and high enriched uranium (LEU and HEU) fuel elements, in the original metal containers (OMC) placed in the special metal protection 'cage' and in a designed wooden storage case (WSC), at the RB research reactor is carried out by using the well-known MCNP TM computer code. It is shown for the first time that these HEU and LEU fresh fuel elements, stored in the WSC or in the OMCs, are far away from criticality, even in a case of unexpected flooding of the storage by light water. (author)

  9. Improvement to Air2Air Technology to Reduce Fresh-Water Evaporative Cooling Loss at Coal-Based Thermoelectric Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ken Mortensen

    2011-12-31

    This program was undertaken to enhance the manufacturability, constructability, and cost of the Air2Air{TM} Water Conservation and Plume Abatement Cooling Tower, giving a validated cost basis and capability. Air2Air{TM} water conservation technology recovers a portion of the traditional cooling tower evaporate. The Condensing Module provides an air-to-air heat exchanger above the wet fill media, extracting the heat from the hot saturated moist air leaving in the cooling tower and condensing water. The rate of evaporate water recovery is typically 10% - 25% annually, depending on the cooling tower location (climate). This program improved the efficiency and cost of the Air2Air{TM} Water Conservation Cooling Tower capability, and led to the first commercial sale of the product, as described.

  10. Behaviour of {sup 210}Po in fresh water ecosystem located in high rainfall area around proposed uranium mining site in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jha, S.K. [Environmental Radioactivity measurement Section, Health Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai-400085 (India)

    2014-07-01

    Several naturally occurring alpha or beta emitting radionuclides such as {sup 238}U, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 210}Pb, {sup 228}Ra and others are frequently dissolved in water supplies and their concentrations vary over an extremely wide range, mainly depending upon the amount of radio elements present in bedrock and soil with which the water comes in contact. In Meghalaya, Kylleng-Pyndensohiong, Mawthabah (KP Mawthabah Domiasiat) in West Khasi Hills District and adjoining region receives highest rainfall, and is situated near a proposed uranium mineralization zone, therefore these regions can be considered as potential sources of naturally occurring radionuclides of uranium series to the biosphere via different media. The population of the region depends mainly on different surface water sources for drinking water and also for agricultural purposes. Under these conditions some Po can be allochthonous i.e. coming with rainwater as water supply comes from the naturally formed small storage basin between the rocks which accumulate rainwater. Apart from cultivation, the occupation of the local tribal people is production of wood charcoal. This leads to excess deforestation, escalating the erosion of soil exposing the uranium bearing rock at some places, may enhance the natural radioactivity levels in nearby water bodies. The physico chemical parameter, Fe, Mn, gross alpha and {sup 210}Po activities were estimated for radiological assessment of surface water quality and behavior of {sup 210}Po. The measurement of {sup 210}Po was carried out using the {sup 208}Po tracers. A tracer recovery of 85% was observed in the case of biological samples. Recovery in the range of 90% to 95% was observed in the case of water sample. The {sup 210}Po concentration ranged from 10 to 64 mBq L{sup -1}. The lowest concentrations of {sup 210}Po were detected in water samples from Wakhaji (10±0.03) and the highest concentration of {sup 210}Po was observed in the water bodies of Nongtynger (64±0

  11. Microbiological Quality of Fresh Nopal Juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Anguiano, Ana María; Landa-Salgado, Patricia; Eslava-Campos, Carlos Alberto; Vargas-Hernández, Mateo; Patel, Jitendra

    2016-12-10

    The consumption of fresh nopal cactus juice is widely popular among health-conscious consumers in Mexico. The juice is prepared from fresh cladodes that have only been rinsed with tap water and are not subjected to a pasteurization or terminal bacterial reduction process. The aim of this study was to evaluate the microbial quality of commercially available fresh juices ( n = 162) made with nopal in Texcoco, State of Mexico, during the summer and spring season. Standard microbiological methods, the PCR technique and the serological method were used for isolation and identification of bacteria. All samples contained total coliforms and 91% were positive for Escherichia coli . Although total coliforms and E. coli were detected throughout the study, their populations were significantly lower ( p nopal juices is unacceptable due to its health significance. The information generated in this study is relevant for human health risk assessment associated with the consumption of unpasteurized nopal juices and potential interventions to minimize pathogen contamination.

  12. Kaushal et al. 2017 (Applied Geochemistry) Human-accelerated weathering increases salinization, major ions, and alkalinization in fresh water across land use

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — •Base cations increased in drinking water over ∼50 years coinciding with urbanization. •DIC, cations, Si, SO42- and pH in streams increased with impervious surface...

  13. Carbon isotope analysis of dissolved organic carbon in fresh and saline (NaCl) water via continuous flow cavity ring-down spectroscopy following wet chemical oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conaway, Christopher H; Thomas, Burt; Saad, Nabil; Thordsen, James J; Kharaka, Yousif K

    2015-01-01

    This work examines the performance and limitations of a wet chemical oxidation carbon analyser interfaced with a cavity ring-down spectrometer (WCO-CRDS) in a continuous flow (CF) configuration for measuring δ(13)C of dissolved organic carbon (δ(13)C-DOC) in natural water samples. Low-chloride matrix (towards lighter δ(13)C-DOC was observed because of incomplete oxidation despite using high-concentration oxidant, extended reaction time, or post-wet chemical oxidation gas-phase combustion. However, through a combination of dilution, chloride removal, and increasing the oxidant:sample ratio, high-salinity samples with sufficient DOC (>22.5 µg C/aliquot) may be analysed. The WCO-CRDS approach requires more total carbon (µg C/aliquot) than conventional CF-isotope ratio mass spectrometer, but is nonetheless applicable to a wide range of DOC concentration and water types, including brackish water, produced water, and basinal brines.

  14. Fresh groundwater for Wajir – ex-ante assessment of uncertain benefits for multiple stakeholders in a water supply project in Northern Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eike eLuedeling

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Decision-making in development rarely considers uncertainty in project benefits and costs and the risk of project failure. Lack of appropriate tools for ex-ante analysis under conditions of data scarcity constrains the ability of decision-makers to anticipate project outcomes. Business analysis techniques can help in such situations, but they have rarely been applied in development contexts. We use the principles of Applied Information Economics to develop a decision model for a water supply intervention.In the proposed Habaswein-Wajir Water Supply Project in Northern Kenya, water is to be extracted from a major aquifer near Habaswein and piped to the city of Wajir. A team of eight experts developed a model including all costs, benefits and risks considered important for project success. After estimation training, these experts expressed their uncertainty for about 100 variables in the model with probability distributions. We used Monte Carlo simulation to project decision outcomes, and Partial Least Squares regression to identify critical uncertainties affecting the decision.The project was found to be risky for most stakeholders, mainly due to the risk of political interference caused by water supply concerns in Habaswein and due to unclear profitability of the water supply business. Uncertainties about how to value decreasing infant mortality and reduction in water-borne disease incidence were also critical. The greatest hydrological risk was salt water intrusion into the aquifer. Careful well design, inclusive project planning and benefit sharing could raise the chance of project success.The analysis improved understanding of the decision by all stakeholders, some of which changed their opinions on the pipeline, requested more measurements, or proposed alternative water supply options. Decision analysis can help clarify decision uncertainties and outcome expectations and thereby improve decision-making processes, especially in data

  15. Physical-chemical modeling of elements' behavior in mixing sea and fresh waters of minor rivers in the White Sea catchment area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksimova, Victoria V; Mazukhina, Svetlana I; Cherepanova, Tatiana A; Gorbacheva, Tamara T

    2017-07-29

    The physical-chemical stage of marginal filters in minor rivers of the White Sea catchment area by the example of the Umba River, flowing to Kandalaksha Gulf, has been explored. Application of the method of physical-chemical modeling on the basis of field data allowed establishing migration forms of a number of elements in the "river-sea" system and deposition of solid phases when mixing waters. The mixing of river and sea water is accompanied by the sedimentation of predominantly goethite, hydromuscovite, and hydroxylapatite. Sediments in mixing river and sea waters were found to be mainly composed by goethite, hydromuscovite, and hydroxylapatite. The research has added to the knowledge of the role of the abiotic part in the marginal filters of small rivers in the Arctic.

  16. Determination of 222Rn in fresh water: development of a robust method of analysis by alpha/beta separation liquid scintillation spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pates, Jacqueline M; Mullinger, Neil J

    2007-01-01

    Liquid scintillation spectrometry is used widely for determining (222)Rn in natural waters; however, the benefits of alpha/beta separation have not been fully explored. The extractants toluene and Ultima Gold F were compared, and both performed well for a range of extreme waters. A robust method for calibrating extraction and counting efficiencies has been developed. Detection limits are 20 mBql(-1) (toluene) and 16 mBql(-1) (UGF) for a 60 min count and 600-ml sample, halving the required sample volume.

  17. Differential Decay of Cattle-associated Fecal Indicator Bacteria and Microbial Source Tracking Markers in Fresh and Marine Water (ASM 2017 Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) have a long history of use in the assessment of the microbial quality of recreational waters. However, quantification of FIB provides no information about the pollution source(s) and relatively little is known about their fate in the amb...

  18. Comparison of Enterococcus qPCR analysis results from fresh and marine water samples on two real-time instruments - poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) will be recommending a quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) method targeting Enterococcus spp. as an option for monitoring recreational beach water quality. A practical consideration for widespread implementation of this or ...

  19. Viability of sublethally injured coliform bacteria on fresh-cut cabbage stored in high CO2 atmospheres following rinsing with electrolyzed water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izumi, Hidemi; Inoue, Ayano

    2018-02-02

    The extent of sublethally injured coliform bacteria on shredded cabbage, either rinsed or not rinsed with electrolyzed water, was evaluated during storage in air and high CO 2 controlled atmospheres (5%, 10%, and 15%) at 5°C and 10°C using the thin agar layer (TAL) method. Sublethally injured coliform bacteria on nonrinsed shredded cabbage were either absent or they were injured at a 64-65% level when present. Rinsing of shredded cabbage with electrolyzed water containing 25ppm available chlorine reduced the coliform counts by 0.4 to 1.1 log and caused sublethal injury ranging from 42 to 77%. Pantoea ananatis was one of the species injured by chlorine stress. When shredded cabbage, nonrinsed or rinsed with electrolyzed water, was stored in air and high CO 2 atmospheres at 5°C for 7days and 10°C for 5days, coliform counts on TAL plates increased from 3.3-4.5 to 6.5-9.0 log CFU/g during storage, with the increase being greater at 10°C than at 5°C. High CO 2 of 10% and 15% reduced the bacterial growth on shredded cabbage during storage at 5°C. Although injured coliform bacteria were not found on nonrinsed shredded cabbage on the initial day, injured coliforms at a range of 49-84% were detected on samples stored in air and high CO 2 atmospheres at 5°C and 10°C. Injured cells were detected more frequently during storage at both temperatures irrespective of the CO 2 atmosphere when shredded cabbage was rinsed with electrolyzed water. These results indicated that injured coliform bacteria on shredded cabbage, either rinsed or not rinsed with electrolyzed water, exhibited different degrees of injury during storage regardless of the CO 2 atmosphere and temperature tested. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Aghien lagoon: a sustainable resource of fresh water for the city of Abidjan (Ivory Coast)? Description of the project and preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamagaté, Bamory; Effebi, Rose K.; Goula Bi, Tié Albert; Lanciné Goné, Droh; Noufé, Djibril; Diallo, Seydou; Ehouman, Serge K.; Koffi, Thierry; Zamblé Trabi, Armand; Lazare, Kouakou; Paturel, Jean Emmanuel; Perrin, Jean-Louis; Salles, Christian; Seguis, Luc; Tournoud, Marie-George; Karoui, Hela

    2016-04-01

    With more than 6 million inhabitants, Abidjan district faces tremendous difficulties in water supply. The aquifer of the Continental Terminal which is actually the only drinking water source of the city shows a decline of resources and water demand is increasing due to the population growth. Moreover significant evidences of chemical and biological pollution of the groundwater are observed The Aghien lagoon, the largest freshwater pool located near Abidjan, has been identified by the State of Côte d'Ivoire as a potential resource for the production of drinking water.. The main objective of this project is to assess the quantitative and qualitative capacity of the Aghien lagoon to complement the water supply of Abidjan city in the near future. The main components of the project are: • to assess the water budget of the lagoon and its tributaries, • to characterize the spatial and temporal variability of contaminant levels and fluxes from the tributaries toward the lagoon, • to assess the sustainability of the water resources (quantity and quality) of the lagoon according to land use changes in the catchments . The project started in January 2015. The first year was devoted to the set-up of hydro-meteorological gauges within the lagoon watershed. Three major tributaries of the lagoon are considered, the Mé (4000 km2), the Djibi (78 km2) and Bete (206 km2) rivers. Since the start of the project, bi-monthly hydrochemical sampling surveys have been carried out along the tributaries and in the lagoon. The data available from the surveys concern the physico-chemical parameters, trace elements, all the forms of nitrogen and phosphorus, organic carbon, suspended solids. The Djibi and Bete watersheds are partly urbanized while the Mé basin is mainly rural. Baseflow has been identified as the major contribution to streamflow at the annual scale. The Mé flows into a channel downstream to the Aghien lagoon but during the floods, water from the Mé River can flow up the

  1. Investigations of the environmental conditions in Glomfjord and Holandsfjord in 1991-92. Part 2. Model simulation of the impact of changed fresh water supply to Holandsfjord; Undersoekelser av miljoeforhold i Glomfjord og Holandsfjord i 1991-92. Delrapport 2. Modellsimulering av effekter av endret ferskvannstilfoersel til Holandsfjord

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stigebrandt, A.; Molvaer, J.

    1994-12-31

    The development of Svartisen hydroelectric power station at the head of the Holandsfjord, Norway, will almost triple the annual fresh water supply to the fjord. This report describes a mathematical model which simulates the effects of changing the supply of fresh water and of particulate material to the inner and outer parts of the fjord. The model has been used to simulate five different combinations of these two variables. The water discharged from the power station increases the thickness of the brackish water layer, especially in winter. This increases the risk of ice formation. The concentration of phytoplankton above and below the brackish water layer will increase somewhat. The change in light absorption with depth will be relatively small, but also depend on how the supply of particulate material increases or decreases for the two parts of the fjord. The deep water oxygen conditions remain good after the hydro power regulation. 21 refs., 25 refs., 9 tabs.

  2. Dissolved organic matter and lake metabolism: Biogeochemistry and controls of nutrient flux dynamics to fresh waters. Technical progress report, January 1, 1990--December 31, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetzel, R.G.

    1992-12-31

    The land-water interface region consists of two major components: the wetland, and the down-gradient adjacent littoral floating-leaved and submersed, macrophyte communities. Because of the importance of very high production and nutrient turnover of attached microbiota, a major emphasis of this investigation was placed upon these biota and their metabolic capacities for assimilation and release of organic compounds and nutrient retention and cycling. Examination of the capacities of wetland littoral communities to regulate fluxes of nutrients and organic compounds often has been limited to input-output analyses. These input-output data are an integral part of these investigations, but most of the research effort concentrated on the biotic and metabolic mechanisms that control fluxes and retention capacities and their effects upon biota in the down-gradient waters. The important regulatory capacities of dissolved organic compounds on enzyme reactivity was examined experimentally and coupled to the wetland-littoral organic carbon flux budgets.

  3. Irradiation of fresh fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yueh-jen, Yen; Jin-lai, Zhou; Shao-chun, Lai

    Occasionally, in China, marine products can not be provided for the markets in good quality, for during the time when they are being transported from the sea port to inland towns or even at the time when they are unloaded from the ship, they are beginning to spoil. Obviously, it is very important that appropiate measures should be taken to prevent them from decay. Our study has proved that the shelf life of fresh Flatfish (Cynoglossue robustus) and Silvery pomfret (stromateoides argenteus), which, packed in sealed containers, are irradiated by 1.5 kGy, 2.2 kGy and 3.0 kGy, can be stored for about 13-26 days at 3° - 5° C.

  4. Factors affecting quality and safety of fresh-cut produce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, G A; Gallone, A; Nychas, G J; Sofos, J N; Colelli, G; Amodio, M L; Spano, G

    2012-01-01

    The quality of fresh-cut fruit and vegetable products includes a combination of attributes, such as appearance, texture, and flavor, as well as nutritional and safety aspects that determine their value to the consumer. Nutritionally, fruit and vegetables represent a good source of vitamins, minerals, and dietary fiber, and fresh-cut produce satisfies consumer demand for freshly prepared, convenient, healthy food. However, fresh-cut produce deteriorates faster than corresponding intact produce, as a result of damage caused by minimal processing, which accelerates many physiological changes that lead to a reduction in produce quality and shelf-life. The symptoms of produce deterioration include discoloration, increased oxidative browning at cut surfaces, flaccidity as a result of loss of water, and decreased nutritional value. Damaged plant tissues also represent a better substrate for growth of microorganisms, including spoilage microorganisms and foodborne pathogens. The risk of pathogen contamination and growth is one of the main safety concerns associated with fresh-cut produce, as highlighted by the increasing number of produce-linked foodborne outbreaks in recent years. The pathogens of major concern in fresh-cut produce are Listeria monocytogenes, pathogenic Escherichia coli mainly O157:H7, and Salmonella spp. This article describes the quality of fresh-cut produce, factors affecting quality, and various techniques for evaluating quality. In addition, the microbiological safety of fresh-cut produce and factors affecting pathogen survival and growth on fresh-cut produce are discussed in detail.

  5. A simulation-optimisation programme for designing hybrid energy systems for supplying electricity and fresh water through desalination to remote areas. Case study: the Merssini village, Donoussa island, Aegean Sea, Greece

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manolakos, D.; Papadakis, G.; Kyritsis, S. [Agricultural Univ. of Athens, Dept. of Agricultural Engineering, Athens (Greece); Papantonis, D. [National Technical Univ. of Athens, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Zografos (Greece)

    2001-07-01

    The aim of the present paper is to develop and apply a software tool for designing hybrid renewable energy systems. The hybrid system consists of a wind generator and photovoltaic modules which are the renewable technologies for energy production. The programme has been applied for simulating a hybrid system with the above mentioned technologies in order to cover the electricity and water needs of the Merssini village on Donoussa island in the Aegean Sea of Greece. The Merssini village is occupied by 20 year-round residents while the population is doubled during the summer period. The village is non-electrified and faces a problematic scarcity of fresh water. In the analysis that follows, the considered technical data as well as the results of programme runs for winter and summer seasons are presented. The electricity consumption consists of both the household and desalination plant consumption. The system is supplemented with batteries and a micro hydraulic plant for energy storage. The simulation programme was used to optimise the design of the system as well as to manage the energy supply and energy storage. The results prove that this simulation programme constitutes a valuable tool for the determination not only of the optimum combination of technologies, but also the optimum energy management of complex hybrid systems. (Author)

  6. MOIRA-PLUS: A decision support system for the management of complex fresh water ecosystems contaminated by radionuclides and heavy metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monte, Luigi; Brittain, John E.; Gallego, Eduardo; Håkanson, Lars; Hofman, Dmitry; Jiménez, Antonio

    2009-05-01

    The accidental release of radioactive substances into the environment leads to the necessity of applying suitable countermeasures for the restoration of the polluted environment. However, despite their obvious benefits, such interventions may result in detrimental effects of an economic, ecological and social nature that must be carefully evaluated. MOIRA-PLUS is a PC-based user-friendly, computerised decision support system (DSS) that helps decision makers to choose optimal countermeasure strategies for different kinds of aquatic ecosystems and contamination scenarios. The DSS MOIRA-PLUS is based on: Validated models to evaluate the behaviour of radionuclides in contaminated water bodies and biota and to assess the effect of countermeasures on contamination levels; Models to assess the radiation dose to people and biota (fish) by relevant exposure pathways, the effect of countermeasures, and the associated economic impact; A multi-attribute analysis (MAA) module to evaluate the effectiveness of different countermeasure strategies by accounting for the social, ecological and economic detriments and costs in relation to their benefits; A software system consisting of: (1) software realisation of the mathematical models; (2) a Geographic Information System (GIS) and associated databases to select the aquatic system of interest and, if necessary, the default environmental data required to run the models; (3) a graphical user interface (GUI); (4) an operating system connecting all the above parts. The flexible structures of the environmental models implemented in MOIRA-PLUS DSS give the potential for the application of these models to several other types of pollutants, such as heavy metals. The DSS can be applied to complex water systems comprising lakes, reservoirs and rivers. In this paper, the main principles underpinning the functioning of the DSS MOIRA-PLUS are described and discussed.

  7. Impact of urban contamination of the La Paz River basin on thermotolerant coliform density and occurrence of multiple antibiotic resistant enteric pathogens in river water, irrigated soil and fresh vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poma, Violeta; Mamani, Nataniel; Iñiguez, Volga

    2016-01-01

    La Paz River in Andean highlands is heavily polluted with urban run-off and further contaminates agricultural lowlands and downstream waters at the Amazon watershed. Agricultural produce at this region is the main source of vegetables for the major Andean cities of La Paz and El Alto. We conducted a 1 year study, to evaluate microbial quality parameters and occurrence of multiple enteropathogenic bacteria (Enterohemorrhagic E. coli-EHEC, Enteroinvasive E. coli or Shigella-EIEC/Shigella, Enteroaggregative E. coli-EAEC, Enteropathogenic E. coli-EPEC Enterotoxigenic E. coli-ETEC and Salmonella) and its resistance to 11 antibiotics. Four sampling locations were selected: a fresh mountain water reservoir (un-impacted, site 1) and downstream sites receiving wastewater discharges (impacted, sites 2-4). River water (sites 1-4, N = 48), and soil and vegetable samples (site 3, N = 24) were collected during dry (April-September) and rainy seasons (October-March). Throughout the study, thermotolerant coliform density values at impacted sites greatly exceeded the guidelines for recreational and agricultural water uses. Seasonal differences were found for thermotolerant coliform density during dry season in water samples nearby a populated and hospital compound area. In contrast to the un-impacted site, where none of the tested enteropathogens were found, 100 % of surface water, 83 % of soil and 67 % of vegetable samples at impacted sites, were contaminated with at least one enteropathogen, being ETEC and Salmonella the most frequently found. ETEC isolates displayed different patterns of toxin genes among sites. The occurrence of enteropathogens was associated with the thermotolerant coliform density. At impacted sites, multiple enteropathogens were frequently found during rainy season. Among isolated enteropathogens, 50 % were resistant to at least two antibiotics, with resistance to ampicillin, nalidixic acid, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and tetracycline commonly

  8. Biomonitoring role of some cellular markers during heat stress-induced changes in highly representative fresh water mollusc, Bellamya bengalensis: Implication in climate change and biological adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Sangita Maiti; Mustafi, Soumyajit Banerjee; Raha, Sanghamitra; Chakraborty, Susanta Kumar

    2018-04-12

    Owing to increasing concern of global climate-change, temperature rise is of great interest which can be primarily evaluated from the seasonal variations in some organisms. Aquatic environment can be extremely stressful to its inhabitants because most of them are poikilothermous. In the present study, attempt was made to evaluate the biological effects of oxidative-stress and adaptive/antioxidant capacities during temperature variations (36-40 °C for 24hrs to 72hrs) in Bellamya bengalensis both in environmental and laboratory conditions by testing some biomarkers like HSP70, catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), reduced glutathione (GSH) and glutathione reductase (GR). The biomarker potency of the molecules and the anti-oxidative metabolic-network was postulated and extrapolated to find its resemblance to the climate-change associated organismal variations. In a natural and eco-restored environment in the Eastern part of India, 10-20 fold increases in CAT, SOD and HSP70 protein expressions (Western blot results) were noticed in Bellamya paralleling to their increased enzymatic activities (gel zymogram studies) due to the seasonal (summer versus winter) temperature variation. It is evident from the consecutive three years' study that this variation resulted in the unfavorable physico-chemical changes of water quality parameters like dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, alkalinity and consequently decreased the animal density in summer. And that was revived due to their higher reproduction-rate in post rainy/winter season when temperature normalizes resulting in a restoration of favorable environment. In laboratory condition, the reduced GR and increased GPx indicated the oxidative damage as evident by higher tissue MDA level following to higher mortality. Changes in SOD and CAT activities suggest activation of physiological mechanism to scavenge the ROS produced during heat stress. However, when mortality increased at different time points (36

  9. Modelling phosphorus transport and its response to climate change at upper stream of Poyang Lake-the largest fresh water lake in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Sanyuan; Zhang, Qi

    2017-04-01

    Phosphorus losses from excessive fertilizer application and improper land exploitation were found to be the limiting factor for freshwater quality deterioration and eutrophication. Phosphorus transport from uplands to river is related to hydrological, soil erosion and sediment transport processes, which is impacted by several physiographic and meteorological factors. The objective of this study was to investigate the spatiotemporal variation of phosphorus losses and response to climate change at a typical upstream tributary (Le'An river) of Poyang Lake. To this end, a process-oriented hydrological and nutrient transport model HYPE (Hydrological Predictions for the Environment) was set up for discharge and phosphorus transport simulation at Le'An catchment. Parameter ESTimator (PEST) was combined with HYPE model for parameter sensitivity analysis and optimisation. In runoff modelling, potential evapotranspiration rate of the dominant land use (forest) is most sensitive; parameters of surface runoff rate and percolation capacity for the red soil are also very sensitive. In phosphorus transport modelling, the exponent of equation for soil erosion processes induced by surface runoff is most sensitive, coefficient of adsorption/desorption processes for red soil is also very sensitive. Flow dynamics and water balance were simulated well at all sites for the whole period (1978-1986) with NSE≥0.80 and PBIAS≤14.53%. The optimized hydrological parameter set were transferable for the independent period (2009-2010) with NSE≥0.90 and highest PBIAS of -7.44% in stream flow simulation. Seasonal dynamics and balance of stream water TP (Total Phosphorus ) concentrations were captured satisfactorily indicated by NSE≥0.53 and highest PBIAS of 16.67%. In annual scale, most phosphorus is transported via surface runoff during heavy storm flow events, which may account for about 70% of annual TP loads. Based on future climate change analysis under three different emission

  10. Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leopold, Luna Bergere; Baldwin, Helene L.

    1962-01-01

    What do you use water for?If someone asked you this question you would probably think right away of water for drinking. Then you would think of water for bathing, brushing teeth, flushing the toilet. Your list would get longer as you thought of water for cooking, washing the dishes, running the garbage grinder. Water for lawn watering, for play pools, for swimming pools, for washing the car and the dog. Water for washing machines and for air conditioning. You can hardly do without water for fun and pleasure—water for swimming, boating, fishing, water-skiing, and skin diving. In school or the public library, you need water to wash your hands, or to have a drink. If your home or school bursts into flames, quantities of water are needed to put it out.In fact, life to Americans is unthinkable without large supplies of fresh, clean water. If you give the matter a little thought, you will realize that people in many countries, even in our own, may suffer from disease and dirt simply because their homes are not equipped with running water. Imagine your own town if for some reason - an explosion, perhaps - water service were cut off for a week or several weeks. You would have to drive or walk to a neighboring town and bring water back in pails. Certainly if people had to carry water themselves they might not be inclined to bathe very often; washing clothes would be a real chore.Nothing can live without water. The earth is covered by water over three-fourths of its surface - water as a liquid in rivers, lakes and oceans, and water as ice and snow on the tops of high mountains and in the polar regions. Only one-quarter of our bodies is bone and muscle; the other three-fourths is made of water. We need water to live, and so do plants and animals. People and animals can live a long time without food, but without water they die in a few days. Without water, everything would die, and the world would turn into a huge desert.

  11. Transfer of Escherichia coli O157:H7 from equipment surfaces to fresh-cut leafy greens during processing in a model pilot-plant production line with sanitizer-free water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchholz, Annemarie L; Davidson, Gordon R; Marks, Bradley P; Todd, Ewen C D; Ryser, Elliot T

    2012-11-01

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 contamination of fresh-cut leafy greens has become a public health concern as a result of several large outbreaks. The goal of this study was to generate baseline data for E. coli O157:H7 transfer from product-inoculated equipment surfaces to uninoculated lettuce during pilot-scale processing without a sanitizer. Uninoculated cored heads of iceberg and romaine lettuce (22.7 kg) were processed using a commercial shredder, step conveyor, 3.3-m flume tank with sanitizer-free tap water, shaker table, and centrifugal dryer, followed by 22.7 kg of product that had been dip inoculated to contain ∼10(6), 10(4), or 10(2) CFU/g of a four-strain avirulent, green fluorescent protein-labeled, ampicillin-resistant E. coli O157:H7 cocktail. After draining the flume tank and refilling the holding tank with tap water, 90.8 kg of uninoculated product was similarly processed and collected in ∼5-kg aliquots. After processing, 42 equipment surface samples and 46 iceberg or 36 romaine lettuce samples (25 g each) from the collection baskets were quantitatively examined for E. coli O157:H7 by direct plating or membrane filtration using tryptic soy agar containing 0.6% yeast extract and 100 ppm of ampicillin. Initially, the greatest E. coli O157:H7 transfer was seen from inoculated lettuce to the shredder and conveyor belt, with all equipment surface populations decreasing 90 to 99% after processing 90.8 kg of uncontaminated product. After processing lettuce containing 10(6) or 10(4) E. coli O157:H7 CFU/g followed by uninoculated lettuce, E. coli O157:H7 was quantifiable throughout the entire 90.8 kg of product. At an inoculation level of 10(2) CFU/g, E. coli O157:H7 was consistently detected in the first 21.2 kg of previously uninoculated lettuce at 2 to 3 log CFU/100 g and transferred to 78 kg of product. These baseline E. coli O157:H7 transfer results will help determine the degree of sanitizer efficacy required to better ensure the safety of fresh-cut leafy

  12. Effects of pre-incubation of eggs in fresh water and varying sperm concentration on fertilization rate in sterlet sturgeon, Acipenser ruthenus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddique, Mohammad Abdul Momin; Butts, Ian Anthony Ernest; Psenicka, Martin; Linhart, Otomar

    2015-08-01

    Standardization of fertilization protocols for sterlet Acipenser ruthenus is crucial for improving reproductive techniques and for conservation purposes. Our objectives were to determine the number of sperm (tested 430,000:1, 43,000:1, 4300:1, 430:1 sperm to egg) required to fertilize eggs and explore how pre-incubation of eggs in freshwater for 0min, 0.5min, 1min, and 10min interacts with different sperm ratios. Fertilization success ranged from 29.7% at 430:1 to 84.2% at 430,000:1. Pre-incubation time had no effect on fertilization success at 430,000:1 and 43,000:1 sperm to egg ratios, while it was significant at the 4300:1 and 430:1 ratios. The use of adequate experimental suboptimal sperm to egg ratio revealed a positive effect of pre-incubation time, such that at the 430:1 ratio, 0.5min pre-incubation increased the fertilization rate than 10min. At 0min pre-incubation the proportion of fertilized eggs increased at the 430,000:1 ratio, while at 1min fertilization increased at the 4300:1 ratio. At the 10min pre-incubation time, fertilization increased at the 43,000:1 ratio. Moreover, at the 0.5min pre-incubation time, the 43,000:1 ratio increased the fertilization rate than the 430:1 ratio. Generally, for 430:1 ratio, the fertilization rate is lower than in control. Transmission electron microscopy showed that pre-incubation of eggs in water for fertilization can enhance fertilization rate of sterlet. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The use of annual killifish in the biocontrol of the aquatic stages of mosquitoes in temporary bodies of fresh water; a potential new tool in vector control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    of water in the form of hibernating embryos. Once introduced either as embryos or juveniles in ponds, the annual killifish can effectively reduce the larval population because of its aggressive predatory activity. PMID:20492714

  14. The use of annual killifish in the biocontrol of the aquatic stages of mosquitoes in temporary bodies of fresh water; a potential new tool in vector control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrias Araceli Q

    2010-05-01

    transported in the absence of water in the form of hibernating embryos. Once introduced either as embryos or juveniles in ponds, the annual killifish can effectively reduce the larval population because of its aggressive predatory activity.

  15. Cytotoxicity of ZnO NPs towards fresh water algae Scenedesmus obliquus at low exposure concentrations in UV-C, visible and dark conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhuvaneshwari, M.; Iswarya, V. [Centre for Nanobiotechnology, VIT University, Vellore 632014 (India); Archanaa, S. [Department of Biotechnology, IIT Madras (India); Madhu, G.M. [Department of Chemical Engineering, M.S. Ramaiah Institute of Technology, Bangalore (India); Kumar, G.K. Suraish [Department of Biotechnology, IIT Madras (India); Nagarajan, R. [Department of Chemical Engineering, IIT Madras (India); Chandrasekaran, N. [Centre for Nanobiotechnology, VIT University, Vellore 632014 (India); Mukherjee, Amitava, E-mail: amit.mookerjea@gmail.com [Centre for Nanobiotechnology, VIT University, Vellore 632014 (India)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • The cytotoxicity of ZnO NPs with two hydrodynamic sizes towards freshwater algae. • Size dependent toxicity under UV-C, dark and visible light conditions. • Cytotoxicity principally due to ZnO NPs not the released Zn{sup 2+} ions. • The internalization of ZnO NPs leads to membrane damage and ROS production. - Abstract: Continuous increase in the usage of ZnO nanoparticles in commercial products has exacerbated the risk of release of these particles into the aquatic environment with possible harmful effects on the biota. In the current study, cytotoxic effects of two types of ZnO nanoparticles, having different initial effective diameters in filtered and sterilized lake water medium [487.5 ± 2.55 nm for ZnO-1 NPs and 616.2 ± 38.5 nm for ZnO-2 NPs] were evaluated towards a dominant freshwater algal isolate Scenedesmus obliquus in UV-C, visible and dark conditions at three exposure concentrations: 0.25, 0.5 and 1 mg/L. The toxic effects were found to be strongly dependent on the initial hydrodynamic particle size in the medium, the exposure concentrations and the irradiation conditions. The loss in viability, LDH release and ROS generation were significantly enhanced in the case of the smaller sized ZnO-1 NPs than in the case of ZnO-2 NPs under comparable test conditions. The toxicity of both types of ZnO NPs was considerably elevated under UV-C irradiation in comparison to that in dark and visible light conditions, the effects being more enhanced in case of ZnO-1 NPs. The size dependent dissolution of the ZnO NPs in the test medium and possible toxicity due to the released Zn{sup 2+} ions was also noted. The surface adsorption of the nanoparticles was substantiated by scanning electron microscopy. The internalization/uptake of the NPs by the algal cells was confirmed by fluorescence microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and elemental analyses.

  16. The use of computed neutron coincidence counting with time interval analysis for the analysis of Fork-measurements on a fresh MOX-LWR fuel assembly under water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baeten, P.; Bruggeman, M.; Carchon, R.

    1998-06-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of different important parameters on measurement results for various fork-detectors. Computed Neutron Coincidence Counting (CNCC) with Time Interval Analysis (TIA) was used for this study. The performance of the electronics for the different fork-detectors was studied by investigating the deadtime perturbed zone of the Rossi-alpha distribution in TIA. The measurement revealed anomalies in the performance of the electronics of the IAEA BWR and LANL fork-detector. The IAEA PWR fork-detector functioned well and the deadtime parameter was calculated. The optimal setting for the pre delay was investigated and it was found that a pre delay of 10 micro seconds should be considered as an optimum between excluding from analysis data in the deadtime perturbed zone and keeping a high signal-to-noise ratio. For the shift register electronics used with the fork-detectors, a pre delay of only 4.5 micro seconds was used. The study of the pre delay and the deadtime showed that the calculated triples-rate is strongly dependent on these parameters. An accurate determination of the triple-rate in this type of measurements has proven to be quite difficult and requires proper operation of the electronics, a correct pre delay and an accurate deadtime correction formalism. By varying the boron concentration in water, the change of the decay time of the Rossi-alpha distribution was clearly observed. This change is due to the variation of the thermal multiplication. The variation of this decay time with the boron concentration proves that Boehnel's model for fast neutron multiplication is not valid under these measurement conditions and that a model for fast and thermal multiplication should be used in order to obtain unbiased measurement results. CNCC with TIA has proved to be a valuable tool in which parameter settings can be varied a posterori and the optimal setting can be determined for each measurement. Moreover, the

  17. Listeria monocytogenes in Fresh Produce: Outbreaks, Prevalence and Contamination Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Zhu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Listeria monocytogenes, a member of the genus Listeria, is widely distributed in agricultural environments, such as soil, manure and water. This organism is a recognized foodborne pathogenic bacterium that causes many diseases, from mild gastroenteritis to severe blood and/or central nervous system infections, as well as abortion in pregnant women. Generally, processed ready-to-eat and cold-stored meat and dairy products are considered high-risk foods for L. monocytogenes infections that cause human illness (listeriosis. However, recently, several listeriosis outbreaks have been linked to fresh produce contamination around the world. Additionally, many studies have detected L. monocytogenes in fresh produce samples and even in some minimally processed vegetables. Thus L. monocytogenes may contaminate fresh produce if present in the growing environment (soil and water. Prevention of biofilm formation is an important control measure to reduce the prevalence and survival of L. monocytogenes in growing environments and on fresh produce. This article specifically focuses on fresh produce–associated listeriosis outbreaks, prevalence in growing environments, contamination levels of fresh produce, and associated fresh produce safety challenges.

  18. Controle automático do fluxo de água na etapa de limpeza em unidades de beneficiamento de tomate de mesa Automatic control of water sistems in the cleaning step in fresh market tomato packing units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos D. Ferreira

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available A água é um recurso cada vez mais escasso e também de alto custo em várias regiões. O beneficiamento de frutas e hortaliças, em geral, apresenta elevado consumo de água durante o processo de limpeza. A linha de beneficiamento e de classificação do tomate de mesa é constituída de: recebimento, limpeza, seleção, classificação e embalagem. Normalmente, o recebimento dos tomates em uma linha de beneficiamento ocorre com taxa de alimentação constante, porém com interrupções frequentes dos operadores, ocasionando desperdício de energia e água, e a eficiência de limpeza dos frutos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar um sistema de limpeza dos frutos, equipado com um controle automático de fluxo de água, visando ao uso racional de água. Para a avaliação da eficiência do processo de limpeza, aplicou-se uma metodologia que utiliza o turbidímetro. Observou-se que o índice de limpeza foi, segundo critérios estatísticos, semelhante nos sistemas automatizado e tradicional, todavia o consumo de água no sistema automatizado foi quatro vezes inferior quando comparado ao sistema tradicional, indicando o potencial de aplicação comercial deste sistema.Water is a natural resource becoming scarce in many regions. Cleaning fruits and vegetables, generally demands high water consumption. A fresh market tomato packing-line is composed of: receiving, cleaning, sorting, classifying and packing. Normally, the receiving process for tomatoes in a packing line happens in a constant flow, however often interruptions of operators cause loss of water, energy and also fruits cleaning efficiency. The main goal of this study was to develop an automation system for cleaning fruits, with a rational water use. For evaluating cleaning efficiency it was developed a methodology using a turbidimiter. The results showed that the cleaning efficiency index was statistically similar between the two systems; however, water consumption for the automated

  19. Agricultural by-products with bioactive effects: A multivariate approach to evaluate microbial and physicochemical changes in a fresh pork sausage enriched with phenolic compounds from olive vegetation water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasolato, Luca; Carraro, Lisa; Facco, Pierantonio; Cardazzo, Barbara; Balzan, Stefania; Taticchi, Agnese; Andreani, Nadia Andrea; Montemurro, Filomena; Martino, Maria Elena; Di Lecce, Giuseppe; Toschi, Tullia Gallina; Novelli, Enrico

    2016-07-02

    The use of phenolic compounds derived from agricultural by-products could be considered as an eco-friendly strategy for food preservation. In this study a purified phenol extract from olive vegetation water (PEOVW) was explored as a potential bioactive ingredient for meat products using Italian fresh sausage as food model. The research was developed in two steps: first, an in vitro delineation of the extract antimicrobial activities was performed, then, the PEOVW was tested in the food model to investigate the possible application in food manufacturing. The in vitro tests showed that PEOVW clearly inhibits the growth of food-borne pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus. The major part of Gram-positive strains was inhibited at the low concentrations (0.375-3mg/mL). In the production of raw sausages, two concentrates of PEOVW (L1: 0.075% and L2: 0.15%) were used taking into account both organoleptic traits and the bactericidal effects. A multivariate statistical approach allowed the definition of the microbial and physicochemical changes of sausages during the shelf life (14days). In general, the inclusion of the L2 concentration reduced the growth of several microbial targets, especially Staphylococcus spp. and LABs (2log10CFU/g reduction), while the increasing the growth of yeasts was observed. The reduction of microbial growth could be involved in the reduced lipolysis of raw sausages supplemented with PEOVW as highlighted by the lower amount of diacylglycerols. Moisture and aw had a significant effect on the variability of microbiological features, while food matrix (the sausages' environment) can mask the effects of PEOVW on other targets (e.g. Pseudomonas). Moreover, the molecular identification of the main representative taxa collected during the experimentation allowed the evaluation of the effects of phenols on the selection of bacteria. Genetic data suggested a possible strain selection based on storage time and the addition of

  20. Fresh Water Bryozoa in the Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummer, Paul J.

    1977-01-01

    Described are the morphology, eating habits, and habitats of three types of Bryozoan colonies. Information on where to collect these organisms and how they can be cultured are included. Suggestions are given for lab experiments that can be done with type three colonies and Euglena. (MA)

  1. Monitoring water loss form fresh concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Mejlhede

    2006-01-01

    Desiccation of concrete before or during setting may lead to detrimental plastic shrinkage cracking in the concrete surface zone. Cracking due to plastic shrinkage is a major technological problem for any concrete, however, modern high-performance concretes are especially susceptible to this....... This paper concerns in particular a new method for site measurement of evaporation from concrete surfaces in the early hardening phase. Compared to the methods used today for determination of the desiccation process in the early hardening phase, the so-called Curing Meter permits a simple, safe and accurate...... determination of the evaporation loss from hardening concrete and thus better possibility for preventing curing problems, including detrimental crack damage due to plastic shrinkage....

  2. Microbiological Quality of Fresh Nopal Juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Hernández-Anguiano

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of fresh nopal cactus juice is widely popular among health-conscious consumers in Mexico. The juice is prepared from fresh cladodes that have only been rinsed with tap water and are not subjected to a pasteurization or terminal bacterial reduction process. The aim of this study was to evaluate the microbial quality of commercially available fresh juices (n = 162 made with nopal in Texcoco, State of Mexico, during the summer and spring season. Standard microbiological methods, the PCR technique and the serological method were used for isolation and identification of bacteria. All samples contained total coliforms and 91% were positive for Escherichia coli. Although total coliforms and E. coli were detected throughout the study, their populations were significantly lower (p < 0.05 in winter and spring, respectively. Citrobacter youngae was found in 20% of the samples, an unidentified species of Citrobacter in 10%, C. freundii and Proteus mirabilis in 3%, and Salmonella Javiana in 1%. The presence of these microorganisms, especially Salmonella, in the nopal juices is unacceptable due to its health significance. The information generated in this study is relevant for human health risk assessment associated with the consumption of unpasteurized nopal juices and potential interventions to minimize pathogen contamination.

  3. Pharmacologic study of irradiated fresh ginseng

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Ziwen; Xu Dechun; Meng Lifen

    1992-01-01

    The pharmacologic effect of 2 kGy irradiated fresh ginseng juice on small white mouse was studied. The results showed that irradiated fresh ginsengs have significant effects against lack of oxygen, diuresis and fatigue of mice. The statistical analysis indicated that there was no marked difference of pharmacologic effect between irradiated fresh ginseng and raw fresh one

  4. Inactivation of Escherichia coli in fresh water with advanced oxidation processes based on the combination of O3, H2O2, and TiO2. Kinetic modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Chueca, Jorge; Ormad Melero, M Peña; Mosteo Abad, Rosa; Esteban Finol, Javier; Ovelleiro Narvión, José Luis

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this work was to study the efficiency of different treatments, based on the combination of O3, H2O2, and TiO2, on fresh surface water samples fortified with wild strains of Escherichia coli. Moreover, an exhaustive assessment of the influence of the different agents involved in the treatment has been carried out by kinetic modeling of E. coli inactivation results. The treatments studied were (i) ozonation (O3), (ii) the peroxone system (O3/0.04 mM H2O2), (iii) catalytic ozonation (O3/1 g/L TiO2), and (iv) a combined treatment of O3/1 g/L TiO2/0.04 mM H2O2. It was observed that the peroxone system achieved the highest levels of inactivation of E. coli, around 6.80 log after 10 min of contact time. Catalytic ozonation also obtained high levels of inactivation in a short period of time, reaching 6.22 log in 10 min. Both treatments, the peroxone system (O3/H2O2) and catalytic ozonation (O3/TiO2), produced a higher inactivation rate of E. coli than ozonation (4.97 log after 10 min). While the combination of ozone with hydrogen peroxide or titanium dioxide thus produces an increase in the inactivation yield of E. coli regarding ozonation, the O3/TiO2/H2O2 combination did not enhance the inactivation results. The fitting of experimental values to the corresponding equations through non-linear regression techniques was carried out with Microsoft® Excel GInaFiT software. The inactivation results of E. coli did not respond to linear functions, and it was necessary to use mathematical models able to describe certain deviations in the bacterial inactivation processes. In this case, the inactivation results fit with mathematical models based on the hypothesis that the bacteria population is divided into two different subgroups with different degrees of resistance to treatments, for instance biphasic and biphasic with shoulder models. Graphical abstract ᅟ.

  5. transmitted fresh water flow rate of reverse osmosis desalination system utilizing the static pressure head-formulation of numerical results and comparison with experimental results; Seiatsuto wo riyo suru gyakushintohodatsuen shisutemu no tansuisuikaryuryo-suchikaisekikekka no shikika oyobi shikkenkekka tono hikaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyatake, O.; Tagawa, K.; Noda, H. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan)

    1999-07-10

    Based on the author's precious numerical results of a reverse osmosis desalination system for seawater or brackish water utilizing the static pressure head of seawater in a deep-sea region or brackish water in a vertical pit, a dimensionless expression is formulated to predict the transmitted fresh water flow rate from the geometry and the submerged depth of the device, the pure water permeability and the solute permeability of membrane, and the physical properties of seawater or brackish water. The derived expression is compared with experimental results obtained by field experiments carried out in the Sea of Japan and the East China Sea with fair agreement and thus confirmed the applicability and usefulness of the expression. (author)

  6. Parasitic contamination of fresh vegetables sold at central markets in Khartoum state, Sudan

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed, Mona Ali; Siddig, Emmanuel Edwar; Elaagip, Arwa Hassan; Edris, Ali Mahmoud Mohammed; Nasr, Awad Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Background Fresh vegetables are considered as vital nutrients of a healthy diet as they supply the body with essential supplements. The consumption of raw vegetables is the main way for transmission of intestinal parasitic organisms. This study was aimed at detecting the parasitic contamination in fresh vegetables sold in two central open-aired markets in Khartoum state, Sudan. Methods In this prospective cross-sectional study, a total of 260 fresh vegetable samples and 50 water samples used ...

  7. Tidal freshwater wetlands, the fresh dimension of the estuary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barendregt, A.

    2016-01-01

    Upstream in the estuary, where the river ends, the tidal energy is still present but the constant input from the river creates permanent fresh water conditions. The physical, chemical and biological conditions differ from the brackish part of the tidal area, but by processes from the tidal wave also

  8. Comparative Effect of Fresh, Thermoxidized and Irradiated Oil on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Test diet made of rat chow mixed with fresh palm oil (FPO), thermoxidized palm oil (TPO) or irradiated palm oil (IPO) were used to feed rats. The control was fed on rat chow only. Feeding was for 8 weeks. They were all allowed water adlibitum. The results showed that there was no significant difference in weight gain among ...

  9. Oncholaim~ jessicae n.sp. (Nematoda: Oncholaimidae) from fresh ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oncholaim~ jessicae n.sp. (Nematoda: Oncholaimidae) from fresh water in the Transvaal. A. Coomans. Instituut voor Dierkunde, Rijksuniversiteit Gent, Gent, Belgium. J. Heyns. Department of Zoology, Rand Afrikaans University, Johannesburg. Oncholaimus jessicae n.sp. is described from several sites in the Blyde River ...

  10. Osmotic Power: A Fresh Look at an Old Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugdale, Pam

    2014-01-01

    Electricity from osmotic pressure might seem a far-fetched idea but this article describes a prototype in Norway where the osmotic pressure generated between salt and fresh water drives a turbine. This idea was applied in a student investigation, where they were tasked with researching which alternative materials could be used for the…

  11. Acute-lethal toxicity (LC50) effect of Moringa oleifera (Lam.) Fresh ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SH

    aquaculture. This study assessed the acute-lethal toxicity (LC50) effect of Moringa oleifera fresh root-bark extract on fresh water fish, Oreochromis niloticus juveniles for 96-h under renewal toxicity exposure. Median. Lethal Concentration (LC50) for O. niloticus juvenile was 97.61 mgl-1 and high mortality was obtained at 200.

  12. Decomposition of fresh and anaerobically digested plant biomass in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moorhead, K.K.; Graetz, D.A.; Reddy, K.R.

    1987-01-01

    Using water hyacinth [Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms] for waste water renovation produces biomass that must be disposed of. This biomass may be anaerobically digested to produce CH 4 or added to soil directly as an amendment. In this study, fresh and anaerobically digested water hyacinth biomass, with either low or high N tissue content, were added to soil to evaluate C and N mineralization characteristics. The plant biomass was labeled with 15 N before digestion. The fresh plant biomass and digested biomass sludge were freeze-dried and ground to pass a 0.84-mm sieve. The materials were thoroughly mixed with a Kindrick fine sand at a rate of 5 g kg -1 soil and incubated for 90 d at 27 0 C at a moisture content adjusted to 0.01 MPa. Decomposition was evaluated by CO 2 evolution and 15 N mineralization. After 90 d, approximately 20% of the added C of the digested sludges had evolved as CO 2 compared to 39 and 50% of the added C of the fresh plant biomass with a low and high N content, respectively. First-order kinetics were used to describe decomposition stages. Mineralization of organic 15 N to 15 NO 3 - -N accounted for 8% of applied N for both digested sludges at 90 d. Nitrogen mineralization accounted for 3 and 33% of the applied organic N for fresh plant biomass with a low and high N content, respectively

  13. New fresh-water Fishes from Western Colombia New fresh-water Fishes from Western Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dahl George

    1960-12-01

    Full Text Available Los peces aquí descritos forman parte de una colección hecha en los ríos Atrato San Juan y Baudó, en el Departamento del Chocó, durante la segunda mitad del año 1959.  Varios miles de peces fueron recolectados, como parte de los estudios ictiológicos hechos para el plan decenal del Chocó. La colección se halla todavía en estudio, y una obra más extensa sobre ella se publicará más tarde.  Aquí se describen once formas nuevas, descubiertas durante el estudio.  EI autor expresa su agradecimiento para con las personas y entidades quienes hicieron posible la investigación científica y colaboraron en diferentes modos para obtener los resultados. Cuatro de las especies nuevas para la ciencia han sido dedicadas a ciudadanos colombianos de notable mérito en el avanzamiento de los conocimientos biológicos en Colombia: Dr. Fred Medem, Dr. Santiago Rengifo y Dr. Pablo Tovar Borda de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia, y Dr. Jorge Carrillo, Director del Departamento de Piscicultura, Pesca y Caza del Ministerio de Agricultura. Los peces aquí descritos forman parte de una colección hecha en los ríos Atrato San Juan y Baudó, en el Departamento del Chocó, durante la segunda mitad del año 1959.  Varios miles de peces fueron recolectados, como parte de los estudios ictiológicos hechos para el plan decenal del Chocó. La colección se halla todavía en estudio, y una obra más extensa sobre ella se publicará más tarde.  Aquí se describen once formas nuevas, descubiertas durante el estudio.  EI autor expresa su agradecimiento para con las personas y entidades quienes hicieron posible la investigación científica y colaboraron en diferentes modos para obtener los resultados. Cuatro de las especies nuevas para la ciencia han sido dedicadas a ciudadanos colombianos de notable mérito en el avanzamiento de los conocimientos biológicos en Colombia: Dr. Fred Medem, Dr. Santiago Rengifo y Dr. Pablo Tovar Borda de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia, y Dr. Jorge Carrillo, Director del Departamento de Piscicultura, Pesca y Caza del Ministerio de Agricultura.

  14. The impact of hydration changes in fresh bio-tissue on THz spectroscopic measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Png, G. M.; Choi, J. W.; W-H Ng, B.; Mickan, S. P.; Abbott, D.; Zhang, X.-C.

    2008-07-01

    We present a study of how residual hydration in fresh rat tissue samples can vastly alter their extracted terahertz (THz) optical properties and influence their health assessment. Fresh (as opposed to preserved) tissue most closely mimics in vivo conditions, but high water content creates many challenges for tissue handling and THz measurement. Our THz measurements of fresh tissue over time highlight the effect of tissue hydration on tissue texture and dimension, the latter directly influencing the accuracy of calculated optical properties. We then introduce lyophilization (freeze drying) as a viable solution for overcoming hydration and freshness problems. Lyophilization removes large amounts of water while retaining sample freshness. In addition, lyophilized tissue samples are easy to handle and their textures and dimensions do not vary over time, allowing for consistent and stable THz measurements. A comparison of lyophilized and fresh tissue shows for the first time that freeze drying may be one way of overcoming tissue hydration issues while preserving tissue cellular structure. Finally, we compare THz measurements from fresh tissue against necrotic tissue to verify freshness over time. Indeed, THz measurements from fresh and necrotic tissues show marked differences.

  15. The impact of hydration changes in fresh bio-tissue on THz spectroscopic measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Png, G M; Ng, B W-H; Mickan, S P; Abbott, D; Choi, J W; Zhang, X-C

    2008-01-01

    We present a study of how residual hydration in fresh rat tissue samples can vastly alter their extracted terahertz (THz) optical properties and influence their health assessment. Fresh (as opposed to preserved) tissue most closely mimics in vivo conditions, but high water content creates many challenges for tissue handling and THz measurement. Our THz measurements of fresh tissue over time highlight the effect of tissue hydration on tissue texture and dimension, the latter directly influencing the accuracy of calculated optical properties. We then introduce lyophilization (freeze drying) as a viable solution for overcoming hydration and freshness problems. Lyophilization removes large amounts of water while retaining sample freshness. In addition, lyophilized tissue samples are easy to handle and their textures and dimensions do not vary over time, allowing for consistent and stable THz measurements. A comparison of lyophilized and fresh tissue shows for the first time that freeze drying may be one way of overcoming tissue hydration issues while preserving tissue cellular structure. Finally, we compare THz measurements from fresh tissue against necrotic tissue to verify freshness over time. Indeed, THz measurements from fresh and necrotic tissues show marked differences

  16. Water: Too Precious to Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Geographic World, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Provides background information on many topics related to water. These include the water cycle, groundwater, fresh water, chemical wastes, water purification, river pollution, acid rain, and water conservation. Information is presented at an elementary level. (JM)

  17. Final joint environmental assessment for the construction and routine operation of a 12-kilovolt (KV) overhead powerline right-of-way, and formal authorization for a 10-inch and 8-inch fresh water pipeline right-of-way, Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1, Kern County, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-10-01

    The purpose and need of the proposed action, which is the installation of an overhead powerline extension from an Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1 (NPR-1) power source to the WKWD Station A, is to significantly reduce NPR-1`s overall utility costs. While the proposed action is independently justified on its own merits and is not tied to the proposed NPR-1 Cogeneration Facility, the proposed action would enable DOE to tie the NPR-1 fresh water pumps at Station A into the existing NPR-1 electrical distribution system. With the completion of the cogeneration facility in late 1994 or early 1995, the proposed action would save additional utility costs. This report deals with the environmental impacts of the construction of the powerline and the water pipeline. In addition, information is given about property rights and attaining permission to cross the property of proposed affected owners.

  18. Systematic Study of the Content of Phytochemicals in Fresh and Fresh-Cut Vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Isabel Alarcón-Flores

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Vegetables and fruits have beneficial properties for human health, because of the presence of phytochemicals, but their concentration can fluctuate throughout the year. A systematic study of the phytochemical content in tomato, eggplant, carrot, broccoli and grape (fresh and fresh-cut has been performed at different seasons, using liquid chromatography coupled to triple quadrupole mass spectrometry. It was observed that phenolic acids (the predominant group in carrot, eggplant and tomato were found at higher concentrations in fresh carrot than in fresh-cut carrot. However, in the case of eggplant, they were detected at a higher content in fresh-cut than in fresh samples. Regarding tomato, the differences in the content of phenolic acids between fresh and fresh-cut were lower than in other matrices, except in winter sampling, where this family was detected at the highest concentration in fresh tomato. In grape, the flavonols content (predominant group was higher in fresh grape than in fresh-cut during all samplings. The content of glucosinolates was lower in fresh-cut broccoli than in fresh samples in winter and spring sampling, although this trend changes in summer and autumn. In summary, phytochemical concentration did show significant differences during one-year monitoring, and the families of phytochemicals presented different behaviors depending on the matrix studied.

  19. Consumers' store choice behavior for fresh food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulenberg, M.T.G.; Trijp, van J.C.M.

    1991-01-01

    Consumers' preference for fresh food stores is analyzed. In particular the choice between supermarkets and specialized shops for purchasing fresh food is analyzed. Attention is given to the factors influencing this choice. For this purpose a number of research questions with respect to store choice

  20. Waste Reduction in Fresh Food Supply Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaipia, Riikka; Loikkanen, Lauri; Dukovska-Popovska, Iskra

    2011-01-01

    The paper studies a well-known phenomenon, information sharing in supply chains, in a new context, fresh foods, with a specific goal, supporting sustainable performance in the supply chain. Fresh foods are important for retail stores, representing around half of retail sales, but form a challenging...

  1. What determines fresh fish consumption in Croatia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomić, Marina; Matulić, Daniel; Jelić, Margareta

    2016-11-01

    Although fresh fish is widely available, consumption still remains below the recommended intake levels among the majority of European consumers. The economic crisis affects consumer food behaviour, therefore fresh fish is perceived as healthy but expensive food product. The aim of this study was to determine the factors influencing fresh fish consumption using an expanded Theory of Planned Behaviour (Ajzen, 1991) as a theoretical framework. The survey was conducted on a heterogeneous sample of 1151 Croatian fresh fish consumers. The study investigated the relationship between attitudes, perceived behavioural control, subjective norm, moral obligation, involvement in health, availability, intention and consumption of fresh fish. Structural Equation Modeling by Partial Least Squares was used to analyse the collected data. The results indicated that attitudes are the strongest positive predictor of the intention to consume fresh fish. Other significant predictors of the intention to consume fresh fish were perceived behavioural control, subjective norm, health involvement and moral obligation. The intention to consume fresh fish showed a strong positive correlation with behaviour. This survey provides valuable information for food marketing professionals and for the food industry in general. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Comparison of propidium monoazide-quantitative PCR and reverse transcription quantitative PCR for viability detection of fresh Cryptosporidium oocysts following disinfection and after long-term storage in water samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purified oocysts of Cryptosporidium parvum were used to evaluate applicability of two quantitative PCR (qPCR) viability detection methods in raw surface water and disinfection treated water. Propidium monoazide-qPCR targeting hsp70 gene was compared to reverse transcription (RT)-...

  3. Rapid Testing of Fresh Concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-05-01

    Subsequent determination of the water content of the alcohol extract was possible using the Karl Fischer tltration. The use of such a technique...method Is specified in ASTM C 70 - 772 tor the rapid determination of the surface moisture in fine aggregate. Attempts have also been made to... moisture content, cement type, and length of mixing time on the water content determination ; and the effect of aggregate type and aggregate grading

  4. Addition of whey protein to fresh cheese.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Rafael Arce-Méndez

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This work has been conducted in order to assess the effect of adding whey protein (WP to fresh cheese. The yield, proximal chemical composition, tryptophan content,and texture and consumer sensorial acceptance were obtained. The study was conducted at a cheese factory located in San Carlos, Costa Rica, in 2011. The protein obtained from whey was added during the cheese manufacturing process, before adding the microbial rennet; and four enrichment levels were evaluated, including one control. The supplemented cheese showed an acceptance rating between 6.8 and 7.1. Products with 75 and 120 g of added whey protein per kilogram of milk showed no significant differences versus non-supplemented cheese, while the preference towards the cheese with 150 g WP/kg was less than that of the control (p<0.05. A cluster analysis revealed the existence of two consumer groups: one, accounting for 65% of the members of the panel, whose preference was unaffected by the protein supplemented; and, the other group where the added protein affected their liking negatively. Adding whey protein to the cheese resulted in a significant increase in yield and in the protein-to-water ratio, as well as a reduction in fat content (p<0.05. Nevertheless, there were structural changes in the cheese that caused the reduction of certain texture properties, generating changes in their sensory properties that reduced the preference of a representative group of consumers towards the product.

  5. Water Resource Assessment of Geothermal Resources and Water Use in Geopressured Geothermal Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, C. E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Harto, C. B. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Troppe, W. A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2011-09-01

    This technical report from Argonne National Laboratory presents an assessment of fresh water demand for future growth in utility-scale geothermal power generation and an analysis of fresh water use in low-temperature geopressured geothermal power generation systems.

  6. Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... www.girlshealth.gov/ Home Nutrition Nutrition basics Water Water Did you know that water makes up more ... to drink more water Other drinks How much water do you need? top Water is very important, ...

  7. 9 CFR 319.142 - Fresh beef sausage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fresh beef sausage. 319.142 Section... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Sausage Generally: Fresh Sausage § 319.142 Fresh beef sausage. “Fresh Beef Sausage” is sausage prepared with fresh beef or frozen...

  8. Reduction of radiation injury of fresh agricultural products by saccharide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todoroki, Setsuko; Hayashi, Toru [National Food Research Inst., Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1999-02-01

    Radiation exposure has been paid attention as an alternative technique of methylbromide to protect agricultural products against insects. However, it has been pointed out that radiation at a dose lower than 300-400 Gy necessary for insecticidal effects might produce damages in fresh agricultural products. To reduce such radiation damages, radiation sensitivities of various fresh products were determined to clarify whether sugar treatment is effective for reduction of damages. Further, the timing of the treatment and its influence on the metabolism of agricultural product were investigated. When sucrose was added to a cut flower of chrysanthemum via water before and during irradiation, the withering time of its leaves and flowers was earlier than that of the untreated product, whereas continuous administration of sucrose after radiation exposure caused to lengthen the flower`s life and delay the leave`s yellowing. Thus, it was indicated that continuous sugar supply after irradiation was effective for prevention of radiation damages. (M.N.)

  9. Reduction of radiation injury of fresh agricultural products by saccharide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todoroki, Setsuko; Hayashi, Toru

    1999-01-01

    Radiation exposure has been paid attention as an alternative technique of methylbromide to protect agricultural products against insects. However, it has been pointed out that radiation at a dose lower than 300-400 Gy necessary for insecticidal effects might produce damages in fresh agricultural products. To reduce such radiation damages, radiation sensitivities of various fresh products were determined to clarify whether sugar treatment is effective for reduction of damages. Further, the timing of the treatment and its influence on the metabolism of agricultural product were investigated. When sucrose was added to a cut flower of chrysanthemum via water before and during irradiation, the withering time of its leaves and flowers was earlier than that of the untreated product, whereas continuous administration of sucrose after radiation exposure caused to lengthen the flower's life and delay the leave's yellowing. Thus, it was indicated that continuous sugar supply after irradiation was effective for prevention of radiation damages. (M.N.)

  10. Fresh pasta production enriched with Spirulina platensis biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ailton Cesar Lemes

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the enrichment of Spirulina platensis in wheat flour to prepare fresh pasta to evaluate the green color and nutritional enrichment in addition to functional properties due to the presence of the bioactive compounds in the cyanobacterium. The pastas were evaluated for the centesimal composition, microbiological contamination, sensorial acceptance and technological characteristics such as cooking time, water absorption, volume displacement and loss of solids. The superior protein contents and the satisfactory technological and sensorial attributes compared with the control with no cyanobacterium showed the usefulness of incorporating S. platensis biomass in the fresh pastas. The microbiological quality was in compliance with the legislation in force. The sensorial quality was considered satisfactory (“liked very much” and purchase intention high (“probably would buy”.

  11. Florida Agriculture - Utilizing TRMM to Analyze Sea Breeze Thunderstorm Patterns During El Nino Southern Oscillations and Their Effects Upon Available Fresh Water for South Florida Agricultural Planning and Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billiot, Amanda; Lee, Lucas; McKee, Jake; Cooley, Zachary Clayton; Mitchell, Brandie

    2010-01-01

    This project utilizes Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) and Landsat satellite data to assess the impact of sea breeze precipitation upon areas of agricultural land use in southern Florida. Water is a critical resource to agriculture, and the availability of water for agricultural use in Florida continues to remain a key issue. Recent projections of statewide water use by 2020 estimate that 9.3 billion gallons of water per day will be demanded, and agriculture represents 47% of this demand (Bronson 2003). Farmers have fewer options for water supplies than public users and are often limited to using available supplies from surface and ground water sources which depend in part upon variable weather patterns. Sea breeze thunderstorms are responsible for much of the rainfall delivered to Florida during the wet season (May-October) and have been recognized as an important overall contributor of rainfall in southern Florida (Almeida 2003). TRMM satellite data was used to analyze how sea breeze-induced thunderstorms during El Nino and La Nina affected interannual patterns of precipitation in southern Florida from 1998-2009. TRMM's Precipitation Radar and Microwave Imager provide data to quantify water vapor in the atmosphere, precipitation rates and intensity, and the distribution of precipitation. Rainfall accumulation data derived from TRMM and other microwave sensors were used to analyze the temporal and spatial variations of rainfall during each phase of the El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Through the use of TRMM and Landsat, slight variations were observed, but it was determined that neither sea breeze nor total rainfall patterns in South Florida were strongly affected by ENSO during the study period. However, more research is needed to characterize the influence of ENSO on summer weather patterns in South Florida. This research will provide the basis for continued observations and study with the Global Precipitation Measurement Mission.

  12. Water as the future clash for civilizations: a fresh conceptual approach for a Global Trinity? Water Scarcity and Future Conflict- consideration of water scarcity as a primary cause of conflict in the future requiring an adjustment to the Western approach to threats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-25

    Kingdom National Security Strategy have each publically commented on water scarcity and security. As such, water as a threat to security has recently...and political disciplines” as appropriately recommended by Hernandez, is within the art of the possible. Indeed this would reflect the wider ongoing...the-future-of-africas-water-security/. Figure 2 - African Continent Water Availability C6te d’lvoire Niger Benin Sudan Senegal Mauritania

  13. Inactivation of human norovirus and Tulane virus in simple mediums and fresh whole strawberries by ionizing radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human norovirus (NoV) is a major cause of fresh produce associated outbreaks and human NoV in irrigation water can potentially lead to viral internalization in fresh produce. Therefore, there is a need to develop novel intervention strategies to target internalized viral pathogens while maintainin...

  14. Insights into Fresh Meat Spoilage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paramithiotis, Spiros; Skandamis, P. N.; Nychas, George-John E.

    The conditions under which the animals are reared and slaughtered determine the level, extent and type of contamination. Possible sources of contamination include the abiotic environment in contact with the animal (air, soil, water, feeds), the animal itself (hides, intestinal tract, faeces) and the processing equipment including utensils and humans. Contamination may also vary according to specific characteristics of each animal, its geographic origin as well as the season of the year.

  15. Nitrogen uptake kinetics of freshly isolated zooxanthellae

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wafar; Wafar; Rajkumar, R.

    Zooxanthellae freshly isolated from the coral host Pocillopora damicornis exhibited substrate-saturable uptake kinetics for ammonium, nitrate and urea. Maximum uptake velocity for ammonium [10.1 nmol. ( mu chl-a)./1h/1] was greater than...

  16. The limited and localized flow of fresh groundwater to the world's oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luijendijk, E.; Gleeson, T. P.; Moosdorf, N.

    2017-12-01

    Submarine groundwater discharge, the flow of fresh or saline groundwater to oceans [Burnett et al., 2003], may be a significant contributor to the water and chemical budgets of the world's oceans [Taniguchi et al., 2002] potentially buffering ocean acidification with groundwater alkalinity and is arguably the most uncertain component of the global groundwater budget [Alley et al., 2002]. The fresh component of submarine groundwater discharge is critical due to its high solute and nutrient load, and has been quantified locally and but only roughly estimated globally using significant assumptions. Here we show that that fresh submarine groundwater discharge is an insignificant water contributor to global oceans (0.05% of the total input) but that the freshwater discharge may still be an important chemical and nutrient contributor especially around distinct hotspots. The first spatially-explicit, physically-based global estimate of fresh submarine groundwater discharge was derived by combining density-dependent numerical groundwater models and a geospatial analysis of global coastal watersheds to robustly simulate the partitioning of onshore and offshore groundwater discharge. Although fresh submarine groundwater discharge is an insignificant part of fresh coastal groundwater discharge, results are consistent with previous estimates of significant recirculated seawater discharging as groundwater as well as quantifying the significant near-shore terrestrial discharge, a flux that has so far been overlooked in global hydrological studies and that affects coastal water budgets, evapotranspiration and ecosystems.

  17. Handbook of fresh produce transportation to Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Borbon-Galvez, Yari

    1998-01-01

    This handbook presents the current logistics operations for fresh produce exports and lists relevant service providers. For each logistics section such as packing, transportation, insurance, customs brokerage, and other related services, there is a list of quoting firms and those related with the investigation. The handbook was designed not only to identify the cheapest routes to move cargo from Mexico to Europe, but also provided various alternatives according to the fresh produce shelf-life.

  18. Use of the histopathology in the differential diagnosis of drowning in fresh and salty water: an experimental model establishment in rats Uso da histopatologia no diagnóstico diferencial de afogamento em água doce e água salgada: estabelecimento de modelo experimental em ratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Fagionato Locali

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To develop a method of differential diagnosis to drowning, due to analysis of the alveolar macrophages quantitative, in rats submitted to induced drowning in fresh water and salty water. METHODS: Were used 15 male adult rats Wistar EPM-1, weight 360g (SD=21,3, randomized in three groups: G1- Control; G2- Fresh water; G3- Salty water, each one with n=5. The animals have been anesthetized and tracheostomized to insert a cannula inside the trachea, for drowning induction. The lungs have been removed, weighed, prepared for histology and colored by immunohistochemistry. The macrophages have been counted in both lungs (right and left of each animal. The statistical test used was ANOVA (SPSS.10 with pG2>G1 with p=0,0001 in each comparison. The weight of lungs of G3 and G2 was higher than G1, with p>0,0001, however G3 and G2 do not possess difference statistics in the weight of lungs. CONCLUSION: The developed diagnostic method was efficient in rats. The results, if expanded, will be able to assist the Forensic Pathology for technique of low cost and high trustworthiness.OBJETIVO: Desenvolver um método de diagnóstico diferencial de afogamento, pela análise quantitativa dos macrófagos alveolares, em ratos submetidos à afogamento induzido em água doce e água salgada. MÉTODOS: Foram utilizados 15 ratos adultos, machos Wistar EPM-1, pesando 360g (DP=21,3, randomizados em três grupos: G1 - controle; G2 - Água doce; G3 - Água salgada, cada um com n=5. Os animais foram anestesiados e traqueostomizados para inserção de uma cânula endotraqueal, para indução do afogamento. Os pulmões foram removidos, pesados, preparados para histologia e corados por imunohistoquímica. Os macrófagos foram contados em ambos os pulmões (direito e esquerdo de cada animal. O teste estatístico utilizado foi o ANOVA (SPSS.10 com pG2>G1 com p=0,0001, entretanto, G3 e G2 não possuem diferença estatística no peso dos pulmões. CONCLUSÃO: O método diagn

  19. State sovereignty over natural fresh-water resources and the Guarani Aquifer Agreement; La soberania de los Estados sobre sus recursos naturales de agua dulce y el Acuerdo sobre el Acuifero Guarani

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pastori, A.

    2012-11-01

    Our intention in this paper is to study the scope of the concept of the sovereignty of states over their natural resources in general, and water resources in particular. Within this context it seeks to establish what the incidence of this concept is with regard to the management of shared international resources and whether states have limited or reduced the scope of this concept as far as the use of water resources is concerned. We analyse whether these bounds have been exercised directly in rules relating to international watercourses or aquifers, or by indirect routes such as environmental standards or norms regarding human rights, without contravening already existing acquired rights. Finally, it considers the relevance of the inclusion of this notion of sovereignty in the Guarani Aquifer Agreement and whether this follows the same path or diverges from the internationally accepted concepts just mentioned. (Author)

  20. Mapping soil salinity and a fresh-water intrusion in three-dimensions using a quasi-3d joint-inversion of DUALEM-421S and EM34 data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zare, Ehsan; Huang, Jingyi; Koganti, Triven

    2017-01-01

    in the horizontal mode (i.e., EM34-10H, EM34-20H and EM34-40H) were considered. We estimated σ using a quasi-3d joint-inversion algorithm (EM4Soil). The best correlation (R2 = 0.92) between σ and measured soil ECe was identified when a forward modelling (FS), inversion algorithm (S2) and damping factor (lambda = 0...... and helped to infer a freshwater intrusion from a water storage reservoir at depth and as a function of its proximity to near-surface prior stream channels and buried paleochannels. It was concluded that this method can be applied elsewhere to map the soil salinity and water movement and provide guidance...

  1. Effects of atmospheric fallouts of sulfur and nitrogen on soils and fresh waters in France; Effets des depots atmospheriques de soufre et d'azote sur les sols et les eaux douces en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Gall, A.Ch.

    2004-11-15

    The sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, the ammonia and the chlorine emitted in the environment by human activities contribute to the soils and waters acidity. After a presentation of the acidification and the eutrophication, the author describes and qualifies the mechanisms. In a second part she discusses the mathematical models of the acidification and the eutrophication, the biological criteria and the uncertainties. The last part presents the french situation and general recommendations on land restoration. (A.L.B.)

  2. Ecological and energy non-consuming technology for extending the freshness period of fish at positive temperatures and method for freshness control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirza, Maria; Saros-Rogobete, Irina; Popescu, G. M.; Dobrin, D. N.; Cristescu, T. M.; Stefanescu, Ioan; Steflea, Dumitru; Titescu, Ghe.

    2001-01-01

    As medium of preservation, unsalted water i.e. distillated water, deuterium depleted water, de-ionized water or mixtures of these were used. The following performance are reported: - Freshness period is of 18-24 hours at 30 deg. C, 5-18 days at 5-15 deg. C and 20-30 days at 0-5 deg. C. The method of freshness control was the measurement of unconventional tissue energies. The technology is advantageous because it is ecological, uses natural materials (unsalted water), can by applied in case of energetic crisis and contributes to the preservation of ozone layer. The technology implies very low costs and also extends by 2-6 times the shelf time the fish is kept at positive temperatures comparing with classical refrigeration method. (authors)

  3. Monitoring of phytochemicals in fresh and fresh-cut vegetables: a comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alarcón-Flores, María Isabel; Romero-González, Roberto; Martínez Vidal, José Luis; Egea González, Francisco Javier; Garrido Frenich, Antonia

    2014-01-01

    Bearing in mind that fresh-cut market is currently the fastest growing subsector in the food industry, a comparison of the levels of phytochemicals in fresh and fresh-cut vegetables has been carried out. Thus, several families of phytochemicals, such as phenolic acids, isoflavones, flavones, flavonols and glucosinolates were determined in fresh and fresh-cut samples including tomato, carrot, grape, eggplant and broccoli. Both type of products have potential and similar beneficial properties, regarding its content as phytochemicals, except tomato, which should be consumed as fresh. Other factors such as commercial presentation (sliced, grated, diced) and storage conditions (temperature and light) were evaluated observing that in eggplant, the content of phenolic acids is statistically different depending on the presentation. On the other hand, the content of phytochemicals was higher when fresh-cut carrots were stored at 4°C regardless of the presence or absence of light. Multivariate analysis, based on cluster analysis was used as a first approach to distinguish between fresh and fresh-cut samples, obtaining good results except for eggplant and carrot. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Potentials for export of fresh raspberries from Serbia to EU fresh markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Ivan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present potentials of the most significant EU national markets for imports of fresh raspberries from Serbia. We carried out analysis of three markets with highest trade deficit of fresh raspberries expressed in quantities: Germany, Netherlands and Austria. The paper further analyses production and foreign trade trends in selected countries. According to results of this analysis, we identified monthly periods with highest potential for exports of fresh raspberries from Serbia to target markets. The paper also analyses wholesale prices of fresh raspberries and EU policy of direct support to raspberry producers.

  5. Factors influencing the microbial safety of fresh produce: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaimat, Amin N; Holley, Richard A

    2012-10-01

    Increased consumption, larger scale production and more efficient distribution of fresh produce over the past two decades have contributed to an increase in the number of illness outbreaks caused by this commodity. Pathogen contamination of fresh produce may originate before or after harvest, but once contaminated produce is difficult to sanitize. The prospect that some pathogens invade the vascular system of plants and establish "sub-clinical" infection needs to be better understood to enable estimation of its influence upon risk of human illness. Conventional surface sanitation methods can reduce the microbial load, but cannot eliminate pathogens if present. Chlorine dioxide, electrolyzed water, UV light, cold atmospheric plasma, hydrogen peroxide, organic acids and acidified sodium chlorite show promise, but irradiation at 1 kGy in high oxygen atmospheres may prove to be the most effective means to assure elimination of both surface and internal contamination of produce by pathogens. Pathogens of greatest current concern are Salmonella (tomatoes, seed sprouts and spices) and Escherichia coli O157:H7 on leafy greens (spinach and lettuce). This review considers new information on illness outbreaks caused by produce, identifies factors which influence their frequency and size and examines intervention effectiveness. Research needed to increase our understanding of the factors influencing microbial safety of fresh produce is addressed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Prediction of tomato freshness using infrared thermal imaging and transient step heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jing; Hsieh, Sheng-Jen; Tan, Zuojun; Wang, Hongjin; Zhang, Jian

    2016-05-01

    Tomatoes are the world's 8th most valuable agricultural product, valued at $58 billion dollars annually. Nondestructive testing and inspection of tomatoes is challenging and multi-faceted. Optical imaging is used for quality grading and ripeness. Spectral and hyperspectral imaging are used to detect surface detects and cuticle cracks. Infrared thermography has been used to distinguish between different stages of maturity. However, determining the freshness of tomatoes is still an open problem. For this research, infrared thermography was used for freshness prediction. Infrared images were captured at a rate of 1 frame per second during heating (0 to 40 seconds) and cooling (0 to 160 seconds). The absolute temperatures of the acquired images were plotted. Regions with higher temperature differences between fresh and less fresh (rotten within three days) tomatoes of approximately uniform size and shape were used as the input nodes in a three-layer artificial neural network (ANN) model. Two-thirds of the data were used for training and one-third was used for testing. Results suggest that by using infrared imaging data as input to an ANN model, tomato freshness can be predicted with 90% accuracy. T-tests and F-tests were conducted based on absolute temperature over time. The results suggest that there is a mean temperature difference between fresh and less fresh tomatoes (α = 0.05). However, there is no statistical difference in terms of temperature variation, which suggests a water concentration difference.

  7. Effect of irradiation on quality of fresh fruits and vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basbayraktar, V.; Gueclue, H.

    2009-01-01

    There is an increasing trend for the consumption of fresh fruits and vegetables in developing and developed countries. However, they carry the potential risk of contamination from soil, irrigation water and/or manure and result in food borne outbreaks. Since they are consumed without any treatments, they are the potential sources of contamination. Irradiation is a physical food preservation method; foods are exposed to low doses of ionizing radiation for sterilization or preservation purposes. Irradiation treatment has been shown to effectively enhance the microbial quality and increase the shelf-life by 3-5 times. Also, this treatment reduces the post harvest losses and controls the insects.

  8. Lactic acid microbiota identification in water, raw milk, endogenous starter culture, and fresh Minas artisanal cheese from the Campo das Vertentes region of Brazil during the dry and rainy seasons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, R D; Oliveira, L G; Sant'Anna, F M; Luiz, L M P; Sandes, S H C; Silva, C I F; Silva, A M; Nunes, A C; Penna, C F A M; Souza, M R

    2016-08-01

    Minas artisanal cheese, produced in the Campo das Vertentes region of Brazil, is made from raw milk and endogenous starter cultures. Although this cheese is of great historical and socioeconomic importance, little information is available about its microbiological and physical-chemical qualities, or about its beneficial microbiota. This work was aimed at evaluating the qualities of the cheese and the components used for its production, comparing samples collected during the dry and rainy seasons. We also conducted molecular identification and isolated 50 samples of lactic acid bacteria from cheese (n=21), water (n=3), raw milk (n=9), and endogenous starter culture (n=17). The microbiological quality of the cheese, water, raw milk, and endogenous starter culture was lower during the rainy period, given the higher counts of coagulase-positive Staphylococcus and total and thermotolerant coliforms. Enterococcus faecalis was the lactic acid bacteria isolated most frequently (42.86%) in cheese samples, followed by Lactococcus lactis (28.57%) and Lactobacillus plantarum (14.29%). Lactobacillus brevis (5.88%), Enterococcus pseudoavium (5.88%), Enterococcus durans (5.88%), and Aerococcus viridans (5.88%) were isolated from endogenous starter cultures and are described for the first time in the literature. The lactic acid bacteria identified in the analyzed cheeses may inhibit undesirable microbiota and contribute to the safety and flavor of the cheese, but this needs to be evaluated in future research. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Fresh fruit: microstructure, texture, and quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Delilah F.; Imam, Syed H.; Orts, William J.; Glenn, Gregory M.

    2009-05-01

    Fresh-cut produce has a huge following in today's supermarkets. The trend follows the need to decrease preparation time as well as the desire to follow the current health guidelines for consumption of more whole "heart-healthy" foods. Additionally, consumers are able to enjoy a variety of fresh produce regardless of the local season because produce is now shipped world-wide. However, most fruits decompose rapidly once their natural packaging has been disrupted by cutting. In addition, some intact fruits have limited shelf-life which, in turn, limits shipping and storage. Therefore, a basic understanding of how produce microstructure relates to texture and how microstructure changes as quality deteriorates is needed to ensure the best quality in the both the fresh-cut and the fresh produce markets. Similarities between different types of produce include desiccation intolerance which produces wrinkling of the outer layers, cracking of the cuticle and increased susceptibility to pathogen invasion. Specific examples of fresh produce and their corresponding ripening and storage issues, and degradation are shown in scanning electron micrographs.

  10. Water for the growing needs of Harrison County, Mississippi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcome, Roy; Shattles, Donald E.; Humphreys, Carney P.

    1968-01-01

    The potential for water-supply development in Harrison County is almost unlimited. During an average year, more than 350 billion gallons of water flow into the Gulf of Mexico from the streams of the county. With storage reservoirs these streams have a potential sustained supply of hundreds of millions of. gallons per day. Recreation uses and flood-control benefits could also be considered in reservoir design. Upstream from the zones of salt-water penetration, mineral content is low and fairly constant. Water in the streams generally has high color and low pH ; treatment would be required for most municipal and industrial uses. Impoundment in reservoirs normally would have little effect on the quality of the surface water. However, impoundment would trap most of the suspended-sediment load of the streams. Flooding along the major streams of Harrison County is a minor hazard at present (1966), but with further industrial development and urbanization, flooding in these now rural areas could become serious. Intense rainfall from thunderstorms and hurricanes causes serious local flooding in the populous areas near the coast. Tidal flooding, a result of tropical storms, is an ever-present hazard in areas near the coast. The ground-water reservoir, which at present provides all fresh-water supplies, is capable of supporting many times the 25 million gallons per day withdrawal through existing wells. Fresh water occurs to depths as great as 2,500 feet in sand aquifers of Pliocene and Miocene age. Many of the aquifers have high transmissibility; most of those tested have transmissibility in the range, of 50,000-100,000 gallons per day per foot. Although few wells produce more than 1,000 gallons per minute, several of the aquifers can yield two to three times that amount to wells designed for the higher production. Artesian water levels along the coast are declining at a rate of 1 foot per year on the average; however, water levels are still above or only slightly below the

  11. Mapping soil salinity and a fresh-water intrusion in three-dimensions using a quasi-3d joint-inversion of DUALEM-421S and EM34 data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zare, Ehsan; Huang, Jingyi; Koganti, Triven; Triantafilis, John

    2017-04-01

    In order to understand the drivers of topsoil salinization, the distribution and movement of salt in accordance with groundwater need mapping. In this study, we described a method to map the distribution of soil salinity, as measured by the electrical conductivity of a saturated soil-paste extract (ECe), and in 3-dimensions around a water storage reservoir in an irrigated field near Bourke, New South Wales, Australia. A quasi-3d electromagnetic conductivity image (EMCI) or model of the true electrical conductivity (sigma) was developed using 133 apparent electrical conductivity (ECa) measurements collected on a 50 m grid and using various coil arrays of DUALEM-421S and EM34 instruments. For the DUALEM-421S we considered ECa in horizontal coplanar (i.e., 1 mPcon, 2 mPcon and 4 mPcon) and vertical coplanar (i.e., 1 mHcon, 2 mHcon and 4 mHcon) arrays. For the EM34, three measurements in the horizontal mode (i.e., EM34-10H, EM34-20H and EM34-40H) were considered. We estimated σ using a quasi-3d joint-inversion algorithm (EM4Soil). The best correlation (R2 = 0.92) between σ and measured soil ECe was identified when a forward modelling (FS), inversion algorithm (S2) and damping factor (lambda = 0.2) were used and using both DUALEM-421 and EM34 data; but not including the 4 m coil arrays of the DUALEM-421S. A linear regression calibration model was used to predict ECe in 3-dimensions beneath the study field. The predicted ECe was consistent with previous studies and revealed the distribution of ECe and helped to infer a freshwater intrusion from a water storage reservoir at depth and as a function of its proximity to near-surface prior stream channels and buried paleochannels. It was concluded that this method can be applied elsewhere to map the soil salinity and water movement and provide guidance for improved land management.|

  12. [Comparison between the standard MPN method recommended by the American Public Health Association and the Simplate and Petrifilm methods for identification of the coliform group and Escherichia coli in tilapia (Oreochromis sp) originating from aquaculture in fresh water].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muratori, M C; Oliveira, A de L; Ribeiro, L P; Costa, A P; Fernandes, S H; Leite, R C

    2000-01-01

    We have compared three methods for the detection and quantification of coliforms and E. coli in fish: the conventional three-tube MNP method (APHA), the Simplate Method and the Petrifilm Method. Thirty samples of the tilapia's external surface (skin, gills and fin) produced in an artificial pond were collected. Samples were processed individually in buffered peptone water 1%, then they were diluted and inoculated in Simplate, Petrifilm and LST tubes. Coliforms were isolated from 100% of the samples. The Simplate and 3M Petrifilm results were obtained after 24 h of incubation. The conventional three-tube MNP method showed results only after 96 hours of incubation. Simplate showed better recovery of coliforms and E. coli than 3 M Petrifilm and APHA method (P < 0.05). 3M Petrifilm and APHA were not significantly different for E. coli recovery.

  13. A fresh fruit and vegetable program improves high school students' consumption of fresh produce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low fruit and vegetable intake may be associated with overweight. The United States Department of Agriculture implemented the Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Program in 2006-2007. One Houston-area high school was selected and received funding to provide baskets of fresh fruits and vegetables daily for eac...

  14. Decontamination of fresh and fresh-cut fruits and vegetables with cold plasma technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contamination of fresh and fresh-cut fruits and vegetables by foodborne pathogens has prompted research into novel interventions. Cold plasma is a nonthermal food processing technology which uses energetic, reactive gases to inactivate contaminating microbes. This flexible sanitizing method uses ele...

  15. Consumer's Fresh Produce Food Safety Practices: Outcomes of a Fresh Produce Safety Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Amanda R.; Pope, Paul E.; Thompson, Britta M.

    2009-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimate that there are 76 million cases of foodborne disease annually. Foodborne disease is usually associated with beef, poultry, and seafood. However, there is an increasing number of foodborne disease cases related to fresh produce. Consumers may not associate fresh produce with foodborne disease…

  16. FRESHEM - Fresh-saline groundwater distribution in Zeeland (NL) derived from airborne EM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siemon, Bernhard; van Baaren, Esther; Dabekaussen, Willem; Delsman, Joost; Gunnik, Jan; Karaoulis, Marios; de Louw, Perry; Oude Essink, Gualbert; Pauw, Pieter; Steuer, Annika; Meyer, Uwe

    2017-04-01

    In a setting of predominantly saline surface waters, the availability of fresh water for agricultural purposes is not obvious in Zeeland, The Netherlands. Canals and ditches are mainly brackish to saline due to saline seepage, which originates from old marine deposits and salt-water transgressions during historical times. The only available fresh groundwater is present in the form of freshwater lenses floating on top of the saline groundwater. This fresh groundwater is vital for agricultural, industrial, ecological, water conservation and drinking water functions. An essential first step for managing this fresh groundwater properly is to know the present spatial fresh-brackish-saline groundwater distribution. As traditional salinity monitoring is labour-intensive, airborne electromagnetics (AEM), which is fast and can cover large areas in short time, is an efficient alternative. A consortium of BGR, Deltares and TNO started FRESHEM Zeeland (FREsh Salt groundwater distribution by Helicopter ElectroMagnetic survey in the Province of Zeeland) in October 2014. Within 3x2 weeks of the first project year, the entire area of about 2000 km2 was surveyed using BGR's helicopter-borne geophysical system totalling to about 10,000 line-km. The HEM datasets of 17 subareas were carefully processed using advanced BGR in-house software and inverted to 2.5 Million resistivity-depth models. Ground truthing demonstrated that the large-scale HEM results fit very well with small-scale ground EM data (ECPT). Based on this spatial resistivity distribution, a 3D voxel model for Chloride concentration was derived for the entire province taking into account geological model data (GeoTOP) for the lithology correction and local in-situ groundwater measurements for the translation of water conductivity to Chloride concentration. The 3D voxel model enables stakeholders to implement spatial Chloride concentration in their groundwater models.

  17. Modified atmosphere packaging for fresh-cut fruits and vegetables

    Science.gov (United States)

    The latest development in and different aspects of modified atmosphere packaging for fresh-cut fruits and vegetables are reviewed in the book. This book provides all readers, including fresh-cut academic researchers, fresh-cut R&D personnel, and fresh-cut processing engineers, with unique, essential...

  18. Microbial quality and phylogenetic diversity of fresh rainwater and tropical freshwater reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushik, Rajni; Balasubramanian, Rajasekhar; Dunstan, Hugh

    2014-01-01

    The impact of rainwater on the microbial quality of a tropical freshwater reservoir through atmospheric wet deposition of microorganisms was studied for the first time. Reservoir water samples were collected at four different sampling points and rainwater samples were collected in the immediate vicinity of the reservoir sites for a period of four months (January to April, 2012) during the Northeast monsoon period. Microbial quality of all fresh rainwater and reservoir water samples was assessed based on the counts for the microbial indicators: Escherichia coli (E. coli), total coliforms, and Enterococci along with total heterotrophic plate counts (HPC). The taxonomic richness and phylogenetic relationship of the freshwater reservoir with those of the fresh rainwater were also assessed using 16 S rRNA gene clone library construction. The levels of E. coli were found to be in the range of 0 CFU/100 mL-75 CFU/100 mL for the rainwater, and were 10-94 CFU/100 mL for the reservoir water. The sampling sites that were influenced by highway traffic emissions showed the maximum counts for all the bacterial indicators assessed. There was no significant increase in the bacterial abundances observed in the reservoir water immediately following rainfall. However, the composite fresh rainwater and reservoir water samples exhibited broad phylogenetic diversity, including sequences representing Betaproteobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Lentisphaerae and Bacteriodetes. Members of the Betaproteobacteria group were the most dominant in both fresh rainwater and reservoir water, followed by Alphaproteobacteria, Sphingobacteria, Actinobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria.

  19. BEHAVIOUR OF LISTERIA MONOCYTOGENES IN FRESH SAUCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Grassi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ready to use fresh sauces are among Ready to Eat foods for which producers need to respect the 100 UFC/g limit for the presence of L. monocytogenes. In the current research a Challenge test was performed on fresh mushroom and cheese sauces. Both were placed at two storage temperatures and the L. monocytogenes potential growth (d was evaluated. Only cheese sauce stored at 8°C showed a δ> 0,5 log10 UFC/g. However, considering the limited initial contamination it can be excluded that the product could reach 100 UFC/g by the expiration date.

  20. Ionising energy treatment of fresh fruit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rigney, C.J.

    1985-01-01

    The main purposes of the ionising energy treatment of fresh fruit are: the extension of shelf life of the commodity due to a direct physiological effect on the particular product; the extension of shelf life of the commodity due to a reduction in the development of moulds and rots which would normally render the product worthless; and the killing of insect pests of quarantine significance, to allow for normal marketing of fresh fruit without the risk of introducing insect pests to previously pest-free areas

  1. [Artículo Retractado/Retracted Article]:BYCATCH OF HELICOPS ANGULATUS (LINNAEUS 1758 (REPTILIA: SQUAMATA: COLUBRIDAE IN HOOP-TRAPS USED TO CAPTURE FRESH WATER TURTLES ON THE COAST OF PARÁ, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil José Hernández Ruz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Between September, 2007, and August, 2009, six field excursions were conducted on the northern Brazilian coast (Romana and Maiandeua islands, state of Pará for the collection of specimens of freshwater turtles (Rhinoclemmys punctularia and Kinosternon scorpioides in natural ponds. Hoop-nets were used and 35 specimens of brown-banded water snakes, Helicops angulatus, were captured as bycatch in the traps. Thus, in addition to turtles, the procedure may be useful for the sampling populations of aquatic snakes. RESUMEN Entre septiembre de 2007 y agosto de 2009, seis excursiones de campo se llevaron a cabo en la costa norte de Brasil (islas Romana y Maiandeua, estado de Pará para la recolección de especímenes de tortugas de agua dulce (Rhinoclemmys punctularia y Kinosternon scorpioides en posos naturales. Utilizamos trampas en embudo. 35 ejemplares de la serpiente acuática Helicops angulatus, fueron capturados como pesca incidental en las trampas. Por lo tanto, además de las tortugas, el procedimiento puede ser útil para la toma de muestras de las poblaciones de serpientes acuáticas.

  2. Wettability contrasts between fresh and weathered diesel fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Stephanie S; O'Carroll, Denis M; Gerhard, Jason I

    2013-01-01

    The remediation of non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) contaminated sites is impeded due to subsurface complexities, including wettability. Wettability quantifies which of two immiscible fluids preferentially coats a solid. At most contaminated sites water-wetting conditions are typically assumed despite mounting evidence that this is not always the case. In this study, wettability was examined for two NAPL samples of contrasting origin: a fresh and a field sample. Wettability was assessed through (i) cyclical, 'cumulative elapsed contact time' intrinsic contact angle measurements, (ii) interface jar tests, and (iii) cyclical, pseudo-static capillary pressure-saturation curves. The work as a whole demonstrated that while the fresh diesel sample was consistently water-wet, the field diesel sample exhibited repeatable cycles of wettability reversal between water drainage and imbibition. And while wettability hysteresis increased with contact time for the field diesel, the occurrence of wettability reversal at each change of saturation direction was independent of contact time. Such behavior is not easily assessed by standard wettability indices. Moreover, it contrasts with the permanent wettability alteration observed for complex organics (e.g., coal tar) observed in most studies. It is hypothesized that the cyclical wettability reversal is related to cyclical changes in intermediate pore wettability due to sorption of surface active compounds (causing NAPL-wetting imbibition) and rupturing of the soil grain water film (causing water-wet drainage). The wettability differences between the two NAPLs may be due to additives (i.e., a surfactant) in the original formulation and/or byproducts from subsurface weathering. These results support better characterization of site-specific wettability, improved model development and more realistic site conceptual models for improved remediation efforts. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The paradox of water in the Brazilian Amazon. People without water in the region of waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alexandre BORDALO

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the beginning of this century the World Water Council has held five World Water Forums where data from an eminent crisis in fresh water supply were presented. Topic that should be reflected by all, and here we present a reflection on the paradox of water in the Brazilian Amazon and see that it contains not a crisis of availability of fresh water, but the crisis of unequal access to drinking water.

  4. 21 CFR 101.95 - “Fresh,” “freshly frozen,” “fresh frozen,” “frozen fresh.”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... expressly or implicitly refers to the food on labels or labeling, including use in a brand name and use as a... in a manner that suggests or implies that the food is unprocessed, means that the food is in its raw... fresh,” when used on the label or in labeling of a food, mean that the food was quickly frozen while...

  5. Fresh Start: Evaluation Report and Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorard, Stephen; Siddiqui, Nadia; See, Beng Huat

    2015-01-01

    Fresh Start (FS) is a catch-up literacy intervention for pupils at risk of falling behind their peers in early secondary schooling. It provides systematic and rigorous practice in phonics so that pupils are at an appropriate level to join the mainstream group after completion of the intervention. Pupils are assessed and then grouped according to…

  6. Influence of Fresh, Composted and Vermicomposted Parthenium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A pot culture experiment was carried out to assess the influence of fresh, composted and vermicomposted Parthenium and poultry droppings on the quality parameters of radish like protein, carbohydrates, phenolics, reducing sugar, total soluble sugars and chlorophylls on 45 and 60 DAS (Days After Sowing). The maximum ...

  7. Influence of Fresh, Composted and Vermicomposted Parthenium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MICHAEL

    ABSTRACT: A pot culture experiment was carried out to assess the influence of fresh, composted and vermicomposted Parthenium and poultry droppings on the quality parameters of radish like protein, carbohydrates, phenolics, reducing sugar, total soluble sugars and chlorophylls on 45 and 60 DAS (Days After Sowing).

  8. Developing the california fresh fig industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fig (Ficus carica), one of the first cultivated trees in the world, is grown in most of the of the world’s moderate climates. However, fresh figs are highly sensitive to physical damage, and susceptible to postharvest infections which cause high losses during marketing. Preharvest orchard and po...

  9. Global water governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gupta, J.; Falkner, R.

    2013-01-01

    Although (fresh) water challenges are primarily local in nature, globalization has led to feedback effects that make many water challenges global in nature. This chapter examines global water governance. It discusses four phases of water governance, argues that water governance is dispersed and

  10. The 'Fresh-Bunch' technique in FELs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Zvi, I.; Yang, K.M.; Yu, L.H.

    1991-01-01

    The 'Fresh Bunch' technique is being proposed as a method of increasing the gain and power of FEL amplifiers in which the length of the optical radiation pulse is shorter than the length of the electron bunch. In multi-stage FEL, electron beam energy spread is increased by the FEL interaction in the early stages. In the 'Fresh Bunch' technique, the low energy spread of the electron beam is recovered by shifting the radiation pulse to an undisturbed part of the electron bunch, thus improving the gain and trapping fraction in later stages. A test case for the application of the Fresh Bunch method is demonstrated by numerical simulation. In this particular example we examine a subharmonically seeded VUV Free-Electron Laser. We begin with the generation of harmonic radiation, which takes place over one part of the electron bunch. Then the radiation is shifted by means of a strong dispersive section to a fresh part of the bunch for exponential amplification and tapered wiggler amplification. By starting over with a new ensemble of electrons, the energy spread introduced by the bunching in the fundamental is removed, leading to an increased gain. Furthermore, it is possible to use a much stronger seed in the fundamental without incurring the penalty of a large energy spread later on. We note that more than a single application of the 'Fresh Bunch' method may be done in a single FEL multiplier-amplifier. Thus x-ray wavelengths may be reached by successive multiplication in a chain of FEL amplifiers starting from a tunable seed laser. 5 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  11. Parasitic contamination of fresh vegetables sold at central markets in Khartoum state, Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Mona Ali; Siddig, Emmanuel Edwar; Elaagip, Arwa Hassan; Edris, Ali Mahmoud Mohammed; Nasr, Awad Ahmed

    2016-03-11

    Fresh vegetables are considered as vital nutrients of a healthy diet as they supply the body with essential supplements. The consumption of raw vegetables is the main way for transmission of intestinal parasitic organisms. This study was aimed at detecting the parasitic contamination in fresh vegetables sold in two central open-aired markets in Khartoum state, Sudan. In this prospective cross-sectional study, a total of 260 fresh vegetable samples and 50 water samples used to sprinkle vegetable(s) were collected from two central open-aired markets (namely; Elshaabi and Central markets) during November 2011 to May 2012. The samples were microscopically examined for detection of parasitic life forms using standardized parasitological techniques for protozoans and helminthes worms. Of the 260 fresh vegetable samples, 35 (13.5 %) were microscopically positive for intestinal parasites whereas 7/50 (14 %) of water samples used to sprinkle vegetable(s) were found positives. Remarkably, high level of contamination in fresh vegetable samples was recorded in lettuce (Lactuca sativa) 36.4 % (4/11) while cayenne pepper (Capsicum annuum) and cucumber (Cucumis sativus) were not contaminated. The identified protozoans and helminthes were Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, Entamoeba coli, Giardia lamblia, Ascaris lumbricoides, Strongyloides stercoralis, T. trichiura and hookworms. The most predominant parasite encountered was E. histolytica/dispar (42.9 %) whereas both T. trichiura and A. lumbricoides (2.9 %) were the least detected parasites. None of the fresh vegetables had single parasitic contamination. The highest percentages found in water samples used to sprinkle vegetable(s) was for Strongyloides larvae 60 % (3/5). It is worth-mentioned that the rate of contamination in Elshaabi market was higher compared with Central market. However, there was no significant correlation between the type of vegetables and existence of parasites in both markets and a high significant

  12. Polluted water exacerbates Barbus callensis oocyte oxidative status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wafia Khebbache

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The deleterious effects of environmental pollutants on cellular components and tissues damage in fish have been studied extensively. However, there is no data about the oxidative status of fish oocytes once released into water. This study aimed to investigate the effects of polluted (Soummam River and unpolluted (Agrioun River fresh water on the oxidative biomarkers of Barbus callensis (=Lucibarbus callensis (Val. oocytes. The experimental design consisted of collecting fish oocytes from polluted and unpolluted rivers and then activating these oocytes separately in water collected from each site. Four groups were considered: oocytes from the Agrioun River activated in Agrioun fresh water (A-oocytes/A-fresh water; oocytes from the Agrioun River activated in Soummam fresh water (A-oocytes/S-fresh water; oocytes from the Soummam River activated in Agrioun fresh water (S-oocytes/A-fresh water; and oocytes from the Soummam River activated in Soummam fresh water (S-oocytes/S-fresh water. Oxidative stress biomarkers were evaluated by measuring total antioxidant status (TAS, catalase (CAT activity, and cell-free hemoglobin (Hb concentrations. The results showed that the oxidative status of fish oocytes was significantly affected by the quality of fresh water. Unpolluted fresh water improved the antioxidant activity of the fish oocytes. The results of this study suggest that once oocytes are released into polluted water, antioxidant protection is affected with subsequent cellular oxidative damage and potential reproduction impairment.

  13. Seasonal dynamics of sea surface salinity off Panama: The far Eastern Pacific Fresh Pool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alory, GaëL.; Maes, Christophe; Delcroix, Thierry; Reul, Nicolas; Illig, Serena

    2012-04-01

    The freshest surface waters in the tropical Pacific are found at its eastern boundary. Using in situ observations, we depict the quasi-permanent presence of a far eastern Pacific fresh pool with sea surface salinity (SSS) lower than 33, which is confined between Panama's west coast and 85°W in December and extends westward to 95°W in April. Strong SSS fronts are found at the outer edge of this fresh pool. We investigate the seasonal dynamics of the fresh pool using complementary satellite wind, rain, sea level and in situ oceanic current data at the surface, along with hydrographic profiles. The fresh pool appears off Panama due to the strong summer rains associated with the northward migration of the ITCZ over Central America in June. During the second half of the year, the eastward-flowing North Equatorial Counter-Current keeps it trapped to the coast and strengthens the SSS front on its western edge. During winter, as the ITCZ moves southward, the northeasterly Panama gap wind creates a southwestward jet-like current in its path with a dipole of Ekman pumping/eddies on its flanks. As a result, upwelling in the Panama Bight brings to the surface cold and salty waters which erode the fresh pool on its eastern side while both the jet current and the enhanced South Equatorial Current stretch the fresh pool westward until it nearly disappears in May. New SMOS satellite SSS data proves able to capture the main seasonal features of the fresh pool and monitor its spatial extent.

  14. Fresh meteoric versus recirculated saline groundwater nutrient inputs into a subtropical estuary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadat-Noori, Mahmood; Santos, Isaac R.; Tait, Douglas R.; Maher, Damien T.

    2016-01-01

    The role of groundwater in transporting nutrients to coastal aquatic systems has recently received considerable attention. However, the relative importance of fresh versus saline groundwater-derived nutrient inputs to estuaries and how these groundwater pathways may alter surface water N:P ratios remains poorly constrained. We performed detailed time series measurements of nutrients in a tidal estuary (Hat Head, NSW, Australia) and used radium to quantify the contribution of fresh and saline groundwater to total surface water estuarine exports under contrasting hydrological conditions (wet and dry season). Tidally integrated nutrient fluxes showed that the estuary was a source of nutrients to the coastal waters. Dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) export was 7-fold higher than the average global areal flux rate for rivers likely due to the small catchment size, surrounding wetlands and high groundwater inputs. Fresh groundwater discharge was dominant in the wet season accounting for up to 45% of total dissolved nitrogen (TDN) and 48% of total dissolved phosphorus (TDP) estuarine exports. In the dry season, fresh and saline groundwater accounted for 21 and 33% of TDN export, respectively. The combined fresh and saline groundwater fluxes of NO 3 , PO 4 , NH 4 , DON, DOP, TDN and TDP were estimated to account for 66, 58, 55, 31, 21, 53 and 47% of surface water exports, respectively. Groundwater-derived nitrogen inputs to the estuary were responsible for a change in the surface water N:P ratio from typical N-limiting conditions to P-limiting as predicted by previous studies. This shows the importance of both fresh and saline groundwater as a source of nutrients for coastal productivity and nutrient budgets of coastal waters. - Highlights: • Groundwater TDN and TDP fluxes account for 53 and 47% of surface water exports. • The estuary DIN export was 7-fold higher than the average global areal flux. • Fresh GW nutrient input dominated the wet season and saline GW the

  15. Fresh meteoric versus recirculated saline groundwater nutrient inputs into a subtropical estuary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadat-Noori, Mahmood, E-mail: mahmood.sadat-noori@scu.edu.au [National Marine Science Centre, School of Environment, Science and Engineering, Southern Cross University, Coffs Harbour, NSW (Australia); School of Environment, Science and Engineering, Southern Cross University, Lismore, NSW (Australia); Santos, Isaac R. [National Marine Science Centre, School of Environment, Science and Engineering, Southern Cross University, Coffs Harbour, NSW (Australia); Tait, Douglas R. [National Marine Science Centre, School of Environment, Science and Engineering, Southern Cross University, Coffs Harbour, NSW (Australia); School of Environment, Science and Engineering, Southern Cross University, Lismore, NSW (Australia); Maher, Damien T. [School of Environment, Science and Engineering, Southern Cross University, Lismore, NSW (Australia)

    2016-10-01

    The role of groundwater in transporting nutrients to coastal aquatic systems has recently received considerable attention. However, the relative importance of fresh versus saline groundwater-derived nutrient inputs to estuaries and how these groundwater pathways may alter surface water N:P ratios remains poorly constrained. We performed detailed time series measurements of nutrients in a tidal estuary (Hat Head, NSW, Australia) and used radium to quantify the contribution of fresh and saline groundwater to total surface water estuarine exports under contrasting hydrological conditions (wet and dry season). Tidally integrated nutrient fluxes showed that the estuary was a source of nutrients to the coastal waters. Dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) export was 7-fold higher than the average global areal flux rate for rivers likely due to the small catchment size, surrounding wetlands and high groundwater inputs. Fresh groundwater discharge was dominant in the wet season accounting for up to 45% of total dissolved nitrogen (TDN) and 48% of total dissolved phosphorus (TDP) estuarine exports. In the dry season, fresh and saline groundwater accounted for 21 and 33% of TDN export, respectively. The combined fresh and saline groundwater fluxes of NO{sub 3}, PO{sub 4}, NH{sub 4}, DON, DOP, TDN and TDP were estimated to account for 66, 58, 55, 31, 21, 53 and 47% of surface water exports, respectively. Groundwater-derived nitrogen inputs to the estuary were responsible for a change in the surface water N:P ratio from typical N-limiting conditions to P-limiting as predicted by previous studies. This shows the importance of both fresh and saline groundwater as a source of nutrients for coastal productivity and nutrient budgets of coastal waters. - Highlights: • Groundwater TDN and TDP fluxes account for 53 and 47% of surface water exports. • The estuary DIN export was 7-fold higher than the average global areal flux. • Fresh GW nutrient input dominated the wet season and

  16. Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... environment and your health: Green living Sun Water Health effects of water pollution How to protect yourself from water pollution Air ... can hurt your health. Learn more about the health effects of polluted water. You can also learn more ... Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Here are ...

  17. Mild desalination of various raw water streams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, C.K.; Broek, W.B.P. van den; Loewenberg, J.; Koeman-Stein-N.E.; Heidekamp, M.; Schepper, W. de

    2015-01-01

    For chemical industries, fresh water availability is a pre-requisite for sustainable operation. However, in many delta areas around the world, fresh water is scarce. Therefore, the E4Water project (http://www.e4water.eu) comprises a case study at the Dow site in Terneuzen, The Netherlands, which is

  18. Water supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, F.L.

    1986-01-01

    Options and methodologies for the development of fresh water supplies on Bikini Atoll are much the same as those practiced in the rest of the Marshall Islands and for that matter, most atolls in the central Pacific Ocean Basin. That is, rainfall distribution on Bikini produces a distinct wet season, lasting from about May through November, with the remaining months being generally dry. As a result, fresh water from surface catchments tends to be plentiful during the wet season? but is usually scarce during the dry months, and alternative sources such as groundwater must be utilized during this time. On Bikini the problems of fresh water supply are somewhat more difficult than for most Marshall Island atolls because rainfall is only about half the Marshall Island's average. Tus water supply is a critical factor limiting the carrying capacity of Bikini Atoll. To address this problem BARC has undertaken a study of the Bikini Atoll water supply. Te primary objectives of this work are to determine: (1) alternatives available for fresh water supply, 2 the amounts, location and quality of available supplies and 3 optimal development methods. The study planned for one's year duration, has been underway only since the summer of 1985 and is thus not yet fully completed. However, work done to date, which is presented in this report of preliminary findings, provides a reasonably accurate picture of Bikini's fresh water supplies and the various options available for their development. The work remaining to be completed will mainly add refinements to the water supply picture presented in the sections to follow

  19. Estimating Pasture Quality of Fresh Vegetation Based on Spectral Slope of Mixed Data of Dry and Fresh Vegetation—Method Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Lugassi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the present study was to apply a slope-based spectral method to both dry and fresh pasture vegetation. Differences in eight spectral ranges were identified across the near infrared-shortwave infrared (NIR-SWIR that were indicative of changes in chemical properties. Slopes across these ranges were calculated and a partial least squares (PLS analytical model was constructed for the slopes vs. crude protein (CP and neutral detergent fiber (NDF contents. Different datasets with different numbers of fresh/dry samples were constructed to predict CP and NDF contents. When using a mixed-sample dataset with dry-to-fresh ratios of 85%:15% and 75%:25%, the correlations of CP (R2 = 0.95, in both and NDF (R2 = 0.84 and 0.82, respectively were almost as high as when using only dry samples (0.97 and 0.85, respectively. Furthermore, satisfactory correlations were obtained with a dry-to-fresh ratio of 50%:50% for CP (R2 = 0.92. The results of our study are especially encouraging because CP and NDF contents could be predicted even though some of the selected spectral regions were directly affected by atmospheric water vapor or water in the plants.

  20. Assessment of the recycling potential of fresh concrete waste using a factorial design of experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, S L; Souza, F L; Dienstmann, G; Segadães, A M

    2009-11-01

    Recycling of industrial wastes and by-products can help reduce the cost of waste treatment prior to disposal and eventually preserve natural resources and energy. To assess the recycling potential of a given waste, it is important to select a tool capable of giving clear indications either way, with the least time and work consumption, as is the case of modelling the system properties using the results obtained from statistical design of experiments. In this work, the aggregate reclaimed from the mud that results from washout and cleaning operations of fresh concrete mixer trucks (fresh concrete waste, FCW) was recycled into new concrete with various water/cement ratios, as replacement of natural fine aggregates. A 3(2) factorial design of experiments was used to model fresh concrete consistency index and hardened concrete water absorption and 7- and 28-day compressive strength, as functions of FCW content and water/cement ratio, and the resulting regression equations and contour plots were validated with confirmation experiments. The results showed that the fresh concrete workability worsened with the increase in FCW content but the water absorption (5-10 wt.%), 7-day compressive strength (26-36 MPa) and 28-day compressive strength (32-44 MPa) remained within the specified ranges, thus demonstrating that the aggregate reclaimed from FCW can be recycled into new concrete mixtures with lower natural aggregate content.

  1. Evaluation of sealed-tube neutron generators for the assay of fresh LWR fuel assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cutter, J.; Lee, D.; Lindquist, L.O.; Menlove, H.O.; Caldwell, J.T.; Atencio, J.D.; Kunz, W.E.

    1981-11-01

    The use of sealed-tube neutron generators for the active assay of fresh light-water reactor fuel assemblies has been investigated. The results of experimental tests of the Kaman 801 generator are presented. Neutron yields, source moderation, and transportability are discussed. A comparison is made with the AmLi neutron source for use in the Coincidence Collar

  2. [The Advances in the Contamination and Detection of Foodborne Pathogen Noroviruses in Fresh Produce].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yajing; Liu, Xianjin

    2015-11-01

    This article reviewed the researches proceeding on the contamination and detection of the foodborne pathogen noroviruses (NoVs) in fresh produce, which involved the NoVs contaminations in fresh produce, the special attachment of NoVs in fresh produce, the NoVs outbreaks associated with fresh produce and the NoVs detection in fresh produce. There had been an increase in reported infectious disease risks associated with the consumptions of fresh produce for recent 30 years. Because the NoVs, as a primary cause of viral gastroenteritis thoughout the world, were highly contagious, had a low infectious dose, and were persistent in the environment. And also the methods for NoVs detection in food had significantly developed over the last 15 years. Currently NoVs were the most common pathogen accounting for 40% of outbreaks associated with fresh produce (i. e., fruits and vegetables). Data from outbreaks investigations verified fresh produce as the high risk food products for NoVs. The fresh produce were typically eaten raw with no thermal processing, can be contaminated at any step during production and processing from faecally polluted water and fertilizers, the poor hygiene practices by food handlers and the cross-contamination. The attachment of NoVs to the fresh produce was due to the physio-chemical factors of virus protein coat, the special attachment to different fresh produce, and the possibility for internalization of NoVs. It might provide answers to why those high risk foods were more frequently implicated (i. e., lettuce and raspberries). According to the data of foodborne NoVs outbreaks which were associated with fresh produce from EU countries and the USA, the outbreaks in EU countries were mainly associated with NoVs contaminated raspberries and lettuce, while in USA which were associated with NoVs contaminated lettuce. Unfortunately, there were no NoVs detection methods for fresh produce or the data of foodborne NoVs outbreaks which were associated with

  3. Preservation of fresh avocados by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karmelic, J.

    1985-01-01

    Avocado is the fifth most important fruit in Chile, which exports fruits to Europe. The production of avocado has increased from 14,000 metric tons in 1978 to a projected 70,000 metric tons in 1985. The main problem of shipping fresh Chilean avocado to Europe has been its short shelf life, being around 24 days with a maximum of 30 days. To market fresh Chilean avocados in Europe, adequate keeping quality must be assured for 40 or more days. A project on the preservation of fresh Chilean avocados supported by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) takes the approach of combining mild heat and low-dose gamma-radiation. Two varieties of avocados were studied (Hass and Fuerte) and two batches of each were treated: one at the beginning and the other at the end of the picking season. In each case a combination of heat treatment (46 0 C for 10 minutes) and irradiation was applied. Fruits were individually wrapped with flexible PVC and placed in cardboard boxes containing 20 each. Fruits treated with 25,50, and 100 Gy were compared with two controls: one with and another without individual wrapping

  4. Preservation of fresh noodles by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Jianming

    1998-01-01

    At the present paper, it is studied to preserve fresh noodles by irradiation. The noodles which were irradiated by 10 kGy of 60 Co-γ rays and stored at room temperature (18-24 deg. C). The appearance of the noodles was observed, the bacteria in the noodles were examined, and the acidity of the noodles was measured during 10 days after irradiation. The results showed that the number of bacteria and the extent of acidification of the noodles were in inverse proportion to radiation dose. When the absorbed dose was less than 8 kGy, the residual bacteria in the noodles could proliferate massively in several days and acidified the noodles. The pH of these noodles decreased from 6.2 to 5.0 or less and the noodles turned into sticky during storage. When the absorbed dose reached 8-10 kGy, most of bacteria were killed and the acidity of the noodles kept about pH 6.0. The appearance of the noodles looks fresh within 10 days after irradiation. They smelled as good as fresh ones

  5. Pasteurization and radiation of fresh milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sjarief, Sri Hariani

    1976-01-01

    In this investigation, treatments with pasteurization and irradiation with gamma rays on fresh milk were used. Pasteurization was done at temperatures of 62 deg C and 70 deg C. The irradiation doses used were 100, 200, 300, 400, 500 and 600 krad. The results of the investigation showed that the number of bacteria decreased after either pasteurization or irradiation. The higher the dose of irradiation the lower the total bacterial counts in milk became, but the latter increased during storage at 10 deg C. The number of bacteria in pasteurized milk did not show any significant difference from milk irradiated with the dose of 300-600 krad after 15 days of storage in the refrigerator. No enzymatic activity was detected in pasteurized milk, but after storage the coli bacteria acivity tested to become positive in the MPN test. On the countrary irradiation of fresh milk could stimulate the enzymatic activity, although the protein content was constant. Finally, heating as a pretreatment is better to be used before pasteurizing or sterilizing milk with ionizing radiation in order to preserve fresh milk for a longer period without any changes in the nutritional quality and taste. (author)

  6. Fresh water fishes as indicators of Kaveri River pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravanan, T S; Mohamed, M Aneez; Chandrasekar, R; Sundramoorthy, M

    2003-10-01

    The survey of fish fauna in Kaveri River at polluted and unpolluted sites revealed a direct effect on the distribution of fishes in that 14 species were observed in unpolluted site and only 6 species in polluted site. Further, the haemotological parameters like RBC, WBC and haemoglobin content increased in fishes collected from polluted site whereas the organic constituents of muscle decreased in the above fishes when compared to the fishes of unpolluted site. The reason for the above changes is discussed.

  7. Metagenomic analysis of RNA viruses in a fresh water lake.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Appolinaire Djikeng

    Full Text Available Freshwater lakes and ponds present an ecological interface between humans and a variety of host organisms. They are a habitat for the larval stage of many insects and may serve as a medium for intraspecies and interspecies transmission of viruses such as avian influenza A virus. Furthermore, freshwater bodies are already known repositories for disease-causing viruses such as Norwalk Virus, Coxsackievirus, Echovirus, and Adenovirus. While RNA virus populations have been studied in marine environments, to this date there has been very limited analysis of the viral community in freshwater. Here we present a survey of RNA viruses in Lake Needwood, a freshwater lake in Maryland, USA. Our results indicate that just as in studies of other aquatic environments, the majority of nucleic acid sequences recovered did not show any significant similarity to known sequences. The remaining sequences are mainly from viral types with significant similarity to approximately 30 viral families. We speculate that these novel viruses may infect a variety of hosts including plants, insects, fish, domestic animals and humans. Among these viruses we have discovered a previously unknown dsRNA virus closely related to Banna Virus which is responsible for a febrile illness and is endemic to Southeast Asia. Moreover we found multiple viral sequences distantly related to Israeli Acute Paralysis virus which has been implicated in honeybee colony collapse disorder. Our data suggests that due to their direct contact with humans, domestic and wild animals, freshwater ecosystems might serve as repositories of a wide range of viruses (both pathogenic and non-pathogenic and possibly be involved in the spread of emerging and pandemic diseases.

  8. Pesticides in South African fresh waters | Ansara-Ross | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preliminary risk assessment models should be used to detect pesticides posing possible or definite risks, whereafter more detailed chemical, toxicological and biological monitoring assessments should be performed if risks are predicted. Keywords: aquatic ecosystems, pesticide monitoring, review, risk assessment. African ...

  9. Interaction of pesticides with fresh-water algae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalil, Z.; Mostafa, I.Y.

    1991-01-01

    The blue-green algae, Anabaena oryzae and phormidium fragile were incubated with radiolabelled carbofuran (2,3-de hydro-2,2-dimethyl-7-benzofuranyl N-methyl carbamate). After filtration, the amounts of radioactivity in tissues and filtrates were analyzed for metabolic products. Of the applied radioactivity, the two algal species were capable of grading 91.4% and 92.1%, respectively. Thin layer chromatographic analysis showed that carbofuran-phenol (2,3-dihydro-7-hydroxy-2,2-dimethyl benzo- furan) was the main metabolite in all fractions. 3-hydroxy-2,2-dimethyl-7-benxofuranyl methyl carbamate and 3-keto benzofuran) were also detected. The parent material accounted for only 3.2% and 0.49% of the applied dose in case of Anabaena oryzae and Phormidium fragile, respectively.2 tab

  10. Vibrio infections among marine and fresh-water fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    1959-01-01

    In 1951. B. J. Earpio found a vibrio infection among salmon fingerlings being reared in saltwater at the Deception Pass Biological Station of the Washington State Department of Fisheries. The disease waa characterized by erythema at the base of fins and on the sides of the fish, necrotic areas in the Inusculature, inflammation of the intestinal tract, and general septicernia. The disease reappeared the next year, killing nearly all of the churn salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) fingerlings, killing about half of the pink salmon (O. gorbuscha) fingerlings, and affecting to a lesser degree the chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) fingerlings. Also, late in 1952. R. R. Rucker and E. J. Ordal found the same disease at a rainbow trout hatchery of the Washington State Department of Game at Vancouver. The disease caused severe losses there among the rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) and among the sea-run form of the same species (called steelhead trout). The disease was manifested by bloody, necrotic areas in the musculature and inflammation of the viscera, відоіШат to furumaculoвiв,

  11. Sessile peritrichs (Ciliophora: Peritricha) from fresh- water fish in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and salmon diseases. Fishing News (Books) Ltd. Surrey. 53. ROGERS, W.A. 1971. Disease of fish due to the protozoan. Epistylis (Ciliata: Peritricha) in the Southern U.S. Proc. a. Conf. S. East. Ass. Game Fish. Commn. 25: 493 -498. 54. ROGERS, W.A. & COOP, S.E. 1970. Epistylis (Ciliata: Peritricha) epizootics of fish in the ...

  12. Daily basking patterns of the fresh-water turtle

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Department of Biological Sciences, University of Natal, Durban. Basking activity in the turtle Pelomedusa subrufa L. apparently is initiated by the presence of a ..... the desert tortoises, Gopherus berlandieri and G. agassizii. (Auffenberg & Weaver 1969). It is suggested that maximum activity in these species occurs in the early ...

  13. Pesticides in South African fresh waters | Ansara-Ross | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Public concern has recently escalated over pesticide contamination of South African aquatic ecosystems. This review of published literature on the occurrence of pesticides within South African freshwater systems indicates that fewer than 50 studies of selected pesticides have been undertaken, with emphasis being on ...

  14. Chemical and Quantitive Study of Hepatotoxins from Fresh Water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toxicity of the freeze-dried micro-aquatic planktonic cyanobacterium Oscillatoria agardhii, dominating and isolated from Makkah –KSA was studied. Microcystins were detected from freeze-dried cells using high pressure liquid chromatography HPLC. The histopathological examination of mice liver injected on week basis ...

  15. Harmful cyanobacteria and their cyanotoxins in Egyptian fresh waters

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cyanobacterial blooms have increased in freshwater ecosystems worldwide in the last century, mostly resulting from eutrophication and climate change. These blooms represent serious threats to environmental and human health because of the production of harmful metabolites, called cyanotoxins. Like many countries ...

  16. Reproduction and larval rearing of the fresh water prawn ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Macrobrachium vollenhovenii is a crustacean decapod distributed on the rivers of African west coast from Senegal to Angola. This species occurred abundantly in Senegal River during the past but the population decreased drastically after erection of a dam. The aim of this study is to master the reproduction and larval ...

  17. SURVEY OF ECONOMIC TREES IN FRESH WATER SWAMP OF

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1

    2011-05-16

    May 16, 2011 ... availability because it determines the number of surviving individuals. This is true for all species of .... 2010). CRUTECH, Calabar forest is a pseudo forest having characteristics of rain and swamp forests. ... as reflected in the random and contiguous distribution. (clumped or aggregated population) of the ...

  18. Drying kinetics of pre-osmosed fresh water frog ( Dicroglossus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The drying kinetics of frog (Dicroglossus occipitalis) was conducted using convective oven dryer. The results were fitted into three thin-layer models; Lewis, Henderson and Page models. The constants and coefficients of the various models used were evaluated using non-linear regression methods, and the results show that ...

  19. Creosote movement from treated wood immersed in fresh water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung-Mo Kang; Jeffrey J. Morrell; John Simonsen; Stan Lebow

    2005-01-01

    Creosote has a long history of successful use as a wood preservative, but polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in this preservative have raised environmental concerns, particularly when creosote-treated wood is used in aquatic environments. A number of models have been developed to predict the risk of creosote use in aquatic environments, but one limitation of these models...

  20. Water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chovanec, A.; Grath, J.; Kralik, M.; Vogel, W.

    2002-01-01

    An up-date overview of the situation of the Austrian waters is given by analyzing the status of the water quality (groundwater, surface waters) and water protection measures. Maps containing information of nitrate and atrazine in groundwaters (analyses at monitoring stations), nitrate contents and biological water quality of running waters are included. Finally, pollutants (nitrate, orthophosphate, ammonium, nitrite, atrazine etc.) trends in annual mean values and median values for the whole country for the years 1992-1999 are presented in tables. Figs. 5. (nevyjel)