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Sample records for undetermined significance ascus

  1. Comparison of the clinical performance of an HPV mRNA test and an HPV DNA test in triage of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US)

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    Waldstrom, M; Ornskov, D

    2012-01-01

    The effect of triaging women with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US) with human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA testing has been well documented. New tests detecting HPV E6/E7 mRNA are emerging, claiming to be more specific for detecting high-grade disease. We evaluated...... the clinical performance of two HPV tests: the Linear Array HPV genotyping test (LA) detecting HPV DNA from 37 oncogenic and non-oncogenic HPV types and the Aptima HPV assay detecting E6/E7 mRNA from 14 oncogenic HPV types....

  2. Improving the performance of reflex Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) testing in triaging women with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS): A restrospective study in a tertiary hospital in United Arab Emirates (UAE).

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    Fakhreldin, Marwa; Elmasry, Karim

    2016-02-03

    Cervical cancer is the second commonest cancer in women worldwide. Infection with oncogenic types of human Papillomavirus (HPV) is the most important risk factor for developing cervical cancer. Reflex High risk HPV (HR-HPV) testing is of significant value in the assessment of Papanicolaou (Pap) smear results where ASCUS are identified. To improve the performance of reflex HR-HPV testing in triage of ASCUS and analyze the factors impacting it. In this study, we generated a database of 9641 women who had cervical smears collected during the study period from the cytopathology record in a large tertiary hospital in UAE. These included 297 smears with ASCUS diagnosis. All cases were retrospectively followed up with a mean duration of 2.44 years. We analyzed data according to the outcome based on several follow-up Pap smear analysis as the reference assessment. We detected HR-HPV infection in 17.9% of cases. 9.1% <25, 28.8% 25-34 and 62.1% ≥35 years old. HR-HPV prevalence was higher among premenopausal women (20.7%) compared to postmenopausal women (9.5%) (P-value=0.044). The rate of progression to high grade lesions was also higher (28.7%) in the premenopausal group compared to (12.8%) in the postmenopausal group. Reflex HPV testing had an overall sensitivity of 41.1%, specificity of 88.2%, positive predictive value (PPV) of 62.1%, and negative predictive value (NPV) of 75.9% in detection of cervical lesions. These figures were higher on combining premenopausal status and complaint of abnormal bleeding or discharge/itching (66.7%, 93.3%, 66.8% and 93.3% respectively). The sensitivity, specificity and NPV of reflex HPV testing in the triage of ASCUS cases can be more accurate in premenopausal women upon adding age group and presenting complaint as a triage item. This improves the performance of reflex HPV testing and the subsequent selection of high risk patients for colposcopy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Cytological analysis of atypical squamous epithelial cells of undetermined significance using the world wide web.

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    Washiya, Kiyotada; Abe, Ichinosuke; Ambo, Junichi; Iwai, Muneo; Okusawa, Estuko; Asanuma, Kyousuke; Watanabe, Jun

    2011-01-01

    The low-level consistency of the cytodiagnosis of uterine cervical atypical squamous epithelial cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US) employing the Bethesda System has been reported, suggesting the necessity of a wide survey. We presented cases judged as ASC-US on the Web and analyzed the voting results to investigate ASC-US cytologically. Cytology samples from 129 patients diagnosed with ASC-US were used. Images of several atypical cells observed in these cases were presented on the Web. The study, based on the voting results, was presented and opinions were exchanged at the meeting of the Japanese Society of Clinical Cytology. The final diagnosis of ASC-US was benign lesions in 76 cases and low- and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions in 44, but no definite diagnosis could be made for the remaining 9. The total number of votes was 17,884 with a 36.5% consistency of cases judged as ASC-US. Benign cases were divided into 6 categories. Four categories not corresponding to the features of koilocytosis and small abnormal keratinized cells were judged as negative for an intraepithelial lesion or malignancy at a high rate. A Web-based survey would be useful which could be viewed at any time and thereby facilitate the sharing of cases to increase consistency. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance and Smoldering Multiple Myeloma

    OpenAIRE

    Kyle, Robert A.; Rajkumar, S. Vincent

    2010-01-01

    Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) is characterized by the presence of a serum monoclonal (M) protein level less than 3 g/dL, less than 10% clonal plasma cells in the bone marrow, and the absence of hypercalcemia, renal insufficiency, anemia, or bone lesions attributable to a clonal plasma cell disorder. Patients may be tested for a monoclonal gammopathy by serum protein electrophoresis, immunofixation, and the free light chain (FLC) assay. The prevalence of MGUS is 3% ...

  5. Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance and smoldering multiple myeloma.

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    Kyle, Robert A; San-Miguel, Jesus F; Mateos, Maria-Victoria; Rajkumar, S Vincent

    2014-10-01

    Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) is characterized by an M spike less than 3 g/dL and a bone marrow containing fewer than 10% plasma cells without evidence of CRAB (hypercalcemia, renal insufficiency, anemia, or bone lesions). Light chain MGUS has an abnormal free light chain (FLC) ratio, increased level of the involved FLC, no monoclonal heavy chain, and fewer than 10% monoclonal plasma cells in the bone marrow. Smoldering multiple myeloma has an M protein of at least 3 g/dL and/or at least 10% monoclonal plasma cells in the bone marrow without CRAB features. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The clinical relevance and management of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance and related disorders

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    van de Donk, Niels W C J; Palumbo, Antonio; Johnsen, Hans Erik

    2014-01-01

    Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance is one of the most common pre-malignant disorders. IgG and IgA monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance are precursor conditions of multiple myeloma; light-chain monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance of light-chain multiple...

  7. Human papillomavirus mRNA and DNA testing in women with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance

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    Thomsen, Louise T; Dehlendorff, Christian; Junge, Jette

    2016-01-01

    In this prospective cohort study, we compared the performance of human papillomavirus (HPV) mRNA and DNA testing of women with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US) during cervical cancer screening. Using a nationwide Danish pathology register, we identified women aged 30......-65 years with ASC-US during 2005-2011 who were tested for HPV16/18/31/33/45 mRNA using PreTect HPV-Proofer (n = 3,226) or for high-risk HPV (hrHPV) DNA using Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2) (n = 9,405) or Linear Array HPV-Genotyping test (LA) (n = 1,533). Women with ≥1 subsequent examination in the register (n = 13...... those testing HC2 negative (3.2% [95% CI: 2.2-4.2%] versus 0.5% [95% CI: 0.3-0.7%]). Patterns were similar after 18 months and 5 years'; follow-up; for CIN2+ and cancer as outcomes; across all age groups; and when comparing mRNA testing to hrHPV DNA testing using LA. In conclusion, the HPV16...

  8. Performance of the cobas HPV Test for the Triage of Atypical Squamous Cells of Undetermined Significance Cytology in Cervical Specimens Collected in SurePath.

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    Tewari, Devansu; Novak-Weekley, Susan; Hong, Christina; Aslam, Shagufta; Behrens, Catherine M

    2017-11-02

    Determine performance of the cobas human papillomavirus (HPV) test for triage of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US) in SurePath. Women presenting for routine screening had cervical specimens collected in SurePath and specimen transport medium (STM); those with ASC-US cytology underwent colposcopy. Performance of cobas HPV in SurePath specimens that had undergone a preanalytic procedure to reverse possible cross-linking of HPV DNA was compared with Hybrid Capture 2 (hc2) specimens in STM. Among 856 women, HPV prevalence was 45.8%; HPV 16 and HPV 18 prevalences were lower than expected in the 21- to 29-year-old group in this highly vaccinated population. cobas HPV performance in SurePath was comparable to hc2 in STM. Sensitivity and specificity for detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 or worse were 87.5% (95% confidence interval [CI], 71.9%-95.2%) and 55.5% (95% CI, 52.1%-58.9%) for cobas and 85.3% (95% CI, 69.9%-93.6%) and 54.7% (95% CI, 51.4%-57.9%) for hc2. Sensitivity was negatively affected by random biopsies performed at colposcopy; comparable sensitivities were achieved in the nonvaccinated and vaccinated populations with disease determined by directed biopsy only. Performance of cobas HPV for ASC-US triage in pretreated SurePath specimens meets criteria for validation. Preliminary data indicate reliable performance of HPV testing in a highly vaccinated population. © American Society for Clinical Pathology, 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  9. Unveiling Skeletal Fragility in Patients Diagnosed with MGUS: No Longer a Condition of Undetermined Significance?

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    Drake, Matthew T.

    2014-01-01

    Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) is a common finding in clinical practice, affecting greater than 3% of adults aged 50 years and older. As originally described, the term MGUS reflected the inherent clinical uncertainty of distinguishing patients with a benign stable monoclonal plasma cell disorder from subjects destined to progress to malignancy. There is now clear epidemiologic evidence, however, that patients with MGUS suffer from a significantly increased fracture ...

  10. Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance and smoldering multiple myeloma: biological insights and early treatment strategies.

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    Landgren, Ola

    2013-01-01

    After decades of virtually no progress, multiple myeloma survival has improved significantly in the past 10 years. Indeed, multiple myeloma has perhaps seen more remarkable progress in treatment and patient outcomes than any other cancer during the last decade. Recent data show that multiple myeloma is consistently preceded by a precursor state (monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance [MGUS]/smoldering multiple myeloma [SMM]). This observation provides a framework for prospective studies focusing on transformation from precursor disease to multiple myeloma and for the development of treatment strategies targeting "early myeloma." This review discusses current biological insights in MGUS/SMM, provides an update on clinical management, and discusses how the integration of novel biological markers, molecular imaging, and clinical monitoring of MGUS/SMM could facilitate the development of early treatment strategies for high-risk SMM (early myeloma) patients in the future.

  11. Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) and smoldering myeloma (SMM): a practical guide to management.

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    Maciocia, Nicola; Wechalekar, Ashutosh; Yong, Kwee

    2017-12-01

    Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance and smoldering multiple myeloma are precursor conditions of symptomatic multiple myeloma (MM). Diagnostic principles are aimed at excluding MM requiring therapy, other conditions associated with paraproteins that may require different management, and risk stratifying patients for the purposes of tailored follow-up and investigation. The International Myeloma Working Group have recently published a revised definition of MM, which singles out a small group of patients with smoldering multiple myeloma who are at very high risk of progression and organ damage; such patients are now included under the definition of MM and recommended to start anti-myeloma treatment. Furthermore, the recently published National Institute of Health and Care Excellence guideline recommends cross-sectional imaging techniques in place of skeletal survey. These recent recommendations are discussed, and practical guidance for investigation and management are presented. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Circulating clonotypic B cells in multiple myeloma and monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance.

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    Thiago, Leandro S; Perez-Andres, Martin; Balanzategui, Ana; Sarasquete, Maria E; Paiva, Bruno; Jara-Acevedo, Maria; Barcena, Paloma; Sanchez, Maria Luz; Almeida, Julia; González, Marcos; San Miguel, Jesus F; Garcia-Sanz, Ramón; Orfao, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    The B-cell compartment in which multiple myeloma stem cells reside remains unclear. We investigated the potential presence of mature, surface-membrane immunoglobulin-positive B lymphocytes clonally related to the tumor bone marrow plasma cells among different subsets of peripheral blood B cells from ten patients (7 with multiple myeloma and 3 with monoclonal gammopathies of undetermined significance). The presence of clonotypic immunoglobulin heavy chain gene rearrangements was determined in multiple highly-purified fractions of peripheral blood B-lymphocytes including surface-membrane IgM(+) CD27(-) naïve B-lymphocytes, plus surface-membrane IgG(+), IgA(+) and IgM(+) memory CD27(+) B cells, and normal circulating plasma cells, in addition to (mono)clonal plasma cells, by a highly-specific and sensitive allele-specific oligonucleotide polymerase chain reaction directed to the CDR3 sequence of the rearranged IGH gene of tumor plasma cells from individual patients. Our results showed systematic absence of clonotypic rearrangements in all the different B-cell subsets analyzed, including M-component isotype-matched memory B-lymphocytes, at frequencies <0.03 cells/μL (range: 0.0003-0.08 cells/μL); the only exception were the myeloma plasma cells detected and purified from the peripheral blood of four of the seven myeloma patients. These results indicate that circulating B cells from patients with multiple myeloma and monoclonal gammopathies of undetermined significance are usually devoid of clonotypic B cells while the presence of immunophenotypically aberrant myeloma plasma cells in peripheral blood of myeloma patients is a relatively frequent finding.

  13. Laboratory testing for monoclonal gammopathies: Focus on monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance and smoldering multiple myeloma.

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    Willrich, Maria A V; Murray, David L; Kyle, Robert A

    2018-01-01

    Monoclonal gammopathies (MG) are defined by increased proliferation of clonal plasma cells, resulting in a detectable abnormality called monoclonal component or M-protein. Detection of the M-protein as either narrow peaks on protein electrophoresis and discrete bands on immunofixation is the defining feature of MG. MG are classified as low-tumor burden disorders, pre-malignancies and malignancies. Since significant disease can be present at any level, several different tests are employed in order to encompass the inherent diverse nature of the M-proteins. In this review, we discuss the main characteristics and limitations of clinical assays to detect M-proteins: protein electrophoresis, immunofixation, immunoglobulin quantitation, serum free light chains and heavy-light chain assays, as well as the newly developed MALDI-TOF mass spectrometric methods. In addition, the definitions of the pre-malignancies monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) and smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM), as well as monoclonal gammopathy of renal significance (MGRS) are presented in the context of the 2014 international guidelines for definition of myeloma requiring treatment, and the role of the laboratory in test selection for screening and monitoring these conditions is highlighted. Copyright © 2017 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Clinical management of the first ASCUS report in Chile. Prospective single-cohort study

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    Fanny López-Alegría

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Worldwide, there is no single strategy for optimal management of patients with ASCUS (atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance cytology reports. The objective of this study was to determine the kind of clinical management conducted among women with a first ASCUS Pap smear report. DESIGN AND SETTING: Prospective single cohort study at a cervical pathology unit in Santiago, Chile. METHODS: This was an epidemiological, descriptive, observational and quantitative follow-up study on a cohort of women with ASCUS cytological reports. RESULTS: In the screening phase, 92,001 cervical cytological smears were collected in primary healthcare clinics. In the diagnostic phase, all women with a first ASCUS report were selected (n = 446. These women were asked to undergo the Pap test again and it was found that 301 women had normal results, 62 women had abnormal results and 83 did not repeat the test. In the diagnostic confirmation phase, the 62 women with abnormal results underwent colposcopy and, from these results, 58 of them underwent a biopsy. The results from the biopsies showed that 16 women had negative histological reports, 13 had CIN 1 and 29 had CIN 2+. In the treatment phase, the 42 women with lesions underwent a variety of treatments, according to the type of lesion. In the post-treatment phase, cytological and colposcopic monitoring was instituted. CONCLUSION: The clinical management consisted of traditional management of screening, diagnosis, diagnostic confirmation, treatment and post-treatment monitoring.

  15. Management of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) and smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM).

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    Kyle, Robert A; Rajkumar, S Vincent

    2011-06-01

    Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) is defined as a serum M protein level of less than 3 g/dL, less than 10% clonal plasma cells in the bone marrow, and the absence of end-organ damage. The prevalence of MGUS is 3.2% in the white population but is approximately twice that high in the black population. MGUS may progress to multiple myeloma, AL amyloidosis, Waldenström macroglobulinemia, or lymphoma. The risk of progression is approximately 1% per year, but the risk continues even after more than 25 years of observation. Risk factors for progression include the size of the serum M protein, the type of serum M protein, the number of plasma cells in the bone marrow, and the serum free light chain ratio. Smoldering (asymptomatic) multiple myeloma (SMM) is characterized by the presence of an M protein level of 3 g/dL or higher and/or 10% or more monoclonal plasma cells in the bone marrow but no evidence of end-organ damage. The overall risk of progression to a malignant condition is 10% per year for the first 5 years, approximately 3% per year for the next 5 years, and 1% to 2% per year for the following 10 years. Patients with both MGUS and SMM must be followed up for their lifetime.

  16. Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance does not affect outcomes in patients undergoing solid organ transplants.

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    Jimenez-Zepeda, Victor H; Heilman, Raymond L; Engel, Rodney A; Carey, Elizabeth J; Freeman, Ciara; Rakela, Jorge; Mulligan, David C; Fonseca, Rafael; Stewart, Alexander Keith

    2011-09-15

    Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) is an asymptomatic plasma cell proliferative disorder with a lifelong risk of progression to multiple myeloma or another plasma cell dyscrasia. Despite a high incidence in the general population and an increased relative risk for later malignancy, there are few reports about the clinical course of MGUS or risk profile in long-term immunosuppressed patients. We reviewed 1593 solid organ transplant patients and reported the frequency and outcomes of patients with MGUS identified pretransplant. Polyclonal gammopathy pretransplant is common with 17% of all patients and as many as 75% of liver transplant candidates having increased globulins.However, a monoclonal immunoglobulin was identified in only 3% of all solid organ transplant patients pretransplant (n=34). Importantly, in these 34 patients, no cases of progression to multiple myeloma, amyloid, or lymphoma were observed during immune suppression, and there was no association between posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorders and pretransplant MGUS. Death in MGUS patients was not associated with progression of the monoclonal clone or development of posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorders or other malignancy. In conclusion, routine testing for MGUS before transplantation is not prognostic nor a contraindication to transplant, and therefore, it is not recommended.

  17. Diagnosis of Follicular Lesions of Undetermined Significance in Fine-Needle Aspirations of Thyroid Nodules

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    J. Ratour

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. We aimed to analyze the diagnostic criteria proposed by the Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology for follicular lesions of undetermined significance (FLUS, the risk of cancer and diagnostic improvement with use of immunocytochemistry. Methods. For each FLUS diagnosis, we analyzed the cytological criteria (9 Bethesda criteria, secondary fine-needle aspiration (FNA results, surgical procedures, contribution of immunocytochemistry with the antibodies cytokeratin 19 (CK19 and monoclonal anti-human mesothelial cell (HBME1. Results. Among patients with 2,210 thyroid FNAs, 244 lesions (337 nodules were classified as FLUS (11% of all thyroid FNAs. The 3 criteria most often applied were cytological atypia suggesting papillary carcinoma (36%, microfollicular architecture but sparse cellularity (23.1%, cytological atypia (21.5%. With secondary FNA, 48.8% of nodules were reclassified as benign. For about half of all cases (41.4% for the first FNA, 57.6% for the second FNA, immunocytochemistry helped establishing a diagnosis favoring malignant or benign. No benign immunocytochemistry results were associated with a malignant lesion. In all, 22.5% of the 39 removed nodules were malignant. Conclusion. The FLUS category is supported by well-described criteria. The risk of malignancy in our series was 22.5%. Because we had no false-negative immunocytochemistry results, immunocytochemistry could be helpful in FLUS management.

  18. Prevalence of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance in Asia: a viewpoint from nagasaki atomic bomb survivors.

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    Iwanaga, Masako; Tomonaga, Masao

    2014-02-01

    Exposure to ionizing radiation is a known environmental risk factor for a variety of cancers including hematological malignancies, such as leukemia, myelodysplastic syndromes, and multiple myeloma. Therefore, for Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors (surviving victims who were exposed to ionizing radiation emitted from the nuclear weapons), several cancer-screening tests have been provided annually, with government support, to detect the early stage of malignancies. An M-protein screening test has been used to detect multiple myeloma at an early stage among atomic bomb survivors. In the screening process, a number of patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), in addition to multiple myeloma, have been identified. In 2009 and 2011, we reported the age- and sex-specific prevalence of MGUS between 1988 and 2004 and the possible role of radiation exposure in the development of MGUS using the screening data of more than 1000 patients with MGUS among approximately 52,000 Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors. The findings included: (1) a significant lower overall prevalence (2.1%) than that observed in Caucasian or African-origin populations; (2) a significantly higher prevalence in men than in women; (3) an age-related increase in the prevalence; (4) a significantly higher prevalence in people exposed to higher radiation doses only among those exposed at age 20 years or younger; and (5) a lower frequency of immunoglobulin M MGUS in Japanese patients than in patients in Western countries. The large study of MGUS among Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors has provided important findings for the etiology of MGUS, including a possible role of radiation exposure on the cause of MGUS and an ethnicity-related difference in the characteristics of MGUS. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Diagnosis, risk stratification and management of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance and smoldering multiple myeloma.

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    van de Donk, N W C J; Mutis, T; Poddighe, P J; Lokhorst, H M; Zweegman, S

    2016-05-01

    Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) is one of the most common premalignant disorders. IgG and IgA MGUS are precursor conditions of multiple myeloma (MM), whereas light-chain MGUS is a precursor condition of light-chain MM. Smoldering MM (SMM) is a precursor condition with higher tumor burden and higher risk of progression to symptomatic MM compared to MGUS. Assessment of the risk of progression of patients with asymptomatic monoclonal gammopathies is based on various factors including clonal burden, as well as biological characteristics, such as cytogenetic abnormalities and light-chain production. Several models have been constructed that are useful in daily practice for predicting risk of progression of MGUS or SMM. Importantly, the plasma cell clone may occasionally be responsible for severe organ damage through the production of a M-protein which deposits in tissues or has autoantibody activity. These disorders are rare and often require therapy directed at eradication of the underlying clone. Importantly, recent studies have shown that asymptomatic patients with a bone marrow plasma cell percentage ≥60%, free light-chain ratio ≥100, or >1 focal lesion on MRI (myeloma-defining events) have a 80% risk of developing symptomatic MM within 2 years. These patients are now considered to have MM requiring therapy, similar to patients with symptomatic disease. In this review, we provide an overview of the new diagnostic criteria of the monoclonal gammopathies and discuss risk of progression to active MM. We also provide recommendations for the management of patients with MGUS and SMM including risk-adapted follow-up. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. MDS-associated somatic mutations and clonal hematopoiesis are common in idiopathic cytopenias of undetermined significance.

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    Kwok, Brian; Hall, Jeff M; Witte, John S; Xu, Yin; Reddy, Prashanti; Lin, Keming; Flamholz, Rachel; Dabbas, Bashar; Yung, Aine; Al-Hafidh, Jenan; Balmert, Emily; Vaupel, Christine; El Hader, Carlos; McGinniss, Matthew J; Nahas, Shareef A; Kines, Julie; Bejar, Rafael

    2015-11-19

    Establishing a diagnosis in patients suspected of having a myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) can be challenging and could be informed by the identification of somatic mutations. We performed a prospective study to examine the frequency and types of mutations encountered in 144 patients with unexplained cytopenias. Based on bone marrow findings, 17% were diagnosed with MDS, 15% with idiopathic cytopenias of undetermined significance (ICUS) and some evidence of dysplasia, and 69% with ICUS and no dysplasia. Bone marrow DNA was sequenced for mutations in 22 frequently mutated myeloid malignancy genes. Somatic mutations were identified in 71% of MDS patients, 62% of patients with ICUS and some dysplasia, and 20% of ICUS patients and no dysplasia. In total, 35% of ICUS patients carried a somatic mutation or chromosomal abnormality indicative of clonal hematopoiesis. We validated these results in a cohort of 91 lower-risk MDS and 249 ICUS cases identified over a 6-month interval. Mutations were found in 79% of those with MDS, in 45% of those with ICUS with dysplasia, and in 17% of those with ICUS without dysplasia. The spectrum of mutated genes was similar with the exception of SF3B1 which was rarely mutated in patients without dysplasia. Variant allele fractions were comparable between clonal ICUS (CCUS) and MDS as were mean age and blood counts. We demonstrate that CCUS is a more frequent diagnosis than MDS in cytopenic patients. Clinical and mutational features are similar in these groups and may have diagnostic utility once outcomes in CCUS patients are better understood. © 2015 by The American Society of Hematology.

  1. Should a Study of Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance Be of Clinical Interest to Predict Myeloma Overcome?

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    J Véronique-Baudin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The majority of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS are benign forms that require no treatment but can be considered as a pre-cancerous state. Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance is quite frequent, and related to age. The risk of progression to multiple myeloma or another type of malignant lymphoproliferation is estimated at 1% per year. Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance is twice as frequent in patients of African descent, and prevalence is higher for men. Diagnosis of MGUS is made on evidence of a monoclonal component < 30 g/L and no CRAB criteria (hypercalcaemia, renal insufficiency, anaemia, bone lesions. Regular monitoring is required for all MGUS because they can develop into other lymphoproliferative disorders such as multiple myeloma and lymphoma and other haematologic malignancies. In view of the genetic, insular and environmental context specificities of Caribbean populations of African descent, and according to haemophilia trends of the French West Indies cancer registry, it will be interesting to determine incidence and prevalence of MGUS in a country in the Caribbean. No such study has been performed to date. There is a hypothesis for a possible geographic distribution of these blood disorders linked to environmental exposure to pesticides. The expected findings and their potential repercussions will have major public health interest, and should form the basis for a wider prognostic study to determine risk factors for MGUS in the French Caribbean. In a real life exhaustive study, the Martinique Cancer Registry proposes an epidemiological focus on MGUS in Martinique.

  2. Investigação do valor da categoria diagnóstica de células epiteliais atípicas, de significado indeterminado, e origem indefinida da nomenclatura brasileira para laudos citopatológicos cervicais Investigation of the value of the atypical epithelial cells of undetermined significance and origin diagnostic category proposed by the Brazilian nomenclature for reporting cervical cytological diagnosis

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    Álvaro Piazzetta Pinto

    2006-04-01

    um achado raro e uma cuidadosa revisão da lâmina, na maioria dos casos, resultará no encontro de campos de AGUS. Vale ainda salientar a forte associação desse diagnóstico com áreas de má fixação nos esfregaços. Novos estudos sobre o assunto serão necessários. Com base nos achados do presente estudo, sugerimos que a persistência desse termo deva ser questionada em futuras revisões da nomenclatura nacional para laudos citopatológicos.BACKGROUND: In 2002, the Brazilian Nomenclature for Reporting Cervical Cytological Diagnosis was revised. A category of atypical epithelial cells of undetermined significance (AUS and another (sub-classification of atypical epithelial cells of undetermined significance and undetermined origin (AUSUO were introduced. Like atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS and atypical glandular cells of undetermined significance (AGUS, the diagnostic category AUSUO is controversial. Despite controversies, no previous national study had investigated its importance. OBJECTIVES: This study has the main objective of investigate the importance of the diagnostic category AUSUO. Another purpose is to contribute to spread the Brazilian Nomenclature for Reporting Cervical Cytological Diagnosis, by publishing it entirely. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study resulted from the contribution of two private pathology and cytopathology laboratories. Cases diagnosed as ASCUS or AGUS with follow-up were selected from archives of cytopathology exams, collected from the period between 2000 and 2004. In total, 30 cases were selected and revised, being identified cytological diagnostic fields of ASIOI, ASCUS and AGUS. RESULTS: After revision, from the 30 cases, 26 were selected for the study. Among these, 19 presented cytological fields with diagnosis of only ASCUS and/or AGUS and were used as a control group. Only seven cases contained fields compatible with AUSUO, 4 (57,1% were associated with AGUS; 1 (14.3% with ASCUS; 1 (14.3% with both

  3. Classifying Variants of Undetermined Significance in BRCA2 with Protein Likelihood Ratios

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    Mary S. Beattie

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Missense (amino-acid changing variants found in cancer predisposition genes often create difficulties when clinically interpreting genetic testing results. Although bioinformatics has developed approaches to predicting the impact of these variants, many of these approaches have not been readily applicable in the clinical setting. Bioinformatics approaches for predicting the impact of these variants have not yet found their footing in clinical practice because 1 interpreting the medical relevance of predictive scores is difficult; 2 the relationship between bioinformatics “predictors” (sequence conservation, protein structure and cancer susceptibility is not understood.Methodology/Principal Findings: We present a computational method that produces a probabilistic likelihood ratio predictive of whether a missense variant impairs protein function. We apply the method to a tumor suppressor gene, BRCA2, whose loss of function is important to cancer susceptibility. Protein likelihood ratios are computed for 229 unclassified variants found in individuals from high-risk breast/ovarian cancer families. We map the variants onto a protein structure model, and suggest that a cluster of predicted deleterious variants in the BRCA2 OB1 domain may destabilize BRCA2 and a protein binding partner, the small acidic protein DSS1. We compare our predictions with variant “re-classifications” provided by Myriad Genetics, a biotechnology company that holds the patent on BRCA2 genetic testing in the U.S., and with classifications made by an established medical genetics model [1]. Our approach uses bioinformatics data that is independent of these genetics-based classifications and yet shows significant agreement with them. Preliminary results indicate that our method is less likely to make false positive errors than other bioinformatics methods, which were designed to predict the impact of missense mutations in general.Conclusions/Significance

  4. Proposal and validation of prognostic scoring systems for IgG and IgA monoclonal gammopathies of undetermined significance.

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    Rossi, Francesca; Petrucci, Maria Teresa; Guffanti, Andrea; Marcheselli, Luigi; Rossi, Davide; Callea, Vincenzo; Vincenzo, Federico; De Muro, Marianna; Baraldi, Alessandra; Villani, Oreste; Musto, Pellegrino; Bacigalupo, Andrea; Gaidano, Gianluca; Avvisati, Giuseppe; Goldaniga, Maria; Depaoli, Lorenzo; Baldini, Luca

    2009-07-01

    The presenting clinico-hematologic features of 1,283 patients with IgG and IgA monoclonal gammopathies of undetermined significance (MGUS) were correlated with the frequency of evolution into multiple myeloma (MM). Two IgG MGUS populations were evaluated: a training sample (553 patients) and a test sample (378 patients); the IgA MGUS population consisted of 352 patients. Forty-seven of the 553 training group patients and 22 of 378 test group IgG patients developed MM after a median follow-up of 6.7 and 3.6 years, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that serum monoclonal component (MC) levels of sample. Thirty of the 352 IgA patients developed MM after a median follow-up of 4.8 years, and multivariate analysis showed that hemoglobin levels of <12.5 g/dL and reduced serum polyclonal immunoglobulin correlated with progression. A pooled statistical analysis of all of the patients confirmed the validity of Mayo Clinic risk model showing that IgA class, serum MC levels, and light-chain proteinuria are the most important variables correlated with disease progression. Using simple variables, we validated a prognostic model for IgG MGUS. Among the IgA cases, the possible prognostic role of hemoglobin emerged in addition to a decrease in normal immunoglobulin levels.

  5. The Hematologic Definition of Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance in Relation to Paraproteinemic Keratopathy (An American Ophthalmological Society Thesis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisch, Walter; Wasielica-Poslednik, Joanna; Kivelä, Tero; Schlötzer-Schrehardt, Ursula; Rohrbach, Jens M; Sekundo, Walter; Pleyer, Uwe; Lisch, Christina; Desuki, Alexander; Rossmann, Heidi; Weiss, Jayne S

    2016-08-01

    To determine if paraproteinemic keratopathy (PPK) in the setting of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) causes distinct patterns of corneal opacification that can be distinguished from hereditary, immunologic, or inflammatory causes. A retrospective, interventional study of patients showed distinct bilateral opacity patterns of the cornea at the eye clinics of Hanau, Mainz, Helsinki, Marburg, and Berlin between 1993 and 2015. Data on patient characteristics and clinical features on ophthalmic examination were collected, and serum protein profiles were evaluated. A literature review and analysis of all published studies of MGUS with PPK is also presented. The largest group of patients diagnosed with MGUS-induced PPK is analyzed in this study. We studied 22 eyes of 11 patients (6 male, aged 43 to 65, mean age 54; 5 female, aged 49 to 76, mean age 61) with distinct corneal opacities and visual impairment who were first suspected of having hereditary, inflammatory, or immunologic corneal entities. Subsequently, serum protein electrophoresis revealed MGUS to be the cause of the PPK. Literature review revealed 72 patients with bilateral PPK (34 male, mean age 57; 38 female, mean age 58) in 51 studies of MGUS published from 1934 to 2015 and disclosed six additional corneal opacity patterns. This thesis shows that MGUS is not always an asymptomatic disorder, in contrast to the hematologic definition, which has no hint of PPK. The MGUS-induced PPK can mimic many other diseases of the anterior layer of the eye. A new clinical classification for PPK in MGUS is proposed.

  6. Autoimmunity related to IgM monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance. Peripheral neuropathy and connective tissue sensibilization caused by IgM M-proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jønsson, V; Schrøder, H D; Nolsøe, C

    1988-01-01

    In eight of 10 consecutive cases of IgM monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), the M-protein had specificity towards various tissues as estimated by direct and indirect immunofluorescence studies of skin and/or sural nerve biopsies. Five of the cases had neuropathy. In three o...

  7. Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) and smoldering (asymptomatic) multiple myeloma: IMWG consensus perspectives risk factors for progression and guidelines for monitoring and management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Kyle (Robert); B.G.M. Durie (Brian); S.V. Rajkumar (Vincent); O. Landgren; J. Bladé (Joan); G. Merlini; N. Kröger (Nicolaus); H. Einsele (Hermann); D. Vesole (David); M.A. Dimopoulos (Meletios); J.F. San Miguel (Jesús Fernando); H. Avet-Loiseau; R. Hajek (Roman); W. Chen (Wei); K.C. Anderson (Kenneth); H. Ludwig (Heinz); P. Sonneveld (Pieter); S. Pavlovsky; A. Palumbo (Antonio); P.G. Richardson; B. Barlogie (Bart); P. Greipp (Philip); R. Vescio (Robert); I. Turesson; J. Westin (Johan); M. Boccadoro (Mario)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractMonoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) was identified in 3.2% of 21 463 residents of Olmsted County, Minnesota, 50 years of age or older. The risk of progression to multiple myeloma, Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia, AL amyloidosis or a lymphoproliferative disorder is

  8. Diagnóstico citológico de Ascus: sua importância na conduta clínica Cytological diagnosis of Ascus: its importance in clinical conduct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisy N.O. Lima

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available O termo "atipia de células escamosas de significado indeterminado" (Ascus foi introduzido, em 1988, pelo Sistema Bethesda. A conduta clínica nesses casos é controversa. Outra dificuldade é a falta de uniformização de critérios citológicos dessa anormalidade, resultando em taxas de ocorrência discrepantes. Neste trabalho, estudamos 111 casos, incluídos nesta categoria citológica, concorrendo para uma taxa de 2,4% detectada num universo de 4.634 exames citológicos no período de um ano. Todas as pacientes foram avaliadas colposcopicamente, concomitantemente à colheita do material citológico cervicovaginal. Destas, 80 (72% apresentavam anormalidades ao exame colposcópico, sendo realizadas 38 biópsias dirigidas (34%. A histopatologia mostrou cervicite crônica e/ou hiperplasia simples do epitélio malpighiano em 39% dos exames, com os 61% restantes apresentando lesões intra-epiteliais escamosas, variando de baixo grau em 20 casos (52% a alto grau em três (9%. Predominaram os casos de infecção pelo HPV (39%. Estas taxas comprovam a estreita relação de Ascus com lesões pré-neoplásicas, inclusive aquelas de alto grau. Diante do significado clínico de Ascus estabelecido neste estudo, consideramos ser indicada biópsia dirigida em todos os casos de anormalidade colposcópica concomitante, sendo a histopatologia o meio mais fidedigno na avaliação destes casos.The category atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (Ascus, it was introduced in 1988 by the Bethesda System. The clinical conduct in such cases is controversial. Another difficulty is the lack of uniformity as to cytological criteria of this abnormality and as a result we have different rates of the ocurrence. The total number of Ascus in the present series was of 2.4% in respect to 111 cases, detected in an universe of 4,634 cytologic exams in the period of one year. All patients have been submitted to a colposcopic evaluation at the same time as the

  9. A prospective study of women with ASCUS or LSIL pap smears at baseline and HPV E6/E7 mRNA positive: a 3-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, M T; Ferrara, M; Fava, V; Barrasso, G; Panella, M M

    2018-04-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) testing is used in the triage of women with a borderline smear result. The efficiency of testing women with a low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL) and atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) is less clear. For this reason we used a new HPV test that detects E6/E7 messenger RNA (mRNA), which might have a higher specificity. The objective of this prospective study was to assess whether HPV E6/E7 mRNA positivity in women with ASCUS and LSIL at baseline, is able to predict those women who have a high risk of developing a histological cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN2) or worse lesion. We took into consideration the women's age and HPV DNA genotype and followed them up for 3 years. Cervical samples from women with high-risk HPV (HR-HPV) DNA-positive ASCUS (n = 90) or LSIL (n = 222) were tested for the presence of HR-HPV E6/E7 mRNA and the women were monitored for the development of histopathologically verified CIN2+. Thirteen patients with ASCUS and 17 with LSIL did not complete follow-up. All patients with LSIL and ASCUS, enrolled in this study, had confirmed lesions at the colposcopic examination. Follow-up was available for 312 women, 193 were positive in the HR-HPV DNA test and 93 had a HPV E6/E7 mRNA positive test. Finally, 22 women positive in the HPV DNA test for high-risk genotypes and with positive E6/E7 mRNA had a histologically confirmed CIN2+. Only two cases with negative HPV E6/E7 mRNA had CIN2+. The study shows that women positive in the HPV E6/E7 mRNA test have a greater risk of malignant progression of cervical lesions and therefore deserve greater attention and earlier check-ups.

  10. Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance with Amyloid Deposition in the Lung and Non-Amyloid Eosinophilic Deposition in the Brain: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francois Abi-Fadel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS is rarely complicated by amyloidosis. Case. A 66-year-old white male presented to the emergency room (ER after an unwitnessed fall and change in mental status. Patient was awake and alert but not oriented. There was no focal deficit on neurological exam. Past medical history (PMH included hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, aortic valve replacement (nonmetallic, incomplete heart block controlled by a pacemaker and IgG- IgA type Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance. The MGUS was diagnosed 9 months ago on serum protein electrophoresis (SPEP as patient was referred to the outpatient clinic for hyperglobulinemia on routine blood work. In ER, a head-computed tomography (CT revealed multiple parenchymal hemorrhagic lesions suspicious for metastases. A CT chest, abdomen and pelvis revealed numerous ground-glass and solid nodules in the lungs. Lower extremity duplex and transesophageal echocardiogram were negative. Serial blood cultures and serologies for cryptococcus and histoplasmosis, antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA, antinuclear antibody (ANA, rheumatoid factor (RF, cryoglobulin, and antiglomerular basement membrane (anti-GBM antibodies were all negative. CT guided lung biopsy was positive for Thioflavin T amyloid deposits. Brain biopsy was positive for eosinophilic material (similar to the lungs but negative for Thioflavin T stain. The patient's clinical status continued to deteriorate with cold cyanotic fingers developing on day 12 and a health care acquired pneumonia, respiratory failure, and fungemia on day 18. On day 29, family withdrew life support and denied any autopsies. Conclusion. Described is an atypical course of MGUS complicated by amyloidosis of the lung and nonamyloid eosinophilic deposition in the brain. As MGUS might be complicated by diseases such as amyloidosis and multiple myeloma, a scheduled follow-up of these patients is always

  11. Prevalência de lesões intraepiteliais em atipias de significado indeterminado em um serviço público de referência para neoplasias cervicais Prevalencia de lesiones intraepiteliales en atipias de significado indeterminado en un servicio público de referencia para neoplasias cervicales Prevalence of atypical squamous cell intraepithelial lesions of undetermined significance in a public health referral service for cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Railda Fraga Costa

    2011-01-01

    óstico colpocitológico de atipias de significado indeterminado (ASCUS fue del 23,7%, el aumento del riesgo fue directamente proporcional al de la edad y hubo mayor prevalencia de lesión intraepitelial de bajo grado, asociada a la infección por el Papilomavirus humano.OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of low and high grade intraepithelial lesions in women with Pap smear diagnosis of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance, in the city of Maceió, Alagoas. Knowing the influence of age and the etiological agents for sexually transmitted diseases on the risk of developing low and high grade intraepithelial lesions. METHODS: Cross sectional prevalence study at a public referral center for cervical cancer. We studied records of 253 women with atypical diagnoses of undetermined significance, in 2007. RESULTS: The prevalence of intraepithelial lesions was 23.7%; 26.7% were low grade and 73.3% high grade. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of high-grade intraepithelial lesions in women with Pap smear diagnosis of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS was 23.7%; the increase in risk was directly proportional to the age and higher prevalence of low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion associated with papillomavirus infection.

  12. Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) and smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM): novel biological insights and development of early treatment strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristinsson, Sigurdur Y.

    2011-01-01

    Monoclonal gammopathy of unknown significance (MGUS) and smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM) are asymptomatic plasma cell dyscrasias, with a propensity to progress to symptomatic MM. In recent years there have been improvements in risk stratification models (involving molecular markers) of both disorders, which have led to better understanding of the biology and probability of progression of MGUS and SMM. In the context of numerous molecular events and heterogeneous risk of progression, developing individualized risk profiles for patients with MGUS and SMM represents an ongoing challenge that has to be addressed by prospective clinical monitoring and extensive correlative science. In this review we discuss the current standard of care of patients with MGUS and SMM, the use of risk models, including flow cytometry and free-light chain analyses, for predicting risk of progression. Emerging evidence from molecular studies on MGUS and SMM, involving cytogenetics, gene-expression profiling, and microRNA as well as molecular imaging is described. Finally, future directions for improving individualized management of MGUS and SMM patients, as well as the potential for developing early treatment strategies designed to delay and prevent development of MM are discussed. PMID:21441462

  13. The role of colposcopy and typization of human papillomavirus in further diagnostic proceedings in patients with ASC-US cytological finding of the uterine cervix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živadinović Radomir

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Bethesda system of classification of cytological findings was introduced in 2001 two subcategories in the category of atypical squamous cells (ASC findings: ASC of undetermined significance (ASC-US and ASC which cannot exclude high-grade intraepithelial lesions (ASC-H. The aim of our study was to assess a possible association of these two subcategories with pathologic biopsy finding and to find out the best further diagnostic proceedings. Methods. At the Clinic of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Niš 130 patients with ASC findings were analyzed. Colposcopy was performed in all study participants. Patients with pathological colposcopic findings underwent cervical biopsy. In 10 patients with pathologic histologic and 15 with benign findings human papilloma virus (HPV typization was done using the Hybrid Capture method. Results. Patients with ASC-H finding had significantly more pathologic biopsies compared with patients with ASC-US finding (57.84: 20.72. Conclusion. Colposcopy was exhibited somewhat higher sensitivity compared to HPV typization (94.7 : 90, but lower sensitivity (79.27 : 86.6. The usage of HPV typization in the triage of patients with ASC cytologic smear induces statistically significant reduction of unnecessary percentage of cervical biopsies.

  14. Pro-inflammatory State in Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance and in Multiple Myeloma Is Characterized by Low Sialylation of Pathogen-Specific and Other Monoclonal Immunoglobulins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrien Bosseboeuf

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Multiple myeloma (MM and its pre-cancerous stage monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS allow to study immune responses and the chronology of inflammation in the context of blood malignancies. Both diseases are characterized by the production of a monoclonal immunoglobulin (mc Ig which for subsets of MGUS and MM patients targets pathogens known to cause latent infection, a major cause of inflammation. Inflammation may influence the structure of both polyclonal (pc Ig and mc Ig produced by malignant plasma cells via the sialylation of Ig Fc fragment. Here, we characterized the sialylation of purified mc and pc IgGs from 148 MGUS and MM patients, in comparison to pc IgGs from 46 healthy volunteers. The inflammatory state of patients was assessed by the quantification in serum of 40 inflammation-linked cytokines, using Luminex technology. While pc IgGs from MGUS and MM patients showed heterogeneity in sialylation level, mc IgGs from both MGUS and MM patients exhibited a very low level of sialylation. Furthermore, mc IgGs from MM patients were less sialylated than mc IgGs from MGUS patients (p < 0.01, and mc IgGs found to target an infectious pathogen showed a lower level of sialylation than mc IgGs of undetermined specificity (p = 0.048. Regarding inflammation, 14 cytokines were similarly elevated with a p value < 0.0001 in MGUS and in MM compared to healthy controls. MM differed from MGUS by higher levels of HGF, IL-11, RANTES and SDF-1-α (p < 0.05. MGUS and MM patients presenting with hyposialylated pc IgGs had significantly higher levels of HGF, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, TGF-β1, IL-17, and IL-33 compared to patients with hyper-sialylated pc IgGs (p < 0.05. In MGUS and in MM, the degree of sialylation of mc and pc IgGs and the levels of four cytokines important for the anti-microbial response were correlated, either positively (IFN-α2, IL-13 or negatively (IL-17, IL-33. Thus in MGUS as in MM

  15. Expression of the IL-6 receptor alpha-chain (CD126) in normal and abnormal plasma cells in monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance and smoldering myeloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Dalia Abdel-Raouf; Korde, Neha; Venzon, David J; Liewehr, David J; Maric, Irina; Calvo, Katherine R; Braylan, Raul; Tembhare, Prashant R; Yuan, Constance M; Landgren, Carl Ola; Stetler-Stevenson, Maryalice

    2018-01-01

    IL-6 activity in normal plasma cells (nPCs) and abnormal plasma cells (aPCs) is CD126 (subunit of IL-6 receptor) dependent. We quantified CD126 expression on nPCs and aPCs in monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), smoldering myeloma (SMM), and multiple myeloma (MM). CD126 was detected on all nPCs and aPCs indicating that CD126 does not have diagnostic utility. CD126 expression was higher in aPCs than in nPCs in 85% SMM but only 41% MGUS and there was evidence that CD126 was higher in aPCs than nPCs in the SMM (p = .048) but not MGUS (p = .96) patients. There is also a greater association between nPC and aPC CD126 expression in low risk MGUS than observed in high risk MGUS and SMM, suggesting normal regulation of CD126 decreases with disease progression. Future studies need to elucidate the role of bone marrow milieu versus escape from normal CD126 regulation in malignant transformation of clonal plasma cells.

  16. Development of Renal Failure without Proteinuria in a Patient with Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance: An Unusual Presentation of AL Kappa Amyloidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yijuan Sun

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available AL amyloidosis complicating monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS has usually a predominant glomerular deposition of lambda light chain. Heavy proteinuria is one of its cardinal manifestations. A 78-year-old man with a 9-year history of IgG kappa light-chain-MGUS and normal urine protein excretion developed severe renal failure. Serum levels of kappa light chain and serum IgG had been stable while proteinuria was absent throughout the nine-year period. For the first eight years, he had stable stage III chronic kidney disease attributed to bladder outlet obstruction secondary to prostatic malignancy. In the last year, he developed progressive serum creatinine elevation, without any increase in the serum or urine levels of paraproteins or any sign of malignancy. Renal ultrasound and furosemide renogram showed no evidence of urinary obstruction. Renal biopsy revealed AL amyloidosis, with reactivity exclusive for kappa light chains, affecting predominantly the vessels and the interstitium. Glomerular involvement was minimal. Melphalan and prednisone were initiated. However, renal function continues deteriorating. Deposition of AL kappa amyloidosis developing during the course of MGUS predominantly in the wall of the renal vessels and the renal interstitium, while the involvement of the glomeruli is minimal, leads to progressive renal failure and absence of proteinuria. Renal biopsy is required to detect both the presence and the sites of deposition of renal AL kappa light chain amyloidosis.

  17. Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) and smoldering (asymptomatic) multiple myeloma: IMWG consensus perspectives risk factors for progression and guidelines for monitoring and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyle, R A; Durie, B G M; Rajkumar, S V; Landgren, O; Blade, J; Merlini, G; Kröger, N; Einsele, H; Vesole, D H; Dimopoulos, M; San Miguel, J; Avet-Loiseau, H; Hajek, R; Chen, W M; Anderson, K C; Ludwig, H; Sonneveld, P; Pavlovsky, S; Palumbo, A; Richardson, P G; Barlogie, B; Greipp, P; Vescio, R; Turesson, I; Westin, J; Boccadoro, M

    2010-06-01

    Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) was identified in 3.2% of 21 463 residents of Olmsted County, Minnesota, 50 years of age or older. The risk of progression to multiple myeloma, Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia, AL amyloidosis or a lymphoproliferative disorder is approximately 1% per year. Low-risk MGUS is characterized by having an M protein <15 g/l, IgG type and a normal free light chain (FLC) ratio. Patients should be followed with serum protein electrophoresis at six months and, if stable, can be followed every 2-3 years or when symptoms suggestive of a plasma cell malignancy arise. Patients with intermediate and high-risk MGUS should be followed in 6 months and then annually for life. The risk of smoldering (asymptomatic) multiple myeloma (SMM) progressing to multiple myeloma or a related disorder is 10% per year for the first 5 years, 3% per year for the next 5 years and 1-2% per year for the next 10 years. Testing should be done 2-3 months after the initial recognition of SMM. If the results are stable, the patient should be followed every 4-6 months for 1 year and, if stable, every 6-12 months.

  18. Diagnostic performance of HPV E6/E7 mRNA assay for detection of cervical high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia and cancer among women with ASCUS Papanicolaou smears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Chenchen; Zhu, Yuanhang; Yang, Li; Zhang, Xiaoan; Liu, Ling; Ren, Chunying

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical performance of high risk (HR) HPV E6/E7 mRNA assay in detecting cervical high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia and cancer among women with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) Papanicolaou (Pap) smears. A total of 160 patients with ASCUS who underwent HR-HPV DNA assay, HR-HPV E6/E7 mRNA assay and colposcopy biopsy at Third Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, China, from December 2015 to March 2017, were enrolled. Logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the relationship between pathological results with clinical biologic factors. Univariate analysis showed that the qualitative results of HR-HPV DNA, qualitative results of HR-HPV E6/E7 mRNA and expression levels of HR-HPV E6/E7 mRNA were risk factors of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and cervical cancer (all P HPV E6/E7 mRNA was associated with high-grade CIN and cervical cancer (OR = 8.971, 95% CI = 2.572-31.289, P = 0.001). An optimal cut-off value of ≥ 558.26 copies/ml was determined using receiver operating characteristic curve, and specificity of cut-off value were higher than E6/E7 mRNA qualitative assay and DNA qualitative assay. HPV E6/E7 mRNA quantitative assay may be a valuable tool in triage of ASCUS pap smears. A high specificity of E6/E7 mRNA quantitative assay as a triage test in women with ASCUS can be translated into a low referral for colposcopy.

  19. Evaluation of the QTc prolongation potential of a monoclonal antibody, siltuximab, in patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance, smoldering multiple myeloma, or low-volume multiple myeloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Sheeba K; Suvorov, Alexander; Noens, Lucien; Rukavitsin, Oleg; Fay, Joseph; Wu, Ka Lung; Zimmerman, Todd M; van de Velde, Helgi; Bandekar, Rajesh; Puchalski, Thomas A; Qi, Ming; Uhlar, Clarissa; Samoylova, Olga S

    2014-01-01

    A phase 1 study evaluated the QTc prolongation potential of siltuximab, a chimeric, anti-interleukin-6 mAb, in patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM), or low-volume MM. Patients with baseline QTcF and QTcB ≤ 500 ms, QRS < 100 ms, PR < 200 ms and no significant cardiac disease received siltuximab 15 mg/kg q3w, the highest dosage used in clinical studies, for 4 cycles. Twelve-lead ECGs obtained at multiple time points pre- and post-infusion at cycles 1 and 4 were evaluated by central cardiology laboratory. No effect on QTc interval was concluded if the upper limit of least square (LS) mean 90 % CI for QTc change from baseline at each time point was <20 ms. An effect on QTc prolongation was ruled out, as the upper bound of 90 % CI was <10 ms at each time point in 27 evaluable patients (13 MGUS, 13 SMM, 1 low-volume MM) with no differences between disease types. Maximum mean QTc increase from baseline occurred 3 h after cycle 1 infusion (QTcF = 3.2 [LS mean 90 % CI -0.01, 6.45] ms; QTcB = 2.7 [-0.69, 6.14] ms). At all other time points, mean QTcF and QTcB increase from baseline was ≤1.5 ms and upper bound 90 % CI was ≤5.1 ms. Twenty patients had mostly low-grade AEs, including nausea, fatigue (20 % each); thrombocytopenia, headache (each 13 %); dyspnea, leukopenia, neutropenia, paresthesia, abnormal hepatic function, URTI (each 10 %). Three MGUS patients achieved 50 % M-protein reduction. There was no association between siltuximab pharmacokinetics and QTc interval. Siltuximab did not affect the QTc interval. Overall safety was similar to other single-agent siltuximab studies.

  20. Prognostic Impact of Serum Heavy/Light Chain Pairs in Patients With Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance and Smoldering Myeloma: Long-Term Results From a Single Institution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnano, Laura; Fernández de Larrea, Carlos; Elena, Montserrat; Cibeira, María Teresa; Tovar, Natalia; Aróstegui, Juan I; Pedrosa, Fabiola; Rosiñol, Laura; Filella, Xavier; Yagüe, Jordi; Bladé, Joan

    2016-06-01

    Asymptomatic monoclonal gammopathies, such as monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) and smoldering myeloma (SMM), are clinical conditions that usually precede symptomatic multiple myeloma. Therefore, risk stratification is crucial owing to the heterogeneous progression rate among these patients. In previous years, suppression of the uninvolved chain of specific heavy/light chain (HLC) pairs in serum has been identified as a new risk factor in MGUS. The aim of the present study was to investigate the prognostic effect of involved and uninvolved HLC pairs and HLC ratios on progression in a series of patients with MGUS and SMM. All specific serum HLC pairs were measured in 114 patients diagnosed with SMM (n = 27) and MGUS (n = 87) from 1983 to 2003. Also, the HLC ratios were calculated. Progression to symptomatic multiple myeloma was observed in 13 patients (8 with SMM and 5 with MGUS). The risk of progression was 6 times greater in those with SMM (P = .001) and 4 times greater for those with the IgA isotype (P = .01). The suppression of any IgM isotypes (IgMκ or IgMλ) in patients with IgA or IgG gammopathy or any IgA isotypes (IgAκ or IgAλ) in patients with IgG or IgM gammopathy was associated with a shorter time to progression to symptomatic gammopathy (P = .001 and P = .03, respectively). On multivariate analysis, the evolving pattern and suppression of any IgM HLC pair remained significant. HLC ratios could be a valuable tool in the risk stratification of patients with SMM and MGUS, especially patients with IgG isotypes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The diagnostic value of SE MRI and DWI of the spine in patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance, smouldering myeloma and multiple myeloma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutoit, Julie C.; Vanderkerken, Matthias A.; Dochy, Frederick; Verstraete, Koenraad L. [Ghent University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Ghent (Belgium); Anthonissen, Joris [Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium)

    2014-11-15

    To evaluate DWI of the bone marrow in the differentiation of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), smouldering myeloma (SMM) and multiple myeloma (MM). The retrospective study includes 64 patients with MGUS, 27 with SMM, 64 with new MM and 12 controls. Signal intensity (SI) of spinal SE-MRI and DWI (b0-1000) as well as apparent diffusion coefficients (ADC) were measured in the T10 and L3. Qualitative assessment of b-images was performed by one experienced radiologist. ADC600 and ADC1000 are the best ADC values in differentiating patient groups (p < 0.030). SIT2, SIb1000 and ADC1000 are higher and SIT1 lower in L3 compared to T10 (p < 0.050). All quantitative parameters of L3 can differentiate significantly between MGUS and MM (p < 0.050) and between patients with percentage plasma cells (PC%) between 0-10 % compared to >50 % (p = 0.001). Only SIT2 for L3 can differentiate MGUS from SMM (p = 0.044) and PC%0-10 from PC%10-25 (p = 0.033). Qualitative interpretation of b1000 images allows differentiating MM patients from those with MGUS or SMM (p < 0.001). Spinal SE-MRI can differentiate among MGUS, SMM, MM and control subjects. DWI based on the SI on b1000 images and ADC values is increased in MM compared to MGUS and SMM. Qualitative assessment of b-images can differentiate MM from MGUS or SMM. (orig.)

  2. Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance and smoldering multiple myeloma: a review of the current understanding of epidemiology, biology, risk stratification, and management of myeloma precursor disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Amit; Ghobrial, Irene M

    2013-03-01

    The term monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) was coined in 1978. The recent advances in our knowledge about MGUS and smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM) have helped us better understand the pathogenesis of myeloma. It seems that myeloma evolves from a precursor state in almost all cases. We do not completely understand the multistep process from the precursor state to myeloma, but studies like whole genome sequencing continue to improve our understanding of this process. The process of transformation may not be linear acquisition of changes, but rather a branched heterogeneous process. Clinical features that are prognostic of rapid transformation have been identified, but no specific molecular markers have been identified. Even with recent advances, multiple myeloma remains an incurable disease in the vast majority, and intervening at the precursor state provides a unique opportunity to alter the natural history of the disease. A limitation is that a vast majority of patients with precursor disease, especially low-risk MGUS, will never progress to myeloma in their lifetime, and treating these patients is not only unnecessary but may be potentially harmful. The challenge is to identify a subset of patients with the precursor state that would definitely progress to myeloma and in whom interventions will have a meaningful impact. As our understanding of the molecular and genetic processes improves, these studies will guide the selection of high-risk patients more appropriately and ultimately direct a tailored management strategy to either delay progression to symptomatic myeloma or even "cure" a person at this premalignant stage. ©2012 AACR.

  3. Cytology and Human Papillomavirus Testing 6 to 12 Months after ASCUS or LSIL Cytology in Organized Screening To Predict High-Grade Cervical Neoplasia between Screening Rounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjøborg, Katrine D.; Nygård, Mari; Røysland, Kjetil; Campbell, Suzanne; Alfsen, G. Cecilie; Jonassen, Christine M.

    2012-01-01

    We carried out a prospective study comparing the performance of human papillomavirus (HPV) E6/E7 mRNA (PreTect HPV-Proofer; NorChip, Klokkarstua, Norway) and DNA (Amplicor HPV test; Roche Diagnostics, Basel, Switzerland) triage testing of women 6 to 12 months after atypical-squamous-cells-of-undetermined-significance (ASCUS) or low-grade-squamous-intraepithelial-lesion (LSIL) cytology in organized screening to predict high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia of grade 2 or worse (CIN2+) between screening rounds. Between January 2005 and April 2008, 692 study women with screening-detected ASCUS/LSIL cytology 6 to 12 months earlier returned for HPV mRNA and DNA testing and repeat cytology. The median follow-up time was 3 years, using existing health care facilities. Follow-up test results were available for 625 women. Of the 145 CIN2+ cases detected during the study period, 95 (65.5%) were HPV mRNA positive 6 to 12 months after screening-detected ASCUS/LSIL, 44 (30.4%) were HPV mRNA negative, and 6 (4.1%) were invalid. The corresponding HPV DNA results were 139 (95.9%), 5 (3.4%), and 1 (0.7%), respectively. The cumulative incidences of CIN2+ 3 years after a negative HPV mRNA and DNA test were 10.3% (95% confidence interval [CI], 7.2 to 13.3%) and 1.8% (95% CI, 0.0 to 3.6%), respectively. The cumulative incidences of CIN2+ 3 years after positive HPV mRNA and DNA tests were 52.8% (95% CI, 40.1 to 60.1%) and 41.3% (95% CI, 35.5 to 46.6%), respectively. In conclusion, both positive HPV mRNA and DNA test results have a high enough long-term prediction of CIN2+ risk to consider referral to colposcopy as good practice when performed in delayed triage of women with ASCUS/LSIL cytology. In addition, the low CIN2+ risk among women with a negative Amplicor HPV test in our study confirms its safe use in a clinical setting. PMID:22518869

  4. Immunocytoexpression profile of ProExC in smears interpreted as ASC-US, ASC-H, and cervical intraepithelial lesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeynep Tosuner

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: We aimed to investigate the immunocytoexpression profiles of a novel assay ProEx C for topoisomerase II alpha (TOP2A and minichromosome maintenance protein 2 (MCM2 in abnormal interpreted smears. Settings and Design: Screening programs with Papanicolaou smear and high risk group human papilloma virus testing have yielded a dramatic reduction of cervical cancer incidence. However, both of these tests have limited specificity for the detection of clinically significant cervical high grade lesions. ProEx C for topoisomerase II alpha (TOP2A and minichromosome maintenance protein 2 (MCM2 has been considered to have tight association with high grade intraepithelial lesions. Materials and Methods: A total number of 54 SurePath cervical cytology specimens of patients previously interpreted as atypical squamous cells-undetermined significance (ASC-US, atypical squamous cells-cannot exclude high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (ASC-H, low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL, and high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL were included in our study. Results and Conclusions: ProEx C was positive in 14 of HSILs (100%, 3 of 19 LSILs (16%, 2 of 4 ASC-Hs, and none of ASC-USs (0%. The ProEx C test showed very intense nuclear staining in all cytologically abnormal cells. Further studies are indicated to evaluate the diagnostic role of ProEx C.

  5. Ascus dysgenesis in hybrid crosses of Neurospora and Sordaria ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    DURGADAS P. Kasbekar

    2017-07-04

    Jul 4, 2017 ... Ascus dysgenesis in hybrid crosses of Neurospora and Sordaria. (Sordariaceae). DURGADAS P. KASBEKAR. ∗. Centre for DNA Fingerprinting and Diagnostics, Hyderabad 500 001, India. *E-mail: kas@cdfd.org.in. Received 16 September 2016; revised 10 November 2016; accepted 10 November 2016; ...

  6. Association between metformin use and transformation of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance to multiple myeloma in U.S. veterans with diabetes mellitus: a population-based cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Su-Hsin; Luo, Suhong; O’Brian, Katiuscia K.; Thomas, Theodore S.; Colditz, Graham A.; Carlsson, Nils P.; Carson, Kenneth R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Multiple myeloma (MM) is one of the most common hematologic malignancies in the United States and is consistently preceded by monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS). Methods A retrospective cohort of patients in the U.S. Veterans Health Administration database diagnosed with MGUS between 1, October, 1999 and 31, December, 2009 and diabetes mellitus prior to their MGUS diagnosis was identified and followed through 6, August, 2013. Patient-level clinical data were reviewed to verify diagnoses and to abstract data on size of baseline M-protein and type of MGUS, i.e., immunoglobulin (Ig) subtype or light-chain, when available. Metformin users were defined as patients that were prescribed metformin for at least 4 years, with no single break between consecutive prescriptions ≥6 months. Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox models were used to analyze the association between metformin use and the progression of MGUS to MM. Findings The analytic cohort consisted of 2,003 MGUS patients with a median follow-up time of 69 months. Within the analytic cohort, 463 metformin users (23·1%) were identified. Among the metformin users, 13 patients progressed to MM, while 74 patients progressed to MM among the non-metformin users. Metformin use was associated with a reduced risk of transformation to MM (Hazard ratio, HR: 0·47; 95% confidence interval, CI: 0·25–0·87). Interpretation For diabetics diagnosed with MGUS, metformin use for 4 years or longer was associated with a reduced risk of transformation of MGUS to MM. Prospective studies are required to determine whether this association is causal and whether these results can be extrapolated to non-diabetics. PMID:26034780

  7. Addition of Rice Bran Arabinoxylan to Curcumin Therapy May Be of Benefit to Patients With Early-Stage B-Cell Lymphoid Malignancies (Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance, Smoldering Multiple Myeloma, or Stage 0/1 Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golombick, Terry; Diamond, Terrence H.; Manoharan, Arumugam; Ramakrishna, Rajeev

    2016-01-01

    Hypothesis. Prior studies on patients with early B-cell lymphoid malignancies suggest that early intervention with curcumin may lead to delay in progressive disease and prolonged survival. These patients are characterized by increased susceptibility to infections. Rice bran arabinoxylan (Ribraxx) has been shown to have immunostimulatory, anti-inflammatory, and proapoptotic effects. We postulated that addition of Ribraxx to curcumin therapy may be of benefit. Study design. Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS)/smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM) or stage 0/1 chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) patients who had been on oral curcumin therapy for a period of 6 months or more were administered both curcumin (as Curcuforte) and Ribraxx. Methods. Ten MGUS/SMM patients and 10 patients with stage 0/1 CLL were administered 6 g of curcumin and 2 g Ribraxx daily. Blood samples were collected at baseline and at 2-month intervals for a period of 6 months, and various markers were monitored. MGUS/SMM patients included full blood count (FBC); paraprotein; free light chains/ratio; C-reactive protein (CRP)and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR); B2 microglobulin and immunological markers. Markers monitored for stage 0/1 CLL were FBC, CRP and ESR, and immunological markers. Results. Of 10 MGUS/SMM patients,5 (50%) were neutropenic at baseline, and the Curcuforte/Ribraxx combination therapy showed an increased neutrophil count, varying between 10% and 90% among 8 of the 10 (80%) MGUS/SMM patients. An additional benefit of the combination therapy was the potent effect in reducing the raised ESR in 4 (44%) of the MGUS/SMM patients. Conclusion. Addition of Ribraxx to curcumin therapy may be of benefit to patients with early-stage B-cell lymphoid malignancies. PMID:27154182

  8. Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance, smoldering multiple myeloma, and curcumin: a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled cross-over 4g study and an open-label 8g extension study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golombick, Terry; Diamond, Terrence H; Manoharan, Arumugam; Ramakrishna, Rajeev

    2012-05-01

    Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) and smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM) represent useful models for studying multiple myeloma precursor disease, and for developing early intervention strategies. Administering a 4g dose of curcumin, we performed a randomised, double-blind placebo-controlled cross-over study, followed by an open-label extension study using an 8g dose to assess the effect of curcumin on FLC response and bone turnover in patients with MGUS and SMM. 36 patients (19 MGUS and 17 SMM) were randomised into two groups: one received 4g curcumin and the other 4g placebo, crossing over at 3 months. At completion of the 4g arm, all patients were given the option of entering an open-label, 8g dose extension study. Blood and urine samples were collected at specified intervals for specific marker analyses. Group values are expressed as mean ± 1 SD. Data from different time intervals within groups were compared using Student's paired t-test. 25 patients completed the 4g cross-over study and 18 the 8g extension study. Curcumin therapy decreased the free light-chain ratio (rFLC), reduced the difference between clonal and nonclonal light-chain (dFLC) and involved free light-chain (iFLC). uDPYD, a marker of bone resorption, decreased in the curcumin arm and increased on the placebo arm. Serum creatinine levels tended to diminish on curcumin therapy. These findings suggest that curcumin might have the potential to slow the disease process in patients with MGUS and SMM. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Risk of high-grade cervical dysplasia and gynaecological malignancies following the cytologic diagnosis of atypical endocervical cells of undetermined significance: a retrospective study of a state-wide screening population in Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munro, Aime; Williams, Vincent; Semmens, James; Leung, Yee; Stewart, Colin J R; Codde, Jim; Spilsbury, Katrina; Steel, Nerida; Cohen, Paul; O'leary, Peter

    2015-06-01

    In 2006, Australia adopted a revised cervical cytology terminology system, known as the Australian Modified Bethesda System (AMBS). One substantial change in the AMBS was the introduction of the diagnostic category of atypical endocervical cells (AEC) of undetermined significance. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence of histologically confirmed high-grade cervical dysplasia (cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia (CIN) grades 2 and 3 and adenocarcinoma in situ (ACIS)), cervical carcinoma and endometrial carcinoma in women presenting with AEC on cervical cytology. A seven-year retrospective study examining clinical outcomes of women with AEC on a screening cervical smear. Cytology and histology results were extracted from the Western Australia Cervical Screening Registry, and time-to-event analysis was used to predict the odds of having or developing in situ and invasive neoplasia. AEC was reported in index smears from 0.093% (584/622754) women during the study period. No follow-up was available in 35 AEC cases. Sixty-five of the remaining 549 women (11.8%) had, or developed, high-grade cervical dysplasia within five years of their index AEC diagnosis. Endometrial cancer was diagnosed in 21 women and cervical cancer in four women during the follow-up period. Cytologic demonstration of AEC requires careful gynaecologic evaluation, particularly in younger women who may be found to have either high-grade squamous (CIN) or glandular (ACIS) lesions, while in older women, the possibility of endometrial neoplasia needs to be considered. © 2015 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  10. Risk of Japanese carriers of hyperphosphorylated paratarg-7, the first autosomal-dominantly inherited risk factor for hematological neoplasms, to develop monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance and multiple myeloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grass, Sandra; Iida, Shinsuke; Wikowicz, Aleksandra; Preuss, Klaus-Dieter; Inagaki, Atsushi; Shimizu, Kazuyuki; Ziepert, Marita; Ueda, Ryuzo; Pfreundschuh, Michael

    2011-03-01

    Hyperphosphorylated paratarg-7 (pP-7) is a frequent target of paraproteins in German patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS)/multiple myeloma (MM). The frequency of MGUS/MM is lower in Japan than in Europe. As pP-7, the first molecularly defined autosomal-dominant risk factor for any hematological neoplasm, is inherited in a dominant fashion, we determined the incidence of the pP-7 carrier state in a Japanese population, and compared the frequency of pP-7-specific paraproteins and the pP-7 carrier state in Japanese and German patients with MGUS/MM. Peripheral blood from 111 Japanese patients with MGUS/MM and 278 healthy blood donors was analyzed for the pP-7 carrier state by isoelectric focusing and for pP-7-specific antibodies by ELISA. The Japanese group was compared with 252 German MGUS/MM patients and 200 healthy controls. Five of 111 (4.5%) Japanese and 35/252 (13.9%) German IgA/IgG MGUS/MM patients had a pP-7-specific paraprotein (P=0.009). The prevalence of healthy pP-7 carriers in the Japanese study group was 1/278 (0.36%), whereas it was 4/200 in the German group (P=0.166). The relative risk for pP-7 carriers developing MGUS/MM had an odds ratio of 13.1 in the Japanese and 7.9 in the German group. In conclusion, the fraction of pP-7 carriers with a pP-7-specific paraprotein is lower among Japanese than in German patients with MGUS/MM, but pP-7 carriers in both ethnic groups have a high risk of developing MGUS/MM. © 2011 Japanese Cancer Association.

  11. The impact of atypia/follicular lesion of undetermined significance on the rate of malignancy in thyroid fine-needle aspiration: evaluation of the Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broome, James T; Solorzano, Carmen C

    2011-12-01

    The Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology (BSRTC) was developed to refine definitions and improve clinical communication and management. This study evaluates the impact of the BSRTC in a large cohort of patients undergoing thyroidectomy before and after its adoption at a single institution. The records from 469 patients in the pre-BSRTC (n = 187) and post-BSRTC (n = 282) periods were reviewed. Cytologic categories in group 1 included nondiagnostic, benign, follicular/Hürthle neoplasm, suspicious for malignancy, and malignant. Atypia/follicular lesion of undetermined significance (AUS/FLUS) was included in group 2. The percentage of each fine-needle aspiration (FNA) category, malignancy rate per category, and rate of AUS/FLUS utilization were calculated. Group 1 FNA results included 3% (n = 6) nondiagnostic, 48% (n = 89) benign, 17% (n = 32) follicular/Hürthle, 13% (n = 25) suspicious for malignancy, and 19% (n = 35) malignant. Group 2 results included 4% (n = 11) nondiagnostic, 34% (n = 96) benign, 29% (n = 82) AUS/FLUS, 12% (n = 33) follicular/Hürthle, 10% (n = 29) suspicious for malignancy, and 11% (n = 31) malignant. The rate of cancer changed from 25% to 36% for follicular/Hürthle lesions. AUS/FLUS was utilized in 154 of 1095(14%) FNAs reviewed with a malignancy rate of 20%. The new AUS/FLUS category was used more often than recommended (14%) with a higher than expected rate of malignancy (20%). Rigorous cytopathology to histopathology correlation is needed to accurately reflect the malignancy rates of the different BSRTC categories at each individual institution. Clinical management should be tailored based on such institutional findings. Copyright © 2011 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Prevalência das lesões intra-epiteliais de alto grau em pacientes com citologia com diagnóstico persistente de ASCUS Prevalence of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions in patients with persistent cytological diagnosis of ASCUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Rangel da Veiga

    2006-02-01

    ASCUS é de cerca de 12%. Não foi possível evidenciar maior probabilidade de LIAG/câncer em qualquer das faixas etárias analisadas, porém este resultado pode ter sido limitado pelo pequeno tamanho amostral.PURPOSE: to determine the prevalence of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL and cancer in women with cytological diagnosis of persistent ASCUS (atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance for 6 months in the last 7 years. We also assessed if age could be a predictive factor for presence of HSIL/cancer in this group. METHODS: we included 215 cases of non-pregnant and HIV-seronegative women with cytological diagnosis of persistent ASCUS (unespecific with at least 6 months of interval between smears. This cytological diagnosis was compared to histological diagnosis obtained by biopsy (large loop excision of the transformation zone or cone biopsies, and considered negative when colposcopy was satisfactory without lesions or, when unsatisfactory, no lesion was detected after at least one cytological and colposcopic follow-up. RESULTS: among the 215 cases, 49.3% had negative results (CI 95%: 42.6-55.9. The prevalence of histological confirmed low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion was 38.6% (CI 95%: 32.1- 45.1 and HSIL was 10.7% (CI 95%: 6.5-14.8. Cases of cancer were found in 1.4% of patients (CI 95%: 0-2.9. We could not find a significant difference between the prevalence of HSIL/cancer according to age group using the cutoff point of 35 years. CONCLUSION: HSIL/cancer prevalence observed in this study has shown the risk of finding this kind of lesions in about 12% of women assisted in our public health system with two cytological diagnosis of ASCUS. A higher probability of HSIL/cancer in the different age groups was not found but this result was limited by our small sample size.

  13. The ASCUS/LSIL Triage Study for Cervical Cancer (ALTS) | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ALTS was a clinical trial to find the best way to help women and their doctors decide what to do about the mildly abnormal and very common Pap test results known as ASCUS and LSIL. | ALTS was a clinical trial to find the best way to help women and their doctors decide what to do about the mildly abnormal and very common Pap test results known as ASCUS and LSIL.

  14. Suicide and undetermined deaths among youths and young adults in Latin America: comparison with the 10 major developed countries--a source of hidden suicides?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, Colin; Hean, Sarah

    2008-01-01

    In Latin American (LA) and the major developed countries' (MDC) suicide and undetermined deaths are analyzed as methods of suicide and the number of undetermined deaths are similar, possibly containing hidden suicides. The goal was to test the likelihood that LA cultural attitudes lead to higher undetermined rates and more hidden suicides. We used 3-year WHO average mortality data to compare LA and MDC mortality by age and gender, and chi2 tests to examine any differences. In 13 LA countries younger-aged (15-34) men and women's suicides were higher than all-age rates, and undetermined deaths exceeded the suicide rates. Nine LA countries had significantly more undetermined younger-aged male deaths than females. Sixteen of 18 LA countries had significantly higher undetermined death rates than the MDC. LA younger-aged malefs24 146s differential suicide: Undetermined rates indicated they may contain substantial numbers of hidden suicides. Inadvertently, cultural attitudes to suicide may hinder prevention.

  15. Analysis of thymidine kinase serum levels by novel method DiviTum in multiple myeloma and monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance - comparison with imaging methods 99mTc-MIBI scintigraphy and 18F-FDG PET/CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacovsky, Jaroslav; Myslivecek, Miroslav; Minarik, Jiri; Scudla, Vlastimil; Pika, Tomas; Zapletalova, Jana; Petrova, Pavla; Bartkova, Margita; Adam, Tomas; Gronowitz, Simon J

    2015-03-01

    The study aimed at comparing two methods for evaluating thymidinekinase TK in serum - an older RIA method and novel DiviTum - in patients with MM and MGUS, and also comparing them with biochemical markers and degree of activity evaluated by imaging methods 99mTc-MIBI scintigraphy and 18F-FDG PET/CT. Serum thymidinekinase TK levels were evaluated by DiviTum and an RIA method (TK REA kit by Immunotech);The study analyzed correlation of TK activity in serum with biochemical markers reflecting activity of MM: β2-m, LDH, the ratio of kappa to lambda (κ/λ) free light chains and percentage of bone marrow plasma cells (BMPC). 99mTc-MIBI scintigraphy and 18F-FDG PET/CT were performed at the time of diagnosis. The degree of activity was expressed semiquantitatively. Scans were classified as 0 (normal activity), 1 (diffuse positivity) or 2 (focal positivity). We found a strong positive correlation between TK in serum evaluated by DiviTum and by TK REA.. The DiviTum analytic method extended the detection range and was able to detect higher levels of TK than the RIA method. DiviTum technique found positive correlation with β2-m (r = 0.497) and LDH (r = 0.502) and moderate positive correlation with BMPC (r = 0.368). Significantly higher TK values measured by TK REA and DiviTum in the group of patients with MM (stages I, II or III) than in those with MGUS. Increased TK levels were observed in MIBI- or PET/CT-positive patients. Analysis of repeated measurements of TK in serum during treatment of MM patients found a correlation between change in TK measured by DiviTum and LDH during treatment. Analysis revealed a significant correlation between TK in serum and LDH, β2-m and BMPC. Increased levels of TK in serum were observed in MIBI- or PET/CT-positive patients. Combination of positivity of imaging methods which can localize active tumor lesions and increased levels of TK in serum can have an impact on decision-making and optimization of the therapeutic approach.

  16. Addition of Rice Bran Arabinoxylan to Curcumin Therapy May Be of Benefit to Patients With Early-Stage B-Cell Lymphoid Malignancies (Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance, Smoldering Multiple Myeloma, or Stage 0/1 Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia): A Preliminary Clinical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golombick, Terry; Diamond, Terrence H; Manoharan, Arumugam; Ramakrishna, Rajeev

    2016-06-01

    Hypothesis Prior studies on patients with early B-cell lymphoid malignancies suggest that early intervention with curcumin may lead to delay in progressive disease and prolonged survival. These patients are characterized by increased susceptibility to infections. Rice bran arabinoxylan (Ribraxx) has been shown to have immunostimulatory, anti-inflammatory, and proapoptotic effects. We postulated that addition of Ribraxx to curcumin therapy may be of benefit. Study design Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS)/smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM) or stage 0/1 chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) patients who had been on oral curcumin therapy for a period of 6 months or more were administered both curcumin (as Curcuforte) and Ribraxx. Methods Ten MGUS/SMM patients and 10 patients with stage 0/1 CLL were administered 6 g of curcumin and 2 g Ribraxx daily. Blood samples were collected at baseline and at 2-month intervals for a period of 6 months, and various markers were monitored. MGUS/SMM patients included full blood count (FBC); paraprotein; free light chains/ratio; C-reactive protein (CRP)and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR); B2 microglobulin and immunological markers. Markers monitored for stage 0/1 CLL were FBC, CRP and ESR, and immunological markers. Results Of 10 MGUS/SMM patients,5 (50%) were neutropenic at baseline, and the Curcuforte/Ribraxx combination therapy showed an increased neutrophil count, varying between 10% and 90% among 8 of the 10 (80%) MGUS/SMM patients. An additional benefit of the combination therapy was the potent effect in reducing the raised ESR in 4 (44%) of the MGUS/SMM patients. Conclusion Addition of Ribraxx to curcumin therapy may be of benefit to patients with early-stage B-cell lymphoid malignancies. © The Author(s) 2016.

  17. Contrast enhanced ultrasound in CT-undetermined focal liver lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandrose, Sebastian; Karstrup, S.; Gerke, Oke

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the diagnostic accuracy of CEUS in the diagnosis of focal liver lesions, which were undetermined at CT scan. Materials and Methods: From January 2010 to December 2010, patients with CT-undetermined focal liver lesions were included in this study...

  18. HPV DNA testing improves CIN2+ risk stratification and detection of CIN2+ in delayed triage of ASCUS and LSIL. A population-based follow-up study from Western Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budal, Elisabeth B; Haugland, Hans K; Skar, Robert; Mæhle, Bjørn O; Bjørge, Tone; Vintermyr, Olav K

    2014-01-01

    In Norway, Pap smears with atypical squamous cells of uncertain significance (ASCUS) and low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL) are triaged after 6 months. The aim of the study was to evaluate effects of implementing human papillomavirus (HPV) test (2005) in delayed triage of ASCUS and LSIL in a cohort of women from Western Norway. After a survey of 119,469 cervical Pap smears during 2005–2007, a total of 1055 women with an index ASCUS or LSIL were included in the study and followed up for 3–6 years with respect to progression into cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or worse (CIN2+). Overall sensitivity for detection of CIN2+ with HPV testing and cytology was 96% and 72%, respectively. The sensitivity for detection of CIN2+ was not affected by age, but the specificity of the HPV test increased with age. Thus, for the age groups <34 years, 34–50 years, and >50 years, the specificity of a positive HPV test to detect CIN2+ was 47%, 71%, and 82%, respectively. Positive predictive values for CIN2+ in women with positive cytology, positive HPV test, negative cytology, negative HPV test, or negative HPV and cytology tests were 52%, 41%, 8%, 1.5%, and 0.4%, respectively. HPV testing resulted in a net 22% increased detection of CIN2+. Fifty-six percent of CIN2+ was detected at an earlier time point with HPV testing in triage. Implementation of HPV testing in delayed triage of ASCUS and LSIL improved the stratification of CIN2+ risk and increased CIN2+ detection and at an earlier time point than with triage by cytology alone

  19. Patients With Undetermined Stroke Have Increased Atrial Fibrosis: A Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Ana Catarina; Alves, Pedro; Inácio, Nuno; Marto, João Pedro; Viana-Baptista, Miguel; Pinho-E-Melo, Teresa; Ferro, José M; Almeida, Ana G

    2018-03-01

    Some patients with ischemic strokes that are currently classified as having an undetermined cause may have structural or functional changes of the left atrium (LA) and left atrial appendage, which increase their risk of thromboembolism. We compared the LA and left atrial appendage of patients with different ischemic stroke causes using cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. We prospectively included a consecutive sample of ischemic stroke patients. Patients with structural changes on echocardiography currently considered as causal for stroke in the Trial of ORG 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment (TOAST) classification were excluded. A 3-T cardiac magnetic resonance imaging was performed. One hundred and eleven patients were evaluated. Patients with an undetermined cause had a higher percentage of LA fibrosis ( P =0.03) than patients with other stroke causes and lower, although not statistically significant, values of LA ejection fraction. Patients with atrial fibrillation and undetermined stroke cause showed a similar value of atrial fibrosis. The LA phenotype that was found in patients with undetermined cause supports the hypothesis that an atrial disease may be associated with stroke. © 2018 American Heart Association, Inc.

  20. Autoimmune haemolytic anaemia and fever of undetermined origin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Autoimmune haemolytic anaemia and fever of undetermined origin as presenting manifestations of Hodgkin disease: A case report. ... Subjects and Methods: We report a 14 year-old male adolescent who presented with protracted recurrent fever, as well as clinical and laboratory findings suggestive of autoimmune ...

  1. Pediatric acute liver failure of undetermined cause: A research workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Estella M; Horslen, Simon P; Behrens, Edward M; Doo, Edward

    2017-03-01

    Pediatric acute liver failure (PALF) is a potentially devastating condition that occurs in previously healthy children of all ages and frequently leads to a rapid clinical deterioration. An identified cause for liver injury is lacking in approximately 30% of cases. Children with undetermined diagnosis have lower spontaneous survival and higher rates of transplantation and death than other diagnostic groups. A single-day workshop sponsored by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases brought together clinicians and basic scientists to integrate aligned research findings and develop a foundation for new mechanistic studies and future treatment trials. The clinical phenotype of indeterminate PALF shares important similarities to the hyperinflammatory state characteristic of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) and macrophage activation syndrome (MAS). A failure of cytotoxic T cells to limit or contract inflammatory responses may propagate injury and lead to a local and systemic milieu that does not support normal hepatic regeneration. Evidence was presented that bone marrow (BM)-derived Sinusoidal endothelial cell PROgenitor Cells (sprocs) play a vital role in hepatic regeneration. Overwhelming systemic inflammatory responses may suppress mobilization of BM sprocs and dampen hepatic recovery. Experience gained through treatment trials of HLH and MAS in childhood may inform study design for therapy of PALF. Successful approaches to limiting neuroinflammation through reduction of systemic inflammation and standardized neuroprotection protocols that limit glial injury could significantly improve intact survival. Finally, given that PALF is a rare disease, investigative efforts must include broad multicenter collaboration and careful stewardship of biorepository specimens. (Hepatology 2017;65:1026-1037). © 2016 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  2. A Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of Undetermined Origin in a Dog

    OpenAIRE

    Kuwata, Kazunori; Shibutani, Makoto; Kemmochi, Yusuke; Taniai, Eriko; Morita, Reiko; Ogawa, Bunichiro; Mitsumori, Kunitoshi

    2010-01-01

    In this report, we describe a case of neuroendocrine carcinoma of undetermined origin in a dog. Necropsy revealed scattered small neoplastic nodules in the bilateral lungs and a small nodule in the parapancreatic lymph node. Histopathologically, both pulmonary and lymph nodal nodules showed a similar histologic pattern, with neoplastic cells being arranged in diffusely proliferating sheet-like cellular nests separated by variable amounts of fibrous septa, sometimes forming rosettes and duct-l...

  3. Clinical Prediction of Suicide and Undetermined Death: A Pseudo-Prospective Clinical and Medico-Legal Study of Substance Abusers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brådvik, Louise; Berglund, Mats; Frank, Arne; Löwenhielm, Peter

    2017-03-17

    This study examines aspects of prediction of suicide and death of undetermined intent. We investigated all consecutive, autopsied patients between 1993 and 1997 who had been in contact with the Addiction Centre in Malmö from 1968 onwards. The staff was asked, shortly after autopsy but before they knew of the manner of death, if they thought the patient had committed suicide. The case records were blindly evaluated, and toxicological autopsy findings for alcohol in blood samples investigated. The specificity of prediction was 83% and significantly more often correct than the sensitivity, which was only 45% for suicide and for suicide/death of undetermined intent (93% versus 39%). Suicidal communication was more often considered non-serious before death of undetermined intent than before suicide. The former could be predicted by ideation but not by suicide attempt reported in case records, unlike suicide, which was predicted by both. The undetermined group also showed higher levels of alcohol in the blood at autopsy. We concluded that more serious clinical investigation of suicidal feelings, which may be hidden and not taken seriously, and treatment of alcohol use disorders with active follow-up appear urgent in the efforts to prevent suicide.

  4. Recurrent Embolic Strokes of Undetermined Source in a Patient with Extreme Lipoprotein(a Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary Bulwa

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Lipoprotein(a is a plasma lipoprotein and known cardiovascular risk factor most recently implicated in the development of high-risk carotid atherosclerotic plaques without significant carotid stenosis. We present a case of a young African-American female with recurrent embolic strokes of undetermined source. After our thorough investigation we identified the link between a small, irregular plaque in the right internal carotid artery and an extremely elevated plasma level of lipoprotein(a as the source of her embolic strokes.

  5. Pulmonary and Ileal Tuberculosis Presenting as Fever of Undetermined Origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surewad, Gajanan; Lobo, Ivona

    2014-01-01

    A 12-year-old girl presented with prolonged fever with no obvious focus on either history or clinical examination. High-resolution computerized tomography of the chest revealed the ‘tree-in-bud’ sign in the right lung and necrotic mediastinal lymph nodes. Barium meal showed multiple ileal strictures. The child was treated with anti-tuberculous therapy for six months. At follow-up six months later, the child had gained weight and had no signs of intestinal obstruction. Tuberculosis is a common cause of fever of undetermined origin and should be investigated for especially in countries with a high prevalence. PMID:25478420

  6. Progressive myoclonic epilepsies: definitive and still undetermined causes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franceschetti, Silvana; Michelucci, Roberto; Canafoglia, Laura; Striano, Pasquale; Gambardella, Antonio; Magaudda, Adriana; Tinuper, Paolo; La Neve, Angela; Ferlazzo, Edoardo; Gobbi, Giuseppe; Giallonardo, Anna Teresa; Capovilla, Giuseppe; Visani, Elisa; Panzica, Ferruccio; Avanzini, Giuliano; Tassinari, Carlo Alberto; Bianchi, Amedeo; Zara, Federico

    2014-02-04

    To define the clinical spectrum and etiology of progressive myoclonic epilepsies (PMEs) in Italy using a database developed by the Genetics Commission of the Italian League against Epilepsy. We collected clinical and laboratory data from patients referred to 25 Italian epilepsy centers regardless of whether a positive causative factor was identified. PMEs of undetermined origins were grouped using 2-step cluster analysis. We collected clinical data from 204 patients, including 77 with a diagnosis of Unverricht-Lundborg disease and 37 with a diagnosis of Lafora body disease; 31 patients had PMEs due to rarer genetic causes, mainly neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses. Two more patients had celiac disease. Despite extensive investigation, we found no definitive etiology for 57 patients. Cluster analysis indicated that these patients could be grouped into 2 clusters defined by age at disease onset, age at myoclonus onset, previous psychomotor delay, seizure characteristics, photosensitivity, associated signs other than those included in the cardinal definition of PME, and pathologic MRI findings. Information concerning the distribution of different genetic causes of PMEs may provide a framework for an updated diagnostic workup. Phenotypes of the patients with PME of undetermined cause varied widely. The presence of separate clusters suggests that novel forms of PME are yet to be clinically and genetically characterized.

  7. A neuroendocrine carcinoma of undetermined origin in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwata, Kazunori; Shibutani, Makoto; Kemmochi, Yusuke; Taniai, Eriko; Morita, Reiko; Ogawa, Bunichiro; Mitsumori, Kunitoshi

    2010-09-01

    In this report, we describe a case of neuroendocrine carcinoma of undetermined origin in a dog. Necropsy revealed scattered small neoplastic nodules in the bilateral lungs and a small nodule in the parapancreatic lymph node. Histopathologically, both pulmonary and lymph nodal nodules showed a similar histologic pattern, with neoplastic cells being arranged in diffusely proliferating sheet-like cellular nests separated by variable amounts of fibrous septa, sometimes forming rosettes and duct-like structures. Scattered small necrotic foci and invasion to fibrous septa were typically observed. Neoplastic cells showed round to oval-shaped nuclei with prominent nucleoli and abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm that were positive for Grimelius' silver impregnation staining and immunostaining with cytokeratin, synaptophysin, vasoactive intestinal peptide and chromogranin A, indicative of the development of a neuroendocrine carcinoma. However, judging from the distribution of tumors lacking the portion suggestive of the primary site in any organ examined, as well as no further indication of differentiation potential of neoplastic cells, this tumor has so far been diagnosed as neuroendocrine carcinoma of undetermined origin.

  8. Effectiveness of two strategies to follow-up ASC-US and LSIL screening results in The Netherlands using repeat cytology with or without additional hrHPV testing: a retrospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siebers, A.G.; Arbyn, M.; Melchers, W.J.; Kemenade, F.J. van; Vedder, J.E.; Linden, H. van der; Ballegooijen, M. van; Bekkers, R.L.; Bulten, J.

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of the study was to assess the effectiveness of repeat cytology with and without additional high-risk human papilloma virus (hrHPV) testing after atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance/low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (ASC-US/LSIL) screening results.

  9. Unilateral perinephric pseudocyst of undetermined origin in a dog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miles, K.G.; Jergens, A.E.

    1992-01-01

    Unilateral perinephric pseudocyst of undetermined origin was diagnosed in a 131/2 year old dog with a history of recurrent urinary tract infections. A presumptive diagnosis of pseudocyst was based on radiographic and sonographic findings. In survey radiographs, asymmetrical unilateral renomegaly was seen. The mass was anechoic. There was absence of opacification of the mass during excretory urography. A celiotomy was performed for removal of the perinephric mass, and histologic review of this structure confirmed it to be a pseudocyst. Perinephric accumulation of fluid is a rare condition in domestic animals. Seven examples of perinephric pseudocysts have been previously reported in the cat. Predominant clinical findings include progressive abdominal distension and nonspecific signs of renal disease. The presence of unilateral or bilateral renomegaly is a characteristic radiographic feature. This clinical report describes the first case of perinephric pseudocyst diagnosed in the dog

  10. The cause of cytopenia of undetermined significance can often be found by using next generation sequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jakob Werner; Husby, Simon; Grønbæk, Kirsten

    2017-01-01

    Patients with persistent cytopenia are frequently referred to the haematological departments , and a diagnosis of myelodysplastic syndrome is often suspected. After routine assessment including a broad range of blood tests, bone marrow biopsy, and cytogenetics, a definite diagnosis can still...

  11. NNDSS - Table II. Ehrlichiosis and Anaplasmosis, Ehrlichia ewingii infection to Undetermined

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Ehrlichiosis and Anaplasmosis, Ehrlichia ewingii infection to Undetermined - 2018. In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases...

  12. What an rRNA secondary structure tells about phylogeny of fungi in Ascomycota with emphasis on evolution of major types of ascus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Ying Zhuang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: RNA secondary structure is highly conserved throughout evolution. The higher order structure is fundamental in establishing important structure-function relationships. Nucleotide sequences from ribosomal RNA (rRNA genes have made a great contribution to our understanding of Ascomycota phylogeny. However, filling the gaps between molecular phylogeny and morphological assumptions based on ascus dehiscence modes and type of fruitbodies at the higher level classification of the phylum remains an unfulfilled task faced by mycologists. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We selected some major groups of Ascomycota to view their phylogenetic relationships based on analyses of rRNA secondary structure. Using rRNA secondary structural information, here, we converted nucleotide sequences into the structure ones over a 20-symbol code. Our structural analyses together with ancestral character state reconstruction produced reasonable phylogenetic position for the class Geoglossomycetes as opposed to the classic nucleotide analyses. Judging from the secondary structure analyses with consideration of mode of ascus dehiscence and the ability of forming fruitbodies, we draw a clear picture of a possible evolutionary route for fungal asci and some major groups of fungi in Ascomycota. The secondary structure trees show a more reasonable phylogenetic position for the class Geoglossomycetes. CONCLUSIONS: Our results illustrate that asci lacking of any dehiscence mechanism represent the most primitive type. Passing through the operculate and Orbilia-type asci, bitunicate asci occurred. The evolution came to the most advanced inoperculate type. The ascus-producing fungi might be derived from groups lacking of the capacity to form fruitbodies, and then evolved multiple times. The apothecial type of fruitbodies represents the ancestral state, and the ostiolar type is advanced. The class Geoglossomycetes is closely related to Leotiomycetes and Sordariomycetes

  13. Embolic stroke of undetermined source: a retrospective analysis from an Italian Stroke Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Masina

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The new clinical construct of embolic stroke of undetermined source (ESUS suggests that many cryptogenic strokes are related to minor-risk covert embolic cardiac sources or to embolus from non-occlusive plaques in the aortic arch or in the cerebral arteries. The authors analyzed the prevalence of ESUS in a real-life condition in Italy and compared the recurrence rates in cryptogenic strokes, cardioembolic strokes, and ESUS. The authors retrospectively reassessed according to ESUS criteria 391 consecutive admissions in a stroke unit where extensive diagnostic search was routinely performed. Recurrences in each stroke type within a 3-year follow-up period (mean time: 25.44 months - standard deviation: 9.42 were also compared. The prevalence of ESUS in the aforementioned cohort was 10.5%. All ESUS patients received antiplatelet agents. Warfarin was prescribed in 56.9% of cardioembolic strokes. The recurrence rate in ESUS patients was 4.4% per year, slightly higher than in cardioembolic strokes (3.5% and significantly higher than in cryptogenic non-ESUS (1.2% (P<0.0001. This is the first description of a cohort of ESUS patients in an Italian stroke unit. Patients with ESUS have a significantly higher risk of recurrence than in those with non-ESUS cryptogenic strokes, and slightly higher than in those with cardioembolic strokes. Results support the hypothesis of a more extensive diagnostic evaluation in cryptogenic strokes and the feasibility of such approach.

  14. Suicide or undetermined intent? A register-based study of signs of misclassification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björkenstam, Charlotte; Johansson, Lars-Age; Nordström, Peter; Thiblin, Ingemar; Fugelstad, Anna; Hallqvist, Johan; Ljung, Rickard

    2014-01-01

    Several studies have concluded that some deaths classified as undetermined intent are in fact suicides, and it is common in suicide research in Europe to include these deaths. Our aim was to investigate if information on background variables would be helpful in assessing if deaths classified as undetermined intent should be included in the analyses of suicides. We performed a register study of 31,883 deaths classified as suicides and 9,196 deaths classified as undetermined intent in Sweden from 1987 to 2011. We compared suicide deaths with deaths classified as undetermined intent with regard to different background variables such as sex, age, country of birth, marital status, prior inpatient care for self-inflicted harm, alcohol and drug abuse, psychiatric inpatient care, and use of psychotropics. We also performed a multivariate analysis with logistic regression. Our results showed differences in most studied background factors. Higher education was more common in suicides; hospitalization for self-inflicted harm was more common among female suicides as was prior psychiatric inpatient care. Deaths in foreign-born men were classified as undetermined intent in a higher degree and hospitalization for substance abuse was more common in undetermined intents of both sexes. Roughly 50% of both suicide and deaths classified as undetermined intent had a filled prescription of psychotropics during their last six months. Our multivariate analysis showed male deaths to more likely be classified as suicide than female: OR: 1.13 (1.07-1.18). The probability of a death being classified as suicide was also increased for individuals aged 15-24, being born in Sweden, individuals who were married, and for deaths after 1987-1992. By analyzing Sweden's unique high-validity population-based register data, we found several differences in background variables between deaths classified as suicide and deaths classified as undetermined intent. However, we were not able to clearly

  15. Evaluating the morphological changes of intracranial arteries and whole-brain perfusion in undetermined isolated vertigo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenxian; Feng, Youzhen; Lu, Weibiao; Xie, Xie; Xiong, Zhilin; Jing, Zhen; Cai, Xiangran; Huang, Li'an

    2016-11-15

    To determine the morphological changes of intracranial arteries and whole-brain perfusion in undetermined isolated vertigo (UIV) patients using 320-detector row computed tomography (CT). A total of 150 patients who underwent CT angiography (CTA) and CT perfusion (CTP) imaging were divided into UIV group and benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) group. Sixty individuals with sex- and age-matched without vertigo and cerebral diseases served as the control. The morphological changes of intracranial arteries, perfusion parameters and vascular risk factors (VRFs) were analyzed, calculated and compared. In UIV patients, hypertension (HT), hyperlipidemia and number of VRFs≥3 occurred more commonly (P<0.0125, respectively). The incidence of vertebral artery dominance (VAD), vertebral artery stenosis (VAS) and basilar artery curvature (BAC) were significantly higher (P<0.0125, respectively). HT was an independent risk predictor of non-VAD (OR: 5.411, 95%CI: 1.401; 20.900, P=0.014). HT and VAD associated with BAC served as risk predictors (OR: 4.081, 95%CI: 1.056;15.775, P=0.041 and OR: 6.284, 95%CI: 1.848; 21.365, P=0.003, respectively). The absolute difference in relative values of CTP parameters from cerebellum and brainstem were significantly different (P<0.05), and hypoperfusion was found in the territories of the non-VAD side and the BAC cohort (P<0.05, respectively). On the basis of multiple VRFs, morphological changes of vertebrobasilar artery (VBA) and the unilateral hypoperfusion of the cerebellum and brainstem, that acts as a herald for IV occurrence, which should be paid cautious attention to UIV patients. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Apixaban for treatment of embolic stroke of undetermined source (ATTICUS randomized trial): Rationale and study design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geisler, Tobias; Poli, Sven; Meisner, Christoph; Schreieck, Juergen; Zuern, Christine S; Nägele, Thomas; Brachmann, Johannes; Jung, Werner; Gahn, Georg; Schmid, Elisabeth; Bäezner, Hansjörg; Keller, Timea; Petzold, Gabor C; Schrickel, Jan-Wilko; Liman, Jan; Wachter, Rolf; Schön, Frauke; Schabet, Martin; Lindner, Alfred; Ludolph, Albert C; Kimmig, Hubert; Jander, Sebastian; Schlegel, Uwe; Gawaz, Meinrad; Ziemann, Ulf

    2017-12-01

    Rationale Optimal secondary prevention of embolic stroke of undetermined source is not established. The current standard in these patients is acetylsalicylic acid, despite high prevalence of yet undetected paroxysmal atrial fibrillation. Aim The ATTICUS randomized trial is designed to determine whether the factor Xa inhibitor apixaban administered within 7 days after embolic stroke of undetermined source, is superior to acetylsalicylic acid for prevention of new ischemic lesions documented by brain magnetic resonance imaging within 12 months after index stroke. Design Prospective, randomized, blinded, parallel-group, open-label, German multicenter phase III trial in approximately 500 patients with embolic stroke of undetermined source. A key inclusion criterion is the presence or the planned implantation of an insertable cardiac monitor. Patients are 1:1 randomized to apixaban or acetylsalicylic acid and treated for a 12-month period. It is an event-driven trial aiming for core-lab adjudicated primary outcome events. Study outcomes The primary outcome is the occurrence of at least one new ischemic lesion identified by axial T2-weighted FLAIR magnetic resonance imaging and/or axial DWI magnetic resonance imaging at 12 months when compared with the baseline magnetic resonance imaging. Key secondary outcomes are the combination of recurrent ischemic strokes, hemorrhagic strokes, systemic embolism; combination of MACE including recurrent stroke, myocardial infarction, and cardiovascular death and combination of major and clinically relevant non-major bleeding defined according to ISTH, and change of cognitive function and quality of life (EQ-5D, Stroke Impact Scale). Discussion Embolic stroke of undetermined source is caused by embolic disease and associated with a high risk of recurrent ischemic strokes and clinically silent cerebral ischemic lesions. ATTICUS will investigate the impact of atrial fibrillation detected by insertable cardiac monitor and the effects of

  17. Rates and Correlates of Undetermined Deaths among African Americans: Results from the National Violent Death Reporting System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huguet, Nathalie; Kaplan, Mark S.; McFarland, Bentson H.

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the factors associated with undetermined death classifications among African Americans. In this study, the rates of undetermined deaths were assessed, the prevalence of missing information was estimated, and whether the circumstances preceding death differ by race were examined. Data were derived from the 2005-2008 National…

  18. Prevention of cervical cancer in women with ASCUS in the Brazilian Unified National Health System: cost-effectiveness of the molecular biology method for HPV detection Prevenção de câncer de colo uterino em pacientes com ASCUS no Sistema Único de Saúde: custo-efetividade de método de biologia molecular para HPV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosekeila Simões Nomelini

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess the performance of PCR as a means of detecting HPV 16/18 compared to the single probe-based PCR for detecting high-risk HPV, and evaluate these methods for detecting cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN in follow-ups for ASCUS testing. It also compares the costs of cytology, PCR methods, colposcopy and biopsy in the Brazilian Unified National Health System. Of the 81 patients with ASCUS, 41 (50.6% tested positive for HPV 16/18 in PCR testing and 47 (58.02% tested positive for high-risk HPV with single probe-based PCR testing. The negative predictive value was 93.75% for HPV 16/18 PCR and 100% for single probe-based PCR in cases that progressed to high-grade CIN. The annual costs of patient referral were the following: R$2,144.52 for referral of patients with ASCUS cytology for colposcopy; R$6,307.44 for referral of patients with ASCUS cytology and PCR positive for HPV 16/18 or colposcopy; R$3,691.80 for referral of patients with ASCUS cytology with single probe-based PCR positive for high-risk HPV. Therefore, cost per user can be reduced by performing single probe-based PCR for high-risk HPV on patients with ASCUS.Os objetivos deste estudo foram avaliar o desempenho do PCR para detecção de HPV 16/18 versus PCR sonda única para a detecção de HPV de alto risco, avaliar estes métodos na detecção de neoplasia intraepitelial cervical (NIC no seguimento de ASCUS, e comparar os custos de citologia, métodos de PCR, colposcopia e biópsia no Sistema Único de Saúde. Das 81 pacientes com ASCUS, 41 (50,6% foram positivas para o HPV 16/18 PCR, e 47 (58,02% foram positivas para PCR sonda única para HPV de alto risco. O valor preditivo negativo foi de 93,75% para HPV 16/18 PCR e 100% para PCR sonda única em casos que evoluíram para NIC de alto grau. Os custos anuais encaminhando todas as pacientes com ASCUS para a colposcopia, encaminhando à colposcopia as pacientes com ASCUS e PCR positivo para HPV 16/18 e

  19. Embolic strokes of undetermined source in young adults: baseline characteristics and long-term outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Majander, N; Aarnio, K; Pirinen, J; Lumikari, T; Nieminen, T; Lehto, M; Sinisalo, J; Kaste, M; Tatlisumak, T; Putaala, J

    2018-03-01

    Embolic strokes of undetermined source (ESUS) are a recent entity, not yet thoroughly investigated in young stroke patients. The clinical characteristics and long-term risks of vascular events and all-cause mortality between young-onset ESUS and other aetiological subgroups were compared. Patients with ESUS were identified amongst the 1008 patients aged 15-49 years with first-ever ischaemic stroke in Helsinki Young Stroke Registry, and primary end-points were defined as recurrent stroke, composite vascular events and all-cause mortality. Cumulative 15-year risks for each end-point were analysed with life tables and adjusted risks were based on Cox proportional hazard analyses. Of the 971 eligible patients, 203 (20.9%) were classified as ESUS. They were younger (median age 40 years, interquartile range 32-46 vs. 45 years, 39-47), more often female (43.3% vs. 35.7%) and had fewer cardiovascular risk factors than other modified TOAST groups. With a median follow-up time of 10.1 years, ESUS patients had the second lowest cumulative risk of recurrent stroke and composite vascular events and lowest mortality compared to other TOAST groups. Large-artery atherosclerosis and small vessel disease carried significantly higher risk for recurrent stroke than did ESUS, whilst no difference appeared between cardioembolism from high-risk sources and ESUS. In our cohort, ESUS patients were younger and had milder cardiovascular risk factor burden and generally better long-term outcome compared to other causes of young-onset stroke. The comparable risk of recurrent stroke between ESUS and high-risk sources of cardioembolism might suggest similarities in their pathophysiology. © 2017 EAN.

  20. Risk factors for unnatural death: Fatal accidental intoxication, undetermined intent and suicide: Register follow-up in a criminal justice population with substance use problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, Martin O; Bradvik, Louise; Öjehagen, Agneta; Hakansson, Anders

    2016-05-01

    Risk factors for suicide and fatal accidental intoxication are extensively studied, while risk factors for intoxications/injuries of undetermined intent are less well known. The latter have shown an overlap with suicides, but also with fatal accidental intoxications. The objective was to analyze potential differences and similarities in the patterns of risk factors for accidental intoxications, injuries/intoxications with undetermined intent, and suicides, respectively. A follow-up register study was conducted, using data from ASI interviews with clients in the criminal justice system in Sweden (n=6744), followed in the National Causes of Death Register. A set of risk factors from the ASI interview were tested in bivariate analysis with the respective cause of death, yielding significant risk factors further analyzed in three Cox regression models. In Cox regression analyses, death from fatal accidental intoxication was associated with male gender (HR 4.09), use of heroin (HR 2.86), and use of cannabis (HR 1.94), and death from intoxication/injury of undetermined intent was associated with use of heroin (HR 3.48), binge drinking of alcohol (HR 2.46) and previous psychiatric hospitalization (HR 2.41), while negatively associated with depression (HR 0.33). Death from suicide was associated with previous suicide attempts (HR 2.78) and use of sedatives (HR 2.17). In this population of criminal justice clients with reported substance use problems, fatal injuries/intoxications with undetermined intent - like fatal accidental intoxications - appear to be associated with substance use variables, and cannot readily be assumed to represent the same background factors as suicide. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  1. A Comparison of Suicides and Undetermined Deaths by Poisoning among Women: An Analysis of the National Violent Death Reporting System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huguet, Nathalie; McFarland, Bentson H; Kaplan, Mark S

    2015-01-01

    The study compared the prevalence of common suicide risk factors between poisoning deaths classified as injuries of undetermined intent or suicides among women. Data were derived from the 2003-10 National Violent Death Reporting System. Multiple logistic regression assessed the factors associated with 799 undetermined deaths (relative to 3,233 suicides). Female decedents with lower education, a substance use problem, and a health problem were more likely to be classified as undetermined death. Older women, those with an intimate partner problem, financial problem, depressed mood, mental health problem, attempted suicide, and disclosed intent to die were less likely to be classified as undetermined death. The present study raises the possibility that many (perhaps most) undetermined female poisoning deaths are suicides.

  2. PET and PET/CT in tumour of undetermined origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia O, J.R.

    2007-01-01

    In this presentation the following conclusions were obtained regarding the use of PET and PET/CT in patient with cancer of unknown primary: 1. Detection of the primary one in 1/3 at 1/2 of patient. 2. It detects metastases in other places in 50%. 3. It changes the initial therapy planned in 1/3 at 1/2 of patient. 4. Useful in initial phases of protocol study to limit the other procedures. After standard evaluation. Before advanced protocol. 5. PET/CT study increases the % of primary detection, although in a non significant way vs. PET. 6. They are required more studies to value their utility to a more objective manner. (Author)

  3. Increased visceral adipose tissue as a potential risk factor in patients with embolic stroke of undetermined source (ESUS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antti T Muuronen

    Full Text Available The etiology of an ischemic stroke remains undetermined in 20-35% of cases and many patients do not have any of the conventional risk factors. Increased visceral adipose tissue (VAT is a suggested new risk factor for both carotid artery atherosclerosis (CAA and atrial fibrillation (AF, but its role in the remaining stroke population is unknown. We assessed the amount of VAT in patients with embolic stroke of undetermined source (ESUS after excluding major-risk cardioembolic sources, occlusive atherosclerosis, and lacunar stroke.Altogether 58 patients (mean age 57.7 ± 10.2 years, 44 men with ischemic stroke of unknown etiology but without CAA, known AF or small vessel disease underwent computed tomography angiography and assessment of VAT. For comparison VAT values from three different reference populations were used. Conventional risk factors (smoking, hypertension, diabetes, increased total and LDL-cholesterol, decreased HDL-cholesterol were also registered.Mean VAT area was significantly higher in stroke patients (205 ± 103 cm2 for men and 168 ± 99 cm2 for women compared to all reference populations (P < 0.01. 50% of male and 57% of female patients had an increased VAT area. In male patients, VAT was significantly higher despite similar body mass index (BMI. Increased VAT was more common than any of the conventional risk factors.Increased VAT was found in over half of our patients with ESUS suggesting it may have a role in the pathogenesis of thromboembolism in this selected group of patients.

  4. An inverse problem solution for undetermined electrostatic force microscopy setups using neural networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sacha, G M; Rodriguez, F B; Varona, P [Grupo de Neurocomputacion Biologica, Departamento de Ingenieria Informatica, Escuela Politecnica Superior, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, Madrid E-28049 (Spain)

    2009-02-25

    A technique that combines a theoretical description of the electrostatic interaction and artificial neural networks (ANNs) is used to solve an inverse problem in scanning probe microscopy setups. Electrostatic interaction curves calculated by the generalized image charge method are used to train and validate the ANN in order to estimate unknown magnitudes in highly undetermined setups. To illustrate this technique, we simultaneously estimate the tip-sample distance and the dielectric constant for a system composed of a tip scanning over a metallic nanowire. In a second example, we use this method to quantitatively estimate the dielectric constant for an even more undetermined system where the tip shape (characterized by three free parameters) is not known. Finally, the proposed method is validated with experimental data.

  5. Emerging Risk Factors for Recurrent Vascular Events in Patients With Embolic Stroke of Undetermined Source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Yuji; Yamashiro, Kazuo; Tanaka, Ryota; Kuroki, Takuma; Hira, Kenichiro; Kurita, Naohide; Urabe, Takao; Hattori, Nobutaka

    2016-11-01

    Underlying embolic causes diagnosed by transesophageal echocardiography could be implicated in mechanisms of embolic stroke of undetermined source. We aimed to explore factors, including underlying embolic causes, related to recurrent vascular events in embolic stroke of undetermined source. Patients who fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for embolic stroke of undetermined source and whose potential embolic sources were examined by transesophageal echocardiography were included. Recurrent vascular events, including ischemic stroke, cardiovascular and peripheral artery diseases, and vascular death, were retrospectively analyzed. Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was used to explore factors, including clinical characteristics, embolic causes on transesophageal echocardiography, and the Calcification in the Aortic Arch, Age, Multiple Infarction score (CAM), based on the degree of aortic arch calcification on chest radiograph (0-3 points), age (≥70 years; 1 point), and multiple infarctions on magnetic resonance imaging (multiple infarcts in 1, 2, or ≥3 territories of large intracranial arteries, 1, 2, or 3 points) associated with recurrent vascular events. A total of 177 patients (age, 64.1±14.2 years; 127 men) were enrolled. Thirty-one patients had recurrent vascular events (follow-up, 3.5±2.7 years; annualized rate, 5.0% per person-year). Among embolic causes on transesophageal echocardiography, incidence of recurrent vascular events was high in patients with large aortic arch plaques (7.5% per person-year). Diabetes mellitus (hazard ratio, 2.56; 95% confidence interval, 1.23-5.32; P=0.012) and CAM score grade (hazard ratio, 2.29; 95% confidence interval, 1.11-4.72; P=0.026) predicted recurrent vascular events. History of diabetes mellitus and the CAM score could be novel risk factors for recurrent vascular events in embolic stroke of undetermined source. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  6. Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound Guided Biopsy of Undetermined Abdominal Lesions: A Multidisciplinary Decision-Making Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Mao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To investigate the value of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS guided biopsy of undetermined abdominal lesions in multidisciplinary treatment (MDT decision-making approach. Methods. Between Jan 2012 and Dec 2015, 60 consecutive patients (male, 37; female, 23; mean age, 51.3 years ± 14.6 who presented with undetermined abdominal lesions were included. CEUS and core needle percutaneous biopsy was performed under real-time CEUS guidance in all lesions. Data were recorded and compared with conventional ultrasound (US guidance group (n=75. All CEUS findings and clinical data were evaluated in MDT. Results. CEUS enabled the delimitation of more (88.3% versus 41.3% and larger (14.1 ± 10.7 mm versus 32.3 ± 18.5 mm nonenhanced necrotic areas. More inner (20.0% versus 6.7% and surrounding (18.3% versus 2.7% major vessels were visualized and avoided during biopsies. CEUS-guided biopsy increased the diagnostic accuracy from 93.3% to 98.3%, with correct diagnosis in 57 of 60 lesions (95.0%. The therapeutic plan was influenced by CEUS guided biopsies findings in the majority of patients (98.3%. Conclusion. The combination of CEUS guided biopsy and MDT decision-making approach is useful in the diagnostic work-up and therapeutic management.

  7. Waterborne Disease Outbreaks Associated With Environmental and Undetermined Exposures to Water - United States, 2013-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClung, R Paul; Roth, David M; Vigar, Marissa; Roberts, Virginia A; Kahler, Amy M; Cooley, Laura A; Hilborn, Elizabeth D; Wade, Timothy J; Fullerton, Kathleen E; Yoder, Jonathan S; Hill, Vincent R

    2017-11-10

    Waterborne disease outbreaks in the United States are associated with a wide variety of water exposures and are reported annually to CDC on a voluntary basis by state and territorial health departments through the National Outbreak Reporting System (NORS). A majority of outbreaks arise from exposure to drinking water (1) or recreational water (2), whereas others are caused by an environmental exposure to water or an undetermined exposure to water. During 2013-2014, 15 outbreaks associated with an environmental exposure to water and 12 outbreaks with an undetermined exposure to water were reported, resulting in at least 289 cases of illness, 108 hospitalizations, and 17 deaths. Legionella was responsible for 63% of the outbreaks, 94% of hospitalizations, and all deaths. Outbreaks were also caused by Cryptosporidium, Pseudomonas, and Giardia, including six outbreaks of giardiasis caused by ingestion of water from a river, stream, or spring. Water management programs can effectively prevent outbreaks caused by environmental exposure to water from human-made water systems, while proper point-of-use treatment of water can prevent outbreaks caused by ingestion of water from natural water systems.

  8. Feasibility and Diagnostic Value of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Imaging After Acute Ischemic Stroke of Undetermined Origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haeusler, Karl Georg; Wollboldt, Christian; Bentheim, Laura Zu; Herm, Juliane; Jäger, Sebastian; Kunze, Claudia; Eberle, Holger-Carsten; Deluigi, Claudia Christina; Bruder, Oliver; Malsch, Carolin; Heuschmann, Peter U; Endres, Matthias; Audebert, Heinrich J; Morguet, Andreas J; Jensen, Christoph; Fiebach, Jochen B

    2017-05-01

    Etiology of acute ischemic stroke remains undetermined (cryptogenic) in about 25% of patients after state-of-the-art diagnostic work-up. One-hundred and three patients with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-proven acute ischemic stroke of undetermined origin were prospectively enrolled and underwent 3-T cardiac MRI and magnetic resonance angiography of the aortic arch in addition to state-of-the-art diagnostic work-up, including transesophageal echocardiography (TEE). We analyzed the feasibility, diagnostic accuracy, and added value of cardiovascular MRI (cvMRI) compared with TEE for detecting sources of stroke. Overall, 102 (99.0%) ischemic stroke patients (median 63 years [interquartile range, 53-72], 24% female, median NIHSS (National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale) score on admission 2 [interquartile range, 1-4]) underwent cvMRI and TEE in hospital; 89 (86.4%) patients completed the cvMRI examination. In 93 cryptogenic stroke patients, a high-risk embolic source was found in 9 (8.7%) patients by cvMRI and in 11 (11.8%) patients by echocardiography, respectively. cvMRI and echocardiography findings were consistent in 80 (86.0%) patients, resulting in a degree of agreement of κ=0.24. In 82 patients with cryptogenic stroke according to routine work-up, including TEE, cvMRI identified stroke etiology in additional 5 (6.1%) patients. Late gadolinium enhancement consistent with previous myocardial infarction was found in 13 (14.6%) out of 89 stroke patients completing cvMRI. Only 2 of these 13 patients had known coronary artery disease. Our study demonstrated that cvMRI was feasible in the vast majority of included patients with acute ischemic stroke. The diagnostic information of cvMRI seems to be complementary to TEE but is not replacing echocardiography after acute ischemic stroke. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01917955. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  9. Symbol of Undetermined Faith. A Note on Aleksej Kručënyx’s Vowel Poem “Heights”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Crnković

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Denis Crnković“Symbol of Undetermined Faith: A Note on Aleksej Kručënyx’s Vowel Poem ‘Heights’”This article looks at Aleksej Kručënyx’s poem “Vysoty” (Heights. Consisting entirely of vowels culled from the Church Slavic version of the “Symvol Very” (the eastern Nicene Creed the poem has been traditionally examined as a prime example of the transrational expression (zaum’ of the Futurist movement. As such, analyses have tended to focus on the phonic and phonemic features of the poem with little attention paid to the relationship between the source text and the poem itself. Thus, “missing” or “transferred” vowels in the poem have often been regarded as mistakes or dismissed as the result of Kručënyx’s artistic whim. The paper therefore examines the poem in the context of its Church Slavic antecedent, concentrating on those places where the vowels of the poem diverge from those of the Creed. A close analysis of the apparent anomalies between poem and prayer reveals a sophisticated level of word-play that hinges on a complete understanding of the source text and the manipulation of the source vowels. Moreover, our research shows that in the broader context of the antipathy between the Symbolist and Futurist movements, each missing or transposed vowel constitutes a crucial hint for grasping a hidden significance in the poem and for understanding Kručënyx’s revamped statement of belief as a playful new literary “creed” that challenges the more “orthodox” literary tenets of the Symbolist poets.

  10. Expansion of Parents' Undetermined Experience in Socioeducational Programs: Extending the Dialogical Self Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulanger, Dany

    2017-12-01

    The Dialogic Self Theory (DST-Hermans et al. Integrative Psychology and Behavioral Sciences, 51(4), 1-31, 2017) is extended here in its dynamic aspects through focusing on the notions of indeterminacy, emptiness and movement. Linking with Husserl, I propose moving the dialogical self (DS) from a clear position in the "repertory of the Self" to an undetermined horizon. This makes it possible to introduce "holes" (emptiness) into the schematic representation of the "repertory of the Self". Yet Husserl's concept of horizon seems to focus too much on making the indeterminable determinate. To overcome this limit, I incorporate Bergson's concept of empty form into the DST. This enables conceptualising the extension and emergence of horizon. Extending Bergson's concept of organisation, it is possible to see how the expansion of the horizon in a movement of globalisation does not necessarily entail the disorganisation of the DS but rather to its further organisation. Extending the system of DS by Hermans et al. Integrative Psychology and Behavioral Sciences, 51(4), 1-31, (2017), I open by suggesting that movements are both horizontal (between people) and vertical (between the person, the institutions and the norms) connectors. My conceptual propositions are illustrated by parents' and educators' discourses in two Canadian socio-educational programs.

  11. Effects of streamlining cervical cancer screening the Dutch way: consequences of changes in the Dutch KOPAC-based follow-up protocol and consensus-based limitation of equivocal cytology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Briët, Martijn C; Berger, Thomas H D; van Ballegooijen, Marjolein

    2010-01-01

    To analyze the impact of the 1995 revision of the Dutch cervical screening program guidelines (e.g., the introduction of more stringent criteria for cytologic diagnosis of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance [ASCUS]) on the negative side effects of screening in Region West....

  12. Hybrid Capture 2 and cobas human papillomavirus assays perform similarly on SurePath samples from women with abnormalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fornari, D; Rebolj, M; Bjerregaard, B

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In two laboratories (Departments of Pathology, Copenhagen University Hospitals of Herlev and Hvidovre), we compared cobas and Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2) human papillomavirus (HPV) assays using SurePath® samples from women with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) at...

  13. Sterile necrosis of the liver due to primary epithelioid haemangio-endothelioma presenting as fever of undetermined origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Man, R A; Bac, D J; van Blankenstein, M; Zondervan, P E

    1994-07-01

    We report a case of primary epithelioid haemangio-endothelioma of the liver presenting as fever of undetermined origin. Due to the presence of iso-echoic sterile necrosis of the liver no abnormalities were found on four subsequent ultrasonographies of the liver. The definite diagnosis of haemangio-endothelioma was made only after a computerized tomography guided biopsy from the area adjacent to the lesions was stained for Factor VIII. If the latter procedure is omitted, the diagnosis can easily be missed.

  14. Suicide and undetermined violent deaths in Malaysia, 1966-1990: evidence for the misclassification of suicide statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniam, T

    1995-01-01

    Suicide statistics are generally recognised to be unreliable. This study of the reported rates of suicide in West Malaysia between 1966-1990 shows that the mean crude suicide rate between 1966-1974 was 6.1 per 100,000, but had dropped drastically between 1975-1990 to a mean of 1.6 per 100,000. Three lines of evidence are presented to show that this reduction in the suicide rate is due to a systematic misclassification of medically certified suicides as deaths due to undetermined violent deaths (which refers to violent deaths not known to be accidentally or deliberately inflicted). Firstly, the large drop in reported suicide rates corresponds closely to an increase in the rate of deaths due to undetermined violent deaths. There is a highly positive negative correlation between the two rates (coefficient of correlation, r = -0.9). Secondly, the misclassification appears to be mainly a problem with the medically certified deaths which follow the ICD classification. The mean ratio of uncertified to certified suicides before 1975 was 0.8, but from 1975 onwards the mean was 3.1. This is in contrast to the corresponding ratio for deaths due to all accidents which has remained fairly constant throughout these years. Thirdly, the race and sex differences for the rates of undetermined violent deaths are identical to those of suicide. Taking the misclassification into account the corrected suicide rate for West Malaysia is estimated to be between 8-13 per 100,000 since 1982.

  15. Trends in Epithelial Cell Abnormalities Observed on Cervical Smears over a 21-Year Period in a Tertiary Care Hospital in Kuwait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusum Kapila

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aimed to analyse trends in epithelial cell abnormalities (ECAs in cervical cytology at a tertiary care hospital in Kuwait. Methods: ECAs in 135,766 reports were compared over three seven-year periods between 1992 and 2012. Conventional Papanicolaou (Pap smear tests were used in the first two periods and ThinPrep (Hologic Corp., Bedford, Massachusetts, USA tests were used in the third. Results: Significant increases in satisfactory smears, atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS and atypical glandular cells of undetermined significance/atypical glandular cells (AGUS/AGCs were seen in the second and third periods (P 0.05. An increase was noted in carcinomas between the first and second periods although a significant decline was seen in the third (P <0.014. Conclusion: Satisfactory smears, ASCUS and AGUS/AGC increased during the study period although no significant increases in LSILs, HSILs or carcinomas were observed.

  16. Role of rare variants in undetermined multiple adenomatous polyposis and early-onset colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefevre, Jérémie H; Bonilla, Carolina; Colas, Chrystelle; Winney, Bruce; Johnstone, Elaine; Tonks, Susan; Day, Tammy; Hutnik, Katarzyna; Boumertit, Abdelhamid; Soubrier, Florent; Midgley, Rachel; Kerr, David; Parc, Yann; Bodmer, Walter F

    2012-11-26

    Some 15-20% of multiple adenomatous polyposis have no genetic explanation and 20-30% of colorectal cancer (CRC) cases are thought to be due to inherited multifactorial causes. Accumulation of deleterious effects of low-frequency dominant and independently acting variants may be a partial explanation for such patients. The aim of this study was to type a selection of rare and low-frequency variants (<5%) to elucidate their role in CRC susceptibility. A total of 1181 subjects were included (866 controls; 315 cases). Cases comprised UK (n=184) and French (n=131) patients with MAP (n=187) or early-onset CRC (n=128). Seventy variants in 17 genes were examined in cases and controls. The effect of the variant effect on protein function was investigated in silico. Out of the 70 variants typed, 36 (51%) were tested for association. Twenty-one variants were rare (minor allele frequency (MAF) <1%). Four rare variants were found to have a significantly higher MAF in cases (EXO1-12, MLH1-1, CTNNB1-1 and BRCA2-37, P<0.05) than in controls. Pooling all rare variants with a MAF <0.5% showed an excess risk in cases (odds ratio=3.2; 95% confidence interval=1.1-9.5; P=0.04). Rare variants are important risk factors in CRC and, as such, should be systematically assayed alongside common variation in the search for the genetic basis of complex diseases.

  17. Biomarkers of Atrial Cardiopathy and Atrial Fibrillation Detection on Mobile Outpatient Continuous Telemetry After Embolic Stroke of Undetermined Source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebasigari, Denise; Merkler, Alexander; Guo, Yang; Gialdini, Gino; Kummer, Benjamin; Hemendinger, Morgan; Song, Christopher; Chu, Antony; Cutting, Shawna; Silver, Brian; Elkind, Mitchell S V; Kamel, Hooman; Furie, Karen L; Yaghi, Shadi

    2017-06-01

    Biomarkers of atrial dysfunction or "cardiopathy" are associated with embolic stroke risk. However, it is unclear if this risk is mediated by undiagnosed paroxysmal atrial fibrillation or flutter (AF). We aim to determine whether atrial cardiopathy biomarkers predict AF on continuous heart-rhythm monitoring after embolic stroke of undetermined source (ESUS). This was a single-center retrospective study including all patients with ESUS undergoing 30 days of ambulatory heart-rhythm monitoring to look for AF between January 1, 2013 and December 31, 2015. We reviewed medical records for clinical, radiographic, and cardiac variables. The primary outcome was a new diagnosis of AF detected during heart-rhythm monitoring. The primary predictors were atrial biomarkers: left atrial diameter on echocardiography, P-wave terminal force in electrocardiogram (ECG) lead V1, and P wave - R wave (PR) interval on ECG. A multiple logistic regression model was used to assess the relationship between atrial biomarkers and AF detection. Among 196 eligible patients, 23 (11.7%) were diagnosed with AF. In unadjusted analyses, patients with AF were older (72.4 years versus 61.4 years, P atrial diameter (39.2 mm versus 35.7 mm, P = .03). In a multivariable model, the only predictor of AF was age ≥ 60 years (odds ratio, 3.0; 95% CI, 1.06-8.5; P = .04). Atrial biomarkers were weakly associated with AF after ESUS. This suggests that previously reported associations between these markers and stroke may reflect independent cardiac pathways leading to stroke. Prospective studies are needed to investigate these mechanisms. Copyright © 2017 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Liver haemangiomas undetermined at grey-scale ultrasound: contrast-enhancement patterns with SonoVue and pulse-inversion US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolotta, Tommaso Vincenzo; Midiri, Massimo; Quaia, Emilio; Bertolotto, Michele; Galia, Massimo; Cademartiri, Filippo; Lagalla, Roberto

    2005-04-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the spectrum of contrast-enhancement patterns of hepatic haemangiomas undetermined at grey-scale ultrasound (US) on SonoVue-enhanced pulse-inversion (PI) US. Twenty patients (11 women, nine men) with 35 haemangiomas (size range: 1-7 cm; mean: 3.1 cm) undetermined at baseline US underwent PI at low M.I. (0.05-0.08) after i.v. injection of SonoVue. All haemangiomas were confirmed by typical helical computed tomography (CT) and/or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings. US examinations were videotaped and then reviewed by two experienced radiologists blinded to the final diagnosis. Readers evaluated by consensus the baseline echogenicity and the dynamic enhancement pattern of each lesion, in comparison with adjacent liver parenchyma. After administration of SonoVue, 31/35 (88%) haemangiomas showed peripheral hyperechoic nodules in the arterial phase, followed by progressive centripetal fill-in, which was complete in 25/35 cases and incomplete in 6/35 cases. Three out of 35 (9%) haemangiomas showed rapid and complete fill-in in the arterial phase, which persisted in the portal and delayed phases. Finally, 1/35 haemangiomas (3%) showed a rim of arterial contrast enhancement with progressive and complete centripetal fill-in in portal-venous and delayed phases. In conclusion, PI after the administration of SonoVue enabled the depiction of typical contrast-enhancement patterns in haemangiomas undetermined at baseline US.

  19. [Presence of high risk human papilomaviruses (HPV) in the low grade cervical lesion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iljazović, Ermina; Mustadenagić-Mujanović, Jasminka; Karasalihović, Zinaida; Cickusić, E; Avdić, S

    2006-01-01

    Low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LGSIL) and atypical squamous cells undetermined significance (ASCUS) are the most frequent verified cellular abnormalities. Their management are still highly controversial mostly caused by uncertainty about their histology and nature of originate. Detection of HPV DNA in the absence of cytological abnormalities can also indicate presence of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). The aim of this study was to show the association of the benign cellular changes, ASCUS and LGSIL with oncogenic types of HPV and to prove the necessity of more intensive screening of this group of patients. Cytology and pathomorphology analyses were performed first. Identification of the presence of human papiloma virus was carried out by the Digene Hybride Capture II test for all patients. Identification of different HPV types for the particular number of patients was carried out by RFLP (Rsetriction Fragments Length of Polymorphism). Out of the 101 patients in the first group 92 (91,08%) were HPV positive, and 41, 58% had no cellular abnormalities, ASCUS or LGSIL. Out of 509 patients of the second group 26.92% were positive for HRHPV, and 78,97% of them had no cellular abnormalities, ASCUS or LGSIL. HPV 16 was detected in 27.36% (ASCUS/LGSIL) of low risk cervical lesion of the first examined period. The combination of smears with the detection of high risk HPV types increases the triage sensitivity especially at patients with mild.

  20. Comparison of diagnostic efficacy between CLE, tissue sampling, and CLE combined with tissue sampling for undetermined pancreaticobiliary strictures: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ya-Dong; Qu, Ya-Wei; Liu, Hai-Feng

    2018-04-01

    The accurate diagnosis of undetermined pancreaticobiliary strictures remains challenging. Current ERCP-guided tissue sampling methods are of low sensitivity. Confocal laser endomicroscopy (CLE) is a new procedure and allows real optical biopsies that may improve the diagnosis of undetermined pancreaticobiliary strictures. The aim of this meta-analysis was to determine the diagnostic yield of CLE, tissue sampling, and CLE combined with tissue sampling for undetermined pancreaticobiliary strictures. Pubmed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library database were reviewed for relevant studies. Pooled estimates of sensitivity and specificity with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using the random-effects meta-analysis model. The summary receiver-operating characteristic (SROC) curve was constructed, and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was calculated. Twelve studies involving 591 patients were enrolled in our analysis. The overall sensitivity and the specificity estimate of CLE for discriminating benign and malignant pancreaticobiliary strictures were 87% (95%CI, 83-91%) and 76% (95%CI, 70-81%), respectively. The AUC to assess the diagnostic efficacy was 0.8705. For tissue sampling, the overall sensitivity and the specificity estimate were 64% (95%CI, 57-70%) and 94% (95%CI, 90-97%), respectively. The AUC to assess the diagnostic efficacy was 0.8040. A combination of both methods increased the sensitivity (93%; 95%CI, 88-96%) with a specificity of 82% (95%CI, 74-89%). The AUC to assess the diagnostic efficacy was 0.9377. There was no publication bias by Deeks' Funnel Plot with p = .936. Compared with tissue sampling, CLE may increase the sensitivity for the diagnosis of malignant pancreaticobiliary strictures. A combination of both can effectively diagnose malignant pancreaticobiliary strictures.

  1. Design of Randomized, double-blind, Evaluation in secondary Stroke Prevention comparing the EfficaCy and safety of the oral Thrombin inhibitor dabigatran etexilate vs. acetylsalicylic acid in patients with Embolic Stroke of Undetermined Source (RE-SPECT ESUS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diener, Hans-Christoph; Easton, J Donald; Granger, Christopher B; Cronin, Lisa; Duffy, Christine; Cotton, Daniel; Brueckmann, Martina; Sacco, Ralph L

    2015-12-01

    Cryptogenic ischemic strokes constitute 20-30% of ischemic strokes, the majority of which are embolic strokes of undetermined source. The standard preventive treatment in these patients is usually acetylsalicylic acid. The Randomized, double-blind, Evaluation in secondary Stroke Prevention comparing the EfficaCy and safety of the oral Thrombin inhibitor dabigatran etexilate vs. acetylsalicylic acid in patients with Embolic Stroke of Undetermined Source (RE-SPECT ESUS) is designed to determine whether the oral thrombin inhibitor dabigatran, taken within three-months after embolic stroke of undetermined source, is superior to acetylsalicylic acid for prevention of recurrent stroke and to characterize the safety of dabigatran in this setting. Prospective, randomized, double-blind, multicenter trial in approximately 6000 patients and 550 centers with embolic stroke of undetermined source. Subjects are randomized to dabigatran or acetylsalicylic acid and treated for an expected minimum of six-months and up to approximately three-years. It is an event-driven trial aiming for 353 adjudicated primary outcome events. The primary efficacy outcome is time to first recurrent stroke (ischemic, hemorrhagic, or unspecified). Key secondary outcomes are time to first ischemic stroke and time to first occurrence in the composite outcome of nonfatal stroke, nonfatal myocardial infarction, and cardiovascular death. The primary safety outcome is major hemorrhage, including symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage. Acetylsalicylic acid is the most common antithrombotic given to patients with embolic strokes of undetermined source to reduce recurrence risk. This trial will determine whether anticoagulation with dabigatran is more effective than acetylsalicylic acid, and acceptably safe. © 2015 World Stroke Organization.

  2. PET and PET/CT in tumour of undetermined origin; PET y PET/CT en tumor de origen indeterminado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia O, J.R. [Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, PET/CT, Centro Medico ABC, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2007-07-01

    In this presentation the following conclusions were obtained regarding the use of PET and PET/CT in patient with cancer of unknown primary: 1. Detection of the primary one in 1/3 at 1/2 of patient. 2. It detects metastases in other places in 50%. 3. It changes the initial therapy planned in 1/3 at 1/2 of patient. 4. Useful in initial phases of protocol study to limit the other procedures. After standard evaluation. Before advanced protocol. 5. PET/CT study increases the % of primary detection, although in a non significant way vs. PET. 6. They are required more studies to value their utility to a more objective manner. (Author)

  3. Outcomes in cervical screening using various cytology technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barken, Sidsel S; Rebolj, Matejka; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2013-01-01

    aged 23-59 years. All cervical cytology from women residing in Copenhagen has been analyzed in the laboratory of the Department of Pathology, Hvidovre University Hospital. We studied five technology phases: (1) conventional cytology with manual reading, (2) conventional cytology with 50% automatically...... signed out as normal, (3) liquid-based cytology (LBC) with 50% automatically signed out as normal, (4) LBC with 25% automatically signed out as normal, and (5) LBC with 25% automatically signed out as normal and with 16 preselected areas for attention in manual reading. We calculated proportion...... of samples with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance or worse (≥ASCUS) by age and technology phase. We included 391 140 samples. The proportion of ≥ASCUS increased steadily from 3.8% in phase 1 to 6.0% in phase 5. This pattern varied considerably across age groups. In women aged 23-34 years...

  4. Meningitis, spondylodiscitis, pneumonia and septic shock with Streptococcus pneumoniae in a previously healthy woman with isolated IgG2-, IgG3-, IgA-deficiency and monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaini, Shahin; Gudnason, David; Steig, Bjarni

    2018-01-01

    future life threatening pneumococcal infections she was started on treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin. The case report illustrates the importance of thorough evaluation of patients with unusual infectious disease entities or unusual frequency of infections in individual patients. To optimize...

  5. Prevalence and cumulative incidence of abnormal cervical cytology among HIV-infected Thai women: a 5.5-year retrospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thamkhantho Manopchai

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cervical cancer is one of the most common AIDS-related malignancies in Thailand. To prevent cervical cancer, The US Public Health Service and The Infectious Disease Society of America have recommended that all HIV-infected women should obtain 2 Pap smears 6 months apart after the initial HIV diagnosis and, if results of both are normal, should undergo annual cytological screening. However, there has been no evidence in supporting whether this guideline is appropriate in all settings - especially in areas where HIV-infected women are living in resource-constrained condition. Methods To determine the appropriate interval of Pap smear screenings for HIV-infected Thai women and risk factors for subsequent abnormal cervical cytology, we assessed the prevalence, cumulative incidence and associated factors of cervical cell abnormalities (atypical squamous cell of undetermined significance or higher grades, ASCUS+ among this group of patients. Results The prevalence of ASCUS+ was 15.4% at the first visit, and the cumulative incidence of ASCUS+ gradually increased to 37% in the first 3.5 years of follow-up appointments (first 7 times, and tended to plateau in the last 2 years. For multivariate correlation analysis, women with a CD4 count P = 0.043. There were no associations of subsequent ASCUS+ with age, pregnancy, contraceptive method, highly active anti-retroviral treatment, assumed duration of infection, or the CD4 count nadir level. Conclusion There are high prevalence and cumulative incidence of ASCUS+ in HIV-infected Thai women. With a high lost-to-follow-up rate, an appropriate interval of Pap smear screening cannot be concluded from the present study. Nevertheless, the HIV-infected Thai women may require more than two normal semi-annual Pap smears before shifting to routinely annual cytologic screening.

  6. Distribution of human papillomavirus genotypes in women with cervical alterations from north Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G D Deluca

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cervical cancer remains a major public health problem in northern Argentina, showing the highest mortality rate in the country (approximately 22 cases/100000 women. Objective: The aim of this study was to provide epidemiological data on the prevalence and type distribution of human papillomavirus (HPV in women with pre-neoplastic lesions before the massive introduction of HPV vaccination in the country. Materials and Methods: Exfoliated cervical cells were collected to screen for HPV using the widely known MY09/11 PCR, followed by the restriction fragment-length polymorphism (RFLP technique from a total of 714 women with previously diagnosed atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS, low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LG-SIL and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HG-SIL. Results: Overall HPV prevalence was 48.2% in ASCUS (24 different HPV types detected, 66.5% in LG-SIL (37 HPV types detected and 82.6% in HG-SIL (16 HPV types detected. HPV-16 was the most prevalent type among all cases. With respect to multiple HPV infections, 9.6% were observed in ASCUS, 14.3% in LG-SIL and 11.4% in HG-SIL. Conclusion: The major strength of our study is the assessment of a large series of women with cytological alterations in this region. The information attained will be useful as a regional baseline for future epidemiological vigilance, in the context of the national HPV vaccination program.

  7. Ascus dysgenesis in hybrid crosses of Neurospora and Sordaria ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-07-04

    Jul 4, 2017 ... When two lineages derived from a common ancestor become reproductively isolated (e.g. Neurospora crassa and N. tetrasperma), genes that have undergone mutation and adaptive evolution in one lineage can potentially become dysfunctional when transferred into the other, since other genes have ...

  8. Ascus dysgenesis in hybrid crosses of Neurospora and Sordaria ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    DURGADAS P. Kasbekar

    2017-07-04

    Jul 4, 2017 ... parental nuclei fuse to produce a diploid zygote nucleus that immediately undergoes meiosis, in which the mat. A and mat a idiomorphs undergo first division segre- gation. Thereafter, a postmeiotic mitosis generates eight haploid nuclei (4 mat A + 4 mat a). In N. crassa, these nuclei are partitioned into the ...

  9. Detecting Novelty and Significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Vera; Bradley, Margaret M.; Codispoti, Maurizio; Lang, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    Studies of cognition often use an “oddball” paradigm to study effects of stimulus novelty and significance on information processing. However, an oddball tends to be perceptually more novel than the standard, repeated stimulus as well as more relevant to the ongoing task, making it difficult to disentangle effects due to perceptual novelty and stimulus significance. In the current study, effects of perceptual novelty and significance on ERPs were assessed in a passive viewing context by presenting repeated and novel pictures (natural scenes) that either signaled significant information regarding the current context or not. A fronto-central N2 component was primarily affected by perceptual novelty, whereas a centro-parietal P3 component was modulated by both stimulus significance and novelty. The data support an interpretation that the N2 reflects perceptual fluency and is attenuated when a current stimulus matches an active memory representation and that the amplitude of the P3 reflects stimulus meaning and significance. PMID:19400680

  10. Significant NRC Enforcement Actions

    Data.gov (United States)

    Nuclear Regulatory Commission — This dataset provides a list of Nuclear Regulartory Commission (NRC) issued significant enforcement actions. These actions, referred to as "escalated", are issued by...

  11. Triage of HR-HPV positive women with minor cytological abnormalities: a comparison of mRNA testing, HPV DNA testing, and repeat cytology using a 4-year follow-up of a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Maria; Elfström, K Miriam; Brismar Wendel, Sophia; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Andersson, Sonia

    2014-01-01

    Expression of the viral E6/E7 oncogenes of high-risk human papillomaviruses (HR-HPV) is necessary for malignant conversion and maintenance in cervical tissue. In order to determine whether HR-HPV E6/E7 mRNA testing more effectively predicts precancerous lesions and invasive cervical cancer than HR-HPV DNA testing, we aimed to compare triage using HR-HPV E6/E7 mRNA testing by APTIMA HPV Assay (APTIMA) to HPV16 DNA testing, HPV16/18 DNA testing, and repeat cytology. Liquid-based (PreservCyt) cell samples were obtained from HR-HPV-positive women diagnosed with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) and low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL) within the framework of the population-based cervical cancer screening program in Stockholm, Sweden. Samples were tested for HR-HPV E6/E7 mRNA by APTIMA (Gene-Probe Inc., San Diego, CA, USA). Women were followed up for 4 years after the index cytology via medical and laboratory records, and the Stockholm Oncology Center. Nine of 25 (36%) women in the ASCUS group, and 64 of 180 (36%) women in the LSIL group developed cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) grade 2 or worse during 4 years of follow-up. 162 (74%) women were APTIMA-positive, and APTIMA had the highest sensitivity to predict CIN2 or worse and CIN3 or worse in the ASCUS (77.8% and 100%) and LSIL (78.1 and 75.8%) groups, although specificity was insufficient (cytology were more specific than APTIMA. The results of this population-based study with comprehensive follow-up support the use of APTIMA as a triage test for women with ASCUS. More focused investigation is required for women with LSIL.

  12. Presence of High-Risk HPV mRNA in Relation to Future High-Grade Lesions among High-Risk HPV DNA Positive Women with Minor Cytological Abnormalities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Johansson

    Full Text Available Continuous expression of E6- and E7-oncogenes of high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV types is necessary for the development and maintenance of the dysplastic phenotype. The aim of the study was to determine the sensitivity and specificity of the APTIMA HPV mRNA assay (Hologic in predicting future development of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN among high-risk HPV-DNA-positive women with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS or low-grade squamous epithelial lesion (LSIL cytology.Archived SurePath cervical samples of women ≥ 35 years of age with high-risk HPV DNA-positive ASCUS (n = 211 or LSIL, (n = 131 were tested for the presence of high-risk HPV E6/E7 mRNA using the APTIMA HPV assay, and the women were monitored for development of histopathologically verified CIN2+.Twenty-nine percent (61/211 of the women in the ASCUS group, and 34.3% (45/131 in the LSIL group developed CIN2+ within 4.5 years of follow-up. The prevalence of HPV mRNA was 90.0% (95% CI 85.9-94.0 among women with ASCUS and 95.4% (95% CI 91.8-99.0 among women with LSIL. The presence of HPV E6/E7 mRNA was associated with future development of CIN2+ among women with ASCUS and LSIL (p=0.02. The mRNA assay demonstrated high sensitivity in predicting future CIN2+ and CIN3 for index ASCUS (96.7%; 95% CI 87.6-99.4 and 100%; 95% CI 82.2-100, respectively and LSIL (97.8%, 95% CI 86.8-99.9 and 100%, 95% CI 79.9-100, respectively. The corresponding specificity was low, 12.7% (95% CI 7.9-19.3 and 5.8% (95% CI 2.2-13.6, for future CIN2+, respectively. The negative predictive value of the HPV mRNA assay for detecting future CIN3 was 100%, since no mRNA-negative woman developed CIN3 (0/27 as compared to 13.6% (43/315 of the mRNA-positive women (p = 0.03.The APTIMA mRNA assay demonstrated high sensitivity but low specificity in predicting future CIN2+ among women with minor cytological abnormalities. The assay had high negative predictive value for future

  13. The significance of Candida in the human respiratory tract: our evolving understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendleton, Kathryn M; Huffnagle, Gary B; Dickson, Robert P

    2017-04-01

    Candida is an opportunistic pathogen and the most commonly isolated fungal genus in humans. Though Candida is often detected in respiratory specimens from humans with and without lung disease, its significance remains undetermined. While historically considered a commensal organism with low virulence potential, the status of Candida as an innocent bystander has recently been called into question by both clinical observations and animal experimentation. We here review what is currently known and yet to be determined about the clinical, microbiological and pathophysiological significance of the detection of Candida spp. in the human respiratory tract. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of FEMS 2017. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  14. Significant Tsunami Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, P. K.; Furtney, M.; McLean, S. J.; Sweeney, A. D.

    2014-12-01

    Tsunamis have inflicted death and destruction on the coastlines of the world throughout history. The occurrence of tsunamis and the resulting effects have been collected and studied as far back as the second millennium B.C. The knowledge gained from cataloging and examining these events has led to significant changes in our understanding of tsunamis, tsunami sources, and methods to mitigate the effects of tsunamis. The most significant, not surprisingly, are often the most devastating, such as the 2011 Tohoku, Japan earthquake and tsunami. The goal of this poster is to give a brief overview of the occurrence of tsunamis and then focus specifically on several significant tsunamis. There are various criteria to determine the most significant tsunamis: the number of deaths, amount of damage, maximum runup height, had a major impact on tsunami science or policy, etc. As a result, descriptions will include some of the most costly (2011 Tohoku, Japan), the most deadly (2004 Sumatra, 1883 Krakatau), and the highest runup ever observed (1958 Lituya Bay, Alaska). The discovery of the Cascadia subduction zone as the source of the 1700 Japanese "Orphan" tsunami and a future tsunami threat to the U.S. northwest coast, contributed to the decision to form the U.S. National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program. The great Lisbon earthquake of 1755 marked the beginning of the modern era of seismology. Knowledge gained from the 1964 Alaska earthquake and tsunami helped confirm the theory of plate tectonics. The 1946 Alaska, 1952 Kuril Islands, 1960 Chile, 1964 Alaska, and the 2004 Banda Aceh, tsunamis all resulted in warning centers or systems being established.The data descriptions on this poster were extracted from NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) global historical tsunami database. Additional information about these tsunamis, as well as water level data can be found by accessing the NGDC website www.ngdc.noaa.gov/hazard/

  15. Significant engineering developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pon, G.A.

    1987-01-01

    The CANDU nuclear power system is a successful product of creative intelligence combined with the tenacious pursuit of practical solutions to complex engineering challenges. Outstanding engineering developments have transformed a demanding technology into a safe, economic and reliable one. Among the noteworthy developments that have been made CANDU the world's best performing reactor system are those relating to fuel, pressure tubes, heavy water production and management, steam generators, live-load valve packing, pump seals, on-power refuelling and computer control. In addition to pragmatic engineering accomplishments, there has been significant engineering input to guide the direction and shaping of the unique form of safety design and regulation of the CANDU system

  16. Safety significance evaluation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lew, B.S.; Yee, D.; Brewer, W.K.; Quattro, P.J.; Kirby, K.D.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that the Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG and E), in cooperation with ABZ, Incorporated and Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC), investigated the use of artificial intelligence-based programming techniques to assist utility personnel in regulatory compliance problems. The result of this investigation is that artificial intelligence-based programming techniques can successfully be applied to this problem. To demonstrate this, a general methodology was developed and several prototype systems based on this methodology were developed. The prototypes address U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) event reportability requirements, technical specification compliance based on plant equipment status, and quality assurance assistance. This collection of prototype modules is named the safety significance evaluation system

  17. Anthropological significance of phenylketonuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saugstad, L F

    1975-01-01

    The highest incidence rates of phenylketonuria (PKU) have been observed in Ireland and Scotlant. Parents heterozygous for PKU in Norway differ significantly from the general population in the Rhesus, Kell and PGM systems. The parents investigated showed an excess of Rh negative, Kell plus and PGM type 1 individuals, which makes them similar to the present populations in Ireland and Scotlant. It is postulated that the heterozygotes for PKU in Norway are descended from a completely assimilated sub-population of Celtic origin, who came or were brought here, 1ooo years ago. Bronze objects of Western European (Scottish, Irish) origin, found in Viking graves widely distributed in Norway, have been taken as evidence of Vikings returning with loot (including a number of Celts) from Western Viking settlements. The continuity of residence since the Viking age in most habitable parts of Norway, and what seems to be a nearly complete regional relationship between the sites where Viking graves contain western imported objects and the birthplaces of grandparents of PKUs identified in Norway, lend further support to the hypothesis that the heterozygotes for PKU in Norway are descended from a completely assimilated subpopulation. The remarkable resemblance between Iceland and Ireland, in respect of several genetic markers (including the Rhesus, PGM and Kell systems), is considered to be an expression of a similar proportion of people of Celtic origin in each of the two countries. Their identical, high incidence rates of PKU are regarded as further evidence of this. The significant decline in the incidence of PKU when one passes from Ireland, Scotland and Iceland, to Denmark and on to Norway and Sweden, is therefore explained as being related to a reduction in the proportion of inhabitants of Celtic extraction in the respective populations.

  18. Tumor significant dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supe, S.J.; Nagalaxmi, K.V.; Meenakshi, L.

    1983-01-01

    In the practice of radiotherapy, various concepts like NSD, CRE, TDF, and BIR are being used to evaluate the biological effectiveness of the treatment schedules on the normal tissues. This has been accepted as the tolerance of the normal tissue is the limiting factor in the treatment of cancers. At present when various schedules are tried, attention is therefore paid to the biological damage of the normal tissues only and it is expected that the damage to the cancerous tissues would be extensive enough to control the cancer. Attempt is made in the present work to evaluate the concent of tumor significant dose (TSD) which will represent the damage to the cancerous tissue. Strandquist in the analysis of a large number of cases of squamous cell carcinoma found that for the 5 fraction/week treatment, the total dose required to bring about the same damage for the cancerous tissue is proportional to T/sup -0.22/, where T is the overall time over which the dose is delivered. Using this finding the TSD was defined as DxN/sup -p/xT/sup -q/, where D is the total dose, N the number of fractions, T the overall time p and q are the exponents to be suitably chosen. The values of p and q are adjusted such that p+q< or =0.24, and p varies from 0.0 to 0.24 and q varies from 0.0 to 0.22. Cases of cancer of cervix uteri treated between 1978 and 1980 in the V. N. Cancer Centre, Kuppuswamy Naidu Memorial Hospital, Coimbatore, India were analyzed on the basis of these formulations. These data, coupled with the clinical experience, were used for choice of a formula for the TSD. Further, the dose schedules used in the British Institute of Radiology fraction- ation studies were also used to propose that the tumor significant dose is represented by DxN/sup -0.18/xT/sup -0.06/

  19. Fungi producing significant mycotoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites of microfungi that are known to cause sickness or death in humans or animals. Although many such toxic metabolites are known, it is generally agreed that only a few are significant in causing disease: aflatoxins, fumonisins, ochratoxin A, deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, and ergot alkaloids. These toxins are produced by just a few species from the common genera Aspergillus, Penicillium, Fusarium, and Claviceps. All Aspergillus and Penicillium species either are commensals, growing in crops without obvious signs of pathogenicity, or invade crops after harvest and produce toxins during drying and storage. In contrast, the important Fusarium and Claviceps species infect crops before harvest. The most important Aspergillus species, occurring in warmer climates, are A. flavus and A. parasiticus, which produce aflatoxins in maize, groundnuts, tree nuts, and, less frequently, other commodities. The main ochratoxin A producers, A. ochraceus and A. carbonarius, commonly occur in grapes, dried vine fruits, wine, and coffee. Penicillium verrucosum also produces ochratoxin A but occurs only in cool temperate climates, where it infects small grains. F. verticillioides is ubiquitous in maize, with an endophytic nature, and produces fumonisins, which are generally more prevalent when crops are under drought stress or suffer excessive insect damage. It has recently been shown that Aspergillus niger also produces fumonisins, and several commodities may be affected. F. graminearum, which is the major producer of deoxynivalenol and zearalenone, is pathogenic on maize, wheat, and barley and produces these toxins whenever it infects these grains before harvest. Also included is a short section on Claviceps purpurea, which produces sclerotia among the seeds in grasses, including wheat, barley, and triticale. The main thrust of the chapter contains information on the identification of these fungi and their morphological characteristics, as well as factors

  20. STRUCTURE OF DETERMINED AND UNDETERMINED OBJECT IN DÎVÂNU LÜGÂTİ’T-TÜRK / DÎVÂNU LÜGÂTİ’T-TÜRK’TE BELİRLİ VE BELİRSİZ NESNE YAPILARI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assoc. Prof. Dr. Erdoğan BOZ

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available In this article, it is based on piece of written in verses (manzum from Dîvanu Lügâti’t-Türk(DLT texts that mentioned in the article determined and undetermined subject’s structures will search. Last decade a lot of studies were investigated on not only Turkiye Turkish but also historical and contemporary dialects(polishes’s syntax. One of the most discussion matter is “subject”.

  1. Papel dos testes provocativos esofagianos na investigação de pacientes com dor torácica de origem indeterminada Role of esophageal provocative tests in the investigation of patients with chest pain of undetermined origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz J. Abrahão Jr.

    2005-09-01

    a dor era provável e em 6 dos 14 pacientes (42,8% com exames habitualmente empregados normais ou inconclusivos [ganho diagnóstico de 45% (18/40]. Dois pacientes com testes provocativos negativos apresentaram o índice de sintomas positivo à pHmetria, totalizando 25 (62,5% pacientes com dor esofagiana comprovada. CONCLUSÃO: Os testes provocativos permitiram apontar a dor como de origem esofagiana comprovada em 62,5% dos casos, o que representou um ganho diagnóstico de 45% quando comparados aos exames habitualmente empregados, constituindo ferramenta importante na investigação de pacientes com dor torácica de origem indeterminada.BACKGROUND: Traditional methods employed in esophageal investigation of patients with chest pain of undetermined origin includes upper endoscopy, esophageal manometry and pH monitoring. These methods many times disclose abnormalities that can only be enrolled as the possible cause of chest pain. Provocative tests can reproduce pain in the laboratory, establishing its esophageal origin. OBJECTIVES: Determine the positivity of acid perfusion test, edrophonium and balloon distension in patients with chest pain of undetermined origin and compare with results of traditional exams, establishing the gain for the diagnosis of esophageal pain. RESULTS: Forty patients with chest pain of undetermined origin (normal coronary angiography, 80% female, mean age of 54.7 years were submitted to traditional exams and provocative tests. Upper endoscopy disclosed erosive esophagitis in two (5% and peptic ulcer in one (2.5%, esophageal manometry was abnormal in 60%. pH monitoring was abnormal in 14 (35% with a positive symptom index in 7. Chest pain was considered of proved esophageal origin by traditional exams in 7 (17.5% patients with a positive symptom index and of probable esophageal origin in 19 (47.5% being 8 with gastroesophageal reflux disease and 11 abnormal esophageal motility. In 14 (35% an esophageal origin could not be demonstrated. The acid

  2. Loss to follow-up of cervical smears without endocervical columnar cells is not disturbing.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tacken, M.A.J.B.; Braspenning, J.C.C.; Mulder, J.; Hermens, R.P.M.G.; Nelen, W.L.D.M.; Bakker, D.H. de; Grol, R.P.T.M.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the six-month recommended follow-up after mass screening of Pap smears because of the absence of endocervical columnar cells (ECC-) or ECC+ smears with atypical squamous or glandular cells of undetermined origin (ASCUS/AGUS) or low-grade squamous or glandular

  3. Genotype distribution of human papillomavirus (HPV and co-infections in cervical cytologic specimens from two outpatient gynecological clinics in a region of southeast Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egea-Cortines Marcos

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human Papillomavirus (HPV genotype distribution and co-infection occurrence was studied in cervical cytologic specimens from Murcia Region, (southeast Spain, to obtain information regarding the possible effect of the ongoing vaccination campaign against HPV16 and HPV18. Methods A total of 458 cytologic specimens were obtained from two outpatient gynecological clinics. These included 288 normal benign (N/B specimens, 56 atypical squamous cell of undetermined significance (ASC-US, 75 low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL and 39 high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL. HPV genotyping was performed using PCR and tube array hybridization. Results The most frequent genotype found was HPV16 (14.9% in N/B; 17.9% in ASC-US; 29.3% in LSIL and 33.3% HSIL. Distribution of other genotypes was heavily dependent on the cytologic diagnoses. Co-infections were found in 15.3% of N/B, 10.7% of ASC-US, 48% of LSIL and 25.6% of HSIL cases (significantly different at p Conclusion HPV vaccination might prevent 34.6% and 35.8% of LSIL and HSIL, respectively. Co-infection rate is dependent on both cytologic diagnosis and HPV genotype. Moreover, genotypes belonging to A5, A7 and A9 species are more often found as co-infections than genotype pertaining to A6 species. This suggests that phylogenetically related genotypes might have in common similar grades of dependency for cervical epithelium colonization.

  4. Switching from neural networks (PAPNET) to the Imager (Hologic) for computer-assisted screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boon, Mathilde E; Ouwerkerk-Noordam, Elisabeth; Meijer-Marres, Elisabeth M; Bontekoe, T Romke

    2011-01-01

    The large set of ThinPrep slides prepared in the Leiden Cytology and Pathology Laboratory is exploited for calculating the impact of the transition from PAPNET neural network scanning to the Imager technology. All cervical samples were suspended and fixed in the coagulant fixative BoonFix. We compared 57,541 ThinPrep slides which were scanned by PAPNET and 64,273 ThinPrep slides processed with the Imager: 99,157 cases originated from the Dutch population screening program of asymptomatic women (screenees) and the remaining 22,657 samples were of symptomatic women. In the PAPNET series, 23% were diagnosed by additional light microscopy; in the Imager method, all slides were studied light microscopically. The cytoscores (positive cytology per 1,000 samples) were calculated for normal, atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US), cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) grades I-II, and for CIN III+. The odds ratios (ORs) for the positive cytoscores were assessed for both the screenees and the symptomatic women. The cytoscores, per 1,000 cases, for ASC-US varied from 17.77 to 40.59, for CIN I-II from 7.17 to 33.35, and for CIN III+ from 2.81 to 8.8. These 6 cytoscores were higher for symptomatic women than for screenees. We observe significantly elevated ORs for the Imager for ASC-US (1.26 and 1.23), CIN I-II (1.45) and for CIN III+ (1.58 and 1.45). These 3 ORs are higher for screenees than for symptomatic women. The Imager technology is more efficacious, particularly for handling screenee slides. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Occurrence of Ureaplasma parvum and Ureaplasma urealyticum in women with cervical dysplasia in Katowice, Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekiel, Alicja M; Friedek, Daniela A; Romanik, Małgorzata K; Jóźwiak, Jarosław; Martirosian, Gayane

    2009-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of genital mycoplasmas, especially Ureaplasma parvum and Ureaplasma urealyticum, in women with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS), low grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL) and high grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL), compared to women with normal cytology living in Katowice, Poland. Two sterile swabs were used to obtain material from the posterior vaginal fornix of 143 women with squamous intraepithelial lesions and 39 healthy women: first for general bacteriology, second for detection of urogenital mycoplasmas using Mycoplasma IST2 kit. From each positive Mycoplasma IST2 culture DNA was isolated and PCR was performed for identification of U. parvum and U. urealyticum. Mycoplasma IST was positive in 34.1% cases. Urogenital mycoplasmas were demonstrated in women with HSIL significantly more often compared to women with LSIL, ASCUS, and with normal cytology. DNA of U. parvum was demonstrated in majority of Mycoplasma IST2-positive cases, U. urealyticum DNA-only in 9 (4.9%). Predominance of 3/14 serovars of U. parvum was demonstrated. U. urealyticum biovar 2 was present more often in women with squamous intraepithelial lesions.

  6. [The value of serum free light chain in differential diagnosis of monoclonal gammopathy of renal significance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, C; Wen, Y B; Li, H; Su, W; Li, J; Cai, J F; Chen, L M; Li, X M; Li, X W

    2017-08-08

    Objective: To investigate the value of serum free light chain (FLC) in differential diagnosis of monoclonal gammopathy of renal significance (MGRS). Methods: Forty-nine hospitalized patients who underwent renal biopsy in Peking Union Medical College Hospital between January 2013 and December 2015 were included. Monoclonal gammopathy was detected by serum protein electrophoresis (SPE), serum immunofixation electrophoresis (IFE), urine IFE and serum FLC. All patients were classified as MGRS ( n =32) and monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) ( n =17). Results: Renal lesions in MGRS subgroup included light chain amyloidosis ( n =24, 75.0%), light chain deposition disease ( n =7, 21.9%), and fibrillary glomerulopathy ( n =1, 3.1%). Renal diseases in MGUS subgroup included membranous nephropathy ( n =10), focal segmental glomerulosclerosi (FSGS) ( n =3), diabetic glomerulopathy ( n =1), Henoch-Schonlein purpura nephritis ( n =1), anti-GBM disease concurrent with membranous nephropathy ( n =1) and glomerulomegaly ( n =1). Positive number of SPE, serum IFE, urine IFE and abnormal number of serum FLC ratio in MGRS subgroup were 12, 16, 23 and 30, respectively. Positive number of SPE, serum IFE, urine IFE and abnormal number of serum FLC ratio in MGUS subgroup were 11, 17, 6 and 3, respectively. MGRS and MGUS subgroups differed significantly in positive rate of serum IFE ( P value for MGRS, which was helpful for differential diagnosis of patients who had contraindication to renal biopsy.

  7. FEVER OF UNDETERMINED ORIGIN IN PATIENTS WITH THE ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME IN BRAZIL: REPORT ON 55 CASES Febre de origem indeterminada em pacientes com a síndrome da imunodeficiência adquirida no Brasil: relato de 55 casos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Roberto LAMBERTUCCI

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The medical records of patients with AIDS admitted to a general hospital in Brazil from 1989 to 1997 were reviewed retrospectively with the aim at defining the frequency and etiology of fever of undetermined origin (FUO in HIV-infected patients of a tropical country and to evaluate the usefulness of the main diagnostic procedures. 188 (58.4% out of 322 patients reported fever at admission to hospital and 55 (17.1% had FUO. Those with FUO had a mean CD4+ cell count of 98/ml. A cause of fever was identified for 45 patients (81.8%. Tuberculosis (32.7%, Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (10.9%, and Mycobacterium avium complex (9.1% were the most frequent diagnoses. Other infectious diseases are also of note, such as cryptococcal meningitis (5.5%, sinusitis (3.6%, Salmonella-S. mansoni association (3.6%, disseminated histoplasmosis (3.6%, neurosyphilis (1.8%, and isosporiasis (1.8%. Four patients had non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (7.3%. We conclude that an initial aggressive diagnostic approach should be always considered because biopsies (lymph node, liver and bone marrow produced the highest yield in the diagnosis of FUO and the majority of the diagnosed diseases are treatable. The association of diseases is common and have contributed to delay the final diagnosis of FUO in most cases. In our study area the routine request of hemocultures for Salmonella infection and the investigation of cryptococcal antigen in the serum should be considered.Revisaram-se os prontuários médicos de pacientes com AIDS e febre de origem indeterminada (FOI com o objetivo de definirem-se as causas de FOI em indivíduos HIV positivos em um país tropical e, ainda, determinar o valor dos procedimentos diagnósticos mais utilizados. Cento e oitenta e oito (58,4% de 322 pacientes apresentavam febre à internação e 55 (17,1% preencheram os critérios de FOI. A contagem média de CD4+ no grupo com FOI era de 98 células/ml. Definiu-se a causa da febre em 45 pacientes (81,8%. As

  8. Comparing the effect of the order of cell Collection for Pap Smear on the results of cytologic Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    parvin Rahnama

    2005-08-01

    We observed higher proportion of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS detection in the spatula- first group (33 cases, 59% compared with brush- first group (20 cases, 3.6% which is insignificant (P=0.09. This study showed that the ability of squamous intraepithelial lesion (SIL detection in spatula- first group (27 cases, 4.8%, was comparable to brush-first group (23 cases, 4.1%. Conclusions: Because reported SIL cases are higher when samples are first taken from exocervix and rate of blood contamination increases when samples are taken from endocervix (p=0.004, it is better to take samples first from exocervix for Pap Smear. This strategy increases the chance of diagnosis of cellular lesions of cervix.

  9. Epidemiology of human papillomavirus infections: new options for cervical cancer prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bosch F. Xavier

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last two decades, the cervical cancer puzzle has become a coherent description that includes the identification of human papillomavirus (HPV as the sexually transmitted etiologic agent and the characterization of the major determinants of HPV acquisition. Triage studies have consistently shown that HPV testing is more sensitive that repeated cytology in identifying underlying high-grade lesions in women with atypical scamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS. Studies that reflect primary screening conditions have shown that the sensitivity of HPV tests is higher than standard cytology in detecting high-grade lesions whereas the specificity is similar only in women aged 30-35 and above. HPV vaccines have an intrinsic attraction as a preventive strategy in populations with limited resources. However, vaccines designed to widespread use are still in development and testing phases. Time is ripe for exploring in depth the clinical implications of current achievements and to devise novel strategies for the prevention of cervical cancer.

  10. Economic analysis of human papillomavirus triage, repeat cytology, and immediate colposcopy in management of women with minor cytological abnormalities in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostensson, Ellinor; Fröberg, Maria; Hjerpe, Anders; Zethraeus, Niklas; Andersson, Sonia

    2010-10-01

    To assess the cost-effectiveness of using human papillomavirus testing (HPV triage) in the management of women with minor cytological abnormalities in Sweden. An economic analysis based on a clinical trial, complemented with data from published meta-analyses on accuracy of HPV triage. The study takes perspective of the Swedish healthcare system. The Swedish population-based cervical cancer screening program. A decision analytic model was constructed to evaluate cost-effectiveness of HPV triage compared to repeat cytology and immediate colposcopy with biopsy, stratifying by index cytology (ASCUS = atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance, and LSIL = low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion) and age (23-60 years, cytological abnormalities. Today, immediate colposcopy with biopsy is a cost-effective alternative compared to HPV triage and repeat cytology.

  11. Mathematical Description with Fractals Dimensions of Normal Cells and Cytological Abnormality's of Uterine Neck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Rodríguez

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The fractal geometry has shownto be adapted in the mathematical description ofirregular objects; this measurement has denominatedfractal dimension. The application of thefractal analysis to measure the contours of thenormal cells as well as those that present sometype of abnormality, has shown the possibility of mathematical characterization of itsirregularity. Objectives. To measure, from thefractal geometry cells of the squamous epitheliumof uterine neck classified like normal,atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance(ASC-US and Low Grade IntraepitelialLesion (L-SIL, diagnosed by means of microscopicobservation, in search of mathematicalmeasurements that distinguish them. Methodology.This is an exploratory descriptive studyin which the fractal dimensions were calculated,with the simplified and the conventional boxcounting method, of the cellular and nuclearcontours of 13 normal and with abnormalitiescells of the scaly epithelium of uterine neck likeASC-US and L-SIL, from digital photographiesof 7 normal cells, 2 ASC-US and 4 L-SIL diagnosedwith cytomorphologic criteria by meansof microscopic conventional observation. Results.There developed a quantitative, objective and reproduciblemeasurement of the degree of irregularityin the cells of the scaly epithelium of uterineneck identified microscopically like normal, ASCUSy LEI BG. Conclusions an fractal organizationwas demonstrated in the cellular normal architecture,as well as in cells ASC-US and the injuriesintraepiteliales of low degree L-SIL. They did notfind differences between the cellular studied types.

  12. Comparison of Onclarity Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Assay with Hybrid Capture II HPV DNA Assay for Detection of Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia Grade 2 and 3 Lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bottari, F; Sideri, M; Gulmini, C

    2015-01-01

    grades 2 and 3 [CIN2+] histology endpoints) of the Onclarity and HC2 tests were 95.2% (95% CI, 90.7% to 97.5%) and 96.9% (95% CI, 92.9% to 98.7%), respectively, and the relative specificities were 50.3% (95% CI, 43.2% to 57.4%) for BD and 40.8% (95% CI, 33.9%, 48.1%) for HC2. These results indicate......, to concurrent cytology and histology results, in order to evaluate its performance in detecting high-grade cervical lesions. A population of 567 women, including 325 with ≥ASCUS (where ASCUS stands for atypical cells of undetermined significance) and any HC2 result and 242 with both negative cytology...... and negative HC2 results, were prospectively enrolled for the study. The overall agreement between Onclarity and HC2 was 94.6% (95% confidence intervals [CI], 92.3% to 96.2%). In this population with a high prevalence of disease, the relative sensitivities (versus adjudicated cervical intraepithelial neoplasia...

  13. HPV Infection in a Cohort of HIV-Positive Men and Women: Prevalence of Oncogenic Genotypes and Predictors of Mucosal Damage at Genital and Oral Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Marchetti

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of HPV infection and determinants of abnormal cytology in HIV-positive patients. In a cross-sectional study, patients of both sexes, asymptomatic for HPV, underwent anorectal (men/cervical (women and oral swabs. Cytology and HPV-PCR detection/genotyping (high- and low-risk genotypes, HR-LR/HPV were performed. A total of 20% of the 277 enrolled patients showed oral HPV, with no atypical cytology; in men, anal HPV prevalence was 81% with 64% HR genotypes. In women, cervical HPV prevalence was 58% with 37% HR-HPV. The most frequent genotypes were HPV-16 and HPV-18; 37% of men and 20% of women harbored multiple genotypes. Also, 47% of men showed anal squamous intraepithelial lesions (SILs; 6% had high- and 35% low-grade SILs (HSILs/LSILs; 5% had atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US. HR-HPV was independently associated with anal-SIL in men (P=0.039. Moreover, 37% of women showed cervical SIL: 14 ASC-US, 15 LSILs, 4 HSILs, and 1 in situ cancer. The presence of both LR and HR-HPV in women was independently associated with SIL (P=0.003 and P=0.0001. HR-HPV and atypical cytology were frequently identified in our cohort. HPV screening should be mandatory in HIV-infected subjects, and vaccine programs for HPV-negative patients should be implemented.

  14. On statistical significance of signal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Yongsheng

    2006-01-01

    A definition for the statistical significance of a signal in an experiment is proposed by establishing a correlation between the observed p-value and the normal distribution integral probability, which is suitable for both counting experiment and continuous test statistics. The explicit expressions to calculate the statistical significance for both cases are given. (author)

  15. Determinants of LSIL Regression in Women from a Colombian Cohort

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molano, Monica; Gonzalez, Mauricio; Gamboa, Oscar; Ortiz, Natasha; Luna, Joaquin; Hernandez, Gustavo; Posso, Hector; Murillo, Raul; Munoz, Nubia

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the role of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) and other risk factors in the regression of cervical lesions in women from the Bogota Cohort. Methods: 200 HPV positive women with abnormal cytology were included for regression analysis. The time of lesion regression was modeled using methods for interval censored survival time data. Median duration of total follow-up was 9 years. Results: 80 (40%) women were diagnosed with Atypical Squamous Cells of Undetermined Significance (ASCUS) or Atypical Glandular Cells of Undetermined Significance (AGUS) while 120 (60%) were diagnosed with Low Grade Squamous Intra-epithelial Lesions (LSIL). Globally, 40% of the lesions were still present at first year of follow up, while 1.5% was still present at 5 year check-up. The multivariate model showed similar regression rates for lesions in women with ASCUS/AGUS and women with LSIL (HR= 0.82, 95% CI 0.59-1.12). Women infected with HR HPV types and those with mixed infections had lower regression rates for lesions than did women infected with LR types (HR=0.526, 95% CI 0.33-0.84, for HR types and HR=0.378, 95% CI 0.20-0.69, for mixed infections). Furthermore, women over 30 years had a higher lesion regression rate than did women under 30 years (HR1.53, 95% CI 1.03-2.27). The study showed that the median time for lesion regression was 9 months while the median time for HPV clearance was 12 months. Conclusions: In the studied population, the type of infection and the age of the women are critical factors for the regression of cervical lesions.

  16. Historical Significant Volcanic Eruption Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — A significant eruption is classified as one that meets at least one of the following criteriacaused fatalities, caused moderate damage (approximately $1 million or...

  17. Improved abnormal Pap smear triage using cervical cancer biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killeen, Jeffrey L; Dye, Timothy; Grace, Chelestes; Hiraoka, Mark

    2014-01-01

    The current system of Pap smear screening and management of abnormal cytology has resulted in a marked reduction in invasive cervical cancer. Many women, however, are not found to have significant precursor lesions. This is due to the poor specificity of high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) triage. More specific cervical cancer biomarkers may be more effective triage tools than hr-HPV. We evaluated whether a dual stain for p16 and Ki-67 might improve the triage of abnormal Pap smears. p16/Ki-67 immunostaining was performed on additional slides prepared from 515 women with abnormal Pap smears (301 atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance [ASCUS], 169 low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion [LSIL], 29 atypical squamous cells-cannot exclude high-grade lesion [ASC-H], 16 high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion [HSIL]). High-risk HPV typing was performed on all cases. Immunostaining and hr-HPV were compared in relation to their diagnostic accuracy for the detection of biopsy-proven cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) 2/3. A cost analysis comparing hr-HPV versus immunostaining as the initial triage tool used for abnormal Pap smears was also performed. High-risk HPV was positive in 127 (42.2%) ASCUS, 129 (76.3%) LSIL, 20 (69.0%) ASC-H, and 15 (93.8%) HSIL. p16/Ki-67 was positive in 54 (17.9%) ASCUS, 73 (43.2%) LSIL, 19 (65.5%) ASC-H, and 15 (93.8%) HSIL. For detection of CIN 2/3, sensitivity/specificity of hr-HPV and p16/Ki-67 was 89.29%/14.94% and 96.43%/60.92%, respectively. Overall, diagnostic accuracy was statistically significantly higher for p16/Ki-67 compared with hr-HPV. Compared to HPV, immunostain triage could have generated approximately $46,000 savings in the study population. The triage of abnormal Pap smears by p16/Ki-67 immunostaining shows comparable sensitivity, improved specificity, and significantly improved diagnostic performance when compared to hr-HPV. Immunostaining is of value in triaging LSIL and ASC-H Pap smears in addition

  18. The effectiveness of acetic acid wash protocol and the interpretation patterns of blood contaminated cervical cytology ThinPrep® specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora K Frisch

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: ThinPrep® (TP cervical cytology, as a liquid-based method, has many benefits but also a relatively high unsatisfactory rate due to debris/lubricant contamination and the presence of blood. These contaminants clog the TP filter and prevent the deposition of adequate diagnostic cells on the slide. An acetic acid wash (AAW protocol is often used to lyse red blood cells, before preparing the TP slides. Design: From 23,291 TP cervical cytology specimens over a 4-month period, 2739 underwent AAW protocol due to initial unsatisfactory smear (UNS with scant cellularity due to blood or being grossly bloody. Randomly selected 2739 cervical cytology specimens which did not undergo AAW from the same time period formed the control (non-AAW group. Cytopathologic interpretations of AAW and non-AAW groups were compared using the Chi-square test. Results: About 94.2% of the 2739 cases which underwent AAW were subsequently satisfactory for evaluation with interpretations of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS 4.9% (135, low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL 3.7% (102, and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL 1% (28. From the 2739 control cases, 96.3% were satisfactory with ASCUS 5.5% (151, LSIL 5.1% (139, and HSIL 0.7% (19. The prevalence of ASCUS interpretations was similar (P = 0.33. Although there were 32% more HSIL interpretations in the AAW group (28 in AAW vs. 19 in non-AAW, the difference was statistically insignificant (P = 0.18. AAW category; however, had significantly fewer LSIL interpretations (P = 0.02. The percentage of UNS cases remained higher in the AAW group with statistical significance (P < 0.01. Conclusions: While AAW had a significantly higher percent of UNS interpretations, the protocol was effective in rescuing 94.2% of specimens which otherwise may have been reported unsatisfactory. This improved patient care by avoiding a repeat test. The prevalence of ASCUS and HSIL

  19. Significance evaluation in factor graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Tobias; Hobolth, Asger; Jensen, Jens Ledet

    2017-01-01

    in genomics and the multiple-testing issues accompanying them, accurate significance evaluation is of great importance. We here address the problem of evaluating statistical significance of observations from factor graph models. Results Two novel numerical approximations for evaluation of statistical...... significance are presented. First a method using importance sampling. Second a saddlepoint approximation based method. We develop algorithms to efficiently compute the approximations and compare them to naive sampling and the normal approximation. The individual merits of the methods are analysed both from....... Conclusions The applicability of saddlepoint approximation and importance sampling is demonstrated on known models in the factor graph framework. Using the two methods we can substantially improve computational cost without compromising accuracy. This contribution allows analyses of large datasets...

  20. The Prognostic Significance of Histone Demethylase UTX in Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shau-Hsuan Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The dysregulation of the ubiquitously transcribed TPR gene on the X chromosome (UTX has been reported to be involved in the oncogenesis of several types of cancers. However, the expression and significance of UTX in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC remains largely undetermined. Immunohistochemistry was performed in 106 ESCC patients, and correlated with clinicopathological features and survival. The functional role of UTX in ESCC cells was determined by UTX-mediated siRNA. Univariate analyses showed that high UTX expression was associated with superior overall survival (OS, p = 0.011 and disease-free survival (DFS, p = 0.01. UTX overexpression was an independent prognosticator in multivariate analysis for OS (p = 0.013, hazard ratio = 1.996 and DFS (p = 0.009, hazard ratio = 1.972. The 5-year OS rates were 39% and 61% in patients with low expression and high expression of UTX, respectively. Inhibition of endogenous UTX in ESCC cells increased cell viability and BrdU incorporation, and decreased the expression of epithelial marker E-cadherin. Immunohistochemically, UTX expression was also positively correlated with E-cadherin expression. High UTX expression is independently associated with a better prognosis in patients with ESCC and downregulation of UTX increases ESCC cell growth and decreases E-cadherin expression. Our results suggest that UTX may be a novel therapeutic target for patients with ESCC.

  1. The historical significance of oak

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. V. Thirgood

    1971-01-01

    A brief history of the importance of oak in Europe, contrasting the methods used in France and Britain to propagate the species and manage the forests for continued productivity. The significance of oak as a strategic resource during the sailing-ship era is stressed, and mention is made of the early development of oak management in North America. The international...

  2. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-03-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (October - December 1993) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  3. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-11-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (July - September 1992) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  4. Ecological Significance of Marine Microzooplankton

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Godhantaraman, N.

    al., 1996). Extensive research have been conducted on the ecological significance of major plankton communities in marine coastal and aquatic ecosystems both tropical as well as temperate waters. Research on microzooplankton received less attention... by planktologists because of their important role in the aquatic ecosystems/pelagic food web by providing a link between pico- and nanoplankton and higher trophic levels of meso- and macrozooplankton and fish larvae. Researchers have identified that microzooplankton...

  5. Synthetic definition of biological significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buffington, J.D.

    1975-01-01

    The central theme of the workshop is recounted and the views of the authors are summarized. Areas of broad agreement or disagreement, unifying principles, and research needs are identified. Authors' views are consolidated into concepts that have practical utility for the scientist making impact assessments. The need for decision-makers and managers to be cognizant of the recommendations made herein is discussed. Finally, bringing together the diverse views of the workshop participants, a conceptual definition of biological significance is synthesized

  6. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-03-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (October--December 1992) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  7. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-02-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (October--December 1990) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  8. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-08-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (April--June 1992) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  9. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-03-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (October--December 1991) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  10. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-07-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (April-June 1991) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  11. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-12-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (July--September 1993) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  12. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-06-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (January--March 1993) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  13. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-05-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (January--March 1992) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  14. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-11-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (July--September 1990) and includes copies of letters, notices, and orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  15. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-11-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (July--September 1991) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  16. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-06-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (January--March 1989) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. Also included are a number of enforcement actions that had been previously resolved but not published in this NUREG. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  17. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-03-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (October--December 1989) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  18. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-05-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (January--March 1990) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. Also included are a number of enforcement actions that had been previously resolved but not published in this NUREG. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  19. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-12-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (July--September 1989) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  20. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-05-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (January--March 1991) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  1. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (April--June 1993) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  2. Preterm infants have significantly longer telomeres than their term born counterparts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vimal Vasu

    Full Text Available There are well-established morbidities associated with preterm birth including respiratory, neurocognitive and developmental disorders. However several others have recently emerged that characterise an 'aged' phenotype in the preterm infant by term-equivalent age. These include hypertension, insulin resistance and altered body fat distribution. Evidence shows that these morbidities persist into adult life, posing a significant public health concern. In this study, we measured relative telomere length in leukocytes as an indicator of biological ageing in 25 preterm infants at term equivalent age. Comparing our measurements with those from 22 preterm infants sampled at birth and from 31 term-born infants, we tested the hypothesis that by term equivalent age, preterm infants have significantly shorter telomeres (thus suggesting that they are prematurely aged. Our results demonstrate that relative telomere length is highly variable in newborn infants and is significantly negatively correlated with gestational age and birth weight in preterm infants. Further, longitudinal assessment in preterm infants who had telomere length measurements available at both birth and term age (n = 5 suggests that telomere attrition rate is negatively correlated with increasing gestational age. Contrary to our initial hypothesis however, relative telomere length was significantly shortest in the term born control group compared to both preterm groups and longest in the preterm at birth group. In addition, telomere lengths were not significantly different between preterm infants sampled at birth and those sampled at term equivalent age. These results indicate that other, as yet undetermined, factors may influence telomere length in the preterm born infant and raise the intriguing hypothesis that as preterm gestation declines, telomere attrition rate increases.

  3. Moral significance of phenomenal consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Neil; Savulescu, Julian

    2009-01-01

    Recent work in neuroimaging suggests that some patients diagnosed as being in the persistent vegetative state are actually conscious. In this paper, we critically examine this new evidence. We argue that though it remains open to alternative interpretations, it strongly suggests the presence of consciousness in some patients. However, we argue that its ethical significance is less than many people seem to think. There are several different kinds of consciousness, and though all kinds of consciousness have some ethical significance, different kinds underwrite different kinds of moral value. Demonstrating that patients have phenomenal consciousness--conscious states with some kind of qualitative feel to them--shows that they are moral patients, whose welfare must be taken into consideration. But only if they are subjects of a sophisticated kind of access consciousness--where access consciousness entails global availability of information to cognitive systems--are they persons, in the technical sense of the word employed by philosophers. In this sense, being a person is having the full moral status of ordinary human beings. We call for further research which might settle whether patients who manifest signs of consciousness possess the sophisticated kind of access consciousness required for personhood.

  4. Clinical significance of the fabella

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodevski, A.; Lazarova-Tosovska, D.; Zhivadinovik, J.; Lazareska, M.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: Introduction: There is variable number of sesamoid bones in the human body; one of them is fabella, located in the tendon of the gastrocnemius muscle. Aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of occurrence of fabella in the Macedonian population and to discuss about clinical importance of this bone. Materials and methods: We retrospectively examined radiographs of 53 patients who had knee exams undertaken for a variety of clinical reasons, performed as a part of their medical treatment. Over a time span of six months, 53 patients (38 males and 15 females, age range 19-60 years, mean age of 36.7±12.3 years) were examined. Results: In seven (13.2%) patients of 53 analyzed reports, fabella was found in the lateral tendon of gastrocnemius muscle. We did not find a significant gender or side difference in the appearance of fabella. Conclusion: Although anatomic studies emphasized a lack of significance of the fabella, this bone has been associated with a spectrum of pathology affecting the knee as fabellar syndrome, perineal nerve injury and fracture. We should think of this sesamoid bone while performing diagnostic and surgical procedures

  5. Monoclonal gammopathies of renal significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caravaca-Fontán, Fernando; Gutiérrez, Eduardo; Delgado Lillo, Ramón; Praga, Manuel

    The term monoclonal gammopathy of renal significance (MGRS) comprises a group of diseases pathogenetically characterised by proliferation of a B-cell or plasma cell clone that synthesises and secretes a monoclonal immunoglobulin or its components (light and/or heavy chains), that may deposit and cause glomerular, tubular, interstitial and/or vascular damage. The importance of differentiating the term MGRS from other monoclonal gammopathies lies in the fact that diagnostic and therapeutic procedures aimed at controlling monoclonal protein synthesis and secretion can be indicated, irrespective of the classic criteria based on malignant tumour expansion. Renal pathology associated with MGRS is highly heterogeneous, and therefore renal biopsy should be considered a key diagnostic tool. A precise diagnostic approach, however, must also identify the monoclonal protein in plasma and/or in urine, together with a complete haematological study in order to determine the nature and extension of cell clones. Recent advances in the understanding of these entities have resulted in significant improvements in clinical course and survival in several forms of MGRS, although more studies and clinical experience are needed in order to delineate more effective therapeutic strategies. In this review, we summarise the main clinical and pathological features of MGRS, highlighting the most appropriate diagnostic approach and current therapeutic options. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Nefrología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Pathological Significance of Mitochondrial Glycation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Boon Li Pun

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Glycation, the nonenzymatic glycosylation of biomolecules, is commonly observed in diabetes and ageing. Reactive dicarbonyl species such as methylglyoxal and glyoxal are thought to be major physiological precursors of glycation. Because these dicarbonyls tend to be formed intracellularly, the levels of advanced glycation end products on cellular proteins are higher than on extracellular ones. The formation of glycation adducts within cells can have severe functional consequences such as inhibition of protein activity and promotion of DNA mutations. Although several lines of evidence suggest that there are specific mitochondrial targets of glycation, and mitochondrial dysfunction itself has been implicated in disease and ageing, it is unclear if glycation of biomolecules specifically within mitochondria induces dysfunction and contributes to disease pathology. We discuss here the possibility that mitochondrial glycation contributes to disease, focussing on diabetes, ageing, cancer, and neurodegeneration, and highlight the current limitations in our understanding of the pathological significance of mitochondrial glycation.

  7. Statistical Significance for Hierarchical Clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimes, Patrick K.; Liu, Yufeng; Hayes, D. Neil; Marron, J. S.

    2017-01-01

    Summary Cluster analysis has proved to be an invaluable tool for the exploratory and unsupervised analysis of high dimensional datasets. Among methods for clustering, hierarchical approaches have enjoyed substantial popularity in genomics and other fields for their ability to simultaneously uncover multiple layers of clustering structure. A critical and challenging question in cluster analysis is whether the identified clusters represent important underlying structure or are artifacts of natural sampling variation. Few approaches have been proposed for addressing this problem in the context of hierarchical clustering, for which the problem is further complicated by the natural tree structure of the partition, and the multiplicity of tests required to parse the layers of nested clusters. In this paper, we propose a Monte Carlo based approach for testing statistical significance in hierarchical clustering which addresses these issues. The approach is implemented as a sequential testing procedure guaranteeing control of the family-wise error rate. Theoretical justification is provided for our approach, and its power to detect true clustering structure is illustrated through several simulation studies and applications to two cancer gene expression datasets. PMID:28099990

  8. Astrobiological significance of chemolithoautotrophic acidophiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikuta, Elena V.; Hoover, Richard B.

    2004-02-01

    For more than a century (since Winogradsky discovered lithautotrophic bacteria) there has been a dilemma in microbiology about life that first inhabited the Earth. Which types of life forms first appeared in the primordial oceans during the earliest geological period on Earth as the primary ancestors of modern biological diversity? How did a metabolism of ancestors evolve: from lithoautotrophic to lithoheterotrophic and organoheterotrophic or from organoheterotrophic to organautotrophic and lithomixotrophic types? At the present time, it is known that chemolithoheterotrophic and chemolithoautotrophic metabolizing bacteria are wide spread in different ecosystems. On Earth the acidic ecosystems are associated with geysers, volcanic fumaroles, hot springs, deep sea hydrothermal vents, caves, acid mine drainage and other technogenic ecosystems. Bioleaching played a significant roel on a global geological scale during the Earth's formation. This important feature of bacteria has been successfully applied in industry. The lithoautotrophs include Bacteria and Archaea belonging to diverse genera containing thermophilic and mesophilic species. In this paper we discuss the lithotrophic microbial acidophiles and present some data with a description of new acidophilic iron- and sulfur-oxidizing bacterium isolated from the Chena Hot Springs in Alaska. We also consider the possible relevance of microbial acidophiles to Venus, Io, and acidic inclusions in glaciers and icy moons.

  9. Clinical significance of procoagulant microparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Shosaku; Shimizu, Michiomi

    2015-01-01

    Microparticles (MPs) are small membrane vesicles that are released from many different cell types by exocytic budding of the plasma membrane in response to cellular activation or apoptosis. MPs may also be involved in clinical diseases because they express phospholipids, which function as procoagulants. Although flow cytometry is the most widely used method for studying MPs, some novel assays, such as tissue factor-dependent procoagulant assay or the ELISA method, have been reported. However, the use of quantification of MP as a clinical tool is still controversial. Elevated platelet-derived MP, endothelial cell-derived MP, and monocyte-derived MP concentrations are documented in almost all thrombotic diseases occurring in venous and arterial beds. However, the significance of MPs in various clinical conditions remains controversial. An example of this controversy is that it is unknown if MPs found in peripheral blood vessels cause thrombosis or whether they are the result of thrombosis. Numerous studies have shown that not only the quantity, but also the cellular origin and composition of circulating MPs, are dependent on the type of disease, the disease state, and medical treatment. Additionally, many different functions have been attributed to MPs. Therefore, the number and type of clinical disorders associated with elevated MPs are currently increasing. However, MPs were initially thought to be small particles with procoagulant activity. Taken together, our review suggests that MPs may be a useful biomarker to identify thrombosis.

  10. Determining Semantically Related Significant Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Kamal

    2014-01-01

    GO relation embodies some aspects of existence dependency. If GO term xis existence-dependent on GO term y, the presence of y implies the presence of x. Therefore, the genes annotated with the function of the GO term y are usually functionally and semantically related to the genes annotated with the function of the GO term x. A large number of gene set enrichment analysis methods have been developed in recent years for analyzing gene sets enrichment. However, most of these methods overlook the structural dependencies between GO terms in GO graph by not considering the concept of existence dependency. We propose in this paper a biological search engine called RSGSearch that identifies enriched sets of genes annotated with different functions using the concept of existence dependency. We observe that GO term xcannot be existence-dependent on GO term y, if x- and y- have the same specificity (biological characteristics). After encoding into a numeric format the contributions of GO terms annotating target genes to the semantics of their lowest common ancestors (LCAs), RSGSearch uses microarray experiment to identify the most significant LCA that annotates the result genes. We evaluated RSGSearch experimentally and compared it with five gene set enrichment systems. Results showed marked improvement.

  11. Statistically significant relational data mining :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, Jonathan W.; Leung, Vitus Joseph; Phillips, Cynthia Ann; Pinar, Ali; Robinson, David Gerald; Berger-Wolf, Tanya; Bhowmick, Sanjukta; Casleton, Emily; Kaiser, Mark; Nordman, Daniel J.; Wilson, Alyson G.

    2014-02-01

    This report summarizes the work performed under the project (3z(BStatitically significant relational data mining.(3y (BThe goal of the project was to add more statistical rigor to the fairly ad hoc area of data mining on graphs. Our goal was to develop better algorithms and better ways to evaluate algorithm quality. We concetrated on algorithms for community detection, approximate pattern matching, and graph similarity measures. Approximate pattern matching involves finding an instance of a relatively small pattern, expressed with tolerance, in a large graph of data observed with uncertainty. This report gathers the abstracts and references for the eight refereed publications that have appeared as part of this work. We then archive three pieces of research that have not yet been published. The first is theoretical and experimental evidence that a popular statistical measure for comparison of community assignments favors over-resolved communities over approximations to a ground truth. The second are statistically motivated methods for measuring the quality of an approximate match of a small pattern in a large graph. The third is a new probabilistic random graph model. Statisticians favor these models for graph analysis. The new local structure graph model overcomes some of the issues with popular models such as exponential random graph models and latent variable models.

  12. Informações sobre mortalidade por causas externas e eventos de intenção indeterminada, Paraná, Brasil, 1979 a 2005 Data on mortality from external causes and events of undetermined intent, Paraná State, Brazil, 1979 to 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Mitiko Konno de Lozada

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Foi analisada a qualidade do Sistema de Informações sobre Mortalidade (SIM para óbitos por causas externas no Estado do Paraná, Brasil, entre 1979 e 2005, focalizando os eventos de intenção indeterminada. Os óbitos foram agrupados em acidentes de transporte, homicídios, suicídios, eventos de intenção indeterminada, e calculadas a mortalidade proporcional e a variação percentual anual dos coeficientes entre triênios. Os acidentes de transporte foram as causas mais freqüentes de óbito no período e, a partir de 1997, os homicídios passam à segunda posição. Os óbitos por eventos de intenção indeterminada por arma (de fogo ou branca reduziram de 4,8% em 1981 para 0,3% em 2005. Os coeficientes dos eventos (todos de intenção indeterminada passaram de 14,9 óbitos por 100 mil habitantes em 1979/1981 para 2,0 em 2003/2005. A variação percentual anual foi de -13,1% entre 1980 e 1985; -6% entre 1996 e 2000 e -11% entre 2000 e 2004. Os resultados evidenciam a boa qualidade do SIM sobre causas externas no Estado do Paraná, permitindo análises com potencial para subsidiar ações de prevenção e promoção da saúde.This study analyzed the quality of data from the Mortality Information System (SIM for deaths due to external causes in the State of Paraná, Brazil, 1979 to 2005, focusing on events of undetermined intent. Deaths were grouped in motor vehicle accidents, homicides, suicides, and events of undetermined intent, and proportional mortality and relative annual variation of rates over the three-year period were analyzed. Motor vehicle accidents (more than 30% of the total were the most frequent causes of death throughout the period, and since 1997 homicides have become the second most frequent cause. Deaths due to events of undetermined intent caused by weapons (firearms or knives decreased from 4.8% in 1981 to 0.3% in 2005. Mortality rates for events of undetermined intent (overall decreased from 14.9 deaths per 100

  13. Detection of significant protein coevolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa, David; Juan, David; Valencia, Alfonso; Pazos, Florencio

    2015-07-01

    The evolution of proteins cannot be fully understood without taking into account the coevolutionary linkages entangling them. From a practical point of view, coevolution between protein families has been used as a way of detecting protein interactions and functional relationships from genomic information. The most common approach to inferring protein coevolution involves the quantification of phylogenetic tree similarity using a family of methodologies termed mirrortree. In spite of their success, a fundamental problem of these approaches is the lack of an adequate statistical framework to assess the significance of a given coevolutionary score (tree similarity). As a consequence, a number of ad hoc filters and arbitrary thresholds are required in an attempt to obtain a final set of confident coevolutionary signals. In this work, we developed a method for associating confidence estimators (P values) to the tree-similarity scores, using a null model specifically designed for the tree comparison problem. We show how this approach largely improves the quality and coverage (number of pairs that can be evaluated) of the detected coevolution in all the stages of the mirrortree workflow, independently of the starting genomic information. This not only leads to a better understanding of protein coevolution and its biological implications, but also to obtain a highly reliable and comprehensive network of predicted interactions, as well as information on the substructure of macromolecular complexes using only genomic information. The software and datasets used in this work are freely available at: http://csbg.cnb.csic.es/pMT/. pazos@cnb.csic.es Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Relato de dois casos de condiloma imaturo: descrição dos achados colposcópicos, cervicográficos, cito-histológicos e moleculares Report of two cases of immature cervical condyloma: description of colposcopic, cervicographic, cytohistological and molecular findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Piazzetta Pinto

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Por meio da descrição de dois casos, os autores visam chamar a atenção para a forma de apresentação do condiloma imaturo ou metaplasia papilar imatura atípica (MPIA, assim como para as dificuldades de detecção citológica, classificação histológica e interpretação adequada. As características do condiloma imaturo ao colposcópio e na cervicografia foram relacionadas com seu aspecto histopatológico e com o padrão colposcópico do condiloma acuminado típico cervical. Exames citopatológicos resultaram negativos ou com células escamosas atípicas de significado indeterminado (ASCUS. Em um dos casos foi realizada captura híbrida para papilomavírus humano (HPV, que identificou tipos virais de alto e baixo graus. A partir do estudo dos casos concluiu-se que: a o condiloma imaturo pode ser identificado por exame colposcópico ou cervicográfico, podendo ser precedido ou acompanhado do diagnóstico citológico de ASCUS ou detecção de HPV por teste molecular; b a caracterização histopatológica dessas lesões como de baixo grau evita o tratamento cirúrgico desnecessário.Based on the report of two cases, we aim to highlight the presentation of immature condyloma or atypical papillary immature metaplasia (AIM as well as the difficulties in its cytological detection, histopathological classification and accurate interpretation of results. The colposcopic and cervicographic characteristics of the immature condyloma were related to its histopathological features and the colposcopic standard of acuminated condyloma. Cytopathological exam results were negative or presented atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS. In one case, a hybrid capture test for human papillomavirus (HPV was carried out, what identified viral types of high and low grades. The study concluded that: 1 immature condylomas may be identified by means of colposcopic or cervicographic exam, and may be preceded or followed by a cytological diagnosis

  15. Sensitivity, Specificity, and Clinical Value of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) E6/E7 mRNA Assay as a Triage Test for Cervical Cytology and HPV DNA Test ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benevolo, Maria; Vocaturo, Amina; Caraceni, Donatella; French, Deborah; Rosini, Sandra; Zappacosta, Roberta; Terrenato, Irene; Ciccocioppo, Lucia; Frega, Antonio; Rossi, Paolo Giorgi

    2011-01-01

    There is evidence that testing for human papillomavirus (HPV) E6/E7 mRNA is more specific than testing for HPV DNA. A retrospective study was carried out to evaluate the performance of the PreTect HPV-Proofer E6/E7 mRNA assay (Norchip) as a triage test for cytology and HPV DNA testing. This study analyzed 1,201 women, 688 of whom had a colposcopy follow-up and 195 of whom had histology-confirmed high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia or worse (CIN2+). The proportion of positive results and the sensitivity and specificity for CIN2+ were determined for HPV mRNA in comparison to HPV DNA and cytology. All data were adjusted for follow-up completeness. Stratified by cytological grades, the HPV mRNA sensitivity was 83% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 63 to 94%) in ASC-US (atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance), 62% (95% CI = 47 to 75%) in L-SIL (low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion), and 67% (95% CI = 57 to 76%) in H-SIL (high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion). The corresponding figures were 99, 91, and 96%, respectively, for HPV DNA. The specificities were 82, 76, and 45%, respectively, for HPV mRNA and 29, 13, and 4%, respectively, for HPV DNA. Used as a triage test for ASC-US and L-SIL, mRNA reduced colposcopies by 79% (95% CI = 74 to 83%) and 69% (95% CI = 65 to 74%), respectively, while HPV DNA reduced colposcopies by 38% (95% CI = 32 to 44%) and by 15% (95% CI = 12 to 19%), respectively. As a HPV DNA positivity triage test, mRNA reduced colposcopies by 63% (95% CI = 60 to 66%), having 68% sensitivity (95% CI = 61 to 75%), whereas cytology at the ASC-US+ threshold reduced colposcopies by 23% (95% CI = 20 to 26%), showing 92% sensitivity (95% CI = 87 to 95%). In conclusion, PreTect HPV-Proofer mRNA can serve as a better triage test than HPV DNA to reduce colposcopy referral in both ASC-US and L-SIL. It is also more efficient than cytology for the triage of HPV DNA-positive women. Nevertheless, its low sensitivity demands a strict follow-up of

  16. The significance of routine laboratory parameters in patients with sudden sensorineural hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasan, Hasan; Tüz, Mustafa; Yariktaş, Murat; Aynali, Giray; Tomruk, Onder; Akkuş, Omer

    2013-12-01

    There are several factors (viral infections, metabolic and ototoxic disorders etc.) accused for the development of sudden sensorineural hearing loss. Some prognostic factors (late onset of treatment etc.) had been evaluated in the literature. There is no sufficient data on the effect of routine laboratory parameters on the development and/or prognosis of sudden sensorineural hearing loss. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of routine blood chemistry and hematological parameters on the development and prognosis of disease in patients with idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss. One hundred and forty-seven patients with the diagnosis of idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss followed up during the periods of 2000-2010 years were included in this study. One hundred and three septoplasty patients with no otologic complaints were enrolled as control group. Following the clinical and demographic evaluations, patients with idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss and control groups, and patients treated successfully and patients with poor outcome were compared with each other. Data were analyzed by T test. All hematological and biochemical parameters were compared. Hemoglobin, hematocrit, white blood cell count, total and direct bilirubin, fasting blood glucose level and aspartate aminotransferase were significantly different between idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss and control groups. There was no significantly different parameter between patients treated successfully and patients with poor outcome. Hemoglobin, hematocrit, white blood cell count, total and direct bilirubin, fasting blood glucose level and AST all can be risk factors for SHL, or they can be the result of undetermined pathology, because these parameters have no effect on the prognosis. Other routine parameters seem to have no effect on the development and/or prognosis of idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss.

  17. Human telomerase RNA gene (TERC) gain and polysomy of chromosome 3 in cervicovaginal liquid-based pap preparations: a fluorescence in situ hybridization study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, W; Ou, M; Chen, J; Yu, J; Zhang, Y; Lan, H; Huang, H; Dai, Y

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE. This study investigated human telomerase RNA gene (TERC) gain and polysomy of chromosome 3 in cervicovaginal liquid-based pap preparations in Guilin, China, and assessed the relationship between FISH findings and clinical diagnoses. METHODS. Slides prepared from 63 liquid-based preparations with cytologic diagnoses of negative for squamous intraepithelial lesion or malignancy (NILM n = 9), atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS, n = 18), low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL, n = 14), high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL, n = 9), and cervical squamous cell carcinoma (SCCA, n = 13) were analyzed for TERC gain and polysomy of chromosome 3 using a commercially available two-color FISH probe. The results of the cytologic analysis and those of concurrent or subsequent biopsies, when available, were compared with the FISH findings. The Mann-Whitney test was used to assess associations between FISH findings and diagnoses. RESULTS. TERC gain and polysomy of chromosome 3 were significantly associated with the cytologic diagnosis (p? 0.001). Patients with HSIL or SCCA cytology diagnoses had a significantly higher percentage of cells with TERC gain and polysomy of chromosome 3 than did patients with NILM, ASCUS or LSIL cytologic diagnoses. Those abnormal cases with CIN1 histological diagnosis had a significantly lower percentage of cells with TERC gain and polysomy of chromosome 3 than did patients with a CIN2, CIN3 and SCCA histological diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS. TERC gain and polysomy of chromosome 3 may be important associated genetic events in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and carcinoma. FISH is a potential tool for the diagnoses of uterine cervix disease.

  18. [Risk factors associated with abnormal cervical cytology among Chilean women: a case control study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solis, María Teresa; Aguayo, Francisco; Vargas, Macarena; Olcay, Fabiola; Puschel, Klaus; Corvalán, Alejandro; Ferreccio, Catterina

    2010-02-01

    Cervical cancer is the third cause of cancer death among Chilean women, affecting mainly women from low socioeconomic status. To determine main risk factors (RF) including human papiloma virus (HPV) types associated with abnormal cervical cytology (Atypical Squamous Cells of Undetermined Significance or ASCUS) among Chilean women from low socioeconomic status in Santiago, Chile. A random population based sample of 616 women from La Pintana (a low-income district in Santiago) participated in 2001 in a HPV prevalence study and were re-evaluated in 2006 through a risk factors questionnaire, Papanicolaou test and DNA detection for HPV. The Papanicolaou test was analyzed in Santiago and HPV analysis (PCR_GP5+/GP6+) was conducted in Vrije University, Amsterdam. Cases included 42 women with cervical lesions and controls included 574 women with normal cytology during the period 2001-2006. Logistic regression with uni and multivariate analysis was performed to identify RF for cervical lesions. During the study period, there was a significant increase in the proportion of single women, from 8.3 to 14.8% (p ASCUS). High risk HPV was the most significant factor associated with cervical lesions (odds ratio (OR) = 9.695% > confidence intervals (CI) = 4.4-21.1) followed by oral contraceptive use (OR = 2.58 95% > CI = 1.2-5.7). Among women infected by high risk HPV, the use of oral contraceptives was a risk factor while compliance with screening was protective for cervical lesions. From 2001 to 2006, there was an increase in the proportion of women with high-risk HPV infections.

  19. Screening Cervical Cancer by the Pap Test – Relevance of Age Ranges Recommended by the Brazilian Programme for Prevention and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Diogo Do Nascimento; Tomáz, Adriana Cunha Vargas; Gravena, Angela Andréia Franca; Pelloso, Sandra Marisa; Consolaro, Márcia Edilaine Lopes

    2017-09-27

    Objective: To evaluate screening by the Papanicolaou smear (Pap) and the frequency of cervical abnormalities in the age range recommended by the Brazilian programme for prevention and control of cervical cancer (CC) in the years 2012 and 2013 in a high prevalence city. Methods: This retrospective study covered results of Pap examinations performed on women aged ≥12 years residing in urban areas of the city of Maringá, Paraná in Brazil. The examinations were performed in the years 2012 and 2013 for the System of Public Health (SPH) which maintains a city database. The age ranges were grouped as recommended into 64 years. Results: A total 40,866 women were screened, 19,606 in 2012 and 21,260 in 2013. The Pap exams performed for the age range 25-64 years accounted for 80.7% of the total in 2012 and 80.3% in 2013 (p=0.13), while those for tests performed in the >64 years age group in 2013 (8.46%) than in 2012 (7.52%) (ptest results, with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US) as the most prevalent finding (2.12%) in 2012, while in 2013 it was LSIL (1.56%) (p<0.001 for both). Women with ASC-US showed a lower mean age than did those with other lesions in both years. Conclusions: This study detected a significant expansion of women screened for CC in age ranges not recommended by the Brazilian government. Creative Commons Attribution License

  20. Expansion of Parents’ Undetermined Experience in Socioeducational Programs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boulanger, Dany

    2017-01-01

    entail the disorganisation of the DS but rather to its further organisation. Extending the system of DS by Hermans et al. Integrative Psychology and Behavioral Sciences, 51(4), 1-31, (2017), I open by suggesting that movements are both horizontal (between people) and vertical (between the person......The Dialogic Self Theory (DST—Hermans et al. Integrative Psychology and Behavioral Sciences, 51(4), 1-31, 2017) is extended here in its dynamic aspects through focusing on the notions of indeterminacy, emptiness and movement. Linking with Husserl, I propose moving the dialogical self (DS) from...

  1. New Forces Yet Undetermined: The Challenge of Biodefense

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    conventions ( 1972 and 1993). These treaties were all motivated by a desire to better manage spiral model dynamics and the desire to achieve a stable force...the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty) and the biological and chemical weapon conventions ( 1972 and 1993). These treaties were all motivated by a...traveled to an ebola outbreak but were not able to acquire a sample. Also on Aum Shinrikyo, see Leitenberg, "Biological Weapons," see page 294

  2. Optical Counterparts of Undetermined Type γ-Ray Active Galactic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-09-30

    Sep 30, 2015 ... Piero Rafanelli1, David Salvetti2, Marco Berton1 & Valentina Cracco1, on behalf of the ... extremely variable, highly polarized, radio-loud sources, dominated by power-law continuum spectra of type ... (BLL), whose optical spectra show a nearly featureless power-law continuum, and. Flat Spectrum Radio ...

  3. Optical Counterparts of Undetermined Type -Ray Active Galactic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... ... David Salvetti2 Marco Berton1 Valentina Cracco1 Fermi-LAT collaboration. Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia G. Galilei, Università degli Studi di Padova, Vicolo dell'Osservatorio 3, 35122 Padova, Italy. IASF Milano – Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica, Via E. Bassini 15, 20133 Milano, Italy.

  4. [The enigma of pulmonary hypertension of undetermined origin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roncoroni, Aquiles J

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this review paper is to discuss: A) The differences in the nosological characteristics of this condition. Some authors only accept as primary pulmonary hypertension those patients without any other possible cause. They even exclude those with familiar pulmonary hypertension since its genetical etiology is now well established. It is more generally accepted that the very low incidence of pulmonary hypertension in conditions such as anorexigen use, portal hypertension or others, suggest the coincidence of a permissive genotype, susceptible phenotype (endothelial dysfunction) and a triggering factor. In such a way, pulmonary hypertension may be associated with apparently dissimilar conditions. B) The current interpretation of histologic lesions and their relationship with recent histochemical and immunological findings. The previously proposed hypothesis that some lesions are final and inactive results of prolonged hypertension is difficult to uphold since they were found only months after the clinical beginning of the disease. Moreover cells at the center of the plexiform lesion show histochemical activity patterns. It is also proposed that the anatomically inapparent endothelial dysfunction may be the original event. C) Proposed causal mechanisms such as down-regulation or even absence of K+ voltage channels of the pulmonary vascular smooth muscle cell. This finding would include primary pulmonary hypertension among the simultaneous "channel diseases". The data that justify the possible influence of serotonin plasma levels are also commented.

  5. Ticagrelor Versus Aspirin in Acute Embolic Stroke of Undetermined Source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarenco, Pierre; Albers, Gregory W; Denison, Hans; Easton, J Donald; Evans, Scott R; Held, Peter; Hill, Michael D; Jonasson, Jenny; Kasner, Scott E; Ladenvall, Per; Minematsu, Kazuo; Molina, Carlos A; Wang, Yongjun; Wong, K S Lawrence; Johnston, S Claiborne

    2017-09-01

    Ticagrelor is an effective antiplatelet therapy among patients with atherosclerotic disease and, therefore, could be more effective than aspirin in preventing recurrent stroke and cardiovascular events among patients with embolic stroke of unknown source (ESUS), which includes patients with ipsilateral stenosis stroke or high-risk transient ischemic attack to ticagrelor (180 mg loading dose on day 1 followed by 90 mg twice daily for days 2-90) or aspirin (300 mg on day 1 followed by 100 mg daily for days 2-90) within 24 hours of symptom onset. In all patients, investigators informed on the presence of ipsilateral stenosis ≥50%, small deep infarct stroke, myocardial infarction, or death within 90 days. ESUS was identified in 4329 (32.8%) patients. There was no treatment-by-ESUS category interaction ( P =0.83). Hazard ratio in ESUS patients was 0.87 (95% confidence interval, 0.68-1.10; P =0.24). However, hazard ratio was 0.51 (95% confidence interval, 0.29-0.90; P =0.02) in ESUS patients with ipsilateral stenosis <50% or aortic arch atherosclerosis (n=961) and 0.98 (95% confidence interval, 0.76-1.27; P =0.89) in the remaining ESUS patients (n=3368; P for heterogeneity =0.04). In this post hoc, exploratory analysis, we found no treatment-by-ESUS category interaction. ESUS subgroups have heterogeneous response to treatment (Funded by AstraZeneca). URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01994720. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  6. Immune Deficiency Disease' of Undetermined Aetiology in Infancy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1974-04-06

    Apr 6, 1974 ... The case of a young female child with a combined immuno- deficiency ... was present, but no other stigmata of Turner's syndrome were noted. Generalised lymphadenopathy and a 2-finger hepatosplenomegaly were found. There was a purulent dis<:harge from drainage tubes placed in both middle ears.

  7. Immune Deficiency Disease' of Undetermined Aetiology in Infancy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1974-04-06

    Apr 6, 1974 ... The IgM concentration was elevated, IgA decreased, and IgG normal. Complement levels were low. The Coombs test was negative. The child was found to be blood group A, with no demonstrable anti-B agglutinins. Antibody titres to diphtheria, measles and poliomyelitis were all less than expected for the.

  8. Fever of undetermined etiology after cleaning of steam turbine condensers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deubner, D C; Gilliam, D K

    1977-01-01

    Two outbreaks of a febrile syndrome marked by chills, headaches, myalgia, nausea, and malaise occurred in workers who had cleaned the steam condensers of electric power turbines. Mean incubation period was 38 hours. Twenty-two of twenty-three exposed men became ill. Clinical and environmental investigation failed to reveal the etiology of the outbreaks. The circumstances and clinical syndrome have points of similarity to fever following inhalation of metal fumes and low-grade, stained cotton dust, and to Pontiac fever.

  9. Avaliação da qualidade das informações de mortalidade por acidentes não especificados e eventos com intenção indeterminada Evaluation of the quality of mortality information by unspecified accidents and events of undetermined intent in a metropolis of Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Drumond Jr

    1999-06-01

    ções de mortalidade por causas externas pode contribuir para o monitoramento da violência, como base à tomada de decisões para sua redução.INTRODUCTION: Mortality data are important for monitoring violence, making it possible to assess the trends and the impact of interventions towards its reduction. The objective of the study is to assess the quality of the filling out and codification of the death certificates for unspecified accidents and events of undetermined intent in the city of S. Paulo in 1996. METHODS: Death certificates on which the underlying cause of death (UCD given was an unspecified accident (ICD-10 X59 or an event of undetermined intent (ICD-10 Y10-Y34 were selected for investigation at the Legal Medicine Institute (IML. After consulting the police reports which accompany the corpses to the IML, the autopsy reports and other legal forms, these were analysed and the UCD was recoded. RESULTS: For unspecified accidents, 53.2% were changed to a specified cause: 15.1% due to pedestrians injured in traffic accidents, 17.5% due to other traffic accidents and 14.5% due to falls. Homicides and suicides constituted 9.8%. In 20.9% no additional information was found. For events of undetermined intent, 2/3 had no clarification; in 1/3 of the cases, the underlying cause changed to falls (10.6%, homicides (7.5% and pedestrians injured in transport accidents (6.7%. CONCLUSIONS: The quality of mortality information by external causes in the City of S. Paulo is not satisfactory. The IML has not used all the available information to fill out the death certificates. The findings reveal that the instruction of the World Health Organization and the Brazilian Center for the Classification of Diseases to codify as accidents those events for which there is no information on the death certificate about the external cause, does not seem to be appropriate. In that category 66.0% of the deaths were found to have been inferred incorrectly as accidental. The improvement of the

  10. 23 CFR 630.1010 - Significant projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Significant projects. 630.1010 Section 630.1010 Highways... PRECONSTRUCTION PROCEDURES Work Zone Safety and Mobility § 630.1010 Significant projects. (a) A significant project is one that, alone or in combination with other concurrent projects nearby is anticipated to cause...

  11. 48 CFR 2110.7003 - Significant events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Significant events. 2110..., AND OTHER PURCHASE DESCRIPTIONS Contract Specifications 2110.7003 Significant events. The contractor is required to inform the contracting officer of all significant events. ...

  12. Prevalence and type distribution of human papillomavirus infection among women with different degrees of cervical cytological abnormalities in Sicily (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Concetta Franchina

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Human papillomaviruses (HPVs are etiological agents of cervical cancer. In the absence of Pap smear alterations, high-risk HPV DNA can be detected in cervical samples. The prevalence of papillomavirus infection and their genotype distribution varies greatly across populations. The aims of this study were: i to assess the prevalences of HPV genotypes in people living in Eastern Sicily (Italy and the frequency of HPV multiple infections; ii to evaluate the association between HPV genotypes and cervical lesions in order to improve the epidemiological knowledge useful for monitoring or treating infected women. Nested PCR and reverse dot/blot hybridization were used for the detection and typing of HPV DNA in 315 women who had had an abnormal PAP-smear. HPV DNA test was positive in 70.5% cases; the prevalence was 50% in atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS, 80.8% in low grade-, and 76.2% in high grade-squamous intraepithelial lesion (H-SIL. The genotype distribution showed a predominance of HPV-16 (56.7% followed by HPV-18 (12.2%, HPV-31 (9.5% and HPV-6 (9.5%. Multiple infections were detected in 35.1% of the infected patients. High frequency of positive results for HPV was confirmed and, even in case of ASCUS, patients should be taken into account for genotyping. Our data indicate that multiple infections are consistent in women with low-grade lesions while they are less frequent in women with H-SIL. This could reinforce the theory of the multi-stage cancer model, by which one HPV type becomes predominant along with the progression of cervical lesion severity.

  13. Rate of Opportunistic Pap Smear Screening and Patterns of Epithelial Cell Abnormalities in Pap Smears in Ajman, United Arab Emirates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Eyd, Ghaith J.; Shaik, Rizwana B.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to estimate the proportion of women undergoing Papanicolaou (Pap) smear examinations, and the frequency of epithelial cell abnormalities in a teaching hospital in one emirate of the United Arab Emirates (UAE) during a three-year period. Methods: A retrospective study of 602 patient records from July 2007 to July 2010 was done in a teaching hospital in Ajman, UAE. The variables studied were age, ethnicity, menopausal status, and abnormalities in the Pap smear. Data were analysed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences and presented mainly as percentages; to assess associations, the chi-square test was used. Results: The total number of outpatients who attended the Obstetrics & Gynaecology Department from July 2007 to July 2010 was 150,111 patients, of which 602 (0.4% of the total) had a Pap smear test. The sample was 50.1% Arabs and 49.9% other nationalities. While 73% of the outpatients had specific complaints, 27% came for a routine screening. Epithelial cell abnormalities were seen in 3.3% of the sample, with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) found in 1.8%, low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSILs) found in 1.2%, and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSILs) found in 0.3%. There were no cases of squamous cell carcinoma. Conclusion: Voluntary routine Pap smear screening was remarkably low in the study group. ASCUS was the most common epithelial cell abnormality. Community health education and opportunistic screening for cervical cancer are recommended for both national and expatriate women in the region. PMID:23275844

  14. Transformation of the genital epithelial tract occurs early in California sea lion development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barragán-Vargas, Cecilia; Montano-Frías, Jorge; Ávila Rosales, Germán; Godínez-Reyes, Carlos R.; Acevedo-Whitehouse, Karina

    2016-01-01

    An unusually high prevalence of metastatic urogenital carcinoma has been observed in free-ranging California sea lions stranded off the coast of California in the past two decades. No cases have been reported for sea lions in the relatively unpolluted Gulf of California. We investigated occurrence of genital epithelial transformation in 60 sea lions (n=57 pups and 3 adult females) from the Gulf of California and examined whether infection by a viral pathogen previously found to be associated with urogenital carcinoma accounted for such alterations. We also explored the contribution of MHC class II gene expression on transformation. Cellular alterations, such as squamous cell atypia (ASC), atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) and low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions were observed in 42% of the pups and in 67% of the adult females. Normal genital epithelium was more common in male than female pups. ASC was five times more likely to occur in older pups. Epithelial alterations were unrelated to infection by the potentially oncogenic otarine type I gammaherpesvirus (OtHV-1), but ASCUS was more common in pups with marked and severe inflammation. Expression of MHC class II DRB loci (Zaca DRB-D) by peripheral antigen-presenting leucocytes showed a slightly ‘protective’ effect for ASC. We propose that transformation of the California sea lion genital epithelium is relatively common in young animals, increases with age and is probably the result of infection by an unidentified pathogen. Expression of a specific MHC class II gene, suggestive of presentation of specific antigenic peptides to immune effectors, appears to lower the risk of transformation. Our study provides the first evidence that epithelial transformation of the California sea lion genital tract is relatively common, even from an early age, and raises questions regarding differences in sea lion cancer-detection and -repair success between geographical regions. PMID:27069641

  15. HPV testing and vaccination in Europe.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Leeson, Simon C

    2014-01-01

    Current cytology-based screening has a moderate sensitivity to detect cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 (CIN 3) and cervical cancer even in those states providing rigorous quality control of their cervical screening programs. The impact of vaccination against human papillomavirus (HPV) types 16 and 18 as well as the incorporation of HPV testing on the detection of CIN 3 and cancer is discussed. HPV testing used as a triage for atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) and low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions, test of cure after treatment, and HPV-based primary screening may improve current cervical screening programs.HPV testing as a triage test for ASCUS seems to offer an improved sensitivity, with a similar specificity as compared to repeat cytology for diagnosing high-grade CIN and has been recommended throughout most EU states. HPV testing as a triage test for low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions has a low specificity and is not recommended in most member states. HPV test of cure offers an improved sensitivity compared to cytology for women with persistent cervical precancer after treatment. HPV-based cervical cancer screening is more effective than screening with cytology. The effects of HPV-based screening depend on the organization of the program and on adherence to algorithms for screening triage. Otherwise, it is likely that HPV-based screening will increase the referral rate to colposcopy including more women with no detectable cervical lesion. HPV vaccination will require many years to evaluate any beneficial effects on cervical cancer incidence and mortality.

  16. Regionally Significant Ecological Areas - MLCCS derived 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This is an analysis of regionally significant Terrestrial and Wetland Ecological Areas in the seven county metropolitan area. Individual forest, grassland and...

  17. Central Region Regionally Ecological Significant Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This is an analysis of regionally significant Terrestrial and Wetland Ecological Areas in the seven county metropolitan area. Individual forest, grassland and...

  18. How do we make sense of significance?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyhne, Ivar; Kørnøv, Lone

    2013-01-01

    Determination of significance is widely recognised as an important step in environmental assessment (EA) processes. The prescriptive literature and guidance on significance determination is comprehensive within the field of EA, whereas descriptive and explorative studies of how we go about making...... sense, or construct meaning, of actions to determine significance are few. This article makes use of sense-making theory to explore how sense-making among EA researchers and practitioners influence significance determination. Focus is on the situation when persons have their first look at information...

  19. Hypoxia: Exposure Time Until Significant Performance Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-07

    1994). Acute hypoxia fails to influence two aspects of short-term memory : implications for the source of cognitive deficits. Aviation, Space...Naval Medical Research Unit Dayton HYPOXIA : EXPOSURE TIME UNTIL SIGNIFICANT PERFORMANCE EFFECTS PHILLIPS, J.P., DRUMMOND, L.A...Andrews, CAPT, MSC, USN Commanding Officer i 1 ARTICLE TYPE: Research Article TITLE: Hypoxia : Exposure Time Until Significant Performance

  20. The Vernier Caliper and Significant Figures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberhofer, E. S.

    1985-01-01

    Misconceptions occur because the caliper is often read with the same significant figures as a meter stick; however, the precision of the vernier caliper is greater than the precision of a meter stick. Clarification of scale reading, precision of both tools, and significant figures are discussed. (JN)

  1. Evolution of the Significant Figure Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Ashley R.

    2013-01-01

    Today, almost all introductory physics textbooks include standardized "rules" on how to find the number of significant figures in a calculated value. And yet, 30 years ago these rules were almost nonexistent. Why have we increased the role of significant figures in introductory classes, and should we continue this trend? A look back at…

  2. Prevalence Of Asymptomatic Significant Bacteriuria In Schoolgirls ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enterococcus faecalis was found to be the predominant bacteria cause instead of Escherichia coli as reported in some literature. Girls in the age group 11 – 12 years had the highest prevalence of asymptomatic significant bacteriuria. Prevention of asymptomatic significant bacteriuria in schoolgirls rely on strict and proper ...

  3. The thresholds for statistical and clinical significance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Janus Christian; Gluud, Christian; Winkel, Per

    2014-01-01

    , assessment of intervention effects in randomised clinical trials deserves more rigour in order to become more valid. METHODS: Several methodologies for assessing the statistical and clinical significance of intervention effects in randomised clinical trials were considered. Balancing simplicity......BACKGROUND: Thresholds for statistical significance are insufficiently demonstrated by 95% confidence intervals or P-values when assessing results from randomised clinical trials. First, a P-value only shows the probability of getting a result assuming that the null hypothesis is true and does...... not reflect the probability of getting a result assuming an alternative hypothesis to the null hypothesis is true. Second, a confidence interval or a P-value showing significance may be caused by multiplicity. Third, statistical significance does not necessarily result in clinical significance. Therefore...

  4. Triage strategies in cervical cancer detection in Mexico: methods of the FRIDA Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Ibarra, Leticia; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Franco, Eduardo L; Cuzick, Jack; Hernández-Ávila, Mauricio; Lorincz, Attila; Rivera, Berenice; Ramírez, Paula; Mendiola-Pastrana, Indira; Rudolph, Samantha E; León-Maldonado, Leith; Hernández, Rubí; Barrios, Elizabeth; Gravitt, Patti; Moscicki, Anna Barbara; Schmeler, Kathleen M; Flores, Yvonne N; Méndez-Hernández, Pablo; Salmerón, Jorge

    2016-04-01

    This paper describes the study design and baseline characteristics of the study population, including the first 30 829 women who enrolled in the Forwarding Research for Improved Detection and Access for Cervical Cancer Screening and Triage (FRIDA Study). This is a large population based study that is evaluating the performance and cost-effectiveness of different triage strategies for high-risk HPV (hrHPV) positive women in Mexico. The target population is more than 100 000 women aged 30 to 64 years who attend the Cervical Cancer Screening Program in 100 health centers in the state of Tlaxcala, Mexico. Since August 2013, all women in the region have been invited to enroll in the study. The study participants are evaluated to determine hrHPV infection using the Cobas 4800 HPV test. The HPV-16/18 genotyping and cytology triage strategies are performed as reflex tests in all hrHPV-positive participants. Women with a positive HPV-16/18 test and/or abnormal cytology (atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance or worse, ASCUS+) are referred for colposcopy evaluation, where a minimum of four biopsies and an endocervical sample are systematically collected. Histologic confirmation is performed by a standardized panel of pathologists. Among the 30 829 women who have been screened, the overall prevalence of hrHPV is 11.0%. The overall prevalence of HPV16 and HPV18 are 1.5% and 0.7%, respectively. Cytological abnormalities (ASCUS+) were detected in 11.8% of the hrHPV-positive women. A total of 27.0% (920/3,401) of the hrHPV-positive women were referred to colposcopy because of a positive HPV16/18 test and/or abnormal reflex cytology, (31.6% had only ASCUS+, 53.6% were HPV16/18 positive with a normal cytology result, and 9.5% were positive to both triage tests). The results of this study will help policy makers and health service providers establish the best practices for triage in cervical cancer screening in Mexico and other countries.

  5. Risks of CIN 2+, CIN 3+, and Cancer by Cytology and Human Papillomavirus Status: The Foundation of Risk-Based Cervical Screening Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demarco, Maria; Lorey, Thomas S; Fetterman, Barbara; Cheung, Li C; Guido, Richard S; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Kinney, Walter K; Poitras, Nancy E; Befano, Brian; Castle, Philip E; Schiffman, Mark

    2017-10-01

    The next round of the American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology (ASCCP)-sponsored cervical cancer screening and management guidelines will recommend clinical actions based on risk, rather than test-based algorithms. This article gives preliminary risk estimates for the screening setting, showing combinations of the 2 most important predictors, human papillomavirus (HPV) status and cytology result. Among 1,262,713 women aged 25 to 77 years co-tested with HC2 (Qiagen) and cytology at Kaiser Permanente Northern California, we estimated 0-5-year cumulative risk of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) 2+, CIN 3+, and cancer for combinations of cytology (negative for intraepithelial lesion or malignancy [NILM], atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance [ASC-US], low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion [LSIL], atypical squamous cells cannot exclude HSIL [ASC-H], high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion [HSIL], atypical glandular cells [AGC]) and HPV status. Ninety percent of screened women had HPV-negative NILM and an extremely low risk of subsequent cancer. Five-year risks of CIN 3+ were lower after HPV negativity (0.12%) than after NILM (0.25%). Among HPV-negative women, 5-year risks for CIN 3+ were 0.10% for NILM, 0.44% for ASC-US, 1.8% for LSIL, 3.0% for ASC-H, 1.2% for AGC, and 29% for HSIL+ cytology (which was very rare). Among HPV-positive women, 5-year risks were 4.0% for NILM, 6.8% for ASC-US, 6.1% for LSIL, 28% for ASC-H, 30% for AGC, and 50% for HSIL+ cytology. As a foundation for the next guidelines revision, we confirmed with additional precision the risk estimates previously reported for combinations of HPV and cytology. Future analyses will estimate risks for women being followed in colposcopy clinic and posttreatment and will consider the role of risk modifiers such as age, HPV vaccine status, HPV type, and screening and treatment history.

  6. Mining significant semantic locations from GPS data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, Xin; Cong, Gao; Jensen, Christian S.

    2010-01-01

    With the increasing deployment and use of GPS-enabled devices, massive amounts of GPS data are becoming available. We propose a general framework for the mining of semantically meaningful, significant locations, e.g., shopping malls and restaurants, from such data. We present techniques capable...... of extracting semantic locations from GPS data. We capture the relationships between locations and between locations and users with a graph. Significance is then assigned to locations using random walks over the graph that propagates significance among the locations. In doing so, mutual reinforcement between...

  7. Discovering the Significance of Scientific Design Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pries-Heje, Jan; Baskerville, Richard

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses and defines the achievement of significance in design science research. We review the values and processes of old-science and how this mode of science attacks the complexity of scientific knowledge production through analysis. We then explain how new-science attacks...... the complexity of scientific knowledge production through synthesis. The work argues that significance of the new-science contribution in design science can be obfuscated when wrapped in old-science. This understanding helps reveal how new-science, such as design science research, constitutes its significance...

  8. Mining Significant Semantic Locations from GPS Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, Xin; Cong, Gao; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard

    2010-01-01

    With the increasing deployment and use of GPS-enabled devices, massive amounts of GPS data are becoming available. We propose a general framework for the mining of semantically meaningful, significant locations, e.g., shopping malls and restaurants, from such data. We present techniques capable...... of extracting semantic locations from GPS data. We capture the relationships between locations and between locations and users with a graph. Significance is then assigned to locations using random walks over the graph that propagates significance among the locations. In doing so, mutual reinforcement between...

  9. SRS Process Facility Significance Fire Frequency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarrack, A.G.

    1995-10-01

    This report documents the method and assumptions of a study performed to determine a site generic process facility significant fire initiator frequency and explains the proper way this value should be used

  10. IMPORTANCE AND CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF SERUM SIALIC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Subscription or Fee Access. IMPORTANCE AND CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF SERUM SIALIC ACID AND LACTATE DEHYDROGENASE DETERMINATION IN CERVICAL CANCER PATIENTS. Farouk H. Saber, Essam F. Hammouda, Mohamed Khaled M, Essam A. Afifi. Abstract.

  11. SRS Process Facility Significance Fire Frequency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarrack, A.G. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)

    1995-10-01

    This report documents the method and assumptions of a study performed to determine a site generic process facility significant fire initiator frequency and explains the proper way this value should be used.

  12. Economically Significant Sites - OSPR [ds356

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — This point data set shows locations of Economically Significant Sites along the California coast from Del Norte to San Diego counties. Data for locating these points...

  13. SIGWX Charts - High Level Significant Weather

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — High level significant weather (SIGWX) forecasts are provided for the en-route portion of international flights. NOAA's National Weather Service Aviation Center...

  14. Understanding cultural significance, the edible mushrooms case

    OpenAIRE

    Garibay-Orijel, Roberto; Caballero, Javier; Estrada-Torres, Arturo; Cifuentes, Joaqu?n

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Cultural significance is a keystone in quantitative ethnobiology, which offers the possibility to make inferences about traditional nomenclature systems, use, appropriation and valuing of natural resources. In the present work, using as model the traditional mycological knowledge of Zapotecs from Oaxaca, Mexico, we analyze the cultural significance of wild edible resources. Methods In 2003 we applied 95 questionnaires to a random sample of informants. With this data we int...

  15. Building stones can be of geoheritage significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brocx, Margaret; Semeniuk, Vic

    2017-04-01

    Building stones have generally been assigned values according to their cultural, aesthetic, and rarity significance, amongst other criteria, but they also may have geoheritage significance. This is akin to the geoheritage significance ascribed to minerals and fossils housed as ex situ specimens in museums. We proffer the notion that building stones can be of geoheritage value particularly where they comprise permanent buildings, they illustrate significant windows into the history of the Earth, and they can be visited as an ex situ museum locality (e.g., the "Blue Granite" of Iceland) for education as part of building-stone tours. For some rocks the quarries that supplied the building stone are no longer in existence and hence the building stones provide the only record of that type of material; for other rocks, the building stone may illustrate features in the lithology no longer present in the quarry itself (e.g., rare and large xenoliths). Building stones are particularly significant as they are often polished and manifest structures, fabrics, and textures not evident in outcrop. We illustrate here examples of building stone of geoheritage significance using Australian and International examples. Australian designated stones could include the "Sydney Sandstone" or "Victorian Bluestone". For international examples, there is the famous "Carrara Marble" in Italy and the widely known "Portland Limestone" from southern England, the latter having been utilized for St Pauls Cathedral in London and the UN building in New York City.

  16. Discovering the Significance of Scientific Design Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pries-Heje, Jan; Baskerville, Richard

    This paper aims at discussing and defining what it is that makes design science research significant. First it reviews the values and processes of old science and how this attacks complexity through analysis. It then shows how new science attacks complexity through synthesis. Then the paper argues...... that new science is burdened and limited in realizing its potential when cloaking itself in old science wrappers. This point is then demonstrated by two cases. The paper discusses how new science constitutes its significance. This discussion translates an old science framework of theory significance uses...... the same two cases to illustrate the framework. The paper ultimately aims to provide a better groundwork on which design science research can realize its fundamental potential as new science....

  17. Statistical significance of cis-regulatory modules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Andrew D

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is becoming increasingly important for researchers to be able to scan through large genomic regions for transcription factor binding sites or clusters of binding sites forming cis-regulatory modules. Correspondingly, there has been a push to develop algorithms for the rapid detection and assessment of cis-regulatory modules. While various algorithms for this purpose have been introduced, most are not well suited for rapid, genome scale scanning. Results We introduce methods designed for the detection and statistical evaluation of cis-regulatory modules, modeled as either clusters of individual binding sites or as combinations of sites with constrained organization. In order to determine the statistical significance of module sites, we first need a method to determine the statistical significance of single transcription factor binding site matches. We introduce a straightforward method of estimating the statistical significance of single site matches using a database of known promoters to produce data structures that can be used to estimate p-values for binding site matches. We next introduce a technique to calculate the statistical significance of the arrangement of binding sites within a module using a max-gap model. If the module scanned for has defined organizational parameters, the probability of the module is corrected to account for organizational constraints. The statistical significance of single site matches and the architecture of sites within the module can be combined to provide an overall estimation of statistical significance of cis-regulatory module sites. Conclusion The methods introduced in this paper allow for the detection and statistical evaluation of single transcription factor binding sites and cis-regulatory modules. The features described are implemented in the Search Tool for Occurrences of Regulatory Motifs (STORM and MODSTORM software.

  18. Formal conditions for the significance-effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thellefsen, Torkild Leo; Sørensen, Bent; Thellefsen, Martin

    2006-01-01

    The significance-effect is the right effect of meaning caused upon an interpreting mind. The right effect is understood as the right interpretation of an intended meaning caused by a sign communicated by an utterer. In the article, which is inspired by Charles S. Peirce's doctrine of signs, his...

  19. Soil physicochemical properties and their significance for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soil physicochemical properties and their significance for sustainable sugarcane production in Kesem Allaideghe plains irrigation project area, Eastern Ethiopia. ... In order to improve soil structure and water availability, addition of gypsum, plant residues and organic matter are recommended. Keywords: Soil survey ...

  20. Chemical and Biological Significance of Naturally Occurring ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF HORSFALL

    Chemical and Biological Significance of Naturally Occurring Additives on. African Black Soap and its Performance. IKOTUN, A. ... attribute of the soap includes gentleness on the skin, rich lather, protection against skin disorders ... soap, the effects of its modifications with some commonly used natural products, as well as the ...

  1. Formal conditions for the significance-effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thellefsen, Torkild Leo; Sørensen, Bent; Thellefsen, Martin

    2006-01-01

    The significance-effect is the right effect of meaning caused upon an interpreting mind. The right effect is understood as the right interpretation of an intended meaning caused by a sign communicated by an utterer. In the article, which is inspired by Charles S. Peirce's doctrine of signs, his s...

  2. Hemodynamic significance of internal carotid artery disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schroeder, T

    1988-01-01

    a significant improvement in baseline flow occur. Flow reserve determined by cerebral vasodilation, however, will improve in most patients with hemodynamic failure. In addition, some patients in the low-pressure group develop marked, but temporary, hyperperfusion after reconstruction of very high grade carotid...

  3. The Historical Significance of the Universal Declaration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eide, Asbjorn

    1998-01-01

    Explains the historical significance of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Focuses on the initiative for the Declaration and its elaboration, the precursors to modern human rights, the foundation of the Declaration, the rights contained in the Universal Declaration, three modes of human rights analysis, and global governance and human…

  4. Petrochemistry and geotectonic significance of enderbite ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Petrochemistry and geotectonic significance of enderbite-charnockite association in the Pan-African Obudu plateau, southeastern Nigeria. VU Ukaegbu, FT Beka. Abstract. No Abstract. Journal of Mining and Geology Vol. 43 (1) 2007: pp. 1-14. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ...

  5. Surface characterization based upon significant topographic features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanc, J; Grime, D; Blateyron, F, E-mail: fblateyron@digitalsurf.fr [Digital Surf, 16 rue Lavoisier, F-25000 Besancon (France)

    2011-08-19

    Watershed segmentation and Wolf pruning, as defined in ISO 25178-2, allow the detection of significant features on surfaces and their characterization in terms of dimension, area, volume, curvature, shape or morphology. These new tools provide a robust way to specify functional surfaces.

  6. Significant Bacteriuria in Pregnancy in Enugu, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the prevalence, demographic characteristics and microbiological assessment of the causative agents of significant bacteriuria in healthy pregnant women and its effect on pregnancy in women in Enugu, Eastern Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A prospective study based on data obtained from ...

  7. Bullying in Academe: Prevalent, Significant, and Incessant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassell, Macgorine A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the top-down perspective of bullying and mobbing of professors by analyzing why it is prevalent, significant, and incessant and then proposes a framework to produce a caring, respectful, and safe environment for professors to engage in their teaching, scholarship, and service. The author suggests that the failure of…

  8. Surface characterization based upon significant topographic features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanc, J; Grime, D; Blateyron, F

    2011-01-01

    Watershed segmentation and Wolf pruning, as defined in ISO 25178-2, allow the detection of significant features on surfaces and their characterization in terms of dimension, area, volume, curvature, shape or morphology. These new tools provide a robust way to specify functional surfaces.

  9. The Policy Significance of Inequality Decompositions

    OpenAIRE

    Kanbur, Ravi

    2003-01-01

    Economists are now familiar with “between” and “within” group inequality decompositions, for race, gender, spatial units, etc. But what exactly is the normative significance of the empirical results produced by these decompositions? This paper raises some basic questions about policy interpretations of decompositions that are found in the literature.

  10. 7 CFR 3015.93 - Significant developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF THE CHIEF FINANCIAL OFFICER, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE UNIFORM FEDERAL ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS Monitoring and Reporting Program Performance § 3015.93 Significant developments. Events may occur between the scheduled performance reporting dates...

  11. Significant improvement of electrochemical performance of Cu ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Significant improvement of electrochemical performance of Cu-coated LiVPO4F cathode material for lithium-ion batteries ... School of Mechanical Engineering and Automation, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819, China; School of Mechanical Engineering, Shenyang University of Chemical Technology, Shenyang ...

  12. The Significance of the Nursery School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gesell, Arnold

    2017-01-01

    From the standpoint of mental health and perhaps even from the standpoint of human culture, the complete realization of the educational possibilities of the preschool child is of foundational significance. Normative and comparative studies performed at a psychological clinic at Yale examining norms of development in children from one month to five…

  13. Cystic echinococcosis: prevalence and economic significance in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cross-sectional study was conducted from November 2015 to April 2016 at ELFORA export abattoir to determine the prevalence, cyst viability, organ distribution and economic significance of small ruminant cystic echinococcosis. A total of 850 small ruminants (400 sheep and 450 goats), were examined for the presence of ...

  14. Automated detection and recognition of diagnostically significant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... points and the use of automated means of searching for ECG lines. The system increases the reliability of decoding ECG by a doctor-cardiologist for the purpose of diagnosis and significantly reduces the time to perform this procedure. Keywords: ECG; ECG annotation; the state machine; state diagram; UML; LabVIEW ...

  15. 32 CFR 651.39 - Significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... existing pollution standards; cause water, air, noise, soil, or underground pollution; impair visibility... Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Environmental Assessment § 651.39 Significance. (a) If the...

  16. Significance of Assimilation and Fractional Crystallization (AFC ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    57

    andesites of the Chhotaudepur area plot close to a consistent mixing trend between typical mantle composition ... Deccan tholeiites and alkaline felsic rocks also exhibit a significant trend of crustal contamination. .... Keeping the rate of assimilation to fractional crystallization (r) as 0.3, the binary plotting was carried out and.

  17. Changing relationships with significant others: Reflections of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Symbolic interactionism provides the framework for analysing the building of relationships between elite athletes and their significant others. In-depth interviews were conducted with elite throwers and decathlon athletes. The sample included current (n=15) and retired (n=5) student-athletes, parents (n=5), coaches (n=2) ...

  18. Significant Workplace Change: Perspectives of Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohut, Ann Marie

    2010-01-01

    The ever-increasing pace of workplace change is well documented in the literature, yet little is known about how an individual adapts to significant change in the workplace. Continuous learning is key to successful adaptation; however, are employees' adaptation to change influenced by their approaches to learning? The purpose of this study was to…

  19. Mycotoxins: significance to global economics and health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mycotoxins are fungal metabolites produced my micro-fungi (molds and mildews) that have significant impacts on global economics and health. Some of these metabolites are beneficial, but most are harmful and have been associated with well-known epidemics dating back to medieval times. The terms ‘myco...

  20. Scope and Significance of Eating Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, James E.; Eckert, Elke D.

    1987-01-01

    Describes the increasing prevalence of anorexia nervosa and bulimia in many industrialized societies, and their association with significant morbidity and mortality. Discusses the genetic risks for the development of anorexia nervosa, and treatment strategies. Of these, pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy, particularly those incorporating…

  1. Significance of Literature in Foreign Language Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaee, Ruzbeh; Yahya, Wan Roselezam Bt Wan

    2014-01-01

    This research aims to consider literature as a significant tool for teaching fundamental language skills including speaking, listening, reading and writing. Reasons for the use of literature in language classrooms and major factors for choosing appropriate kinds of literary texts in such classes should be highlighted in order to make readers aware…

  2. Understanding cultural significance, the edible mushrooms case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garibay-Orijel, Roberto; Caballero, Javier; Estrada-Torres, Arturo; Cifuentes, Joaquín

    2007-01-11

    Cultural significance is a keystone in quantitative ethnobiology, which offers the possibility to make inferences about traditional nomenclature systems, use, appropriation and valuing of natural resources. In the present work, using as model the traditional mycological knowledge of Zapotecs from Oaxaca, Mexico, we analyze the cultural significance of wild edible resources. In 2003 we applied 95 questionnaires to a random sample of informants. With this data we integrated the Edible Mushroom Cultural Significance Index. This index included eight variables: frequency of mention, perceived abundance, use frequency, taste, multifunctional food use, knowledge transmission, health and economy. Data were analyzed in an inductive perspective using ordination and grouping techniques to reveal the behavior of species in a cultural multivariate dimension. In each variable the species had different conducts. Cantharellus cibarius s.l. was the species with most frequency of mention. Pleurotus sp. had the highest perceived abundance. C. cibarius s.l. was the most frequently consumed species. Gomphus clavatus was the most palatable species and also ranked highest in the multifunctional food index. Cortinarius secc. Malacii sp. had the highest traditional importance. Only Tricholoma magnivelare was identified as a health enhancer. It also had the most economic importance. According to the compound index, C. cibarius s.l., the Amanita caesarea complex, Ramaria spp. and Neolentinus lepideus were the mushrooms with highest cultural significance. Multivariate analysis showed that interviewees identify three main groups of mushrooms: species with high traditional values, frequent consumption and known by the majority; species that are less known, infrequently consumed and without salient characteristics; and species with low traditional values, with high economic value and health enhancers. The compound index divided the cultural significance into several cultural domains and showed

  3. Understanding cultural significance, the edible mushrooms case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cifuentes Joaquín

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cultural significance is a keystone in quantitative ethnobiology, which offers the possibility to make inferences about traditional nomenclature systems, use, appropriation and valuing of natural resources. In the present work, using as model the traditional mycological knowledge of Zapotecs from Oaxaca, Mexico, we analyze the cultural significance of wild edible resources. Methods In 2003 we applied 95 questionnaires to a random sample of informants. With this data we integrated the Edible Mushroom Cultural Significance Index. This index included eight variables: frequency of mention, perceived abundance, use frequency, taste, multifunctional food use, knowledge transmission, health and economy. Data were analyzed in an inductive perspective using ordination and grouping techniques to reveal the behavior of species in a cultural multivariate dimension. Results In each variable the species had different conducts. Cantharellus cibarius s.l. was the species with most frequency of mention. Pleurotus sp. had the highest perceived abundance. C. cibarius s.l. was the most frequently consumed species. Gomphus clavatus was the most palatable species and also ranked highest in the multifunctional food index. Cortinarius secc.Malacii sp. had the highest traditional importance. Only Tricholoma magnivelare was identified as a health enhancer. It also had the most economic importance. According to the compound index, C. cibarius s.l., the Amanita caesarea complex, Ramaria spp. and Neolentinus lepideus were the mushrooms with highest cultural significance. Multivariate analysis showed that interviewees identify three main groups of mushrooms: species with high traditional values, frequent consumption and known by the majority; species that are less known, infrequently consumed and without salient characteristics; and species with low traditional values, with high economic value and health enhancers. Conclusion The compound index divided

  4. Significant incidents in nuclear fuel cycle facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-03-01

    In contrast to nuclear power plants, events in nuclear fuel cycle facilities are not well documented. The INES database covers all the nuclear fuel cycle facilities; however, it was developed in the early 1990s and does not contain information on events prior to that. The purpose of the present report is to collect significant events and analyze them in order to give a safety related overview of nuclear fuel cycle facilities. Significant incidents were selected using the following criteria: release of radioactive material or exposure to radiation; degradation of items important to safety; and deficiencies in design, quality assurance, etc. which include criticality incidents, fire, explosion, radioactive release and contamination. This report includes an explanation, where possible, of root causes, lessons learned and action taken. 4 refs, 4 tabs

  5. Cross wavelet analysis: significance testing and pitfalls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Maraun

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a detailed evaluation of cross wavelet analysis of bivariate time series. We develop a statistical test for zero wavelet coherency based on Monte Carlo simulations. If at least one of the two processes considered is Gaussian white noise, an approximative formula for the critical value can be utilized. In a second part, typical pitfalls of wavelet cross spectra and wavelet coherency are discussed. The wavelet cross spectrum appears to be not suitable for significance testing the interrelation between two processes. Instead, one should rather apply wavelet coherency. Furthermore we investigate problems due to multiple testing. Based on these results, we show that coherency between ENSO and NAO is an artefact for most of the time from 1900 to 1995. However, during a distinct period from around 1920 to 1940, significant coherency between the two phenomena occurs.

  6. Early memories: Clinical relevance and significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Watt, Gillian; Coall, David; Sng, Adelln; Janca, Aleksandar

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine earliest memories in patients with a mental disorder and their clinical relevance to diagnosis and treatment. A semi-structured early memory questionnaire was developed and 50 patients with anxiety, depression or a psychotic disorder were interviewed. A thematic analysis was conducted to extract dominant themes from the qualitative data. Family events, play, and receiving attention were dominant themes of pleasant memories, while unpleasant memories consisted of fear-provoking situations, abuse/violence, and death-related themes. Participants were able to recall the feelings they had experienced at the time of their earliest memories and most participants stated that their first memories had significant impact in their lives. The findings of this exploratory study suggest that earliest memories may be of clinical significance for diagnostic and therapeutic interventions in psychiatry. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  7. Practical significance of the difference in means

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. S. Steyn (JR.

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available It is shown how the standardised difference (the effect size between two population means can be used to establish significance when the populations are observed in totality. When dealing with two samples methods are given to determine the practical importance of a statistically significant difference. The usual effect size formula is adapted to deal with cases where populations have different standard deviations. Opsomming Dit word aangetoon hoe die gestandaardiseerde verskil (die effekgrootte tussen twee populasiegemiddeldes gebruik kan word om beduidenheid t.o.v. volledig waargenome populasies te bepaal. In die geval van twee steekproewe word metodes gegee om die praktiese belangrikheid van 'n statistiese beduidende verskil vas te stel. Die gewone effekgrootte formule word aangepas ten einde gevalle waar populasies verskillende standaardafwykings het te hanteer.

  8. Obesity and Onset of Significant Depressive symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogelzangs, Nicole; Kritchevsky, Stephen B; Beekman, Aartjan TF; Brenes, Gretchen A; Newman, Anne B; Satterfield, Suzanne; Yaffe, Kristine; Harris, Tamara B; Penninx, Brenda WJH

    2012-01-01

    Objective Although several cross-sectional studies have linked obesity and depression, less is known about their longitudinal association and about the relative influence of obesity subtypes. We prospectively examined whether (abdominal) obesity increased the risk of onset of depression in a population-based sample of older persons. Method Participants were 2540 non-depressed well-functioning white and black persons, aged 70–79 years, enrolled in the Health ABC Study, an ongoing prospective community-based cohort study. Overall obesity was assessed by body mass index and percent body fat (measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry), whereas abdominal obesity measures included waist circumference, sagittal diameter, and visceral fat (measured by computer tomography). Onset of significant depressive symptoms was defined as a Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression 10-item score ≥ 10 at any annual follow-up over 5 years and/or new antidepressant medication use. Persistent depression was defined as depression at two consecutive follow-up visits. Results Over 5 years, significant depressive symptoms emerged in 23.7% of initially non-depressed persons. In men, both overall (BMI: HR per SD increase=1.20, 95%CI=1.03–1.40) and abdominal obesity (visceral fat: HR per SD increase=1.19, 95%CI=1.07–1.33) predicted onset of depressive symptoms after adjustment for sociodemographics. When BMI and visceral fat were adjusted for each other, only visceral fat was significantly associated with depression onset (HR=1.18, 95%CI=1.04–1.34). Stronger associations were found for persistent depressive symptoms. No associations were found in women. Conclusion This study shows that obesity, in particular visceral fat, increases the risk of onset of significant depressive symptoms in men. These results suggest that specific mechanisms might relate visceral fat to the onset of depression. PMID:20021992

  9. EXPLORE SIGNIFICANT FACTORS TO AFFECT CUSTOMER INVOLVEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Yu-Jia Hu

    2012-01-01

    Although literature review supported the concept that customer loyalty, brand equity and perceived risk are significant factors to affect customer involvement, very limited studies have extensively examined the relationship among those variables. This research applied quantitative study to comprehensively explore the relationship between customer loyalty, brand equity, perceived risk and customer involvement for consumers. The population for this research was identified as consumers having th...

  10. Prevalence of significant bacteriuria among symptomatic and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 16.0 (SPSS, Inc., Chicago, Ill). Results: A total of 100 consenting participants were recruited into the study. The mean age was: 23.42 ± 8.31 years and a range of 14‑50 years. Only 9% (9/100) had significant bacteriuria while 44.4% (4/9) ...

  11. Significance and radioimmunoassay of gastric inhibitory polypeptide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Ping; Zeng Minde; Yuan Jimin

    1995-01-01

    We have established the GIP Radioimmunoassay which has high sensitivity and specificity by labelling with iodogen and purified with HPLC. Using this method, the plasma GIP level was measured in 64 cases of which there are 10 normal individuals, 25 cases of diabetes and 29 cases of liver cirrhosis . The results showed that the plasma GIP level was significantly increased in patients with liver cirrhosis and correlated to degree of glucose tolerance damage

  12. Significance of postoperative irradiation for breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murai, Nobuko; Ogami, Koji; Nishikawa, Kiyoshi; Koga, Kenji; Waki, Norio; Higashi, Hidefumi; Hayashi, Asami; Shibata, Koichiro; Watanabe, Katsuji

    1986-01-01

    From 1978 through 1983, 27 patients were treated with surgery followed by irradiation (irradiated group) and 29 with surery alone (non-irradiated group). In the irradiated group, 10 had stage II and 17 stage III; in the non-irradiated group, 25 had stage II and 4 stage III. The most common histology was medullary tubular carcinoma (MTC). There was no significant difference in survivals at 3 years and 5 years between the groups. Similarly, no significant difference was seen among stage II patients. Patients with MTC tended to have worse survivals in the irradiated group than in the non-irradiated group, with no statistically significant difference. Among stage II patients, no major differences in local recurrence were seen between the groups; the incidence of distant metastases tended to be high in the irradiated group. The incidence of both local recurrence and distant metastases for stage III patients showed a tendency to be higher in the irradiated group than in the non-irradiated group. The results indicated no apparent benifit of postoperative irradiation for breast cancer. A randomized clinical trial is needed for the evaluation of postoperative irradiation for breast cancer. (Namekawa, K.)

  13. Medial fracture line significance in calcaneus fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogut, Tahir; Ayhan, Egemen; Kantarci, Fatih; Unlu, Mehmet C; Salih, Muhammet

    2011-01-01

    In Sanders' classification of calcaneus fractures, the medial fracture line (subtype C) is close to the tarsal canal, which contains an artery for the talus and calcaneus. We hypothesized that because of this brittle vascular localization, patients with C line fracture patterns might describe radiologic subtalar arthritis more often and have more complaints. The purpose of the present study was to compare the results of C line fracture patterns with other types of calcaneus fractures. A total of 25 surgically treated feet were involved. Regarding Sanders' classification, group 1 included fractures involving the C line (11 feet), and group 2 included fractures not involving the C line (14 feet). Patient age at admission, trauma date, and interval until surgery were obtained from the patients' medical records. The Bohler angles were determined from the radiographs. At the last follow-up visit, the radiologist graded subtalar arthritis using computed tomography. For clinical follow-up, the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society and Maryland scores were assessed. No significant differences were found in mean age, follow-up period, delay to surgery, or postoperative Bohler angle between the 2 groups. The mean preoperative Bohler angle was significantly low for group 1. Although not significantly different, the mean American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society and Maryland scores were lower for group 1 (81.9 and 84.3) than group 2 (87.8 and 92.0), and the median subtalar arthritis grade was greater for group 1 (score 2) than for group 2 (score 1.5). The worse results with C line fracture patterns despite satisfactory reduction might result from sinus tarsi artery damage. Angiographic investigations could clarify this theory in the future. Consequently, surgeons must inform and should hesitate to operate on patients with these highly comminuted C line calcaneus fractures. Copyright © 2011 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All

  14. Os odontoideum: a significant radiographic finding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choit, Rachel L.; Reilly, Christopher W.; Jamieson, Douglas H.

    2005-01-01

    Os odontoideum can lead to instability of the atlantoaxial joint and places the spinal cord at significant risk for acute catastrophic events after minor trauma or chronic neurological change. We present two cases of os odontoideum in pediatric patients that were not appreciated at earlier remote imaging but were, in retrospect, detectable. One patient presented with an acute spinal cord injury. Incorporating assessment of dens integrity into the evaluation algorithm for all pediatric cervical spine studies should lead to early detection of os odontoideum lesions and allow referral to appropriate clinical spinal services for evaluation, surveillance and possible surgery to prevent future complications. (orig.)

  15. Os odontoideum: a significant radiographic finding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choit, Rachel L.; Reilly, Christopher W. [BC Children' s Hospital, Department of Orthopaedics, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Jamieson, Douglas H. [BC Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Vancouver (Canada)

    2005-08-01

    Os odontoideum can lead to instability of the atlantoaxial joint and places the spinal cord at significant risk for acute catastrophic events after minor trauma or chronic neurological change. We present two cases of os odontoideum in pediatric patients that were not appreciated at earlier remote imaging but were, in retrospect, detectable. One patient presented with an acute spinal cord injury. Incorporating assessment of dens integrity into the evaluation algorithm for all pediatric cervical spine studies should lead to early detection of os odontoideum lesions and allow referral to appropriate clinical spinal services for evaluation, surveillance and possible surgery to prevent future complications. (orig.)

  16. Detecting significant changes in protein abundance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Kammers

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We review and demonstrate how an empirical Bayes method, shrinking a protein's sample variance towards a pooled estimate, leads to far more powerful and stable inference to detect significant changes in protein abundance compared to ordinary t-tests. Using examples from isobaric mass labelled proteomic experiments we show how to analyze data from multiple experiments simultaneously, and discuss the effects of missing data on the inference. We also present easy to use open source software for normalization of mass spectrometry data and inference based on moderated test statistics.

  17. Non-destructive testing: significant facts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espejo, Hector; Ruch, Marta C.

    2006-01-01

    In the last fifty years different organisations, both public and private, have been assigned to the mission of introducing into the country the most relevant aspects of the modern technological discipline 'Non Destructive Testing' (NDT) through a manifold of activities, such as training and education, research, development, technical assistance and services, personnel qualification/certification and standardisation. A review is given of the significant facts in this process, in which the Argentine Atomic Energy Commission, CNEA, played a leading part, a balance of the accomplishments is made and a forecast of the future of the activity is sketched. (author) [es

  18. Class I Area Significant Impact Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  19. Assessing the significance of Heidegger's Black Notebooks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Malpas

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The publication of Heidegger's Black Notebooks (Schwarze Hefte has provoked a storm of controversy. Much of this has centred on the pro-Nazi and anti-Semitic comments the volumes contain. But these aspects of the Notebooks are perhaps the least surprising and important. This essay offers a summary overview of the issues to which the Notebooks give rise, at the same time as it also aims to provide a preliminary assessment of their overall significance, especially in relation to what they show about the nature and development of Heidegger's thinking from the early 1930s to the late 1940s.

  20. Significant exposures to isoeugenol derivatives in perfumes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rastogi, S.C.; Johansen, Jeanne Duus

    2008-01-01

    in perfumes/aftershaves. Materials and Methods: 29 international brand perfumes/aftershaves were analysed for the target fragrance ingredient by gas chromatography-mass spectrometery. All samples were analysed in duplicate at detection levels of 1-5 p.p.m. Results: 16 products (55%) contained isoeugenol...... was not detected in any of the investigated products. Conclusions: Isoeugenyl acetate is present in perfumes/aftershaves, in some products in significant amounts. This may lead to elicitation of contact allergy in isoeugenol-sensitized individuals and may contribute to unchanged levels of isoeugenol sensitization...

  1. Significance and popularity in music production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monechi, Bernardo; Gravino, Pietro; Servedio, Vito D P; Tria, Francesca; Loreto, Vittorio

    2017-07-01

    Creative industries constantly strive for fame and popularity. Though highly desirable, popularity is not the only achievement artistic creations might ever acquire. Leaving a longstanding mark in the global production and influencing future works is an even more important achievement, usually acknowledged by experts and scholars. 'Significant' or 'influential' works are not always well known to the public or have sometimes been long forgotten by the vast majority. In this paper, we focus on the duality between what is successful and what is significant in the musical context. To this end, we consider a user-generated set of tags collected through an online music platform, whose evolving co-occurrence network mirrors the growing conceptual space underlying music production. We define a set of general metrics aiming at characterizing music albums throughout history, and their relationships with the overall musical production. We show how these metrics allow to classify albums according to their current popularity or their belonging to expert-made lists of important albums. In this way, we provide the scientific community and the public at large with quantitative tools to tell apart popular albums from culturally or aesthetically relevant artworks. The generality of the methodology presented here lends itself to be used in all those fields where innovation and creativity are in play.

  2. Sonographic ally Detected Architectural Distortion: Clinical Significance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Shin Kee; Seo, Bo Kyoung; Yi, Ann; Cha, Sang Hoon; Kim, Baek Hyun; Cho, Kyu Ran; Kim, Young Sik; Son, Gil Soo; Kim, Young Soo; Kim, Hee Young [Korea University Ansan Hospital, Ansan (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-12-15

    Architectural distortion is a suspicious abnormality for the diagnosis of breast cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical significance of sonographic ally detected architectural distortion. From January 2006 to June 2008, 20 patients were identified who had sonographic ally detected architectural distortions without a history of trauma or surgery and abnormal mammographic findings related to an architectural distortion. All of the lesions were pathologically verified. We evaluated the clinical and pathological findings and then assessed the clinical significance of the sonographic ally detected architectural distortions. Based on the clinical findings, one (5%) of the 20 patients had a palpable lump and the remaining 19 patients had no symptoms. No patient had a family history of breast cancer. Based on the pathological findings, three (15%) patients had malignancies. The malignant lesions included invasive ductal carcinomas (n = 2) and ductal carcinoma in situ (n = 1). Four (20%) patients had high-risk lesions: atypical ductal hyperplasia (n = 3) and lobular carcinoma in situ (n = 1). The remaining 13 (65%) patients had benign lesions, however, seven (35%) out of 13 patients had mild-risk lesions (three intraductal papillomas, three moderate or florid epithelial hyperplasia and one sclerosing adenosis). Of the sonographic ally detected architectural distortions, 35% were breast cancers or high-risk lesions and 35% were mild-risk lesions. Thus, a biopsy might be needed for an architectural distortion without an associated mass as depicted on breast ultrasound, even though the mammographic findings are normal

  3. Could patients' coughing have communicative significance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Julia V

    2008-01-01

    Medical discourse positions patients with coughs and colds negatively, so consulting health services with 'minor' respiratory illness is therefore more accountable than for other medical problems. Patients face dilemmas since they must persuade doctors of the doctorability of their illness without being seen as hypochondriacal, and they risk losing face if doctors decide that there is nothing much wrong. It is known that the placement of non-lexical features of talk such as laughing or crying can have interactional meaning. Using a data set of video-recorded doctor-patient cough and cold consultations, this study explores whether patients' coughing could have communicative significance. The study is a qualitative analysis of 33 consultations drawing on a constructionist, sociolinguistic analytic approach. Coughing is co-ordinated with talk rather than occurring randomly. Coughing helps patients to demonstrate the doctorability of their symptoms and to legitimize their claims for medical attention. Coughing is also associated with resistance to 'no problem' diagnoses, resulting in changes in the trajectory of talk (for example, soliciting more explanation from doctors and/or re-negotiation of doctors' investigation or treatment plans). Coughing is undoubtedly a manifestation of respiratory illness, but also has communicative significance in consultations for coughs and colds.

  4. Microscopic fungi as significant sesquiterpene emission sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    HorváTh, Eszter; Hoffer, AndráS.; SebőK, Flóra; Dobolyi, Csaba; Szoboszlay, SáNdor; Kriszt, BaláZs; GelencséR, AndráS.

    2011-08-01

    Among the volatile organic compounds emitted by vegetation, isoprene, monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and their derivatives are thought to contribute to secondary organic aerosol formation. Although it is well known that microscopic fungi globally turn over vast amount of carbon by decomposing the organic matter in the soil, vegetation is considered as the exclusive source of biogenic secondary organic aerosol precursors in various atmospheric models. Secondary fungal metabolites including sesquiterpenes have been recognized as characteristic volatile organic compounds emitted by fungi. In the present study, we investigated the rates of sesquiterpene emission of microscopic fungi to establish their potential significance compared to those from vegetation. To sample the headspace of the pure culture of some common fungi, we used an aseptic flow-through apparatus designed for solid phase microextraction in our laboratory. The identified sesquiterpenes in the headspace extracts were quantified for eight strains of microscopic fungi belonging to four different genera. Our results showed that microscopic fungi emit a considerable amount of sesquiterpenes. Based on our first estimations microscopic fungi may be considered as potentially significant sesquiterpene emission sources whose contribution to secondary organic aerosol formation may be comparable to that of vegetation.

  5. Significance and popularity in music production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monechi, Bernardo; Gravino, Pietro; Servedio, Vito D. P.; Tria, Francesca; Loreto, Vittorio

    2017-07-01

    Creative industries constantly strive for fame and popularity. Though highly desirable, popularity is not the only achievement artistic creations might ever acquire. Leaving a longstanding mark in the global production and influencing future works is an even more important achievement, usually acknowledged by experts and scholars. `Significant' or `influential' works are not always well known to the public or have sometimes been long forgotten by the vast majority. In this paper, we focus on the duality between what is successful and what is significant in the musical context. To this end, we consider a user-generated set of tags collected through an online music platform, whose evolving co-occurrence network mirrors the growing conceptual space underlying music production. We define a set of general metrics aiming at characterizing music albums throughout history, and their relationships with the overall musical production. We show how these metrics allow to classify albums according to their current popularity or their belonging to expert-made lists of important albums. In this way, we provide the scientific community and the public at large with quantitative tools to tell apart popular albums from culturally or aesthetically relevant artworks. The generality of the methodology presented here lends itself to be used in all those fields where innovation and creativity are in play.

  6. Sonographic ally Detected Architectural Distortion: Clinical Significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Shin Kee; Seo, Bo Kyoung; Yi, Ann; Cha, Sang Hoon; Kim, Baek Hyun; Cho, Kyu Ran; Kim, Young Sik; Son, Gil Soo; Kim, Young Soo; Kim, Hee Young

    2008-01-01

    Architectural distortion is a suspicious abnormality for the diagnosis of breast cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical significance of sonographic ally detected architectural distortion. From January 2006 to June 2008, 20 patients were identified who had sonographic ally detected architectural distortions without a history of trauma or surgery and abnormal mammographic findings related to an architectural distortion. All of the lesions were pathologically verified. We evaluated the clinical and pathological findings and then assessed the clinical significance of the sonographic ally detected architectural distortions. Based on the clinical findings, one (5%) of the 20 patients had a palpable lump and the remaining 19 patients had no symptoms. No patient had a family history of breast cancer. Based on the pathological findings, three (15%) patients had malignancies. The malignant lesions included invasive ductal carcinomas (n = 2) and ductal carcinoma in situ (n = 1). Four (20%) patients had high-risk lesions: atypical ductal hyperplasia (n = 3) and lobular carcinoma in situ (n = 1). The remaining 13 (65%) patients had benign lesions, however, seven (35%) out of 13 patients had mild-risk lesions (three intraductal papillomas, three moderate or florid epithelial hyperplasia and one sclerosing adenosis). Of the sonographic ally detected architectural distortions, 35% were breast cancers or high-risk lesions and 35% were mild-risk lesions. Thus, a biopsy might be needed for an architectural distortion without an associated mass as depicted on breast ultrasound, even though the mammographic findings are normal

  7. Arcuate foramen and its clinical significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cakmark, O.; Gurdal, E.; Cavdar, S.; Ekinci, G.; Yildiz, E.

    2005-01-01

    The present study determines the degree of ossification of the posterior atlanto-occipital membrane in dry bone, plane lateral cervical spine radiographs and computer tomography (CT). The average length, width and the area of the arcuate foramen were measured on dry bone and on cervical CT. Further, age, gender and complaints of the patients of shoulder and arm pain, neck pain, headache, vertigo, and lacrimation in relation to the presence of bony complete or incomplete arcuate foramen were evaluated. From February 2004 to January 2005 60 dry atlases were obtained from the Anatomy Department, University of Marmara, Istanbul, Turkey and 416 lateral cervical spine radiographs were obtained from the Radiology department for neurological and orthopedic evaluations. Each complete arcuate foramen was calculated with the aid of Clemex Vision PE demo version computer program. Among the 60 dry atlases examined 7 (11.7%) had complete and 2 (3.3 %) had incomplete bony bridge formation. Of the 416 plane lateral cervical spine radiographs examined, 30 (7.2%) had complete and 26 (6.25%) had incomplete bony bridge formation. Of the 30 complete arcuate foramen 24 (80%) were females and 6 (20%) were males. The frequency of having a complete arcuate foramen in females was 8.45%, and in males it was 4.55%. Further, of the 26 incomplete arcuate foramen 20 (76.9%) were females and 6 (23.1%) were males. The frequency of having an incomplete arcuate foramen in females was 7%, and in males was 4.55%. The statistical evaluations showed that patients with complete arcuate foramen had significant complaints of shoulder-arm pain (p=0.0072), neck pain (p=0.0072) and vertigo (p=0.0598) compared to patients with incomplete arcuate foramen. The patients with complete arcuate foramen had a headache ratio of 12:30 and this ratio was 2:26 in patients with incomplete arcuate foramen and the difference between complete and incomplete arcuate foramen was statistically significant (p=0.0062). Further

  8. THRESHOLD OF SIGNIFICANCE IN STRESS MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena RUSE

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Stress management is the individual's ability to handle any situation, external conditions, to match the demands of the external environment. The researchers revealed several stages in the stress response. A first phase was called ‘‘alert reaction'' or ‘‘immediate reaction to stress‘‘, phase in which there are physiological modifications and manifestations that occur under psychological aspect. Adaptation phase is the phase in which the reactions from the first phase diminishes or disappears. Exhaustion phase is related to the diversity of stress factors and time and may exceed the resources of the human body to adapt. Influencing factors may be: limited, cognitive, perceptual, and a priori. But there is a threshold of significance in stress management. Once the reaction to external stimuli occurs, awareness is needed. The capability effect occurs, any side effect goes away and comes out the ''I AM'' effect.

  9. Significance and potential benefits of the CTBT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, M.

    1999-01-01

    This presentation is based on the Treaty stipulation on international cooperation: 'The States parties undertake to promote cooperation among themselves to facilitate and participate in the fullest possible exchange relating to technologies used in the verification of the Non-proliferation Treaty in order to enable States to strengthen national implementation of verification measures; and to enable States to benefit from the application of such technologies for peaceful purposes'. Political significance of the Treaty and the potential benefits of participating in the CTBT regime are exposed. It is concluded that international cooperation under the CTBT regime is an element in broadening Treaty support and participation, thereby contributing to an early establishment and the efficient operation of the Treaty verification regime. The PTS will assist the States Signatories to facilitate and promote cooperation among themselves in the fullest exchange of information relating to verification-related technologies so that they may benefit from participation in the Treaty regime

  10. Immune senescence: significance of the stromal microenvironment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, A. R.; Haynes, L.; Su, D.‐M.

    2016-01-01

    Summary The immune system undergoes age‐associated changes known as immunosenescence, resulting in increased susceptibility to infections, cancers and autoimmunity in the aged. The basis of our understanding of immunosenescence has been derived primarily from studies examining intrinsic defects within many of the cells of the immune system. While these studies have provided insight into the mechanisms of immunosenescence, a picture is now emerging that the stromal microenvironment within lymphoid organs also contributes significantly to the age‐associated decline of immune function. These extrinsic defects appear to impact the functional activity of immune cells and may offer a potential target to recover immune activity. Indeed, rejuvenation studies which have targeted the stromal niche have restored immune function in aged successfully, highlighting the impact of the microenvironment towards the aetiology of immunosenescence. PMID:27529161

  11. The insignificance of statistical significance testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Douglas H.

    1999-01-01

    Despite their use in scientific journals such as The Journal of Wildlife Management, statistical hypothesis tests add very little value to the products of research. Indeed, they frequently confuse the interpretation of data. This paper describes how statistical hypothesis tests are often viewed, and then contrasts that interpretation with the correct one. I discuss the arbitrariness of P-values, conclusions that the null hypothesis is true, power analysis, and distinctions between statistical and biological significance. Statistical hypothesis testing, in which the null hypothesis about the properties of a population is almost always known a priori to be false, is contrasted with scientific hypothesis testing, which examines a credible null hypothesis about phenomena in nature. More meaningful alternatives are briefly outlined, including estimation and confidence intervals for determining the importance of factors, decision theory for guiding actions in the face of uncertainty, and Bayesian approaches to hypothesis testing and other statistical practices.

  12. Boiling significantly promotes photodegradation of perfluorooctane sulfonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Xian-Jin; Li, Wen-Wei; Lam, Paul K S; Yu, Han-Qing

    2015-11-01

    The application of photochemical processes for perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) degradation has been limited by a low treatment efficiency. This study reports a significant acceleration of PFOS photodegradation under boiling condition compared with the non-boiling control. The PFOS decomposition rate increased with the increasing boiling intensity, but declined at a higher hydronium level or under oxygenation. These results suggest that the boiling state of solution resulted in higher effective concentrations of reactants at the gas-liquid interface and enhanced the interfacial mass transfer, thereby accelerating the PFOS decomposition. This study broadens our knowledge of PFOS photodegradation process and may have implications for development of efficient photodegradation technologies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Swiss solar power statistics 2007 - Significant expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hostettler, T.

    2008-01-01

    This article presents and discusses the 2007 statistics for solar power in Switzerland. A significant number of new installations is noted as is the high production figures from newer installations. The basics behind the compilation of the Swiss solar power statistics are briefly reviewed and an overview for the period 1989 to 2007 is presented which includes figures on the number of photovoltaic plant in service and installed peak power. Typical production figures in kilowatt-hours (kWh) per installed kilowatt-peak power (kWp) are presented and discussed for installations of various sizes. Increased production after inverter replacement in older installations is noted. Finally, the general political situation in Switzerland as far as solar power is concerned are briefly discussed as are international developments.

  14. Urban building recognition during significant temporal variations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Phuong Giang; Andersen, Hans Jørgen

    2008-01-01

    In literature, existing researches on building recognition mainly concentrate on scales, rotations, and viewpoints variance. In urban environment, large temporal variations of weather and lighting conditions should also be considered as major challenges for robust recognition. For instances......, there are differences between images captured during daytime and nighttime, especially significant changes in building appearances between seasons because of the differences in light setting. To date, these large temporal variation issues have not been fully investigated. In this paper, we therefore focus...... on constructing a system that deals with the temporal difference factors in recognizing urban buildings. In order to build such a system, two main criteria are raised, namely the efficiency of the recognition algorithm and the speed for interactive search purpose. For recognition purpose, we exploit the MOPS...

  15. Risk control and the minimum significant risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seiler, F.A.; Alvarez, J.L.

    1996-01-01

    Risk management implies that the risk manager can, by his actions, exercise at least a modicum of control over the risk in question. In the terminology of control theory, a management action is a control signal imposed as feedback on the system to bring about a desired change in the state of the system. In the terminology of risk management, an action is taken to bring a predicted risk to lower values. Even if it is assumed that the management action taken is 100% effective and that the projected risk reduction is infinitely well known, there is a lower limit to the desired effects that can be achieved. It is based on the fact that all risks, such as the incidence of cancer, exhibit a degree of variability due to a number of extraneous factors such as age at exposure, sex, location, and some lifestyle parameters such as smoking or the consumption of alcohol. If the control signal is much smaller than the variability of the risk, the signal is lost in the noise and control is lost. This defines a minimum controllable risk based on the variability of the risk over the population considered. This quantity is the counterpart of the minimum significant risk which is defined by the uncertainties of the risk model. Both the minimum controllable risk and the minimum significant risk are evaluated for radiation carcinogenesis and are shown to be of the same order of magnitude. For a realistic management action, the assumptions of perfectly effective action and perfect model prediction made above have to be dropped, resulting in an effective minimum controllable risk which is determined by both risk limits. Any action below that effective limit is futile, but it is also unethical due to the ethical requirement of doing more good than harm. Finally, some implications of the effective minimum controllable risk on the use of the ALARA principle and on the evaluation of remedial action goals are presented

  16. Quantifying the clinical significance of cannabis withdrawal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J Allsop

    Full Text Available Questions over the clinical significance of cannabis withdrawal have hindered its inclusion as a discrete cannabis induced psychiatric condition in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM IV. This study aims to quantify functional impairment to normal daily activities from cannabis withdrawal, and looks at the factors predicting functional impairment. In addition the study tests the influence of functional impairment from cannabis withdrawal on cannabis use during and after an abstinence attempt.A volunteer sample of 49 non-treatment seeking cannabis users who met DSM-IV criteria for dependence provided daily withdrawal-related functional impairment scores during a one-week baseline phase and two weeks of monitored abstinence from cannabis with a one month follow up. Functional impairment from withdrawal symptoms was strongly associated with symptom severity (p=0.0001. Participants with more severe cannabis dependence before the abstinence attempt reported greater functional impairment from cannabis withdrawal (p=0.03. Relapse to cannabis use during the abstinence period was associated with greater functional impairment from a subset of withdrawal symptoms in high dependence users. Higher levels of functional impairment during the abstinence attempt predicted higher levels of cannabis use at one month follow up (p=0.001.Cannabis withdrawal is clinically significant because it is associated with functional impairment to normal daily activities, as well as relapse to cannabis use. Sample size in the relapse group was small and the use of a non-treatment seeking population requires findings to be replicated in clinical samples. Tailoring treatments to target withdrawal symptoms contributing to functional impairment during a quit attempt may improve treatment outcomes.

  17. Quantifying the Clinical Significance of Cannabis Withdrawal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allsop, David J.; Copeland, Jan; Norberg, Melissa M.; Fu, Shanlin; Molnar, Anna; Lewis, John; Budney, Alan J.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Questions over the clinical significance of cannabis withdrawal have hindered its inclusion as a discrete cannabis induced psychiatric condition in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM IV). This study aims to quantify functional impairment to normal daily activities from cannabis withdrawal, and looks at the factors predicting functional impairment. In addition the study tests the influence of functional impairment from cannabis withdrawal on cannabis use during and after an abstinence attempt. Methods and Results A volunteer sample of 49 non-treatment seeking cannabis users who met DSM-IV criteria for dependence provided daily withdrawal-related functional impairment scores during a one-week baseline phase and two weeks of monitored abstinence from cannabis with a one month follow up. Functional impairment from withdrawal symptoms was strongly associated with symptom severity (p = 0.0001). Participants with more severe cannabis dependence before the abstinence attempt reported greater functional impairment from cannabis withdrawal (p = 0.03). Relapse to cannabis use during the abstinence period was associated with greater functional impairment from a subset of withdrawal symptoms in high dependence users. Higher levels of functional impairment during the abstinence attempt predicted higher levels of cannabis use at one month follow up (p = 0.001). Conclusions Cannabis withdrawal is clinically significant because it is associated with functional impairment to normal daily activities, as well as relapse to cannabis use. Sample size in the relapse group was small and the use of a non-treatment seeking population requires findings to be replicated in clinical samples. Tailoring treatments to target withdrawal symptoms contributing to functional impairment during a quit attempt may improve treatment outcomes. PMID:23049760

  18. [Clinical significance of nausea in migraine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serousova, O V; Karpova, M I; Dolgushina, A I; Vasilenko, A F; Markova, V V; Altman, D S

    2017-01-01

    To study the prevalence and intensity of nausea in pain, prodromal and postdromal phases of migraine paroxysm, and in between the paroxysms in migraine patients, depending on the type of migraine paroxysm and frequency of pain days, and to evaluate an effect of nausea on the course of migraine. One hundred and four patients with migraine, aged from 18 to 60 years, were examined. The intensity of nausea was evaluated by a 5-point verbal analogue scale, and its intensity in between the paroxysms by the Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale. All of the patients underwent a complex examination of the gastrointestinal tract. Paroxysms with accompanying nausea were found in 90% patients. Acute nausea was associated with older age, earlier onset and longer experience of migraine. In a group of patients with acute nausea, the frequency and intensity of migraine paroxysms, probability of reoccuring pain in the first day and the severity of social disability were higher. Development of nausea in between the paroxysms and its intensity was significantly higher in patients with high intensity of nausea in migraine paroxysms. Nausea in the prodrome was significantly associated with migraine without aura and chronicity of the disorder. Patients with nausea in the prodrome also had a longer painful phase and more severe social disability. No relationship between organic diseases of the digestive tract and nausea was found. Nausea can have its own pathological mechanisms not related to concomitant diseases of the digestive tract that should be taken into account in therapeutic interventions aimed at improving quality of life of the patients.

  19. Prognostic significance of erythropoietin in pancreatic adenocarcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thilo Welsch

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Erythropoietin (Epo administration has been reported to have tumor-promoting effects in anemic cancer patients. We investigated the prognostic impact of endogenous Epo in patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC. METHODOLOGY: The clinico-pathological relevance of hemoglobin (Hb, n = 150, serum Epo (sEpo, n = 87 and tissue expression of Epo/Epo receptor (EpoR, n = 104 was analyzed in patients with PDAC. Epo/EpoR expression, signaling, growth, invasion and chemoresistance were studied in Epo-exposed PDAC cell lines. RESULTS: Compared to donors, median preoperative Hb levels were reduced by 15% in both chronic pancreatitis (CP, p<0.05 and PDAC (p<0.001, reaching anemic grade in one third of patients. While inversely correlating to Hb (r = -0.46, 95% of sEPO values lay within the normal range. The individual levels of compensation were adequate in CP (observed to predicted ratio, O/P = 0.99 but not in PDAC (O/P = 0.85. Strikingly, lower sEPO values yielding inadequate Epo responses were prominent in non-metastatic M0-patients, whereas these parameters were restored in metastatic M1-group (8 vs. 13 mU/mL; O/P = 0.82 vs. 0.96; p<0.01--although Hb levels and the prevalence of anemia were comparable. Higher sEpo values (upper quartile ≥ 16 mU/ml were not significantly different in M0 (20% and M1 (30% groups, but were an independent prognostic factor for shorter survival (HR 2.20, 10 vs. 17 months, p<0.05. The pattern of Epo expression in pancreas and liver suggested ectopic release of Epo by capillaries/vasa vasorum and hepatocytes, regulated by but not emanating from tumor cells. Epo could initiate PI3K/Akt signaling via EpoR in PDAC cells but failed to alter their functions, probably due to co-expression of the soluble EpoR isoform, known to antagonize Epo. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Higher sEPO levels counteract anemia but worsen outcome in PDAC patients. Further trials are required to clarify how overcoming a sEPO threshold

  20. Clinically significant drug interactions with newer antidepressants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spina, Edoardo; Trifirò, Gianluca; Caraci, Filippo

    2012-01-01

    After the introduction of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), other newer antidepressants with different mechanisms of action have been introduced in clinical practice. Because antidepressants are commonly prescribed in combination with other medications used to treat co-morbid psychiatric or somatic disorders, they are likely to be involved in clinically significant drug interactions. This review examines the drug interaction profiles of the following newer antidepressants: escitalopram, venlafaxine, desvenlafaxine, duloxetine, milnacipran, mirtazapine, reboxetine, bupropion, agomelatine and vilazodone. In general, by virtue of a more selective mechanism of action and receptor profile, newer antidepressants carry a relatively low risk for pharmacodynamic drug interactions, at least as compared with first-generation antidepressants, i.e. monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) and tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs). On the other hand, they are susceptible to pharmacokinetic drug interactions. All new antidepressants are extensively metabolized in the liver by cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoenzymes, and therefore may be the target of metabolically based drug interactions. Concomitant administration of inhibitors or inducers of the CYP isoenzymes involved in the biotransformation of specific antidepressants may cause changes in their plasma concentrations. However, due to their relatively wide margin of safety, the consequences of such kinetic modifications are usually not clinically relevant. Conversely, some newer antidepressants may cause pharmacokinetic interactions through their ability to inhibit specific CYPs. With regard to this, duloxetine and bupropion are moderate inhibitors of CYP2D6. Therefore, potentially harmful drug interactions may occur when they are coadministered with substrates of these isoforms, especially compounds with a narrow therapeutic index. The other new antidepressants are only weak inhibitors or are not inhibitors of CYP isoforms at

  1. Assessing statistical significance in causal graphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chindelevitch, Leonid; Loh, Po-Ru; Enayetallah, Ahmed; Berger, Bonnie; Ziemek, Daniel

    2012-02-20

    Causal graphs are an increasingly popular tool for the analysis of biological datasets. In particular, signed causal graphs--directed graphs whose edges additionally have a sign denoting upregulation or downregulation--can be used to model regulatory networks within a cell. Such models allow prediction of downstream effects of regulation of biological entities; conversely, they also enable inference of causative agents behind observed expression changes. However, due to their complex nature, signed causal graph models present special challenges with respect to assessing statistical significance. In this paper we frame and solve two fundamental computational problems that arise in practice when computing appropriate null distributions for hypothesis testing. First, we show how to compute a p-value for agreement between observed and model-predicted classifications of gene transcripts as upregulated, downregulated, or neither. Specifically, how likely are the classifications to agree to the same extent under the null distribution of the observed classification being randomized? This problem, which we call "Ternary Dot Product Distribution" owing to its mathematical form, can be viewed as a generalization of Fisher's exact test to ternary variables. We present two computationally efficient algorithms for computing the Ternary Dot Product Distribution and investigate its combinatorial structure analytically and numerically to establish computational complexity bounds.Second, we develop an algorithm for efficiently performing random sampling of causal graphs. This enables p-value computation under a different, equally important null distribution obtained by randomizing the graph topology but keeping fixed its basic structure: connectedness and the positive and negative in- and out-degrees of each vertex. We provide an algorithm for sampling a graph from this distribution uniformly at random. We also highlight theoretical challenges unique to signed causal graphs

  2. Significant exposures to isoeugenol derivatives in perfumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastogi, Suresh Chandra; Johansen, Jeanne Duus

    2008-05-01

    Isoeugenol, an important fragrance allergen in consumers, has been restricted to 200 p.p.m. since 1998 according to guidelines issued by the fragrance industry. However, no decline in contact allergy to isoeugnol has been detected. It has been speculated that isoeugenol derivatives, especially isoeugenyl acetate, are used instead. Isoeugenyl acetate is probably metabolized in the skin to isoeugenol and gives positive patch test reactions in 1/3 of isoeugenol-sensitized individuals. To investigate the content of isoeugenol, isoeugenyl acetate, and two isoeugenol ethers in perfumes/aftershaves. 29 international brand perfumes/aftershaves were analysed for the target fragrance ingredient by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. All samples were analysed in duplicate at detection levels of 1-5 p.p.m. 16 products (55%) contained isoeugenol. The maximum concentration was 202 p.p.m. 10 products (34%) contained isoeugenyl acetate, which in 9 cases occurred together with isoeugenol. The concentrations of isoeugenyl acetate ranged from 20 to 4689 p.p.m. 13 products (44%) contained 64.9-1755.0 p.p.m. isoeugenyl methyl ether. Isoeugenyl benzyl ether was not detected in any of the investigated products. Isoeugenyl acetate is present in perfumes/aftershaves, in some products in significant amounts. This may lead to elicitation of contact allergy in isoeugenol-sensitized individuals and may contribute to unchanged levels of isoeugenol sensitization.

  3. The measure and significance of Bateman's principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collet, Julie M; Dean, Rebecca F; Worley, Kirsty; Richardson, David S; Pizzari, Tommaso

    2014-05-07

    Bateman's principles explain sex roles and sexual dimorphism through sex-specific variance in mating success, reproductive success and their relationships within sexes (Bateman gradients). Empirical tests of these principles, however, have come under intense scrutiny. Here, we experimentally show that in replicate groups of red junglefowl, Gallus gallus, mating and reproductive successes were more variable in males than in females, resulting in a steeper male Bateman gradient, consistent with Bateman's principles. However, we use novel quantitative techniques to reveal that current methods typically overestimate Bateman's principles because they (i) infer mating success indirectly from offspring parentage, and thus miss matings that fail to result in fertilization, and (ii) measure Bateman gradients through the univariate regression of reproductive over mating success, without considering the substantial influence of other components of male reproductive success, namely female fecundity and paternity share. We also find a significant female Bateman gradient but show that this likely emerges as spurious consequences of male preference for fecund females, emphasizing the need for experimental approaches to establish the causal relationship between reproductive and mating success. While providing qualitative support for Bateman's principles, our study demonstrates how current approaches can generate a misleading view of sex differences and roles.

  4. CT diagnostic significance of tuboovarian abscess

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Tieqiao; Dong Jie; Xu Quanying; An Haiqin; Sang Chunyu

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To analyze computed tomographic (CT) imaging features of tuboovarian abscess as well as to discuss CT diagnostic significance. Methods: Ten patients with tuboovarian abscess were performed CT enhancing scans. Results: Ten patients manifested thick-walled, cystic-solid complex adnexal mass and indistinct margins on CT imaging. Internal thick septations and layered enhancement of the mass border on CT contrast images were common. Associated findings of CT included thickening of' the uterosacral ligaments in 9 of 10 patients, increased attenuation of the presacral and perirectal fat secondary to edema in 9 patients, serpiginous structure corresponding to a dilated, pus-filled fallopian tube in 6 patients and fluid-filled within uterine cavity in 4 patients. On CT scans, the inflammatory infiltration of adnexal abscesses involved pelvic structure included adhesion with borders of uterus in 9 patients, adhesion with rectal or sigmoid in 4 patients and pelvic wall or bowel loop in 3 patients. Two cases with peritoneal thicken showed ascites on CT images and right adnexal tuboovarian abscess in 2 patients were associated with appendicitis. Conclusion: CT can reveal pelvic adjacent organs involvement or adhesion and inflammatory infihration of pelvic floor soft-tissues or fascial planes except showing cystic solid complex mass of adnexal location so that indicating characteristics and the extent of the suspected pelvic inflammatory diseases. CT can be valuable in difficult cases of gynecologic infective diseases. (authors)

  5. Death, Catastrophe, and the Significance of Tragedy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Ballengee

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This NANO note will examine the tension between representation, memorial, and the catastrophe of death that emerges in the space of tragedy, as the problem arises in two quite different works: Oedipus at Colonus, a fairly typical fifth-century Greek tragedy, and Falling Man, Don DeLillo’s novel that, in its attempt to address the events of 9/11, reflects in form and subject matter many of Aristotle’s terms of tragic representation. It is not the intent of this note to engage with the recent proliferation of work in “performance theory.” Rather than being concerned with an imagined exchange between audience and actor, this study examines how the supplementary relationship of gesture and speech in tragedy disrupts the public/private distinction, and how this articulation effects and enables the public memorialization of death. Thus, this paper will consider the representation of death as an event whose catastrophic, and somewhat mysterious, collision of the public and the private lends it its tragic significance.

  6. Significance of blood examination in radiation workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Hirofumi; Nakamura, Shinobu; Ando, Atsushi; Kojima, Kazuhiko; Kikuta, Yoko.

    1978-01-01

    Blood examination made for the past 3 years revealed that the influences of chronic exposure of extremely small amounts of radiation (an average of 5 mrem/day) on peripheral blood are not detected. However, the blood examination, which is prescribed at least twice a year by law, is for determining whether or not the results of blood examination are within a normal range. Therefore, even though influences of a large amount of radiation are detected, it has little significance as a monitoring of chronic exposure of extremely small amounts of radiation. If the blood examination is used as a monitoring method for detecting exposure, it is important to compare the results with the previous ones in the same individuals. It is also necessary to increase the number of examinations and to study the blood more in detail. However, before that, the standard of the evaluation should be more defined because of its obscurity. The present blood examination is useful in managing the health generally. However, it is not good as a monitoring for chronic exposure of the extremely small amounts of radiation. Therefore, a routine biological method to be able to monitor radiation more precisely, is required. (Namekawa, K.)

  7. Clinical significance of perceptible fetal motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayburn, W F

    1980-09-15

    The monitoring of fetal activity during the last trimester of pregnancy has been proposed to be useful in assessing fetal welfare. The maternal perception of fetal activity was tested among 82 patients using real-time ultrasonography. All perceived fetal movements were visualized on the scanner and involved motion of the lower limbs. Conversely, 82% of all visualized motions of fetal limbs were perceived by the patients. All combined motions of fetal trunk with limbs were preceived by the patients and described as strong movements, whereas clusters of isolated, weak motions of the fetal limbs were less accurately perceived (56% accuracy). The number of fetal movements perceived during the 15-minute test period was significantly (p fetal motion was present (44 of 45 cases) than when it was absent (five of 10 cases). These findings reveal that perceived fetal motion is: (1) reliable; (2) related to the strength of lower limb motion; (3) increased with ruptured amniotic membranes; and (4) reassuring if considered to be active.

  8. Significance of surgical management for cystic prolactinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogiwara, Toshihiro; Horiuchi, Tetsuyoshi; Nagm, Alhusain; Goto, Tetsuya; Hongo, Kazuhiro

    2017-04-01

    It is generally accepted that dopamine agonists (DA) represent the first-line treatment for most patients with prolactinoma, and patients become candidates for surgical intervention when DA is contraindicated. Surgical indication for cystic prolactinoma remains controversial. This study was performed to investigate the significance of surgery for cystic prolactinoma. A total of 28 patients that underwent transsphenoidal resection of prolactinoma between February 2004 and May 2016 were reviewed. Five consecutive patients with cystic prolactinoma were included in this study. Our surgical strategy for cystic prolactinoma was categorized as follows: first, when the purpose of surgical resection was normalization of the prolactin level, aggressive resection was performed; second, when volume reduction was essential to relieve the visual symptoms and headache, internal decompression was performed followed by DA therapy. The clinical outcomes were analyzed accordingly. All cystic prolactinoma were resected via the transsphenoidal approach without any complications, and all symptoms including visual impairment and hypogonadal activity were finally relieved combined with medication. Surgery for cystic prolactinoma could be a better option. Transsphenoidal surgery is relatively safe to remove the cystic prolactinoma, additionally it can normalize the prolactine level and achieve adequate and rapid decompression of optic chiasm. The risk of transsphenoidal surgery is highly dependent on the skill of the surgeon and treatment decision for cystic prolactinoma needs to be individualized for each patient.

  9. Making lasting memories: Remembering the significant

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGaugh, James L.

    2013-01-01

    Although forgetting is the common fate of most of our experiences, much evidence indicates that emotional arousal enhances the storage of memories, thus serving to create, selectively, lasting memories of our more important experiences. The neurobiological systems mediating emotional arousal and memory are very closely linked. The adrenal stress hormones epinephrine and corticosterone released by emotional arousal regulate the consolidation of long-term memory. The amygdala plays a critical role in mediating these stress hormone influences. The release of norepinephrine in the amygdala and the activation of noradrenergic receptors are essential for stress hormone-induced memory enhancement. The findings of both animal and human studies provide compelling evidence that stress-induced activation of the amygdala and its interactions with other brain regions involved in processing memory play a critical role in ensuring that emotionally significant experiences are well-remembered. Recent research has determined that some human subjects have highly superior autobiographic memory of their daily experiences and that there are structural differences in the brains of these subjects compared with the brains of subjects who do not have such memory. Understanding of neurobiological bases of such exceptional memory may provide additional insights into the processes underlying the selectivity of memory. PMID:23754441

  10. PROMPT Ia SUPERNOVAE ARE SIGNIFICANTLY DELAYED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raskin, Cody; Scannapieco, Evan; Rhoads, James; Della Valle, Massimo

    2009-01-01

    The time delay between the formation of a population of stars and the onset of type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) sets important limits on the masses and nature of SN Ia progenitors. Here, we use a new observational technique to measure this time delay by comparing the spatial distributions of SNe Ia to their local environments. Previous work attempted such analyses encompassing the entire host of each SN Ia, yielding inconclusive results. Our approach confines the analysis only to the relevant portions of the hosts, allowing us to show that even so-called prompt SNe Ia that trace star formation on cosmic timescales exhibit a significant delay time of 200-500 million years. This implies that either the majority of Ia companion stars have main-sequence masses less than 3 M sun , or that most SNe Ia arise from double white dwarf binaries. Our results are also consistent with a SNe Ia rate that traces the white dwarf formation rate, scaled by a fixed efficiency factor.

  11. Taxonomic significance of trichomes micromorphology in cucurbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mohammad Ajmal; Al-Hemaid, Fahad M.A.

    2010-01-01

    Studies on trichomes micromorphology using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) were undertaken in 23 species with one variety under 13 genera of the family Cucurbitaceae (viz., Benincasa hispida (Thunb.) Cogn., Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai, Cucumis melo var. agrestis Naudin, Cucumis sativus L., Diplocyclos palmatus (L.) C. Jeffrey, Edgaria dargeelingensis C.B. Clarke, Gynostemma burmanicum King ex Chakr., Gynostemma pentaphyllum (Thunb.) Makino, Gynostemma pubescens (Gagnep.) C.Y. Wu, Hemsleya dipterygia Kuang & A.M. Lu, Lagenaria siceraria (Molina) Standl., Luffa acutangula (L.) Roxb., Luffa cylindrica M. Roem., Luffa echinata Roxb., Melothria heterophylla (Lour.) Cogn., Melothria leucocarpa (Blume) Cogn., Melothria maderspatana (L.) Cogn., Sechium edule (Jacq.) Sw., Thladiantha cordifolia (Blume) Cogn., Trichosanthes cucumerina L., T. cucumerina var. anguina (L.) Haines, Trichosanthes dioica Roxb., Trichosanthes lepiniana (Naudin) Cogn. and T. tricuspidata Lour.). The trichomes in the family Cucurbitaceae vary from unicellular to multicellular, conical to elongated, smooth to ridges, with or without flattened disk at base and cyctolithic appendages, thin to thick walled, curved at apices to blunt. Trichomes micromorphology in the family Cucurbitaceae was found significant taxonomically. PMID:23961108

  12. Taxonomic significance of trichomes micromorphology in cucurbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mohammad Ajmal; Al-Hemaid, Fahad M A

    2011-01-01

    Studies on trichomes micromorphology using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) were undertaken in 23 species with one variety under 13 genera of the family Cucurbitaceae (viz., Benincasa hispida (Thunb.) Cogn., Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai, Cucumis melo var. agrestis Naudin, Cucumis sativus L., Diplocyclos palmatus (L.) C. Jeffrey, Edgaria dargeelingensis C.B. Clarke, Gynostemma burmanicum King ex Chakr., Gynostemma pentaphyllum (Thunb.) Makino, Gynostemma pubescens (Gagnep.) C.Y. Wu, Hemsleya dipterygia Kuang & A.M. Lu, Lagenaria siceraria (Molina) Standl., Luffa acutangula (L.) Roxb., Luffa cylindrica M. Roem., Luffa echinata Roxb., Melothria heterophylla (Lour.) Cogn., Melothria leucocarpa (Blume) Cogn., Melothria maderspatana (L.) Cogn., Sechium edule (Jacq.) Sw., Thladiantha cordifolia (Blume) Cogn., Trichosanthes cucumerina L., T. cucumerina var. anguina (L.) Haines, Trichosanthes dioica Roxb., Trichosanthes lepiniana (Naudin) Cogn. and T. tricuspidata Lour.). The trichomes in the family Cucurbitaceae vary from unicellular to multicellular, conical to elongated, smooth to ridges, with or without flattened disk at base and cyctolithic appendages, thin to thick walled, curved at apices to blunt. Trichomes micromorphology in the family Cucurbitaceae was found significant taxonomically.

  13. Evolutionary significance of ageing in the wild.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowald, Axel; Kirkwood, Thomas B L

    2015-11-01

    Human lifespan has risen dramatically over the last 150 years, leading to a significant increase in the fraction of aged people in the population. Until recently it was believed that this contrasted strongly with the situation in wild populations of animals, where the likelihood of encountering demonstrably senescent individuals was believed to be negligible. Over the recent years, however, a series of field studies has appeared that shows ageing can also be observed for many species in the wild. We discuss here the relevance of this finding for the different evolutionary theories of ageing, since it has been claimed that ageing in the wild is incompatible with the so-called non-adaptive (non-programmed) theories, i.e. those in which ageing is presumed not to offer a direct selection benefit. We show that a certain proportion of aged individuals in the population is fully compatible with the antagonistic pleiotropy and the disposable soma theories, while it is difficult to reconcile with the mutation accumulation theory. We also quantify the costs of ageing using life history data from recent field studies and a range of possible metrics. We discuss the merits and problems of the different metrics and also introduce a new metric, yearly death toll, that aims directly at quantifying the deaths caused by the ageing process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Traditional Indian spices and their health significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnaswamy, Kamala

    2008-01-01

    India has been recognized all over the world for spices and medicinal plants. Both exhibit a wide range of physiological and pharmacological properties. Current biomedical efforts are focused on their scientific merits, to provide science-based evidence for the traditional uses and to develop either functional foods or nutraceuticals. The Indian traditional medical systems use turmeric for wound healing, rheumatic disorders, gastrointestinal symptoms, deworming, rhinitis and as a cosmetic. Studies in India have explored its anti-inflammatory, cholekinetic and anti-oxidant potentials with the recent investigations focusing on its preventive effect on precarcinogenic, anti-inflammatory and anti atherosclerotic effects in biological systems both under in vitro and in vivo conditions in animals and humans. Both turmeric and curcumin were found to increase detoxifying enzymes, prevent DNA damage, improve DNA repair, decrease mutations and tumour formation and exhibit antioxidative potential in animals. Limited clinical studies suggest that turmeric can significantly impact excretion of mutagens in urine in smokers and regress precancerous palatal lesions. It reduces DNA adducts and micronuclei in oral epithelial cells. It prevents formation of nitroso compounds both in vivo and in vitro. It delays induced cataract in diabetes and reduces hyperlipidemia in obese rats. Recently several molecular targets have been identified for therapeutic / preventive effects of turmeric. Fenugreek seeds, a rich source of soluble fiber used in Indian cuisine reduces blood glucose and lipids and can be used as a food adjuvant in diabetes. Similarly garlic, onions, and ginger have been found to modulate favourably the process of carcinogenesis.

  15. Significance of FISH in clinical cytogenetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gopal Rao, V.V.N.; Harris, S.; Roop, H. [H.A. Chapman Institute of Medical Genetics, Tulsa, OK (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Ever since its discovery, FISH technology has become an invaluable adjunct to conventional cytogenetics. FISH has been instrumental in resolving previously unresolved cytogenetic dilemmas. FISH has been used to elucidate complex as well as subtle chromosomal translocations, in detection of microdeletions, to confirm duplications and inversions and to identify marker chromosomes. We report a few selected cases where FISH proved to be invaluable in not only confirming the anomaly, but also in arriving at an accurate diagnosis and appropriate counseling of the patients. These include 3 cases of prenatal and 3 cases of postnatal diagnosis. The results clearly demonstrate the significance of FISH in identifying and interpreting the difficult karyotype in clinical cytogenetics. In addition, FISH has been used to rule out microdeletions in Prader-Willi (16), Angelman (3), Miller-Dieker (7), DiGeorge (4) and Smith-Magenis (1) syndrome patients. Without FISH in the majority of these cases, it would not have been possible to accurately identify the karyotype and interpret the results. Hence, we recommend that FISH be used as a powerful adjunct to conventional cytogenetics in order to arrive at an accurate interpretation of the results but not to replace routine cytogenetic studies.

  16. Significant and Basic Innovations in Urban Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolyasnikov, V. A.

    2017-11-01

    The article considers the development features of the innovative urban planning in the USSR and Russia in XVIII - XX centuries. Innovative urban planning is defined as an activity on innovations creation and their implementation to obtain a socio-economic, political, environmental or other effect. In the course of urban development history this activity represents a cyclic wave process in which there are phases of rise and fall. The study of cyclic waves in the development of innovative urban planning uses the concept of basic and epochal innovations selection. This concept was developed by scientists for the study of cyclic wave processes in economics. Its adaptation to the conditions of innovative urban planning development allows one to introduce the concept of “basic innovation” and “significant innovation” in the theory and practice of settlement formation and their systems as well as to identify opportunities to highlight these innovations in the history of Russian urban planning. From these positions, six innovation waves committed to the urban development over the past 300 years are being investigated. The observed basic innovations in the domestic urban area show that urban development is a vital area for ensuring the country’s geopolitical security. Basic innovations are translated in time and modernized under new conditions of urban planning development. In this regard, we can predict the development of four basic innovations in post-Soviet Russia.

  17. Significance and popularity in music production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravino, Pietro; Servedio, Vito D. P.; Tria, Francesca; Loreto, Vittorio

    2017-01-01

    Creative industries constantly strive for fame and popularity. Though highly desirable, popularity is not the only achievement artistic creations might ever acquire. Leaving a longstanding mark in the global production and influencing future works is an even more important achievement, usually acknowledged by experts and scholars. ‘Significant’ or ‘influential’ works are not always well known to the public or have sometimes been long forgotten by the vast majority. In this paper, we focus on the duality between what is successful and what is significant in the musical context. To this end, we consider a user-generated set of tags collected through an online music platform, whose evolving co-occurrence network mirrors the growing conceptual space underlying music production. We define a set of general metrics aiming at characterizing music albums throughout history, and their relationships with the overall musical production. We show how these metrics allow to classify albums according to their current popularity or their belonging to expert-made lists of important albums. In this way, we provide the scientific community and the public at large with quantitative tools to tell apart popular albums from culturally or aesthetically relevant artworks. The generality of the methodology presented here lends itself to be used in all those fields where innovation and creativity are in play. PMID:28791169

  18. Is post-dialysis urea rebound significant with long slow hemodialysis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean, G; Chazot, C; Charra, B; Terrat, J C; Vanel, T; Calemard, E; Laurent, G

    1998-01-01

    According to previous studies, postdialysis urea rebound (PDUR) is achieved within 30-90 min, leading to an overestimation of Kt/V of between 15 and 40% in 3- to 5-hour dialysis. The purpose of the study was to assess the impact of PDUR on the urea reduction ratio (URR), Kt/V and normal protein catabolic rate (nPCR) with long 8-hour slow hemodialysis. This study was performed in 18 patients (13 males/5 females), 62.5 +/- 11.7 years of age, hemodialyzed for 3-265 months. Initial nephropathies were: 3 diabetes; 2 polycystic kidney disease; 3 interstitial nephritis; 2 nephrosclerosis; 3 chronic glomerulonephritis, and 5 undetermined. Residual renal function was negligible. The dialysis sessions were performed using 1- to 1.8-m2 cellulosic dialyzers during 8 h, 3 times a week. Blood flow was 220 ml/min, dialysate flow 500 ml/min, acetate or bicarbonate buffer was used. Serial measurements of the urea concentration were obtained before dialysis, immediately after dialysis (low flow at t = 0), and at 5, 10, 20, 30, 40, 60, 90 and 120 min, and before the next session. The low-flow method was used to evaluate the access recirculation, second-generation Daugirdas formulas for Kt/V, and Watson formulas for total body water volume estimation. The difference between the expected urea generation (UG) and urea measured after dialysis (global PDUR) defines net PDUR (n-PDUR). The n-PDUR usually became stable after 58 +/- 25 (30-90) min. Its mean value was 17 +/- 10% of the 30-second low-flow postdialysis urea (3.9 +/- 2 mmol/l). This small postdialysis urea value and the importance of UG in comparison with shorter dialysis justify the use of n-PDUR. Ignoring n-PDUR would lead to a significant 4% overestimation (p < 0.001) of the URR (79 +/- 7 vs. 76 +/- 8%), 12% of Kt/V (1.9 +/- 0.4 to 1.7 +/- 0.38) and 4% of the nPCR (1.1 +/- 0.3 to 1.05 +/- 0.3). n-PDUR correlated negatively with postdialysis urea (r = 0.45 p = 0.05), positively with URR (r = 0.31 p = 0.01) and Kt/V (r = 0.3 p

  19. Psoriasis causes significant economic burden to patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustonen, A; Mattila, K; Leino, M; Koulu, L; Tuominen, R

    2014-06-01

    Psoriasis results in expenses to patients from many cost sources. Psoriasis treatments may result in considerable time and traveling costs, yet many studies fail to account for these costs. The objective of this study was to evaluate the multidimensional economic burden of psoriasis to patients. The study was based on 232 Finnish patients with psoriasis or psoriatic arthritis visiting a tertiary level dermatological clinic during a 1-year study period between October 1, 2009 and September 30, 2010. The data were based on a patient questionnaire, clinical data from the medical records and reimbursement data from the Finnish Social Insurance Institution. Item costs were based on true costs charged from the patients and all time cost estimates were based on the Human Capital Approach method. 199 patients with psoriasis and 33 with psoriatic arthritis were included in the study. Total costs were higher for patients receiving traditional systemic medications or phototherapy than those not receiving such treatment. Travel costs and travel time costs accounted for more than 60% of the costs of phototherapy. Skin care at home was time consuming and thus caused significant burden to patients. The majority of the visit costs arose from hospital visits and only a small proportion were attributed to visiting primary health care providers. Visit charges and other patient co-payments were estimated to play a minor role in the total cost of psoriasis incurred by patients, while travel costs and lost time comprised the majority of the costs, which should not be omitted in future studies regarding costs of treatments.

  20. Weight in Parkinson's Disease: Phenotypical Significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Jagdish C; Lewis, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Body weight in Parkinson's disease (PD) is a significant nonmotor feature. Weight homeostasis is a complex physiological process and gets deranged in PD patients leading to changes in weight. While both the low and high body weight have been reported as risk factors for PD, the majority of PD patients have a lower weight and a subset of patients lose weight during the course of the disease, while a small proportion gain weight. A number of clinical parameters such as older age, impaired cognition, severity of disease, and an imbalance of food intake determined by satiety and hunger hormones have been reported to be associated with but not the cause of weight change. Low body weight and weight loss have a negative impact on disease severity, dyskinesia quality of life, and mortality indicative of disease progression. An early assessment of olfactory impairment seems to identify patients at risk of weight loss, the patients with more severe olfactory loss-anosmic group, lose weight as compared to the patients with some preservation of olfaction, the hyposmic group. Higher levodopa dose per kilogram body weight increases the risk of dyskinesia, higher body weight seems to be protective against this complication. The identification of PD patients according to the nonmotor phenotype of "Park-olfaction-weight-phenotype" and the "olfaction-weight-dyskinesia" triad should help to develop strategies to prevent weight reduction and improve general health and complications of PD patients. The phenotype seems to reflect a differential prodromal pathology and influence clinical disease. Higher body weight patients would benefit from life style changes to achieve a healthy profile. Weight monitoring and weight orientated approach to management of PD patients should help to improve their outcome. Body weight change might be a surrogate to disease progression and may be used to investigate neuroprotection strategies. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Significance of venous anastomosis in fingertip replantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Yasunori; Doi, Kazuteru; Ikeda, Keisuke; Abe, Yukio; Dhawan, Vikas

    2003-03-01

    Adequate venous outflow is the most important factor for successful fingertip replantation. The authors have attempted venous anastomosis in all cases of fingertip replantation to overcome postoperative congestion. In this article, the significance of venous repair for fingertip replantation is described from the authors' results of 64 complete fingertip amputations in 55 consecutive patients, which were replanted from January of 1996 to June of 2001. The overall survival rate was 86 percent. Of the 44 replantations in zone I, 37 survived, and the success rate was 84 percent. Of the 20 replantations in zone II, 18 survived, and the success rate was 90 percent. Venous anastomosis was attempted in all cases, but it was possible in 39 zone I and in all zone II replantations. For arterial repair, vein grafts were necessary in 17 of the 44 zone I and in one of the 20 zone II replantations; for venous repair, they were necessary in six zone I replantations and one zone II replantation. Postoperative vascular complications occurred in 15 replantations. There were five cases of arterial thrombosis and 10 cases of venous congestion. Venous congestion occurred in nine zone I and one zone II replantations. In five of these 10 replantations, venous anastomosis was not possible. In another five replantations, venous outflow was established at the time of surgery, but occlusion occurred subsequently. Except for the five failures resulting from arterial thrombosis, successful venous repair was possible in 49 of 59 replantations (83 percent). Despite the demand for skillful microsurgical technique and longer operation time, the authors' results using venous anastomosis in successful fingertip replantations are encouraging. By performing venous anastomosis, external bleeding can be avoided and a higher survival rate can be achieved. Venous anastomosis for fingertip replantation is a reliable and worthwhile procedure.

  2. Roots: evolutionary origins and biogeochemical significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raven, J A; Edwards, D

    2001-03-01

    Roots, as organs distinguishable developmentally and anatomically from shoots (other than by occurrence of stomata and sporangia on above-ground organs), evolved in the sporophytes of at least two distinct lineages of early vascular plants during their initial major radiation on land in Early Devonian times (c. 410-395 million years ago). This was some 15 million years after the appearance of tracheophytes and c. 50 million years after the earliest embryophytes of presumed bryophyte affinity. Both groups are known initially only from spores, but from comparative anatomy of extant bryophytes and later Lower Devonian fossils it is assumed that, during these times, below-ground structures (if any) other than true roots fulfilled the functions of anchorage and of water and nutrient acquisition, despite lacking an endodermis (as do the roots of extant Lycopodium spp.). By 375 million years ago root-like structures penetrated almost a metre into the substratum, greatly increasing the volume of mineral matter subject to weathering by the higher than atmospheric CO(2) levels generated by plant and microbial respiration in material with restricted diffusive contact with the atmosphere. Chemical weathering consumes CO(2) in converting silicates into bicarbonate and Si(OH)(4). The CO(2) consumed in weathering ultimately came from atmospheric CO(2) via photosynthesis and respiration; this use of CO(2) probably accounts for most of the postulated 10-fold decrease in atmospheric CO(2) from 400-350 million years ago, with significant effects on shoot evolution. Subsequent evolution of roots has yielded much-branched axes down to 40 microm diameter, a lower limit set by long-distance transport constraints. Finer structures involved in the uptake of nutrients of low diffusivity in soil evolved at least 400 million years ago as arbuscular mycorrhizas or as evaginations of "roots" ("root hairs").

  3. Comparative significance in systolic ventricular interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, S; Harasawa, H; Li, K S; Zhu, D; Santamore, W P

    1991-09-01

    The aim was to measure the systolic coupling between the ventricles and to determine the relative importance of ventricular interaction in the pressure development of each ventricle. Acute studies were done in dogs to measure the changes in right and left ventricular pressures (dPr, dPl) caused by sudden changes in left ventricular pressure (dPl') with release of an aortic constriction, and sudden changes in right ventricular pressure (dPr') with release of a pulmonary artery constriction, respectively. The instantaneous cross talk gain [dPr/dPl' (Klr) or dPl/dPr' (Krl)] was calculated during the ejection phase. The potential systolic pressure generated by the contralateral ventricle was evaluated as the cross talk gain multiplied by the contralateral systolic developed pressure. Studies were done in eight random source dogs (12-18 kg), anaesthetised with sodium pentobarbitone. The maximal Klr was lower than the maximal Krl, at 0.09 (SD 0.05) v 0.25 (0.06), and the mean Klr also was lower than the mean Krl, at 0.04 (0.02) v 0.10 (0.03), p less than 0.05. The potential right ventricular pressures developed by the left ventricle [maximum 10.3(5.6), mean 4.8(2.7) mm Hg] were not significantly different from the potential left ventricular pressures developed by the right ventricle [maximum 8.8(2.7), mean 3.4(0.7) mm Hg]. However, the ratio between the potential transmitted pressure and the measured developed pressure was greater in the right ventricle [maximum 39.0(21.1), mean 17.8(8.9)%] than in the left ventricle [maximum 11.1(7.1)%, p less than 0.05; mean 3.9(1.5)%, p less than 0.01]. This suggests that about 20-40% of the right ventricular systolic pressure may result from the left ventricle and about 4-10% of the left ventricular systolic pressure may result from right ventricle. Although the pressure coupling was greater in right to left ventricular interaction, right ventricular pressure generation may be more dependent on the left ventricle. Systolic

  4. THE SIGNIFICANCE OF BUILDING PURSUITS IN ISLAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spahic Omer

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper explains the significance of erecting buildings in Islam. Four themes are discussed in the paper: 1 building as a basis of civilization, 2 building as an indispensable and creditable activity, 3 the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh and building, and 4 avoiding vices in building. The paper concludes that in Islam erecting buildings is a very important enterprise, in that such signifies the creation of a physical locus of the daily individual, family and social activities of Muslims. Thus, the existence of Islamic built environment is essential for the realization of the divine purpose on earth. The chief duty that Islamic built environment performs is the facilitation of such a realization. While writing the paper, I have tried as much as possible to draw on the original sources that deal with the theme at hand, the most important of which, certainly, are the Holy Qur’an and the authentic compilations of Prophet Muhammad’s words and actions. Finally, the paper aims to enhance the awareness, both of the professionals and general readership, as to the importance of correctly conceptualizing, creating and using Islamic built environment. The approach in the paper is conceptual, rather than empirical.   Keywords: Erecting Buildings, Built Environment, Islam, Muslims, Prophet Muhammad (pbuh     Abstrak Makalah ini menjelaskan pentingnya pendirian bangunan dalam Islam. Empat tema yang dibahas dalam makalah ini : 1 bangunan sebagai dasar peradaban, 2 bangunan sebagai suatu kegiatan yang sangat diperlukan, 3 Nabi Muhammad (saw dan bangunan, dan 4 menghindari kejahatan dalam bangunan. Makalah ini menyimpulkan bahwa dalam Islam mendirikan bangunan adalah sebuah usaha yang sangat penting, seperti menandakan penciptaan lokus fisik kegiatan individu sehari-hari, keluarga dan sosial umat Islam. Dengan demikian, keberadaan lingkungan yang dibangun Islam sangat penting untuk mewujudkan tujuan Ilahi di bumi. Pemimpin bertugas memfasilitasi

  5. Significance of NTM infections in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Katalinic-Jankovic

    2015-01-01

    laboratory are sent to the National Reference Laboratory for identification. NTM strains have been systematically recorded and reported since 1982. In the last decade, two retrospective analyses were done to assess the clinical relevance of different NTM species and the burden of pulmonary NTM disease. Over the past decade, a 30-fold increase in overall NTM isolation rates and a 4-fold increase in PNTM incidence were observed. Mycobacterium xenopi was the most frequently seen causative agent of pulmonary NTM disease, but the degree of clinical relevance (i.e., percentage of patients meeting the diagnosis criteria, per species was higher for isolates of MAC (66.5% and M. kansasii (57.2%. Only about 30% of the M. xenopi isolates represented true disease. Further, interesting regional differences were observed. Clinically relevant NTM isolates were significantly more often found in the coastal region of Croatia, and the average annual incidence of the PNTM was twice as high in coastal compared with the continental region. The overall burden of PNTM in Croatia is still low compared with tuberculosis. This can, in part, explain the observed lack of knowledge of NTM infections among respiratory specialists. Since these pathogens are increasingly common worldwide, especially in countries where the incidence of tuberculosis is declining, a constant rising of awareness and knowledge is necessary.

  6. Association between cervical lesion grade and micronucleus frequency in the Papanicolaou test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Tanski Bueno

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between the frequency of micronuclei (MN and the cellular changes detected in the conventional Papanicolaou test. One hundred and seventy-four Papanicolaou test smears with cellular changes were examined. MN screening was done in cytopathological smears by counting 1,000 cervical cells in a light microscope. MN frequencies were significantly higher in the group with cellular changes compared to the control group (p < 0.001. The mean MN frequencies were 0.95 ± 1.12 (mean ± SD in the control group (n = 223, 2.98 ± 1.20 in individuals with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US (n = 50, 4.04 ± 1.45 in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN I (n = 52, 5.97 ± 1.83 in CIN II (n = 30, 7.29 ± 1.55 in CIN III (n = 17 and 8.64 ± 1.55 in invasive cancer (n = 25. These findings suggest that MN monitoring should be included as an additional criterion for the early detection of cytogenetic damage in routine examinations. This monitoring should be done in the same smear as used for cytopathological examination. More specific and systematic studies are necessary to confirm this proposal.

  7. Impact of technology on cytology outcome in cervical cancer screening of young and older women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rask, J; Lynge, E; Franzmann, M

    2014-01-01

    in a third laboratory using manually read conventional cytology continually. Data were collected from the Danish National Health Care Registers. For each laboratory, we compared proportions of abnormal cytology defined as atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance or worse (ASCUS+) by age...... and technology phase. The study included 489,960 cytological samples with no recent abnormality from women aged 23-59 years, routinely screened between 1998 and 2007. Implementation of SurePath liquid-based cytology (LBC) was followed by an increase in abnormal cytology in women aged 23-29 years from 4.6 to 6......: 0.78-1.02) and in women aged 45-59 years from 3.4 to 1.0%, RP: 0.30 (95% CI: 0.24-0.37). With implementation of imaging-assisted reading, regardless of the brand of technology, the proportion of abnormality increased by around 30% in all age groups (range from 19 to 41%). In the laboratory...

  8. Low CD4 cells and viral co-infection increase the risk of VaIN: Use of SCCA1 and Ki67 as diagno-prognostic biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okoye, Jude Ogechukwu; Erinle, Charles; Ngokere, Antony Ajuluchukwu; Jimoh, Abimbola

    2018-03-01

    This study evaluated the correlation of SCCA1, Ki67 and CD4 cell expressions and classified vaginal smears in individuals co-infected with Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), Herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV2), Epstein Barr virus (EBV) and Human Papilloma virus (HPV). This crossectional study included 173 participants within the age range of 20-70 years. Vaginal smears were stained by Papanicolaou technique and classified into high-grade squamous cell intraepithelial lesion (HSIL), low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL), atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) and negative for intraepithelial lesion (NIL). Presence of immunoglobulin M and G antibodies for EBV, HIV, HPV and HSV2, and SCCA1 and Ki67 antigens were determined by ELISA method. Result showed that biomarkers SCCA1 had higher sensitivity (87.5%) to vaginal lesions when compared with Ki67 which had a sensitivity of 70.8% (p > .01). Assays revealed viral co-infections of 96.0% and 16.8% in smears positive and negative for vaginal lesions, respectively (p biomarkers for vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia (VaIN). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Easy and fast detection and genotyping of high-risk human papillomavirus by dedicated DNA microarrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Valérie; Chevallier, Anne; Magnone, Virginie; Barbry, Pascal; Vandenbos, Fanny; Bongain, André; Lefebvre, Jean-Claude; Giordanengo, Valérie

    2006-11-01

    Persistent cervical high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is correlated with an increased risk of developing a high-grade cervical intraepithelial lesion. A two-step method was developed for detection and genotyping of high-risk HPV. DNA was firstly amplified by asymmetrical PCR in the presence of Cy3-labelled primers and dUTP. Labelled DNA was then genotyped using DNA microarray hybridization. The current study evaluated the technical efficacy of laboratory-designed HPV DNA microarrays for high-risk HPV genotyping on 57 malignant and non-malignant cervical smears. The approach was evaluated for a broad range of cytological samples: high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL), low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL) and atypical squamous cells of high-grade (ASC-H). High-risk HPV was also detected in six atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US) samples; among them only one cervical specimen was found uninfected, associated with no histological lesion. The HPV oligonucleotide DNA microarray genotyping detected 36 infections with a single high-risk HPV type and 5 multiple infections with several high-risk types. Taken together, these results demonstrate the sensitivity and specificity of the HPV DNA microarray approach. This approach could improve clinical management of patients with cervical cytological abnormalities.

  10. Decreased expression of GRIM-19 and its association with high-risk HPV infection in cervical squamous intraepithelial neoplasias and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yong; Zhang, Hong-yan; Zhou, Ying; Tao, Feng; Yu, Yong-hua

    2014-04-01

    GRIM-19 has been shown to be down-regulated in cervical cancers. This study investigated the expression of GRIM-19 in cervical intra-epithelial neoplasias and its association with high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) infection. The expression of GRIM-19 was assessed in cervical exfoliated cells and cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia tissues by immunohistochemistry, and the level of GRIM-19 was also evaluated by Western blotting using cervical exfoliated cells. HR-HPV infection of cervical exfoliated cells was detected by HC II. GRIM-19 is predominantly expressed in the cytoplasm of the middle layer of normal cervical epithelial cells, whereas the surface layer cells of the normal cervix showed no GRIM-19 expression. The expression of GRIM-19 gradually decreased from atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS), low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL) and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) to squamous cell carcinoma (SCC); a pattern which was also observed in cervical intra-epithelial neoplasias tissues. The reduced expression of GRIM-19 was correlated with HR-HPV infection. GRIM-19 may regulate the differentiation of normal cervical tissue, and a decrease in GRIM-19 may be the result of HR-HPV infection, which in turn leads to the malignant transformation of the cells.

  11. [Interpretation of guidance for establishing the performance characteristics of in vitro diagnostic devices for the detection or detection and differentiation of high-risk human papillomaviruses issued by Food and Drug Administration of United States and China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, R M; Chen, W; Qiao, Y L

    2017-07-23

    To establish the standardization of clinical verification designs for in vitro diagnostic devices(IVDs) of human papillomavirus, China Food and Drug Administration (CFDA) and United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued guidelines of detailed study designs and effectiveness evaluation for accuracy validation and clinical performance of nucleic acid detection, respectively, including triage of a typical squamous cells of undetermined significance(ASC-US) patients and validation of combined screening and preliminary screening. The design, study population, sample size estimation and statistical analysis of guidelines were moderately different from America to China, however, the evaluation indication was similar. According to the guideline issued by CFDA, prospective design suggested by FDA could be replaced by cross sectional study design to validate the triage of ASC-US patients. Alternatively, prospective design could be used to conduct the HPV product declaration and cellular parallel detection for the same natural population, and the clinical effectiveness of declared products could be validated by at least 3 years follow-up of cytology.

  12. Significant Life Experiences and Environmental Justice: Positionality and the Significance of Negative Social/Environmental Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceaser, Donovon

    2015-01-01

    Significant life experiences (SLE) research has been criticized for a disproportionate focus on privileged groups and positive experiences. In this paper, I use textual analysis to examine the SLEs within the Environmental Justice (EJ) literature. Theoretically, I blend feminist theory, the sociology of disaster, and research on EJ motives for…

  13. A fissitunicate ascus mechanism in the Calosphaeriaceae, and novel species of Jattaea and Calosphaeria on Prunus wood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damm, U.; Crous, P.W.; Fourie, P.H.

    2008-01-01

    During a survey of Prunus wood from South Africa, isolations were made of three presumably Calosphaerialean fungi that formed hyphomycetous, phialidic anamorphs in culture. In order to reveal the phylogenetic relationship of these fungi, they were characterised on a morphological and molecular (LSU

  14. Analysis of clinical significance of equivocal thyroid cytology with a special consideration for FLUS category - five years of new classification of FNA results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Słowińska-Klencka, Dorota; Wojtaszek-Nowicka, Martyna; Sporny, Stanisław; Kuzdak, Krzysztof; Dedecjus, Marek; Pomorski, Lech; Popowicz, Bożena; Woźniak-Oseła, Ewa; Sopiński, Jan; Kaczka, Krzysztof; Koptas, Włodzimierz; Klencki, Mariusz

    2016-01-01

    The diagnostic category of follicular lesion of undetermined significance (FLUS) was intended to allow selection of cases with low risk of malignancy from all smears with indeterminate, suspicious cytology (ISC), which can potentially take advantage from repeat fine-needle aspiration (rFNA). Aim of the study was a comparison of the risk of malignancy related to FLUS nodules and other nodules with ISC: suspected follicular neoplasm (SFN) and suspected malignancy (SM), as well as analysis of the usefulness of assessing ultrasonographic malignancy risk features (UMRF) in nodules with ISC. We analysed UMRF, rFNA, and results of histopathological examination (H) in 441 FLUS, 135 SFN, and 72 SM nodules. The frequency of exposing cancer in H in FLUS nodules was 5.9%, and when cytological follow up was also included it was 2.9%. rFNAs made the diagnosis more precise in 72.7% of FLUS, and in 5.2% it was diagnosis/suspicion of cancer. The incidence of cancer in SFN nodules was 8.2%, in SM nodules with suspicion of papillary cancer - 61.1%, and in nodules with suspicion of other or unspecified malignancy - 53.8% (p < 0.0001 FLUS vs. both groups). The presence of calcifications is the only independent UMRF for nodules with ISC (OR 4.7). Features of importance are also microcalcifications (OR 3.8), especially in the SM group, and taller-than-wide-shape (OR 2.2). FLUS and SFN nodules are characterised by particularly low value of assessing suspicious margins; analysis of hypoechogenicity is of low value in SFN nodules, like suspected vascularisation in SFN and SM nodules. The risk of cancer in FLUS and SFN nodules is lower than in SM nodules. rFNAs of FLUS nodules make the diagnosis more precise in more than 70% of cases and are effective in revealing cancers. UMRFs present variable diagnostic value depending on the subcategory of ISC.

  15. Adult Neurogenesis in the Mammalian Brain: Significant Answers and Significant Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, Guo-li; Song, Hongjun

    2011-01-01

    Summary Adult neurogenesis, a process of generating functional neurons from adult neural precursors, occurs throughout life in restricted brain regions in mammals. The past decade has witnessed tremendous progress in addressing questions related to almost every aspect of adult neurogenesis in the mammalian brain. Here we review major advances in our understanding of adult mammalian neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus and from the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricle, the rostral migratory stream to the olfactory bulb. We highlight emerging principles that have significant implications for stem cell biology, developmental neurobiology, neural plasticity, and disease mechanisms. We also discuss remaining questions related to adult neural stem cells and their niches, underlying regulatory mechanisms and potential functions of newborn neurons in the adult brain. Building upon the recent progress and aided by new technologies, the adult neurogenesis field is poised to leap forward in the next decade. PMID:21609825

  16. Clinical significance of factor V Leiden and prothrombin G20210A-mutations in cerebral venous thrombosis - comparison with arterial ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beye, Aida; Pindur, Gerhard

    2017-01-01

    Cerebrovascular diseases are considered in a different way concerning their etiology with regard to arterial and venous occlusion. The role of thrombophilia in this context remains undetermined. For this reason, a case-control study was conducted including a total of 202 patients (154 females, 48 males) aged from 18 to 76 years (mean: 39.8 years) suffering either from cerebral sinus venous thrombosis (n = 101) or from arterial ischemic stroke (n = 101). Study groups were evaluated on the basis of age- and gender-matched pairs. Gene mutations of factor V-1691 (factor V Leiden) and prothrombin-20210 being considered as the most common thrombophilia markers were analyzed in this study. Factor V Leiden-mutations were found in 16.8% of patients with cerebral sinus venous thrombosis (CVT) and in 17.8% of patients with arterial ischemic stroke (AIS), which was significantly more frequent than in controls at a rate of 4.95% (ORs: 3.89 and 4.16). Prothrombin-mutations were significantly more frequent in CVT at a rate of 14.9% versus 2.97% in controls (OR: 5.70). This does not apply for AIS showing a rate of 4.95% prothrombin-mutations. Rates of factor V Leiden-mutations are not different in CVT compared with AIS. In contrast, however, prothrombin-mutations were significantly more frequent in CVT than in AIS with a rate of 14.9% versus 4.95% (OR 3.35). Furthermore, 3 cases with combined heterozygosity of factor V Leiden- and prothrombin-mutation have been identified in CVT, but not in AIS or controls. All of the above mentioned mutations were exclusively heterozygous. We conclude from these data that thrombophilia in terms of factor V Leiden genotype is a risk factor for both CVT and AIS in equal measure. In contrast, prothrombin-20210-mutations were different playing a significant role in the pathogenesis of cerebral sinus vein thrombosis, but not in arterial ischemic stroke. Also, the combined occurrence of heterozygous prothrombin- and factor V Leiden

  17. How significant is the ‘significant other’? Associations between significant others’ health behaviors and attitudes and young adults’ health outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berge Jerica M

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Having a significant other has been shown to be protective against physical and psychological health conditions for adults. Less is known about the period of emerging young adulthood and associations between significant others’ weight and weight-related health behaviors (e.g. healthy dietary intake, the frequency of physical activity, weight status. This study examined the association between significant others’ health attitudes and behaviors regarding eating and physical activity and young adults’ weight status, dietary intake, and physical activity. Methods This study uses data from Project EAT-III, a population-based cohort study with emerging young adults from diverse ethnic and socioeconomic backgrounds (n = 1212. Logistic regression models examining cross-sectional associations, adjusted for sociodemographics and health behaviors five years earlier, were used to estimate predicted probabilities and calculate prevalence differences. Results Young adult women whose significant others had health promoting attitudes/behaviors were significantly less likely to be overweight/obese and were more likely to eat ≥ 5 fruits/vegetables per day and engage in ≥ 3.5 hours/week of physical activity, compared to women whose significant others did not have health promoting behaviors/attitudes. Young adult men whose significant other had health promoting behaviors/attitudes were more likely to engage in ≥ 3.5 hours/week of physical activity compared to men whose significant others did not have health promoting behaviors/attitudes. Conclusions Findings suggest the protective nature of the significant other with regard to weight-related health behaviors of young adults, particularly for young adult women. Obesity prevention efforts should consider the importance of including the significant other in intervention efforts with young adult women and potentially men.

  18. Epidemiology of human papillomavirus infections: new options for cervical cancer prevention Epidemiología de las infecciones por el papilomavirus humano: nuevas opciones para la prevención del cáncer cervical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Xavier Bosch

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last two decades, the cervical cancer puzzle has become a coherent description that includes the identification of human papillomavirus (HPV as the sexually transmitted etiologic agent and the characterization of the major determinants of HPV acquisition. Triage studies have consistently shown that HPV testing is more sensitive that repeated cytology in identifying underlying high-grade lesions in women with atypical scamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS. Studies that reflect primary screening conditions have shown that the sensitivity of HPV tests is higher than standard cytology in detecting high-grade lesions whereas the specificity is similar only in women aged 30-35 and above. HPV vaccines have an intrinsic attraction as a preventive strategy in populations with limited resources. However, vaccines designed to widespread use are still in development and testing phases. Time is ripe for exploring in depth the clinical implications of current achievements and to devise novel strategies for the prevention of cervical cancer.En las ultimas dos décadas, el enigma del cáncer cervical (CaCu ha comenzado a ser dilucidado y actualmente se ha identificado a la infección por virus de papiloma humano (VPH como su agente etiológico transmitido sexualmente, y se han caracterizado los principales determinantes de infección por VPH. Estudios epidemiológicos han mostrado consistentemente que las pruebas de determinación de ADN de VPH son más sensibles que la citología repetida para la identificación de lesiones de alto grado en mujeres con diagnóstico de células escamosas atípicas de significado indeterminado (ASCUS. Diversos estudios que evalúan el tamizaje primario en CaCu, han mostrado que la sensibilidad de las pruebas de VPH es más alta que la citología estándar para detectar lesiones de alto grado, donde la especificidad es similar sólo en mujeres con edades entre 30 y 35 años o mayores. Las vacunas de VPH tienen

  19. Cytology and high risk HPV testing in cervical cancer screening program: Outcome of 3-year follow-up in an academic institute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jack; Nolte, Fredrick S; Chajewski, Olga S; Lindsey, Kathryn G; Houser, Patricia M; Pellicier, Jalidsa; Wang, Qun; Ehsani, Laleh

    2018-01-01

    Combination of cervical cytology and high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) testing, co-testing, has been increasingly used in screening cervical cancers. The present study summarized the outcome of co-testing by reviewing 3-year clinical and pathological follow-up information. Patients were retrospectively identified via computerized search and were grouped based on the cytologic diagnosis and HR-HPV status as negative for intraepithelial lesion or malignancy (NILM)/HPV-, NILM/HPV+, atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US)/HPV-, ASC-US/HPV+, low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL)/HPV-, LSIL/HPV+, atypical squamous cells, cannot exclude high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (ASC-H)/HPV-, ASC-H/HPV+, high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL)/HPV-, and HSIL/HPV+. The patients' pertinent past medical history and follow-up information were analyzed. During 3-year follow-up period, histologically proven HSIL was found in 5 of 1565 (0.3%) patients with NILM/HPV-, 7 of 141 (5.0%) with NILM/HPV+, 2 of 502 (0.4%) with ASC-US/HPV-, 30 of 274 (10.9%) with ASC-US/HPV+, 1 of 81 (1.2%) with LSIL/HPV-, 28 of 159 (17.6%) with LSIL/HPV+, 3 of 18 (16.7%) with ASC-H/HPV-, 34 of 69 (49.3%) with ASC-H/HPV+, 7 of 7 (100%) with HSIL/HPV-, and 35 of 56 (62.5%) HSIL/HPV+. In reviewing 12 HSIL cases that were originally diagnosed as NILM, 7 remained as NILM, and the other 5 were reclassified as 1 HSIL, 1 ASC-H, and 3 ASC-US, respectively. In 18 HSIL cases with negative HR-HPV, 12 patients had a prior history of positive HR-HPV testing and/or positive p16 IHC stain in the follow-up cervical biopsy. HR-HPV testing plays an important role in cervical cancer screening by identifying HSIL in patients with ASC-US, LSIL, and NILM. Co-testing is an optimal method to identifying the patients with higher risk for developing cervical abnormalities. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Carcinogenicity of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Types in HIV-Positive Women: A Meta-Analysis From HPV Infection to Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tully, Stephen; Franceschi, Silvia

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background. Data on the relative carcinogenic potential of human papillomavirus (HPV) types among women infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) (WHIV) are needed to inform prevention programs for this population. Methods. A systematic literature review and meta-analysis of high-risk HPV-type distribution in 19883 HIV-positive women was performed. The women, from 86 studies worldwide, included 11739 with normal cytological findings; 1784 with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS); 2173 with low-grade and 1282 with high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSILs) diagnosed cytologically; 1198 with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 1 (CIN1), 456 with CIN2, and 455 with CIN3 diagnosed histologically; and 796 with invasive cervical cancers (ICCs). A large proportion of WHIV, and almost all with ICCs, were from Africa. Results. In Africa, HPV 16 accounted for 13% of HPV-positive WHIV with normal cytological findings, but this proportion increased through ASCUS, low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions, CIN1, and CIN2 (18%–25%), up to 41%–47% for CIN3 and ICCs. Only HPV 16, HPV 18, and HPV 45 accounted for a greater proportion of HPV infections in ICCs compared with normal cytological findings (ICC:normal ratios, 3.68, 2.47, and 2.55, respectively). Other high-risk types accounted for important proportions of low- and/or high-grade lesions, but their contribution dropped in ICCs, with ICC:normal ratios in Africa ranging from 0.79 for HPV 33 down to 0.38 for HPV 56. Findings for HPV 16 and HPV 18 in Europe/North America, Asia, and Latin America were compatible with those from Africa. Conclusions. HPV 16 and HPV 18 in particular, but also HPV 45, at least in Africa, warrant special attention in WHIV. Broad consistency of findings with those in HIV-uninfected population would suggest that the risk stratification offered by partial HPV genotyping tests also have relevance for HIV-positive women. PMID:28199532

  1. Validity and reliability of using a self-lavaging device for cytology and HPV testing for cervical cancer screening: findings from a pilot study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi E Jones

    Full Text Available Self-sampling could increase cervical cancer screening uptake. While methods have been identified for human papillomavirus (HPV testing, to date, self-sampling has not provided adequate specimens for cytology. We piloted the validity and reliability of using a self-lavaging device for cervical cytology and HPV testing. We enrolled 198 women in New York City in 2008-2009 from three ambulatory clinics where they received cervical cancer screening. All were asked to use the Delphi Screener™ to self-lavage 1-3 months after clinician-collected index cytological smear (100 normal; 98 abnormal. Women with abnormal cytology results from either specimen underwent colposcopy; 10 women with normal results from both specimens also underwent colposcopy. We calculated sensitivity of self-collected cytology to detect histologically confirmed high grade lesions (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, CIN, 2+; specificity for histology-negative (CIN 1 or lower, paired cytology negative, or a third cytology negative; and kappa for paired results. One hundred and ninety-seven (99.5% women self-collected a lavage. Seventy-five percent had moderate to excellent cellularity, two specimens were unsatisfactory for cytology. Seven of 167 (4% women with definitive results had CIN2+; one had normal and six abnormal cytology results with the self-lavage (sensitivity = 86%, 95% Confidence Interval, CI: 42, 100. The kappa for paired cytology was low (0.36; 95% CI: 0.25, 0.47 primarily due to clinician specimens with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US and low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL coded as normal using Screener specimens. However, three cases of HSIL were coded as ASC-US and one as normal using Screener specimens. Seventy-three women had paired high-risk HPV tests with a kappa of 0.66 (95% CI: 0.49, 0.84. Based on these preliminary findings, a larger study to estimate the performance of the Screener for co-testing cytology and

  2. Difference Between Cryotherapy and Follow Up Low Grade Squamous Lesion of Cervix Uteri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahic, Mahira; Jahic, Elmir; Mulavdic, Mirsada; Hadzimehmedovic, Azra

    2017-08-01

    Cervical cancer can be successfully prevented by effective treatment. Analyse of success of cryotherapy in LSIL and ASCUS. In retrospective study between January 2016 to March 2017, 3244 PAP test were analysed. 257 patients who had been diagnosed with LSIL and ASCUS from PAP smear were divided in two groups: women who had HPV positive, colposcopic positive and cytologic finding of LSIL or ASCUS treathed with cryotherapy and women with LSIL, ASCUS and negative colposcopy. χ 2 test was used for statistical analysis of data. Analysis of 3244 PAP smears showed negative for intraepithelial lesion or malignancy (NILM) in 90,10% (N-2923), and abnormal in 9,8% (N-321) of women. ASCUS was found in 4,8% (N-156) and ASC-H in 0,2% (N-6), LSIL in 3,1% (N-101), HSIL in 0,64% (N-21). The average age of patients with ASCUS lesion was 41 ± 12 years. After cryotherapy, HSIL had progression in 1,5% (N-1), persistence in 6,3% (N-4) and regression in 91,7% (N-58). Progression occured in 10,5% (N-4) of HSIL, persistence in 52,6% (N-20) and regression in 36,7% (N-14) in 38 women with LSIL lesion after repeated PAP test. Progression occured in 8% (N-10) of LSIL and 4% HSIL (N-5), persistence in 58% (N-72) and regression in 29,8% (N-37) in 124 women with ASCUS lesion after treatment and repeated PAP test. Difference in progression lesions in HSIL between women with cryotherapy (1,5%) and follow-up (10,5%) after LSIL is not significant, but progression to CIN II occured after cryotherapy. CIN III or cervical cancer was not found. Cryotherapy prevents progression of LSIL in HSIL and in cervical cancer. Because of that cryotherapy is successful method in prevention of cervical cancer.

  3. Global Significant Volcanic Eruptions Database, 4360 BC to present

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Significant Volcanic Eruptions Database is a global listing of over 600 eruptions from 4360 BC to the present. A significant eruption is classified as one that...

  4. Global Significant Earthquake Database, 2150 BC to present

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Significant Earthquake Database is a global listing of over 5,700 earthquakes from 2150 BC to the present. A significant earthquake is classified as one that...

  5. A Novel Least Significant Bit First Processing Parallel CRC Circuit

    OpenAIRE

    Xiujie Qu; Zhongkai Cao; Zhanjie Yang

    2013-01-01

    In HDLC serial communication protocol, CRC calculation can first process the most or least significant bit of data. Nowadays most CRC calculation is based on the most significant bit (MSB) first processing. An algorithm of the least significant bit (LSB) first processing parallel CRC is proposed in this paper. Based on the general expression of the least significant bit first processing serial CRC, using state equation method of linear system, we derive a recursive formula by the mathematical...

  6. 40 CFR 52.1929 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1929 Section 52.1929 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) Regulation for preventing significant deterioration of air... preventing significant deterioration of air quality. [56 FR 5656, Feb. 12, 1991, as amended at 68 FR 11324...

  7. 46 CFR 504.6 - Finding of no significant impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... POLICY ANALYSIS § 504.6 Finding of no significant impact. (a) If upon completion of an environmental... significant effect on the human environment and why, therefore, an environmental impact statement (EIS) will... 46 Shipping 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Finding of no significant impact. 504.6 Section 504.6...

  8. Confidence Intervals: From tests of statistical significance to confidence intervals, range hypotheses and substantial effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominic Beaulieu-Prévost

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available For the last 50 years of research in quantitative social sciences, the empirical evaluation of scientific hypotheses has been based on the rejection or not of the null hypothesis. However, more than 300 articles demonstrated that this method was problematic. In summary, null hypothesis testing (NHT is unfalsifiable, its results depend directly on sample size and the null hypothesis is both improbable and not plausible. Consequently, alternatives to NHT such as confidence intervals (CI and measures of effect size are starting to be used in scientific publications. The purpose of this article is, first, to provide the conceptual tools necessary to implement an approach based on confidence intervals, and second, to briefly demonstrate why such an approach is an interesting alternative to an approach based on NHT. As demonstrated in the article, the proposed CI approach avoids most problems related to a NHT approach and can often improve the scientific and contextual relevance of the statistical interpretations by testing range hypotheses instead of a point hypothesis and by defining the minimal value of a substantial effect. The main advantage of such a CI approach is that it replaces the notion of statistical power by an easily interpretable three-value logic (probable presence of a substantial effect, probable absence of a substantial effect and probabilistic undetermination. The demonstration includes a complete example.

  9. A comparative analysis of conventional and SurePath liquid-based cervicovaginal cytology: A study of 140 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyotsna Sharma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The role of Papanicolaou (Pap test in cervical cancer screening need not be overemphasized. While most Western countries have adopted the liquid-based cytology (LBC, which is considered superior, many developing countries are still using the conventional Pap smear (CPS technique. Objective: To compare the staining and cytomorphological features on conventional versus liquid-based cervicovaginal smears. Materials and Methods: One hundred and forty cervicovaginal smears prepared by the standard conventional and LBC techniques were interpreted as per the Bethesda system of reporting cervicovaginal smears. Twelve parameters were studied, compared, and statistically analyzed. A P value <0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results: 129/140 (92% of CPSs and 130/140 (93% LBC smears were satisfactory. LBC had a significantly shorter screening time (2.0 ± 0.08 vs 4.0 ± 0.65 and better representative material than that of CPS (50% vs 42%. Neutrophils were significantly more in CPS than LBC (96% vs 92% with a P value <0.05 while hemorrhagic background and red blood cells (RBCs were more prominent in CPS. LBC showed significant artifactual changes in squamous epithelial cells. Epithelial abnormalities ranging from atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS to high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL were seen in 3% (4 and 2% (2 of CPSs and LBCs, respectively. Organisms were better picked up in CPS (99% in CPS vs 73% LBC with a value of P = 0.0001. Conclusion: Although a shorter screening time and cleaner background are the major advantages of LBC, CPS is not inferior to LBC. Considering the high cost, rather than the advantages associated with LBC, we feel that CPS is a better option for developing countries.

  10. Mining Users' Significant Driving Routes with Low-power Sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Nawaz, Sarfraz; Mascolo, Cecilia

    2014-01-01

    While there is significant work on sensing and recognition of significant places for users, little attention has been given to users' significant routes. Recognizing these routine journeys, opens doors to the development of novel applications, like personalized travel alerts, and enhancement of user's travel experience. However, the high energy consumption of traditional location sensing technologies, such as GPS or WiFi based localization, is a barrier to passive and ubiquitous route sensing...

  11. Caveats for using statistical significance tests in research assessments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Jesper Wiborg

    2013-01-01

    This article raises concerns about the advantages of using statistical significance tests in research assessments as has recently been suggested in the debate about proper normalization procedures for citation indicators by Opthof and Leydesdorff (2010). Statistical significance tests are highly ...... are important or not. On the contrary their use may be harmful. Like many other critics, we generally believe that statistical significance tests are over- and misused in the empirical sciences including scientometrics and we encourage a reform on these matters....

  12. Significant Guidance Issued by the Federal Transit Administration

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — A list of Significant Guidance documents, which include guidance document disseminated to regulated entities or the general public that may reasonably be anticipated...

  13. Significant Guidance Issued by the Federal Highway Administration

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — A list of Significant Guidance documents, which include guidance document disseminated to regulated entities or the general public that may reasonably be anticipated...

  14. Significant Guidance Issued by the Federal Aviation Administration

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — A list of Significant Guidance documents, which include guidance document disseminated to regulated entities or the general public that may reasonably be anticipated...

  15. Significant Guidance Issued by the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — A list of Significant Guidance documents, which include guidance document disseminated to regulated entities or the general public that may reasonably be anticipated...

  16. Significant gastrointestinal morbidity after sacrocolpopexy: The incidence and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Yu Ri; Kim, Ji Young; Jeon, Myung Jae

    2014-07-01

    This study aimed to quantify the risk of significant gastrointestinal (GI) morbidity after sacrocolpopexy (SCP), and to identify related risk factors. A retrospective study was performed of 258 patients who underwent laparotomic SCP for symptomatic pelvic organ prolapse (POP) from November 2008 to August 2013. By the review of medical records, the frequency of significant GI morbidity that resulted in a prolonged initial hospitalization, readmission, or reoperation was assessed. Thereafter, risk factors for significant GI morbidity were assessed using univariate and multivariate analyses. Ten patients (3.9%) were identified as having significant GI morbidity; nine (3.5%) had a prolonged initial hospital stay or were readmitted for the medical treatment of postoperative ileus and 1 (0.4%) underwent reoperation for small bowel obstruction. The occurrence of significant GI morbidity was significantly associated with patient's age and prior laparotomy. By multivariable logistic regression analysis, age (odds ratio [OR], 1.14; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01-1.27; P=0.03) and prior laparotomy (OR, 6.82; 95% CI, 1.37-34.07; P=0.02) were found as independent risk factors for significant GI morbidity. One in 25 (3.9%) women after SCP experiences significant GI morbidity. Particularly, women with older age and prior laparotomy have a higher risk for significant GI morbidity. This data will aid preoperative counseling for Korean POP patients undergoing SCP.

  17. Understanding significant others' experience of aphasia and rehabilitation following stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallé, Marie-Christine; Le Dorze, Guylaine

    2014-01-01

    It is currently unknown how rehabilitation services contribute to significant others' adjustment to stroke with aphasia since their experience of rehabilitation has not been studied before. The purpose of this study was thus to understand significant others' experience of aphasia rehabilitation within the context of post-stroke rehabilitation. Individual interviews were carried out with 12 significant others of persons who became aphasic as a result of a stroke and were discharged from rehabilitation in the past 3 months. Data were analyzed with a grounded theory approach. "Being centered on the aphasic person" was the core category triggered by the significant other's perception of the stroke survivor's vulnerability and his/her feelings of attachment towards that person. Through their interactions with professionals, significant others assumed that rehabilitation was also centered on the aphasic person; a perspective that was reinforced. Consequently, significant others participated in rehabilitation as caregivers and expected rehabilitation to meet their caregiver needs but not other personal and relational needs. Their appraisal of rehabilitation was thus related to the satisfaction or not of caregiver needs. With a greater sensitivity to significant others who focus on the stroke survivor and disregard their own needs, rehabilitation professionals and especially speech-language therapists, can assist families in reestablishing communication and satisfying relationships which are affected because of aphasia. This qualitative study shows that significant others of aphasic stroke survivors experience rehabilitation as services focused on the person who had the stroke. Significant others' satisfaction with rehabilitation is not related to the fulfillment of their personal (e.g. resuming their activities) and relational needs (e.g. good communication with the person with aphasia). When offering interventions targeting significant others' needs, rehabilitation

  18. Testing the significance of canonical axes in redundancy analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Legendre, P.; Oksanen, J.; Braak, ter C.J.F.

    2011-01-01

    1. Tests of significance of the individual canonical axes in redundancy analysis allow researchers to determine which of the axes represent variation that can be distinguished from random. Variation along the significant axes can be mapped, used to draw biplots or interpreted through subsequent

  19. Short Communication: Significance for pasture production in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Short Communication: Significance for pasture production in the southern Cape coastal region of naturalized rhizobia nodulating the strain specific Medicago ... The significance of naturalized strains of M. polymorpha in the production of medic pastures in some soils of the southern Cape coastal region is discussed.

  20. Biological, ecological and agronomic significance of plant phenolic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phenolics are low molecular compounds ubiquitous in all tissues of higher plants with great significance in plant development. Our understanding of some phenolic compounds in the last few decades has greatly improved. However, their biological, ecological and agronomical significance in the rhizosphere of most ...

  1. A Men's Support Group for Significant Others of Rape Victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodkin, Lawrence I.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Discusses the trauma experienced by women rape victims and focuses on a men's support group for male-significant-others of women who have been raped. Describes the developmental phases through which the male significant others of rape victims achieve resolution and the impact of the male's response upon the relationship. (Author)

  2. 40 CFR 52.2497 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2497 Section 52.2497 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  3. 40 CFR 52.1436 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.1436 Section 52.1436 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act...

  4. 40 CFR 52.1029 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.1029 Section 52.1029 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. The program to review operation and construction of new and modified...

  5. 40 CFR 52.1485 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1485 Section 52.1485 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... include approvable procedures for preventing the significant deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulation...

  6. 40 CFR 52.499 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.499 Section 52.499 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  7. 40 CFR 52.2581 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2581 Section 52.2581 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a)-(c) [Reserved] (d) The requirements of sections 160 through 165... provisions for prevention of significant deterioration of air quality at 40 CFR 52.21 are applicable to the...

  8. 40 CFR 52.2346 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2346 Section 52.2346 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The Utah plan, as submitted, is approved as meeting the... construct on Indian Reservations. (b) Regulation for prevention of significant deterioration of air quality...

  9. 40 CFR 52.1529 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.1529 Section 52.1529 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. New Hampshire's Part Env-A 623, “Requirements for Prevention of...

  10. 40 CFR 52.2131 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.2131 Section 52.2131 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a)-(b) [Reserved] (c) All applications and other information...

  11. 40 CFR 52.2676 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2676 Section 52.2676 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  12. 40 CFR 52.2779 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2779 Section 52.2779 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  13. 40 CFR 52.1689 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1689 Section 52.1689 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  14. 40 CFR 52.2178 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2178 Section 52.2178 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The South Dakota plan, as submitted, is approved as meeting the... on Indian reservations; (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  15. 40 CFR 52.1165 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1165 Section 52.1165 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulation for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  16. 40 CFR 52.1603 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1603 Section 52.1603 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  17. 40 CFR 52.1987 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1987 Section 52.1987 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The Oregon Department of Environmental Quality rules for the prevention of significant deterioration of air quality (provisions of OAR chapter 340, Divisions 200, 202...

  18. 40 CFR 52.2528 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2528 Section 52.2528 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of Sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... Quality Deterioration. (b) Regulations for Preventing Significant Deterioration of Air Quality, the...

  19. 40 CFR 52.1280 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.1280 Section 52.1280 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) All applications and other information required pursuant to § 52...

  20. 40 CFR 52.2380 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.2380 Section 52.2380 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. The program to review the construction and operation of new and...

  1. 40 CFR 52.2451 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2451 Section 52.2451 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... Quality Deterioration. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  2. 40 CFR 52.2827 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2827 Section 52.2827 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  3. 40 CFR 52.1180 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1180 Section 52.1180 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  4. 40 CFR 52.530 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.530 Section 52.530 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) EPA approves the Florida Prevention of Significant Deterioration program, as...

  5. 40 CFR 52.2083 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.2083 Section 52.2083 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The Rhode Island plan, as submitted, is approved as meeting the...

  6. 40 CFR 52.2303 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2303 Section 52.2303 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The plan submitted by Texas is approved as meeting the requirements of part C, Clean Air Act for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The plan...

  7. 40 CFR 52.1234 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1234 Section 52.1234 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  8. 40 CFR 52.2729 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2729 Section 52.2729 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  9. 40 CFR 52.1884 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1884 Section 52.1884 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  10. Finding significantly connected voxels based on histograms of connection strengths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasenburg, Niklas; Pedersen, Morten Vester; Darkner, Sune

    2016-01-01

    -distribution and significance is determined using the false discovery rate (FDR). Segmentations are based on significantly connected voxels and their FDR. In this work we focus on the thalamus and the target regions were chosen by dividing the cortex into a prefrontal/temporal zone, motor zone, somatosensory zone and a parieto...

  11. 40 CFR 1508.13 - Finding of no significant impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... have a significant effect on the human environment and for which an environmental impact statement... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Finding of no significant impact. 1508.13 Section 1508.13 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY TERMINOLOGY AND INDEX...

  12. 49 CFR 1580.105 - Reporting significant security concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Hazardous Materials Receivers, and Private Cars § 1580.105 Reporting significant security concerns. (a... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reporting significant security concerns. 1580.105... SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME AND LAND TRANSPORTATION SECURITY RAIL...

  13. Semiotics and Visual Culture: Sights, Signs, and Significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Shank, Deborah L., Ed.

    2004-01-01

    One of the most significant issues in art education today is the discourse surrounding visual culture: what it is, where it is located, how it is accessed, and its significance to art education. The development of new visual genres and technological innovations for creating and accessing them, have multiplied the forms of information that are…

  14. Significance of acquired diverticular disease of the vermiform appendix

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallenbach, Klaus; Hjorth, Sofie Vetli; Engel, Ulla

    2012-01-01

    To assess the prevalence of acquired diverticulum of the appendix (DA), including incipient forms and its possible significance as a marker of local/regional neoplasms.......To assess the prevalence of acquired diverticulum of the appendix (DA), including incipient forms and its possible significance as a marker of local/regional neoplasms....

  15. 48 CFR 1652.222-70 - Notice of significant events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... events. 1652.222-70 Section 1652.222-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System OFFICE OF PERSONNEL... of FEHBP Clauses 1652.222-70 Notice of significant events. As prescribed in 1622.103-70, the following clause shall be inserted in all FEHBP contracts. Notice of Significant Events (JUL 2005) (a) The...

  16. 48 CFR 2152.210-71 - Notice of significant events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... events. 2152.210-71 Section 2152.210-71 Federal Acquisition Regulations System OFFICE OF PERSONNEL... events. As prescribed in 2110.7004(b), insert the following clause: Notice of Significant Events (OCT 2005) (a) The Contractor agrees to notify OPM of any significant event within 10 working days after the...

  17. Screening for cervical cancer: new alternatives and research Detección oportuna de cáncer cervical: nuevas alternativas y pautas de investigación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attila T Lörincz

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Evidence for the clinical utility of human papillomavirus (HPV DNA testing has increased over the years and has now become very convincing. Some specific uses of HPV detection are a triage of women with cytological determinations of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US and related management strategies, b as a marker for test of cure post-treatment, and c most importantly, as an adjunct to cytology in routine cervical disease screening programs. There are many studies that support each of these applications and include 8 studies on ASC-US triage, 10 on test of cure and 13 on adjunctive or stand-alone HPV screening. The most notable investigation of ASC-US triage was ALTS, a randomized controlled trial of 3 488 women. With respect to routine HPV screening the combined studies included 77 000 women, providing as a histological endpoint more than 1 000 cases of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN or cancer. Testing methods were either the Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2 test or the polymerase chain reaction (PCR test. HPV testing of women with ASC-US cytology had on average a higher sensitivity (90% and specificity (70% than repeating the cytological test (sensitivity 75%, specificity 60% and was also more sensitive than colposcopy for follow-up. As an adjunct to the Papanicolaou (Pap cytology test in routine screening, HPV DNA testing was a more sensitive indicator for prevalent high-grade CIN than either conventional or liquid cytology. A combination of HPV DNA and Papanicolaou testing had almost 100% sensitivity and negative predictive value. The specificity of the combined tests was slightly lower than the specificity of the Papanicolaou test. One "double-negative" HPV DNA and Papanicolaou test indicated a higher prognostic assurance against risk of future CIN 3 than three subsequent negative conventional Papanicolaou tests and may safely allow three-year or longer screening intervals for such low- risk women. It

  18. Significance of a change in dividend payment frequency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Kambeu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to analyse the significance of a change in dividend payment frequency. We initially argue that a change in dividend payment frequency is significant and relevant in the same manner as a change in dividend policy. We analyse the subject using an event study of Sechaba Holdings, a firm listed on the Botswana Exchange` that decided to change its dividend payment frequency from quarterly to bi-annual payment to examine the subject. We specifically used an event study methodology that analyses the significance of abnormal returns that occurred during the event period. The study revealed that the firm’s decision to change its dividend payment frequency did not significantly affect abnormal returns during the event period.  The study therefore contradicted our initial argument that a change in dividend payment frequency is significant and relevant.

  19. Significance of Interleukin-6 in Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toral P. Kobawala

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study sought to reveal the significance of IL-6 in papillary thyroid carcinoma by determining its circulating levels, tumoral protein, and mRNA expressions. As compared to the healthy individuals, serum IL-6 was significantly higher in patients with benign thyroid diseases and PTC. Further, its level was significantly higher in PTC patients as compared to patients with benign thyroid diseases. ROC curves also confirmed a good discriminatory efficacy of serum IL-6 between healthy individuals and patients with benign thyroid diseases and PTC. The circulating IL-6 was significantly associated with poor overall survival in PTC patients. IL-6 immunoreactivity was significantly high in PTC patients as compared to the benign thyroid disease patients. Significantly higher IL-6 mRNA expression was also observed in the primary tumour tissues of PTC patients than the adjacent normal tissues. The protein expression of IL-6 at both the circulating and tissue level correlated with disease aggressiveness in PTC patients. Moreover, a significant positive correlation was observed between the IL-6 protein and mRNA expression in the primary tumours of PTC patients. Finally in conclusion, IL-6 has an important role in thyroid cancer progression. Thus targeting IL-6 signalling can help in clinical management of thyroid carcinoma patients.

  20. Significant events in psychotherapy: An update of research findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timulak, Ladislav

    2010-11-01

    Significant events research represents a specific approach to studying client-identified important moments in the therapy process. The current study provides an overview of the significant events research conducted, the methodology used together with findings and implications. PsychInfo database was searched with keywords such as significant events, important events, significant moments, important moments, and counselling or psychotherapy. The references of the selected studies were also searched. This process led to the identification of 41 primary studies that used client-identified significant event(s) as a main or secondary focus of the study. These were consequently reviewed with regard to their methodology and findings. The findings are presented according to type of study conducted. The impacts of helpful events reported by clients are focused on contributions to therapeutic relationship and to in-session outcomes. Hindering events focus on some client disappointment with the therapist or therapy. The group therapy modality highlighted additional helpful impacts (like learning from others). Perspectives on what is significant in therapy differ between clients and therapists. The intensive qualitative studies reviewed confirm that the processes involved in significant events are complex and ambiguous. Studies show that the helpful events may also contain many hindering elements and that specific events are deeply contextually embedded in the preceding events of therapy. Some studies suggest that helpful significant events are therapeutically productive although this may need to be established further. Specific intensive studies show that the clients' perceptions in therapy may differ dramatically from that of the therapist. Furthermore, the relational and emotional aspects of significant moments may be more important for the clients than the cognitive aspects of therapy which are frequently stressed by therapists. 2010 The British Psychological Society.

  1. Bayesian Test of Significance for Conditional Independence: The Multinomial Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo de Morais Andrade

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Conditional independence tests have received special attention lately in machine learning and computational intelligence related literature as an important indicator of the relationship among the variables used by their models. In the field of probabilistic graphical models, which includes Bayesian network models, conditional independence tests are especially important for the task of learning the probabilistic graphical model structure from data. In this paper, we propose the full Bayesian significance test for tests of conditional independence for discrete datasets. The full Bayesian significance test is a powerful Bayesian test for precise hypothesis, as an alternative to the frequentist’s significance tests (characterized by the calculation of the p-value.

  2. Properties and Types of Significant Photothermal Retinal Lesion Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    significant-injury, hUIJJan effects, RSI Technical Working Group, retinal lesions, dazzling laser , flashbang 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17...retinal lesions that should be used to classify injuries as significant or not significant.  Although probably  most relevant for non‐lethal  dazzling   laser ...photochemical or photomechanical injury risk, additional RSI  guidance will be published.     In previous developmental efforts involving  dazzling   lasers , the

  3. The influence of probiotics on the cervical malignancy diagnostics quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perisić, Zivko; Perisić, Natasa; Golocorbin Kon, Svetlana; Vesović, Dusan; Jovanović, Ana Mitrović; Mikov, Momir

    2011-11-01

    Probiotics help to provide an optimum balance in the intestines. Probiotics species competitive block toxic substances and growth of unwanted bacteria and yeast species while they compete for the space and food. Lactogyn is the first oral probiotics on Serbian market dedicated to maintaining a normal vaginal flora. Lactogyn contains two well studied probiotics strains - Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 and Lactobacillus reuteri RC-14. Both of them are considered as probiotic agents with therapeutic properties increase the population of beneficial lactobacillus organisms within the vagina. The aim of this study was to exam an influence of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 and Lactobacillus reuteri RC-14 on results of cervical smear cytological testing including detection of atypical cells, detection of false positive and false negative findings as well as on vaginal microflora content in patients with vaginal infection signs and symptoms. Totally 250 women with signs of vaginal infection were selected to participate in the study. The study group comprised 125 patients taking studied probiotic strains along with specific anti-infective therapy. The control group comprised, also, 125 patients taking anti-infective agents, only. Probiotic preparation (Lactogyn capsules) was administered orally (one capsule daily) during 4 weeks. Before and six weeks after beginning of the therapy a cervical smear cytological test (the Papanicolaou test), as well as microbiological examination of the vaginal smear were performed. Number of cases of inflammation and atypical squamous cells of undeterminated significance (ASCUS) in the study group were significantly higher before administration of the probiotic preparation. The number of lactobacilli was significantly higher, and the number of pathogenic microorganisms lower in the group treated with this preparation. The application of probiotic strains Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 and Lactobacillus reuteri RC-14 concomitantly with specific anti

  4. Marine toxins and their toxicological significance: An overview

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarkar, A.

    This article presents an overview of various types of marine toxins and their toxicological significance in the context of biotechnological research and development. The characteristics and toxic potentials of different marine toxins highlighted...

  5. A Novel Least Significant Bit First Processing Parallel CRC Circuit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiujie Qu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In HDLC serial communication protocol, CRC calculation can first process the most or least significant bit of data. Nowadays most CRC calculation is based on the most significant bit (MSB first processing. An algorithm of the least significant bit (LSB first processing parallel CRC is proposed in this paper. Based on the general expression of the least significant bit first processing serial CRC, using state equation method of linear system, we derive a recursive formula by the mathematical deduction. The recursive formula is applicable to any number of bits processed in parallel and any series of generator polynomial. According to the formula, we present the parallel circuit of CRC calculation and implement it with VHDL on FPGA. The results verify the accuracy and effectiveness of this method.

  6. 2005 Significant U.S. Hurricane Strikes Poster

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 2005 Significant U.S. Hurricane Strikes poster is one of two special edition posters for the Atlantic Hurricanes. This beautiful poster contains two sets of...

  7. Trends of significant operating events in assessing programmatic issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanning, W.D.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes one part of the U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC's) program for evaluating significant events and the process for identifying trends that may be indicative of programmatic weaknesses at operating nuclear power plants. A database management system was developed to permit analyses of significant operating events, events of potential safety significance, and certain reactor scrams. The analyses were based on events and problems reported by telephone to the NRC by licensees within hours of the events and, therefore, provided current operational data trend information. The regulatory requirements for reporting significant events, the screening criteria, and the process for identifying outliers for formal evaluation are described herein. This process contributed to an understanding of the underlying causes for events and problems. Examples are included of operating experience assessments that identified plants with a poor operating experience history that was attributable to procedural inadequacies, operator training deficiencies, inadequate root cause analysis, and inadequate control and planning of activities

  8. UT ARMPA Map 2.2 Biologically Significant Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — This data set was created to depict “biologically significant units” (BSU) from the BLM Greater Sage-Grouse Land Use Planning Strategy – Utah Sub-Region. This data...

  9. Misdiagnosis and clinical significance of non-tuberculous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-09-09

    ® ... were confirmed with the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. A questionnaire was used to obtain demographic data. ..... recovered with egg yolk supplementation (9). Worthy noting also is that a significant proportion of ...

  10. Prognostic significance of diagnostic laparoscopy for spontaneous fertility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, B. W.; Swart, P.; Bossuyt, P. M.; van der Veen, F.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the prognostic significance of laparoscopy results for fertility outcome. STUDY DESIGN: Consecutive patients undergoing hysterosalpingography and laparoscopy for subfertility in our department between May 1985 and November 1987 were identified from medical records. The impact

  11. Do the Uncertainty Relations Really have Crucial Significances for Physics?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitru S.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available It is proved the falsity of idea that the Uncertainty Relations (UR have crucial significances for physics. Additionally one argues for the necesity of an UR-disconnected quantum philosophy.

  12. Significant bacteriuria in children with sickle cell anaemia in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ) may result in long term morbidity and mortality due to chronic renal dysfunction. Objectives: To evaluate the prevalence of significant bacteriuria among children with SCA and to determine their antimicrobial sensitivity patterns of isolates.

  13. US central station nuclear electric generating units: significant milestones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-09-01

    Listings of US nuclear power plants include significant dates, reactor type, owners, and net generating capacity. Listings are made by state, region, and utility. Tabulations of status, schedules, and orders are also presented

  14. 76 FR 16838 - Finding of No Significant Impact; Notice of Availability of the Finding of No Significant Impact...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Federal Bureau of Prisons Finding of No Significant Impact; Notice of... Low Security Beds to One Private Contractor To House Approximately 1,000 Federal, Low-Security, Adult... AGENCY: U.S. Department of Justice, Federal Bureau of Prisons. ACTION: Finding of No Significant Impact...

  15. The Lay Public's Misinterpretation of the Meaning of 'Significant': A Call for Simple yet Significant Changes in Scientific Reporting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Tromovitch

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A large national sample of U.S. adults (n > 1,000 was queried regarding their interpretation of the term significant when used in regard to scientific findings. The vast majority provided incorrect interpretations of the meaning with only 5.8% providing a reasonably correct interpretation. Most respondents who reported they hold doctoral degrees provided incorrect interpretations. Given the widespread misinterpretation of this term, scientific journals should require—not merely recommend—that all usages of the term significant be prefaced with an adjective (e.g., statistically, practically, clinically and that the meaning of statistical significance be reviewed prior to its first usage. Additionally, all claims regarding the size of a finding should be required to be supported with appropriate effect size statistics to ensure that statistical significance is not misrepresented as indicating practical significance.

  16. Stool consistency is significantly associated with pain perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukiko Shiro

    Full Text Available Commensal as well as pathogenic bacteria can influence a variety of gut functions, thereby leading to constipation and diarrhea in severe cases. In fact, several researchers have reported evidence supporting the association between stool consistency or constipation and the Gut microbiome (GM composition and dysbiosis. GM influences the human health and disease via the gut-brain axis. We thus hypothesized that the pathogenic bacteria increases pain perception to some extent, which means that there could be an association between stool consistency or constipation and pain perception of healthy subjects.Observational study.The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between stool consistency or constipation and pain perception of healthy subjects.Thirty-eight healthy subjects participated in this study. The participants were assessed on their usual stool form (the Bristol Stool Form Scale: BSFS, constipation (the Cleveland Clinic Constipation score: CCS, degree of obesity, pain perception by mechanical stimulus, cold pain threshold, and a questionnaire on psychological state.The BSFS was significantly and positively associated with pain perception, and showed a significant association with anxiety states. Furthermore, pain perception was significantly associated with anxiety states. However, there were no significant associations between the CCS and any independent variables. In addition, we found that a significant predictor to the pain perception was BSFS. Moreover, there were significant relationships among the psychological states, BSFS and obesity.These results suggest that the stool form is associated with pain perception and anxiety status.

  17. Client-centred ADL intervention after stroke: Significant others' experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertilsson, Ann-Sofie; von Koch, Lena; Tham, Kerstin; Johansson, Ulla

    2015-01-01

    Client-centredness is a prominent contemporary concept in rehabilitation. However, there is a lack of knowledge on if and how a client-centred rehabilitation approach is incorporated in the everyday life of significant others of people who receive such rehabilitation. Explore and describe if and how a client-centred ADL intervention (CADL) was integrated in the everyday lives of significant others of people with stroke. Qualitative longitudinal design, with a grounded theory approach. Seven significant others, who cohabited with persons receiving a CADL intervention, were interviewed during the first year. One core category was identified: "Taking responsibility and achieving balance with respect to self-esteem in order to get on with everyday life". The integration of the CADL was a process. A key aspect was that as the person with stroke acted upon his/her own desired activity goals the significant others were encouraged to act on their own needs. Enablement is important also for the significant others of people with stroke. One way of enabling significant others to maintain an active lifestyle and find respite in everyday life might be to enable people with stroke to formulate and act upon their desired activity goals.

  18. Distributive trade\\'s significance in national economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdenko Segetlija

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The paper analyzes a significance of distributive trade in contemporary national economies of select European countries (10 from the point of view of employment, gross value-added creation, supply chain establishment, and international expansion. A cause for the paper is a dissatisfactory level of economic development of certain transitional countries on one side and the high distributive trade shares (especially in the number of employees and in the GDP on the other side. Methods: Distributive trade's significance for a country is analyzed entirely and segmental. The data collected by Eurostat and Deloitte are analyzed and depicted graphically via usual statistical methods (relative numbers, indices and shares, tabulation and graphical depictions. Results: The results of the research conducted should confirm a thesis on distributive trade's significance based on its shares in the economic structure; however, as an integrator in the value-creating chains, distributive trade has different significance for certain national economies, for the large-sized companies and groups (especially the retailing ones are also expanded internationally, along with their supply chains. Conclusions: Distributive trade does not have an equal significance for the economic development in all countries. Equally, all the divisions within distributive trade do not have equal significance for the overall country's economy, as well as for a launch of its economic development. Nevertheless, it should be necessary to analyze concentration and internationalization in detail for the sake of an evaluation of distributive trade's significance as an integrator in value-creating chains. In that respect, some transitional countries observed do lag behind.

  19. The clinical value of HPV E6/E7 and STAT3 mRNA detection in cervical cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yibing; Shen, Zongji

    2018-02-11

    To explore the value of human papillomavirus (HPV) E6/E7 and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) mRNA detection in the screening of cervical lesions. 192 patients with abnormal ThinPrep cytology test (TCT) results and/or high-risk HPV infection were screened to identify possible cervical lesions in cases. Diagnoses were confirmed by histopathology. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was performed to detect and qualify the mRNAs of HPV E6/E7, STAT3, and Survivin in cervical exfoliated cells. In addition, the performance of separate and combined mRNA detection methods were compared with TCT, HR-HPV DNA schemes respectively. 1. Compared with HPVE6/E7 and STAT3 mRNA methods, Survivin mRNA assay had poor specificity (Sp), Youden index (YI) and concordance rate. 2. HPV E6/E7, STAT3, and STAT3 + HR-HPV methods had the best Sp, concordance rate and positive predictive value (PPV) for cervical lesions screening and atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) triage. For screening of high grade squamous intraepithelial lesions or greater (HSILs+), no difference was observed in the Se of mRNA detection methods in comparison with that of TCT, HR-HPV and TCT + HR-HPV, whereas the false positive rate (FPR) decreased by 41.48%/55.99%/17.19% and the colposcopy referral rate reduced by about 20.00%/25.00%/11.17%. For triage of women with ASCUS, no difference was observed in the Se of mRNA detection methods as compared to that of HR-HPV (χ 2  = 1.05, P > 0.75), while the FPR decreased by 45.83%/37.50%/41.66% and the colposcopy referral rate reduced by 32.42%/22.60%/25.28%, respectively. The Se, YI, and PPV of the combined methods increased in comparison to each method alone. 3. Compared with the TCT + HR-HPV method, HPV E6/E7 + STAT3 method had perfect Sp (95.92%) and PPV (95.40%) for screening HSILs+, the FPR and colposcopy referral rate decreased by 31.06% and 22.48% respectively. 1. The expression of HPV E6/E

  20. Safety significance of ATR passive safety response attributes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atkinson, S.A.

    1990-01-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory was designed with some passive safety response attributes which contribute to the safety of the facility. The three passive safety attributes being evaluated in the paper are: 1) In-core and in-vessel natural convection cooling, 2) a passive heat sink capability of the ATR primary coolant system (PCS) for the transfer of decay power from the uninsulated piping to the confinement, and 3) gravity feed of emergency coolant makeup. The safety significance of the ATR passive safety response attributes is that the reactor can passively respond to most transients, given a reactor scram, to provide adequate decay power removal and a significant time for operator action should the normal active heat removal systems and their backup systems both fail. The ATR Interim Level 1 Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) models and results were used to evaluate the significance to ATR fuel damage frequency (or probability) of the above three passive response attributes. The results of the evaluation indicate that the first attribute is a major safety characteristic of the ATR. The second attribute has a noticeable but only minor safety significance. The third attribute has no significant influence on the ATR firewater injection system (emergency coolant system)

  1. Significance analysis of lexical bias in microarray data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Falkow Stanley

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genes that are determined to be significantly differentially regulated in microarray analyses often appear to have functional commonalities, such as being components of the same biochemical pathway. This results in certain words being under- or overrepresented in the list of genes. Distinguishing between biologically meaningful trends and artifacts of annotation and analysis procedures is of the utmost importance, as only true biological trends are of interest for further experimentation. A number of sophisticated methods for identification of significant lexical trends are currently available, but these methods are generally too cumbersome for practical use by most microarray users. Results We have developed a tool, LACK, for calculating the statistical significance of apparent lexical bias in microarray datasets. The frequency of a user-specified list of search terms in a list of genes which are differentially regulated is assessed for statistical significance by comparison to randomly generated datasets. The simplicity of the input files and user interface targets the average microarray user who wishes to have a statistical measure of apparent lexical trends in analyzed datasets without the need for bioinformatics skills. The software is available as Perl source or a Windows executable. Conclusion We have used LACK in our laboratory to generate biological hypotheses based on our microarray data. We demonstrate the program's utility using an example in which we confirm significant upregulation of SPI-2 pathogenicity island of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium by the cation chelator dipyridyl.

  2. Timescales for detecting a significant acceleration in sea level rise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haigh, Ivan D; Wahl, Thomas; Rohling, Eelco J; Price, René M; Pattiaratchi, Charitha B; Calafat, Francisco M; Dangendorf, Sönke

    2014-04-14

    There is observational evidence that global sea level is rising and there is concern that the rate of rise will increase, significantly threatening coastal communities. However, considerable debate remains as to whether the rate of sea level rise is currently increasing and, if so, by how much. Here we provide new insights into sea level accelerations by applying the main methods that have been used previously to search for accelerations in historical data, to identify the timings (with uncertainties) at which accelerations might first be recognized in a statistically significant manner (if not apparent already) in sea level records that we have artificially extended to 2100. We find that the most important approach to earliest possible detection of a significant sea level acceleration lies in improved understanding (and subsequent removal) of interannual to multidecadal variability in sea level records.

  3. Considerations when using the significance analysis of microarrays (SAM algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timmons James A

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Users of microarray technology typically strive to use universally acceptable data analysis strategies to determine significant expression changes in their experiments. One of the most frequently utilised methods for gene expression data analysis is SAM (significance analysis of microarrays. The impact of selection thresholds, on the output from SAM, may critically alter the conclusion of a study, yet this consideration has not been systematically evaluated in any publication. Results We have examined the effect of discrete data selection criteria (qualification criteria for inclusion and response thresholds (out-put filtering on the number of significant genes reported by SAM. The use of a reduced data set by applying arbitrary restrictions vis-à-vis abundance calls (e.g. from D-chip or application of the fold change (FC option within SAM (named the FC hurdle hereafter, can substantially alter the significant gene list when running SAM in Microsoft Excel. We determined that for a given final FC criteria (e.g. 1.5 fold change the FC hurdle applied within Microsoft Excel SAM alters the number of reported genes above the final FC criteria. The reason is that the FC hurdle changes the composition of the control data set, such that a different significance level (q-value is obtained for any given gene. This effect can be so large that it changes subsequent post hoc analysis interpretation, such as ontology overrepresentation analysis. Conclusion Our results argue for caution when using SAM. All data sets analysed with SAM could be reanalysed taking into account the potential impact of the use of arbitrary thresholds to trim data sets before significance testing.

  4. Estimating the consequences of significant fracture flow at Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauthier, J.H.; Wilson, M.L.; Lauffer, F.C.

    1991-01-01

    A simple model is proposed for investigating the possibility of significant fracture flow at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The model allows an estimate of the number of flowing fractures at Yucca Mountain based on the size of the fractures and the yearly volume of infiltrating water. Given the number of flowing fractures, the number of waste containers they contact is estimated by a geometric argument. Preliminary results indicate that the larger the flowing fractures, the lower the releases of radionuclides. Also, even with significant fracture flow, releases could be well below the limits set by the Environmental Protection Agency

  5. When Does Air Resistance Become Significant in Projectile Motion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohazzabi, Pirooz

    2018-03-01

    In an article in this journal, it was shown that air resistance could never be a significant source of error in typical free-fall experiments in introductory physics laboratories. Since projectile motion is the two-dimensional version of the free-fall experiment and usually follows the former experiment in such laboratories, it seemed natural to extend the same analysis to this type of motion. We shall find that again air resistance does not play a significant role in the parameters of interest in a traditional projectile motion experiment.

  6. Significance of changes in medium-range forecast scores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan J. Geer

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The impact of developments in weather forecasting is measured using forecast verification, but many developments, though useful, have impacts of less than 0.5 % on medium-range forecast scores. Chaotic variability in the quality of individual forecasts is so large that it can be hard to achieve statistical significance when comparing these ‘smaller’ developments to a control. For example, with 60 separate forecasts and requiring a 95 % confidence level, a change in quality of the day-5 forecast needs to be larger than 1 % to be statistically significant using a Student's t-test. The first aim of this study is simply to illustrate the importance of significance testing in forecast verification, and to point out the surprisingly large sample sizes that are required to attain significance. The second aim is to see how reliable are current approaches to significance testing, following suspicion that apparently significant results may actually have been generated by chaotic variability. An independent realisation of the null hypothesis can be created using a forecast experiment containing a purely numerical perturbation, and comparing it to a control. With 1885 paired differences from about 2.5 yr of testing, an alternative significance test can be constructed that makes no statistical assumptions about the data. This is used to experimentally test the validity of the normal statistical framework for forecast scores, and it shows that the naive application of Student's t-test does generate too many false positives (i.e. false rejections of the null hypothesis. A known issue is temporal autocorrelation in forecast scores, which can be corrected by an inflation in the size of confidence range, but typical inflation factors, such as those based on an AR(1 model, are not big enough and they are affected by sampling uncertainty. Further, the importance of statistical multiplicity has not been appreciated, and this becomes particularly dangerous

  7. Structural mode significance using INCA. [Interactive Controls Analysis computer program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Frank H.; Downing, John P.; Thorpe, Christopher J.

    1990-01-01

    Structural finite element models are often too large to be used in the design and analysis of control systems. Model reduction techniques must be applied to reduce the structural model to manageable size. In the past, engineers either performed the model order reduction by hand or used distinct computer programs to retrieve the data, to perform the significance analysis and to reduce the order of the model. To expedite this process, the latest version of INCA has been expanded to include an interactive graphical structural mode significance and model order reduction capability.

  8. Polynomial regression analysis and significance test of the regression function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Zhengming; Zhao Juan; He Shengping

    2012-01-01

    In order to analyze the decay heating power of a certain radioactive isotope per kilogram with polynomial regression method, the paper firstly demonstrated the broad usage of polynomial function and deduced its parameters with ordinary least squares estimate. Then significance test method of polynomial regression function is derived considering the similarity between the polynomial regression model and the multivariable linear regression model. Finally, polynomial regression analysis and significance test of the polynomial function are done to the decay heating power of the iso tope per kilogram in accord with the authors' real work. (authors)

  9. Mood dependence of perceived criticism : A significant null finding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerlsma, Coby; de Ruiter, Naomi M. P.; Kingma, Willem

    2014-01-01

    Five decades of research have shown that the quality of one's interactions with significant others, as captured in the expressed emotion (EE) concept, affects the course of various psychiatric and medical complaints. The key EE-component, interpersonal criticism, is increasingly assessed with the

  10. Misdiagnosis and clinical significance of non-tuberculous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-09-09

    Sep 9, 2011 ... MISDIAGNOSIS AND CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF NON-TUBERCULOUS MYCOBACTERIA IN WESTERN KENYA. IN THE ERA OF HUMAN ... Mycobacterium cM and genotype® Mycobacterium as kits. consenting clients were screened for hiv ..... M. ulcerans are fastidious and require special nutrient.

  11. Taxonomic Significance of Some Vernacular names of Okra ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to examine the folk criteria used by farmers to name their local okra varieties and also to assess the taxonomic significance of vernacular names in the identification and classification of these okra varieties in Ghana. Forty two okra accessions and their vernacu-lar names were obtained from PGRRI, ...

  12. Rare book library catalogs with significant eye and vision content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goss, David A

    2008-07-01

    Rare book library catalogs can serve as useful historical reference works. This paper discusses the content and format of seven rare book library catalogs with significant information relating to the eye and vision. The catalogs examined are held in the libraries on the Bloomington campus of Indiana University.

  13. Erroneous analyses of interactions in neuroscience: a problem of significance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuis, S.; Forstmann, B.U.; Wagenmakers, E.-J.

    2011-01-01

    In theory, a comparison of two experimental effects requires a statistical test on their difference. In practice, this comparison is often based on an incorrect procedure involving two separate tests in which researchers conclude that effects differ when one effect is significant (P < 0.05) but the

  14. Significance of arterial stiffness in Tridosha analysis: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Venkata Giri Kumar

    2017-10-01

    Conclusion: The SI and RI acquired using Nadi Tarangini have shown significant variations across Tridosha locations. The framework developed to measure the arterial stiffness across Tridosha locations can be used for the interventional studies in Ayurveda which in turn can help in disease diagnosis and treatment.

  15. Significance of terrestrial inflows to carbon and nitrogen distribution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Significance of terrestrial inflows to carbon and nitrogen distribution in the Lake Victoria surface water. ... Samples away from the river mouth provided C:N ratios within the Redfield ratio range (C:N:P; 106:16:1) indicating materials of phytoplanktonic origin. The POM isotopes composition indicated a maximum ä13C value of ...

  16. Stress significantly increases mortality following a secondary bacterial respiratory infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    A variety of mechanisms contribute to the viral-bacterial synergy which results in fatal secondary bacterial respiratory infections. Epidemiological investigations have implicated physical and psychological stressors as factors contributing to the incidence and severity of respiratory infections and psychological stress alters host responses to experimental viral respiratory infections. The effect of stress on secondary bacterial respiratory infections has not, however, been investigated. A natural model of secondary bacterial respiratory infection in naive calves was used to determine if weaning and maternal separation (WMS) significantly altered mortality when compared to calves pre-adapted (PA) to this psychological stressor. Following weaning, calves were challenged with Mannheimia haemolytica four days after a primary bovine herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1) respiratory infection. Mortality doubled in WMS calves when compared to calves pre-adapted to weaning for two weeks prior to the viral respiratory infection. Similar results were observed in two independent experiments and fatal viral-bacterial synergy did not extend beyond the time of viral shedding. Virus shedding did not differ significantly between treatment groups but innate immune responses during viral infection, including IFN-γ secretion, the acute-phase inflammatory response, CD14 expression, and LPS-induced TNFα production, were significantly greater in WMS versus PA calves. These observations demonstrate that weaning and maternal separation at the time of a primary BHV-1 respiratory infection increased innate immune responses that correlated significantly with mortality following a secondary bacterial respiratory infection. PMID:22435642

  17. Significance of power average of sinusoidal and non-sinusoidal ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 87; Issue 1. Significance of power average of ... Additional sinusoidal and different non-sinusoidal periodic perturbations applied to the periodically forced nonlinear oscillators decide the maintainance or inhibitance of chaos. It is observed that the weak amplitude of ...

  18. 78 FR 25337 - Culturally Significant Object Imported for Exhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice 8294] Culturally Significant Object Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Bronze Statue of a Boxer, Hellenistic Period'' SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given of the following... ``Bronze Statue of a Boxer, Hellenistic Period,'' imported from abroad for temporary exhibition within the...

  19. The Use of Meta-Analytic Statistical Significance Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polanin, Joshua R.; Pigott, Terri D.

    2015-01-01

    Meta-analysis multiplicity, the concept of conducting multiple tests of statistical significance within one review, is an underdeveloped literature. We address this issue by considering how Type I errors can impact meta-analytic results, suggest how statistical power may be affected through the use of multiplicity corrections, and propose how…

  20. The Significance of the Hand for the Elementary Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Kay

    2013-01-01

    The use of the hand is a physiological sequence. The prehensile nature of the human hand is an evolutionary feature as is the freeing of the hands due to bipedalism. Kay Baker outlines of the human hand's significance to the mind as found in chapter 14 of the "Absorbent Mind." In this article, she has created lists that break down the…

  1. Twin Ritual (Kamta Bulikur): The Significance of Traditional Music in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-12-16

    Dec 16, 2016 ... This paper examines Bura notions of twinship and the significance of traditional music in the kamta ... nificance of music in the rituals, the belief system of the people concerning twins is explored as well. .... medicine man, deaha, and a traditional musician play key roles at the naming ritual of twins. When a ...

  2. Significance of ISO 9000 Quality Management System for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this paper is to analyze the significances of ISO 9000 Quality Management System implementation for performance improvement. Two consecutive cases are studied cascaded one over the other. Harar Brewery Share Company (HBSC), one of the Ethiopian Quality Award winners in 2009 is taken as the first ...

  3. Identification of clinically significant drug-drug interactions in cardiac ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To identify clinically significant potential drug-drug interactions in cardiac intensive care units of two tertiary care hospitals in Peshawar, Pakistan, and to compare the various potential drug-drug interactions related parameters between the government and private hospitals included in the study. Method: A ...

  4. Supporting experts to handle tweet collections about significant events

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hürriyetoglu, Ali; Oostdijk, Nelleke; Basar, Erkan; van den Bosch, A.; Frasincar, F.; Ittoo, A.; Nguyen, L.; Metais, E.

    2017-01-01

    We introduce Relevancer that processes a tweet set and enables generating an automatic classifier from it. Relevancer satisfies information needs of experts during significant events. Enabling experts to combine automatic procedures with expertise is the main contribution of our approach and the

  5. Imagining Wittgenstein's Adolescent: The Educational Significance of Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Jeff

    2012-01-01

    This paper highlights the philosophical and educational significance of expression in Ludwig Wittgenstein's Philosophical Investigations. When the role of expression is highlighted, we will be better able to appreciate Stanley Cavell's insistence that: (i) Wittgenstein offers ways of responding to, though not a refutation of, the problem of…

  6. The practical significance of lactose maldigestion in institutionalised ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was carried out to determine the practical significance of a high prevalence of lactose maldigestion in institutionalised children whose diet included 500 ml milk daily. Thirty of 34 children at a child we"are home were found to be lactose maldigesters as judged by a 2-hour rise in breath hydrogen of 20 parts per ...

  7. 40 CFR 52.432 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.432 Section 52.432 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met... air quality. (b) Regulation for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The provisions of...

  8. 40 CFR 52.270 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.270 Section 52.270 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) With the exception of the areas listed in paragraph (b) of this section: (1... plan does not include approvable procedures for preventing the significant deterioration of air quality...

  9. 40 CFR 52.1634 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1634 Section 52.1634 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The plan submitted by the Governor of New Mexico on February 21... adopted by the NMEID on March 9, 1990), Air Quality Control Regulation 707—Permits, Prevention of...

  10. 40 CFR 52.1778 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1778 Section 52.1778 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a)-(b) [Reserved] (c) All applications and other information... Resources, Division of Air Quality, 1641 Mail Service Center, Raleigh, North Carolina 27699-1641 or local...

  11. 40 CFR 52.683 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.683 Section 52.683 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The State of Idaho Rules for Control of Air Pollution in Idaho, specifically... the Clean Air Act for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. (b) The requirements of...

  12. 40 CFR 52.1116 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1116 Section 52.1116 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) The following provisions of 40 CFR 52.21 are hereby incorporated and made a...

  13. 40 CFR 52.632 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.632 Section 52.632 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met... air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The provisions...

  14. 40 CFR 52.793 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.793 Section 52.793 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met... air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The provisions...

  15. 40 CFR 52.581 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.581 Section 52.581 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) All applications and other information required pursuant to § 52.21 of this...

  16. 40 CFR 52.833 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.833 Section 52.833 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are met... for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The provisions of § 52.21 except paragraph (a...

  17. 40 CFR 52.738 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.738 Section 52.738 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met... air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The provisions...

  18. 40 CFR 52.181 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.181 Section 52.181 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The plan submitted by the Governor of Arkansas as follows: (1) April 23, 1981...

  19. 40 CFR 52.931 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.931 Section 52.931 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The..., the Kentucky Division for Air Quality has determined that the application complies with the applicable...

  20. 40 CFR 52.343 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.343 Section 52.343 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met for the following categories of sources for preventing the significant deterioration of air quality...

  1. 40 CFR 52.986 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.986 Section 52.986 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The plan submitted by the Governor of Louisiana on August 14, 1984 (as adopted... preventing significant deterioration of air quality. (b) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the...

  2. 40 CFR 52.382 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.382 Section 52.382 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met...

  3. 40 CFR 52.884 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.884 Section 52.884 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of section 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act, as amended...

  4. 40 CFR 52.144 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.144 Section 52.144 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Act are not met... lands does not include approvable procedures for preventing the significant deterioration of air quality...

  5. The significance of PITX2 overexpression in human colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirose, Hajime; Ishii, Hideshi; Mimori, Koshi; Tanaka, Fumiaki; Takemasa, Ichiro; Mizushima, Tsunekazu; Ikeda, Masataka; Yamamoto, Hirofumi; Sekimoto, Mitsugu; Doki, Yuichiro; Mori, Masaki

    2011-10-01

    The paired-like homeodomain transcription factor 2 (PITX2) gene encodes a transcription factor controlled by the WNT/Dvl/CTNNB1 and Hedgehog/TGFB pathways in the pathogenesis of colorectal cancer (CRC). Although PITX2 is reportedly involved in various functions, including tissue development by controlling cell growth, its significance in CRC remains unclear. We report our findings regarding abnormal PITX2 expression in human CRC. PITX2 expression was evaluated in 5 human CRC cell lines and 92 primary CRC samples. Cell growth was evaluated after inhibition of PITX2 expression or after exogenous introduction of PITX2. PITX2 expression was seen in all the five CRC cell lines. The study of tissue samples indicated that PITX2 expression was significantly higher in cancerous tissue than in paired control tissue (P = 0.0471). Patients with lower PITX2 expression showed a poorer overall survival rate than those with higher PITX2 expression (P = 0.0481). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that PITX2 expression was an independent prognostic factor. Experimental knockdown and introduction of PITX2 also demonstrated that the level of PITX2 expression is inversely associated with cell growth and invasion in vitro. PITX2 expression is significantly related to the biological behavior of CRC cells and appears to be correlated with clinical survival. Thus, this study revealed a previously uncharacterized unique role and significance of PITX2 expression in CRC.

  6. 7 CFR 400.653 - Determining crops of economic significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Determining crops of economic significance. 400.653 Section 400.653 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FEDERAL CROP INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Federal Crop Insurance...

  7. Introduced organisms pose the most significant threat to the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    Introduced organisms pose the most significant threat to the conservation status of oceanic islands (e.g.. Williamson 1996). Subantarctic Prince Edward Island, the smaller of the two islands in the Prince Edward. Island group, has few introduced organisms; it is cur- rently known to support only three introduced animals.

  8. Search with the ATLAS detector for new physics with significant ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-11-09

    Nov 9, 2012 ... Results of searches for supersymmetry in events with significant missing transverse energy and two isolated leptons with ... The third one is an analysis that searches for an excess of same-flavour opposite- charge lepton pairs over those of ... Detailed information is found in ref. [1] but the main attributes are ...

  9. The practical significance of lactose maldigestion in institutionalised ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was carried out to determine the practical significance of a high prevalence of lactose maldigestion in institu- tionalised children whose diet included 500 ml milk daily. Thirty of 34 children at a child we"are home were found to be lactose maldigesters as judged by a 2-hour rise in breath hydrogen of 20 parts per ...

  10. Novel loci and pathways significantly associated with longevity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeng, Yi; Nie, Chao; Min, Junxia

    2016-01-01

    Only two genome-wide significant loci associated with longevity have been identified so far, probably because of insufficient sample sizes of centenarians, whose genomes may harbor genetic variants associated with health and longevity. Here we report a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of Han ...

  11. Occurrence and Toxicological Significance of Nitrate and Nitrite in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: To determine and evaluate the levels of nitrate and nitrite in some commercial infant formula in view of the health implications of these factors. Method: Nitrate and nitrite, which may create significant health problems in infants, were determined in four commercial infant formula. The public health and toxicological ...

  12. Significance, definition, classification and risk factors of chronic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of hypertensive ESKD, HIV nephropathy and other poverty-related disorders, it is highly likely that the sub-Saharan burden of CKD is far higher than that in developed countries. In Japan, with a population of. >104 000 000, the prevalence of CKD was. REVIEW. Significance, definition, classification and risk factors of chronic ...

  13. Investigating the Significance of VFR Visits to International Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Ruth; Shanka, Tekle; Pope, Jeff

    2004-01-01

    Higher education, particularly in the area of international education has exhibited significant growth since the mid-1980s. Whilst it is beginning to attract research from both educational and tourism industry perspectives, the current body of knowledge regarding this market is still quite limited. This is particularly the case in the area of…

  14. Significance of authorship in Patristic and Classical literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay Lipatov

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the study of various aspects of the problem of authorship of theological and literary works. It discusses causes of anonymity and pseudonimity, methods of identification and confirmation of authorship and the general significance of attribution. The study is supported with numerous examples of contested authorship in Patristic and Classical literature

  15. The significance of Gadamer's hermeneutics for cross-cultural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, while Said exposed in considerable detail the ways in which the Orient was distorted by the theories of the European academy, he left unexamined the possibility of genuine cross-cultural understanding. This article considers the significance of hermeneutics for cross-cultural rather than historical understanding.

  16. Role and significance of total phenols during rooting of Protea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The high total phenol content was associated with significantly higher rooting percentage and increased the number of roots formed. Blanching reduced the time needed for the cuttings to root sufficiently to be transplanted to the field by 30 days. Analyses of different parts of cuttings throughout the entire rooting period ...

  17. Synthetic biology and the moral significance of artificial life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    I discuss the moral significance of artificial life within synthetic biology via a discussion of Douglas, Powell and Savulescu's paper 'Is the creation of artificial life morally significant’. I argue that the definitions of 'artificial life’ and of 'moral significance’ are too narrow. Douglas, P...

  18. Significant Elements in the Relationship of Long-Married Couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, William L.

    1979-01-01

    A descriptive study of factors in the lifestyle of 50 couples married an average of 55.5 years and an average age of 79 years provided data for this report. Independence, commitment, companionship, and qualities of caring were significant elements in these long-lasting marriages. (Author)

  19. The Nature and Significance of Listening Skills in Accounting Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Gerard; Lightbody, Margaret

    2012-01-01

    While surveys of the employers of accountancy graduates highlight the significance of listening skills, relatively little is known about how such skills are utilised in accounting practice. The present study attempts to address the above lacuna by utilising the findings of in-depth interviews with Australian public accountants about the nature of…

  20. Economic significance of viroids in ornamental crops (Book Chapter)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The economic significance of viroids in ornamental crops is less obvious than in food crops. Most serious direct impact is known for chrysanthemum stunt viroid in chrysanthemum and, to a lesser extent, for chrysanthemum chlorotic mottle viroid in the same crop. However, the majority of viroid infect...

  1. Role and significance of total phenols during rooting of Protea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reviewer

    2011-10-03

    Oct 3, 2011 ... Institute Inc., 1996). RESULTS AND DISCUSSION. After 90 days, a significantly higher rooting percentage was observed in blanched cuttings (100%) than those that were unblanched (60%) (Table 1). .... root formation by apple shoots through darkness effect on endogenous phenols and peroxidases.

  2. Green tea polyphenol induces significant cell death in human lung ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EGCG may be due to the generation of ROS. DISCUSSION. The present study demonstrates that EGCG exhibits significant concentration- dependent inhibitory effects against the growth of lung cancer H1155 cells in tumor xenografts as well as in culture. Furthermore, EGCG markedly increased the levels of ROS in a ...

  3. 49 CFR 1580.203 - Reporting significant security concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... heavy rail transit, light rail transit, automated guideway, cable car, inclined plane, funicular, and..., Scenic, Historic and Excursion Operators, and Private Cars § 1580.203 Reporting significant security... transportation. (4) Each operator of private cars, including business/office cars and circus trains, on or...

  4. Lithostratigraphic contact – a significant site for hydrogeological ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Estimating the hydrogeologic control of fractured aquifers in hard crystalline and metamorphosed rocks is challenging due to complexity in the ... constant and electrical resistivity on either side of the lithological contacts differ significantly. .... g13, etc., where 'g' corresponds to the grid, the first numerical in the subscript ...

  5. Mycorrhizal symbioses of Salix repens : diversity and functional significance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijden, van der E.W.

    2000-01-01

    This thesis investigates the significance of different mycorrhizal fungi, belonging to different functional types (arbuscular mycorrhiza-AM and ectomycorrhiza-EcM), in Salix repens . A comparison between above-ground and below-ground observations on ectomycorrhizal

  6. Early onset of significant local warming in low latitude countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahlstein, I; Knutti, R; Solomon, S; Portmann, R W

    2011-01-01

    The Earth is warming on average, and most of the global warming of the past half-century can very likely be attributed to human influence. But the climate in particular locations is much more variable, raising the question of where and when local changes could become perceptible enough to be obvious to people in the form of local warming that exceeds interannual variability; indeed only a few studies have addressed the significance of local signals relative to variability. It is well known that the largest total warming is expected to occur in high latitudes, but high latitudes are also subject to the largest variability, delaying the emergence of significant changes there. Here we show that due to the small temperature variability from one year to another, the earliest emergence of significant warming occurs in the summer season in low latitude countries (∼25 deg. S-25 deg. N). We also show that a local warming signal that exceeds past variability is emerging at present, or will likely emerge in the next two decades, in many tropical countries. Further, for most countries worldwide, a mean global warming of 1 deg. C is sufficient for a significant temperature change, which is less than the total warming projected for any economically plausible emission scenario. The most strongly affected countries emit small amounts of CO 2 per capita and have therefore contributed little to the changes in climate that they are beginning to experience.

  7. 15 CFR 971.602 - Significant adverse environmental effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR COMMERCIAL RECOVERY PERMITS... significant adverse environmental effect or impact (for the purposes of sections 103(a)(2)(D), 105(a)(4), 106.... Determinations will be based upon the best information available, including relevant environmental impact...

  8. The Significance of Including an Entrepreneurship Course in Engineering Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosly, Ibrahim

    2017-01-01

    This paper studied the significance of entrepreneurship education in engineering programs. It looked into its influence on engineering students' perception and willingness to change their future job direction. The study was performed at the College of Engineering-Rabigh Branch, of King Abdulaiziz University in Saudi Arabia. Entrepreneurship…

  9. Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis : Clinical significance and pathogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Knegt, RJ

    2001-01-01

    Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a form of liver disease resembling alcoholic liver disease in a patient who does not consume significant amounts of alcohol. Since its first description in 1980 it has been recognized with increasing frequency. The natural course is relatively benign, but

  10. On Symbolic Significance of Characters in "Lord of the Flies"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaofang; Wu, Weihua

    2009-01-01

    The characters in "Lord of the Flies" possess recognizable symbolic significance, which make them as the sort of people around us. Ralph stands for civilization and democracy; Piggy represents intellect and rationalism; Jack signifies savagery and dictatorship; Simon is the incarnation of goodness and saintliness. All of these…

  11. Significance of Kaduna River to Kaduna Refining and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Significance of Kaduna River to Kaduna Refining and Petrochemicals Complex: Some Checks and Balances. ... Kaduna Refinery and Petrochemicals Complex comprises of various processing units. The plants produce various grades of petroleum ... contains a number of chemicals and compounds. The process waters are

  12. 76 FR 68808 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice: 7679] Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Transition to Christianity: Art of Late Antiquity, 3rd-7th Century AD'' SUMMARY: Notice is... objects to be included in the exhibition ``Transition to Christianity: Art of Late Antiquity, 3rd-7th...

  13. Studies on Urine Specimens Adjudged Non-Significant for Bacteriuria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The concept of significant bacteriuria continues to form the basis for the diagnosis of urinary tract infections in many laboratories, despite evidence that lower counts of bacteria may be associated with urinary tract infection (UTI). This study investigated the presence of pyuria, leucocyte esterase, nitrite and protein in urine ...

  14. Surgical anatomy of the pyramidal lobe and its significance in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In diffuse thyroid diseases, the lobes were always pathologically involved and significantly longer. Conclusion. Since the pyramidal lobe is a normal component of the thyroid gland, of varying position and size, with pathological changes in benign and malignant diseases, it should always be examined during thyroid surgery ...

  15. Adolescents' Perceptions of Their Fathers' Involvement: Significance to School Attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flouri, Eirini; Buchanan, Ann; Bream, Victoria

    2002-01-01

    Based on data from 2,722 British adolescents, this study explores whether perceived father involvement can be associated with school attitudes. Multiple regression analysis showed that both father involvement and mother involvement contributed significantly and independently to positive school attitudes. Furthermore, the association between father…

  16. 40 CFR 35.6655 - Notification of significant developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Cooperative Agreements and Superfund State Contracts for Superfund Response Actions Reports Required Under A Cooperative Agreement § 35.6655 Notification... have significant impact upon the Cooperative Agreement-supported activity. In such cases, the recipient...

  17. Creating a Middle Grades Environment that Significantly Improves Student Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    L'Esperance, Mark E.; Lenker, Ethan; Bullock, Ann; Lockamy, Becky; Mason, Cathy

    2013-01-01

    This article offers an overview of the framework that Sampson County Public Schools (North Carolina) used to critically reflect on the current state of their middle grades schools. The article also highlights the changes that resulted from the district-wide analysis and the ways in which these changes led to a significant increase in the academic…

  18. Meeting of significant experiences in agriculture in Boyacá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Mariela Castillo Morales

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The development of agriculture in the department of Boyacá is related to the improvement of business and production chains to strengthen product market locally, regionally and nationally.An innovative view of this process contributes significantly to the advancement of these production items in the department, which is the responsibility attached to future professionals Agricultural Engineering Program...

  19. Significance of Feminist Analysis in North-South Relations (Inter ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Significance of Feminist Analysis in North-South Relations (Inter Pares). External evaluations have confirmed that Inter Pares is achieving the results it seeks - particularly with respect to gender equity and effective collaboration with Southern partners - and in a way that others find exemplary. However, since neither its ...

  20. Adaptive Significance of Circadian Rhythms-Biological Clocks and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 1. Adaptive Significance of Circadian Rhythms - Biological Clocks and Darwinian Fitness in Cyanobacteria. V Sheeba Vijay Kumar Sharma Amitabh Joshi. Research News Volume 4 Issue 1 January 1999 pp 73-75 ...

  1. Significance of transition between Talchir Formation and Karharbari ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 114; Issue 3. Significance of transition between Talchir Formation and Karharbari Formation in Lower Gondwana basin evolution — A study in West Bokaro Coal basin, Jharkhand, India. H N Bhattacharya Abhijit Chakraborty Biplab Bhattacharya. Volume 114 Issue ...

  2. Taxonomic significance of leaf epidermal anatomy of selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-06-21

    Jun 21, 2010 ... Taxonomic significance of leaf epidermal anatomy of selected Persicaria Mill. species of family ... characters are comparable over a wide taxonomic range and quite reliable. Comprehensive foliar anatomy .... characteristics of the plants growing in humid conditions. (Stace, 1965; Ayodele and Olwokudejo, ...

  3. Behavioral significance of milieu: a consideration of two downtown settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas L. Robertson; Rowan A. Rowntree

    1977-01-01

    Behavior patterns in parks and plazas in downtown Syracuse, New York, are discussed. After an introduction of the spaces and their principal users, fundamental concepts borrowed from ecological psychology are defined. Then using these concepts, the behavioral significance of the environment is illustrated in a comparison of two case studies. The concepts employed here...

  4. Significance of saturation index of certain clay minerals in shallow ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The study reveals that pH has a significant role in the saturation index (SI) of .... reasons exist that may cause systems to behave dif- ferently than ... Marine alluvial formation is found parallel to the coast. (figure 2). The subsurface lithology of the study area shows six types of geological formations which include sand, clayey ...

  5. The significance of training school principals and educators in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African government has made significant strides in developing inclusive education policies as compared to other African countries, but it has not done enough to ensure that skills of principals and of educators who will be involved in inclusive education are properly developed. Furthermore limited preparations have ...

  6. Shotgun metagenomic data reveals significant abundance but low diversity of "

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Villanueva, L.; Speth, D.R.; van Alen, T.; Hoischen, A.; Jetten, M.S.M.

    2014-01-01

    Anaerobic ammonium oxidizing (anammox) bacteria are responsible for a significant portion of the loss of fixed nitrogen from the oceans, making them important players in the global nitrogen cycle. To date, marine anammox bacteria found in both water columns and sediments worldwide belong almost

  7. Search with the ATLAS detector for new physics with significant ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-11-09

    Nov 9, 2012 ... Abstract. Results of searches for supersymmetry in events with significant missing transverse energy and two isolated leptons with the ATLAS experiment at the LHC are presented. Three anal- yses are presented here, the first two are analyses with leptons of opposite charge and same charge, respectively.

  8. Expression and clinical significance of Pax6 gene in retinoblastoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-Dong Huang

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To discuss the expression and clinical significance of Pax6 gene in retinoblastoma(Rb. METHODS: Totally 15 cases of fresh Rb organizations were selected as observation group and 15 normal retinal organizations as control group. Western-Blot and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction(RT-PCRmethods were used to detect Pax6 protein and Pax6 mRNA expressions of the normal retina organizations and Rb organizations. At the same time, Western Blot method was used to detect the Pax6 gene downstream MATH5 and BRN3b differentiation gene protein level expression. After the comparison between two groups, the expression and clinical significance of Pax6 gene in Rb were discussed. RESULTS: In the observation group, average value of mRNA expression of Pax6 gene was 0.99±0.03; average value of Pax6 gene protein expression was 2.07±0.15; average value of BRN3b protein expression was 0.195±0.016; average value of MATH5 protein expression was 0.190±0.031. They were significantly higher than the control group, and the differences were statistically significant(PCONCLUSION: Abnormal expression of Pax6 gene is likely to accelerate the occurrence of Rb.

  9. Inspiration and Intellect: Significant Learning in Musical Forms and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Bruce C.

    2009-01-01

    In his book "Creating Significant Learning Experiences" (2003), Dee Fink challenges professors to create a deep vision for the courses they teach. Educators often have a vision for what their courses could be, but often lack a model for instituting change. Fink's book provides that model. In this article, the author describes how this model helped…

  10. The Significance of Corporation Tax as a determinant of Systematic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study uses the UK data and corporation tax changes of 1984 in the UK to test the significance of corporation tax as one of the factors influencing systematic risk. The extension to the theoretical relationship model between beta of levered equity and leverage is made to incorporate corporation tax and establish the ...

  11. Prognostic Significance of Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) Rate of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: To investigate the prognostic significance of Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) rate of change in patients with advanced prostate cancer . Patients and Methods: A total of forty-nine male patients aged between 42 and 84 years with advanced prostate cancer receiving therapy of maximum androgen bloackade were ...

  12. What do children perceive as significant? | Parker | Southern African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Findings from research in Zimbabwe so far suggest that many areas and items within the physical environment of township children are perceived as significant. These include natural and man-made components of streets and yards. Examples are flowers, stones, smoke, 4ogs,. cars, stores. Rubbish and waste scored low in ...

  13. Broken home or drug using peers : "Significant relations"?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quensel, S; McArdle, P; Brinkley, A; Wiegersma, A; Blom, M; Fitzgerald, M; Johnson, R; Kolte, B; Michels, [No Value; Pierolini, A; Pos, R; Stoeckel, [No Value

    2002-01-01

    This study reports the results of a comparative survey with representative samples of 3,386 school attending youths, most of whom were 15 years of age and residing in five European cities. We found significant but low correlations between the type of family structure (intact family, model family,

  14. Vulture significance in Ogoni Culture | Saale | AFRREV LALIGENS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study explained the spiritual and social significance of vulture in Ogoni culture. It also explained how the use of vulture to refer to human beings and its characteristics became sources of social relations and conflicts in Ogoni culture. It adopted both the anthropological and sociological approaches. Findings from the ...

  15. Original Article Clinical Significance of Bacteriuria in Patients with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mn

    Cystectomy. E. Elsotohi. Department of Urology Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt. ABSTRACT. Objectives: To evaluate the incidence and clinical significance of bacteriuria in patients who ... encountered was E Coli (72%) followed by Klebsiella (12%). Conclusion: ... Date accepted (after revision): 22/12/2009 fever and ...

  16. When Does Air Resistance Become Significant in Projectile Motion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohazzabi, Pirooz

    2018-01-01

    In an article in this journal, it was shown that air resistance could never be a significant source of error in typical free-fall experiments in introductory physics laboratories. Since projectile motion is the two-dimensional version of the free-fall experiment and usually follows the former experiment in such laboratories, it seemed natural to…

  17. 48 CFR 815.304 - Evaluation factors and significant subfactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... AFFAIRS CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Source Selection 815.304 Evaluation factors and significant subfactors. (a) In an effort to assist SDVOSBs and VOSBs, contracting officers shall include evaluation factors providing additional consideration to such offerors in...

  18. 40 CFR 6.206 - Findings of no significant impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Findings of no significant impact. 6.206 Section 6.206 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL PROCEDURES FOR IMPLEMENTING THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT AND ASSESSING THE ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS ABROAD OF EPA...

  19. Thoracic Outlet Syndrome: A Significant Family Genetic Phenotypic Presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janák, David; Novotný, Karel; Roček, Miloslav; Rohn, Vilém

    We report on a very rare case of diagnosis and successful surgical treatment of three young family members with a four-fold presentation of thoracic outlet syndrome. In the relevant family case, we are considering and discussing the population incidence, a possible HOX genes disorder, and a significant phenotypic presentation.

  20. Factors of significance for mobility in children with myelomeningocele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norrlin, S; Strinnholm, M; Carlsson, M; Dahl, M

    2003-01-01

    To investigate neurological impairment, hand function and cognitive function in a group of children with myelomeningocele, in order to identify factors of significance for independent mobility and the physical assistance required for mobility in daily activities. The study material comprised 32 children, aged 6-11 y and without mental retardation. Mobility was assessed with the Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory, scored as caregiver assistance. Statistical differences and correlations between the caregiver assistance scores and the selected variables were analysed. Nine children scored independent mobility. The independent children had better hand coordination (p = 0.004) and walking ability (p = 0.01), lower cele levels (p = 0.011), higher performance IQ (p = 0.027), better visuospatial function (p = 0.029) and executive function (p = 0.037) than the others. The caregiver assistance scores were lower for both the children with early and severe symptoms of brainstem dysfunction and the children with scoliosis. Statistically significant correlations were found between the need for caregiver assistance and reduced walking ability, high cele level, poor hand strength and coordination, visuospatial function, executive function and performance IQ. In the subgroup of children who needed a wheelchair or walking aids, hand strength was the only variable significantly correlated with caregiver assistance (r(s) = 0.703, p = 0.000). Most of the children were dependent on others in daily activities. Impaired hand function and cognitive function were significant for mobility, and this has implications for the therapy programme in children with myelomeningocele.